Ginsburg, Victoria Elaine
This descriptive qualitative case study explored the changing role of the reading specialist through various perceptions of professionals in the Neon Shadow School District. The purpose of the study was to explore what, how, and why the duties and responsibilities of the reading specialist have changed since first employed as an…
Heinrichs, Audrey S.
Discusses the contradictions found in recommendations for direction instruction or informal math language development, and some suggestions for practical resolution of disagreements, to enable school reading specialists to provide both background and practical help to classroom instructors teaching math. (HTH)
Hopkins, Charles R.; Kim, Paul Y.
Since the reading abilities of general business students vary from one individual to the next, the author's report on the readability of three general business textbooks to guide business teachers in their selection of textbooks. (AG)
This manual is designed to help youth services specialists in libraries in Texas customize their Reading Club efforts for their communities. A successful reading club requires careful thought, extensive planning, and willing and eager participants. Attracting and engaging these participants is of primary importance, as is the reason for the…
Wepner, Shelley B.; Quatroche, Diana J.
This article reports on the results of 11 interviews conducted as a follow-up to a survey that examined the perceptions of university faculty regarding the importance of graduate programs preparing reading specialists for leadership roles. The results of the interviews indicate that programs require a leadership course that has reading specialist…
Reports results of a survey of school library media specialists in Oklahoma regarding continuing education activities and topics. Data are presented on the relative importance of several continuing education activities, percentage of respondents regularly reading specific journals, and continuing education topics ranked by respondents' prioritized…
Teachers often report that their A-level pupils are unwilling to read physics-related material. What is it about physics texts that deters pupils from reading them? Are they just too difficult for 16 - 18 year olds, or is it that pupils lack specific reading skills? This article describes some of the results from my research into pupils' reading of physics-related texts and tries to clarify the situation.
Patel, Shaan S; Sheppard, Evan D; Siegel, Herrick J; Ponce, Brent A
Cancer patients rely on patient education materials (PEMs) to gather information regarding their disease. Patients who are better informed about their illness have better health outcomes. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommends that PEMs be written at a sixth- to seventh-grade reading level. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the readability of online PEMs of bone and soft-tissue sarcomas and related conditions. We identified relevant online PEMs from the following websites: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, academic training centers, sarcoma specialists, Google search hits, Bonetumor.org, Sarcoma Alliance, Sarcoma Foundation of America, and Medscape. We used 10 different readability instruments to evaluate the reading level of each website's PEMs. In assessing 72 websites and 774 articles, we found that none of the websites had a mean readability score at or below 7 (seventh grade). Collectively, all websites had a mean readability score of 11.4, and the range of scores was grade level 8.9 to 15.5. None of the PEMs in this study of bone and soft-tissue sarcomas and related conditions met the NIH recommendation for PEM reading levels. Concerted efforts to improve the reading level of orthopedic oncologic PEMs are necessary.
Full Text Available The Read Codes have been recognised as the standard for General Practice computing since 1988 and the original 4-byte set continues to be extensively used to record primary health care data. Read Version 3 (the Read Thesaurus is an expanded clinical vocabulary with an enhanced file structure designed to meet the detailed requirements of specialist practitioners and to address some of the limitations of previous versions. A recent phase of integration of the still widely-used 4-byte set has highlighted the need to ensure that the new Thesaurus continues to support generalist requirements.
Seok, Soonhwa; DaCosta, Boaventura
This research investigated oral reading fluency as a predictor of silent reading fluency at the secondary and postsecondary levels. Several measures were used, including the Gray Oral Reading Test, the Test of Silent Word Reading Fluency, the Test of Silent Contextual Reading Fluency, and the Reading Observation Scale. A total of 223 students…
Laurent, Jeff; Runia, Elizabeth
The scholarly productivity of school psychology faculty members in specialist-level only programs was examined. Information was gathered from the School Psychology Program Information portion of the website for the National Association of School Psychologists. A total of 137 specialist-level only school psychology programs were identified.…
Sheorey, Ravi; Mokhtari, Kouider
Examines differences in reading habits of developmental college students with varying levels of reading proficiency. Finds that subjects spent an unusually low amount of time on academic reading and even less time on nonacademic reading. Finds no significant differences between high- and low-proficient readers with regard to amount of time spent…
Cathy H Ficzere
Full Text Available Objectives: The project purpose was to evaluate pharmacy students’ reading levels using the Nelson-Denney Reading Test (NDRT and compare these results with the reading level of primary literature to investigate incongruities between student’s comprehension ability and the readability level of assigned reading in the curriculum. Methods: The NDRT was administered to first- through third-year student pharmacists to determine grade equivalents (GE for vocabulary and reading comprehension. Twenty articles previously identified as Patient-Oriented Evidence that Matters (POEMs were analyzed to determine the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level and Gunning-Fog Score. Student demographics, information regarding language spoken, and reading habits, were also assessed. Pearson product moment correlations, t-tests, ANOVA, and descriptive statistics were used to assess relationships between demographic data and NDRT scores. Results: One hundred students participated. The mean NDRT total grade equivalent (±SD was 16.95 ± 2.1 (median = 17.3. NDRT grade equivalents were statistically different for students with different racial or ethnic backgrounds (t(98=3.74, p=0.026, English as a second language (ESL students (t(98=5.19, p=0.021, and students that read works of fiction for pleasure (t(98=4.31, p=0.002. The average Gunning-Fog Score for all primary literature articles was 11.48, with the introduction section being the most complex. The average Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level was 17.04, with the results section scoring the lowest average grade level. Implications: While the overall reading grade level of our pharmacy students suggests that they are capable of comprehending reading assigned in the pharmacy curriculum, minority students and students for whom English is a second language may struggle with comprehending complex text. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have
Crichton, Juliet B.
Virginia Tech's Department of Teaching and Learning in the College of Liberal Arts and Human Sciences again will offer its 39-credit Master of Arts in education program, "Reading Specialization Endorsement (PK-12)" to Virginia educators this fall.
Fabricius, Rasmus; Sillesen, Martin; Hansen, Morten Sejer
not previously been studied. In the present study, we aim to investigate the role of supervision in the national surgical residency programme and the self-perceived readiness to undertake the role of a specialist doctor in gastrointestinal surgery in a cohort of gastrointestinal surgeons graduating in 2012......: A total of 30 graduated residents (55%) responded to the Danish survey. Among those, 14 (47%) felt ready to be a specialist in surgery. A total of 25 (83%) answered that increased supervision would have increased their selfperceived competencies to serve as a surgical specialist. Self -perceived readiness...... was significantly associated with level of supervision during surgical training (p = 0.02), whereas no association with operative volume could be established. CONCLUSIONS: A worryingly high number of graduates did not feel ready to undertake their role as a gastrointestinal surgical specialist. Adequate supervision...
Introduction: The perceived information needs of teachers who specialize in reading instruction for at-risk first graders were studied and related to frameworks for the role of social context in information needs, seeking and use. The frameworks considered were: disciplinarity, role theory in work settings, small worlds and information grounds and…
van Overloop, Peter-Jules
Most ground water levels in the world are measured manually. It requires employees of water management organizations to visit sites in the field and execute a measurement procedure that requires special tools and training. Once the measurement is done, the value is jotted down in a notebook and later, at the office, entered in a computer system. This procedure is slow and prone to human errors. A new development is the introduction of modern Information and Communication Technology to support this task and make it more efficient. Two innovations are introduced to measure and immediately store ground water levels. The first method is a measuring tape that gives a sound and light when it just touches the water in combination with an app on a smartphone with which a picture needs to be taken from the measuring tape. Using dedicated pattern recognition algorithms, the depth is read on the tape and it is verified if the light is on. The second method estimates the depth using a sound from the smartphone that is sent into the borehole and records the reflecting waves in the pipe. Both methods use gps-localization of the smartphone to store the depths in the right location in the central database, making the monitoring of ground water levels a real-time process that eliminates human errors.
Chen, Jun; Intaraprasert, Channarong
The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of reading strategies by the university Business English majors in relation to their levels of reading proficiency. The participants were 926 university Business English majors from 6 universities in southwest China. The Strategy Questionnaire for Business English Reading (SQBER) and the…
This reading series was developed as a means to educate Chinese-American elementary school children in Chinese reading, writing, and culture. The text covers the following topics: Chinese literature, Chinese and American history, famous people, general knowledge, Chinese letter writing, the four seasons, and the major Chinese and American…
Przybylska, Anna S; Boratyński, Jan S; Wojciechowski, Michał S; Jefimow, Małgorzata
According to theoretical predictions, endothermic homeotherms can be classified as either thermal specialists or thermal generalists. In high cost environments, thermal specialists are supposed to be more prone to using facultative heterothermy than generalists. We tested this hypothesis at the intraspecific level using male laboratory mice (C57BL/cmdb) fasted under different thermal conditions (20 and 10°C) and for different time periods (12-48 h). We predicted that variability of body temperature ( T b ) and time spent with T b below normothermy would increase with the increase of environmental demands (duration of fasting and cold). To verify the above prediction, we measured T b and energy expenditure of fasted mice. We did not record torpor bouts but we found that variations in T b and time spent in hypothermia increased with environmental demands. In response to fasting, mice also decreased their energy expenditure. Moreover, animals that showed more precise thermoregulation when fed had more variable T b when fasted. We postulate that the prediction of the thermoregulatory generalist-specialist trade-off can be applied at the intraspecific level, offering a valid tool for identifying mechanistic explanations of the differences in animal responses to variations in energy supply. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Full Text Available The present study examined the impact of vocabulary knowledge level on reading comprehension performance among EFL language learners. The ultimate intention was to determine the association between levels of vocabulary knowledge and to clarify the relationship among vocabulary knowledge on reading comprehension performance of EFL Iranian students on subtest of VLT and IELTS. Quantitative data were collected from 220 EFL Iranian adult students at the beginning of second semester of 2011 in private English language institute (BAHAR, Shiraz, Iran. The Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT and Reading Comprehension Test (IELTS were performed in one session as research instruments. The findings indicated that there were positive relationships among different levels of vocabulary test and also test scores on vocabulary size/breadth of vocabulary knowledge, and reading comprehension.
Shorkaee, Hossein Zabihi; Talebi, Seyed Hassan
This study investigated the effects of Reading Strategy Instruction (RSI) on reading performance and attitude toward reading strategies while reading texts of different difficulty levels. Fifty-five university students studying Political and Basic Sciences took part in this study. After homogenizing the participants, 24 students were in the…
Price, C J; McCrory, E; Noppeney, U; Mechelli, A; Moore, C J; Biggio, N; Devlin, J T
This paper uses whole brain functional neuroimaging in neurologically normal participants to explore how reading aloud differs from object naming in terms of neuronal implementation. In the first experiment, we directly compared brain activation during reading aloud and object naming. This revealed greater activation for reading in bilateral premotor, left posterior superior temporal and precuneus regions. In a second experiment, we segregated the object-naming system into object recognition and speech production areas by factorially manipulating the presence or absence of objects (pictures of objects or their meaningless scrambled counterparts) with the presence or absence of speech production (vocal vs. finger press responses). This demonstrated that the areas associated with speech production (object naming and repetitively saying "OK" to meaningless scrambled pictures) corresponded exactly to the areas where responses were higher for reading aloud than object naming in Experiment 1. Collectively the results suggest that, relative to object naming, reading increases the demands on shared speech production processes. At a cognitive level, enhanced activation for reading in speech production areas may reflect the multiple and competing phonological codes that are generated from the sublexical parts of written words. At a neuronal level, it may reflect differences in the speed with which different areas are activated and integrate with one another.
Dhanapala, Kusumi Vasantha; Yamada, Jun
This study aims to understand how EFL learners in different reading proficiency levels comprehend L2 texts, using five-component skills involving measures of (1) vocabulary knowledge, (2) drawing inferences and predictions, (3) knowledge of text structure and discourse organization, (4) identifying the main idea and summarizing skills, and (5)…
This article examines listening and reading proficiency levels of U.S. college foreign language students at major milestones throughout their undergraduate career. Data were collected from more than 3,000 participants studying seven languages at 21 universities and colleges across the United States. The results show that while listening…
Full Text Available To investigate whether specific domains of musical perception (temporal and melodic domains predict the word-level reading skills of eight- to ten-year-old children (n = 235 with reading difficulties, normal quotient of intelligence, and no previous exposure to music education classes.A general-specific solution of the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA, which underlies a musical perception construct and is constituted by three latent factors (the general, temporal, and the melodic domain, was regressed on word-level reading skills (rate of correct isolated words/non-words read per minute.General and melodic latent domains predicted word-level reading skills.
... Healthy Children > Family Life > Medical Home > Pediatric Specialists Pediatric Specialists Article Body Your pediatrician may refer your child to a pediatric specialist for further evaluation and treatment. Pediatric specialists ...
Davidovich, E; Pessov, Y; Baniel, A; Ram, D
To assess self-reported stress during the performance of different procedures in pediatric dentistry, according to the professional experience of the dentists. During the years 2010 to 2011, an anonymous survey was administered by means of an internet link, and by distribution at professional meetings of dentists . No statistically significant differences in stress were reported for maxilla and mandibular procedures. Placement of a rubber dam was rated as the most stressful procedure among dental students. For general practitioners and specialists, injection of local anesthesia to an anxious child was the most stressful procedure, regardless of age, sex, or years of professional experience. A negative correlation was found between years of experience and level of stress for all the procedures surveyed, but not for the use of nitrous oxide. No differences were found between male and female dentists in stress scores for any of the procedures. Higher rates of stress during operative procedures were reported among dental students than among experienced dentists. Anxiety of the pediatric patients, but not the location of the procedure: maxillary or mandibular, affected the dentists' reported level of stress.
Verboord, Marc; Rees, Kees van
The influence of reading socialization on the level of books read in adult life was investigated for birth cohorts who finished secondary education between 1975 and 1998. Three forms of reading socialization were taken into account: socialization in the parental home, literary socialization at
Porsbjerg, C; Sverrild, A; Stensen, L
BACKGROUND: Late onset asthma is associated with more severe disease and higher morbidity than in younger asthma patients. This may in part relate to under recognition of asthma in older adults, but evidence on the impact of patient age on diagnostic assessment of asthma in a specialist setting...
Foe, Gabriella; Lally, Rachel
Abstract In 100 Institutional Review Board approved consent forms (CFs), we assessed pages, reading levels, and whether they included essential elements. CF page numbers ranged from 3 to 28 (mean, 10.3) and readability ranged from grades 5.6 to 28.9 (mean, 11.6). The CF mean score for including essential elements was 90.8% (range: 63.5–100%). There were no significant differences by specialty in number of pages (p = 0.053), but surgical specialties had the highest readability (mean, 13.1), and pediatrics the lowest (10.5), p = 0.008. While approved CFs generally included the Office for Human Research Protections recommended essential elements, they were very long, and even pediatric forms, which had the lowest reading levels, were written on average at a tenth grade level. Researchers need guidance to resolve pressure between regulatory mandates and guidelines and “keeping it simple and clear.” PMID:25580939
Abellán Alemán, José; Leal Hernández, Mariano; Martínez Pastor, Antonio; Hernández Menárguez, Fernando; García-Galbis Marín, José Antonio; Jara Gómez, Purificación
To find the level of knowledge, the guidelines for action and the monitoring of lipaemia by Spanish primary care and specialist doctors. A self-defined questionnaire of 12 items was designed. Data on the population treated and the subjective evaluation of objectives, and on the management and monitoring of lipid parameters were filled in. A total of 1998 doctors from the whole of Spain took part; 68.8% of the doctors interviewed worked in primary health care and 30.2% in specialist centres or hospitals. A 91% of the doctors said they followed international consensus on monitoring lipaemia. The most commonly used objective therapeutic parameter for treating lipaemia was LDL-cholesterol (83%), followed by total cholesterol (62%), HDL-cholesterol (56%) and triglycerides (51%). If the patient's lipaemia was well controlled, then 21.8% of doctors reduced the doses of lipid-lowerers. In general terms, no great differences were appreciated between the criteria followed by PC and by specialist doctors. The criteria for action on lipaemia could be improved. There are no important differences of view or action in clinical and therapeutic criteria for Lipaemia cases between PC and specialist doctors.
Loh, Chin Ee
This article takes a comparative socio-spatial approach at the intersection of social class and reading politics to provide a fresh way of examining school reading policies and practices, unearthing previously hidden spaces of inequity for reading intervention. The juxtaposition of two nested case studies in Singapore, one of an elite all-boys'…
Witteveen, Minke; Brown, Mark; Downs, Colleen T
Nectar composition within a plant pollinator group can be variable, and bird pollinated plants can be segregated into two groups based on their adaptations to either a specialist or an occasional bird pollination system. Specialist nectarivores rely primarily on nectar for their energy requirements, while occasional nectarivores meet their energy requirements from nectar as well as from seeds, fruit and insects. Avian blood plasma glucose concentration (PGlu) is generally high compared with mammals. It is also affected by a range of factors including species, gender, age, ambient temperature, feeding pattern, reproductive status, circadian rhythm and moult status, among others. We examined whether sugar content affected PGlu of two avian nectarivores, a specialist nectarivore the Amethyst Sunbird Chalcomitra amethystina, and an occasional nectarivore the Cape White-eye Zosterops virens, when fed sucrose-hexose sugar solution diets of varying concentrations (5%-35%). Both species regulated PGlu within a range which was affected by sampling time (fed or fasted) and not dietary sugar concentration. The range in mean PGlu was broader in Amethyst Sunbirds (11.52-16.51mmol/L) compared with Cape White-eyes (14.33-15.85mmol/L). This suggests that these birds are not constrained by dietary sugar concentration with regard to PGlu regulation, and consequently selective pressure on plants for their nectar characteristics is due to reasons other than glucose regulation. © 2013.
Kairaluoma, Leila; Ahonen, Timo; Aro, Mikko; Holopainen, Leena
This study is an intervention case study of fluency in Finnish-speaking children with dyslexia. Two 7-year-old children, a girl and a boy, were selected from the Jyvaskyla Longitudinal Study of Dyslexia. The intervention emphasised syllables as reading units, and proceeded from reading syllables to reading words and text. Letter knowledge, reading…
Meeuwissen, M.H.W.; Roelofs, A.P.A.; Levelt, W.J.M.
On the basis of evidence from studies of the naming and reading of numerals, Ferrand (1999) argued that the naming of objects is slower than reading their names, due to a greater response uncertainty in naming than in reading, rather than to an obligatory conceptual preparation for naming, but not
K. M. Inozemtseva
Full Text Available Introduction. At present, in Russian higher professional education we can observe a shift to the new educational paradigm based on Professional Standards (PS. According to the Federal Law of 02.05.2015 № 122 «About amendments to the Labour Code of Russian Federation and the articles 11 and 73 of «The Law on Education in Russian Federation» formation of the Federal State Educational Standards of Higher Education requirements for expected learning outcomes on universities’ main educational programs is implemented on the basis of relevant Professional Standards. This causes necessity of work on conjunction of Professional Standards, Federal State Educational Standards and universities’ main educational programs.The aim of this article is to demonstrate the influence of a new educational paradigm on the choice of contents, technologies and activities used in foreign language teaching at Russian technical universities.Methodology and research methods. The research methodology is based on the concept of diversification of engineers’ continuous professional foreign language training (T. Yu. Polyakova. In view of priority value of PS for developing universities’ main educational programs the updating of the above concept needs thorough analysis of both PS requirements for the level of foreign language proficiency of engineering specialists and study of scientific literature on the above problem.Results. This research results in interpretation and clarification of generalized PS requirements for the actual needs of industries and individuals in foreign language proficiency. The research also causes Language for Specific Purposes (LSP program developers’ and LSP teachers’ pedagogical reflection about their readiness to form foreign language (FL professional communicative competence of an engineer. It is concluded that a teacher needs to consider axiological aspects of engineering activity in order to understand the nature of the work
Delgado, Cheryl; Weitzel, Marilyn
Objective: Because health literacy is related to healthcare outcomes, this study looked at reading and comprehension levels in a sample of urban, low-income persons. Design: This was a descriptive exploration of reading comprehension levels, controlled for medical problems that could impact on vision and therefore ability to read. Setting: Ninety…
Salzman, Gerald R.
A high percentage of young people (16-24 years of age) lack essential skills in reading, writing, and arithmetic needed to become workers and citizens. The teaching of reading should be of importance to all educators, not just language arts teachers. (JOW)
Graber, Mark A; D'Alessandro, Donna M; Johnson-West, Jill
This reading series was developed as a means to educate Chinese-American elementary school students in Chinese reading, writing, and culture. The following topics are covered: Chinese literature, Chinese and American history, famous people, general knowledge, Chinese ideography, the four seasons, and the major Chinese and American festivals and…
Studies on L2 reading have provided extensive evidence for the significant contribution of lower-level processing skills in learning to read and the critical impact on the overall development of L2 reading of more accurate and fluent connections between three sub-lexical components: phonology, orthography and semantics. The broad consensus among…
Full Text Available The theoretical questions of determination of level of readiness of future specialists are examined to organization of activity of child's sporting schools. The plan of creation of structural functional model of readiness of specialists is presented to organization of activity of child's sporting schools. Procedure of determination of specific gravity of factors of professional readiness of specialists is described to organization of activity of child's sporting schools. The qualimetry vehicle of determination of level of their professional readiness is given. The general view of form of expert estimation of this readiness is presented.
Velleman, Eric Martin; van der Geest, Thea
On the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) scale, the average reading comprehension level of the Dutch population is B1 and the average level of text provided by Dutch government organisations requires a considerably higher reading skills level (C1). This means that part of
Angelina Wan Lin Tan
Full Text Available This study investigated the relationship between vocabulary size and reading comprehension performance among students in a tertiary institution in a Malaysian context and examined the vocabulary size required for students to achieve reading comprehension at various levels of proficiency. The research questions that guided this study were: 1 What is the vocabulary size of second year diploma students studying Mass Communication?; 2 What is the reading comprehension proficiency of second year diploma students studying Mass Communication?; and 3 What vocabulary size is required for different levels of reading comprehension proficiency? This study used the quantitative approach. The participants were 53 Malaysian second-year students at a private university college in Malaysia who were reading for their Diploma in Mass Communication. The instruments used were the Vocabulary Size Test and the IELTS Reading Test (Academic Module. The findings showed that the average vocabulary size of the students was just over 6000 word families and this vocabulary size was generally insufficient for adequate reading comprehension. Students needed an average vocabulary size of about 8000 word families to achieve adequate reading comprehension and about 10000 word families to achieve proficient reading comprehension. Based on the individual student’s performance, this study did not find a linear relationship between vocabulary size and reading comprehension performance, nor was there a threshold vocabulary size for adequate reading comprehension.
Oakland, Thomas; Wechsler, Solange Muglia
This article provides guidelines for an entry-level course that prepares psychology students and practitioners to acquire entry-level skills, abilities, knowledge, and attitudes important to the individual assessment of intellectual abilities of children and youth. The article reviews prominent international, regional, and national policies,…
Yeats, Alid; And Others
This is the first in a series of four reading books written in Spanish and designed for use in elementary bilingual education programs. The stories are divided into two main sections, Estudios Sociales (Social Studies) and La Naturaleza (Nature). The five stories in the first section deal with such topics as the home, school, and cleaning. The…
Yeats, Alid; And Others
This is the second in a series of four reading books written in Spanish and designed for use in elementary bilingual education programs. The stories are divided into two main sections, Estudios Sociales (Social Studies), and La Comunidad (The Community). The stories in the first section have to do with activities in the home, particularly chores…
Chung, Siuman; Espin, Christine A.; Stevenson, Claire E.
The technical adequacy of CBM maze-scores as indicators of reading level and growth for seventh-grade secondary-school students was examined. Participants were 452 Dutch students who completed weekly maze measures over a period of 23 weeks. Criterion measures were school level, dyslexia status, scores and growth on a standardized reading test.…
Mokhtari, Kouider; Sheorey, Ravi
Examines the degree to which the levels of English proficiency (high vs. low) and education (graduate vs. undergraduate) of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) students were associated with differences in their reading behaviors. Finds that the subjects' level of education and English proficiency were associated with their reading behavior…
Full Text Available Chinese Proficiency Test (HSK is an internationally standardized exam which tests and rates Chinese language proficiency. The highest level in this test is level 6. The writing part of the test consists of 3 (three parts, namely, (1 listening, (2 reading, (3 writing. Furthermore, the reading part is made of 4 components. Level 6 of this test implies a high degree of difficulty. This paper specifically looked on how to prepare effectively for participants to be able to work on the reading part in order to achieve best result. This article used the methods of literature review and observational study as well as field research and would also incorporate the author’s personal experience in taking the test into recommending strategies for doing the reading part in a level 6 HSK test. Finally, research suggested several techniques and tips that might assist participants in achieving maximum scores in handling the reading part of level 6 HSK test.
Zazove, Philip; Meador, Helen E; Reed, Barbara D; Gorenflo, Daniel W
One hundred six Michigan d/Deaf persons, part of a study evaluating how to improve d/Deaf persons' understanding of cancer prevention recommendations, had reading levels determined using the Test of Reading Comprehension, Syntactic Sentences. Respondents averaged 52 years old, 59% female, 84% Caucasian, 58% married, and 75% Deaf community members. The mean Test of Reading Comprehension, Syntactic Sentences score was 6.1 (women: 6.2, men: 6.0). Higher scores were associated with greater income (p = .02), employment (p = .01), education (high school p = .002, some college p home, teacher in school, at home now: all p speaking with and satisfaction with physicians and nurses (p Language with physicians and nurses (.019) and Deaf community membership (p = .02). In multivariate analysis, higher scores were associated with higher income, college degree, and teacher using English. Reading levels of a predominantly Deaf population were low. Higher income, college degree, and teacher using English were associated with higher reading levels.
Gilje, Trine Mathiesen
Master's thesis in Literacy studies The development of reading skills in English as a Foreign Language classrooms at the elementary level, the way in which teachers of English implement the LK06 learning objectives in reading, and the influence of teachers´attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge on their classroom practices and decisions.
Bean, Thomas W.; Ericson, Bonnie O.
Describes the integration of text previews (teacher-developed synopses of the text) and three-level study guides (encouraging factual, inferential, and problem solving responses). Claims a combination of these constitutes a powerful strategy for content area reading. (RS)
Full Text Available Reviewing the literature on self-assessment as an alternative method of assessment we find advocates claiming for the accuracy of the students’ self-assessments in general with little focus on their level of proficiency. With an eye on the students’ level of reading proficiency, the present study aimed at investigating the relationship between students’ reading self-assessment (as a formative and alternative method of assessment on the one hand, and teacher assessment (as a formative type of assessment as well as students’ final examination scores (as a summative and traditional method of assessment on the other. To this end, 65 students of Islamic Azad University- Tehran South Branch were selected to participate in this study. Initially, participants received PET test as pretest for assigning them into different levels of reading proficiency. Based upon the results of the pretest, participants were assigned to elementary and intermediate levels. Throughout the whole semester self-assessment questionnaire was employed for five times. Descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation were the data analysis techniques performed. The results of the study revealed a significant relationship between the intermediate learners’ self-ratings and teacher assessments; however, the results indicated no significant relationship between elementary learners’ self-assessments and teacher assessments. Also, the correlations between students’ self-assessments and their final examination scores were not significant for both levels. Therefore, given the teacher assessment as the yardstick, the accuracy of the intermediate levels and the inaccuracy of the elementary learners’ self-assessments could be concluded. Finally, the low correlation between the learners’ self-assessments and their scores on traditional final examination led the researcher to attribute it to the different nature of these two assessment types.
Hutchinson, Nora; Baird, Grayson L; Garg, Megha
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommend that health materials be written at a grade 6-7 reading level, which has generally not been achieved in online reading materials. Up to the present time, there have not been any assessments focused on the reading level of online educational materials across the most popular consumer Web sites for common internal medicine diagnoses. In this study, we examined the readability of open-access online health information for 9 common internal medicine diagnoses. Nine of the most frequently encountered inpatient and ambulatory internal medicine diagnoses were selected for analysis. In November and December 2014, these diagnoses were used as search terms in Google, and the top 5 Web sites across all diagnoses and a diagnosis-specific site were analyzed across 5 validated reading indices. On average, the lowest reading grade-level content was provided by the NIH (10.7), followed by WebMD (10.9), Mayo Clinic (11.3), and diagnosis-specific Web sites (11.5). Conversely, Wikipedia provided content that required the highest grade-level readability (14.6). The diagnoses with the lowest reading grade levels were chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (10.8), followed by diabetes (10.9), congestive heart failure (11.7), osteoporosis (11.7) and hypertension (11.7). Depression had the highest grade-level readability (13.8). Despite recommendations for patient health information to be written at a grade 6-7 reading level, our examination of online educational materials pertaining to 9 common internal medicine diagnoses revealed reading levels significantly above the NIH recommendation. This was seen across both diagnosis-specific and general Web sites. There is a need to improve the readability of online educational materials made available to patients. These improvements have the potential to greatly enhance patient awareness, engagement, and physician-patient communication. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Mohammad Reza Sarmadi
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Hearing-impaired students have some delays in learning language skills such as reading because of hearing loss. To study the effect of promoting educational level on the development of reading comprehension, the students of the 4th grade of elementary and last year guidance school were compared based on international test of reading literacy.Methods: The project was cross-sectional and the tool used was the international standard booklet of PIRLS 2001. Thirty-six students selected with moderately severe and severe hearing loss from the 4th grade of elementary and last year guidance school from Shahriar, Robatkarim, Karaj and Hashtgerd, Iran, exceptional schools. Comparative statistical analysis was performed using t-test.Results: The first level (focus on and retrieve explicity information showed a meaningful difference between the last year guidance school and the 4th grade of elementary students (p<0.05, but there were no significant differences in other levels, make straightforward information-interpret and integrate ideas-examine and evaluate content, (p> 0.05.Conclusion: Hearing-impaired students have difficulties in understanding in deep levels of reading despite promoting educational level. Thus, in making policies for special trainings, continuing the rehabilitation in guidance and high school levels to promote the complex levels of comprehension should be taken more into consideration.
Chung, S.; Espin, C.A.; Stevenson, C.E.
The technical adequacy of CBM maze-scores as indicators of reading level and growth for seventh-grade secondary-school students was examined. Participants were 452 Dutch students who completed weekly maze measures over a period of 23 weeks. Criterion measures were school level, dyslexia status,
Farris, Emily A; Ring, Jeremiah; Black, Jeffrey; Lyon, G Reid; Odegard, Timothy N
An object rhyming task that does not require text reading and is suitable for younger children was used to predict gains in word level reading skills following an intensive 2-year reading intervention for children with developmental dyslexia. The task evoked activation in bilateral inferior frontal regions. Growth in untimed pseudoword reading was associated with increased pre-intervention activation of the left inferior frontal gyrus, and growth in timed word reading was associated with pre-intervention activation of the left and right inferior frontal gyri. These analyses help identify pre-intervention factors that facilitate reading skill improvements in children with developmental dyslexia.
Frye, Elizabeth M.; Gosky, Ross
The present study investigated the relationship between rapid recognition of individual words (Word Recognition Test) and two measures of contextual reading: (1) grade-level Passage Reading Test (IRI passage) and (2) performance on standardized STAR Reading Test. To establish if time of presentation on the word recognition test was a factor in…
Moses, Britani Creel
The purpose of this study was to predict the third grade English reading TAKS scores while considering the same students' native language, Spanish, reading level as assessed by a state-approved reading assessment, the Evaluacion del desarrollo de la lectura (EDL), from the end of the second grade year. In addition, this study was been designed to…
Caroline T. SUMANDE
Full Text Available This study intends to assess the ICT needs of the course specialists at Polytechnic University of the Philippines under the Open University System (PUP-OUS which may be the basis in conducting training on the different applications such as word processing, electronic spread sheet, presentation software, YouTube and etc. for the successful implementation of the community Learning Management System (LMS endeavor in the University. This is also a review of the current practices of the course specialists in the use of ICT to better facilitate teaching and learning process through the LMS or the PUP Open University eMabini Learning Portal. This particularly identifies various training programs that may be considered in order to successfully implement the system. Internally, the quality and success implementation of a certain program can be best determined if both of the faculty members and students had maximized its utility and made a gratifying experience afterwards. The overarching research questions – Are the Course Specialists (CS confident to utilize the LMS in teaching? Are they aware of various eLearning strategies that may help geographically dispersed learners? And what is the extent of eLearning utilization for instructions by the CS? Though a high percentage of course specialists are fully competent with computer applications such as word documents, PDF documents, email, multi-media presentations, e-learning tools for submission of requirements, assessment of students performance, and other systems integrated in handling OU Cyber classes, still the meager percentage of responses stating, “using these systems but need further practice/training” or “not aware of the application” can be alarming for PUP Open University’s goal to achieve pure online implementation in the next few years. This study concludes to create a long-term vision for the future of DE system in the University to best serve its clientele, “the DE students.”
Kelly, Ronald R; Gaustad, Martha G
This study of deaf college students examined specific relationships between their mathematics performance and their assessed skills in reading, language, and English morphology. Simple regression analyses showed that deaf college students' language proficiency scores, reading grade level, and morphological knowledge regarding word segmentation and meaning were all significantly correlated with both the ACT Mathematics Subtest and National Technical Institute for the Deaf (NTID) Mathematics Placement Test scores. Multiple regression analyses identified the best combination from among these potential independent predictors of students' performance on both the ACT and NTID mathematics tests. Additionally, the participating deaf students' grades in their college mathematics courses were significantly and positively associated with their reading grade level and their knowledge of morphological components of words.
LoMaglio, L J
The TOEFL is widely used by colleges and universities in the United States and Canada to measure the English language proficiency levels of hearing international applicants. At the National Technical Institute for the Deaf, a faculty committee recommended that this popular test instrument be used to measure the English reading skills of deaf international applicants to the National Technical Institute for the Deaf. This study examined the merits of using the TOEFL to measure the English reading ability of hearing post-secondary international students seeking admission to English-based colleges and universities. Forty-one hearing foreign students were tested in the fall of 1989 at the English Language Institute at SUNY Buffalo. The instruments chosen were both the TOEFL and the California Achievement Test of reading ability. The majority of the research subjects who scored between 400 and 500 on the TOEFL achieved a grade level of less than 8.0 on the California Achievement Test.
Calvet, D; Huet, M; Le Dû, P; Mandjavidze, I D; Mur, M
Read-Out Buffers are critical components in the dataflow chain of the ATLAS Trigger/DAQ system. At up to 75 kHz, after each Level-1 trigger accept signal, these devices receive and store digitized data from groups of front-end electronic channels. Several Read-Out Buffers are grouped to form a Read-Out Buffer Complex that acts as a data server for the High Level Triggers selection algorithms and for the final data collection system. This paper describes a functional prototype of a Read-Out Buffer based on a custom made PCI mezzanine card that is designed to accept input data at up to 160 MB/s, to store up to 8 MB of data and to distribute data chunks at the desired request rate. We describe the hardware of the card that is based on an Intel I960 processor and CPLDs. We present the integration of several of these cards in a Read-Out Buffer Complex. We measure various performance figures and we discuss to which extent these can fulfill ATLAS needs. 5 Refs.
Eltorai, Adam E M; Sharma, Pranav; Wang, Jing; Daniels, Alan H
Advancing health literacy has the potential to improve patient outcomes. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons' (AAOS) online patient education materials serve as a tool to improve health literacy for orthopaedic patients; however, it is unknown whether the materials currently meet the National Institutes of Health/American Medical Association's recommended sixth grade readability guidelines for health information or the mean US adult reading level of eighth grade. The purposes of this study were (1) to evaluate the mean grade level readability of online AAOS patient education materials; and (2) to determine what proportion of the online materials exceeded recommended (sixth grade) and mean US (eighth grade) reading level. Reading grade levels for 99.6% (260 of 261) of the online patient education entries from the AAOS were analyzed using the Flesch-Kincaid formula built into Microsoft Word software. Mean grade level readability of the AAOS patient education materials was 9.2 (SD ± 1.6). Two hundred fifty-one of the 260 articles (97%) had a readability score above the sixth grade level. The readability of the AAOS articles exceeded the sixth grade level by an average of 3.2 grade levels. Of the 260 articles, 210 (81%) had a readability score above the eighth grade level, which is the average reading level of US adults. Most of the online patient education materials from the AAOS had readability levels that are far too advanced for many patients to comprehend. Efforts to adjust the readability of online education materials to the needs of the audience may improve the health literacy of orthopaedic patients. Patient education materials can be made more comprehensible through use of simpler terms, shorter sentences, and the addition of pictures. More broadly, all health websites, not just those of the AAOS, should aspire to be comprehensible to the typical reader.
The objective was to ensure ourselves and the general public that the workers in the Nuclear Materials Processing Department (NMPD) could read, follow, and understand procedures. Procedures were randomly selected and analyzed for reading levels. A tenth grade reading level was established as the standard for all NMPD employees. Employees were tested to determine reading levels and approximately 12% could not read at the target level. A Procedure Walk-Through Evaluation was administered to each person not reaching tenth grade reading level. This was a job performance measure given to ensure that the worker was competent in his/her present job, and should remain there while completing reading training. A mandatory Reading Training Program utilizing Computer Based Training was established. This program is self-paced, individualized instruction and provided to the worker on Company time. Results of the CBT Program have been very good. Instruction is supplemented with test-taking skills seminars, practice exams, individual conferences with their own reading specialist, and some self-directed study books. This paper describes the program at Savannah River Site
Chang, Sau Hou
The purpose of the present study is to investigate the grade level and gender differences in a school-based reading tutoring program. The treatment group included 10 first-grade and 12 second-grade struggling readers, and the control group included 41 first-grade and 63 second-grade nonstruggling readers. The tutors were teacher candidates in an…
Despite the growing number of studies highlighting the complex process of acquiring second language (L2) word recognition skills, comparatively little research has examined the relationship between word recognition and passage-level reading ability in L2 learners; further, the existing results are inconclusive. This study aims to help fill the…
Swanson, Elizabeth; Barnes, Marcia; Fall, Anna-Mari; Roberts, Greg
The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of inference making, decoding, memory, and vocabulary on reading comprehension among 7th- through 12th-grade struggling readers with varying levels of inattention and hyperactivity. We categorized a group of 414 struggling readers into 3 groups based on results from factor mixture modeling:…
Zelvis, Rima R.
This study examined the effects of the Visual Thinking Strategies (VTS) curriculum on reading achievement of students with various motivational levels. A 2X2 factorial design was used. The sample population consisted of 104 fourth grade students from an upper middle class school system in Connecticut. All students were administered a…
Özsoy, Gökhan; Kuruyer, Hayriye Gül; Çakiroglu, Ahmet
The purpose of the current study is to investigate the correlation between students' reading levels and mathematical problem solving skills. The present study was conducted in line with a qualitative research method, i.e., the phenomenological method. The study group of the current research is composed of six third grade students with different…
Berninger, Virginia W; Abbott, Robert D; Swanson, H Lee; Lovitt, Dan; Trivedi, Pam; Lin, Shin-Ju Cindy; Gould, Laura; Youngstrom, Marci; Shimada, Shirley; Amtmann, Dagmar
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the contribution of working memory at the word and sentence levels of language to reading and writing outcomes. Measures of working memory at the word and sentence levels, reading and writing, were administered to 2nd (N = 122), 4th (N = 222), and 6th (N = 105) graders. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate whether the 2 predictor working memory factors contributed unique variance beyond their shared covariance to each of 5 outcome factors: handwriting, spelling, composing, word reading, and reading comprehension. At each grade level, except for handwriting and composing in 6th grade, the word-level working memory factor contributed unique variance to each reading and writing outcome. The text-level working memory factor contributed unique variance to reading comprehension in 4th and 6th grade. The clinical significance of these findings for assessment and intervention is discussed.
Draeger, Erik W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
This report documents the fact that the work in creating a strategic plan and beginning customer engagements has been completed. The description of milestone is: The newly formed advanced architecture and portability specialists (AAPS) team will develop a strategic plan to meet the goals of 1) sharing knowledge and experience with code teams to ensure that ASC codes run well on new architectures, and 2) supplying skilled computational scientists to put the strategy into practice. The plan will be delivered to ASC management in the first quarter. By the fourth quarter, the team will identify their first customers within PEM and IC, perform an initial assessment and scalability and performance bottleneck for next-generation architectures, and embed AAPS team members with customer code teams to assist with initial portability development within standalone kernels or proxy applications.
Schultheis, Robert A.; Anderson, Roberta
McLaughlin's Smog Index was compared to the Dale-Chall formula for the determination of reading levels of 48 textbooks in business and distributive education. A Modified Smog Index proved a valid substitute for the Dale-Chall formula when used to evaluate the reading levels of business and distributive education narrative. (Author/CT)
Schwarz, Amy Louise; van Kleeck, Anne; Beaton, Derek; Horne, Erin; MacKenzie, Heather; Abdi, Hervé
Purpose: Many well-accepted systems for determining difficulty level exist for books children read independently, but few are available for determining the wide range of difficulty levels of storybooks read aloud to preschoolers. Also, the available tools list book characteristics only on the basis of parents' or authors' opinions. We created an…
Abbott, Robert D.; Berninger, Virginia W.; Fayol, Michel
Longitudinal structural equation modeling was used to evaluate longitudinal relationships across adjacent grade levels 1 to 7 for levels of language in writing (Model 1, subword letter writing, word spelling, and text composing) or writing and reading (Model 2, subword letter writing and word spelling and reading; Model 3, word spelling and…
Yi, Tang; Jing, Pei; Long-Fa, Pan; Yi, Ni; Hua, Hu; Bu-Qing, Zhang
An innovative multilevel read-only recording method is proposed. In this method, a short pit/land is deliberately inserted to the original land/pit. This modifies the wave-shape of readout signal. Taking the wave-shape as the symbol of level detection, a signal wave-shape modulation (SWSM) multilevel method is realized. This method is carried out and validated on the DVD read-only manufacture and readout system. A capacity of 15 GB can be expected, and a bit error rate of 10 −4 is achieved. The capacity can meet the demand of high definition movie publication. This method also provides a potential multi-level solution for other storage formats and systems. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))
Although a considerable amount of evidence has been amassed regarding the contributions of lower-level word processes, higher-level processes, and working memory to reading comprehension, little is known about the relationships among these sources of individual differences or their relative contributions to reading comprehension performance. This…
Problem Statement: Critical reading refers to individuals' thinking about what they read, assessing what they have read, and using their own judgment about what they have read. In order to teach critical reading skills to students, a teacher is expected to have knowledge about text selection, use of appropriate methods, preparation of functional…
Full Text Available LLT Journal: A Journal on Language and Language Teaching Open Journal Systems LLT Journal ISSNs: e-ISSN: 2579-9533 (electronic p-ISSN: 1410-7201 (print User Username Password Remember me Journal Content Search Search Scope Browse By Issue By Author By Title Other Journals Font Size Make font size smaller Make font size default Make font size larger LLT Journal Barcode TOOLS FULL PAPER GUIDELINES Article Tools Print this article Indexing metadata How to cite item Email this article (Login required Email the author (Login required About The Author Widdy Wijanti Sampoerna University, Jakarta Indonesia OUR CONTACT LLT Journal English Language Education Sanata Dharma University Yogyakarta, Indonesia For more details, please visit: LLT Journal Contact Address Home About Login Register Search Current Archives Author Guidelines Editorial Team Focus and Scope Publication Ethics Author Index Originality Screening Indexing and Abstracting Review Process Article Processing Charges Article Submission Charges Publishing Rights Peer Reviewers Home > Vol 20, No 2 (2017 > Wijanti SYNTACTIC COMPLEXITY IN THE READING MATERIALS OF ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES LEVELS 1 – 3 Widdy Wijanti Abstract In Indonesia, English is still considered as a foreign language and has become a crucial subject of study especially in the university level. For this reason, English for Academic Purposes has been conducted in the first year of college level for many years. Unfortunately, although many Asian countries including Indonesia have run the EAP course, the output is that there are still many Indonesian students who do not meet the vocabulary size and syntactic complexity that are expected while their learning process in the university. This results lower grades that they have in their assignments. Therefore, the recent study is aimed at evaluating the reading materials of EAP, especially in measuring the syntactic complexity containing in the texts as it is strongly believed in
Wong, Anita M.-Y.; Ho, Connie S.-H.; Au, Terry K.-F.; McBride, Catherine; Ng, Ashley K.-H.; Yip, Lesley P.-W.; Lam, Catherine C.-C.
This study examined (1) whether working memory and higher-level languages skills--inferencing and comprehension monitoring--accounted for individual differences among Chinese children in Chinese reading comprehension, after controlling for age, Chinese word reading and oral language skills, and (2) whether children with specific language…
Full Text Available The highest levels of reading literacy, as defined within PISA study, include the ability to use various cognitive skills, with argumentative skills being one of the most important among them. In the present study our goal was to reveal some of the factors that influence the development of argumentative skills in Serbian schools. We investigated the extent to which argumentative skills are required in PISA reading literacy tasks, as well as the specific difficulties our students have faced on these tasks, through an analysis of student performance. We also conducted an analysis of the educational practice - by doing in-depth interviews with teachers and content analysis of students' textbooks. The results revealed that: 1 Argumentations skills are an important requirement within PISA tasks; 2 Serbian students are mostly successful at basic tasks of recognizing arguments or providing arguments for the given position; they face difficulties answering the tasks which require precise formulation of relevant arguments as well as those demanding meta-cognitive skills (e.g. recognizing persuasive strategies in the given text. Their performance is particularly poor on tasks requiring the combination of information from different sources or information presented in different formats (text, tables, or graphs; 3 There is a significant gap between the requirements for argumentation skills our students usually encounter and PISA reading literacy tasks. In this paper we discuss some of the difficulties and obstacles to encouraging the development of argumentative thinking.
Smith, L R; Ryan, B E
The joint effects of student achievement level and attitude survey format upon attitudes toward reading were investigated. Sixth-grade students completed reading attitude surveys involving a standard Likert-type format or one involving pictures of the comic strip character, Garfield. The survey items were identical for both formats; only the presentation format was varied. There was no significant main effect on attitude responses due to achievement level, but the main effect due to survey format was significant, with the Likert-type format producing significantly higher attitude responses than the Garfield format. The interaction between achievement level and format also was significant, with above average students and average students giving higher attitude responses than did below average students when the Garfield format was used. When the Likert-type format was used, average students and below average students gave higher attitude responses than did above average students. The results imply that attitude responses of adolescents can be manipulated by varying the format of the survey.
The Hadronic Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) at the ATLAS experiment is a detector made out of iron as passive medium and plastic scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the particles is converted to electrical signals which are digitized in the front-end electronics and sent to the back-end system. The main element of the back-end electronics are the VME 9U Read-Out Driver (ROD) boards, responsible of data management, processing and transmission. A total of 32 ROD boards, placed in the data acquisition chain between Level-1 and Level-2 trigger, are needed to read out the whole calorimeter. They are equipped with fixed-point Digital Signal Processors (DSPs) that apply online algorithms on the incoming raw data. Although the main purpose of TileCal is to measure the energy and direction of the hadronic jets, taking advantage of its projective segmentation soft muons not triggered at Level-1 (with pT<5 GeV) can be recovered. A TileCal standalone muon identification algorithm is presented and i...
Kerneža, Maja; Košir, Katja
The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of the systematic use of comics as a literary-didactic method to reduce gender differences in reading literacy and reading motivation at the primary level of education. It was assumed that the use of comics would have a positive effect on pupils' reading literacy and reading motivation, while…
Foe, Gabriella; Larson, Elaine L
Consent forms continue to be at a higher reading level than the recommended sixth to eighth grade, making it difficult for participants to comprehend information before enrolling in research. To assess and address the extent of the problem regarding the level of literacy of consent forms and update previously published reports, we conducted an integrative literature review of English language research published between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2013; 35 descriptive and eight intervention studies met inclusion criteria. Results confirmed that developing forms at eighth-grade level was attainable though not practiced. It was found that risks of participation was the section most poorly understood. There was also a lack of consensus regarding the most effective method to increase comprehension. Further research using standardized tools is needed to determine the best approach for improving consent forms and processes. © The Author(s) 2016.
Richard L. ALLINGTON
Full Text Available Long overlooked, reading volume is actually central to the development of reading proficiencies, especially in the development of fluent reading proficiency. Generally no one in schools monitors the actual volume of reading that children engage in. We know that the commonly used commercial core reading programs provide only material that requires about 15 minutes of reading activity daily. The remaining 75 minute of reading lessons is filled with many other activities such as completing workbook pages or responding to low-level literal questions about what has been read. Studies designed to enhance the volume of reading that children do during their reading lessons demonstrate one way to enhance reading development. Repeated readings have been widely used in fostering reading fluency but wide reading options seem to work faster and more broadly in developing reading proficiencies, including oral reading fluency.
Mak, Soi-kei; Cheung, Kwok-cheung; Soh, Kaycheng; Sit, Pou-seong; Ieong, Man-kai
Enjoyment of reading, diversity of reading and metacognitive awareness of reading strategies are cognitive and affective variables pertaining to three facets of reading engagement for students to read happily, widely and skilfully. These have been found to be related to effectiveness in reading instruction. They together form a focus for this…
Full Text Available During the entire history of education, questioning has been one of the usual techniques of teaching. Despite all the changes in the education theory and technology, this technique continues to be usual, because it is an efficient tool to increase learning. Questioning is an interactive relation, which enlivens the conversation, by giving continuity to the finding of final result. Questioning should be assessed as a technique, which gives high results, when it is managed successfully and with attention towards the teacher, playing meanwhile an important role during the learning of students. Through various planed activities, I tried to influence teachers in order to plan as many questions as possible, for the development of student’s critical thinking. Taking into account the development of further activities I focused in the results extracted from the data gained from the observation of teachers, target group, consultations with teachers, and took into consideration various literature which considered this issue. This research included five teachers that teach in classes 1-5, in the ELSS “Emin Duraku” in Prizren/Kosovo. Observation consisted of two periods. Results of the first period of observation showed that while preparing the teaching work, specifically planning of questions I noticed that a big number were direct questions with a low level of thinking. The research continued by maintaining the target group focused where important discussions were held about the importance of planning the questions of different levels that helped students to understand what they read and also contributed to the increasing of their interest for reading-understanding of various school texts. Then the second period of observation was conducted. Results showed that there were differences in the planning of questions by teachers, compared to the results of the first period of observation. Conclusions of this operational research showed that students can
Full Text Available Egg laying site selection by a host plant specialist leaf miner moth at two intra-plant levels in the northern Chilean Atacama Desert. The spatial distribution of the immature stages of the leaf miner Angelabella tecomae Vargas & Parra, 2005 was determined at two intra-plant levels (shoot and leaflet on the shrub Tecoma fulva fulva (Cav. D. Don (Bignoniaceae in the Azapa valley, northern Chilean Atacama Desert. An aggregated spatial pattern was detected for all the immature stages along the shoot, with an age dependent relative position: eggs and first instar larvae were clumped at apex; second, third and fourth instar larvae were mostly found at intermediate positions; meanwhile the spinning larva and pupa were clumped at basis. This pattern suggests that the females select new, actively growing leaflets for egg laying. At the leaflet level, the immature stages were found more frequently at underside. Furthermore, survivorship was higher for larvae from underside mines. All these results highlight the importance of an accurate selection of egg laying site in the life history of this highly specialized leaf miner. By contrast, eventual wrong choices in the egg laying site selection may be associated with diminished larval survivorship. The importance of the continuous availability of new plant tissue in this highly human modified arid environment is discussed in relation with the observed patterns.
Cain, Kate; Oakhill, Jane; Lemmon, Kate
We report an investigation of 9-year-olds' ability to interpret idioms in relation to their reading comprehension level. We manipulated whether the idioms were transparent or opaque, whether they were real or novel, whether they were presented in isolation or in a supportive narrative context. As predicted, children were better able to explain the meanings of idioms in context than in isolation. The good and poor comprehenders did not differ in their abilities to interpret transparent idioms in context, but the poor comprehenders were significantly worse at using context to work out the meanings of opaque idioms. The explanation task revealed the source of information used by the children to derive nontarget interpretations. We discuss these findings in relation to idiom processing strategies and Levorato and Cacciari's global elaboration model.
Jordan, Timothy R; McGowan, Victoria A; Paterson, Kevin B
When reading, low-level visual properties of text are acquired from central vision during brief fixational pauses, but the effectiveness of these properties may differ in older age. To investigate, a filtering technique displayed the low, medium, or high spatial frequencies of text falling within central vision as young (18-28 years) and older (65+ years) adults read. Reading times for normal text did not differ across age groups, but striking differences in the effectiveness of spatial frequencies were observed. Consequently, even when young and older adults read equally well, the effectiveness of spatial frequencies in central vision differs markedly in older age. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
To elaborate and implement a brochure of reading strategies with a focus on andragogy “Reading is learning” in order to enhance Reading skills in ESL students of the B1+ level of the Language Centre at Universidad Técnica de Ambato, academic period 2015
Hidalgo Camacho, Cynthia Soledad
This research work: to elaborate and to implement a brochure with Reading strategies “Reading is learning”, aims to enhance Reading comprehension in students from the B1+ level of English, at the languages center in Universidad Técnica De Ambato. The students’ population groups found here are adults from 18 to 40 years of age. Although reading can definitely be affected by some personal factors such as formal educational background, frequency of reading, types of texts used, attitude of th...
Roberts, Greg; Rane, Shruti; Fall, Anna-Mária; Denton, Carolyn A.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Vaughn, Sharon
Objective The purpose of the study was to estimate the impact of reading intervention on ratings of student attention over time. Method We used extant data from a longitudinal randomized study of a response-based reading intervention to fit a multiple-indicator, multilevel growth model. The sample at randomization was 54% male, 18% limited English proficient, 85% eligible for free or reduced-price lunch, 58% African American, and 32% Hispanic. Reading ability was measured by using the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement. Attention was measured by using the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD Symptoms and Normal Behavior Scale. Results Findings indicate that intensive, response-based reading intervention over 3 years improved reading achievement and behavioral attention in middle school struggling readers, with treatment directly affecting reading, which in turn influenced attention. In the business-as-usual condition, there was no relation between improved reading and attention. Conclusions The results are consistent with a correlated liabilities model of comorbidity. The results do not align with the inattention-as-cause hypothesis, which predicts that reading intervention should not affect attention. The findings do not support, but do not necessarily preclude, the phenocopy hypothesis. The results are especially pertinent for older students who may be inattentive partly because of years of struggling with reading. PMID:24885289
Finnie, Ramona K C; Felder, Tisha M; Linder, Suzanne Kneuper; Mullen, Patricia Dolan
Consideration of categories related to reading comprehension--beyond reading level--is imperative to reach low literacy populations effectively. "Suitability" has been proposed as a term to encompass six categories of such factors: content, literacy demand graphics, layout/typography, learning stimulation, and cultural appropriateness. Our purpose was to describe instruments used to evaluate categories of suitability in cancer education materials in published reports and their findings. We searched databases and reference lists for evaluations of print and Web-based cancer education materials to identify and describe measures of these categories. Studies had to evaluate reading level and at least one category of suitability. Eleven studies met our criteria. Seven studies reported inter-rater reliability. Cultural appropriateness was most often assessed; four instruments assessed only surface aspects of cultural appropriateness. Only two of seven instruments used, the suitability assessment of materials (SAM) and the comprehensibility assessment of materials (SAM + CAM), were described as having any evidence of validity. Studies using Simplified Measure of Goobledygook (SMOG) and Fry reported higher average reading level scores than those using Flesh-Kincaid. Most materials failed criteria for reading level and cultural appropriateness. We recommend more emphasis on the categories of suitability for those developing cancer education materials and more study of these categories and reliability and validity testing of instruments.
Ullah, Md. Mohib; Fatema, Sayeda
The universal importance of reading, a receptive skill, is enormous. It encompasses a major part of learning and teaching a language. Reading ameliorates language competence of learners and it has an all-inclusive effect on their acquisition of second language. But some students are not found appropriately motivated or found demotivated in reading…
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Reading skill is one of the most important necessities of students' learning in everyday life. This skill is referred to the ability of comprehension, comment and conclusion from texts and receiving the meaning of the massage which is composed. Educational development in any student has a direct relation with the ability of the comprehension. This study is designed to investigate the effects of hearing loss on reading comprehension in hearing-impaired students compared to normal-hearing ones.Methods: Seventeen hearing-impaired students in 4th year of primary exceptional schools in Karaj, Robatkarim and Shahriyar, Iran, were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Seventeen normal-hearing students were randomly selected from ordinary schools next to exceptional ones as control group. They were compared for different levels of reading comprehension using the international standard booklet (PIRLS 2001. Results: There was a significant difference in performance between hearing-impaired and normal- hearing students in different levels of reading comprehension (p<0.05.Conclusion: Hearing loss has negative effects on different levels of reading comprehension, so in exceptional centers, reconsideration in educational planning in order to direct education from memorizing to comprehension and deeper layers of learning seems necessary.
Papanikolaou, M; Skenteris, N; Piperakis, S M
The present study investigated the effect of low, medium, and high traffic road noise as well as irrelevant background speech noise on primary school children's reading and mathematical performance. A total of 676 participants (324 boys, 47.9% and 352 girls, 52.1%) of the 4th and 5th elementary classes participated in the project. The participants were enrolled in public primary schools from urban areas and had ages ranging from 9 to 10 years and from. Schools were selected on the basis of increasing levels of exposure to road traffic noise and then classified into three categories (Low noise: 55-66 dB, Medium noise: 67-77 dB, and High noise: 72-80 dB). We measured reading comprehension and mathematical skills in accordance with the national guidelines for elementary education, using a test designed specifically for the purpose of this study. On the one hand, children in low-level noise schools showed statistically significant differences from children in medium- and high-level noise schools in reading performance (plevel noise schools differed significantly from children in high-level noise schools but only in mathematics performance (p=0.001). Girls in general did better in reading score than boys, especially in schools with medium- and high-level noise. Finally the levels of noise and gender were found to be two independent factors.
Heim, Stefan; Grande, Marion; Meffert, Elisabeth; Eickhoff, Simon B; Schreiber, Helen; Kukolja, Juraj; Shah, Nadim Jon; Huber, Walter; Amunts, Katrin
Recent theories of developmental dyslexia explain reading deficits in terms of deficient phonological awareness, attention, visual and auditory processing, or automaticity. Since dyslexia has a neurobiological basis, the question arises how the reader's proficiency in these cognitive variables affects the brain regions involved in visual word recognition. This question was addressed in two fMRI experiments with 19 normally reading children (Experiment 1) and 19 children with dyslexia (Experiment 2). First, reading-specific brain activation was assessed by contrasting the BOLD signal for reading aloud words vs. overtly naming pictures of real objects. Next, ANCOVAs with brain activation during reading the individuals' scores for all five cognitive variables assessed outside the scanner as covariates were performed. Whereas the normal readers' brain activation during reading showed co-variation effects predominantly in the right hemisphere, the reverse pattern was observed for the dyslexics. In particular, middle frontal gyrus, inferior parietal cortex, and precuneus showed contralateral effects for controls as compared to dyslexics. In line with earlier findings in the literature, these data hint at a global change in hemispheric asymmetry during cognitive processing in dyslexic readers, which, in turn, might affect reading proficiency. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kim, Young-Suk Grace; Park, Cheahyung; Park, Younghee
We examined the relations of discourse-level oral language skills [i.e., listening comprehension, and oral retell and production of narrative texts (oral retell and production hereafter)] to reading comprehension and written composition. Korean-speaking first grade students (N = 97) were assessed on listening comprehension, oral retell and…
Bulgurcuoglu, Ahmet Nusret
The purpose of the present research is to define the critical thinking levels and reading habits of students studying at the department of physical education and sports teaching and analysing the relationship between these. The participants of the present research are 136 pre-service physical education teachers studying at Mugla Sitki Kocman…
Girli, Alev; Öztürk, Halil
The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between the usage levels of metacognitive reading strategies by students diagnosed with specific learning disability (SLD), academic self-efficacy and the concept of self, in comparison to their typically developing (TD) peers. The data to be used in the study were collected using the…
Yildirim, Kasim; Yildiz, Mustafa; Ates, Seyit; Rasinski, Timothy
The aim of this study was to examine fifth grade elementary school students' listening and reading comprehension levels with regard to text types. This study was conducted on 180 fifth grade elementary school students in Sincan-Ankara in the spring semester of the academic year 2008-2009. The comprehension test was administered to students. The…
Southgate, Vera, Ed.
Edited versions of selected major papers presented at the July 1971 study conference of the United Kingdom Reading Association, which had the theme "Literacy at All Levels," are included in this book. This group defines literacy as "the mastery of our native language in all its aspects, as a means of communication," and…
Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Yessirkepov, Marlen; Voronov, Alexander A.; Trukhachev, Vladimir I.; Kostyukova, Elena I.; Gerasimov, Alexey N.; Kitas, George D.
Specialist bibliographic databases offer essential online tools for researchers and authors who work on specific subjects and perform comprehensive and systematic syntheses of evidence. This article presents examples of the established specialist databases, which may be of interest to those engaged in multidisciplinary science communication. Access to most specialist databases is through subscription schemes and membership in professional associations. Several aggregators of information and d...
Sieng, Sokha; Hurst, Cameron
This study compares a combination of processes of care and clinical targets among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) between specialist diabetes clinics (SDCs) and general medical clinics (GMCs), and how differences between these two types of clinics differ with hospital type (community, provincial and regional). Type 2 diabetes mellitus patient medical records were collected from 595 hospitals (499 community, 70 provincial, 26 regional) in Thailand between April 1 to June 30, 2012 resulting in a cross-sectional sample of 26,860 patients. Generalized linear mixed modeling was conducted to examine associations between clinic type and quality of care. The outcome variables of interest were split into clinical targets and process of care. A subsequent subgroup analysis was conducted to examine if the nature of clinical target and process of care differences between GMCs and SDCs varied with hospital type (regional, provincial, community). Regardless of the types of hospitals (regional, provincial, or community) patients attending SDCs were considerably more likely to have eye and foot exam. In terms of larger hospitals (regional and provincial) patients attending SDCs were more likely to achieve HbA1c exam, All FACE exam, BP target, and the Num7Q. Interestingly, SDCs performed better than GMCs at only provincial hospitals for LDL-C target and the All7Q. Finally, patients with T2DM who attended community hospital-GMCs had a better chance of achieving the blood pressure target than patients who attended community hospital-SDCs. Specialized diabetes clinics outperform general medical clinics for both regional and provincial hospitals for all quality of care indicators and the number of quality of care indicators achieved was never lower. However, this better performance of SDC was not observed in community hospital. Indeed, GMCs outperformed SDCs for some quality of care indicators in the community level setting.
Rudy Doria Correa
Full Text Available This paper shows the results of a research exercise in order to define an approach of reading and writing’s teaching and learning in the process from preparatory to primary education in Asodesi’s school in the city of Monteria - Córdoba. This experience is a part of the investigation “classroom projects: an experience of action research in language teaching at school”, theoretically oriented from the study of various approaches about teaching reading and writing early, with a qualitative methodology (IA, by forming a study group work (SGW, within which teachers reflect on their teaching practices, in order to improve and transform them. The main results are: the definition of a comprehensive approach of teaching reading and writing, linked to the goals of training offered in classroom projects in primary and secondary levels and the development of skills incomprehension and textual production.
Braten, Ivar; Ferguson, Leila E.; Anmarkrud, Oistein; Stromso, Helge I.
Sixty-five Norwegian 10th graders used the software Read&Answer 2.0 (Vidal-Abarca et al., 2011) to read five different texts presenting conflicting views on the controversial scientific issue of sun exposure and health. Participants were administered a multiple-choice topic-knowledge measure before and after reading, a word recognition task,…
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of the systematic use of comics as a literary-didactic method to reduce gender differences in reading literacy and reading motivation at the primary level of education. It was assumed that the use of comics would have a positive effect on pupils’ reading literacy and reading motivation, while also reducing the aforementioned differences between boys and girls. The dimensions of reading literacy and reading motivation were examined in experimental and control groups, before and after the intervention, by means of questionnaires and tests for pupils. The sample consisted of 143 pupils from second to fifth grade from two Slovenian primary schools in a rural environment, of which 73 pupils participated in the experimental group and 70 pupils represented the control group. Effects of the use of comics as a literary-didactic method were not found: using comics as a literary-didactic method did not have a statistically significant effect on pupils’ reading literacy and reading motivation. However, when the four-way structure of the research (taking into account the age and gender of the pupils was considered, some subgroups showed a statistically significant increase in reading interest and attitude towards reading. No reduction of gender differences in reading literacy and reading motivation was found. Based on the results, guidelines for further research are established and suggestions are offered for teachers’ work.
Berninger, Virginia W; Richards, Todd L; Abbott, Robert D
This brief research report examines brain-behavioral relationships specific to levels of language in the complex reading brain. The first specific aim was to examine prior findings for significant fMRI connectivity from four seeds (left precuneus, left occipital temporal, left supramarginal, left inferior frontal) for each of four levels of language-subword, word (word-specific spelling or affixed words), syntax (with and without homonym foils or affix foils), and multi-sentence text to identify significant fMRI connectivity (a) unique to the lower level of language when compared to the immediately higher adjacent level of language across subword-word, word-syntax, and syntax-text comparisons; and (b) involving a brain region associated with executive functions. The second specific aim was to correlate the magnitude of that connectivity with standard scores on tests of Focused Attention (D-K EFS Color Word Form Inhibition) and Switching Attention (Wolf & Denckla Rapid Automatic Switching). Seven correlations were significant. Focused Attention was significantly correlated with the word level (word-specific spellings of real words) fMRI task in left cingulum from left inferior frontal seed. Switching Attention was significantly correlated with the (a) subword level (grapheme-phoneme correspondence) fMRI task in left and right Cerebellum V from left supramarginal seed; (b) the word level (word-specific spelling) fMRI task in right Cerebellum V from left precuneus seed; (c) the syntax level (with and without homonym foils) fMRI task in right Cerebellum V from left precuneus seed and from left supramarginal seed; and (d) syntax level (with and without affix foils) fMRI task in right Cerebellum V from left precuneus seed. Results are discussed in reference to neuropsychological assessment of supervisory attention (focused and switching) for specific levels of language related to reading acquisition in students with and without language-related specific learning
Banks, Karen Vlahos; Nolen, Patricia
In light of criticisms that teacher preparation programs do not adequately prepare prospective reading teachers and specialists for actual classroom problems, a study was conducted to determine the accuracy of teacher diagnoses and planning for reading difficulties and to examine differences in coursework preparation and classroom experience.…
Reading skills are vital to student success, and those skills could be practiced with Shakespeare "if students are taught reading skills in the classroom." The problem is that many teachers of English do not consider themselves reading specialists and do not teach reading skills to their students. Fred L. Hamel notes that teachers in a recent…
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between the usage levels of metacognitive reading strategies by students diagnosed with specific learning disability (SLD, academic self-efficacy and the concept of self, in comparison to their typically developing (TD peers. The data to be used in the study were collected using the Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies Inventory, the Academic Self-efficacy Scale, the Piers-Harris Children’s Self-concept Scale and the Demographics Information Form. The study was conducted among a total of 119 students in the fifth,sixth, seventh and eighth grades in İzmir Province, including 59 students diagnosed with SLD and 60 TD students. Considering the results of the study, in comparison to TD students, students diagnosed with SLD were significantly inadequate in terms of the usage levels of metacognitive reading strategies, levels of academic self-efficacy, and the intelligence/school subdimensions of the concept of self.
Full Text Available This study aims at determining the reading habits of 4th Grade students (4th Primary who reach an advanced level of reading comprehension. They were evaluated in the 2011 SIMCE test, in Chile. A survey about reading behaviors was conducted in a sample of 107 students from two schools in Talca, Maule region. In this study were items were evaluated: various behaviors associated with reading such as reading habits, defined as behaviors linked with the number of books read voluntarily and the taste for reading; frequency of use of the library and the priority of reading within the student’s free time; type of support utilized for reading and the role of parents in motivating their children to read. The results show that reaching a good level of reading comprehension does not ensure good reading habits or the enjoyment and pleasure of reading. The study also shows that students rarely use the school library and the low reading motivation they get from their parents.Este estudio tiene como objetivo conocer los hábitos lectores de los alumnos de 4° Básico (4° de Primaria que alcanzan un nivel de comprensión lectora avanzado, evaluado en la prueba Sistema de Medición de la Calidad de la Educación (SIMCE en Chile, en 2011. El estudio se realizó con una muestra de 107 alumnos que respondieron una encuesta y que pertenecen a dos colegios de la comuna de Talca, región del Maule. Fueron evaluadas distintas conductas asociadas a la lectura como el hábito lector, definido como las conductas asociadas a cantidad de libros leídos en forma voluntaria, el gusto por la lectura, la frecuencia en el uso de la biblioteca, el lugar que ocupa la lectura dentro del tiempo libre, el tipo de soporte utilizado para leer y el rol de los padres en la motivación por la lectura de sus hijos. Los resultados muestran que el hecho de alcanzarun buen nivel de comprensión lectora no asegura los buenos hábitos lectores, el gusto por la lectura y el leer por placer. Se
Susperreguy, Maria Ines; Davis-Kean, Pamela E; Duckworth, Kathryn; Chen, Meichu
This study examines whether self-concept of ability in math and reading predicts later math and reading attainment across different levels of achievement. Data from three large-scale longitudinal data sets, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development-Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, and Panel Study of Income Dynamics-Child Development Supplement, were used to answer this question by employing quantile regression analyses. After controlling for demographic variables, child characteristics, and early ability, the findings indicate that self-concept of ability in math and reading predicts later achievement in each respective domain across all quantile levels of achievement. These results were replicated across the three data sets representing different populations and provide robust evidence for the role of self-concept of ability in understanding achievement from early childhood to adolescence across the spectrum of performance (low to high). © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Study on the high level radioactive wastes geological isolation seen from the social acceptance of science and technology. (2) Point that installs choices in explanation to the another field specialist
Wada, Ryutaro; Tanaka, Satoru; Nagasaki, Shinya
Generally speaking, a vast, advanced and unfamiliar science and technology which has the potential hazard, is unacceptable by public for the fear of its unknown nature. The siting problem of geological disposal for high level radioactive wastes is one of the typical examples. There is only one disposal concept in Japan now. However, there might be a lot of choices because it can be promoted greater understanding by comparative study. This study examined the point that installed appropriate choices to explain in specialists in another field etc. other than the nuclear backend field. At first, this study surveyed the part where recognition and understanding of the safety when disposing of high level radioactive wastes (HLW) were not able to be shared by the discussion between specialists before. As a result, it has been understood that it is the evaluation etc. part which are 'Disposal scenario and safety evaluation result' and 'Forecast of a technology concerned in the future'. Therefore, it seems as the position and the region of the evaluation etc. good to install these choices. Moreover, the form of choices seems to be good two or more disposal concepts that cost and safety are evaluated on one candidate site. In addition, it seems that these choices are used and it is good for 'Specialists other than the nuclear power back end to which the range in the field made a specialty has adjusted' at the academic society etc. to repeat the explanation and the discussion. (author)
Wheeler, Kimberly W.
This quasi-experimental pretest, posttest nonequivalent control group study investigated the comprehension scores and motivation levels of post-secondary remedial reading students in a two-year technical college in Northwest Georgia using an eBook, an eBook with audio, and a print book. After reading a module on Purpose and Tone in the three book…
Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Yessirkepov, Marlen; Voronov, Alexander A; Trukhachev, Vladimir I; Kostyukova, Elena I; Gerasimov, Alexey N; Kitas, George D
Specialist bibliographic databases offer essential online tools for researchers and authors who work on specific subjects and perform comprehensive and systematic syntheses of evidence. This article presents examples of the established specialist databases, which may be of interest to those engaged in multidisciplinary science communication. Access to most specialist databases is through subscription schemes and membership in professional associations. Several aggregators of information and database vendors, such as EBSCOhost and ProQuest, facilitate advanced searches supported by specialist keyword thesauri. Searches of items through specialist databases are complementary to those through multidisciplinary research platforms, such as PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Familiarizing with the functional characteristics of biomedical and nonbiomedical bibliographic search tools is mandatory for researchers, authors, editors, and publishers. The database users are offered updates of the indexed journal lists, abstracts, author profiles, and links to other metadata. Editors and publishers may find particularly useful source selection criteria and apply for coverage of their peer-reviewed journals and grey literature sources. These criteria are aimed at accepting relevant sources with established editorial policies and quality controls.
Specialist bibliographic databases offer essential online tools for researchers and authors who work on specific subjects and perform comprehensive and systematic syntheses of evidence. This article presents examples of the established specialist databases, which may be of interest to those engaged in multidisciplinary science communication. Access to most specialist databases is through subscription schemes and membership in professional associations. Several aggregators of information and database vendors, such as EBSCOhost and ProQuest, facilitate advanced searches supported by specialist keyword thesauri. Searches of items through specialist databases are complementary to those through multidisciplinary research platforms, such as PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Familiarizing with the functional characteristics of biomedical and nonbiomedical bibliographic search tools is mandatory for researchers, authors, editors, and publishers. The database users are offered updates of the indexed journal lists, abstracts, author profiles, and links to other metadata. Editors and publishers may find particularly useful source selection criteria and apply for coverage of their peer-reviewed journals and grey literature sources. These criteria are aimed at accepting relevant sources with established editorial policies and quality controls. PMID:27134485
Estela Ines Moyano
Full Text Available The following paper focuses on the description and exemplification of a device which is the core of the Academic Reading and Writing Program (PROLEA, for its acronym in Spanish conducting at University of Flores (UFLO: the “negotiation between peers” or “negotiation between teaching partners”. The Program design is based on the Sydney School's developments in Systemic Functional Linguistics. The negotiation between peers comprises the work between a professor on academic and professional literacies, who is a member of the Program, and the professors of each of the specific subjects involved. In order to successfully implement this modality, the realization of the negotiation between peers is necessary. This device entails a series of agreements between the professors involved about the teaching of the curricula contents through reading and writing tasks. First in this paper, the negotiation between peers is characterized, and its function and value in the Program are highlighted; second, two scenarios of application are presented in order to show the device contribution as well as its difficulties and the way of resolution of the problems found.
Alzu'bi, Mohammad Akram
This study aimed at investigating the impact of extensive reading on improving reading proficiency. The study tried to find the effect of ER on EFL student's reading, vocabulary and grammar. The researcher designed two instruments; a program based on the extensive reading strategy and general test. Forty-one university students who study English…
Ngandu, Kathleen M.
This handbook contains advice for the teacher in diagnosing dyslexia and developing an individualized program for overcoming severe reading problems. Observable characteristics of dyslexia are listed as an aid to the teacher's diagnosis, but it is emphasized that cooperation between the teacher and a reading specialist is of great importance in…
Kille, Michael O.
This four-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for optometry specialists. Covered in the individual volumes are optometry clinic administration (optometry career and field training, ethical relationships and professionalism, eligibility for optometric care and appointment…
Karakuła-Juchnowicz, Hanna; Stecka, Mariola
In view of unavailability in Poland of the standardized methods to measure PIQ, the aim of the work was to develop a Polish test to assess the premorbid level of intelligence - PART(Polish AdultReading Test) and to measureits psychometric properties, such as validity, reliability as well as standardization in the group of schizophrenia patients. The principles of PART construction were based on the idea of popular worldwide National Adult Reading Test by Hazel Nelson. The research comprised a group of 122 subjects (65 schizophrenia patients and 57 healthy people), aged 18-60 years, matched for age and gender. PART appears to be a method with high internal consistency and reliability measured by test-retest, inter-rater reliability, and the method with acceptable diagnostic and prognostic validity. The standardized procedures of PART have been investigated and described. Considering the psychometric values of PART and a short time of its performance, the test may be a useful diagnostic instrument in the assessment of premorbid level of intelligence in a group of schizophrenic patients.
... medical professionals? When do I need an ID specialist? Many common infections can be treated by your ... diseases. Back to Top How was my ID specialist trained? Your ID Physician has 9-10 years ...
Day, Richard R.
"Teaching Reading" uncovers the interactive processes that happen when people learn to read and translates them into a comprehensive easy-to-follow guide on how to teach reading. Richard Day's revelations on the nature of reading, reading strategies, reading fluency, reading comprehension, and reading objectives make fascinating…
Situation of preparation of nuclear energy specialists in Lithuania is presented. Nuclear engineers are being prepared at Kaunas University of Technology. In view with decision to decommission Unit 1, the Ignalina NPP is limiting the number of new personnel to fill in vacancies. The main attention is given to the training courses for improvement skills of existing Ignalina NPP, VATESI personnel. Main topics of the training courses are listed. Comparison with previous years on personnel hired and dismissed in Ignalina NPP is made
Fien, Hank; Anderson, Daniel; Nelson, Nancy J.; Kennedy, Patrick; Baker, Scott K.; Stoolmiller, Michael
The purpose of the present article is to report on a large-scale investigation of six school districts' implementation of an initiative aimed at reducing dropout rates by improving reading achievement in the middle grades. Data for the Middle School Intervention Project (MSIP) were collected in 25 middle schools across the state of Oregon. We…
Learning to read is an important step for a child's academic and social success. Meaningful and fluent reading skills are linked to children's progress in their thinking and criticizing abilities. The knowledge and skills required for effective reading are initially taught in primary schools. The main responsibility of primary school teachers' is…
Catone, William V; Brady, Susan A
This investigation analyzed goals from the Individual Educational Programs (IEPs) of 54 high school students with diagnosed reading disabilities in basic skills (decoding and/or word identification). Results showed that for 73% of the students, the IEPs written when they were in high school failed to specify any objectives regarding their acute difficulties with basic skills. IEPs from earlier points in the students' educations were also reviewed, as available. For 23 of the students, IEPs were present in the students' files for three time points: elementary school (ES), middle school (MS), and high school (HS). Another 20 students from the sample of 54 had IEPs available for two time points (HS and either MS or ES). Comparisons with the IEPs from younger years showed a pattern of decline from ES to MS to HS in the percentage of IEPs that commented on or set goals pertaining to weaknesses in decoding. These findings suggest that basic skills deficits that persist into the upper grade levels are not being sufficiently targeted for remediation, and help explain why older students frequently fail to resolve their reading problems.
Study on the high level radioactive wastes geological isolation seen from the social acceptance of science and technology. (1) The explanation based on the principle of risk and benefit for another field specialist
Wada, Ryutaro; Tanaka, Satoru; Nagasaki, Shinya
Generally speaking, a vast, advanced and unfamiliar science and technology is unacceptable by public for the fear of its unknown nature. The siting problem for the disposal of high level radioactive wastes is one of the typical examples. This study examined the desirable research scheme for geological disposal of the high level radioactive wastes seen from social acceptance of science and technology in the deductive approach by the technical essence described in the first report. As the safety is the most prioritized concern in the research of radioactive waste disposal, the correlation between safety and cost has not been argued. Therefore, the argument has only turned in seeking for limitless safety without paying attention to an economic principle. In this report, as the examination evolving from a social acceptability, the author tries to explain the safety together with cost information in accordance with the principle of the risk benefit. As a result, it turned out that the relation between the existing Japanese default proposal (H12 report) and overseas examples can be figured out to explain their relative position by the safety and cost correlation diagram made in accordance with the risk benefit principle. The nuclear field specialist can discuss a relative location of the Japanese disposal concept by this correlation diagram with another field specialist. (author)
Alzubaidi, Mohammad; Patel, Ameet; Panchanathan, Sethuraman; Black, John A., Jr.
Radiological images constitute a special class of images that are captured (or computed) specifically for the purpose of diagnosing patients. However, because these are not "natural" images, radiologists must be trained to interpret them through a process called "perceptual learning". However, because perceptual learning is implicit, experienced radiologists may sometimes find it difficult to explicitly (i.e. verbally) train less experienced colleagues. As a result, current methods of training can take years before a new radiologist is fully competent to independently interpret medical images. We hypothesize that eye tracking technology (coupled with multimedia technology) can be used to accelerate the process of perceptual training, through a Hebbian learning process. This would be accomplished by providing a radiologist-in-training with real-time feedback as he/she is fixating on important regions of an image. Of course this requires that the training system have information about what regions of an image are important - information that could presumably be solicited from experienced radiologists. However, our previous work has suggested that experienced radiologists are not always aware of those regions of an image that attract their attention, but are not clinically significant - information that is very important to a radiologist in training. This paper discusses a study in which local entropy computations were done on scan path data, and were found to provide a quantitative measure of the moment-by-moment interest level of radiologists as they scanned chest x-rays. The results also showed a striking contrast between the moment-by-moment deployment of attention between experienced radiologists and radiologists in training.
Reed, Deborah K.
This study explored the data-based decision making of 12 teachers in grades 6-8 who were asked about their perceptions and use of three required interim measures of reading performance: oral reading fluency (ORF), retell, and a benchmark comprised of released state test items. Focus group participants reported they did not believe the benchmark or…
Full Text Available This personal-experience article attempts to share with the reader an EFL reading and grammar programme that was designed in 2002 for a group of 12 to 14-year olds (6th and 7th graders whose English levels varied from almost nil to semiconversational. Multi-levels of English in any given group present a considerable challenge to either the EFL or ESL teacher, needless to say. More than one of these students exhibited evidence of a learning disability, not only in L2 but in L1 as well. For instance, transposition of letters (b instead of d and vice versa in both languages, poor spelling in L1 and L2, and in L2, writing on the level of a second or third- grade native speaker. A considerable number of these students had been forced to leave other, larger schools for academic and/or disciplinary reasons. So, this teacher swallowed then rolled up his sleeves to go to work (in fear of what the year would bring?. In other words, the teacher accepted the challenge. Key words: English-Teaching High School-Programs, Reading-Teaching-Programs, Books and Reading for Children-Teaching High School-Programs Este artículo de experiencia personal tiene como objetivo dar a conocer al lector un programa de EFL sobre lectura y gramática que fue diseñado en 2002 para un grupo de niños entre los 12 y 14 años de edad (grados 6 y 7, los cuales tenían niveles de inglés que variaban entre cero conocimiento del idioma y semi-conversacional. Los multi-niveles en inglés en cualquier grupo presentan un desafío considerable para el profesor de EFL o ESL. Adicionalmente, más de un estudiante demostró tener problemas de aprendizaje no sólo en L2 sino en L1. Por ejemplo, la transposición de letras (b en vez de d o viceversa en ambos idiomas, pobre ortografía en L1 y L2 y en L2 la escritura en un nivel igual al de un estudiante nativo que cursa segundo o tercero de primaria. Un número considerable de estudiantes han sido obligados a abandonar otros colegios
Full Text Available It is important to determine whether the school attitude of secondary school students has an influence on the reading attitude. For this purpose, such a study was conducted at secondary school level. In addition, the extent to which such variables as mother tongue are determinative in this context has been examined.The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between the attitudes of 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th grade secondary school students toward the school and reading. In addition, the study also examines whether the attitude towards reading and school differs according to gender, class, and mother tongue variables. A total of 513 students (235 females, 278 males attending secondary school in the province of Van in Turkeyparticipated in the research. In the study, Attitude Scale toward Reading developed by Alıcı (2013 is used in order to measure the attitudes of the students towards the school. Additionally, Reading Attitude Scale for Elementary Second Grade Students developed by Özbay and Uyar (2009 isused to measure the students’ attitudes towards reading. According to the results, there is a moderate significant relation between students’ attitudes toward the school and attitudes toward reading. According to the findings obtained from the study,it is seen that the attitudes of female students toward the school are more positive than those of male students. It is concluded that the attitudes of 5th grade students toward the school are more positive than those of the other students. Furthermore, students whose mother tongue is Turkish have more positive reading attitudes than the students whose mother tongue is Kurdish or one of other languages (Arabic, Persian, and so on.
FIGOVSKY Oleg Lvovich
Full Text Available The performance of innovative training system aimed at highly intellectual specialists in the area of nanotechnologies for Kazakhstan’s economy demands establishment and development of nanotechnological market in the country, teaching of innovative engineering combined with consistent research, integration of trained specialists with latest technologies and sciences at the international level. Methodological aspects of training competitive specialists for nanotechnological field are specific. The paper presents methodological principles of innovative training of specialists for science-intensive industry that were realized according to grant given by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
Jenny Kathinka Krüger
Full Text Available Aviation security screeners analyze a large number of X-ray images per day and seem to be experts in mentally rotating diverse kinds of visual objects. A robust gender-effect that men outperform women in the Vandenberg & Kuse mental rotation task has been well documented over the last years. In addition it has been shown that training can positively influence the overall task-performance. Considering this, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether security screeners show better performance in the Mental Rotation Test (MRT independently of gender. Forty-seven security screeners of both sexes from two German airports were examined with a computer based MRT. Their performance was compared to a large sample of control subjects. The well-known gender-effect favoring men on mental rotation was significant within the control group. However, the security screeners did not show any sex differences suggesting an effect of training and professional performance. Surprisingly this specialized group showed a lower level of overall MRT performance than the control participants. Possible aviation related influences such as secondary effects of work-shift or expertise which can cumulatively cause this result are discussed.
Krüger, Jenny K; Suchan, Boris
Aviation security screeners analyze a large number of X-ray images per day and seem to be experts in mentally rotating diverse kinds of visual objects. A robust gender-effect that men outperform women in the Vandenberg & Kuse mental rotation task has been well documented over the last years. In addition it has been shown that training can positively influence the overall task-performance. Considering this, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether security screeners show better performance in the Mental Rotation Test (MRT) independently of gender. Forty-seven security screeners of both sexes from two German airports were examined with a computer based MRT. Their performance was compared to a large sample of control subjects. The well-known gender-effect favoring men on mental rotation was significant within the control group. However, the security screeners did not show any sex differences suggesting an effect of training and professional performance. Surprisingly this specialized group showed a lower level of overall MRT performance than the control participants. Possible aviation related influences such as secondary effects of work-shift or expertise which can cumulatively cause this result are discussed.
Full Text Available This article describes the visual nature of the reading process as it relates to reading speed. It points out that there is a physical limit on normal reading speed and beyond this limit the reading process will be different from normal reading where almost every word is attended to. The article describes a range of activities for developing reading fluency, and suggests how the development of fluency can become part of a reading programme.
Argyropoulos, Vassilis; Papadimitriou, Vassilios
Introduction: The present study assesses the performance of students who are visually impaired (that is, those who are blind or have low vision) in braille reading accuracy and examines potential correlations among the error categories on the basis of gender, age at loss of vision, and level of education. Methods: Twenty-one visually impaired…
Yildiz, Mustafa; Kiziltas, Yusuf
It is important to determine whether the school attitude of secondary school students has an influence on the reading attitude. For this purpose, such a study was conducted at secondary school level. In addition, the extent to which such variables as mother tongue are determinative in this context has been examined.The objective of this study is…
Empirical Education Inc., 2008
PCI Education sought scientifically based evidence on the effectiveness of the "PCI Reading Program--Level One" for students with severe disabilities. During the 2007-2008 academic year. Empirical Education conducted a randomized control trial (RCT) in two Florida districts, Brevard and Miami-Dade County Public Schools. For this…
Toby, Megan; Ma, Boya; Jaciw, Andrew; Cabalo, Jessica
PCI Education sought scientifically based evidence on the effectiveness of the "PCI Reading Program--Level One" for students with severe disabilities. During the 2007-2008 academic year. Empirical Education conducted a randomized control trial (RCT) in two Florida districts, Brevard and Miami-Dade County Public Schools. For this…
Training on Movement Figure-Ground Discrimination Remediates Low-Level Visual Timing Deficits in the Dorsal Stream, Improving High-Level Cognitive Functioning, Including Attention, Reading Fluency, and Working Memory
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether neurotraining to discriminate a moving test pattern relative to a stationary background, figure-ground discrimination, improves vision and cognitive functioning in dyslexics, as well as typically-developing normal students. We predict that improving the speed and sensitivity of figure-ground movement discrimination (PATH to Reading neurotraining acts to remediate visual timing deficits in the dorsal stream, thereby improving processing speed, reading fluency, and the executive control functions of attention and working memory in both dyslexic and normal students who had PATH neurotraining more than in those students who had no neurotraining. This prediction was evaluated by measuring whether dyslexic and normal students improved on standardized tests of cognitive skills following neurotraining exercises, more than following computer-based guided reading (Raz-Kids (RK. The neurotraining used in this study was visually-based training designed to improve magnocellular function at both low and high levels in the dorsal stream: the input to the executive control networks coding working memory and attention. This approach represents a paradigm shift from the phonologically-based treatment for dyslexia, which concentrates on high-level speech and reading areas. This randomized controlled-validation study was conducted by training the entire second and third grade classrooms (42 students for 30 min twice a week before guided reading. Standardized tests were administered at the beginning and end of 12-weeks of intervention training to evaluate improvements in academic skills. Only movement-discrimination training remediated both low-level visual timing deficits and high-level cognitive functioning, including selective and sustained attention, reading fluency and working memory for both dyslexic and normal students. Remediating visual timing deficits in the dorsal stream revealed the causal role of visual
Training on Movement Figure-Ground Discrimination Remediates Low-Level Visual Timing Deficits in the Dorsal Stream, Improving High-Level Cognitive Functioning, Including Attention, Reading Fluency, and Working Memory.
Lawton, Teri; Shelley-Tremblay, John
The purpose of this study was to determine whether neurotraining to discriminate a moving test pattern relative to a stationary background, figure-ground discrimination, improves vision and cognitive functioning in dyslexics, as well as typically-developing normal students. We predict that improving the speed and sensitivity of figure-ground movement discrimination ( PATH to Reading neurotraining) acts to remediate visual timing deficits in the dorsal stream, thereby improving processing speed, reading fluency, and the executive control functions of attention and working memory in both dyslexic and normal students who had PATH neurotraining more than in those students who had no neurotraining. This prediction was evaluated by measuring whether dyslexic and normal students improved on standardized tests of cognitive skills following neurotraining exercises, more than following computer-based guided reading ( Raz-Kids ( RK )). The neurotraining used in this study was visually-based training designed to improve magnocellular function at both low and high levels in the dorsal stream: the input to the executive control networks coding working memory and attention. This approach represents a paradigm shift from the phonologically-based treatment for dyslexia, which concentrates on high-level speech and reading areas. This randomized controlled-validation study was conducted by training the entire second and third grade classrooms (42 students) for 30 min twice a week before guided reading. Standardized tests were administered at the beginning and end of 12-weeks of intervention training to evaluate improvements in academic skills. Only movement-discrimination training remediated both low-level visual timing deficits and high-level cognitive functioning, including selective and sustained attention, reading fluency and working memory for both dyslexic and normal students. Remediating visual timing deficits in the dorsal stream revealed the causal role of visual movement
Training on Movement Figure-Ground Discrimination Remediates Low-Level Visual Timing Deficits in the Dorsal Stream, Improving High-Level Cognitive Functioning, Including Attention, Reading Fluency, and Working Memory
Lawton, Teri; Shelley-Tremblay, John
The purpose of this study was to determine whether neurotraining to discriminate a moving test pattern relative to a stationary background, figure-ground discrimination, improves vision and cognitive functioning in dyslexics, as well as typically-developing normal students. We predict that improving the speed and sensitivity of figure-ground movement discrimination (PATH to Reading neurotraining) acts to remediate visual timing deficits in the dorsal stream, thereby improving processing speed, reading fluency, and the executive control functions of attention and working memory in both dyslexic and normal students who had PATH neurotraining more than in those students who had no neurotraining. This prediction was evaluated by measuring whether dyslexic and normal students improved on standardized tests of cognitive skills following neurotraining exercises, more than following computer-based guided reading (Raz-Kids (RK)). The neurotraining used in this study was visually-based training designed to improve magnocellular function at both low and high levels in the dorsal stream: the input to the executive control networks coding working memory and attention. This approach represents a paradigm shift from the phonologically-based treatment for dyslexia, which concentrates on high-level speech and reading areas. This randomized controlled-validation study was conducted by training the entire second and third grade classrooms (42 students) for 30 min twice a week before guided reading. Standardized tests were administered at the beginning and end of 12-weeks of intervention training to evaluate improvements in academic skills. Only movement-discrimination training remediated both low-level visual timing deficits and high-level cognitive functioning, including selective and sustained attention, reading fluency and working memory for both dyslexic and normal students. Remediating visual timing deficits in the dorsal stream revealed the causal role of visual movement
Södergren, Ulrika; Benjaminson, Carin; Mattsson, Janet
Background: Specialist nurse students are upon graduation certified to have increased their professional competence to an advanced level. But how do specialist nurse students themselves experience and understand their professional competence and its development upon graduation? This is what this study aims at describing. Method: This study has a…
Visser, Mechteld R. M.; Smets, Ellen M. A.; Oort, Frans J.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.
Background: Stress and stress-related illnesses are increasing among medical specialists. This threatens the quality of patient care. in this study we investigated (a) levels of job stress and job satisfaction among medical specialists, (b) factors contributing to stress and satisfaction and (c) the
Preparation system of nuclear energy specialists in Lithuania is presented. Nuclear engineers are being prepared at Kaunas University of Technology. Post-graduates students usually continue studies at Obninsk Nuclear Energy Institute in Russia. Many western countries like Sweden, Finland and US is providing assistance in education of Lithuanian specialists. Many of them were trained in these countries
Williams, Richard L.; Yore, Larry D.
Present instructional trends in science indicate a need to reexamine a traditional concern in science education: the readability of science textbooks. An area of reading research not well documented is the effect of color, visuals, and page layout on readability of science materials. Using the cloze readability method, the present study explored the relationships between page format, grade level, sex, content, and elementary school students ability to read science material. Significant relationships were found between cloze scores and both grade level and content, and there was a significant interaction effect between grade and sex in favor of older males. No significant relationships could be attributed to page format and sex. In the area of science content, biological materials were most difficult in terms of readability followed by earth science and physical science. Grade level data indicated that grade five materials were more difficult for that level than either grade four or grade six materials were for students at each respective level. In eight of nine cases, the science text materials would be classified at or near the frustration level of readability. The implications for textbook writers and publishers are that science reading materials need to be produced with greater attention to readability and known design principles regarding visual supplements. The implication for teachers is that students need direct instruction in using visual materials to increase their learning from text material. Present visual materials appear to neither help nor hinder the student to gain information from text material.
Bardin, Julie A.; Lewis, Sandra
English and language arts teachers of braille-reading students in general education classes rated these students' academic engagement and the academic achievement of low- and average-achieving sighted students in the same classrooms. The braille readers were found to be statistically similar to the low-achieving students with regard to effort,…
Wells, Casey L.
The effect of electronic books on the reading comprehension of middle and high school students was examined using an experimental posttest-only control-group design. A convenience sample of 140 randomly assigned middle and high school English students at an independent school in eastern North Carolina participated. Half of the students used…
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Codding, Robin S; Petscher, Yaacov; Truckenmiller, Adrea
A paucity of research has examined the utility of curriculum-based measurement (CBM) for data-based decision making at the secondary level. As schools move to multitiered systems of service delivery, it is conceivable that multiple screening measures will be used that address various academic subject areas. The value of including different CBM indices measures is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to (a) examine the relationship among a variety of reading, writing, and mathematics CBM indices administered to 249 seventh-grade students; (b) investigate amount and patterns of growth; and (c) examine predictive validity to a high-stakes state test using latent factor analysis and multiple indicator growth models. Results indicated strong correspondence among CBM types for fall static scores but weak relationships among slopes. Different patterns of growth were yielded for CBM writing than for CBM reading and mathematics. Findings from this study suggested that although reading, mathematics, and writing CBM were independently and moderately related to both English Language Arts and Math test scores, reading was the strongest predictor when all 3 CBM constructs were considered jointly.
HANNA ONYI YUSUF
Full Text Available This study investigated the impact of using joint productive activity on the performance of second language learners in reading comprehension at the basic education level in Nigeria. A sample of forty (40 Junior Secondary II students from Kaduna North and South were used for the study. The study was quasi experimental. Government Junior Secondary School Doka was used as the experimental group while Government Junior Secondary School Makera was used as the control group. Both groups were assessed after six weeks of teaching using two reading comprehension tests. T-test was used to test the hypothesis raised in the study. The findings revealed significant differences in the performance of students taught reading comprehension using joint productive activity. Based on the findings teachers are encouraged to use joint productive activities in teaching reading comprehension. This is a positive deviation from the traditional practice in Nigeria where a teacher is regarded as the sole custodian of knowledge and students are empty tabula rasa who should be passive during class teaching. Teachers need to exploit this new approach by designing teaching comprehension activities that will require second language learners’ collaboration and active participation in accomplishing tasks jointly in class with the teacher.
Annemarie Wennekers; Frank Huysmans; Jos de Haan
Original title: Lees:Tijd The amount of time that Dutch people spend reading has been declining steadily since the 1950s. This decline in reading time contrasts starkly with the positive personal and social benefits that can be derived from reading, according to lots of research. The Reading:
Tilley, Carol L.
Many adults, even librarians who willingly add comics to their collections, often dismiss the importance of comics. Compared to reading "real" books, reading comics appears to be a simple task and compared to reading no books, reading comics might be preferable. After all, comics do have words, but the plentiful pictures seem to carry most of the…
Stokes, Nicole Osterman
The purpose of the present study was to examine the predictive ability of oral reading fluency (R-CBM) on a sixth grade high-stakes assessment with ELL and non-ELL students, as well as determine the average rate of growth on R-CBM and how that relates to level of English Proficiency. The participants in the current study included 350 sixth grade…
This study investigated how reading is taught in Botswana Government schools. The findings indicate that inadequate reading instruction by teachers, their inability to model and provide students with research-based proven strategies, lack of reading specialists/coaches in the primary schools, the use of only basal series as ...
Jones, Jasmin Niedo; Abbott, Robert D.; Berninger, Virginia W.
Human traits tend to fall along normal distributions. The aim of this research was to evaluate an evidence-based conceptual framework for predicting expected individual differences in reading and writing achievement outcomes for typically developing readers and writers in early and middle childhood from Verbal Reasoning with or without Working Memory Components (phonological, orthographic, and morphological word storage and processing units, phonological and orthographic loops, and rapid swit...
Help your students discover the practical solution to their reading frustrations, with Improve Your Reading. Written by bestselling author and education advocate Ron Fry, this book avoids gimmicks and tricks in favor of proven strategies that will help your students better retain and comprehend what they've read in any textbook, in any course, at any academic level. Endlessly adaptable to each student's individual learning needs, the text focuses on fundamental skills students can carry beyond the classroom.
Ragucci, Kelly R; O'Bryant, Cindy L; Campbell, Kristin Bova; Buck, Marcia L; Dager, William E; Donovan, Jennifer L; Emerson, Kayleigh; Gubbins, Paul O; Haight, Robert J; Jackevicius, Cynthia; Murphy, John E; Prohaska, Emily
The American College of Clinical Pharmacy and other stakeholder organizations seek to advance clinical pharmacist practitioners, educators, and researchers. Unfortunately, there remains an inadequate supply of residency-trained clinical specialists to meet the needs of our health care system, and nonspecialists often are called on to fill open specialist positions. The impact of clinical pharmacy specialists on pharmacotherapy outcomes in both acute care and primary care settings demonstrates the value of these specialists. This commentary articulates the need for postgraduate year two (PGY2)-trained clinical specialists within the health care system by discussing various clinical and policy rationales, interprofessional support, economic justifications, and their impact on quality of care and drug safety. The integrated practice model that has grown out of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists Pharmacy Practice Model Initiative (PPMI) could threaten the growth and development of future clinical specialists. Therefore, the ways in which PGY2-trained clinical pharmacist specialists are deployed in the PPMI require further consideration. PGY2 residencies provide education and training opportunities that cannot be achieved in traditional professional degree programs or postgraduate year one residencies. These specialists are needed to provide direct patient care to complex patient populations and to educate and train pharmacy students and postgraduate residents. Limitations to training and hiring PGY2-trained clinical pharmacy specialists include site capacity limitations and lack of funding. A gap analysis is needed to define the extent of the mismatch between the demand for specialists by health care systems and educational institutions versus the capacity to train clinical pharmacists at the specialty level. © 2014 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.
Full Text Available Poor reading achievement of children in elementary schools has been one of the major concerns in education. The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of a child-centered reading intervention in eliminating the reading problems of a student with poor reading achievement. The research was conducted with a student having difficulty in reading. A reading intervention was designed that targeted multiple areas of reading and aimed to improve reading skills through the use of multiple strategies. This intervention is child-centered and includes visual aids, talking, dictating, reading and writing stages. The study was performed in 35 sessions consisting of stages of a single sentence (5 sessions, two sentences (5 sessions, three sentences (20 sessions and the text stage (5 sessions. The intervention sessions were audio-taped. These recordings and the written responses to the reading comprehension questions provided the data for analysis. The findings on the reading intervention revealed positive outcomes. The student exhibited certain improvements at the levels of reading, reading rate and reading comprehension. These results were discussed in the literature and the findings suggest that child-centered reading strategies such as talking, dictating and writing should be the main focus of instruction for students with low reading literacy achievement to enable these students to meet the demands of the curriculum.
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specialist. 552.236-72... FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 552.236-72 Specialist. As prescribed in 536.570-3, insert the following clause: Specialist (APR 1984) The term “Specialist...
Kern, Richard P.; And Others
This paper presents data describing large differences between the reading difficulty levels of printed materials used in certain military occupational specialties (MOSs) and the relatively lower reading ability levels of men assigned to these MOSs. Initial data explore the relationship between reading ability and utilization of printed materials…
The purpose of the present study is to examine whether performance on the "TOEFL iBT"® Reading practice test is affected by 3 different levels of feedback provided to learners upon completion of reading exercises: (a) correctness of learner response (the knowledge of correct results [KCR] feedback), (b) KCR feedback and rationales for…
Starrfelt, Randi; Klargaard, Solja K; Petersen, Anders
exposure durations (targeting the word superiority effect), and d) text reading. RESULTS: Participants with developmental prosopagnosia performed strikingly similar to controls across the four reading tasks. Formal analysis revealed a significant dissociation between word and face recognition......, that is, impaired reading in developmental prosopagnosia. METHOD: We tested 10 adults with developmental prosopagnosia and 20 matched controls. All participants completed the Cambridge Face Memory Test, the Cambridge Face Perception test and a Face recognition questionnaire used to quantify everyday face...... recognition experience. Reading was measured in four experimental tasks, testing different levels of letter, word, and text reading: (a) single word reading with words of varying length,(b) vocal response times in single letter and short word naming, (c) recognition of single letters and short words at brief...
Didem Koban Koç
Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to examine the effects of gender on comprehending different types of genre. The study involved 60 first year college students (30 males and 30 females who were taking an advanced reading course at a government university in Turkey. The students were given three reading passages of different genres such as historical fiction, essay and fantasy and were asked to answer comprehension questions related to the passages. Descriptives statistics, one-way ANOVA and repeated measures ANOVA were employed to analyse the relationship between gender and the test scores for each text type. The results showed that (1 the participants, in general, were significantly better at understanding the essay than historical fiction and fantasy (2 there was not a statistically significant difference between males and females regarding comprehending the different types of genres (3 both the male and female participants were significantly better at understanding the essay than historical fiction and fantasy. The study offers suggestions regarding incorporating different types of genre in the classroom.
Multicultural reading advocates believe in the power of literature to transform and to change people's lives. They take seriously the arguments that racism and prejudice can be lessened through multicultural reading, and also that children from undervalued societal groups who read books that depict people like themselves in a positive light will…
Contla-Hosking, Jorge Eduardo; Ceballos-Martínez, Zoila Inés; Peralta-Bahena, Mónica Esther
Our aim was to identify the level of knowledge of surgical health-area specialists in Cancún, Quintana Roo, Mexico, from the personal productivity database. We carried out an investigation of 37 surgical specialists: 24 belonged to the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS), while 13 belonged to the Mexican Health Secretariat (SSA). In our research, we found that 61% of surgical health-area specialist physicians were familiar with some aspects of the institutional surgical registry, including the following: 54% knew of the existence of a personal registry of surgeries carried out, and 43% keep a record of their personal activities. From the latter percentage, 69% of surgical health-area specialist physicians mentioned keeping their records manually, while 44% used the computer. Results of the research suggest that these physicians would like to have some kind of record of the surgeries carried out by each. An important percentage of these specialists do not keep a personal record on a database; due to this lack of knowledge, we obtain incorrect information in institutional records of the reality of what is actually done. We consider it important to inform surgical specialists concerning the existence of personal institutional records in database form or even of record done manually, as well as correct terminology for the International Codification (CIE-9 & 10). We inform here of the need to encourage a culture in records and databases in the formative stage of surgeon specialists.
Air Univ., Gunter AFS, Ala. Extension Course Inst.
This eight-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for pest management specialists. Covered in the individual volumes are civil engineering; pest management (entomology, pest management planning and coordination, and safety and protective equipment); pest management chemicals and…
Rock, Samuel K., Jr.; Chagalis, George P.
The Basic Medical Specialist course has one of the largest enrollments of the U.S. Army's Academy of Health Sciences; 11,000 soldiers were trained in this course in 1977 and 1978. Training encompasses both emergency first aid (for field medics) and basic nursing skills. A task force working to improve Army training developed this course, in…
Small, Ruth V.
In education, it is possible to find dozens of examples of "forced" reading incentive programs that categorize student reading levels, provide limited reading lists coordinated with those reading levels, assess student reading through computer-based tests, and award tangible prizes when they pass the test. Those who perform best get the most…
Huang, Da Wei; Raley, Castle; Jiang, Min Kang; Zheng, Xin; Liang, Dun; Rehman, M Tauseef; Highbarger, Helene C; Jiao, Xiaoli; Sherman, Brad; Ma, Liang; Chen, Xiaofeng; Skelly, Thomas; Troyer, Jennifer; Stephens, Robert; Imamichi, Tomozumi; Pau, Alice; Lempicki, Richard A; Tran, Bao; Nissley, Dwight; Lane, H Clifford; Dewar, Robin L
Development of HIV-1 drug resistance mutations (HDRMs) is one of the major reasons for the clinical failure of antiretroviral therapy. Treatment success rates can be improved by applying personalized anti-HIV regimens based on a patient's HDRM profile. However, the sensitivity and specificity of the HDRM profile is limited by the methods used for detection. Sanger-based sequencing technology has traditionally been used for determining HDRM profiles at the single nucleotide variant (SNV) level, but with a sensitivity of only ≥ 20% in the HIV population of a patient. Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies offer greater detection sensitivity (~ 1%) and larger scope (hundreds of samples per run). However, NGS technologies produce reads that are too short to enable the detection of the physical linkages of individual SNVs across the haplotype of each HIV strain present. In this article, we demonstrate that the single-molecule long reads generated using the Third Generation Sequencer (TGS), PacBio RS II, along with the appropriate bioinformatics analysis method, can resolve the HDRM profile at a more advanced quasispecies level. The case studies on patients' HIV samples showed that the quasispecies view produced using the PacBio method offered greater detection sensitivity and was more comprehensive for understanding HDRM situations, which is complement to both Sanger and NGS technologies. In conclusion, the PacBio method, providing a promising new quasispecies level of HDRM profiling, may effect an important change in the field of HIV drug resistance research.
Ring, Jeremiah J.; Barefoot, Lexie C.; Avrit, Karen J.; Brown, Sasha A.; Black, Jeffrey L.
The important role of reading fluency in the comprehension and motivation of readers is well documented. Two reading rate intervention programs were compared in a cluster-randomized clinical trial of students who were considered at-risk for reading failure. One program focused instruction at the word level; the second program focused instruction…
The aim of this article is to place the focus on teachers’ beliefs about reading and reading strategies to the purpose of emphasizing the im portance of reading strategies in the reading process. The method of study is analytic analysis of teachers’ beliefs obtained through ques tionnaires delivered to 18 English language teachers of elementary, secondary and high level education in the region of Saranda in lbania. The results of the study pointed to a great concordance between teach ers’ bel...
Murray, Laura L; Rutledge, Stefanie
Although individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) self-report reading problems and experience difficulties in cognitive-linguistic functions that support discourse-level reading, prior research has primarily focused on sentence-level processing and auditory comprehension. Accordingly, the authors investigated the presence and nature of reading comprehension in PD, hypothesizing that (a) individuals with PD would display impaired accuracy and/or speed on reading comprehension tests and (b) reading performances would be correlated with cognitive test results. Eleven adults with PD and 9 age- and education-matched control participants completed tests that evaluated reading comprehension; general language and cognitive abilities; and aspects of attention, memory, and executive functioning. The PD group obtained significantly lower scores on several, but not all, reading comprehension, language, and cognitive measures. Memory, language, and disease severity were significantly correlated with reading comprehension for the PD group. Individuals in the early stages of PD without dementia or broad cognitive deficits can display reading comprehension difficulties, particularly for high- versus basic-level reading tasks. These reading difficulties are most closely related to memory, high-level language, and PD symptom severity status. The findings warrant additional research to delineate further the types and nature of reading comprehension impairments experienced by individuals with PD.
Within the past days of November the project teams of SAP Nuclear in Slovenske elektrarne, a. s. incorporated the specialists from PSEG from New Jersey, U.S.A. The goal of their stay here was to pass on the professional experience and good practice from the implementation of quite demanding project in the nuclear power plants. We have learned more about the company and the objectives from an interview with Clay Warren, SAP Nuclear Project Manager in SE. (author)
Hansen, Tom G
There has been a great deal of focus on specialist training in pediatric anesthesia in the last decade or so. Internationally, however, there is still no uniform agreement as to how such a training program should be arranged and organized. Since September 2003, the Scandinavian Society of Anaesth......There has been a great deal of focus on specialist training in pediatric anesthesia in the last decade or so. Internationally, however, there is still no uniform agreement as to how such a training program should be arranged and organized. Since September 2003, the Scandinavian Society...... of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine has coordinated an advanced Inter-Nordic educational program in pediatric anesthesia and intensive care. The training program is managed by a Steering Committee. This program is intended for physicians who recently have received their specialist degree in anesthesiology...... and intensive care. The training period is 12 months of which 9 months are dedicated to pediatric anesthesia and 3 months to pediatric intensive care. During the 1-year training period, the candidates are designated a Scandinavian host clinic (at a tertiary pediatric center in Scandinavia approved...
Packer, Rowena M A; Berendt, Mette; Bhatti, Sofie
neurology specialists and non-specialists) on the description and classification of videos depicting paroxysmal events, without knowing any results of diagnostic workup. An online questionnaire study was conducted, where participants watched 100 videos of dogs and cats exhibiting paroxysmal events...... low levels of agreement described here highlight the need for further discussions between neurology experts regarding classifying and describing epileptic seizures, and additional training of non-specialists to facilitate accurate diagnosis. There is a need for diagnostic tools (e...
Stoffels, Antoinette Marie-Rose Renée
This thesis investigates the cooperation among medical specialists in multidisciplinary teams as well as its antecedents and consequences. During meetings, medical specialists combine their knowledge and expertise, discuss the health problems of patients, weigh possible treatment options and decide
The readability level of passages from three subtests of the Iowa Tests of Educational Development (ITED), Forms X-6 and Y-6, were compared with the readability level of passages selected from the Des Moines Resister, Reader's Digest, Time, Newsweek, Saturday Review, and 18 high school textbooks from the fields of social studies, science, and…
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specialist. 536.570-3... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 536.570-3 Specialist. Insert 552.236-72, Specialist, in solicitations and contracts for construction if the technical sections...
Landon, Laura L.
This study examines the application of the Simple View of Reading (SVR), a reading comprehension theory focusing on word recognition and linguistic comprehension, to English Language Learners' (ELLs') English reading development. This study examines the concurrent and predictive validity of two components of the SVR, oral language and word-level…
Bodman, Sue, Ed.; Franklin, Glen, Ed.
We want all children to love reading, and Which Book and Why demonstrates how effective guided reading for children in Foundation Stage and Key Stage 1 can help teachers make this happen. Balancing theory and practice, this book explores how schools and teachers can implement guided reading more confidently and more effectively. Which Book and Why…
Fagan, W. T.
The Canadian Institute for Research in Behavioral and Social Sciences of Calgary was awarded a contract by the Provincial Government of Alberta to assess student skills and knowledge in reading and written composition. Here evaluation is defined and the use of standardized and criterion referenced tests for evaluating reading performance are…
Full Text Available In this study I will present some ideas on today’s educational practice for motivation, the realization of the meaningful reading. There is a special place for the methodical ranking of the reading process, starting in school. Main requests of this reading, consist of the deep meaning of the subject, exploration of the idea, and other elements of the subject, implementation of the technique’s rules of the expressive reading, such as breathing, voice, diction, intonation, spelling, stoppages, logical emphasizes, emotional expressions, temper, timber, gesticulations, and mimic. There is also highlighted the fact that the used method comes from the pupils’ results and depends on the capability and level of the teacher, from the programming’s scale, the tools that are put into disposition, the age and the level of the pupils, and from the environment that the teacher creates during courses. At the end there are some practical guidelines for the realization of the expressive reading in the literature subject.
Hunt, Kevin; Mitchell, Murray; Maina, Michael; Griffin, Lisa
The purpose of this study was to describe and contrast selected approaches to the supervision of student teachers between Content Specialist and Non-Content Specialist university supervisors. Content Specialist supervisors were identified as trained university supervisors with a background in physical education. Non-Content Specialist supervisors…
The thesis titled Promoting preschool reading consists of a theoretiral and an empirical part. In the theoretical part I wrote about reading, the importance of reading, types of reading, about reading motivation, promoting reading motivation, internal and external motivation, influence of reading motivation on the child's reading activity, reading and familial literacy, the role of adults in promotion reading literacy, reading to a child and promoting reading in pre-school years, where I ...
Murphy, D A; O'Keefe, Z H; Kaufman, A H
A simplified version of the prototype HIV vaccine material was developed through (a) reducing reading grade level, (b) restructuring of the organization and categorization of the material, (c) adding pictures designed to emphasize key concepts, and (d) obtaining feedback on the simplified version through focus groups with the target population. Low-income women at risk for HIV (N = 141) recruited from a primary care clinic were randomly assigned to be presented the standard or the simplified version. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of education or Vocabulary, Block Design, and Passage Comprehension scores. Women who received the simplified version had significantly higher comprehension scores immediately following presentation of the material than did women who received the standard version and were also significantly more likely to recall study benefits and risks. These findings were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Implications for informed consent are discussed.
Goize, Marine; Dellacherie, Delphine; Pincin, Pauline; Henry, Audrey; Bakchine, Serge; Ehrlé, Nathalie
We studied the comprehension abilities of healthy participants with a French version of the Chapman-Cook Speed of Reading Test. The objective was to assess the effect of gender, age and educational level on chronometric performances and errors. In this test, the task is to cross out an inappropriate word within short passages. In the original version, the participant is told to perform as quickly as possible during 150 seconds. The score is usually the number of passages correctly completed within this time limit. In the present study, we measured the time to achieve the first 10 passages, the first 14 passages corresponding to the first page and the total (29 passages) corresponding to the two pages. The number of errors was also considered. The normative sample included 150 participants (63 males; 87 females) with three educational level (47: superior to baccalaureate; 21: baccalaureate and 78: inferior to baccalaureate). Age was between 20 and 69 years old, divided in 5 age groups, without neurological or psychiatric disease, or cognitive abnormal development. All were French native speaking and have been schooling in France. For time completion, no effect of gender was found, but a significant and unexpected effect of age was shown according to educational level. Whereas the age groups obtained similar times for educational levels superior to baccalaureate, an age effect was demonstrated for the educational level inferior to baccalaureate. Participants over 40 years of age were faster than younger participants with the same educational level and similar than all age groups of higher educational level. On the contrary, young participants were slower compared to those with high educational levels and all older participants without baccalaureate. This surprising result is discussed.
Balajthy, Ernest; Reuber, Kristin; Robinson, Corrine
Explains results when graduate students studying to become reading specialists tutored struggling readers in one-on-one sessions in which the clinicians were required to make significant use of technology in their instruction. Concludes that clinicians often did not have clear reading or literacy objectives when using computer-based instruction.…
Giorgis, Cyndi; Johnson, Nancy J.
Offers brief descriptions of 34 children's books that are excellent for reading aloud: some of them for inviting interaction, for laughing out loud, for prompting discussion, for living vicariously, for lingering over language, and for making curricular connections. (SR)
The International Scientific Conference ''RESHETNEV READINGS'' is dedicated to the memory of Mikhail Reshetnev, an outstanding scientist, chief-constructor of space-rocket systems and communication satellites. The current volume represents selected proceedings of the main conference materials which were published by XVII International Scientific Conference ''RESHETNEV READINGS'' held on November 12 - 14, 2013. Plenary sessions, round tables and forums will be attended by famous scientists, developers and designers representing the space technology sector, as well as professionals and experts in the IT industry. A number of outstanding academic figures expressed their interest in an event of such a level including Jaures Alferov, Vice-president of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Academician of RAS, Nobel laureate, Dirk Bochar, General Secretary of the European Federation of National Engineering Associates (FEANI), Prof. Yuri Gulyaev, Academician of RAS, Member of the Presidium of RAS, President of the International Union of Scientific and Engineering Associations, Director of the Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics of RAS, as well as rectors of the largest universities in Russia, chief executives of well-known research enterprises and representatives of big businesses. We would like to thank our main sponsors such as JSC ''Reshetnev Information Satellite Systems'', JSC ''Krasnoyarsk Engineering Plant'', Central Design Bureau ''Geophysics'', Krasnoyarsk Region Authorities. These enterprises and companies are leading ones in the aerospace branch. It is a great pleasure to cooperate and train specialists for them.
Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose: The aim of the article is to research reading habits in Slovenia in the period between 16th and 19th century and to find similarities with Austria and other European countries of that time.Methodology/approach: For the purpose of the analysis different resources were used – study books, catechisms, prayer books and manuals. We were focused on introductions in which readers are advised how to read, explaining to whom the work is intended and emphasizing the importance of meditation on the texts.Results: Historically the laud reading was prefered, as to continue the folk tradition. However, the 16th century texts were transmitted by women while the folk tradition was narrated by males. In the 18th century the higher level of literacy and greater book production and availability caused that the books were not a privilege of a few. At that time more texts were intended for silent, individual reading. Interestingly, the authors emphasized the importance of meditation on the texts, too. It was also advised when to read – it wasrecommedend to read in leisure time on Sundays, and on holidays. The role of books was also to breakaway with the reality and to forget everyday problems. Due to the overproduction of books in the 17th centrury it was concerned that books are misleading the crowds. The church considered the reading of books as inappropriate, and criticized fiction, novels and adventure stories mostly read by women.Research limitation: The study is based on Slovenian texts only, although the foreign literature, especially in German, was generally available, too.Originality/practical implications: The study is fullfiling the gap in the history of reading in Slovenia.
Highly professional and knowledgeable employees for chemical, and especially radiochemical, technology companies are very much sought after these days. Taking into account the advancement of nuclear power and the associated expansion of radioactive waste management facilities, the demand for staff that possesses all the necessary knowledge is set to increase multi-tenfold. In such circumstances, training of personnel is becoming a key element of the human resource management process. The author says that training of personnel at SUE SIA Radon Moscow is conducted in accordance with the Program of Training, Advanced Training and Personnel Qualification, which prescribes areas of training, categories of trainees, approximate number of trainees for each area, schedule and budget of training sessions. The cooperation of SUE SIA Radon Moscow with higher-education institutions in the field of young specialists training and advanced training of managerial, technical and administrative staff is reported [ru
Therkelsen, Anette; Sørensen, Anders
of information sought, amount of information read and level of involvement displayed, indicating a three-pronged typology of guidebook readers. The guidebook reader typology thus constructed may be regarded as a first step in understanding the effect of guidebooks on tourists’ behaviour and their experience......This article investigates tourists’ ways of reading their guidebooks on the basis of qualitative interviews with tourists visiting Copenhagen, Denmark. Tourist guidebooks have only been dealt with sporadically by tourism scholars. The relatively few studies that focus on guidebooks either present...... a historical perspective on the guidebook or centre on content analyses of place representation, whereas virtually no research exists on the way in which tourists read and use their guidebooks. This study reveals that tourists read the same guidebooks in a number of different ways regarding types...
Full Text Available Special features of professional training of future specialists in extraordinary (emergency situations, increasing its quality with the use of interactive technologies have been considered in this article. The paper presents a research of modern interactive educational technologies, most widely used at higher educational institutions, promoting modernization of education as well as training of competitive future specialists. The article grounds possibility of formation and development of the culture of professional communication by interactive methods of learning, and business games, in particular. The research deals with kinds of business games as active methods of learning, their structural levels and features of use.
Do specialists exit the firm increasingly outsourcing its research and development (R&D) work? Although this question is critical in understanding how R&D outsourcing links to innovation performance, the answer is not yet clear. This paper proposes that the optimal level of firm's internal...... employment of R&D specialists decreases with the deepening of R&D outsourcing but increases with the broadening of R&D outsourcing. These relations can be inferred from previous empirical studies as well as our theoretical analysis, and are supported by the empirical evidence from estimations of correlated...
Booz Allen and Hamilton, Inc., Washington, DC.
These second and third volumes of a four-volume study of manpower in state highway safety programs over the next decade estimate manpower resources by state and in national aggregate and describe present and planned training programs for safety specialists. For each educational level, both total manpower and manpower actually available for…
Hedberg, Henrik; Iivari, Netta
Typical open source software (OSS) development projects are organized around technically talented developers, whose communication is based on technical aspects and source code. Decision-making power is gained through proven competence and activity in the project, and non-technical end-user opinions are too many times neglected. In addition, also human-computer interaction (HCI) specialists have encountered difficulties in trying to participate in OSS projects, because there seems to be no clear authority and responsibility for them. In this paper, based on HCI and OSS literature, we introduce an extended OSS development project organization model that adds a new level of communication and roles for attending human aspects of software. The proposed model makes the existence of HCI specialists visible in the projects, and promotes interaction between developers and the HCI specialists in the course of a project.
Full Text Available This paper describes partial results of surveys realized amongCzech universities and business units which aim has been to analyzecurrent situation in demand and supply side of ICT (Informationand Communication Technologies specialists at the labor marketin the Czech Republic. The demand and supply side are comparedthrough their requirements on knowledge of ICT specialists. Theresults present typical “product” of Czech education system inICT competencies. General conclusions show that majority ofundergraduates do not have appropriate knowledge profile to enterICT corporate business as qualified employees - ICT specialist -without further additional training. The same fact is valid for a littleless than a half of graduates at master level. During quantitativeanalysis, we have identified that at about 60 per cent of ICTspecialists did not pass a formal ICT education. These facts showlacks in ICT oriented study programs and provoke requirementon further development of ICT oriented curricula in accordance tobusiness requirements and needs.
Since the beginning of the Nuclear Criticality Safety Division of the American Nuclear Society (ANS) in 1967, the nuclear criticality safety (NCS) community has sought to provide an exchange of information at a national level to facilitate the education and development of NCS specialists. In addition, individual criticality safety organizations within government contractor and licensed commercial nonreactor facilities have developed training and qualification programs for their NCS specialists. However, there has been substantial variability in the content and quality of these program requirements and personnel qualifications, at least as measured within the government contractor community. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief, general history of staff training and to describe the current direction and focus of US DOE guidance for the content of training and qualification programs designed to develop NCS specialists
Carroll, Julia M; Fox, Amy C
The relationship between cognitive skills and reading has been well-established. However, the role of motivational factors such as self-efficacy in reading progress is less clear. In particular, it is not clear how self-efficacy relates to word level reading versus comprehension, and whether this differs in boys and girls. This study examines the relationship between self-efficacy, word reading and reading comprehension across the range of reading abilities after controlling for reading-related cognitive factors. One hundred and seventy nine children (86 males and 93 females) between 8 and 11 years old completed a self-report measure of reading self-efficacy together with measures of reading comprehension and word reading, working memory, auditory short-term memory, phonological awareness, and vocabulary. Boys and girls showed similar levels of attainment and reading self-efficacy. Reading self-efficacy was associated with word reading, but not with reading comprehension in either boys or girls. It is argued that this may reflect important differences between reading self-efficacy and more general measures of reading motivation and engagement. Reading self-efficacy is an element of reading motivation that is closely associated with a child's perceived attainments in reading and is less susceptible to the gender differences seen in broader measures.
Carroll, Julia M.; Fox, Amy C.
The relationship between cognitive skills and reading has been well-established. However, the role of motivational factors such as self-efficacy in reading progress is less clear. In particular, it is not clear how self-efficacy relates to word level reading versus comprehension, and whether this differs in boys and girls. This study examines the relationship between self-efficacy, word reading and reading comprehension across the range of reading abilities after controlling for reading-related cognitive factors. One hundred and seventy nine children (86 males and 93 females) between 8 and 11 years old completed a self-report measure of reading self-efficacy together with measures of reading comprehension and word reading, working memory, auditory short-term memory, phonological awareness, and vocabulary. Boys and girls showed similar levels of attainment and reading self-efficacy. Reading self-efficacy was associated with word reading, but not with reading comprehension in either boys or girls. It is argued that this may reflect important differences between reading self-efficacy and more general measures of reading motivation and engagement. Reading self-efficacy is an element of reading motivation that is closely associated with a child’s perceived attainments in reading and is less susceptible to the gender differences seen in broader measures. PMID:28144223
Zhongshe Lu; Meihua Liu
The present study explored the interrelations between foreign language (FL) reading anxiety, FL reading strategy use and their interactive effect on FL reading comprehension performance at the tertiary level in China. Analyses of the survey data collected from 1702 university students yielded the following results: (a) Both Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale (FLRAS) and Foreign Language Reading Strategy Use Scale (FLRSUS) had important subcomponents, (b) more than half of the stu...
Full Text Available Reading act is performed by connected physiological, psychological and cognitive processes. The operations taking place in these processes are expected to continue for life by being developed with certain strategies. A lot of information is gained with reading skill in education life. Therefore, basic concepts that constitute reading education in teaching and improving reading are important for teachers. The aim of this study is to submit information compiled from the literature about reading education process and which basic concepts are used in reading education. While teaching reading from part to whole, from whole to part and interactional approaches are used. From part to whole approach is at the forefront. Then with interactional approach strategies, both code solving and making sense is improved. Teachers should know the characteristics of bouncing, stopping, turning back, and scanning movements of the eye both in code solving and making sense. The teacher should configure the teaching for the students to gain fluid reading elements by making use of reading out and reading silently. After reading act is acquired; good reader characteristics should be gained by improving asking questions, guessing, summarizing, interpretation skills in integrated readings. Reading skill is improved by studies on the text. Therefore, the students should come across texts that are suitable to their levels, textuality and readability criteria. The vocabulary of children should be improved in a planned way with text-based word and meaning studies. Fluid reading, making sense and interpretation skills of children should be pursued with different evaluation types. In the long term, work should be done to make reading a habit for them.
Stahl, Norman A.
Because the mass marketing of educational support services through franchised reading clinics is growing on a daily basis, both reading specialists and reading supervisors need to become aware of the growth of this industry and of its implications for the educational system. Primary forces in the franchising movement, Sylvan Learning Corporation,…
Dr E.J. van Schooten; Dr. A.J.S. van Gelderen; M. Trapman; J. Hulstijn
In a longitudinal design, we measured 50 low-achieving adolescents’ reading comprehension development from Grades 7 to 9. There were 24 native Dutch and 26 language minority students. In addition, we assessed the roles of (a) linguistic knowledge, (b) metacognitive knowledge, and (c) reading fluency
Trapman, M.; van Gelderen, A.; van Schooten, E.; Hulstijn, J.
In a longitudinal design, we measured 50 low-achieving adolescents’ reading comprehension development from Grades 7 to 9. There were 24 native Dutch and 26 language minority students. In addition, we assessed the roles of (a) linguistic knowledge, (b) metacognitive knowledge, and (c) reading fluency
This guide to secondary school French reading instruction addresses a variety of general and specific instructional issues. An introductory chapter discusses program objectives, minimum program requirements, and the population to be taught. The second chapter looks at theoretical aspects of the development of reading ability: current thoughts on…
Full Text Available Relevance and importance of training of tourism specialists on the regional level have been revealed. General principles of training of tourism services specialists in Ukraine have been found out. The structure and professional specialization of Ukrainian universities, where the “Tourism” specialists are trained have been analyzed. Pofessional requirements for future employees of tourism industry have been defined. Relevance of training of tourism specialists in Kryvyi Rih in the context of the implementation of the Program of Industrial Tourism Development has been revealed. Potential scope of employment of tourism graduates has been defined. Main tasks of tourism education in Ukraine have been generalized.
Full Text Available Reading motivation is one of the crucial factors of reading and consequently also learning efficiency of students. The purpose of the contribution is to establish the connection between dimensions of reading motivation and reading achievement in elementary school students. Participating in the study were 1073 third-grade and 1282 seventh-grade students. We used the questionnaire of reading motivation which consists of two factors: the reading competence factor and the interest and perceived reading importance factor. The findings of the study are the following: third-graders are more competent and more interested in reading compared to seventh-graders. The same is true for girls in both educational levels. Reading competence , interest and perceived reading importance reflect also in the actual reading behaviour of students – students who are more competent and more interested in reading read more frequently, for longer periods and more often autonomously decide to read compared to their less motivated peers. Higher reading motivation has implications also for higher reading efficiency. Namely, good readers are more competent, show higher interest and perceive reading as more important compared to average and bad readers.
Parault, Susan J; Williams, Heather M
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the variables of reading motivation, reading amount, and text comprehension in deaf and hearing adults. Research has shown that less than 50% of deaf students leave high school reading at or above a fourth-grade level (Allen, 1994). Our question is, how does this affect the levels of reading motivation and amount of reading in which deaf adults engage? Assessments of 30 hearing and 24 deaf adults showed that deaf participants reported significantly higher levels of reading motivation despite having been found to read at less than a sixth-grade level. No significant difference in the amount of reading between hearing and deaf adults was found. Amount of reading for personal reasons was found to be the best predictor of text comprehension in the deaf participants, and intrinsic motivation was found to be the best predictor of amount of reading in the deaf participants.
Schaffner, Ellen; Schiefele, Ulrich; Ulferts, Hannah
This study examined the role of reading amount as a mediator of the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic reading motivation on higher order reading comprehension (comprised of paragraph-and passage-level comprehension) in a sample of 159 fifth-grade elementary students. A positive association between intrinsic reading motivation and reading amount…
McKenzie, James F.; Dennis, Dixie; Auld, M. Elaine; Lysoby, Linda; Doyle, Eva; Muenzen, Patricia M.; Caro, Carla M.; Kusorgbor-Narh, Cynthia S.
The Health Education Specialist Practice Analysis 2015 (HESPA 2015) was conducted to update and validate the Areas of Responsibilities, Competencies, and Sub-competencies for Entry- and Advanced-Level Health Education Specialists. Two data collection instruments were developed--one was focused on Sub-competencies and the other on knowledge items…
Miller, L. Diane
Describes a professional development program to train math/science specialists for the upper elementary school grades. Using results from an interest survey, 30 teachers were chosen to participate in a 3-year program to become math/science specialists. Presents the teaching model used and the advantages for teachers and students in having subject…
Jennifer A. MATHER, Tatiana S. LEITE, Allan T. BATISTA
Full Text Available Prey choice is often evaluated at the species or population level. Here, we analyzed the diet of octopuses of different populations with the aim to assess the importance of individual feeding habits as a factor affecting prey choice. Two methods were used, an assessment of the extent to which an individual octopus made choices of species representative of those population (PSi and IS and 25% cutoff values for number of choices and percentage intake of individual on their prey. In one population of Octopus cf vulgaris in Bermuda individuals were generalist by IS=0.77, but most chose many prey of the same species, and were specialists on it by >75% intake. Another population had a wider prey selection, still generalist with PSi=0.66, but two individuals specialized by choices. In Bonaire, there was a wide range of prey species chosen, and the population was specialists by IS= 0.42. Individual choices revealed seven specialists and four generalists. A population of Octopus cyanea in Hawaii all had similar choices of crustaceans, so the population was generalist by IS with 0.74. But by individual choices, three were considered a specialist. A population of Enteroctopus dofleini from Puget Sound had a wide range of preferences, in which seven were also specialists, IS=0.53. By individual choices, thirteen were also specialists. Given the octopus specialty of learning during foraging, we hypothesize that both localized prey availability and individual personality differences could influence the exploration for prey and this translates into different prey choices across individuals and populations showed in this study [Current Zoology 58 (4: 597-603, 2012].
Wallace, Jack; Smith, Elizabeth; Hajarizadeh, Behzad; Richmond, Jacqueline; Lucke, Jayne
Hepatitis B is a viral infection primarily affecting people from culturally diverse communities in Australia. While vaccination prevents infection, there is increasing mortality resulting from liver damage associated with chronic infection. Deficits in the national policy and clinical response to hepatitis B result in a low diagnosis rate, inadequate testing and diagnosis processes, and poor access to hepatitis B treatment services. While research identifies inadequate hepatitis B knowledge among people with the virus and primary health care workers, this project sought to identify how specialist clinicians in Australia negotiate cultural diversity, and provide often complex clinical information to people with hepatitis B. A vignette was developed and presented to thirteen viral hepatitis specialist clinicians prior to an electronically recorded interview. Recruitment continued until saturation of themes was reached. Data were thematically coded into themes outlined in the interview schedule. Ethical approval for the research was provided by the La Trobe University Human Research Ethics Committee. Key messages provided to patients with hepatitis B by clinical specialists were identified. These messages were not consistently provided to all patients with hepatitis B, but were determined on perceptions of patient knowledge, age and highest educational level. While the vignette stated that English was not an issue for the patient, most specialists identified the need for an interpreter. Combating stigma related to hepatitis B was seen as important by the specialists and this was done through normalising the virus. Having an awareness of different cultural understandings about hepatitis B specifically, and health and well-being generally, was noted as a communication strategy. Key core competencies need to be developed to deliver educational messages to people with hepatitis B within clinical encounters. The provision of adequate resources to specialist clinics will
This study was designed to identify the qualification requirements and the means to assess the unique knowledge and skills necessary to perform the instructional activities needed by nuclear training specialist at Fort Saint Vrain Nuclear Generating Station. A survey questionnaire with 233 task statements categorized into eleven duty areas was distributed to twenty-three nuclear training specialists at Fort Saint Vrain Nuclear Generating Station. On the basis of the data accumulated for this study, the researcher identified the following findings. A list of 158 task statements were identified as being relevant; this list was considered a core knowledge, skills, and abilities needed as a nuclear training specialist. The list consisted of ten duty areas which were relevant to the effective performance of a nuclear training specialist. Thirty-three task statements were identified as being relevant for the duty area Conductive Training. These were considered the core of knowledge, skills, and abilities needed in the development of the initial test instrument and the instructor classroom skills observation checklist. The significant correlation between the results of these two instruments, using a rank-order correlation coefficient, was interpreted by the researcher as indicating that the initial test instrument possessed concurrent validity. The researcher interpreted the reliability value as a positive indicator that the initial test instrument demonstrated internal consistency. It was concluded that it could be determined whether personnel possessed the level of competence needed to perform the instructional duties of a nuclear training specialist by using a written test. Data from this research supported the use of the initial test developed for this study as a valid means to certify nuclear training specialists for the duty area Conducting Training
In our everyday life we constantly encounter a diversity of reading matters, including display types on traffic signage, printed text in novels, newspaper headlines, or our own writing on a computer screen. All these conditions place different demands on the typefaces applied. The book discusses...
Reading Rembrandt: Beyond the Word-Image Opposition explores the potential for an interdisciplinary methodology between visual art and literature. In a series of close analyses of works by "Rembrandt" - works as we see them today, through all the ways of seeing and commenting that precede - and
Full Text Available The present study explored the interrelations between foreign language (FL reading anxiety, FL reading strategy use and their interactive effect on FL reading comprehension performance at the tertiary level in China. Analyses of the survey data collected from 1702 university students yielded the following results: (a Both Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale (FLRAS and Foreign Language Reading Strategy Use Scale (FLRSUS had important subcomponents, (b more than half of the students generally did not feel anxious when reading English, and were confident in and satisfied with their English reading proficiency. Meanwhile, (c more than half of them moderately used different types of reading strategies such as planning, checking and confirming, predicting and assessing, when reading English, (d compared with their female peers, male students felt significantly more anxious when facing reading activities, less satisfied with their English reading proficiency, and used specific analyzing and planning strategies significantly less often during a reading activity, (e FLRAS was significantly inversely related to FLRSUS, and both were significantly correlated with the students’ FL reading comprehension performance, and (f FLRAS (overall FL reading anxiety, FLRAS1 (general anxiety about FL reading, and FLRSUS2 (predicting strategies were good predictors of FL reading comprehension performance. Based on the findings, some implications are discussed.
STS-95 Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski notes the time on his watch upon his late arrival aboard a T-38 jet at the Shuttle Landing Facility. Parazynski's first plane experienced problems at the stop at Tyndall AFB and he had to wait for another jet and pilot to finish the flight to KSC. He joined other crewmembers Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque, with the European Space Agency (ESA), and Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), for final pre-launch preparations. STS-95 is expected to launch at 2 p.m. EST on Oct. 29, last 8 days, 21 hours and 49 minutes, and land at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.
Jenkins, Sarah; Chenneville, Tiffany; Salnaitis, Christina
This study was designed to examine the impact of role clarity and job training on job satisfaction among peer specialists. A 3-part survey assessing job training, job satisfaction, and role clarity was administered online to 195 peer specialists who are members of the International Association of Peer Specialists. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlational analyses to include multiple linear regressions and analysis of variance. Self-study and online training methods were negatively correlated with job satisfaction while job shadowing was positively correlated with job satisfaction. Role clarity was positively correlated with job satisfaction and job training satisfaction as well as job shadowing and one-on-one training. The use of self-study and online training for peer specialists is contraindicated by current findings, which suggest the need to utilize job shadowing or training methods that allow for personal interaction between peer specialists and their colleagues. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Feragen, Kristin Billaud; Særvold, Tone Kristin; Aukner, Ragnhild; Stock, Nicola Marie
Despite the use of multidisciplinary services, little research has addressed issues involved in the care of those with cleft lip and/or palate across disciplines. The aim was to investigate associations between speech, language, reading, and reports of teasing, subjective satisfaction with speech, and psychological adjustment. Cross-sectional data collected during routine, multidisciplinary assessments in a centralized treatment setting, including speech and language therapists and clinical psychologists. Children with cleft with palatal involvement aged 10 years from three birth cohorts (N = 170) and their parents. Speech: SVANTE-N. Language: Language 6-16 (sentence recall, serial recall, vocabulary, and phonological awareness). Reading: Word Chain Test and Reading Comprehension Test. Psychological measures: Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and extracts from the Satisfaction With Appearance Scale and Child Experience Questionnaire. Reading skills were associated with self- and parent-reported psychological adjustment in the child. Subjective satisfaction with speech was associated with psychological adjustment, while not being consistently associated with speech therapists' assessments. Parent-reported teasing was found to be associated with lower levels of reading skills. Having a medical and/or psychological condition in addition to the cleft was found to affect speech, language, and reading significantly. Cleft teams need to be aware of speech, language, and/or reading problems as potential indicators of psychological risk in children with cleft. This study highlights the importance of multiple reports (self, parent, and specialist) and a multidisciplinary approach to cleft care and research.
Research has shown a wide range of learning benefits accruing from extensive reading. Not only is there improvement in reading, but also in a wide range of language uses and areas of language knowledge. However, few research studies have examined reading speed. The existing literature on reading speed focused on students' reading speed without…
Herrera, Sarah; Zhou, Chengfu; Petscher, Yaacov
The 2001 authorization of the No Child Left Behind Act and its standards and accountability requirements generated interest among state education agencies in Florida, Mississippi, and North Carolina, which are served by the Regional Educational Laboratory Southeast, in monitoring changes in student reading and math proficiency at the school level.…
O'Sullivan, Belinda; McGrail, Matthew; Russell, Deborah
Systematically describe the characteristics of rural specialists, their work and job satisfaction by geographical location of work. Cross-sectional. Three thousand, four hundred and seventy-nine medical specialists participating in the 2014 Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life (MABEL) survey of doctors. Location of practice, whether metropolitan, large (>50 000 population) or small regional centres (Rural specialists had more on-call requirements and poorer professional development opportunities. However, satisfaction with work hours, remuneration, variety of work, level of responsibility, opportunities to use abilities and overall satisfaction did not differ. Specialists in general medicine and general surgery were significantly more likely to work rurally compared with anaesthetists, particularly in small regional centres, whereas a range of other relevant specialists had lower than the average rural distribution and paediatricians and endocrinologists were significantly less likely to work in large regional centres. Rural specialists are just as satisfied as metropolitan counterparts reporting equivalent variety and responsibility at work. Better support for on-call demands and access to professional development could attract more specialists to rural practice. Increased rural training opportunities and regional workforce planning is needed to develop and recruit relevant specialties. Specifically, targeted support is warranted for training and development of specialists in general medicine and general surgery and overseas-trained specialists, who provide essential services in smaller regional centres. © 2017 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.
O'Sullivan, Belinda G; McGrail, Matthew R; Stoelwinder, Johannes U
The purpose of the study is to explore the reasons why specialist doctors travel to provide regular rural outreach services, and whether reasons relate to (1) salaried or private fee-for-service practice and (2) providing rural outreach services in more remote locations. A national cross-sectional study of specialist doctors from the Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life (MABEL) survey in 2014 was implemented. Specialists providing rural outreach services self-reported on a 5-point scale their level of agreement with five reasons for participating. Chi-squared analysis tested association between agreement and variables of interest. Of 567 specialists undertaking rural outreach services, reasons for participating include to grow the practice (54%), maintain a regional connection (26%), provide complex healthcare (18%), healthcare for disadvantaged people (12%) and support rural staff (6%). Salaried specialists more commonly participated to grow the practice compared with specialists in fee-for-service practice (68 vs 49%). This reason was also related to travelling further and providing outreach services in outer regional/remote locations. Private fee-for-service specialists more commonly undertook outreach services to provide complex healthcare (22 vs 14%). Specialist doctors undertake rural outreach services for a range of reasons, mainly to complement the growth and diversity of their main practice or maintain a regional connection. Structuring rural outreach around the specialist's main practice is likely to support participation and improve service distribution.
Jantz, Richard K.
This study examines the effects of sex, race, socioeconomic status, and intelligence upon the reading achievement test scores of sixth-grade pupils in one school district. Differential effects were found. (Author)
Due to a medical condition I temporarily lost the ability to read and write. As an academic researcher specialised in understanding the reading process, I can benefit from this terrible experience by explaining – on a scientific level – what happened to me, and hence draw the lines to existing re...
Виктор Семенович Корнилов
Full Text Available This paper deals with implementation of information technologies within different levels of professional training of the future specialists at A. Yassawi International Kazakh-Turkish University. Information technologies enable the future specialists to engage in online exchanges and it gives great good opportunity in learning the subject efficiently; thereby expanding their study and learning community during the classroom activity. The results obtained by the use of the information technologies show improvements in professional training of the future specialists in teaching foreign language. The use of information technology in teaching is increasing, which should lead to a significant improvement of the training quality of future specialists. Improvements also are observed in the experimental groups of higher levels, which indicates the efficiency of the use of information technologies in the professional training of future specialists.
Medford, Emma; McGeown, Sarah P.
Research suggests that children's motivation to read is influenced by their level of reading skill and reading self-concept. However, it is possible that characteristics unrelated to reading, such as underlying personality characteristics, may also influence children's motivation to read. The current study examined the extent to which children's…
Wong, Ting Hway; Lumsdaine, William; Hardy, Benjamin M; Lee, Keegan; Balogh, Zsolt J
Trauma services throughout the world have had positive effects on trauma-related mortality. Australian trauma services are generally more consultative in nature rather than the North American model of full trauma admission service. We hypothesized that the introduction of a consultative specialist trauma service in a Level I Australian trauma center would reduce mortality of the severely injured. A 10-year retrospective study (January 1, 2002-December 31, 2011) was performed on all trauma patients admitted with an Injury Severity Score (ISS) > 15. Patients were identified from the trauma registry, and data for age, sex, mechanism of injury, ISS, survival to discharge, and length of stay were collected. Mortality was examined for patients with severe injury (ISS > 15) and patients with critical injury (ISS > 24) and compared for the three periods: 2002-2004 (without trauma specialist), 2005-2007 (with trauma specialist), and 2008-2011 (with specialist trauma service). A total of 3,869 severely injured (ISS > 15) trauma patients were identified during the 10-year period. Of these, 2,826 (73%) were male, 1,513 (39%) were critically injured (ISS > 24), and more than 97% (3,754) were the victim of blunt trauma. Overall mortality decreased from 12.4% to 9.3% (relative risk, 0.75) from period one to period three and from 25.4% to 20.3% (relative risk, 0.80) for patients with critical injury. A 0.46% per year decrease (p = 0.018) in mortality was detected (odds ratio, 0.63; p 24), the trend was (0.61% per year; odds ratio, 0.68; p = 0.039). The introduction of a specialist trauma service decreased the mortality of patients with severe injury, the model of care should be considered to implement state- and nationwide in Australia. Epidemiologic study, level III.
Full Text Available This experimental online-survey study investigated if different written language forms in German have an effect on male bias in thinking. We used answers to the specialist riddle as an indicator for male bias in mental representations of expertise. The difficulty of this thinking task lies in the fact that a gender-unspecified specialist is often automatically assumed to be a man due to gender stereotypes. We expected that reading a text in gender-fair language before processing the specialist riddle helps readers achieve control over automatically activated gender stereotypes and thus facilitates the restructuring and reinterpretation of the problem, which is necessary to reach the conclusion that the specialist is a woman. We randomly assigned 517 native German speakers (68% women to reading a text on expertise written either in gender-fair language or in masculine generics. Subsequently, participants were asked to solve the specialist riddle. The results show that reading a text in gender-fair language before processing the riddle led to higher rates of answers indicating that the specialist is a women compared to reading a text in masculine generics (44% vs. 33% in women and men regardless of their self-stereotyping concerning agency and communion. The findings indicate that reading even a very short text in gender-fair language can help people break their gender-stereotype habit and thus reduce male bias in thinking. Our research emphasizes the importance of using gender-fair language in German-language texts for reducing gender stereotypes.
The IT Security Specialist takes a strategic role in the delivery of Infrastructure ... on IT Security to project managers, business clients and senior management. ... as a team member or a team leader by undertaking research, investigations, ...
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This layer represents the areas of Minnesota that MNDNR Wildlife Private Lands Specialists cover. These boundaries are provided for support mapping and to show...
This study focuses on the need for specialist training for mountain warfare. It analyzes the special characteristics of mountain and high altitude terrain which affect conduct of military operations...
Kovas, Yulia; Plomin, Robert
Twin studies comparing identical and fraternal twins consistently show substantial genetic influence on individual differences in learning abilities such as reading and mathematics, as well as in other cognitive abilities such as spatial ability and memory. Multivariate genetic research has shown that the same set of genes is largely responsible for genetic influence on these diverse cognitive areas. We call these "generalist genes." What differentiates these abilities is largely the environment, especially nonshared environments that make children growing up in the same family different from one another. These multivariate genetic findings of generalist genes and specialist environments have far-reaching implications for diagnosis and treatment of learning disabilities and for understanding the brain mechanisms that mediate these effects.
Kasemsap, Bharani; Lee, Hugo Yu-Hsiu
This study aims to explore the application of reading strategies to the reading of English texts by Thai vocational college students. Data were collected via questionnaire surveys, think-aloud experiments and semi-structured interviews. The research results reveal different typologies of reading strategies adopted by lower and higher level English…
Badley, K. Jo-Ann; Badley, Ken
The medieval monastic movement preserved and developed reading practices--lectio--from ancient Greek pedagogy as a slow, mindful approach to reading for formation. This ancient way of reading, now better known as lectio divina, challenges the fast, pragmatic reading so characteristic of our time. We propose that the present moment may be ripe for…
Book reviewSuccessful collaboration in healthcare-a guide for physicians, nurses and clinical documentation specialistsColleen Stukenberg New York: CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, 2010, pp. 136ISBN 978 1 4389 1292 1This book addresses an important topic, especially for health professionals engaged in integrated care (IC). Also, the book is easy to read with about 120 pages in a fluent language that you feel is based on first hand personal job experiences.Colleen Stukenberg is a certifi...
Lyons, Wanda; Thompson, Scott Anthony
Teachers in inclusive classrooms are challenged to provide reading instruction for students with a wide range of instructional levels. This article reports on the implementation of guided reading in four middle years inclusive classrooms, the impact on student engagement and reading progress, and teacher perspectives on the guided reading…
Arens, Karla; Gove, Mary K.; Abate, Ron
Research suggests that oral reading fluency frees up working memory so readers can focus on the meaning of a text, but traditional instruction in oral reading can be problematic in classrooms with students at different reading levels. Differentiating instruction, providing motivation to practice, as well as timely corrective feedback are practical…
Akarsu, Oktay; Harputlu, Leyla
In this study, data were collected using a modified version of Mokhtari and Sheorey's (2002) Survey of Reading Strategies (SORS). Results suggest that Turkish EFL (English as a Foreign Language) students at the graduate level, while engaged in academic reading, are aware of almost all effective reading strategies, though each one is not used…
Zoghi, Masoud; Mustapha, Ramlee; Maasum, Tg. Nor Rizan Mohd.
The present study was an attempt to probe into the feasibility and effectiveness of a reading instructional approach called MCSR--Modified Collaborative Strategic Reading. Based on a pretest-posttest design, MCSR was implemented with 42 university-level EFL freshmen. They met once a week and received EFL reading instruction according to MCSR for…
High stakes assessments conducted in the southwestern United States demonstrate that fewer than 50% of English language learners (ELLs) are achieving proficiency levels in reading fluency. The purpose of this study was to understand if reading interventions using the framework of Samuels's repeated reading (RR) strategy increased student…
Smith, Nichole; Day, Barbara
A recent decline in reading has become a major issue, as Americans are not reading out of necessity or as a leisure activity. In addition, a connection has been found between children's leisure reading habits and their level of academic achievement, causing even more concern. (Contains 1 table.)
Fountas, Irene C.; Pinnell, Gay Su
The authors examine the growth and impact of guided reading, small group teaching for differentiated instruction in reading that was stimulated by their early publications. Many changes in literacy education have been observed as a result--almost as if educators had a "romance" with guided reading and leveled books. While changes have been…
Reading is a fundamental activity of our society and is present in all areas of a person’s life. Authors who deal with reading define reading with different definitions, some of them I also presented in my master’s degree thesis. The ways of reading, typology of readers and knowledge of different reading models are only some of the important theoretical facts that serve as a basis for the research and defining reading. Reading motivation is an important motivational factor, which encourages a...
Wood, Eileen; Anderson, Alissa; Piquette-Tomei, Noella; Savage, Robert; Mueller, Julie
Support requests were documented for 10 teachers (4 kindergarten, 4 grade one, and 2 grade one/two teachers) who received just-in-time instructional support over a 2 1/2 month period while implementing a novel reading software program as part of their literacy instruction. In-class observations were made of each instructional session. Analysis of…
Miller, Linda Wise; Winn, Richard
This document contains Idaho's marketing education (ME) core curriculum. Presented first are a list of 22 ME strategies that are aligned with the Idaho State Division of Vocational-Technical Education's strategic plan and a chart detailing the career pathways of ME in Idaho (arts and communication, business and management, health services, human…
Gibbs, Vanita M., Comp.; And Others
Reflecting the views of teachers, reading specialists, and professors on both the basics and the new technologies in reading instruction, these conference proceedings begin with Carl Personke's address, "The Word's the Thing," on classroom activities that stress the word as concept. The second paper, William Linville's and David…
Presented diploma thesis is focused on reading problems of people with hearing impairment. The theoretical part deals a hearing impairment, process of acquisition of reading skills of healthy people and deaf people as well. The practical part efforts to clarify preparations, process and results of the research. I am presenting my own reading comprehension test, which was compiled on purpose due to the research. The goal of my diploma thesis is to determine when the level of reading acquiremen...
Research shows the increasing part the Clinical Nurse Specialist (CNS) plays in healthcare today. But what does a CNS actually do in their day-to day-work? This study, set in the Republic of Ireland, aimed to explore the CNS and clinical midwife specialist (CMS) roles in practice. Quantitative methodology was used to explore the roles and activities of the CNS and CMS. Following ethics approval, a valid and reliable questionnaire was circulated to the total population of CNS/CMS in Ireland. The data were analysed using SPSS. This study articulates the individual role elements and activity level. The findings show the CNS/CMS to be active in the roles of researcher, educator, communicator, change agent, leader and clinical specialist, but the level of activity varies between different roles and individual role elements. The CNS/CMS is seen as a valuable resource in health care today and has potential to have a positive effect on patient care. The majority of CNS/CMSs are active in varying roles but the analysis shows lesser activity in some areas, such as research. The findings merit further study on role activity and possible variables that influence role activity.
This study was set in an acute Irish health care setting and aimed to explore the activity of the clinical nurse specialist (CNS) in this setting. Quantitative methodology, using a valid and reliable questionnaire, provided descriptive statistics that gave accurate data on the total population of CNSs in the health care setting. The study was set in an acute-care 750-bed hospital that had 25 CNSs in practice. The sample consisted of all 25 CNSs who are the total population of CNSs working in the acute health care institution. The findings show the CNS to be active in the roles of researcher, educator, communicator, change agent, leader, and clinical specialist, but the level of activity varies between different roles. There is variety in the activity of CNSs in the various roles and to what extent they enact the role. The findings merit further study on CNS role activity and possible variables that influence role activity.
Full Text Available The process of leadthrough of practical employments is considered on physical education on an experimental model, which are directed on the increase of reserve possibilities of organism of future specialists of management. In an experiment took part 30 students of 2 and 3 courses. It is set that management specialists for high-quality implementation of work need a high mental capacity, enhanceable psychoemotional firmness, general endurance. Directions of prophylaxis of emotional and physical overstrain are recommended, increases of level of positive motivation to systematic employments by physical exercises. It is marked that an experimental model in combination with the fixed form of leadthrough of employments on a body-conditioning and employments on specialization of the chosen type of sport is one the stages of alteration organizationally of methodical aspects of physical culture.
Trainin, Guy; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Wilson, Kathleen M.
This study examined the relationships between silent and oral reading fluency and comprehension. Findings indicated that fourth grade students had consistent levels of comprehension in both reading modes. Students of all reading levels showed a similar pattern across the segments of a text set in both oral and silent reading--a gradual increase in…
Sharpe, G; Durham, J A; Preshaw, P M
To examine the attitudes of dental practitioners towards specialist periodontal referral in the North East of England. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 10 practitioners. Interviews continued until data saturation occurred. The data were organised using a framework and analysed by two researchers working independently. Perceptions of periodontal disease and treatment appear to be heavily influenced by the NHS remuneration system. Treatment in general practice was limited to simple scaling and there was an apparent reluctance to treat advanced periodontitis. Such cases were commonly referred to specialists, confirming the demand for a referral service in periodontics. The perceived potential for medico-legal consequences was a strong driver of referrals. Distance to the referral centre and the perceived costs of treatment were significant barriers to referral. Dentists valued the specialist's personal reputation and clinical skills more highly than academic status. Deficiencies in communication between primary and secondary care were highlighted. Increased resources are required to manage periodontal diseases within the NHS. There is a need for a periodontal referral service in the North East of England to improve accessibility to specialist care. This would appear to be most appropriately delivered by increased numbers of specialist practitioners.
Un projet de logiciels d'assistance a l'apprentissage de la lecture en FLE (An Interdisciplinary Research Project Oriented toward Computer Programs for Reading Instruction in French as a Second Language).
Challe, Odile; And Others
Describes a French project entitled "Lecticiel," jointly undertaken by specialists in reading, computer programing, and second language instruction to integrate these disciplines and provide assistance for students learning to read French as a foreign language. (MSE)
Slaets Joris PJ
Full Text Available Abstract Background Collaboration between general practitioners (GPs and specialists has been the focus of many collaborative care projects during the past decade. Unfortunately, quite a number of these projects failed. This raises the question of what motivates medical specialists to initiate and continue participating with GPs in new collaborative care models. The following question is addressed in this study: What motivates medical specialists to initiate and sustain new models for collaborating with GPs? Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with eighteen medical specialists in the province of Groningen, in the North of The Netherlands. The sampling criteria were age, gender, type of hospital in which they were practicing, and specialty. The interviews were recorded, fully transcribed, and analysed by three researchers working independently. The resulting motivational factors were grouped into categories. Results 'Teaching GPs' and 'regulating patient flow' (referrals appeared to dominate when the motivational factors were considered. In addition, specialists want to develop relationships with the GPs on a more personal level. Most specialists believe that there is not much they can learn from GPs. 'Lack of time', 'no financial compensation', and 'no support from colleagues' were considered to be the main concerns to establishing collaborative care practices. Additionally, projects were often experienced as too complex and time consuming whereas guidelines were experienced as too restrictive. Conclusion Specialists are particularly interested in collaborating because the GP is the gatekeeper for access to secondary health care resources. Specialists feel that they are able to teach the GPs something, but they do not feel that they have anything to learn from the GPs. With respect to professional expertise, therefore, specialists do not consider GPs as equals. Once personal relationships with the GPs have been established, an
高台茜 Tai-Chien Kao
Full Text Available 為滿足偏鄉學童的國語文學習需求，提升其閱讀能力，本研究於線上課輔活動中導入層次性閱讀教學，並探求此教學對學童閱讀的助益。本研究以教育部數位學伴網路課輔計畫中，國立東華大學輔導的82 位（實驗組與對照組各41 位）東部偏鄉國小學童為研究對象。研究方法採不等組前後測設計。實驗組學童於每週兩次的一對一即時線上課輔活動中，各接受30分鐘層次性故事短文的閱讀教學，共15 次。對照組依學童學校國語課程進度進行課業輔導。 兩組於教學實驗前、後皆進行閱讀測驗。層次性閱讀教學是依閱讀能力發展進程，將教學分成字詞理解、訊息截取、訊息推論及統整詮釋四個層次。本研究先採多因子共變數分析探求兩組在整體閱讀能力表現上的差異，並進一步將性別與年段納為調節變項，進行多因子多變量共變數分析，以探知網路課輔中閱讀教學對偏鄉學童閱讀能力進步的影響。結果顯示，網路課輔中，接受層次性閱讀教學之學童整體閱讀表現優於一般語文教學。背景變項中，年段具調節作用。中年段實驗組學童之訊息推論表現顯著優於對照組；高年段實驗組學童則在統整詮釋上顯著優於對照組，此結果建議網路課輔閱讀教學應依據學童能力的發展階段進行適性調整。 To satisfy the language-learning needs of students living in rural areas and to promote their reading ability, this study developed four-level reading instruction for an afterschool online tutoring program and evaluated its effects on student reading ability. The study participants were drawn from 142 students at 11 elementary schools in Eastern Taiwan who were tutored by college students at National Dong-Hwa University as a part of the Digital Partner Afterschool Online Tutoring Program in the fall semester of 2014. 41
Sridhar, M. S.
Discusses the importance and ways of inculcating reading habit in children at the right age, describes the five reading phases in children along with interest and the material to satiate the need, explains how four deterministic factors affect the reading habit of children, enlists motivations that are behind the reading process with tips to improve reading habit of children.
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payload specialist responsibilities. 1214... Payload Specialists for Space Transportation System (STS) Missions § 1214.305 Payload specialist... commander has ultimate responsibility and authority for all assigned crew duties. The payload specialist is...
... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Farm Labor Specialist (ESA). 42.9 Section 42.9 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.9 Farm Labor Specialist (ESA). (a) The Assistant Secretary for ESA shall designate ESA Compliance Officers as Farm Labor Specialists (Specialists...
I. I. Leonovich
Full Text Available Complicated conditions, under which road enterprises of the Republic are forced to operate, put forward and reveal the necessity to innovative way of development. In order to fulfill this task it is necessary to have specialists who are capable and ready to realize this endeavour. The most acceptable variant is to train specialists who will be able to introduce innovations and who are presently involved in the production process. Such training should be carried out within the framework of post-graduate education. Authors have provide a number of reasons in favour of quick development of such education.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to describe the magnitude of educational inequalities in utilisation of general practitioner (GP and specialist services in 9 European countries. In addition to West European countries, we have included 3 Eastern European countries: Hungary, Estonia and Latvia. To cover the gap in knowledge we pay a special attention to the magnitude of inequalities among patients with chronic conditions. Methods Data on the use of GP and specialist services were derived from national health surveys of Belgium, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Latvia, the Netherlands and Norway. For each country and education level we calculated the absolute prevalence and relative inequalities in utilisation of GP and specialist services. In order to account for the need for care, the results were adjusted by the measure of self-assessed health. Results People with lower education used GP services equally often in most countries (except Belgium and Germany compared with those with a higher level of education. At the same time people with a higher education used specialist care services significantly more often in all countries, except in the Netherlands. The general pattern of educational inequalities in utilisation of specialist care was similar for both men and women. Inequalities in utilisation of specialist care were equally large in Eastern European and in Western European countries, except for Latvia where the inequalities were somewhat larger. Similarly, large inequalities were found in the utilisation of specialist care among patients with chronic diseases, diabetes, and hypertension. Conclusions We found large inequalities in the utilisation of specialist care. These inequalities were not compensated by utilisation of GP services. Of particular concern is the presence of inequalities among patients with a high need for specialist care, such as those with chronic diseases.
Stirbu, Irina; Kunst, Anton E; Mielck, Andreas; Mackenbach, Johan P
The aim of this study is to describe the magnitude of educational inequalities in utilisation of general practitioner (GP) and specialist services in 9 European countries. In addition to West European countries, we have included 3 Eastern European countries: Hungary, Estonia and Latvia. To cover the gap in knowledge we pay a special attention to the magnitude of inequalities among patients with chronic conditions. Data on the use of GP and specialist services were derived from national health surveys of Belgium, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Latvia, the Netherlands and Norway. For each country and education level we calculated the absolute prevalence and relative inequalities in utilisation of GP and specialist services. In order to account for the need for care, the results were adjusted by the measure of self-assessed health. People with lower education used GP services equally often in most countries (except Belgium and Germany) compared with those with a higher level of education. At the same time people with a higher education used specialist care services significantly more often in all countries, except in the Netherlands. The general pattern of educational inequalities in utilisation of specialist care was similar for both men and women. Inequalities in utilisation of specialist care were equally large in Eastern European and in Western European countries, except for Latvia where the inequalities were somewhat larger. Similarly, large inequalities were found in the utilisation of specialist care among patients with chronic diseases, diabetes, and hypertension. We found large inequalities in the utilisation of specialist care. These inequalities were not compensated by utilisation of GP services. Of particular concern is the presence of inequalities among patients with a high need for specialist care, such as those with chronic diseases. © 2011 Stirbu et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Neurofibromatosis (NF) is a genetic condition that mainly involves the nervous system. There are two types: NF1 affects about one in 2,500 of the population worldwide and NF2 affects one in 35,000. Both types result in complex health problems for patients and can pose significant challenges for all those involved in their management. Established in 1981, The Neuro Foundation is a patient-focused charity that funds a network of specialist advisers who work in partnership with the NHS to offer support and advice for families affected by NF and the professionals who care for them. With a significant level of autonomy, the specialist adviser role is flexible in matching the needs of those affected while working cooperatively alongside the national specialist services for NF1 and NF2. ©2012 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.
Rojtas-Milliner, Mary Cay
Since teachers lack a certified reading specialist to guide their high school literacy efforts, they have never had a well-reasoned, research-based plan for addressing the growing needs of adolescent readers. According to a June 2009 National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) report, most U. S. secondary schools do have personnel who are…
Past research has shown an association between foreign language reading anxiety and reading strategy. However, individual variables tend to affect foreign language anxiety and strategy use. The present study examined a hypothesized model that specified direct and indirect effects among English and foreign languages readers' distinct variables, including academic level; self-perceived English level; and satisfaction with reading proficiency, reading anxiety, and metacognitive awareness of reading strategies. A total of 523 volunteer Taiwanese college students provided 372 valid responses to a written questionnaire (281 women and 91 men; M age = 19.7 years, SD = 1.1) containing the translated versions of Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale, Survey of Reading Strategies Inventory, and self-assessment background questionnaire. The results showed that self-evaluation of reading proficiency did not correlate with academic level and readers' perceptions. Satisfaction had a direct effect on foreign language reading anxiety but not on metacognitive awareness of reading strategies. Results of path analysis demonstrated that the perception learners who had their own reading proficiency predicted their foreign language reading anxiety and was a mediating variable for metacognitive reading strategy use. © The Author(s) 2016.
Greenberg, Daphne; Pae, Hye Kyeong; Morris, Robin D; Calhoon, Mary Beth; Nanda, Alice O
There are not enough reading tests standardized on adults who have very low literacy skills, and therefore tests standardized on children are frequently administered. This study addressed the complexities and problems of using a test normed on children to measure the reading comprehension skills of 193 adults who read at approximately third through fifth grade reading grade equivalency levels. Findings are reported from an analysis of the administration of Form A of the Gray Oral Reading Tests-Fourth Edition (Wiederholt & Bryant, 2001a, b). Results indicated that educators and researchers should be very cautious when interpreting test results of adults who have difficulty reading when children's norm-referenced tests are administered.
Full Text Available The issue of whether to establish Specialist Chambers within the Kosovo justice system for alleged war crimes committed in Kosovo has been, arguably, one of the most heated debates not only from a political and social point of view, but also from a legal one. While the required amendments in the Constitution and several laws of Kosovo necessary to establish the Specialist Chambers in furtherance of the agreement dated 14 April 2014 between the Republic of Kosovo and the European Union on the Mission of the European Union Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo (“EULEX” will certainly create heated debates in the political level, one may argue that the legal issues that are expected to be encountered when the Specialist Chambers will be operational, may be even more pressing. This is in consideration of the peculiar nature of the Specialist Chambers, which are meant to have their basis within the laws of Kosovo, but at the same time, be independent from them and from control of Kosovo authorities. The purpose of this article is to delineate the possible legal issues that might confront the Specialist Chambers of Kosovo. Its main argument is that, while the Specialist Chambers seem to follow the experience of other hybrid internationalised courts, it still differs from them in some aspects. The challenges that the new Specialist Chambers may need to tackle deal with its jurisdiction and position within the Kosovo Judicial system, and its legitimacy and legal basis.
Reed, Jan; Cook, Glenda; Cook, Margaret; Inglis, Pamela; Clarke, Charlotte
This paper reports findings of a study in 2004 of the development of specialist services for older people in the National Health Service (NHS) in England, as recommended in the Department of Health's National Service Framework for Older People (NSF-OP). The study was funded by the Department of Health as part of a programme of research to explore the Framework's implementation. Information was collected through a questionnaire survey about the nature of specialist developments at three levels...
Morán López, Jesús Manuel; Piedra León, María; Enciso Izquierdo, Fidel Jesús; Luengo Pérez, Luis Miguel; Amado Señaris, José Antonio
Adequate nutritional support includes many different aspects, but poor understanding of clinical nutrition by health care professionales often results in an inadequate prescription. A study was conducted to compare enteral and parenteral nutritional support plans prescribed by specialist and non-specialist physicians. Non-specialist physicians recorded anthropometric data from only 13.3% of patients, and none of them performed nutritional assessments. Protein amounts provided by non-specialist physicians were lower than estimated based on ESPEN (10.29g of nitrogen vs 14.62; Pspecialist group (14.88g of nitrogen; P=.072). Calorie and glutamine provision and laboratory controls prescribed by specialists were significantly closer to those recommended by clinical guidelines. Nutritional support prescribed by specialists in endocrinology and nutrition at San Pedro de Alcántara Hospital was closer to clinical practice guideline standards and of higher quality as compared to that prescribed by non-specialists. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Specialists. 62.26 Section 62.26 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Specific Program... such areas, for example, as mass media communication, environmental science, youth leadership...
Due to content-based analysis of marketing specialists' professional training and approaches to development of their educational trajectory, it has been revealed that curricula and their content are given much attention by employers whose demands are focused on meeting current labour market conditions. It has been justified that despite the…
Peleška, Jan; Anger, Z.; Buchtela, David; Tomečková, Marie; Veselý, Arnošt; Zvárová, Jana
Roč. 25, Suppl. 2 (2007), S 383-S 383 ISSN 0952-1178. [European Meeting on Hypertension /17./. 15.06.2007-19.06.2007, Milan] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET200300413 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : treatment algorithm for hypertension * hypertension specialist Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery
Cicmanec, Karen B. Mauck
For over 30 years, educators have recommended that mathematics specialists be placed in schools to provide teachers with the resources they need to assist their students. To assess whether these recommendations have been realized, a survey was used to gather data from large school districts, the 50 states, and District of Columbia. The outcome of…
Houwen, L G H J Louis
The reforms in the field of medical specialist care have important implications for the professional practice of medical specialists and their working relationship with the hospital. This leads to a considerable amount of pressure placed upon the way physicians have traditionally practiced their liberal professions, which is by forming partnerships and practicing from within the hospitals based on an admission agreement. As of 2015, the tax benefits for entrepreneurs will be abolished and the formation of regional partnerships will be discouraged. These developments not only pose threats but also offer opportunities for both the entrepreneurial medical specialist and the innovative hospital. In this article, the prospect of a future business model for specialist medical care will be outlined and explored by proposing three new organizational forms. The central vision of this model is that physicians who wish to retain their status of liberal professional practitioners in the twenty-first century should be more involved in the ownership structure of hospitals. The social importance of responsible patient care remains paramount.
Mellin, Laurel M.
Presents seven reasons why it is important for health specialist teams to take action supporting the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity. The article offers guidelines to help parents assist their children in maintaining positive eating, exercise, and self-esteem patterns, noting sensitive intervention is preferable to imposed diets. (SM)
Schneller, S; Hoeppner, M
Preceptor orientation is a well identified need. Less often identified is the critical role the staff development specialist plays in the ongoing support and development of preceptors. In this article, the authors explain activities of coaching, facilitating, mentoring, and consulting. These role components are essential in the ongoing development of preceptors. This support also may help retain preceptors.
Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.
This document contains teacher's materials for a course on becoming an automotive brakes specialist, based on the National Institute of Automotive Service Excellence task lists. The course consists of three instructional units: service brake hydraulic system and wheel bearings, service drum brakes, and service disc brakes. Depending on the…
ASTRO-2 payload specialist Ronald A. Parise reminisces on his inspace amateur radio experience of five years ago in the ASTRO-1 mission. Using the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX), Parise talks to students on Earth from the flight deck of the Earth orbiting Space Shuttle Endeavour.
Full Text Available As we all know, libraries are these years rapidly undergoing change on unparalleled scale. Evidently, this applies to librarians, too, and not the least to that important category of library staff, the subject specialist. As recruiting and education of library workers differ from country to country it is difficult to give a detailed, generally valid description of the subject librarian in libraries, but I believe that you can describe an ideal model of subject librarianship as follows: Within each of the major subject disciplines covered by the library, the library should have a subject specialist preferably with a master degree or at least a bachelor degree in the particular subject discipline. The role of the subject specialist is to perform four basic functions where extensive subject knowledge is considered to be necessary: selecting and classifying books, assisting users with advanced subject inquiries, giving subject-specific courses in information retrieval, and maintaining liaison with relevant academic departments and centres. Personally, I know this system very well since I got employment in the Royal Library in Copenhagen as a subject specialist in psychology in the very month I finished my degree in psychology from the University of Copenhagen, back in 1973. The subject librarian system at the Royal Library in Copenhagen was patterned on the ideal model, as I just described it, and it was closely paralleled in the other academic libraries in Denmark, also the new university libraries which were founded in the seventies.
The XIIth national conference of Czechoslovak power specialists was held in Bratislava from October 5 to 7, 1983. Of the total number of 32 papers 12 were incorporated in the INIS system, i.e., such which dealt with the development of the nuclear power complex and the rationalization of sources and the use of heat in the Czechoslovak energy balance. (E.S.)
Buerkel, Elaine; Rehling, Joseph H.
The general purpose of the occupational analysis is to provide workable, basic information dealing with the many and varied duties performed in the textile service occupation. The industry needs properly trained alteration specialists, bushelmen and dressmakers, in the repairing, remodeling, altering or renovating of garments. Their personal…
Litsios, Glenn; Kostikova, Anna; Salamin, Nicolas
Why generalist and specialist species coexist in nature is a question that has interested evolutionary biologists for a long time. While the coexistence of specialists and generalists exploiting resources on a single ecological dimension has been theoretically and empirically explored, biological systems with multiple resource dimensions (e.g. trophic, ecological) are less well understood. Yet, such systems may provide an alternative to the classical theory of stable evolutionary coexistence of generalist and specialist species on a single resource dimension. We explore such systems and the potential trade-offs between different resource dimensions in clownfishes. All species of this iconic clade are obligate mutualists with sea anemones yet show interspecific variation in anemone host specificity. Moreover, clownfishes developed variable environmental specialization across their distribution. In this study, we test for the existence of a relationship between host-specificity (number of anemones associated with a clownfish species) and environmental-specificity (expressed as the size of the ecological niche breadth across climatic gradients). We find a negative correlation between host range and environmental specificities in temperature, salinity and pH, probably indicating a trade-off between both types of specialization forcing species to specialize only in a single direction. Trade-offs in a multi-dimensional resource space could be a novel way of explaining the coexistence of generalist and specialists. PMID:25274370
Full Text Available Abstract Background Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST has become the gold standard for population analyses of bacterial pathogens. This method focuses on the sequences of a small number of loci (usually seven to divide the population and is simple, robust and facilitates comparison of results between laboratories and over time. Over the last decade, researchers and population health specialists have invested substantial effort in building up public MLST databases for nearly 100 different bacterial species, and these databases contain a wealth of important information linked to MLST sequence types such as time and place of isolation, host or niche, serotype and even clinical or drug resistance profiles. Recent advances in sequencing technology mean it is increasingly feasible to perform bacterial population analysis at the whole genome level. This offers massive gains in resolving power and genetic profiling compared to MLST, and will eventually replace MLST for bacterial typing and population analysis. However given the wealth of data currently available in MLST databases, it is crucial to maintain backwards compatibility with MLST schemes so that new genome analyses can be understood in their proper historical context. Results We present a software tool, SRST, for quick and accurate retrieval of sequence types from short read sets, using inputs easily downloaded from public databases. SRST uses read mapping and an allele assignment score incorporating sequence coverage and variability, to determine the most likely allele at each MLST locus. Analysis of over 3,500 loci in more than 500 publicly accessible Illumina read sets showed SRST to be highly accurate at allele assignment. SRST output is compatible with common analysis tools such as eBURST, Clonal Frame or PhyloViz, allowing easy comparison between novel genome data and MLST data. Alignment, fastq and pileup files can also be generated for novel alleles. Conclusions SRST is a novel
Jacobs, George M.
How can teachers motivate students to read extensively in a second language? One strategy is for teachers to read aloud to students to promote the joys of reading generally, to build students' language skills and to introduce students to specific authors, book series, genres, websites, etc. This article begins by discussing why teachers might want…
Abstract. The current study explores the feasibility of an extensive reading programme in the context of a low-income country (Mozambique), as well as the influence of extensive reading on academic reading. The programme took over 4 months and was conducted among 30 students majoring in Journalism at the Eduardo ...
Full Text Available Individually-psychological characteristics were studied and profiles of the styles of self-regulation of the employees engaged in hazardous were determined. The mainly group consisted of 30 men aged 21 to 60 years, who are specialists of dangerous professions. The comparison group included 30 men from 22 to 60 years, whose professional activity was not associated with risk. The following methods were used: questionnaire "Style of self-regulation of behavior" by V. I. Morosanova; questionnaire of self-control (H. Grasmik, 1993, adaptation Bulygina V. G., Abdrazakova A. M., 2009; the questionnaire BIS/BAS, used to study the sensitivity to punishment and reward; the questionnaire formal-dynamic properties of individuality by V. M. Rusalov; the aggression questionnaire by A. Buss and M. Perry (adaptation Enikolopov S. N., Cybulski N. P., 2007; the scale of anxiety Charles D. Spielberger (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory – STAI; personal questionnaire of the G. and S. Eysenck – EPQ. It was found that specialists hazardous professions are distinguished by: a higher level of development of the regulatory flexibility and individual system of conscious self-regulation activity; higher levels of extroversion, communication activity, the total adaptability; a lower level of reactive anxiety, trait anxiety and general emotional. Moreover, impulsiveness, egocentrism, lack of restraint and physical activity in the structure of self-monitoring specialists of dangerous professions associated with high levels of affective component of aggression and incoherence of parts of the process of self-regulation. There were allocated a 3 profile of self-regulation in specialists of dangerous professions: a a high level of self-regulation – coupled with a high intellectual and physical development, the highest level of adaptability and general activity; b medium – rapid response to emerging changes in the situation, the successful production alternatives, greater
Leyva-González, Félix Arturo; Leo-Amador, Guillermo Enrique; Viniegra-Velázquez, Leonardo; Degollado-Bardales, Lilia; Zavala-Arenas, Jesús Arturo; González-Cobos, Roberto Palemón; Valencia-Sánchez, Jesús Salvador; Leyva-Salas, César Arturo; Angulo-Bernal, Sonia Elizabeth; Gómez-Arteaga, Gress Marissell
Determine what the relationship between participation in classroom of students attending courses at the Educational Research and Teacher Education (CIEFD's) and the development of proficiency in critical reading of theoretical texts in education. Intervention study, multicenter students (medical specialist) level Diploma in teaching methodology (DMDN) 1 and 2 (n=46 n=29) of the six CIEFD's (DF Siglo XXI, Mexico City La Raza, Nuevo Leon, Sonora, Puebla and Veracruz), period: March to August 2007 and a Masters in education (n=9, generation 2007-2008). Two instruments were constructed that evaluated the participation variables and critical reading of theoretical texts in education, conceptual validity; content and reliability were assessed by experts in education research. The educational intervention was in the form of seminars (three times a week in DMDN 1 and twice weekly in DMDN 2 and Masters). Participation was assessed halfway through the course and on completion, critical reading at the beginning as well as the end. Statistically significant associations were observed in DMDN 1 (four Centers) and the Masters, but not DMDN 2. In this investigation some of the theoretical proposals of the participatory education were recreated, starting from the analysis of our results. In some centers and in the masters, strengthening participation in this educational intervention is related to the development of critical reading of theoretical texts in education.
The percentage of students who read at the proficient level on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) has not improved, and is appallingly low. In order for students to achieve high reading gains and become life-long readers, reading comprehension and reading enjoyment must be the top two goals. This article presents several…
What Works Clearinghouse, 2007
"Kaplan SpellRead" (formerly known as "SpellRead Phonological Auditory Training"[R]) is a literacy program for struggling readers in grades 2 or above, including special education students, English language learners, and students more than two years below grade level in reading. "Kaplan SpellRead" integrates the…
Full Text Available Language proficiency tests have become common instruments to judge people based on their performance. Thus, the scores on language proficiency tests, such as the International English Language Testing System (IELTS or Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL, play a crucial role in the test-takers’ lives. Because of increasing demands on the part of students to get a good score on these tests, test preparatory courses have emerged. These preparatory courses, characteristically short and limited in terms of time, equip IELTS candidates with the skills required for passing the test, called test-taking strategies. The present study explored the effect of strategy teaching- namely wash-back effect on reading section of academic IELTS on intermediate learners in Iran. Besides, learners’ attitude toward the strategy teaching was investigated as well. According to the descriptive statistics and t-test results, those learners who received strategy teaching outperformed those who had not received strategy teaching in reading section of IELTS.According to t-test results, there was a significant difference between the mean scores of the two groups since the p value was lower than .05 (p < .001. Furthermore, the learners had positive attitudes toward receiving strategy teaching since there was a significant difference between the obtained mean score and the presupposed average because the p value was lower than .05.
Ashton, Toni; Brown, Paul; Sopina, Elizaveta; Cameron, Linda; Tenbensel, Timothy; Windsor, John
As in many countries, medical and surgical specialists in New Zealand have the opportunity of working in the public sector, the private sector or both. This study aimed to explore the level and sources of satisfaction and dissatisfaction of specialists in New Zealand with working in the two sectors. Such information can assist workforce planning, management and policy and may inform the wider debate about the relationship between the two sectors. A postal survey was conducted of 1983 registered specialists throughout New Zealand. Respondents were asked to assess 14 sources of satisfaction and 9 sources of dissatisfaction according to a 5-point Likert scale. Means and standard deviations were calculated for the total sample, and for procedural and non-procedural specialties. Differences between the means of each source of satisfaction and dissatisfaction were also calculated. Completed surveys were received from 943 specialists (47% response rate). Overall mean levels of satisfaction were higher in the private sector than the public sector while levels of dissatisfaction were lower. While the public system is valued for its opportunities for further education and professional development, key sources of dissatisfaction are workload pressures, mentally demanding work and managerial interference. In the private sector specialists value the opportunity to work independently and apply their own ideas in the workplace. Sources of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction amongst specialists are different for the public and private sectors. Allowing specialists more freedom to work independently and to apply their own ideas in the workplace may enhance recruitment and retention of specialists in the public health system.
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Lacasta Tintorer, David; Flayeh Beneyto, Souhel; Alzaga Reig, Xavier; Mundet Tuduri, Xavier; De la Fuente, Josep Anton; Manresa, Josep Maria; Torán Monserrat, Pere; Saigí Rubió, Francesc
There has been created an online communication tool with the objective to improve the communication among different levels of care, between Primary Care clinicians and Specialists. This tool is web 2.0 based technology (ECOPIH project). It allows to review clinical cases and to share knowledge. Our study will evaluate its impact in terms of reduction on the number of referrals to three specialties two years after the use of this tool. Open, multicenter, controlled, non random intervention study over 24 months. Study population includes 131 Primary Care Physicians assigned to nine health centers. The study will compare the clinicians that use the ECOPIH with the ones that do not use the tool. Also, professionals that start to use the tool during the period time of the study will be included.The number of annual referrals during the first and second year will be analyzed and retrospectively compared with the previous year to the implementation of the tool. Moreover, it will be assessed the level of satisfaction of the professionals with the tool and to what extend the tool responds to their needs. The implementation of ECOPIH in the field of Primary Health Care can decrease the number of referrals from primary care to specialist care.It is expected that the reduction will be more noticeable in the group of professionals that use more intensively the tool. Furthermore, we believe that it can be also observed with the professionals that read the contributions of the others.We anticipate high degree of customer satisfaction as it is a very helpful resource never used before in our environment.
Vladimir A. Romanov
Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is development of innovative strategy of quality control training of engineers and skilled workers (hereinafter – future specialists in educational professional organizations on the principles of social partnership.Methods. Theoretic: theoretic and methodological analysis, polytheoretic synthesis, modeling. Empirical: research and generalization of the system, process and competence – based approaches experience, experiment, observation, surveys, expert evaluation, SWOT-analysis as a method of strategic planning which is to identify the internal and external factors (socio-cultural of the organization surrounding.Results. The strategy of the development of the process of quality control training in educational professional organizations and a predictive model of the system of quality control training for future engineers and workers have been created on the analysis and synthesis of a quantitative specification of the quality, the obtained experience and success in control training of future specialists in educational professional organizations in recent economic and educational conditions.Scientific novelty. There has been built a predicative model of quality control training of future specialists to meet modern standards and the principles of social partnership; the control algorithm of the learning process, developed in accordance with the standards (international of quality ISO in the implementation of the quality control systems of the process approach (matrix-based responsibility, competence and remit of those responsible for the education process in the educational organization, the «problem» terms and diagnostic tools for assessing the quality of professional training of future specialists. The perspective directions of innovation in the control of the quality of future professionals training have been determined; the parameters of a comprehensive analysis of the state of the system to ensure the
Full Text Available This paper describes the system of future specialists-cartographers education in Lviv polytechnic national university. Main targets of the department of cartography and geospatial modelling are listed. Key research areas of the department, the educational specifics of students at «Bachelor» and «Master‘s» levels are described. At present, the main task of the department is to train specialists with good knowledge of cartographic investigation method, GIS technologies, because digital cartography, web-mapping, web-portal are things of the future. Cartography specialists must know how to create traditional maps (topographic, thematic, tourist using computer technologies and electronic maps that can be used in the creation of GIS systems, informational resources in navigation, military affairs and so on. The main scientific direction of the department is general geographic and thematic mapping, GIS mapping and development of GIS, history of the cartography, mathematic modelling in geodesy, astronomy and geophysics. The department trains bachelors on specialty 103 «Earth sciences», specialization 103.02 «Cartography». The feature of master’s education is maximum approach to education content for future employment. Master degree students are improving their professional knowledge and skills received during their study for the bachelor’s degree. They are deeply studying modern methods of cartographic digital terrain models with GIS technologies, combining their work with development of cartographic databases. They get acquainted with the principles of base sets of geospatial data, conduct thematic evaluation and forecast maps, using GIS. The students also study methods and order of design, edition, and maps development in detail. Modern mapping needs to be more efficient in the use of both natural and human resources, reflect a complex system man - society - environment. Such problem can be solved using various modeling techniques with
In all phases, patients are entitled to receive medical treatment according to medical specialist standards. This does not mean that patients necessarily have to be treated by a medical specialist. Operations performed by "beginners", e. g. assistant physicians, are permitted. However, there are increased liability risks, both for the specialist and the assistant physician. Furthermore, there are risks of criminal responsibility for causing bodily harm by negligence or negligent manslaughter. This article portrays the requirements of civil liability and criminal responsibility concerning beginners' operations on the basis of cases and judgments of the Federal Court and the Higher Regional Courts in Germany. Additionally, the reception of the jurisprudence by the relevant legal literature will be discussed. Jurisprudence and legal literature categorize breaches of duty of care. Assistant physicians can be subject to contributory negligence liabilities, while specialists can bear liabilities for negligent selection, organization or supervision. Responsible specialist and assistant physicians can protect themselves (and the patient) and avoid legal risks by only performing operations adequate to their educational level or by delegating operations to beginners and ensuring intervention by a specialist by supervision of the operation which is suitable to the assistant physician's level of education.
Jund, Suzanne, Ed.
This journal issue concentrates on the theme "Parents and Reading." It presents articles on sharing books with young children, using public relations in a reading program, guiding preschool learning, assessing language readiness, working with reading problems, and teaching reading readiness in Wisconsin kindergartens. Resources and a review of…
Davis, Frederick B.
This review of psychometric research in reading analyzes the factors which seem related to reading comprehension skills. Experimental analysis of reading comprehension by L. E. Thorndike revealed two major components: knowledge of word meanings and verbal reasoning abilities. Subsequent analysis of experimental studies of reading comprehension…
Fuel Safety Research Specialists' Meeting, which was organized by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, was held on March 4-5, 2002 at JAERI in Tokai Establishment. Purposes of the Meeting are to exchange information and views on LWR fuel safety topics among the specialist participants from domestic and foreign organizations, and to discuss the recent and future fuel research activities in JAERI. In the Meeting, presentations were given and discussions were made on general report of fuel safety research activities, fuel behaviors in normal operation and accident conditions, FP release behaviors in severe accident conditions, and JAERI's ''Advanced LWR Fuel Performance and Safety Research Program''. A poster exhibition was also carried out. The Meeting significantly contributed to planning future program and cooperation in fuel research. This proceeding integrates all the pictures and papers presented in the Meeting. The 10 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)
This thesis is dealing with burnout syndrome among leisure time specialists. Theoretical part describes burnout syndrome, its historical basis, symptoms and causes, protective factors and preventive techniques, which prevent from burnout syndrome risk. Next part deals with common stress, its causes and symptoms, and psychosocial stress, which is closely related with burnout syndrome. Ending of the theoretical part is focused on understanding the differences between jobs of common teacher and ...
Stayko I. Spiridonov
Full Text Available Purpose: In the resent years the healthcare system has moved to inter-professional, cross-disciplinary, multi-person approach where the communications are very important for ensuring patient safety. Communication in health organisations needs to be studied and analysed deeply and comprehensively because the future of an organisation often depends on good communication. The purpose of this study is to investigate and analyse the reasons for ineffective communication between medical specialists in the teams they work in. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire method is used. Through a survey over a period of 12 months (from 01. 12. 2014 to 01. 12. 2015 at the Escullap Hospital in Pazardzhik, DCC 18 - Sofia, St. Mina Hospital in Plovdiv, MHAT – Plovdiv, DCC 1 in Haskovo, UMHAT in Stara Zagora, DCC 3 in Varna and MHAT – Parvomay, was studied and analyzed the opinion of medical specialists on the effectiveness of communication within the team they work in. The survey includes 477 medical specialists. Results and conclusions: According to 41.1% of the respondents, the communication in the team they work in is insufficiently effective. Most of the respondents (39.8% find their colleagues responsible for the ineffective communication, followed by those who seek the cause for poor communication in the management of the health care facility (27.6%. The leading cause of poor communication in the team according to the study participants is the inequality between the characters of the colleagues (41.9%. According to the majority of respondents (28.3%, improvements in facilities and wage increases (27.3% would be essential to improve communication within the team they work in. Recommendations have been formulated to improve communication among medical specialists.
Training on Movement Figure-Ground Discrimination Remediates Low-Level Visual Timing Deficits in the Dorsal Stream, Improving High-Level Cognitive Functioning, Including Attention, Reading Fluency, and Working Memory
Lawton, Teri; Shelley-Tremblay, John
The purpose of this study was to determine whether neurotraining to discriminate a moving test pattern relative to a stationary background, figure-ground discrimination, improves vision and cognitive functioning in dyslexics, as well as typically-developing normal students. We predict that improving the speed and sensitivity of figure-ground movement discrimination (PATH to Reading neurotraining) acts to remediate visual timing deficits in the dorsal stream, thereby improving processing speed...
This updated edition offers the most extensive and varied practice for all types of questions students might face on standardized and in-class tests. With this guide, students will learn to develop expert reading strategies, understand how to read faster and with greater comprehension, overcome reading anxiety, and increase appreciation of reading for pleasure. This book's step-by-step approach provides graduated coverage that moves from the basics to more advanced reading.
Levy, B A; Newell, S; Snyder, J; Timmins, K
Five experiments examined changes in the processing of a text across reading encounters. Experiment 1 showed that reading speed increased systematically across encounters, with no loss in the extensiveness of analyses of the printed text, as indicated by the ability to detect nonword errors embedded within that passage. Experiment 2 replicated this improved reading fluency with experience and showed that it occurred even with typescript changes across trials, thus indicating that a primed visual operations explanation cannot account for the effect. The third and fourth experiments then extended the study of the familiarity effect to higher level processing, as indicated by the detection of word errors. Familiarity facilitated the detection of these violations at the syntactic-semantic levels. Finally, Experiment 5 showed that these higher level violations continued to be well detected over a series of reading encounters with the same text. The results indicate that prior experience improves reading speed, with no attenuation of analysis of the printed words or of the passage's message.
Full Text Available The difficulties specialized phytophagous insects face in finding habitats with an appropriate host should constrain their dispersal. Within the concept of metacommunities, this leads to the prediction that host-plant specialists should sort into local assemblages according to the local environmental conditions, i.e. habitat conditions, whereas assemblages of host-plant generalists should depend also on regional processes. Our study aimed at ranking the importance of local environmental factors and species composition of the vegetation for predicting the species composition of phytophagous moth assemblages with either a narrow or a broad host range. Our database consists of 351,506 specimens representing 820 species of nocturnal Macrolepidoptera sampled between 1980 and 2006 using light traps in 96 strict forest reserves in southern Germany. Species were grouped as specialists or generalists according to the food plants of the larvae; specialists use host plants belonging to one genus. We used predictive canonical correspondence and co-correspondence analyses to rank the importance of local environmental factors, the species composition of the vegetation and the role of host plants for predicting the species composition of host-plant specialists and generalists. The cross-validatory fit for predicting the species composition of phytophagous moths was higher for host-plant specialists than for host-plant generalists using environmental factors as well as the composition of the vegetation. As expected for host-plant specialists, the species composition of the vegetation was a better predictor of the composition of these assemblages than the environmental variables. But surprisingly, this difference for specialized insects was not due to the occurrence of their host plants. Overall, our study supports the idea that owing to evolutionary constraints in finding a host, host-plant specialists and host-plant generalists follow two different models of
Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer shows evidence of previous blood sampling while Wubbo J. Ockels, Dutch payload specialist (only partially visible), extends his right arm after a sample has been taken. Both men show bruises on their arms.
Loni Kreis Taglieber
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide, for L1 and L2 reading and writing teachers, a brief overview of the literature about critical reading and higher level thinking skills. The teaching of these skills is still neglected in some language classes in Brazil, be it in L1 or in L2 classes. Thus, this paper may also serve as a resource guide for L1 and/or L2 reading and writing teachers who want to incorporate critical reading and thinking into their classes. In modern society, even in everyday life people frequently need to deal with complicated public and political issues, make decisions, and solve problems. In order to do this efficiently and effectively, citizens must be able to evaluate critically what they see, hear, and read. Also, with the huge amount of printed material available in all areas in this age of “information explosion” it is easy to feel overwhelmed. But often the information piled up on people’s desks and in their minds is of no use due to the enormous amount of it. The purpose of this paper is to provide, for L1 and L2 reading and writing teachers, a brief overview of the literature about critical reading and higher level thinking skills. The teaching of these skills is still neglected in some language classes in Brazil, be it in L1 or in L2 classes. Thus, this paper may also serve as a resource guide for L1 and/or L2 reading and writing teachers who want to incorporate critical reading and thinking into their classes. In modern society, even in everyday life people frequently need to deal with complicated public and political issues, make decisions, and solve problems. In order to do this efficiently and effectively, citizens must be able to evaluate critically what they see, hear, and read. Also, with the huge amount of printed material available in all areas in this age of “information explosion” it is easy to feel overwhelmed. But often the information piled up on people’s desks and in their minds is of
Holly Warzecha, M.A. TESOL
Full Text Available The purpose of the following paper is to take a closer look at the benefits of incidental learning through reading, with a specific focus on vocabulary acquisition. The teaching of vocabulary has traditionally been an explicit process where the target vocabulary is taken out of context and taught separately. However, this kind of explicit teaching and learning may only take into account a form-meaning connection. Therefore, this paper explores research on incidental learning and specifically looks at what it takes to acquire new vocabulary incidentally through reading while considering the coverage rates of texts, how many words must be known already from the text, how many repetitions it takes to learn a word, types of texts that promote learning, and the effects of pairing students‘ reading with learner tasks. After reviewing many studies, it can be concluded that more reading is better. More specifically, extensive reading of chosen novels at an appropriate level and interest to the students showed important gains in vocabulary. In addition, readings that were supplemented with additional activities that focused on both form and meaning showed an even higher increase in word retention.
This thesis investigated reading comprehension levels amongst Maltese bilingual students. A total of 428 participants, aged between 8 and 13, from state schools across Malta, were tested and the results of five studies presented. The primary purpose underlying the research was to inform the development of assessment procedures that can be used in the identification of children who have specific difficulties in reading within the Maltese context. Initially, the suitability of reading comprehen...
Cooper, O. P.; Bray, Marty
The most successful school library media specialists are those who collaborate with teachers as full partners in the instructional process. Without assertive action by the school library media specialist, however, school administrators and teachers are likely to be more aware of the media specialist's administrative role than the roles of teacher,…
McCann-Stone, Nancy; Robinson, Sherry B.; Rull, Gary; Rosher, Richard B.
This paper describes an Elder Specialist Program developed by one school of medicine to sensitize medical students to geriatric psychosocial issues. Elder Specialists participate in panel discussions as part of each geriatric session. As an alternative to traditional senior mentoring programs, the Elder Specialist Program provides all students a…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Contracting in private sector is promoted in developing countries facing human resources shortages as a challenge to reduce maternal mortality. This study explored provision, practice, performance, barriers to execution and views about contracting in specialists for emergency obstetric care (EmOC in rural India. Methods Facility survey was conducted in all secondary and tertiary public health facilities (44 in three heterogeneous districts in Maharashtra state of India. Interviews (42 were conducted with programme managers and district and block level officials and with public and private EmOC specialists. Locations of private obstetricians in the study districts were identified and mapped. Results Two schemes, namely Janani Suraksha Yojana and Indian Public Health standards (IPHS provided for contracting in EmOC specialists. The IPHS provision was chosen for use mainly due to greater sum for contracting in (US $ 30/service episode vs.300 US$/month. The positions of EmOC specialists were vacant in 83% of all facilities that hence had a potential for contracting in EmOC specialists. Private specialists were contracted in at 20% such facilities. The contracting in of specialists did not greatly increase EmOC service outputs at facilities, except in facilities with determined leadership. Contracting in specialists was useful for non emergency conditions, but not for obstetric emergencies. The contracts were more of a relational nature with poor monitoring structures. Inadequate infrastructure, longer distance to private specialists, insufficient financial provision for contracting in, and poor management capacities were barriers to effective implementation of contracting in. Dependency on the private sector was a concern among public partners while the private partners viewed contracting in as an opportunity to gain experience and credibility. Conclusions Density and geographic distribution of private specialists are important
Randive, Bharat; Chaturvedi, Sarika; Mistry, Nerges
Contracting in private sector is promoted in developing countries facing human resources shortages as a challenge to reduce maternal mortality. This study explored provision, practice, performance, barriers to execution and views about contracting in specialists for emergency obstetric care (EmOC) in rural India. Facility survey was conducted in all secondary and tertiary public health facilities (44) in three heterogeneous districts in Maharashtra state of India. Interviews (42) were conducted with programme managers and district and block level officials and with public and private EmOC specialists. Locations of private obstetricians in the study districts were identified and mapped. Two schemes, namely Janani Suraksha Yojana and Indian Public Health standards (IPHS) provided for contracting in EmOC specialists. The IPHS provision was chosen for use mainly due to greater sum for contracting in (US $ 30/service episode vs.300 US$/month). The positions of EmOC specialists were vacant in 83% of all facilities that hence had a potential for contracting in EmOC specialists. Private specialists were contracted in at 20% such facilities. The contracting in of specialists did not greatly increase EmOC service outputs at facilities, except in facilities with determined leadership. Contracting in specialists was useful for non emergency conditions, but not for obstetric emergencies. The contracts were more of a relational nature with poor monitoring structures. Inadequate infrastructure, longer distance to private specialists, insufficient financial provision for contracting in, and poor management capacities were barriers to effective implementation of contracting in. Dependency on the private sector was a concern among public partners while the private partners viewed contracting in as an opportunity to gain experience and credibility. Density and geographic distribution of private specialists are important influencing factors in determining feasibility and use of
Filler, Guido; Kovesi, Tom; Bourdon, Erik; Jones, Sarah Ann; Givelichian, Laurentiu; Rockman-Greenberg, Cheryl; Gilliland, Jason; Williams, Marion; Orrbine, Elaine; Piedboeuf, Bruno
Pediatrician and pediatric subspecialist density varies substantially among the various Canadian provinces, as well as among various states in the US. It is unknown whether this variability impacts health outcomes. To study this knowledge gap, we evaluated pediatric asthma admission rates within the 2 Canadian provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan, which have similarly sized pediatric populations and substantially different physician densities. This was a retrospective cross-sectional cohort study. Health regions defined by the provincial governments, have, in turn, been classified into "peer groups" by Statistics Canada, on the basis of common socio-economic characteristics and socio-demographic determinants of health. To study the relationship between the distribution of the pediatric workforce and health outcomes in Canadian children, asthma admission rates within comparable peer group regions in both provinces were examined by combining multiple national and provincial health databases. We generated physician density maps for general practitioners, and general pediatricians practicing in Manitoba and Saskatchewan in 2011. At the provincial level, Manitoba had 48.6 pediatricians/100,000 child population, compared to 23.5/100,000 in Saskatchewan. There were 3.1 pediatric asthma specialists/100,000 child population in Manitoba and 1.4/100,000 in Saskatchewan. Among peer-group A, the differences were even more striking. A significantly higher number of patients were admitted in Saskatchewan (590.3/100,000 children) compared to Manitoba (309.3/100,000, p < 0.0001). Saskatchewan, which has a lower pediatrician and pediatric asthma specialist supply, had a higher asthma admission rate than Manitoba. Our data suggest that there is an inverse relationship between asthma admissions and pediatrician and asthma specialist supply.
Children experience difficulties in reading either because they fail to decode the words and thus are unable to comprehend the text or simply fail to comprehend the text even if they are able to decode the words and read them out. Failure in word decoding results from a failure in phonological coding of written information, whereas reading…
Mol, Suzanne Elizabeth
There is a widely held belief that reading (story)books makes us smarter and helps promote success in life. Does scientific evidence support this notion? The three meta-analyses in this thesis comprise 146 studies between 1988 and 2010 (N=10,308 participants) that addressed the role of book reading
Reviews the book, The Behavioral Health Specialist in Primary Care: Skills for Integrated Practice edited by Mary Ann Burg and Oliver Oyama (see record 2015-46891-000). The editors and the chapter authors of this useful book provide insight into the skills and knowledge needed to do integrated behavioral health in primary care. The most beneficial part of the book is the layout of the chapters, and the authors do a great job of articulating the clinical components of care. Behavioral health and medical providers in practice or in training could greatly benefit from reading this book. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Oidick, Michael Stanley
Two groups of fourth-grade boys, one group reading at grade level or above, the other reading below grade level, were selected for this study. All boys in both groups had scored at the 30th percentile or below on a kindergarten reading-readiness test. The mothers of these boys were interviewed to assess their participation, instigation, and level…
Research in the field of reading literacy has focussed predominantly on the foundation phase and primary and secondary levels. In addition, these studies in reading literacy are predominantly cognitive-oriented. As a result, information on academic reading at tertiary level is sparse; even more so with regard to ...
Dadkhah, Mehdi; Lagzian, Mohammad; Borchardt, Glenn
In this opinion piece, we present a synopsis of our findings from the last 2 years concerning cyber-attacks on web-based academia. We also present some of problems that we have faced and try to resolve any misunderstandings about our work. We are academic information security specialists, not hackers. Finally, we present a brief overview of our methods for detecting cyber fraud in an attempt to present general guidelines for researchers who would like to continue our work. We believe that our work is necessary for protecting the integrity of scholarly publishing against emerging cybercrime.
Full Text Available Reading journal is one way to record students’ independent learning based on text they read. This study was conducted to find out the students’ level of reading comprehension through some notes written in the reading journal, the extent to which the activity of writing reading journals improved students’ reading comprehension, whether the students got benefit from reading journal. There were 104 respondents coming from four different departments in Bina Nusantara University were asked to read a text related to the subject they learned in a certain session. Then they were assigned to write a journal that records the things they had read. When this task was finished, the lecturer ran a quiz containing related questions to check whether they really understood the content of the text. Afterwards, students were to fill in a questionnaire regarding their opinion on the impact of the reading journal toward their reading comprehension. The findings indicate that more than half of the participants appear to understand the material well, and the task plays a certain role in improving students’ understanding. The most crucial thing is that most students think they get benefit by writing the reading journal.
Frijters, Jan C; Tsujimoto, Kimberley C; Boada, Richard; Gottwald, Stephanie; Hill, Dina; Jacobson, Lisa A; Lovett, Maureen W; Mahone, E Mark; Willcutt, Erik G; Wolf, Maryanne; Bosson-Heenan, Joan; Gruen, Jeffrey R
The present study investigated the relation among reading skills and attributions, naming speed, and phonological awareness across a wide range of reading skill. Participants were 1,105 school-age children and youths from two understudied populations: African Americans and Hispanic Americans. Individual assessments of children ranging in age from 8 to 15 years were conducted for reading outcomes, cognitive and linguistic predictors of reading, and attributions for success and failure in reading situations. Quantile regressions were formulated to estimate these relations across the full skill span of each outcome. Reading-related attributions predicted contextual word recognition, sight word and decoding fluency, and comprehension skills. Attributions to ability in success situations were positively related to each outcome across the full span. On three reading outcomes, this relation strengthened at higher skill levels. Attributions to effort in success situations were consistently and negatively related to all reading outcomes. The results provide evidence that the strength of the relation between reading and attributions varies according to reading skill levels, with the strongest evidence for ability-based attributions in situations of reading success.
Shan-Ju Lin Chang
Full Text Available “Reading on the Internet” or digital reading has been a controversial issue in recent years as more and more young adults spent more time on Internet, and engaged in reading activities which may differ from the traditional conception of reading. More importantly, some observe that digital reading seems to have negative impacts on students’ reading capabilities at the individual level and citizens’ literacy at the national level. How can we understand the phenomenon of reading in a digital age? Online activities are facilitating or hindering the development of reading capabilities of young adults? What do we mean when we evaluate the reading capabilities in a digital age? This paper explores the pros and cons of reading on the Internet or digital reading, the technological, social and economic forces that influence those viewpoints, and discusses the findings of some empirical studies. The implications from this study for educational policy makers and educators conclude this paper. [Article content in Chinese; Extended abstract in English
Reading Comprehension Difficulties among French Students of the University of Education, Winneba: ... The quality of work done depends so much on the level of understanding of the reading text by students. ... AJOL African Journals Online.
Jackson, Mark D.; McClelland, James L.
Two groups of undergraduates differing in reading ability were tested on a number of reaction-time tasks designed to determine the speed of encoding visual information at several different levels, tests of sensory functions, verbal and quantitative reasoning ability, short-term auditory memory span, and ability to comprehend spoken text.…
Ginger, Tracey; Ritchie, Georgina
The ever-evolving role of the Specialist Practitioner Qualified District Nurse (SPQDN) presents an increasing number of challenges for Practice Teachers and mentors in preparing SPQDN students for the elevated level clinical and transformational leadership necessary to ensure high-quality patient care. The daily challenges of clinical practice within the community nursing setting in addition to undertaking educational interventions in the clinical arena demand that a structured approach to supervision and mentorship is crucial. Employing learning plans to assess individual students learning needs, prepare plans for educational developments and interventions and evaluate a student's progress can be a helpful tool in aiding the learning journey for both the SPQDN student and Practice Teacher or mentor. This article examines how and why a structured learning plan may be used in supporting learning and competency in achieving the necessary level of practice to meet the requirements of the SPQDN.
Comer, William J.
This study describes how intermediate-level first language English readers of Russian as a second language deploy lexical inferencing and other strategies when reading informational texts. Fifth-semester students of Russian performed think-alouds while reading two texts; one written for the general adult reader, and the other meant for school-age…
The purpose of this action research was to investigate the effect of extensive reading and related activities on the acquisition of lexical chunks in EFL students. Seven adult EFL learners with an Intermediate level volunteered to take part in the 16 week project following Extensive Reading principles combined with tasks based on the Lexical…
Higgins, Niall S; Taraporewalla, Kersi; Edirippulige, Sisira; Ware, Robert S; Steyn, Michael; Watson, Marcus O
To measure specialist international medical graduates' (SIMGs) level of learning through participation in guided tutorials, face-to-face or through videoconferencing (VC), and the effect of tutorial attendance and quality of participation on success in specialist college examinations. Tutorials were conducted at the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital between 19 September 2007 and 23 August 2010, and delivered through VC to participants at other locations. Tutorials were recorded and transcribed, and speaker contributions were tagged and ranked using content analysis software. Summary examination results were obtained from the Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists. Tutorial participation and attendance, and college examination pass and fail rates. Transcripts were obtained for 116 tutorials. The median participation percentage for those who subsequently failed the college examinations was 1% (interquartile range [IQR], 0%-1%), while for those who passed the exams it was 5% (IQR, 2%-8%; P technology was found to be a feasible method to assist SIMGs to become aware of the requirements of the exam and to prepare more effectively.
O'Neill, M B; Nabialek, T; Kandamany, N
In the training process, there is a tension between the work life and home life of trainees. This study explored both the personal impact and the opportunity costs of training from the Specialist Paediatric Registrar (SPR) perspective. The survey explored 1) career progression, 2) perceived functional effectiveness at work, 3) psychological impact of hospital based training, and 4) the personal and social cost of training. Fifty-three (71%) SPRs responded of whom 47 (89%)were married or in long term relationships. Seventy-five percent of trainees had a definite career plan with 86% intending to undertake fellowship training. Seventy percent believed they were efficient time managers but 53% had difficulty in making time for academic pursuits and fifty percent experienced negative feelings, which lingered after work and interfered with their relationships at home. Seventy-four percent stated training was undertaken at significant personal cost with only 21% achieving a very satisfactory work/life balance. To address these difficulties trainee wellbeing should be addressed at the Basic Specialist Training (BST) level and the career path clearly explained outlining the challenges that are likely to be encountered.
In the training process, there is a tension between the work life and home life of trainees. This study explored both the personal impact and the opportunity costs of training from the Specialist Paediatric Registrar (SPR) perspective. The survey explored 1) career progression2) perceived functional effectiveness at work 3) psychological impact of hospital based training and 4) the personal and social cost of training. Fifty-three (71%) SPRs responded of whom 47 (89%)were married or in long term relationships. Seventy-five percent of trainees had a definite career plan with 86% intending to undertake fellowship training. Seventy percent believed they were efficient time managers but 53% had difficulty in making time for academic pursuits and fifty percent experienced negative feelings, which lingered after work and interfered with their relationships at home. Seventy-four percent stated training was undertaken at significant personal cost with only 21% achieving a very satisfactory work\\/life balance. To address these difficulties trainee wellbeing should be addressed at the Basic Specialist Training (BST) level and the career path clearly explained outlining the challenges that are likely to be encountered.
Lui, D H; McDonald, J J; de Beaux, A; Tulloh, B; Brady, R R W
Healthcare professional engagement is increasing. This study aims to identify levels of adoption and engagement of several social media platforms by a large international cohort of hernia surgery specialists. Hernia specialists attending the 38th International Congress of the European Hernia Society were identified. A manual search was then performed on Twitter, ResearchGate, and LinkedIn to identify those who had named accounts. Where accounts were identified, data on markers of utilisation were assessed. 759 surgeons (88.5% male) from 57 countries were identified. 334 surgeons (44%) engaged with a social media platform. 39 (5.1%) had Twitter accounts, 189 (24.9%) had ResearchGate accounts and 265 (34.9%) had LinkedIn accounts. 137 surgeons (18.1%) had accounts on 2 or more social media platforms. There was no gender association with social media account ownership (p > 0.05). Engagement in one social media platform was associated with increased engagement and utilisation on other platforms; LinkedIn users were more likely to have Twitter accounts (p social media amongst Hernia surgeons is similar to other surgical specialities. Geographical variation in SM engagement is seen. Engagement with one SM platform is associated with presence on multiple platforms.
Flexer, S M; Durham-Hall, A C; Steward, M A; Robinson, J M
Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEMS) is becoming more widespread due to the increasing body of evidence to support its role. Previous published data has reported recurrence rates in excess of 10% for benign polyps after TEMS. Bradford Royal Infirmary is a tertiary referral centre for TEMS and early rectal cancer in the UK. Data for all TEMS operations were entered into a prospective database over a 7-year period. Demographic data, complications and recurrence rates were recorded. Both benign adenomas and malignant lesions were included. A total of 164 patients (65% male), with a mean age of 68 years were included; 114 (70%) of the lesions resected were benign adenomas, and 50 (30%) were malignant lesions. Median polyp size was 4 (range 0.6-14.5) cm. Mean length of operation was 55 (range 10-120) min. There were no recurrences in any patients with a benign adenoma resected; two patients with malignant lesions developed recurrences. Three intra-operative complications were recorded, two rectal perforations (repaired primarily, one requiring defunctioning stoma), and a further patient suffered a blood loss of >300 ml requiring transfusion. Six patients developed strictures requiring dilation either endoscopically or under anaesthetic in the post-operative period. We have demonstrated that TEMS procedures performed in a specialist centre provide low rates of both recurrence and complication. Within a specialist centre, TEMS surgery should be offered to all patients for rectal lesions, both benign and malignant, that are amenable to TEMS.
Hauptman, Allyson L.
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between Guided Reading and student motivation to read across fourth, fifth, and sixth grades. The study defined literacy motivation as: (a) task value; (b) self-perceived competence; (c) students' perceptions of the Guided Reading format. Factor analysis and repeated measures ANOVAs were…
Wright, Benjamin D.; Stenner, A. Jackson
This document discusses the measurement of reading ability and the readability of books by application of the Lexile framework. It begins by stating the importance of uniform measures. It then discusses the history of reading ability testing, based on the assumption that no researcher has been able to measure more than one kind of reading ability.…
McCreary, John J.; Marchant, Gregory J.
The relationship between reading and empathy was explored. Controlling for GPA and gender, reading variables were hypothesized as related to empathy; the relationship was expected to differ for males and females. For the complete sample, affective components were related to GPA but not reading. Perspective taking was related to reading…
In high school students get tied up in extracurricular activities and have little time for pleasure reading. It is true that with rigorous academic schedules they have little time for pleasure reading. Thus began a conversation with a sophomore English teacher at the author's high school. As they were discussing the plight of free reading he was…
An exploration of the increasingly important role of linguistics in literacy research and instruction reviews literature on reading comprehension, written language, orthography, metalinguistics, classroom language use, reading disabilities, native tongues, nonstandard dialects, bilingual education, adult literacy, and second-language reading. (86…
The use of traditional stories in American Indian language programs connects students' reading to their lives and familiarizes learners with the rhythms of the oral language. Puppet performances are one way of connecting reading programs to the Native oral tradition. A high school reading lesson in a first-year Hupa language class uses many…
Protacio, Maria Selena
This study investigates the reading engagement of four middle school English learners in their English or English as a Second Language classroom. Students with high levels of reading engagement are those who (a) are motivated to read, (b) use strategies when reading, (c) use reading as a way to construct meaning from texts, and (d) participate in…
Roch, Maja; Levorato, M Chiara
According to the 'Simple View of Reading' (Hoover and Gough 1990), individual differences in reading comprehension are accounted for by decoding skills and listening comprehension, each of which makes a unique and specific contribution. The current research was aimed at testing the Simple View of Reading in individuals with Down's syndrome and comparing their profiles with typically developing first graders. Listening comprehension and the ability to read both words and non-words was compared in two groups with the same level of reading comprehension: 23 individuals with Down's syndrome aged between 11 years 3 months and 18 years 2 months and 23 first-grade typically developing children aged between 6 years 2 months and 7 years 4 months. The results indicate that at the same level of reading comprehension, individuals with Down's syndrome have less developed listening comprehension and more advanced word recognition than typically developing first graders. A comparison of the profiles of the two groups revealed that reading comprehension level was predicted by listening comprehension in both groups of participants and by word-reading skills only in typically developing children. The Simple View of Reading model is confirmed for individuals with Down's syndrome, although they do not show the reading profile of typically developing first graders; rather, they show an atypical profile similar to that of 'poor comprehenders' (Cain and Oakhill 2006). The crucial role of listening comprehension in Down's syndrome is also discussed with reference to the educational implications.
Bates, Celeste C.; D'Agostino, Jerome V.; Gambrell, Linda; Xu, Meling
This study examined the effects of Reading Recovery on children's motivational levels, and how motivation may contribute to the effect of the intervention on literacy achievement. Prior studies concluded that Reading Recovery was positively associated with increased student motivation levels, but most of those studies were limited…
Müller, J.; Stadler, J.; Jarzabek-Müller, A.; Hacker, H.; Braak, ter C.J.F.; Brandl, R.
The difficulties specialized phytophagous insects face in finding habitats with an appropriate host should constrain their dispersal. Within the concept of metacommunities, this leads to the prediction that host-plant specialists should sort into local assemblages according to the local
Haslerud, Torjan; Tulipan, Andreas Julius; Gray, Robert M; Biermann, Martin
While e-learning has become an important tool in teaching medical students, the training of specialists in medical imaging is still dominated by lecture-based courses. To assess the potential of e-learning in specialist education in medical imaging. An existing lecture-based five-day course in Clinical Nuclear Medicine (NM) was enhanced by e-learning resources and activities, including practical exercises. An anonymized survey was conducted after participants had completed and passed the multiple choice electronic course examination. Twelve out of 15 course participants (80%) responded. Overall satisfaction with the new course format was high, but 25% of the respondents wanted more interactive elements such as discussions and practical exercises. The importance of lecture handouts and supplementary online material such as selected original articles and professional guidelines was affirmed by all the respondents (92% fully, 8% partially), while 75% fully and 25% partially agreed that the lectures had been interesting and relevant. E-learning represents a hitherto unrealized potential in the education of medical specialists. It may expedite training of medical specialists while at the same time containing costs.
Muijselaar, M.M.L.; Swart, N.M.; Steenbeek-Planting, E.G.; Droop, W.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Jong, P.F. de
We examined the developmental relations between knowledge of reading strategies and reading comprehension in a longitudinal study of 312 Dutch children from the beginning of fourth grade to the end of fifth grade. Measures for reading comprehension, reading strategies, reading fluency, vocabulary, and working memory were administered. A structural equation model was constructed to estimate the unique relations between reading strategies and reading comprehension, while controlling for reading...
Codding, Robin S.; Petscher, Yaacov; Truckenmiller, Adrea
A paucity of research has examined the utility of curriculum-based measurement (CBM) for data-based decision making at the secondary level. As schools move to multitiered systems of service delivery, it is conceivable that multiple screening measures will be used that address various academic subject areas. The value of including different CBM…
A longitudinal research study observed 30 children between the ages of infancy and elementary age to determine if using large muscle motor patterns to master the three identified midlines that concur with the body planes used in anatomy is reflected in academic classroom learning levels. This third part of the study focused on the frontal midline.…
Ankara : Faculty of Humanities and Letters and the Institute of Economics and Social Sciences of Bilkent University, 1993. Thesis (Master's) -- -Bilkent University, 1993. Includes bibliographical references leaves 35-40. The main focus of this study was to investigate pre-reading activities in EFL/ESL reading textbooks and to determine teachers' attitudes toward pre-reading activities. Fifteen reading textbooks for EFL/ESL students for different proficiency levels (beginning, interm...
Full Text Available Research on cross-linguistic comparisons of the neural correlates of reading has consistently found that the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG is more involved in Chinese than in English. However, there is a lack of consensus on the interpretation of the language difference. Because this region has been found to be involved in writing, we hypothesize that reading Chinese characters involves this writing region to a greater degree because Chinese speakers learn to read by repeatedly writing the characters. To test this hypothesis, we recruited English L1 learners of Chinese, who performed a reading task and a writing task in each language. The English L1 sample had learned some Chinese characters through character-writing and others through phonological learning, allowing a test of writing-on-reading effect. We found that the left MFG was more activated in Chinese than English regardless of task, and more activated in writing than in reading regardless of language. Furthermore, we found that this region was more activated for reading Chinese characters learned by character-writing than those learned by phonological learning. A major conclusion is that writing regions are also activated in reading, and that this reading-writing connection is modulated by the learning experience. We replicated the main findings in a group of native Chinese speakers, which excluded the possibility that the language differences observed in the English L1 participants were due to different language proficiency level.
Cao, Fan; Perfetti, Charles A
Research on cross-linguistic comparisons of the neural correlates of reading has consistently found that the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG) is more involved in Chinese than in English. However, there is a lack of consensus on the interpretation of the language difference. Because this region has been found to be involved in writing, we hypothesize that reading Chinese characters involves this writing region to a greater degree because Chinese speakers learn to read by repeatedly writing the characters. To test this hypothesis, we recruited English L1 learners of Chinese, who performed a reading task and a writing task in each language. The English L1 sample had learned some Chinese characters through character-writing and others through phonological learning, allowing a test of writing-on-reading effect. We found that the left MFG was more activated in Chinese than English regardless of task, and more activated in writing than in reading regardless of language. Furthermore, we found that this region was more activated for reading Chinese characters learned by character-writing than those learned by phonological learning. A major conclusion is that writing regions are also activated in reading, and that this reading-writing connection is modulated by the learning experience. We replicated the main findings in a group of native Chinese speakers, which excluded the possibility that the language differences observed in the English L1 participants were due to different language proficiency level.
Full Text Available The academic success of the university students greatly depends on the mastery of an academic reading skill. However, students as well as teachers, take the learning of this skill for granted, as they tend to presuppose that reading skill is acquired as a part of their secondary education. As a result, most first-year students employ non university strategies to read academic texts, which leads to a surface approach to reading and prevents students from a better understanding of the material. This paper will discuss the strategies that involve students in taking a deep approach to reading academic texts.
Laísa Cristina dos Santos Guilherme; Rodrigo Ferreira Daverni
Abstract: Reading in preschool is a time of awakening the taste and pleasure in reading, it is also a source of reflection, discovery and learn to listen. It is then necessary that the contact with the reading start from pre-school, with a variety of texts and the teacher also has the habit of reading in their daily lives. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the benefits of daily reading in the classroom pre-school life of a student, which the characteristics of a player and teacher re...
Veenendaal, N.J.; Groen, M.A.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.
Text reading fluency – the ability to read quickly, accurately and with a natural intonation – has been proposed as a predictor of reading comprehension. In the current study, we examined the role of oral text reading fluency, defined as text reading rate and text reading prosody, as a contributor
Foreman, L.R.; Stark, J.C. [comp.
This tenth meeting of specialists in target fabrication for inertial confinement is unique in that it is the first meeting that was completely unclassified. As a result of the new classification, we were able to invite more foreign participation. In addition to participants from the US, UK, and Canada, representatives from France, Japan, and two Russian laboratories attended, about 115 in all. This booklet presents full papers and poster sessions. Indirect and direct drive laser implosions are considered. Typical topics include: polymer or aluminium or resorcinol/formaldehyde shells, laser technology, photon tunneling microscopy as a characterization tool, foams, coatings, hohlraums, and beryllium capsules. Hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, and beryllium are all considered as fuels.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND The neurosurgical patient is often a real challenge for the physicians, because of a frequent multimorbidity and a higher risk for severe complications. Cooperation between internal medicine specialist and neurosurgeon is essential to prevent the fatal effects of cranial and spinal injuries. The topic issues of medical interest in neurosurgery are the disorders of sodium balance, the glycemic control, the thromboembolic risk, the intracerebral bleeding management and the infective problems. The neurosurgeons could be worried by treating these complications that are mostly of internal medicine interest and that could unfortunately rise the risk of death or irreversible insults. AIM OF THE REVIEW This review summarizes the modality of diagnosis and therapy of the foremost concerns in neurosurgical field.
District nurse (DN) care delivery has undergone substantial change in recent years due to changing demographics and service delivery demands that have called for a move of care delivery from secondary to primary care. The title District Nurse is recorded with the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) on completion of the Specialist Practice Qualification in District Nursing (SPQ DN), which purports to be a 'transformational' course that prepares future caseload holders to manage their team and prioritise care delivery effectively. This article explores the need for assertiveness skills in this role in response to Australian research, and outlines the pedagogic interventions implemented during the SPQ DN course to enhance this skill. Assertiveness scores were monitored for the duration of the course and demonstrated a significant increase-a topic that is now the subject of a future, funded study.
In the business world 'CNN REVOLUTION' is prevailing. 'CNN REVOLUTION' means the information system organized mostly by the Computer and the Communication Network through which they can make a vital business judgment. They try to give customers better service, enjoy a higher share and be more competitive through the information system, which enables them to control various information inside their firm completely and use it most usefully. They are also trying to hard to make the information system effective enough to gather information outside their firm. In making use of information for business, it is vital to get 'intelligence' which analized and processed information and to expand information distribution inside their company freely. As a new field of activity information specialist are expected to take a more important role in developing how to get 'good intelligence' and making useful information accessible through the information system.
Foreman, L.R.; Stark, J.C.
This tenth meeting of specialists in target fabrication for inertial confinement is unique in that it is the first meeting that was completely unclassified. As a result of the new classification, we were able to invite more foreign participation. In addition to participants from the US, UK, and Canada, representatives from France, Japan, and two Russian laboratories attended, about 115 in all. This booklet presents full papers and poster sessions. Indirect and direct drive laser implosions are considered. Typical topics include: polymer or aluminium or resorcinol/formaldehyde shells, laser technology, photon tunneling microscopy as a characterization tool, foams, coatings, hohlraums, and beryllium capsules. Hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, and beryllium are all considered as fuels
Full Text Available By adopting the constructs of reading literacy and with the use of information and communication technology, the purpose of this study is to develop two adolescent online reading literacy assessments (ORLA and examine the preliminary validity of ORLA. In addition, samples of online reading literacy performance are described. The design of ORLA is based on PISA electronic reading assessment framework and Leu et al. (2004’s online reading comprehension definition. A total of 601 eighth graders from junior high schools and 618 tenth graders from senior high schools in Taiwan City participated in this study. This study uses Rasch IRT model to calibrate the item parameter and scale scores. The results indicated: the online reading literacy assessments had adequate difficulty level, reasonable validity evidences, and students’ online reading literacy performance contains ICT element which is different from offline reading; the gender effect exists in the online reading environment by grades.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to compare primary school 5th-class students’ electronic text reading performance, reading speed and reading comprehension with tablet PCs and printed books. This study examined a sample of 20 students. The students were randomly divided into two groups, a control group and a treatment group. The control group students read ordinary printed books, and the students in the treatment group read the same text on an electronic tablet PC display. Both qualitative and quantitative data collection tools were used for the study. Qualitative data were collected on the reading speed and reading comprehension skills for both groups of students. Statistically, there was no significant difference between the groups in reading speed or the level of reading comprehension. Students’ opinions on tablet PCs and recommendations for future studies are also discussed.
Arab, Alberto; Trigo, José Roberto
Plant defensive compounds may be a cost rather than a benefit when plants are attacked by specialist insects that may overcome chemical barriers by strategies such as sequestering plant compounds. Plants may respond to specialist herbivores by compensatory growth rather than chemical defense. To explore the use of defensive chemistry vs. compensatory growth we studied Brugmansia suaveolens (Solanaceae) and the specialist larvae of the ithomiine butterfly Placidina euryanassa, which sequester defensive tropane alkaloids (TAs) from this host plant. We investigated whether the concentration of TAs in B. suaveolens was changed by P. euryanassa damage, and whether plants invest in growth, when damaged by the specialist. Larvae feeding during 24 hr significantly decreased TAs in damaged plants, but they returned to control levels after 15 days without damage. Damaged and undamaged plants did not differ significantly in leaf area after 15 days, indicating compensatory growth. Our results suggest that B. suaveolens responds to herbivory by the specialist P. euryanassa by investing in growth rather than chemical defense.
Jacobi, Judith; Ray, Shaunta'; Danelich, Ilya; Dodds Ashley, Elizabeth; Eckel, Stephen; Guharoy, Roy; Militello, Michael; O'Donnell, Paul; Sam, Teena; Crist, Stephanie M; Smidt, Danielle
This paper describes the goals of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists' Pharmacy Practice Model Initiative (PPMI) and its recommendations for health-system pharmacy practice transformation to meet future patient care needs and elevate the role of pharmacists as patient care providers. PPMI envisions a future in which pharmacists have greater responsibility for medication-related outcomes and technicians assume greater responsibility for product-related activities. Although the PPMI recommendations have elevated the level of practice in many settings, they also potentially affect existing clinical pharmacists, in general, and clinical pharmacy specialists, in particular. Moreover, although more consistent patient care can be achieved with an expanded team of pharmacist providers, the role of clinical pharmacy specialists must not be diminished, especially in the care of complex patients and populations. Specialist practitioners with advanced training and credentials must be available to model and train pharmacists in generalist positions, residents, and students. Indeed, specialist practitioners are often the innovators and practice leaders. Negotiation between hospitals and pharmacy schools is needed to ensure a continuing role for academic clinical pharmacists and their contributions as educators and researchers. Lessons can be applied from disciplines such as nursing and medicine, which have developed new models of care involving effective collaboration between generalists and specialists. Several different pharmacy practice models have been described to meet the PPMI goals, based on available personnel and local goals. Studies measuring the impact of these new practice models are needed. © 2016 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.
Marshall, Z; Luffingham, N
Much conflict and confusion surrounds the title and role of the specialist nurse, leading in some instances to disharmony between general and specialist nurses. It has been suggested that too many highly specialized nurses in a general area may lead to a deskilled workforce and fragmented care. Attempts to define the key concepts of specialist practice as described by the UKCC has resulted in elitism, conflict and abuse of the title. One suggestion to eliminate this conflict is for specialist nurses to achieve key competencies that encompass the role of the clinical expert. These key competencies should be devised by specialist nurses, in the absence of national guidelines, and be agreed by employers. They should incorporate the key roles of: change agent, expert clinician, educator, researcher and coordinator. It is contended that if all concerned have a clearer definition of the title, role and what is expected from the specialist nurse then this will result in reduced conflict and improved quality of care.
Bambang Yudi Cahyono
Full Text Available Abstract: Skills in reading (and learning information from texts written in English as a foreign language (EFL reading constitute an important element of the establishment of English curriculum of secondary and tertiary schools (both English and non-English departments in Indonesia. The need of the learners to be skilled in reading to learn has inspired EFL reading teachers or specialists to apply some techniques in the teaching of EFL reading and to investigate the effects of the techniques on improving Indonesian studentsâ€™ reading skills, as well as to examine various related aspects such as reading materials, reading strategies, and factors affecting reading comprehension. Our purpose in writing this article is to review recent development in the EFL reading pedagogy and research in Indonesia and to view it from the broader perspective on the theories of reading processÂ and ESL/EFL reading instruction. Drawing on the results of this analysis, we will outline the current trends and recommend future direction in the EFL reading pedagogy and research in this country.
Full Text Available Some aspects of education of specialists are reflected in the article. Methods and problems of organization of improvement of quality and efficiency of learning process are considered. The paper conducts a comparative analysis of the competencies that are formed at different levels of education according to Russian and European educational standards.
Marco-Bujosa, Lisa M.; Levy, Abigail Jurist
Elementary schools are under increasing pressure to teach science and teach it well; yet, research documents that classroom teachers must overcome numerous personal and school-based challenges to teach science effectively at this level, such as access to materials and inadequate instructional time. The elementary science specialist model…
Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.
These military-developed curriculum materials consist of five volumes of text information, student workbooks, and supplements for use in training veterinary specialists. Covered in the individual volumes are the following topics: the veterinary airman, administration, and statistical procedures; veterinary microbiology, consumer-level quality…
Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.
This plan of instruction, lesson plans, and student study guides and workbooks for a secondary-postsecondary level course for an entomology specialist are one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in a civilian setting. The course includes training on…
Bacon, Pamela S.
This book contains tips (author's suggestions), tools (ready-to-use lifesavers), and talk (quotes from practicing media specialists) for school librarians at all grade levels. A total of 100 lifesavers are included, covering areas such as inventory, motivation strategies, disciplinary approaches, library checkout, Internet searching, the traveling…
Sarbaz, Masoumeh; Naderi, Hamid Reza; Aelami, Mohammad Hassan; Eslami, Saeid
Background: Physicians continually need to update their knowledge to ensure appropriate decision making about patient care. Objectives: We aimed to identify and compare information sources used by specialists and residents, their reasons for choosing these sources, and the level of their confidence
Cassenote, Alex Jones Flores; Scheffer, Mario César; Segurado, Aluísio Augusto Cotrim
The infectious diseases specialist is a medical doctor dedicated to the management of infectious diseases in their individual and collective dimensions. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the current profile and distribution of infectious diseases specialists in Brazil. This is a cross-sectional study using secondary data obtained from institutions that register medical specialists in Brazil. Variables of interest included gender, age, type of medical school (public or private) the specialist graduated from, time since finishing residency training in infectious diseases, and the interval between M.D. graduation and residency completion. Maps are used to study the geographical distribution of infectious diseases specialists. A total of 3229 infectious diseases specialist registries were counted, with 94.3% (3045) of individual counts (heads) represented by primary registries. The mean age was 43.3 years (SD 10.5), and a higher proportion of females was observed (57%; 95% CI 55.3-58.8). Most Brazilian infectious diseases specialists (58.5%) practice in the Southeastern region. However, when distribution rates were calculated, several states exhibited high concentration of infectious diseases specialists, when compared to the national rate (16.06). Interestingly, among specialists working in the Northeastern region, those trained locally had completed their residency programs more recently (8.7yrs; 95% CI 7.9-9.5) than physicians trained elsewhere in the country (13.6yrs: 95% CI 11.8-15.5). Our study shows that Brazilian infectious diseases specialists are predominantly young and female doctors. Most have concluded a medical residency training program. The absolute majority practice in the Southeastern region. However, some states from the Northern, Northeastern and Southeastern regions exhibit specialist rates above the national average. In these areas, nonetheless, there is a strong concentration of infectious diseases specialists in state capitals and in
Alex Jones Flores Cassenote
Conclusion: Our study shows that Brazilian infectious diseases specialists are predominantly young and female doctors. Most have concluded a medical residency training program. The absolute majority practice in the Southeastern region. However, some states from the Northern, Northeastern and Southeastern regions exhibit specialist rates above the national average. In these areas, nonetheless, there is a strong concentration of infectious diseases specialists in state capitals and in metropolitan areas.
Djuric, G.; Popovic, D.
The education of radiation protection for veterinary medicine specialists on the University of Belgrade is integrated both in regular graduate studies and in postgraduate studies. Within the graduate studies, students attend courses in physics and biophysics and in radiation hygiene. During postgraduate or specialistic veterinary medicine studies, veterinary medicine specialists expand their knowledge in radiation protection through a number of courses on radiation biophysics, radioecology, nuclear instrumentation and environmental protection. (author)
Gruen, Russell L; Knox, Stephanie; Britt, Helena; Bailie, Ross S
Background The interface between primary care and specialist medical services is an important domain for health services research and policy. Of particular concern is optimising specialist services and the organisation of the specialist workforce to meet the needs and demands for specialist care, particularly those generated by referral from primary care. However, differences in the disease classification and reporting of the work of primary and specialist surgical sectors hamper such research. This paper describes the development of a bridging classification for use in the study of potential surgical problems in primary care settings, and for classifying referrals to surgical specialties. Methods A three stage process was undertaken, which involved: (1) defining the categories of surgical disorders from a specialist perspective that were relevant to the specialist-primary care interface; (2) classifying the 'terms' in the International Classification of Primary Care Version 2-Plus (ICPC-2 Plus) to the surgical categories; and (3) using referral data from 303,000 patient encounters in the BEACH study of general practice activity in Australia to define a core set of surgical conditions. Inclusion of terms was based on the probability of specialist referral of patients with such problems, and specialists' perception that they constitute part of normal surgical practice. Results A four-level hierarchy was developed, containing 8, 27 and 79 categories in the first, second and third levels, respectively. These categories classified 2050 ICPC-2 Plus terms that constituted the fourth level, and which covered the spectrum of problems that were managed in primary care and referred to surgical specialists. Conclusion Our method of classifying terms from a primary care classification system to categories delineated by specialists should be applicable to research addressing the interface between primary and specialist care. By describing the process and putting the bridging
Full Text Available One of the unconventional features of Wittgenstein’s Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus is its use of an elaborated and detailed numbering system. Recently, Bazzocchi, Hacker und Kuusela have argued that the numbering system means that the Tractatus must be read and interpreted not as a sequentially ordered book, but as a text with a two-dimensional, tree-like structure. Apart from being able to explain how the Tractatus was composed, the tree reading allegedly solves exegetical issues both on the local (e. g. how 4.02 fits into the series of remarks surrounding it and the global level (e. g. relation between ontology and picture theory, solipsism and the eye analogy, resolute and irresolute readings. This paper defends the sequential reading against the tree reading. After presenting the challenges generated by the numbering system and the two accounts as attempts to solve them, it is argued that Wittgenstein’s own explanation of the numbering system, anaphoric references within the Tractatus and the exegetical issues mentioned above do not favour the tree reading, but a version of the sequential reading. This reading maintains that the remarks of the Tractatus form a sequential chain: The role of the numbers is to indicate how remarks on different levels are interconnected to form a concise, surveyable and unified whole.
Leyva-González, Félix Arturo; Cacho-Salazar, Julio M; Degollado-Bardales, Lilia; Zavala-Arenas, Jesús Arturo; Angulo-Bernal, Sonia Elizabeth; Leyva-Salas, César Arturo; Orozco-Bisson, Gisele Victorine
To determine the effect of an educational strategy promoting participation in the development of critical reading of educational research reports on professors of Educational Research and Teacher Education (CIEFD's). We performed an intervention study, multicenter professors (medical specialists) who enrolled in the courses: Diploma in teaching methodological level 1 and 2 (n = 46, n = 29, respectively) in the six CIEFD's (D.F. Siglo XXI, DF. La Raza, Nuevo León, Sonora, Puebla and Jalisco), in the period March to August 2007. A tool was built that assessed the variables critical appraisal of educational research reports, the construct validity, content and reliability was assessed by experts in education research. The educational strategy developed in the form of seminars, which were held three times a week in the Certification in teaching methodological level 1 and twice per week in the Certification Level 2 in teaching methodology duration per session: 6 h. The instrument was applied at the beginning and end of the course. In the two Graduates it was observed in the total group, an advance in the three indicators of critical reading, which was expressed with statistically significant differences; in the global score of the Diploma level 1 (final vs. initial measurement) the following mediums were observed: 36-67 (p = 0.0001); in the Diploma level 2, it was observed in its overall rating: 42-78 (p = 0.0001). This inquiry from the results observed some of theoretical approaches to mainstreaming participatory. An educational strategy promoting participation produced a breakthrough in the three indicators (to interpret, to judge and to formulate proposals) for critical reading of educational research reports.
Adriana Benevides Soares
Full Text Available A question of interest for educational workers is the reading comprehension process, a fundamental ability for progress in more advanced years of schooling, and its effect on pedagogical practices. This is a study that explores this question. A reading comprehension instrument composed by four structural levels of text and a scale of pedagogical practice composed by four sub-scales involving: cognitive practices with linguistic focus, cognitive practices, affective and motor practices, continuous education, was used. The results of 53 children suggest a slight tendency of teacher to prioritize cognitive practices independently of their reading comprehension level.
M. L. Gruzdeva
Full Text Available In the article discussed the question of formation of professional mobility specialist through the formation of professional competencies within the educational process in high school.
Higgins, T.J.; Diaz, M.R.
This paper provides a nontechnical discussion of the use of Technical Specialists in quality assurance audits by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management's Office of Quality Assurance. The purpose is to describe one successful solution to the problem that arises when a quality assurance organization is responsible for conducting audits of many, diverse, highly technical activities. The solution is the conduct of audits that combine both horizontal and vertical sample selection strategies and which employ Technical Specialists in the vertical portion of the audit. The Technical Specialist is paired with a programmatic auditor who perform as a dedicated team in their conduct of the audit. This paper focuses on the Technical Specialist
Yehia Ahmed Y. Al-Sohbani
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine Foreign Language (FL reading anxiety level of Arabicspeaking Yemeni students learning English as a foreign language (n = 106. It utilized (a a background information questionnaire, (b the Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale (FLRAS, and (c students' English school marks. Results of the study showed that learners of English experienced an above moderate level of FL reading anxiety. There was no significant difference between students' FL reading anxiety and their gender. However, a statistically reliable difference between the means of public and private schools regarding their FL reading anxiety in favor of the private school. Moreover, a positive correlation was found between students' FL reading anxiety and their type of school. Difficulties of uncertainty, pronunciation of English words, unfamiliar topic, unknown vocabulary, reading aloud, using word by word translation, unfamiliar English culture and history, unfamiliar grammar, English letters and symbols were identified as the major sources of FL reading anxiety.
Maguire, Martin C
The EU EuroClim project developed a system to monitor and record climate change indicator data based on satellite observations of snow cover, sea ice and glaciers in Northern Europe and the Arctic. It also contained projection data for temperature, rainfall and average wind speed for Europe. These were all stored as data sets in a GIS database for users to download. The process of gathering requirements for a user population including scientists, researchers, policy makers, educationalists and the general public is described. Using an iterative design methodology, a user survey was administered to obtain initial feedback on the system concept followed by panel sessions where users were presented with the system concept and a demonstrator to interact with it. The requirements of both specialist and non-specialist users is summarised together with strategies for the effective communication of geographic climate change information. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
Gaffner, Jacqueline; Johnson, Kary; Torres-Elias, Annette; Dryden, Lisa
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of collaborative efforts between a large metropolitan school district and the school of education at an area urban university. A reading clinic, in which university students conducted small guided reading group lessons with elementary students reading below grade level, was established through…
The Nelson Denny Reading Test (NDRT) is probably the most widely used test of reading comprehension at the college level in the nation. However, reviews of the test, as well as recent reports of its failure to adequately measure gain or lack of gain of college students enrolled in reading improvement courses, do not support the popularity it has…
Moreno-Pérez, Francisco J.; Saldaña, David; Rodríguez-Ortiz, Isabel R.
Different studies have showed poor reading performance in the deaf compared to the hearing population. This has overshadowed the fact that a minority of deaf children learns to read successfully and reaches levels similar to their hearing peers. We analyze whether deaf people deploy the same cognitive and learning processes in reading as their…
Abu-rabia, Salim; Taha, Haitham
This study was an investigation of reading and spelling errors of dyslexic Arabic readers ("n"=20) compared with two groups of normal readers: a young readers group, matched with the dyslexics by reading level ("n"=20) and an age-matched group ("n"=20). They were tested on reading and spelling of texts, isolated…
McGeown, Sarah P.; Duncan, Lynne G.; Griffiths, Yvonne M.; Stothard, Sue E.
The present study examines the extent to which adolescents' reading affect (reading motivation) and behaviour (reading habits) predict different components of reading (word reading, comprehension, summarisation and text reading speed) and also adds to the limited research examining group differences (gender, age, ability) in adolescents' reading…
During first long shutdown of The Large Hadron Collider, most of experiment infrastructures at CERN will be upgraded for preparation to operate at higher energy thus can open new possibilities to discover the unknown in particle physics. ATLAS, which is the biggest particle detector at CERN, will also be upgraded by constructing new pixel sensor layer. This new pixel sensor layer is called ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL). IBL will be installed between the existing pixel sensor and new, smaller radius beam pipe. The installation of IBL will introduce new level of radiation and pixel occupancy. Therefore, it requires development of new technologies to supports the ATLAS IBL upgrade and also improve the physics performance of the existing pixel sensor. One of the important key technologies that must be upgraded is data acquisition system. The development of new front-end ASIC, the FE-I4, to answer the challenge in data acquisition system will require new off-detector electronics. The new off-detector electronics ...
Seierstad, Tori Guldahl; Brekke, Mette; Toftemo, Ingun; Haavet, Ole Rikard
The study is an exploration of a joint consultation model, a collaboration between general practitioners (GPs) and specialists from child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) in Lillehammer, Norway. A qualitative study based on two focus group interviews, one with participating GPs and one with participating specialists from the local CAMHS. Participants were five GPs, with work experience varying from 6 months to 20 years (four of them specialists in general medicine) and two CAMHS specialists-a psychiatrist and a psychologist-both with more than 20 years of experience. The focus group discussions revealed that both GPs and CAMHS specialists saw the joint consultations as a good teaching method for improving GPs' skills in child and adolescent psychiatry. Both groups believed that this low-threshold service benefits the patients and that the joint consultation is especially suited to sort problems and determine the level of help required. The GPs and CAMHS specialists shared the impression that the collaboration model is beneficial for both patients and health care providers. Close collaboration with primary health care is recommended in the guidelines for child and adolescent psychiatry outpatient clinics. We suggest that the joint consultation model could be a good way for GPs and CAMHS specialists to collaborate.
OBJECTIVES: to evaluate specialist geriatric input and medication review in patients in high-dependency continuing care. DESIGN: prospective, randomised, controlled trial. SETTING: two residential continuing care hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: two hundred and twenty-five permanent patients. INTERVENTION: patients were randomised to either specialist geriatric input or regular input. The specialist group had a medical assessment by a geriatrician and medication review by a multidisciplinary expert panel. Regular input consisted of review as required by a medical officer attached to each ward. Reassessment occurred after 6 months. RESULTS: one hundred and ten patients were randomised to specialist input and 115 to regular input. These were comparable for age, gender, dependency levels and cognition. After 6 months, the total number of medications per patient per day fell from 11.64 to 11.09 in the specialist group (P = 0.0364) and increased from 11.07 to 11.5 in the regular group (P = 0.094). There was no significant difference in mortality or frequency of acute hospital transfers (11 versus 6 in the specialist versus regular group, P = 0.213). CONCLUSION: specialist geriatric assessment and medication review in hospital continuing care resulted in a reduction in medication use, but at a significant cost. No benefits in hard clinical outcomes were demonstrated. However, qualitative benefits and lower costs may become evident over longer periods.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between interest and reading motivation based on literature review. The concept of the interest portrayed as a psychological state that occurs during interaction between individual and specific topic, object or activity including process of willingness, increased attention, concentration and positive feeling to the topic, object or activity. Meanwhile reading motivation emphasized to mental readiness, willingness and refers to beliefs and perception of individual to engage in reading activity. Some researchers were identified factors that influenced reading motivation such as intrinsic and extrinsic factors, self-concept and value of reading, and interest. In general, the literature review described that have positive relationship between interest and reading motivation.
Full Text Available Priority directions modernization of activity of preschool educational establishments are shown. The analysis of publications, devoted creation of terms for educationally-health activity, and also professional development of specialists on its organization is resulted. In this connection light up possibilities of the use of pedagogical management. The value of management of the first and second levels is certain in professional development of specialists of preschool educational establishments. The types of organizational structures of management preschool educational establishment are appraised.
Hasan, Jhems Richard
The importance of reading in IAIN Sultan Amai Gorontalo cannot be denied. Tomake the students fit nationally and internationally, their reading skills must beof an advanced level. If reading skills are improved, learners will be able toutilize maximum resources for acquiring knowledge and information, and it willchange the whole educational scenario of the Institute. So, the present study onAn Evaluation of the Teaching of Reading Skills in IAIN Sultan AmaiGorontalo is of great importance...
Hulme, Charles; Snowling, Margaret J
We review current knowledge about the nature of reading development and disorders, distinguishing between the processes involved in learning to decode print, and the processes involved in reading comprehension. Children with decoding difficulties/dyslexia experience deficits in phoneme awareness, letter-sound knowledge and rapid automatized naming in the preschool years and beyond. These phonological/language difficulties appear to be proximal causes of the problems in learning to decode print in dyslexia. We review data from a prospective study of children at high risk of dyslexia to show that being at family risk of dyslexia is a primary risk factor for poor reading and children with persistent language difficulties at school entry are more likely to develop reading problems. Early oral language difficulties are strong predictors of later difficulties in reading comprehension. There are two distinct forms of reading disorder in children: dyslexia (a difficulty in learning to translate print into speech) and reading comprehension impairment. Both forms of reading problem appear to be predominantly caused by deficits in underlying oral language skills. Implications for screening and for the delivery of robust interventions for language and reading are discussed.
Full Text Available This study attempted to determine the effect of background music while silent reading on Iranian EFL learners’ reading comprehension. The participants were 57 Iranian EFL learners between the ages of 14 and 16 in two 3rd grade high schoolclasses at pre-intermediate proficiency level. Before treatment,both experimental and control groups took a reading comprehension pretest. In the experimental group, the researchers played Mozart sonatas as background music and asked them to read the passage silently and then answer the reading comprehension questions. In the control group, the procedure was the same, but no music was played while silent reading by the students. After ten sessions, the students of both groups were asked to answer another independent but parallel form of reading section of PET as their post-test. The independent samples t-testresultsindicated that the experimental group outperformed the control group in reading comprehension posttest, and listening to background music while silent reading had a significantly positive effect on Iranian EFL learners’ reading comprehension. The results of the present study have implications for EFL students, teachers, and teacher educators as well as syllabus designers and materials developers.
The scientific study of reading has taught us much about the beginnings of reading in childhood, with clear evidence that the gateway to reading opens when children are able to decode, or `sound out' written words. Similarly, there is a large evidence base charting the cognitive processes that characterise skilled word recognition in adults. Less understood is how children develop word reading expertise. Once basic reading skills are in place, what factors are critical for children to move from novice to expert? This paper outlines the role of reading experience in this transition. Encountering individual words in text provides opportunities for children to refine their knowledge about how spelling represents spoken language. Alongside this, however, reading experience provides much more than repeated exposure to individual words in isolation. According to the lexical legacy perspective, outlined in this paper, experiencing words in diverse and meaningful language environments is critical for the development of word reading skill. At its heart is the idea that reading provides exposure to words in many different contexts, episodes and experiences which, over time, sum to a rich and nuanced database about their lexical history within an individual's experience. These rich and diverse encounters bring about local variation at the word level: a lexical legacy that is measurable during word reading behaviour, even in skilled adults.
Urbonas, Gvidas; Jakušovaitė, Irayda; Savickas, Arūnas
The main objective of this study was to analyze pharmacy specialists' attitudes toward the quality of pharmaceutical services at Lithuanian community pharmacies. Between April and June 2009, a total of 471 Lithuanian community pharmacy specialists completed a questionnaire designed to evaluate their attitudes toward the quality of pharmaceutical services at community pharmacies. The main dimensions of pharmaceutical service quality were extracted by principal component analysis. Two main dimensions of pharmaceutical service quality were extracted: pharmacotherapeutic aspects (provision of information about drug therapy, possible side effects, health promotion, the amount of time spent with a patient, and the ascertainment that a patient understood the provided information) and socioeconomic aspects (considering patient's needs and financial capabilities, making a patient confident with the services provided). Pharmacy specialists evaluated the quality of both dimensions positively, but the quality of the first dimension was rated significantly worse than that of the second dimension. The attitudes of pharmacy specialists working at independent pharmacies were more positive toward pharmacotherapeutic aspects as compared to the specialists working at chain or state pharmacies. Pharmacotherapeutic aspects were rated better by pharmacy specialists, aged ≥ 55 years, than those younger than 45 years. Moreover, the attitudes of 45-54-year-old pharmacy specialists toward the socioeconomic aspects were more positive as compared with those of 35-44-year olds. Pharmacists rated the socioeconomic aspects of pharmaceutical service quality worse as compared with pharmacy technicians. The attitudes of pharmacy specialists working at pharmacies with 6-9 specialists were more negative toward pharmacotherapeutic aspects than those of the pharmacies with 1-2 specialists. Pharmacy specialists working at pharmacies with ≥ 10 specialists reported lower scores of socioeconomic
N. O. Tkachenko
Full Text Available Today professionalism is important not only for the characteristics of an individual, but also for the manifestation of professional activities. Self-education, self-training and training on the working place are integral elements of the whole continuous professional development. Various components of professionalism form the social responsibility of pharmacist in contemporary conditions. During all professional activities of pharmacists the continuous formation of administrative, economic, legal, communication, social and information competence takes place. Professionally oriented periodical publications, scientific and practical activities act as assistants in it. The aim of this work was to study the sources of the information professional field of pharmaceutical establishments’ staff in the South-eastern region of Ukraine and to determine the frequency of their use and orientation. Gathering of information was carried out using questionnaires. The structure of the developed questionnaire provided conventional separation of questions into two blocks. The first set of questions in the questionnaire provided respondents’ characteristics by demographic and psychological criteria: age, position, length of service, type of enterprise’s ownership. The second set of questions provided the opportunity to identify the main sources of professional information of the specialists in the region, the frequency of their use and the orientation of information for practical activities. Results and discussion. The respondents were proposed the list of periodicals, which today pharmacy specialists are guided by for understanding of modern trends in medicine and pharmacy. The survey results made it possible to determine the most required in practice, sources of information on modern medicine and pharmacy: special edition "Mister blister", "Weekly Drugstore" and "Pharmacist Practical worker". Experts of various levels of pharmacy management use these
Full Text Available Despite large-scale interventions, significant numbers of adults worldwide continue to have problems with basic literacy, in particular in the area of reading. To be effective, adult reading teachers need expert knowledge at practitioner level. However, practices in adult reading education vary widely, often reflecting the individual beliefs of each teacher about how an adult can learn to read. In this study, phenomenographic analysis was used to identify categories of approaches to teaching adult reading, used by a group of 60 teachers in Western Australia and New Zealand. Four approaches were identified: reassurance, task-based, theory-based and responsive. It is argued that for teachers to become effective and consistent in responding to learner needs, they must understand their own beliefs and the consequences of these. The identification of different approaches in adult reading education is an important step in this process.
This study aimed to expand on existing research about motivational change by investigating within-year changes of adolescents' intrinsic reading motivation and perceived reading instruction among students from different grades and achievement levels. Six hundred and ninety five students from 10 secondary schools in Hong Kong voluntarily completed…
Park, Ho-Ryong; Kim, Deoksoon
This study investigates adult English language learners' reading-strategy use when they read online texts in hypermedia learning environments. The learners joined the online Independent English Study Group (IESG) and worked both individually and collaboratively. This qualitative case study aims (a) to assess college-level ESL learners' use of…
Iwai, Yuko; Filce, Hollie; Ramp, Ellen
In this study, the authors examined the impact of metacognitive reading strategies on international college students' academic success by correcting the Survey of Reading Strategies (SORS) instrument with (a) grade point averages (GPAs) and (b) the English language proficiency levels, categorized by beginning (students at the English Language…
Crowe, Elizabeth Coyne; Connor, Carol McDonald; Petscher, Yaacov
Policy changes at the federal and state level are endeavoring to improve student achievement at schools serving children from lower-SES homes. One important strategy is the focus on using evidence-based core reading curricula to provide a consistent framework for instruction across schools. However, rarely have these curricula undergone rigorous comparative testing. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of six core reading curricula on oral reading fluency growth, while appraising whether these effects differ by grade level and for children living in lower socioeconomic (SES) households. Over 30,000 students in first through third grade Florida Reading First classrooms comprise this academically and economically diverse cross-sectional. Hierarchical Linear Modeling was used to model latent growth curves for students' reading fluency scores over the school year. Growth curves revealed differences across curricula as well as between students of lower and higher SES, suggesting that reading fluency growth trajectories for curricula varied depending on student SES and grade level. Findings indicate that while there are similarities among curricula, they sometimes differ in their ability to promote reading skill growth. Differences by grade level and SES were also detected. However, many of these differences were small. Implications for the use of curriculum as a conduit for improving reading instruction are discussed.
Phillips, Linda M.; Norris, Stephen P.; Hayward, Denyse V.; Lovell, Meridith A.
This study investigated whether mothers' measured reading proficiency and their educational level predict, over and above each other, their children's receptive vocabulary and reading proficiency when confounding factors of speaking a minority language, ethnicity, number of children in the family, and marital and employment status are controlled.…
Girlanda, Francesca; Fiedler, Ines; Ay, Esra; Barbui, Corrado; Koesters, Markus
Clinical practice guidelines in mental healthcare are viewed as an essential asset if appropriately developed and implemented. The purpose of this article was to review the existing literature on how guidelines should be implemented to optimize their impact on provider performance and patient outcomes in specialist mental healthcare settings. Findings from recent studies suggest a trend toward an improvement in process and patient outcomes following guideline implementation. However, studies are heterogeneous in terms of design, implementation strategies and outcome measures, making it very difficult to draw firm conclusions about which implementation strategy is effective in different healthcare contexts. Current knowledge about how guidelines should be implemented is still sparse and inconclusive in mental healthcare. Future studies should attempt to employ more rigorous designs, including random allocation of patients or clusters of patients, to shed further light on this compelling issue. Research on guideline implementation strategies should additionally take into account potential barriers to knowledge translation, which can heavily influence the implementability of treatment recommendations.
French, Caroline; Stavropoulou, Charitini
Increasing the number of patients participating in research studies is a current priority in the National Health Service (NHS) in the United Kingdom. The role of specialist nurses in inviting patients to participate is important, yet little is known about their experiences of doing so. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of barriers and facilitators held by specialist nurses with experience of inviting adult NHS patients to a wide variety of research studies. A cross-sectional qualitative descriptive study was conducted between March and July 2015. Participants were 12 specialist nurses representing 7 different clinical specialties and 7 different NHS Trusts. We collected data using individual semi-structured interviews, and analysed transcripts using the Framework method to inductively gain a descriptive overview of barriers and facilitators. Barriers and facilitators were complex and interdependent. Perceptions varied among individuals, however barriers and facilitators centred on five main themes: i) assessing patient suitability, ii) teamwork, iii) valuing research, iv) the invitation process and v) understanding the study. Facilitators to inviting patients to participate in research often stemmed from specialist nurses' attitudes, skills and experience. Positive research cultures, effective teamwork and strong relationships between research and clinical teams at the local clinical team level were similarly important. Barriers were reported when specialist nurses felt they were providing patients with insufficient information during the invitation process, and when specialist nurses felt they did not understand studies to their satisfaction. Our study offers several new insights regarding the role of specialist nurses in recruiting patients for research. It shows that strong local research culture and teamwork overcome some wider organisational and workload barriers reported in previous studies. In addition, and in contrast to common practice
Güveli, A.; Need, A.; Graaf, N.D. de
Do the social and cultural specialists differ from the technocrats and other social classes with respect to their socio-political, cultural and economic preferences and behaviour? If they do, is this attributable to their level and field of education? The social and cultural specialists are assumed
Muijselaar, M.; Swart, N.M.; Steenbeek-Planting, E.G,.; Droop, M.; Verhoeven, L.; de Jong, P.F.
We examined the developmental relations between knowledge of reading strategies and reading comprehension in a longitudinal study of 312 Dutch children from the beginning of fourth grade to the end of fifth grade. Measures for reading comprehension, reading strategies, reading fluency, vocabulary,
National Council on Foreign Language and International Studies, New York, NY.
The South Asia Panel of the National Council on Foreign Languages and International Studies reports on the need for specialists in the languages and cultures of Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, and the Maldives. Two categories of specialists are discussed: (1) individuals in government, mission, etc., in…
Young, M Cherilyn; Drayton, Vonna L C; Menon, Ramdas; Walker, Lesa R; Parker, Colleen M; Cooper, Sam B; Bultman, Linda L
Assuring the sufficiency and suitability of systems of care and services for children with special health care needs (CSHCN) presents a challenge to Texas providers, agencies, and state Title V programs. To meet the need for specialist care, referrals from primary care doctors are often necessary. The objective of this study was to describe the factors associated with the need for specialist care and problems associated with obtaining referrals in Texas. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed using the National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs (NS-CSHCN) weighted sample for Texas (n = 719,014) to identify variables associated with the need for specialist care and problems obtaining referrals for specialist care. Medical need of the CSHCN and sensitivity to family values/customs was associated with greater need for specialist care, and Hispanic ethnicity and lower maternal education were associated with less need. Medical need, amount of time spent with doctors and sensitivity to values/customs, living in a large metropolitan statistical area, and lack of medical information were associated with problems obtaining a specialist care referral. Findings revealed some similarities and differences with meeting the need for specialist care when comparing Texas results to other studies. In Texas, aspects of customer satisfaction variables, especially doctors' sensitivity to family values/customs and parents' not receiving enough information on medical problems, were significantly associated with problems obtaining specialist referrals. Findings indicate a need to further research relationships and communication among doctors, CSHCN, and their families.
The Perception of Teachers and School Library Media Specialist on the Role of School Library Media Specialists in Selected Secondary Schools in Ogun State. ... Journal Home > Vol 9, No 1 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text ...
Pappas, Marjorie L.
Library media specialists need tools to help them manage the school library media program. The Internet includes a vast array of tools that a library media specialist might find useful. The websites and electronic resources included in this article are only a representative sample and future columns may explore additional tools. All the tools are…
Two Spacelab 1 payload specialists and a backup for that flight prepare for a training session in the JSC mockup and integration laboratory. Fully decked out in the Shuttle constant wear garments (foreground) are Ulf Merbold, left, and Byron K. Licktenberg, prime crewmembers on the STS-9 team. In civilian clothes is payload specialist backup Michael L. Lampton.
Millberg, Lena German; Berg, Linda; Brämberg, Elisabeth Björk; Nordström, Gun; Ohlén, Joakim
The aim was to explore the major concerns of specialist nurses pertaining to academic learning during their education and initial professional career. Specialist nursing education changed in tandem with the European educational reform in 2007. At the same time, greater demands were made on the healthcare services to provide evidence-based and safe patient-care. These changes have influenced specialist nursing programmes and consequently the profession. Grounded Theory guided the study. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire with open-ended questions distributed at the end of specialist nursing programmes in 2009 and 2010. Five universities were included. Further, individual, pair and group interviews were used to collect data from 12 specialist nurses, 5-14 months after graduation. A major concern for specialist nurses was that academic learning should be "meaningful" for their professional future. The specialist nurses' "meaningful academic learning process" was characterised by an ambivalence of partly believing in and partly being hesitant about the significance of academic learning and partly receiving but also lacking support. Specialist nurses were influenced by factors in two areas: curriculum and healthcare context. They felt that the outcome of contribution to professional confidence was critical in making academic learning meaningful. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Harris, Frances Jacobson
In this article, the author talks about the school librarian as information specialist. She stresses that the school librarian's information specialist role is more important than ever. She offers her personal toolkit that consists of four strategies in helping and teaching students to use content responsibly.
Dossett, Lesly A; Kauffmann, Rondi M; Lee, Jay S; Singh, Harkamal; Lee, M Catherine; Morris, Arden M; Jagsi, Reshma; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Dimick, Justin B
Our objective was to determine specialist physicians' attitudes and practices regarding disclosure of pre-referral errors. Physicians are encouraged to disclose their own errors to patients. However, no clear professional norms exist regarding disclosure when physicians discover errors in diagnosis or treatment that occurred at other institutions before referral. We conducted semistructured interviews of cancer specialists from 2 National Cancer Institute-designated Cancer Centers. We purposively sampled specialists by discipline, sex, and experience-level who self-described a >50% reliance on external referrals (n = 30). Thematic analysis of verbatim interview transcripts was performed to determine physician attitudes regarding disclosure of pre-referral medical errors; whether and how physicians disclose these errors; and barriers to providing full disclosure. Participants described their experiences identifying different types of pre-referral errors including errors of diagnosis, staging and treatment resulting in adverse events ranging from decreased quality of life to premature death. The majority of specialists expressed the belief that disclosure provided no benefit to patients, and might unnecessarily add to their anxiety about their diagnoses or prognoses. Specialists had varying practices of disclosure including none, non-verbal, partial, event-dependent, and full disclosure. They identified a number of barriers to disclosure, including medicolegal implications and damage to referral relationships, the profession's reputation, and to patient-physician relationships. Specialist physicians identify pre-referral errors but struggle with whether and how to provide disclosure, even when clinical circumstances force disclosure. Education- or communication-based interventions that overcome barriers to disclosing pre-referral errors warrant development.
Full Text Available Reading is a part of our daily lives. It is performed both for pleasure and information. Reading skills are important for the individuals since they foster comprehension in reading. If the students do not have knowledge of reading skills, they cannot be expected to be successful readers. Thus, they cannot achieve the level of comprehension required to pass exams in their own departments. For this reason, reading skills should be taught in universities for the students to be able to cope with comprehension problems. This case study aims to find out whether or not reading skills has a role on the reading comprehension ability of Turkish EFL students. This study is both a qualitative and a quantitative study which lasted for a duration of 14 weeks. Two groups were selected (experimental and control among prep classes at Kahramanmaraş Sütçü Imam University. Both groups were administered a pre-test and questionnaire at the beginning of the study to find out if they were aware of reading skills. In addition, 10 students were chosen randomly for interview. During the study, reading skills were infused into the curriculum through designing lesson plans in accordance with the language content and topics for level C students, as determined by the Common European Language Framework. The lessons required the students to use reading skills before, during, and post reading. At the end of the study, the same questionnaire was re-administered. The students were given the post-test and then interviewed. The quantitative data were analyzed through descriptive statistics. The obtained data revealed that the students enhanced their comprehension ability provided that they were taught to use reading skills.
Cabral, Linda; Strother, Heather; Muhr, Kathy; Sefton, Laura; Savageau, Judith
Mental health peer specialists develop peer-to-peer relationships of trust with clients to improve their health and well-being, functioning in ways similar to community health workers. Although the number of peer specialists in use has been increasing, their role in care teams is less defined than that of the community health worker. This qualitative study explored how the peer specialist role is defined across different stakeholder groups, the expectations for this role and how the peer specialist is utilised and integrated across different types of mental health services. Data were collected through interviews and focus groups conducted in Massachusetts with peer specialists (N = 44), their supervisors (N = 14) and clients (N = 10) between September 2009 and January 2011. A consensus coding approach was used and all data outputs were reviewed by the entire team to identify themes. Peer specialists reported that their most important role is to develop relationships with clients and that having lived mental health experience is a key element in creating that bond. They also indicated that educating staff about the recovery model and peer role is another important function. However, they often felt a lack of clarity about their role within their organisation and care team. Supervisors valued the unique experience that peer specialists bring to an organisation. However, without a defined set of expectations for this role, they struggled with training, guiding and evaluating their peer specialist staff. Clients reported that the shared lived experience is important for the relationship and that working with a peer specialist has improved their mental health. With increasing support for person-centred integrated healthcare delivery models, the demand for mental health peer specialist services will probably increase. Therefore, clearer role definition, as well as workforce development focused on team orientation, is necessary for peer specialists to be fully integrated
The T-38 jet aircraft arrives at the Shuttle Landing Facility carrying STS-95 Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski (second seat). The pilot is astronaut Kent Rominger. Parazynski's first plane experienced problems at the stop at Tyndall AFB and he had to wait for another jet and pilot to finish the flight to KSC. He joined other crewmembers Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque, with the European Space Agency (ESA), and Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), for final pre-launch preparations. STS-95 is expected to launch at 2 p.m. EST on Oct. 29, last 8 days, 21 hours and 49 minutes, and land at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.
Davies, L.; Laasch, H.-U.; Wilbraham, L.; Marriott, A.; England, R.E.; Martin, D.F. E-mail: email@example.com
AIMS: To evaluate the impact of patient education by specialist nurses on patients' understanding of interventional procedures, their anxiety levels and satisfaction with the given information. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty patients attending the radiology department for gastrointestinal interventional procedures were interviewed. Patients were assessed using a combination of categorical and visual analogue scales. Parameters were assessed on admission and after additional information had been given by specialist nurses. After the procedure patients were asked to rate the quality of information given and their overall satisfaction. RESULTS: Four of the 60 patients were excluded due to a Mini Mental Test score of <7. Only 35 (62.5%) claimed to have been given information by the referring consultant. Fifty-three patients received additional information before formally giving consent, 50 (96.2%) from the specialist nurses. Patient anxiety before and after information did not significantly change (p=0.52), but there was significant improvement in levels of satisfaction (p=0.001) and perceived understanding (p<0.001). Patients rated overall quality of information at an average of 9.2/10 and overall satisfaction was high (median=9.1/10). CONCLUSION: The use of specialist nurses to educate patients greatly increases patient understanding. The process of informed consent is improved and patient satisfaction is increased.
Davies, L.; Laasch, H.-U.; Wilbraham, L.; Marriott, A.; England, R.E.; Martin, D.F.
AIMS: To evaluate the impact of patient education by specialist nurses on patients' understanding of interventional procedures, their anxiety levels and satisfaction with the given information. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty patients attending the radiology department for gastrointestinal interventional procedures were interviewed. Patients were assessed using a combination of categorical and visual analogue scales. Parameters were assessed on admission and after additional information had been given by specialist nurses. After the procedure patients were asked to rate the quality of information given and their overall satisfaction. RESULTS: Four of the 60 patients were excluded due to a Mini Mental Test score of <7. Only 35 (62.5%) claimed to have been given information by the referring consultant. Fifty-three patients received additional information before formally giving consent, 50 (96.2%) from the specialist nurses. Patient anxiety before and after information did not significantly change (p=0.52), but there was significant improvement in levels of satisfaction (p=0.001) and perceived understanding (p<0.001). Patients rated overall quality of information at an average of 9.2/10 and overall satisfaction was high (median=9.1/10). CONCLUSION: The use of specialist nurses to educate patients greatly increases patient understanding. The process of informed consent is improved and patient satisfaction is increased
Nigenda, Gustavo; Muños, José Alberto
Projections are considered a useful tool in the planning of human resources for health. In Mexico, the supply and demand of specialist doctors are clearly disconnected, and decisions must be made to reduce labour market imbalances. Thus, it is critical to produce reliable projections to assess future interactions between supply and demand. Using a service demand approach, projections of the number of specialist physicians required by the three main public institutions were calculated using the following variables: a) recent recruitment of specialists, b) physician productivity and c) retirement rates. Two types of scenarios were produced: an inertial one with no changes made to current production levels and an alternative scenario adjusted by recommended productivity levels. Results show that institutions must address productivity as a major policy element to act upon in future contracting of specialist physicians. The projections that adjusted for productivity suggest that the hiring trends for surgeons and internists should be maintained or increased to compensate for the increase in demand for services. In contrast, due to the decline in demand for obstetric and paediatric services, the hiring of new obstetrician-gynaecologists and paediatricians should be reduced to align with future demand.
... Undaunted Zero Dark Thirty 101109-F-RH756-737 Raptor's Reveille Featured Books Featured Films Featured Art House To House House To House by David Bellavia and John Bruning One of the great heroes of the Iraq War /McMillan/Switzler Read More... Fearless Book: Fearless by Eric Blehm Read More... Zero Dark Thirty Zero
Modern life is changing the way people read April 23 was the 16th World Book and Copyright Day,also known as the World Book Day.Reading-related problems have once again attracted people’s attention.Today,living a life with an increasingly rapid pace,most people are
MANGRUM, CHARLES T.
SIGNIFICANT RESEARCH ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND FUNCTIONAL ASPECTS OF VISION AND READING DISABILITY IS SURVEYED. CONCLUSIONS BASED ON THE LITERATURE IN THE FIELD ARE DISCUSSED. A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF 70 REFERENCES AND A GLOSSARY OF TERMS ARE APPENDED. A TABLE SUMMARIZING REFRACTIVE ERRORS AND EYE DEFECTS CONTRIBUTING TO READING DISABILITY IS INCLUDED.…
Outlines the concept of working memory, with particular reference to a hypothetical subcomponent, the articulatory loop. Discusses the role of the loop in fluent adult reading, then examines the reading performance of adults with deficits in auditory verbal memory, showing that a capacity to articulate is not necessary for the effective…
Recent research shows that reading comprehension relies heavily on prior knowledge. Far more than generic "reading skills" like drawing inferences, making predictions, and knowing the function of subheads, how well students learn from a nonfiction text depends on their background knowledge of the text's subject matter. And in a cyclical…
Zigo, Diane; Moore, Michael T.
Science fiction deserves a greater respect, serious and critical reading and a better place in high school literature classes. Some of the science fiction books by Isaac Asimov, Alfred Bester, Ray Bradbury and Octavia L. Butler and various activities for incorporating science fiction into the English language arts instruction classroom are…
Chiu, Ming Ming; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Lin, Dan
The authors tested the component model of reading (CMR) among 186,725 fourth grade students from 38 countries (45 regions) on five continents by analyzing the 2006 Progress in International Reading Literacy Study data using measures of ecological (country, family, school, teacher), psychological, and cognitive components. More than 91% of the differences in student difficulty occurred at the country (61%) and classroom (30%) levels (ecological), with less than 9% at the student level (cognitive and psychological). All three components were negatively associated with reading difficulties: cognitive (student's early literacy skills), ecological (family characteristics [socioeconomic status, number of books at home, and attitudes about reading], school characteristics [school climate and resources]), and psychological (students' attitudes about reading, reading self-concept, and being a girl). These results extend the CMR by demonstrating the importance of multiple levels of factors for reading deficits across diverse cultures.
Romualdas K. Malinauskas
Full Text Available The article reveals the peculiarities of social competence of future specialists of physical education and sports. To solve the objectives, the poll has been carried out. 263 student have been selected (135 future teachers of physical culture and 128 future coaches. The results show that future teachers of physical education have higher level of responsiveness (the ability to console, the ability to help than future coaches. Future teachers of physical education have higher level of ability to avoid insult
Helena Arisandi Komang Widia
Full Text Available Children at early levels of primary school require appropriate guidance in their initial reading skill. They need to be trained on how reading becomes an enjoyable routine activity. This study aimed at describing teachers’ effort to build children reading habit. This study employed a qualitative descriptive study and conducted at North Bali Bilingual School Bali. The data were collected through observations and interview. The findings of the study showed that there were several activities conducted by the teacher as efforts to build children reading habit. In terms of building students’ reading habit, the teacher used (1 Point-written in Reading Rocket Chart (PRRC, (2 Chip (white, yellow, green for appreciating good behaviour in reading and using English, (3 Certificate, (4 Class Reward, and (5 Free Play Time. With these efforts, it is evident that the students’ literacy improves and they exhibited great enthusiasm in their reading and studying literacy in the classroom.
Seyed Hassan Talebi
Full Text Available General English (L2 proficiency and reading strategies are believed to be highly effective in successful reading performance. However, available studies rarely investigated the combined effects of these two variables on successful reading. To fill this gap, 78 university students were divided into four groups of different degrees of these two variables in L2 and given a reading test in English and an interview for assessing how much of the problems in L2 reading among the four groups were rooted in linguistic competence and/or strategic competence. Findings evinced that the high general proficiency level coupled with high awareness and use of reading strategies would result in best performance and that the pattern of answers to different components of reading question is different in different groups. It is concluded that both of the variables should be emphasized simultaneously for the best performance in reading comprehension.
Henny Uswatun Hasanah
Full Text Available Teaching is a process of communication. It has to be created through the way of teaching and exchanging the message or information by every teacher and student. The message can be knowledge, skills, ideas, experiences, and many others. Through the process of communication, the people can receive the message or information. To avoid misunderstanding in the process of communication, media are needed in the process of teaching. Magazine can be other alternative as reading material in the classroom. Magazine as reading material has appeal for the students. To make the students get information from magazine, the teacher can ask the students to observe table of content and giving the students training to use it. Like, what is done on text book. Distinguishing informative reading material with fictive reading, important to know students in reading magazine. Like analyzing advertisements to detect propaganda.
Jones, Angela C; Rawson, Katherine A
In the reading and spelling literature, an ongoing debate concerns whether reading and spelling share a single orthographic lexicon or rely upon independent lexica. Available evidence tends to support a single lexicon account over an independent lexica account, but evidence is mixed and open to alternative explanation. In the current work, we propose another, largely ignored account--separate-but-shared lexica--according to which reading and spelling have separate orthographic lexica, but information can be shared between them. We report three experiments designed to competitively evaluate these three theoretical accounts. In each experiment, participants learned new words via reading training and/or spelling training. The key manipulation concerned the amount of reading versus spelling practice a given item received. Following training, we assessed both response time and accuracy on final outcome measures of reading and spelling. According to the independent lexica account, final performance in one modality will not be influenced by the level of practice in the other modality. According to the single lexicon account, final performance will depend on the overall amount of practice regardless of modality. According to the separate-but-shared account, final performance will be influenced by the level of practice in both modalities but will benefit more from same-modality practice. Results support the separate-but-shared account, indicating that reading and spelling rely upon separate lexica, but information can be shared between them. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tampubolon, A. C.; Kusuma, H. E.
Reading activity is a part of daily learning activities that are usually done by college students and takes place in the facilities that are provided by the campus. However, students tend to have a perception of a particular location that is considered appropriate with the activities undertaken. This study identified students’ perceptions of reading space characteristics in campus environment which are considered able to accommodate reading activity. Exploratory qualitative research methods were used to collect data from selected types of space and the reasons for the students in choosing the specifics space to do their reading. The results showed that students do not only use library facilities as a support unit of academic activities. This study found that students tend to use some places with non-library function, such as students’ union room, hallway, and classroom. Students perceive reading space by its physical and social characteristics. The physical consist of ambiance, quiet place, tranquility, availability of facilities, the level of coolness, lighting, location accessibility, connection with nature, convenience furniture, air quality, aesthetics, the flexibility of activities, the crowd of place, the level of shade, outdoor, ownership, and indoor. While the social characteristics of the reading space are to have privacy, favorable reading position, and the presence of others.
Aldridge, Cassie; Bion, Julian; Boyal, Amunpreet; Chen, Yen-Fu; Clancy, Mike; Evans, Tim; Girling, Alan; Lord, Joanne; Mannion, Russell; Rees, Peter; Roseveare, Chris; Rudge, Gavin; Sun, Jianxia; Tarrant, Carolyn; Temple, Mark; Watson, Sam; Lilford, Richard
Increased mortality rates associated with weekend hospital admission (the so-called weekend effect) have been attributed to suboptimum staffing levels of specialist consultants. However, evidence for a causal association is elusive, and the magnitude of the weekend specialist deficit remains unquantified. This uncertainty could hamper efforts by national health systems to introduce 7 day health services. We aimed to examine preliminary associations between specialist intensity and weekend admission mortality across the English National Health Service. Eligible hospital trusts were those in England receiving unselected emergency admissions. On Sunday June 15 and Wednesday June 18, 2014, we undertook a point prevalence survey of hospital specialists (consultants) to obtain data relating to the care of patients admitted as emergencies. We defined specialist intensity at each trust as the self-reported estimated number of specialist hours per ten emergency admissions between 0800 h and 2000 h on Sunday and Wednesday. With use of data for all adult emergency admissions for financial year 2013-14, we compared weekend to weekday admission risk of mortality with the Sunday to Wednesday specialist intensity ratio within each trust. We stratified trusts by size quintile. 127 of 141 eligible acute hospital trusts agreed to participate; 115 (91%) trusts contributed data to the point prevalence survey. Of 34,350 clinicians surveyed, 15,537 (45%) responded. Substantially fewer specialists were present providing care to emergency admissions on Sunday (1667 [11%]) than on Wednesday (6105 [42%]). Specialists present on Sunday spent 40% more time caring for emergency patients than did those present on Wednesday (mean 5·74 h [SD 3·39] vs 3·97 h [3·31]); however, the median specialist intensity on Sunday was only 48% (IQR 40-58) of that on Wednesday. The Sunday to Wednesday intensity ratio was less than 0·7 in 104 (90%) of the contributing trusts. Mortality risk among patients
Milena Kosak Babuder
Full Text Available The results of Slovene and foreign studies reveal the connection between literacy levels and the level of education, employment opportunities and consequent socio-economic status of individuals and families. Reading efficiency relating to reading comprehension is an important element of reading literacy performance. The findings of several authors indicate empirical evidence of the existence of deficits and poor reading comprehension in pupils living in poverty and stress the importance of offsetting deficits and developing reading comprehension. Results of both foreign and Slovene studies indicate that the program of reading comprehension should be implemented in this group of pupils. In the article, we want to present effectiveness of the reading comprehension improvement program in pupils living in poverty. According to the findings of our research, in which we structured and implemented the reading comprehension program for pupils living in poverty with the Metacognitive-intersentential model of reading comprehension, the reading comprehension of the experimental group pupils who participated in the program improved compared to the control group pupils who did not participate in the program. Experimental group pupils also significantly improved correctness of their reading, their vocabulary and skills of verbal expression. When the program ended, we tested its efficiency by applied tests. The results on the manifest variables indicated that the program was good and efficient for pupils who live in poverty and experience reading comprehension problems.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The growing prevalence of diabetes and heightened awareness of the benefits of early and intensive disease management have increased service demands and expectations not only of primary care physicians but also of diabetes specialists. While research has addressed issues related to referral into specialist care, much less has been published about the transition from diabetes specialists back to primary care. Understanding the concerns of family physicians related to discharge of diabetes care from specialist centers can support the development of strategies that facilitate this transition and result in broader access to limited specialist services. This study was undertaken to explore primary care physician (PCP perspectives and concerns related to reassuming responsibility for diabetes care after referral to a specialized diabetes center. Methods Qualitative data were collected through three focus groups. Sessions were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Data were coded and sorted with themes identified using a constant comparison method. The study was undertaken through the regional academic referral center for adult diabetes care in Ottawa, Canada. Participants included 22 primary care physicians representing a variety of referral frequencies, practice types and settings. Results Participants described facilitators and barriers to successful transition of diabetes care at the provider, patient and systems level. Major facilitators included clear communication of a detailed, structured plan of care, ongoing access to specialist services for advice or re-referral, continuing education and mentoring for PCPs. Identified provider barriers were gaps in PCP knowledge and confidence related to diabetes treatment, excessive workload and competing time demands. Systems deterrents included reimbursement policies for health professionals and inadequate funding for diabetes medications and supplies. At the PCP-patient interface
Full Text Available The present study was an attempt to investigate the effectiveness of reading instructional approach called MCSR- Modified Collaborative Strategic Reading on reducing intermediate EFL learner's reading anxiety. Based on a pretest-posttest design, MCSR was implemented with 64 EFL learners at intermediate level. They received EFL reading instruction according to MCSR over two and a half months. A questionnaire called English as a Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Inventory EFLRAI was group-administered atthepretest and the posttest. Quantitative results indicated that participating students demonstrated significant gains in reducing reading anxiety. This study highlighted our understanding by considering the effectiveness of MCSR program and also it elaborated the effects of using strategies like MCSR in overcoming the big problem of reading anxiety among EFL learners as non-native students. And teachers changed the focus of attention from using traditional methods for teaching the essential skill of reading to modern programs like MCSR in order to remove their students' anxiety and stress in reading.
Chen, Chih-Ming; Wang, Jung-Ying; Chen, Yong-Ting; Wu, Jhih-Hao
To reduce effectively the reading anxiety of learners while reading English articles, a C4.5 decision tree, a widely used data mining technique, was used to develop a personalized reading anxiety prediction model (PRAPM) based on individual learners' reading annotation behavior in a collaborative digital reading annotation system (CDRAS). In…
Kundas, S.P.; Okeanov, A.E.; Shevchuk, V.E.
The first part of proceedings of the fifth international scientific conference 'Sakharov readings 2005: Ecological problems of XXI century', which was held in the International A. Sakharov Environmental University, contents materials on topics: socio-ecological problems, medical ecology, biological ecology. The proceedings are intended for specialists in field of ecology and related sciences, teachers, students and post-graduate students. (authors)
Shea, Mary; Cole, Ardith
This article describes a study conducted with four Kindergarten teachers and students. The researchers were the building's literacy specialist/reading teacher and a college professor teaching pre-service teachers on site at the school. This was a naturally evolving teacher research study generated from questions raised as children demonstrated…
Kundas, S.P.; Mel'nov, S.B.; Poznyak, S.S.
Abstracts of the seventh international scientific conference 'Sakharov readings 2007: Ecological problems of XXI century', which was held in the International A. Sakharov environmental university, contents materials on topics: socio-ecological problems, medical ecology, biomonitoring and bioindication, biological ecology. The proceedings are intended for specialists in field of ecology and related sciences, teachers, students and post-graduate students. (authors)
Paul Kei Matsuda
Full Text Available This paper focuses on reading as a central act of communication in the tutorial session. Writing center tutors without extensive experience reading writing by second language writers may have difficulty getting past the many differences in surface-level features, organization, and rhetorical moves. After exploring some of the sources of these differences in writing, the authors present strategies that writing tutors can use to work effectively with second language writers.
Lisa Wen Chun Chen
Full Text Available Reading strategies are beneficial to learners’ reading comprehension. The strategies can be divided into different categories, such as global reading strategies, problem solving strategies and support strategies. Most previous studies investigated the importance of reading strategies in the paper-based reading. However, relatively few studies examined online reading strategies and their effects on reading comprehension. Online reading materials are important sources for EFL students since an increasing number of learners read texts and learn through the Internet. EFL learners in Taiwan, unfortunately, are reported to be overwhelmed with English online materials on the Internet. Therefore, this study intends to examine EFL learners’ perceived use of online reading strategies and whether their perceived strategy uses are different in terms of proficiency levels and gender. There are 94 Taiwanese EFL learners (43% of them are males, n=40 and 57 % of them are females, n=54, who received the Online Survey of Reading Strategies (OSORS adapted from Anderson (2003 in the study. The result showed that EFL online readers tend to use more global strategies, such as using contextual clues and observing tables, figures, and pictures in the on-line text to increase understanding. High level learners used more global and problem solving strategies than low level learners, which corresponds to previous studies. Additionally, there is no difference of strategy use between males and females. Several pedagogical implications, such as the need to raise students’ awareness of strategy use, are addressed in the present study.
van der Burgt, Stéphanie M E; Kusurkar, Rashmi A; Croiset, Gerda; Peerdeman, Saskia M
The aim was to obtain insight into the factors in the work environment that motivate or demotivate a medical specialist during his/her working day. A qualitative ethnographic design was used, and a constructivist approach was adopted with the Self-Determination theory of motivation as a framework. Six medical specialists from VU University Medical Center in the Netherlands, recruited through convenience, snowball, and purposive sampling, were shadowed for one day each. Data were transcribed and open-coded. Themes were finalized through discussion and consensus. Sixty hours of observation data identified motivating and demotivating factors categorized into four themes that are important for specialists' motivation. Informational technology issues are demotivating factors. Working with colleagues can be both a motivating and demotivating factor, e.g., filling in for each other through feelings of relatedness was motivating. Being in control of one's planning through feelings of autonomy was motivating. Furthermore, patient care and teaching, especially in combination, stimulated specialists' motivation. Regarding the design of the study, we found that situational motivation is indeed observable. The basic psychological needs autonomy, competence, and relatedness are important for specialists' motivation. Investing in a more motivating, open, transparent, and basic-needs- supportive work environment for medical specialists is necessary. Keywords: Continuing professional development, motivation, medical specialists, self-determination theory, qualitative research.
Kuzmičová, Anežka; Dias, Patrícia; Vogrinčič Čepič, Ana
in the environment where one engages in individual silent reading. The primary goal of the study was to explore the role and possible associations of a number of variables (text type, purpose, device) in selecting generic (e.g. indoors vs outdoors) as well as specific (e.g. home vs library) reading environments....... Across all six samples included in the study, participants spontaneously attested to varied, and partly surprising, forms of sensitivity to company and social space in their daily efforts to align body with mind for reading. The article reports these emergent trends and discusses their potential...
Jacqueline Sánchez Carrero
Full Text Available Diversos estudios con niños y adolescentes han demostrado que a mayor conocimiento del mundo de la producción y transmisión de mensajes audiovisuales, mayor capacidad adquieren para formarse un criterio propio ante la pantalla. En este artículo se aúnan tres experiencias de educación mediática realizadas en Venezuela, Colombia y España, desde el enfoque de la recepción crítica. Se proporcionan los indicadores que llevan a determinar los niveles de lectura crítica audiovisual en niños de entre 8 y 12 años, construidos a partir de procesos de intervención mediante talleres de alfabetización mediática. Los grupos han sido instruidos acerca del universo audiovisual, dándoles a conocer cómo se gestan los contenidos audiovisuales y el modo de analizarlos, desestructurarlos y recrearlos. Primero, se hace referencia al concepto en evolución de educación mediática. Después, se describen las experiencias comunes en los tres países para luego incidir en los indicadores que permiten medir el nivel de lectura crítica. Por último, se reflexiona sobre la necesidad de la educación mediática en la era de la multialfabetización. No es muy frecuente encontrar estudios que revelen las claves para reconocer qué grado de criticidad tiene un niño cuando visiona los contenidos de los distintos medios digitales. Es un tema fundamental pues permite saber con qué nivel de comprensión cuenta y cuál adquiere después de un proceso de formación en educación mediática.Based on the results of several projects carried out with children and adolescents, we can state that knowledge of production and broadcasting aids the acquisition of critical media skills. This article combines three media education experiences in Venezuela, Colombia and Spain driven by a critical reception approach. It presents leading indicators for determining the level of critical audiovisual reading in children aged 8-12 extracted from intervention processes through
Amanda R. Meier
Full Text Available Multitrophic species interactions are shaped by both top-down and bottom-up factors. Belowground symbionts of plants, such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF, can alter the strength of these forces by altering plant phenotype. For example, AMF-mediated changes in foliar toxin and nutrient concentrations may influence herbivore growth and fecundity. In addition, many specialist herbivores sequester toxins from their host plants to resist natural enemies, and the extent of sequestration varies with host plant secondary chemistry. Therefore, by altering plant phenotype, AMF may affect both herbivore performance and their resistance to natural enemies. We examined how inoculation of plants with AMF influences toxin sequestration and performance of two specialist herbivores feeding upon four milkweed species (Asclepias incarnata, A. curassavica, A. latifolia, A. syriaca. We raised aphids (Aphis nerii and caterpillars (Danaus plexippus on plants for 6 days in a fully factorial manipulation of milkweed species and level of AMF inoculation (zero, medium, and high. We then assessed aphid and caterpillar sequestration of toxins (cardenolides and performance, and measured defensive and nutritive traits of control plants. Aphids and caterpillars sequestered higher concentrations of cardenolides from plants inoculated with AMF across all milkweed species. Aphid per capita growth rates and aphid body mass varied non-linearly with increasing AMF inoculum availability; across all milkweed species, aphids had the lowest performance under medium levels of AMF availability and highest performance under high AMF availability. In contrast, caterpillar survival varied strongly with AMF availability in a plant species-specific manner, and caterpillar growth was unaffected by AMF. Inoculation with AMF increased foliar cardenolide concentrations consistently among milkweed species, but altered aboveground biomasses and foliar phosphorous concentrations in a plant
Full Text Available Teacher’s questioning may function to assist students comprehend more reading materials and to enable them to be proficient readers. Yet, the students may be less benefited from which if the teacher neither provides sufficient explicit reading strategy nor involves higher-level questions. Consequently, the teacher should pay more careful attentions as follows: 1 teacher should involve both lower- and high-lever questions; 2 teacher should provide students with explicit reading strategy; 3 teacher should be aware of the activities in reading phases: pre-, during-, and post-reading.
Into the Curriculum. Interdisciplinary: Celebrating Our Animal Friends: An Across-the-Curriculum Unit for Middle Level Students [and] Music: Program Notes [and] Reading-Language Arts: Letters: Written, Licked, and Stamped [and] Science: Plants in Families [and] Science: Physics and Holiday Toys (Gravity) [and] Social Studies: Learning about Geography through Children's Literature.
Gillen, Rose; And Others
Presents six curriculum guides for elementary and secondary education. Subjects include interdisciplinary instruction, music, reading/language arts, science, and social studies. Each guide provides library media skills objectives, curriculum objectives, grade levels, resources, instructional roles, activity and procedures for completion, a…
Full Text Available Functioning patterns of postgraduate education of tourism sphere specialists in Switzerland have been established. The competences of tourism sphere specialist, the formation of which programs of postgraduate education are focused on have been considered. The benefits of educational qualification of Masters in Business Administration with a major specialization in tourism have been outlined. The characteristics of the core curriculum of the Doctor of Management of leading universities in the field of tourism education have been determined. The performance criteria of postgraduate education system functioning of tourism sphere specialists in Switzerland have been revealed.
van den Berg, Tilja I J; Vrijhoef, Hubertus J M; Tummers, Gladys; Landeweerd, Jan A; van Merode, Godefridus G
The aim of this study is to explore whether the work organisation of diabetes specialist nurses (DSNs) differs significantly from nurses working in hospital and nursing home and if so, does this difference result in positive or negative consequences regarding work and health. In traditional health care settings, nurses exhibit a high level of environmental uncertainty and low decision-making authority, which has a negative effect on psychological reactions towards work. In professional nursing, specialisation, e.g. diabetic nursing, is a current trend in many countries. Therefore, insight into the determinants of the work situation of nursing specialists is becoming increasingly relevant. Comparisons were made between 3 different samples: 1204 nurses employed by 15 hospitals, 1058 nurses employed by 14 nursing homes, and 350 diabetes nurses working in other health care settings throughout the Netherlands. Data concerning organisation, work aspects, and psychological reactions were measured via questionnaires. Variances between the groups were analysed with ANCOVA, besides hierarchical multiple regression analysis was applied. Environmental uncertainty scored lower amongst diabetes nurses when compared to nurses working in the other two types of health care settings. Social support and role conflict scored low for diabetes nursing specialists who simultaneously perceived autonomy and role ambiguity highest. Diabetes nursing specialists also scored highest on intrinsic work motivation and job satisfaction and lowest for psychosomatic health. Except for social support and role ambiguity, diabetic nurses rate their [work] organisation, [work] aspects and psychological [work] reactions more positively than nurses employed in other health care settings.
Limperopoulos, Catherine; Majnemer, Annette
Rehabilitation specialists are an integral part of the team in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). A national survey was conducted to elucidate the current roles of rehabilitation specialists. Occupational therapy (OT), physical therapy (PT), and speech and language pathology (SLP) departments in all Canadian health care institutions with tertiary level NICUs (n = 38) were surveyed by telephone. Results indicate that 16% have no rehabilitation coverage, while 11% receive very limited external services (< 1/month). Over half of the OT and PT departments provide weekly services whereas only 5/38 provide SLP coverage. Service delivery includes assessment and a number of therapeutic interventions. Splinting and feeding are predominantly performed by OT, whereas chest physiotherapy and ROM are carried out primarily by PT. Rehabilitation specialists are actively involved in education and case management. The extent of involvement of rehabilitation specialists was discrepant, and highly associated with the type of facility. Rehabilitation services, when provided, are comprehensive and include evaluation, treatment, teaching, decision-making, and family support.
Zotova-Sadylo Yelena Yurievna
Full Text Available Purpose The structural-functional model of professional business communication development of future economic specialists is presented by the author. Its basic components, purpose, function, principles, methods of its practical realization are characterized in the article. Methodology The considered model is aimed at providing advanced and competent levels of professional business communication / cross-cultural business communication of future specialists in economics by means of relevant to the problem special course within a system of humanitarian cycle disciplines, and integrated class hours and extracurricular activity. The main feature of the special course is its integrated character determined by the necessity to synthesize contents of humanitarian cycle disciplines for the purpose of training material comprehensive awareness. Results In this context focused professional extracurricular activity carried out in strict accordance with an overall objective of young specialist training is effective. Successful implementation of structural functional model is possible providing that integrated approach to creative specialists training by means of entire educational and extracurricular activity system.
Shin, Hyunsook; Kim, Bog-Ja; Kang, Hee Sun
The study was done to investigate physical assessment skills used by, and educational needs of, advanced practice nurses (APNs) and nurse specialists in Korea. A total of 123 APNs and nurse specialists working in five major hospitals in Seoul were surveyed from July 15 to August 20, 2007. Fourteen skills out of 126 items were reported as being performed on a regular basis by participants. The majority of these skills involved general observation. Forty-six skills were rarely used. Some participants showed a lack of confidence in certain assessment skills, such as in doing a rectal or pelvic exam, and the use of some assessment equipment. Over 90% of participants required in-depth education on health assessment provided by specialists or nursing professional organizations. More educational opportunities in physical assessment should be provided including education programs based on the nurses' skill levels and needs. This effort will help to increase confidence of APNs and nurse specialists in physical assessment skills, ultimately resulting in better nursing outcomes.
Bagot, Kathleen L; Cadilhac, Dominique A; Vu, Michelle; Moss, Karen; Bladin, Christopher F
Telemedicine is a disruptive innovation within health care settings as consultations take place via audio-visual technology rather than traditional face-to-face. Specialist perceptions and experiences of providing audio-visual consultations in emergency situations, however, are not well understood. The aim of this exploratory study was to describe the experience of medical specialists providing acute stroke decision-making support via telemedicine. Data from the Victorian Stroke Telemedicine (VST) programme were used. The experiences of specialists providing an acute clinical telemedicine service to rural emergency departments were explored, drawing on disruptive innovation theory. Document analysis of programme consultation records, meeting minutes and in-depth individual interviews with three neurologists were analysed using triangulation. Since February 2014, 269 stroke telemedicine consultations with 12 neurologists have occurred. Retention on the roster has varied between 1 and >4 years. Overall, neurologists reported benefits of participation, as they were addressing health equity gaps for rural patients. Negative effects were the unpredictability of consultations impacting on their personal life, the mixed level of experience of colleagues initiating the consult and not knowing patient outcomes since follow-up communication was not routine. Insights into workforce experience and satisfaction were identified to inform strategies to support specialists to adapt to the disruptive innovation of telemedicine. © The Author(s) 2015.
Stolyaruk Khrystyna S.
Full Text Available The article is devoted of the issues of development of classification and content of role, which are performed by personnel management specialists in their professional activity. It proves a necessity of development of role scenarios under conditions of application of the competence approach in training and practical activity. Thus, the author offers five key roles in activity of a personnel management specialist, which reflect different vectors of directions of the scenario of professional activity regardless of the performed function and position. The article specifies the following roles in the offered classification: partner, expert, communicator, consultant and curator. It presents results of a sociological study, which demonstrate the degree of co-ordination of opinions of employers and practicing personnel managers with respect to performance of roles in the sphere by their professional activity by the latter. This helps to identify a number of problems, which include the problem of availability of reserves of increase of the level of competence of personnel management specialists. This issue, in its turn, closely deals with main aspects of formation of competitiveness of the said specialists, since the degree of formation of competences is the key condition of formation of competitive advantages.
Pavel V. Romasevich
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the consideration of D-Link's experience in the development and implementation of educational programs for the training of qualified specialists for the field of IT. To remain competitive, a specialist needs to be constantly trained, especially in such a rapidly changing field as IT. The training programs developed by D-Link for IT professionals help to gain knowledge about new technologies and their application in industrial conditions. You can confirm the high level of professionalism by getting the D-Link certificate. To obtain a certificate, you must pass one or two certification exams, depending on the chosen training course. Training of specialists engaged in the development, implementation and support of solutions based on D-Link solutions, in addition to the company's specialists, is carried out by authorized training centers and academic partners of D-Link. On the D-Link’s distance learning and certification portal, distance learning courses are available for studying. The article focuses on various forms of cooperation between D-Link and higher education institutions: the development of original teaching materials, the organization of distance learning and its integration into the learning process, the creation of laboratories to support practical classes and research activities, the management of course and diploma work, the organization of industrial practice.
Bateman, Lindsey E; Collins, Joanne M; Cunningham, Susan J
To identify factors affecting work-life balance amongst male and female orthodontists in the UK. A qualitative interview-based study with a cross-sectional design. Specialist orthodontists working in specialist practice and the hospital service in the UK were selected by purposive sampling. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 orthodontic specialists. Interview transcripts were analyzed using Framework Analysis. Four main themes pertaining to work-life balance in orthodontics were identified: work factors affecting work-life balance, life factors affecting work-life balance, perception and effects of work-life balance and suggestions for managing work-life balance within the profession. There was substantial variation in the work-life balance of the orthodontists interviewed in this study; however the majority reported high levels of career satisfaction despite difficulties maintaining a good work-life balance. Whilst there were some clear distinctions in the factors affecting work-life balance between the hospital environment and specialist practice (including additional professional commitments and teaching/training-related issues), there were also a number of similarities. These included, the lack of flexibility in the working day, managing patient expectations, taking time off work at short notice and the ability to work part-time.
Woolley, S M; Hingston, E J; Shah, J; Chadwick, B L
The objectives were three-fold: to investigate the level of conscious sedation training received prior to and during specialist training in paediatric dentistry; to establish the use of conscious sedation during and following specialisation; and to determine the attitudes of specialists in paediatric dentistry to conscious sedation. A self-administered postal questionnaire was sent to all specialists in paediatric dentistry registered with the General Dental Council in January 2008. Non-responders were contacted again after a four-week period. A response rate of 60% was achieved. Of the 122 respondents, 67 (55%) had received sedation training as an undergraduate; 89 (75%) had been trained during specialisation. All respondents performed dental treatment under sedation as a trainee and the majority used nitrous oxide inhalation sedation (NOIS). Over 90% of respondents felt that NOIS should be available to all children, both in appropriate primary care settings and in hospitals. One hundred and twenty-one (99%) respondents thought that all trainees in paediatric dentistry should have sedation training. The most popular form of sedation amongst specialists in paediatric dentistry was NOIS. However, some of the respondents felt that children should have access to other forms of sedation in both the primary care and hospital settings. Additional research on other forms of sedation is required to evaluate their effectiveness and safety.
Lawton, Rebecca J.; Cole, Andrew J.; Berumen, Michael L.; Pratchett, Morgan S.
Localised patterns of resource use can be constrained by multiple factors. Comparison of resource use at multiple locations with differing resource availability can allow fundamental specialists to be distinguished from species that simply feed predominantly on prey types that are locally abundant. This study investigates geographic variation in the feeding ecology of coral-feeding butterflyfishes to examine whether patterns of resource use and levels of dietary specialisation vary among distinct locations, corresponding with changes in resource availability. Our specific aims were to investigate whether the dietary niche breadth of four butterflyfishes varies among five geographically separated locations and assess whether each species utilises similar resources in each location. Resource availability and dietary composition of four butterflyfishes were quantified at three sites across each of five geographic locations throughout the Pacific. Niche breadth, niche overlap, and resource selection functions were calculated for each species at each site and compared among locations. Availability of dietary resources varied significantly among locations and sites. Chaetodon vagabundus, C. citrinellus and C. lunulatus had low levels of dietary specialisation and used different resources in each location. Chaetodon trifascialis had high levels of dietary specialisation and used the same few resources in each location. Our results indicate that relative levels of dietary specialisation among different butterflyfishes do hold at larger spatial scales, however, geographical variation in the dietary composition of all butterflyfishes indicates that prey availability has a fundamental influence on dietary composition. Highly specialised species such as C. trifascialis will be highly vulnerable to coral loss as they appear to be largely inflexible in their dietary composition. However, the increased feeding plasticity observed here for C. trifascialis suggests this species may
Lawton, Rebecca J.
Localised patterns of resource use can be constrained by multiple factors. Comparison of resource use at multiple locations with differing resource availability can allow fundamental specialists to be distinguished from species that simply feed predominantly on prey types that are locally abundant. This study investigates geographic variation in the feeding ecology of coral-feeding butterflyfishes to examine whether patterns of resource use and levels of dietary specialisation vary among distinct locations, corresponding with changes in resource availability. Our specific aims were to investigate whether the dietary niche breadth of four butterflyfishes varies among five geographically separated locations and assess whether each species utilises similar resources in each location. Resource availability and dietary composition of four butterflyfishes were quantified at three sites across each of five geographic locations throughout the Pacific. Niche breadth, niche overlap, and resource selection functions were calculated for each species at each site and compared among locations. Availability of dietary resources varied significantly among locations and sites. Chaetodon vagabundus, C. citrinellus and C. lunulatus had low levels of dietary specialisation and used different resources in each location. Chaetodon trifascialis had high levels of dietary specialisation and used the same few resources in each location. Our results indicate that relative levels of dietary specialisation among different butterflyfishes do hold at larger spatial scales, however, geographical variation in the dietary composition of all butterflyfishes indicates that prey availability has a fundamental influence on dietary composition. Highly specialised species such as C. trifascialis will be highly vulnerable to coral loss as they appear to be largely inflexible in their dietary composition. However, the increased feeding plasticity observed here for C. trifascialis suggests this species may
This study investigated the online reading performances and the level of visual fatigue from the perspectives of non-native speaking students (NNSs). Reading on a computer screen is more visually more demanding than reading printed text. Online reading requires frequent saccadic eye movements and imposes continuous focusing and alignment demand.…
Grimm, Ryan Ponce
The Simple View of Reading (SVR; Gough & Tunmer, 1986; Hoover & Gough, 1990) has a longstanding history as a model of reading comprehension, but it has mostly been applied to native English speakers. The SVR posits reading comprehension is a function of the interaction between word-level reading skills and oral language skills. It has been…
HODDER, VELMA; AND OTHERS
THE BASIC DEVELOPMENTAL READING PROGRAM IS REVIEWED AS A FOUNDATION FOR SOUND REMEDIAL OR CORRECTIVE PROGRAMS IN A GUIDE FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY READING IN NEBRASKA SCHOOLS. THE PRESENTATION IS DEVELOPED AROUND FOUR TOPICS--(1) DEVELOPMENTAL READING (CHILDREN'S GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS AND NEEDS, INSTRUCTIONAL READING LEVEL,…
... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Understanding Blood Pressure Readings Updated:Jun 1,2018 What do your blood ... and Live Our Interactive Cardiovascular Library has detailed animations and illustrations to help you learn about conditions, ...
... and language-based learning disabilities are commonly called dyslexia . These disorders are present from a young age ... information about these problems. Types of Reading Disorders Dyslexia is a brain-based type of learning disability ...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Sequence Read Archive (SRA) stores raw sequencing data from the next generation of sequencing platforms including Roche 454 GS System®, Illumina Genome...
Kravitz, Richard; Shapiro, Marvin
The physical education department of the Pennsylvania Advancement School of Philadelphia has established a reading and communication skill project that uses the appeal of sports to help students improve their basic skills. (Author)
Training the non-specialist music teacher: insights from a Zimbabwean case study. ... music education in primary schools is taught by general classroom teachers, who ... JOURNAL OF THE MUSICAL ARTS IN AFRICA VOLUME 7 2010, 1–15 ...
Cole, Lisa M; Walker, Theodore J; Nader, Kelly C; Glover, Dennis E; Newkirk, Laura E
A clearly defined role of the Perioperative Clinical Nurse Specialist (PONS) is not identified. The purpose of this study was to provide recommendations for a delineated role of the PONS that will provide role clarity and practice guidance...
methods of economic evaluation are relevant for a societal evaluation of the usefulness of an intervention. Sticking to DRG subtleties, only, the guidance serves private hospital profit instead of societal benefit. In all, these are serious weaknesses for a book aiming to guide the collaboration between......Book review Successful collaboration in healthcare-a guide for physicians, nurses and clinical documentation specialists Colleen Stukenberg New York: CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, 2010, pp. 136 ISBN 978 1 4389 1292 1 This book addresses an important topic, especially for health professionals...... engaged in integrated care (IC). Also, the book is easy to read with about 120 pages in a fluent language that you feel is based on first hand personal job experiences. Colleen Stukenberg is a certified nurse with more than 20 years' experience from a variety of hospital areas, a master's of science...
Koh, Kim H.; Paris, Scott G.
Effective reading instruction and intervention are rooted in effective assessments of children's developing skills in reading. The article aims to describe the development of new reading assessments to help promote beginning reading in Singapore primary schools. We begin with an introduction to the educational landscape and policies before…
Hudson, Alida K.; Williams, Joan A.
This article details one teacher's implementation of reading workshop in her second grade classroom. She provided a framework for authentic reading using the five components of reading workshop: time, choice, response, community, and structure. She found that reading workshop is a highly effective practice for not only increasing students'…
Boakye, Naomi A. N. Y.
There have been a number of studies on reading interventions to improve students' reading proficiency, yet the majority of these interventions are undertaken with the assumption that students' reading challenges are obvious and generic in nature. The interventions do not take into consideration the diversity in students' reading backgrounds and…
Divoll, Kent; Browning, Sandra
Students do not always read what is expected in college courses (Berry, Cook, Hill, & Stevens, 2010; Phillips & Phillips, 2007; Sikorski et al., 2002) or they read to cram for an exam or quiz (Clump, Bauer, & Bradley, 2004). The Reading Retention Strategy (RRS) is designed to motivate students to read and assist students in…
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to reveal how reading comprehension skills of elementary fourth graders who have problems in reading comprehension can be improved by means of the SCRATCH program. The study was designed as a participant action research. It was carried out within a 15-week process at an elementary school with middle socio-economic level in the Eskisehir province in the fall term of the 2015-2016 school year. The participants of the study were eight fourth graders who had problems in reading comprehension and were selected based on the criterion sampling method. Different data gathering tools were employed in different stages of the study. These were the Informal Reading Inventory, readability assessment rubric, participant selection form and identification forms for developmental level in reading comprehension for the quantitative data, and observation notes, a researcher diary, video recordings, teacher and student observation notes, and the projects the students prepared using the SCRATCH program for the qualitative data. In the study, the analysis of the quantitative data was done with correlation analysis, and Kendall W Test that shows inter-rater reliability. In addition, the identification forms for developmental level in reading comprehension were used to reveal the improvement in reading comprehension skills, and the Informal Reading Inventory was employed to score these forms. On the other hand, the qualitative data were analysed through the thematic analysis method, and MAXQDA was used for the analysis. As a result of the analyses, it was found that the reading level of the eight students who had problems in reading comprehension went up from the anxiety level to the instructional level in some forms, and even to the independent reading level in other forms; in other words, there was an improvement in the reading comprehension skills of all eight students.
Full Text Available Abstract: The challenges of reading are indeed apparent in most teaching and learning processes in ESL classrooms. As a result, this study is conducted to resolve the issues of students who seem to find reading to be unbearable. Many of them have limited ability to read well and hence, possess insufficient reading habits to become competent readers, particularly out-of-school context. Besides, poor home literacy environments also contribute to their shortcomings in reading. The main objectives of this study are to identify the students’ reasons for reading as well as to find out their home reading environments (reading backgrounds and habits; reading attitudes and motivation; reading exposure and supports. To identify these, questionnaires were distributed to 120 secondary school students (Form 4: 16 years old from one of the urban schools in Sarawak, Malaysia. The findings indicate that the students read to gain information and knowledge though many chose reading as a hobby as their last choice in explaining their motives of reading. Besides, they preferred non-academic reading materials, mainly lighter forms reading materials such as comics, story books and magazines. Though the students acknowledged the importance of reading in their daily lives, their average reading habits, attitude, motivation, exposure and support within the home domain had suggested otherwise. They mainly read for instrumental purposes while reading for pleasure seemed not to be given priority. Besides, the respondents acknowledge that their parents and themselves did not read much at home. As an implication, it is vital for students to improve their reading perceptions, abilities and practices to achieve personal, societal and national progress. On a final note, parents’ early and continuous efforts to be involved in their children’s literacy events in an out-of-school context are believed to be vital to inculcate positive reading environments, habits and culture
Clifton, Shari; Jo, Phill; Longo, Jean Marie; Malone, Tara
To help improve the culture of health in Oklahoma-a state that frequently ranks poorly on multiple measures of health and wellness-faculty librarians from an academic health sciences library sought to create a collaborative network of health information professionals in Oklahoma's public libraries through the implementation of the Health Information Specialists Program. Health sciences librarians offered a variety of consumer health information courses for public library staff across the state of Oklahoma for three years. Courses were approved by the Medical Library Association for credit toward the Consumer Health Information Specialization. A total of seventy-two participants from public libraries attended the courses, sixty-five achieved a Level I Consumer Health Information Specialization, and nine went on to achieve Level II. Feedback from participants in the Health Information Specialists Program has indicated a positive impact on the health information expertise of participants, who in turn have used the knowledge that they gained to help their patrons.
Wilkinson, Jill; Carryer, Jenny; Adams, Jeffery
To evaluate the diabetes nurse specialist prescribing project with the aim of determining whether diabetes nurse specialist prescribing is safe and effective and to inform the implementation and extension of registered nurse prescribing. Registered nurses in many countries are able to prescribe medicines, but in New Zealand, prior to the diabetes nurse specialist project, nurse practitioners were the only nurses who could prescribe medicines. New regulations allowed the nurses to prescribe a limited number of prescription medicines. The study was a process and outcome clinical programme evaluation. The project took place between April-September 2011 and involved 12 diabetes nurse specialist in four localities. Quantitative data were collected from clinical records maintained by the diabetes nurse specialist for the project (1274 patients and 3402 prescribing events), from surveys with stakeholders (general practitioners, n = 30; team members, n = 19; and patients, n = 89) and audits from patient notes (n = 117) and prescriptions (n = 227), and qualitative data from interviews with project participants (n = 18) and patients (n = 19). All data were analysed descriptively. Diabetes nurse specialist prescribing was determined to be safe, of high quality and appropriate. It brought important benefits to the effectiveness of specialist diabetes services, was acceptable to patients and was supported by the wider healthcare team. These findings are consistent with the findings reported in the international literature about nurse prescribing in a range of different practice areas. Clarification of the education and competence requirements and resourcing for the ongoing supervision of nurses is recommended if the prescribing model is to be extended. Diabetes nurse specialist prescribing improved access to medicines by providing a more timely service. Nurses felt more satisfied with their work because they could independently provide a complete episode of care
Steltenkamp Carol L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Information transfer is critical in the primary care to specialist referral process and has been examined extensively in the US and other countries, yet there has been little attention to the patient's perspective of the information transfer process. This cross-sectional study examined the quality of the information received by patients with a chronic condition from the referring and specialist physician in the specialist referral process and the relationship of the quality of information received to trust in the physicians. Methods Structured telephone interviews were conducted with a random sample of 250 patients who had experienced a referral to a specialist for the first visit for a chronic condition within the prior six months. The sample was selected from the patients who visited specialist physicians at any of the 500 hospitals from the National Research Corporation client base. Results Most patients (85% received a good explanation about the reason for the specialist visit from the referring physician yet 26% felt unprepared about what to expect. Trust in the referring physician was highly associated with the preparatory information patients received. Specialists gave good explanations about diagnosis and treatment, but 26% of patients got no information about follow-up. Trust in the specialist correlated highly with good explanations of diagnosis, treatment, and self-management. Conclusion Preparatory information from referring physicians influences the quality of the referral process, the subsequent coordination of care, and trust in the physician. Changes in the health care system can improve the information transfer process and improve coordination of care for patients.
Mohlanhledi P. Makumbila
Full Text Available This professional development project, known as Literacy Leadership Project, enabled four Foundation Phase teachers in South Africa to implement the Guided Reading approach. Developed by American researchers Fountas and Pinnell (1996, Guided Reading helps elementary students strengthen their phonemic awareness, vocabulary, reading comprehension and fluency in small group activities. Over an 8-month period, lessons learnt came from data collected from this professional development included workshop activities, classroom observations, teachers’ group discussions and students’ artefacts. Results indicated improvement in students’ literacy engagement and motivation because of the use of levelled books, oral reading and group activities Keywords: Guided Reading programme; foundation phase; childhood literacy; teacher professional development; literacy leadership; South Africa
Marschark, Marc; Sarchet, Thomastine; Convertino, Carol M; Borgna, Georgianna; Morrison, Carolyn; Remelt, Sarah
This study explored relations of print exposure, academic achievement, and reading habits among 100 deaf and 100 hearing college students. As in earlier studies, recognition tests for book titles and magazine titles were used as measures of print exposure, college entrance test scores were used as measures of academic achievement, and students provided self-reports of reading habits. Deaf students recognized fewer magazine titles and fewer book titles appropriate for reading levels from kindergarten through Grade 12 while reporting more weekly hours of reading. As in previous studies with hearing college students, the title recognition test proved a better predictor of deaf and hearing students' English achievement than how many hours they reported reading. The finding that the recognition tests were relatively more potent predictors of achievement for deaf students than hearing students may reflect the fact that deaf students often obtain less information through incidental learning and classroom presentations.
Full Text Available Abstract: The present study, entitled Improving Students’ Reading Comprehension through Interactive Read-Aloud, attempts to unlock problems found in teaching and reading comprehension through interactive read-aloud in a Senior High School of Sport (SMAN Olah Raga Lampung, in Metro. The findings revealed that students’ reading comprehension improved through interactive read-aloud. The improvement can be seen from the increase of test results, meaning construction, and motivation. The process of reading activities showed that the teacher’s gesture and body language, 20 questions, explain and guess activities were proven to help the students construct meaning from the given texts. In addition, interactive read-aloud is effective to boost students’ motivation to comprehend the texts. Key words: Reading comprehension, interactive read-aloud.
Briggs, G.M.; Flynn, P.A.; Worthington, M.; Rennie, I.; McKinstry, C.S.
Aim: To assess the impact on patient management of formal neuroradiology 'second reading' of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images initially interpreted by general radiologists. Materials and methods: Second opinion reports during the calendar year 2004 were compared with the original report and assessed for major or minor discrepancies. A major discrepancy was separated from a minor discrepancy whereby a change in opinion significantly affected patient management. Results: There were 506 second opinions during 2004 given by three consultant neuroradiologists. Incomplete data were found in 141. Forty-one percent were CT images and the remainder MRI. The majority of second opinions were requested by neurologists. Most of the remaining referrals were from neurosurgeons or the primary radiologist. There was a 13% major and a 21% minor discrepancy rate. The remaining 66% were in complete agreement. There was a mixture of overcalls, misinterpretation, and undercalls. There were similar rates of minor and major discrepancies in both CT and MRI. Conclusion: There is a significant major discrepancy rate between specialist neuroradiology second opinion and general radiologists. The benefit of a formal specialist second opinion service is clearly demonstrated; however, it is time-consuming
Brian D. Smith
Full Text Available River dolphins are among the world’s most threatened mammals, and indeed the baiji (Lipotes vexillifer, a species endemic to China's Yangtze River, is likely extinct. Exploitation for products such as meat, oil, and skins has been a lesser feature in the population histories of river dolphins compared to most large mammals. Habitat factors are therefore of particular interest and concern. In this paper we attempt to describe the population-level responses of river dolphins to habitat transformation. We find circumstantial but compelling evidence supporting the view that, at a local scale, river dolphins are opportunists (generalists capable of adapting to a wide range of habitat conditions while, at a river basin scale, they are more appropriately viewed as vulnerable specialists. The same evidence implies that the distributional responses of river dolphins to basinwide ecological change can be informative about their extinction risk, while their local behaviour patterns may provide important insights about critical ecological attributes. Empirical studies are needed on the ecology of river cetaceans, both to inform conservation efforts on behalf of these threatened animals and to help address broader concerns related to biodiversity conservation and the sustainability of human use in several of the world's largest river systems.
Gaona, E.; Vazquez V, J. A.; Rivera M, T.; Izeta G, A. C.; Azorin V, J. C.; Arreola, M.
In this work are presented the experimental results of determining the dose in different body parts, measured by thermoluminescent dosimeters, to medical specialists of implantation procedures of definitive cardiac pacemaker. The medical personnel in ten intervention procedures were controlled according to the procedure type, pathological indication, fluoroscopy time and machine generating estimates of the patient doses. The doses to the extremities of the cardiologist were measured by means of thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). The domains of first level in the hand are in the index finger of the left and the right hand. The medium doses of the skin in the eyes, a report of the dose received during each type of intervention procedure in the glandular thyroid and fingers of the cardiologists is made. The results represent the integrated dose to the cardiologist, received during the implantation procedures of definitive cardiac pacemaker in the same patient. By a half time of detection of 70 minutes for patient, the half dose of the skin, received for the right and left hand, ascended to 1,4 mSv, under the glove. In conclusion, the dose average for the dosimeters of the thyroid gland and forehead was varied from 0,41 up to 1,14 mSv for study. The exposure to the X-rays is a topic to consider, more important every time on the development of systematic procedures little invasive, including the angiography, catheter, worker and patient. (Author)
Alai, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Askin, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Buddemeier, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wogan, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Doshi, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tai, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
In support of the Department of Homeland Security / Science and Technology Directorate’s (DHS/S&T) creation of a new position called the Radiological Operations Support Specialist (ROSS), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Sub-task 1.1 and 1.2 has assisted in the development of the ROSS skills, knowledge, and abilities (SKAs); identified potentially relevant training; cross-mapped the training to the SKAs; and identified gaps in the training related to the SKAs, as well as their respective level of training knowledge - current versus desired. In the follow on task, Sub-task 1.3, a 5 day ROSS Pilot Training course was developed to fill the priority gaps identified in Sub-Task 1.2. Additionally, in Sub-Task 1.5, LLNL has performed a gap analysis of electronic tools, handbooks, and job-aides currently available to the ROSS and developed recommendations for additional and next generation tools to ensure the operational effectiveness of the ROSS position. This document summarizes the feedback received from the instructors and pilot course observers on what worked in the course and what could be improved as well as an assessment of the Pre- and Post-Test administered to the students.
Alai, M.; Askin, A.; Buddemeier, B.; Wogan, L.; Doshi, P.; Tai, L.
In support of the Department of Homeland Security / Science and Technology Directorate's (DHS/S&T) creation of a new position called the Radiological Operations Support Specialist (ROSS), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Sub-task 1.1 and 1.2 has assisted in the development of the ROSS skills, knowledge, and abilities (SKAs); identified potentially relevant training; cross-mapped the training to the SKAs; and identified gaps in the training related to the SKAs, as well as their respective level of training knowledge - current versus desired. In the follow on task, Sub-task 1.3, a 5 day ROSS Pilot Training course was developed to fill the priority gaps identified in Sub-Task 1.2. Additionally, in Sub-Task 1.5, LLNL has performed a gap analysis of electronic tools, handbooks, and job-aides currently available to the ROSS and developed recommendations for additional and next generation tools to ensure the operational effectiveness of the ROSS position. This document summarizes the feedback received from the instructors and pilot course observers on what worked in the course and what could be improved as well as an assessment of the Pre- and Post-Test administered to the students.
Chiarchiaro, Jared; White, Douglas B; Ernecoff, Natalie C; Buddadhumaruk, Praewpannarai; Schuster, Rachel A; Arnold, Robert M
Conflict is common between physicians and surrogate decision makers around end-of-life care in ICU. Involving experts in conflict management improve outcomes, but little is known about what differences in conflict management styles may explain the benefit. We used simulation to examine potential differences in how palliative care specialists manage conflict with surrogates about end-of-life treatment decisions in ICUs compared with intensivists. Subjects participated in a high-fidelity simulation of conflict with a surrogate in an ICU. In this simulation, a medical actor portrayed a surrogate decision maker during an ICU family meeting who refuses to follow an advance directive that clearly declines advanced life-sustaining therapies. We audiorecorded the simulation encounters and applied a coding framework to quantify conflict management behaviors, which was organized into two categories: task-focused communication and relationship building. We used negative binomial modeling to determine whether there were differences between palliative care specialists' and intensivists' use of task-focused communication and relationship building. Single academic medical center ICU. Palliative care specialists and intensivists. None. We enrolled 11 palliative care specialists and 25 intensivists. The palliative care specialists were all attending physicians. The intensivist group consisted of 11 attending physicians, 9 pulmonary and critical care fellows, and 5 internal medicine residents rotating in the ICU. We excluded five residents from the primary analysis in order to reduce confounding due to training level. Physicians' mean age was 37 years with a mean of 8 years in practice. Palliative care specialists used 55% fewer task-focused communication statements (incidence rate ratio, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.36-0.83; p = 0.005) and 48% more relationship-building statements (incidence rate ratio, 1.48; 95% CI, 0.89-2.46; p = 0.13) compared with intensivists. We found that palliative care