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Sample records for level pressure record

  1. Flextube reflectometry and pressure recordings for level diagnosis in obstructive sleep apnoea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, C E; Grymer, L; Hilberg, O

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare sound reflections in a flexible tube (flextube reflectometry) with pressure-catheter recordings (ApneaGraph) for identifying the predominant obstructive level of the upper airway during sleep. Seventeen males with suspected obstructive sleep apnoea...... results were found in flextube reflectometry studies and pressure-recordings performed on different nights regarding the level distribution of obstructions during sleep. Possible explanations of this discrepancy are discussed....

  2. A compact self-recording pressure based sea level gauge suitable for deployments at harbour and offshore environments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desa, E.; Peshwe, V.B.; Joseph, A.; Mehra, P.; Naik, G.P.; Kumar, V.; Desa, E.S.; Desai, R.G.P.; Nagvekar, S.; Desai, S.P.

    A compact and lightweight self-recording pressure based sea level gauge has been designed to suit deployments from harbour and offshore environments. A novel hydraulic coupling device designed in-house was used to transfer the seawater pressure...

  3. Lake-level variations and tides in Lago Argentino, Patagonia: insights from pressure tide gauge records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Richter

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on precise pressure tide gauge observations lake-level records are derived for two sites in Lago Argentino, southern Patagonia, of 2.5 and 1 years of duration. Applying the tools of time series analysis, the principal processes affecting the lake level are identified and quantified. Lake-level changes reflecting variations in lake volume are dominated by a seasonal cycle of 1.2 m in amplitude. Lake-volume changes occur in addition with a daily period in response to melt water influx from surrounding glaciers. Sporadic lake-volume jumps are caused by bursting of the ice dam of Perito Moreno glacier. Water movements in Lago Argentino are dominated by surface seiches reaching 20 cm in amplitude. Lake tides reach a maximum amplitude of 3 mm. The comparison of the tidal signal extracted from the lake-level observations with a model composed of the contributions of body tide and ocean tidal loading indicates a phase shift of 23° which is most likely explained by an 1 hour phase lag of global ocean tide models in the region of the highly fragmented Pacific coast. The comparison of the obtained results with those of a previous study of Lago Fagnano, Tierra del Fuego, allows to relate differences in the hydrological and hydrodynamic processes between both lakes to morphological properties. This leads to a tentative prediction of the lake-level variability to be expected from other great Patagonian lakes. The presented geodetic results shall serve as a starting point for a detailed limnological investigation of these aquatic ecosystems.

  4. Reservoirs talk to pressure recorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pamenter, C B

    1968-02-01

    Keeping pace with increased demand for efficiency in secondary recovery schemes is the widening use of downhole tools charged with supplying data before and during the operation of the projects. One of the most important of these is the pressure recorder. This highly sensitive instrument, housed in a tough, slim steel case and lowered by drill pipe or cable, accurately measures the pressure of its downhole environment. This information is instantly available at the surface whenever a pressure reading is required. Typical applications of surface recorders often contribute are: (1) production practices such as checking surface and subsurface equipment, and special lifting problems; (2) well conditions including regular productivity indices, data observations and for interference studies; (3) secondary recovery projects, in both producing and injection wells; and (4) reservoir conditions where oil-water contacts and damaged zones need close attention.

  5. Accurate blood pressure recording: is it difficult?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, A; Singh, R; D'cruz, S; Lehl, S S; Sachdev, A

    2005-11-01

    Blood pressure (BP) measurement is a routine procedure but errors are frequently committed during BP recording. AIMS AND SETTINGS: The aim of the study was to look at the prevalent practices in the institute regarding BP recording. The study was conducted in the Medicine Department at Government Medical College, Chandigarh, a teaching institute for MBBS students. A prospective, observational study was performed amongst the 80 doctors in a tertiary care hospital. All of them were observed by a single observer during the act of BP recording. The observer was well versed with the guidelines issued by British Hypertension Society (BHS) and the deviations from the standard set of guidelines issued by BHS were noted. The errors were defined as deviations from these guidelines. The results were recorded as percentage of doctors committing these errors. In our study, 90% used mercury type sphygmomanometer. Zero error of the apparatus, hand dominance was not noted by any one. Every one used the standard BP cuff for recording BP. 70% of them did not let the patient rest before recording BP. 80% did not remove the clothing from the arm. None of them recorded BP in both arms. In out patient setting, 80% recorded blood pressure in sitting position and 14% in supine position. In all the patients where BP was recorded in sitting position BP apparatus was below the level of heart and 20% did not have their arm supported. 60% did not use palpatory method for noticing systolic BP and 70% did not raise pressure 30-40 mm Hg above the systolic level before checking the BP by auscultation. 80% lowered the BP at a rate of more than 2 mm/s and 60% rounded off the BP to nearest 5-10 mm Hg. 70% recorded BP only once and 90% of the rest re inflated the cuff without completely deflating and allowing rest before a second reading was obtained. The practice of recording BP in our hospital varies from the standard guidelines issued by the BHS.

  6. Mass-induced sea level variations in the Red Sea from GRACE, steric-corrected altimetry, in situ bottom pressure records, and hydrographic observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, W.; Lemoine, J.-M.; Zhong, M.; Hsu, H. T.

    2014-08-01

    An annual amplitude of ∼18 cm mass-induced sea level variations (SLV) in the Red Sea is detected from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites and steric-corrected altimetry from 2003 to 2011. The annual mass variations in the region dominate the mean SLV, and generally reach maximum in late January/early February. The annual steric component of the mean SLV is relatively small (mass-induced SLV. In situ bottom pressure records at the eastern coast of the Red Sea validate the high mass variability observed by steric-corrected altimetry and GRACE. In addition, the horizontal water mass flux of the Red Sea estimated from GRACE and steric-corrected altimetry is validated by hydrographic observations.

  7. The Barbados Sea Level Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, R. G.; Mortlock, R. A.; Abdul, N. A.; Wright, J. D.; Cao, L.; Mey, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    Additional offshore drill cores, nearly 100 new radiometric dates, and more than 1000 kilometers of Multibeam mapping greatly enhance the Barbados Sea Level record. Extensive Multibeam mapping around the entire island covers approximately 2650 km2 of the sea bottom and now integrates the offshore reef topography and Barbados Sea Level Record with the unparalleled onshore core collection, digital elevation maps, and Pleistocene sea level record spanning the past one million years. The reef crest coral, Acropora palmata, remains the stalwart indicator of sea level for many reasons that are validated by our redundant sea level records and redundant dating via Th/U and Pa/U analyses. Microanalysis and densitometry studies better explain why Acropora palmata is so well preserved in the Pleistocene reef records and therefore why it is the species of choice for sea level reconstructions and radiometric dating. New drill cores into reefs that formed during Marine Isotope Stage 3 lead us to a model of diagenesis that allows us to better prospect for unaltered coral samples in older reefs that may be suitable for Th/U dating. Equally important, our diagenesis model reinforces our rigorous sample quality criteria in a more quantitative manner. The Barbados Sea Level record has a sampling resolution of better than 100 years throughout much of the last deglaciation showing unprecedented detail in redundant drill cores. The Melt Water Pulses (MWP1A and MWP1B) are well resolved and the intervening interval that includes the Younger Dryas reveals sea level changes in new detail that are consistent with the terrestrial records of ice margins (see Abdul et al., this section). More than 100 paired Th/U and radiocarbon ages place the Barbados Sea Level Record unambiguously on the radiocarbon time scale for direct comparisons with the terrestrial records of ice margin changes.

  8. Mass-induced sea level variations in the Red Sea from steric-corrected altimetry, GRACE, in-situ bottom pressure records, and hydrographic observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wei; Lemoine, Jean-Michel; Zhong, Min; Xu, Houze

    2014-05-01

    An annual amplitude of ~18 cm mass-induced sea level variations (SLV) in the Red Sea is detected from steric-corrected altimetry and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites from 2003 to 2011, which dominates the mean sea level in the region. Seawater mass variations here generally reach maximum in late January/early February. The steric component of SLV calculated from oceanographic temperature and salinity data is relatively small and peaks about seven months later than mass variations. The phase difference between the steric SLV and the mass-induced SLV indicates that when the Red Sea gains the mass from inflow water in winter, the steric SLV fall, and vice versa in summer. In-situ bottom pressure records in the eastern coast of the Red Sea validate the high mass variability observed by steric-corrected altimetry and GRACE. Furthermore, we compare the horizontal water mass flux in the Red Sea from steric-corrected altimetry and GRACE with that estimated from hydrographic observations.

  9. Blood pressure response to low level static contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallentin, Nils; Jørgensen, Kurt

    1992-01-01

    The present study re-examines the 15% MVC concept, i.e. the existence of a circulatory steady-state in low intensity static contractions below 15% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Mean arterial blood pressure was studied during static endurance contractions of the elbow flexor and extensor...... 0.7) min for elbow extension]. Mean arterial blood pressure exhibited a continuous and progressive increase during the 10% MVC contractions indicating that the 15% MVC concept would not appear to be valid. The terminal blood pressure value recorded at the point of exhaustion in the 10% MVC elbow...... the circulation to the muscles was arrested just prior to the cessation of the contraction, blood pressure only partly recovered and remained elevated for as long as the occlusion persisted, indicating the level of pressure-raising muscle chemoreflexes. Based on blood pressure recordings obtained during...

  10. Feasibility of ambulatory, continuous 24-hour finger arterial pressure recording

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imholz, B. P.; Langewouters, G. J.; van Montfrans, G. A.; Parati, G.; van Goudoever, J.; Wesseling, K. H.; Wieling, W.; Mancia, G.

    1993-01-01

    We tested Portapres, an innovative portable, battery-operated device for the continuous, noninvasive, 24-hour ambulatory measurement of blood pressure in the finger. Portapres is based on Finapres, a stationary device for the measurement of finger arterial pressure. Systems were added to record

  11. Dialysate magnesium level and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriazis, John; Kalogeropoulou, Konstantina; Bilirakis, Leonidas; Smirnioudis, Nikolaos; Pikounis, Vasilios; Stamatiadis, Dimitrios; Liolia, Ekaterini

    2004-09-01

    We investigated the way dialysate magnesium (dMg) concentrations could affect blood pressure (BP) during hemodialysis (HD). Eight HD patients underwent four midweek HD treatments consecutively, using, during each four-hour HD session, one of the following four dialysate formulations, in randomized order, which differed only with regard to dMg and dialysate calcium (dCa) concentrations (in mmol/L): 0.75 dMg, 1.75 dCa (group I); 0.25 dMg, 1.75 dCa (group II); 0.75 dMg, 1.25 dCa (group III); 0.25 dMg, 1.25 dCa (group IV). Before HD and at four 60-minute intervals during the HD sessions, BP and noninvasive measurements of cardiac index (CI) were obtained. Additionally, 14 HD patients were treated for four weeks with 0.5 mmol/L dMg, followed by four weeks with 0.25 mmol/L dMg, and another four weeks with 0.75 mmol/L dMg, in random order. In all treatments dCa was 1.25 mmol/L. BP and symptoms were recorded during each HD session. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) decreased to a significantly (P dMg was superior to the other two treatments regarding intradialytic morbidity (P dMg level to 0.75 mmol/L could prevent IDH frequently seen with the use of 1.25 mmol/L dCa. Thus, manipulating dMg levels independently or in concert with dCa levels might have important implications with regard to dialysis tolerance.

  12. [Development of a continuous blood pressure monitoring and recording system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Li, Yong; Gao, Shumei; Song, Yilin

    2012-09-01

    A small experimental system is constructed with working principle of continuous blood pressure monitoring based on the volume compensation method. The preliminary experimental results show that the system can collect blood pressure signals at the radial artery effectively. The digital PID algorithm can track the variation of blood pressure. And the accuracy of continuous blood pressure detecting achieve the level of same kind of product.

  13. Flashing evaporation under different pressure levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Yixiang; Lucas, Dirk; Krepper, Eckhard; Rzehak, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • CFD simulation based on two-fluid model for flashing boiling inside a vertical pipe. • Effect of pressure level on the maximum thermal energy available for evaporation. • Effect of presumed bubble size on the onset of flashing as well as evaporation rate. • Effect of pressure level on the critical bubble size that can start stable flashing. • Effect of pressure level on nucleation rate and mechanism. - Abstract: Flashing evaporation of water inside a vertical pipe under four pressure levels is investigated both experimentally and numerically. In the experiment depressurization is realized through a blow-off valve, and the evaporation rate is controlled by the opening rate and degree of the valve. In the CFD simulation phase change is assumed to be caused by thermal heat transfer between steam–water interface and the surrounding water. Consequently, the evaporation rate is determined by heat transfer coefficient, interfacial area density as well as liquid superheat degree. The simulated temporal course of cross-section averaged steam volume fraction is compared with the measured one. It is found that the increasing rate and maximum value of steam volume fraction is over-predicted under low-pressure conditions, which is mainly caused by the neglect of bubble growth in the mono-dispersed simulation. The agreement is notably improved by performing poly-dispersed simulations with the inhomogeneous MUSIG approach (IMUSIG). On the other hand an underestimation of the maximum steam volume fraction is observed in high-pressure cases, since the contribution of nucleation to the total steam generation rate becomes large as the system pressure increases. Reliable models for nucleation rate as well as bubble detachment size are indispensable for reliable predictions. An effect of the system pressure level on the nucleation mechanism is observed in the experiment

  14. A Method for Recording Urethral Pressure Profiles in Female Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengfei Xu

    Full Text Available Urethral pressure profile (UPP and leak-point pressure (LPP measurements as well as external urethral sphincter (EUS electromyography (EMG and videourodynamic analyses are the primary methods for evaluating urethral function in humans. However, UPP recording in female rats, a widely used animal model, is challenging due to their small body sizes. This study reports a novel method for recording UPP in female rats.Seventeen anesthetized female rats were studied. LPP data for 14 rats were included. The other 3 rats were excluded because of death or abnormal urogenital organs. UPP curves were recorded using a modified water-perfusion catheter system, with the lateral hole facing the 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-o'clock positions in a randomized sequence. LPP, functional urethral length (FUL and maximum urethral closure pressure (MUCP were analyzed.The mean LPP was 64.39 ± 20.29 cm H2O. The mean FUL and MUCP values at the 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-o'clock positions were 12.90 ± 1.20, 16.70 ± 1.95, 13.90 ± 2.42, and 11.60 ± 0.97 mm, respectively, and 38.70 ± 11.85, 33.90 ± 11.82, 37.40 ± 11.95, and 71.90 ± 23.01 cm H2O, respectively. The FUL at the 6-o'clock position and MUCP at the 12-o'clock position were significantly greater than those at the other 3 positions. The FUL and MUCP of repeated UPP recordings were not significantly different than those of the first recordings.UPP recording using a modified method based on a water-perfusion catheter system is feasible and replicable in female rats. It produces UPP curves that sensitively and appreciably reflect detailed pressure changes at different points within the urethra and thus provides opportunity to evaluate urethral structures, especially the urethral sphincter, in detail. These results may enhance the utility of female rat models in research of urinary sphincter mechanisms.

  15. Urethral pressure reflectometry; a novel technique for simultaneous recording of pressure and cross-sectional area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Mikael; Klarskov, Niels; Sønksen, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Study Type - Diagnostic (case series) Level of Evidence 4 What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? In the 1980s and 1990s, a method for direct measurement of pressure and cross-sectional area in women and men was developed. It was successful in terms of obtaining meaningful results...... reproducible than conventional urethral pressure profilometry, when measuring incontinence in women. In 2010 it was also introduced as a new measuring technique in the anal canal. This study, adds a new and interesting technique to the field of male urodynamics. For the first time, sound waves have been used...... in several studies. But the technique, which was based on the field gradient principle, was never implemented in the clinical setting because of technical limitations. In 2005, urethral pressure reflectometry was introduced as a new technique in female urodynamics. The technique has been shown to be more...

  16. Blood pressure load does not add to ambulatory blood pressure level for cardiovascular risk stratification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yan; Thijs, Lutgarde; Boggia, José

    2014-01-01

    Experts proposed blood pressure (BP) load derived from 24-hour ambulatory BP recordings as a more accurate predictor of outcome than level, in particular in normotensive people. We analyzed 8711 subjects (mean age, 54.8 years; 47.0% women) randomly recruited from 10 populations. We expressed BP...... load as percentage (%) of systolic/diastolic readings ≥135/≥85 mm Hg and ≥120/≥70 mm Hg during day and night, respectively, or as the area under the BP curve (mm Hg×h) using the same ceiling values. During a period of 10.7 years (median), 1284 participants died and 1109 experienced a fatal or nonfatal...... cardiovascular end point. In multivariable-adjusted models, the risk of cardiovascular complications gradually increased across deciles of BP level and load (Pbased on 24-hour systolic or diastolic BP level (generalized R(2) statistic ≤0.294%; net...

  17. Lactation yield: Interval level comparison of milk records for genetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1220 records ... Lactation yield: Interval level comparison of milk records for genetic improvement in Friesian vs Arsi crossbred cows in the highlands of south eastern. Ethiopia. Dumar Wabe1 and Kassahun Asmare2. 1Allage Agricultural Technical, Vocational Education Training College, P.O. Box 077. 2School of Veterinary ...

  18. Prevalence of end-digit preference in recorded blood pressure by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-03-15

    Mar 15, 2012 ... Original Research: Prevalence of end-digit preference in recorded blood pressure by nurses. 73. Vol 55 No 1. S Afr Fam Pract 2013. Introduction. The accurate measurement and recording of blood pressure (BP) is critical to many processes. These include the diagnosis of hypertension, the decision to start.

  19. PBO Borehole Strainmeters and Pore Pressure Sensors: Recording Hydrological Strain Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, M. H.; Hodgkinson, K. M.; Mencin, D.; Henderson, D. B.; Johnson, W.; Van Boskirk, E.; Pyatt, C.; Mattioli, G. S.

    2017-12-01

    UNAVCO operates a network of 75 borehole strainmeters along the west coast of the United States and Vancouver Island, Canada as part of the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), the geodetic component of the NSF-funded Earthscope program. Borehole strainmeters are designed to detect variations in the strain field at the nanostrain level and can easily detect transient strains caused by aseismic creep events, Episodic Tremor and Slip (ETS) events and seismically induced co- and post-seimic signals. In 2016, one strainmeter was installed in an Oklahoma oil field to characterize in-situ deformation during CO2 injection. Twenty-three strainmeter sites also have pore pressure sensors to measure fluctuations in groundwater pressure. Both the strainmeter network and the pore pressure sensors provide unique data against which those using water-level measurements, GPS time-series or InSAR data can compare possible subsidence signals caused by groundwater withdrawal or fluid re-injection. Operating for 12 years, the PBO strainmeter and pore pressure network provides a long-term, continuous, 1-sps record of deformation. PBO deploys GTSM21 tensor strainmeters from GTSM Technologies, which consist of four horizontal strain gauges stacked vertically, at different orientations, within a single 2 m-long instrument. The strainmeters are typically installed at depths of 200 to 250 m and grouted into the bottom of 15 cm diameter boreholes. The pore pressure sensors are Digiquartz Depth Sensors from Paros Scientific. These sensors are installed in 2" PVC, sampling groundwater through a screened section 15 m above the co-located strainmeter. These sensors are also recording at 1-sps with a resolution in the hundredths of hPa. High-rate local barometric pressure data and low-rate rainfall data also available at all locations. PBO Strainmeter and pore pressure data are available in SEED, SAC-ASCII and time-stamped ASCII format from the IRIS Data Managements Center. Strainmeter data are

  20. Extending the Instrumental Record of Sea-Level Change: A 1300-Year Sea-Level Record From Eastern Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, J. P.; Cleary, P.

    2002-12-01

    The instrumental record of sea-level change in the northeastern United States extends back to the early 20th century and at New York City (NYC) extends back to 1856. These tide gauge records indicate that sea level has risen at a rate of 2.5 to 4 mm/year over the last 100-150 years. Geologic evidence of sea-level change in the region over the last 2,000 years indicates rates of sea-level rise of about 1 mm/year or less. The discordance between the instrumental and geologic records is frequently cited as potentially providing evidence that anthropogenic warming of the climate system has resulted in an increase in the rate of sea-level rise. In order to begin to test the hypothesis that acceleration in the rate of sea-level rise has occurred in the last 150 years due to anthropogenic climate warming, accurate and precise information on the timing of the apparent acceleration in sea-level rise are needed. Here we construct a high-resolution relative sea-level record for the past 1350 years by dating basal salt marsh peat samples above a glacial erratic in a western Connecticut salt marsh. Preservation of marsh vegetation remains in the sediment record that has a narrow vertical habitat range at the upper end of the tidal range provides information on past sea levels. { \\it Spartina patens} (marsh hay) and { \\it Juncus gerardi} (black rush) dominate both the modern marsh and their remains are the major constituent of the marsh sediments and occur in the modern marsh between mean high water (MHW) and mean highest high water. We use the elevation distribution of modern plant communities to estimate the relationship of sediment samples to paleo-mean high water. The chronology is based on 15 radiocarbon ages, supplemented by age estimates derived from the horizons of industrial Pb pollution and pollen indicative of European land clearance. Thirteen of the radiocarbon ages and the Pb and pollen data come from samples taken along a contact between marsh peat and a glacial

  1. Low-level wind response to mesoscale pressure systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, J. R.; Physick, W. L.

    1983-09-01

    Observations are presented which show a strong correlation between low-level wind behaviour (e.g., rotation near the surface) and the passage of mesoscale pressure systems. The latter are associated with frontal transition zones, are dominated by a pressure-jump line and a mesoscale high pressure area, and produce locally large horizontal pressure gradients. The wind observations are simulated by specifying a time sequence of perturbation pressure gradient and subsequently solving the vertically-integrated momentum equations with appropriate initial conditions. Very good agreement is found between observed and calculated winds; in particular, (i) a 360 ° rotation in wind on passage of the mesoscale high; (ii) wind-shift lines produced dynamically by the pressure-jump line; (iii) rapid linear increase in wind speed on passage of the pressure jump.

  2. Recording blood pressure and eGFR in primary care after the Belgrade screening study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezaic, Visnja; Marinkovic, Jelena; Milutinovic, Zoran; Jovanovic-Vasiljevic, Nada; Vujicic, Vesna; Pejovic, Branka; Kalabic, Snezana; Djukanovic, Ljubica

    2018-11-01

    In 2009, Belgrade nephrologists and general practitioners from thirteen health centers carried out screening for chronic kidney disease (CKD). Three years later, medical records of patients from four health centers participating in the screening study were retrospectively analyzed in order to check whether general practitioners had continued to control patients at risk for CKD in accordance with the recommendations provided. The study included 460 patients who visited their doctor at least once in the three-year period. Data on blood pressure, ACEI use, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and comorbidities were taken from patients' medical records. Blood pressure was not recorded in any of the three years in 42.8% and eGFR in 36.7% of the patients, but blood pressure was registered every year in 7.8% and eGFR in 4.3% of them. Over the three years, the relative number of patients with recorded blood pressure decreased from 41.7% to 17.8%, and with recorded eGFR from 41.7% to 21.5%. Multivariate linear regression found that Health Center, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and presence of hypertension were negatively associated with number of years with recorded blood pressure. Health Center, systolic blood pressure and sum of years with recorded eGFR below 60 ml/min/1.73m 2 were associated with number of years with recorded eGFR. Under-recording of blood pressure and eGFR in primary care health centers suggests lack of adherence to current guidelines and insufficient care of CKD patients. This implies the necessity for continuous education of physicians.

  3. Determination of optimum pressurizer level for kori unit 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Dong Soo; Lee, Chang Sup; Lee Jae Yong; Kim, Yo Han; Lee, Dong Hyuk [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    To determine the optimum pressurizer water level during normal operation for Kori unit 1, performance and safety analysis are performed. The methodology is developed by evaluating {sup d}ecrease in secondary heat removal{sup e}vents such as Loss of Normal Feedwater accident. To demonstrate optimum pressurizer level setpoint, RETRAN-03 code is used for performance analysis. Analysis results of RETRAN following reactor trip are compared with the actual plant data to justify RETRAN code modelling. The results of performance and safety analyses show that the newly established level setpoints not only improve the performance of pressurizer during transient including reactor trip but also meet the design bases of the pressurizer volume and pressure. 6 refs., 5 figs. (Author)

  4. Determination of optimum pressurizer level for kori unit 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Dong Soo; Lee, Chang Sup; Yong, Lee Jae; Kim, Yo Han; Lee, Dong Hyuk [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    To determine the optimum pressurizer water level during normal operation for Kori unit 1, performance and safety analysis are performed. The methodology is developed by evaluating {sup d}ecrease in secondary heat removal{sup e}vents such as Loss of Normal Feedwater accident. To demonstrate optimum pressurizer level setpoint, RETRAN-03 code is used for performance analysis. Analysis results of RETRAN following reactor trip are compared with the actual plant data to justify RETRAN code modelling. The results of performance and safety analyses show that the newly established level setpoints not only improve the performance of pressurizer during transient including reactor trip but also meet the design bases of the pressurizer volume and pressure. 6 refs., 5 figs. (Author)

  5. Ongoing nursing training influence on the completion of electronic pressure ulcer records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, María; Jiménez, José María; Peña, Isabel; Cao, María José; Simarro, María; Castro, María José

    2017-05-01

    Pressure ulcer (PU) care in nursing at the Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valladolid (HCUV) in Spain includes basic care and its registration through the electronic GACELA Care tool. To assess and evaluate the nursing intervention in PU evolution, a training programme was carried out to unify criteria on PU assessment, treatment, evaluation and monitoring. To assess the influence of training on the completion of PU records in the GACELA Care application, and identify the level of satisfaction of the nurses after its use. A quasi-experimental prospective study consisting of a specific training programme assessed pre- and post-training was carried out on the records of PU documentation at the HCUV. The PU records included in the study were collected using the electronic nursing healthcare management computer tool GACELA Care and belonged to patients admitted for >48h, excluding venous, arterial and stage I PUs. The pre-training sample consisted of 65 records collected between 1 April and 30 June 2014, and there were 57 post-training records, completed from 1 January to 31 March 2015. The training programme consisted of thirty-minute theoretical and practice training sessions. The study variables were ulcer type, location, stage, length and diameter, perilesional skin, cure type, products used and cure frequency, in addition to the number of actions taken in the records in correlation to the days of hospitalisation. To identify the nurses' opinions, a satisfaction survey about the management platform of ongoing Castilla y León training was administered. The variations from the pre- to the post-training PU-sample completion rates were the following: from 23% to 40% for PU diameter, from 11% to 38% for PU length and from 57% to 79% for perilesional skin condition records. There was also a significant increase in the number of form updates after the training activity. The nurses' level of satisfaction with the training activity showed a positive outcome, with an

  6. Detailed Tropical Sea Level Record Spanning the Younger Dryas Chronozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, N. A.; Mortlock, R. A.; Wright, J. D.; Fairbanks, R. G.

    2010-12-01

    Variability in sea level is a fundamental measure of past changes in continental ice volume and provides an important benchmark to test climate change hypotheses. Records of the most recent deglaciation show two pulses of accelerated sea-level rise (Meltwater Pulses 1A and 1B) separated by an interval of slower sea level rise. The Younger Dryas chronozone falls within the interval between MWP 1A and 1B. It was first described over 100 years ago and remains one of the most studied periods in Earth’s history. The Younger Dryas was originally constrained with 14C dating to the interval between 11,000 and 10,000 14C years BP, which converts to 13,000 to 11,640 calendar years BP. The climatic expression of the Younger Dryas was most pronounced in the circum North Atlantic where climate proxies returned in some regions to near glacial values. Interpretations of the Younger Dryas’ significance range from a catastrophic global cooling event accompanied by Northern hemisphere ice sheet growth to simply regional changes in ocean and air mass mixing zones confined mainly to the North Atlantic. A detailed sea level record containing the interval from the end of MWP 1A to the beginning of MWP 1B (~14,000 to 11,300 years BP) was generated using 26 new U/Th dates from our 2007 Barbados offshore drilling expedition combined with our 1988 expedition measurements. 16 of these dates fall within the Younger Dryas Chronozone. Younger Dryas sea level positions were based on Acropora palmata samples from 3 overlapping and contemporaneous offshore drill cores (RGF 12 and BBDS 9 & 10) and corrected for minor tectonic uplift. From 14,000 to 11,300 years BP, sea level rose from ~81 to 56.5 m below present sea level with an initial rate of 10 m/kyr that decreased smoothly to <5 m/kyr at the base of MWP 1B. At the beginning of the Younger Dryas, sea level was at 69 m below present and rose 8 m by the end of this interval. In the context of the Barbados sea level record, the Younger Dryas

  7. Estimating decadal variability in sea level from tide gauge records: An application to the North Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Frederikse, Thomas; Riva, R.E.M.; Slobbe, Cornelis; Broerse, D.B.T.; Verlaan, Martin

    2016-01-01

    One of the primary observational data sets of sea level is represented by the tide gauge record. We propose a new method to estimate variability on decadal time scales from tide gauge data by using a state space formulation, which couples the direct observations to a predefined state space model by using a Kalman filter. The model consists of a time-varying trend and seasonal cycle, and variability induced by several physical processes, such as wind, atmospheric pressure changes and teleconne...

  8. The optimal scheme of self blood pressure measurement as determined from ambulatory blood pressure recordings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberk, Willem J.; Kroon, Abraham A.; Kessels, Alfons G. H.; Lenders, Jacques W. M.; Thien, Theo; van Montfrans, Gert A.; Smit, Andries J.; de Leeuw, Peter W.

    Objective To determine how many self-measurements of blood pressure (BP) should be taken at home in order to obtain a reliable estimate of a patient's BP. Design Participants performed self blood pressure measurement (SBPM) for 7 days (triplicate morning and evening readings). In all of them, office

  9. Climate Prediction Center Indonesia Sea Level Pressure (1949-present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is one of the CPC?s Monthly Atmospheric and SST Indices. It contains standardized sea level pressure anomalies over the equatorial Indonesia region...

  10. Prevalence of end-digit preference in recorded blood pressure by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-03-15

    Mar 15, 2012 ... (BP) measuring device eliminates the risk of exposure to mercury. ... Results: There was a large and significant fall in end-digit zero when BP readings that were ..... positioning, an inadequate rest period and the posture of the .... electronic blood pressure measurement influence recorded blood pressure?

  11. Type GQS-1 high pressure steam manifold water level monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Nianzu; Li Beicheng; Jia Shengming

    1993-10-01

    The GQS-1 high pressure steam manifold water level monitoring system is an advanced nuclear gauge that is suitable for on-line detecting and monitor in high pressure steam manifold water level. The physical variable of water level is transformed into electrical pulses by the nuclear sensor. A computer is equipped for data acquisition, analysis and processing and the results are displayed on a 14 inch color monitor. In addition, a 4 ∼ 20 mA output current is used for the recording and regulation of water level. The main application of this gauge is for on-line measurement of high pressure steam manifold water level in fossil-fired power plant and other industries

  12. Road, rail, and air transportation noise in residential and workplace neighborhoods and blood pressure (RECORD Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méline, Julie; Van Hulst, Andraea; Thomas, Frederique; Chaix, Basile

    2015-01-01

    Associations between road traffic noise and hypertension have been repeatedly documented, whereas associations with rail or total road, rail, and air (RRA) traffic noise have rarely been investigated. Moreover, most studies of noise in the environment have only taken into account the residential neighborhood. Finally, few studies have taken into account individual/neighborhood confounders in the relationship between noise and hypertension. We performed adjusted multilevel regression analyses using data from the 7,290 participants of the RECORD Study to investigate the associations of outdoor road, rail, air, and RRA traffic noise estimated at the place of residence, at the workplace, and in the neighborhoods around the residence and workplace with systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and hypertension. Associations were documented between higher outdoor RRA and road traffic noise estimated at the workplace and a higher SBP [+1.36 mm of mercury, 95% confidence interval (CI): +0.12, +2.60 for 65-80 dB(A) vs 30-45 dB(A)] and DBP [+1.07 (95% CI: +0.28, +1.86)], after adjustment for individual/neighborhood confounders. These associations remained after adjustment for risk factors of hypertension. Associations were documented neither with rail traffic noise nor for hypertension. Associations between transportation noise at the workplace and blood pressure (BP) may be attributable to the higher levels of road traffic noise at the workplace than at the residence. To better understand why only noise estimated at the workplace was associated with BP, our future work will combine Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking, assessment of noise levels with sensors, and ambulatory monitoring of BP.

  13. Road, rail, and air transportation noise in residential and workplace neighborhoods and blood pressure (RECORD Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Méline

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Associations between road traffic noise and hypertension have been repeatedly documented, whereas associations with rail or total road, rail, and air (RRA traffic noise have rarely been investigated. Moreover, most studies of noise in the environment have only taken into account the residential neighborhood. Finally, few studies have taken into account individual/neighborhood confounders in the relationship between noise and hypertension. We performed adjusted multilevel regression analyses using data from the 7,290 participants of the RECORD Study to investigate the associations of outdoor road, rail, air, and RRA traffic noise estimated at the place of residence, at the workplace, and in the neighborhoods around the residence and workplace with systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, and hypertension. Associations were documented between higher outdoor RRA and road traffic noise estimated at the workplace and a higher SBP [+1.36 mm of mercury, 95% confidence interval (CI: +0.12, +2.60 for 65-80 dB(A vs 30-45 dB(A] and DBP [+1.07 (95% CI: +0.28, +1.86], after adjustment for individual/neighborhood confounders. These associations remained after adjustment for risk factors of hypertension. Associations were documented neither with rail traffic noise nor for hypertension. Associations between transportation noise at the workplace and blood pressure (BP may be attributable to the higher levels of road traffic noise at the workplace than at the residence. To better understand why only noise estimated at the workplace was associated with BP, our future work will combine Global Positioning System (GPS tracking, assessment of noise levels with sensors, and ambulatory monitoring of BP.

  14. Atmospheric Pressure Effect of Retained Gas in High Level Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, A.H.

    1999-01-01

    Isolated high level waste tanks in H-Area have unexplained changes in waste-level which have been attributed to environmental effects including pressure, temperature, and relative humidity. Previous studies at SRS have considered waste-level changes from causes not including the presence of gas in the salt cake. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of atmospheric pressure on gas in the salt cake and resultant changes in the supernate level of Tank 41H, and to model that effect if possible. A simple theory has been developed to account for changes in the supernate level in a high level waste tank containing damp salt cake as the response of trapped gases to changes in the ambient pressure. The gas is modeled as an ideal gas retained as bubbles within the interstitial spaces in the salt cake and distributed uniformly throughout the tank. The model does not account for consistent long term increases or decreases in the tank level. Any such trend in the tank level is attributed to changes in the liquid content in the tank (from condensation, evaporation, etc.) and is removed from the data prior to the void estimation. Short term fluctuations in the tank level are explained as the response of the entrained gas volume to changes in the ambient pressure. The model uses the response of the tank level to pressure changes to estimate an average void fraction for the time period of interest. This estimate of the void is then used to predict the expected level response. The theory was applied to three separate time periods of the level data for tank 41H as follows: (1) May 3, 1993 through August 3, 1993, (2) January 23, 1994 through April 21, 1994, and (3) June 4, 1994 through August 24, 1994. A strong correlation was found between fluctuations in the tank level and variations in the ambient pressure. This correlation is a clear marker of the presence of entrained gases in the tank. From model calculations, an average void fraction of 11 percent was estimated to

  15. Levels of Assertiveness and Peer Pressure of Nursing Students

    OpenAIRE

    Esin Arslan; Nazan Kiliç Akça; Mürüvvet Baser

    2013-01-01

    Background: The research was conducted in order to determine levels of assertiveness and peer pressure of the nursing students.Methodology: This descriptive research has been performed with 154 nursing students in Bozok University, The data were collected with Questionnaire Form, Rathus Assertiveness Inventory and Peer Pressure Scale. We used the data one way Anova, two samples t test, the relationship between several independent variables and scales were evaluated by Pearson correlation tech...

  16. [Micromotor recording of writing pressure during intracerevral stimulation at stereotactic operations (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, H

    1975-12-22

    Eight cases of spastic torticollis were examined during the course of stereotactic operations with the writing pressure apparatus of Steinwachs while the ventrolateral thalamus was stimulated. When 50 stimuli per sec are given, the significant changes of motor function in writing are the following: slowing of writing speed, an increase in writing pressure, greater changes of pressure amplitude with tendences to parallel course. With 25 stimuli per sec, simular results may appear, but smaller amplitude changes and lowering of writing pressure may also occur. When 8 stimuli per sec are given, no changes of pressure patterns in writing were found. Three typical cases are described. It is concluded that the recording of fine pressure changes in writing may indicate alterations of cerebral motor regulations although specific changes for certain thalamic stimulus locations were lacking.

  17. A preliminary study for investigating idiopatic normal pressure hydrocephalus by means of statistical parameters classification of intracranial pressure recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calisto, A; Bramanti, A; Galeano, M; Angileri, F; Campobello, G; Serrano, S; Azzerboni, B

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate Id-iopatic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (INPH) through a multidimensional and multiparameter analysis of statistical data obtained from accurate analysis of Intracranial Pressure (ICP) recordings. Such a study could permit to detect new factors, correlated with therapeutic response, which are able to validate a predicting significance for infusion test. The algorithm developed by the authors computes 13 ICP parameter trends on each of the recording, afterward 9 statistical information from each trend is determined. All data are transferred to the datamining software WEKA. According to the exploited feature-selection techniques, the WEKA has revealed that the most significant statistical parameter is the maximum of Single-Wave-Amplitude: setting a 27 mmHg threshold leads to over 90% of correct classification.

  18. Levels of Assertiveness and Peer Pressure of Nursing Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esin Arslan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The research was conducted in order to determine levels of assertiveness and peer pressure of the nursing students.Methodology: This descriptive research has been performed with 154 nursing students in Bozok University, The data were collected with Questionnaire Form, Rathus Assertiveness Inventory and Peer Pressure Scale. We used the data one way Anova, two samples t test, the relationship between several independent variables and scales were evaluated by Pearson correlation technique in order to evaluate the data with normal distribution.Results: It was seen that 69.5% of the students was assertive and mean scores for assertiveness of the male students (19.4±17.9 were higher than that of the female students (29.0±14.1. However, mean scores for peer pressure of the male students (56.6±12.4 were higher than that of the female students (44.0±8.8. It was found out that there was a positive direction middle level significant correlation between mean assertiveness scores and mean peer pressure scores of the studentsConclusion: Although we did not find any significant correlation between mean assertiveness scores and mean peer pressure scores, it was seen that male students were more assertive than female students and male students experienced peer pressure more than female students.

  19. Seaweed intake and blood pressure levels in healthy pre-school Japanese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamoto Keiko

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have examined whether dietary factors might affect blood pressure in children. We purposed to investigate whether seaweed intake is associated with blood pressure level among Japanese preschool children. Methods The design of the study was cross-sectional and it was conducted in autumn 2006. Subjects were healthy preschoolers aged 3-6 years in Aichi, Japan. Blood pressure and pulse were measured once by an automated sphygmomanometer, which uses oscillometric methods. Dietary data, including seaweed intake, were assessed using 3-day dietary records covering 2 consecutive weekdays and 1 weekend day. Of a total of 533 children, 459 (86.1 percent agreed to be enrolled in our study. Finally, blood pressure measurement, complete dietary records and parent-reported height and weight were obtained for 223 boys and 194 girls. Results When we examined Spearman's correlation coefficients, seaweed intake was significantly negatively related to systolic blood pressure in girls (P = 0.008. In the one-way analysis of covariance for blood pressure and pulse after adjustments for age and BMI, the boys with the lowest, middle and highest tertiles of seaweed intake had diastolic blood pressure readings of 62.8, 59.3 and 59.6 mmHg, respectively (P = 0.11, trend P = 0.038. Girls with higher seaweed intake had significantly lower systolic blood pressure readings (102.4, 99.2 and 96.9 mmHg for girls with the lowest, middle and highest tertiles of seaweed intake, respectively; P = 0.037, trend P = 0.030. Conclusion Our study showed that seaweed intake was negatively related to diastolic blood pressure in boys and to systolic blood pressure in girls. This suggests that seaweed might have beneficial effects on blood pressure among children.

  20. On the Fidelity of “CORK” Borehole Hydrologic Observatory Pressure Records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keir Becker

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Long-term formation pressure monitoring in Ocean Drilling Program (ODP and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP boreholes using evolving Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit (CORK hydrologic observatory technology has led to unanticipated applications as a result of the growing duration of recording intervals and the improvement of measurement fidelity. Current capabilities provide geologically meaningful observations over a broad range of time scales from static state to 1 Hz, allowing investigations of many coupled hydrologic, geodynamic, and seismologic phenomena. In this review, we present observations that provide constraints on current limits to recording fidelity, and examples of how leakage can affect pressure observations.

  1. Ultrasonic level sensors for liquids under high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.; Mazel, D. S.; Hodges, D. Y.

    1986-01-01

    An ultrasonic level sensor of novel design continuously measures the level of a liquid subjected to a high pressure (up to about 40 MPa), as is sometimes required for the effective transfer of the liquid. The sensor operates as a composite resonator fabricated from a standard high-pressure plug. A flat-bottom hole is machined into the plug along its center line. An ultrasonic transducer is bonded rigidly to the interior surface of the bottom wall, while the exterior surface is in contact with the liquid. Although the bottom wall is designed to satisfy the pressure code, it is still sufficiently thin to permit ready excitation of the axisymmetric plate modes of vibration. The liquid level is measured by a conventional pulse-echo technique. A prototype sensor was tested successfully in a 2300-l water vessel at pressures up to about 37 MPa. A spectral analysis of the transmitted pulse reveals that the flexural, extensional, thickness-shear, and radial plate modes are excited into vibration, but none of these appears to be significantly affected by the pressurization of the liquid.

  2. Light-water-reactor pressure-vessel surveillance dosimetry using solid-state track recorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruddy, F.H.; Roberts, J.H.; Gold, R.; Preston, C.C.

    1983-07-01

    The accumulation of neutron dose by the pressure vessel of an operating nuclear power plant results in damage in the form of steel embrittlement. In order to ascertain the safe operating lifetime of the reactor pressure vessel, dosimetric measurements must be made to evaluate the neutron dose to the pressure vessel and relate this dose to the cumulative radiation damage. Advanced dosimetry techniques are being evaluated for surveillance of operating reactors. Solid-state track recorder (SSTR) techniques are included among these advanced dosimetry techniques. Described herein are low neutron fluence calibration and standardization measurements that are being carried out in pressure vessel mockup benchmark neutron fields in the USA, Belgium, and England. In addition, high fluence SSTR dosimetry capsules have been irradiated with metallurgical specimens in a pressure vessel mockup facility. The design and deployment of advances SSTR dosimetry capsules in operating power reactors are also described

  3. Lactation yield: Interval level comparison of milk records for genetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Milk recording intervals was studied by analysing 1220 lactation records of Friesian x Arsi crossbred cows kept in south eastern highlands of Ethiopia. Milk Recording Intervals (MRI) comparison was made at 15, 30 and 45 day's length. Accuracy was measured in terms of percentage difference between actual and estimated ...

  4. Predictive models for pressure ulcers from intensive care unit electronic health records using Bayesian networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewprag, Pacharmon; Newton, Cheryl; Vermillion, Brenda; Hyun, Sookyung; Huang, Kun; Machiraju, Raghu

    2017-07-05

    We develop predictive models enabling clinicians to better understand and explore patient clinical data along with risk factors for pressure ulcers in intensive care unit patients from electronic health record data. Identifying accurate risk factors of pressure ulcers is essential to determining appropriate prevention strategies; in this work we examine medication, diagnosis, and traditional Braden pressure ulcer assessment scale measurements as patient features. In order to predict pressure ulcer incidence and better understand the structure of related risk factors, we construct Bayesian networks from patient features. Bayesian network nodes (features) and edges (conditional dependencies) are simplified with statistical network techniques. Upon reviewing a network visualization of our model, our clinician collaborators were able to identify strong relationships between risk factors widely recognized as associated with pressure ulcers. We present a three-stage framework for predictive analysis of patient clinical data: 1) Developing electronic health record feature extraction functions with assistance of clinicians, 2) simplifying features, and 3) building Bayesian network predictive models. We evaluate all combinations of Bayesian network models from different search algorithms, scoring functions, prior structure initializations, and sets of features. From the EHRs of 7,717 ICU patients, we construct Bayesian network predictive models from 86 medication, diagnosis, and Braden scale features. Our model not only identifies known and suspected high PU risk factors, but also substantially increases sensitivity of the prediction - nearly three times higher comparing to logistical regression models - without sacrificing the overall accuracy. We visualize a representative model with which our clinician collaborators identify strong relationships between risk factors widely recognized as associated with pressure ulcers. Given the strong adverse effect of pressure ulcers

  5. Analysis of sound pressure levels emitted by children's toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleifer, Pricila; Gonçalves, Maiara Santos; Tomasi, Marinês; Gomes, Erissandra

    2013-06-01

    To verify the levels of sound pressure emitted by non-certified children's toys. Cross-sectional study of sound toys available at popular retail stores of the so-called informal sector. Electronic, mechanical, and musical toys were analyzed. The measurement of each product was carried out by an acoustic engineer in an acoustically isolated booth, by a decibel meter. To obtain the sound parameters of intensity and frequency, the toys were set to produce sounds at a distance of 10 and 50cm from the researcher's ear. The intensity of sound pressure [dB(A)] and the frequency in hertz (Hz) were measured. 48 toys were evaluated. The mean sound pressure 10cm from the ear was 102±10 dB(A), and at 50cm, 94±8 dB(A), with ptoys was above 85dB(A). The frequency ranged from 413 to 6,635Hz, with 56.3% of toys emitting frequency higher than 2,000Hz. The majority of toys assessed in this research emitted a high level of sound pressure.

  6. The study and improvement of water level control of pressurizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Peng; Zhang Qinshun

    2006-01-01

    The PI controller which is used widely in water level control of pressurizer in reactor control system usually leads dynamic overshoot and long setting time. The improvement project for intelligent fuzzy controller to take the place of PI controller is advanced. This paper researches the water level control of pressurizer in reactor control system of Daya Bay Phase I, and describes the method of intelligent fuzzy control in practice. Simulation indicates that the fuzzy control has advantages of small overshoot and short settling time. It can also improve control system's real time property and anti-interference ability. Especially for non-linear and time-varying complicated control systems, it can obtain good control results. (authors)

  7. Evaluation of the Automatic Density Compensation for Pressurizer Level Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Insoo; Min, Seohong; Ahn, Myunghoon

    2014-01-01

    When using two transmitters, it is difficult for the operators to identify the correct level of the pressurizer (PZR) upon failure of one of the two transmitters. For this reason, Korean Utility Requirements Document (KURD) requires that the operators to use three independent level indicators. Two hot calibrated transmitters and one cold calibrated transmitter compose PZR level transmitters in APR1400. In this paper, the deviation between cold calibration and hot calibration is evaluated, and the application of compensated PZR level measurement and uncompen-sated PZR level measurement during the normal operation of APR1400 are introduced. The PZR level signals for APR1400 come in three channels. To satisfy the KURD requirements for PZR level measurement, and at the same time to accomplish correction design and implementation, applicability and differences between hot calibration and cold calibration, compensated level and uncompensated level were evaluated as follows: For proper indication of PZR levels under normal operating condition, two of the three transmitters went through hot calibration and the remaining one transmitter went through cold calibration. This was to allow indicating entire regions of PZR regardless of the plant operation modes. For automatic density compensation per KURD requirements, the algorithm of the density compensated PZR level implemented in the DCS controller and PRV logic is adopted as a signal validation method

  8. Detection of human influence on sea-level pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, Nathan P; Zwiers, Francis W; Weaver, Andrew J; Stott, Peter A

    2003-03-20

    Greenhouse gases and tropospheric sulphate aerosols--the main human influences on climate--have been shown to have had a detectable effect on surface air temperature, the temperature of the free troposphere and stratosphere and ocean temperature. Nevertheless, the question remains as to whether human influence is detectable in any variable other than temperature. Here we detect an influence of anthropogenic greenhouse gases and sulphate aerosols in observations of winter sea-level pressure (December to February), using combined simulations from four climate models. We find increases in sea-level pressure over the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean, southern Europe and North Africa, and decreases in the polar regions and the North Pacific Ocean, in response to human influence. Our analysis also indicates that the climate models substantially underestimate the magnitude of the sea-level pressure response. This discrepancy suggests that the upward trend in the North Atlantic Oscillation index (corresponding to strengthened westerlies in the North Atlantic region), as simulated in a number of global warming scenarios, may be too small, leading to an underestimation of the impacts of anthropogenic climate change on European climate.

  9. Low level neutron monitoring using high pressure 3He detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pszona, S.

    1995-01-01

    Three detectors, two spherical proportional counters and an ionisation chamber, all filled with 3 He to pressures of 160 kPa, 325 kPa and 1 MPa respectively have been experimentally studied with respect to their use for low level neutron monitoring. The ambient dose equivalent responses and the energy resolutions of these detectors have been determined. It is shown that spectral analysis of the signals from these detectors not only gives high sensitivity with regard to ambient dose equivalent but also improves the quality of the measurements. A special instrumentation for low level neutron monitoring is described in which a quality control method has been implemented. (Author)

  10. Wind turbine sound pressure level calculations at dwellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Stephen E; Feder, Katya; Voicescu, Sonia A; Soukhovtsev, Victor; Denning, Allison; Tsang, Jason; Broner, Norm; Leroux, Tony; Richarz, Werner; van den Berg, Frits

    2016-03-01

    This paper provides calculations of outdoor sound pressure levels (SPLs) at dwellings for 10 wind turbine models, to support Health Canada's Community Noise and Health Study. Manufacturer supplied and measured wind turbine sound power levels were used to calculate outdoor SPL at 1238 dwellings using ISO [(1996). ISO 9613-2-Acoustics] and a Swedish noise propagation method. Both methods yielded statistically equivalent results. The A- and C-weighted results were highly correlated over the 1238 dwellings (Pearson's linear correlation coefficient r > 0.8). Calculated wind turbine SPLs were compared to ambient SPLs from other sources, estimated using guidance documents from the United States and Alberta, Canada.

  11. Investigation on Furan Levels in Pressure-Cooked Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana P. Arisseto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Furan is a food processing contaminant classified as possibly carcinogenic to humans. As the occurrence of furan has been reported in a variety of foods processed in sealed containers, the objective of this work was to investigate if the contaminant can be found in home-cooked foods prepared in a pressure cooker. For that, several foods including beans, soy beans, whole rice, beef, pork, potato, and cassava were pressure-cooked and analyzed for the furan content by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry preceded by a headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME-GC/MS. Furan was not found above the limit of quantification in the pressure-cooked samples. No furan has either been found in reheated samples after 24 hours under cold storage. Although levels up to 173 μg/kg were already reported for commercial canned/jarred foods, it seems that the cooking in a pressure cooker may not represent a concern in relation to the occurrence of furan in foods.

  12. Preliminary Pressure Records from a detonator initiated f.c.i

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Board, Simon John

    1976-01-01

    On the theory of Board, Hall and Hall (1975) it should be possible, given a suitable trigger, to achieve a very efficient thermal explosion in which a self-sustaining shock wave passes through a course initial mixture, causes fine fragmentation. We describe briefly an experiment in which a rather dilute mixture of tine and water, confined in a strong tube, was triggered by a No. 6 detonator; the progress of the explosion was monitored by four pressure transducers in the tube wall. The Kistler 603B transducers were connected to an Ampex FR1300A tape recorder with 40 kHz bandwidth, in parallel with U/V recorder galvanometers of 5 kHz resonant frequency. The presence of the metal was detected by the shorting of two parallel meshes at the mouth of the tube. Detailed comparison between the tape recorded traces and those in the U/V recorder show good agreement, with no evidence of transient overload. We may make the following preliminary observations. The negative feature travelling at ∼10 5 cm/s is presumably a compression wave travelling on the walls of the strong tube. There are several reasons for thinking that substantial energy release took place in the region around transducer 2 (1 being the nearest to the detonator). Firstly we know from earlier visualisation experiments that the metal is concentrated (in ∼1/3 cm drops) in this region of the tube. Secondly the pressure-time integral under record 2 is substantially greater than that under 1. Thirdly the rise time of 100 μs for record 2 is of the order of that expected for collapse of a vapour blanket on a 1/3 cm drop under 60 bars overpressure. Further up the tube the pressure pulse decays slightly, and also steepens; this is consistent with there being considerably less vapour and metal in this region. In the total volume of the tube (600 cc) there are ∼100 cc of metal - assuming an equal quantity of vapour, and a mean front velocity of 5 x 10 4 cm/s we find a differential velocity of ∼ 10 4 cm/s, which

  13. More than 70 years of continuous sea level records on the Santander Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavín, Alicia; Tel, Elena; Molinero, Joaquin; Rodriguez, Carmen

    2017-04-01

    The knowledge of sea level height is important for many different sectors as navigation, transport, building infrastructures, tourism, or maritime sports, between others. Tides are mainly composed of an astronomical part and a meteorological one. Sometimes, their joined action is the responsible of extreme behaviors in the sea level. Influence of pressure differences, as well as related winds, is important in the behavior of sea level to analyze. The first system for reading the sea level was a tide board attached at the pier. In Spain the first modern tide gauge was installed in the Port of Alicante, Mediterranean Sea, in 1873 depending of the National Geographic Institute (IGN). Just the following year, a similar tide gauge was installed at the entrance of the Santander Bay. "La Magdalena" tide gauge was working during two periods 1876-1928 and 1963-1975. Together with Cádiz, the IGN tide gauges were used to determinate the national datum for terrestrial cartography. The Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO) tide gauge network was initiated in 1943 with the installation of tide gauges along the Spanish coast. One of them was located in Santander and has been working since then. At the beginning it was a float tide gauge connected to a graphical continuous recorder. Nowadays, it also has a digital encoder and a remote connection that allow using the recorded data for operational purposes. Later a Radar system was added. This tide gauge is referred to the Tide Gauge Zero and also calibrated to a benchmark in order to have a unique reference. This high quality sea level information is required for international and regional research activities, as Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS). In particular, long time series are widely used for climate change detection. The sea level long term variability studies require a very good quality data focus in the reference of the data along the whole period and also it will be more precisely if we can remove the crustal

  14. Extubation success in premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome treated with bi-level nasal continuous positive airway pressure versus nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Patricia E; LeFlore, Judy

    2013-01-01

    Infants born prematurely with respiratory distress syndrome are at high risk for complications from mechanical ventilation. Strategies are needed to minimize their days on the ventilator. The purpose of this study was to compare extubation success rates in infants treated with 2 different types of continuous positive airway pressure devices. A retrospective cohort study design was used. Data were retrieved from electronic medical records for patients in a large, metropolitan, level III neonatal intensive care unit. A sample of 194 premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome was selected, 124 of whom were treated with nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation and 70 with bi-level variable flow nasal continuous positive airway pressure (bi-level nasal continuous positive airway pressure). Infants in both groups had high extubation success rates (79% of nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation group and 77% of bi-level nasal continuous positive airway pressure group). Although infants in the bi-level nasal continuous positive airway pressure group were extubated sooner, there was no difference in duration of oxygen therapy between the 2 groups. Promoting early extubation and extubation success is a vital strategy to reduce complications of mechanical ventilation that adversely affect premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome.

  15. The effect of pressurizer-water-level on the low frequency component of the pressure spectrum in a PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Por, G.; Izsak, E.; Valko, J.

    1984-09-01

    The pressure fluctuations were measured in the cooling system of the Paks-1 reactor. A shift of the peak was detected in low frequency component of the pressure fluctuation spectrum which is due to the fluctuations of water level in the pressurizer. Using the model of Katona and Nagy (1983), the eigenfrequencies, the magnitude of the shift and the sensitivity to the pressurizer water level were reproduced in good accordance with the experimental data. (D.Gy.)

  16. The influence of institutional pressures on hospital electronic health record presence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fareed, Naleef; Bazzoli, Gloria J; Farnsworth Mick, Stephen S; Harless, David W

    2015-05-01

    Electronic health records (EHR) are a promising form of health information technology that could help US hospitals improve on their quality of care and costs. During the study period explored (2005-2009), high expectations for EHR diffused across institutional stakeholders in the healthcare environment, which may have pressured hospitals to have EHR capabilities even in the presence of weak technical rationale for the technology. Using an extensive set of organizational theory-specific predictors, this study explored whether five factors - cause, constituents, content, context, and control - that reflect the nature of institutional pressures for EHR capabilities motivated hospitals to comply with these pressures. Using information from several national data bases, an ordered probit regression model was estimated. The resulting predicted probabilities of EHR capabilities from the empirical model's estimates were used to test the study's five hypotheses, of which three were supported. When the underlying cause, dependence on constituents, or influence of control were high and potential countervailing forces were low, hospitals were more likely to employ strategic responses that were compliant with the institutional pressures for EHR capabilities. In light of these pressures, hospitals may have acquiesced, by having comprehensive EHR capabilities, or compromised, by having intermediate EHR capabilities, in order to maintain legitimacy in their environment. The study underscores the importance of our assessment for theory and policy development, and provides suggestions for future research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. New methodology for preventing pressure ulcers using actimetry and autonomous nervous system recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meffre, R; Gehin, C; Schmitt, P M; De Oliveira, F; Dittmar, A

    2006-01-01

    Pressure ulcers constitute an important health problem. They affect lots of people with mobility disorder and they are difficult to detect and prevent because the damage begins on the muscle. This paper proposes a new approach to study pressure ulcers. We aim at developing a methodology to analyse the probability for a patient to develop a pressure ulcer, and that can detect risky situation. The idea is to relate the mobility disorder to autonomic nervous system (ANS) trouble. More precisely, the evaluation of the consequence of the discomfort on the ANS (stress induced by discomfort) can be relevant for the early detection of the pressure ulcer. Mobility is evaluated through movement measurement. This evaluation, at the interface between soft living tissues and any support has to consider the specificity of the human environment. Soft living tissues have non-linear mechanical properties making conventional rigid sensors non suitable for interface parameters measurement. A new actimeter system has been designed in order to study movements of the human body whatever its support while seating. The device is based on elementary active cells. The number of pressure cells can be easily adapted to the application. The spatial resolution is about 4 cm(2). In this paper, we compare activity measurement of a seated subject with his autonomic nervous system activity, recorded by E.motion device. It has been developed in order to record six parameters: skin potential, skin resistance, skin temperature, skin blood rate, instantaneous cardiac frequency and instantaneous respiratory frequency. The design, instrumentation, and first results are presented.

  18. Solid-state track recorder neutron dosimetry in light water reactor pressure vessel surveillance mockups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruddy, F.H.; Roberts, J.H.; Gold, R.; Preston, C.C.

    1984-09-01

    Solid-State Track Recorder (SSTR) measurements of neutron-induced fission rates have been made in several pressure vessel mockup facilities as part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) Light Water Reactor Pressure Vessel Surveillance Dosimetry Improvement Program (LWR-PV-SDIP). The results of extensive physics-dosimetry measurements made at the Pool Critical Assembly (PCA) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, TN are summarized. Included are 235 U, 238 U, 237 Np and 232 Th fission rates in the PCA 12/13, 8/7, and 4/12 SSC configurations. Additional low power measurements have been made in an engineering mockup at the VENUS critical assembly at CEN-SCK, Mol, Belgium. 237 Np and 238 U fission rates were made at selected locations in the VENUS mockup, which models the in-core and near-core regions of a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Absolute core power measurements were made at VENUS by exposing solid-state track recorders (SSTRs) to polished fuel pellets within in-core fuel pins. 8 references, 4 figures, 10 tables

  19. Maternal age during pregnancy is associated with third trimester blood pressure level: the generation R study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Romy; Bakker, Rachel; Steegers, Eric A P; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2011-09-01

    We hypothesized that hemodynamic adaptations related to pregnancy and ageing might be associated with differences in blood pressure levels during pregnancy between younger and older women. This might partly explain the increased risk of gestational hypertensive disorders with advanced maternal age. We examined the associations of maternal age with systolic and diastolic blood pressure in each trimester of pregnancy and the risks of gestational hypertensive disorders. The study was conducted among 8,623 women participating in a population-based prospective cohort study from early pregnancy onwards. Age was assessed at enrolment. Blood pressure was measured in each trimester. Information about gestational hypertensive disorders was available from medical records. In second and third trimester, older maternal age was associated with lower systolic blood pressure (-0.9 mm Hg (95% confidence interval: -1.4, -0.3) and -0.6 mm Hg (95% confidence interval: -1.1, -0.02) per additional 10 maternal years, respectively). Older maternal age was associated with higher third trimester diastolic blood pressure (0.5 mm Hg (95% confidence interval: 0.04, 0.9) per additional 10 maternal years). Maternal age was associated with pregnancy-induced hypertension among overweight and obese women. Older maternal age is associated with lower second and third trimester systolic blood pressure, but higher third trimester diastolic blood pressure. These blood pressure differences seem to be small and within the physiological range. Maternal age is not consistently associated with the risks of gestational hypertensive disorders. Maternal body mass index might influence the association between maternal age and the risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension.

  20. Sea level change: lessons from the geologic record

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1995-01-01

    Rising sea level is potentially one of the most serious impacts of climatic change. Even a small sea level rise would have serious economic consequences because it would cause extensive damage to the world's coastal regions. Sea level can rise in the future because the ocean surface can expand due to warming and because polar ice sheets and mountain glaciers can melt, increasing the ocean's volume of water. Today, ice caps on Antarctica and Greenland contain 91 and 8 percent of the world's ice, respectively. The world's mountain glaciers together contain only about 1 percent. Melting all this ice would raise sea level about 80 meters. Although this extreme scenario is not expected, geologists know that sea level can rise and fall rapidly due to changing volume of ice on continents. For example, during the last ice age, about 18,000 years ago, continental ice sheets contained more than double the modem volume of ice. As ice sheets melted, sea level rose 2 to 3 meters per century, and possibly faster during certain times. During periods in which global climate was very warm, polar ice was reduced and sea level was higher than today.

  1. A Record-High Ocean Bottom Pressure in the South Pacific Observed by GRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boening, Carmen; Lee, Tong; Zlotnicki, Victor

    2011-01-01

    In late 2009 to early 2010, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite pair observed a record increase in ocean bottom pressure (OBP) over a large mid-latitude region of the South East Pacific. Its magnitude is substantially larger than other oceanic events in the Southern Hemisphere found in the entire GRACE data records (2003-2010) on multi-month time scales. The OBP data help to understand the nature of a similar signal in sea surface height (SSH) anomaly observed by altimetry: the SSH increase is mainly due to mass convergence. Analysis of the barotropic vorticity equation using scatterometer data, atmospheric reanalysis product, and GRACE and altimeter an atmospheric reanalysis product observations suggests that the observed OBP/SSH signal was primarily caused by wind stress curl associated with a strong and persistent anticyclone in late 2009 in combination with effects of planetary vorticity gradient, bottom topography, and friction

  2. Intraesophageal pressure recording improves the detection of cough during multichannel intraluminal impedance testing in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Rachel; Amirault, Janine; Giligan, Emily; Khatwa, Umakanth; Nurko, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    One of the primary reasons for referral for reflux testing is to correlate reflux events with symptoms such as cough. Adult studies have suggested that symptom recording is flawed and pediatricians feel this is an even more significant problem because there may be errors in both parental and patient reports. We hypothesize that intraesophageal pressure recording (IEPR) provides an objective method to identify coughs during reflux testing in children. We recruited 20 children undergoing multichannel intraluminal impedance with pH (pH-MII) testing for the evaluation of cough. We placed simultaneous intraesophageal pressure and pH-MII catheters. Tracings were blindly scored by 2 observers without knowledge of patient/parent symptom report. After the blinded scoring, patient/parent report of symptoms was recorded. Ninety-four percent of all coughs were detected by IEPR and only 48% of all coughs were reported by patients/parents. The mean time from the IEPR cough to the patient/parent cough was 11±16 seconds. Using IEPR as the criterion standard for the detection of cough, the sensitivity of patient report for the detection of cough is 46%. Using varying symptom windows because of the increased precision of IEPR, the number of patients with a positive symptom index could be reduced from 30% to 0%, preventing children from being falsely categorized as having reflux-related lung disease. Parental and patient symptom recording in children is inadequate for making the diagnosis of reflux-related lung disease. If patients undergo pH-MII testing for reflux-related cough, IEPR should become the new standard by which to correlate reflux with cough.

  3. Molecular pathways associated with blood pressure and hexadecanedioate levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Menni

    Full Text Available The dicarboxylic acid hexadecanedioate is associated with increased blood pressure (BP and mortality in humans and feeding it to rats raises BP. Here we aim to characterise the molecular pathways that influence levels of hexadecanedioate linked to BP regulation, using genetic and transcriptomic studies. The top associations for hexadecanedioate in a genome-wide association scan (GWAS conducted on 6447 individuals from the TwinsUK and KORA cohorts were tested for association with BP and hypertension in the International Consortium for BP and in a GWAS of BP extremes. Transcriptomic analyses correlating hexadecanedioate with gene expression levels in adipose tissue in 740 TwinsUK participants were further performed. GWAS showed 242 SNPs mapping to two independent loci achieving genome-wide significance. In rs414056 in the SCLO1B1 gene (Beta(SE = -0.088(0.006P = 1.65 x 10-51, P < 1 x 10-51, the allele previously associated with increased risk of statin associated myopathy is associated with higher hexadecanedioate levels. However this SNP did not show association with BP or hypertension. The top SNP in the second locus rs6663731 mapped to the intronic region of CYP4Z2P on chromosome 1 (0.045(0.007, P = 5.49x10-11. Hexadecanedioate levels also correlate with adipose tissue gene-expression of the 3 out of 4 CYP4 probes (P<0.05 and of alcohol dehydrogenase probes (Beta(SE = 0.12(0.02; P = 6.04x10-11. High circulating levels of hexadecanedioate determine a significant effect of alcohol intake on BP (SBP: 1.12(0.34, P = 0.001; DBP: 0.70(0.22, P = 0.002, while no effect is seen in the lower hexadecanedioate level group. In conclusion, levels in fat of ADH1A, ADH1B and CYP4 encoding enzymes in the omega oxidation pathway, are correlated with hexadecanedioate levels. Hexadecanedioate appears to regulate the effect of alcohol on BP.

  4. Do high sound pressure levels of crowing in roosters necessitate passive mechanisms for protection against self-vocalization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, Raf; Muyshondt, Pieter G G; Dirckx, Joris J J; Aerts, Peter

    2018-02-01

    High sound pressure levels (>120dB) cause damage or death of the hair cells of the inner ear, hence causing hearing loss. Vocalization differences are present between hens and roosters. Crowing in roosters is reported to produce sound pressure levels of 100dB measured at a distance of 1m. In this study we measured the sound pressure levels that exist at the entrance of the outer ear canal. We hypothesize that roosters may benefit from a passive protective mechanism while hens do not require such a mechanism. Audio recordings at the level of the entrance of the outer ear canal of crowing roosters, made in this study, indeed show that a protective mechanism is needed as sound pressure levels can reach amplitudes of 142.3dB. Audio recordings made at varying distances from the crowing rooster show that at a distance of 0.5m sound pressure levels already drop to 102dB. Micro-CT scans of a rooster and chicken head show that in roosters the auditory canal closes when the beak is opened. In hens the diameter of the auditory canal only narrows but does not close completely. A morphological difference between the sexes in shape of a bursa-like slit which occurs in the outer ear canal causes the outer ear canal to close in roosters but not in hens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Fitness Level Modulates Intraocular Pressure Responses to Strength Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Jesús; Jiménez, Raimundo; Redondo, Beatríz; Cárdenas, David; García-Ramos, Amador

    2018-06-01

    Purpose/Aim: The execution of strength exercises has demonstrated to increase the intraocular pressure (IOP) levels, and it may have a negative impact on the ocular health. We aimed to explore the influence of fitness level on the acute IOP response to strength exercises performed under different loading conditions, as well as to test whether the IOP responses differ between the bench press and jump squat when performed against the same relative loads. Forty military personnel males were divided in two subgroups (20 high-fit and 20 low-fit) based on their relative to body mass one-repetition maximum (1-RM). Participants performed an incremental loading test in the bench press and jump squat exercises, and IOP was assessed before and after each repetition by rebound tonometry. IOP increased immediately after executing both exercises (p e., high-fit and low-fit) and in both exercises (R 2 range: 0.81-1.00). Higher fitness level attenuated the IOP rise produced by both exercises (p < 0.01 in both cases). The bench press induced higher IOP increments than the jump squat for both groups at relative loads of ~50%1-RM and ~60%1-RM (p < 0.01 in all cases). These data indicate that IOP increases as a consequence of performing strength exercises, being the increment accentuated with the increase of the load and in the bench press compared to the jump squat exercise. Of special importance would be that the IOP responses were significantly reduced in high-fit individuals. These findings should be addressed in glaucoma patients.

  6. 30 CFR 250.523 - How long do I keep records of casing pressure and diagnostic tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and diagnostic tests? 250.523 Section 250.523 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE... casing pressure and diagnostic tests? Records of casing pressure and diagnostic tests must be kept at the field office nearest the well for a minimum of 2 years. The last casing diagnostic test for each casing...

  7. Urethral pressure reflectometry, a novel technique for simultaneous recording of pressure and cross-sectional area in the prostatic urethra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Mikael; Klarskov, Niels; Sønksen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Urethral pressure reflectometry (UPR) was introduced in 2005, for simultaneous measurement of pressure and cross-sectional area in the female urethra. It has shown to be more reproducible than conventional pressure measurement. Recently, it has been tested in the anal canal and the pro......OBJECTIVE: Urethral pressure reflectometry (UPR) was introduced in 2005, for simultaneous measurement of pressure and cross-sectional area in the female urethra. It has shown to be more reproducible than conventional pressure measurement. Recently, it has been tested in the anal canal...... version of Prostate Symptom Score, flow rate, residual urine measurements, transrectal ultrasound, urethral pressure profilometry and visual analogue scale (Discomfort). UPR parameters measured were opening and closing pressure, opening and closing elastance and hysteresis, from the bladder neck...

  8. Trends in Intense Typhoon Minimum Sea Level Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen L. Durden

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of recent publications have examined trends in the maximum wind speed of tropical cyclones in various basins. In this communication, the author focuses on typhoons in the western North Pacific. Rather than maximum wind speed, the intensity of the storms is measured by their lifetime minimum sea level pressure (MSLP. Quantile regression is used to test for trends in storms of extreme intensity. The results indicate that there is a trend of decreasing intensity in the most intense storms as measured by MSLP over the period 1951–2010. However, when the data are broken into intervals 1951–1987 and 1987–2010, neither interval has a significant trend, but the intensity quantiles for the two periods differ. Reasons for this are discussed, including the cessation of aircraft reconnaissance in 1987. The author also finds that the average typhoon intensity is greater in El Nino years, while the intensity of the strongest typhoons shows no significant relation to El Nino Southern Oscillation.

  9. Deep-sea ciliates: Recorded diversity and experimental studies on pressure tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenle, Alexandra; Nitsche, Frank; Werner, Jennifer; Arndt, Hartmut

    2017-10-01

    Microbial eukaryotes play an important role in biogeochemical cycles not only in productive surface waters but also in the deep sea. Recent studies based on metagenomics report deep-sea protistan assemblages totally different from continental slopes and shelf waters. To give an overview about the ciliate fauna recorded from the deep sea we summarized the available information on ciliate occurrence in the deep sea. Our literature review revealed that representatives of the major phylogenetic groups of ciliates were recorded from the deep sea (> 1000 m depth): Karyorelictea, Heterotrichea, Spirotrichea (Protohypotrichia, Euplotia, Oligotrichia, Choreotrichia, Hypotrichia), Armophorea (Armophorida), Litostomatea (Haptoria), Conthreep (Phyllopharyngea incl. Cyrtophoria, Chonotrichia, Suctoria; Nassophorea incl. Microthoracida, Synhymeniida, Nassulida; Colpodea incl. Bursariomorphida, Cyrtolophosidida; Prostomatea; Plagiopylea incl. Plagiopylida, Odontostomatida; Oligohymenophorea incl. Peniculia, Scuticociliatia, Hymenostomatia, Apostomatia, Peritrichia, Astomatia). Species occurring in both habitats, deep sea and shallow water, are rarely found to our knowledge to date. This indicates a high deep-sea specific ciliate fauna. Our own studies of similar genotypes (SSU rDNA and cox1 gene) revealed that two small scuticociliate species (Pseudocohnilembus persalinus and Uronema sp.) could be isolated from surface as well as deep waters (2687 m, 5276 m, 5719 m) of the Pacific. The adaptation to deep-sea conditions was investigated by exposing the ciliate isolates directly or stepwise to different hydrostatic pressures ranging from 1 to 550 atm at temperatures of 2 °C and 13 °C. Although the results indicated no general barophilic behavior, all four isolated strains survived the highest established pressure. A better survival at 550 atm could be observed for the lower temperature. Among microbial eukaryotes, ciliates should be considered as a diverse and potentially

  10. Systolic Blood Pressure Trajectory, Frailty, and All-Cause Mortality >80 Years of Age: Cohort Study Using Electronic Health Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindrarajah, Rathi; Hazra, Nisha C; Hamada, Shota; Charlton, Judith; Jackson, Stephen H D; Dregan, Alex; Gulliford, Martin C

    2017-06-13

    Clinical trials show benefit from lowering systolic blood pressure (SBP) in people ≥80 years of age, but nonrandomized epidemiological studies suggest lower SBP may be associated with higher mortality. This study aimed to evaluate associations of SBP with all-cause mortality by frailty category >80 years of age and to evaluate SBP trajectories before death. A population-based cohort study was conducted using electronic health records of 144 403 participants ≥80 years of age registered with family practices in the United Kingdom from 2001 to 2014. Participants were followed for ≤5 years. Clinical records of SBP were analyzed. Frailty status was classified using the e-Frailty Index into the categories of fit, mild, moderate, and severe. All-cause mortality was evaluated by frailty status and mean SBP in Cox proportional-hazards models. SBP trajectories were evaluated using person months as observations, with mean SBP and antihypertensive treatment status estimated for each person month. Fractional polynomial models were used to estimate SBP trajectories over 5 years before death. During follow-up, 51 808 deaths occurred. Mortality rates increased with frailty level and were greatest at SBP mortality was 7.7 per 100 person years at SBP 120 to 139 mm Hg, 15.2 at SBP 110 to 119 mm Hg, and 22.7 at SBP mortality may be accounted for by reverse causation if participants with lower blood pressure values are closer, on average, to the end of life. © 2017 The Authors.

  11. Identifying FRBR Work-Level Data in MARC Bibliographic Records for Manifestations of Moving Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne Bisko

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The library metadata community is dealing with the challenge of implementing the conceptual model, Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR. In response, the Online Audiovisual Catalogers (OLAC created a task force to study the issues related to creating and using FRBR-based work-level records for moving images. This article presents one part of the task force's work: it looks at the feasibility of creating provisional FRBR work-level records for moving images by extracting data from existing manifestation-level bibliographic records. Using a sample of 941 MARC records, a subgroup of the task force conducted a pilot project to look at five characteristics of moving image works. Here they discuss their methodology; analysis; selected results for two elements, original date (year and director name; and conclude with some suggested changes to MARC coding and current cataloging policy.

  12. A Study on Determination of Proper Pressurizer Level for Kori Unit 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Sup; Song, Dong Soo [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    1. Determination of Proper Pressurizer Level. To determine operation level of pressurizer, LOFTRAN code is used with conservative model and assumption. 2. Performance Analysis. To simulate the plant, RETRAN computer code is used with realistic model and assumptions. The control and protection systems are fully credited. The turbine trip event is simulated at the condition of 47.62% of pressurizer level at full power. After that the same event as that with 55% of pressurizer level is simulated. And the FSAR requirements of pressurizer are verified with the new level setpoints. 3. Safety Analysis. As safety analyses, Loss of Normal Feedwater/Station Blackout which is significantly affected by the initial pressurizer water level is performed. Turbine Trip accident is also analyzed to verify if the peak primary side pressure is within the limit. LOFTRAN code is used with conservative mode and assumption. 3. Steam Generator Replacement. Relating to the steam generator replacement planed in 1998, safety analysis in terms of pressurizer level setpoint change. 4. Limit Condition for Operation. The LCO of pressurizer level is changed from 60% to 67.4% which is included pressurizer level uncertainty. (author). 13 refs., figs., tabs.

  13. Monitoring operational conditions of vehicle tyre pressure levels and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compliance with vehicle tyre inflation pressure and tread depth standard specifications and legal requirements were monitored by survey study in Kumasi Metropolis, Ghana. The survey covered 400 vehicles, comprising cars (28 %), medium buses (25 %), large capacity buses (15 %) and trucks (32 %). There were wide ...

  14. Covariance functions across herd production levels for test day records on milk, fat, and protein yields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerkamp, R.F.; Goddard, M.E.

    1998-01-01

    Multiple-trait BLUP evaluations of test day records require a large number of genetic parameters. This study estimated covariances with a reduced model that included covariance functions in two dimensions (stage of lactation and herd production level) and all three yield traits. Records came from

  15. [Possibilities of bi-level positive pressure ventilation in chronic hypoventilation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saaresranta, Tarja; Anttalainen, Ulla; Polo, Olli

    2011-01-01

    During the last decade, noninvasive bi-level positive pressure ventilation has enabled respiratory support in inpatient wards and at home. In many cases, a bi-level airway pressure ventilator can be used to avoid artificial airway and respirator therapy, and may shorten hospital stay and save costs. The treatment alleviates the patient's dyspnea and fatigue, whereby the quality of life improves, and in certain situations also the life span increases. The implementation of bi-level positive pressure ventilation by the physician requires knowledge of the basics of respiratory physiology and familiarization with the bi-level airway pressure ventilator.

  16. Effects of ambient temperature and water vapor on chamber pressure and oxygen level during low atmospheric pressure stunning of poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Paul H; Pritchard, David G

    2017-08-01

    The characteristics of the vacuum used in a low atmospheric pressure stunning system to stun (render unconscious) poultry prior to slaughter are described. A vacuum chamber is pumped by a wet screw compressor. The vacuum pressure is reduced from ambient atmospheric pressure to an absolute vacuum pressure of ∼250 Torr (∼33 kPa) in ∼67 sec with the vacuum gate valve fully open. At ∼250 Torr, the sliding gate valve is partially closed to reduce effective pumping speed, resulting in a slower rate of decreasing pressure. Ambient temperature affects air density and water vapor pressure and thereby oxygen levels and the time at the minimum total pressure of ∼160 Torr (∼21 kPa) is varied from ∼120 to ∼220 sec to ensure an effective stun within the 280 seconds of each cycle. The reduction in total pressure results in a gradual reduction of oxygen partial pressure that was measured by a solid-state electrochemical oxygen sensor. The reduced oxygen pressure leads to hypoxia, which is recognized as a humane method of stunning poultry. The system maintains an oxygen concentration of air always reduces the oxygen concentrations to a value lower than in dry air. The partial pressure of water and oxygen were found to depend on the pump down parameters due to the formation of fog in the chamber and desorption of water from the birds and the walls of the vacuum chamber. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.

  17. Reliability and validity of pressure and temporal parameters recorded using a pressure-sensitive insole during running

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mann, R.; Malisoux, L.; Brunner, R.; Gette, P.; Urhausen, A.; Statham, A.; Meijer, K.; Theisen, D.

    2014-01-01

    Running biomechanics has received increasing interest in recent literature on running-related injuries, calling for new, portable methods for large-scale measurements. Our aims were to define running strike pattern based on output of a new pressure-sensitive measurement device, the Runalyser, and to

  18. Development of a pressurizer level compensator for use on N Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussell, J.H.

    1985-07-01

    The instrument described in this report has been developed to compensate the measured water level in the N Reactor pressurizer for temperature effects. N Reactor is a pressurized water nuclear reactor (PWR). The instrument is defined as a pressurizer level compensator (PLC). A pressurizer is used in a PWR to control the primary coolant pressure and provide a surge volume for primary coolant expansion and contraction. A means of compensating for water and steam density is required because of the wide range of pressure and temperature that result from different steady state and transient reactor power levels. The uncompensated level is determined by measurement of differential pressure between the top of the level measurement zone and the bottom of the level measurement zone. Temperature of the water in the pressurizer is the parameter that is used to determine the proper level compensation since water and steam density are primarily functions of temperature in this case. The PLC uses a microprocessor to calculate the compensated level from temperature and differential pressure measurements. This report includes a description of the design, development, and implementation of software and hardware that are in the PLC. 9 refs., 51 figs., 17 tabs

  19. Relationship between systemic hemodynamics and ambulatory blood pressure level are sex dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfie, J; Waisman, G D; Galarza, C R; Magi, M I; Vasvari, F; Mayorga, L M; Cámera, M I

    1995-12-01

    Sex-related differences in systemic hemodynamics were analyzed by means of cardiac index and systemic vascular resistance according to the level of daytime ambulatory blood pressure. In addition, we assessed the relations between ambulatory blood pressure measurements and systemic hemodynamics in male and female patients. We prospectively included 52 women and 53 men referred to our unit for evaluation of arterial hypertension. Women and men were grouped according to the level of daytime mean arterial pressure: or = 110 mm Hg. Patients underwent noninvasive evaluation of resting hemodynamics (impedance cardiography) and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Compared with women men with lower daytime blood pressure had a 12% higher systemic vascular resistance index (P = NS) and a 14% lower cardiac index (P < .02), whereas men with higher daytime blood pressure had a 25% higher vascular resistance (P < .003) and a 21% lower cardiac index (P < .0004). Furthermore, in men systemic vascular resistance correlated positively with both daytime and nighttime systolic and diastolic blood pressures, whereas cardiac index correlated negatively only with daytime diastolic blood pressure. In contrast, women did not exhibit any significant correlation between hemodynamic parameters and ambulatory blood pressure measurements. In conclusion, sex-related differences in systemic hemodynamics were more pronounced in the group with higher daytime hypertension. The relations between systemic hemodynamics and ambulatory blood pressure level depended on the sex of the patient. In men a progressive circulatory impairment underlies the increasing level of ambulatory blood pressure, but this was not observed in women.

  20. Variable day/night bias in 24-h non-invasive finger pressure against intrabrachial artery pressure is removed by waveform filtering and level correction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, Berend E.; Guelen, Ilja; Parati, Gianfranco; Groppelli, Antonella; van Montfrans, Gert A.; Wieling, Wouter; Wesseling, Karel H.; Bos, Willem Jan W.

    2002-01-01

    Background Twenty-four-hour finger arterial pressure (FAP) recordings show a negative bias against intrabrachial artery pressure (BAP) and the bias is greater during the night thereby overestimating the nocturnal blood pressure dip. We have available a methodology with which to reconstruct BAP from

  1. Plasma apelin levels in obstructive sleep apnea and the effect of continuous positive airway pressure therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, David E; Buchanan, Fiona; Gibson, Rosemary; Douthwaite, Jennie A; Wood, Susan A; Woltersdorf, Wolfram W; Catterall, James R; Lightman, Stafford L

    2009-10-01

    Apelin is a peptide hormone with cardiovascular and glucose homeostasis properties, and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is complicated by cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities. Plasma apelin has not been previously assessed in OSA. We investigated the response of plasma apelin to a 2-h 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and the effect of 3 months compliant continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy in 15 obese males with newly diagnosed OSA. Plasma apelin and serum cortisol were recorded 10 minutely, while serum insulin and glucose were measured 30 minutely. Ten subjects had plasma apelin measured at intervals across a 24-h period to investigate for circadian variation in apelin levels, and this was repeated following 3 months compliant CPAP therapy. Fasting (0.342+/-0.038 vs 0.288+/-0.024 ng/ml, P=0.04), 30 min (0.399+/-0.035 vs 0.312+/-0.036 ng/ml, P=0.007) and 120 min (0.402+/-0.030 vs 0.259+/-0.024 ng/ml, P<0.001) apelin levels were reduced following CPAP. The area under curve for apelin OGTT response was lower post-CPAP (44.1+/-3.3 vs 35.8+/-2.3 ng/ml per min, P<0.001). Mean OGTT apelin levels showed a significant treatment effect (P=0.006) and a time effect (P<0.001), and the effect of time was different pre- versus post-CPAP (P=0.005). No significant variability in apelin levels existed across the 24-h period at diagnosis. Lower levels were evident overnight following treatment (P=0.004). Improvements in insulin and glucose parameters and reduced cortisol levels were found post-CPAP. In summary, untreated OSA was associated with elevated plasma apelin levels, altered apelin secretory dynamics in response to oral glucose and lack of an apparent circadian variability, which was restored following CPAP.

  2. Measurement of cardiac output in children by pressure-recording analytical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbano, Javier; López, Jorge; González, Rafael; Solana, María José; Fernández, Sarah N; Bellón, José M; López-Herce, Jesús

    2015-02-01

    We evaluated two pressure-recording analytical method (PRAM) software versions (v.1 and v.2) to measure cardiac index (CI) in hemodynamically stable critically ill children and investigate factors that influence PRAM values. The working hypothesis was that PRAM CI measurements would stay within normal limits in hemodynamically stable patients. Ninety-five CI PRAM measurements were analyzed in 47 patients aged 1-168 months. Mean CI was 4.1 ± 1.4 L/min/m(2) (range 2.0-7.0). CI was outside limits defined as normal (3-5 L/min/m(2)) in 53.7% of measurements (47.8% with software v.1 and 69.2% with software v.2, p = 0.062). Moreover, 14.7% of measurements were below 2.5 L/min/m(2), and 13.6% were above 6 L/min/m(2). CI was significantly lower in patients with a clearly visible dicrotic notch than in those without (3.7 vs. 4.6 L/min/m(2), p = 0.004) and in children with a radial arterial catheter (3.5 L/min/m(2)) than in those with a brachial (4.4 L/min/m(2), p = 0.021) or femoral catheter (4.7 L/min/m(2), p = 0.005). By contrast, CI was significantly higher in children under 12 months (4.2 vs. 3.6 L/min/m(2), p = 0.034) and weighing under 10 kg (4.2 vs. 3.6 L/min/m(2), p = 0.026). No significant differences were observed between cardiac surgery patients and the rest of children. A high percentage of CI measurements registered by PRAM were outside normal limits in hemodynamically stable, critically ill children. CI measured by PRAM may be influenced by the age, weight, location of catheter, and presence of a dicrotic notch.

  3. Characterization of small intestinal pressure waves in ambulant subjects recorded with a novel portable manometric system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samsom, M.; Fraser, R.; Smout, A. J.; Verhagen, M. A.; Adachi, K.; Horowitz, M.; Dent, J.

    1999-01-01

    The organization of lumen-occlusive pressure waves is believed to be an important determinant of luminal flow. At present, little is known about the organization of small intestinal pressure waves in humans. The aim of the present study was to characterize the spatiotemporal organization of small

  4. An improved and homogeneous altimeter sea level record from the ESA Climate Change Initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legeais, Jean-Francois; Ablain, Michael; Zawadzki, Lionel

    2018-01-01

    , the sea level ECV has been measured from space by different altimetry missions that have provided global and regional observations of sea level variations. As part of the Climate Change Initiative (CCI) program of the European Space Agency (ESA) (established in 2010), the Sea Level project (SL_cci) aimed...... to provide an accurate and homogeneous long-term satellite-based sea level record. At the end of the first phase of the project (2010-2013), an initial version (v1.1) of the sea level ECV was made available to users (Ablain et al., 2015). During the second phase of the project (2014-2017), improved altimeter...

  5. Experimental Measures of Bus Comfort Levels Using Kinematic Parameters Recorded by Smartphone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquila, S. dell' ; Eboli, L.; Futia, G.; Mazzulla, G.; Pungillo, G.

    2016-07-01

    Comfort on board plays an essential role in the levels of satisfaction of a bus service perceived by passengers. The aim of this paper is to propose a measure of comfort based on two kinds of data: perceptions of passengers (subjective data) and accelerations of bus (objective data). For the collection of subjective data a questionnaire was addressed to a sample of university students, while a smartphone, equipped with GPS device and 3-axis accelerometer, was used to record the accelerations. Based on the recorded parameters, we determined the thresholds of the acceleration values beyond which the level of comfort cannot be considered as good.. (Author)

  6. How male sound pressure level influences phonotaxis in virgin female Jamaican field crickets (Gryllus assimilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Pacheco

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding female mate preference is important for determining the strength and direction of sexual trait evolution. The sound pressure level (SPL acoustic signalers use is often an important predictor of mating success because higher sound pressure levels are detectable at greater distances. If females are more attracted to signals produced at higher sound pressure levels, then the potential fitness impacts of signalling at higher sound pressure levels should be elevated beyond what would be expected from detection distance alone. Here we manipulated the sound pressure level of cricket mate attraction signals to determine how female phonotaxis was influenced. We examined female phonotaxis using two common experimental methods: spherical treadmills and open arenas. Both methods showed similar results, with females exhibiting greatest phonotaxis towards loud sound pressure levels relative to the standard signal (69 vs. 60 dB SPL but showing reduced phonotaxis towards very loud sound pressure level signals relative to the standard (77 vs. 60 dB SPL. Reduced female phonotaxis towards supernormal stimuli may signify an acoustic startle response, an absence of other required sensory cues, or perceived increases in predation risk.

  7. Blood pressure levels in male carriers of Arg82Cys in CD300LG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støy, Julie; Grarup, Niels; Hørlyck, Arne

    2014-01-01

    found to be associated with fasting HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels. The polymorphism has not been detected in hypertension GWAS potentially due to its low frequency, but CD300LG has been linked to blood pressure as CD300LG knockout mice have changes in blood pressure. Twenty......-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure was obtained in human CD300LG CT-carriers to follow up on these observations. METHODS: Twenty healthy male CD300LG rs72836561 CT-carriers matched for age and BMI with 20 healthy male CC-carriers. Office blood pressure, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, carotid intima......-media thickness (CIMT), and fasting blood samples were evaluated. The clinical study was combined with a genetic-epidemiological study to replicate the association between blood pressure and CD300LG Arg82Cys in 2,637 men and 3,249 women. RESULTS: CT-carriers had a higher 24-hour ambulatory systolic blood pressure...

  8. Vertical ground motion and historical sea-level records in Dakar (Senegal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Cozannet, Gonéri; Raucoules, Daniel; Garcin, Manuel; Lavigne, Franck; Wöppelmann, Guy; Gravelle, Médéric; Da Sylva, Sylvestre; Meyssignac, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    With growing concerns regarding future impacts of sea-level in major coastal cities, the most accurate information is required regarding local sea-level changes with respect to the coast. Besides global and regional sea-level changes, local coastal vertical ground motions can substantially contribute to local changes in sea-level. In some cases, such ground motions can also limit the usefulness of tide-gauge records, which are a unique source of information to evaluate global sea-level changes before the altimetry era. Using satellite synthetic aperture radar interferometry, this study aims at characterizing vertical coastal ground motion in Dakar (Senegal), where a unique century-long record in Africa has been rediscovered. Given the limited number of available images, we use a stacking procedure to compute ground motion velocities in the line of sight over 1992–2010. Despite a complex geology and a rapid population growth and development, we show that the city as a whole is unaffected by differential ground motions larger than 1 mm year −1 . Only the northern part of the harbor displays subsidence patterns after 2000, probably as a consequence of land reclamation works. However, these ground motions do not affect the historical tide gauge. Our results highlight the value of the historical sea-level records of Dakar, which cover a 100 year time-span in a tropical oceanic region of Africa, where little data are available for past sea-level reconstructions. (letter)

  9. Time Pressure, Time Autonomy, and Sickness Absenteeism in Hospital Employees: A Longitudinal Study on Organizational Absenteeism Records

    OpenAIRE

    Maria U. Kottwitz; Volker Schade; Christian Burger; Lorenz Radlinger; Achim Elfering

    2018-01-01

    Background: Although work absenteeism is in the focus of occupational health, longitudinal studies on organizational absenteeism records in hospital work are lacking. This longitudinal study tests time pressure and lack of time autonomy to be related to higher sickness absenteeism. Methods: Data was collected for 180 employees (45% nurses) of a Swiss hospital at baseline and at follow-up after 1 year. Absent times (hours per month) were received from the human resources department of the hosp...

  10. CLASSICAL MUSIC DECREASE STRESS LEVEL AND BLOOD PRESSURE PRIMIGRAVIDA IN THE THIRD TRIMESTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Ketut Alit Armini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Many changes in psychology and biology increase primigravida’s stress in the third trimester. The stress response makes blood pressure being unstable, it causes bad effect for pregnancy. Classical music can be used as one of relaxation facilities that can reduce stress. The aimed of this study were to analyze the effect of classical music on stress level and blood pressure. Method: This study was used a quasy experimental purposive sampling design. The sample in this study were 14 pregnancy women in the third trimester in RSIA Cempaka Putih Permata Surabaya. The independent variable in this study was classical music and the dependent variable were stress level and blood pressure. Data were analyzed by Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test, Mann Withney U Test, Paired t Test and Independent t Test with significance level α≤0.05. Result: The result showed that the stress level in controlled group with p=0.567 and intervention group with p=0.025. The result of blood pressure in controlled group with p=0.522 in systolic blood pressure, p=0.35 in diastolic blood pressure and intervention group showed p=0.103 in systolic blood pressure and p=1.00 in diastolic blood pressure. Discussion: It can be concluded that listening classical music can reduce stress level, stabilize blood pressure, although blood pressure hasn’t significant result but mean of blood pressure show that it was stable. Further studies should be considered to used cortisol to identify stress biology response spesifically.

  11. Estimating decadal variability in sea level from tide gauge records: An application to the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frederikse, Thomas; Riva, R.E.M.; Slobbe, Cornelis; Broerse, D.B.T.; Verlaan, Martin

    2016-01-01

    One of the primary observational data sets of sea level is represented by the tide gauge record. We propose a new method to estimate variability on decadal time scales from tide gauge data by using a state space formulation, which couples the direct observations to a predefined state space model by

  12. Estimating decadal variability in sea level from tide gauge records : An application to the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frederikse, T.; Riva, R.E.M.; Slobbe, D.C.; Broerse, D.B.T.; Verlaan, M.

    2016-01-01

    One of the primary observational data sets of sea level is represented by the tide gauge record. We propose a new method to estimate variability on decadal time scales from tide gauge data by using a state space formulation, which couples the direct observations to a predefined state space model

  13. Continuous blood pressure recordings simultaneously with functional brain imaging: studies of the glymphatic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zienkiewicz, Aleksandra; Huotari, Niko; Raitamaa, Lauri; Raatikainen, Ville; Ferdinando, Hany; Vihriälä, Erkki; Korhonen, Vesa; Myllylä, Teemu; Kiviniemi, Vesa

    2017-03-01

    The lymph system is responsible for cleaning the tissues of metabolic waste products, soluble proteins and other harmful fluids etc. Lymph flow in the body is driven by body movements and muscle contractions. Moreover, it is indirectly dependent on the cardiovascular system, where the heart beat and blood pressure maintain force of pressure in lymphatic channels. Over the last few years, studies revealed that the brain contains the so-called glymphatic system, which is the counterpart of the systemic lymphatic system in the brain. Similarly, the flow in the glymphatic system is assumed to be mostly driven by physiological pulsations such as cardiovascular pulses. Thus, continuous measurement of blood pressure and heart function simultaneously with functional brain imaging is of great interest, particularly in studies of the glymphatic system. We present our MRI compatible optics based sensing system for continuous blood pressure measurement and show our current results on the effects of blood pressure variations on cerebral brain dynamics, with a focus on the glymphatic system. Blood pressure was measured simultaneously with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) combined with an ultrafast functional brain imaging (fMRI) sequence magnetic resonance encephalography (MREG, 3D brain 10 Hz sampling rate).

  14. Reliability and validity of pressure and temporal parameters recorded using a pressure-sensitive insole during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Robert; Malisoux, Laurent; Brunner, Roman; Gette, Paul; Urhausen, Axel; Statham, Andrew; Meijer, Kenneth; Theisen, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Running biomechanics has received increasing interest in recent literature on running-related injuries, calling for new, portable methods for large-scale measurements. Our aims were to define running strike pattern based on output of a new pressure-sensitive measurement device, the Runalyser, and to test its validity regarding temporal parameters describing running gait. Furthermore, reliability of the Runalyser measurements was evaluated, as well as its ability to discriminate different running styles. Thirty-one healthy participants (30.3 ± 7.4 years, 1.78 ± 0.10 m and 74.1 ± 12.1 kg) were involved in the different study parts. Eleven participants were instructed to use a rearfoot (RFS), midfoot (MFS) and forefoot (FFS) strike pattern while running on a treadmill. Strike pattern was subsequently defined using a linear regression (R(2)=0.89) between foot strike angle, as determined by motion analysis (1000 Hz), and strike index (SI, point of contact on the foot sole, as a percentage of foot sole length), as measured by the Runalyser. MFS was defined by the 95% confidence interval of the intercept (SI=43.9-49.1%). High agreement (overall mean difference 1.2%) was found between stance time, flight time, stride time and duty factor as determined by the Runalyser and a force-measuring treadmill (n=16 participants). Measurements of the two devices were highly correlated (R ≥ 0.80) and not significantly different. Test-retest intra-class correlation coefficients for all parameters were ≥ 0.94 (n=14 participants). Significant differences (p<0.05) between FFS, RFS and habitual running were detected regarding SI, stance time and stride time (n=24 participants). The Runalyser is suitable for, and easily applicable in large-scale studies on running biomechanics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. 14 CFR 29.979 - Pressure refueling and fueling provisions below fuel level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.979 Pressure refueling and fueling provisions below fuel level. (a) Each fueling connection... from that tank in case of malfunction of the fuel entry valve. (b) For systems intended for pressure...

  16. Radionuclide blood levels during cisternography of patients with normal-pressure hydrocephalus or Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahaley, M.S. Jr.; Wilkinson, R.H. Jr.; Sivalingham, S.; Friedman, H.; Tyson, W.; Goodrich, J.K.

    1974-01-01

    Various diagnostic procedures were compared during investigations of 37 dementia patients undergoing differential study for normal-pressure hydrocephalus or Alzheimer's disease. A diminished radionuclide level in the blood, with abnormal cisternography and pneumoencephalography, provided the most valuable diagnostic evidence of normal-pressure hydrocephalus. (U.S.)

  17. New evidence for "far-field" Holocene sea level oscillations and links to global climate records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, N. D.; Welsh, K. J.; Clark, T. R.; Feng, Y.-x.; Pandolfi, J. M.; Zhao, J.-x.

    2018-04-01

    Rising sea level in the coming century is of significant concern, yet predicting relative sea level change in response to eustatic sea level variability is complex. Potential analogues are provided by the recent geological past but, until recently, many sea level reconstructions have been limited to millennial scale interpretations due to age uncertainties and paucity in proxy derived records. Here we present a sea level history for the tectonically stable "far-field" Great Barrier Reef, Australia, derived from 94 high precision uranium-thorium dates of sub-fossil coral microatolls. Our results provide evidence for at least two periods of relative sea level instability during the Holocene. These sea level oscillations are broadly synchronous with Indo-Pacific negative sea surface temperature anomalies, rapid global cooling events and glacial advances. We propose that the pace and magnitude of these oscillations are suggestive of eustatic/thermosteric processes operating in conjunction with regional climatic controls.

  18. The nuclear physical method for high pressure steam manifold water level gauging and its error

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Nianzu; Li Beicheng; Jia Shengming

    1993-10-01

    A new method, which is non-contact on measured water level, for measuring high pressure steam manifold water level with nuclear detection technique is introduced. This method overcomes the inherent drawback of previous water level gauges based on other principles. This method can realize full range real time monitoring on the continuous water level of high pressure steam manifold from the start to full load of boiler, and the actual value of water level can be obtained. The measuring errors were analysed on site. Errors from practical operation in Tianjin Junliangcheng Power Plant and in laboratory are also presented

  19. Association between individual-level and community-level socio-economic status and blood pressure among Inuit in Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mylène Riva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite abundant evidence that socio-economic status (SES is a fundamental determinant of health, there is a dearth of research examining association between SES, measured at the individual and community levels, and cardiovascular risk factors and morbidity among indigenous populations. Objectives: To examine the influence of individual-level and community-level SES on systolic and diastolic blood pressure among Greenlandic Inuit. Methods: Multilevel analysis of cross-sectional data from the Inuit Health in Transition – Greenland Survey, to which 3,108 Greenlandic Inuit aged 18 years and older participated. Blood pressure is measured using an automatic device, according to standardized protocol. Individual SES is measured by education. Community socio-economic conditions are measured using combined information on average disposable household income and settlement type. Results: Education was not significantly associated with blood pressure. There was an inverse U-shape association between community socio-economic conditions and blood pressure with significantly lower SBP and DBP among participants living in remote traditional villages characterized by lower average disposable household income and in affluent more urbanized towns. Sex-stratified analyses demonstrate the salience of community conditions for men. Conclusions: The association observed between blood pressure and community-level socio-economic conditions suggests that public health and social policies, programmes and interventions aiming to improve living conditions might improve cardiovascular health in Greenland. Studies are required to further examine social gradients in cardiovascular risk factors and morbidity among indigenous populations using different measures of SES.

  20. Association between individual-level and community-level socio-economic status and blood pressure among Inuit in Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Mylène; Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Despite abundant evidence that socio-economic status (SES) is a fundamental determinant of health, there is a dearth of research examining association between SES, measured at the individual and community levels, and cardiovascular risk factors and morbidity among indigenous populations. To examine the influence of individual-level and community-level SES on systolic and diastolic blood pressure among Greenlandic Inuit. Multilevel analysis of cross-sectional data from the Inuit Health in Transition - Greenland Survey, to which 3,108 Greenlandic Inuit aged 18 years and older participated. Blood pressure is measured using an automatic device, according to standardized protocol. Individual SES is measured by education. Community socio-economic conditions are measured using combined information on average disposable household income and settlement type. Education was not significantly associated with blood pressure. There was an inverse U-shape association between community socio-economic conditions and blood pressure with significantly lower SBP and DBP among participants living in remote traditional villages characterized by lower average disposable household income and in affluent more urbanized towns. Sex-stratified analyses demonstrate the salience of community conditions for men. The association observed between blood pressure and community-level socio-economic conditions suggests that public health and social policies, programmes and interventions aiming to improve living conditions might improve cardiovascular health in Greenland. Studies are required to further examine social gradients in cardiovascular risk factors and morbidity among indigenous populations using different measures of SES.

  1. Can Population-Level Laterality Stem from Social Pressures? Evidence from Cheek Kissing in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelain, Amandine; Pimbert, Pauline; Aube, Lydiane; Perrocheau, Océane; Debunne, Gilles; Bellido, Alain; Blois-Heulin, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Despite extensive research, the origins and functions of behavioural laterality remain largely unclear. One of the most striking unresolved issues is the fact that laterality generally occurs at the population-level. Why would the majority of the individuals of a population exhibit the same laterality, while individual-level laterality would yet provide the advantages in terms of improving behavioural efficiency? Are social pressures the key factor? Can social pressures induce alignment of laterality between the individuals of a population? Can the effect of social pressures overpass the effect of other possible determining factors (e.g. genes)? We tested this important new hypothesis in humans, for the first time. We asked whether population-level laterality could stem from social pressures. Namely, we assessed social pressures on laterality in an interactive social behaviour: kissing on the cheek as a greeting. We performed observations in 10 cities of France. The observations took place in spots where people of the city meet and greet each other. We showed that: a) there is a population-level laterality for cheek kissing, with the majority of individuals being aligned in each city, and b) there is a variation between populations, with a laterality that depends on the city. These results were confirmed by our complementary data from questionnaires and internet surveys. These findings show that social pressures are involved in determining laterality. They demonstrate that population-level laterality can stem from social pressures.

  2. Can Population-Level Laterality Stem from Social Pressures? Evidence from Cheek Kissing in Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Chapelain

    Full Text Available Despite extensive research, the origins and functions of behavioural laterality remain largely unclear. One of the most striking unresolved issues is the fact that laterality generally occurs at the population-level. Why would the majority of the individuals of a population exhibit the same laterality, while individual-level laterality would yet provide the advantages in terms of improving behavioural efficiency? Are social pressures the key factor? Can social pressures induce alignment of laterality between the individuals of a population? Can the effect of social pressures overpass the effect of other possible determining factors (e.g. genes? We tested this important new hypothesis in humans, for the first time. We asked whether population-level laterality could stem from social pressures. Namely, we assessed social pressures on laterality in an interactive social behaviour: kissing on the cheek as a greeting. We performed observations in 10 cities of France. The observations took place in spots where people of the city meet and greet each other. We showed that: a there is a population-level laterality for cheek kissing, with the majority of individuals being aligned in each city, and b there is a variation between populations, with a laterality that depends on the city. These results were confirmed by our complementary data from questionnaires and internet surveys. These findings show that social pressures are involved in determining laterality. They demonstrate that population-level laterality can stem from social pressures.

  3. First direct evidence of a vertebrate three-level trophic chain in the fossil record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriwet, Jürgen; Witzmann, Florian; Klug, Stefanie; Heidtke, Ulrich H J

    2008-01-22

    We describe the first known occurrence of a Permian shark specimen preserving two temnospondyl amphibians in its digestive tract as well as the remains of an acanthodian fish, which was ingested by one of the temnospondyls. This exceptional find provides for the first time direct evidence of a vertebrate three-level food chain in the fossil record with the simultaneous preservation of three trophic levels. Our analysis shows that small-sized Lower Permian xenacanthid sharks of the genus Triodus preyed on larval piscivorous amphibians. The recorded trophic interaction can be explained by the adaptation of certain xenacanthids to fully freshwater environments and the fact that in these same environments, large temnospondyls occupied the niche of modern crocodiles. This unique faunal association has not been documented after the Permian and Triassic. Therefore, this Palaeozoic three-level food chain provides strong and independent support for changes in aquatic trophic chain structures through time.

  4. The Dependency between the Arabian Peninsula Wet Events and Sea Level Pressure Patterns during Spring Season

    KAUST Repository

    El Kenawy, Ahmed M.; McCabe, Matthew; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Raj, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    This work investigates the relationships between regional extreme wet events in the Arabian Peninsula during the spring season (MAM) and sea level pressure (SLP) patterns. Based on NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data, S-mode principal components were computed

  5. Effect of advance meditation program on electrocardiogram, blood pressure, and stress level in young healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: AMP has its positive effects on ECG, blood pressure, and stress level. Thus, it can be considered as one of the important nonpharmacological methods for prevention of stress, anxiety, and cardiovascular diseases.

  6. The measurement for level of marine high-temperature and high-pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Jie.

    1986-01-01

    The various error factors in measurement for level of marine high-temperature and high-pressure vessels are anslysed. The measuring method of error self compensation and its simplification for land use are shown

  7. Code Description for Generation of Meteorological Height and Pressure Level and Layer Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    defined by user input height or pressure levels. It can process input profiles from sensing systems such as radiosonde, lidar, or wind profiling radar...routine may be required for different input types and formats. meteorological sounding interpolation , integrated mean layer values, US Army Research...or other radiosonde soundings. There are 2 main versions or “methods” that produce output in height- or pressure-based profiles of interpolated level

  8. Remarks on the sea level records of the north Indian ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    variability in the tide gauge records along the coasts of the north Indian Ocean A. S. Unnikrishnan National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa, India 403004 e-mail: unni@nio.org Introduction Global sea-level rise has been relatively well... studied by making use of the coastal tide gauge data that are available (Woodworth and Player, 2003) through the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL). However, studies on regional sea level rise have not gathered momentum, similar to those on a...

  9. Swelling pressures of a potential buffer material for high-level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Owan; Cho, Won Jin; Chun, Kwan Sik

    1999-01-01

    The swelling pressure of a potential buffer material was measured and the effect of dry density, bentonite content and initial water content on the swelling pressure was investigated to provide the information for the selection of buffer material in a high-level waste repository. Swelling tests were carried out according to Box-Behnken's experimental design. Measured swelling pressures were in the wide range of 0.7 Kg/cm 2 to 190.2 Kg/cm 2 under given experimental conditions. Based upon the experimental data, a 3-factor polynomial swelling model was suggested to analyze the effect of dry density, bentonite content and initial water content on the swelling pressure. The swelling pressure increased with an increase in the dry density and bentonite content, while it decreased with increasing the initial water content and, beyond about 12 wt.% of the initial water content, levelled to nearly constant value. (author). 21 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs

  10. A Loudness Function for Maintaining Spectral Balance at Changing Sound Pressure Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal

    Our perception of loudness is a function of frequency as well as sound pressure level as described in ISO226:2003: Normal Equal Loudness Level Contours, which describes the needed sound pressure level for pure tones to be perceived equally loud. At a music performance, this is taking care...... of by the sound engineer by listening to the individual sound sources and adjust and equalize them to the wanted spectral balance including the whole chain of audio equipment and surroundings. At a live venue the sound pressure level will normally change during a concert, and typically increase over time......B is doubling of the effect to the loudspeakers). A level depending digital loudness function has been made based on ISO226:2003, and will be demonstrated. It can maintain the spectral balance at alternating levels and is based on fractional order digital filters. Tutorial. Abstract T3.3 (30th August 16:00 - 17...

  11. Association between individual-level and community-level socio-economic status and blood pressure among Inuit in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riva, Mylène; Larsen, C. V. L.; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2016-01-01

    and older participated. Blood pressure is measured using an automatic device, according to standardized protocol. Individual SES is measured by education. Community socio-economic conditions are measured using combined information on average disposable household income and settlement type. Results....... Education was not significantly associated with blood pressure. There was an inverse U-shape association between community socio-economic conditions and blood pressure with significantly lower SBP and DBP among participants living in remote traditional villages characterized by lower average disposable...... household income and in affluent more urbanized towns. Sex-stratified analyses demonstrate the salience of community conditions for men. Conclusions. The association observed between blood pressure and community-level socio-economic conditions suggests that public health and social policies, programmes...

  12. Development of a technique for level measurement in pressure vessels using thermal probes and artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Walmir Maximo

    2008-01-01

    A technique for level measurement in pressure vessels was developed using thermal probes with internal cooling and artificial neural networks (ANN's). This new concept of thermal probes was experimentally tested in an experimental facility (BETSNI) with two test sections, ST1 and ST2. Two different thermal probes were designed and constructed: concentric tubes probe and U tube probe. A data acquisition system (DAS) was assembled to record the experimental data during the tests. Steady state and transient level tests were carried out and the experimental data obtained were used as learning and recall data sets in the ANN's program RETRO-05 that simulate a multilayer perceptron with backpropagation. The results of the analysis show that the technique can be applied for level measurements in pressure vessel. The technique is applied for a less input temperature data than the initially designed to the probes. The technique is robust and can be used in case of lack of some temperature data. Experimental data available in literature from electrically heated thermal probe were also used in the ANN's analysis producing good results. The results of the ANN's analysis show that the technique can be improved and applied to level measurements in pressure vessels. (author)

  13. High Pressure Germination of Bacillus subtilis Spores with Alterations in Levels and Types of Germination Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    1ITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a CONTRACTNUMBER High pressure germination of Bacillus subtilis spores with W911NF-09-l-0286 alterations in levels and types of...A moderate high pressure (mHP) of 150 megaPascals (MPa) triggers germination of Bacillus subtilis spores via germinant receptors (GRs), while...germination by a very high pressure (vHP) of550 MPa is GR-independent. The mHP and vHP germination of Bacillus subtilis spores with different levels ofGRs

  14. Long-term cyclicities in Phanerozoic sea-level sedimentary record and their potential drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulila, Slah; Laskar, Jacques; Haq, Bilal U.; Galbrun, Bruno; Hara, Nathan

    2018-06-01

    Cyclic sedimentation has varied at several timescales and this variability has been geologically well documented at Milankovitch timescales, controlled in part by climatically (insolation) driven sea-level changes. At the longer (tens of Myr) timescales connection between astronomical parameters and sedimentation via cyclic solar-system motions within the Milky Way has also been proposed, but this hypothesis remains controversial because of the lack of long geological records. In addition, the absence of a meaningful physical mechanism that could explain the connection between climate and astronomy at these longer timescales led to the more plausible explanation of plate motions as the main driver of climate and sedimentation through changes in ocean and continent mass distribution on Earth. Here we statistically show a prominent and persistent 36 Myr sedimentary cyclicity superimposed on two megacycles ( 250 Myr) in a relatively well-constrained sea-level (SL) record of the past 542 Myr (Phanerozoic eon). We also show two other significant 9.3 and 91 Myr periodicities, but with lower amplitudes. The 9.3 Myr cyclicity was previously attributed to long-period Milankovitch band based on the Cenozoic record. However, the 91 Myr cyclicity has never been observed before in the geologic record. The 250 Myr cyclicity was attributed to the Wilson tectonic (supercontinent) cycle. The 36 Myr periodicity, also detected for the first time in SL record, has previously been ascribed either to tectonics or to astronomical cyclicity. Given the possible link between amplitudes of the 36 and 250 Myr cyclicities in SL record and the potential that these periodicities fall into the frequency band of solar system motions, we suggest an astronomical origin, and model these periodicities as originating from the path of the solar system in the Milky Way as vertical and radial periods that modulate the flux of cosmic rays on Earth. Our finding of the 36 Myr SL cyclicity lends credibility

  15. Prevalence of end-digit preference in recorded blood pressure by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: When compared with the use of a mercury sphygmomanometer, the use of a validated digital blood pressure (BP) measuring device eliminates the risk of exposure to mercury. Digital devices are also associated with a lesser degree of end-digit preference (EDP). EDP refers to the occurrence of a particular end ...

  16. Document authentication at molecular levels using desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Jia, Bin; Ding, Liying; Hong, Feng; Ouyang, Yongzhong; Chen, Rui; Zhou, Shumin; Chen, Huanwen; Fang, Xiang

    2013-09-01

    Molecular images of documents were obtained by sequentially scanning the surface of the document using desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (DAPCI-MS), which was operated in either a gasless, solvent-free or methanol vapor-assisted mode. The decay process of the ink used for handwriting was monitored by following the signal intensities recorded by DAPCI-MS. Handwritings made using four types of inks on four kinds of paper surfaces were tested. By studying the dynamic decay of the inks, DAPCI-MS imaging differentiated a 10-min old from two 4 h old samples. Non-destructive forensic analysis of forged signatures either handwritten or computer-assisted was achieved according to the difference of the contour in DAPCI images, which was attributed to the strength personalized by different writers. Distinction of the order of writing/stamping on documents and detection of illegal printings were accomplished with a spatial resolution of about 140 µm. A Matlab® written program was developed to facilitate the visualization of the similarity between signature images obtained by DAPCI-MS. The experimental results show that DAPCI-MS imaging provides rich information at the molecular level and thus can be used for the reliable document analysis in forensic applications. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Mass Spectrometry published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. MP3 player listening sound pressure levels among 10 to 17 year old students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Stephen E; Michaud, David S; Feder, Katya; Haider, Ifaz; Marro, Leonora; Thompson, Emma; Marcoux, Andre M

    2011-11-01

    Using a manikin, equivalent free-field sound pressure level measurements were made from the portable digital audio players of 219 subjects, aged 10 to 17 years (93 males) at their typical and "worst-case" volume levels. Measurements were made in different classrooms with background sound pressure levels between 40 and 52 dBA. After correction for the transfer function of the ear, the median equivalent free field sound pressure levels and interquartile ranges (IQR) at typical and worst-case volume settings were 68 dBA (IQR = 15) and 76 dBA (IQR = 19), respectively. Self-reported mean daily use ranged from 0.014 to 12 h. When typical sound pressure levels were considered in combination with the average daily duration of use, the median noise exposure level, Lex, was 56 dBA (IQR = 18) and 3.2% of subjects were estimated to exceed the most protective occupational noise exposure level limit in Canada, i.e., 85 dBA Lex. Under worst-case listening conditions, 77.6% of the sample was estimated to listen to their device at combinations of sound pressure levels and average daily durations for which there is no known risk of permanent noise-induced hearing loss, i.e., ≤  75 dBA Lex. Sources and magnitudes of measurement uncertainties are also discussed.

  18. Sputtering gases and pressure effects on the microstructure, magnetic properties and recording performance of TbFeCo films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Motoyoshi; Birukawa, Masahiro

    2008-01-01

    The MsHc value is considered to be a key factor in high-density recording, and controlling the microstructure on the magnetic underlayer was found to be an effective way of increasing the MsHc of the amorphous TbFeCo magneto-optical (MO) medium. In this paper, we investigate the TbFeCo film's magnetic properties and the effects on the microcolumnar structure, which depends on the sputtering conditions of using various sputtering gases including Ar, Kr, and Xe, and the recording characteristics of TbFeCo memory layers. With heavy sputtering gases such as Kr or Xe, the columnar structure can be prepared in a TbFeCo film at a pressure lower than 1.0 Pa. The columnar structure of a recording layer can be effectively formed thanks to the effects of the magnetic underlayer, which has a fine surface even in the sputtering process in which Xe gas is used. The above applies to the sputtering process in which Ar gas is used. Also, when Xe gas is used in the sputtering process, coercivity Hc is increased through the formation of a well-segregated microcolumnar structure built on domain wall pinning sites, and we obtain a large MsHc and a high squareness ratio of the Kerr-hysteresis loop. Our results indicate that processing a TbFeCo film with heavy sputtering gases is suitable for tiny mark stability because the temperature gradient of Hc is increased. The objective of the low-pressure sputtering process using Xe gas to produce the columnar structure is to achieve ultra-high-density recording with tiny mark stability in the TbFeCo medium. This has been confirmed with magnetic force microscope (MFM) images of stable tiny marks recorded on TbFeCo film

  19. Ice volume and climate changes from a 6000 year sea-level record in French Polynesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallmann, N; Camoin, G; Eisenhauer, A; Botella, A; Milne, G A; Vella, C; Samankassou, E; Pothin, V; Dussouillez, P; Fleury, J; Fietzke, J

    2018-01-18

    Mid- to late-Holocene sea-level records from low-latitude regions serve as an important baseline of natural variability in sea level and global ice volume prior to the Anthropocene. Here, we reconstruct a high-resolution sea-level curve encompassing the last 6000 years based on a comprehensive study of coral microatolls, which are sensitive low-tide recorders. Our curve is based on microatolls from several islands in a single region and comprises a total of 82 sea-level index points. Assuming thermosteric contributions are negligible on millennial time scales, our results constrain global ice melting to be 1.5-2.5 m (sea-level equivalent) since ~5500 years before present. The reconstructed curve includes isolated rapid events of several decimetres within a few centuries, one of which is most likely related to loss from the Antarctic ice sheet mass around 5000 years before present. In contrast, the occurrence of large and flat microatolls indicates periods of significant sea-level stability lasting up to ~300 years.

  20. Yeast and mammalian metabolism continuous monitoring by using pressure recording as an assessment technique for xenobiotic agent effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Marziale; Ballerini, Monica; Ferraro, Lorenzo; Marelli, E.; Mazza, Francesca; Zabeo, Matteo

    2002-06-01

    Our work is devoted to the study of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and human lymphocytes cellular metabolism in order to develop a reference model to assess biological systems responses to chemical or physical agents exposure. CO2 variations inside test-tubes are measured by differential pressure sensors; pressure values are subsequently converted in voltage. The system allows to test up to 16 samples at the same time. Sampling manages up to 100 acquisitions per second. Values are recorded by a data acquisition card connected to a computer. This procedure leads to a standard curve (pressure variation versus time), typical of the cellular line, that describe cellular metabolism. The longest time lapse used is of 170 h. Different phases appear in this curve: an initial growth up to a maximum, followed by a decrement that leads to a typical depression (pressure value inside the test-tubes is lower than the initial one) after about 35 h from the beginning of yeast cells. The curve is reproducible within an experimental error of 4%. The analysis of many samples and the low cost of the devices allow a good statistical significance of the data. In particular as a test we will compare two sterilizing agents effects: UV radiation and amuchina.

  1. Pressure-vessel surveillance dosimetry using solid-state track recorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruddy, F.H.; Gold, R.; Roberts, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    In addition to radiometric and SSTR dosimetry sets, helium accumulation fluence monitors, damage monitors, and temperature monitors are being studied. The ideal dosimetry set would monitor neutron fluence, damage, and temperature with as few materials as possible in order to reduce costs and required space. It is hoped that materials such as quartz SSTR and sapphire damage monitors can be developed as multipurpose materials. Sapphire for instance, might be used as a combined fluence and damage monitor (for example, analyzed for helium accumulation, Np 237 fissions, and direct neutron damage). Continuing research will result in the optimization of dosimetry packages for use in long term surveillance of LWR Pressure Vessels

  2. Tutorial and Guidelines on Measurement of Sound Pressure Level in Voice and Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Švec, Jan G.; Granqvist, Svante

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Sound pressure level (SPL) measurement of voice and speech is often considered a trivial matter, but the measured levels are often reported incorrectly or incompletely, making them difficult to compare among various studies. This article aims at explaining the fundamental principles behind these measurements and providing guidelines to…

  3. Solid State Track Recorder fission rate measurements in low power light water reactor pressure vessel mockups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruddy, F.H.; Roberts, J.H.; Kellogg, L.S.

    1985-01-01

    The results of extensive SSTR measurements made at the Pool Critical Assembly (PCA) facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been reported previously. Measurements were made at key locations in PCA which is an idealized mockup of the water gap, thermal shield, pressure vessel geometry of a light water reactor. Recently, additional SSTR fission rate measurements have been carried out for 237-Np, 238-U, and 235-U in key locations in the NESTOR Shielding and Dosimetry Improvement Program (NESDIP) mockup facility located at Winfrith, England. NESDIP is a replica of the PCA facility, and comparisons will be made between PCA and NESDIP measurements. The results of measurements made at the engineering mockup at the VENUS critical assembly at CEN/SCK, Mol, Belgium will also be reported. Measurements were made at selected radial and azimuthal locations in VENUS, which models the in-core and near-core regions of a pressurized water reactor. Comparisons of absolute SSTR fission rates with absolute fission rates made with the Mol miniature fission chamber will be reported. Absolute fission rate comparisons have also been made between the NBS fission chamber, radiometric fission foils, and SSTRs, and these results will be summarized

  4. Brest sea level record: a time series construction back to the early eighteenth century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöppelmann, Guy; Pouvreau, Nicolas; Simon, Bernard

    2006-12-01

    The completeness and the accuracy of the Brest sea level time series dating from 1807 make it suitable for long-term sea level trend studies. New data sets were recently discovered in the form of handwritten tabulations, including several decades of the eighteenth century. Sea level observations have been made in Brest since 1679. This paper presents the historical data sets which have been assembled so far. These data sets span approximately 300 years and together constitute the longest, near-continuous set of sea level information in France. However, an important question arises: Can we relate the past and the present-day records? We partially provide an answer to this question by analysing the documents of several historical libraries with the tidal data using a ‘data archaeology’ approach advocated by Woodworth ( Geophys Res Lett 26:1589 1592, 1999b). A second question arises concerning the accuracy of such records. Careful editing was undertaken by examining the residuals between tidal predictions and observations. It proved useful to remove the worst effects of timing errors, in particular the sundial correction to be applied prior to August 1, 1714. A refined correction based on sundial literature [Savoie, La gnomique, Editions Les Belles Lettres, Paris, 2001] is proposed, which eliminates the systematic offsets seen in the discrepancies in timing of the sea level measurements. The tidal analysis has also shown that shallow-water tidal harmonics at Brest causes a systematic difference of 0.023 m between mean sea level (MSL) and mean tide level (MTL). Thus, MTL should not be mixed with the time series of MSL because of this systematic offset. The study of the trends in MTL and MSL however indicates that MTL can be used as a proxy for MSL. Three linear trend periods are distinguished in the Brest MTL time series over the period 1807 2004. Our results support the recent findings of Holgate and Woodworth ( Geophys Res Lett) of an enhanced coastal sea level

  5. An improved and homogeneous altimeter sea level record from the ESA Climate Change Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legeais, Jean-François; Ablain, Michaël; Zawadzki, Lionel; Zuo, Hao; Johannessen, Johnny A.; Scharffenberg, Martin G.; Fenoglio-Marc, Luciana; Joana Fernandes, M.; Baltazar Andersen, Ole; Rudenko, Sergei; Cipollini, Paolo; Quartly, Graham D.; Passaro, Marcello; Cazenave, Anny; Benveniste, Jérôme

    2018-02-01

    Sea level is a very sensitive index of climate change since it integrates the impacts of ocean warming and ice mass loss from glaciers and the ice sheets. Sea level has been listed as an essential climate variable (ECV) by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS). During the past 25 years, the sea level ECV has been measured from space by different altimetry missions that have provided global and regional observations of sea level variations. As part of the Climate Change Initiative (CCI) program of the European Space Agency (ESA) (established in 2010), the Sea Level project (SL_cci) aimed to provide an accurate and homogeneous long-term satellite-based sea level record. At the end of the first phase of the project (2010-2013), an initial version (v1.1) of the sea level ECV was made available to users (Ablain et al., 2015). During the second phase of the project (2014-2017), improved altimeter standards were selected to produce new sea level products (called SL_cci v2.0) based on nine altimeter missions for the period 1993-2015 (https://doi.org/10.5270/esa-sea_level_cci-1993_2015-v_2.0-201612; Legeais and the ESA SL_cci team, 2016c). Corresponding orbit solutions, geophysical corrections and altimeter standards used in this v2.0 dataset are described in detail in Quartly et al. (2017). The present paper focuses on the description of the SL_cci v2.0 ECV and associated uncertainty and discusses how it has been validated. Various approaches have been used for the quality assessment such as internal validation, comparisons with sea level records from other groups and with in situ measurements, sea level budget closure analyses and comparisons with model outputs. Compared with the previous version of the sea level ECV, we show that use of improved geophysical corrections, careful bias reduction between missions and inclusion of new altimeter missions lead to improved sea level products with reduced uncertainties on different spatial and temporal scales. However, there

  6. Acute post-stroke blood pressure relative to premorbid levels in intracerebral haemorrhage versus major ischaemic stroke: a population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Urs; Cooney, Marie Therese; Bull, Linda M; Silver, Louise E; Chalmers, John; Anderson, Craig S; Mehta, Ziyah; Rothwell, Peter M

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background It is often assumed that blood pressure increases acutely after major stroke, resulting in so-called post-stroke hypertension. In view of evidence that the risks and benefits of blood pressure-lowering treatment in acute stroke might differ between patients with major ischaemic stroke and those with primary intracerebral haemorrhage, we compared acute-phase and premorbid blood pressure levels in these two disorders. Methods In a population-based study in Oxfordshire, UK, we recruited all patients presenting with stroke between April 1, 2002, and March 31, 2012. We compared all acute-phase post-event blood pressure readings with premorbid readings from 10-year primary care records in all patients with acute major ischaemic stroke (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale >3) versus those with acute intracerebral haemorrhage. Findings Of 653 consecutive eligible patients, premorbid and acute-phase blood pressure readings were available for 636 (97%) individuals. Premorbid blood pressure (total readings 13 244) had been measured on a median of 17 separate occasions per patient (IQR 8–31). In patients with ischaemic stroke, the first acute-phase systolic blood pressure was much lower than after intracerebral haemorrhage (158·5 mm Hg [SD 30·1] vs 189·8 mm Hg [38·5], pblood pressure after intracerebral haemorrhage was substantially higher than premorbid levels (mean increase of 40·7 mm Hg, pblood pressure also increased steeply in the days and weeks before intracerebral haemorrhage (regression pblood pressure reading after primary intracerebral haemorrhage was more likely than after ischaemic stroke to be the highest ever recorded (OR 3·4, 95% CI 2·3–5·2, pblood pressure within 3 h of onset was 50 mm Hg higher, on average, than the maximum premorbid level whereas that after ischaemic stroke was 5·2 mm Hg lower (pblood pressure is substantially raised compared with usual premorbid levels after intracerebral haemorrhage, whereas acute

  7. Adropin levels and target organ damage secondary to high blood pressure in the ED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulen, Bedia; Eken, Cenker; Kucukdagli, Okkes Taha; Serinken, Mustafa; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim; Kılıc, Elif; Uyarel, Hüseyin

    2016-11-01

    High blood pressure is still a challenge for emergency physicians to discern the patients that require further analysis to establish the existence of acute hypertensive target organ damage (TOD). The present study aimed to reveal that adropin levels are useful for detecting TOD in patients presenting with high blood pressure. Patients presenting with a blood pressure of more than 180/110 mm Hg were enrolled into the study. After a resting period of 15 minutes, patients' blood pressures were measured thrice at 5-minute intervals while the patients were sitting on a chair, and the average of these measurements was accepted as the baseline value. Blood samples were obtained for either adropin levels or possible TOD during the emergency department admission. A total of 119 patients were included in the study. The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures of study patients were 204.8±23.2 and 108.3 ± 10.3, respectively, and 42% (n = 50) of the patients had TOD. Although the adropin levels were similar between the patients with or without TOD (TOD group = 195 pg/mL, interquartile range [IQR]: 178-201; no-TOD group = 196 pg/mL, IQR: 176-204 [P = .982]), it is significantly higher in normotensive patients (normotensive group = 289 pg/mL, IQR: 193-403) compared with the hypertensive ones (P high blood pressure to the emergency department. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Constraints on sea level during the Pliocene: Records from the deep Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, S. C.; Rosenthal, Y.; Miller, K. G.; Wright, J. D.; Chiu, B. K.

    2013-12-01

    To reconstruct sea level during the transition from peak late Pliocene warmth (~3.15 Ma) to the onset of N. Hemisphere glaciation (~2.75 Ma), we generated high resolution stable isotope (δ18O, δ13C) and trace metal (Mg/Ca) records using benthic foraminifera, Uvigerina sp., from northwest Pacific ODP Site 1208 (3350 m water depth). During the peak late Pliocene warmth Mg/Ca-derived temperature records indicate deep Pacific interglacial temperatures were not significantly warmer (+0.6 ×0.8°C) than modern and glacial temperatures were near freezing similar to the LGM. In contrast, the deep N. Atlantic (Site 607) was apparently ~3°C warmer than the modern during both Pliocene glacial and interglacial periods (Sosdian and Rosenthal, 2009), based on the Mg/Ca of P. wuellerstorfi, which may be influenced by carbonate ion effect (Elderfield et al., 2009 and refs therein). δ18O records indicate a significant long-term increase in benthic δ18O in both the N. Atlantic and N. Pacific, although the rate of increase (Δδ18O) in the N. Atlantic is approximately 3x that of the N. Pacific (Site 1208), based on least squares regressions of all glacial-interglacial data. The discrepancy in the Δδ18O between the two basins is explained by Mg/Ca-derived temperature records. Results from Site 1208 show that the deep Pacific experienced no long-term cooling over the period 3.15-2.7 Ma when the deep N. Atlantic cooled by ~2.5°C on average. The relatively stable Pacific deep-water record provides the more reliable reconstructions of sea-level changes. From 3.15-2.7 Ma, Pacific δ18O data records an average increase of ~0.19× 0.08 per mil implying a sea level drop of 19 m × 8 m. After correcting the N. Atlantic record for temperature, we find the long term δ18O change from 3.15-2.7 Ma is ~0.23×0.1 per mil which equates to a peak of 23 m × 10 m. Our estimates are further corroborated by foraminiferal calcite δ18O recorded during Pliocene peak interglacials KM3 and G17. The

  9. The impact of accelerometer mounting methods on the level of vibrations recorded at ground surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Czech

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of field research based on the measurements of accelerations recorded at ground surface. The source of the vibration characterized by high repetition rate of pulse parameters was light falling weight deflectometer ZFG-01. Measurements of vibrations have been carried out using top quality high-precision measuring system produced by Brüel&Kiær. Accelerometers were mounted on a sandy soil surface at the measuring points located radially at 5-m and 10-m distances from the source of vibration. The paper analyses the impact that the method of mounting accelerometers on the ground has on the level of the recorded values of accelerations of vibrations. It has been shown that the method of attaching the sensor to the surface of the ground is crucial for the credibility of the performed measurements.[b]Keywords[/b]: geotechnics, surface vibrations, ground, vibration measurement

  10. An analysis of collegiate band directors' exposure to sound pressure levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebuck, Nikole Moore

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a significant but unfortunate common occupational hazard. The purpose of the current study was to measure the magnitude of sound pressure levels generated within a collegiate band room and determine if those sound pressure levels are of a magnitude that exceeds the policy standards and recommendations of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), and the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). In addition, reverberation times were measured and analyzed in order to determine the appropriateness of acoustical conditions for the band rehearsal environment. Sound pressure measurements were taken from the rehearsal of seven collegiate marching bands. Single sample t test were conducted to compare the sound pressure levels of all bands to the noise exposure standards of OSHA and NIOSH. Multiple regression analysis were conducted and analyzed in order to determine the effect of the band room's conditions on the sound pressure levels and reverberation times. Time weighted averages (TWA), noise percentage doses, and peak levels were also collected. The mean Leq for all band directors was 90.5 dBA. The total accumulated noise percentage dose for all band directors was 77.6% of the maximum allowable daily noise dose under the OSHA standard. The total calculated TWA for all band directors was 88.2% of the maximum allowable daily noise dose under the OSHA standard. The total accumulated noise percentage dose for all band directors was 152.1% of the maximum allowable daily noise dose under the NIOSH standards, and the total calculated TWA for all band directors was 93dBA of the maximum allowable daily noise dose under the NIOSH standard. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the room volume, the level of acoustical treatment and the mean room reverberation time predicted 80% of the variance in sound pressure levels in this study.

  11. Records for radioactive waste management up to repository closure: Managing the primary level information (PLI) set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this publication is to highlight the importance of the early establishment of a comprehensive records system to manage primary level information (PLI) as an integrated set of information, not merely as a collection of information, throughout all the phases of radioactive waste management. Early establishment of a comprehensive records system to manage Primary Level Information as an integrated set of information throughout all phases of radioactive waste management is important. In addition to the information described in the waste inventory record keeping system (WIRKS), the PLI of a radioactive waste repository consists of the entire universe of information, data and records related to any aspect of the repository's life cycle. It is essential to establish PLI requirements based on integrated set of needs from Regulators and Waste Managers involved in the waste management chain and to update these requirements as needs change over time. Information flow for radioactive waste management should be back-end driven. Identification of an Authority that will oversee the management of PLI throughout all phases of the radioactive waste management life cycle would guarantee the information flow to future generations. The long term protection of information essential to future generations can only be assured by the timely establishment of a comprehensive and effective RMS capable of capturing, indexing and evaluating all PLI. The loss of intellectual control over the PLI will make it very difficult to subsequently identify the ILI and HLI information sets. At all times prior to the closure of a radioactive waste repository, there should be an identifiable entity with a legally enforceable financial and management responsibility for the continued operation of a PLI Records Management System. The information presented in this publication will assist Member States in ensuring that waste and repository records, relevant for retention after repository closure

  12. Neurosignal record with a Brain-Computer interface to estimate the level of stress in a student during a class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Angela Moreno Cueva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This work shows an individual study of the capture, recording, and analysis of the level of stress of a university student during a class that involves an evaluation. The stress information was estimated using a commercial and low-cost computer-brain interface. This allows solving the problem of easily obtaining quantitative and not only qualitative measures. Objective: The aim of this article is to analyze the behavior of neural signals to estimate the level of stress in a student to some verbal and nonverbal events generated by a teacher. Methodology: An experimental design of individual character was developed taking as disturbances the level of stress, events such as questions, time limits, and gestures. Results: Some events that caused stress in students produced by the verbal and non-verbal language of the teacher when teaching the class were evidenced. Conclusions: Teachers are encouraged to moderate their body language during assessments by avoiding actions that emulate anxieties or pressures in unnecessary times.

  13. Evaluation of pressure transducers to measure surface level in the waste storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, T.J.; Colson, J.B.

    1994-06-01

    This report describes the results of tests conducted at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to determine if pressure transducers can be used to measure the surface level in the waste tanks. A survey was first conducted to evaluate which, if any, commercially available pressure transducers were available that could meet the requirements for use in the waste tanks. More than 35 companies were contacted to determine if they manufactured a pressure transducer that could be used in the 101-SY waste tank. The three basic requirements for a pressure transducer for this application were that they were radiation-hardened, could withstand a caustic environment, and were certified to be intrinsically safe. No manufacturer was able to meet all three of these requirements with a commercially available product. Seven companies were able to meet the requirements for being radiation-hardened and being able to withstand the caustic environment. However, only two of the nine companies were willing to supply a pressure transducer for laboratory testing. The two pressure transducers that were tested in this program were the VEGA D36-38 from HiTech Technologies, Inc., and the KP-1911-A from Kaman Instrumentation Corporation. Pressure transducers operate on the principle that the pressure at the location of a sensor increases directly with the depth of the liquid above it. A liquid is required in order for these devices to operate. For these tests, water was first used to determine the ideal operation of the devices, then the devices were placed in a 101-SY waste tank simulant. The simulant had a specific gravity of 1.96 and had the consistency similar to the convective layer in the 101-SY waste tank. In order to determine the surface level with pressure transducers, the density of the material needs to be known

  14. Associations between cadmium levels in blood and urine, blood pressure and hypertension among Canadian adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garner, Rochelle E., E-mail: rochelle.garner@canada.ca [Health Analysis Division, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Levallois, Patrick [Direction de la santé environnementale et de la toxicologie, Institut National de Santé Publique du Québec, Québec City, Québec (Canada); Axe santé des populations et pratiques optimales en santé, Centre de Recherche du CHU de Québec-Université Laval, Québec City, Québec (Canada)

    2017-05-15

    Background: Cadmium has been inconsistently related to blood pressure and hypertension. The present study seeks to clarify the relationship between cadmium levels found in blood and urine, blood pressure and hypertension in a large sample of adults. Methods: The study sample included participants ages 20 through 79 from multiple cycles of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007 through 2013) with measured blood cadmium (n=10,099) and urinary cadmium (n=6988). Linear regression models examined the association between natural logarithm transformed cadmium levels and blood pressure (separate models for systolic and diastolic blood pressure) after controlling for known covariates. Logistic regression models were used to examine the association between cadmium and hypertension. Models were run separately by sex, smoking status, and body mass index category. Results: Men had higher mean systolic (114.8 vs. 110.8 mmHg, p<0.01) and diastolic (74.0 vs. 69.6 mmHg, p<0.01) blood pressure compared to women. Although, geometric mean blood (0.46 vs. 0.38 µg/L, p<0.01) and creatinine-adjusted standardized urinary cadmium levels (0.48 vs. 0.38 µg/L, p<0.01) were higher among those with hypertension, these differences were no longer significant after adjustment for age, sex and smoking status. In overall regression models, increases in blood cadmium were associated with increased systolic (0.70 mmHg, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.25–1.16, p<0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (0.74 mmHg, 95% CI=0.30–1.19, p<0.01). The associations between urinary cadmium, blood pressure and hypertension were not significant in overall models. Model stratification revealed significant and negative associations between urinary cadmium and hypertension among current smokers (OR=0.61, 95% CI=0.44–0.85, p<0.01), particularly female current smokers (OR=0.52, 95% CI=0.32–0.85, p=0.01). Conclusion: This study provides evidence of a significant association between cadmium levels, blood pressure

  15. Associations between cadmium levels in blood and urine, blood pressure and hypertension among Canadian adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, Rochelle E.; Levallois, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cadmium has been inconsistently related to blood pressure and hypertension. The present study seeks to clarify the relationship between cadmium levels found in blood and urine, blood pressure and hypertension in a large sample of adults. Methods: The study sample included participants ages 20 through 79 from multiple cycles of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007 through 2013) with measured blood cadmium (n=10,099) and urinary cadmium (n=6988). Linear regression models examined the association between natural logarithm transformed cadmium levels and blood pressure (separate models for systolic and diastolic blood pressure) after controlling for known covariates. Logistic regression models were used to examine the association between cadmium and hypertension. Models were run separately by sex, smoking status, and body mass index category. Results: Men had higher mean systolic (114.8 vs. 110.8 mmHg, p<0.01) and diastolic (74.0 vs. 69.6 mmHg, p<0.01) blood pressure compared to women. Although, geometric mean blood (0.46 vs. 0.38 µg/L, p<0.01) and creatinine-adjusted standardized urinary cadmium levels (0.48 vs. 0.38 µg/L, p<0.01) were higher among those with hypertension, these differences were no longer significant after adjustment for age, sex and smoking status. In overall regression models, increases in blood cadmium were associated with increased systolic (0.70 mmHg, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.25–1.16, p<0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (0.74 mmHg, 95% CI=0.30–1.19, p<0.01). The associations between urinary cadmium, blood pressure and hypertension were not significant in overall models. Model stratification revealed significant and negative associations between urinary cadmium and hypertension among current smokers (OR=0.61, 95% CI=0.44–0.85, p<0.01), particularly female current smokers (OR=0.52, 95% CI=0.32–0.85, p=0.01). Conclusion: This study provides evidence of a significant association between cadmium levels, blood pressure

  16. Cuff Pressure Pain Detection Is Associated with Both Sex and Physical Activity Level in Nonathletic Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemming, Dag; Börsbo, Björn; Sjörs, Anna; Lind, Eva-Britt; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Gerdle, Björn

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate pressure pain sensitivity on leg and arm in 98 healthy persons (50 women) using cuff algometry. Furthermore, associations with sex and physical activity level were investigated. Normal physical activity level was defined as Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ) score ≤ 45 and high activity level as GLTEQ > 45. A pneumatic double-chamber cuff was placed around the arm or leg where a single chamber was inflated. The cuff inflation rate (1 kPa/s) was constant, and pain intensity was registered continuously on a 10 cm electronic visual analogue scale (VAS). The pain detection threshold (PDT) was defined as when the pressure was perceived as painful, and pain tolerance (PTT) was when the subject terminated the cuff inflation. For PTT, the corresponding VAS score was recorded (VAS-PTT). The protocol was repeated with two chambers inflated. Only single cuff results are given. For women compared with men, the PDT was lower when assessed in the arm ( P = 0.002), PTTs were lower in the arm and leg ( P active participants compared with less active had higher PDT ( P = 0.027) in the leg. Women showed facilitated spatial summation ( P physical activity level. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  17. Equivalent threshold sound pressure levels (ETSPL) for Interacoustics DD 45 supra-aural audiometric earphones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the determination and results of pure tone Equivalent Threshold Sound Pressure Levels for the Interacoustics DD45 audiometric earphone equipped with standard Model 51 cushions. The size and shape of the DD45 transducer resembles the classical Telephonics TDH 39 earphone. Pure...... tone hearing threshold measurements were performed for both ears of 29 test subjects. All audiometric frequencies from 125 Hz to 8 kHz were used. The data are intended for inclusion in future standardized Reference Equivalent Threshold Sound Pressure Levels. The results show that the DD45 may be a good...

  18. Pressure sound level measurements at an educational environment in Goiania, Goias, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Jhonatha J.L.; Nascimento, Eriberto O. do; Oliveira, Lucas N. de; Caldas, Linda V. E.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, twenty five points located on the ground floor of the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Goias - IFG - Campus Goiania, were analyzed in morning periods of two Saturdays. The pressure sound levels were measured at internal and external environments during routine activities seeking to perform an environmental monitoring at this institution. The initial hypothesis was that an amusement park (Mutirama Park) was responsible for originating noise pollution in the institution, but the results showed, within the campus environment, sound pressure levels in accordance with the Municipal legislation of Goiania for all points. (author)

  19. Pressure sound level measurements at an educational environment in Goiania, Goias, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Jhonatha J.L.; Nascimento, Eriberto O. do; Oliveira, Lucas N. de [Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de Goiás (IFG), Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Caldas, Linda V. E., E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    In this work, twenty five points located on the ground floor of the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Goias - IFG - Campus Goiania, were analyzed in morning periods of two Saturdays. The pressure sound levels were measured at internal and external environments during routine activities seeking to perform an environmental monitoring at this institution. The initial hypothesis was that an amusement park (Mutirama Park) was responsible for originating noise pollution in the institution, but the results showed, within the campus environment, sound pressure levels in accordance with the Municipal legislation of Goiania for all points. (author)

  20. 60-year Nordic and arctic sea level reconstruction based on a reprocessed two decade altimetric sea level record and tide gauges

    OpenAIRE

    Svendsen, Peter Limkilde; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2015-01-01

    Due to the sparsity and often poor quality of data, reconstructing Arctic sea level is highly challenging. We present a reconstruction of Arctic sea level covering 1950 to 2010, using the approaches from Church et al. (2004) and Ray and Douglas (2011). This involves decomposition of an altimetry calibration record into EOFs, and fitting these patterns to a historical tide gauge record.

  1. Coralgal reef morphology records punctuated sea-level rise during the last deglaciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Pankaj; Droxler, André W; Nittrouer, Jeffrey A; Tunnell, John W; Shirley, Thomas C

    2017-10-19

    Coralgal reefs preserve the signatures of sea-level fluctuations over Earth's history, in particular since the Last Glacial Maximum 20,000 years ago, and are used in this study to indicate that punctuated sea-level rise events are more common than previously observed during the last deglaciation. Recognizing the nature of past sea-level rises (i.e., gradual or stepwise) during deglaciation is critical for informing models that predict future vertical behavior of global oceans. Here we present high-resolution bathymetric and seismic sonar data sets of 10 morphologically similar drowned reefs that grew during the last deglaciation and spread 120 km apart along the south Texas shelf edge. Herein, six commonly observed terrace levels are interpreted to be generated by several punctuated sea-level rise events forcing the reefs to shrink and backstep through time. These systematic and common terraces are interpreted to record punctuated sea-level rise events over timescales of decades to centuries during the last deglaciation, previously recognized only during the late Holocene.

  2. A new Arctic 25-year Altimetric Sea-level Record (1992-2016) and Initial look at Arctic Sea Level Budget Closure

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen O.B., Passaro M., Benveniste J., Piccioni G.

    2016-01-01

    A new initiative within the ESA Sea Level Climate Change initiative (SL-cci) framework to improve the Arctic sea level record has been initiated as a combined effort to reprocess and retrack past altimetry to create a 25-year combined sea level record for sea level research studies. One of the objectives is to retracked ERS-2 dataset for the high latitudes based on the ALES retracking algorithm through adapting the ALES retracker for retracking of specular surfaces (leads). Secondly a reproce...

  3. Association of serum uric acid level and blood pressure in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savira, M.; Rusdiana; Syahputra, M.

    2018-03-01

    Uric acid is an end product of purine degradation in humans and primarily excreted through urine. In adulthood, concentrations rise steadily over time and vary with height, body weight, blood pressure, renal function, and alcohol intake. Uric acid is known as anti-oxidant, it has a beneficial role in diseases. Elevated serum uric acid associated with anincreased risk of cardiovascular disease. It has been found that elevated levels of uric acid associated with high risks of acomplication of type 2 diabetes mellitus and It has astrong association between elevated uric acid levels and obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular and renal disorders. The aim of the study analyzed the association between serum uric acid level and blood pressure in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. This research is descriptive analytic research with a cross sectional design included 50 diabetic subjects aged over 40 years old. Subjects picked by consecutive sampling then we examined the weight, height, waist size, blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, and serum uric acid level. Statistical analysis using chi-square found that there was no significant association between serum uric acid level and systole and diastole pressure in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (p>0.005).

  4. THE HABITABLE ZONE OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS WITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladilo, Giovanni; Murante, Giuseppe; Silva, Laura [INAF-Trieste Astronomical Observatory, Trieste (Italy); Provenzale, Antonello [Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate-CNR, Torino (Italy); Ferri, Gaia; Ragazzini, Gregorio, E-mail: vladilo@oats.inaf.it [Department of Physics, University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy)

    2013-04-10

    As a contribution to the study of the habitability of extrasolar planets, we implemented a one-dimensional energy balance model (EBM), the simplest seasonal model of planetary climate, with new prescriptions for most physical quantities. Here we apply our EBM to investigate the surface habitability of planets with an Earth-like atmospheric composition but different levels of surface pressure. The habitability, defined as the mean fraction of the planet's surface on which liquid water could exist, is estimated from the pressure-dependent liquid water temperature range, taking into account seasonal and latitudinal variations of surface temperature. By running several thousands of EBM simulations we generated a map of the habitable zone (HZ) in the plane of the orbital semi-major axis, a, and surface pressure, p, for planets in circular orbits around a Sun-like star. As pressure increases, the HZ becomes broader, with an increase of 0.25 AU in its radial extent from p = 1/3 to 3 bar. At low pressure, the habitability is low and varies with a; at high pressure, the habitability is high and relatively constant inside the HZ. We interpret these results in terms of the pressure dependence of the greenhouse effect, the efficiency of horizontal heat transport, and the extent of the liquid water temperature range. Within the limits discussed in the paper, the results can be extended to planets in eccentric orbits around non-solar-type stars. The main characteristics of the pressure-dependent HZ are modestly affected by variations of planetary properties, particularly at high pressure.

  5. THE HABITABLE ZONE OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS WITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladilo, Giovanni; Murante, Giuseppe; Silva, Laura; Provenzale, Antonello; Ferri, Gaia; Ragazzini, Gregorio

    2013-01-01

    As a contribution to the study of the habitability of extrasolar planets, we implemented a one-dimensional energy balance model (EBM), the simplest seasonal model of planetary climate, with new prescriptions for most physical quantities. Here we apply our EBM to investigate the surface habitability of planets with an Earth-like atmospheric composition but different levels of surface pressure. The habitability, defined as the mean fraction of the planet's surface on which liquid water could exist, is estimated from the pressure-dependent liquid water temperature range, taking into account seasonal and latitudinal variations of surface temperature. By running several thousands of EBM simulations we generated a map of the habitable zone (HZ) in the plane of the orbital semi-major axis, a, and surface pressure, p, for planets in circular orbits around a Sun-like star. As pressure increases, the HZ becomes broader, with an increase of 0.25 AU in its radial extent from p = 1/3 to 3 bar. At low pressure, the habitability is low and varies with a; at high pressure, the habitability is high and relatively constant inside the HZ. We interpret these results in terms of the pressure dependence of the greenhouse effect, the efficiency of horizontal heat transport, and the extent of the liquid water temperature range. Within the limits discussed in the paper, the results can be extended to planets in eccentric orbits around non-solar-type stars. The main characteristics of the pressure-dependent HZ are modestly affected by variations of planetary properties, particularly at high pressure.

  6. Experiments of Multi-Level Read-Only Recording Using Readout Signal Wave-Shape Modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Tang; Jing, Pei; Long-Fa, Pan; Yi, Ni; Hua, Hu; Bu-Qing, Zhang

    2008-01-01

    An innovative multilevel read-only recording method is proposed. In this method, a short pit/land is deliberately inserted to the original land/pit. This modifies the wave-shape of readout signal. Taking the wave-shape as the symbol of level detection, a signal wave-shape modulation (SWSM) multilevel method is realized. This method is carried out and validated on the DVD read-only manufacture and readout system. A capacity of 15 GB can be expected, and a bit error rate of 10 −4 is achieved. The capacity can meet the demand of high definition movie publication. This method also provides a potential multi-level solution for other storage formats and systems. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  7. Detection of a dynamic topography signal in last interglacial sea-level records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austermann, Jacqueline; Mitrovica, Jerry X; Huybers, Peter; Rovere, Alessio

    2017-07-01

    Estimating minimum ice volume during the last interglacial based on local sea-level indicators requires that these indicators are corrected for processes that alter local sea level relative to the global average. Although glacial isostatic adjustment is generally accounted for, global scale dynamic changes in topography driven by convective mantle flow are generally not considered. We use numerical models of mantle flow to quantify vertical deflections caused by dynamic topography and compare predictions at passive margins to a globally distributed set of last interglacial sea-level markers. The deflections predicted as a result of dynamic topography are significantly correlated with marker elevations (>95% probability) and are consistent with construction and preservation attributes across marker types. We conclude that a dynamic topography signal is present in the elevation of last interglacial sea-level records and that the signal must be accounted for in any effort to determine peak global mean sea level during the last interglacial to within an accuracy of several meters.

  8. Levoglucosan Levels in Alaskan Ice Cores as a Record of Past Wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, M. E.; Osterberg, E. C.; Kehrwald, N. M.; Kennedy, J.; Ferris, D. G.

    2017-12-01

    Glaciers in southeast Alaska are significant contributors to global sea-level rise, and therefore understanding the mechanisms driving their recent mass loss is crucial for predicting future sea-level change. Fire activity in Alaska has increased dramatically during the last decade, adding a potential new source of light-absorbing organic material (soot) to the Juneau Icefield that can reduce albedo and enhance surface melt rates. The goal of this project is to create an accurate record of Alaskan wildfires to understand how Alaskan glacial mass balance is affected by the deposition of organic aerosols from wildfires. Previously, oxalate, ammonia, and potassium ion levels have been used as proxies for past wildfire activity, but these ions all have broader emission sources in addition to wildfires. Here we develop a record of past Alaskan fire events and climate from: (1) levels of a biomass burning indicator, levoglucosan, which only forms when cellulose is burned over 300 °C, (2) major ions including oxalate, ammonia, and potassium; (3) the number and size distribution of particles to quantify trace amounts of soot from wildfires; and (4) stable water isotope ratios as a proxy for past temperature in ice cores. We utilize a total of four shallow ice cores, ranging from 7 to 9 m in length, that were collected by a biogeochemistry team during the Juneau Icefield Research Program (JIRP) in 2016. Complications include our limited understanding of the conservation and degradation of levoglucosan over time or during the firnification process. We hypothesize that particle counts will be correlated with levoglucosan peaks, co-varying with wildfire frequency and temperatures over time. Based on previous work, we also expect to find correlations between levoglucosan and oxalate ion concentrations, even though oxalate ions have sources in addition to wildfire activity.

  9. A "Global Radiosonde and tracked-balloon Archive on Sixteen Pressure levels" (GRASP) going back to 1905 – Part 2: homogeneity adjustments for pilot balloon and radiosonde wind data

    OpenAIRE

    L. Ramella Pralungo; L. Haimberger

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the comprehensive homogenization of the "Global Radiosonde and tracked balloon Archive on Sixteen Pressure levels" (GRASP) wind records. Many of those records suffer from artificial shifts that need to be detected and adjusted before they are suitable for climate studies. Time series of departures between observations and the National Atmospheric and Oceanic Administration 20th-century (NOAA-20CR) surface pressure only reanalysis have been calculated...

  10. Contrasting records of sea-level change in the eastern and western North Atlantic during the last 300 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, A. J.; Barlow, N. L. M.; Gehrels, W. R.; Saher, M. H.; Woodworth, P. L.; Scaife, R. G.; Brain, M. J.; Cahill, N.

    2014-02-01

    We present a new 300-year sea-level reconstruction from a salt marsh on the Isle of Wight (central English Channel, UK) that we compare to other salt-marsh and long tide-gauge records to examine spatial and temporal variability in sea-level change in the North Atlantic. Our new reconstruction identifies an overall rise in relative sea level (RSL) of c. 0.30 m since the start of the eighteenth century at a rate of 0.9±0.3 mm yr. Error-in-variables changepoint analysis indicates that there is no statistically significant deviation from a constant rate within the dataset. The reconstruction is broadly comparable to other tide-gauge and salt-marsh records from the European Atlantic, demonstrating coherence in sea level in this region over the last 150-300 years. In contrast, we identify significant differences in the rate and timing of RSL with records from the east coast of North America. The absence of a strong late 19th/early 20th century RSL acceleration contrasts with that recorded in salt marsh sediments along the eastern USA coastline, in particular in a well-dated and precise sea-level reconstruction from North Carolina. This suggests that this part of the North Carolina sea level record represents a regionally specific sea level acceleration. This is significant because the North Carolina record has been used as if it were globally representative within semi-empirical parameterisations of past and future sea-level change. We conclude that regional-scale differences of sea-level change highlight the value of using several, regionally representative RSL records when calibrating and testing semi-empirical models of sea level against palaeo-records. This is because by using records that potentially over-estimate sea-level rise in the past such models risk over-estimating sea-level rise in the future.

  11. Equivalent threshold sound pressure levels for acoustic test signals of short duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben; Daugaard, Carsten

    1998-01-01

    . The measurements were performed with two types of headphones, Telephonics TDH-39 and Sennheiser HDA-200. The sound pressure levels were measured in an IEC 318 ear simulator with Type 1 adapter (a flat plate) and a conical ring. The audiometric methods used in the experiments were the ascending method (ISO 8253...

  12. Full length cluster level swell data at pressures from 2 to 40 bar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, K.G.

    1987-11-01

    This paper gives results of level swell experiments at pressures up to 40 bar, performed at Winfrith in 1981 as described elsewhere. The results have been used by a number of workers to develop voidage correlations and to assess safety codes. The experiment and experimental rig used are described. The results are tabulated. (author)

  13. Data quality assurance in pressure transducer-based automatic water level monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Submersible pressure transducers integrated with data loggers have become relatively common water-level measuring devices used in flow or well water elevation measurements. However, drift, linearity, hysteresis and other problems can lead to erroneous data. Researchers at the USDA-ARS in Watkinsvill...

  14. Estimation of sound pressure levels of voiced speech from skin vibration of the neck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svec, JG; Titze, IR; Popolo, PS

    How accurately can sound pressure levels (SPLs) of speech be estimated from skin vibration of the neck? Measurements using a small accelerometer were carried out in 27 subjects (10 males and 17 females) who read Rainbow and Marvin Williams passages in soft, comfortable, and loud voice, while skin

  15. Relationship between Food Security with Sugar Level and Blood Pressure in Diabetes Type 2 in Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, Seyed Amir Hossein Zehni; Javadi, Maryam; Mohammadpooral, Asghar

    2016-12-01

    Food security has been defined as the "availability, stability, access and utilization of safe foods". Diabetes has been known as one of the biggest health and medical problems throughout the world and is clearly related to lifestyle, and particularly, improper food consumption. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between food security with sugar and blood pressure in patients suffering from type 2 diabetes who refer to diabetes centers in Tehran. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015 on type 2 diabetes patients in Tehran, Iran. From two diabetes centers in the eastern and southern parts of Tehran, 243 type 2 diabetes patients were selected. Necessary information (demographic and food security information) about all the studied persons was collected using the standard questionnaire verified by US Department of Agriculture (USDA). The data was analyzed by SPSS version 16, statistical comparisons were made using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Chi-square and Tukey tests and a significant level of food security (p=0.372). No significant relation was observed between food security and fasting blood pressure, HbA1C, and systolic blood pressure (p>0.05), but there was a significant relationship between food security and diastolic blood pressure (p= 0.030). According to the relationship between diastolic blood pressure and food security and the role of blood pressure in the irreparable diabetic complications, it is recommended to perform appropriate food advice.

  16. Challenges in standardization of blood pressure measurement at the population level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Hanna; Koponen, Päivikki; Naska, Androniki; Männistö, Satu; Broda, Grazyna; Palosaari, Tarja; Kuulasmaa, Kari

    2015-04-10

    Accurate blood pressure measurements are needed in clinical practice, intervention studies and health examination surveys. Blood pressure measurements are sensitive: their accuracy can be affected by measurement environment, behaviour of the subject, measurement procedures, devices used for the measurement and the observer. To minimize errors in blood pressure measurement, a standardized measurement protocol is needed. The European Health Examination Survey (EHES) Pilot project was conducted in 2009-2012. A pilot health examination survey was conducted in 12 countries using a standardized protocol. The measurement protocols used in each survey, training provided for the measurers, measurement data, and observations during site visits were collected and evaluated to assess the level of standardization. The EHES measurement protocol for blood pressure was followed accurately in all 12 pilot surveys. Most of the surveys succeeded in organizing a quiet and comfortable measurement environment, and staff instructed survey participants appropriately before examination visits. In all surveys, blood pressure was measured three times, from the right arm in a sitting posture. The biggest variation was in the device used for the blood pressure measurement. It is possible to reach a high level of standardization for blood pressure measurements across countries and over time. A detailed, standardized measurement protocol, and adequate training and monitoring during the fieldwork and centrally organized quality assessment of the data are needed. The recent EU regulation banning the sale of mercury sphygmomanometer in European Union Member States has set new challenges for the standardization of measurement devices since the validity of oscillometric measurements is device-specific and performance of aneroid devices depends very much on calibration.

  17. Serum leptin levels correlation with high blood pressure in adult females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, Z.; Shahid, K.U.; Mazahir, I.; Lakho, G.R.; Nafees, M.

    2006-01-01

    To measure serum leptin levels and compare them in lean and obese subjects and to identify correlation between serum leptin levels, heart rate and hypertension in lean and obese subjects among adult females. Seventy female subjects with different body mass indices were selected from OPD of Jinnah Medical and Dental College Hospital (OPD), Karachi. Heart rate was counted manually; blood pressure was measured by mercury sphygmomanometer while serum leptin was measured using enzyme-linked immunoassay. The outcomes hypertension and heart rate were correlated to risk factor leptin. Mean heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and serum leptin levels of obese people were 90+-1, 142+-2, 89+-1 and 24.13+-1.7 respectively, which were significantly higher as compared to lean subjects (p<0.05). All the parameters correlated positively and significantly with increasing BMI. There was a relationship of tachycardia and hypertension with high serum leptin levels in obesity. Serum leptin levels increase with the level of obesity. Hyper-leptinemia is associated with tachycardia and increases in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in obesity via complex mechanisms. (author)

  18. Urethrotonography - a radiological and manometrical combination technique to diagnose urinary stress incontinance in comparison with urethral pressure profile recording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wess, H.

    1982-01-01

    The study described here was carried out in order to gain more insight into the pathogenesis of urinary stress incontinance and the related urethrovesical functions. The pathophysiological changes in the urogenital tract that are associated with urinary stress incontinance are described just as well as the clinical symptoms and signs differentiating the individual forms of incontinance from each other. Account is further taken of the various manometrical and radiological techniques used in the diagnosis of urinary stress incontinance. In this study, which included a total of 100 patients, comparative evaluations were made of the pressure behaviour of the bladder during the filling-up phase and the closing mechanism of the urethra both at rest and under stress using the following procedures: - Method developed by Brown and Wickham for urethral pressure profile recording; visualisation of the bladder and urethra with the aid of X-rays and a balloon catheter especially developed by us. The latter technique may help to solve the problems usually arising when given morphological factors are to be connected with certain medical views or theories concerning the vesical and urethral functions as well as the pathogenesis of urinary stress incontinance. It may thus enable more straightforward diagnosis to be made. (TRV) [de

  19. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Code of Record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.L. Austad, P.E.; L.E. Guillen, P.E.; C. W. McKnight, P.E.; D. S. Ferguson, P.E.

    2012-06-01

    The Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste (LLW) Disposal Project addresses an anticipated shortfall in remote-handled LLW disposal capability following cessation of operations at the existing facility, which will continue until it is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). Development of a new onsite disposal facility will provide necessary remote-handled LLW disposal capability and will ensure continuity of operations that generate remote-handled LLW. This report documents the Code of Record for design of a new LLW disposal capability. The report is owned by the Design Authority, who can authorize revisions and exceptions. This report will be retained for the lifetime of the facility.

  20. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Code of Record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.L. Austad, P.E.; L.E. Guillen, P.E.; C. W. McKnight, P.E.; D. S. Ferguson, P.E.

    2014-06-01

    The Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste (LLW) Disposal Project addresses an anticipated shortfall in remote-handled LLW disposal capability following cessation of operations at the existing facility, which will continue until it is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). Development of a new onsite disposal facility will provide necessary remote-handled LLW disposal capability and will ensure continuity of operations that generate remote-handled LLW. This report documents the Code of Record for design of a new LLW disposal capability. The report is owned by the Design Authority, who can authorize revisions and exceptions. This report will be retained for the lifetime of the facility.

  1. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Code of Record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austad, S. L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Guillen, L. E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McKnight, C. W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ferguson, D. S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste (LLW) Disposal Project addresses an anticipated shortfall in remote-handled LLW disposal capability following cessation of operations at the existing facility, which will continue until it is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). Development of a new onsite disposal facility will provide necessary remote-handled LLW disposal capability and will ensure continuity of operations that generate remote-handled LLW. This report documents the Code of Record for design of a new LLW disposal capability. The report is owned by the Design Authority, who can authorize revisions and exceptions. This report will be retained for the lifetime of the facility.

  2. Observations of long-term tide-gauge records for indications of accelerated sea-level rise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gornitz, V.; Solow, A.

    1990-01-01

    Long-term tide-gauge records have been examined for indications of accelerated sea-level rise. An initial evaluation of 21 records was made, using least-squares linear regression. Four of the longest records were selected for more formal statistical analysis. The regional-mean sea-level curve for west-central Europe displays an upswing after 1900. However, individual stations vary considerably over short distances. Results from other regions are less conclusive. Application of univariate and multivariate techniques to the four longest records yields strong evidence for the presence of a non-global, nonlinear component. However, the three longest European records show some common nonlinear features, implying the presence of a regional component. There is some weak statistical evidence for a common changepoint around 1895 in the long-term European records, particularly for Amsterdam and Brest

  3. Analysis of an ultrasonic level device for in-core Pressurized Water Reactor coolant detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, K.R.

    1981-01-01

    A rigorous semi-empirical approach was undertaken to model the response of an ultrasonic level device (ULD) for application to in-core coolant detection in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). An equation is derived for the torsional wave velocity v/sub t phi/ in the ULD. Existing data reduction techniques were analyzed and compared to results from use of the derived equation. Both methods yield liquid level measurements with errors of approx. 5%. A sensitivity study on probe performance at reactor conditions predicts reduced level responsivity from data at lower temperatures

  4. Systemic arterial hypertension, blood pressure levels and associated factors in schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Heleno

    Full Text Available Summary Introduction: Hypertension is a major public health problem in contemporary times and it has high prevalence throughout the world. Objective: To investigate the situation of Systemic Arterial Hypertension in schoolchildren aged 6 to 10 years in Divinópolis/MG-Brazil and associated factors. Method: This is a cross-sectional, epidemiological, descriptive and analytical study, whose population was children aged 6 to 10 years enrolled in public schools in Divinópolis-MG-Brazil. Data collection was conducted from October 2014 to May 2015. Multivariate linear regressions were used to test associations between blood pressure, socioeconomic, anthropometric, dietary and physical activity. Results: The prevalence of hypertension was 15.2% in a sample of 284 children and mean values of systolic blood pressure of 101.7 (±13.2 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure of 66.0 (±11.2 mmHg. The body fat percentage showed significant differences between the genders, with 24.2 and 26.2%, respectively for boys and girls. Significant associations were made between blood pressure levels, body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, body fat percentage, consumption of yogurt, beef /chicken, beans, pizza, sandwich and some behaviors variables. Conclusion: The presented data show important aspects of school profile in the age range 6-10 years, especially related to the behavior of blood pressure.

  5. Body fat and blood pressure: comparison of blood pressure measurements in Chinese children with different body fat levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Wang, Zhiqiang; Dong, Bin; Song, Yi; Hu, Peijin; Zhang, Bing

    2012-11-14

    Children in China are experiencing a rapid increase in the prevalence of obesity, which is associated with hypertension. To compare the effect of body fat on blood pressure (BP) with that of the normal physical growth, we compared BP levels in Chinese children with different body fat levels. In the present population-based study, 13 972 children in the highest-skinfold-thickness-quartile group were individually matched to 13 972 children in the lowest-skinfold-thickness-quartile group by height and weight. Similarly, 5103 children in the highest-waist-circumference-quartile group were matched to the same number of children in the lowest-waist-circumference-quartile group. The high- and low-fat groups had similar height and weight but the high-fat group had significantly higher skinfold and waist circumference measurements. The differences in systolic BP (SBP) between the high- and low-skinfold-thickness groups were small: 0·01 (95 % CI -0·41, 0·44) mmHg in boys and 0·20 (95 % CI -0·15, 0·54) mmHg in girls. The differences in diastolic BP (DBP) were also small (0·39 and 0·38 mmHg for boys and girls, respectively) but were statistically significant. The differences in both SBP and DBP between the high- and low-waist-circumference groups were small but not statistically significant. For a given body size as measured by height and weight, relative body fat had little impact on BP levels in these children. Fat mass and lean mass may have a similar quantitative impact on BP in healthy-weight children.

  6. Evaluation of the effects of various sound pressure levels on the level of serum aldosterone concentration in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Nassiri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Noise exposure may have anatomical, nonauditory, and auditory influences. Considering nonauditory impacts, noise exposure can cause alterations in the automatic nervous system, including increased pulse rates, heightened blood pressure, and abnormal secretion of hormones. The present study aimed at examining the effect of various sound pressure levels (SPLs on the serum aldosterone level among rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 45 adult male rats with an age range of 3 to 4 months and a weight of 200 ± 50 g were randomly divided into 15 groups of three. Three groups were considered as the control groups and the rest (i.e., 12 groups as the case groups. Rats of the case groups were exposed to SPLs of 85, 95, and 105 dBA. White noise was used as the noise to which the rats were exposed. To measure the level of rats’ serum aldosterone, 3 mL of each rat’s sample blood was directly taken from the heart of anesthetized animals by using syringes. The taken blood samples were put in labeled test tubes that contained anticoagulant Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. In the laboratory, the level of aldosterone was assessed through Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay protocol. The collected data were analyzed by the use of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 18. Results: The results revealed that there was no significant change in the level of rats’ serum aldosterone as a result of exposure to SPLs of 65, 85, and 95 dBA. However, the level of serum aldosterone experienced a remarkable increase after exposure to the SPL of 105 dBA (P < 0.001. Thus, the SPL had a significant impact on the serum aldosterone level (P < 0.001. In contrast, the exposure time and the level of potassium in the used water did not have any measurable influence on the level of serum aldosterone (P = 0.25 and 0.39. Conclusion: The findings of this study demonstrated that serum aldosterone can be used as a biomarker in the face of sound

  7. Contribution of long-range transport to the ozone levels recorded in the Northeast of Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, C.; Nunes, T.; Marques, M. C.; Ferreira, F.

    2009-04-01

    In the past four years (2004-2007), measurements carried out at Lamas de Olo, the only air quality monitoring background station in the Northeast of Portugal, showed high ozone concentrations (97,7±29,7 g.m-3). This remote site, located in the middle of Alvão Natural Park, in Portugal, 1086 m asl, plays a significant role on the total amount of exceedances registered in the national air quality network. The analysis of the data recorded at this monitoring station revealed an annual cycle of ozone concentrations similar to the ones observed in other background sites of the Northern Hemisphere (Monks, 2000; Vingarzan and Taylor, 2003). This common feature comprises a distinct maximum during spring (peaking during the month of April). Nevertheless it is during the summer that the hourly concentrations are higher, due to the typical atmospheric and meteorological conditions that promote photochemical pollution episodes. Photochemical pollution episodes can be related with production of ozone in a local scale or in a global scale due to the transportation of polluted air masses. For this reason analysing these events is crucial to fully understand the behaviour of ozone in the Northeast of Portugal, in order to adopt the correct long-term policies. With the purpose of studying the influence of long-range transport on the ozone levels recorded at Lamas de Olo, a cluster analysis was performed on 96-hour back trajectories air masses. Different trajectory clusters represent air masses with different source regions of atmospheric pollutants and the influence of these regions on the atmospheric composition at the arrival point (receptor) of the trajectories can therefore be assessed (EMPA, 2008). The back trajectories were simulated 4 times per day, using HYSPLIT model. A "bottom-up" cluster methodology was used to group trajectories into clusters according to their characteristics, for several time periods with similar ozone levels and/or distributions. Ozone average

  8. Relationship between intracranial pressure and antifungal agents levels in the CSF of patients with cryptococcal meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Fernanda; de Azevedo, Maria Isabel; Pilla, Carmen; Aquino, Valério Rodrigues; Neto, Gustavo Wissmann; Goldani, Luciano Zubaran

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of intracranial hypertension in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of amphotericin B and fluconazole levels of patients with cryptococcal meningitis. CSF samples and intracranial pressure were obtained by means of routine punctures performed at days 1, 7, and 14 of therapy, respectively. Amphotericin B and fluconazole CSF levels were measured by HPLC method as previously described. The minimum inhibitory concentration for amphotericin B, fluconazole, 5΄flucytosine, and voriconazole of each Cryptococcus isolate was performed according to CLSI. The predominant Cryptococcus species found was C. neoformans, and the major underlying condition was AIDS. Only one CSF sample had a detectable level for amphotericin B during the 14 days of therapy. Fluconazole CSF levels progressively increased from day 1 to day 14 of therapy for most cases. Fluconazole levels in the CSF were above the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for Cryptococcus during the initial 14 days of antifungal therapy. Variations of intracranial pressure did not affect amphotericin B and fluconazole levels in the CSF. The generalized estimating correlation (GEE) and Spearman correlation test (SCT) showed no significant correlation between the amphotericin B or fluconazole concentrations in the CSF and intracranial pressure (P = .953 and P = .093, respectively for GEE test and P = .477 and P = .847, respectively, for SCT). Combination therapy of amphotericin B with fluconazole was effective in 60% of the patients considering CSF cultures were negative in 9 of 15 patients after 14 days of therapy. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the role of intracranial hypertension on the therapeutic efficacy of different antifungal agents in patients with cryptococcal meningitis.

  9. Lava lake level as a gauge of magma reservoir pressure and eruptive hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Matthew R.; Anderson, Kyle R.; Poland, Michael P.; Orr, Tim R.; Swanson, Donald A.

    2015-01-01

    Forecasting volcanic activity relies fundamentally on tracking magma pressure through the use of proxies, such as ground surface deformation and earthquake rates. Lava lakes at open-vent basaltic volcanoes provide a window into the uppermost magma system for gauging reservoir pressure changes more directly. At Kīlauea Volcano (Hawaiʻi, USA) the surface height of the summit lava lake in Halemaʻumaʻu Crater fluctuates with surface deformation over short (hours to days) and long (weeks to months) time scales. This correlation implies that the lake behaves as a simple piezometer of the subsurface magma reservoir. Changes in lava level and summit deformation scale with (and shortly precede) changes in eruption rate from Kīlauea's East Rift Zone, indicating that summit lava level can be used for short-term forecasting of rift zone activity and associated hazards at Kīlauea.

  10. ANALYSIS OF SOUND PRESSURE LEVEL (SPL AND LAY OUT OF ENGINES IN THE FACTORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijianto Wijianto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling layout of engines in the factory is very useful to know how many dB sound pressure level that are occur in the building in order to avoid hearing damage of employees that are caused by noise. The objective of this research is to know how many dB sound pressure level that are occur in the factory with engine composition such as boiler, diesel, turbine, motor and gear box with dimension of building are 40 m length, 35 m width and 10 m height. With MATLAB analysis can be obtain that the highest SPL is 104.7 dB and the lowest is 93.5 dB, so, this range are dangerous for human hearing. To avoid hearing damage in this area, employees must use hearing protector.

  11. VIIRS Ocean Color Reprocessed Science Quality Environmental Data Record (EDR) Level 2 products from 2012-01 to the present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains VIIRS Ocean Color Reprocessed Environmental Data Record (EDR) Level 2 products produced by the NESDIS Center for Satellite Applications and...

  12. VIIRS Ocean Color Reprocessed Science Quality Environmental Data Record (EDR) Level 3 products from 2012-01 to the present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains VIIRS Ocean Color Reprocessed Environmental Data Record (EDR) Level 3 products produced by the NESDIS Center for Satellite Applications and...

  13. Pressure and temperature data from bottom-mounted pressure recorders to assist in the definition of net circulation through the Florida Keys, 2001-2003 (NODC Accession 0000826)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and pressure data were collected using pressure gauge in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean and Florida Bay from 11 September 2001 to 23 April 2003....

  14. Use of inexpensive pressure transducers for measuring water levels in wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeland, B.D.; Dowd, J.F.; Hardegree, W.S.

    1997-01-01

    Frequent measurement of below ground water levels at multiple locations is an important component of many wetland ecosystem studies. These measurements, however, are usually time consuming, labor intensive, and expensive. This paper describes a water-level sensor that is inexpensive and easy to construct. The sensor is placed below the expected low water level in a shallow well and, when connected to a datalogger, uses a pressure transducer to detect groundwater or surface water elevations. Details of pressure transducer theory, sensor construction, calibration, and examples of field installations are presented. Although the transducers must be individually calibrated, the sensors have a linear response to changing water levels (r2 ??? .999). Measurement errors resulting from temperature fluctuations are shown to be about 4 cm over a 35??C temperature range, but are minimal when the sensors are installed in groundwater wells where temperatures are less variable. Greater accuracy may be obtained by incorporating water temperature data into the initial calibration (0.14 cm error over a 35??C temperature range). Examples of the utility of these sensors in studies of groundwater/surface water interactions and the effects of water level fluctuations on tree growth are provided. ?? 1997 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  15. [LEVELS OF OBESITY, METABOLIC PROFILE, CONSUMPTION OF TABACO AND BLOOD PRESSURE IN SEDENTARY YOUTHS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caamaño Navarrete, Felipe; Alarcón Hormazábal, Manuel; Delgado Floody, Pedro

    2015-11-01

    in Chile, the National Health Survey (ENS) conducted in 2009-2010 reported high prevalence of overweight, sedentary lifestyle, high cholesterol and metabolic syndrome in the population. to determine the prevalence in young sedentary obesity and consumption of tabaco and analyze their association with the metabolic profile, body fat percentage and blood pressure. 125 young sedentary, 26 men and 99 women, aged between 17 and 29 years old were evaluated. Body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (% fat), waist contour (CC), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides: measurements were performed, glycemia and consumption of snuff. HDL-C (p = 0.000) and% MG (p = 0.043) were higher in women. 37.6% of young people turned smoker. 35, 2% of the sample showed excessive malnutrition. Obese subjects had higher levels: waist contour (p = 0.000) and% FM (p = 0.000). When analyzing obesity DC, this showed significant differences in BMI,% fat, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. BMI presented positive association with CC,% fat, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p tabaco in the study sample, while other variables are not high-risk categories, it is an opportune time to intervene and reverse these negative health trends now. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  16. A Lateral Differential Resonant Pressure Microsensor Based on SOI-Glass Wafer-Level Vacuum Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Xie

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the fabrication and characterization of a resonant pressure microsensor based on SOI-glass wafer-level vacuum packaging. The SOI-based pressure microsensor consists of a pressure-sensitive diaphragm at the handle layer and two lateral resonators (electrostatic excitation and capacitive detection on the device layer as a differential setup. The resonators were vacuum packaged with a glass cap using anodic bonding and the wire interconnection was realized using a mask-free electrochemical etching approach by selectively patterning an Au film on highly topographic surfaces. The fabricated resonant pressure microsensor with dual resonators was characterized in a systematic manner, producing a quality factor higher than 10,000 (~6 months, a sensitivity of about 166 Hz/kPa and a reduced nonlinear error of 0.033% F.S. Based on the differential output, the sensitivity was increased to two times and the temperature-caused frequency drift was decreased to 25%.

  17. Pressure Changes before and after Explosive Rhyolitic Bomb Ejection at Chaiten, Chile Recorded By Water Diffusion Profiles Around Tuffisite Veins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffen, H.; McGowan, E.; Castro, J. M.; Berlo, K.; James, M. R.; Owen, J.; Schipper, C. I.; Wadsworth, F. B.; Saubin, E.; Wehbe, K.

    2014-12-01

    The recent rhyolitic eruptions at Chaitén and Cordón Caulle have provided valuable new insights into the relationship between explosive and effusive activity, and the gas escape mechanisms that permit rapid effusion of degassed lava[1,2]. Bombs ejected during mixed explosive-effusive activity host spectacular tuffisite veins cutting both dense obsidian (Fig 1a) and highly-expanded pumice. Tuffisite veins are ash-filled fracture networks that act as ephemeral permeable pathways for gas escape in shallow conduits and lava domes. Previous studies have revealed water depletion adjacent to tuffisite veins, leading to models of fracture-triggered pressure release[2] and estimates of gas escape timescales[2,3]. We have characterised water diffusion profiles from a new suite of tuffisite-bearing Chaitén bombs, using synchrotron-source FTIR at the Diamond Light Source, Oxford, UK. Unexpectedly, one exceptionally large tuffisite vein, which is 30 mm thick (Fig. 1a, b) is mantled by zones of strong water enrichment, which enclose the usual narrow depletion zones immediately adjacent to the vein (Fig. 1c). Consistent results from different branches of this vein (Fig. 1b) indicate a similar history. The plausible range of diffusion model solutions points towards ~2-4 hours of vein pressurisation, followed by a brief pre-quench period of lower pressure conditions. In our model the vein opened during a period of overpressure at the lava dome base, sustained by gas influx from a deeper catchment extending hundreds of metres into the upper conduit. Overpressure culminated in violent bomb ejection, after which vein pressure decreased due to gas leakage to the atmosphere through the incompletely welded vein, as observed in rhyolitic bombs from Cordón Caulle (Fig. 1d). Commonly-seen water depletion zones[2,3] may therefore merely record post-fragmentation degassing. However, the enrichment zone points towards the type of deep pressurisation associated with cycles of tilt and

  18. The Effect of Fasting on Anthropometric Parameters and Blood Pressure Levels: A Report from Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Malekmakan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ramadan is the fasting month among Muslims and the change in eating and sleep pattern can cause changes in human health. Objectives: This study was carried out to determine the effect of fasting in Ramadan on the anthropometric parameters and blood pressure level. Patients and Methods: This is a semi-experimental study conducted as before and after design on 93 staff of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in 2014. The participants were selected through convenience sampling method. All the subjects were assessed for anthropometry parameters and blood pressure levels in two sections, before and after Ramadan. Data were presented as mean (SD or number (% for continuous or discrete variables, respectively. The data were analyzed via paired and independent t-test or Chi-square test. All the analyses were performed using the statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 17.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA. P value less than 5% was considered significant. Results: All the subjects completed the study. In this study, 93 subjects with an age range of 25 - 57 years and mean of age 37.2 ± 7.9 years participated. Among them, 49 cases (52.7% were men. All the anthropometric parameters and blood pressure showed a significant difference; BMI: (26.1 ± 3.3 vs. 25.7 ± 3.2, P < 0.001, waist circumference: (89.1 ± 11.1 vs. 87.5 ± 11.1, P < 0.001, hip circumference: (101.4 ± 8.6 vs. 100.1 ± 8.5, P < 0.001, systolic blood pressure (101.7 ± 12.9 vs. 99.4 ± 12.7, P = 0.041, and diastolic blood pressure (72.3 ± 4.9 vs. 70.9 ± 5.3, P = 0.041. In addition, decrease in body mass index (P = 0.042 and weight (P = 0.03 were significantly greater in men. Conclusions: The data revealed that Ramadan can reduce anthropometric parameters and blood pressure levels. It was found that reduction in BMI and HC in men was significantly greater than women

  19. Integrating phenotypic data from electronic patient records with molecular level systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunak, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Electronic patient records remain a rather unexplored, but potentially rich data source for discovering correlations between diseases. We describe a general approach for gathering phenotypic descriptions of patients from medical records in a systematic and non-cohort dependent manner. By extracti...... Classification of Disease ontology and is therefore in principle language independent. As a use case we show how records from a Danish psychiatric hospital lead to the identification of disease correlations, which subsequently are mapped to systems biology frameworks....

  20. Relationship of blood lead levels and blood pressure in NHANES II: additional calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gartside, P.S.

    1988-01-01

    In performing research for associations and relationships among the data thus far published from the NHANES II survey, only the data for the 64 communities involved may be used. The simple omission of a few essential data makes impossible any valid analysis from the data for the 20,325 individual respondents. In this research for associations between blood lead levels and blood pressure in NHANES II, the method of forward stepwise regression was used. This avoids the problem of inflated error rates for blood lead, maximizes the number of data analyzed, and minimizes the number of independent variables entered into the regression model, thus avoiding the pitfalls that previous NHANES II research of blood lead and blood pressure has fallen into when using backward stepwise regression. The results of this research for white male adults, white female adults, and black adults were contradictory and lacked consistency and reliability. In addition, the overall average association between blood lead level and blood pressure was so minute that the only rational conclusion is that there is no evidence for this association to be found in the NHANES II data

  1. Structural integrity investigation for RPV with various cooling water levels under pressurized melting pool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The strategy denoted as in-vessel retention (IVR is widely used in severe accident (SA management by most advanced nuclear power plants. The essence of IVR mitigation is to provide long-term external water cooling in maintaining the reactor pressure vessel (RPV integrity. Actually, the traditional IVR concept assumed that RPV was fully submerged into the water flooding, and the melting pool was depressurized during the SA. The above assumptions weren't seriously challenged until the occurrence of Fukushima accident on 2011, suggesting the structural behavior had not been appropriately assessed. Therefore, the paper tries to address the structure-related issue on determining whether RPV safety can be maintained or not with the effect of various water levels and internal pressures created from core meltdown accident. In achieving it, the RPV structural behaviors are numerically investigated in terms of several field parameters, such as temperature, deformation, stress, plastic strain, creep strain, and total damage. Due to the presence of high temperature melt on the inside and water cooling on the outside, the RPV failure is governed by the failure mechanisms of creep, thermal-plasticity and plasticity. The creep and plastic damages are interacted with each other, which further accelerate the failure process. Through detailed investigation, it is found that the internal pressure as well as water levels plays an important role in determining the RPV failure time, mode and site.

  2. Relationship of vitamin D levels to blood pressure in a biethnic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, R; Jaceldo-Siegl, K; Haddad, E; Oda, K; Fraser, G E; Tonstad, S

    2013-08-01

    Accumulating epidemiological and clinical studies have suggested that vitamin D insufficiency may be associated with hypertension. Blacks tend to have lower vitamin D levels than Whites, but it is unclear whether this difference explains the higher blood pressure (BP) observed in Blacks in a population with healthy lifestyle practices. We examined cross-sectional data in the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2), a cohort of non-smoking, mostly non-drinking men and women following a range of diets from vegan to non-vegetarian. Each participant provided dietary, demographic, lifestyle and medical history data. Measurements of weight, height, waist circumference, percent body fat and blood pressure and fasting blood samples were obtained from a randomly selected non-diabetic sample of 284 Blacks and 284 Whites aged 30-95 years. Multiple regression analyses were used to assess independent relationships between blood pressure and 25(OH)D levels. Levels of 25(OH)D were inversely associated with systolic BP in Whites after control for age, gender, BMI, and use of BP-lowering medications (β-coefficient -0.23 [95% CI, -0.43, -0.03; p = 0.02]). This relationship was not seen in Blacks (β-coefficient 0.08 [95% CI, -0.14, 0.30; p = 0.4]). Results were similar when controlling for waist circumference or percentage body fat instead of BMI. No relationship between serum 25(OH)D and diastolic BP was seen. Systolic BP is inversely associated with 25(OH)D levels in Whites but not in Blacks. Vitamin D may not be a major contributor to the White-Black differential in BP. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Achievement of Target Blood Pressure Levels among Japanese Workers with Hypertension and Healthy Lifestyle Characteristics Associated with Therapeutic Failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagako Kudo

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined Japanese with regard to the achievement rates for target blood pressure levels, or the relationship between these rates and healthy lifestyle characteristics in patients with hypertension as defined by the newly established hypertension management guidelines (JSH2014. The aim of this study was to elucidate achievement rates and examine healthy lifestyle characteristics associated with achievement status among Japanese.This cross-sectional study, conducted in January-December 2012, examined blood pressure control and healthy lifestyle characteristics in 8,001 Japanese workers with hypertension (mean age, 57.0 years; 78.8% were men who participated in a workplace health checkup. Data were collected from workplace medical checkup records and participants' self-administered questionnaires. We divided into 5 groups [G1; young, middle-aged, and early-phase elderly patients (65-74 years old without diabetes mellitus or chronic kidney disease (CKD (<140/90 mmHg, G2; late-phase elderly patients (≥75 years old without diabetes mellitus or CKD (<150/90 mmHg, G3; diabetic patients (<130/80 mmHg, G4; patients with CKD (<130/80 mmHg, and G5; patients with cerebrovascular and/or coronary artery diseases (<140/90 mmHg] according to JSH2014. And then, achievement rates were calculated in each group. Multivariate analysis identified healthy lifestyle characteristics associated with "therapeutic failure" of target blood pressure.Target blood pressures were achieved by 60.2% of young, middle-aged, and early-phase elderly patients (G1, 71.4% of late-phase elderly patients (G2, 30.5% of diabetic patients (G3, 33.4% of those with chronic kidney disease (G4, and 66.0% of those with cerebrovascular and/or coronary artery diseases (G5. A body mass index of 18.5-24.9 and non-daily alcohol consumption were protective factors, and adequate sleep was found to contribute to therapeutic success.We found low achievement rates for treatment goals

  4. A 500 kyr record of global sea-level oscillations in the Gulf of Lion, Mediterranean Sea: new insights into MIS 3 sea-level variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Frigola

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Borehole PRGL1-4 drilled in the upper slope of the Gulf of Lion provides an exceptional record to investigate the impact of late Pleistocene orbitally-driven glacio-eustatic sea-level oscillations on the sedimentary outbuilding of a river fed continental margin. High-resolution grain-size and geochemical records supported by oxygen isotope chronostratigraphy allow reinterpreting the last 500 ka upper slope seismostratigraphy of the Gulf of Lion. Five main sequences, stacked during the sea-level lowering phases of the last five glacial-interglacial 100-kyr cycles, form the upper stratigraphic outbuilding of the continental margin. The high sensitivity of the grain-size record down the borehole to sea-level oscillations can be explained by the great width of the Gulf of Lion continental shelf. Sea level driven changes in accommodation space over the shelf cyclically modified the depositional mode of the entire margin. PRGL1-4 data also illustrate the imprint of sea-level oscillations at millennial time-scale, as shown for Marine Isotopic Stage 3, and provide unambiguous evidence of relative high sea-levels at the onset of each Dansgaard-Oeschger Greenland warm interstadial. The PRGL1-4 grain-size record represents the first evidence for a one-to-one coupling of millennial time-scale sea-level oscillations associated with each Dansgaard-Oeschger cycle.

  5. Multi-level analysis of electronic health record adoption by health care professionals: A study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labrecque Michel

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The electronic health record (EHR is an important application of information and communication technologies to the healthcare sector. EHR implementation is expected to produce benefits for patients, professionals, organisations, and the population as a whole. These benefits cannot be achieved without the adoption of EHR by healthcare professionals. Nevertheless, the influence of individual and organisational factors in determining EHR adoption is still unclear. This study aims to assess the unique contribution of individual and organisational factors on EHR adoption in healthcare settings, as well as possible interrelations between these factors. Methods A prospective study will be conducted. A stratified random sampling method will be used to select 50 healthcare organisations in the Quebec City Health Region (Canada. At the individual level, a sample of 15 to 30 health professionals will be chosen within each organisation depending on its size. A semi-structured questionnaire will be administered to two key informants in each organisation to collect organisational data. A composite adoption score of EHR adoption will be developed based on a Delphi process and will be used as the outcome variable. Twelve to eighteen months after the first contact, depending on the pace of EHR implementation, key informants and clinicians will be contacted once again to monitor the evolution of EHR adoption. A multilevel regression model will be applied to identify the organisational and individual determinants of EHR adoption in clinical settings. Alternative analytical models would be applied if necessary. Results The study will assess the contribution of organisational and individual factors, as well as their interactions, to the implementation of EHR in clinical settings. Conclusions These results will be very relevant for decision makers and managers who are facing the challenge of implementing EHR in the healthcare system. In addition

  6. Effect of external pressure environment on the internal noise level due to a source inside a cylindrical tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clevenson, S. A.; Roussos, L. A.

    1984-01-01

    A small cylindrical tank was used to study the effect on the noise environment within a tank of conditions of atmospheric (sea level) pressure or vacuum environments on the exterior. Experimentally determined absorption coefficients were used to calculate transmission loss, transmissibility coefficients and the sound pressure (noise) level differences in the interior. The noise level differences were also measured directly for the two exterior environments and compared to various analytical approximations with limited agreement. Trend study curves indicated that if the tank transmission loss is above 25 dB, the difference in interior noise level between the vacuum and ambient pressure conditions are less than 2 dB.

  7. Development of an improved-contact liquid-level probe for pressurized reactor vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelsey, P.V. Jr.

    1982-09-01

    Electrical-conductivity-based probes for liquid level sensing show promise for pressurized water reactor environments, but have exhibited frequent bond failures at the ceramic/metal interfaces. A program to characterize and improve the interface behavior has been completed successfully, and has provided data for optimizing fabrication parameters, as well as general information on glass-to-metal bonding in a superalloy/silicate-glass system. The materials studied were Inconel X-750 and a barium silicate glass containing minor amounts of TiO 2 , CeO 2 , As 2 O 3 , Bi 2 O 3 , and Al 2 O 3

  8. Variability of temperature, evaporation, insolation and sea level pressure in East Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camerlengo, A.L.; Mohd Nasir Saadon; Lim You Rang; Nhakhorn Somchit; Mohd Mahatir Osman

    1999-01-01

    The interrelation between global warming and certain meteorological parameters - temperature, evaporation, sea level pressure and isolation (hours of sunshine) - in East Malaysia is addressed in this study. The inter-annual climatic variability mainly due to ENSO warm events, is also investigated. The study of the monthly distribution of both evaporation and insolation in East Malaysia (i.e., the Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak, both of them situated in the northern part of the island of Borneo) is also covered in this paper (author)

  9. Vascular flow reserve as a link between long-term blood pressure level and physical performance capacity in mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Christian B; Damkjær, Mads; Hald, Bjørn O

    2016-01-01

    Mean arterial pressure (MAP) is surprisingly similar across different species of mammals, and it is, in general, not known which factors determine the arterial pressure level. Mammals often have a pronounced capacity for sustained physical performance. This capacity depends on the vasculature...... having a flow reserve that comes into play as tissue metabolism increases. We hypothesize that microvascular properties allowing for a large vascular flow reserve is linked to the level of the arterial pressure.To study the interaction between network properties and network inlet pressure, we developed...

  10. Association Between Serum Levels of Uric Acid and Blood Pressure Tracking in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bohyun; Lee, Hye Ah; Lee, Sung Hee; Park, Bo Mi; Park, Eun Ae; Kim, Hae Soon; Cho, Su Jin; Park, Hyesook

    2017-07-01

    Recent studies suggest that high levels of serum uric acid of very early life are a result of the in-utero environment and may lead to elevated blood pressure (BP) in adulthood. However, serum uric acid levels can change throughout life. We investigated the effect of serum uric acid levels in childhood on the BP tracking and analysed BP according to changes in serum uric acid levels in early life. A total of 449 children from the Ewha Birth and Growth Cohort study underwent at least 2 follow-up examinations. Data were collected across 3 check-up cycles. Serum uric acid levels, BP, and anthropometric characteristics were assessed at 3, 5, and 7 years of age. Children with a serum uric acid level higher than the median values had significantly increased systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP at 3 years of age. Baseline serum uric acid levels measured at 3 years of age, significantly affected subsequent BP in the sex and body mass index adjusted longitudinal data analysis (P uric acid over time, subjects with high uric acid levels at both 3 and 5 years of age had the highest SBP at 7 years of age. These findings suggest the importance of maintaining an adequate level of serum uric acids from the early life. Appropriate monitoring and intervention of uric acid levels in a high-risk group can reduce the risk of a future increased BP. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2017. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  11. Identification and analysis of evolutionary selection pressures acting at the molecular level in five forkhead subfamilies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, Christina D; Rannala, Bruce; Walter, Michael A

    2008-09-24

    Members of the forkhead gene family act as transcription regulators in biological processes including development and metabolism. The evolution of forkhead genes has not been widely examined and selection pressures at the molecular level influencing subfamily evolution and differentiation have not been explored. Here, in silico methods were used to examine selection pressures acting on the coding sequence of five multi-species FOX protein subfamily clusters; FoxA, FoxD, FoxI, FoxO and FoxP. Application of site models, which estimate overall selection pressures on individual codons throughout the phylogeny, showed that the amino acid changes observed were either neutral or under negative selection. Branch-site models, which allow estimated selection pressures along specified lineages to vary as compared to the remaining phylogeny, identified positive selection along branches leading to the FoxA3 and Protostomia clades in the FoxA cluster and the branch leading to the FoxO3 clade in the FoxO cluster. Residues that may differentiate paralogs were identified in the FoxA and FoxO clusters and residues that differentiate orthologs were identified in the FoxA cluster. Neutral amino acid changes were identified in the forkhead domain of the FoxA, FoxD and FoxP clusters while positive selection was identified in the forkhead domain of the Protostomia lineage of the FoxA cluster. A series of residues under strong negative selection adjacent to the N- and C-termini of the forkhead domain were identified in all clusters analyzed suggesting a new method for refinement of domain boundaries. Extrapolation of domains among cluster members in conjunction with selection pressure information allowed prediction of residue function in the FoxA, FoxO and FoxP clusters and exclusion of known domain function in residues of the FoxA and FoxI clusters. Consideration of selection pressures observed in conjunction with known functional information allowed prediction of residue function and

  12. Identification and analysis of evolutionary selection pressures acting at the molecular level in five forkhead subfamilies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rannala Bruce

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the forkhead gene family act as transcription regulators in biological processes including development and metabolism. The evolution of forkhead genes has not been widely examined and selection pressures at the molecular level influencing subfamily evolution and differentiation have not been explored. Here, in silico methods were used to examine selection pressures acting on the coding sequence of five multi-species FOX protein subfamily clusters; FoxA, FoxD, FoxI, FoxO and FoxP. Results Application of site models, which estimate overall selection pressures on individual codons throughout the phylogeny, showed that the amino acid changes observed were either neutral or under negative selection. Branch-site models, which allow estimated selection pressures along specified lineages to vary as compared to the remaining phylogeny, identified positive selection along branches leading to the FoxA3 and Protostomia clades in the FoxA cluster and the branch leading to the FoxO3 clade in the FoxO cluster. Residues that may differentiate paralogs were identified in the FoxA and FoxO clusters and residues that differentiate orthologs were identified in the FoxA cluster. Neutral amino acid changes were identified in the forkhead domain of the FoxA, FoxD and FoxP clusters while positive selection was identified in the forkhead domain of the Protostomia lineage of the FoxA cluster. A series of residues under strong negative selection adjacent to the N- and C-termini of the forkhead domain were identified in all clusters analyzed suggesting a new method for refinement of domain boundaries. Extrapolation of domains among cluster members in conjunction with selection pressure information allowed prediction of residue function in the FoxA, FoxO and FoxP clusters and exclusion of known domain function in residues of the FoxA and FoxI clusters. Conclusion Consideration of selection pressures observed in conjunction with known

  13. Multi-scale dynamical analysis (MSDA) of sea level records versus PDO, AMO, and NAO indexes

    OpenAIRE

    Scafetta, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Herein I propose a multi-scale dynamical analysis to facilitate the physical interpretation of tide gauge records. The technique uses graphical diagrams. It is applied to six secular-long tide gauge records representative of the world oceans: Sydney, Pacific coast of Australia; Fremantle, Indian Ocean coast of Australia; New York City, Atlantic coast of USA; Honolulu, U.S. state of Hawaii; San Diego, U.S. state of California; and Venice, Mediterranean Sea, Italy. For comparison, an equivalent...

  14. Power level effects on thorium-based fuels in pressure-tube heavy water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromley, B.P.; Edwards, G.W.R., E-mail: blair.bromley@cnl.ca [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Sambavalingam, P. [Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Technology, Oshawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Lattice and core physics modeling and calculations have been performed to quantify the impact of power/flux levels on the reactivity and achievable burnup for 35-element fuel bundles made with Pu/Th or U-233/Th. The fissile content in these bundles has been adjusted to produce on the order of 20 MWd/kg burnup in homogeneous cores in a 700 MWe-class pressure-tube heavy water reactor, operating on a once-through thorium cycle. Results demonstrate that the impact of the power/flux level is modest for Pu/Th fuels but significant for U-233/Th fuels. In particular, high power/flux reduces the breeding and burnup potential of U-233/Th fuels. Thus, there may be an incentive to operate reactors with U-233/Th fuels at a lower power density or to develop alternative refueling schemes that will lower the time-average specific power, thereby increasing burnup.(author)

  15. Power level effects on thorium-based fuels in pressure-tube heavy water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromley, B.P.; Edwards, G.W.R.; Sambavalingam, P.

    2016-01-01

    Lattice and core physics modeling and calculations have been performed to quantify the impact of power/flux levels on the reactivity and achievable burnup for 35-element fuel bundles made with Pu/Th or U-233/Th. The fissile content in these bundles has been adjusted to produce on the order of 20 MWd/kg burnup in homogeneous cores in a 700 MWe-class pressure-tube heavy water reactor, operating on a once-through thorium cycle. Results demonstrate that the impact of the power/flux level is modest for Pu/Th fuels but significant for U-233/Th fuels. In particular, high power/flux reduces the breeding and burnup potential of U-233/Th fuels. Thus, there may be an incentive to operate reactors with U-233/Th fuels at a lower power density or to develop alternative refueling schemes that will lower the time-average specific power, thereby increasing burnup.(author)

  16. Four levels of hierarchical organization, including noncovalent chainmail, brace the mature tumor herpesvirus capsid against pressurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z Hong; Hui, Wong Hoi; Shah, Sanket; Jih, Jonathan; O'Connor, Christine M; Sherman, Michael B; Kedes, Dean H; Schein, Stan

    2014-10-07

    Like many double-stranded DNA viruses, tumor gammaherpesviruses Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus withstand high internal pressure. Bacteriophage HK97 uses covalent chainmail for this purpose, but how this is achieved noncovalently in the much larger gammaherpesvirus capsid is unknown. Our cryoelectron microscopy structure of a gammaherpesvirus capsid reveals a hierarchy of four levels of organization: (1) Within a hexon capsomer, each monomer of the major capsid protein (MCP), 1,378 amino acids and six domains, interacts with its neighboring MCPs at four sites. (2) Neighboring capsomers are linked in pairs by MCP dimerization domains and in groups of three by heterotrimeric triplex proteins. (3) Small (∼280 amino acids) HK97-like domains in MCP monomers alternate with triplex heterotrimers to form a belt that encircles each capsomer. (4) One hundred sixty-two belts concatenate to form noncovalent chainmail. The triplex heterotrimer orchestrates all four levels and likely drives maturation to an angular capsid that can withstand pressurization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Direct measured systolic pressure gradients across the aorto-iliac segment in multiple-level-obstruction arteriosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noer, Ivan; Praestholm, J; Tønnesen, K H

    1981-01-01

    Patients with severe ischemia due to multi-level obstructions in the leg arteries both above and below the region were assessed preoperatively by intraarterial brachial and femoral artery pressure measurements. The systolic pressure drop along aorto-iliac obstructions was compared to the angiogra....... Due to large variations, however, the angiographic information was found to be useless in the individual patient. No difference in the pressure drop was found between cases in which rich and poor collateral networks were visualized....

  18. BMI mediates the association between low educational level and higher blood pressure during pregnancy in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jwa, Seung Chik; Fujiwara, Takeo; Hata, Akira; Arata, Naoko; Sago, Haruhiko; Ohya, Yukihiro

    2013-04-25

    Research investigating the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and blood pressure (BP) during pregnancy is limited and its underlying pathway is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the mediators of the association between educational level as an indicator of the SES and BP in early and mid-pregnancy among Japanese women. Nine hundred and twenty-three pregnant women in whom BP was measured before 16 weeks and at 20 weeks of gestation were enrolled in this study. Maternal educational levels were categorized into three groups: high (university or higher), mid (junior college), and low (junior high school, high school, or vocational training school). The low educational group had higher systolic (low vs. high, difference = 2.39 mmHg, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.59 to 4.19) and diastolic BP levels (low vs. high, difference = 0.74 mmHg, 95% CI: -0.52 to 1.99) in early pregnancy. However, the same associations were not found after adjustment for pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI). BP reduction was observed in mid-pregnancy in all three educational groups and there was no association between educational level and pregnancy-induced hypertension. In Japanese women, the low educational group showed higher BP during pregnancy than the mid or high educational groups. Pre-pregnancy BMI mediates the association between educational level and BP.

  19. Evaluation of Blood Pressure Control Levels and Treatment Compliances of Hypertensive Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenk Aypak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the study is to evaluate the knowledge of patients about hypertension (HT, compliance with lifestyle changes and to determine their blood pressure levels under antihypertensive therapy. Method: Hypertensive patients that applied to Family medicine outpatient clinics of Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Education and Research Hospital for the first time, in 2012 (between February 1 to April 30, were included in our cross-sectional study. Patients are evaluated primarily for the control and the factors that can affect high blood pressure and the rate on achieving treatment goals. Results: Three hundred and forty patients were included in the study. The mean age of the patients was 60.5±10.7 years and 222 of them (65.3% were female. The blood pressure was not under control in 108 (31.8% patients. The mean body weight of male patients was statistically higher than females (p=0.015. The number of the patients that knew the normal blood pressure value was 249 (73.2%. Among those 155 (62.2% were women and 179 (71.9% were younger than 65 years of age (p=0.0001. Forty one patients (12.1% were still smoking, 46 (13.5% patients were exercising regularly and 32 (9.4% were consuming regular diet. Blood pressure was better controlled in the group that was exercising regularly (p=0.001. The rate of male patients that were on regular exercise and diet, were higher than females (p=0.09. Only 86 patients (25.3% knew the name of their antihypertensive medication and 65 of patients (19.1% knew the dose of their medication. Female patients knew the name of their medication better than males (p=0.002. 156 patients (45.9% were using two kinds of antihypertensive medication. 58 patients (17.1% were skipping doses a few times a week. Conclusion: The knowledge of hypertensive patients on their illness and their compliance on non-drug treatments were inadequate. The compliance of patients should be improved by development of patient-doctor should be improved

  20. Comparison Of Vented And Absolute Pressure Transducers For Water-Level Monitoring In Hanford Site Central Plateau Wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcdonald, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Automated water-level data collected using vented pressure transducers deployed in Hanford Site Central Plateau wells commonly display more variability than manual tape measurements in response to barometric pressure fluctuations. To explain this difference, it was hypothesized that vented pressure transducers installed in some wells are subject to barometric pressure effects that reduce water-level measurement accuracy. Vented pressure transducers use a vent tube, which is open to the atmosphere at land surface, to supply air pressure to the transducer housing for barometric compensation so the transducer measurements will represent only the water pressure. When using vented transducers, the assumption is made that the air pressure between land surface and the well bore is in equilibrium. By comparison, absolute pressure transducers directly measure the air pressure within the wellbore. Barometric compensation is achieved by subtracting the well bore air pressure measurement from the total pressure measured by a second transducer submerged in the water. Thus, no assumption of air pressure equilibrium is needed. In this study, water-level measurements were collected from the same Central Plateau wells using both vented and absolute pressure transducers to evaluate the different methods of barometric compensation. Manual tape measurements were also collected to evaluate the transducers. Measurements collected during this study demonstrated that the vented pressure transducers over-responded to barometric pressure fluctuations due to a pressure disequilibrium between the air within the wellbores and the atmosphere at land surface. The disequilibrium is thought to be caused by the relatively long time required for barometric pressure changes to equilibrate between land surface and the deep vadose zone and may be exacerbated by the restriction of air flow between the well bore and the atmosphere due to the presence of sample pump landing plates and well caps. The

  1. High-level-waste records management system: the NRC pilot project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, A.; Altomare, P.

    1987-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the US Dept. of Energy (DOE) have agreed to develop a licensing support system (LSS) to address the records management requirements created by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA). The NRC is planning to conduct a negotiated rule making the modify 10CFR2, including rules governing discovery, so that parties to the licensing process will use a single information management system as a source for all licensing-related documents. The successful demonstration of the pilot project has resulted in an operational on-line record management system for NRC-related HLW documents. Both incoming and outgoing documents are being scanned and stored on a mainframe system and on an optical disk. At this writing the optical disk portion of the system is being tested to evaluate its potential use as a future archival and distribution medium for licensing records. Experience gained from this project is being shared with other government agencies that are in the process of using similar technologies to come to grips with the complex records management problem endemic to our information-based society

  2. Verification of the causes of glaciations and sea level changes using the records of calcite speleothems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shopov Yavor Y.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The luminescence of calcite speleothems displays an exponential dependence on soil temperature unless there is a dense cover of forest over the cave to dampen it. This relationship is determined primarily by the strength of solar visible and infrared radiation. It is suggested that, as a consequence, the microzonal variations of luminescence often found in speleothems can be used as a proxy index of Solar Insolation. The luminescence solar insolation proxy record of a speleothem from Jewel Cave, South Dakota, USA, was found to display millenial and centennial cycles in the record. It exhibits a rapid increase in solar insolation at 139 ± 5.5 kyrs. This increase precedes that suggested by the Orbital theory by about 10,000 years and is due to superimposition of the most powerful cycle in solar luminosity of 11.5 kyrs, upon the curve of orbital variations. The record from a speleothem in Duhlata Cave, Bulgaria matches that of South Dakota within the limits of dating error, indicating that both of these records (which are 10,000 km apart measure global solar insolation controls rather than local paleotemperature variations.

  3. Improving urban African Americans' blood pressure control through multi-level interventions in the Achieving Blood Pressure Control Together (ACT) study: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ephraim, Patti L; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Roter, Debra L; Bone, Lee R; Wolff, Jennifer L; Lewis-Boyer, LaPricia; Levine, David M; Aboumatar, Hanan J; Cooper, Lisa A; Fitzpatrick, Stephanie J; Gudzune, Kimberly A; Albert, Michael C; Monroe, Dwyan; Simmons, Michelle; Hickman, Debra; Purnell, Leon; Fisher, Annette; Matens, Richard; Noronha, Gary J; Fagan, Peter J; Ramamurthi, Hema C; Ameling, Jessica M; Charlston, Jeanne; Sam, Tanyka S; Carson, Kathryn A; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Crews, Deidra C; Greer, Raquel C; Sneed, Valerie; Flynn, Sarah J; DePasquale, Nicole; Boulware, L Ebony

    2014-07-01

    Given their high rates of uncontrolled blood pressure, urban African Americans comprise a particularly vulnerable subgroup of persons with hypertension. Substantial evidence has demonstrated the important role of family and community support in improving patients' management of a variety of chronic illnesses. However, studies of multi-level interventions designed specifically to improve urban African American patients' blood pressure self-management by simultaneously leveraging patient, family, and community strengths are lacking. We report the protocol of the Achieving Blood Pressure Control Together (ACT) study, a randomized controlled trial designed to study the effectiveness of interventions that engage patient, family, and community-level resources to facilitate urban African American hypertensive patients' improved hypertension self-management and subsequent hypertension control. African American patients with uncontrolled hypertension receiving health care in an urban primary care clinic will be randomly assigned to receive 1) an educational intervention led by a community health worker alone, 2) the community health worker intervention plus a patient and family communication activation intervention, or 3) the community health worker intervention plus a problem-solving intervention. All participants enrolled in the study will receive and be trained to use a digital home blood pressure machine. The primary outcome of the randomized controlled trial will be patients' blood pressure control at 12months. Results from the ACT study will provide needed evidence on the effectiveness of comprehensive multi-level interventions to improve urban African American patients' hypertension control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Recording of ventricular pressure by conventional catheter manometer systems. Efficiency of several combinations of conventional catheters, modern transducers and catheter-flush systems (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellige, G

    1976-01-01

    The experimentally in vitro determined dynamic response characteristics of 38 catheter manometer systems were uniform in the worst case to 5 c.p.s. and optimally to 26 c.p.s. Accordingly, some systems are only satisfactory for ordinary pressure recording in cardiac rest, while better systems record dp/dt correct up to moderate inotropic stimulation of the heart. In the frequency range of uniform response (amplitude error less +/- 5%) the phase distortion is also negligible. In clinical application the investigator is often restricted to special type of cardiac catheter. In this case a low compliant transducer yields superior results. In all examined systems the combination with MSD 10 transducers is best, whereas the combination with P 23 Db transducers leads to minimal results. An inadequate system for recording ventricular pressure pulses leads in most cases to overestimations of dp/dtmax. The use of low frequency pass filters to attenuate higher frequency artefacts is, under clinical conditions, not suitable for extending the range of uniform frequency response. The dynamic response of 14 catheter manometer systems with two types of continuous self flush units was determined. The use of the P 37 flush unit in combination with small internal diameter catheters leads to serious error in ordinary pressure recording, due to amplitude distortion of the lower harmonics. The frequency response characteristics of the combination of an Intraflow flush system and MSD 10 transducer was similar to the non-flushing P 23 Db transducer feature.

  5. Preservice Science Teachers’ Levels of Associating The Concept of Gas Pressure with Everyday Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aybüke Pabuçcu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Through this research, it was aimed to investigate how pre-service science teachers’ use their knowledge about the concept of gas pressure in explaining some examples from everyday life. The research was carried out with 33 freshmen pre-service science teachers. The data in the research were collected through five formative assessment probes. The students were asked to work in small groups to complete the questions. Groups’ discussions were recorded. Groups’ written responses were classified in five different categories: sound understanding, partial understanding, specific misconception, no understanding, and no response. Data under these categories were given as percentages in a table. The sum of students’ responses in sound understanding and partial understanding are in the range of 37.5% and 62.5%. Results revealed that students had difficulty in understanding the gases concepts and associating these concepts with everyday life events. Moreover, many misconceptions and misuse of the ideal gas equation were determined in the students’ explanations.

  6. Added value from 576 years of tree-ring records in the prediction of the Great Salt Lake level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert R. Gillies; Oi-Yu Chung; S.-Y. Simon Wang; R. Justin DeRose; Yan Sun

    2015-01-01

    Predicting lake level fluctuations of the Great Salt Lake (GSL) in Utah - the largest terminal salt-water lake in the Western Hemisphere - is critical from many perspectives. The GSL integrates both climate and hydrological variations within the region and is particularly sensitive to low-frequency climate cycles. Since most hydroclimate variable records cover...

  7. Pressure ulcer prevention in nursing homes: nurse descriptions of individual and organization level factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellefield, Mary Ellen; Magnabosco, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    Sustaining pressure ulcer prevention (PUP) in nursing homes has been difficult to achieve. Implementation science researchers suggest that identification of individual staff and organizational factors influencing current practices is essential to the development of an effective and customized plan to implement practice changes in a specific setting. A mixed methods approach was used to describe nurses' perceptions of individual and organization-level factors influencing performance of PUP in two Veterans Health Administration (VHA) nursing homes prior to implementation of a national VHA initiative on Hospital Acquired Pressure Ulcers (HAPUs). Individual interviews of 16 nursing staff were conducted. Individual factors influencing practice were a personal sense of responsibility to Veterans and belief in the effectiveness and importance of preventive measures. Organizational factors were existence of cooperative practices between nursing assistants and licensed nurses in assessing risk; teamwork, communication, and a commitment to Veterans' well-being. Integration and reinforcement of such factors in the development and maintenance of customized plans of PUP initiatives is recommended. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  8. Fuzzy logic control of steam generator water level in pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuan, C.C.; Lin, C.; Hsu, C.C.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a fuzzy logic controller is applied to control the steam generator water level in a pressurized water reactor. The method does not require a detailed mathematical mode of the object to be controlled. The design is based on a set of linguistic rules that were adopted from the human operator's experience. After off-line fuzzy computation, the controller is a lookup table, and thus, real-time control is achieved. Shrink-and-swell phenomena are considered in the linguistic rules, and the simulation results show that their effect is dramatically reduced. The performance of the control system can also be improved by changing the input and output scaling factors, which is convenient for on-line tuning

  9. System-Level Design of a 64-Channel Low Power Neural Spike Recording Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Restituto, Manuel; Rodriguez-Perez, Alberto; Darie, Angela; Soto-Sanchez, Cristina; Fernandez-Jover, Eduardo; Rodriguez-Vazquez, Angel

    2017-04-01

    This paper reports an integrated 64-channel neural spike recording sensor, together with all the circuitry to process and configure the channels, process the neural data, transmit via a wireless link the information and receive the required instructions. Neural signals are acquired, filtered, digitized and compressed in the channels. Additionally, each channel implements an auto-calibration algorithm which individually configures the transfer characteristics of the recording site. The system has two transmission modes; in one case the information captured by the channels is sent as uncompressed raw data; in the other, feature vectors extracted from the detected neural spikes are released. Data streams coming from the channels are serialized by the embedded digital processor. Experimental results, including in vivo measurements, show that the power consumption of the complete system is lower than 330 μW.

  10. Measurement procedure for the determination of thermal exchange coefficient for subsea pipelines at elevated pressure levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Luis Fernando A.; Farias, Paula S.C.; Martins, Fabio J.W.A.; Rabello, Pedro C.; Barros Junior, Julio M. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica; Lopes Junior, Fernando M.; Silva Junior, Jose Fernando; Castro, Adriana M.; Santos, Augusto A.; Pessanha, Maikon C.R. [Technip, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    The present paper describes a methodology successfully employed to determine the Thermal Exchange Coefficient - TEC - for insulated sub sea flexible lines up to a pressure level of 200 bar. In this methodology, controlled internal electrical heating was employed, together with temperature sensors installed at the inner and outer surfaces of the line. The instrumented line sample was placed in a hyperbaric chamber filled with water. Two methods were employed in parallel to determine the line TEC value. In the first method, the TEC value was determined by direct measurement of the radial heat flux by the use of heat flux sensors. The readings of these sensors, together with the inner-to-outer surface temperature difference and geometric parameters, yielded the desired TEC value. In the second method, the radial heat flux was obtained as the difference between the total energy generated by the electrical heater installed in the interior of the sample and the heat losses through the end connectors, evaluated by the readings of temperature sensors installed in covers that surrounded the end connectors. The knowledge of the cover geometry, thermal properties and the temperature readings allowed for an accurate estimate of the heat lost through the covers. Both measuring methods were backed by a detailed uncertainty analysis. A calibration procedure of the second method was performed from zero to 100 bar, the pressure range where the calibration of the heat flux sensor is valid. Beyond 100 bar and up to 200 bar, the TEC values were obtained by the second method, corrected by the calibration procedure extrapolated from the 0-100 bar range. The TEC values obtained were valid under an uncertainty level of {+-} 5%. (author)

  11. ACHIEVEMENT OF TARGET BLOOD PRESSURE LEVEL IN HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS WITH AMLODIDINE: ORIGINAL DRUG VERSUS GENERIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Martsevich

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate antihypertensive effects of new generic amlodipine (Stamlo M in comparison with original amlodipine (Norvasc in monotherapy and in combination with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitor and diuretic in patients with arterial hypertension (HT of 1-2 degree.Material and methods. 60 patients with HT of 1-2 degree were included in the open randomized parallel comparative study. Patients were split into 2 groups. Study duration was 10 weeks. Efficacy control, dose correction, addition of ACE inhibitor and diuretic was performed each 2 weeks.Results. The significant antihypertensive effect of monotherapy was observed in both groups already by the 2-4 weeks of therapy. Significant differences between amlodipines in influence on blood pressure (BP level and heart rate was not found. Monotherapy with generic amlodipine (10 mg OD provided target BP level more than in half of patients. Achievement of target BP levels was found in 89% and 96% of patients treated with generic and original amlodipine, respectively, when they were combined with lisinopril (10 mg OD and hydrochlorothiazide (12,5 mg OD.Conclusion. New generic amlodipine (Stamlo M is an effective and safe antihypertensive drug comparable with original amlodipine in clinical efficacy.

  12. A comparison of disturbance levels measured in hypersonic tunnels using a hot-wire anemometer and a pitot pressure probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stainback, P. C.; Wagner, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    Disturbance levels were measured in the test section of a Mach 5 blowdown jet using a constant-current, hot-wire anemometer and a pressure transducer. The disturbance levels, measured by the two instruments and normalized by local mean values, agreed within about 30%, with the pitot data higher than the hot-wire data. The rms disturbance levels measured with the hot-wire anemometer and converted to pitot pressures using a quasi-steady flow analysis, were about two-thirds the levels measured with the pitot probe. The variation of the normalized rms disturbance levels with stagnation pressure indicated that transition occurred in the boundary layer on the nozzle wall and influenced the outputs of the instruments located at the exit of the nozzle when the total pressure was about 35 N/sq cm. Below this pressure the disturbance levels decreased markedly. At higher pressures the disturbances were predominantly aerodynamic noise generated by the turbulent boundary layer on the nozzle wall.

  13. Intima-media thickness remodelling in hypertensive subjects with long-term well-controlled blood pressure levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puato, Massimo; Boschetti, Giovanni; Rattazzi, Marcello; Zanon, Marta; Pesavento, Raffaele; Faggin, Elisabetta; Fania, Claudio; Benetti, Elisabetta; Palatini, Paolo; Pauletto, Paolo

    2017-02-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate in a long follow-up the carotid artery remodelling in a cohort of young hypertensive subjects having good blood pressure (BP) control. We studied 20 grade I hypertensives (HT) by assessing the B-mode ultrasound of mean carotid intima-media thickness (mean-IMT) and maximum IMT (M-MAX) in each carotid artery segment (common, bulb, internal), bilaterally. We compared their ultrasound measurements with those recorded 5 and 10 years earlier. While the first 5-year follow-up was observational, in the second 5-year follow-up, lifestyle modifications and/or pharmacological therapy were started to obtain well-controlled BP levels. Office BP was measured at the time of the ultrasound studies and every 6 months during the follow-up. BP levels were: 10 years 144/91 mmHg, 5 years 143/90 mmHg and 129 ± 79 mmHg at the time of the study. In the first 5-year observational follow-up, both mean-IMT and M-MAX increased (Δ 0.116 and Δ 0.165 mm, respectively, p < 0.0005). In the 5-year intervention follow-up, characterized by well-controlled BP, mean-IMT slightly but significantly increased (Δ 0.084 mm, p = 0.004), whereas M-MAX remained stable (Δ 0.026 mm). In our HT, well-controlled BP levels were able to prevent pro-atherogenic remodelling (expressed by M-MAX). Conversely, good BP control slightly decreased but did not stop the progression in mean-IMT, which is likely to reflect some hypertrophy of the arterial media layer.

  14. Calpain-5 gene variants are associated with diastolic blood pressure and cholesterol levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morón Francisco J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genes implicated in common complex disorders such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM or cardiovascular diseases are not disease specific, since clinically related disorders also share genetic components. Cysteine protease Calpain 10 (CAPN10 has been associated with T2DM, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, increased body mass index (BMI and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, a reproductive disorder of women in which isunlin resistance seems to play a pathogenic role. The calpain 5 gene (CAPN5 encodes a protein homologue of CAPN10. CAPN5 has been previously associated with PCOS by our group. In this new study, we have analysed the association of four CAPN5 gene variants(rs948976A>G, rs4945140G>A, rs2233546C>T and rs2233549G>A with several cardiovascular risk factors related to metabolic syndrome in general population. Methods Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, insulin, glucose and lipid profiles were determined in 606 individuals randomly chosen from a cross-sectional population-based epidemiological survey in the province of Segovia in Central Spain (Castille, recruited to investigate the prevalence of anthropometric and physiological parameters related to obesity and other components of the metabolic syndrome. Genotypes at the four polymorphic loci in CAPN5 gene were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results Genotype association analysis was significant for BMI (p ≤ 0.041, diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.015 and HDL-cholesterol levels (p = 0.025. Different CAPN5 haplotypes were also associated with diastolic blood pressure (DBP (0.0005 ≤ p ≤ 0.006 and total cholesterol levels (0.001 ≤ p ≤ 0.029. In addition, the AACA haplotype, over-represented in obese individuals, is also more frequent in individuals with metabolic syndrome defined by ATPIII criteria (p = 0.029. Conclusion As its homologue CAPN10, CAPN5 seems to influence traits related to increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. Our

  15. Determination of the effective radiative lifetimes of the 6 3P1 atomic mercury level in low-pressure mercury discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van de Weijer, P.; Cremers, R.M.M.

    1984-01-01

    Experiments are described in which low-pressure mercury, mercury-argon and mercury-krypton discharges were irradiated with a dye laser pulse at 365.5 nm, thus exciting mercury atoms from the metastable 6 3 P 2 level to the 6 3 D 2 level. The 6 3 D 2 level decays radiatively to the 6 P levels. By recording the time dependence of the overpopulation in the 6 3 P 1 and the 6 1 P 1 level at the fluorescence signals at 254 nm and 185 nm, respectively, the effective radiative lifetime of these levels were determined. The effective radiative lifetime of the 6 3 P 1 level was measured in the k 0 R regime 0.1-500. The 6 1 P 1 lifetime was determined for the following discharge conditions: tube diameter 10-36 mm, mercury density 7.10 18 -2.10 21 m -3 , and noble gas pressure 0, 130, 400 Pa

  16. NOAA GOES-R Series Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) Level 2+ Cloud Top Pressure (CTP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Cloud Top Pressure product contains an image with pixel values identifying the atmospheric pressure at the top of a cloud layer. The product is generated in...

  17. Spectral components of laser Doppler flowmetry signals recorded in healthy and type 1 diabetic subjects at rest and during a local and progressive cutaneous pressure application: scalogram analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humeau, Anne; Koitka, Audrey; Abraham, Pierre; Saumet, Jean-Louis; L'Huillier, Jean-Pierre

    2004-01-01

    A significant transient increase in laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) signals is observed in response to a local and progressive cutaneous pressure application in healthy subjects. This reflex may be impaired in diabetic patients. The work presents a signal processing providing the clarification of this phenomenon. Scalogram analyses of LDF signals recorded at rest and during a local and progressive cutaneous pressure application are performed on healthy and type 1 diabetic subjects. Three frequency bands, corresponding to myogenic, neurogenic and endothelial related metabolic activities, are studied. The results show that, at rest, the scalogram energy of each frequency band is significantly lower for diabetic patients than for healthy subjects, but the scalogram relative energies do not show any statistical difference between the two groups. Moreover, the neurogenic and endothelial related metabolic activities are significantly higher during the progressive pressure than at rest, in healthy and diabetic subjects. However, the relative contribution of the endothelial related metabolic activity is significantly higher during the progressive pressure than at rest, in the interval 200-400 s following the beginning of the pressure application, but only for healthy subjects. These results may improve knowledge on cutaneous microvascular responses to injuries or local pressures initiating diabetic complications

  18. Spectral components of laser Doppler flowmetry signals recorded in healthy and type 1 diabetic subjects at rest and during a local and progressive cutaneous pressure application: scalogram analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humeau, Anne [Groupe ISAIP-ESAIP, 18 rue du 8 mai 1945, BP 80022, 49180 Saint Barthelemy d' Anjou cedex (France); Koitka, Audrey [Laboratoire de Physiologie et d' Explorations Vasculaires, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d' Angers, 49033 Angers cedex 01 (France); Abraham, Pierre [Laboratoire de Physiologie et d' Explorations Vasculaires, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d' Angers, 49033 Angers cedex 01 (France); Saumet, Jean-Louis [Laboratoire de Physiologie et d' Explorations Vasculaires, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d' Angers, 49033 Angers cedex 01 (France); L' Huillier, Jean-Pierre [Ecole Nationale Superieure d' Arts et Metiers (ENSAM), Laboratoire Procedes-Materiaux-Instrumentation (LPMI), 2 boulevard du Ronceray, BP 3525, 49035 Angers cedex (France)

    2004-09-07

    A significant transient increase in laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) signals is observed in response to a local and progressive cutaneous pressure application in healthy subjects. This reflex may be impaired in diabetic patients. The work presents a signal processing providing the clarification of this phenomenon. Scalogram analyses of LDF signals recorded at rest and during a local and progressive cutaneous pressure application are performed on healthy and type 1 diabetic subjects. Three frequency bands, corresponding to myogenic, neurogenic and endothelial related metabolic activities, are studied. The results show that, at rest, the scalogram energy of each frequency band is significantly lower for diabetic patients than for healthy subjects, but the scalogram relative energies do not show any statistical difference between the two groups. Moreover, the neurogenic and endothelial related metabolic activities are significantly higher during the progressive pressure than at rest, in healthy and diabetic subjects. However, the relative contribution of the endothelial related metabolic activity is significantly higher during the progressive pressure than at rest, in the interval 200-400 s following the beginning of the pressure application, but only for healthy subjects. These results may improve knowledge on cutaneous microvascular responses to injuries or local pressures initiating diabetic complications.

  19. Application in low level counting of corona counters operating in voltage or current pulse recording modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oravec, J.; Usacev, S.; Duka-Zojomi, A.; Sitar, B.; Benovic, D.; Holy, K.

    1977-01-01

    The advantages of current or voltage modes of recording are discussed. It appears that the current mode is more advantageous in measurements of rare events caused by highly ionizing particles on a high background of weakly ionizing particles. A 2.3 litre multiwire corona counter was used for the determination of 226 Ra content in drinking water. The 226 Ra content was estimated by measuring 222 Rn activity. The minimum measurable activity of the system was 0.07 pCi/l of water. (author)

  20. The Great Recession worsened blood pressure and blood glucose levels in American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeman, Teresa; Thomas, Duncan; Merkin, Sharon Stein; Moore, Kari; Watson, Karol; Karlamangla, Arun

    2018-03-27

    Longitudinal, individual-specific data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) provide support for the hypothesis that the 2008 to 2010 Great Recession (GR) negatively impacted the health of US adults. Results further advance understanding of the relationship by ( i ) illuminating hypothesized greater negative impacts in population subgroups exposed to more severe impacts of the GR and ( ii ) explicitly controlling for confounding by individual differences in age-related changes in health over time. Analyses overcome limitations of prior work by ( i ) employing individual-level data that avoid concerns about ecological fallacy associated with prior reliance on group-level data, ( ii ) using four waves of data before the GR to estimate and control for underlying individual-level age-related trends, ( iii ) focusing on objective, temporally appropriate health outcomes rather than mortality, and ( iv ) leveraging a diverse cohort to investigate subgroup differences in the GR's impact. Innovative individual fixed-effects modeling controlling for individual-level age-related trajectories yielded substantively important insights: ( i ) significant elevations post-GR for blood pressure and fasting glucose, especially among those on medication pre-GR, and ( ii ) reductions in prevalence and intensity of medication use post-GR. Important differences in the effects of the GR are seen across subgroups, with larger effects among younger adults (who are likely still in the labor force) and older homeowners (whose declining home wealth likely reduced financial security, with less scope for recouping losses during their lifetime); least affected were older adults without a college degree (whose greater reliance on Medicare and Social Security likely provided more protection from the recession).

  1. Determination of boron in nuclear materials at subppm levels by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Radhika M.; Aggarwal, S.K.

    2002-11-01

    Experiments were conducted for the determination of boron in U 3 O 8 powder, aluminium metal and milliQ water using dynamically modified Reversed Phase High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) and using two precolumn chromogenic agents viz. chromotropic acid and curcumin for complexing boron. The complex was separated from the excess of reagent and determined by HPLC. When present in subppm levels, chromotropic acid was used successfully only for determination boron in water samples. For determination of boron at subppm levels in uranium and aluminium samples, curcumin was used as the precolumn chromogenic agent. The boron curcumin complex (rosocyanin) was formed after extraction of boron with 2-ethyl-l, 3-hexane diol (EHD). The rosocyanin complex was then separated from excess curcumin by displacement chromatography. Linear calibration curves for boron amounts in the range of 0.02 μg to 0.5 μg were developed with correlation coefficients varying from 0.997 to 0.999 and were used for the determination of boron in aluminium and uranium samples. Precision of about 10% was achieved in samples containing less than 1 ppmw of boron. Detection limit of this method is 0.01 μg boron. (author)

  2. Serum Endoglin Levels in Patients Suffering from Systemic Sclerosis and Elevated Systolic Pulmonary Arterial Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Ximena Coral-Alvarado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH is the main cause of morbimortality in systemic sclerosis (SSc. Increased Eng expression has been demonstrated in SSc patients. Objective. Ascertaining serum levels of Eng in SSc patients with and without elevated systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (sPAP and comparing them with that of healthy volunteers. Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out. A commercial ELISA kit was used for measuring serum concentrations of Eng in 60 subjects: 40 patients with SSc with and without elevated sPAP, compared to 20 healthy control subjects. Elevated sPAP was detected by echocardiogram. Results. No association between positive Eng and elevated sPAP was found when compared to the SSc without elevated sPAP group (OR=2.85; 0.65–12.88 95% CI; P=.11; however, an association was found between positive Eng and elevated sPAP compared to healthy controls (OR=23.22; 2.46–1050.33 95% CI; P=.001, and weak association was found between the positive Eng with SSc without elevated sPAP group compared to healthy controls (OR=8.14, 0.8–393.74 95% CI; P=.046. Conclusion. Raised serum levels of Eng in SSc patients compared to healthy controls were found, suggesting a role for Eng in SSc vasculopathy and not just in elevated sPAP. However, prospective studies are needed to verify such observations.

  3. [Level of completion of the prehospital care and transfer record as a quality indicator in an emergency medical service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballestros Peña, Sendoa; Lorrio Palomino, Sergio; Ariz Zubiaur, Mónica

    2012-11-01

    BASICS: A Prehospital Care and Transfer Recording (PCTR) is an out-of-hospital medical recording. This paper was made to assess and compare the level of fulfillment of the basic parameters of the PCTR developed by the Life Support Units with nurses (Life Support Units with Nurse, LSUwN and without nurses (Basic Life Support Units, BLSU) from SAMUR Bilbao in 2010. A descriptive, retrospective and comparative study was performed by analysing a randomized sample of 660 PCTR (precision 3%), aiming to check the fulfillment of the basic data. 98.33% of total recordings were readable. In overall, fulfillment rate was 90.31% (CI 89.24- 97.3 71%) of all basic parameters for LSUwN PCTR and 84.81% (CI 83.56 to 86%) for BLSU. 34.1% of PCTR were completely and correctly fulfilled. The LSUwN scored significantly better (p < 0.000). There were recording failures in "date and time", "address" and "physical examination". There were differences between the recording of clinical and administrative information (88.64% vs 86.72%, p = 0.02). In order to consider a parameter has optimal, it has to reach 100% of fulfillment. If it doesn't, and its score reaches no more than 80%, it should be reviewed. In this case, the results would be considered acceptable, but the administrative items of BLSU records, and allergies in both units should be strengthened. LSUwN has obtained better scores. The need of recording clinical information must be instilled as evidence of quality care.

  4. The Dependency between the Arabian Peninsula Wet Events and Sea Level Pressure Patterns during Spring Season

    KAUST Repository

    El Kenawy, Ahmed M.

    2014-05-01

    This work investigates the relationships between regional extreme wet events in the Arabian Peninsula during the spring season (MAM) and sea level pressure (SLP) patterns. Based on NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data, S-mode principal components were computed from the de-seasonalized daily SLP for spring months between 1960 and 2013. The analysis covered a window for the region (15-70°E and 2.5-50°N). This window coupled different oceanic-land influences (e.g. the Indian, Mediterranean and the Sahara configurations) that may impart an effect on rainfall variations in the study domain. A set of eight significant circulation spatial patterns were retained, which explained 84.8% of the total explained variance. The derived patterns explained a wide variety of flows over the peninsula, with a clear distinction between zonal and meridional advections. The extreme wet events (R95 and R99) were defined from a relatively dense network of 209 observatories covering the peninsula, using the 95th and 99th percentile of rainfall distribution respectively. The links between the dominant SLP patterns and significant wet events were established and the physical interpretations of these associations were examined. The results, as revealed by the location and intensity of high pressure centers, highlight the strength of eastern and southeastern advections corresponding to these extreme events. Other patterns have a local character, suggesting an orographic origin of some wet events in the region. The relationships described in this research can advance the understanding of the large-scale processes that contribute to the wet weather events in the Arabian Peninsula. These findings can therefore contribute to better management of water resources and agricultural practices in the region.

  5. JPSS NOAA Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Cloud Top Pressure (CTP) Environmental Data Record (EDR) from IDPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a high quality operational Environmental Data Record (EDR) from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument onboard the...

  6. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of MSU Level 1c Brightness Temperature, Version 1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains Level 1c inter-calibrated brightness temperatures from the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) sensors onboard nine polar orbiting satellites...

  7. The Effect of Rast Exercise on Plasma Levels of Apelin and Blood Pressure in Elite Women Runner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaibani Sh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Intense exercise increases heart susceptibility to the disorder in this physiological factor.The purpose of this study is to study the effect of sprint interval training on plasma levels of apelin, blood pressure and heart rate in elite female runner. Methods: Plasma levels of apelin, Heart rate (HR & blood pressure (BP, analyzed before, after and 24 hours after exercise. 15 elite female runner, whom were playing in Shiraz track & field league, selected for this study. They all were homogenized according to any kind of disease.Results: Rast exercise made plasma level of Apelin decrease after exercise compared with plasma level before exercise and this decrease was significant (p=0.001. Also, plasma level of apelin increased significantly 24 hrs after finishing exercise (p=0.001, but there were no significant differences before exercise (p=0.375. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate increased immediately after exercise and decreased significantly after 24 hrs (p=0.001. However, significant difference was not observed in diastolic pressure before and after exercise (p=0.338.Conclusion: The finding of this study shows that sprint interval training decreases plasma levels of apelin, so we can say that apelin and blood pressure must be in balance in natural position. With knowing the role of apelin, changes in this peptide during exercise can be an alarm to cardiovascular risk factor, during or after exercise in elite athletes.

  8. Process and device for measuring the level in a reactor pressure vessel of a boiling water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walleser, A.

    1987-01-01

    The differential pressure is measured between the lower space filled with liquid and a comparison column which is connected to the upper part space filled with steam. From this measurement and the liquid and steam densities in the pressure vessel and in the comparison column and the effects of flow at the pressure sampling positions, the level is determined in an evaluation unit. To determine the densities of liquids and steam, the reactor pressure or the change of pressure with time for transient processes is measured. The density of the comparison column is determined by temperature measurement. The effects of flow are determined by flow measurements. All the measurements are taken to an evaluation unit. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Fructose containing sugars do not raise blood pressure or uric acid at normal levels of human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelopoulos, Theodore J; Lowndes, Joshua; Sinnett, Stephanie; Rippe, James M

    2015-02-01

    The impact of fructose, commonly consumed with sugars by humans, on blood pressure and uric acid has yet to be defined. A total of 267 weight-stable participants drank sugar-sweetened milk every day for 10 weeks as part of their usual, mixed-nutrient diet. Groups 1 and 2 had 9% estimated caloric intake from fructose or glucose, respectively, added to milk. Groups 3 and 4 had 18% of estimated caloric intake from high fructose corn syrup or sucrose, respectively, added to the milk. Blood pressure and uric acid were determined prior to and after the 10-week intervention. There was no effect of sugar type on either blood pressure or uric acid (interaction P>.05), and a significant time effect for blood pressure was noted (Pfructose at the 50th percentile level, whether consumed as pure fructose or with fructose-glucose-containing sugars, does not promote hyperuricemia or increase blood pressure. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Preterm labor--modeling the uterine electrical activity from cellular level to surface recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihana, S; Marque, C

    2008-01-01

    Uterine electrical activity is correlated to the appearance of uterine contractions. forceful contractions appear at the end of term. Therefore, understanding the genesis and the propagation of uterine electrical activity may provide an efficient tool to diagnose preterm labor. Moreover, the control of uterine excitability seems to have important consequences in the control of preterm labor. Modeling the electrical activity in uterine tissue is thus an important step in understanding physiological uterine contractile mechanisms and to permit uterine EMG simulation. Our model presented in this paper, incorporates ion channel models at the cell level, the reaction diffusion equations at the tissue level and the spatiotemporal integration at the uterine EMG reconstructed level. This model validates some key physiological observation hypotheses concerning uterine excitability and propagation.

  11. Sound pressure levels generated at risk volume steps of portable listening devices: types of smartphone and genres of music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gibbeum; Han, Woojae

    2018-05-01

    The present study estimated the sound pressure levels of various music genres at the volume steps that contemporary smartphones deliver, because these levels put the listener at potential risk for hearing loss. Using six different smartphones (Galaxy S6, Galaxy Note 3, iPhone 5S, iPhone 6, LG G2, and LG G3), the sound pressure levels for three genres of K-pop music (dance-pop, hip-hop, and pop-ballad) and a Billboard pop chart of assorted genres were measured through an earbud for the first risk volume that was at the risk sign proposed by the smartphones, as well as consecutive higher volumes using a sound level meter and artificial mastoid. The first risk volume step of the Galaxy S6 and the LG G2, among the six smartphones, had the significantly lowest (84.1 dBA) and highest output levels (92.4 dBA), respectively. As the volume step increased, so did the sound pressure levels. The iPhone 6 was loudest (113.1 dBA) at the maximum volume step. Of the music genres, dance-pop showed the highest output level (91.1 dBA) for all smartphones. Within the frequency range of 20~ 20,000 Hz, the sound pressure level peaked at 2000 Hz for all the smartphones. The results showed that the sound pressure levels of either the first volume step or the maximum volume step were not the same for the different smartphone models and genres of music, which means that the risk volume sign and its output levels should be unified across the devices for their users. In addition, the risk volume steps proposed by the latest smartphone models are high enough to cause noise-induced hearing loss if their users habitually listen to music at those levels.

  12. Excel Spreadsheet Tools for Analyzing Groundwater Level Records and Displaying Information in ArcMap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Fred D.

    2009-01-01

    When beginning hydrologic investigations, a first action is often to gather existing sources of well information, compile this information into a single dataset, and visualize this information in a geographic information system (GIS) environment. This report presents tools (macros) developed using Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) for Microsoft Excel 2007 to assist in these tasks. One tool combines multiple datasets into a single worksheet and formats the resulting data for use by the other tools. A second tool produces summary information about the dataset, such as a list of unique site identification numbers, the number of water-level observations for each, and a table of the number of sites with a listed number of water-level observations. A third tool creates subsets of the original dataset based on user-specified options and produces a worksheet with water-level information for each well in the subset, including the average and standard deviation of water-level observations and maximum decline and rise in water levels between any two observations, among other information. This water-level information worksheet can be imported directly into ESRI ArcMap as an 'XY Data' file, and each of the fields of summary well information can be used for custom display. A separate set of VBA tools distributed in an additional Excel workbook creates hydrograph charts of each of the wells in the data subset produced by the aforementioned tools and produces portable document format (PDF) versions of the hydrograph charts. These PDF hydrographs can be hyperlinked to well locations in ArcMap or other GIS applications.

  13. Eclogite-high-pressure granulite metamorphism records early collision in West Gondwana: new data from the Southern Brasilia Belt, Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reno II, Barry Len; Brown, Michael; Kobayashi, Katsura

    2009-01-01

    constrain the age of. (1) retrograded eclogite from a block along the tectonic contact beneath the uppermost nappe in a stack of passive margin-derived nappes; (2) high-pressure granulite-facies metamorphism in the uppermost passive margin-derived nappe; (3) high-pressure granulite-facies metamorphism...... in the overlying arc-derived nappe. Rare zircons from a retrograded eclogite yield a Pb-206/U-238 age of 678 +/- 29 Ma. which we interpret as most likely to (late close-to-peak-P metamorphism and to provide a minimum age for detachment of the overlying passive margin-derived nappe from the subducting plate. Zircon...

  14. A new 25 years Arctic Sea level record from ESA satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Cheng, Yongcun; Knudsen, Per

    The Arctic is an extremely challenging region for the use of remote sensing for ocean studies. One is the fact that despite 25 years of altimetry only very limited sea level observations exists in the interior of the Arctic Ocean. However, with Cryosat-2 SAR altimetry the situation is changing...... the ESA GOCE mission we are now able to derive a mean dynamic topography of the Arctic Ocean with unprecedented accuracy to constrain the ocean circulation. We present both a new estimation of the mean ocean circulation and new estimates of large scale sea level changes based on satellite data and perform...

  15. Preconception Blood Pressure Levels and Reproductive Outcomes in a Prospective Cohort of Women Attempting Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobles, Carrie J; Mendola, Pauline; Mumford, Sunni L; Naimi, Ashley I; Yeung, Edwina H; Kim, Keewan; Park, Hyojun; Wilcox, Brian; Silver, Robert M; Perkins, Neil J; Sjaarda, Lindsey; Schisterman, Enrique F

    2018-05-01

    Elevated blood pressure in young adulthood is an early risk marker for cardiovascular disease. Despite a strong biological rationale, little research has evaluated whether incremental increases in preconception blood pressure have early consequences for reproductive health. We evaluated preconception blood pressure and fecundability, pregnancy loss, and live birth in the EAGeR trial (Effects of Aspirin on Gestational and Reproduction; 2007-2011), a randomized clinical trial of aspirin and reproductive outcomes among 1228 women attempting pregnancy with a history of pregnancy loss. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured during preconception in the first observed menstrual cycle and in early pregnancy and used to derive mean arterial pressure. Fecundability was assessed as number of menstrual cycles until pregnancy, determined through human chorionic gonadotropin testing. Pregnancy loss included both human chorionic gonadotropin-detected and clinical losses. Analyses adjusted for treatment assignment, age, body mass index, race, marital status, smoking, parity, and time since last loss. Mean preconception systolic and diastolic blood pressure were 111.6 mm Hg (SD, 12.1) and 72.5 (SD, 9.4) mm Hg. Risk of pregnancy loss increased 18% per 10 mm Hg increase in diastolic blood pressure (95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.36) and 17% per 10 mm Hg increase in mean arterial pressure (95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.35) in adjusted analyses. Findings were similar for early pregnancy blood pressure. Preconception blood pressure was not related to fecundability or live birth in adjusted analyses. Findings suggest that preconception blood pressure among healthy women is associated with pregnancy loss, and lifestyle interventions targeting blood pressure among young women may favorably impact reproductive health. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00467363. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. An Improved 20-Year Arctic Ocean Altimetric Sea Level Data Record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Yongcun; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Knudsen, Per

    2015-01-01

    For ocean and climate research, it is essential to get long-term altimetric sea level data that is as accurate as possible. However, the accuracy of the altimetric data is frequently degraded in the interior of the Arctic Ocean due to the presence of seasonal or permanent sea ice. We have reproce...

  17. Individual to Community-Level Faunal Responses to Environmental Change from a Marine Fossil Record of Early Miocene Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Christina L.

    2012-01-01

    Modern climate change has a strong potential to shift earth systems and biological communities into novel states that have no present-day analog, leaving ecologists with no observational basis to predict the likely biotic effects. Fossil records contain long time-series of past environmental changes outside the range of modern observation, which are vital for predicting future ecological responses, and are capable of (a) providing detailed information on rates of ecological change, (b) illuminating the environmental drivers of those changes, and (c) recording the effects of environmental change on individual physiological rates. Outcrops of Early Miocene Newport Member of the Astoria Formation (Oregon) provide one such time series. This record of benthic foraminiferal and molluscan community change from continental shelf depths spans a past interval environmental change (∼20.3-16.7 mya) during which the region warmed 2.1–4.5°C, surface productivity and benthic organic carbon flux increased, and benthic oxygenation decreased, perhaps driven by intensified upwelling as on the modern Oregon coast. The Newport Member record shows that (a) ecological responses to natural environmental change can be abrupt, (b) productivity can be the primary driver of faunal change during global warming, (c) molluscs had a threshold response to productivity change while foraminifera changed gradually, and (d) changes in bivalve body size and growth rates parallel changes in taxonomic composition at the community level, indicating that, either directly or indirectly through some other biological parameter, the physiological tolerances of species do influence community change. Ecological studies in modern and fossil records that consider multiple ecological levels, environmental parameters, and taxonomic groups can provide critical information for predicting future ecological change and evaluating species vulnerability. PMID:22558424

  18. A new technique for obtaining high-resolution pore pressure records in thick claystone aquitards and its use to determine in situ compressibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Laura A.; van der Kamp, Garth; Jim Hendry, M.

    2013-02-01

    Laboratory tests are commonly used to determine properties (vertical compressibility, α; specific storage, SS; and vertical hydraulic conductivity, Kv) of claystone aquitards; however, whether data representative of in situ conditions can be obtained from disturbed samples is questionable. Here, we present a method to determine the in situ α and SS of a thick sequence of Cretaceous aged claystone by estimating the loading efficiency (γ) of a formation from pore pressure responses to barometric pressure fluctuations. We installed 10 vibrating wire pressure transducers at different depths (25-325 m below ground) in a thick claystone aquitard by placing them directly within the cement-bentonite grout. Two years of continuous transducer records using this method appeared to provide pore pressure data with a resolution of better than one part in 105, equivalent to millimeter of hydraulic head change. Pore pressure responses to barometric pressure changes, earth tides, and precipitation events can be clearly identified, and the barometric responses can be easily analyzed. The resulting values of γ (0.6-0.93), α (2.5 × 10-7 to 2.2 × 10-6 kPa-1), and SS (2.6 × 10-5 to 4.5 × 10-6 m-1) all decrease with depth. The results are comparable with the limited existing data for in situ estimates of SS and are as much as an order of magnitude smaller than laboratory estimates of SS for similar aquitard deposits. Our findings suggest that the fully grouted transducer method can provide an accurate and reliable means to monitor pore pressure changes and to determine in situ parameters for bedrock aquitard systems.

  19. Chemoreceptor Responsiveness at Sea Level Does Not Predict the Pulmonary Pressure Response to High Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoiland, Ryan L; Foster, Glen E; Donnelly, Joseph; Stembridge, Mike; Willie, Chris K; Smith, Kurt J; Lewis, Nia C; Lucas, Samuel J E; Cotter, Jim D; Yeoman, David J; Thomas, Kate N; Day, Trevor A; Tymko, Mike M; Burgess, Keith R; Ainslie, Philip N

    2015-07-01

    The hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) at sea level (SL) is moderately predictive of the change in pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) to acute normobaric hypoxia. However, because of progressive changes in the chemoreflex control of breathing and acid-base balance at high altitude (HA), HVR at SL may not predict PASP at HA. We hypothesized that resting oxygen saturation as measured by pulse oximetry (Spo₂) at HA would correlate better than HVR at SL with PASP at HA. In 20 participants at SL, we measured normobaric, isocapnic HVR (L/min · -%Spo₂⁻¹) and resting PASP using echocardiography. Both resting Spo₂ and PASP measures were repeated on day 2 (n = 10), days 4 to 8 (n = 12), and 2 to 3 weeks (n = 8) after arrival at 5,050 m. These data were also collected at 5,050 m in life-long HA residents (ie, Sherpa [n = 21]). Compared with SL, Spo₂ decreased from 98.6% to 80.5% (P HVR at SL was not related to Spo₂ or PASP at any time point at 5,050 m (all P > .05). Sherpa had lower PASP (P .50), there was a weak relationship in the Sherpa (R² = 0.16, P = .07). We conclude that neither HVR at SL nor resting Spo₂ at HA correlates with elevations in PASP at HA.

  20. Beneficial Effects of Dietary Nitrate on Endothelial Function and Blood Pressure Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenifer d’El-Rei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor eating habits may represent cardiovascular risk factors since high intake of fat and saturated fatty acids contributes to dyslipidemia, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. Thus, nutritional interventions are recognized as important strategies for primary prevention of hypertension and as adjuvants to pharmacological therapies to reduce cardiovascular risk. The DASH (Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension plan is one of the most effective strategies for the prevention and nonpharmacological management of hypertension. The beneficial effects of DASH diet on blood pressure might be related to the high inorganic nitrate content of some food products included in this meal plan. The beetroot and other food plants considered as nitrate sources account for approximately 60–80% of the daily nitrate exposure in the western population. The increased levels of nitrite by nitrate intake seem to have beneficial effects in many of the physiological and clinical settings. Several clinical trials are being conducted to determine the broad therapeutic potential of increasing the bioavailability of nitrite in human health and disease, including studies related to vascular aging. In conclusion, the dietary inorganic nitrate seems to represent a promising complementary therapy to support hypertension treatment with benefits for cardiovascular health.

  1. Experimental Investigation of Liquid-Level Measuring Accuracy in a Low Pressure Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, D.J.

    1996-10-01

    Dip Tubes which are used for determining liquid level in many processes at SRS will be used to measure the liquid level of the Am/Cm solution in the Feed Tank at the MPPF. The Feed Tank operates under a vacuum, therefore the Dip Tubes will operate under a vacuum. Uncertainty in how accurate the Dip Tubes would perform in a vacuum environment led to testing. The Am/Cm Melter Liquid-Feed Tank measurement test was mocked-up per Figure 1. The Feed Tank was designed to simulate actual conditions in which the Dip Tubes would measure the differential pressure. The Feed Tank was made of Stainless Steel with a Lexan window to view inside the tank during testing. The Feed Tank was built per Drawing SRT-ETF-DD-96008, Revision A. The accuracy of the Dip Tubes was checked first by filling the Feed Tank at a flow rate of 3.5 L/min and venting it to the atmosphere. Figure 2 shows that the Dip Tubes were responsive and accurate when compared to the data from the measuring scale on the view window. Then tests were conducted with 23y Hg vacuum inside the tank and water flow rates of 3.9 L/min, 1.8 L/min, and 0.7 L/min being fed to the tank. The data from each test are depicted in Figure 3, Figure 4, and Figure 5, respectively. The Dip Tubes responded accurately for the three test with a maximum error range of +0.31y to -0.19y when compared to the measuring scale located next to the view window on the Feed Tank

  2. Awareness and Use of Electronic Health Records in Entry-Level Occupational Therapy and Occupational Therapy Assistant Curricula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis F. Dmytryk

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Accreditation Council for Occupational Therapy Education (ACOTE requires programs to instruct entrylevel occupational therapy (OT and occupational therapy assistant (OTA students in technology that may include electronic documentation systems, distance communication, virtual environments, and telehealth (standard B1.8. At this time, there are no publications describing if and how electronic health record (EHR instruction is implemented in entry-level OT and OTA programs. The purpose of this study is to investigate awareness and use of EHRs in entry-level OT and OTA curricula. Respondents from 76 nationally accredited entry-level programs (two OT doctoral, 24 OT masters, two OT combined bachelors/masters, and 48 OTA completed a survey. The findings showed inconsistent and incomplete EHR instruction in entry-level OT and OTA education. This study provides a baseline for investigating best practices in EHR education for entrylevel OT and OTA students

  3. Skeletal records of community-level bleaching in Porites corals from Palau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkley, Hannah C.; Cohen, Anne L.

    2016-12-01

    Tropical Pacific sea surface temperature is projected to rise an additional 2-3 °C by the end of this century, driving an increase in the frequency and intensity of coral bleaching. With significant global coral reef cover already lost due to bleaching-induced mortality, efforts are underway to identify thermally tolerant coral communities that might survive projected warming. Massive, long-lived corals accrete skeletal bands of anomalously high density in response to episodes of thermal stress. These "stress bands" are potentially valuable proxies for thermal tolerance, but to date their application to questions of community bleaching history has been limited. Ecological surveys recorded bleaching of coral communities across the Palau archipelago during the 1998 and 2010 warm events. Between 2011 and 2015, we extracted skeletal cores from living Porites colonies at 10 sites spanning barrier reef and lagoon environments and quantified the proportion of stress bands present in each population during bleaching years. Across Palau, the prevalence of stress bands tracked the severity of thermal stress, with more stress bands occurring in 1998 (degree heating weeks = 13.57 °C-week) than during the less severe 2010 event (degree heating weeks = 4.86 °C-week). Stress band prevalence also varied by reef type, as more corals on the exposed barrier reef formed stress bands than did corals from sheltered lagoon environments. Comparison of Porites stress band prevalence with bleaching survey data revealed a strong correlation between percent community bleaching and the proportion of colonies with stress bands in each year. Conversely, annual calcification rates did not decline consistently during bleaching years nor did annually resolved calcification histories always track interannual variability in temperature. Our data suggest that stress bands in massive corals contain valuable information about spatial and temporal trends in coral reef bleaching and can aid in

  4. Patient and public attitudes towards informed consent models and levels of awareness of Electronic Health Records in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, Fiona; Papoutsi, Chrysanthi; Reed, Julie E.; Marston, Cicely; Bell, Derek; Majeed, Azeem

    2015-01-01

    Background The development of Electronic Health Records (EHRs) forms an integral part of the information strategy for the National Health Service (NHS) in the UK, with the aim of facilitating health information exchange for patient care and secondary use, including research and healthcare planning. Implementing EHR systems requires an understanding of patient expectations for consent mechanisms and consideration of public awareness towards information sharing as might be made possible through integrated EHRs across primary and secondary health providers. Objectives To explore levels of public awareness about EHRs and to examine attitudes towards different consent models with respect to sharing identifiable and de-identified records for healthcare provision, research and planning. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was administered to adult patients and members of the public in primary and secondary care clinics in West London, UK in 2011. In total, 5331 individuals participated in the survey, and 3157 were included in the final analysis. Results The majority (91%) of respondents expected to be explicitly asked for consent for their identifiable records to be accessed for health provision, research or planning. Half the respondents (49%) did not expect to be asked for consent before their de-identified records were accessed. Compared with White British respondents, those from all other ethnic groups were more likely to anticipate their permission would be obtained before their de-identified records were used. Of the study population, 59% reported already being aware of EHRs before the survey. Older respondents and individuals with complex patterns of interaction with healthcare services were more likely to report prior awareness of EHRs. Individuals self-identifying as belonging to ethnic groups other than White British, and those with lower educational qualifications were less likely to report being aware of EHRs than White British respondents and

  5. Influence of breastfeeding in the first months of life on blood pressure levels of preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Neri Nobre

    2016-11-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that preschoolers breastfed for a period of less than six months were more likely to have high blood pressure when compared to those breastfed for a longer period, suggesting a protective effect of breastfeeding against high blood pressure in this population.

  6. Examining Evidence-Based Content Related to Hospital Acquired Pressure Ulcer Prevention in Paper and Electronic Health Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaekel, Camilla M.

    2012-01-01

    Although there have been great advancements in the Electronic Health Record (EHR), there is a dearth of rigorous research that examines the relationship between the use of electronic documentation to capture nursing process components and the impact of consistent documentation on patient outcomes (Daly, Buckwalter & Maas, 2002; Gugerty, 2006;…

  7. Bi-level positive airway pressure ventilation for treating heart failure with central sleep apnea that is unresponsive to continuous positive airway pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohi, Tomotaka; Kasai, Takatoshi; Narui, Koji; Ishiwata, Sugao; Ohno, Minoru; Yamaguchi, Tetsu; Momomura, Shin-Ichi

    2008-07-01

    Cheyne-Stokes respiration with central sleep apnea (CSR-CSA) is associated with a poor prognosis in patients with heart failure (HF). However, some patients do not respond to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), so other therapeutic modalities should be considered, such as bi-level positive airway pressure (PAP), which also assists respiration and might be effective for such patients. The 20 patients with HF because of left ventricular systolic dysfunction were assessed: 8 had ischemic etiology, and all had severe CSA according to the apnea - hypopnea index (AHI) determined by polysomnography. All diagnosed patients underwent repeat polysomnography using CPAP. The AHI improved significantly in 11 (AHI or=15). Bi-level PAP titration significantly improved the AHI in the latter group. Those who were unresponsive to CPAP had significantly lower PaCO(2), higher plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), longer mean duration of CSR and fewer obstructive episodes than CPAP responders. After 6 months of positive airway support with either CPAP (n=9) or bi-level PAP (n=7), BNP levels significantly decreased and left ventricular ejection fraction significantly increased. Bi-level PAP could be an effective alternative for patients with HF and pure CSR-CSA who are unresponsive to CPAP.

  8. Climate and lake-level history of the northern Altiplano, Bolivia, as recorded in Holocene sediments of the Rio Desaguadero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baucom, P.C.; Rigsby, C.A. [East Carolina Univ., Greenville, NC (United States). Dept. of Geology

    1999-05-01

    Strata exposed in terraces and modern cutbanks along the Rio Desaguadero contain a variety of lithofacies that were deposited in four distinct facies associations. These facies associations document a history of aggradation and downcutting that is linked to Holocene climate change on the Altiplano. Braided-stream, meandering-stream, deltaic and shoreline, and lacustrine sediments preserved in multi-level terraces in the northern Rio Desaguadero valley record two high-water intervals: one between 4,500 and 3,900 yr BP and another between 2,000 and 2,200 yr BP. These wet periods were interrupted by three periods of fluvial downcutting, centered at approximately 4,000 yr BP, 3,600 yr BP, and after 2,000 yr BP. Braided-river sediments preserved in a single terrace level in the southern Rio Desaguadero valley record a history of nearly continuous fluvial sedimentation from at least 7,000 yr BP until approximately 3,200 yr BP that was followed by a single episode (post-3,210 yr BP) of down-cutting and lateral migration. The deposition and subsequent fluvial downcutting of the northern strata was controlled by changes in effective moisture that can be correlated to Holocene water-level fluctuations of Lake Titicaca. The deposition and dissection of braided-stream sediments to the south are more likely controlled by a combination of base-level change and sediment input from the Rio Mauri.

  9. Pressure sound level measurements at an educational environment in Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, J. J. L.; do Nascimento, E. O.; de Oliveira, L. N.; Caldas, L. V. E.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, 25 points located on the ground floor of the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Goias - IFG - Campus Goiânia, were analyzed in morning periods of two Saturdays. The pressure sound levels were measured at internal and external environments during routine activities seeking to perform an environmental monitoring at this institution. The initial hypothesis was that an amusement park (Mutirama Park) was responsible for originating noise pollution in the institute, but the results showed, within the campus environment, sound pressure levels in accordance with the Municipal legislation of Goiânia for all points.

  10. A cautionary note on decadal sea level pressure predictions from GCMs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Liess

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of sea level pressure (SLP trends in a subset of seven Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP phase 5 general circulation models (GCM, namely decadal simulations with CCSM4, CanCM4, MPI-ESM-LR, FGOALS-g2, MIROC4h, MIROC5, and MRI-CGCM3, to their CMIP3 counterparts reveals an unrealistically strong forecast skill in CMIP3 models for trend predictions for 2001–2011 when using the 1979–2000 period to train the forecast. Boreal-winter SLP trends over five high-, mid-, and low-latitude zones were calculated over the 1979–2000 initialization period for each ensemble member and then ranked based on their performance relative to HadSLP2 observations. The same method is used to rank the ensemble members during the 2001–2011 period. In CMIP3, 17 out of 38 ensemble members retain their rank in the 2001–2011 hindcast period and 3 retain the neighboring rank. However, numbers are much lower in more recent CMIP5 decadal predictions over the similar 2001–2010 period when using the 1981–2000 period as initialization with the same number of ensembles. Different periods were used for CMIP3 and CMIP5 because although the 1979–2000 initialization is widely used for CMIP3, CMIP5 decadal predictions are only available for 30-year periods. The conclusion to consider the forecast skill in CMIP3 predictions during 2001–2011 as unrealistic is corroborated by comparisons to earlier periods from the 1960s to the 1980s in both CMIP3 and CMIP5 simulations. Thus, although the 2001–2011 CMIP3 predictions show statistically significant forecast skill, this skill should be treated as a spurious result that is unlikely to be reproduced by newer more accurate GCMs.

  11. Blood pressure levels and body mass index in Brazilian adults with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Pucci

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Increased life expectancy among people with Down syndrome (DS has introduced new environmental factors that may affect blood pressure (BP and/or lead to obesity in this population. The aim here was to investigate BP levels and body mass index (BMI in adults with DS, correlating these data with the patients' sex and age. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional observational study conducted in special schools in Curitiba (PR, Brazil. METHODS: 97 adult patients were included. BP was measured in accordance with the established guidelines. BMI was calculated by dividing the weight by the height squared (kg/m2. RESULTS: Sex had no influence on BMI; nor did systolic BP (SBP or diastolic BP (DBP. The age range was from 18 to 56 years. No correlation was observed between increasing age and greater BMI or BP. Eighty-six individuals (88.7% presented normal BP, eleven (11.3% prehypertension and none hypertension. Twenty patients (20.4% presented BP lower than 90 × 60 mmHg. BMI ranged from 18 to 48 kg/m2 (mean of 28.8 ± 3.92 kg/m2: 21.9% had normal weight; 40.7% were overweight; and 25.3% had obesity class I, 9.9% class II and 2.2% class III. Higher BMI was associated with significantly greater SBP and DBP (P = 0.0175 and P = 0.0015. CONCLUSION: Sex and age did not influence SBP, DBP or BMI in Brazilian adults with DS. Higher BMI was associated with greater BP (both systolic and diastolic.

  12. Time-frequency analysis of laser Doppler flowmetry signals recorded in response to a progressive pressure applied locally on anaesthetized healthy rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humeau, Anne; Koitka, Audrey; Abraham, Pierre; Saumet, Jean-Louis; L'Huillier, Jean-Pierre

    2004-01-01

    The laser Doppler flowmetry technique has recently been used to report a significant transient increase of the cutaneous blood flow signal, in response to a local non-noxious pressure applied progressively on the skin of both healthy humans and rats. This phenomenon is not entirely understood yet. In the present work, a time-frequency analysis is applied to signals recorded on anaesthetized healthy rats, at rest and during a cutaneous pressure-induced vasodilation (PIV). The comparison, at rest and during PIV, of the scalogram relative energies and scalogram relative amplitudes in five bands, corresponding to five characteristic frequencies, shows an increased contribution for the endothelial related metabolic activity in PIV signals, till 400 s after the beginning of the progressive pressure application. The other subsystems (heart, respiration, myogenic and neurogenic activities) contribute relatively less during PIV than at rest. The differences are statistically significant for all the relative activities in the interval 0-200 s following the beginning of the pressure. These results and others obtained on patients, such as diabetics, could increase the understanding of some cutaneous pathologies involved in various neurological diseases and in the pathophysiology of decubitus ulcers

  13. Time-frequency analysis of laser Doppler flowmetry signals recorded in response to a progressive pressure applied locally on anaesthetized healthy rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humeau, Anne [Groupe ISAIP-ESAIP, 18 rue du 8 mai 1945, BP 80022, 49180 Saint Barthelemy d' Anjou Cedex (France); Koitka, Audrey [Laboratoire de Physiologie et d' Explorations Vasculaires, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d' Angers, 49033 Angers Cedex 01 (France); Abraham, Pierre [Laboratoire de Physiologie et d' Explorations Vasculaires, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d' Angers, 49033 Angers Cedex 01 (France); Saumet, Jean-Louis [Laboratoire de Physiologie et d' Explorations Vasculaires, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d' Angers, 49033 Angers Cedex 01 (France); L' Huillier, Jean-Pierre [Ecole Nationale Superieure d' Arts et Metiers (ENSAM), Laboratoire Procedes-Materiaux-Instrumentation (LPMI), 2 boulevard du Ronceray, BP 3525, 49035 Angers Cedex (France)

    2004-03-07

    The laser Doppler flowmetry technique has recently been used to report a significant transient increase of the cutaneous blood flow signal, in response to a local non-noxious pressure applied progressively on the skin of both healthy humans and rats. This phenomenon is not entirely understood yet. In the present work, a time-frequency analysis is applied to signals recorded on anaesthetized healthy rats, at rest and during a cutaneous pressure-induced vasodilation (PIV). The comparison, at rest and during PIV, of the scalogram relative energies and scalogram relative amplitudes in five bands, corresponding to five characteristic frequencies, shows an increased contribution for the endothelial related metabolic activity in PIV signals, till 400 s after the beginning of the progressive pressure application. The other subsystems (heart, respiration, myogenic and neurogenic activities) contribute relatively less during PIV than at rest. The differences are statistically significant for all the relative activities in the interval 0-200 s following the beginning of the pressure. These results and others obtained on patients, such as diabetics, could increase the understanding of some cutaneous pathologies involved in various neurological diseases and in the pathophysiology of decubitus ulcers.

  14. Record keeping for the disposal of very low-level concrete waste at the Tokai-Mura site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Tomoyuki

    2015-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), who conducted the dismantling project of Japan Power Demonstration Reactor (JPDR) completed in March 1996, has been performing the safe demonstration test of near-surface disposal of very low-level (VLL) concrete waste at its Tokai-Mura site. Approximately 1 700 tons of VLL concrete wastes arising from the JPDR dismantling were placed in a simple disposal facility from November 1995 until March 1996, its dimensions were 45 m x 16 m and 3.5 m in depth without any engineered barrier, and covered with soil of 2.5 m thickness. The safe demonstration test of near-surface disposal of VLL concrete waste consists of an operation stage (1995-1996) and a management stage (1996-2024). During the operation stage, the radiation dose around the disposal facility was measured, and groundwater and soil were analysed for radioactivity concentrations. After entering the management stage, radiation monitoring was continued for an additional three years. Inspections for potential outflows, cracks and soil-cover subsidence are conducted once a week. Regarding VLL concrete waste, it has been required to record its radioactivity concentrations and preserve the record until the end of institutional control period in accordance with the Act on the Regulation of Nuclear Source Material, Nuclear Fuel Material and Reactors. JAEA has been required to preserve these records until the end of the institutional control period. It is planned to preserve the radiation monitoring data during the operation stage and until the end of institutional control period. Inspection data are preserved in accordance with the act. When amending the act in 2013, the requirements to implement the periodic safety review were added. For this purpose, it has been required to record in the management stage the following measures: a level of groundwater, radioactivity concentrations in groundwater, rainfall and total amount of rainfall a month. These records will have been

  15. Evaluation of the Levels of Renal Indices and Blood Pressure in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ), it was revealed that diabetes ... function and blood pressure measurements in type 2 ... using a mercury sphygmomanometer, with the ... was determined by the diacetyl monoxime method as ... The formula takes into account various factors.

  16. The Glacial-Interglacial summer monsoon recorded in southwest Sulawesi speleothems: Evidence for sea level thresholds driving tropical monsoon strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrough, A. K.; Gagan, M. K.; Dunbar, G. B.; Krause, C.; Di Nezio, P. N.; Hantoro, W. S.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R. L.; Shen, C. C.; Sun, H.; Cai, B.; Rifai, H.

    2016-12-01

    Southwest Sulawesi lies within the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool (IPWP), at the center of atmospheric convection for two of the largest circulation cells on the planet, the meridional Hadley Cell and zonal Indo-Pacific Walker Circulation. Due to the geographic coincidence of these circulation cells, southwest Sulawesi serves as a hotspot for changes in tropical Pacific climate variability and Australian-Indonesian summer monsoon (AISM) strength over glacial-interglacial (G-I) timescales. The work presented here spans 386 - 127 ky BP, including glacial terminations IV ( 340 ky BP) and both phases of TIII (TIII 248 ky BP and TIIIa 217 ky BP). This record, along with previous work from southwest Sulawesi spanning the last 40 kyr, reveals coherent climatic features over three complete G-I cycles. The multi-stalagmite Sulawesi speleothem δ18O record demonstrates that on G-I timescales, the strength of the AISM is most sensitive to changes in sea level and its impact on the regional distribution of land and shallow ocean. Stalagmite δ18O and trace element (Mg/Ca) data indicate a rapid increase in rainfall at glacial terminations and wet interglacials. TIV, TIII, TIIIa, and TI are each characterized by an abrupt 3‰ decrease in δ18O that coincides with sea level rise and flooding of the Sunda and Sahul shelves. Strong evidence for a sea level (flooding/exposure) threshold is found throughout the southwest Sulawesi record. This is most clearly demonstrated over the period 230 - 212 ky BP (MIS 7d-7c), when a sea level fall to only -80 to -60 m for 10 kyr results in a weakened AISM and glacial conditions, followed by a full termination. Taken together, both glaciations and glacial terminations imply a sea level threshold driving the AISM between two primary levels of intensity (`interglacial' & `glacial'). These massive, sea-level driven shifts in AISM strength are superimposed on precession-scale variability associated with boreal fall insolation at the equator, indicating

  17. Detailed Sea Level Record from Barbados Spanning 13,000 to 11,000 Years Before Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, N. A.; Mortlock, R. A.; Wright, J. D.; Fairbanks, R. G.

    2013-12-01

    Th/U dated reef-crest corals (Acropora palmata) obtained from new Barbados offshore drill cores provide a local sea level reconstruction in unprecedented detail. The time interval, 13,000 to 11,000 years before present (BP), spans the well-studied Younger Dryas pollen zone, a period that has given rise to more than three decades of sensational climate interpretations and popular press. Widely described as a time when Earth's climate reverted to "glacial-like conditions" the various hypotheses that attempt to explain the "cause" of the Younger Dryas climate event have their staunch supporters as well as their critics but there remains little consensus. The Barbados sea level record for this time interval shows that sea level continued to rise during the Younger Dryas, albeit at a slower rate than prior to 13,000 or following 11,000 years BP. The decrease in the rate of sea level rise can simply be explained by the slow expansion of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet beginning 12,800 years BP followed by its faster demise contributing to a period of rapid sea level increase known as Melt Water Pulse 1B. We calculate the ice volume history of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet and it compares favorably to the moraine history and ice models. The Younger Dryas climate event is most often defined by the rapid shifts in atmospheric proxies measured in ice cores from Greenland. The ice core proxies shift into and out of the Younger Dryas climate event in only a few years to a few decades. Abrupt shifts in the climate state associated with the onset and termination of the Younger Dryas as revealed in Greenland Ice cores are not expressed in the smooth Barbados deglacial sea level record. We make the case that these Greenland atmospheric records mark regional atmospheric frontal shifts and changes in air mass sources over an ice sheet that largely did not participate in the deglaciation or sea level change. As proposed decades ago, the warming of the North Atlantic between 14,000 and 13

  18. Real-time Recording of Cytosolic Calcium Levels in Arabidopsis thaliana Cell Cultures during Parabolic Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neef, Maren; Ecke, Margret; Hampp, Rüdiger

    2015-07-01

    In plants, like in other organisms, calcium (Ca2+) is an important second messenger which participates in the conversion of environmental signals into molecular responses. There is increasing evidence, that sensing of changes in gravitation or reorientation of tissues is an example for such signaling cascades in which Ca2+ is involved. In order to determine g-dependent changes in the cytosolic calcium (Ca^{2+}_{ {cyt}}) concentration of plant cells, semisolid transgenic callus cell cultures of Arabidopsis thaliana (A.t.), expressing the calcium sensor YC3.6 (cameleon), were exposed to g-forces between 1.8 g and μ g during parabolic flights. Using such cells, intracellular calcium transients can be monitored by FRET in vivo and in real-time. Interestingly we observed a slight decrease of the Ca^{2+}_{ {cyt}} level during the hypergravity phases of a parabola but a significant increase of the Ca^{2+}_{ {cyt}} concentration during microgravity. Application of known Ca2+ inhibitors and antagonists yielded the following effects: nifedipine (Ca2+ channel blocker) showed no effect, whereas LaCl3, GdCl3 (both inhibitors of uptake at the plasma membrane), DPI (inhibitor of NADP oxidase), and DMSO (solvent) diminished the gravity-alteration-related Ca^{2+}_{ {cyt}} response. EGTA (binding of Ca2+) and eosin yellow (inhibitor of a plasma membrane-located Ca2+ pump) suppressed the respective Ca^{2+}_{ {cyt}} changes entirely. We thus conclude that the significant increase in Ca^{2+}_{ {cyt}} under microgravity is largely due to extracellular Ca2+ sources.

  19. Plasma catecholamine level and portal venous pressure as guides to prognosis in patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tage-Jensen, U; Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Christensen, E

    1988-01-01

    clinical and biochemical variables and survival. Forty-seven (58%) of the patients died during the follow-up period. Univariate analysis showed that plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline concentrations, portal pressure, indocyanine green clearance, serum sodium, bilirubin, and albumin concentrations......, and the presence of ascites or cardiovascular disease were of significant prognostic value. In a multivariate analysis (Cox regression model), plasma noradrenaline concentration, portal pressure, serum bilirubin concentration, and the presence of ascites and cardiovascular disease remained significant independent...

  20. Pressure Ulcer Surveillance in Neurotrauma Patients at a Level One Trauma Centre in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annu Babu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Pressure ulcers are a multifactorial, prevalent, and preventable morbidity. They cause a burden both financially and emotionally, to the individual, their family and doctor, and to society as a whole. Pressure ulcers are extremely difficult to treat; therefore, prevention is key. Methods: We started a Wound Care Surveillance Program in 2012 involving nurses, physiotherapists, and doctors. We intended to prevent the occurrence of pressure ulcers, ensure early detection, and facilitate the healing process. The Braden scale was used to stratify patients’ risk. The number of patients observed in our study was 2,974 over a one-year period. Results: The pressure sore prevalence was 3.1%. Younger and middle-aged patients were most commonly affected; 27% of these patients did not survive. Mortality was not attributed to the pressure ulcer directly. The most common mode of injury was road traffic accidents. Most of our patients had just a single pressure area affected, most commonly the sacrum. Most patients were managed with debridement and dressings while 12% received surgical treatment. Of those with stage one ulcers, 29% healed completely at two months. In stage two and three patients, 17% and 6% healed in two months, respectively, and this number was zero in stage four patients. Conclusion: The Wound Care Surveillance Program has been a very effective strategy for the prevention and management of pressure ulcers. Stage two ulcers were the most common in our setup. Braden scoring, traditionally used to screen these ulcers, can be used as a predictive and prognostic tool to predict healing of pressure ulcers. Poor healing is expected in higher staged ulcers and patients with spinal injury and major solid organ injury and those who need a tracheostomy. Home-based care is not up to mark in our society and accounts for most of the cases in the follow-up.

  1. Response to long-period seismic waves recorded by broadband seismometer and pore pressure sensor at IODP Site C0002, Nankai Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitada, K.; Araki, E.; Kimura, T.; Saffer, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    Long term in situ monitoring of seismic activity, slow slip event, and pore fluid behavior around mega earthquake zone is important for understanding the processes of earthquake generation and strain accumulation. In order to characterize the response to long-period seismic waves, we compared waveforms and hydroseismograms recorded by broadband seismometer and pore pressure transducers, respectively, which were installed at IODP Site C0002 in the Nankai Trough Kumano Basin. The borehole monitoring system sensor array at Site C0002 is designed to collect multiparameter observations covering a dynamic range of events, including local microearthquakes, low frequency earthquakes, and large-scale earthquakes similar to the Tonankai earthquake. The suite of sensors for the downhole portion of the observatory includes a broadband seismometer (CMG3TBD, Guralp Systems Ltd.) with sampling rate of 100Hz at the depth of 907mbsf, and four pressure ports connected to pressure gauges located at 948mbsf, 917mbsf, 766mbsf, and at the seafloor. The sampling rate of the data logger was set to 1Hz after successful connection to the DONET seafloor cable network for real-time monitoring on 24 Jan 2013. Since then, we processed 12 earthquakes between a moment magnitude of 6.5 to 8.3. In addition to the comparison of long-period surface waves waveform and pressure data, we compared the records with theoretical strain seismograms. The latter were calculated by normal mode summation using the earth model PREM of Dziewonski and Anderson (1981). A Butterworth bandpass filter was applied to the records with cut-off frequencies of 0.003 and 0.1 Hz. Our initial results indicate that the hydroseismograms correspond well with the vertical rather than the horizontal (radial and transverse) components in seismic data. The observed hydroseismogram have a good correlation with the predicted volumetric strain seismogram, especially for the Okhotsk (2013/05/24 14:17UT, Mw8.3, 632km depth), the Chishima

  2. Evaluation and correlation of stress scores with blood pressure, endogenous cortisol levels, and homocysteine levels in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy and comparison with age-matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Abhishek; Garg, Monika; Dixit, Nikhil; Godara, Rohini

    2016-11-01

    Stress had been associated with the development of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). The study was designed to evaluate the effect of stress on other risk factors of CSC such as serum cortisol levels, serum homocysteine levels, and blood pressure (BP) in CSC patients. To compare stress scores, serum cortisol and serum homocysteine levels, and BP of CSC patients with that of control population and to correlate stress scores of CSC patients with BP, serum cortisol levels, and serum homocysteine levels. Stress scores, serum morning and evening cortisol levels, serum homocysteine levels, systolic and diastolic BP of 54 CSC patients were measured and compared with that of 54 age- and sex-related controls using Student's t-test. Stress scores of CSC patients were correlated with systolic and diastolic BP, serum morning and evening cortisol levels and serum homocysteine levels and Pearson correlation coefficient (r) were calculated. Stress scores, serum homocysteine levels, serum morning and evening cortisol levels, and systolic and diastolic BP were all elevated in CSC patients as compared with age- and sex-related controls (P Stress scores of CSC patients were found to correlate strongly with serum homocysteine levels, serum morning and evening cortisol levels, and systolic and diastolic BP, with r values 0.82, 0.8, 0.8, 0.8, and 0.81, respectively (P Stress scores were elevated in CSC patients and were strongly correlated with serum homocysteine and cortisol levels and BP.

  3. Setting individualized positive end-expiratory pressure level with a positive end-expiratory pressure decrement trial after a recruitment maneuver improves oxygenation and lung mechanics during one-lung ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, Carlos; Mugarra, Ana; Gutierrez, Andrea; Carbonell, Jose Antonio; García, Marisa; Soro, Marina; Tusman, Gerardo; Belda, Francisco Javier

    2014-03-01

    We investigated whether individualized positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) improves oxygenation, ventilation, and lung mechanics during one-lung ventilation compared with standardized PEEP. Thirty patients undergoing thoracic surgery were randomly allocated to the study or control group. Both groups received an alveolar recruitment maneuver at the beginning and end of one-lung ventilation. After the alveolar recruitment maneuver, the control group had their lungs ventilated with a 5 cm·H2O PEEP, while the study group had their lungs ventilated with an individualized PEEP level determined by a PEEP decrement trial. Arterial blood samples, lung mechanics, and volumetric capnography were recorded at multiple timepoints throughout the procedure. The individualized PEEP values in study group were higher than the standardized PEEP values (10 ± 2 vs 5 cm·H2O; P decrement trial than with a standardized 5 cm·H2O of PEEP.

  4. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF HIGH LEVELS OF SO2 REMOVAL IN ATMOSPHERIC-PRESSURE FUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes tests conducted in an atmospheric-pressure-fluidized-bed combustor (FBC) with a cross-section of 1 x 1.6 m) to demonstrate high levels of S02 removal when burning a high-sulfur coal and feeding limestone sorbent for S02 removal. The goal was to achieve 90-plu...

  5. The effect of various methodological options on the detection of leading modes of sea level pressure variability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Huth, Radan

    58A, č. 1 (2006), s. 121-130 ISSN 0280-6495 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/05/2282 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : sea level pressure variability * principal component analysis * circulation Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 2.245, year: 2006

  6. The Influence of Fundamental Frequency and Sound Pressure Level Range on Breathing Patterns in Female Classical Singing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collyer, Sally; Thorpe, C. William; Callaghan, Jean; Davis, Pamela J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the influence of fundamental frequency (F0) and sound pressure level (SPL) range on respiratory behavior in classical singing. Method: Five trained female singers performed an 8-s messa di voce (a crescendo and decrescendo on one F0) across their musical F0 range. Lung volume (LV) change was estimated, and…

  7. Ventilation distribution measured with EIT at varying levels of pressure support and Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist in patients with ALI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankman, Paul; Hasan, Djo; van Mourik, Martijn S; Gommers, Diederik

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of varying levels of assist during pressure support (PSV) and Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist (NAVA) on the aeration of the dependent and non-dependent lung regions by means of Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT). We studied ten mechanically ventilated patients with Acute Lung Injury (ALI). Positive-End Expiratory Pressure (PEEP) and PSV levels were both 10 cm H₂O during the initial PSV step. Thereafter, we changed the inspiratory pressure to 15 and 5 cm H₂O during PSV. The electrical activity of the diaphragm (EAdi) during pressure support ten was used to define the initial NAVA gain (100 %). Thereafter, we changed NAVA gain to 150 and 50 %, respectively. After each step the assist level was switched back to PSV 10 cm H₂O or NAVA 100 % to get a new baseline. The EIT registration was performed continuously. Tidal impedance variation significantly decreased during descending PSV levels within patients, whereas not during NAVA. The dorsal-to-ventral impedance distribution, expressed according to the center of gravity index, was lower during PSV compared to NAVA. Ventilation contribution of the dependent lung region was equally in balance with the non-dependent lung region during PSV 5 cm H₂O, NAVA 50 and 100 %. Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist ventilation had a beneficial effect on the ventilation of the dependent lung region and showed less over-assistance compared to PSV in patients with ALI.

  8. Differences in Blood Pressure and Vascular Responses Associated with Ambient Fine Particulate Matter Exposures Measured at the Personal Versus Community Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background Higher ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels can be associated with increased blood pressure and vascular dysfunction. Objectives To determine the differential effects on blood pressure and vascular function of daily changes in community ambient-...

  9. Evidence for skill level differences in the thought processes of golfers during high and low pressure situations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Elizabeth Whitehead

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two studies examined differences in the cognition of golfers with differing levels of expertise in high and low pressure situations. In study 1, six high skill and six low skill golfers performed six holes of golf, while verbalizing their thoughts using Think Aloud (TA protocol. Higher skilled golfers’ cognitive processes centered more on planning in comparison to lower skilled golfers. Study 2 investigated whether thought processes of golfers changed in response to competitive pressure. Eight high skill and eight moderate skilled golfers, completed a practice round and a competition round whilst verbalizing thoughts using TA. To create pressure in the competition condition, participants were instructed that monetary prizes would be awarded to the top three performers and scores of all golfers would be published in a league table in the club house. When performing under competitive pressure, it was found that higher skilled golfers were more likely to verbalize technical rules compared to practice conditions, especially during putting performance. This shift in cognition toward more technical aspects of motor performance was strongly related to scores on the Decision Specific Reinvestment Scale, suggesting individuals with a higher propensity for reinvestment show the largest changes in cognition under pressure. From a practical perspective, TA can aid a player, coach or sport psychologist by allowing thought processes to be identified and investigate a performer’s thoughts when faced with the pressure of a competition.

  10. Acute-Phase Blood Pressure Levels Correlate With a High Risk of Recurrent Strokes in Young-Onset Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustanoja, Satu; Putaala, Jukka; Gordin, Daniel; Tulkki, Lauri; Aarnio, Karoliina; Pirinen, Jani; Surakka, Ida; Sinisalo, Juha; Lehto, Mika; Tatlisumak, Turgut

    2016-06-01

    High blood pressure (BP) in acute stroke has been associated with a poor outcome; however, this has not been evaluated in young adults. The relationship between BP and long-term outcome was assessed in 1004 consecutive young, first-ever ischemic stroke patients aged 15 to 49 years enrolled in the Helsinki Young Stroke Registry. BP parameters included systolic (SBP) and diastolic BP, pulse pressure, and mean arterial pressure at admission and 24 hours. The primary outcome measure was recurrent stroke in the long-term follow-up. Adjusted for demographics and preexisting comorbidities, Cox regression models were used to assess independent BP parameters associated with outcome. Of our patients (63% male), 393 patients (39%) had prestroke hypertension and 358 (36%) used antihypertensive treatment. The median follow-up period was 8.9 years (interquartile range 5.7-13.2). Patients with a recurrent stroke (n=142, 14%) had significantly higher admission SBP, diastolic BP, pulse pressure, and mean arterial pressure (Pstroke. Patients with SBP ≥160 mm Hg compared with those with SBP strokes (hazard ratio 3.3 [95% confidence interval, 2.05-4.55]; Pstroke, while the 24-hour BP levels were not. In young ischemic stroke patients, high acute phase BP levels are independently associated with a high risk of recurrent strokes. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Association of blood pressure and metabolic syndrome components with magnesium levels in drinking water in some Serbian municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasic-Milutinovic, Zorica; Perunicic-Pekovic, Gordana; Jovanovic, Dragana; Gluvic, Zoran; Cankovic-Kadijevic, Milce

    2012-03-01

    Chronic exposure to insufficient levels of magnesium (Mg) in drinking water increases the risk of magnesium deficiency and its association with hypertension, dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of the study was to assess the potential association of mineral contents in drinking water with blood pressure and other components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) (BMI as measure of obesity, triglycerides, glucose, and insulin resistance, index-HOMA IR), in a healthy population. This study was conducted in three randomly selected municipalities (Pozarevac, Grocka and Banovci), and recruited 90 healthy blood donors, aged 20-50 years. The Pozarevac area had a four times higher mean Mg level in drinking water (42 mg L(-1)) than Grocka (11 mg L(-1)). Diastolic blood pressure was lowest in subjects from Pozarevac. Serum Mg (sMg) was highest, and serum Ca(2+)/Mg (sCa/Mg) lowest in subjects from Pozarevac, and after adjustment for confounders (age, gender, BMI), only total cholesterol and sMg levels were independent predictors of diastolic blood pressure, sMg levels were independent predictors of triglycerides, and sCa/Mg predicted glucose levels. These results suggest that Mg supplementation in areas of lower magnesium levels in drinking water may be an important measure in the prevention of hypertension and MetS in general.

  12. Revised paleoenvironmental analysis of the Holocene portion of the Barbados sea-level record: Cobbler's Reef revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Marguerite A.

    2016-06-01

    Sample elevations corrected for tectonic uplift and assessed relative to local modeled sea levels provide a new perspective on paleoenvironmental history at Cobbler's Reef, Barbados. Previously, 14C-dated surface samples of fragmented Acropora palmata plotted above paleo sea level based on their present (uplifted) elevations, suggesting supratidal rubble deposited during a period of extreme storms (4500-3000 cal BP), precipitating reef demise. At several sites, however, A. palmata persisted, existing until ~370 cal BP. Uplift-corrected A. palmata sample elevations lie below the western Atlantic sea-level curve, and ~2 m below ICE-6G-modeled paleo sea level, under slow rates of sea-level rise, negating the possibility that Cobbler's Reef is a supratidal storm ridge. Most sites show limited age ranges from corals likely damaged/killed on the reef crest, not the mixed ages of rubble ridges, strongly suggesting the reef framework died off in stages over 6500 yr. Reef crest death assemblages invoke multiple paleohistoric causes, from ubiquitous hurricanes to anthropogenic impacts. Comparison of death assemblage ages to dated regional paleotempestological sequences, proxy-based paleotemperatures, recorded hurricanes, tsunamis, European settlement, deforestation, and resulting turbidity, reveals many possible factors inimical to the survival of A. palmata along Cobbler's Reef.

  13. Conception of a modular HTR-process heat facility with optimization of the pressure level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bousack, H.

    1984-11-01

    The operation of a steam reformer heated by nuclear power with a process pressure of about 20 bar provides advantages with respect to process engineering due to the improved conversion and simplified product gas treatment for the follow-on process. The effects of a reduction in pressure on the components of the primary circuit in a modular HTR facility, as well as various process engineering possibilities for producing methanol in the follow-on process are discussed in this paper. Studies cover the influence of core geometry and power density, as well as possibilities of increasing the modular power at a maximum accident temperature of 1600 0 C. An inherently functioning area cooling system is proposed for afterheat removal outside the primary circuit. Based on the optimized pressure, a modular HTR process heat facility is conceived to produce methanol from natural gas and carbon dioxide basically satisfying the requirement of zero emission. (orig.) [de

  14. Geographical Variations in Blood Pressure Level and Seasonality in Hemodialysis Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duranton, Flore; Kramer, Anneke; Szwarc, Ilan; Bieber, Brian; Gayrard, Nathalie; Jover, Bernard; Vetromile, Fernando; Massy, Ziad A.; Combe, Christian; Tentori, Francesca; Jager, Kitty J.; Servel, Marie-Françoise; Argilés, Àngel

    2018-01-01

    Seasons and climate influence the regulation of blood pressure (BP) in the general population and in hemodialysis patients. It is unknown whether this phenomenon varies across the world. Our objective was to estimate BP seasonality in hemodialysis patients from different geographical locations.

  15. Cambro-ordovician sea-level fluctuations and sequence boundaries: The missing record and the evolution of new taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, O.; Miller, J.F.; Leslie, Stephen A.; Repetski, J.E.; Ethington, Raymond L.

    2005-01-01

    The evolution of early Palaeozoic conodont faunas shows a clear connection to sea-level changes. One way that this connection manifests itself is that thick successions of carbonates are missing beneath major sequence boundaries due to karstification and erosion. From this observation arises the question of how many taxa have been lost from different conodont lineages in these incomplete successions. Although many taxa suffered extinction due to the environmental stresses associated with falling sea-levels, some must have survived in these extreme conditions. The number of taxa missing in the early Palaeozoic tropics always will be unclear, but it will be even more difficult to evaluate the missing record in detrital successions of higher latitudes. A common pattern in the evolution of Cambrian-Ordovician conodont lineages is appearances of new species at sea-level rises and disappearances at sea-level drops. This simple picture can be complicated by intervals that consistently have no representatives of a particular lineage, even after extensive sampling of the most complete sections. Presumably the lineages survived in undocumented refugia. In this paper, we give examples of evolution in Cambrian-Ordovician shallowmarine conodont faunas and highlight problems of undiscovered or truly missing segments of lineages. ?? The Palaeontological Association.

  16. Nurse Continuity and Hospital-Acquired Pressure Ulcers: A Comparative Analysis Using an Electronic Health Record "Big Data" Set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stifter, Janet; Yao, Yingwei; Lodhi, Muhammad Kamran; Lopez, Karen Dunn; Khokhar, Ashfaq; Wilkie, Diana J; Keenan, Gail M

    2015-01-01

    Little research demonstrating the association between nurse continuity and patient outcomes exists despite an intuitive belief that continuity makes a difference in care outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine the association of nurse continuity with the prevention of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers (HAPU). A secondary use of data from the Hands on Automated Nursing Data System (HANDS) was performed for this comparative study. The HANDS is a nursing plan of care data set containing 42,403 episodes documented by 787 nurses, on nine units, in four hospitals and includes nurse staffing and patient characteristics. The HANDS data set resides in a "big data" relational database consisting of 89 tables and 747 columns of data. Via data mining, we created an analytic data set of 840 care episodes, 210 with and 630 without HAPUs, matched by nursing unit, patient age, and patient characteristics. Logistic regression analysis determined the association of nurse continuity and additional nurse-staffing variables on HAPU occurrence. Poor nurse continuity (unit mean continuity index = .21-.42 [1.0 = optimal continuity]) was noted on all nine study units. Nutrition, mobility, perfusion, hydration, and skin problems on admission, as well as patient age, were associated with HAPUs (p data, showing that it offers rich potential for future study of nurse continuity and its effect on patient outcomes.

  17. An impaired metabolic response to hydrostatic pressure explains Alcanivorax borkumensis recorded distribution in the deep marine water column

    KAUST Repository

    Scoma, Alberto

    2016-08-12

    Alcanivorax borkumensis is an ubiquitous model organism for hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria, which dominates polluted surface waters. Its negligible presence in oil-contaminated deep waters (as observed during the Deepwater Horizon accident) raises the hypothesis that it may lack adaptive mechanisms to hydrostatic pressure (HP). The type strain SK2 was tested under 0.1, 5 and 10 MPa (corresponding to surface water, 500 and 1000 m depth, respectively). While 5 MPa essentially inactivated SK2, further increase to 10 MPa triggered some resistance mechanism, as indicated by higher total and intact cell numbers. Under 10 MPa, SK2 upregulated the synthetic pathway of the osmolyte ectoine, whose concentration increased from 0.45 to 4.71 fmoles cell-1. Central biosynthetic pathways such as cell replication, glyoxylate and Krebs cycles, amino acids metabolism and fatty acids biosynthesis, but not β-oxidation, were upregulated or unaffected at 10 MPa, although total cell number was remarkably lower with respect to 0.1 MPa. Concomitantly, expression of more than 50% of SK2 genes was downregulated, including genes related to ATP generation, respiration and protein translation. Thus, A. borkumensis lacks proper adaptation to HP but activates resistance mechanisms. These consist in poorly efficient biosynthetic rather than energy-yielding degradation-related pathways, and suggest that HP does represent a major driver for its distribution at deep-sea.

  18. A 31,000 year record of paleoenvironmental and lake-level change from Harding Lake, Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkenbinder, Matthew S.; Abbott, Mark B.; Edwards, Mary E.; Langdon, Catherine T.; Steinman, Byron A.; Finney, Bruce P.

    2014-03-01

    Physical and geochemical proxy analyses of sediment cores from Harding Lake in central Alaska are used to reconstruct paleoenvironmental change and millennial scale fluctuations in lake level for the last ˜31,000 years. We analyzed a composite 422 cm core from the lake depocenter (42.1 m water depth) and identified 4 distinct lithologic units based on variability in dry bulk density, organic matter, biogenic silica, carbon to nitrogen mass ratios (C/N), organic matter carbon isotopes (δ13C), pollen, and elemental abundances via scanning X-ray fluorescence, with age control provided by 16 Accelerator Mass Spectrometry radiocarbon dates and 210Pb dating. In addition, we analyzed a transect of cores from 7.1 m, 10.75 m, 15.91 m, and 38.05 m water depths to identify lake level fluctuations and to characterize sediment compositional changes as a function of water depth. Organic matter content and magnetic susceptibility values in surface sediments from all transect cores show a strong correlation with water depth. Interpretation of four lithologic units with well-dated contacts produced a record of water-depth variations that is consistent with independent climate records from eastern Beringia. Basal coarse-grained sediments (quartz pebble diamicton) were deposited prior to 30,700 calendar years before present (yr BP), possibly from fluvial reworking or deflation during a period of severe aridity. Unit 1 sediments were deposited between 30,700 and 15,700 yr BP and are characterized by a low organic matter content, a high magnetic susceptibility, and low biogenic silica concentrations resulting from very low lake levels, low terrestrial and in-lake productivity and a high flux of clastic sediment. An abrupt increase in organic matter and biogenic silica concentration marks the transition into Unit 2 sediments, which were deposited between 15,700 and 9,400 yr BP when lake levels were higher and variable (relative to Unit 1). The transition to full interglacial

  19. [Study on relationship between prevalence or co-prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and blood pressure level in adults in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z H; Zhang, M; Li, Y C; Zhao, Z P; Zhang, X; Huang, Z J; Li, C; Wang, L M

    2018-05-10

    Objective: To study the relationship between blood pressure level and major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in adults in China. Methods: A total of 179 347 adults aged ≥18 years were recruited from 298 surveillance points in 31 provinces in China in 2013 through complex multistage stratified sampling. The survey included face to face interview and physical examination to collect information about risk factors, such as smoking, drinking, diet pattern, physical activity, overweight or obesity, and the prevalence of hypertension. The blood pressure was classified into 6 levels (ideal blood pressure, normal blood pressure, normal high blood pressure and hypertension phase Ⅰ, Ⅱ and Ⅲ). The relationship between the prevalence or co-prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and blood pressure was analyzed. Results: The adults with ideal blood pressure, normal blood pressure, normal high pressure, hypertension phase Ⅰ, Ⅱ and Ⅲ accounted for 36.14 % , 22.77 % , 16.22 % , 16.43 % , 5.97 % and 2.48 % , respectively. Among them, the blood pressure was higher in men, people in Han ethnic group and those married, and the blood pressure was higher in those with older age, lower income level and lower education level, the differences were all significant ( P blood pressure levels of both sexes ( P blood pressure levels of those taking no antihypertensive drug was influenced more by the co-prevalence of risk factors. Finally, multiple logistic analysis showed that the risks for high blood pressure in adults with 1, 2 and ≥3 risk factors were 1.36, 1.79 and 2.38 times higher, respectively, than that of the adults without risk factor. Conclusion: The more the risk factors for cardiovascular disease in adults, the higher their blood pressure were. It is necessary to conduct comprehensive behavior intervention targeting ≥ 2 risk factors for the better control of blood pressure in general population.

  20. Relationship between blood pressure, cognitive function and education level in elderly patients with diabetes: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talfournier, J; Bitu, J; Paquet, C; Gobron, C; Guillausseau, P J; Hugon, J; Dumurgier, J

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to assess the relationship between blood pressure and cognitive function in elderly patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). A total of 32 patients with DM aged ≥ 65 years (seven women and 25 men; mean ± SD age: 74.3 ± 6.4 years) were included in this cross-sectional study. Relationships between blood pressure and neuropsychological tests were determined using Spearman's rank correlations (ρ) and multivariable linear regression models. Lower diastolic blood pressure was associated with lower scores on the Frontal Assessment Battery (ρ=0.32, P=0.02), longer times to complete the Trail Making Test Part B (ρ=0.51, P=0.003), lower scores for the Finger Tapping Test (ρ=0.36, P=0.046) and less verbal fluency (ρ=0.36, P=0.047). In multivariable models, these relationships were attenuated after adjusting for levels of education. There was an association between lower diastolic blood pressure and poorer executive function in this cohort of elderly DM patients. These results underline the importance of systematic cognitive evaluation in elderly patients with DM, and suggest that a too-low diastolic blood pressure may have deleterious effects on mental function. Larger studies in the future are required to confirm these preliminary results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Migmatization and low-pressure overprinting metamorphism as record of two pre-Cretaceous tectonic episodes in the Santander Massif of the Andean basement in northern Colombia (NW South America)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuluaga, C. A.; Amaya, S.; Urueña, C.; Bernet, M.

    2017-03-01

    The core of the Santander Massif in the northern Andes of Colombia is dominated by migmatitic gneisses with a 7.5 kbar. Lithologies are overprinted by low-pressure metamorphism, related to extensive Jurassic intrusions and linked with growth of cordierite and equilibration of low-pressure mineral assemblages, recorded metamorphic conditions are Pangaea.

  2. Optimal level of continuous positive airway pressure: auto-adjusting titration versus titration with a predictive equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Ho; Jun, Young Joon; Oh, Jeong In; Jung, Jong Yoon; Hwang, Gyu Ho; Kwon, Soon Young; Lee, Heung Man; Kim, Tae Hoon; Lee, Sang Hag; Lee, Seung Hoon

    2013-05-01

    The aims of the present study were twofold. We sought to compare two methods of titrating the level of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) - auto-adjusting titration and titration using a predictive equation - with full-night manual titration used as the benchmark. We also investigated the reliability of the two methods in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Twenty consecutive adult patients with OSAS who had successful, full-night manual and auto-adjusting CPAP titration participated in this study. The titration pressure level was calculated with a previously developed predictive equation based on body mass index and apnea-hypopnea index. The mean titration pressure levels obtained with the manual, auto-adjusting, and predictive equation methods were 9.0 +/- 3.6, 9.4 +/- 3.0, and 8.1 +/- 1.6 cm H2O,respectively. There was a significant difference in the concordance within the range of +/- 2 cm H2O (p = 0.019) between both the auto-adjusting titration and the titration using the predictive equation compared to the full-night manual titration. However, there was no significant difference in the concordance within the range of +/- 1 cm H2O (p > 0.999). When compared to full-night manual titration as the standard method, auto-adjusting titration appears to be more reliable than using a predictive equation for determining the optimal CPAP level in patients with OSAS.

  3. Mediterranean diet and insulin sensitivity, lipid profile and blood pressure levels, in overweight and obese people; The Attica study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zampelas Antonis

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to investigate if overweight and obese adults "close" to Mediterranean diet present better insulin, lipids profile and better pressure levels, compared to individuals close to a more Westernized diet. Methods The ATTICA study is a population-based cohort that has randomly enrolled 3042 adult men and women, stratified by age – gender, from the greater area of Athens, during 2001–2002. Of them, in this work were have studied 1762 participants with excess body weight, meaning overweight (BMI: 25–29.9 kg/m2 and obese (BMI>30 kg/m2. 1064 were men and 698 women (20–89 years old. Adherence to Mediterranean diet was assessed through a diet-score that was based on a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Blood pressure was measured and also fasting glucose, insulin and blood lipids. Insulin sensitivity was also assessed by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA approach (glucose × insulin/22.5. Results Individuals with excess bodyweight in the highest tertile of diet score, were more insulin sensitive than those in the lowest tertile (11.4% lower HOMA, p = 0.06, had 13% lower levels of total cholesterol (p = 0.001 and 3 mmHg decrease of systolic blood pressure levels (p Conclusion Adherence to Mediterranean diet is modeslty associated with a better insulin sensitivity, lower levels of total cholesterol and lower levels of systolic blood pressure in overweight and obese subjects. This may suggest that compared to general population, the beneficial effect of this diet in cardiovascular system of excess body weight people is limited.

  4. Investigation of the Sound Pressure Level (SPL) of earphones during music listening with the use of physical ear canal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aying, K. P.; Otadoy, R. E.; Violanda, R.

    2015-06-01

    This study investigates on the sound pressure level (SPL) of insert-type earphones that are commonly used for music listening of the general populace. Measurements of SPL from earphones of different respondents were measured by plugging the earphone to a physical ear canal model. Durations of the earphone used for music listening were also gathered through short interviews. Results show that 21% of the respondents exceed the standard loudness/duration relation recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO).

  5. Phenomenon of declining blood pressure in elderly - high systolic levels are undervalued with Korotkoff method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmståhl Sölve

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systolic blood pressure (SBP decline has been reported in octogenarians. The aim was to study if it could be observed while measuring SBP with two methods: Korotkoff (K-BP and Strain-Gauge-Finger-Pletysmography (SG-BP, and which of them were more reliable in expressing vascular burden. Methods A cohort of 703 men from a population of Malmö, Sweden, were included in "Men born in 1914-study" and followed-up at ages: 68 and 81 years. 176 survivors were examined with K-BP and SG-BP at both ages, and 104 of them with Ambulatory Blood Pressure at age 81/82. Ankle Brachial Index (ABI was measured on both occasions, and Carotid Ultrasound at age 81. Results From age 68 to 81, mean K-BP decreased in the cohort with mean 8.3 mmHg, while SG-BP increased with 13.4 mmHg. K-BP decreased in 55% and SG-BP in 31% of the subjects. At age 81, K-BP was lower than SG-BP in 72% of subjects, and correlated to high K-BP at age 68 (r = --.22; p Conclusion In contrast to K-BP, values of SG-BP in octogenarians strongly correlated with Ambulatory Blood Pressure. The SG-BP decline in the last decade was rare, and increasing SG-BP better than K-BP reflected advanced atherosclerosis. It should be aware, that K-BP underdetected 46% of subjects with SG-BP equal/higher than 140 mmHg at age 81, which may lead to biased associations with risk factors due to differential misclassification by age.

  6. Effects of context-aware patient guidance on blood pressure selfmeasurement adherence levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindahl, Camilla; Wagner, Stefan Rahr; Bertelsen, Olav W.

    2017-01-01

    Hypertensive disease and preeclampsia are serious medical disorders affecting pregnancy. Screening in early pregnancy may identify women at risk of developing hypertensive disease and enable prophylactic treatment. Accurate blood pressure measurement is an important part of this screening. The aim...... of performing self-measurements using context-aware adherence aids for guidance. A total of 100 pregnant women attending a routine ultrasound, at gestational week 12, at the outpatient clinic of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aarhus University Hospital, were recruited in the waiting room before...

  7. Vapour pressure deficit during growth has little impact on genotypic differences of transpiration efficiency at leaf and whole-plant level: an example from Populus nigra L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Fahad; Dreyer, Erwin; Richard, Béatrice; Brignolas, Franck; Brendel, Oliver; Le Thiec, Didier

    2015-04-01

    Poplar genotypes differ in transpiration efficiency (TE) at leaf and whole-plant level under similar conditions. We tested whether atmospheric vapour pressure deficit (VPD) affected TE to the same extent across genotypes. Six Populus nigra genotypes were grown under two VPD. We recorded (1) (13)C content in soluble sugars; (2) (18)O enrichment in leaf water; (3) leaf-level gas exchange; and (4) whole-plant biomass accumulation and water use. Whole-plant and intrinsic leaf TE and (13)C content in soluble sugars differed significantly among genotypes. Stomatal conductance contributed more to these differences than net CO2 assimilation rate. VPD increased water use and reduced whole-plant TE. It increased intrinsic leaf-level TE due to a decline in stomatal conductance. It also promoted higher (18)O enrichment in leaf water. VPD had no genotype-specific effect. We detected a deviation in the relationship between (13)C in leaf sugars and (13)C predicted from gas exchange and the standard discrimination model. This may be partly due to genotypic differences in mesophyll conductance, and to its lack of sensitivity to VPD. Leaf-level (13)C discrimination was a powerful predictor of the genetic variability of whole-plant TE irrespective of VPD during growth. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Water level measurement system in reactor pressure vessel of BWR and hydrogen concentration monitoring system for severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Hidehiko; Okazaki, Koki; Shiraishi, Fujio; Kenjyo, Hiroaki; Isoda, Koichiro

    2013-01-01

    TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Accident caused severe accident to lose functions of many instrumentation systems. As a result, many important plant parameters couldn't be monitored. In order to monitor plant parameters in the case of severe accident, new instrumentation systems available in the severe conditions are being developed. Water level in reactor pressure vessel and hydrogen concentration in primary containment vessel are one of the most important parameters. Performance test results about water level measurement sensor and hydrogen sensor in severe environmental conditions are described. (author)

  9. Impulse radio ultra wideband wireless transmission of dopamine concentration levels recorded by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrazeh, Ali; Bozorgzadeh, Bardia; Mohseni, Pedram

    2015-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the feasibility of utilizing impulse radio ultra wideband (IR-UWB) signaling technique for reliable, wireless transmission of dopamine concentration levels recorded by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) at a carbon-fiber microelectrode (CFM) to address the problem of elevated data rates in high-channel-count neurochemical monitoring. Utilizing an FSCV-sensing chip fabricated in AMS 0.35μm 2P/4M CMOS, a 3-5-GHz, IR-UWB transceiver (TRX) chip fabricated in TSMC 90nm 1P/9M RF CMOS, and two off-chip, miniature, UWB antennae, wireless transfer of pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS) data at 50Mbps over a distance of wireless transmission of dopamine concentration levels prerecorded with FSCV at a CFM during flow injection analysis (FIA) is also demonstrated with transmitter (TX) power dissipation of only ~4.4μW from 1.2V, representing two orders of magnitude reduction in TX power consumption compared to that of a conventional frequency-shift-keyed (FSK) link operating at ~433MHz.

  10. Serum uric acid levels are associated with high blood pressure in Chinese children and adolescents aged 10-15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shuo; He, Chun-Hui; Ma, Yi-Tong; Yang, Yi-Ning; Ma, Xiang; Fu, Zhen-Yan; Li, Xiao-Mei; Xie, Xiang; Yu, Zi-Xiang; Chen, You; Liu, Fen; Chen, Bang-Dang; Nakayama, Tomohiro

    2014-05-01

    The present study examined the association between uric acid levels and high blood pressure in a multiethnic study of Chinese children and adolescents. The participants were divided into four different groups according to the uric acid quartiles. Three logistic regression models were conducted to investigate the relationship between the high blood pressure and uric acid levels. Model 1 adjusted age, sex and ethnicity. Model 2 adjusted age, sex, ethnicity, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, estimated glomerular filtration rate, fasting glucose and waist circumference. Model 3 adjusted all the confounding factors in model 2 except the waist circumference and BMI. The concentrations of uric acid in high blood pressure participants and normotensive participants were compared with or without adjustment for confounding factors. A total of 3778 participants aged 10-15 years from the Xinjiang Congenital Heart Disease Survey were included in the present study. The percentages of the high blood pressure in the four different uric acid quartiles were 7.4, 8.6, 9.6 and 11.8%, respectively. In model 1, 2 and 3 of the logistic regression, the participants in the third and fourth uric acid quartiles had significantly higher chance of suffering the high blood pressure when compared with the participants in the first uric acid quartile [odds ratio 1.608, 1.587, 1.597, P = 0.005, 0.015, 0.015, respectively, between participants in the first quartile and the third quartile; odds ratio 1.981, 1.945, 1.810, P = 0.001, 0.002, 0.007, respectively, between participants in the first quartile and the fourth quartile). The concentrations of serum uric acid were 220.7 μmol/l in high blood pressure participants and 204.1 μmol/l in normotensive participants (P = 0.024). After adjustment for confounding factors, the concentrations of serum uric acid were 219.7 vs. 204.5 μmol/l in one model (P high blood pressure.

  11. Levels of amyloid-beta-42 and CSF pressure are directly related in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirinzi, Tommaso; Di Lazzaro, Giulia; Sancesario, Giulia Maria; Colona, Vito Luigi; Scaricamazza, Eugenia; Mercuri, Nicola Biagio; Martorana, Alessandro; Sancesario, Giuseppe

    2017-12-01

    Experimental data suggest that the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamic is involved in the clearance of beta-amyloid, a key event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). At this regard no evidence still exists in vivo. In this study we explored the relationships between CSF pressure and AD pathology, as measured with CSF core biomarkers. We enrolled 16 patients with probable AD and 21 controls, collecting demographics, clinical data, CSF opening pressure and CSF levels of beta-amyloid-42 fragment (Aβ42), total-tau (t-tau), phosphorylated-tau-181 (p-tau), albumin and albumin ratio. Differences between the groups were calculated with non-parametric tests, while correlations among all parameters were separately calculated with Spearman's test in each group. The groups significantly differed in biomarkers' concentration with lower Aβ42, and higher t-tau and p-tau in AD patients. Moreover, CSF pressure was significantly lower in AD group (11.0 ± 2.8 vs. 13.3 ± 3.0 mmHg, p < 0.05) and directly correlated with Aβ42 levels (R = 0.512; p < 0.05), but not with other biomarkers or parameters. No significant correlations emerged for biomarkers in control group. AD patients exhibit low CSF pressure whose values are directly and selectively related to CSF Aβ42 levels. This interesting correlation may confirm in vivo the association between CSF dynamic and beta-amyloid metabolism occurring in AD.

  12. Younger Dryas sea level and meltwater pulse 1B recorded in Barbados reef crest coral Acropora palmata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, N. A.; Mortlock, R. A.; Wright, J. D.; Fairbanks, R. G.

    2016-02-01

    The Younger Dryas climate event occurred during the middle of the last deglacial cycle and is marked by an abrupt shift in the North Atlantic polar front almost to its former glacial position, trending east to west. Using high-precision and high-accuracy U-Th-dated Barbados reef crest coral, Acropora palmata, we generate a detailed sea level record from 13.9 to 9000 years before present (kyr B.P.) and reconstruct the ice volume response to the Younger Dryas cooling. From the mid-Allerød (13.9 kyr B.P.) to the end of the Younger Dryas (11.65 kyr B.P.), rates of sea level rise decreased smoothly from 20 mm yr-1 to 4 mm yr-1, culminating in a 400 year "slow stand" before accelerating into meltwater pulse 1B (MWP-1B). The MWP-1B event at Barbados is better constrained as beginning by 11.45 kyr B.P. and ending at 11.1 kyr B.P. during which time sea level rose 14 ± 2 m and rates of sea level rise reached 40 mm yr-1. We propose that MWP-1B is the direct albeit lagged response of the Northern Hemisphere ice sheets to the rapid warming marking the end of the Younger Dryas coinciding with rapid warming in the circum-North Atlantic region and the polar front shift from its zonal to meridional position 11.65 kyr B.P. As predicted by glaciological models, the ice sheet response to rapid North Atlantic warming was lagged by 400 years due to the thermal inertia of large ice sheets. The regional circum-North Atlantic Younger Dryas climate event is elevated to a global response through sea level changes, starting with the global slowdown in sea level rise during the Younger Dryas and culminating with MWP-1B. No meltwater pulses are evident at the initiation of the Younger Dryas climate event as is often speculated.

  13. Estimation of a noise level using coarse-grained entropy of experimental time series of internal pressure in a combustion engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litak, Grzegorz; Taccani, Rodolfo; Radu, Robert; Urbanowicz, Krzysztof; HoIyst, Janusz A.; Wendeker, MirosIaw; Giadrossi, Alessandro

    2005-01-01

    We report our results on non-periodic experimental time series of pressure in a single cylinder spark ignition engine. The experiments were performed for different levels of loading. We estimate the noise level in internal pressure calculating the coarse-grained entropy from variations of maximal pressures in successive cycles. The results show that the dynamics of the combustion is a non-linear multidimensional process mediated by noise. Our results show that so defined level of noise in internal pressure is not monotonous function of loading

  14. 46 CFR 52.01-110 - Water-level indicators, water columns, gauge-glass connections, gauge cocks, and pressure gauges...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... § 52.01-110 Water-level indicators, water columns, gauge-glass connections, gauge cocks, and pressure... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water-level indicators, water columns, gauge-glass connections, gauge cocks, and pressure gauges (modifies PG-60). 52.01-110 Section 52.01-110 Shipping COAST...

  15. Treatment of sleep central apnea with non-invasive mechanical ventilation with 2 levels of positive pressure (bilevel in a patient with myotonic dystrophy type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Tera Akamine

    2014-06-01

    Bi-level positive airway pressure treatment at spontaneous/timed mode showed an improvement in snoring, apneas, and Epworth sleepiness scale decreased from 20 to 10. This case illustrates the beneficial effects of Bi-level positive airway pressure support in central sleep apnea syndrome of a patient with myotonic dystrophy type 1.

  16. Bottom pressure, vertical acoustic round-trip travel time, and near-bottom currents data collected by Current-and-Pressure-recording Inverted Echo Sounders (CPIES), as part of the Kuroshio Extension System Study (KESS), from 26 April 2004 to 25 June 2006 in the Kuroshio Extension east of Japan (NODC Accession 0073269)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains Current and Pressure recording Inverted Echo Sounder (CPIES) measurements collected during the Kuroshio Extension System Study (KESS) under...

  17. Effect of Reynolds number, turbulence level and periodic wake flow on heat transfer on low pressure turbine blades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslov, D; Schulz, A; Wittig, S

    2001-05-01

    The development of effective cooling methods is of major importance for the design of new gas turbines blades. The conception of optimal cooling schemes requires a detailed knowledge of the heat transfer processes on the blade's surfaces. The thermal load of turbine blades is predominantly determined by convective heat transfer which is described by the local heat transfer coefficient. Heat transfer is closely related to the boundary layer development along the blade surface and hence depends on various flow conditions and geometrical parameters. Particularly Reynolds number, pressures gradient and turbulence level have great impact on the boundary layer development and the according heat transfer. Therefore, in the present study, the influence of Reynolds number, turbulence intensity, and periodic unsteady inflow on the local heat transfer of a typical low pressure turbine airfoil is experimentally examined in a plane cascade.

  18. Association of Admission Glucose Level and Improvement in Pulmonary Artery Pressure in Patients with Submassive-type Acute Pulmonary Embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohbara, Masaomi; Hayakawa, Keigo; Hayakawa, Azusa; Akazawa, Yusuke; Yamaguchi, Yukihiro; Furihata, Shuta; Kondo, Ai; Fukushima, Yusuke; Tomari, Sakie; Mitsuhashi, Takayuki; Endo, Tsutomu; Kimura, Kazuo

    2018-03-01

    Objective The admission glucose level is a predictor of mortality even in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (APE). However, whether or not the admission glucose level is associated with the severity of APE itself or the underlying disease of APE is unclear. Methods This study was a retrospective observational study. A pulmonary artery (PA) catheter was used to accurately evaluate the severity of APE. The percentage changes in the mean PA pressure (PAPm) upon placement and removal of the inferior vena cava filter (IVCF) were evaluated. We hypothesized that the admission glucose level was associated with the improvement in the PA pressure in patients with APE. Patients A total of consecutive 22 patients with submassive APE who underwent temporary or retrievable IVCF insertion on admission and repetitive PA catheter measurements upon placement and removal of IVCFs were enrolled. Results There was a significant positive correlation between the admission glucose levels and the percentage changes in the PAPm (r=0.543, p=0.009). A univariate linear regression analysis showed that the admission glucose level was the predictor of the percentage change in PAPm (β coefficient=0.169 per 1 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval, 0.047-0.291; p=0.009). A multivariate linear regression analysis with the forced inclusion model showed that the admission glucose level was the predictor of the percentage change in PAPm independent of diabetes mellitus, PAPm on admission, troponin positivity, and brain natriuretic peptide level (all plevel was associated with the improvement in the PAPm in patients with submassive-type APE.

  19. Vitamins and iron blood biomarkers are associated with blood pressure levels in European adolescents. The HELENA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, Augusto César Ferreira; Gracia-Marco, Luis; Iglesia, Iris; González-Gross, Marcela; Breidenassel, Christina; Ferrari, Marika; Molnar, Dénes; Gómez-Martínez, Sonia; Androutsos, Odysseas; Kafatos, Anthony; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; Sjöström, Michael; Gottrand, Frederic; Widhalm, Kurt; Carvalho, Heráclito Barbosa; Moreno, Luis A

    2014-01-01

    Previous research showed that low concentration of biomarkers in the blood during adolescence (i.e., iron status; retinol; and vitamins B6, B12, C, and D) may be involved in the early stages of development of many chronic diseases, such as hypertension. The aim was to evaluate if iron biomarkers and vitamins in the blood are associated with blood pressure in European adolescents. Participants from the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence cross-sectional study (N = 1089; 12.5-17.5 y; 580 girls) were selected by complex sampling. Multilevel linear regression models examined the associations between iron biomarkers and vitamins in the blood and blood pressure; the analyses were stratified by sex and adjusted for contextual and individual potential confounders. A positive association was found in girls between RBC folate concentration and systolic blood pressure (SBP) (β = 3.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61-5.77), although no association between the vitamin serum biomarkers concentrations and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was found. In boys, retinol was positively associated with DBP (β = 3.84; 95% CI, 0.51-7.17) and vitamin B6 was positively associated with SBP (β = 3.82; 95% CI, 1.46-6.18). In contrast, holotranscobalamin was inversely associated with SBP (β = -3.74; 95% CI, -7.28 to -0.21). Levels of RBC folate and vitamin B6 in blood may affect BP in adolescents. In this context, programs aimed at avoiding high BP levels should promote healthy eating behavior by focusing on the promotion of vegetable proteins and foods rich in vitamin B12 (i.e., white meat and eggs), which may help to achieve BP blood control in adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Genetic Variation in the Natriuretic Peptide System, Circulating Natriuretic Peptide Levels, and Blood Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jørgen L; Nielsen, Søren J; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    -h ambulatory BP measurements (ABPMs) will influence the effect of NP gene variations on BP levels.MethodsWe used rs632793 at the NPPB (NP precursor B) locus to investigate the relationship between genetically determined serum N-terminal pro-brain NP (NT-proBNP) concentrations and BP levels...... determined by both 24-h ABPMs and OBPMs in a population consisting of 1,397 generally healthy individuals taking no BP-lowering drugs.Resultsrs632793 was significantly correlated with serum Nt-proBNP levels (r = 0.10, P = 0.0003), and participants with the A:A genotype had lower serum Nt-proBNP levels than......). Office BP decreased across the genotypes from A:A to G:G, but the differences did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.12).ConclusionsThis study suggests that 24-h ABPMs is a better method than OBPMs to detect significant differences in BP levels related to genetic variance and provides further...

  1. Temporary threshold shifts from exposures to equal equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2014-01-01

    the assumptions made using the A-weighting curve for the assessment of hearing damage. By modifying exposure ratings to compensate for the build-up of energy at mid and high-frequencies (above 1 kHz) due to the presence of the listener in the sound field and for the levels below an effect threshold that does...... not induce changes in hearing (equivalent quiet levels), ratings of the sound exposure that reflect the observed temporary changes in auditory function can be obtained.......According to existing methods for the assessment of hearing damage, signals with the same A-weighted equivalent level should pose the same hazard to the auditory system. As a measure of hazard, it is assumed that Temporary Thresholds Shifts (TTS) reflect the onset of alterations to the hearing...

  2. So small, so loud: extremely high sound pressure level from a pygmy aquatic insect (Corixidae, Micronectinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueur, Jérôme; Mackie, David; Windmill, James F C

    2011-01-01

    To communicate at long range, animals have to produce intense but intelligible signals. This task might be difficult to achieve due to mechanical constraints, in particular relating to body size. Whilst the acoustic behaviour of large marine and terrestrial animals has been thoroughly studied, very little is known about the sound produced by small arthropods living in freshwater habitats. Here we analyse for the first time the calling song produced by the male of a small insect, the water boatman Micronecta scholtzi. The song is made of three distinct parts differing in their temporal and amplitude parameters, but not in their frequency content. Sound is produced at 78.9 (63.6-82.2) SPL rms re 2.10(-5) Pa with a peak at 99.2 (85.7-104.6) SPL re 2.10(-5) Pa estimated at a distance of one metre. This energy output is significant considering the small size of the insect. When scaled to body length and compared to 227 other acoustic species, the acoustic energy produced by M. scholtzi appears as an extreme value, outperforming marine and terrestrial mammal vocalisations. Such an extreme display may be interpreted as an exaggerated secondary sexual trait resulting from a runaway sexual selection without predation pressure.

  3. So small, so loud: extremely high sound pressure level from a pygmy aquatic insect (Corixidae, Micronectinae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Sueur

    Full Text Available To communicate at long range, animals have to produce intense but intelligible signals. This task might be difficult to achieve due to mechanical constraints, in particular relating to body size. Whilst the acoustic behaviour of large marine and terrestrial animals has been thoroughly studied, very little is known about the sound produced by small arthropods living in freshwater habitats. Here we analyse for the first time the calling song produced by the male of a small insect, the water boatman Micronecta scholtzi. The song is made of three distinct parts differing in their temporal and amplitude parameters, but not in their frequency content. Sound is produced at 78.9 (63.6-82.2 SPL rms re 2.10(-5 Pa with a peak at 99.2 (85.7-104.6 SPL re 2.10(-5 Pa estimated at a distance of one metre. This energy output is significant considering the small size of the insect. When scaled to body length and compared to 227 other acoustic species, the acoustic energy produced by M. scholtzi appears as an extreme value, outperforming marine and terrestrial mammal vocalisations. Such an extreme display may be interpreted as an exaggerated secondary sexual trait resulting from a runaway sexual selection without predation pressure.

  4. Enterprise-Level Motivations, Regulatory Pressures, and Corporate Environmental Management in Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shui-Yan; Li, Pansy Honying; Fryxell, Gerald E.; Lo, Carlos Wing-Hung

    2015-09-01

    This study examines the effects of internal motivations and external pressures on the integration of environmental management (EM) practices within manufacturing operations in China. The moderating role of perceptions toward the regulatory process is also considered along with comparisons between wholly Chinese-owned and foreign-owned enterprises. From a sample of 131 manufacturing companies in the Guangzhou area, it was found that the salience of fees and fines has a strong positive influence on perceptions toward the regulator (the local Environmental Protection Bureau, EPB). This also has a positive effect on perceptions toward regulations themselves for foreign-owned enterprises. Business-case motivations for EM positively shape enterprise perceptions toward regulations, whereas risk-reduction motivations have a negative effect on perceptions toward regulations in foreign-owned enterprises. Enterprise perceptions toward the regulatory process have direct effects on the integration of EM practices in wholly Chinese-owned enterprises, but in opposite directions. While positive perceptions toward regulations have positive influence, positive perceptions toward regulators (i.e., the EPB) negatively affect it. Overall, these results indicated that promoting the adoption of EM practices depends on convincing business leaders that EM practices contribute to profit making. The regulatory process can potentially promote these practices, but measures need to be taken to ensure that the regulator is not co-opted by the regulated, especially in wholly Chinese-owned enterprises.

  5. 16 CFR 1500.47 - Method for determining the sound pressure level produced by toy caps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... level produced by toy caps. 1500.47 Section 1500.47 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY... horizontal plane with a distance of 25 centimeters between the diaphragm of the microphone and the position... the trigger are each respectively closest to and in the same horizontal plane with the microphone. (3...

  6. Sound pressure level tools design used in occupational health by means of Labview software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Forouharmajd

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: LabVIEW programming capabilities in the field of sound can be referred to the measurement of sound, frequency analysis, and sound control that actually the software acts like a sound level meter and sound analyzer. According to the mentioned features, we can use this software to analyze and process sound and vibration as a monitoring system.

  7. Steam drum level dynamics in a multiple loop natural circulation system of a pressure-tube type boiling water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Vikas; Kulkarni, P.P.; Nayak, A.K.; Vijayan, P.K.; Saha, D.; Sinha, R.K.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We have highlighted the problem of drum level dynamics in a multiple loop type NC system using RELAP5 code. → The need of interconnections in steam and liquid spaces close to drum is established. → The steam space interconnections equalize pressure and liquid space interconnections equalize level. → With this scheme, the system can withstand anomalous conditions. → However, the controller is found to be inevitable for inventory balance. - Abstract: Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) is a pressure tube type boiling water reactor employing natural circulation as the mode of heat removal under all the operating conditions. Main heat transport system (MHTS) of AHWR is essentially a multi-loop natural circulation system with all the loops connected to each other. Each loop of MHTS has a steam drum that provides for gravity based steam-water separation. Steam drum level is a very critical parameter especially in multi-loop natural circulation systems as large departures from the set point may lead to ineffective separation of steam-water or may affect the driving head. However, such a system is susceptible to steam drum level anomalies under postulated asymmetrical operating conditions among the different quadrants of the core like feedwater flow distribution anomaly among the steam drums or power anomaly among the core quadrants. Analyses were carried out to probe such scenarios and unravel the underlying dynamics of steam drum level using system code RELAP5/Mod3.2. In addition, a scheme to obviate such problem in a passive manner without dependence on level controller was examined. It was concluded that steam drums need to be connected in the liquid as well as steam space to make the system tolerant to asymmetrical operating conditions.

  8. The evaluation of central corneal thickness and intraocular pressure in conjunction with tear IGF-1 levels in patients with acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Emrah; Kan, Elif K; Okuyucu, Ali

    2017-08-30

    To compare the central corneal thickness (CCT), intraocular pressure (IOP), and tear insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels between patients with acromegaly and a control group and to evaluate the possible effect of tear IGF-1 and duration of the disease on CCT and IOP. We included 31 patients with acromegaly (study group) and 40 age- and sex-matched controls in the study. Patients with acromegaly were divided into 2 subgroups based on disease status (active/inactive). All participants underwent complete ophthalmologic evaluation including CCT and IOP values. Basal tear samples were collected from both groups and tear IGF-1 levels were measured. The CCT, IOP, and tear IGF-1 levels were compared between groups and subgroups and the association between tear IGF-I levels and ocular parameters (CCT, IOP) and disease duration were also evaluated. Central corneal thickness, IOP, and tear IGF-1 levels did not show a significant difference between study and control groups. We also did not find a significant difference in terms of CCT, IOP, or tear IGF-1 levels between subgroups of patients. Correlation analysis did not show an association between the duration of disease and tear IGF-1 levels with CCT or IOP. There was no significant difference in tear IGF-1 levels between patients with acromegaly and controls. Additionally, there was no correlation between disease duration and tear IGF-1 levels with CCT or IOP levels. This lack of association may suggest that tear IGF-1 levels might not have an effect on CCT or IOP findings in patients with acromegaly.

  9. Bi-level positive pressure ventilation and adaptive servo ventilation in patients with heart failure and Cheyne-Stokes respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fietze, Ingo; Blau, Alexander; Glos, Martin; Theres, Heinz; Baumann, Gert; Penzel, Thomas

    2008-08-01

    Nocturnal positive pressure ventilation (PPV) has been shown to be effective in patients with impaired left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR). We investigated the effect of a bi-level PPV and adaptive servo ventilation on LVEF, CSR, and quantitative sleep quality. Thirty-seven patients (New York heart association [NYHA] II-III) with LVEFCSR were investigated by electrocardiography (ECG), echocardiography and polysomnography. The CSR index (CSRI) was 32.3+/-16.2/h. Patients were randomly treated with bi-level PPV using the standard spontaneous/timed (S/T) mode or with adaptive servo ventilation mode (AutoSetCS). After 6 weeks, 30 patients underwent control investigations with ECG, echocardiography, and polysomnography. The CSRI decreased significantly to 13.6+/-13.4/h. LVEF increased significantly after 6 weeks of ventilation (from 25.1+/-8.5 to 28.8+/-9.8%, plevel PPV and adaptive servo ventilation: the CSRI decreased more in the AutoSetCS group while the LVEF increased more in the bi-level PPV group. Administration of PPV can successfully attenuate CSA. Reduced CSA may be associated with improved LVEF; however, this may depend on the mode of PPV. Changed LVEF is evident even in the absence of significant changes in blood pressure.

  10. Research on Earth's rotation and the effect of atmospheric pressure on vertical deformation and sea level variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahr, John

    1993-01-01

    The work done under NASA grant NAG5-485 included modelling the deformation of the earth caused by variations in atmospheric pressure. The amount of deformation near coasts is sensitive to the nature of the oceanic response to the pressure. The PSMSL (Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level) data suggest the response is inverted barometer at periods greater than a couple months. Green's functions were constructed to describe the perturbation of the geoid caused by atmospheric and oceanic loading and by the accompanying load-induced deformation. It was found that perturbation of up to 2 cm are possible. Ice mass balance data was used for continental glaciers to look at the glacial contributions to time-dependent changes in polar motion, the lod, the earth's gravitational field, the position of the earth's center-of-mass, and global sea level. It was found that there can be lateral, non-hydrostatic structure inside the fluid core caused by gravitational forcing from the mantle, from the inner core, or from topography at the core/mantle or inner core/outer core boundaries. The nutational and tidal response of a non-hydrostatic earth with a solid inner core was modeled. Monthly, global tide gauge data from PSMSL was used to look at the 18.6-year ocean tide, the 14-month pole tide, the oceanic response to pressure, the linear trend and inter-annual variability in the earth's gravity field, the global sea level rise, and the effects of post glacial rebound. The effects of mantle anelasticity on nutations, earth tides, and tidal variation in the lod was modeled. Results of this model can be used with Crustal Dynamics observations to look at the anelastic dissipation and dispersion at tidal periods. The effects of surface topography on various components of crustal deformation was also modeled, and numerical models were developed of post glacial rebound.

  11. Association between blood pressure and magnesium and uric acid levels in indigenous Argentinean children at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschler, Valeria; González, Claudio; Maccallini, Gustavo; Molinari, Claudia; Castano, Luis

    2017-07-08

    To determine the association between nontraditional risk factors such as magnesium and uric acid with blood pressure (BP) in Indigenous children. A total of 263 school-aged indigenous children living at high altitude were enrolled in a cross-sectional study in November 2011. Prehypertension (preHTN) and hypertension (HTN) were defined by systolic and/or diastolic BP ≥ 90th to magnesium levels were identified in 21.7% (57/263): 28.1% (16/57) of the children with low magnesium levels had preHTN versus 9.7% (20/206) with normal magnesium values. Furthermore, 21.8% (12/57) of the children with low magnesium levels had HTN versus 4.5% (20/206) with normal magnesium values. There was a significant association between mean arterial pressure and magnesium (r = -026), uric acid (r = 0.20), phosphorus (r = -0.17), z-BMI (r = 0.22), potassium (r = -0.10), HOMA-IR (r = 0.17), calcium (r = -0.10), and sodium (r = -0.13). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that mean arterial pressure was associated significantly and directly with BMI, age, gender, and uric acid; and inversely with magnesium, adjusted for sodium, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, and HOMA-IR (R 2  = 0.43). Furthermore, multiple logistic regression analyses showed that magnesium (OR = 0.015) and uric acid (OR = 2.95) were significantly associated with preHTN. Similar results were obtained when preHTN was replaced by HTN. Our results indicate that HTN was associated inversely with magnesium and positively with uric acid in indigenous school children. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Hydrostatic Pressure Regulates MicroRNA Expression Levels in Osteoarthritic Chondrocyte Cultures via the Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Cheleschi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical loading and hydrostatic pressure (HP regulate chondrocytes’ metabolism; however, how mechanical stimulation acts remain unclear. MicroRNAs (miRNAs play an important role in cartilage homeostasis, mechanotransduction, and in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA. This study investigated the effects of a cyclic HP (1–5 MPa, in both normal and OA human chondrocytes, on the expression of miR-27a/b, miR-140, miR-146a/b, and miR-365, and of their target genes (MMP-13, ADAMTS-5, IGFBP-5, and HDAC-4. Furthermore, we assessed the possible involvement of Wnt/β-catenin pathway in response to HP. Chondrocytes were exposed to HP for 3h and the evaluations were performed immediately after pressurization, and following 12, 24, and 48 h. Total RNA was extracted and used for real-time PCR. β-catenin was detected by Western blotting analysis and immunofluorescence. In OA chondrocytes, HP induced a significant increase (p < 0.01 of the expression levels of miR-27a/b, miR-140, and miR-146a, and a significant reduction (p < 0.01 of miR-365 at all analyzed time points. MMP-13, ADAMTS-5, and HDAC-4 were significantly downregulated following HP, while no significant modification was found for IGFBP-5. β-catenin levels were significantly increased (p < 0.001 in OA chondrocytes at basal conditions and significantly reduced (p < 0.01 by HP. Pressurization did not cause any significant modification in normal cells. In conclusion, in OA chondrocytes, HP restores the expression levels of some miRNAs, downregulates MMP-13, ADAMTS-5, and HDAC-4, and modulates the Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation.

  13. High Pressure Soxhlet Type Leachability testing device and leaching test of simulated high-level waste glass at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senoo, Muneaki; Banba, Tsunetaka; Tashiro, Shingo; Shimooka, Kenji; Araki, Kunio

    1979-11-01

    A High Pressure Soxhlet Type Leachability Testing Device (HIPSOL) was developed to evaluate long-period stability of high-level waste (HLW) solids. For simulated HLW solids, temperature dependency of the leachability was investigated at higher temperatures from 100 0 C to 300 0 C at 80 atm. Leachabilities of cesium and sodium at 295 0 C were 20 and 7 times higher than at 100 0 C, respectively. In the repository, the temperatures around solidified products may be hundred 0 C. It is essential to test them at such elevated temperatures. HIPSOL is also usable for accelerated test to evaluate long-period leaching behavior of HLW products. (author)

  14. Kinematics of two-phase mixture level motion in BWR pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulff, W.; Cheng, H.S.; Mallen, A.N.; Stritar, A.

    1985-01-01

    A model is presented for predicting two-phase mixture level elevations in BWR systems. The model accounts for the particular geometry and conditions in a BWR system during Small-Break Loss of Coolant Accidents. The model presented here is particularly suitable for efficient, high-speed simulations on small minicomputers. The model has been implemented and tested. Results are shown from BWR ATWS simulations

  15. The importance of ship log data: reconstructing North Atlantic, European and Mediterranean sea level pressure fields back to 1750

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuettel, M.; Wanner, H. [University of Bern, Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research (OCCR), and Institute of Geography, Climatology and Meteorology, Bern (Switzerland); Xoplaki, E. [University of Bern, Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research (OCCR), and Institute of Geography, Climatology and Meteorology, Bern (Switzerland); EEWRC, The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia (Cyprus); Gallego, D. [Universidad Pablo de Olavide de Sevilla, Departamento de Sistemas Fisicos, Quimicos y Naturales, Sevilla (Spain); Luterbacher, J. [University of Bern, Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research (OCCR), and Institute of Geography, Climatology and Meteorology, Bern (Switzerland); Justus-Liebig University of Giessen, Department of Geography, Climatology, Climate Dynamics and Climate Change, Giessen (Germany); Garcia-Herrera, R. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica de la Tierra II, Facultad de CC Fisicas, Madrid (Spain); Allan, R. [Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter (United Kingdom); Barriendos, M. [University of Barcelona, Department of Modern History, Barcelona (Spain); Jones, P.D. [University of East Anglia, Climatic Research Unit, School of Environmental Sciences, Norwich (United Kingdom); Wheeler, D. [University of Sunderland, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Sunderland (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    Local to regional climate anomalies are to a large extent determined by the state of the atmospheric circulation. The knowledge of large-scale sea level pressure (SLP) variations in former times is therefore crucial when addressing past climate changes across Europe and the Mediterranean. However, currently available SLP reconstructions lack data from the ocean, particularly in the pre-1850 period. Here we present a new statistically-derived 5 x 5 resolved gridded seasonal SLP dataset covering the eastern North Atlantic, Europe and the Mediterranean area (40 W-50 E; 20 N-70 N) back to 1750 using terrestrial instrumental pressure series and marine wind information from ship logbooks. For the period 1750-1850, the new SLP reconstruction provides a more accurate representation of the strength of the winter westerlies as well as the location and variability of the Azores High than currently available multiproxy pressure field reconstructions. These findings strongly support the potential of ship logbooks as an important source to determine past circulation variations especially for the pre-1850 period. This new dataset can be further used for dynamical studies relating large-scale atmospheric circulation to temperature and precipitation variability over the Mediterranean and Eurasia, for the comparison with outputs from GCMs as well as for detection and attribution studies. (orig.)

  16. A Model to Determine the Level of Serum Aldosterone in the Workers Attributed to the Combined Effects of Sound Pressure Level, Exposure Time and Serum Potassium Level: A Field-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Nassiri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Occupational exposure to excessive noise is one of the biggest work-related challenges in the world. This phenomenon causes the release of stress-related hormones, which in turn, negatively affects cardiovascular risk factors. Objectives The current study study aimed to determine the level of workers’ serum aldosterone in light of the combined effect of sound pressure level, exposure time and serum potassium level. Methods This cross-sectional, descriptive, analytical study was conducted on 45 workers of Gol-Gohar Mining and Industrial Company in the fall of 2014. The subjects were divided into three groups (one control and two case groups, each including 15 workers. Participants in the control group were selected from workers with administrative jobs (exposure to the background noise. On the other hand, participants in the case groups were selected from the concentrator and pelletizing factories exposed to excessive noise. Serum aldosterone and potassium levels of participants were assessed at three different time intervals: at the beginning of the shift and before exposure to noise (7:30 - 8:00 AM, during exposure to noise (10:00 - 10:30 AM, and during continuous exposure (1:30 - 2:00 PM. The obtained data were transferred into SPSS ver. 18. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to develop the statistical model of workers’ aldosterone level in light of the combined effect of sound pressure level, exposure time, and serum potassium level. Results The results of the final statistical model to determine the level of serum aldosterone based on the combined effect of sound pressure level, exposure time and serum potassium level indicated that the sound pressure level had a significant influence on the human’s serum aldosterone level (P = 0.04. In addition, the effects of exposure time and serum potassium on aldosterone level were statistically significant with P-values of 0.008 and 0.001, respectively. Conclusions

  17. Physiologic response to varying levels of pressure support and neurally adjusted ventilatory assist in patients with acute respiratory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Davide; Cammarota, Gianmaria; Bergamaschi, Valentina; De Lucia, Marta; Corte, Francesco Della; Navalesi, Paolo

    2008-11-01

    Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) is a new mode wherein the assistance is provided in proportion to diaphragm electrical activity (EAdi). We assessed the physiologic response to varying levels of NAVA and pressure support ventilation (PSV). ICU of a University Hospital. Fourteen intubated and mechanically ventilated patients. DESIGN AND PROTOCOL: Cross-over, prospective, randomized controlled trial. PSV was set to obtain a VT/kg of 6-8 ml/kg with an active inspiration. NAVA was matched with a dedicated software. The assistance was decreased and increased by 50% with both modes. The six assist levels were randomly applied. Arterial blood gases (ABGs), tidal volume (VT/kg), peak EAdi, airway pressure (Paw), neural and flow-based timing. Asynchrony was calculated using the asynchrony index (AI). There was no difference in ABGs regardless of mode and assist level. The differences in breathing pattern, ventilator assistance, and respiratory drive and timing between PSV and NAVA were overall small at the two lower assist levels. At the highest assist level, however, we found greater VT/kg (9.1 +/- 2.2 vs. 7.1 +/- 2 ml/kg, P < 0.001), and lower breathing frequency (12 +/- 6 vs. 18 +/- 8.2, P < 0.001) and peak EAdi (8.6 +/- 10.5 vs. 12.3 +/- 9.0, P < 0.002) in PSV than in NAVA; we found mismatch between neural and flow-based timing in PSV, but not in NAVA. AI exceeded 10% in five (36%) and no (0%) patients with PSV and NAVA, respectively (P < 0.05). Compared to PSV, NAVA averted the risk of over-assistance, avoided patient-ventilator asynchrony, and improved patient-ventilator interaction.

  18. High-intensity interval training lowers blood pressure and improves apelin and NOx plasma levels in older treated hypertensive individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Mohammad Reza; Ghardashi Afousi, Alireza; Asvadi Fard, Maryam; Babaee Bigi, Mohammad Ali

    2018-02-01

    Hypertension is the major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and is one of the primary causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Apelin levels and NO bioavailability are impaired in older hypertensive patients. Exercise is an effective intervention for treating hypertension. Our purpose was to evaluate the effect of high-intensity interval training on blood pressure, apelin, and NOx plasma levels in older treated hypertensive individuals. Thirty treated hypertensive subjects (61.70 ± 5.78 years, 17 males, 13 females) were randomly divided into 6 weeks of high-intensity interval training (n = 15) and control (n = 15). The exercise training was conducted for three 35-min sessions a week (1.5-min interval at 85-90% of heart rate reserve [HRR] and 2 min active phase at 50-55% of HRR). Assessment of plasma apelin, nitrite/nitrate (NOx), and endothelin-1 (ET-1) was performed before and after the intervention. At the end of the study, apelin, and NOx plasma levels increased significantly in the high-intensity interval training (HIIT) group (P = 0.021, P = 0.003, respectively). Conversely, ET-1 plasma levels significantly decreased in the training group after the intervention (P = 0.015). Moreover, there was a positive correlation between the change of plasma apelin and change of plasma NOx (r = 0. 771, P = 0.0008). In addition, there was a negative correlation between the change of plasma ET-1, change of plasma apelin (r = - 0.595, P = 0.019), and variation of NOx (r = - 0.572, P = 0.025). This study indicates that, by increasing of apelin and NOx plasma levels, HIIT may be effective in reducing blood pressure.

  19. A Pilot Study: Comparison of Arm Versus Ankle Noninvasive Blood Pressure Measurement at 2 Different Levels of Backrest Elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, Nicole; Quatrara, Beth D; Conaway, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Standard practice for obtaining noninvasive blood pressure includes arm blood pressure (BP) cuff placement at the level of the heart; however, some critical care patients cannot have BPs taken in their arm because of various conditions, and ankle BPs are frequently used as substitutes. The aim of this study was to determine if there was a significant variation between upper arm and ankle BP measurements at different backrest elevations with consideration of peripheral edema factors. After institutional review board approval was obtained, a pilot study was implemented to evaluate noninvasive BP measurements of the arm and ankle with backrest elevation at 0° and 30° in a population of medical intensive care unit patients. Participants served as their own controls and were randomly assigned to left- versus right-side BP readings. Data were also collected on presence of arm versus ankle edema. A total of 30 participants enrolled in the study and provided 120 BP measurements. Blood pressure readings were analyzed in terms of diastolic and systolic findings as well as backrest elevations and edema presence. Thirteen participants presented with either arm or ankle edema. There was a statistical difference between the systolic arm and ankle BP measurements in the 0° (P = .008) and 30° (P arm and ankle diastolic BP is greater for participants without ankle edema (P = .038, r = 0.54) than for participants with ankle edema (P = .650, r = 0.14), but it is not statistically significant (P = .47). Even though ankle BPs are often substituted for arm BPs when the arm is unable to be used, ankle BPs and arm BPs are not interchangeable. Adjustments in backrest elevation and considerations of edema do not normalize the differences. Blood pressures obtained from the ankle are significantly greater than those obtained from the arm. This information needs to be considered when arms are not available and legs are used as surrogates for the upper arm.

  20. Exposure to classroom sound pressure level among dance teachers in Porto Alegre (RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehring, Cristiane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dance teachers are exposed to high sound intensities. Aim: To verify the sound intensity of music used by dance teachers during classes. Method: This was a transversal and prospective study. Dance teachers were evaluated with a sociodemographic questionnaire, and sound intensity level measurements were taken at the beginning, middle, and end of dance classes. Results: The sample comprised 35 teachers (average age, 31.8 years. The duration of their career as dance teachers was 1-37 years; they worked daily for approximately 1-10 h. Among the classes followed, there were 15 (42.85% classical ballet classes, 4 (11.42% tap dancing lessons, 5 (14.28% jazz dance classes, 2 (5.71 Arab dance lessons, 6 (17.14% street dance classes, and 3 (8.57% ballroom dancing lessons. The average values observed at the beginning, middle, and end of the classes were 80.91 dB (A, 83.22 dB (A, and 85.19 dB (A, respectively. The music played in the street dance classes exposed teachers to the highest sound intensity. Conclusion: The average level of sound intensity of the dance classes in this study was either below or equal to the limit considered harmful for hearing health. Analysis of different class types showed that the sound densities of street, ballroom, and tap dance classes were above the recommended limits.

  1. Lung-protective ventilation in intensive care unit and operation room : Tidal volume size, level of positive end-expiratory pressure and driving pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serpa Neto, A.

    2017-01-01

    Several investigations have shown independent associations between three ventilator settings – tidal volume size, positive end–expiratory pressure (PEEP) and driving pressure – and outcomes in patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). There is an increasing notion that similar

  2. Feasibility study on vitrification of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste from pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.K.; Song, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    In order to obtain annual generation volume and composition data for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW), characteristics and generation trends for each waste which was produced at nuclear power plants (NPPs) in Korea were investigated. Of the three different types of melters, the platinum crucible was found to be most suitable for the performance of vitrification experiments and hence, was used to help better understand the optimal waste contents in borosilicate glass waste forms with respect to waste types. After the performance of vitrification experiments, compressive strength tests showed that the final waste glass product, containing up to 40 vol% of ashy pyrolyzed/oxidized at 400--800 C, showed good mechanical stability and homogeneity in the glass matrix. Economical assessment was performed with some considerations given for equipment having already been adopted for LILW treatment in Korea for four treatment strategies with melters selected from a technical assessment. For each strategy, the capital and the operation cost were estimated, and the disposal volume was calculated with reasonably estimated volume reduction factors with regard to waste type and treatment concept

  3. High levels of sound pressure: acoustic reflex thresholds and auditory complaints of workers with noise exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Scalli Mathias Duarte

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The clinical evaluation of subjects with occupational noise exposure has been difficult due to the discrepancy between auditory complaints and auditory test results. This study aimed to evaluate the contralateral acoustic reflex thresholds of workers exposed to high levels of noise, and to compare these results to the subjects' auditory complaints.METHODS: This clinical retrospective study evaluated 364 workers between 1998 and 2005; their contralateral acoustic reflexes were compared to auditory complaints, age, and noise exposure time by chi-squared, Fisher's, and Spearman's tests.RESULTS: The workers' age ranged from 18 to 50 years (mean = 39.6, and noise exposure time from one to 38 years (mean = 17.3. We found that 15.1% (55 of the workers had bilateral hearing loss, 38.5% (140 had bilateral tinnitus, 52.8% (192 had abnormal sensitivity to loud sounds, and 47.2% (172 had speech recognition impairment. The variables hearing loss, speech recognition impairment, tinnitus, age group, and noise exposure time did not show relationship with acoustic reflex thresholds; however, all complaints demonstrated a statistically significant relationship with Metz recruitment at 3000 and 4000 Hz bilaterally.CONCLUSION: There was no significance relationship between auditory complaints and acoustic reflexes.

  4. Sweating under pressure: skin conductance level reactivity moderates the association between peer victimization and externalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregson, Kim D; Tu, Kelly M; Erath, Stephen A

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether the association between peer victimization and externalizing behavior may be illuminated by individual differences in skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) in the context of peer stress. Participants included 123 fifth and sixth graders (Mean age = 12.03 years, 50% females; 42% ethnic minorities). SCLR was assessed in the context of an ecologically relevant, lab-based peer-evaluative stress experience in preadolescence. As hypothesized, self-reported peer victimization was linked with parent- and teacher-reported externalizing behavior, and SCLR consistently moderated these associations. Peer victimization was associated with parent- and teacher-reported externalizing behavior among preadolescents who exhibited lower SCLR, but not among preadolescents who exhibited higher SCLR. Results suggest that promoting engagement with peer stress experiences and enhancing inhibitory control are potential intervention targets that may reduce externalizing behavior in the context of peer victimization (or reduce peer victimization among preadolescents who exhibit externalizing behavior). © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  5. Pressure pain threshold and β-endorphins plasma level are higher in lean polycystic ovary syndrome women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiałka, Marta; Milewicz, Tomasz; Mrozińska, Sandra; Rogatko, Iwona; Sztefko, Krystyna; Majewska, Renata

    2017-12-01

    Despite some evidence that indicates that the evolution of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is related to the activity of the endogenous opioid system, and that concentration of plasma β-endorphin levels can increase pain threshold, there are no studies which evaluate pressure pain threshold in the PCOS women population. In 48 lean women with PCOS and 38 lean women without this disorder plasma β-endorphins and PPT were measured. The β-endorphins level was higher in the PCOS group compared to the controls (15.28±2.49 pg/mL vs. 6.33±1.71 pg/mL, PPCOS group PPTs measured on deltoid and trapezius muscles were higher compared to the controls (9.33±1.3 kg/cm² vs. 5.19±0.57 kg/cm², PPCOS group. Increase in β-endorphin level of 1 pg/mL was associated with increase of PPT value on deltoid muscle of 0.23 kg/cm² (R=0.632, P=0.011) and of 0.18 kg/cm² on trapezius muscle (R=0.588, P=0.037). There were no correlations between testosterone level and PPT in PCOS group. β-endorphin serum level as well as PPT are higher in lean PCOS group than in controls. We found correlations between β-endorphin levels and PPT in the PCOS group. It may suggest the role of endogenous opioids in the pathogenesis of PCOS and also that the increases in circulating plasma β-endorphins concentration can increases PPT in this group.

  6. [Serum lipids and blood pressure levels in the +Mapuche population living in the Chilean region of Araucanía].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockins, B; Larenas, G; Charles, M; Standen, D; Espinoza, O; Illesca, M; Opazo, J A; Carrasco, B; Lanas, F; Davis, M

    1998-11-01

    Chilean aboriginal populations (Mapuche) predominantly live in the region of Araucanía, in the southern part of the country. Their cardiovascular risk factors have not been systematically assessed. To study the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in the Mapuche population. Blood pressure, weight, height, dietary habits, fasting serum total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides were measured in 1.948 adults living in 28 Mapuche communities. Thirteen percent of males and 16% of females had high blood pressure. Body mass index was 25.5 kg/m2 in males and 28.1 kg/m2 in females. Forty five percent of women and 24% of men were classified as obese. Mean serum total cholesterol was 186.7 +/- 9.6 mg/dl, HDL cholesterol was 58.7 +/- 30.7 mg/dl, total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol was 3.4 +/- 2 and triglycerides were 155.2 +/- 91.2 mg/dl. Twenty eight percent of males and 9.6% of females smoked. Mapuche individuals have higher levels of HDL cholesterol a better total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio and lower frequency of smoking than non aboriginal Chileans subjects.

  7. High-density optical data storage based on grey level recording in photobleaching polymers using two-photon excitation under ultrashort pulse and continuous wave illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganic, D.; Day, D.; Gu, M.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Two-photon excitation has been employed in three-dimensional optical data storage by many researchers in an attempt to increase the storage density of a given material. The probability of two-photon excitation is proportional to the squared intensity of the incident light; this effect produces excitation only within a small region of the focus spot. Another advantage of two-photon excitation is the use of infrared illumination, which results in the reduction of scattering and enables the recording of layers at a deep depth in a thick material. The storage density thus obtained using multi-layered bit optical recording can be as high as Tbit/cm 3 . To increase this storage density even further, grey level recording can be employed. This method utilises variable exposure times of a laser beam focused into a photobleaching sample. As a result, the bleached area possesses a certain pixel value which depends upon the exposure time; this can increase the storage density many times depending upon the number of grey levels used. Our experiment shows that it is possible to attain grey level recording using both ultrashort pulsed and continuous-wave illumination. Although continuous wave illumination requires an average power of approximately 2 orders of magnitude higher than that for ultrashort pulsed illumination, it is a preferred method of recording due to its relatively low system cost and compactness. Copyright (1999) Australian Optical Society

  8. Dynamic Characteristics of Mechanical Ventilation System of Double Lungs with Bi-Level Positive Airway Pressure Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongkai Shen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent studies on the dynamic characteristics of ventilation system, it was considered that human had only one lung, and the coupling effect of double lungs on the air flow can not be illustrated, which has been in regard to be vital to life support of patients. In this article, to illustrate coupling effect of double lungs on flow dynamics of mechanical ventilation system, a mathematical model of a mechanical ventilation system, which consists of double lungs and a bi-level positive airway pressure (BIPAP controlled ventilator, was proposed. To verify the mathematical model, a prototype of BIPAP system with a double-lung simulators and a BIPAP ventilator was set up for experimental study. Lastly, the study on the influences of key parameters of BIPAP system on dynamic characteristics was carried out. The study can be referred to in the development of research on BIPAP ventilation treatment and real respiratory diagnostics.

  9. Serum glucose, cholesterol and blood pressure levels in Japanese type 1 and 2 diabetic patients: BioBank Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Nagai, Akiko; Hirata, Makoto; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Muto, Kaori; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Matsuda, Koichi; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Kubo, Michiaki; Nakamura, Yusuke; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2017-03-01

    Evidence of characteristics of Japanese patients with diabetes from a large-scale population is necessary. Few studies have compared glycaemic controls, complications and comorbidities between type 1 and 2 diabetic patients. This paper focuses on illustrating a clinical picture of Japanese diabetic patients and comparing glycaemic control and prognoses between type 1 and 2 diabetes using multi-institutional data. The BioBank Japan Project enrolled adult type 1 and 2 diabetic patients between fiscal years 2003 and 2007. We have presented characteristics, controls of serum glucose, cholesterol and blood pressure, prevalence of complications and comorbidities and survival curves. We have also shown glycaemic controls according to various individual profiles of diabetic patients. A total of 558 type 1 diabetic patients and 30,834 type 2 diabetic patients participated in this study. The mean glycated haemoglobin A1c was higher in type 1 diabetes than in type 2 diabetes. In the type 1 diabetic patients, the glycated haemoglobin A1c had no consistent trend according to age and body mass index. The Kaplan-Meier estimates represented a longer survival time from baseline with type 1 diabetes than with type 2 diabetes. Compared with type 1 diabetic patients, type 2 diabetic patients had double the prevalence of macrovascular complications. This work has revealed detailed plasma glucose levels of type 1 and 2 diabetic patients according to age, body mass index, blood pressure, serum cholesterol levels and smoking and drinking habits. Our data have also shown that the prognosis is worse for type 2 diabetes than for type 1 diabetes in Japan. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of different levels of continuous positive airway pressure on the 99mTc-DTPA lung clearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulciane Nunes Paiva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Backgound and Objectives: Positive airway pressure continues (CPAP produces significant hemodynamic changes that may influence the variability of breathing pattern and heart rate, acting as an additional therapy to prevent atelectasis and to combat hypoxia. The rate of inhaled 99 m Technetiumdiethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (99mTc-DTPA, along with changes in the lung epithelium cause an increase in the rate of clearance of this compound. The aim of this study was evaluate the pulmonary clearance rate of 99mTechnetium Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (99mTc-DTPA through the use of different levels of CPAP. Methods: It was a quasi-experimental study involving 17 healthy individuals with normal lung functional. 99mTc-DTPA, as aerosol, was nebulized for 3 minutes with the individual in a sitting position. The pulmonary clearance rate was assessed through pulmonary scintigraphy under spontaneous breathing and under 20 and 10 cmH2 O CPAP in the sitting position. The clearance rate was expressed as the half-time (T½ that is the time for the activity to decrease to 50% of the peak value. Results: 20 cmH2 O CPAP produced significant reduction of the T½ of 99mTc-DTPA in the sitting position (p=0.005. However, 10 cmH2 O CPAP did not alter the T½ of DTPA in the same positions. Conclusion: High levels of continuos positive pressure in normal lungs resulted in faster 99mTc-DTPA clearance moreover, 10 cmH2 O did not alter its clearance rate. KEYWORDS: Noninvasive ventilation. Technetium Tc 99m Pentetate. Radionuclide Imaging.

  11. Measurement of amino acid levels in the vitreous humor of rats after chronic intraocular pressure elevation or optic nerve transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levkovitch-Verbin, Hana; Martin, Keith R G; Quigley, Harry A; Baumrind, Lisa A; Pease, Mary Ellen; Valenta, Danielle

    2002-10-01

    To investigate whether the levels of free amino acids and protein in the vitreous of rat eyes are altered with chronic intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation or after optic nerve transection. The concentrations of 20 amino acids in the vitreous humor were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in both eyes of 41 rats with unilateral IOP elevation induced by translimbal photocoagulation. Eyes were studied 1 day and 1, 2, 4, and 9 weeks after initial IOP elevation. The same amino acids were measured in 41 rats 1 day and 2, 4, and 9 weeks after unilateral transection of the orbital optic nerve. The intravitreal protein level was assayed in additional 22 rats with IOP elevation and 12 rats after nerve transection. Two masked observers evaluated the amount of optic nerve damage with a semiquantitative, light-microscopic technique. In rats with experimental glaucoma, amino acid concentrations were unchanged 1 day after treatment. At 1 week, 4 of 20 amino acids (aspartate, proline, alanine, and lysine) were higher than in control eyes ( 0.05). Vitreous protein level was significantly higher in glaucomatous eyes than their paired controls at 1 day ( 0.01).

  12. Protective intraoperative ventilation with higher versus lower levels of positive end-expiratory pressure in obese patients (PROBESE): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluth, T; Teichmann, R; Kiss, T; Bobek, I; Canet, J; Cinnella, G; De Baerdemaeker, L; Gregoretti, C; Hedenstierna, G; Hemmes, S N; Hiesmayr, M; Hollmann, M W; Jaber, S; Laffey, J G; Licker, M J; Markstaller, K; Matot, I; Müller, G; Mills, G H; Mulier, J P; Putensen, C; Rossaint, R; Schmitt, J; Senturk, M; Serpa Neto, A; Severgnini, P; Sprung, J; Vidal Melo, M F; Wrigge, H; Schultz, M J; Pelosi, P; Gama de Abreu, M

    2017-04-28

    Postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) increase the morbidity and mortality of surgery in obese patients. High levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) with lung recruitment maneuvers may improve intraoperative respiratory function, but they can also compromise hemodynamics, and the effects on PPCs are uncertain. We hypothesized that intraoperative mechanical ventilation using high PEEP with periodic recruitment maneuvers, as compared with low PEEP without recruitment maneuvers, prevents PPCs in obese patients. The PRotective Ventilation with Higher versus Lower PEEP during General Anesthesia for Surgery in OBESE Patients (PROBESE) study is a multicenter, two-arm, international randomized controlled trial. In total, 2013 obese patients with body mass index ≥35 kg/m 2 scheduled for at least 2 h of surgery under general anesthesia and at intermediate to high risk for PPCs will be included. Patients are ventilated intraoperatively with a low tidal volume of 7 ml/kg (predicted body weight) and randomly assigned to PEEP of 12 cmH 2 O with lung recruitment maneuvers (high PEEP) or PEEP of 4 cmH 2 O without recruitment maneuvers (low PEEP). The occurrence of PPCs will be recorded as collapsed composite of single adverse pulmonary events and represents the primary endpoint. To our knowledge, the PROBESE trial is the first multicenter, international randomized controlled trial to compare the effects of two different levels of intraoperative PEEP during protective low tidal volume ventilation on PPCs in obese patients. The results of the PROBESE trial will support anesthesiologists in their decision to choose a certain PEEP level during general anesthesia for surgery in obese patients in an attempt to prevent PPCs. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02148692. Registered on 23 May 2014; last updated 7 June 2016.

  13. ORANGE JUICE AND BLOOD PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. VALIM

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Blood pressure is the force of blood against artery walls. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg and recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure (as the heart contracts over diastolic pressure (as the heart relaxes between beats. High blood pressure (hypertension is defined as chronically elevated high blood pressure, with systolic blood pressure (SBP of 140 mm Hg or greater, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP of 90 mm Hg or greater. High blood pressure (HBP, smoking, abnormal blood lipid levels, obesity and diabetes are risk factors for coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in the US. Lifestyle modifications such as engaging in regular physical activity, quitting smoking and eating a healthy diet (limiting intake of saturated fat and sodium and increasing consumption of fiber, fruits and vegetables are advocated for the prevention, treatment, and control of HBP. As multiple factors influence blood pressure, the effects of each factor are typically modest, particularly in normotensive subjects, yet the combined effects can be substantial. Nutrition plays an important role in influencing blood pressure. Orange juice should be included as part of any low sodium diet and/or any blood pressure reducing eating plan, as it is sodium free, fat-free and can help meet recommended levels of potassium intake that may contribute to lower BP.

  14. Provincial prenatal record revision: a multiple case study of evidence-based decision-making at the population-policy level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olson Joanne

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a significant gap in the knowledge translation literature related to how research evidence actually contributes to health care decision-making. Decisions around what care to provide at the population (rather than individual level are particularly complex, involving considerations such as feasibility, cost, and population needs in addition to scientific evidence. One example of decision-making at this "population-policy" level involves what screening questions and intervention guides to include on standardized provincial prenatal records. As mandatory medical reporting forms, prenatal records are potentially powerful vehicles for promoting population-wide evidence-based care. However, the extent to which Canadian prenatal records reflect best-practice recommendations for the assessment of well-known risk factors such as maternal smoking and alcohol consumption varies markedly across Canadian provinces and territories. The goal of this study is to better understand the interaction of contextual factors and research evidence on decision-making at the population-policy level, by examining the processes by which provincial prenatal records are reviewed and revised. Methods Guided by Dobrow et al.'s (2004 conceptual model for context-based evidence-based decision-making, this study will use a multiple case study design with embedded units of analysis to examine contextual factors influencing the prenatal record revision process in different Canadian provinces and territories. Data will be collected using multiple methods to construct detailed case descriptions for each province/territory. Using qualitative data analysis techniques, decision-making processes involving prenatal record content specifically related to maternal smoking and alcohol use will be compared both within and across each case, to identify key contextual factors influencing the uptake and application of research evidence by prenatal record review

  15. Application of model studies for quality control of bottom pressure based GLOSS sea level gauge at Takoradi Harbour (Ghana, West Africa)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.; Mehra, P.; Desai, R.G.P.; Dotse, J.; Odammetey, J.T.; Nkebi, E.K.; VijayKumar, K.; Prabhudesai, S.

    , which determines the effectiveness of the model, is incorporation of datasets from that tidal cycle which encompasses the largest span of water column height during spring tide. The model provides chart-datum-referenced sea level record directly from...

  16. The role of a FADS1 polymorphism in the association of fatty acid blood levels, BMI and blood pressure in young children-Analyses based on path models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maike Wolters

    Full Text Available The recent obesity epidemic in children also showed an increase in the prevalence of hypertension. As blood pressure (BP is associated with (long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC PUFA, genetic variation in desaturase enzymes being involved in the synthesis of LC PUFA may be associated with BP. This study aimed to investigate the direct effects (independent of mediating variables and indirect effects (mediated through intermediate variables of a common variant in the FADS1 gene, rs174546, known to affect delta-5 desaturase (D5D activity on PUFA level, body mass index (BMI and BP.A subsample of the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants baseline survey including 520 children aged 2 to <10 years from six European countries was included. The association between rs174546 (Tlevels (dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, DGLA; arachidonic acid, ARA; eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA or estimated D5D activity (D5D index and BMI z-score were investigated through path model analyses, adjusting for sex, age, educational level of parents, family history of hypertension, lifestyle factors and blood levels of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, triglycerides and low density lipoprotein cholesterol. Whole blood fatty acids were measured by a validated gas chromatographic method and recorded as percentage of weight of all fatty acids detected.Minor allele carriers of the SNP rs174546 had significantly higher DGLA and lower ARA and EPA levels as well as a lower D5D index. Via ARA and BMI z-score, the polymorphism had an indirect lowering effect on systolic BP z-score for each additional T allele (standardized effect estimate -0.057, p = 0.007. For DGLA, EPA and D5D index, the indirect effects of rs174546 on systolic BP were also negative but did not reach significance. DGLA and EPA had an increasing indirect effect on

  17. Pilot scale evaluation of biological and pressure clarification processes for the removal of high level of iron and manganese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yannoni, C.C.; Kinsley, B.P. [Fay, Spofford & Thorndike, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Marston, T.R. [Connecticut Water Company, Clinton, CT (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Iron and manganese originating from groundwater supplies have a long history of causing consumer complaints in water distribution systems. Although iron and manganese are not public health concerns, they are a major concern from an aesthetic standpoint. The elevated awareness of consumers in regard to the quality of drinking water, an increase in regulations requiring additional treatment and the cost associated with developing new sources of supply, has required many utilities to implement improvements to existing facilities. Historical water quality data collected from the Connecticut Water Company`s (CWC) Westbrook Well revealed an increasing trend in iron and manganese concentrations. As a result, the existing greensand filtration facility located at the well, provides insufficient removal rates and inefficient operating cycles. Variations in operating procedures were not successful in correcting these problems. A water treatment feasibility study recommended evaluation of biological and pressure clarification processes to reduce iron (9 mg/l) and manganese (1.5 mg/l) levels below the secondary maximum contaminant levels of 0.30 and 0.05 mg/l, respectively. Assessment of these processes was accomplished through the construction and operation of a 5 gallon per minute (gpm) capacity pilot plant at the Westbrook Water Treatment Plant. Application of biological treatment for iron removal was then piloted on the existing full-scale treatment facility.

  18. 60-year Nordic and arctic sea level reconstruction based on a reprocessed two decade altimetric sea level record and tide gauges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Peter Limkilde; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    Due to the sparsity and often poor quality of data, reconstructing Arctic sea level is highly challenging. We present a reconstruction of Arctic sea level covering 1950 to 2010, using the approaches from Church et al. (2004) and Ray and Douglas (2011). This involves decomposition of an altimetry...

  19. Sea-level records from the U.S. mid-Atlantic constrain Laurentide Ice Sheet extent during Marine Isotope Stage 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pico, T; Creveling, J R; Mitrovica, J X

    2017-05-30

    The U.S. mid-Atlantic sea-level record is sensitive to the history of the Laurentide Ice Sheet as the coastline lies along the ice sheet's peripheral bulge. However, paleo sea-level markers on the present-day shoreline of Virginia and North Carolina dated to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3, from 50 to 35 ka, are surprisingly high for this glacial interval, and remain unexplained by previous models of ice age adjustment or other local (for example, tectonic) effects. Here, we reconcile this sea-level record using a revised model of glacial isostatic adjustment characterized by a peak global mean sea level during MIS 3 of approximately -40 m, and far less ice volume within the eastern sector of the Laurentide Ice Sheet than traditional reconstructions for this interval. We conclude that the Laurentide Ice Sheet experienced a phase of very rapid growth in the 15 kyr leading into the Last Glacial Maximum, thus highlighting the potential of mid-field sea-level records to constrain areal extent of ice cover during glacial intervals with sparse geological observables.

  20. Reliability of Center of Pressure Parameters in Postural Sway among Athlete and Non-athlete Men in Different Levels of Fatigue and Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Meshkati

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to investigate the skill, fatigue and vision-related differences between athletes and non-athletes in reliability of center of pressure (COP measures derived from force platform. Materials & Methods: Thirty-one healthy male participants (15 athletes and 16 non-athletes were tested on force platform on two sessions with a 48-72 hr interval. COP parameters was recorded during two-legged quiet standing before and after a generalized fatigue exercise by treadmill, with eyes-open (EO and eyes-closed (EC. Standard deviation (SD of amplitude, SD of velocity in anteroposterior (AP and mediolateral directions and mean total velocity were calculated from 30 sec COP data. Results: Higher intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC was found for COP measures in the athlete (compared with the non-athlete group. ICC was increased in post-fatigue (compared with pre-fatigue conditions. Also higher ICC was found for EC (compared with EO tests. Coefficients of variation smaller than 15% were obtained for most of the COP measures. Alpha level of 0. 05 was considered for all statistical analyses. Regarding the level of skill, fatigue and vision, mean total velocity (P=0. 001 and SD of velocity (AP (P=0. 001 were the most reliable parameters. Conclusion: The results aid researchers in selection of reliable COP measures for future studies of postural control in sports. In this way, researchers can use mean total velocity and SD of velocity (AP parameters in their studies in same conditions on athletes.

  1. Level of Agreement Between Forearm and Upper Arm Blood Pressure Measurements in Patients With Large Arm Circumference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Sheri; Aguas, Marita; Colegrove, Pat; Foisy, Nancy; Jondahl, Bonnie; Anastas, Zoe

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine if forearm blood pressures (BPs) measured in three different locations agree with the recommended upper arm location for noninvasive BP measurement. A method-comparison design was used. In a convenience sample of postanesthesia care unit patients with large upper arm circumference, BP's were obtained in three different forearm locations (lower forearm, middle forearm, and upper forearm) and compared to upper arm BP using an automated BP measuring device. The level of agreement (bias ± precision) between each forearm location and the upper arm BP was calculated using standard formulas. Acceptable levels of agreement based on expert opinion were set a priori at bias and precision values of less than ±5 mm Hg (bias) and ±8 mm Hg (precision). Forty-eight postanesthesia patients participated in the study. Bias and precision values were found to exceed the acceptable level of agreement for all but one of the systolic and diastolic BP comparisons in the three forearm BP locations. Fifty-six percent of all patients studied had one or more BP difference of at least 10 mm Hg in each of the three forearm locations, with 10% having one or more differences of at least 20 mm Hg. The differences in forearm BP measurements observed in this study indicate that the clinical practice of using a forearm BP with a regular-sized BP cuff in place of a larger sized BP cuff placed on the upper arm in postanesthesia care unit patients with large arm circumferences is inappropriate. The BPs obtained at the forearm location are not equivalent to the BPs obtained at the upper arm location. Copyright © 2015 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Is there an optimal level of positive expiratory pressure (PEP) to improve walking tolerance in patients with severe COPD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Davide; Simonelli, Carla; Paneroni, Mara; Saleri, Manuela; Piroddi, Ines Maria Grazia; Cardinale, Francesco; Vitacca, Michele; Nicolini, Antonello

    2016-07-01

    The application of positive expiratory pressure (PEP) devices during exercise had been proposed in order to counteract the pulmonary hyperinflation, reduce the dyspnea and thus increase the exercise tolerance in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This randomized controlled crossover trial investigated the effect of two different levels of PEP (1 cmH2O and 10 cmH2O) on distance covered at 6minute walk test (6MWT) in patients with severe COPD. Secondary outcomes were the evaluation of PEP effects on physiological and pulmonary function variables. Seventy-two severe COPD patients, referred to our hospitals as in and out patients, were recruited. A basal 6MWT without devices was performed on the first day, and then repeated with PEP 1 cmH2O (PEP1) and 10 cmH2O (PEP10), with a randomized crossover design. Slow and forced spirometries, including the inspiratory capacity measure, were repeated before and after each 6MWT. 50 patients (average age 69,92 year, mean FEV1 41,42% of predicted) concluded the trial. The 6MWT improved significantly among both PEP levels and baseline (323,8 mt at baseline vs. 337,8 PEP1 and 341,8 PEP10; p<.002 and p<.018, respectively). The difference between PEP10 and PEP1 did not reach the significance. No improvements were found in pulmonary function, symptoms and physiological variables after the 6MWT. In patients with severe COPD, the application of 1 cmH2O of PEP seems to improve the exercise tolerance as 10 cmH2O, with similar dyspnea. Further studies should investigate the effects of low levels of PEP on aerobic training programs. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Reconciling the sea level record of the last deglaciation with the δ18O spectra from deep sea cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bard, Edouard; Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY; Arnold, Maurice; Duplessy, J.-C.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper we use the oxygen isotope record as a transient tracer to study palaeoceanography during the last deglaciation. By using 14 C and 18 O data obtained on four deep sea sediment cores, we show the presence of a measurable lag between the deglacial δ 18 O signal observed in the deep Atlantic and the deep Indo-Pacific oceans. Our study confirms that the major meltwater discharge occurred via the North Atlantic and that the thermohaline circulation was operating during the deglacial transition. (Author)

  4. A 3500 14C yr High-Resolution Record of Water-Level Changes in Lake Titicaca, Bolivia/Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Mark B.; Binford, Michael W.; Brenner, Mark; Kelts, Kerry R.

    1997-03-01

    Sediment cores collected from the southern basin of Lake Titicaca (Bolivia/Peru) on a transect from 4.6 m above overflow level to 15.1 m below overflow level are used to identify a new century-scale chronology of Holocene lake-level variations. The results indicate that lithologic and geochemical analyses on a transect of cores can be used to identify and date century-scale lake-level changes. Detailed sedimentary analyses of subfacies and radiocarbon dating were conducted on four representative cores. A chronology based on 60 accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon measurements constrains the timing of water-level fluctuations. Two methods were used to estimate the 14C reservoir age. Both indicate that it has remained nearly constant at ˜250 14C yr during the late Holocene. Core studies based on lithology and geochemistry establish the timing and magnitude of five periods of low lake level, implying negative moisture balance for the northern Andean altiplano over the last 3500 cal yr. Between 3500 and 3350 cal yr B.P., a transition from massive, inorganic-clay facies to laminated organic-matter-rich silts in each of the four cores signals a water-level rise after a prolonged mid-Holocene dry phase. Evidence of other significant low lake levels occurs 2900-2800, 2400-2200, 2000-1700, and 900-500 cal yr B.P. Several of the low lake levels coincided with cultural changes in the region, including the collapse of the Tiwanaku civilization.

  5. Comparison of sea-level measurements using microwave radar and subsurface pressure gauge deployed in Mandovi estuary in Goa, Central West Coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mehra, P.; Agarvadekar, Y.; Luis, R.; Nadaf, L.

    . INTRODUCTION The information about mean sea level and its variability along the coastal locations is essential for practical as well as scientific studies. However, witness to the recent disastrous consequences of Japan Tsunami (11 th March, 2011... technologies are (IOC, 2006); A stilling well and a float, Pressure system, Acoustic system and Radar system. We will briefly describe the principle of operation of Pressure and Radar system in this section, as they are the used in the present study: A...

  6. Diabetes, obesity and non-optimum blood pressure levels in a group of employees of the University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus, 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disdier-Flores, Orville M; Rodríguez-Lugo, Luis A

    2005-06-01

    To estimate the proportion of diabetes, obesity and non-optimum blood pressure levels in a group of employees of the University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus that participated in a diabetes health fair at the "Centro de Diabetes para Puerto Rico". A total of 113 participants of the diabetes health fair completed a questionnaire to obtain demographic characteristics and the frequency of self-reported diabetes. The nursing staff examined the participants in order to obtain the following clinical characteristics: body mass index, blood pressure and blood glucose levels. The proportion of self-reported diabetes, obesity (> or = 30 kg/m2) and non-optimum blood pressure levels (systolic > or = 20 mm/Hg or diastolic > or = 80 mm/Hg) were 15.4% (95% CI: 8.5% - 25.7%), 80.0% (95% CI: 70.8%-86.9%) and 70.5% (95% CI: 61.1%-78.6%), respectively. Although it was not statistically significant, diabetes was higher among females (15.4%) compared to males (12.0%). All participants with self-reported diabetes were overweight or obese, and 91.7% showed non-optimum blood pressure levels. A significant positive correlation (p diabetes, obesity, and non-optimum blood pressure levels in this sample of Medical Sciences Campus employees underscores the need for confirming these results in a larger study and developing strategies focused on reducing health risks in this population.

  7. Appropriate threshold levels of cardiac beat-to-beat variation in semi-automatic analysis of equine ECG recordings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mette Flethøj; Kanters, Jørgen K.; Pedersen, Philip Juul

    2016-01-01

    considerably with heart rate (HR), and an adaptable model consisting of three different HR ranges with separate threshold levels of maximum acceptable RR deviation was consequently defined. For resting HRs

  8. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of AMSU-A Level 1c Brightness Temperature, Version 1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains Level 1c inter-calibrated brightness temperatures from the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) sensors onboard six polar orbiting...

  9. Sea level during storm surges as seen in tide-gauge records along the east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sundar, D.; Shankar, D.; Shetye, S.R.

    and crossed the north Orissa coast later that day; it weakened and moved westward subsequent to landfall. Sea-level variations due to surges triggered by storm winds form a noise superimposed on the highly periodic tides, which have astronomical origins.... In the next section we describe the analysis used to 1326 CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 77, NO. 10, 25 NOVEMBER 1999 COMPUTATIONAL ENGINEERING SCIENCE Figure 1b. Astronomical tide and dehyphenminustided sea level during Event 1. The dark blue vertical lines...

  10. An inter-decadal increase in summer sea level pressure over the Mongolian region around the early 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiyan; Wen, Zhiping; Wu, Renguang; Li, Xiuzhen; Chen, Ruidan

    2018-05-01

    The East Asian summer monsoon is affected by processes in the mid-high latitudes in addition to various tropical and subtropical systems. The present study investigates the summer sea level pressure (SLP) variability over northern East Asia (NEA) and emphasizes the closed active center over the Mongolian region. It is found that the seasonal mean Mongolian SLP (MSLP) anomaly is closely connected with the variability of summertime regional synoptic extra-tropical cyclones on longer time scales. A significant inter-decadal increase in the MSLP around the early 1990s has been detected, which is accompanied by a weakening in the activity of regional extra-tropical cyclones. Recent warming over NEA may have a contribution to the inter-decadal change, which features evidently meridional inhomogeneity around 45°N. The inhomogeneous air temperature anomaly distribution results in decreased vertical wind shear, reduced atmospheric baroclinicity over the Mongolian region, and thus inactive regional cyclones and increased MSLP in the latter decade. The associated temperature anomaly distribution may be partly attributed to regional inhomogeneity in cloud and radiation anomalies, and it is further maintained by two positive feedback mechanisms associated with atmospheric internal processes: one via adiabatic heating and the other via horizontal temperature advection.

  11. Investigating the influence of anthropogenic forcing on observed mean and extreme sea level pressure trends over the Mediterranean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkhordarian, Armineh

    2012-01-01

    We investigate whether the observed mean sea level pressure (SLP) trends over the Mediterranean region in the period from 1975 to 2004 are significantly consistent with what 17 models projected as response of SLP to anthropogenic forcing (greenhouse gases and sulphate aerosols, GS). Obtained results indicate that the observed trends in mean SLP cannot be explained by natural (internal) variability. Externally forced changes are detectable in all seasons, except spring. The large-scale component (spatial mean) of the GS signal is detectable in all the 17 models in winter and in 12 of the 17 models in summer. However, the small-scale component (spatial anomalies about the spatial mean) of GS signal is only detectable in winter within 11 of the 17 models. We also show that GS signal has a detectable influence on observed decreasing (increasing) tendency in the frequencies of extremely low (high) SLP days in winter and that these changes cannot be explained by internal climate variability. While the detection of GS forcing is robust in winter and summer, there are striking inconsistencies in autumn, where analysis points to the presence of an external forcing, which is not GS forcing.

  12. The Multimorbidity Cluster Analysis Tool: Identifying Combinations and Permutations of Multiple Chronic Diseases Using a Record-Level Computational Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Nicholson

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Multimorbidity, or the co-occurrence of multiple chronic health conditions within an individual, is an increasingly dominant presence and burden in modern health care systems.  To fully capture its complexity, further research is needed to uncover the patterns and consequences of these co-occurring health states.  As such, the Multimorbidity Cluster Analysis Tool and the accompanying Multimorbidity Cluster Analysis Toolkit have been created to allow researchers to identify distinct clusters that exist within a sample of participants or patients living with multimorbidity.  Development: The Tool and Toolkit were developed at Western University in London, Ontario, Canada.  This open-access computational program (JAVA code and executable file was developed and tested to support an analysis of thousands of individual records and up to 100 disease diagnoses or categories.  Application: The computational program can be adapted to the methodological elements of a research project, including type of data, type of chronic disease reporting, measurement of multimorbidity, sample size and research setting.  The computational program will identify all existing, and mutually exclusive, combinations and permutations within the dataset.  An application of this computational program is provided as an example, in which more than 75,000 individual records and 20 chronic disease categories resulted in the detection of 10,411 unique combinations and 24,647 unique permutations among female and male patients.  Discussion: The Tool and Toolkit are now available for use by researchers interested in exploring the complexities of multimorbidity.  Its careful use, and the comparison between results, will be valuable additions to the nuanced understanding of multimorbidity.

  13. Erectile Dysfunction and Sexual Hormone Levels in Men With Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Efficacy of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Bin; Lin, Qi-Chang; Zeng, Hui-Qing; Jiang, Xing-Tang; Chen, Bo; Chen, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) and serum sexual hormone levels were evaluated in men with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). In these patients, the efficacy of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) was determined. The 207 men (mean age 44.0 ± 11.1 years) enrolled in the study were stratified within four groups based on their apnea-hypopnea index score: simple snoring (n = 32), mild OSA (n = 29), moderate OSA (n = 38), and severe OSA (n = 108). The International Index of Erectile Dysfunction-5 (IIEF-5) score was obtained from each patient, and blood samples for the analysis of sexual hormones (prolactin, luteotropin, follicle-stimulating hormone, estradiol, progestin, and testosterone) were drawn in the morning after polysomnography. The IIEF-5 test and serum sexual hormone measurements were repeated after 3 months of CPAP treatment in 53 men with severe OSA. The prevalence of ED was 60.6 % in OSA patients overall and 72.2 % in those with severe OSA. Compared with the simple snoring group, patients with severe OSA had significantly lower testosterone levels (14.06 ± 5.62 vs. 17.02 ± 4.68, p = .018) and lower IIEF-5 scores (16.33 ± 6.50 vs. 24.09 ± 1.94, p = .001). The differences in the other sexual hormones between groups were not significant. After 3 months of CPAP treatment, there were no significant changes in sexual hormone levels, but the IIEF-5 score had improved significantly (18.21 ± 4.05 vs. 19.21 ± 3.86, p = .001). Severe OSA patients have low testosterone concentration and high ED prevalence. IIEF-5 scores increased significantly after CPAP treatment, but there was no effect on serum testosterone levels.

  14. DERIVING THE PROPERTIES OF CORONAL PRESSURE FRONTS IN 3D: APPLICATION TO THE 2012 MAY 17 GROUND LEVEL ENHANCEMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouillard, A. P.; Plotnikov, I.; Pinto, R. F.; Tirole, M.; Lavarra, M.; Zucca, P.; Vainio, R.; Tylka, A. J.; Vourlidas, A.; Rosa, M. L. De; Linker, J.; Warmuth, A.; Mann, G.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Mewaldt, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    We study the link between an expanding coronal shock and the energetic particles measured near Earth during the ground level enhancement of 2012 May 17. We developed a new technique based on multipoint imaging to triangulate the three-dimensional (3D) expansion of the shock forming in the corona. It uses images from three vantage points by mapping the outermost extent of the coronal region perturbed by the pressure front. We derive for the first time the 3D velocity vector and the distribution of Mach numbers, M FM , of the entire front as a function of time. Our approach uses magnetic field reconstructions of the coronal field, full magnetohydrodynamic simulations and imaging inversion techniques. We find that the highest M FM values appear near the coronal neutral line within a few minutes of the coronal mass ejection onset; this neutral line is usually associated with the source of the heliospheric current and plasma sheet. We illustrate the variability of the shock speed, shock geometry, and Mach number along different modeled magnetic field lines. Despite the level of uncertainty in deriving the shock Mach numbers, all employed reconstruction techniques show that the release time of GeV particles occurs when the coronal shock becomes super-critical ( M FM > 3). Combining in situ measurements with heliospheric imagery, we also demonstrate that magnetic connectivity between the accelerator (the coronal shock of 2012 May 17) and the near-Earth environment is established via a magnetic cloud that erupted from the same active region roughly five days earlier.

  15. DERIVING THE PROPERTIES OF CORONAL PRESSURE FRONTS IN 3D: APPLICATION TO THE 2012 MAY 17 GROUND LEVEL ENHANCEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouillard, A. P.; Plotnikov, I.; Pinto, R. F.; Tirole, M.; Lavarra, M. [Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie, Université de Toulouse III (UPS) (France); Zucca, P. [LESIA-UMR 8109—Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, Univ. Paris 6 and 7, F-92190, Meudon (France); Vainio, R. [University of Turku, Turku (Finland); Tylka, A. J. [Emeritus, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland (United States); Vourlidas, A. [Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Maryland (United States); Rosa, M. L. De [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Palo Alto, California (United States); Linker, J. [Predictive Sciences Inc., San Diego, California (United States); Warmuth, A.; Mann, G. [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), Potsdam (Germany); Cohen, C. M. S.; Mewaldt, R. A., E-mail: arouillard@irap.omp.eu [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California (United States)

    2016-12-10

    We study the link between an expanding coronal shock and the energetic particles measured near Earth during the ground level enhancement of 2012 May 17. We developed a new technique based on multipoint imaging to triangulate the three-dimensional (3D) expansion of the shock forming in the corona. It uses images from three vantage points by mapping the outermost extent of the coronal region perturbed by the pressure front. We derive for the first time the 3D velocity vector and the distribution of Mach numbers, M {sub FM}, of the entire front as a function of time. Our approach uses magnetic field reconstructions of the coronal field, full magnetohydrodynamic simulations and imaging inversion techniques. We find that the highest M {sub FM} values appear near the coronal neutral line within a few minutes of the coronal mass ejection onset; this neutral line is usually associated with the source of the heliospheric current and plasma sheet. We illustrate the variability of the shock speed, shock geometry, and Mach number along different modeled magnetic field lines. Despite the level of uncertainty in deriving the shock Mach numbers, all employed reconstruction techniques show that the release time of GeV particles occurs when the coronal shock becomes super-critical ( M {sub FM} > 3). Combining in situ measurements with heliospheric imagery, we also demonstrate that magnetic connectivity between the accelerator (the coronal shock of 2012 May 17) and the near-Earth environment is established via a magnetic cloud that erupted from the same active region roughly five days earlier.

  16. Self-Recruitment in the Bumphead Parrotfish Under Different Levels of Fishing Pressure in the Solomon Islands

    KAUST Repository

    Lozano-Cortés, Diego

    2014-12-01

    Knowledge in the spatial patterns of fish larval dispersal is crucial for the establishment of a sustainable management of fisheries and species conservation. Direct quantification of larval dispersal is a challenging task due to the difficulty associated with larval tracking in the vast ocean. However, genetic approaches can be used to estimate it. Here, I employed genetic markers (microsatellites) as a proxy to determine dispersal patterns and self-recruitment levels using parentage analysis in the bumphead parrotfish (Bolbometapon muricatum) in the Solomon Islands. Tissue samples of 3924 fish (1692 juveniles, 1121 males and 1111 females) were collected from a spear-fishery at the Kia District in Santa Isabel Island. The samples come from three distinct zones with different fishing pressure histories (lightly fished, recently fished, and heavily fished). The mean dispersal distance estimated for the bumphead parrotfish was 36.5 Km (range 4 – 78 Km) and the genetic diversity for the population studied was low in comparison with other reef fishes. The parentage analysis identified 68 parent–offspring relationships, which represents a self-recruitment level of almost 50 %. Most of the recruits were produced in the zone that recently started to be fished and most of these recruits dispersed to the heavily fished zone. Comparisons of genetic diversity and relatedness among adults and juveniles suggested the potential occurrence of sweepstakes reproductive success. These results suggest that management measures must be taken straightaway to assure the sustainability of the spear-fishery. These measures may imply the ban on juveniles fishing in the heavily fished zone and the larger adults in the recently fished zone. Overall, the population dynamics of the studied system seem to be strongly shaped by self-recruitment and sweepstakes reproduction events.

  17. Self-Recruitment in the Bumphead Parrotfish Under Different Levels of Fishing Pressure in the Solomon Islands

    KAUST Repository

    Lozano-Corté s, Diego

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge in the spatial patterns of fish larval dispersal is crucial for the establishment of a sustainable management of fisheries and species conservation. Direct quantification of larval dispersal is a challenging task due to the difficulty associated with larval tracking in the vast ocean. However, genetic approaches can be used to estimate it. Here, I employed genetic markers (microsatellites) as a proxy to determine dispersal patterns and self-recruitment levels using parentage analysis in the bumphead parrotfish (Bolbometapon muricatum) in the Solomon Islands. Tissue samples of 3924 fish (1692 juveniles, 1121 males and 1111 females) were collected from a spear-fishery at the Kia District in Santa Isabel Island. The samples come from three distinct zones with different fishing pressure histories (lightly fished, recently fished, and heavily fished). The mean dispersal distance estimated for the bumphead parrotfish was 36.5 Km (range 4 – 78 Km) and the genetic diversity for the population studied was low in comparison with other reef fishes. The parentage analysis identified 68 parent–offspring relationships, which represents a self-recruitment level of almost 50 %. Most of the recruits were produced in the zone that recently started to be fished and most of these recruits dispersed to the heavily fished zone. Comparisons of genetic diversity and relatedness among adults and juveniles suggested the potential occurrence of sweepstakes reproductive success. These results suggest that management measures must be taken straightaway to assure the sustainability of the spear-fishery. These measures may imply the ban on juveniles fishing in the heavily fished zone and the larger adults in the recently fished zone. Overall, the population dynamics of the studied system seem to be strongly shaped by self-recruitment and sweepstakes reproduction events.

  18. Intraocular pressure and its correlation with midnight plasma cortisol level in Cushing's disease and other endogenous Cushing's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyadarshini Mishra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to measure intraocular pressure (IOP and evaluate the correlation between IOP and midnight plasma cortisol (MPC level in patients with Cushing's disease (CD and other endogenous Cushing's syndrome (ECS. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study from a single center including newly diagnosed patients with CD or ECS. All patients underwent detailed ophthalmological evaluation. IOP was measured by Goldmann applanation tonometry in the morning and evening on two consecutive days. MPC value was obtained for each patient. The data were compared using paired and unpaired t-test, Mann–Whitney U-test, and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Results: Among 32 patients, 22 were CD (68.75% and 10 patients were other ECS (31.25%. A total of 25 patients (78.12% in our study group had normal IOP (<22 mmHg, and seven patients (21.88% had increased IOP (≥22 mmHg. The percentage of patients with normal IOP was found to be significantly higher compared to percentage of patients with high IOP (P = 0.001 using one-sample Chi-square test. Mean MPC value was 468.6 ± 388.3 nmol/L in patients having IOP ≥22 mmHg and 658.5 ± 584 nmol/L in those with IOP <22 mmHg from both CD and ECS groups, but the difference was not statistically significant. No correlation was found between IOP and MPC (Spearman's rank correlation rho = −0.16 [P = 0.38]. Conclusion: In CD and ECS patients, IOP elevation is an uncommon feature, and high IOP in either group does not correlate with MPC level.

  19. Analysis of convergence of uncertainty and important factors affecting uncertainty in level 1 PSA for pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Yoshio

    2002-01-01

    We analyzed how the convergence of mean core damage frequency (CDF) depends on the number of minimal cut sets, the sampling method and the random seed, using level 1 PSA models for Surry 1 and a Japanese 4 loop PWR plant. As a result, the followings were clarified: the good convergence efficiency of the latin hypercube sampling (LHS), the relationship between number of minimal cut sets and mean CDF, as well as the standard deviation and the easy method of judgment for mean CDF convergence. In addition, it was seen that the relationship between the number of probability variables (i.e. the number of basic events) and the number of samplings needed to converge for mean CDF. Analysis of important factors affecting uncertainty was also performed. As a result, it was found that the initiating events (especially loss of coolant accidents) were the dominant important factors. Finally, comparisons were made for the 95% confidence interval of the calculated results from the operating experience of the worldwide nuclear power plants with (1) the mean core damage frequency by PSA for 108 US plants and 51 Japanese plants and (2) the 95% confidence interval of the US and the Japanese Plant PSA model used in this research. As a result, it was clarified that the mean core damage frequency of almost all US pressurized and boiling light water reactors in the US was in the 90% confidence interval calculated from the operating experience of the nuclear power plants (PWRs and BWRs) in the world, but that of those reactors in Japan was smaller then that level. (author)

  20. Analysis of convergence of uncertainty and important factors affecting uncertainty in level 1 PSA for pressurized water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, Yoshio [Inst. of Nuclear Safety System Inc., Mihama, Fukui (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    We analyzed how the convergence of mean core damage frequency (CDF) depends on the number of minimal cut sets, the sampling method and the random seed, using level 1 PSA models for Surry 1 and a Japanese 4 loop PWR plant. As a result, the followings were clarified: the good convergence efficiency of the latin hypercube sampling (LHS), the relationship between number of minimal cut sets and mean CDF, as well as the standard deviation and the easy method of judgment for mean CDF convergence. In addition, it was seen that the relationship between the number of probability variables (i.e. the number of basic events) and the number of samplings needed to converge for mean CDF. Analysis of important factors affecting uncertainty was also performed. As a result, it was found that the initiating events (especially loss of coolant accidents) were the dominant important factors. Finally, comparisons were made for the 95% confidence interval of the calculated results from the operating experience of the worldwide nuclear power plants with (1) the mean core damage frequency by PSA for 108 US plants and 51 Japanese plants and (2) the 95% confidence interval of the US and the Japanese Plant PSA model used in this research. As a result, it was clarified that the mean core damage frequency of almost all US pressurized and boiling light water reactors in the US was in the 90% confidence interval calculated from the operating experience of the nuclear power plants (PWRs and BWRs) in the world, but that of those reactors in Japan was smaller then that level. (author)

  1. Nationwide individual record linkage study showed poor agreement of causes of death and hospital diagnoses at individual level but reasonable agreement at population level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijs, Bart; Nusselder, Wilma J.; Mackenbach, Johan P.

    Objectives: To investigate to what extent underlying and multiple causes of death represent end-of-life morbidity in individuals and at population level. Study Design and Setting: Cause of death and national hospital data were individually linked for all deaths at the age of 50-84 years, in 2005 in

  2. Characterising multi-level effects of acute pressure exposure on a shallow-water invertebrate: insights into the kinetics and hierarchy of the stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, James P; Thatje, Sven; Ravaux, Juliette; Shillito, Bruce; Hauton, Chris

    2015-08-01

    Hydrostatic pressure is an important, ubiquitous, environmental variable of particular relevance in the marine environment. However, it is widely overlooked despite recent evidence that some marine ectotherms may be demonstrating climate-driven bathymetric range shifts. Wide-ranging effects of increased hydrostatic pressure have been observed from the molecular through to the behavioural level. Still, no study has simultaneously examined these multiple levels of organisation in a single experiment in order to understand the kinetics, hierarchy and interconnected nature of such responses during an acute exposure, and over a subsequent recovery period. Here, we quantify the transcription of a set of previously characterised genes during and after acute pressure exposure in adults of the shrimp Palaemonetes varians. Further, we perform respiratory rate and behavioural analysis over the same period. Increases in expression of genes associated with stress and metabolism were observed during and after high-pressure exposure. Respiratory rate increased during exposure and into the recovery period. Finally, differential behaviour was observed under elevated hydrostatic pressure in comparison to ambient pressure. Characterising generalised responses to acute elevated pressure is a vital precursor to longer-term, acclimation-based pressure studies. Results provide a novel insight into what we term the overall stress response (OSR) to elevated pressure; a concept that we suggest to be applicable to other environmental stressors. We highlight the importance of considering more than a single component of the stress response in physiological studies, particularly in an era where environmental multi-stressor studies are proliferating. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Linear and non-linear sea-level variations in the Adriatic Sea from tide gauge records (1872-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaia Galassi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We have analyzed tide gauge data from the Adriatic Sea in order to assess the secular sea-level trend, its acceleration and the existence of possible cyclic variation. Analyzing the sea-level stack of all Adriatic tide gauges, we have obtained a trend of (1.25±0.04 mm yr-1, in agreement with that observed for the last century in the Mediterranean Sea, and an acceleration that is negligibile compared to the average global values. By means of the Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition technique, we have evidenced an energetic oscillation with a period of ∼20 years that we relate with the recurrence of opposite phases in the Atlantic Multi–decadal Oscillation and North Atlantic Oscillation indices. We suggest that anomalously high sea-level values observed at all the Adriatic tide gauges during 2010 and 2011 can be explained by the rising phase of this 20 years cycle.

  4. The association between pressure pain sensitivity, and answers to questionnaires estimating psychological stress level in the workplace. A feasibility study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballegaard, Søren; Petersen, Pernille; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2012-01-01

    To examine the association between pressure pain sensitivity (PPS) at the sternum as a measure of persistent stress assessed by questionnaires in a working population.......To examine the association between pressure pain sensitivity (PPS) at the sternum as a measure of persistent stress assessed by questionnaires in a working population....

  5. Influence of the composition and agglomeration pressure on the compaction level of the fertilizers based on biomass ash and digestate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wróbel Marek

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research aimed at determining the influence of the composition of the fertilizer mixtures and the compaction pressure on the specific density and density index of fertilizer granules. Investigated mixtures were prepared from fly ash from power plant fuelled by biomass and digestate from biogas plant. The urea, sulfur and phosphorite were also added as enhancing additives. For granule samples made on a strength machine, their specific density was determined on a quasifluid-pycnometer. To determine the effect of agglomerate pressure on the compaction process, the absolute density of the materials was omitted. In such case it was needed to introduce a density index AI. Such a presentation of the results obtained has made it possible to clearly determine how the density of the test mixture results in the applied agglomeration pressure. The specific density of the resulting granules was in the range of 0.85-1.27 g/cm3. The determined density index for the given pressure was in the following ranges: 0.44-0.49 g/cm3 (pressure 100MPa, 0.47-0.51 g/cm3 (pressure 150MPa 0.51 - 0.59 g/cm3 (200MPa pressure. This means that, regardless of the contribution of components to the mixture at the given pressure, a similar degree of compaction was obtained.

  6. The association of physical activity, body mass index and the blood pressure levels among urban poor youth in Accra, Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afrifa-Anane, Ernest; Agyemang, Charles; Codjoe, Samuel Nii Ardey; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; de-Graft Aikins, Ama

    2015-01-01

    Globally, there is an increasing prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP) among adults and youth. However, the mechanisms of how the risk factors (physical inactivity and obesity) relate with blood pressure (BP) are not well known especially among the urban poor youth in low and middle income

  7. Design of a medical record review study on the incidence and preventability of adverse events requiring a higher level of care in Belgian hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlayen Annemie

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse events are unintended patient injuries that arise from healthcare management resulting in disability, prolonged hospital stay or death. Adverse events that require intensive care admission imply a considerable financial burden to the healthcare system. The epidemiology of adverse events in Belgian hospitals has never been assessed systematically. Findings A multistage retrospective review study of patients requiring a transfer to a higher level of care will be conducted in six hospitals in the province of Limburg. Patient records are reviewed starting from January 2012 by a clinical team consisting of a research nurse, a physician and a clinical pharmacist. Besides the incidence and the level of causation and preventability, also the type of adverse events and their consequences (patient harm, mortality and length of stay will be assessed. Moreover, the adequacy of the patient records and quality/usefulness of the method of medical record review will be evaluated. Discussion This paper describes the rationale for a retrospective review study of adverse events that necessitate a higher level of care. More specifically, we are particularly interested in increasing our understanding in the preventability and root causes of these events in order to implement improvement strategies. Attention is paid to the strengths and limitations of the study design.

  8. Improved sea level record over the satellite altimetry era (1993-2010) from the Climate Change Initiative project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ablain, M.; Cazenave, A.; Larnicol, G.

    2015-01-01

    .6 and 1-2 mm year(-1)). Similarly, interannual global mean sea level variations (currently uncertain to 2-3 mm) need to be monitored with better accuracy. In this paper, we present various data improvements achieved within the European Space Agency (ESA) Climate Change Initiative (ESA CCI) project on "Sea...

  9. Investigation Of Arterial Blood Pressure Level And Metabolic Indices In Patients With Arterial Hypertension At Pharmacotherapy With Antihypertensive Medicines Of Various Chemical Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Kh. Glybochko

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to carry on the comparative analysis of medicines of various chemical structure, Telmisar-tan and Bisoprolol, and to reveal their effect on the arterial blood pressure level and the indices of various metabolic processes in patients with arterial hypertension. 60 out-patients with arterial hypertension (stage II risk III both males and females aged 33-55 have been under study taking Telmisartan and Bisoprolol for 3 months. While treating the patients the arterial blood pressure level control and biochemical investigations for determination the indices of metabolic processes have been carried out. The investigated medications have provided the decrease of systolic and diastolic arterial pressure parameters, the increase of concentration of total and ionized calcium, chlorine ions, urea and total bilirubin in blood plasma. Therapy with Telmisartan has shown more significant increase of potassium level in erythro-cytes, decrease of levels of natrium, glucose, glycolized hemoglobin and triglycerides and increased contents of alani-naminotransferase and aspartataminotransferase. The course of therapy with Bisoprolol has restored the normal level of magnesium in blood plasma, has not have any influence on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, increased the level of alaninaminotransferase and significantly increased the contents of total and ionized calcium, urea and creatinine. 3-months therapy with Telmisartan and Bisoprolol has proved the decrease of systolic and diastolic arterial pressure in patients with arterial hypertension. The medications under study have had active and variable effects on metabolic indices

  10. PM levels in the Basque Country (Northern Spain): analysis of a 5-year data record and interpretation of seasonal variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, M.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Gangoiti, G.; Menéndez, M.

    Levels of PM observed at the air quality network from the Basque Country in 1996-2000 ranged from 16 μg PM 10/m 3 at regional background sites, to 35-40 μg TSP/m 3 (equivalent to 25-30 μg PM 10/m 3) at urban background sites, to 40-48 μg TSP/m 3 (30-40 μg PM 10/m 3) at roadside sites; to 50-64 μg TSP/m 3 (35-50 μg PM 10/m 3) at industrial and heavy traffic sites. The EU daily and annual PM 10 limit values for 2005 are not equivalent for the Basque Country, and consequently only the mean 1996-2000 PM levels from one station would exceed the 2005 annual limit value but most of them surpass n=35 exceedances of the daily limit value. The equivalent n to the 2005 annual limit value is around 80. Four major processes exert an influence on PM levels throughout the Basque territory: local and regional anthropogenic contributions, precipitation, African dust and European transport. PM at Llodio (an urban background site under industrial influence and mean PM 10, PM 2.5 and PM 1 levels for 2001 of 34, 25 and 21 μg/m 3) is mainly distributed in the fine mode: 74% of PM 10 is constituted by PM 2.5, and 64% of PM 2.5 presents a diameter <1 μm. The particle size distribution of PM varies seasonally with the fine fractions prevailing in summer (PM 2.5/PM 10=80-90%) and the coarser increasing in winter (PM 2.5/PM 10=60-70%). Meso- and synoptic scale processes affecting global PM levels in the Basque Country have been identified (mainly pollution episodes, African, Atlantic and EU transport). The results obtained allowed us to evaluate the impact of the different types of PM episodes on ambient PM levels and particle size fractions.

  11. Equivalent threshold sound pressure levels (ETSPL) for Sennheiser HDA 280 supra-aural audiometric earphones in the frequency range 125 Hz to 8000 Hz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben; Oakley, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    Hearing threshold sound pressure levels were measured for the Sennheiser HDA 280 audiometric earphone. Hearing thresholds were measured for 25 normal hearing test subjects at the 11 audiometric test frequencies from 125 Hz to 8000 Hz. Sennheiser HDA 280 is a supra-aural earphone that may be seen...... as a substitute for the classical Telephonics TDH 39. The results are given as the Equivalent Threshold Sound Pressure Level, ETSPL, measured in an acoustic coupler specified in IEC 60318-3. The results are in good agreement with an independent investigation from PTB, Braunschweig, Germany. From acoustic...

  12. Sea level reconstruction: Exploration of methods for combining altimetry with other data to beyond the 20-year altimetric record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Peter Limkilde; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2012-01-01

    Ocean satellite altimetry has provided global sets of sea level data for the last two decades, allowing determination of spatial patterns in global sea level. For reconstructions going back further than this period, tide gauge data can be used as a proxy for the model. We examine different methods...... to spatial distribution, and tide gauge data are available around the Arctic Ocean, which may be important for a later high-latitude reconstruction....... of combining satellite altimetry and tide gauge data using optimal weighting of tide gauge data, linear regression and EOFs, including automatic quality checks of the tide gauge time series. We attempt to augment the model using various proxies such as climate indices like the NAO and PDO, and investigate...

  13. Intima-media thickness evaluation by B-mode ultrasound: Correlation with blood pressure levels and cardiac structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.L. Plavnik

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the thickness of the intima-media complex (IMC using a noninvasive method. The carotid and femoral common arteries were evaluated by noninvasive B-mode ultrasound in 63 normotensive and in 52 hypertensive subjects and the thickness of the IMC was tested for correlation with blood pressure, cardiac structures and several clinical and biological parameters. The IMC was thicker in hypertensive than in normotensive subjects (0.67 ± 0.13 and 0.62 ± 0.16 vs 0.54 ± 0.09 and 0.52 ± 0.11 mm, respectively, P<0.0001. In normotensive patients, the simple linear regression showed significant correlations between IMC and age, body mass index and 24-h systolic blood pressure for both the carotid and femoral arteries. In hypertensives the carotid IMC was correlated with age and 24-h systolic blood pressure while femoral IMC was correlated only with 24-h diastolic blood pressure. Forward stepwise regression showed that age, body mass index and 24-h systolic blood pressure influenced the carotid IMC relationship (r2 = 0.39 in normotensives. On the other hand, the femoral IMC relationship was influenced by 24-h systolic blood pressure and age (r2 = 0.40. In hypertensives, age and 24-h systolic blood pressure were the most important determinants of carotid IMC (r2 = 0.37, while femoral IMC was influenced only by 24-h diastolic blood pressure (r2 = 0.10. There was an association between carotid IMC and echocardiographic findings in normotensives, while in hypertensives only the left posterior wall and interventricular septum were associated with femoral IMC. We conclude that age and blood pressure influence the intima-media thickness, while echocardiographic changes are associated with the IMC.

  14. Validation of two-phase CFD models for propellant tank self-pressurization: Crossing fluid types, scales, and gravity levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassemi, Mohammad; Kartuzova, Olga; Hylton, Sonya

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines our computational ability to capture the transport and phase change phenomena that govern cryogenic storage tank pressurization and underscores our strengths and weaknesses in this area in terms of three computational-experimental validation case studies. In the first study, 1g pressurization of a simulant low-boiling point fluid in a small scale transparent tank is considered in the context of the Zero-Boil-Off Tank (ZBOT) Experiment to showcase the relatively strong capability that we have developed in modelling the coupling between the convective transport and stratification in the bulk phases with the interfacial evaporative and condensing heat and mass transfer that ultimately control self-pressurization in the storage tank. Here, we show that computational predictions exhibit excellent temporal and spatial fidelity under the moderate Ra number - high Bo number convective-phase distribution regimes. In the second example, we focus on 1g pressurization and pressure control of the large-scale K-site liquid hydrogen tank experiment where we show that by crossing fluid types and physical scales, we enter into high Bo number - high Ra number flow regimes that challenge our ability to predict turbulent heat and mass transfer and their impact on the tank pressurization correctly, especially, in the vapor domain. In the final example, we examine pressurization results from the small scale simulant fluid Tank Pressure Control Experiment (TCPE) performed in microgravity to underscore the fact that in crossing into a low Ra number - low Bo number regime in microgravity, the temporal evolution of the phase front as affected by the time-dependent residual gravity and impulse accelerations becomes an important consideration. In this case detailed acceleration data are needed to predict the correct rate of tank self-pressurization.

  15. Water resources data for Virginia, water year 1991. Volume 2. Ground-water-level and ground-water-quality records. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1991-30 September 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prugh, B.J.; Powell, E.D.

    1993-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1992 water year for Virginia consist of records of water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. The report (Volume 2. Ground-Water-Level and Ground-Water-Quality Records) contains water levels at 356 observation wells and water quality at 2 wells. Locations of these wells are given in the report

  16. The relationship of depression with the level of blood pressure in population-based Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Keun; Jung, Ju Young; Ryoo, Jae-Hong; Oh, Chang-Mo; Lee, Jae-Hon; Pan, Zihang; Mansur, Rodrigo B; Shekotikhina, Margarita; McIntyre, Roger S; Choi, Joong-Myung

    2018-05-01

    There has been increasing evidence about psychosomatic relationship between mood disorder and blood pressure (BP). However, the degree to which BP categories are associated with depression has been less well described. Thus, this study was to investigate the association of depression with BP categories. A total of 90,643 men and 68,933 women were enrolled in this study. They were stratified into four groups (normal, prehypertension, newly diagnosed hypertension, and recognized hypertension) according to the BP levels and the history of hypertension. Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression was used to evaluate the depressive symptom, and the degree of depression was evaluated by the cutoff of Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (mild: 16-20, moderate: 21-24, severe: ≥25). The multivariate logistic regression was used in calculating odds ratios for depression according to the four BP categories, with adjustment for multiple confounding factors. Subgroup analysis was conducted by gender and age. The adjusted odds ratios for depression tended to decrease from normal to newly diagnosed hypertension, but significantly increased in recognized hypertension (normal: reference, prehypertension: 0.85 [0.80-0.91], newly diagnosed hypertension: 0.75 [0.65-0.86], recognized hypertension: 1.11 [1.03-1.20]). Subgroup analysis also indicated the similar pattern of relationship, which was more prominent in male and middle-aged subgroup than any other subgroups. Depression was inversely associated with elevated BP. However, recognized hypertension had the increased likelihood of depression in male and young age group. These findings suggest that the association between depression and BP may be moderated by the chronicity of hypertension in men and young individuals. Copyright © 2018 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigation of gene expression and serum levels of PIN1 and eNOS with high blood pressure in patients with Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi, Mina; Nikanfar, Masoud; Khakikhatibi, Fatemeh; Rahbarghazi, Reza; Nourazarian, Seyed Manuchehr; Biray Avci, Cigir; Nourazarian, Alireza

    2017-09-01

    According to evidence, Alzheimer's disease is known as one of the most serious neurodegenerative diseases, for which hypertension has been observed to be a key risk factor. Therefore, this study aims to examine the relationship between the PIN1 and eNOS genes expression, as well as serum levels and hypertension in Alzheimer's disease sufferers. Blood samples were obtained from subjects who were divided into four groups: the control group, normotensive Alzheimer's patients, the Alzheimer's sufferers group with hypertension, and the healthy group with only hypertension, considering the inhibition of confounding factors. Thereafter, eNOS and PIN1 genes expression along with serum levels were studied. Based on the obtained results, a statistically significant correlation didn't exist between serum level of PIN1 and the systolic and diastolic blood pressure, between serum level of eNOS and diastolic blood pressure in the norm tension Alzheimer's disease patients, between serum levels of PIN1, eNOS and systolic blood pressure, and between serum eNOS and systolic and diastolic blood pressure in the patients with hypertension (pdiseases in Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of catgut-embedding acupuncture technique on nitric oxide levels and blood pressure in patients with essential hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhana; Srilestari, A.; Marbun, M. B. H.; Mihardja, H.

    2017-08-01

    Hypertension is common a health problem and its prevalence in Indonesia is quite high (31.7%). Catgut embedding—an acupuncture technique—is known to reduce blood pressure; however, no study has confirmed the underlying mechanism. This study examines the effect of catgut embedding on serum nitric oxide (NO) concentration and blood pressure in patients with essential hypertension. Forty hypertension patients were randomly assigned to two groups: the control group received anti-hypertensive drugs whereas the case group received anti-hypertensive drugs and catgut embedding. Results showed a statistically significant mean difference in NO concentration (p < 0.05) and statistically and clinically significant mean difference in systolic and diastolic blood pressure between the two groups (p < 0.05). The results confirm that catgut embedding can influence serum NO concentration and blood pressure in essential hypertension patients.

  19. Direct and indirect costs for adverse drug events identified in medical records across care levels, and their distribution among payers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natanaelsson, Jennie; Hakkarainen, Katja M; Hägg, Staffan; Andersson Sundell, Karolina; Petzold, Max; Rehnberg, Clas; Jönsson, Anna K; Gyllensten, Hanna

    2017-11-01

    Adverse drug events (ADEs) cause considerable costs in hospitals. However, little is known about costs caused by ADEs outside hospitals, effects on productivity, and how the costs are distributed among payers. To describe the direct and indirect costs caused by ADEs, and their distribution among payers. Furthermore, to describe the distribution of patient out-of-pocket costs and lost productivity caused by ADEs according to socio-economic characteristics. In a random sample of 5025 adults in a Swedish county, prevalence-based costs for ADEs were calculated. Two different methods were used: 1) based on resource use judged to be caused by ADEs, and 2) as costs attributable to ADEs by comparing costs among individuals with ADEs to costs among matched controls. Payers of costs caused by ADEs were identified in medical records among those with ADEs (n = 596), and costs caused to individual patients were described by socio-economic characteristics. Costs for resource use caused by ADEs were €505 per patient with ADEs (95% confidence interval €345-665), of which 38% were indirect costs. Compared to matched controls, the costs attributable to ADEs were €1631, of which €410 were indirect costs. The local health authorities paid 58% of the costs caused by ADEs. Women had higher productivity loss than men (€426 vs. €109, p = 0.018). Out-of-pocket costs displaced a larger proportion of the disposable income among low-income earners than higher income earners (0.7% vs. 0.2%-0.3%). We used two methods to identify costs for ADEs, both identifying indirect costs as an important component of the overall costs for ADEs. Although the largest payers of costs caused by ADEs were the local health authorities responsible for direct costs, employers and patients costs for lost productivity contributed substantially. Our results indicate inequalities in costs caused by ADEs, by sex and income. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Observations of wave-induced pore pressure gradients and bed level response on a surf zone sandbar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Dylan; Cox, Dan; Mieras, Ryan; Puleo, Jack A.; Hsu, Tian-Jian

    2017-06-01

    Horizontal and vertical pressure gradients may be important physical mechanisms contributing to onshore sediment transport beneath steep, near-breaking waves in the surf zone. A barred beach was constructed in a large-scale laboratory wave flume with a fixed profile containing a mobile sediment layer on the crest of the sandbar. Horizontal and vertical pore pressure gradients were obtained by finite differences of measurements from an array of pressure transducers buried within the upper several centimeters of the bed. Colocated observations of erosion depth were made during asymmetric wave trials with wave heights between 0.10 and 0.98 m, consistently resulting in onshore sheet flow sediment transport. The pore pressure gradient vector within the bed exhibited temporal rotations during each wave cycle, directed predominantly upward under the trough and then rapidly rotating onshore and downward as the wavefront passed. The magnitude of the pore pressure gradient during each phase of rotation was correlated with local wave steepness and relative depth. Momentary bed failures as deep as 20 grain diameters were coincident with sharp increases in the onshore-directed pore pressure gradients, but occurred at horizontal pressure gradients less than theoretical critical values for initiation of the motion for compact beds. An expression combining the effects of both horizontal and vertical pore pressure gradients with bed shear stress and soil stability is used to determine that failure of the bed is initiated at nonnegligible values of both forces.type="synopsis">type="main">Plain Language SummaryThe pressure gradient present within the seabed beneath breaking waves may be an important physical mechanism transporting sediment. A large-scale laboratory was used to replicate realistic surfzone conditions in controlled tests, allowing for horizontal and vertical pressure gradient magnitudes and the resulting sediment bed response to be observed with precise instruments

  1. The influence of participant characteristics on the relationship between cuff pressure and level of blood flow restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Julie E A; Stodart, Clare; Ferguson, Richard A

    2016-07-01

    Previous investigations to establish factors influencing the blood flow restriction (BFR) stimulus have determined cuff pressures required for complete arterial occlusion, which does not reflect the partial restriction prescribed for this training technique. This study aimed to establish characteristics that should be accounted for when prescribing cuff pressures required for partial BFR. Fifty participants were subjected to incremental blood flow restriction of the upper and lower limbs by proximal pneumatic cuff inflation. Popliteal and brachial artery diameter, blood velocity and blood flow was assessed with Doppler ultrasound. Height, body mass, limb circumference, muscle-bone cross-sectional area, adipose thickness (AT) and arterial blood pressure were measured and used in different models of hierarchical linear regression to predict the pressure at which 60 % BFR (partial occlusion) occurred. Combined analysis revealed a difference in cuff pressures required to elicit 60 % BFR in the popliteal (111 ± 12 mmHg) and brachial arteries (101 ± 12 mmHg). MAP (r = 0.58) and AT (r = -0.45) were the largest independent determinants of lower and upper body partial occlusion pressures. However, greater variance was explained by upper and lower limb regression models composed of DBP and BMI (48 %), and arm AT and DBP (30 %), respectively. Limb circumference has limited impact on the cuff pressure required for partial blood flow restriction which is in contrast to its recognised relationship with complete arterial occlusion. The majority of the variance in partial occlusion pressure remains unexplained by the predictor variables assessed in the present study.

  2. Comment on "Younger Dryas sea level and meltwater pulse 1B recorded in Barbados reefal crest coral Acropora palmata" by N. A. Abdul et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bard, Edouard; Hamelin, Bruno; Deschamps, Pierre; Camoin, Gilbert

    2016-12-01

    Based on new U-Th ages of corals drilled offshore Barbados, Abdul et al. (2016) have confirmed the existence of the abrupt stratigraphic feature called meltwater pulse 1B (MWP-1B), which they interpret as being due to a very large and global sea level step change dated at about 11.3 kyr before present (approximately 15 m and equivalent to twice the amount of water stored in the present Greenland ice sheet). This contrasts with the Tahiti record, in which MWP-1B is essentially absent or very small, as Carlson and Clark (2012) and Lambeck et al. (2014) also conclude in their recent reviews of deglacial sea levels at the global scale. However, the evidence provided by Abdul et al. and their main conclusions are not convincing as they are affected by the following three main problems, which may explain the apparent discrepancies: Problem #1/Barbados is located in a subduction zone, which was also active throughout the Late Glacial period. Furthermore, the Barbados cores studied by Abdul et al. were drilled on both sides of the extension of a tectonic feature identified at the southern tip of Barbados (South Point) as underlined by several studies of the Barbados stratigraphy. Problem #2/Fossil samples of Acropora palmata may not be reliable sea level markers during rapid and large sea level rises. Indeed, the asexual reproduction strategy of this species may not be optimal to keep up when the water depth is increasing very rapidly. This may in part explain why the living depth of A. palmata at Barbados was significantly greater than 5 m during some periods of the last deglaciation, notably between 14.5 and 14 kyr B.P. and possibly between 14 and 11.5 kyr B.P. Problem #3/The slow glacio-isostatic adjustment and the rapid responses due to gravitational changes of ice and water masses complicate the interpretation of individual relative sea level (RSL) records at specific locations. Therefore, the Barbados and Tahiti record cannot be compared directly in terms of absolute

  3. The effect of signal acquisition and processing choices on ApEn values: towards a "gold standard" for distinguishing effort levels from isometric force records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Sarah M; Challis, John H; Winter, Samantha L

    2014-06-01

    Approximate entropy (ApEn) is frequently used to identify changes in the complexity of isometric force records with ageing and disease. Different signal acquisition and processing parameters have been used, making comparison or confirmation of results difficult. This study determined the effect of sampling and parameter choices by examining changes in ApEn values across a range of submaximal isometric contractions of the first dorsal interosseus. Reducing the sample rate by decimation changed both the value and pattern of ApEn values dramatically. The pattern of ApEn values across the range of effort levels was not sensitive to the filter cut-off frequency, or the criterion used to extract the section of data for analysis. The complexity increased with increasing effort levels using a fixed 'r' value (which accounts for measurement noise) but decreased with increasing effort level when 'r' was set to 0.1 of the standard deviation of force. It is recommended isometric force records are sampled at frequencies >200Hz, template length ('m') is set to 2, and 'r' set to measurement system noise or 0.1SD depending on physiological process to be distinguished. It is demonstrated that changes in ApEn across effort levels are related to changes in force gradation strategy. Copyright © 2014 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Acoustic ambient noise recorder

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saran, A.K.; Navelkar, G.S.; Almeida, A.M.; More, S.R.; Chodankar, P.V.; Murty, C.S.

    with a robust outfit that can withstand high pressures and chemically corrosion resistant materials. Keeping these considerations in view, a CMOS micro-controller-based marine acoustic ambient noise recorder has been developed with a real time clock...

  5. The Influence od Air Temperature and Barometric Pressure on Radon and Carbon Dioxide Levels in Air of a Karst Cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obu, K.; Cencur Curk, B.; Gregoric, A.; Smerajec, M.; Vaupotic, J.; Fujiyoshi, R.; Sakuta, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive noble gas radon (222Rn) is created in minerals by radioactive transformation of 226Ra within the 238U natural decay chain. It migrates through the ground, accumulates in underground rooms (e. g., karst caves) and eventually enters the atmosphere. It is always present in our living and working environment. Because of its harmful health effect, it presents a serious social concern but is, on the other hand, a useful tool in several scientific disciplines. It is thus used as a tracer in exploring movement of air masses and an indicator of tectonic faults. Another minor constituent of air is carbon dioxide. Similar as radon, it is dangerous at high levels, but its presence in air of karst caves is indispensable for their life, because it governs speleogenetic processes. In the cave air, its concentration is determined by the inflow of outside air, biogenic activity of soil, degradation of organic matter and carbonate, degassing from water, and human activity. Therefore, ventilation of the cave is crucial for its conservation. Based on temporal variations of radon and carbon dioxide levels, ventilation regime in the cave can be estimated. Radon has been surveyed in all the twenty show caves and in thirty other caves in Slovenia, with emphasis on the Postojna Cave. In the present study, in addition to radon, monitoring of carbon dioxide was introduced for the first time. The Kostanjevica Cave, situated in southern Slovenia in an isolated island of karst, was selected because it is crossed by a tectonic fault at which measurements of three-dimensional micro displacements are underway. Because of the fault, high levels of radon and carbon dioxide were expected. In this paper, measurements are described and both the spatial and time variations of radon and carbon dioxide levels are presented and commented on. Continuous radon monitoring was carried out with the RadonScout devices (Sarad, Germany) from April to December 2009, with several interruptions because of

  6. Hydrologic record extension of water-level data in the Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN), 1991-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrads, Paul; Petkewich, Matthew D.; O'Reilly, Andrew M.; Telis, Pamela A.

    2015-01-01

    The real-time Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN) has been established to support a variety of scientific and water management purposes. The expansiveness of the Everglades, limited number of gaging stations, and extreme sensitivity of the ecosystem to small changes in water depth have created a need for accurate water-level and water-depth maps. The EDEN water-surface elevation model uses data from approximately 240 gages in the Everglades to create daily continuous interpolations of the water-surface elevation and water depth for the freshwater portion of the Everglades from 2000 to the present (2014). These maps provide hydrologic data previously unavailable for assessing biological and ecological studies.

  7. Equivalent threshold sound pressure levels for Sennheiser HDA 200 earphone and Etymotic Research ER-2 insert earphone in the frequency range 125 Hz to 16 kHz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Loc A; Poulsen, Torben

    1998-01-01

    Equivalent Threshold Sound Pressure Levels (ETSPLs) have been determined for the Sennheiser HDA 200 earphone and the Etymotic Research ER-2insert earphone. Thirty-one young normal-hearing test subjects participated and the thresholds were determined for all recommended frequencies in thefrequency...

  8. Role of Effective Density in improving the accuracy of bottom pressure based sea level measurements - A case study from Gulf of Guinea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.; Mehra, P.; Desai, R.G.P.; Dotse, J.; Odametey, J.T.; Nkebi, E.K.; Vijaykumar, K.; Prabhudesai, S.P.

    of the sea water, as a result of turbulence induced by wind forcing and impact of rain drops, is suspected to be responsible for the observed effective reduction in the in situ density of this shallow water body The accuracy of bottom-pressure based sea level...

  9. The Exergetic, Environmental and Economic Effect of the Hydrostatic Design Static Pressure Level on the Pipe Dimensions of Low-Energy District Heating Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tol, Hakan İbrahim; Svendsen, Svend

    2013-01-01

    to be used in a low-energy DH network to carry the heat produced by renewable and/or low grade energy sources to low-energy Danish buildings. In this study, a comparison of various design considerations with different levels of maximum design static pressures was performed, and their results evaluated...... in terms of energetic, exergetic, economic, and environmental perspectives....

  10. COMPARISON OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TWO LEVELS OF SUCTION PRESSURE ON OXYGEN SATURATION IN PATIENTS WITH ENDOTRACHEAL TUBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhaji

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endotracheal suctioning is one of the common supportive measures in intensive care units (ICU, which may be related to complications such as hypoxia. However, a questionable efficacy is still identified to choose suctioning pressure between 130 mmHg and 140 mmHg that is effective for patients with endotracheal tube. Objective: To compare the effectiveness of 130 mmHg and 140 mmHg suctioning pressure on oxygen saturation in patients with endotracheal tube. Methods: This research used a quasy experimental design with pretest and posttest group. The study was conducted from 31 January to 1 March 2017 in the Hospital of Panti Wilasa Citarum and Hospital of Roemani Muhammadiyah Semarang. There were 30 samples recruited using consecutive sampling, with 15 assigned in the 130 mmHg and 140 mmHg suctioning pressure group. Pulse oximetry was used to measure oxygen saturation. Paired t-test and Independent t-test were used for data analysis. Results: Findings showed that there was a statistically significant effect of 130 and 140 mmHg suctioning pressure on oxygen saturation in patients with ETT with p-value <0.05. There was a significant mean difference of oxygen saturation between 130 mmHg and 140 mmHg suctioning pressure group with p-value 0.004 (<0.05. The mean difference of oxygen saturation between both groups was 13.157. Conclusion: The 140 mmHg suctioning pressure is more effective compared with 130 mmHg suctioning pressure in increasing oxygen saturation in patients with ETT.

  11. Street-Level Strategies of Child Welfare Social Workers in Flanders: The Use of Electronic Client Records in Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Witte, Jasper; Declercq, Anja; Hermans, Koen

    2016-07-01

    The use of information and communication technology (ICT) in child welfare services has increased significantly during the last decades, and so have the possibilities to process health data. Parton (2009) states that this evolution has led to a shift in the nature of social work itself: from 'the social' to 'the informational'. It is claimed that social workers primarily are becoming information processors concerned with the gathering, sharing and monitoring of information, instead of being focused on the relational dimensions of their work. However, social workers have considerable discretion concerning the way they use ICT. In this paper, we investigate (i) the street-level strategies social workers develop regarding ICT and (ii) how these relate to a narrative social work approach. To illustrate this, an evaluation of Charlotte was conducted, a client registration system that is used by social workers in child welfare services in Flanders, Belgium. Based on fifteen interviews, we find that social workers develop various strategies regarding Charlotte to preserve a relational and narrative work approach. These strategies not only result in a gap between ICT policy and the execution of that policy in practice, but also decrease the extent to which accountability can be realised via registration data.

  12. Effect of l-arginine therapy on plasma NO/sub 2/ and NO/sub 3/ levels, and blood pressure in uremic rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanif, M.; Khemomal, A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Normal kidney function is regulated by Nitric oxide (NO) and Superoxide (O/sub 2/-) in the body, and consequently controls blood pressure. Nitric Oxide promotes natriuresis and diuresis, and therefore results in reduction of blood pressure. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of L-arginine supplementation on blood pressure, urinary protein, nitrite and nitrate in addition to blood urea, serum creatinine and creatinine clearance in uremic rabbits. Methods: This study was carried out in the Department of Biochemistry Basic Medical Sciences Institute, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi. A total of 48 rabbits were included in the study. Twenty-four of the rabbits on surgical intervention were prepared as uremic and so became hypertensive as well. Two groups were uremic, one group was given L-arginine and the other was remained untreated. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was measured on week 0, week 2, week 4, and week 6, while blood and urine was collected on week 0 and week 6. Results: On supplementation with L-arginine to uremic rabbits systolic and diastolic blood pressures were decreased significantly. Nitrite/nitrate and urinary protein were corrected to some extent while blood urea and serum creatinine were unaffected. Conclusion: L-arginine has a beneficial role as blood pressure lowering agent in uremic rabbits. It corrects NO/sub 2/NO/sub 3/ plasma level and proteinuria which is indicator of renal failure. (author)

  13. Development of a PID-Fuzzy controller in the water level control of a pressurizer of a nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, Thiago S.P.; Lira, Carlos A.B.O.; Vasconcelos, Wagner E., E-mail: thiago.brito86@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: cabol@ufpe.br, E-mail: wagner@unicap.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia e Geociencias. Departamento de Energia Nuclear; Universidade Catolica de Pernambuco (UNICAP), Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologia

    2017-11-01

    It is well known that safety in the operation of nuclear power plants is a primary requirement because a failure of this system can result in serious problems to the environment. A nuclear reactor has several systems that help keep it in normal operation, within safety margins. Many of these systems operate in the control of variable quantities in the primary circuit of a reactor. However, nuclear reactors are nonlinear physical systems, and this introduces a complexity in the control strategies. Among several mechanisms in the thermal-hydraulic system of a reactor that actuate as a controller, the pressurizer is the component responsible for absorbing pressure variations that occur in the primary circuit. This work aims at the development of a PID controller (Proportional Integral Derivative) based on fuzzy logic to operate in a pressurizer of a nuclear Pressurized Water Reactor. A Fuzzy Controller was developed using the process of fuzzification, inference, and defuzzification of the variables of interest to a pressurizer, then this controller was coupled to a PID Controller building a PID Controller, but oriented by Fuzzy logic. Subsequently, the PID-Fuzzy Controller was experimentally validated in a Simulation Plant in which transients like those in a PWR were conducted. The PID parameters were analyzed and adjusted for better responses and results. The results of the validation were also compared to simple controllers (on / off). (author)

  14. Development of a PID-Fuzzy controller in the water level control of a pressurizer of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, Thiago S.P.; Lira, Carlos A.B.O.; Vasconcelos, Wagner E.; Universidade Catolica de Pernambuco

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that safety in the operation of nuclear power plants is a primary requirement because a failure of this system can result in serious problems to the environment. A nuclear reactor has several systems that help keep it in normal operation, within safety margins. Many of these systems operate in the control of variable quantities in the primary circuit of a reactor. However, nuclear reactors are nonlinear physical systems, and this introduces a complexity in the control strategies. Among several mechanisms in the thermal-hydraulic system of a reactor that actuate as a controller, the pressurizer is the component responsible for absorbing pressure variations that occur in the primary circuit. This work aims at the development of a PID controller (Proportional Integral Derivative) based on fuzzy logic to operate in a pressurizer of a nuclear Pressurized Water Reactor. A Fuzzy Controller was developed using the process of fuzzification, inference, and defuzzification of the variables of interest to a pressurizer, then this controller was coupled to a PID Controller building a PID Controller, but oriented by Fuzzy logic. Subsequently, the PID-Fuzzy Controller was experimentally validated in a Simulation Plant in which transients like those in a PWR were conducted. The PID parameters were analyzed and adjusted for better responses and results. The results of the validation were also compared to simple controllers (on / off). (author)

  15. Pulse Wave Velocity as Marker of Preclinical Arterial Disease: Reference Levels in a Uruguayan Population Considering Wave Detection Algorithms, Path Lengths, Aging, and Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Farro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV has emerged as the gold standard for non-invasive evaluation of aortic stiffness; absence of standardized methodologies of study and lack of normal and reference values have limited a wider clinical implementation. This work was carried out in a Uruguayan (South American population in order to characterize normal, reference, and threshold levels of PWV considering normal age-related changes in PWV and the prevailing blood pressure level during the study. A conservative approach was used, and we excluded symptomatic subjects; subjects with history of cardiovascular (CV disease, diabetes mellitus or renal failure; subjects with traditional CV risk factors (other than age and gender; asymptomatic subjects with atherosclerotic plaques in carotid arteries; patients taking anti-hypertensives or lipid-lowering medications. The included subjects (n=429 were categorized according to the age decade and the blood pressure levels (at study time. All subjects represented the “reference population”; the group of subjects with optimal/normal blood pressures levels at study time represented the “normal population.” Results. Normal and reference PWV levels were obtained. Differences in PWV levels and aging-associated changes were obtained. The obtained data could be used to define vascular aging and abnormal or disease-related arterial changes.

  16. Regional, holocene records of the human dimension of global change: sea-level and land-use change in prehistoric Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluyter, Andrew

    1997-02-01

    Regional, Holocene records hold particular relevance for understanding the reciprocal nature of global environmental change and one of its major human dimensions: "sustainable agriculture", i.e., food production strategies which entail fewer causes of and are less susceptible to environmental change. In an epoch of accelerating anthropogenic transformation, those records reveal the protracted regional causes and consequences of change (often agricultural) in the global system as well as informing models of prehistoric, intensive agriculture which, because of long tenures and high productivities, suggest strategies for sustainable agricultural in the present. This study employs physiographic analysis and the palynological, geochemical record from cores of basin fill to understand the reciprocal relation between environmental and land-use change in the Gulf of Mexico tropical lowland, focusing on a coastal basin sensitive to sea-level change and containing vestiges of prehistoric settlement and wetland agriculture. Fossil pollen reveals that the debut of maize cultivation in the Laguna Catarina watershed dates to ca. 4100 BC, predating the earliest evidence for that cultivar anywhere else in the lowlands of Middle America. Such an early date for a cultivar so central to Neotropical agroecology and environmental change, suggests the urgency of further research in the study region. Moreover, the longest period of continuous agriculture in the basin lasted nearly three millennia (ca. 2400 BC-AD 550) despite eustatic sea-level rise. Geochemical fluxes reveal the reciprocity between land-use and environmental change: slope destabilization, basin aggradation, and eutrophication. The consequent theoretical implications pertain to both applied and basic research. Redeploying ancient agroecologies in dynamic environments necessitates reconstructing the changing operational contexts of putative high productivity and sustainability. Adjusting land use in the face of global

  17. Does the serum uric acid level have any relation to arterial stiffness or blood pressure in adults with congenital renal agenesis and/or hypoplasia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, Raziye; Guney, İbrahim; Altintepe, Lutfullah; Yazici, Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between serum uric acid and arterial stiffness or blood pressure is not clear. The serum uric acid level and its association with cardiovascular risk is not well known in patients with reduced renal mass. We aimed to investigate the relation between serum uric acid levels and arterial stiffness and also blood pressure in patients with congenital renal agenesis and/or hypoplasia. In this single center, cross-sectional study, a total of 55 patients (39 (% 70.9) with unilateral small kidney and 16 (%29.1) with renal agenesis) were included. The median age was 35 (21-50) years. The study population was divided into tertiles of serum uric acid (according to 2.40-3.96, 3.97-5.10, and 5.11-9.80 mg/dl cut-off values of serum uric acid levels). Official and 24-h ambulatory non-invasive blood pressures of all patients were measured. The arterial stiffness was assessed by pulse wave velocity (PWV). PWV values were increased from first to third tertile (5.5 ± 0.6, 5.7 ± 0.8, 6.1 ± 0.7, respectively), but this gradual increase between tertiles did not reach significance. Linear regression analyses showed a positive correlation between serum uric acid levels and PWV (β = 0.40, p = 0.010), but no correlation was found between uric acid and daytime systolic blood pressure (β = 0.24, p = 0.345). In congenital renal agenesis/hypoplasia, the serum uric acid level was positively correlated with arterial stiffness, but there was no correlation with blood pressure.

  18. Relating pressure measurements to phenomena observed in high speed video recordings during tests of explosive charges in a semi-confined blast chamber

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mostert, FJ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available initiation of the charge. It was observed in the video recordings that the detonation product cloud exhibited pulsating behaviour due to the reflected shocks in the chamber analogous to the behaviour of the gas bubble in underwater explosions. This behaviour...

  19. Intraoperative and postoperative evaluation of low tidal volume combined with low-level positive end-expiratory pressure ventilation in laparoscopic surgery in elderly patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye-Qiu Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate intraoperative and postoperative condition of low tidal volume combined with low-level positive end-expiratory pressure ventilation in laparoscopic surgery in elderly patients. Methods: A total of 176 cases of elderly patients (more than 60 years old receiving laparoscopic surgery in our hospital from July 2013 to July 2015 were selected as research subjects and randomly divided into observation group and control group, each group included 88 cases, control group received conventional ventilation strategy, observation group received low tidal volume combined with low-level positive end-expiratory pressure ventilation strategy, and then levels of hemodynamic indexes, respiratory mechanical indexes, serology indexes and cerebral vessel related indexes, etc of two groups were compared. Results: Intraoperative and postoperative heart rate and mean arterial pressure levels of observation group were lower than those of control group, arterial partial pressure of oxygen and oxygenation index levels were higher than those of control group and differences had statistical significance (P<0.05; intraoperative APIP and Pplat values of observation group were lower than those of control group, Cs value was higher than that of control group and differences had statistical significance (P<0.05; intraoperative and postoperative serum IL-8 and TNF-α levels of observation group were lower than those of control group, IL-10 level was higher than that of control group and differences had statistical significance (P<0.05; intraoperative and postoperative PjvO2, SjvO2 and CjvO2 levels of observation group were higher than those of control group, Da-jvO2 level was lower than that of control group and differences had statistical significance (P<0.05. Conclusions: When elderly patients receive laparoscopic surgery, the use of low tidal volume combined with low-level positive end-expiratory pressure ventilation strategy can stabilize hemodynamic

  20. Investigations with respect to pressure build-up in 200 l drums with supercompacted low level waste (LLW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroth, K.; Lammertz, H.

    1988-04-01

    In the drum storage facilities of various nuclear power stations, ballooning effects have recently been observed on a limited number of 200 l drums filled with hypercompacted mixed LLW. The ballooning of the drums lid and bottom is due to internal overpressure caused by gas formation in the waste. The internal drum pressures and the composition of the drum gases were measured on a considerable number of 200 l drums. Hydrogen, formed by chemical reactions between the waste components, was identified as the pressure generating gas. The reasons for the hydrogen formation were investigated on both real and simulated wastes. (orig.) [de

  1. Observations and analysis of free groundwater levels and groundwater pressure in landslide slopes. Jisuberi shamen no jiyu chikasuii, chikasuiatsu no kansoku to kaiseki ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, S; Nakano, T [Niigata Univ., Niigata (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture; Inaba, K [Niigata Univ., Niigata (Japan). Graduate School; Sato, O [Niigata Univ., Niigata (Japan)

    1991-12-25

    It is well known that the landslides in Tertiary systems abundantly found in Niigata Prefecture, etc., frequently occur especially in the snow melting season or the heavy rain season. For studying the occurrence of such landslides, exploration of the actual condition of groundwater and evaluation of the strength of earth are very important even when the landslide occurring mechanism can be presumed in a relatively simple way about the soil mechanics. Therefore, great importance is attached to the observation and investigation on the groundwater level and pressure at landslide sites and stability analyses have been actively performed. However, it is considered that several fundamental problems still exist in the method for estimating the groundwater level and pressure in landslide slopes from the observation method and data on groundwater levels and pressure (pore pressure). In this paper, these fundamental problems are examined on the basis of concrete observations made by the writers on landslide slopes at Matunoyamagoe and Higashimusikame landslide sites in Niigata Prefecture for the past several years. 6 ref., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Power-level regulation and simulation of nonlinear pressurized water reactor core with xenon oscillation using H-infinity loop shaping control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Gang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation is to solve the power-level control issue of a nonlinear pressurized water reactor core with xenon oscillations. A nonlinear pressurized water reactor core is modeled using the lumped parameter method, and a linear model of the core is then obtained through the small perturbation linearization way. The H∞loop shapingcontrolis utilized to design a robust controller of the linearized core model.The calculated H∞loop shaping controller is applied to the nonlinear core model. The nonlinear core model and the H∞ loop shaping controller build the nonlinear core power-level H∞loop shaping control system.Finally, the nonlinear core power-level H∞loop shaping control system is simulatedconsidering two typical load processes that are a step load maneuver and a ramp load maneuver, and simulation results show that the nonlinear control system is effective.

  3. Post-partum trend in blood pressure levels, renal function and proteinuria in women with severe preeclampsia and eclampsia in Sub-Saharan Africa: a 6-months cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaze, Francois Folefack; Njukeng, Francis A; Kengne, Andre-Pascal; Ashuntantang, Gloria; Mbu, Robinson; Halle, Marie Patrice; Asonganyi, Tazoacha

    2014-04-09

    Preeclampsia and eclampsia, which are the most frequent hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, are associated with renal involvements. We aimed to assess the time trend in blood pressure levels, renal function and proteinuria after delivery, and investigate their determinants in Cameroonian women with severe preeclampsia and eclampsia. This was a prospective cohort study involving 54 women with severe preeclampsia and eclampsia, conducted between July 2010 and February 2012 at the central maternity unit of the Yaoundé Central Hospital. Clinical and laboratory parameters were recorded from day-1 to 6 months after delivery. Mixed-linear and logistic regression models were used to relate baseline and within follow-up levels of covariates, with changes in blood pressure levels, renal function and proteinuria, as well as persisting hypertension, renal failure and proteinuria. During follow-up, a significant improvement was observed in blood pressure, renal function and proteinuria (all p post-delivery, respectively. Corresponding figures for persisting hypertension were 23 (42.6%), 15 (27.8%) and 8 (14.8%). Advanced age, higher body mass index, low gestational age at delivery, low fetal birth weight, and proteinuria at delivery were the main risk factors for persisting hypertension at 3 months, meanwhile low fetal birth weight, severe preeclampsia and proteinuria at delivery were correlated with persisting proteinuria at 3 months. Advanced age and higher body mass index were the only determinants of the composite outcome of persisting hypertension or proteinuria at three and six months. Hypertension and proteinuria are very common beyond the postpartum period in Cameroonian women with severe preeclampsia and eclampsia. Long-term follow-up of these women will help preventing and controlling related complications.

  4. Correlation between single-trial visual evoked potentials and the blood oxygenation level dependent response in simultaneously recorded electroencephalography-functional magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglø, Dan; Pedersen, Henrik; Rostrup, Egill

    2012-01-01

    in different occipital and extraoccipital cortical areas not explained by the boxcar regressor. The results suggest that the P1-N2 regressor is the best EEG-based regressor to model the visual paradigm, but when looking for additional effects like habituation or attention modulation that cannot be modeled......To compare different electroencephalography (EEG)-based regressors and their ability to predict the simultaneously recorded blood oxygenation level dependent response during blocked visual stimulation, simultaneous EEG-functional magnetic resonance imaging in 10 healthy volunteers was performed....... The performance of different single-trial EEG regressors was compared in terms of predicting the measured blood oxygenation level dependent response. The EEG-based regressors were the amplitude and latency of the primary positive (P1) and negative (N2) peaks of the visual evoked potential, the combined P1-N2...

  5. Hemodynamic variables during exercise in childhood and resting systolic blood pressure levels 6 years later in adolescence: the European Youth Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Anders; Andresen, Brage Storstein; Møller, N C

    2011-01-01

    of Danish children followed longitudinally for 6 years. The study comprised 226 children randomly sampled at age 9, who had their blood pressure and HR measured during ergometer exercise to exhaustion and was reassessed in adolescence. SBP and RPP during exercise in stage two of the test were positively......The aim of this study was to analyze whether systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate (HR) and rate pressure product (RPP) during exercise in childhood can predict resting SBP levels in adolescence independent of resting SBP and conventional cardiovascular risk factors. We studied this in a sample...... remained significant (P=0.059 and P=0.012, respectively). No significant independent associations were observed for HR during exercise, but associations were in the same direction. Our results supports that measuring SBP and RPP, during a standard acute ergometer exercise test in children, improves...

  6. Comparing two acromegalic patients with respect to central corneal thickness, intraocular pressure, and tear insulin-like growth factor levels before and after treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kan Emrah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the central corneal thickness (CCT, intraocular pressure (IOP, and tear insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 levels of 2 patients with acromegaly before and after the surgical treatment of the disease. CCTs, IOP levels, and tear IGF-1 values showed a decrease after the treatment in 2 patients. As we found higher CCT, IOP, and tear IGF-1 levels in the active phase of the disease in two acromegaly patients, detailed information about the activity of the disease may be important before the examination of these patients.

  7. First measurements of the neutrals pressure and of the degassing level of the lower hybrid antenna induced by the HF power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goniche, M.; Berger-By, G.; Bibet, P.; Bonnel, P.; Bruneau, J.L.; Capitain, J.J.; Gil, C.; Hertout, P.; Rodriguez, L.; Magne, R.

    1989-12-01

    Previous experiments have shown that large amounts of gas may be desorbed from the waveguides walls of a lower hybrid antenna. To reduce the pressure rise, a getter pump has been connected to the LH vessel of Tore Supra. The effective neutrals pumping speed of the LH launcher during a plasma shot has been measured for different configurations of the getter pump (inactive, low conductance and high conductance duct). For deuterium, an effective pumping speed of 33 m 3 /s was obtained. During short conditioning pulses and 2-s plasma shots, degassing rates were measured for RF power level up to 1.2 MW. With different filling gas (He, H 2 , D 2 ), degassing rates are documented and effects of conditioning are discussed. This neutrals influx contributes to the particles balance of the plasma discharge: a significant increase of the total number of particles (10-20%) and a flattening of the density profile are inferred. Large increase of the neutrals pressure in the pumped limitor (up to 32%) was also observed. For 2-s shots, this pressure rise was held below 3 mPa at an average LH power density of 1.5 kW/cm 2 . However, this pressure rise may be, to some extent, larger in the reduced-section part of the launcher which has a low conductance. It is expected that this pressure rise should not exceed 5 mPa at full power (5 KW/cm 2 ) after conditioning [fr

  8. Estimating average shock pressures recorded by impactite samples based on universal stage investigations of planar deformation features in quartz - Sources of error and recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm-Alwmark, S.; Ferrière, L.; Alwmark, C.; Poelchau, M. H.

    2018-01-01

    Planar deformation features (PDFs) in quartz are the most widely used indicator of shock metamorphism in terrestrial rocks. They can also be used for estimating average shock pressures that quartz-bearing rocks have been subjected to. Here we report on a number of observations and problems that we have encountered when performing universal stage measurements and crystallographically indexing of PDF orientations in quartz. These include a comparison between manual and automated methods of indexing PDFs, an evaluation of the new stereographic projection template, and observations regarding the PDF statistics related to the c-axis position and rhombohedral plane symmetry. We further discuss the implications that our findings have for shock barometry studies. Our study shows that the currently used stereographic projection template for indexing PDFs in quartz might induce an overestimation of rhombohedral planes with low Miller-Bravais indices. We suggest, based on a comparison of different shock barometry methods, that a unified method of assigning shock pressures to samples based on PDFs in quartz is necessary to allow comparison of data sets. This method needs to take into account not only the average number of PDF sets/grain but also the number of high Miller-Bravais index planes, both of which are important factors according to our study. Finally, we present a suggestion for such a method (which is valid for nonporous quartz-bearing rock types), which consists of assigning quartz grains into types (A-E) based on the PDF orientation pattern, and then calculation of a mean shock pressure for each sample.

  9. TARGET Imbalances at Record Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallett, Andrew Hughes

    quantitative easing, but are not driven by it. The main threats are the divergence that interrupts further economic integration; and the increasing liabilities taken on by the ECB since 2015. That said, self-correcting mechanisms are weak which makes symmetric adjustments by both creditor and debtor countries...... essential (because of the adding up constraint); and the difficulty that the imbalances cannot always be eliminated simply by balancing current accounts around the system....

  10. Dietary phytosterols and phytostanols decrease cholesterol levels but increase blood pressure in WKY inbred rats in the absence of salt-loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratnayake Walisundera MN

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are safety concerns regarding widespread consumption of phytosterol and phytostanol supplemented food products. The aim of this study was to determine, in the absence of excess dietary salt, the individual effects of excess accumulation of dietary phytosterols and phytostanols on blood pressure in Wistar Kyoto (WKY inbred rats that have a mutation in the Abcg5 gene and thus over absorb phytosterols and phytostanols. Methods Thirty 35-day old male WKY inbred rats (10/group were fed a control diet or a diet containing phytosterols or phytostanols (2.0 g/kg diet for 5 weeks. The sterol composition of the diets, plasma and tissues were analysed by gas chromatography. Blood pressure was measured by the tail cuff method. mRNA levels of several renal blood pressure regulatory genes were measured by real-time quantitative PCR. Results Compared to the control diet, the phytosterol diet resulted in 3- to 4-fold increases in the levels of phytosterols in plasma, red blood cells, liver, aorta and kidney of WKY inbred rats (P 9-fold the levels of phytostanols in plasma, red blood cells, liver, aorta and kidney of these rats (P P P P P angiotensinogen mRNA levels of these rats. Conclusion These data suggest that excessive accumulation of dietary phytosterols and phytostanols in plasma and tissues may contribute to the increased blood pressure in WKY inbred rats in the absence of excess dietary salt. Therefore, even though phytosterols and phytostanols lower cholesterol levels, prospective clinical studies testing the net beneficial effects of dietary phytosterols and phytostanols on cardiovascular events for subgroups of individuals that have an increased incorporation of these substances are needed.

  11. Relationship between long-term exposure to low-level arsenic in drinking water and the prevalence of abnormal blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanwu; Mao, Guangyun; He, Suxia; Yang, Zuopeng; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Xiaojing; Qiu, Wenting; Ta, Na; Cao, Li; Yang, Hui; Guo, Xiaojuan

    2013-11-15

    Arsenic increases the risk and incidence of cardiovascular disease. To explore the impact of long-term exposure to low-level arsenic in drinking water on blood pressure including pulse pressure (PP) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), a cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 in which the blood pressure of 405 villagers was measured, who had been drinking water with an inorganic arsenic content 30-50 years of arsenic exposure and a 2.95-fold (95%CI: 1.31-6.67) increase in the group with >50 years exposure. Furthermore, the odds ratio for prevalence of abnormal PP and MAP were 1.06 (95%CI: 0.24-4.66) and 0.87 (95%CI: 0.36-2.14) in the group with >30-50 years of exposure, and were 2.46 (95%CI: 0.87-6.97) and 3.75 (95%CI: 1.61-8.71) for the group with >50 years exposure, compared to the group with arsenic exposure ≤ 30 years respectively. Significant trends for Hypertension (p<0.0001), PP (p<0.0001) and MAP (p=0.0016) were found. The prevalence of hypertension and abnormal PP as well as MAP is marked among a low-level arsenic exposure population, and significantly increases with the duration of arsenic exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Endurance running ability at adolescence as a predictor of blood pressure levels and hypertension in men: a 25-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsson, L; Kaprio, J; Kautiainen, H; Nupponen, H; Tikkanen, M J; Kujala, U M

    2005-01-01

    The aim was to study whether aerobic fitness measured by a maximal endurance running test at adolescence predicts prevalence of hypertension or blood pressure levels in adulthood. From the 413 (197 slow runners and 216 fast runners) participating in a 2000-meter running test at adolescence in 1976 and responding to a health and fitness questionnaire in 2001, 29 subjects (15 very slow runners and 14 very fast runners) participated in a clinical follow-up study in 2001. Compared to those who were fast runners in adolescence, those who were slow runners tended to have higher age-adjusted risk of hypertension at follow-up (OR 2.7, 95 % CI 0.9 to 7.5; p=0.07). The result persisted after further adjustment for body mass index at follow-up (OR 2.9, 95 % CI 1.0 to 8.3; p=0.05). Diastolic blood pressure was higher for very slow runners at adolescence compared to very fast runners, the age-adjusted mean diastolic blood pressure being 90 mm Hg (95 % CI 86 to 93) vs. 83 mm Hg (95 % CI 80 to 87), age-adjusted p=0.013. High endurance type fitness in adolescence predicts low risk of hypertension and low resting diastolic blood pressure levels in adult men.

  13. The Relationship between Happiness with Blood Pressure and Blood Sugar Levels in Adult Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh lesani

    2017-05-01

    Happiness with systolic blood pressure in people without diabetes and fasting plasma glucose in the case and control groups was statistically correlated and the control of these two biochemical parameters plays an important role in prevention of chronic diseases such as diabetes and heart disease in healthy people. Therefore, happiness as a life style for health promotion could be placed in the national health programs.

  14. Increased level of morning surge in blood pressure in normotensives: A cross-sectional study from Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almas, A.; Sultan, F. T.; Kazmi, K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the mean morning surge (MS) in blood pressure, the frequency of increased morning surge in normotensive subjects, and to compare those with morning surge with those without MS. Study Design: A cross-sectional, comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: The Department of Medicine, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from April 2011 to March 2012. Methodology: Adult normotensive healthy volunteers aged 35 to 65 years were inducted. Their ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) was measured over a 24-hour period, using digital ambulatory blood pressure monitors. Morning surge was calculated as the average of four readings after waking minus the lowest three nocturnal readings. Increased morning surge was defined as > 11 mm Hg in systolic (SBP) or > 12 mm Hg in diastolic (DBP). Dipping was defined as > 10% dipping in blood pressure. Results: Eighty-two healthy volunteers were recruited. Their mean age was 36.9 ± 1.2 years; 74.4 (61%) were men, and 58.5 (48%) woke up for morning prayers. Mean overall SBP was 113 ± 1.6 mm Hg, overall DBP was 73.9 ± 0.7 mm Hg, and overall heart rate was 75 (10) beats/minute. Mean morning surge was 17.6 ± 1.0 mm Hg in SBP and 16.0 ± 0.8 mm Hg in DBP. The frequency of increased morning surge was 66 (80.5%) in SBP, and 57 (69%) in DBP. On comparison of participants with normal morning surge and increased morning surge in SBP, there was a significant difference in non-dipping status (13.4% in normal vs. 18.3% in increased morning surge, p= 0.001). Conclusion: Mean morning surge in SBP and DBP are relatively higher in this subset population in a tertiary care center in Pakistan. These values are higher than those reported in the literature. (author)

  15. Nasal bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP) versus nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in preterm infants ≤32 weeks: A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Zhi-Hui; Li, Wen-Bin; Liu, Wei; Cai, Bao-Huan; Wang, Jing; Yang, Min; Li, Wei; Chang, Li-Wen

    2016-05-01

    To investigate whether Bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP), compared with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), is a more effective therapeutic strategy in preterm infants ≤32 weeks. All inborn infants between 26(+1) and 32(+6) weeks' gestation, admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU ) of Tongji Medical Hospital between 1 January, 2010 and 31 December, 2011 (the 2010-2011 cohort or CPAP cohort) and between 1 January, 2012 and 31 December, 2013 (the 2012-2013 cohort or BiPAP cohort), were retrospectively identified. The primary outcome was intubation in infants CPAP were subsequently intubated (P CPAP, reduced the need for intubation within the first 72 h of age. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  16. Maximum Acceleration Recording Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Coarsely digitized maximum levels recorded in blown fuses. Circuit feeds power to accelerometer and makes nonvolatile record of maximum level to which output of accelerometer rises during measurement interval. In comparison with inertia-type single-preset-trip-point mechanical maximum-acceleration-recording devices, circuit weighs less, occupies less space, and records accelerations within narrower bands of uncertainty. In comparison with prior electronic data-acquisition systems designed for same purpose, circuit simpler, less bulky, consumes less power, costs and analysis of data recorded in magnetic or electronic memory devices. Circuit used, for example, to record accelerations to which commodities subjected during transportation on trucks.

  17. Equivalent threshold sound pressure levels (ETSPL) for Sennheiser HDA 280 supra-aural audiometric earphones in the frequency range 125 Hz to 8000 Hz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Torben; Oakley, Sebastian

    2009-05-01

    Hearing threshold sound pressure levels were measured for the Sennheiser HDA 280 audiometric earphone. Hearing thresholds were measured for 25 normal-hearing test subjects at the 11 audiometric test frequencies from 125 Hz to 8000 Hz. Sennheiser HDA 280 is a supra-aural earphone that may be seen as a substitute for the classical Telephonics TDH 39. The results are given as the equivalent threshold sound pressure level (ETSPL) measured in an acoustic coupler specified in IEC 60318-3. The results are in good agreement with an independent investigation from PTB, Braunschweig, Germany. From acoustic laboratory measurements ETSPL values are calculated for the ear simulator specified in IEC 60318-1. Fitting of earphone and coupler is discussed. The data may be used for a future update of the RETSPL standard for supra-aural audiometric earphones, ISO 389-1.

  18. Spirometry, questionnaire and electronic medical record based COPD in a population survey: Comparing prevalence, level of agreement and associations with potential risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borlée, Floor; Yzermans, C Joris; Krop, Esmeralda; Aalders, Bernadette; Rooijackers, Jos; Zock, Jan-Paul; van Dijk, Christel E; Maassen, Catharina B M; Schellevis, François; Heederik, Dick; Smit, Lidwien A M

    2017-01-01

    COPD-diagnosis is confirmed by post-bronchodilator (BD) spirometry. However, epidemiological studies often rely on pre-BD spirometry, self-reports, or medical records. This population-based study aims to determine COPD-prevalence based on four different operational definitions and their level of agreement, and to compare associations between COPD-definitions and risk factors. COPD-prevalence in 1,793 adults from the general Dutch population (aged 18-70 years) was assessed based on self-reported data, Electronic Medical Records (EMR), and post-BD spirometry: using the FEV1/FVC below the lower limit of normal (LLN) and GOLD fixed cut-off (FEV1/FVC spirometry as a reference, sensitivity was calculated for self-reported and EMR-based COPD. Associations between COPD and known risk factors were assessed with logistic regression. Data were collected as part of the cross-sectional VGO study (Livestock Farming and Neighboring Residents' Health Study). The highest prevalence was found based on spirometry (GOLD: 10.9%, LLN: 5.9%), followed by self-report (4.6%) and EMR (2.9%). Self-reported or EMR-based COPD identified less than 30% of all COPD-cases based on spirometry. The direction of association between known risk factors and COPD was similar across the four definitions, however, magnitude and significance varied. Especially indicators of allergy were more strongly associated with self-reported COPD compared to the other definitions. COPD-prevalence varied depending on the used definition. A substantial number of subjects with spirometry-based COPD cannot be identified with questionnaires or medical records which can cause underestimation of COPD-prevalence. The influence of the different COPD-definitions on associations with known risk factors was limited.

  19. U.S. Policy Towards Cuba as a Two Level Game or: Defending Executive Policy Discretion in the Face of Domestic Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    Foreign Policy Agenda,” International Security 8:1 (1983): 113-128. Dominguez, Jorge I. “ Taming the Cuban Shrew ,” Foreign Policy 10 (1973): 94-116...CUBA AS A TWO LEVEL GAME OR: DEFENDING EXECUTIVE POLICY DISCRETION IN THE FACE OF DOMESTIC PRESSURE by Kevin G. Werry, JR. March 2008...No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for

  20. Direct dissolution of g-level U metal and U-6 % Zr alloy bits by TBP-nitric acid adduct and in situ extraction at ambient pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekhar Kumar; Bijendra Kumar; Gelatar, J.K.; Pranay Kumar Sinha; Alok Kumar Mishra; Kamachi Mudali, U.

    2016-01-01

    A study on direct dissolution of g-level metallic U and U-6 % Zr alloy bits by TBP-nitric acid adduct followed by in situ extraction at ambient pressures under batch and dynamic conditions was performed. The product organic solution was adjusted to 30 % TBP in dodecane and from it, U(VI) could be stripped quantitatively with 0.01 N nitric acid. Experimental results of the study are presented in this paper. (author)

  1. Natural products in Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) rhizome imaged at the cellular level by atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem mass spectrometry imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bin; Bhandari, Dhaka Ram; Janfelt, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The rhizome of Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) was analyzed by high-resolution mass spectrometry imaging and tandem mass spectrometry imaging. An atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging ion source was combined with an orbital trapping mass spectrometer in order to o...... and saponins in legume species, combing the spatially resolved chemical information with morphological details at the microscopic level. Furthermore, the technique offers a scheme capable of high-throughput profiling of metabolites in plant tissues....

  2. Structure and performance of a real-time algorithm to detect tsunami or tsunami-like alert conditions based on sea-level records analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bressan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to present an original real-time algorithm devised for detection of tsunami or tsunami-like waves we call TEDA (Tsunami Early Detection Algorithm, and to introduce a methodology to evaluate its performance. TEDA works on the sea level records of a single station and implements two distinct modules running concurrently: one to assess the presence of tsunami waves ("tsunami detection" and the other to identify high-amplitude long waves ("secure detection". Both detection methods are based on continuously updated time functions depending on a number of parameters that can be varied according to the application. In order to select the most adequate parameter setting for a given station, a methodology to evaluate TEDA performance has been devised, that is based on a number of indicators and that is simple to use. In this paper an example of TEDA application is given by using data from a tide gauge located at the Adak Island in Alaska, USA, that resulted in being quite suitable since it recorded several tsunamis in the last years using the sampling rate of 1 min.

  3. Comparison of intraocular pressure during the application of a liquid patient interface (FEMTO LDV Z8) for femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery using two different vacuum levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Martina; Mariacher, Siegfried; Januschowski, Kai; Boden, Katrin; Seuthe, Anna-Maria; Szurman, Peter; Boden, Karl Thomas

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate intraocular pressure (IOP) using the application of a novel liquid patient interface for femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery with the FEMTO LDV Z8. IOP was evaluated in enucleated porcine eyes prior, during and after the application of the Femto LDV Z8 liquid patient interface (Ziemer Ophthalmic Systems, Switzerland) using intracameral cannulation (n=20), intravitreal cannulation (n=20), rebound tonometry (n=20) and indentation tonometry (n=20). Pressure was assessed prior vacuum, during vacuum (30 s, 1 min, 2 min, 3 min) and after releasing the vacuum (1 min and 2 min). Two groups with different predefined vacuum levels (350 mbar, 420 mbar) were investigated. Mean intracameral pressure (±SD) increased during vacuum application from 20 mm Hg to 52.00 mm Hg (±6.35mm Hg; p=0.005) and 45.18 mmHg (±4.34 mm Hg; p=0.005) for the 420 mbar and the 350 mbar vacuum levels, respectively. Mean intravitreal pressure increased from 20 mm Hg to 25.60 mm Hg (±9.85 mm Hg; p=0.058) and 28.10 mm Hg (±2.54 mm Hg; p=0.059) for the 420 mbar and the 350 mbar vacuum levels, respectively. Pressure values from indentation and rebound tonometry were in between intracameral and intravitreal values. Mean intracameral IOP was 18.1% higher (p=0.019) in the 420 mbar group compared with the 350 mbar group. During vacuum application of the liquid patient interface of the Femto LDV Z8 for femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery, IOP values were higher in the anterior chamber compared with the intravitreal pressure measurements. The higher predefined vacuum level (350 mbar vs 420 mbar) resulted in significant higher intracameral IOP. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Coastal lagoon sediments as a recorder of Holocene landscape evolution and sea-level development: Samsø, southern Kattegat Sea, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Lasse; Fruergaard, Mikkel; Johannessen, Peter N.

    on the fine-grained (lagoonal) sections of the cores. Age control was facilitated using radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence dating. Our data produced a surprisingly consistent pattern for the sedimentary successions found in the lagoons. The initial transgression can be identified along...... with the onset of deposition of fine-grained, organic-rich lagoonal sediments. The subsequent truncation and partial erosion of the lagoon sediments can be related to a decreasing sea-level. Based on these findings, we suggest a conceptual model that allows inferring age and elevation of transgressive...... and regressive stages from the lagoon sediments. Indication of geomorphological developments occurring in proximity to the lagoons (barrier formation, overwashing, dune formation) is further recorded in the deposits. These data can be used to support the proposed reconstruction of Samsø’s landscape evolution...

  5. Arctic smoke – record high air pollution levels in the European Arctic due to agricultural fires in Eastern Europe in spring 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stohl

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In spring 2006, the European Arctic was abnormally warm, setting new historical temperature records. During this warm period, smoke from agricultural fires in Eastern Europe intruded into the European Arctic and caused the most severe air pollution episodes ever recorded there. This paper confirms that biomass burning (BB was indeed the source of the observed air pollution, studies the transport of the smoke into the Arctic, and presents an overview of the observations taken during the episode. Fire detections from the MODIS instruments aboard the Aqua and Terra satellites were used to estimate the BB emissions. The FLEXPART particle dispersion model was used to show that the smoke was transported to Spitsbergen and Iceland, which was confirmed by MODIS retrievals of the aerosol optical depth (AOD and AIRS retrievals of carbon monoxide (CO total columns. Concentrations of halocarbons, carbon dioxide and CO, as well as levoglucosan and potassium, measured at Zeppelin mountain near Ny Ålesund, were used to further corroborate the BB source of the smoke at Spitsbergen. The ozone (O3 and CO concentrations were the highest ever observed at the Zeppelin station, and gaseous elemental mercury was also elevated. A new O3 record was also set at a station on Iceland. The smoke was strongly absorbing – black carbon concentrations were the highest ever recorded at Zeppelin – and strongly perturbed the radiation transmission in the atmosphere: aerosol optical depths were the highest ever measured at Ny Ålesund. We furthermore discuss the aerosol chemical composition, obtained from filter samples, as well as the aerosol size distribution during the smoke event. Photographs show that the snow at a glacier on Spitsbergen became discolored during the episode and, thus, the snow albedo was reduced. Samples of this polluted snow contained strongly elevated levels of potassium, sulphate, nitrate and ammonium ions, thus relating the discoloration to the

  6. Alteration of striatal dopamine levels under various partial pressure of oxygen in pre-convulsive and convulsive phases in freely-moving rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoute, Cécile; Weiss, Michel; Risso, Jean-Jacques; Rostain, Jean-Claude

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the change in the striatal dopamine (DA) level in freely-moving rat exposed to different partial pressure of oxygen (from 1 to 5 ATA). Some works have suggested that DA release by the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) neurons in the striatum could be disturbed by hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) exposure, altering therefore the basal ganglia activity. Such changes could result in a change in glutamatergic and GABAergic control of the dopaminergic neurons into the SNc. Such alterations could provide more information about the oxygen-induced seizures observed at 5 ATA in rat. DA-sensitive electrodes were implanted into the striatum under general anesthesia. After 1 week rest, awaked rats were exposed to oxygen-nitrogen mixture at a partial pressure of oxygen of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 ATA. DA level was monitored continuously (every 3 min) by in vivo voltammetry before and during HBO exposure. HBO induced a decrease in DA level in relationship to the increase in partial pressure of oxygen from 1 ATA to 4 ATA (-15 % at 1 ATA, -30 % at 2 ATA, -40 % at 3 ATA, -45 % at 4 ATA), without signs of oxygen toxicity. At 5 ATA, DA level strongly decreases (-75 %) before seizure which occurred after 27 min ± 7 HBO exposure. After the epileptic seizure the decrease in DA level disappeared. These changes and the biphasic effect of HBO were discussed in function of HBO action on neurochemical regulations of the nigro striatal pathway.

  7. Effect of a high-protein diet on maintenance of blood pressure levels achieved after initial weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberink, M F; Geleijnse, J M; Bakker, S J L

    2015-01-01

    Randomized trials have shown significant blood pressure (BP) reductions after increased protein compared with carbohydrate intake, but the effect on BP maintenance after initial weight loss is unclear. We examined the effect of a high-protein diet on the maintenance of reduced BP after weight loss......(-2), BP was 118/73 mm Hg and 28 subjects (6.5%) used antihypertensive agents. Systolic BP during 26 weeks of weight maintenance dietary intervention increased in both treatment groups, but it was 2.2 mm Hg less (95% CI: -4.6 to 0.2 mm Hg, P=0.08) in the high-protein group than in the lower...

  8. Water-level data for the Albuquerque Basin and adjacent areas, central New Mexico, period of record through September 30, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beman, Joseph E.; Bryant, Christina F.

    2016-10-27

    The Albuquerque Basin, located in central New Mexico, is about 100 miles long and 25–40 miles wide. The basin is hydrologically defined as the extent of consolidated and unconsolidated deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary age that encompasses the structural Rio Grande Rift between San Acacia to the south and Cochiti Lake to the north. Drinking-water supplies throughout the basin were obtained solely from groundwater resources until December 2008, when the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority (ABCWUA) began treatment and distribution of surface water from the Rio Grande through the San Juan-Chama Drinking Water Project. A 20-percent population increase in the basin from 1990 to 2000 and a 22-percent population increase from 2000 to 2010 may have resulted in an increased demand for water in areas within the basin.An initial network of wells was established by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Albuquerque from April 1982 through September 1983 to monitor changes in groundwater levels throughout the Albuquerque Basin. In 1983, this network consisted of 6 wells with analog-to-digital recorders and 27 wells where water levels were measured monthly. The network currently (2015) consists of 124 wells and piezometers. (A piezometer is a specialized well open to a specific depth in the aquifer, often of small diameter and nested with other piezometers open to different depths.) The USGS, in cooperation with the ABCWUA, currently (2015) measures and reports water levels from the 124 wells and piezometers in the network; this report presents water-level data collected by USGS personnel at those 124 sites through water year 2015 (October 1, 2014, through September 30, 2015).

  9. Low-pressure differentiation of tholeiitic lavas as recorded in segregation veins from Reykjanes (Iceland), Lanzarote (Canary Islands) and Masaya (Nicaragua)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, E.; Sigmarsson, O.

    2007-11-01

    Segregation veins are common in lava sheets and result from internal differentiation during lava emplacement and degassing. They consist of evolved liquid, most likely replaced by gas-filter pressing from a ˜50% crystallised host lava. Pairs of samples, host lavas and associated segregation veins from the Reykjanes Peninsula (Iceland), Lanzarote (Canary Islands) and the Masaya volcano (Nicaragua) show extreme mineralogical and compositional variations (MgO in host lava, segregation veins and interstitial glass ranges from 8-10 wt%, 3-6 wt%, and to less than 0.01 wt%, respectively). These samples allow the assessment of the internal lava flow differentiation mechanism, since both the parental and derived liquid are known in addition to the last magma drops in the form of late interstitial glasses. The mineralogical variation, mass-balance calculated from major- and trace element composition, and transitional metal partition between crystals and melts are all consistent with fractional crystallisation as the dominant differentiation mechanism. The interstitial glasses are highly silicic (SiO2 = 70-80 wt%) and represent a final product of high-degree (75-97%) fractional crystallisation of olivine tholeiite at a pressure close to one atmosphere. The tholeiitic liquid-line-of-decent and the composition of the residual melts are governed by the K2O/Na2O of the initial basaltic magma. The granitic minimum is reached if the initial liquid has a high K2O/Na2O whereas trondhjemitic composition is the final product of magma with low initial K2O/Na2O.

  10. Comparison of broad band time series recorded parallel by FGI type interferometric water level and Lippmann type pendulum tilt meters at Conrad observatory, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruotsalainen, Hannu; Papp, Gabor; Leonhardt, Roman; Ban, Dora; Szücs, Eszter; Benedek, Judith

    2016-04-01

    The Finnish Geodetic Institute (FGI) the progenitor of Finnish Geospatial Research Institute of NLS designed and built a 5.5m long prototype of interferometric water level tiltmeter (iWT) in early 2014. Geodetic and Geophysical Institute (GGI), Sopron, Hungary bought the instrument and started tilt measurement in August 2014 at the Conrad observatory (COBS), Austria to monitor geodynamical phenomena like microseisms, free oscillations of the Earth, earth tides, mass loading effects and crustal deformations in cooperation with Austrian Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) and the FGI. On the July 16 2015 a Lippmann-type 2D tilt sensor (LTS) was also installed by GGI on the 6 m long pier where iWT was set up previously. This situation opens a possibility to do broad band (from secular to seismic variations up to 15 Hz) geophysical signal analysis comparing the responses of long (several meters) and short (a few decimeters) base instruments implementing different physical principles (relative height change of a level surface and inclination change of the plumb line). The characteristics of the sensors are studied by the evaluation of the spectra of recorded signals dominated by microseisms. The iWT has internal interferometric calibration and it can be compared to Lippmanns tilt meter one. Both instruments show good long term ( > 1 day) stability when earth tides and ocean and air mass loading tilts are modelled.

  11. Blood pressure documentation in the emergency department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Ana Carolina Queiroz Godoy; Machado, Juliana Pereira; Veiga, Eugenia Velludo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To analyze the frequency of blood pressure documentation performed by nursing professionals in an emergency department. Methods This is a cross-sectional, observational, descriptive, and analytical study, which included medical records of adult patients admitted to the observation ward of an emergency department, between March and May 2014. Data were obtained through a collection instrument divided into three parts: patient identification, triage data, and blood pressure documentation. For statistical analysis, Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used, with a significance level of α<0.05. Results One hundred fifty-seven records and 430 blood pressure measurements were analyzed with an average of three measurements per patient. Of these measures, 46.5% were abnormal. The mean time from admission to documentation of the first blood pressure measurement was 2.5 minutes, with 42 minutes between subsequent measures. There is no correlation between the systolic blood pressure values and the mean time interval between blood pressure documentations: 0.173 (p=0.031). Conclusion The present study found no correlation between frequency of blood pressure documentation and blood pressure values. The frequency of blood pressure documentation increased according to the severity of the patient and decreased during the length of stay in the emergency department. PMID:28444085

  12. Direct detection of benzene, toluene, and ethylbenzene at trace levels in ambient air by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization using a handheld mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guangming; Gao, Liang; Duncan, Jason; Harper, Jason D; Sanders, Nathaniel L; Ouyang, Zheng; Cooks, R Graham

    2010-01-01

    The capabilities of a portable mass spectrometer for real-time monitoring of trace levels of benzene, toluene, and ethylbenzene in air are illustrated. An atmospheric pressure interface was built to implement atmospheric pressure chemical ionization for direct analysis of gas-phase samples on a previously described miniature mass spectrometer (Gao et al. Anal. Chem.2006, 78, 5994-6002). Linear dynamic ranges, limits of detection and other analytical figures of merit were evaluated: for benzene, a limit of detection of 0.2 parts-per-billion was achieved for air samples without any sample preconcentration. The corresponding limits of detection for toluene and ethylbenzene were 0.5 parts-per-billion and 0.7 parts-per-billion, respectively. These detection limits are well below the compounds' permissible exposure levels, even in the presence of added complex mixtures of organics at levels exceeding the parts-per-million level. The linear dynamic ranges of benzene, toluene, and ethylbenzene are limited to approximately two orders of magnitude by saturation of the detection electronics. 2010 American Society for Mass Spectrometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Blood pressure level and relation to other cardiovascular risk factors in male hypertensive patients without clinical evidence of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, C T; Sørum, C; Hansen, J F

    2000-01-01

    , duration of hypertension, cholesterol and triglyceride level, smoking status, information of regular exercise, a family history of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and drug treatment, in 220 men treated for arterial hypertension. In the univariate analyses we found a higher systolic blood pressure (SBP......) with older age, higher SBP in smoking patients and lower SBP in patients with regular exercise. In a multivariate model age (p = 0.0004), smoking status (p = 0.01) and regular exercise (p= 0.06) were independently associated with SBP. There was a lower diastolic blood pressure (DBP) with older age, and age...... cardiovascular risk factors--43% was smoking, 21% had a family history of IHD, 77% had a se-cholesterol above 5.5 mmol/l and 48% had a se-triglyceride above 1.6 mmol/l. In a consecutive group of asymptomatic male treated hypertensive patients SBP is independently associated with age and smoking status, and DBP...

  14. Experimental investigations of two-phase mixture level swell and axial void fraction distribution under high pressure, low heat flux conditions in rod bundle geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anklam, T.M.; White, M.D.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental data is reported from a series of quasi-steady-state two-phase mixture level swell and void fraction distribution tests. Testing was performed at ORNL in the Thermal Hydraulic Test Facility - a large electrically heated test loop configured to produce conditions similar to those expected in a small break loss of coolant accident. Pressure was varied from 2.7 to 8.2 MPa and linear power ranged from 0.33 to 1.95 kW/m. Mixture swell was observed to vary linearly with the total volumetric vapor generation rate over the power range of primary interest in small break analysis. Void fraction data was fit by a drift-flux model and both the drift-velocity and concentration parameter were observed to decrease with increasing pressure

  15. Effects of endurance and high intensity training on ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 levels and arterial pressure in obese and normal weight adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargarfard, Mehdi; Lam, Eddie T C; Shariat, Ardalan; Asle Mohammadi, Mahmoud; Afrasiabi, Saleh; Shaw, Ina; Shaw, Brandon S

    2016-09-01

    Obesity prevalence has increased in Iranian adolescents in recent years. However, few studies have examined the impact of intervention programs on this health issue. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of 8-week endurance training (ET) and high intensity interval training (HIIT) on intercellular adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1) and vascular adhesion molecule-1(VCAM-1) levels among obese and normal-weight male adolescents. Thirty obese and 30 normal-weight subjects were assigned to the ET, HIIT, or control group for eight weeks. Before and after the intervention, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, body weight, BMI, VO2max, and blood pressures were measured. SPSS (Version 21) was used for data analysis, and the significance level was set at p HIIT (from 517 ± 72 ng/ml to 374 ± 50 ng/ml), but their VCAM-1 level was significantly (p HIIT (from 1689 ± 119 ng/ml to 1282 ± 63 ng/ml). Similarly, normal weight participants significantly (p HIIT (from 289 ± 22 ng/ml to 202 ± 12 ng/ml), but their VCAM-1 level was significantly (p HIIT (from 895 ± 50 ng/ml to 673 ± 142 ng/ml). Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressures of all the participants were significantly (p HIIT. While both the ET and HIIT were useful in lowering the SBP and DBP of the participants, HIIT was more effective than ET in reducing ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 content in normal and obese adolescents.

  16. Dynamical structure of center-of-pressure trajectories with and without functional taping in children with cerebral palsy level I and II of GMFCS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavão, Silvia Leticia; Ledebt, Annick; Savelsbergh, Geert J P; Rocha, Nelci Adriana C F

    2017-08-01

    Postural control during quiet standing was examined in typical children (TD) and children with cerebral palsy (CP) level I and II of GMFCS. The immediate effect on postural control of functional taping on the thighs was analyzed. We evaluated 43 TD, 17 CP children level I, and 10 CP children level II. Participants were evaluated in two conditions (with and without taping). The trajectories of the center of pressure (COP) were analyzed by means of conventional posturography (sway amplitude, sway-path-length) and dynamic posturography (degree of twisting-and-turning, sway regularity). Both CP groups showed larger sway amplitude than the TD while only the CP level II showed more regular COP trajectories with less twisting-and-turning. Functional taping didn't affect sway amplitude or sway-path-length. TD children exhibited more twisting-and-turning with functional taping, whereas no effects on postural sway dynamics were observed in CP children. Functional taping doesn't result in immediate changes in quiet stance in CP children, whereas in TD it resulted in faster sway corrections. Children level II invest more attention in postural control than level I, and TD. While quiet standing was more automatized in children level I than in level II, both CP groups showed a less stable balance than TD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Reflective teaching of medical communication skills with DiViDU: assessing the level of student reflection on recorded consultations with simulated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsman, R L; Harmsen, A B; Fabriek, M

    2009-02-01

    Acquisition of effective, goal-oriented communication skills requires both practicing skills and reflective thinking. Reflection is a cyclic process of perceiving and analysing communication behaviour in terms of goals and effects and designing improved actions. Based on Korthagen's ALACT reflection model, communication training on history taking was designed. Objectives were to develop rating criteria for assessment of the students' level of reflection and to collect student evaluations of the reflective cycle components in the communication training. All second year medical students recorded a consultation with a simulated patient. In DiViDU, a web-based ICT program, students reviewed the video, identified and marked three key events, attached written reflections and provided peer-feedback. Students' written reflections were rated on four reflection categories. A reflection-level score was based on a frequency count of the number of categories used over three reflections. Students filled out an evaluation questionnaire on components of the communication training. Data were analyzed of 304 (90.6%) students. The four reflection categories Observations, Motives, Effects and Goals of behaviour were used in 7-38%. Most students phrased undirected questions for improvement (93%). The average reflection score was 2.1 (S.D. 2.0). All training components were considered instructive. Acting was preferred most. Reviewing video was considered instructive. Self-reflection was considered more difficult than providing written feedback to the reflections of peers. Reflection on communication behaviour can be systematically implemented and measured in a structured way. Reflection levels were low, probably indicating a limited notion of goal-oriented attributes of communication skills. Early introduction of critical self-reflection facilitates acceptance of an important ability for physicians for continued life-long learning and becoming mindful practitioners.

  18. The effects of increasing levels of dietary garlic bulb on growth performance, systolic blood pressure, hematology, and ascites syndrome in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varmaghany, Saifali; Karimi Torshizi, Mohammad Amir; Rahimi, Shaban; Lotfollahian, Houshang; Hassanzadeh, Mohammad

    2015-08-01

    The effects of dietary garlic bulb were studied separately on hematological parameters, ascites incidence, and growth performance of an ascites susceptible broiler hybrid under both standard temperature conditions ( STC: ) and cold temperature conditions ( CTC: ). A total of 336 one-day-old male broiler chickens were allocated to 4 experimental groups with 4 replicates of 21 birds each under STC. In addition, the same grouping with another 336 birds was used for CTC. Under CTC, the birds were exposed to cold temperatures for induction of ascites. Experimental groups were defined by the inclusion of 0 (control), 5, 10 or 15 g/kg garlic bulbs in the diets under both STC and CTC. Growth performance, systolic blood pressure (as a measure of systemic arterial blood pressure), physiological and biochemical parameters, as well as ascites indices (right ventricle [ RV: ], total ventricle [ TV: ] weights, and RV/TV: ) were evaluated. Systolic blood pressure was determined using an indirect method with a sphygmomanometer, a pediatric cuff, and a Doppler device. The final body weight decreased quadratically (P = 0.003), with increasing garlic bulb levels in the diets under STC. The feed conversion ratio showed no significant differences among all groups under both STC and CTC. No significant differences were observed in total mortality and ascites-related mortality in all groups under STC, although total mortality (L: P = 0.01; Q: P = 0.001) and ascites-related mortality (L: P = 0.007; Q: P = 0.001) were significantly different among the diets under CTC. Under STC, the systolic blood pressure, packed cell volume, hemoglobin, RV, TV, and RV/TV did not vary significantly among the diets. However, red blood cell count and erythrocyte osmotic fragility decreased linearly (P garlic bulb levels in the diets under STC. Under CTC, the systolic blood pressure, packed cell volume, red blood cell count, and erythrocyte osmotic fragility decreased (P garlic levels. It is

  19. Discriminating assimilants and decoupling deep- vs. shallow-level crystal records at Mount Adams using 238U-230Th disequilibria and Os isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jicha, B.R.; Johnson, C.M.; Hildreth, Wes; Beard, B.L.; Hart, G.L.; Shirey, S.B.; Singer, B.S.

    2009-01-01

    A suite of 23 basaltic to dacitic lavas erupted over the last 350??kyr from the Mount Adams volcanic field has been analyzed for U-Th isotope compositions to evaluate the roles of mantle versus crustal components during magma genesis. All of the lavas have (230Th/238U) > 1 and span a large range in (230Th/232Th) ratios, and most basalts have higher (230Th/232Th) ratios than andesites and dacites. Several of the lavas contain antecrysts (crystals of pre-existing material), yet internal U-Th mineral isochrons from six of seven lavas are indistinguishable from their eruption ages. This indicates a relatively brief period of time between crystal growth and eruption for most of the phenocrysts (olivine, clinopyroxene, plagioclase, magnetite) prior to eruption. One isochron gave a crystallization age that is ~ 20-25??ka older than its corresponding eruptive age, and is interpreted to reflect mixing of older and juvenile crystals or a protracted period of magma storage in the crust. Much of the eruptive volume since 350??ka consists of lavas that have small to moderate 230Th excesses (2-16%), which are likely inherited from melting of a garnet-bearing intraplate ("OIB-like") mantle source. Following melt generation and subsequent migration through the upper mantle, most Mt. Adams magmas interacted with young, mafic lower crust, as indicated by 187Os/188Os ratios that are substantially more radiogenic than the mantle or those expected via mixing of subducted material and the mantle wedge. Moreover, Os-Th isotope variations suggest that unusually large 230Th excesses (25-48%) and high 187Os/188Os ratios in some peripheral lavas reflect assimilation of small degree partial melts of pre-Quaternary basement that had residual garnet or Al-rich clinopyroxene. Despite the isotopic evidence for lower crustal assimilation, these processes are not generally recorded in the erupted phenocrysts, indicating that the crystal record of the deep-level 'cryptic' processes has been

  20. Overview of in-vessel retention concept involving level of passivity: with application to evolutionary pressurized water reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghyym, Seong H.

    1998-01-01

    In this work, one strategy of severe accident management, the applicability of the in-vessel retention (IVR) concept, which has been incorporated in passive type reactor designs, to evolutionary type reactor designs, is examined with emphasis on the method of external reactor vessel cooling (ERVC) to realize the IVR concept in view of two aspects: for the regulatory aspect, it is addressed in the context of the resolution of the issue of corium coolability; for the technical one, the reliance on and the effectiveness of the IVR concept are mentioned. Additionally, for the ERVC method to be better applied to designs of the evolutionary type reactor, the conditions to be met are pointed out in view of the technical aspect. Concerning the issue of corium coolability/quenchability, based on results of the review, plausible alternative strategies are proposed. According to the decision maker's risk behavior, these would help materialize the conceptual design for evolutionary type reactors, especially Korea Next Generation Reactors (KNGRs), which have been developing at the Korea Electric Power Research Institute (KEPRI): (A1) Strategy 1A: strategy based on the global approach using the reliance on the wet cavity method; (A2) Strategy 1B: strategy based on the combined approach using both the reliance on the wet cavity method and the counter-measures for preserving containment integrity; (A3) Strategy 2A: strategy based on the global approach to the reliance on the ERVC method; (A4) Strategy 2B: strategy based on the balanced approach using both the reliance on the ERVC method and the countermeasures for preserving containment integrity. Finally, in application to an advanced pressurized water reactor (PWR) design, several recommendations are made in focusing on both monitoring the status of approaches and preparing countermeasures in regard to the regulatory and the technical aspects

  1. Record breakers

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    In the sixties, CERN’s Fellows were but a handful of about 50 young experimentalists present on site to complete their training. Today, their number has increased to a record-breaking 500. They come from many different fields and are spread across CERN’s different activity areas.   “Diversifying the Fellowship programme has been the key theme in recent years,” comments James Purvis, Head of the Recruitment, Programmes and Monitoring group in the HR Department. “In particular, the 2005 five-yearly review introduced the notion of ‘senior’ and ‘junior’ Fellowships, broadening the target audience to include those with Bachelor-level qualifications.” Diversification made CERN’s Fellowship programme attractive to a wider audience but the number of Fellows on site could not have increased so much without the support of EU-funded projects, which were instrumental in the growth of the programme. ...

  2. Simulation of Changes of Activity Level of Some Carbohydrazes of Russian Sturgeon by the Influence of Environmental Osmotic Pressure by Means of Hybrid Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Tuktarov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of simulation of the influence environmental osmotic pressure to the activity level of maltase and α-amilase of intestinal mucous tunic of Russian sturgeon. For the solving of this problem methods of neural networks and fuzzy logic are used. Create models are rated as the category of adaptive neural-fuzzy inference systems. Regularities of this influence were researched; created models have high approximate property and generalize well.

  3. Assessment of Current Estimates of Global and Regional Mean Sea Level from the TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, and OSTM 17-Year Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckley, Brian D.; Ray, Richard D.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Zelensky, N. P.; Holmes, S. A.; Desal, Shailen D.; Brown, Shannon; Mitchum, G. T.; Jacob, Samuel; Luthcke, Scott B.

    2010-01-01

    The science value of satellite altimeter observations has grown dramatically over time as enabling models and technologies have increased the value of data acquired on both past and present missions. With the prospect of an observational time series extending into several decades from TOPEX/Poseidon through Jason-1 and the Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM), and further in time with a future set of operational altimeters, researchers are pushing the bounds of current technology and modeling capability in order to monitor global sea level rate at an accuracy of a few tenths of a mm/yr. The measurement of mean sea-level change from satellite altimetry requires an extreme stability of the altimeter measurement system since the signal being measured is at the level of a few mm/yr. This means that the orbit and reference frame within which the altimeter measurements are situated, and the associated altimeter corrections, must be stable and accurate enough to permit a robust MSL estimate. Foremost, orbit quality and consistency are critical to satellite altimeter measurement accuracy. The orbit defines the altimeter reference frame, and orbit error directly affects the altimeter measurement. Orbit error remains a major component in the error budget of all past and present altimeter missions. For example, inconsistencies in the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) used to produce the precision orbits at different times cause systematic inconsistencies to appear in the multimission time-frame between TOPEX and Jason-1, and can affect the intermission calibration of these data. In an effort to adhere to cross mission consistency, we have generated the full time series of orbits for TOPEX/Poseidon (TP), Jason-1, and OSTM based on recent improvements in the satellite force models, reference systems, and modeling strategies. The recent release of the entire revised Jason-1 Geophysical Data Records, and recalibration of the microwave radiometer correction also

  4. Pulmonary lesion induced by low and high positive end-expiratory pressure levels during protective ventilation in experimental acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pássaro, Caroline P; Silva, Pedro L; Rzezinski, Andréia F; Abrantes, Simone; Santiago, Viviane R; Nardelli, Liliane; Santos, Raquel S; Barbosa, Carolina M L; Morales, Marcelo M; Zin, Walter A; Amato, Marcelo B P; Capelozzi, Vera L; Pelosi, Paolo; Rocco, Patricia R M

    2009-03-01

    To investigate the effects of low and high levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), without recruitment maneuvers, during lung protective ventilation in an experimental model of acute lung injury (ALI). Prospective, randomized, and controlled experimental study. University research laboratory. Wistar rats were randomly assigned to control (C) [saline (0.1 mL), intraperitoneally] and ALI [paraquat (15 mg/kg), intraperitoneally] groups. After 24 hours, each group was further randomized into four groups (six rats each) at different PEEP levels = 1.5, 3, 4.5, or 6 cm H2O and ventilated with a constant tidal volume (6 mL/kg) and open thorax. Lung mechanics [static elastance (Est, L) and viscoelastic pressure (DeltaP2, L)] and arterial blood gases were measured before (Pre) and at the end of 1-hour mechanical ventilation (Post). Pulmonary histology (light and electron microscopy) and type III procollagen (PCIII) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression were measured after 1 hour of mechanical ventilation. In ALI group, low and high PEEP levels induced a greater percentage of increase in Est, L (44% and 50%) and DeltaP2, L (56% and 36%) in Post values related to Pre. Low PEEP yielded alveolar collapse whereas high PEEP caused overdistension and atelectasis, with both levels worsening oxygenation and increasing PCIII mRNA expression. In the present nonrecruited ALI model, protective mechanical ventilation with lower and higher PEEP levels than required for better oxygenation increased Est, L and DeltaP2, L, the amount of atelectasis, and PCIII mRNA expression. PEEP selection titrated for a minimum elastance and maximum oxygenation may prevent lung injury while deviation from these settings may be harmful.

  5. Prediction of pressure of bentonite buffer in model test of disposal pit for high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komine, Hideo; Osada, Toru; Takao, Hajime; Ueda, Hiroyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Bentonite-based buffer materials for high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal are expected to fill up the space between buffer and a wall of the disposal pit, and/or between buffer and an waste-container called as overpack by its swelling deformation. That is called as self-sealing ability. This study performs the model tests simulated the relationship between buffer and space mentioned above. It also investigates the validity of the theoretical equations for evaluating the swelling characteristics of bentonite-based buffer and backfill material, which were proposed in Komine and Ogata (2003, 2004), by comparing the calculations and the experimental results. (author)

  6. Reconciling late Quaternary transgressions in the Bohai Sea, China to the global sea level changes, and new linkage of sedimentary records to three astronomical rhythms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Liang

    2013-04-01

    noticeable feature of these coastal sediment variations is the little internal similarity between records compared with high similarity with external forcing indicating that the coastal sediments in the south Bohai Sea integrate different influences from various environmental factors: (1) the grain-size variation represents Asian monsoon intensity which was dominated by both solar insolation (major) and global ice volume (minor) forcing; (2) the magnetic susceptibility indicates river incision processes which were sensitive to orbital tilt with influence from solar insolation; (3) the vegetation coverage responded to global ice volume coupled obliquity changes; and that (4) neither external nor internal factors could dominate the paleoenvironmental evolution on orbital timescales in an independent way, and they are both integrated in a complex pattern. Therefore, combining all of these results, we report those great similarities between regional and global sea-level patterns and the nonlinear interaction and the complex response to driving processes in a coastal evolution. However, all of these studies only used the upper part of cores within marine strata, and the rest containing lacustrine sediment is still in process. Sediment grain size, magnetic susceptibility, color reflectance were finished, and the magnetostratigraphic, environmental magnetism and element analysis are ongoing. More results about high-/low-latitude interaction and relative sea level will be released in three years, and anyone who has interests in cooperation will be welcome (Email: yi.liang82@gmail.com). References Chappell, J., Omura, A., Esat, T., McCulloch, M., Pandolfi, J., Ota, Y., Pillans, B., 1996. Reconciliation of late Quaternary sea levels derived from coral terraces at Huon Peninsula with deep sea oxygen isotope records. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 141, 227-236. Cheng, H., Edwards, R.L., Broecker, W.S., Denton, G.H., Kong, X., Wang, Y., Zhang, R., Wang, X., 2009. Ice Age

  7. Consistency between Self-Reported and Recorded Values for Clinical Measures

    OpenAIRE

    III, Joseph Thomas; Paulet, Mindy; Rajpura, Jigar R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. This study evaluated consistency between self-reported values for clinical measures and recorded clinical measures. Methods. Self-reported values were collected for the clinical measures: systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, glucose level, height, weight, and cholesterol from health risk assessments completed by enrollees in a privately insured cohort. Body mass index (BMI) was computed from reported height and weight. Practitioner recorded values for the clinical me...

  8. HBK-14 and HBK-15 Do Not Influence Blood Pressure, Lipid Profile, Glucose Level, or Liver Enzymes Activity after Chronic Treatment in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytka, Karolina; Głuch-Lutwin, Monika; Knutelska, Joanna; Jakubczyk, Magdalena; Waszkielewicz, Anna; Kotańska, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Older and even new antidepressants cause adverse effects, such as orthostatic hypotension, hyper- or hypoglycemia, liver injury or lipid disorders. In our previous experiments we showed significant antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like activities of dual 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 antagonists with α1-adrenolitic properties i.e. 1-[(2,6-dimethylphenoxy)ethoxyethyl]-4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine hydrochloride (HBK-14) and 1-[(2-chloro-6-methylphenoxy)ethoxyethyl]-4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine hydrochloride (HBK-15). Here, we evaluated the influence of chronic administration of HBK-14 and HBK-15 on blood pressure (non-invasive blood pressure measurement system for rodents), lipid profile (total cholesterol, low density lipoproteins-LDL, high density lipoproteins-HDL, triglycerides), glucose level, and liver enzymes activity (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyl transferase). We determined potential antihistaminic (isolated guinea pig ileum) and antioxidant properties (ferric reducing ability of plasma-FRAP, non-protein thiols-NPSH, stable free radical diphenylpicrylhydrazyl-DPPH) cytotoxicity. Our experiments revealed that HBK-14 and HBK-15 did not influence blood pressure, lipid profile, glucose level or liver enzymes activity in rats after 2-week treatment. We also showed that none of the compounds possessed antioxidant or cytotoxic properties at antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like doses. HBK-14 and HBK-15 very weakly blocked H1 receptors in guinea pig ileum. Positive results of our preliminary experiments on the safety of HBK-14 and HBK-15 encourage further studies concerning their effectiveness in the treatment of depression and/or anxiety disorders.

  9. HBK-14 and HBK-15 Do Not Influence Blood Pressure, Lipid Profile, Glucose Level, or Liver Enzymes Activity after Chronic Treatment in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Pytka

    Full Text Available Older and even new antidepressants cause adverse effects, such as orthostatic hypotension, hyper- or hypoglycemia, liver injury or lipid disorders. In our previous experiments we showed significant antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like activities of dual 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 antagonists with α1-adrenolitic properties i.e. 1-[(2,6-dimethylphenoxyethoxyethyl]-4-(2-methoxyphenylpiperazine hydrochloride (HBK-14 and 1-[(2-chloro-6-methylphenoxyethoxyethyl]-4-(2-methoxyphenylpiperazine hydrochloride (HBK-15. Here, we evaluated the influence of chronic administration of HBK-14 and HBK-15 on blood pressure (non-invasive blood pressure measurement system for rodents, lipid profile (total cholesterol, low density lipoproteins-LDL, high density lipoproteins-HDL, triglycerides, glucose level, and liver enzymes activity (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyl transferase. We determined potential antihistaminic (isolated guinea pig ileum and antioxidant properties (ferric reducing ability of plasma-FRAP, non-protein thiols-NPSH, stable free radical diphenylpicrylhydrazyl-DPPH cytotoxicity. Our experiments revealed that HBK-14 and HBK-15 did not influence blood pressure, lipid profile, glucose level or liver enzymes activity in rats after 2-week treatment. We also showed that none of the compounds possessed antioxidant or cytotoxic properties at antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like doses. HBK-14 and HBK-15 very weakly blocked H1 receptors in guinea pig ileum. Positive results of our preliminary experiments on the safety of HBK-14 and HBK-15 encourage further studies concerning their effectiveness in the treatment of depression and/or anxiety disorders.

  10. [Farmacological effect of retabolil on aldosterone level and arterial pressure in rats under the action of vibrations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obut, T A; Ovsiukova, M V; Egorova, S A; Érdynieva, T A; Dement'eva, T Iu; Obut, E T

    2014-01-01

    The experiments were performed on male rats, which were subjected to single and multiply repeated vibrations (low-frequency, horizontal, high-amplitude) analogous to the action of motor transport vibrations. It is established that the administration of retabolil produces a hypotensive effect and blocks the vibration-induced increase in the level of hypertensive hormone aldosterone. Under conditions of the multiply repeated action of vibrations, both effects were realized via micro-opioid receptors. In the case of a single action, these receptors were only involved in a hypotensive effect but not mediated in aldosterone suppression. Both these effects were absent in the control group of animals (not subjected to vibrations). Therefore, retabolil can be used as a hypotensive and aldosterone-blocking drug for vibration-induced hypertension in animals and, probably, in humans.

  11. Applications of the parity space technique to the validation of the water level measurement of pressurizer for steady state and transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwingelstein, G.; Bath, L.

    1983-01-01

    During the design of disturbance analysis and surveillance systems, safety parameter display systems, computerized operator support systems or advanced control rooms, sensor signal validation is commonly considered as the first task to be performed. After an introduction of the anticipated benefits of the signal validation techniques and a brief survey of the methods under current practices, a signal validation technique based upon the parity space methodology is presented. The efficiency of the method applied to the detection and the identification of five types of failures is illustrated with two examples when three water level measurements of a pressurizer of a nuclear plant are redundant. In the first example the use of the analytical redundancy technique is presented when only two identical sensors are available. A detailed description of the dynamic model of the pressurizer is given. In the second example the case of the identical water level sensors is considered. Performances of the software developed on a computer DEC PDP 11 are finally given

  12. Differentiation of MIS 9 and MIS 11 in the continental record: vegetational, faunal, aminostratigraphic and sea-level evidence from coastal sites in Essex, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Helen M.; Coope, G. Russell; Devoy, Robert J. N.; Harrison, Colin J. O.; Penkman, Kirsty E. H.; Preece, Richard C.; Schreve, Danielle C.

    2009-11-01

    Multidisciplinary investigations of the vegetational, faunal and sea-level history inferred from the infills of buried channels on the coast of eastern Essex have a direct bearing on the differentiation of MIS 11 and MIS 9 in continental records. New data are presented from Cudmore Grove, an important site on Mersea Island that can be linked to the terrace sequence of the River Thames. The vegetational history has been reconstructed from a pollen sequence covering much of the interglacial represented. The temperate nature of the climate is apparent from a range of fossil groups, including plant remains, vertebrates (especially the rich herpetofauna), molluscs and beetles, which all have strong thermophilous components. The beetle data have been used to derive a Mutual Climatic Range reconstruction, suggesting that mean July temperatures were about 2 °C warmer than modern values for southeast England, whereas mean January temperatures may have been slightly colder. The sea-level history has been reconstructed from the molluscs, ostracods and especially the diatoms, which indicate that the marine transgression occurred considerably earlier in the interglacial cycle than at the neighbouring Hoxnian site at Clacton. There are a number of palynological similarities between the sequence at Cudmore Grove and Clacton, especially the presence of Abies and the occurrence of Azolla filiculoides megaspores. Moreover, both sites have yielded Palaeolithic archaeology, indeed the latter is the type site of the Clactonian (flake-and-core) industry. However, the sites can be differentiated on the basis of mammalian biostratigraphy, new aminostratigraphic data, as well as the differences in the sea-level history. The combined evidence suggests that the infill of the channel at Cudmore Grove accumulated during MIS 9, whereas the deposits at Clacton formed during MIS 11. The infill of a much later channel, yielding non-marine molluscs and vertebrates including Hippopotamus, appears

  13. Palynological record of tropical rain forest vegetation and sea level fluctuations since 140 ka from sediment core, south-eastern Arabian sea.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Farooqui, A.; Pattan, J.N.; Parthiban, G.; Srivastava, J.; Ranjana

    of rain forest “plant refugia” on land. Neogene rain forest flora recorded earlier from the Varkala Formation and the present record of its existence since MIS-6 in the region provide an understanding that the monsoon circulation over southern India...

  14. Differential effects of suppressors on hazardous sound pressure levels generated by AR-15 rifles: Considerations for recreational shooters, law enforcement, and the military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobarinas, Edward; Scott, Ryan; Spankovich, Christopher; Le Prell, Colleen G

    2016-01-01

    Firearm discharges produce hazardous levels of impulse noise that can lead to permanent hearing loss. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of suppression, ammunition, and barrel length on AR-15 rifles. Sound levels were measured left/right of a user's head, and 1-m left of the muzzle, per MIL-STD-1474-D, under both unsuppressed and suppressed conditions. Nine commercially available AR-15 rifles and 14 suppressors were used. Suppressors significantly decreased peak dB SPL at the 1-m location and the left ear location. However, under most rifle/ammunition conditions, levels remained above 140 dB peak SPL near a user's right ear. In a subset of conditions, subsonic ammunition produced values near or below 140 dB peak SPL. Overall suppression ranged from 7-32 dB across conditions. These data indicate that (1) suppressors reduce discharge levels to 140 dB peak SPL or below in only a subset of AR-15 conditions, (2) shorter barrel length and use of muzzle brake devices can substantially increase exposure level for the user, and (3) there are significant left/right ear sound pressure differences under suppressed conditions as a function of the AR-15 direct impingement design that must be considered during sound measurements to fully evaluate overall efficacy.

  15. Blood amyloid beta levels in healthy, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease individuals: replication of diastolic blood pressure correlations and analysis of critical covariates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Ruiz

    Full Text Available Plasma amyloid beta (Aβ levels are being investigated as potential biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease. In AB128 cross-sectional study, a number of medical relevant correlates of blood Aβ40 or Aβ42 were analyzed in 140 subjects (51 Alzheimer's disease patients, 53 healthy controls and 36 individuals diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment. We determined the association between multiple variables with Aβ40 and Aβ42 levels measured in three different blood compartments called i Aβ directly accessible (DA in the plasma, ii Aβ recovered from the plasma matrix (RP after diluting the plasma sample in a formulated buffer, and iii associated with the remaining cellular pellet (CP. We confirmed that diastolic blood pressure (DBP is consistently correlated with blood DA Aβ40 levels (r=-0.19, P=0.032. These results were consistent in the three phenotypic groups studied. Importantly, the observation resisted covariation with age, gender or creatinine levels. Observed effect size and direction of Aβ40 levels/DBP correlation are in accordance with previous reports. Of note, DA Aβ40 and the RP Aβ40 were also strongly associated with creatinine levels (r=0.599, P<<0.001 and to a lesser extent to urea, age, hematocrit, uric acid and homocysteine (p<0.001. DBP and the rest of statistical significant correlates identified should be considered as potential confounder factors in studies investigating blood Aβ levels as potential AD biomarker. Remarkably, the factors affecting Aβ levels in plasma (DA, RP and blood cell compartments (CP seem completely different.

  16. Assessment of Current Global and Regional Mean Sea Level Estimates Based on the TOPEX/Poseidon Jason-1 and 2 Climate Data Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckley, B. D.; Lemoine, F. G.; Zelensky, N. P.; Yang, X.; Holmes, S.; Ray, R. D.; Mitchum, G. T.; Desai, S.; Brown, S.; Haines, B.

    2011-01-01

    Recent developments in Precise Orbit Determinations (POD) due to in particular to revisions to the terrestrial reference frame realization and the time variable gravity (TVG) continues to provide improvements to the accuracy and stability of the PO directly affecting mean sea level (MSL) estimates. Long-term credible MSL estimates require the development and continued maintenance of a stable reference frame, along with vigilant monitoring of the performance of the independent tracking systems used to calculate the orbits for altimeter spacecrafts. The stringent MSL accuracy requirements of a few tenths of an mm/yr are particularly essential for mass budget closure analysis over the relative short time period of Jason-l &2, GRACE, and Argo coincident measurements. In an effort to adhere to cross mission consistency, we have generated a full time series of experimental orbits (GSFC stdlllO) for TOPEX/Poseidon (TP), Jason-I, and OSTM based on an improved terrestrial reference frame (TRF) realization (ITRF2008), revised static (GGM03s), and time variable gravity field (Eigen6s). In this presentation we assess the impact of the revised precision orbits on inter-mission bias estimates, and resultant global and regional MSL trends. Tide gauge verification results are shown to assess the current stability of the Jason-2 sea surface height time series that suggests a possible discontinuity initiated in early 2010. Although the Jason-2 time series is relatively short (approximately 3 years), a thorough review of the entire suite of geophysical and environmental range corrections is warranted and is underway to maintain the fidelity of the record.

  17. Late Quaternary uplift along the North America-Caribbean plate boundary: Evidence from the sea level record of Guantanamo Bay, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Daniel R.; Schweig, Eugene S.; Simmons, Kathleen R.; Halley, Robert B.

    2017-12-01

    The tectonic setting of the North America-Caribbean plate boundary has been studied intensively, but some aspects are still poorly understood, particularly along the Oriente fault zone. Guantanamo Bay, southern Cuba, is considered to be on a coastline that is under a transpressive tectonic regime along this zone, and is hypothesized to have a low uplift rate. We tested this by studying emergent reef terrace deposits around the bay. Reef elevations in the protected, inner part of the bay are ∼11-12 m and outer-coast, wave-cut benches are as high as ∼14 m. Uranium-series analyses of corals yield ages ranging from ∼133 ka to ∼119 ka, correlating this reef to the peak of the last interglacial period, marine isotope stage (MIS) 5.5. Assuming a span of possible paleo-sea levels at the time of the last interglacial period yields long-term tectonic uplift rates of 0.02-0.11 m/ka, supporting the hypothesis that the tectonic uplift rate is low. Nevertheless, on the eastern and southern coasts of Cuba, east and west of Guantanamo Bay, there are flights of multiple marine terraces, at higher elevations, that could record a higher rate of uplift, implying that Guantanamo Bay may be anomalous. Southern Cuba is considered to have experienced a measurable but modest effect from glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) processes. Thus, with a low uplift rate, Guantanamo Bay should show no evidence of emergent marine terraces dating to the ∼100 ka (MIS 5.3) or ∼80 ka (MIS 5.1) sea stands and results of the present study support this.

  18. The Effect of HIV and the Modifying Effect of Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART on Body Mass Index (BMI and Blood Pressure Levels in Rural South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea B Feigl

    Full Text Available High BMI and blood pressure are leading chronic disease risk factors in South Africa. Longterm effects of HIV and ART on adiposity and blood pressure are poorly understood, and direct comparisons of risk factor trajectories in HIV- versus HIV+ populations are rare.In 2003 and 2010, height, weight, and blood pressure were recorded in a study population (n = 505 in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (30% adult HIV prevalence. We modeled change in BMI and BP longitudinally in HIV- individuals (n = 315, seroconverters (n = 32, HIV+ patients not on ART (HIV+ART-; n = 52, HIV+ patients on ART for 0-<2 years as of 2010 (HIV+ART0-<2 yrs; n = 18, patients on ART for 2-5 years (HIV+ART2-5yrs; n = 44, and a subgroup with unknown HIV status (n = 44. Difference-in-differences were assessed in reference to the HIV- population.Between 2003 and 2010, BMI increased significantly in the HIV- group, by 0.874 (95% CI 0.339, 1.41; p = 0.001, to 30.4. BMI drop was significantly greater in HIV+ART0-<2yrs than in HIV+ART2-5yrs (p = 0.005. DID in BMI in HIV+ART0-<2yrs versus the reference was -5.21 (95% CI -7.53, -2.90; p = 0.001, and DID in HIV+ART2-5yrs versus reference was -1.35 (95% CI -2.89, 0.189; p = 0.086. DID in SBP in HIV+ART-vs HIV- DID was -7.55 mmHg (95% CI -13.2 to -1.90; p = 0.009.Short-term ART (0-<2 years was associated with larger weight loss than either no ART or long-term ART. Once on ART for 2+ years, individuals 'caught up' on weight gain with the HIV- population. Our results showcase the importance of health system readiness to address the burgeoning double burden of disease in South Africa.

  19. [Effect of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Treatment on Depression, Anxiety and Perceived Stress Levels in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Mustafa; Sarıkaya, Yasin; Acar, Mustafa; Kalenderoğlu, Aysun; Doğan, Sedat; Kaskalan, Emin; Karataş, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on depression, anxiety, and perceived stress levels and to identify factors predictive of treatment efficacy in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). This study included 51 patients admitted to the Adiyaman University Medical School Otorhinolaryngology Department or Eskisehir Yunus Emre State Hospital between January and September 2014 with one or more complaints including snoring, excessive daytime sleepiness, or apnea witnessed by the partner. Diagnosis of OSAS was made by polysomnography and CPAP treatment was initiated. Depression levels were assessed in all study subjects using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) at the start of treatment and at 3 months. Anxiety levels were assessed using both the HADS and the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and perceived stress level was assessed using the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ). After CPAP treatment, we observed significant decreases in both the Depression and Anxiety Subscales of the HADS, in the Trait Anxiety subscale of the STAI, and in the PSQ. An evaluation of the initial parameters that predict improvements in these scales revealed that snoring time predicted decreases in all scale scores. In OSAS patients CPAP treatment has positive effects on psychological parameters like depression, anxiety, and perceived stress. We suggest that possible psychogenic benefits should be considered when deciding to start CPAP treatment, particularly in patients with pronounced and extended snoring who may also have social problems.

  20. Nesfatin-1 and Vitamin D levels may be associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure values and hearth rate in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Figen Kir; Sahin, Serap Baydur; Ural, Ulku Mete; Cure, Medine Cumhur; Senturk, Senol; Tekin, Yesim Bayoglu; Balik, Gulsah; Cure, Erkan; Yuce, Suleyman; Kirbas, Aynur

    2015-07-09

    Obesity, insulin resistance (IR), inflammation, and hyperandrogenism may lead to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and hypertension. Nesfatin-1 (N1) may be related to IR, obesity, and hypertension. Furthermore, a vitamin D (VD) deficiency is associated with hypertension and PCOS. We aimed to investigate N1 and VD levels in PCOS that have an effect on systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR).This study included 54 patients with PCOS and 48 age-body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy controls. PCOS was diagnosed according to clinical practice guidelines. Ferriman-Gallwey scores (FGS) were calculated, while N1, VD, and other hormonal and biochemical parameters were measured for all subjects. Systolic and diastolic BP was measured as well. HR was calculated using an electrocardiogram.The levels of N1 (p < 0.001), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (p = 0.036), homeostasis model assessment as an index of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (p < 0.001), systolic (p < 0.001) and diastolic (p < 0.001) BP and HR (p < 0.001) in the PCOS group were significantly higher than in the control group. However, the VD levels of the PCOS group were lower than the control group (p = 0.004). N1 had a strong positive correlation with BMI, HOMA-IR, hs-CRP, luteinizing hormone, systolic and diastolic BP, and HR. VD levels were negatively correlated with HOMA-IR and luteinizing hormone.Elevated N1 and decreased VD levels may be related to the presence of high-normal BP or hypertension in PCOS subjects.  N1 level may be associated with an increased BP due to its relation to inflammation and IR.

  1. ICE-6G models of postglacial relative sea-level history applied to Holocene coral reef and mangrove records of the western Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, M. A.; Peltier, W. R.; Drummond, R.; Gonzalez, J.

    2012-12-01

    Fossil coral reefs and mangrove peat accumulations at western Caribbean sites along a latitudinal gradient from the Florida Keys through Belize and Panama provide dated and interpreted 8,000 year Holocene sea-level records for comparison with RSL predictions of the ICE-6G (VM5A, VM5B; L90) models of glacio-hydro-isostatic adjustment, with and without rotational feedback. These presumably passive continental margin sites provide the means to establish a N-S spatial trend in the varying influences of GIA, eustatic components of Holocene sea level, extent of forebulge collapse and influence of rotational feedback over a 20° latitudinal range. Previous ICE6G (VM5A) model-coral data comparisons for St Croix, USVI, Antigua, Martinique and Barbados (Toscano, Peltier and Drummond, 2011, QSR) along the eastern Caribbean plate and island arc illustrated the close model-data compatibility, the influence of rotational feedback acting as a significant factor in reducing misfits, and the need for high quality in situ data to confirm the extension of the proglacial forebulge into tropical latitudes. The gradient of western Caribbean continental shelf sites comprises a much more varied range of model-data relationships based on extensive combined Acropora palmata (reef crest coral) and Rhizophora mangle (microtidal mangrove) peat datasets in all cases. Starting at the northernmost region with the Florida Keys, there exist negative model misfits to the data, suggesting the possibility of a positive tectonic overprint upon expectations related to the glacial isostatic adjustment process acting alone, even though this region is normally believed to be tectonically stable. The largest multi-proxy database from Belize supports the likelihood of increasing rates of subsidence from north to south in the Belize Lagoon, which may account for numerous positive GIA model-data misfits. The southernmost site at Panama is most similar to Belize in the possible nature of tectonic influences on

  2. Ambulatory blood pressure and urinary albumin excretion in clinically healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Peter Vilhelm; Jensen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K

    1998-01-01

    UAER. Because 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure is a superior predictor of hypertensive target organ involvement, we aimed to investigate blood pressure profile in clinically healthy subjects with elevated UAER. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was performed with a portable recorder in 27 subjects...... loss of albumin could not be solely related to the higher blood pressure. In conclusion, apparently healthy subjects with elevated UAER had slightly but significantly higher 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels in addition to increased blood pressure loads but normal circadian variation...

  3. Comparison of the response of a NaI scintillation crystal with a pressurized ionization chamber as a function of altitude, radiation level and Ra-226 concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provencher, R.; Smith, G.; Borak, T.B.; Kearney, P.

    1986-01-01

    The Grand Junction Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action-Radiological Survey Activities Group (UMTRA-RASA) program employs a screening method in which external exposure rates are used to determine if a property contaminated with uranium mill tailings is eligible for remedial action. Portable NaI detectors are used by survey technicians to locate contaminated areas and determine exposure rates. The exposure rate is calculated using a regression equation derived from paired measurements made with a pressurized ionization chamber (PIC) and a NaI detector. During July of 1985 extensive measurements were taken using a PIC and a NaI scintillator with both analogue and digital readout for a wide range of exposure rates and at a variety of elevations. The surface soil was sampled at most of these locations and analyzed for 226 Ra. The response of the NaI detectors was shown to be highly correlated to radiation level but not to 226 Ra concentration or elevation

  4. Comparison of low-level polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediment revealed by Soxhlet extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and pressurized liquid extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Nobuyasu; Numata, Masahiko; Aoyagi, Yoshie; Yarita, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in lake sediment at low levels ( -1 ) by using Soxhlet extraction (Soxhlet), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) in combination with gas chromatography and isotope-dilution mass spectrometry. Although all extraction techniques showed good repeatability for five target PAHs (relative standard deviation MAE > Soxhlet. Differences in the results originated mainly from differences in the extraction efficiencies of the techniques for native PAHs, because all techniques gave comparable recovery yields of corresponding 13 C-labeled PAHs ( 13 C-PAHs) (51-84%). Since non-negligible amounts of both native PAHs and 13 C-PAHs were re-adsorbed on matrix in MAE, not only recovery yields of 13 C-PAHs but also efficiencies of extraction of native PAHs should be examined to evaluate the appropriateness of any analytical procedures

  5. The Exergetic, Environmental and Economic Effect of the Hydrostatic Design Static Pressure Level on the Pipe Dimensions of Low-Energy District Heating Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan İbrahim Tol

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-Energy District Heating (DH systems, providing great energy savings by means of very low operating temperatures of 55 °C and 25 °C for supply and return respectively, were considered to be the 4th generation of the DH systems for a low-energy future. Low-temperature operation is considered to be used in a low-energy DH network to carry the heat produced by renewable and/or low grade energy sources to low-energy Danish buildings. In this study, a comparison of various design considerations with different levels of maximum design static pressures was performed, and their results evaluated in terms of energetic, exergetic, economic, and environmental perspectives.

  6. Effects of Tai Chi exercise on blood pressure and plasma levels of nitric oxide, carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide in real-world patients with essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaogui; Zhang, Yi; Tao, Sai

    2015-01-01

    Objective was to investigate the effects of Tai Chi exercise on nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) levels, and blood pressure (BP) in patients with essential hypertension (EH). EH patients were assigned to the Tai Chi exercise group (HTC, n = 24), and hypertension group (HP, n = 16) by patients' willingness. Healthy volunteers matched for age and gender were recruited as control (NP, n = 16). HTC group performed Tai Chi (60 min/d, 6 d/week) for 12 weeks. Measurements (blood glucose, cholesterol, NO, CO, H2S and BP) were obtained at week 0, 6, and 12. SBP, MAP, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels increased by week 12 in the HTC group (all p exercise seems to have beneficial effects on BP and gaseous signaling molecules in EH patients. However, further investigation is required to understand the exact mechanisms underlying these observations, and to confirm these results in a larger cohort.

  7. The influence of CYP1A2 genotype in the blood pressure response to caffeine ingestion is affected by physical activity status and caffeine consumption level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Rogerio Nogueira; Schneider, Augusto; Valle, Sandra Costa; Schenkel, Paulo Cavalheiro

    2018-03-06

    This study aimed to investigate whether the influence of CYP1A2 genotype in the blood pressure (BP) response to caffeine ingestion was affected by physical activity status and habitual caffeine consumption. Thirty-seven participants (19-50 years old) took place in the study and were categorized according to i) genotype: CYP1A2 (AA) "fast metabolizer", and CYP1A2 (AC) "slow metabolizer"; ii) physical activity level: sedentary (S) and physically active (A); and iii) caffeine consumption level: non-habitual caffeine consumer (NC) and habitual heavy caffeine consumer (C). All groups had BP assessed before (basal) and 1 hourh after (post) caffeine ingestion (6 mg·kg -1 ). It was observed that AC genotype individuals had increased basal-DBP and post-caffeine SBP when compared to AA individuals. Additionally, acute caffeine ingestion increased SBP only in the AC group. It was also found that physical activity only modulated the BP responses to acute caffeine ingestion in AC individuals. Furthermore, the results indicated that the habitual heavy caffeine consumers AC individuals had increased basal-DBP when compared to the AA ones. Our results suggest that the influence of CYP1A2 genotype in the basal and post-caffeine BP response to caffeine ingestion is modified by physical activity status and caffeine consumption level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. ACHIEVEMENT OF TARGET BLOOD PRESSURE LEVEL IN PATIENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION OF 2-3 DEGREE WITH FIXED COMBINATION OF ENALAPRIL OR LOSARTAN WITH HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kudryavtsev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare the effects of fixed combinations of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (enalapril or angiotensin II receptor antagonist (losartan with diuretic (hydrochlorothiazide, HCT on the "office" blood pressure (BP level in patients with arterial hypertension (HT of 2-3 degrees.Materials and methods. Patients (n=73; 34 men and 39 women; aged 50.5±5.8 with HT of 2-3 degrees were included in the study. Patients were randomized into 2 groups: patients of group 1 (n=34 received a fixed combination of enalapril with HCT; patients (n=39 of group 2 — a fixed combination of losartan with HCT. The study duration was 24 weeks. "Office" BP levels (Korotkov method were evaluated.Results. Combination of losartan with HCT shown more prominent effect on systolic BP (reduction from 176.1±2.77 to 122.3±1.54 mm Hg in comparison with combination enalapril with HCT (reduction from 172.4±1.62 to 129.8±3.4 mm Hg after 12 weeks of treatment (p<0.05. High frequency of target BP level achievement was observed in patients of groups 1 and 2 (83% and 86% respectively.Conclusion. The fixed combination of enalapril or lozartan with HCT has high efficacy and can be recommended as initial therapy in patients with HT of 2-3 degree.

  9. Annual survey on the level and extent of usage of electronic health records in government-related hospitals in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bah, Sulaiman; Alharthi, Hana; El Mahalli, Azza Ali; Jabali, Abdelkaream; Al-Qahtani, Mona; Al-kahtani, Nouf

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to determine the level and extent of usage of electronic health records (EHRs) in government-related hospitals in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. Another aim is to develop a Web site to serve as a forum of exchange on the development of EHRs in Saudi Arabia. All government hospitals (n = 19) in the province were included. The information technology (IT) managers in those hospitals made up the target population. An online questionnaire was developed, and the IT managers in all 19 government hospitals were invited to participate in the survey. The responses from the online survey were downloaded and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Of the 19 hospitals, only three (15.8 percent) use EHRs. These hospitals were established in 1984, 1995, and 2005. All three of these hospitals have implemented the same EHR software and were using it successfully, and all three were using the three core features of laboratory, radiology, and pharmacy electronic modules. Some modules were present in the EHR system but were underutilized. Some of the main challenges faced by the IT managers in implementing EHRs in their hospitals were related to the uncooperative attitudes of some physicians and nurses toward EHRs. In fulfillment of the second aim of the study, a Web site, http://ehr2011.weebly.com, was developed to serve as a forum for exchange of information on the development of EHRs in Saudi Arabia. The government of Saudi Arabia has prioritized the development of eHealth (health information technology) and allocated committed funding for it during 2008-2011. During this period, some sectors of government made highly commendable efforts in developing eHealth services. Along these lines, we had hoped to see higher uptake of EHRs than the 15.8 percent found in this study. The rate of implementing EHRs in government hospitals should be accelerated. The aim should be on achieving some basic EHR functionality in these hospitals, and once this has been achieved

  10. Smart blood pressure holter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İlhan, İlhan

    2018-03-01

    In this study, a wireless blood pressure holter that can be used with smart mobile devices was developed. The developed blood pressure holter consists of two parts, which are a smart mobile device and a cuff. The smart mobile device is used as a recording, control and display device through a developed interface, while the cuff was designed to take measurements from the arm. Resistor-Capacitor (RC) and digital filters were used on the cuff that communicates with the smart mobile device via Bluetooth. The blood pressure was estimated using the Simple Hill Climbing Algorithm (HCA). It is possible to measure instantaneous or programmable blood pressure and heart rate values at certain intervals using this holter. The test was conducted with 30 individuals at different ages with the guidance of a specialist health personnel. The results showed that an accuracy at 93.89% and 91.95% rates could be obtained for systolic and diastolic pressure values, respectively, when compared with those obtained using a traditional sphygmomanometer. The accuracy level for the heart rate was measured as 97.66%. Furthermore, this device was tested day and night in the holter mode in terms of working time, the continuity of the Bluetooth connection and the reliability of the measurement results. The test results were evaluated separately in terms of measurement accuracy, working time, the continuity of the Bluetooth connection and the reliability of the measurement results. The measurement accuracy for systolic, diastolic blood pressure and heart rate values was obtained as 93.89%, 91.95% and 97.66%, respectively. The maximum number of measurements which can be conducted with four 1000 mA alkaline batteries at 20 min intervals was found approximately 79 (little more than 24 h). In addition, it was determined that the continuity of the Bluetooth connection and the reliability of the measurement results were automatically achieved through the features in the interface developed for the

  11. Piezometric level and electrical conductivity spatiotemporal monitoring as an instrument to design further managed aquifer recharge strategies in a complex estuarial system under anthropogenic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Victor Hugo R; Bertrand, Guillaume F; Montenegro, Suzana M G L; Paiva, Anderson L R; Almeida, Cristiano N; Galvão, Carlos O; Barbosa, Luís Romero; Batista, Larissa F D R; Ferreira, Eduardo L G A

    2018-03-01

    Recife Metropolitan Region (RMR, NE Brazil) lies over a multi-layered aquifer system located in an estuarial area. The region has experienced fast population growth and repeated droughts in the last three decades, which led to unprecedented anthropogenic pressure on groundwater resources because of intense water pumping. Accordingly, scientific and stakeholder communities have been challenged to ensure the maintenance of sustainable groundwater resource by managing all water cycle. Because controlling pumping rates is difficult due to the large number of illegal wells, the Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) strategies are now under consideration. The RMR presents a tropical climate and an annual average rainfall rate of approximately 2450 mm year -1 , providing great potential volumes of water to be used for piezometric level recovery. However, MAR implementation requires a detailed and in-depth knowledge of the human-impact on the hydrogeological behavior of the resource over the long-term, in order to find out the most appropriate recharge strategy. Therefore, the present study illustrates how routine data monitoring, i.e., piezometric level and electrical conductivity (EC), in combination with the geological knowledge, may allow proposing further MAR strategies. Two contrasted behaviors were observed in RMR: (i) groundwater level decrease and stable EC in the North and Southernmost areas of Recife; and (ii) stable groundwater level and high/varying EC values next to the estuarial zone. Although aquifers are undergoing over-abstraction, this spatiotemporal heterogeneity suggests that a recharge is possibly locally favored next to the estuarial area of the RMR thanks to hydraulic connections between surface and deep aquifers throughout extended paleo-channels. Thus, based on this typology, MAR implementation through controlled infiltration close to the estuarial area seems to be more appropriated, whereas the direct deep injection appears to be more relevant in more

  12. Analyses of Sea Surface Height, Bottom Pressure and Acoustic Travel Time in the Japan/East Sea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xu, Yongsheng

    2006-01-01

    ...) was deployed in the southwestern JES for two years, from June 1999 to July 2001. The PIESs recorded hourly vertical acoustic travel time and pressure, which are respectively good proxies of baroclinic and barotropic sea level variability...

  13. Spirometry, questionnaire and electronic medical record based COPD in a population survey: comparing prevalence, level of agreement and associations with potential risk factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borlée, F.; Yzermans, C.J.; Krop, E.; Rooijackers, J.; Aalders, B.; Zock, J.P.; Dijk, C.E. van; Maassen, C.B.M.; Schellevis, F.; Heederik, D.; Smit, L.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: COPD-diagnosis is confirmed by post-bronchodilator (BD) spirometry. However, epidemiological studies often rely on pre-BD spirometry, self-reports, or medical records. This population-based study aims to determine COPD-prevalence based on four different operational definitions and their

  14. Validation of the register-based lifetime antimicrobial usage measurement for finisher batches based on comparison with recorded antimicrobial usage at farm level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalhoff Andersen, Vibe; Munk, Patrick; de Knegt, Leonardo

    2018-01-01

    for aminoglycosides, lincosamides, tetracyclines and decreased estimates of statistical model fit for macrolides. The estimates of statistical model fit for sulfonamides and broad-spectrum penicillins remained the same. Through refined data transformation, VetStat-records can be used to calculate a daily amount...

  15. Astronomical tuning of long pollen records reveals the dynamic history of montane biomes and lake levels in the tropical high Andes during the Quaternary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres, V.; Hooghiemstra, H.; Lourens, L.; Tzedakis, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Long pollen records from two sediment cores of the basin of Bogotá (Colombia) are presented, reflecting the dynamic history of environmental and vegetation changes in the tropical high Andes during the Quaternary. An astronomically tuned age model has been developed by using the visual correlation

  16. Numerical study on the influence of entrapped air bubbles on the time-dependent pore pressure distribution in soils due to external changes in water level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ausweger Georg M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In practical geotechnical engineering soils below the groundwater table are usually regarded as a two-phase medium, consisting of solids and water. The pore water is assumed to be incompressible. However, under certain conditions soils below the groundwater table may exhibit a liquid phase consisting of water and air. The air occurs in form of entrapped air bubbles and dissolved air. Such conditions are named quasi-saturated and the assumption of incompressibility is no longer justified. In addition the entrapped air bubbles influence the hydraulic conductivity of soils. These effects are usually neglected in standard problems of geotechnical engineering. However, sometimes it is required to include the pore fluid compressibility when modelling the hydraulic behaviour of soils in order to be able to explain certain phenomena observed in the field. This is for example true for fast fluctuating water levels in reservoirs. In order to study these phenomena, numerical investigations on the influence of the pore fluid compressibility on the pore water pressure changes in a soil layer beneath a reservoir with fast fluctuating water levels were performed. Preliminary results of this study are presented and it could be shown that numerical analysis and field data are in good agreement.

  17. System-Level Heat Transfer Analysis, Thermal- Mechanical Cyclic Stress Analysis, and Environmental Fatigue Modeling of a Two-Loop Pressurized Water Reactor. A Preliminary Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanty, Subhasish [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Soppet, William [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Majumdar, Saurin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Natesan, Ken [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-01-03

    This report provides an update on an assessment of environmentally assisted fatigue for light water reactor components under extended service conditions. This report is a deliverable in April 2015 under the work package for environmentally assisted fatigue under DOE's Light Water Reactor Sustainability program. In this report, updates are discussed related to a system level preliminary finite element model of a two-loop pressurized water reactor (PWR). Based on this model, system-level heat transfer analysis and subsequent thermal-mechanical stress analysis were performed for typical design-basis thermal-mechanical fatigue cycles. The in-air fatigue lives of components, such as the hot and cold legs, were estimated on the basis of stress analysis results, ASME in-air fatigue life estimation criteria, and fatigue design curves. Furthermore, environmental correction factors and associated PWR environment fatigue lives for the hot and cold legs were estimated by using estimated stress and strain histories and the approach described in NUREG-6909. The discussed models and results are very preliminary. Further advancement of the discussed model is required for more accurate life prediction of reactor components. This report only presents the work related to finite element modelling activities. However, in between multiple tensile and fatigue tests were conducted. The related experimental results will be presented in the year-end report.

  18. Trunk-to-Peripheral Fat Ratio Predicts Subsequent Blood Pressure Levels in Pubertal Children With Relatively Low Body Fat - Three-Year Follow-up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouda, Katsuyasu; Ohara, Kumiko; Fujita, Yuki; Nakamura, Harunobu; Iki, Masayuki

    2016-07-25

    Only a few studies have examined the relationship between fat distribution measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and blood pressure (BP), and no cohort study has targeted a pediatric population. The source population comprised all students registered as fifth graders in the 2 elementary schools in Hamamatsu, Japan. Of these, 258 children participated in both baseline (at age 11) and follow-up (at age 14) surveys. Body fat distribution was assessed using trunk-to-appendicular fat ratio (TAR) and trunk-to-leg fat ratio (TLR) measured by DXA. Relationships between BP levels and fat distribution (TAR or TLR) were examined after stratification by tertiles of whole-body fat.Systolic BP at follow-up was significantly (Pfat. Moreover, adjusted means of systolic and diastolic BPs in girls showed a significant increase from the lowest to highest tertile of TAR within the lowest tertile of whole-body fat. Body fat distribution in childhood could predict subsequent BP levels in adolescence. Children with a relatively low body fat that is more centrally distributed tended to show relatively high BP later on. (Circ J 2016; 80: 1838-1845).

  19. Low Levels of Usual Physical Activity Are Associated with Higher 24 h Blood Pressure in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in a Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Teixeira Neto Zucatti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between usual physical activity and 24 h blood pressure (BP profile in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM. This is a cross-sectional study of 151 participants with type 2 DM. Usual physical activity was assessed by step counting and self-reported questionnaire. BP was measured in office and by 24 h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM; 24 h, daytime and nighttime. Mean participant age was 61.1 ± 8.4 years, 64% was women, and mean duration of diabetes was 14.3 ± 8.5 years. Ninety-two percent of participants had hypertension, and office BP was 138 ± 18/78 ± 10 mmHg. Inverse correlations were observed between step count and 24 h BP (systolic, r=−0.186; p=0.022, daytime BP (systolic, r=−0.198; p=0.015, and nighttime BP (pulse pressure, r=−0.190; p=0.019. People were categorized into tertiles of daily step count, and the 1st tertile had higher 24 h systolic BP, daytime systolic BP, daytime mean BP, and daytime systolic BP load than those in the other tertiles, even after adjusting for age and HbA1c. Participants with type 2 DM and low levels of physical activity exhibit higher 24 h and daytime systolic ambulatory BP values as compared with those who performed more steps per day, even after adjustments for confounding factors.

  20. Phenological Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Phenology is the scientific study of periodic biological phenomena, such as flowering, breeding, and migration, in relation to climatic conditions. The few records...

  1. Blood pressure, body mass index, heart rate and levels of blood cholesterol and glucose of volunteers during National Heart Weeks, 1995-1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, K L; Tan, H; Liew, Y M; Sambhi, J S; Aljafri, A M; Hatijah, A

    2000-12-01

    The paper presents the results of a health screening programme conducted in 10 major centers in Malaysia--Kuala Lumpur, Penang, Ipoh, Johor Bahru, Alor Star, Kuala Terengganu, Malacca, Kota Bahru, Kuching and Kota Kinabalu during the National Heart Weeks, 1995-1997. There were 6,858 participants of both sexes aged between 6 years to 81 years old. The parameters involved in the screening programme were body mass index, blood pressure, heart rate, cholesterol and glucose. The following are the results of the study:- 1. The mean and standard deviation for the body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), total cholesterol (TC) and non fasting (random) blood glucose (GL) of the volunteers studied were 24.3 +/- 4.0 kg/m2, 128.3 +/- 21.1 mmHg, 79.6 +/- 11.9 mmHg, 77.2 +/- 12.1 bpm, 5.33 +/- 1.37 mmol/l and 5.11 +/- 1.97 mmol/l respectively. 2. There was a rising trend for BMI, SBP, DBP, TC and GL with age. The HR was higher in the younger age group of those below 20 years. Males tended to have higher mean values than females except for HR which was similar in both sexes. 3. The Malays, Chinese and Indians seemed to have closely similar mean values for SBP, DBP and HR but the Indians possessed the highest BMI (25.62 +/- 3.90 kg/m2), TC (5.61 +/- 1.48 mmol/l) and GL (5.41 +/- 2.43 mmol/l) among the three major ethnic groups. While the Ibans had highest TC (6.07 + 1.09 mmol/l), their GL level was the lowest (4.76 +/- 1.15 mmol/l). The Kadazans had the lowest TC level (4.94 +/- 1.39 mmol/l) among all the ethnic groups. 4. Among the participants screened, 31.9% were overweight (BMI > or = 25), 7.6% were obese (BMI > or = 30); 26.8% had raised SBP (> or = 140 mmHg) and 19.3% had raised DBP (> or = 90 mmHg); 13.6% of the participants had increased HR (> or = 90 bpm), 22% had raised TC (> or = 6.20 mmol/l) and 2% had raised GL (> or = 11.00 mmol/l). There was a higher prevalence for abnormal values with increasing age

  2. S6-5: Visual Consciousness Tracked with Direct Intracranial Recording from Early and High-Level Visual Cortices in Humans and Monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naotsugu Tsuchiya

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Key insights about the neuronal correlates of consciousness have been gained by electrophysiological recording of single neurons from a particular area or by recording of indirect fMRI signals from the whole brain. However, if rapid interaction among neuronal populations in distant cortical areas is essential for consciousness, other methods such as intracranial electrocorticogram (ECoG that can attain both requirements are necessary. Here we report the results of ECoG experiments in three epilepsy patients and one monkey. We used Continuous Flash Suppression to investigate the neuronal activity when ‘invisible’ stimuli broke interocular suppression. We found that widespread activity in the visual cortex preceded up to 1–2 s before subjective reports of detection and that alpha-band activity in the visual cortex induced by the initial flashes predicted how long the suppression was going to last. We will discuss implication of these findings for the neuronal dynamics associated with consciousness.

  3. Social Stress Induced Pressure Breathing and Consequent Blood Pressure Oscillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, Dirk S.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Meulen, Jan van der; Schoemaker, Regien

    1986-01-01

    A large amplitude blood pressure oscillation occurs during social defeat in a territorial fight between male rats, and during the application of a psychosocial stimulus associated with this defeat. Synchronous recording of blood pressure, intrathoracic pressure and diaphragm activity shows that the

  4. Alveolar Tidal recruitment/derecruitment and Overdistension During Four Levels of End-Expiratory Pressure with Protective Tidal Volume During Anesthesia in a Murine Lung-Healthy Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Joao Henrique Neves; Carvalho, Alysson Roncally; Bergamini, Bruno Curty; Gress, Maria Alice Kuster; Jandre, Frederico Caetano;