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Sample records for level power-oriented athletes

  1. NATIONAL IDENTITY OF TOP – LEVEL ATHLETES

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    Mojca Doupona Topič

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Elite international sports are staged in connection with national symbols and involve competitions between athletes and teams representing nation-states. The victors regularly express their joy by displaying their national flag, and spectators use victories as occasions for reaffirming and articulating national pride. The aim of the study was to determine how national identity is formed in connection with sports, and the ways that national identity is integrated into the lives of athletes. The sample included top-level athletes. All participants were members of the Slovenian national team (handball, voleyball, track and field, swimming, cross country skiing, rowing. Social-demographic variables, value categories, motivation for competition, national pride, awareness to be Slovenianian-ness were analysed. Results shows that sporting achievements do have a strong correlation with the national identity.

  2. THE SECURITY AND CRITICAL LEVELS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY FOR TRAINED AND UNTRAINED PERSONS IN MUSCLE PERFORMANCE POWER ORIENTATION.

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    Chernozub, A A

    The paper studied the problem of finding the optimal methodology for determining the safety and critical load conditions for the body trained and untrained people in the process of training the force pool. It was found that for trained individuals who have a sufficient level of adaptation to the power load, the use of “standard” modes of operation in the course of employment by fitness power safely. However, the problematic issue is that to the untrained troops, it is almost impossible to determine the safe load parameters using conventional techniques, which are mainly used in cyclic sports. Thus, the solution to this problem lies in the fact that using the integral method for estimating the value of power loads and a computer program for determining the relative weight of the index weights, safety and critical load parameters were calculated for untrained persons. At the same time, studied the biochemical parameters of blood (testosterone, cortisol, and lactate dehydrogenase activity) fixed after exercise, compared with the state of rest, confirmed our calculations clearly enough.

  3. A Research into Evaluation of Basketball Athletes' Risk Perception Level

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    Karatas, Ozgur

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the risk perception levels of Basketball athletes in Turkish League teams according to some variables. In this research the "general screening model," which is one of the descriptive screening methods, was used. While the population of the study consists of athletes actively engaged in the Turkish…

  4. The differences in electrocardiogram interpretation in top-level athletes.

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    Jakubiak, Agnieszka A; Burkhard-Jagodzińska, Krystyna; Król, Wojciech; Konopka, Marcin; Bursa, Dominik; Sitkowski, Dariusz; Kuch, Marek; Braksator, Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    The Ministry of Health in Poland recommends electrocardiogram (ECG)-based cardiovascular screening in athletes, but so far there has been a lack of guidelines on preparticipation assessment. We compared different criteria of ECG screening assessment in a group of top-level athletes. The aims were to evaluate the prevalence of ECG changes in athletes that necessitate further cardiological work-up according to three criteria in various age groups as well as to identify factors determining the occurrence of changes related and unrelated to the training. 262 high-dynamic, high-static Polish athletes (rowers, cyclists, canoeists) were divided into two age categories: young (≤ 18 years of age; n = 177, mean age 16.9 ± 0.8; 15-18 years) and elite (> 18 years of age; n = 85, mean age 22.9 ± 3.4; 19-34 years). All sports persons had a 12-lead ECG performed and evaluated according to 2010 European Society of Cardiology (ESC) recommendations, 2012 Seattle criteria, and 2014 Refined criteria. The Refined criteria reduced (p < 0.001) the number of training-unrelated ECG findings to 8.0% vs. 12.6% (Seattle criteria) and 30.5% (ESC recommendations). All three criteria revealed more training-related changes in the group of older athletes (76.5% vs. 55.9%, p = 0.001). Predictors that significantly (p < 0.005) affected the occurrence of adaptive changes were the age of the athlete, training duration (in years), and male gender. 1. The ESC criteria identified a group of athletes that was unacceptably large, as for the screening test, requiring verification with other methods (every fourth athlete). 2. The use of the Refined criteria helps to significantly reduce the frequency and necessity for additional tests. 3. The dependence of adaptive changes on training duration and athletes' age confirms the benign nature of those ECG findings.

  5. The comparison of social skill levels of team sports athletes and individual sport athletes

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    Fatma Çepikkurt

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study is to compare the level of social skills scores of undergraduate students at Mersin University School of Physical Education and Sports according to sport types, gender and class levels. Material and Methods: To test the main hypothesis, a total of 112 student- athletes (47 female and 65 male, performing individual and team sports from the Mersin University School of Physical Education and Sports were involved in this study. Data were collected by ‘Social Skills Inventory” developed by Riggio (1986, 1989 and adapted to Turkish by Yüksel (1998. Results: T -test results showed that the mean scores of 6 sub-dimensions of social skills scale does not change with regard to types of sports. But, there were significant differences of mean scores of social control changes with respect to gender and this score was higher for female athletes compared to male counterparts. Moreover, the results of Kruskal Wallis Analysis indicated that there was a significant difference in all sub dimensions except emotional awareness subscale compared to class level. First year students had the highest scores in terms of emotional expressivity, emotional control, social expressivity, social awareness, and social control. Conclusion: It could be stated that women are more successful in social skills, although the level of social skills of student-athletes does not differ according to sport.

  6. ACE DD genotype is unfavorable to Korean short-term muscle power athletes.

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    Kim, C-H; Cho, J-Y; Jeon, J Y; Koh, Y G; Kim, Y-M; Kim, H-J; Park, M; Um, H-S; Kim, C

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the ACE DD genotype is unfavorably associated with the ultimate power-oriented performance. To test the hypothesis we recruited a total of 848 subjects including 55 international level power-oriented athletes (High-performance), 100 national level power-oriented athletes (Mid-performance) and 693 healthy controls (Control) in Korea. Then the distributions of ACE polymorphism throughout these groups were analyzed. As a result, there was a gradual decrease of frequencies of the DD genotype with advancing levels of performance (Control vs. Mid-performance vs. High-performance=17.2% vs. 10.0% vs. 5.5%, p=0.002). Also, the frequencies of D allele decreased gradually with advancing levels of performance (Control vs. Mid-performance vs. High-performance=42.6% vs. 35.0% vs. 30.9%, pDD genotype and the D allele. This finding gave 3.83 times lower probability of success in power-oriented sports for individuals with the DD genotype than those with the II+ ID genotype. In conclusion, these results indicate that Korean power-oriented athletes with a lower frequency of the DD genotype had a lower probability of success in power-oriented sports. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.

  7. Effects of exercise on plasma adiponectin levels in athletes

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    Popović Mirjana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ which releases biologically active adipokines. Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived protein structurally similar to complement 1q, plays a significant role in metabolic disorders, due to its insulin sensitizing, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic properties. AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, mediate the metabolic actions of adiponectin by activating adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors- alpha (PPAR-α which leads to an increase in fatty acid combustion and energy consumption, fatty acid oxidation and glucose uptake in myocytes and reduces gluconeogenesis and thus leads to increased insulin sensitivity. Plasma adiponectin level is affected by multiple factors: gender (females have higher plasma adiponectin levels, obesity-linked diseases (metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus type 2 and atherosclerosis are associated with lower adiponectin levels, lifestyle -including exercise. Yet, to date, little is known about the response of adiponectin concentrations to exercise and, in particular, the response of this hormone to training in population of athletes. The aim of this review is to overview the published evidence for the effects of exercise on adiponectin levels in athletes. Adiponectin concentration presents a delayed increase (30 min after short-term intense performance, by athletes, both male and female. It seems that adiponectin concentrations do not change in response to long-term exercise. No significant difference was found in total adiponectin and/or high-molecular weight (HMW oligomers in long-term effects of high physical training in athletes. Adiponectin can serve to monitor training loads and the establishment of individual limit values of training loads. Further studies are needed to clarify possible mechanisms by which adiponectin might influence energy homeostasis during heavy training in elite athletes.

  8. COMPARISON OF SUCCESS OF SLOVENIAN TOP LEVEL ATHLETES AT SENIOR AND JUNIOR COMPETITION LEVEL

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    Mitija Samardžija Pavletič

    2014-12-01

    We found that the Slovenian athletes in senior competition level on average achieve top level results at the age of 27. Furthermore, we found out that a half (49 % of the athletes who achieved excellent results in senior category had not achieved superb results earlier in junior category, and that almost 30 % of athletes who achieved their best results at major competitions on senior levels failed to obtain the status of an athlete of perspective class at the time when they competed in junior category. We have come to the conclusion that unlike the sportsmen achieving top results only a small group of sportswomen achieve top level results. We recommend a systemic analysis of expert professional work in individual sports, adoption of certain measures to improve the competencies of sports managers who coordinate the work of expert teams and the contribution of many other stakeholders who are co-creators of top sports achievements. In addition, we would further suggest the analysis of the categorisation system, particularly in the area of determining the status of perspective athlete. We believe it would be wise to carry out a further in-depth research that would respond to the question who are the key stakeholders and how to influence them in order to reduce the result dropout rate of top young athletes in the transition period to senior categories and to increase the total number of top athletes.

  9. Psychological consequences of athletic injury among high-level competitors.

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    Leddy, M H; Lambert, M J; Ogles, B M

    1994-12-01

    Injury prohibiting continued athletic participation has been hypothesized to have a predictable emotional impact on athletes (Rotella & Heyman, 1986). However, the psychological impact of injury has not been well documented. This study examined the psychological reactions to injury among 343 male collegiate athletes participating in 10 sports. All athletes were assessed using measures of depression, anxiety, and self-esteem during preseason physical examinations. Injured athletes along with matched controls were later assessed within one week of experiencing an athletic injury and 2 months later. A 4 x 3 (Injury Status x Time of Testing) repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance (DM MANOVA) revealed that injured athletes exhibited greater depression and anxiety and lower self-esteem than controls immediately following physical injury and at follow-up 2 months later. These findings supported the general observation that physically injured athletes experience a period of emotional distress that in some cases may be severe enough to warrant clinical intervention.

  10. The Art of Athlete Leadership: Identifying High-Quality Athlete Leadership at the Individual and Team Level Through Social Network Analysis.

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    Fransen, Katrien; Van Puyenbroeck, Stef; Loughead, Todd M; Vanbeselaere, Norbert; De Cuyper, Bert; Vande Broek, Gert; Boen, Filip

    2015-06-01

    This research aimed to introduce social network analysis as a novel technique in sports teams to identify the attributes of high-quality athlete leadership, both at the individual and at the team level. Study 1 included 25 sports teams (N = 308 athletes) and focused on athletes' general leadership quality. Study 2 comprised 21 sports teams (N = 267 athletes) and focused on athletes' specific leadership quality as a task, motivational, social, and external leader. The extent to which athletes felt connected with their leader proved to be most predictive for athletes' perceptions of that leader's quality on each leadership role. Also at the team level, teams with higher athlete leadership quality were more strongly connected. We conclude that social network analysis constitutes a valuable tool to provide more insight in the attributes of high-quality leadership both at the individual and at the team level.

  11. Examination of Athletes' Anxiety, Motivation, Imagination Value in Competitions with Different Severity Level

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    Sallayici, Mustafa; Eroglu Kolayis, Ipek; Kesilmis, Inci; Kesilmis, Mehmet Melih

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine athletes' anxiety, motivation, and imagination value in competitions with different severity level. The research was conducted on swimming athlete in elite level 18 female and 19 male totally 37. To measure the level of imagination, imagine inventory in sports and to measure trait anxiety levels STAI were…

  12. Staffing Levels at National Collegiate Athletic Association Football Bowl Subdivision-Level Institutions.

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    Ms, Suzie Aparicio; Welch Bacon, Cailee E; Parsons, John T; Bay, R Curtis; Cohen, Randy P; DeZeeuw, Terry; McLeod, Tamara C Valovich

    2015-12-01

    The "Appropriate Medical Coverage for Intercollegiate Athletics" (AMCIA) document was created to support assessment and calculation of athletic training personnel requirements. However, little is known regarding disparities between current and recommended staffing practices. To identify the staffing and employment characteristics of athletic health care services at Football Bowl Subdivision-level institutions. Cross-sectional study. Web-based survey. Head athletic trainers and athletic training staff members who were knowledgeable about budget and staff. The survey, Assessment of Staffing Levels at National Collegiate Athletic Association Football Bowl Subdivision-Level Institutions, was used to evaluate personal, university, and staff demographics; staffing and employment topics; and AMCIA variables and use. The survey was accessed and partially completed by 104 individuals (response rate = 84.6%). A total of 79 athletic trainers (response rate = 76%) completed the entire survey. One-third of the respondents (34.2%, n = 26) met the recommended number of full-time equivalents (FTEs) for football, two-thirds of the respondents (65.7%, n = 50) failed to meet the recommendation, and 26.2% (n = 27) were missing data needed for FTE calculation. Among those who did not meet the recommended FTEs (n = 50), 38.0% (n = 19) were within 1 FTE of being compliant, 26.0% (n = 13) were within 2 FTEs, and 24.0% (n = 12) were within 3 FTEs. About one-third of respondents (35.9%, n = 37) reported not using the AMCIA, citing lack of funding (29.7%, n = 11), lack of administrative support (21.6%, n = 8), and other reasons (37.8%, n = 14). The majority of institutions that used the AMCIA were able to provide justification for staffing. For most of the institutions that failed to meet their recommendation, adding 1-3 FTE athletic trainers for football would change their compliance status. A uniform definition of the term FTE within collegiate athletics is needed to allow for structured

  13. [Limits of cardiac functional adaptation in "top level" resistance athletes].

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    Carù, B; Righetti, G; Bossi, M; Gerosa, C; Gazzotti, G; Maranetto, D

    2001-02-01

    Sports activity, particularly when performed at high level, provokes cardiovascular adjustments depending on the type of sport and on the level of the load. We evaluated 15 athletes from the Italian national team during a non-agonistic period of cross country skiing, with non-invasive tests including exercise test, color Doppler echocardiography, Holter monitoring, physical examination and standard rest electrocardiogram. Physical examination, rest electrocardiogram, exercise testing and echocardiography were all within the range of the expected values for this type of subjects. Holter monitoring recorded during the periods of agonistic activity revealed significant hypokinetic arrhythmias such as severe bradycardia, pauses, I and II degree atrioventricular blocks, and complete atrioventricular block in 2 cases; these features were not observed on Holter monitoring recorded during the non-agonistic period. The perfect health status of subjects and their racing results may bring about physiological functional adjustments, but these observations suggest the need for a follow-up to evaluate possible pathologic outcomes.

  14. Level of anxiety and disordered eating behavior among young female athletes

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    Fatima, S.; Khan, I.; Bashir, M.S.; Fatima, M.

    2017-01-01

    To find level of anxiety and disordered eating behavior among young female athletes. Methodology: A questionnaire based survey was undertaken among 71 athletes (15-25 years old) athletes from University of Lahore and Lahore College for Women University. Then the level of anxiety and disordered eating behavior calculated. Data were statistically analyzed by SPSS version 16. Results: Out of 71 athletes, 56 (78.87%) had anxiety due to eating disorder and 15 (21.12%) had no eating disorder. And 67 (94.3%) athletes had raised anxiety levels while 3 (4.2%) had no anxiety. Conclusion: Dieting behavior and binge eating that prompted eating disorder are the main cause of anxiety among young female athletes. (author)

  15. Staffing Levels at National Collegiate Athletic Association Football Bowl Subdivision-Level Institutions

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    MS, Suzie Aparicio; Welch Bacon, Cailee E.; Parsons, John T.; Bay, R. Curtis; Cohen, Randy P.; DeZeeuw, Terry; McLeod, Tamara C. Valovich

    2015-01-01

    Context The “Appropriate Medical Coverage for Intercollegiate Athletics” (AMCIA) document was created to support assessment and calculation of athletic training personnel requirements. However, little is known regarding disparities between current and recommended staffing practices. Objective To identify the staffing and employment characteristics of athletic health care services at Football Bowl Subdivision-level institutions. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Web-based survey. Patients or Other Participants Head athletic trainers and athletic training staff members who were knowledgeable about budget and staff. Main Outcome Measure(s) The survey, Assessment of Staffing Levels at National Collegiate Athletic Association Football Bowl Subdivision-Level Institutions, was used to evaluate personal, university, and staff demographics; staffing and employment topics; and AMCIA variables and use. Results The survey was accessed and partially completed by 104 individuals (response rate = 84.6%). A total of 79 athletic trainers (response rate = 76%) completed the entire survey. One-third of the respondents (34.2%, n = 26) met the recommended number of full-time equivalents (FTEs) for football, two-thirds of the respondents (65.7%, n = 50) failed to meet the recommendation, and 26.2% (n = 27) were missing data needed for FTE calculation. Among those who did not meet the recommended FTEs (n = 50), 38.0% (n = 19) were within 1 FTE of being compliant, 26.0% (n = 13) were within 2 FTEs, and 24.0% (n = 12) were within 3 FTEs. About one-third of respondents (35.9%, n = 37) reported not using the AMCIA, citing lack of funding (29.7%, n = 11), lack of administrative support (21.6%, n = 8), and other reasons (37.8%, n = 14). Conclusions The majority of institutions that used the AMCIA were able to provide justification for staffing. For most of the institutions that failed to meet their recommendation, adding 1–3 FTE athletic trainers for football would change their

  16. Relationship of psychophysiological characteristics with different levels of motivation in judo athletes of high qualification

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    G.V. Korobeynikov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim : to study the connection of psychophysiological characteristics with different levels of motivation in judo athletes of high qualification. Material: highly qualified athletes were examined, members of the National Judo Team (men. All athletes (n = 25 were divided into three groups, depending on the level of motivation to achieve success. Results: it is established that the high level of motivation for achieving success in judo is provided by activation of neurodynamic, cognitive functions and the level of light resistance. Athletes with a high level of motivation to achieve success is observed the predominance of the values of neurodynamic functions: endurance of the nervous system; speed of visual reactions. Athletes with an average level of motivation to achieve success identified higher values: productivity, speed, accuracy, effectiveness of verbal information. Athletes with a predominance of avoidance of failure motivation have a preference for other groups in the speed, efficiency and stability of the processes of thinking and processing information. Conclusions: judo athletes with a predominance of motivation to avoid a failure form coping strategy to prevent psycho-emotional stress. This helps to minimize the exhaustion of vegetative resources in conditions of extreme sports activity. Judo athletes with high level of motivation to achieve success, the presence of mental state of relative comfort is associated with the search for support among others and orientation toward internal beliefs.

  17. Investigating Neuroanatomical Features in Top Athletes at the Single Subject Level.

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    Taubert, Marco; Wenzel, Uwe; Draganski, Bogdan; Kiebel, Stefan J; Ragert, Patrick; Krug, Jürgen; Villringer, Arno

    2015-01-01

    In sport events like Olympic Games or World Championships competitive athletes keep pushing the boundaries of human performance. Compared to team sports, high achievements in many athletic disciplines depend solely on the individual's performance. Contrasting previous research looking for expertise-related differences in brain anatomy at the group level, we aim to demonstrate changes in individual top athlete's brain, which would be averaged out in a group analysis. We compared structural magnetic resonance images (MRI) of three professional track-and-field athletes to age-, gender- and education-matched control subjects. To determine brain features specific to these top athletes, we tested for significant deviations in structural grey matter density between each of the three top athletes and a carefully matched control sample. While total brain volumes were comparable between athletes and controls, we show regional grey matter differences in striatum and thalamus. The demonstrated brain anatomy patterns remained stable and were detected after 2 years with Olympic Games in between. We also found differences in the fusiform gyrus in two top long jumpers. We interpret our findings in reward-related areas as correlates of top athletes' persistency to reach top-level skill performance over years.

  18. Investigating Neuroanatomical Features in Top Athletes at the Single Subject Level.

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    Marco Taubert

    Full Text Available In sport events like Olympic Games or World Championships competitive athletes keep pushing the boundaries of human performance. Compared to team sports, high achievements in many athletic disciplines depend solely on the individual's performance. Contrasting previous research looking for expertise-related differences in brain anatomy at the group level, we aim to demonstrate changes in individual top athlete's brain, which would be averaged out in a group analysis. We compared structural magnetic resonance images (MRI of three professional track-and-field athletes to age-, gender- and education-matched control subjects. To determine brain features specific to these top athletes, we tested for significant deviations in structural grey matter density between each of the three top athletes and a carefully matched control sample. While total brain volumes were comparable between athletes and controls, we show regional grey matter differences in striatum and thalamus. The demonstrated brain anatomy patterns remained stable and were detected after 2 years with Olympic Games in between. We also found differences in the fusiform gyrus in two top long jumpers. We interpret our findings in reward-related areas as correlates of top athletes' persistency to reach top-level skill performance over years.

  19. The Athlete's Perception of Coaches' Behavior Towards Competitors with a Different Sports Level.

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    Siekanska, Małgorzata; Blecharz, Jan; Wojtowicz, Agnieszka

    2013-12-18

    The study was designed to examine how active and former athletes across a different sports level perceived coaching behavior. Eighty competitive athletes (44 males and 36 females; 21.89 ± 1.48 years of age; 8.35 ± 3.65 years of competitive experience) from the University School of Physical Education in Cracow, Poland, participated in the study. They represented both individual (n = 50) and team sports (n = 30). Seventeen participants were internationally renowned and 63 were recognized for competitive excellence at a national level. The participants responded to a demographic survey and the Coaches' Behaviors Survey. The qualitative analysis procedures were employed to extract themes from open-ended questions. It was confirmed that coaches who perceived their athletes as more skilled, also treated them differently. Female athletes as compared with male athletes, more frequently pointed at the leniency in coach's behavior towards highly skilled athletes, and perceived it as a factor inhibiting athletic development. Additionally, women often found individualization of the training process as a behavior reinforcing development. Less accomplished athletes more often pointed out to "a post-training session interest in the athlete" as directed only towards more accomplished counterparts; however, they indicated "leniency and favoring" less often than the athletes with international achievements. They also listed "excessive criticism" as a type of behavior hindering development, but they indicated coaches' "authoritarianism and distance" less frequently than the more accomplished counterparts. The study added data to the discussion of the Pygmalion effect and the phenomenon of the self-fulfilling prophecy both in general (Rosenthal and Jacobson, 1968; Harris and Rosenthal, 1985; Jussim, 1989) and sport psychology (Harris and Rosenthal, 1985; Horn et al., 1998; Solomon and Kosmitzki, 1996; Solomon et al., 1998; Solomon, 2001).

  20. Enhanced Strength and Sprint Levels, and Changes in Blood Parameters during a Complete Athletics Season in 800 m High-Level Athletes

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    Beatriz Bachero-Mena

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze changes in sprint, strength, hematological, and hormonal parameters in high-level 800 m athletes during a complete athletics season. Thirteen male athletes of national and international level in 800 m (personal best ranging from 1:43 to 1:58 min:ss participated in this study. A total of 5 tests were conducted during a complete athletics season. Athletes performed sprint tests (20 and 200 m, countermovement jump (CMJ, jump squat (JS, and full squat (SQ tests. Blood samples (red and white blood profile and hormones were collected in test 1 (T1, test 3 (T3, and test 5 (T5. A general increase in the performance of the strength and sprint parameters analyzed (CMJ, JS, SQ, 20 m, and 200 m during the season was observed, with a significant time effect in CMJ (P < 0.01, SQ (P < 0.01, and 200 m (P < 0.05. This improvement was accompanied by a significant enhancement of the 800 m performance from T3 to T5 (P < 0.01. Significant changes in some hematological variables: hematocrit (Hct (P < 0.01, mean corpuscular volume (MCV (P < 0.001, mean corpuscular hemoglobin content (MCHC (P < 0.001, white blood cells count (WBC (P < 0.05, neutrophils (P < 0.05, monocytes (P < 0.05, and mean platelet volume (MPV (P < 0.05 were observed throughout the season. The hormonal response and creatin kinase (CK did not show significant variations during the season, except for insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1 (P < 0.05. In conclusion, our results suggest the importance of strength levels in middle-distance athletes. On the other hand, variations in some hematological parameters and a depression of the immune system occurred during the season. Therefore, monitoring of the mechanical, hematological and hormonal response in athletes may help coaches and athletes to optimize the regulation of training contents and may be useful to diagnose states of overreaching or overtraining in athletes throughout the season.

  1. Evaluation of the warm-up habits and knowledge levels in amateur athletes

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    Hasan Aykut Aysan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the warm-up habit and level of knowledge in the amateur athletes.Materials and methods: A total of 510 amateur athletes aged between 17 and 30 years with the mean sport age of 6.2±3.4 years were included. There were 360 males (mean age 22.4±2.0 years and 150 females (mean age 21.2±2.1 years. Warm-up habits of athletes were obtained using by the Likert-type survey questionnaire consisting of 20 questions. The reliability coefficient of the survey had been calculated as cronbach alph=0.647, KMO=0.715, Barlett=1968.711 (p<0.05.Results: It was observed that 56.3% of the athletes had sportive success in elite level and 25% of the male athletes and 32% of the female athletes had never injured before. Item of “warm-up has no effect on the performance of the athlete” was rejected with the mean score of 2.70±0.93, item of “warm-up lessens the risk of being injured for the athletes” was accepted by majority (83.9%. Of all athletes, 83.9% of them had been injured more than once. The warm-up habit was found to be performed in 47.8% at pre-training or pre-competition periods, however cool-down habit was found in 17.3% of athletes at the end of activity.Conclusion: There was a common belief that warm-up had a positive effect on the performance of the athletes, reduced the risk of injury, increased the movement angle of joints. But it can be said that habits of the amateurs was not at a sufficient level. J Clin Exp Invest 2011;2(2:181-6

  2. THE LEVEL AND AGE DYNAMICS OF SPORTS ACHIEVEMENTS OF ATHLETES-VETERANS OF THE HAMMER THROW

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    Ivanova Natalya Dmitrievna

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the records of the world and Russian athletes veterans in the hammer throw, starting with the age group 35-39 years and up to age group 100-104 years, and a comparison of the records of veterans subject to an age factor and of the high scores of athletes in the current sports. The aim of the work is to analyze the level and dynamics of the records of the world and Russian athletes, veterans in the hammer throw in each five-year group starting with the age group 35-39 years and up to age group 100-104 years. The novelty of the work consists in comparison of the records of the world and Russia in the hammer throw active athletes and records of veterans with the amendment to the age factor. Analysis of the level and age dynamics of sports achievements of domestic and foreign athletes-throwers older age groups. In the course of the research it is established, that in the throwing hammer, decreasing absolute (without regard to the age factor results, which is largely due to the natural age-related changes in the organism of athletes. Records of the world athletes-veterans compared with the records of active athletes and the transition from each of the five-year group in the following, decline on average in men by 10,0%, among women by 19,3%, in spite of the fact that the weight of the shells in the hammer throw with age decreases. Presented the reasons for the backwardness of Russian athletes older than 35 years of foreign veterans.

  3. Perceived levels of frustration during clinical situations in athletic training students.

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    Heinerichs, Scott; Curtis, Neil; Gardiner-Shires, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Athletic training students (ATSs) are involved in various situations during the clinical experience that may cause them to express levels of frustration. Understanding levels of frustration in ATSs is important because frustration can affect student learning, and the clinical experience is critical to their development as professionals. To explore perceived levels of frustration in ATSs during clinical situations and to determine if those perceptions differ based on sex. Cross-sectional study with a survey instrument. A total of 14 of 19 professional, undergraduate athletic training programs accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education in Pennsylvania. Of a possible 438 athletic training students, 318 (72.6%) completed the survey. The Athletic Training Student Frustration Inventory was developed and administered. The survey gathered demographic information and included 24 Likert-scale items centering on situations associated with the clinical experience. Descriptive statistics were computed on all items. The Mann-Whitney U was used to evaluate differences between male and female students. A higher level of frustration was perceived during the following clinical situations: lack of respect by student-athletes and coaching staffs, the demands of the clinical experience, inability of ATSs to perform or remember skills, and ATSs not having the opportunity to apply their skills daily. Higher levels of frustration were perceived in female than male ATSs in several areas. Understanding student frustration during clinical situations is important to better appreciate the clinical education experience. Low levels of this emotion are expected; however, when higher levels exist, learning can be affected. Whereas we cannot eliminate student frustrations, athletic training programs and preceptors need to be aware of this emotion in order to create an environment that is more conducive to learning.

  4. Alcohol use and related consequences among students with varying levels of involvement in college athletics.

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    Leichliter, J S; Meilman, P W; Presley, C A; Cashin, J R

    1998-05-01

    Alcohol use, binge drinking, and substance abuse-related consequences among students with varying levels of participation in intercollegiate athletics were examined. Between October 1994 and May 1996, 51,483 students at 125 institutions answered questions about their involvement in athletics, ranging from noninvolvement to participant to leadership positions, on the long form of the Core Alcohol and Drug Survey. In comparisons with nonathletes, both male and female athletes consumed significantly more alcohol per week, engaged in binge drinking more often, and suffered more adverse consequences from their substance use. No support was found for the hypothesis that athletic leaders were more responsible than other team participants in using alcohol. Male team leaders appeared to be at significantly greater risk than female team leaders; they also consumed more alcohol, binged more often, and suffered more consequences than other team members.

  5. Psychological balance in high level athletes: gender-based differences and sport-specific patterns.

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    Karine Schaal

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Few epidemiological studies have focused on the psychological health of high level athletes. This study aimed to identify the principal psychological problems encountered within French high level athletes, and the variations in their prevalence based on sex and the sport practiced. METHODS: Multivariate analyses were conducted on nationwide data obtained from the athletes' yearly psychological evaluations. RESULTS: A representative sample of 13% of the French athlete population was obtained. 17% of athletes have at least one ongoing or recent disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD being the most prevalent (6%, followed by non-specific eating disorders (4.2%. Overall, 20.2% of women had at least one psychopathology, against 15.1% in men. This female predominance applied to anxiety and eating disorders, depression, sleep problems and self-harming behaviors. The highest rates of GAD appeared in aesthetic sports (16.7% vs. 6.8% in other sports for men and 38.9% vs. 10.3% for women; the lowest prevalence was found in high risk sports athletes (3.0% vs. 3.5%. Eating disorders are most common among women in racing sports (14% vs. 9%, but for men were found mostly in combat sports (7% vs. 4.8%. DISCUSSION: This study highlights important differences in psychopathology between male and female athletes, demonstrating that the many sex-based differences reported in the general population apply to elite athletes. While the prevalence of psychological problems is no higher than in the general population, the variations in psychopathology in different sports suggest that specific constraints could influence the development of some disorders.

  6. Psychological Balance in High Level Athletes: Gender-Based Differences and Sport-Specific Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, Karine; Tafflet, Muriel; Nassif, Hala; Thibault, Valérie; Pichard, Capucine; Alcotte, Mathieu; Guillet, Thibaut; El Helou, Nour; Berthelot, Geoffroy; Simon, Serge; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Few epidemiological studies have focused on the psychological health of high level athletes. This study aimed to identify the principal psychological problems encountered within French high level athletes, and the variations in their prevalence based on sex and the sport practiced. Methods Multivariate analyses were conducted on nationwide data obtained from the athletes' yearly psychological evaluations. Results A representative sample of 13% of the French athlete population was obtained. 17% of athletes have at least one ongoing or recent disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) being the most prevalent (6%), followed by non-specific eating disorders (4.2%). Overall, 20.2% of women had at least one psychopathology, against 15.1% in men. This female predominance applied to anxiety and eating disorders, depression, sleep problems and self-harming behaviors. The highest rates of GAD appeared in aesthetic sports (16.7% vs. 6.8% in other sports for men and 38.9% vs. 10.3% for women); the lowest prevalence was found in high risk sports athletes (3.0% vs. 3.5%). Eating disorders are most common among women in racing sports (14% vs. 9%), but for men were found mostly in combat sports (7% vs. 4.8%). Discussion This study highlights important differences in psychopathology between male and female athletes, demonstrating that the many sex-based differences reported in the general population apply to elite athletes. While the prevalence of psychological problems is no higher than in the general population, the variations in psychopathology in different sports suggest that specific constraints could influence the development of some disorders. PMID:21573222

  7. Psychological balance in high level athletes: gender-based differences and sport-specific patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, Karine; Tafflet, Muriel; Nassif, Hala; Thibault, Valérie; Pichard, Capucine; Alcotte, Mathieu; Guillet, Thibaut; El Helou, Nour; Berthelot, Geoffroy; Simon, Serge; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2011-05-04

    Few epidemiological studies have focused on the psychological health of high level athletes. This study aimed to identify the principal psychological problems encountered within French high level athletes, and the variations in their prevalence based on sex and the sport practiced. Multivariate analyses were conducted on nationwide data obtained from the athletes' yearly psychological evaluations. A representative sample of 13% of the French athlete population was obtained. 17% of athletes have at least one ongoing or recent disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) being the most prevalent (6%), followed by non-specific eating disorders (4.2%). Overall, 20.2% of women had at least one psychopathology, against 15.1% in men. This female predominance applied to anxiety and eating disorders, depression, sleep problems and self-harming behaviors. The highest rates of GAD appeared in aesthetic sports (16.7% vs. 6.8% in other sports for men and 38.9% vs. 10.3% for women); the lowest prevalence was found in high risk sports athletes (3.0% vs. 3.5%). Eating disorders are most common among women in racing sports (14% vs. 9%), but for men were found mostly in combat sports (7% vs. 4.8%). This study highlights important differences in psychopathology between male and female athletes, demonstrating that the many sex-based differences reported in the general population apply to elite athletes. While the prevalence of psychological problems is no higher than in the general population, the variations in psychopathology in different sports suggest that specific constraints could influence the development of some disorders.

  8. Fear of failure, psychological stress, and burnout among adolescent athletes competing in high level sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, H; Sagar, S S; Stenling, A

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate fear of failure in highly competitive junior athletes and the association with psychological stress and burnout. In total 258 athletes (152 males and 108 females) ranged in age from 15 to 19 years (M = 17.4 years, SD = 1.08) participated. Athletes competed in variety of sports including both team and individual sports. Results showed in a variable-oriented approach using regression analyses that one dimension, fear of experiencing shame and embarrassment had a statistically significant effect on perceived psychological stress and one dimension of burnout, reduced sense of accomplishment. However, adopting a person-oriented approach using latent class analysis, we found that athletes with high levels of fear failure on all dimensions scored high on burnout. We also found another class with high scores on burnout. These athletes had high scores on the individual-oriented dimensions of fear of failure and low scores on the other oriented fear of failure dimensions. The findings indicate that fear of failure is related to burnout and psychological stress in athletes and that this association is mainly associated with the individual-oriented dimensions of fear of failure. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The Comparison of assertiveness level of physically disabled athletes who played in different sport branches.

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    Gonca İNCE

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was the comparison of assertiveness level of physically disabled athletes who played in different sport branches. Material and Methods: Totally 60 disabled athletes (35 athletes, 25 swimmers joined in to the study voluntarily. The means of ages, sports year and sport statues were found 19.73±5.08, 2.48±1.75 years, day number in per week:3.63±1.52, hour numberin per day: 2.91±1.53 respectively. Rathus Assertiveness Schedule was used for evaluating assertiveness and questionnaire of athletes' demograpic features was performed by researcher. For statistical analyses, the SPSS 11.5 computer packet program (frequency, mean, standard deviation and independent t test was performed. Results: We say that no association was detected between branches (p>0.05. The means of assertiveness of swimmers and athletes were found 14.67±6.62, 12.70±4.67 respectively. Both swimming (19 person, %76 and athletics (25 person, %71.4 were seen shyness more than assertiveness. Conclusions: We think that branches of different sports may be alike effect on the assertiveness characteristics of the physically disabled individuals.

  10. Research of hands' strength and endurance indications of arm sport athletes having different levels of skills

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    L.V. Podrigalo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : comparative study of indicators of hands’ strength and endurance at athletes of arm sport of different skill levels. Material : the study involved 50 athletes. Athletes were divided into two groups: 1 - 15 athletes with high skill levels (age 25,25 ± 0,62 years and 2 - 35 athletes and fans of mass categories (age 22,21 ± 0,35 years. Results : it is shown that the results of carpal dynamometry right and left hands were significantly higher in group 1 (respectively: 60,50 ± 0,91 kg and 53,75 ± 0,83 kg against 52,35 ± 0,51 kg and 48 53 ± 0,46 kg. Strength endurance was significantly higher in group 2 (respectively: 32,97 ± 0,61 sec 33,09 ± 0,62 sec against 23,78 ± 0,85 sec and 24,66 ± 0,78 sec. Found that carpal dynamometry has a maximum contribution to the system (in group 1 for the right hand - 18.17, for the left - 23.50, in group 2 - 7.44 and 7.10. Correlation coefficients dynamometry in group 1 were significantly higher. Strength endurance had almost no connection with the study of reliable performance. Conclusions : it is proved that the level of carpal dynamometry is an important informative and adequate criterion. This indicator is characterized by a maximum contribution backbone.

  11. Special physical preparation of athletes in motor sport during testing methods basic training level of preparedness for competitive athlete load

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    Cherednychenko M.A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to establish the reasons for the high fatigue pilots during passage race course. Material : the study involved athletes and race car drivers depending on the rank of the competition. The total number surveyed was 140 people. Results : in vitro studies have established a pattern of growth of errors in the evaluation of the available jobs at different levels of fatigue. This asymmetry observed in the haptic display and reflex mean arterial pressure when simultaneous registration on the left and right side body. After the competition and training at a special physical training were examined 36 athletes. Comparison of the results display asymmetry haptic reflex and mean arterial pressure showed reliable changes in the resistance of the organism to a specific exertion racers. Conclusions : the optimal load is characterized by indicators of coordination and reflex reaction haptic mean arterial pressure. These indicators do not go beyond the norms of its symmetrical appearance. This characterizes a uniform and sufficient blood supply body during the execution of competitive and training load.

  12. Special physical preparation of athletes in motor sport during testing methods basic training level of preparedness for competitive athlete load

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    M.A. Cherednychenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to establish the reasons for the high fatigue pilots during passage race course. Material : the study involved athletes and race car drivers depending on the rank of the competition. The total number surveyed was 140 people. Results : in vitro studies have established a pattern of growth of errors in the evaluation of the available jobs at different levels of fatigue. This asymmetry observed in the haptic display and reflex mean arterial pressure when simultaneous registration on the left and right side body. After the competition and training at a special physical training were examined 36 athletes. Comparison of the results display asymmetry haptic reflex and mean arterial pressure showed reliable changes in the resistance of the organism to a specific exertion racers. Conclusions : the optimal load is characterized by indicators of coordination and reflex reaction haptic mean arterial pressure. These indicators do not go beyond the norms of its symmetrical appearance. This characterizes a uniform and sufficient blood supply body during the execution of competitive and training load.

  13. A Review of the Appropriateness of Existing Micro- and Meso-level Models of Athlete Development within Equestrian Sport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, D.M.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to use a case study approach to review the appropriateness of existing micro- and meso-level models of athlete development within the sport specific context of equestrianism. At a micro-level the Long Term Athlete Development (LTAD) model was chosen. At a meso-level, the

  14. High Prevalence of Dehydration and Inadequate Nutritional Knowledge Among University and Club Level Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Pamela Jane; Gallagher, Alison M; McCormack, Jacqueline M

    2017-04-01

    Although dehydration of ≥ 2% body weight (BW) loss significantly impairs endurance performance, dehydration remains prevalent among athletes and may be owing to a lack of knowledge in relation to fluid requirements. The aim of this study was to assess the hydration status of university/club level athletes (n = 430) from a range of sports/activities (army officer cadet training; bootcamp training; cycling; Gaelic Athletic Association camogie, football and hurling; golf; hockey; netball; rugby; running (sprinting and endurance); Shotokan karate and soccer) immediately before and after training/competition and to assess their nutritional knowledge. Urine specific gravity (USG) was measured immediately before and after exercise and BW loss during exercise was assessed. Nutritional knowledge was assessed using a validated questionnaire. 31.9% of athletes commenced exercise in a dehydrated state (USG >1.020) with 43.6% of participants dehydrated posttraining/competition. Dehydration was particularly prevalent (>40% of cohort) among karateka, female netball players, army officer cadets, and golfers. Golfers that commenced a competitive 18 hole round dehydrated took a significantly higher number of strokes to complete the round in comparison with their euhydrated counterparts (79.5 ± 2.1 vs. 75.7 ± 3.9 strokes, p = .049). Nutritional knowledge was poor among participants (median total score [IQR]; 52.9% [46.0, 59.8]), albeit athletes who were euhydrated at the start of exercise had a higher overall score in comparison with dehydrated athletes (55.2% vs. 50.6%, p = .001). Findings from the current study, therefore, have significant implications for the education of athletes in relation to their individual fluid requirements around exercise.

  15. Salivary Hormones Response to Preparation and Pre-competitive Training of World-class Level Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilhem, Gaël; Hanon, Christine; Gendreau, Nicolas; Bonneau, Dominique; Guével, Arnaud; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the response of salivary hormones of track and field athletes induced by preparation and pre-competitive training periods in an attempt to comment on the physiological effects consistent with the responses of each of the proteins measured. Salivary testosterone, cortisol, alpha-amylase, immunoglobulin A (IgA), chromogranin A, blood creatine kinase activity, and profile of mood state were assessed at rest in 24 world-class level athletes during preparation (3 times in 3 months) and pre-competitive (5 times in 5 weeks) training periods. Total mood disturbance and fatigue perception were reduced, while IgA (+61%) and creatine kinase activity (+43%) increased, and chromogranin A decreased (−27%) during pre-competitive compared to preparation period. A significant increase in salivary testosterone (+9 to +15%) and a decrease in testosterone/cortisol ratio were associated with a progressive reduction in training load during pre-competitive period (P athletics training. PMID:26635619

  16. Exploring Levels of Student-Athlete Burnout at Two Canadian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuc-Charbonneau, Nicole; Durand-Bush, Natalie; Forneris, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the levels of burnout among student-athletes at two Canadian universities and to investigate whether there were significant differences related to gender, sport, year of university sport participation, academic year, and academic program. Burnout was measured by administering Raedeke and Smith's…

  17. Can Competitive Athletes Return to High-Level Play After Osteochondral Allograft Transplantation of the Knee?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Mark A; Meyer, Maximilian A; Weber, Alexander E; Levy, David M; Tilton, Annemarie K; Yanke, Adam B; Cole, Brian J

    2017-09-01

    To investigate functional outcomes among competitive athletes undergoing osteochondral allograft (OCA) transplantation of the knee, including rates of return to play (RTP), and factors preventing RTP. A retrospective review identified all competitive athletes (high school, intercollegiate, professional) undergoing isolated femoral condyle OCA from 2004 to 2013. Patient-reported outcome (PRO) questionnaires (Lysholm, International Knee Documentation Committee [IKDC], Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score [KOOS], Western Ontario and McMasters Universities Arthritis Index [WOMAC], 12-Item Short Form Health Survey [SF-12], Tegner, and Marx) and custom RTP surveys were administered. All subsequent reoperations were documented. Thirteen athletes (4 intercollegiate, 9 high-school) were identified with an average follow-up of 5.9 ± 2.5 years. Seven athletes (54%) returned to competitive sport at an average of 7.9 ± 3.5 months, 5 of whom returned to preinjury functional levels. Of the 8 athletes who either did not return to competitive sport or failed to sustain their high level of play, the most common reasons cited were graduation from high school or college (4 patients, 50%) or fear of reinjury (3 patients, 38%). All 4 patients citing graduation as the primary factor preventing return to preinjury level of competitive sport resumed recreational sport without limitations, yielding an adjusted RTP rate of 10 patients (77%) who either returned to competitive play or believed they could return if they had not graduated. At final follow-up, athletes reported significant improvements in all PRO scores except for KOOS-Sport, WOMAC-Stiffness, and SF-12 Mental subscales. There were 3 reoperations at an average of 3.8 ± 3.3 years after the index OCA. There were no instances of graft failure. OCAs provide an adjusted RTP rate of 77% for high-level adolescent athletes. Social factors may be more likely than persistent pain to prevent return to sport. Level IV

  18. Reliability of Center of Pressure Parameters in Postural Sway among Athlete and Non-athlete Men in Different Levels of Fatigue and Vision

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    Zohreh Meshkati

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to investigate the skill, fatigue and vision-related differences between athletes and non-athletes in reliability of center of pressure (COP measures derived from force platform. Materials & Methods: Thirty-one healthy male participants (15 athletes and 16 non-athletes were tested on force platform on two sessions with a 48-72 hr interval. COP parameters was recorded during two-legged quiet standing before and after a generalized fatigue exercise by treadmill, with eyes-open (EO and eyes-closed (EC. Standard deviation (SD of amplitude, SD of velocity in anteroposterior (AP and mediolateral directions and mean total velocity were calculated from 30 sec COP data. Results: Higher intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC was found for COP measures in the athlete (compared with the non-athlete group. ICC was increased in post-fatigue (compared with pre-fatigue conditions. Also higher ICC was found for EC (compared with EO tests. Coefficients of variation smaller than 15% were obtained for most of the COP measures. Alpha level of 0. 05 was considered for all statistical analyses. Regarding the level of skill, fatigue and vision, mean total velocity (P=0. 001 and SD of velocity (AP (P=0. 001 were the most reliable parameters. Conclusion: The results aid researchers in selection of reliable COP measures for future studies of postural control in sports. In this way, researchers can use mean total velocity and SD of velocity (AP parameters in their studies in same conditions on athletes.

  19. LEVEL OF NUTTRITION ADEQUACY, PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF YOUNG MEN ATHLETES SOCCER SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL IN DENPASAR 2011

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    Ni Luh Gede Karyamitha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Soccer is a favorite sport for  people around the world including in Indonesia. Not only the method of training or talent that will determine the achievement, but the intake of daily nutrients directly proper also provide a positive influence on performance and achievements of athletes. The purpose of this study was to determine the adequacy of nutrition, physical activity, and nutritional status of young men athletes soccer. This study useds cross-sectional method. The number of samples taken as much as 96 athletes from all senior high schools in Denpasar and selected systematic random sampling. Results showed the average level of nutritional adequacy of athletes still in the category of less (<80%. Respectively for energy, carbohydrates, proteins, and fats are 75.95%, 77.24%, 78.96% and 75.83%. If seen the proportion of athletes that sufficient levels of nutrients in enough categories, then each for energy, carbohydrates, proteins, and fats are 58.3%, 57.3%, 51%, and 53.1%. Level of physical activity in athletes only low (56.3% and moderate category (43.8%. Most athletes have normal nutritional status (94.8%, there was only 1% having thin status, and 4.2% had nutritional status of overweight. The advice can be given to provide knowledges that related with intake of nutrients for the coaches and athletes, increasing physical activity for athletes who have low physical activity, and can be the nutritional status as a selection soccer athletes. However, further research can be done is to measure the physical endurance athletes associated with the intake of nutrients or physical activity.

  20. Differences in self-regulatory skills among talented athletes: the significance of competitive level and type of sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Laura; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Visscher, Chris

    2010-06-01

    Research has shown that talented athletes outscore their mainstream peers on the basis of self-regulation. Although valuable, this does not tell us more about the distinction between good athletes and the best, which is a prerequisite in talent development. Therefore, we examined the self-regulatory skills of 222 male and female talented athletes aged 12-16 years as a function of competitive sport level (junior international or junior national athletes) and type of sport (individual or team sports). Multivariate analyses of covariance in combination with a discriminant function analysis revealed that "reflection" distinguishes between athletes at the highest levels of excellence. Furthermore, athletes playing individual sports had higher scores on "planning" and "effort" than team sport athletes, highlighting the importance of differences between types of sport. In conclusion, we emphasize the importance of reflection as a self-regulatory skill. Reflection facilitates the development of sport-specific characteristics, which may vary by type of sport. This means that an advanced sense of reflection may help talented athletes to acquire desirable characteristics during their "talent" years to ultimately reach adult elite levels of competition.

  1. Boosting in athletes with high-level spinal cord injury: knowledge, incidence and attitudes of athletes in paralympic sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhambhani, Yagesh; Mactavish, Jennifer; Warren, Sharon; Thompson, Walter R; Webborn, Anthony; Bressan, Elizabeth; De Mello, Marco Tuilo; Tweedy, Sean; Malone, Laurie; Frojd, Kennet; Van De Vliet, Peter; Vanlandewijck, Yves

    2010-01-01

    Autonomic dysreflexia (AD) is unique to individuals with spinal injuries (SCI) at T6 or above and can be voluntarily induced. Although AD improves wheelchair racing performance in some athletes, it also elicits exaggerated blood pressure, which could be dangerous. The International Paralympic Committee considers AD doping and banned its use. The purpose of this study is to evaluate AD knowledge, incidence and attitudes (KIA) of Paralympians with SCI. An existing questionnaire was modified to include questions of AD KIA, validated by three experts and piloted with a small sample. It was administered on-line, mailed to members of a scientific network and distributed during the Beijing Paralympic Games. Fisher Exact test was used to evaluate differences across gender, injury and education. Of 99 participants, 54.5% had previously heard of AD while 39.4% were unaware; 16.7%, all males, had used AD to enhance performance. Participants reported that AD was (1) useful for middle (78.6%) and long distance (71.4%), marathon (64.3%) and wheelchair rugby (64.3%); (2) somewhat dangerous (48.9%), dangerous (21.3%) or very dangerous (25.5%) to health. Results were not influenced by age, injury level or injury duration. Findings indicate the need for educational programmes directed towards enhancing the AD knowledge of rehabilitation professionals, coaches and trainers working with SCI individuals.

  2. Effects of strength training on endurance capacity in top-level endurance athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Per; Andersen, Jesper L

    2010-01-01

    The effect of concurrent strength (S) and endurance (E) training on adaptive changes in aerobic capacity, endurance performance, maximal muscle strength and muscle morphology is equivocal. Some data suggest an attenuated cardiovascular and musculoskeletal response to combined E and S training......, while other data show unimpaired or even superior adaptation compared with either training regime alone. However, the effect of concurrent S and E training only rarely has been examined in top-level endurance athletes. This review describes the effect of concurrent SE training on short-term and long......-term endurance performance in endurance-trained subjects, ranging from moderately trained individuals to elite top-level athletes. It is concluded that strength training can lead to enhanced long-term (>30 min) and short-term (...

  3. Irisin levels are lower in young amenorrheic athletes compared with eumenorrheic athletes and non-athletes and are associated with bone density and strength estimates.

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    Vibha Singhal

    Full Text Available Irisin and FGF21 are novel hormones implicated in the "browning" of white fat, thermogenesis, and energy homeostasis. However, there are no data regarding these hormones in amenorrheic athletes (AA (a chronic energy deficit state compared with eumenorrheic athletes (EA and non-athletes. We hypothesized that irisin and FGF21 would be low in AA, an adaptive response to low energy stores. Furthermore, because (i brown fat has positive effects on bone, and (ii irisin and FGF21 may directly impact bone, we hypothesized that bone density, structure and strength would be positively associated with these hormones in athletes and non-athletes. To test our hypotheses, we studied 85 females, 14-21 years [38 AA, 24 EA and 23 non-athletes (NA]. Fasting serum irisin and FGF21 were measured. Body composition and bone density were assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, bone microarchitecture using high resolution peripheral quantitative CT, strength estimates using finite element analysis, resting energy expenditure (REE using indirect calorimetry and time spent exercising/week by history. Subjects did not differ for pubertal stage. Fat mass was lowest in AA. AA had lower irisin and FGF21 than EA and NA, even after controlling for fat and lean mass. Across subjects, irisin was positively associated with REE and bone density Z-scores, volumetric bone mineral density (total and trabecular, stiffness and failure load. FGF21 was negatively associated with hours/week of exercise and cortical porosity, and positively with fat mass and cortical volumetric bone density. Associations of irisin (but not FGF21 with bone parameters persisted after controlling for potential confounders. In conclusion, irisin and FGF21 are low in AA, and irisin (but not FGF21 is independently associated with bone density and strength in athletes.

  4. Abnormal electrocardiographic findings in athletes: Correlation with intensity of sport and level of competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dores, Hélder; Malhotra, Aneil; Sheikh, Nabeel; Millar, Lynne; Dhutia, Harshil; Narain, Rajay; Merghani, Ahmed; Papadakis, Michael; Sharma, Sanjay

    2016-11-01

    Athletes can exhibit abnormal electrocardiogram (ECG) phenotypes that require further evaluation prior to competition. These are apparently more prevalent in high-intensity endurance sports. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between ECG findings in athletes and intensity of sport and level of competition. A cohort of 3423 competitive athletes had their ECGs assessed according to the Seattle criteria (SC). The presence of abnormal ECGs was correlated with: (1) intensity of sport (low/moderate vs. at least one high static or dynamic component); (2) competitive level (regional vs. national/international); (3) training volume (≤20 vs. >20 hours/week); (4) type of sport (high dynamic vs. high static component). The same endpoints were studied according to the 'Refined Criteria' (RC). Abnormal ECGs according to the SC were present in 225 (6.6%) athletes, more frequently in those involved in high-intensity sports (8.0% vs. 5.4%; p=0.002), particularly in dynamic sports, and competing at national/international level (7.1% vs. 4.9%; p=0.028). Training volume was not significantly associated with abnormal ECGs. By multivariate analysis, high-intensity sport (OR 1.55, 1.18-2.03; p=0.002) and national/international level (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.04-2.14; p=0.027) were independent predictors of abnormal ECGs, and these variables, when combined, doubled the prevalence of this finding. According to the RC, abnormal ECGs decreased to 103 (3.0%), but were also more frequent in high-intensity sports (4.2% vs. 2.0%; psports and increased prevalence of ECG abnormalities. This relationship persists with the use of more restrictive criteria for ECG interpretation, although the number of abnormal ECGs is lower. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. The levels of bioelements in the saliva and hair of young athletes

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    N. A. Troegubova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The salivary and hair levels of bioelements, such as calcium, potassium, magnesium, iron, zinc, chromium, and selenium, were investigated in 130 children and adolescents, including 35 swimmers, 47 hockey players, 20 fencers, and 28 schoolchildren who did not additionally go in for sports. Atomic emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry were applied. The aim of our study was to investigate the characteristics of macro- and microelemental composition of the saliva and hair of young athletes. The investigation established that that all young athletes showed the high levels of potassium and selenium in their hair, those of selenium and chromium in the saliva, and a significantly low concentration of potassium in the saliva (p<0,05, reflecting the intensity of mineral exchange during physical exercises. Individual characteristics were found in the content of chemical elements in the test biological substrates in relation to the kind of sports: the salivary levels of calcium and magnesium were reduced and the hair level of iron was increased in fencers (p<0,05; and the field-hockey players had higher zinc values (p<0,05. Comparison of the hair and salivary concentrations of bioelements established that there was a statistically significant relationship for potassium (R=-0,72; p<0,001 and selenium (R=0,44; p=0,004. Non-invasive screening studies of salivary and hair minerals are recommended for the early diagnosis of an imbalance in macro- and microelements in young athletes. There is evidence that young athletes should be identified as a group of patients at risk for an imbalance of macro- and microelements.

  6. The demographic characteristics of high-level and recreational athletes undergoing hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement: a sports-specific analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawabi, Danyal H; Bedi, Asheesh; Tibor, Lisa M; Magennis, Erin; Kelly, Bryan T

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine differences in age, gender, and the need for bilateral surgery between high-level athletes grouped by sports with similar mechanical demands on the hip and recreational athletes undergoing hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). By use of a hip-preservation center registry, a retrospective review of patients undergoing hip arthroscopy for FAI between March 2010 and April 2012 was performed. Athletes were categorized as high level (high school, collegiate, or professional) or recreational. We performed a subgroup analysis for high-level athletes, looking at differences among contact, cutting, impingement, overhead/asymmetric, endurance, and flexibility sports. The study included 288 high-level athletes and 334 recreational athletes. Being a high-level athlete was associated with a younger age (mean age, 20.2 years v 33.0 years; odds ratio, 0.69; P gender (61.5% v 53.6%; odds ratio, 1.75; P = .03). The percentage of high-level athletes undergoing bilateral surgery was higher than that of recreational athletes (28.4% v 15.9%); however, this association was found to be confounded by age on multivariate analysis. The most common sports for high-level athletes were soccer, hockey, and football. Athletes participating in cutting sports were significantly younger than athletes participating flexibility, contact, or impingement sports. When compared with recreational athletes undergoing arthroscopic treatment for FAI, high-level athletes are more likely to be younger, to be male, and to undergo bilateral surgery. When high-level athletes are grouped by the mechanical demands placed on the hip by their sport, athletes participating in cutting sports are more likely to be younger than those in the other groups. Level IV, case series. Copyright © 2014 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Low Vitamin D Levels Do Not Predict Hyperglycemia in Elderly Endurance Athletes (but in Controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmuth Haslacher

    Full Text Available Recent studies revealed a link between hypovitaminosis D3 and the risk for hyperglycemia. Further mechanistic and interventional investigations suggested a common reason for both conditions rather than a causal relationship. Exposure to sunlight is the most relevant source of vitamin D3 (25(OHD, whereas adipose tissue is able to store relevant amounts of the lipophilic vitamin. Since running/bicycling leads to increased out-door time and alters physiological response mechanisms, it can be hypothesized that the correlation between hypovitaminosis D3 and hyperglycemia might be disturbed in outdoor athletes.47 elderly marathoners/bicyclists and 47 age/sex matched controls were studied in a longitudinal setting at baseline and after three years. HbA1c as a surrogate for (pre-diabetic states was quantified via HPLC, 25(OHD levels were measured by means of chemiluminescent assays. Physical performance was assessed by ergometry.When adjusted for seasonal variations, 25(OHD was significantly higher in athletes than in controls. 25(OHD levels inversely correlated with triglycerides in both groups, whereas only in controls an association between high BMI or low physical performance with hypovitaminosis D3 had been found. Likewise, the presence of hypovitaminosis D3 at baseline successfully predicted hyperglycemia at the follow up examinations within the control group (AUC = 0.85, 95% CI [0.74, 0.96], p < .001, statistically independent from BMI, but not in athletes.Our data suggest that mechanisms of HbA1c elevation might differ between athletes and controls. Thus, intense physical activity must be taken into account as a potential pre-analytic confounder when it is aimed to predict metabolic risk by vitamin D3 levels.

  8. The Prevalence and Covariates of Potential Doping Behavior in Kickboxing; Analysis Among High-Level Athletes

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    Sekulic Damir

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The official reports on doping behavior in kickboxing are alarming, but there have been no empirical studies that examined this problem directly. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, gender differences and covariates of potential-doping-behavior, in kickboxing athletes. A total of 130 high-level kickboxing athletes (92 males, 21.37 ± 4.83 years of age, 8.39 ± 5.73 years of training experience; 38 women, 20.31 ± 2.94 years of age; 9.84 ± 4.74 years of training experience completed questionnaires to study covariates and potential-doping behavior. The covariates were: sport factors (i.e. experience, success, doping-related factors (i.e. opinion about penalties for doping users, number of doping testing, potential-doping-behavior, etc., sociodemographic variables, task- and ego-motivation, knowledge on sports nutrition, and knowledge on doping. Gender-based differences were established by independent t-tests, and the Mann-Whitney test. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to define the relationships between covariates and a tendency toward potential-doping behavior (positive tendency – neutral – negative tendency. The potential-doping behavior was higher in those athletes who perceived kickboxing as doping contaminated sport. The more experienced kickboxers were associated with positive intention toward potential-doping behavior. Positive intention toward potential-doping behavior was lower in those who had better knowledge on sports nutrition. The task- and ego-motivation were not associated to potential-doping behavior. Because of the high potential-doping-behavior (less than 50% of athletes showed a negative tendency toward doping, and similar prevalence of potential-doping behavior between genders, this study highlights the necessity of a systematic anti-doping campaign in kickboxing. Future studies should investigate motivational variables as being potentially related to doping behavior in younger

  9. The Prevalence and Covariates of Potential Doping Behavior in Kickboxing; Analysis among High-Level Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekulic, Damir; Zenic, Natasa; Versic, Sime; Maric, Dora; Gabrilo, Goran; Jelicic, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The official reports on doping behavior in kickboxing are alarming, but there have been no empirical studies that examined this problem directly. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, gender differences and covariates of potential-doping-behavior, in kickboxing athletes. A total of 130 high-level kickboxing athletes (92 males, 21.37 ± 4.83 years of age, 8.39 ± 5.73 years of training experience; 38 women, 20.31 ± 2.94 years of age; 9.84 ± 4.74 years of training experience) completed questionnaires to study covariates and potential-doping behavior. The covariates were: sport factors (i.e. experience, success), doping-related factors (i.e. opinion about penalties for doping users, number of doping testing, potential-doping-behavior, etc.), sociodemographic variables, task- and ego-motivation, knowledge on sports nutrition, and knowledge on doping. Gender-based differences were established by independent t-tests, and the Mann-Whitney test. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to define the relationships between covariates and a tendency toward potential-doping behavior (positive tendency – neutral – negative tendency). The potential-doping behavior was higher in those athletes who perceived kickboxing as doping contaminated sport. The more experienced kickboxers were associated with positive intention toward potential-doping behavior. Positive intention toward potential-doping behavior was lower in those who had better knowledge on sports nutrition. The task- and ego-motivation were not associated to potential-doping behavior. Because of the high potential-doping-behavior (less than 50% of athletes showed a negative tendency toward doping), and similar prevalence of potential-doping behavior between genders, this study highlights the necessity of a systematic anti-doping campaign in kickboxing. Future studies should investigate motivational variables as being potentially related to doping behavior in younger

  10. Differences in morphological parameters of judo athletes of different age groups and performance level

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    Miloš Štefanovský

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some studies have pointed out the influence of morphological parameters on judo performance, however the relationship between morphological variables and performance status have not yet been confirmed. In addition, there is a lack of studies focused on morphological comparison of different age categories. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess differences in the morphological parameters of judo athletes of different age and performance level. Methods: The research sample was composed of 47 male judokas (age 19.15 ± 2.93 years; body weight 77.16 ± 11.39 kg; height 178.91 ± 6.39 cm; sport age 11.47 ± 2.74 years. It was divided by: (1 age, into cadets (15-17 years, n = 19, juniors (18-20 years, n = 15, and seniors (21+ years, n = 13 category and (2 performance status (elite, n = 10; non-elite, n = 37. In all participants, body fat, and the circumference measurement of wrist, forearm, flexed arm, and calf were observed. A personal interview was used to gain information about the athlete's performance status. Results: We found out that there are significant differences in arm circumference between cadets and seniors, cadets and juniors, juniors and seniors; and in the circumference of forearm between cadets and seniors; cadets and juniors, as well. According to the performance status, we have discovered significantly higher circumference of forearm and wrist in the elite group compared to the non-elite group. Conclusion: Forearm and wrist circumference is a reliable discriminative factor and should be taken into consideration, especially when selecting judo athletes into elite teams. However, we did not confirm that subcutaneous fat is a parameter able to distinguish between judo athletes of different performance status across various age categories.

  11. Physiologic performance test differences in female volleyball athletes by competition level and player position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, Monique; Ransdell, Lynda B; Simonson, Shawn R; Gao, Yong

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine physiologic performance test differences by competition level (high school and Division-I collegiate athletes) and player position (hitter, setter, defensive specialist) in 4 volleyball-related tests. A secondary purpose was to establish whether a 150-yd shuttle could be used as a field test to assess anaerobic capacity. Female participants from 4 varsity high school volleyball teams (n = 27) and 2 Division-I collegiate volleyball teams (n = 26) were recruited for the study. Participants completed 4 performance-based field tests (vertical jump, agility T-test, and 150- and 300-yd shuttle runs) after completing a standardized dynamic warm-up. A 2-way multivariate analysis of variance with Bonferroni post hoc adjustments (when appropriate) and effect sizes were used for the analyses. The most important findings of this study were that (a) college volleyball athletes were older, heavier, and taller than high school athletes; (b) high school athletes had performance deficiencies in vertical jump/lower-body power, agility, and anaerobic fitness; (c) lower-body power was the only statistically significant difference in the performance test measures by player position; and (d) the correlation between the 150- and 300-yd shuttle was moderate (r = 0.488). Female high school volleyball players may enhance their ability to play collegiate volleyball by improving their vertical jump, lower-body power, agility, and anaerobic fitness. Furthermore, all player positions should emphasize lower-body power conditioning. These physical test scores provide baseline performance scores that should help strength and conditioning coaches create programs that will address deficits in female volleyball player performance, especially as they transition from high school to college.

  12. Comparing Levels of Serum IgA, IgG, IgM and Cortisol in the Professional Bodybuilding Athletes and Non-Athletes

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    S. Hadi Naghib

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bodybuilding athlete's bodies are placed under much pressure in during the exercise, which is causing changes in the immune and hormone system in the long term. The purpose of this study was to compare levels of serum immunoglobulin A (IgA, immunoglobulin G (IgG, immunoglobulin M (IgM and cortisol in the professional bodybuilding athletes (BA and the non-athletes (NA male. Materials and Methods: This study was a descriptive-analytic and 29 volunteer subjects in the professional BA and NA men participated. Levels of serum IgA, IgG, IgM using Single Radial Immunodiffusion (SRID and levels of serum cortisol using Radioimmunoassay (RIA were measured with blood sampling from brachial vein at rest and fasting. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U-test (p0.05, while, the levels of serum cortisol (22.10±2.60 vs. 15.41±3.44 μg/dl, U=0.001, p=0.001 significantly greater in the BA than the NA.Conclusion: The results of this study showed that participation in training and competitions bodybuilding has no effect on serum levels of IgG, IgA, IgM, but increased levels of serum cortisol.

  13. Exploring athletic identity in elite-level English youth football: a cross-sectional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Tom O; Nesti, Mark; Richardson, David; Midgley, Adrian W; Eubank, Martin; Littlewood, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This study is the first empirical investigation that has explored levels of athletic identity in elite-level English professional football. The importance of understanding athletes' psychological well-being within professional sport has been well documented. This is especially important within the professional football industry, given the high attrition rate (Anderson, G., & Miller, R. M. (2011). The academy system in English professional football: Business value or following the herd? University of Liverpool, Management School Research Paper Series. Retrieved from http://www.liv.ac.uk/managementschool/research/working%20papers/wp201143.pdf ) and distinct occupational practices (Roderick, M. (2006). The work of professional football. A labour of love? London: Routledge). A total of 168 elite youth footballers from the English professional football leagues completed the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS). Multilevel modelling was used to examine the effect of playing level, living arrangements and year of apprentice on the total AIMS score and its subscales (i.e., social identity, exclusivity and negative affectivity). Football club explained 30% of the variance in exclusivity among players (P = .022). Mean social identity was significantly higher for those players in the first year of their apprenticeship compared to the second year (P = .025). All other effects were not statistically significant (P > .05). The novel and unique findings have practical implications in the design and implementation of career support strategies with respect to social identity. This may facilitate the maintenance of motivation over a 2-year apprenticeship and positively impact on performance levels within the professional football environment.

  14. Entry-Level Athletic Trainers' Perceived Adequacy of Clinical Education in Preparation for Confident Professional Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinew, Kayla A.

    2011-01-01

    Athletic training educators are responsible for giving athletic training students a proper environment in which they have opportunities to apply didactic knowledge using critical thinking and decision making skills in a real world context (Radtke, 2008). Clinical education needs to play an integral role in developing athletic training students…

  15. Plasma lactate, GH and GH-binding protein levels in exercise following BCAA supplementation in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Palo, E F; Gatti, R; Cappellin, E; Schiraldi, C; De Palo, C B; Spinella, P

    2001-01-01

    Branched chain amino acids (BCAA) stimulate protein synthesis, and growth hormone (GH) is a mediator in this process. A pre-exercise BCAA ingestion increases muscle BCAA uptake and use. Therefore after one month of chronic BCAA treatment (0.2 gkg(-1) of body weight), the effects of a pre-exercise oral supplementation of BCAA (9.64 g) on the plasma lactate (La) were examined in triathletes, before and after 60 min of physical exercise (75% of VO2 max). The plasma levels of GH (pGH) and of growth hormone binding protein (pGHBP) were also studied. The end-exercise La of each athlete was higher than basal. Furthermore, after the chronic BCAA treatment, these end-exercise levels were lower than before this treatment (8.6+/-0.8 mmol L(-1) after vs 12.8+/-1.0 mmol L(-1) before treatment; p BCAA chronic treatment, this end-exercise pGHBP was 738+/-85 pmol L(-1) before vs 1691+/-555 pmol L(-1) after. pGH/pGHBP ratio was unchanged in each athlete and between the groups, but a tendency to increase was observed at end-exercise. The lower La at the end of an intense muscular exercise may reflect an improvement of BCAA use, due to the BCAA chronic treatment. The chronic BCAA effects on pGH and pGHBP might suggest an improvement of muscle activity through protein synthesis.

  16. COMPARISON BETWEEN SPORT PARTICIPATION MOTIVATION AND GOAL-ORIENTATION OF YOUTH ATHLETES: THE ROLE OF PARENTS' EDUCATION LEVEL

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    Noshin Benar.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of present study was to (A compare and prioritizing the main six motivations of sport participation of youth athletes, (B compare and prioritize task and ego-orientation of youth athletes, and (C the role of parents' education level and its impact on the motivation of sport participation and goal-orientation youth athletes. In the study, descriptive-analytic design was applied. For the study 376 Iranian youth athletes were singled out by cluster-random sampling. They answered to participation motivation questionnaire (PMQ and task & ego-orientation in sport questionnaire (T.E.O.S.Q. Also data about parents' education level (PEL was obtained using questions about demographic features. The findings showed that those who participated in individual sports had more motivation for status than team sports athletes and they were more ego-orientation. Also it was found that more highly educated mothers came to induce internal motivation in youth athletes using Kruskal-Wallis test, whereas more highly educated fathers came to induce both internal and external motivation to them. It seems that those athletes who participated in individual and open-skilled sports are more ego-oriented than those who participated in team and open-skilled sports. The feedbacks which are based on task orientation are probably provided, along with promotion of mothers' education level; however with promotion of fathers' education level, both of these feedbacks and those based on ego-orientation will be provided, probably for their children to participation in sport activities.

  17. Increased Blood Lactate Level Deteriorates Running Economy in World Class Endurance Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Jan; Støren, Øyvind; Finstad, Arnstein; Wang, Eivind; Helgerud, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Blood lactate accumulation is associated with development of muscle fatigue and negatively correlated to endurance performance. No research has quantified the effects of lactate presence at moderate levels of lactate accumulation. The purpose of this study was to test whether 2 moderate blood lactate concentration levels affect running economy (RE) when running at the individual lactate threshold (LT). Seven male world class endurance athletes with an average V[Combining Dot Above]O2max of 80.7 ± 2.7 ml·kg·min or 5.8 ± 0.5 L·min participated in this study. After the V[Combining Dot Above]O2max test, the subjects were resting or walking and in a random order tested for RE at their LT velocity when the blood lactate level reached either 3 mmol·L or 5 mmol·L. After a new 5-minute exercising period at maximal aerobic velocity, the crossover lactate value RE testing was performed. Running economy was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) deteriorated from 0.668 ± 0.044 to 0.705 ± 0.056 ml·kg·m or 5.5% (p ≤ 0.05) for blood lactate level of 3 mmol·L compared with 5 mmol·L, respectively. Increased lactate level from 3 to 5 mmol·L is thus accompanied by deteriorated RE at LT running velocity. The deteriorated RE at moderate levels of lactate concentration emphasizes the importance of avoiding intensities above LT in the early parts of a dominantly aerobic endurance competition. It also emphasizes the importance of a high V[Combining Dot Above]O2max for aerobic endurance athletes and may partly explain the V[Combining Dot Above]O2 slow component as impaired RE.

  18. Perceptions of National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Female Athletic Trainers on Motherhood and Work-Life Balance: Individual- and Sociocultural-Level Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Eason, Christianne M.

    2015-01-01

    Context A multilevel model of work-life balance (WLB) has been established in the sports management literature to explain interactions among organizational/structural, individual, and sociocultural factors and their effects on individual responses and attitudes toward WLB. These factors influence experiences and outcomes related to WLB. Objective To examine individual and sociocultural factors that may influence perceptions of female athletic trainers (ATs) employed in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting, particularly any sex-specific influences. Design Qualitative study. Setting National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I. Patients or Other Participants A total of 27 women (14 single with no children, 6 married with no children, 7 married with children) currently employed as full-time ATs in the Division I setting participated. Data Collection and Analysis Participants responded to a series of open-ended questions via reflective journaling. Data were examined using a general inductive approach. Trustworthiness was established by multiple-analyst triangulation, member interpretive review, and peer review. Results Participants recognized that their sex played a role in assessing WLB and a long-term career as an AT. In addition, they identified various individual- and sociocultural-level factors that affected their perceptions of WLB and attitudes toward a career goal. Conclusions Our data suggested that female ATs may hold traditional sex ideologies of parenting and family roles, which may influence their potential for career longevity. PMID:26067427

  19. Perceptions of National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Female Athletic Trainers on Motherhood and Work-Life Balance: Individual- and Sociocultural-Level Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Eason, Christianne M

    2015-08-01

    A multilevel model of work-life balance (WLB) has been established in the sports management literature to explain interactions among organizational/structural, individual, and sociocultural factors and their effects on individual responses and attitudes toward WLB. These factors influence experiences and outcomes related to WLB. To examine individual and sociocultural factors that may influence perceptions of female athletic trainers (ATs) employed in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting, particularly any sex-specific influences. Qualitative study. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I. A total of 27 women (14 single with no children, 6 married with no children, 7 married with children) currently employed as full-time ATs in the Division I setting participated. Participants responded to a series of open-ended questions via reflective journaling. Data were examined using a general inductive approach. Trustworthiness was established by multiple-analyst triangulation, member interpretive review, and peer review. Participants recognized that their sex played a role in assessing WLB and a long-term career as an AT. In addition, they identified various individual- and sociocultural-level factors that affected their perceptions of WLB and attitudes toward a career goal. Our data suggested that female ATs may hold traditional sex ideologies of parenting and family roles, which may influence their potential for career longevity.

  20. Analysis of sex-specific injury patterns and risk factors in young high-level athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, A; Seil, R; Urhausen, A; Croisier, J L; Lair, M L; Theisen, D

    2009-12-01

    This study analyzed sex-specific injury patterns and risk factors in young athletes (n=256) from 12 sport disciplines practicing at the national or the international level in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg. Injury occurrence as a result of sport practice was analyzed retrospectively over the year 2006 using a standardized self-administered questionnaire. Overall incidence was not different between girls and boys (1.20 and 1.21 injuries/1000 athlete-hours, respectively), but in the context of team sport competition girls tended to be at a greater risk (rate ratio 2.05, P=0.053). Girls had a higher proportion of injuries in the ankle/foot region compared with boys (34.8% vs 16.8%). No sex-related differences were found regarding injury severity. Multivariate logistic regression (controlling for age and practice volume) revealed that girls' team sports were associated with a greater injury risk compared with individual sports [odds ratio (OR) of 4.76], while in boys this was observed for racket sports (OR=3.31). Furthermore, physical or emotional stress tended to be a specific risk factor in girls. There was a tendency for injury outside sports to be coupled to a higher injury risk in girls and boys. Consideration of sex-specific injury patterns and risk factors could be of importance for effective injury prevention.

  1. The Relationship of Self-Concept and Perceived Athletic Competence to Physical Activity Level and Gender among Turkish Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosar, F. Hulya Asci S. Nazan; Isler, Ayse Kin

    2001-01-01

    Examined self-concept and perceived athletic competence of Turkish early adolescents in relation to physical activity level and gender. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant main effects for gender and physical activity level but no significant gender by physical activity interaction. Univariate analysis demonstrated significant…

  2. Doping Attitudes and Covariates of Potential Doping Behaviour in High-Level Team-Sport Athletes; Gender Specific Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekulic, Damir; Tahiraj, Enver; Zvan, Milan; Zenic, Natasa; Uljevic, Ognjen; Lesnik, Blaz

    2016-01-01

    Team sports are rarely studied with regard to doping behaviour and doping-related factors regardless of their global popularity. This study aimed to investigate doping factors and covariates of potential doping behaviour in high-level team-sport athletes. The subjects were 457 high-performing, national- and international-level athletes (21.9 ± 3.4 years of age; 179 females) involved in volleyball (n = 77), soccer (n = 163), basketball (n = 114) and handball (n = 103). Previously validated self-administered questionnaires aimed at evidencing sport factors, doping-related factors, knowledge on sport nutrition and doping, and attitudes to performance enhancement were used. The results indicated a higher doping likelihood in male athletes, with a significant gender difference for basketball and handball. In males, a higher doping likelihood is found for athletes who had achieved better results at junior-age level, those who regularly consume dietary supplements, and who perceive their sport as being contaminated by doping. A higher sport achievement at senior-age level is protective against potential doping behaviour in males. In females, a higher likelihood of doping is evidenced in those athletes involved in binge drinking, while a lower tendency for doping is evidenced in female athletes who possess better knowledge on sport nutrition. Knowledge about doping is very low and thus education about doping is urgently needed. An improvement of knowledge on sport nutrition might be a potentially effective method for reducing the tendency for doping in females. Future studies should consider other approaches and theories, such as theory of planned behaviour and/or social-cognitive theory, in studying the problem of doping behaviour in team-sports. Key points The doping knowledge among Kosovar team-sport athletes is very low and systematic anti-doping education is urgently needed. The highest risk of doping behaviour in males is found for those athletes who had been

  3. Doping Attitudes and Covariates of Potential Doping Behaviour in High-Level Team-Sport Athletes; Gender Specific Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Sekulic, Enver Tahiraj, Milan Zvan, Natasa Zenic, Ognjen Uljevic, Blaz Lesnik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Team sports are rarely studied with regard to doping behaviour and doping-related factors regardless of their global popularity. This study aimed to investigate doping factors and covariates of potential doping behaviour in high-level team-sport athletes. The subjects were 457 high-performing, national- and international-level athletes (21.9 ± 3.4 years of age; 179 females involved in volleyball (n = 77, soccer (n = 163, basketball (n = 114 and handball (n = 103. Previously validated self-administered questionnaires aimed at evidencing sport factors, doping-related factors, knowledge on sport nutrition and doping, and attitudes to performance enhancement were used. The results indicated a higher doping likelihood in male athletes, with a significant gender difference for basketball and handball. In males, a higher doping likelihood is found for athletes who had achieved better results at junior-age level, those who regularly consume dietary supplements, and who perceive their sport as being contaminated by doping. A higher sport achievement at senior-age level is protective against potential doping behaviour in males. In females, a higher likelihood of doping is evidenced in those athletes involved in binge drinking, while a lower tendency for doping is evidenced in female athletes who possess better knowledge on sport nutrition. Knowledge about doping is very low and thus education about doping is urgently needed. An improvement of knowledge on sport nutrition might be a potentially effective method for reducing the tendency for doping in females. Future studies should consider other approaches and theories, such as theory of planned behaviour and/or social-cognitive theory, in studying the problem of doping behaviour in team-sports.

  4. Serum Growth Hormone and Glucose Levels in Acute Exercise and in the Recovery Period in Athletes

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    Elma Kučukalić-Selimović

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone exerts several metabolic effects, including effects on proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Among the many metabolic activities of GH, two contradictory actions were described: acute and early insulin-like activity and chronic and late anti-insulin like activity also called diabetogenic activity. A dramatic increase in plasma concentration of GH was found during endurance exercise, but its role during exercise is not well known. According to its metabolic effects a possible role of growth hormone may be in maintenance of glucose level during exercise. The aim of this study was to analyze dynamics of changes in GH and glucose levels during acute workload and in the recovery period, in a group of well trained athletes. All the subjects exercised for 30 minutes on cycle ergometer in sitting position (work intensity 50% of VO2 max, RPM 60/min. Serum GH concentrations were measured by IRMA (immunoradiometric assays method in blood samples obtained at rest and 6-min intervals during exercise, and 15-min intervals during recovery period. Serum glucose levels were determined by standard enzymatic method glucose oxidase (GOD PAP at the same intervals. There were no correlations between serum GH and glucose levels either during exercise or in the recovery period. There were no differences between glucose levels during exercise, so we can not exclude possible role of GH in glucose concentration maintenance.

  5. THE ASSOCIATION OF GENE POLYMORPHISMS WITH ATHLETE STATUS IN UKRAINIANS

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    Svitlana B. Drozdovska

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Athletic performance is a polygenic trait influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. Objective: to investigate individually and in combination the association of common gene polymorphisms with athlete status in Ukrainians. Methods: A total of 210 elite Ukrainian athletes (100 endurance-oriented and 110 power-orientated athletes and 326 controls were genotyped for ACE I/D, HIF1A Pro582Ser, NOS3 –786 T/C, PPARA intron 7 G/C, PPARG Pro12Ala and PPARGC1B Ala203Pro gene polymorphisms, most of which were previously reported to be associated with athlete status or related intermediate phenotypes in different populations. Results: Power-oriented athletes exhibited an increased frequency of the HIF1A Ser (16.1 vs. 9.420P = 0.034 and NOS3 T alleles (78.3 vs. 66.220P = 0.0019 in comparison with controls. Additionally, we found that the frequency of the PPARG Ala allele was significantly higher in power-oriented athletes compared with the endurance-oriented athletes (24.7 vs. 13.520P = 0.0076. Next, we determined the total genotype score (TGS, from the accumulated combination of the three polymorphisms, with a maximum value of 100 for the theoretically optimal polygenic score in athletes and controls. The mean TGS was significantly higher in power-oriented athletes (39.1 ± 2.3 vs. 32.6 ± 1.5; P = 0.0142 than in controls. Conclusions: We found that the HIF1A Ser, NOS3 T and PPARG Ala alleles were associated with power athlete status in Ukrainians.

  6. [Comparison of pelvic floor muscle strength in competition-level athletes and untrained women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludviksdottir, Ingunn; Hardardottir, Hildur; Sigurdardottir, Thorgerdur; Ulfarsson, Gudmundur F

    2018-01-01

    Exercise can stress the pelvic floor muscles. Numerous women experience urinary incontinence while exercising or competing in sports. This study investigated pelvic floor muscle strength, urinary incontinence, and knowledge in contracting pelvic floor muscles among female athletes and untrained women. This was a prospective case-control study measuring pelvic floor muscle strength using vaginal pressure meas-urement. Participants answered questions regarding general health, urinary incontinence, and knowledge on pelvic floor muscles. Partici-pants were healthy nulliparous women aged 18-30 years, athletes and untrained women. The athletes had competed in their sport for at least three years; including handball, soccer, gymnastics, badminton, BootCamp and CrossFit. The women were comparable in age and height. The athletes (n=18) had a body mass index (BMI) of 22.8 kg/m² vs. 25 kg/m² for the untrained (n=16); p<0.05. The athletes trained on average 11.4 hours/week while the untrained women participated in some activity on average for 1.3 hours/week; p< 0.05. Mean pelvic floor strength was 45±2 hPa in the athletes vs. 43±4 hPa in the untrained; p=0.36 for whether the athletes were stronger. Of the athletes, 61.1% experienced urinary incontinence (n=11) compared with 12.5% of the untrained women (n=2); p<0.05. Incontinence usually occurred during high intensity exercise. The athletes were more knowledgeable about the pelvic floor muscles; p<0.05. There was not a significant difference in the strength of pelvic floor muscles of athletes and untrained women. This suggests that pelvic floor muscles are not strengthened during general training but require specific exercises. This holds especially for football, handball and sports with high physical intensity. Coaches need to pay special attention to training and strengthening women's pelvic floor muscles to reduce the occurrence of urinary incontinence.

  7. The Effects of Short-Term Intensive Exercise on Levels of Liver Enzymes and Serum Lipids in Kick Boxing Athletes

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    Ömer Kaynar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, it was aimed to evaluate the ef­fects of short-term intensive exercise on liver enzymes and serum lipid levels with kick boxing athletes. Methods: 23 voluntary athletes who were between the ages of 15-46 and who engaged in kick–boxing have tak­en place this study. Athletes were made to do 45 minutes of warming-up, breathing, and stretching and 50 minutes of technical and tactical practices and then they were made to do a training match, which is equal to a 2 min­utes 3 circuits (1 minute rest kick-box match. In venous blood samples which were taken from athletes before and after training, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and gamma glutamine transpeptidase (GGT, enzyme activity and total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C and triglycerides serum levels were analyzed via spectropho­tometric method in Beckman Coulter AU 5800 auto ana­lyzer. Body composition measurements of athletes were made with Tanita TBF 300 brand device, which works with bio-impedance analysis (BIA system. Results: As a result of our study, statistically increases in serum ALT, AST, ALP and GGT enzyme activities and in serum total cholesterol, HDL-C and LDL-C levels were detected following short-term intensive exercise, but no significant difference was observed in TG levels after in­tensive exercise. Conclusion: The blows to the abdomen during kickbox­ing sports competitions result in increased liver enzymes and increased serum lipids may occur to meet energy de­mand of the body during exercise.

  8. The sleep of elite athletes at sea level and high altitude: a comparison of sea-level natives and high-altitude natives (ISA3600)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Gregory D; Schmidt, Walter F; Aughey, Robert J; Bourdon, Pitre C; Soria, Rudy; Claros, Jesus C Jimenez; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Buchheit, Martin; Simpson, Ben M; Hammond, Kristal; Kley, Marlen; Wachsmuth, Nadine; Gore, Christopher J; Sargent, Charli

    2013-01-01

    Background Altitude exposure causes acute sleep disruption in non-athletes, but little is known about its effects in elite athletes. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of altitude on two groups of elite athletes, that is, sea-level natives and high-altitude natives. Methods Sea-level natives were members of the Australian under-17 soccer team (n=14). High-altitude natives were members of a Bolivian under-20 club team (n=12). Teams participated in an 18-day (19 nights) training camp in Bolivia, with 6 nights at near sea level in Santa Cruz (430 m) and 13 nights at high altitude in La Paz (3600 m). Sleep was assessed on every day/night using activity monitors. Results The Australians’ sleep was shorter, and of poorer quality, on the first night at altitude compared with sea level. Sleep quality returned to normal by the end of the first week at altitude, but sleep quantity had still not stabilised at its normal level after 2 weeks. The quantity and quality of sleep obtained by the Bolivians was similar, or greater, on all nights at altitude compared with sea level. The Australians tended to obtain more sleep than the Bolivians at sea level and altitude, but the quality of the Bolivians’ sleep tended to be better than that of the Australians at altitude. Conclusions Exposure to high altitude causes acute and chronic disruption to the sleep of elite athletes who are sea-level natives, but it does not affect the sleep of elite athletes who are high-altitude natives. PMID:24282197

  9. The sleep of elite athletes at sea level and high altitude: a comparison of sea-level natives and high-altitude natives (ISA3600).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Gregory D; Schmidt, Walter F; Aughey, Robert J; Bourdon, Pitre C; Soria, Rudy; Claros, Jesus C Jimenez; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Buchheit, Martin; Simpson, Ben M; Hammond, Kristal; Kley, Marlen; Wachsmuth, Nadine; Gore, Christopher J; Sargent, Charli

    2013-12-01

    Altitude exposure causes acute sleep disruption in non-athletes, but little is known about its effects in elite athletes. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of altitude on two groups of elite athletes, that is, sea-level natives and high-altitude natives. Sea-level natives were members of the Australian under-17 soccer team (n=14). High-altitude natives were members of a Bolivian under-20 club team (n=12). Teams participated in an 18-day (19 nights) training camp in Bolivia, with 6 nights at near sea level in Santa Cruz (430 m) and 13 nights at high altitude in La Paz (3600 m). Sleep was assessed on every day/night using activity monitors. The Australians' sleep was shorter, and of poorer quality, on the first night at altitude compared with sea level. Sleep quality returned to normal by the end of the first week at altitude, but sleep quantity had still not stabilised at its normal level after 2 weeks. The quantity and quality of sleep obtained by the Bolivians was similar, or greater, on all nights at altitude compared with sea level. The Australians tended to obtain more sleep than the Bolivians at sea level and altitude, but the quality of the Bolivians' sleep tended to be better than that of the Australians at altitude. Exposure to high altitude causes acute and chronic disruption to the sleep of elite athletes who are sea-level natives, but it does not affect the sleep of elite athletes who are high-altitude natives.

  10. Oxidative stress in elite athletes training at moderate altitude and at sea level.

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    León-López, Josefa; Calderón-Soto, Carmen; Pérez-Sánchez, Matías; Feriche, Belén; Iglesias, Xavier; Chaverri, Diego; Rodréguez, Ferran A

    2018-03-24

    Using a controlled parallel group longitudinal trial design, we investigated the effects of different training interventions on the prooxidant/antioxidant status of elite athletes: living and training at moderate altitude for 3 (Hi-Hi3) and 4 weeks (Hi-Hi), and for 4 weeks too, living high and training high and low (Hi-HiLo) and living and training at sea level (Lo-Lo). From 61 swimmers, 54 completed the study. Nitrites, carbonyls, and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were assessed in plasma. Enzymatic antioxidants glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GRd), and non-enzymatic antioxidants total glutathione (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) were analysed in the erythrocyte fraction. At the end of the intervention, nitrites levels were similar in all altitude groups but higher than in the Lo-Lo controls (P = .02). Hi-HiLo had greater GPx activity than Hi-Hi and Hi-Hi3 during most of the intervention (P ≤ .001). GRd activity was higher in Lo-Lo than in Hi-Hi at the end of the training camp (P ≤ .001). All groups showed increased levels of LPO, except Lo-Lo, and carbonyls at the end of the study (P ≤ .001). Training at altitude for 3 or 4 weeks drives oxidative stress leading to cellular damage mainly by worsening the antioxidant capacities. The GSSG/GSH ratio appears to be related to perceived exertion and fatigue. The stronger antioxidant defence showed by the Hi-HiLo group suggests an inverse relationship between redox alterations and performance. Further studies are required to investigate the role of oxidative stress in acclimatization, performance, and health.

  11. Analysis on Overcoming Level of Stress of Athletes Joined in Adults Taekwondo National Team Eliminations in Terms of Gender Factor

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    Mehmet ACET

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study is to determine level of coping with stress of athletes joined in Adults Taekwondo National Team eliminations. Sample group of the research was consisted of elite 56 female, and 118 male athletes joined in the eliminations in Alanya, Antalya. Average age of females was 20, 48, males 'was 21.00. A - five - point coping with Stress S cale of Likert type developed by A.Sibel Türküm (1999 was used to identify the level of the athletes’ stress. No outstanding differences were found between the genders (p=0,987. However, in terms of the factor to cope with stress, meaningful difference w as found between groups (p=0,031. Taking into consideration this fact, mean of females was found pretty higher than the males

  12. Seated limits-of-stability of athletes with disabilities with regard to competitive levels and sport classification.

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    Santos, P B R; Vigário, P S; Mainenti, M R M; Ferreira, A S; Lemos, T

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we asked whether wheelchair rugby (WR) classification and competitive level influence trunk function of athletes with disabilities, in terms of seated limits-of-stability (LoS). Twenty-eight athletes were recruited from international- and national-level WR teams, with each group exhibiting marked differences in years of sports practice and training volume. Athletes were also distributed into three groups according their classification: low-point (0.5-1.5-point); mid-point (2.0-2.5-point); and high-point (3.0-3.5-point). Athletes were asked to sit on a force platform and to lean the body as far as possible in eight predefined directions. Center of pressure (COP) coordinates were calculated from the ground reaction forces acquired with the force platform. LoS were computed as the area of ellipse adjusted to maximal COP excursion achieved for the eight directions. ANOVAs reveal that LoS were not different when international- and national-level players were compared (P=.744). Nevertheless, LoS were larger in players from the high-point group than from the low-point group (P=.028), with the mid-point group being not different from both (P>.194). In summary, (i) competitive level does not impact LoS measures and (ii) LoS are remarkably distinct when comparing both extremes of the WR classification range. Our results suggest that, as a training-resistant measure, LoS could be a valid assessment of trunk impairment, potentially contributing to the development of an evidence-based WR classification. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Comparison o f Level of Anger between Male and Female Athletes Took Part in Eliminations for Adults Taekwondo National Team

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    Muammer CANBAZ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the level of anger of the athletes taking part in A dults N at ional T eam eliminations. The sample group consists of 52 female s , 115 male s , total ly 167 elite athletes took part in the eliminations . The average of age for female s was 20 , 38 , and 20, 99 for male s . In order to identify the level, Spielberg ’s fou r - dimensional Sc hedule whose validity and reliability for our country was adapted to by Özer in 1994, developed by S pielberg in 1983 was used. As a result of analysis made, no outstanding difference of anger level was found between males and females in te rms of permanent anger factor (p=0, 579; similarly no significant difference was discovered in respect to sub factor of anger - out (p=0,315. Also in analysis of anger - in (p=0.673 and anger - out (p=0.290 sub scales, important difference wasn’t pointed out b etween male and female athletes.

  14. Optimal Balance Between Force and Velocity Differs Among World-Class Athletes.

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    Giroux, Caroline; Rabita, Giuseppe; Chollet, Didier; Guilhem, Gaël

    2016-02-01

    Performance during human movements is highly related to force and velocity muscle capacities. Those capacities are highly developed in elite athletes practicing power-oriented sports. However, it is still unclear whether the balance between their force and velocity-generating capacities constitutes an optimal profile. In this study, we aimed to determine the effect of elite sport background on the force-velocity relationship in the squat jump, and evaluate the level of optimization of these profiles. Ninety-five elite athletes in cycling, fencing, taekwondo, and athletic sprinting, and 15 control participants performed squat jumps in 7 loading conditions (range: 0%-60% of the maximal load they were able to lift). Theoretical maximal power (Pm), force (F0), and velocity (v0) were determined from the individual force-velocity relationships. Optimal profiles were assessed by calculating the optimal force (F0th) and velocity (v0th). Athletic sprinters and cyclists produced greater force than the other groups (P balanced force-velocity profiles. Moreover, the differences between measured and optimal force-velocity profiles raise potential sources of performance improvement in elite athletes.

  15. Emotional Intelligence, Motivational Climate and Levels of Anxiety in Athletes from Different Categories of Sports: Analysis through Structural Equations

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    López-Gutiérrez, Carlos Javier; Zafra-Santos, Edson

    2018-01-01

    (1) Background: Psychological factors can strongly affect the athletes’ performance. Therefore, currently the role of the sports psychologist is particularly relevant, being in charge of training the athlete’s psychological factors. This study aims at analysing the connections between motivational climate in sport, anxiety and emotional intelligence depending on the type of sport practised (individual/team) by means of a multigroup structural equations analysis. (2) 372 semi-professional Spanish athletes took part in this investigation, analysing motivational climate (PMCSQ-2), emotional intelligence (SSRI) and levels of anxiety (STAI). A model of multigroup structural equations was carried out which fitted accordingly (χ2 = 586.77; df = 6.37; p sports. The most influential indicator in ego oriented climate is intra-group rivalry, exerting greater influence in individual sports. For task-oriented climate the strongest indicator is having an important role in individual sports, while in team sports it is cooperative learning. Emotional intelligence dimensions correlate more strongly in team sports than in individual sports. In addition, there was a negative and indirect relation between task oriented climate and trait-anxiety in both categories of sports. (4) Conclusions: This study shows how the task-oriented motivational climate or certain levels of emotional intelligence can act preventively in the face of anxiety states in athletes. Therefore, the development of these psychological factors could prevent anxiety states and improve performance in athletes. PMID:29724008

  16. Exploring Senior Level Athletic Training Students' Perceptions on Burnout and Work-Life Balance

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    Barrett, Jessica L.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Eason, Christianne M.

    2016-01-01

    Context: The professional socialization process enables athletic training students (ATSs) to gain insights into behaviors, values, and attitudes that characterize their chosen profession. However, the process often focuses on skill development over professional issues. ATSs may be exposed to burnout and work-life conflict, which may impact their…

  17. COMPARISON OF THE LEVEL OF IMMUNOREGULATORY CYTOKINES AND SOME ANTHROPOMETRIC PARAMETERS OF HIGHLY SKILLED ATHLETES

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    R. M. Radzhabkadiev

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies in serum concentrations of cytokines was performed in 103 high-ranked athletes from the sports different by energy consumption (bobsleigh and shooting sports. We have shown that the cytokine concentrations (IL-4 и IL-18 in bobsleigh sportsmen were sufficiently higher than in shooters. I.e., the IL-4 concentration was 1.5±0.9 pg/mL in bobsledders, and 0.45±0.23 pg/mL in shooters (р < 0.05. The IL-18 concentration was 467.5±155.2 pg/mL in bobsledders and 304.5±126.8 pg/mL in shooters. Meanwhile, the IL-6 and IL-10 in blood serum showed only a tendency for increase. The IFNγ concentration in bobsledders did not differ from similar parameters in shooters. When comparing the data in females, the IL-4 and IL-10 figures were 3.7-fold higher in bobsledders for IL-4, and 2.34-fold higher for IL-10, when compared to the shooters. Analysis of cytokines in blood of athletes with high energy consumption has shown significant fluctuations of the given parameters in athletes of both sexes. We have not revealed any correlations between the cytokine contents in blood serum and main anthropometric parameters (body muscle mass, body index mass, energy comsumption. Moreover, increased contents of the cytokines was found in bobsledders at more intensive physical loads. Hence, the energy consumption influences the cytokine state parameters. However, all the cytokine values in athletes are within population norms which may due to adaptation of the athletes for high loads which may be determined by, e.g., adequate usage of specialized sport food for their nutrition. 

  18. The Adapted Italian Version of the Baller Identity Measurement Scale to Evaluate the Student-Athletes' Identity in Relation to Gender, Age, Type of Sport, and Competition Level.

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    Lupo, Corrado; Mosso, Cristina Onesta; Guidotti, Flavia; Cugliari, Giovanni; Pizzigalli, Luisa; Rainoldi, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is twofold: to validate the properties of the Italian version of the Baller Identity Measurement Scale (i.e., BIMS-IT), a self-report questionnaire based on the athletic and academic identities; and to investigate differences in psychosocial factors such as gender, age, type of sport, and competition level. The dimensionality of the BIMS-IT was explored by means of the exploratory factor analysis, considering the scale's internal consistency too (Confirmatory Factor Analysis). Results related to exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis supported a model of measurement composed of two correlated factors: the athletic and academic identities and affectivity related to identities. For both factors, differences emerged between age, and competition level sub groups. In particular, higher identity scores emerged for ≤ 24 years old student-athletes with respect to their age counterparts. National sub-elite student-athletes reported lower identity values than those of national elite and international levels. Results suggest that the Italian version of the BIMS-IT is psychometrically robust and could be adopted for empirical uses. The higher identity scores reported by younger and higher competition level participants suggest a correspondent higher involvement into the student-athlete role. However, BIMS-IT represents a distinct model with respect to the original American BIMS, determining the need of further research on the student-athletes' identity to better clarify any socio-cultural contest effects.

  19. Level of athlete satisfaction and group cohesion in adult indoor soccer teams. DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n2p138

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    José Roberto Andrade do Nascimento Junior

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This descriptive study investigated the levels of athlete satisfaction and group cohesion in adult indoor soccer teams. Fifty-eight male athletes of the Parana indoor soccer. Championship participated in the study. The Athlete Satisfaction Questionnaire and the Group Environment Questionnaire were used for assessment. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Cronbach’s alpha, Spearman’s correlation coefficient, Manova, and the post hoc Scheffe test were used for data analysis (p < 0.05. The results showed that teams with higher levels of athlete satisfaction had higher perception of group cohesion. Teams with low levels of personal satisfaction had lower perception of group cohesion. Comparison of the teams showed differences in three dimensions of satisfaction (training-education, team performance, and strategy and in all dimensions of cohesion. The more satisfied the athletes were with the instruction of the coach, personal treatment and strategies, the more cohesive were the teams for the task. It was concluded that the level of athlete satisfaction plays a key role in the perception of cohesion in sport teams, with a predominance of aspects related to the group-task dimensions over social-group dimensions.

  20. Level of athlete satisfaction and group cohesion in adult indoor soccer teams. DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n2p138

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    José Roberto Andrade do Nascimento Junior

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This descriptive study investigated the levels of athlete satisfaction and group cohesion in adult indoor soccer teams. Fifty-eight male athletes of the Parana indoor soccer. Championship participated in the study. The Athlete Satisfaction Questionnaire and the Group Environment Questionnaire were used for assessment. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Cronbach’s alpha, Spearman’s correlation coefficient, Manova, and the post hoc Scheffe test were used for data analysis (p < 0.05. The results showed that teams with higher levels of athlete satisfaction had higher perception of group cohesion. Teams with low levels of personal satisfaction had lower perception of group cohesion. Comparison of the teams showed differences in three dimensions of satisfaction (training-education, team performance, and strategy and in all dimensions of cohesion. The more satisfied the athletes were with the instruction of the coach, personal treatment and strategies, the more cohesive were the teams for the task. It was concluded that the level of athlete satisfaction plays a key role in the perception of cohesion in sport teams, with a predominance of aspects related to the group-task dimensions over social-group dimensions.

  1. Muscle injury is the principal injury type and hamstring muscle injury is the first injury diagnosis during top-level international athletics championships between 2007 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edouard, Pascal; Branco, Pedro; Alonso, Juan-Manuel

    2016-05-01

    During top-level international athletics championships, muscle injuries are frequent. To analyse the incidence and characteristics of muscle injuries and hamstring muscle injuries (hamstring injuries) occurring during top-level international athletics championships. During 16 international championships held between 2007 and 2015, national medical team and local organising committee physicians reported daily all injuries on a standardised injury report form. Only muscle injuries (muscle tears and muscle cramps) and hamstring injuries have been analysed. 40.9% of all recorded injuries (n=720) were muscle injuries, with 57.5% of them resulting in time loss. The overall incidence of muscle injuries was higher in male athletes than female athletes (51.9±6.0 vs 30.3±5.0 injuries per 1000 registered athletes, respectively; RR=1.71; 95% CI 1.45 to 2.01). Muscle injuries mainly affected the thigh (52.9%) and lower leg (20.1%), and were mostly caused by overuse with sudden onset (38.2%) and non-contact trauma (24.6%). Muscle injury risk varied according to the event groups. Hamstring injuries represented 17.1% of all injuries, with a higher risk in male compared to female athletes (22.4±3.4 vs 11.5±2.6 injuries per 1000 registered athletes, respectively; RR=1.94; 95% CI 1.42 to 2.66). During international athletics championships, muscle injury is the principal type of injury, and among those, the hamstring is the most commonly affected, with a two times higher risk in male than female athletes. Athletes in explosive power events, male athletes and older male athletes, in specific were more at risk of muscle injuries and hamstring injuries. Injury prevention strategies should be sex-specific. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Athletes at High Altitude.

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    Khodaee, Morteza; Grothe, Heather L; Seyfert, Jonathan H; VanBaak, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Athletes at different skill levels perform strenuous physical activity at high altitude for a variety of reasons. Multiple team and endurance events are held at high altitude and may place athletes at increased risk for developing acute high altitude illness (AHAI). Training at high altitude has been a routine part of preparation for some of the high level athletes for a long time. There is a general belief that altitude training improves athletic performance for competitive and recreational athletes. A review of relevant publications between 1980 and 2015 was completed using PubMed and Google Scholar. Clinical review. Level 3. AHAI is a relatively uncommon and potentially serious condition among travelers to altitudes above 2500 m. The broad term AHAI includes several syndromes such as acute mountain sickness (AMS), high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), and high altitude cerebral edema (HACE). Athletes may be at higher risk for developing AHAI due to faster ascent and more vigorous exertion compared with nonathletes. Evidence regarding the effects of altitude training on athletic performance is weak. The natural live high, train low altitude training strategy may provide the best protocol for enhancing endurance performance in elite and subelite athletes. High altitude sports are generally safe for recreational athletes, but they should be aware of their individual risks. Individualized and appropriate acclimatization is an essential component of injury and illness prevention.

  3. Emotional Intelligence, Motivational Climate and Levels of Anxiety in Athletes from Different Categories of Sports: Analysis through Structural Equations

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    Manuel Castro-Sánchez

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Psychological factors can strongly affect the athletes’ performance. Therefore, currently the role of the sports psychologist is particularly relevant, being in charge of training the athlete’s psychological factors. This study aims at analysing the connections between motivational climate in sport, anxiety and emotional intelligence depending on the type of sport practised (individual/team by means of a multigroup structural equations analysis. (2 372 semi-professional Spanish athletes took part in this investigation, analysing motivational climate (PMCSQ-2, emotional intelligence (SSRI and levels of anxiety (STAI. A model of multigroup structural equations was carried out which fitted accordingly (χ2 = 586.77; df = 6.37; p < 0.001; Comparative Fit Index (CFI = 0.951; Normed Fit Index (NFI = 0.938; Incremental Fit Index (IFI = 0.947; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA = 0.069. (3 Results: A negative and direct connection has been found between ego oriented climate and task oriented climate, which is stronger and more differentiated in team sports. The most influential indicator in ego oriented climate is intra-group rivalry, exerting greater influence in individual sports. For task-oriented climate the strongest indicator is having an important role in individual sports, while in team sports it is cooperative learning. Emotional intelligence dimensions correlate more strongly in team sports than in individual sports. In addition, there was a negative and indirect relation between task oriented climate and trait-anxiety in both categories of sports. (4 Conclusions: This study shows how the task-oriented motivational climate or certain levels of emotional intelligence can act preventively in the face of anxiety states in athletes. Therefore, the development of these psychological factors could prevent anxiety states and improve performance in athletes.

  4. Left Atrial Enlargement in Young High-Level Endurance Athletes – Another Sign of Athlete’s Heart?

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    Król Wojciech

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Enlargement of the left atrium is perceived as a part of athlete’s heart syndrome, despite the lack of evidence. So far, left atrial size has not been assessed in the context of exercise capacity. The hypothesis of the present study was that LA enlargement in athletes was physiological and fitness-related condition. In addition, we tried to assess the feasibility and normal values of left atrial strain parameters and their relationship with other signs of athlete’s heart. The study group consisted of 114 international-level rowers (17.5 ± 1.5 years old; 46.5% women. All participants underwent a cardio-pulmonary exercise test and resting transthoracic echocardiography. Beside standard echocardiographic measurements, two dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography was used to assess average peak atrial longitudinal strain, peak atrial contraction strain and early left atrial diastolic longitudinal strain. Mild, moderate and severe left atrial enlargement was present in 27.2°%, 11.4% and 4.4% athletes, respectively. There were no significant differences between subgroups with different range of left atrial enlargement in any of echocardiographic parameters of the left ventricle diastolic function, filling pressure or hypertrophy. A significant correlation was found between the left atrial volume index and maximal aerobic capacity (R > 0.3; p < 0.001. Left atrial strain parameters were independent of atrial size, left ventricle hypertrophy and left ventricle filling pressure. Decreased peak atrial longitudinal strain was observed in 4 individuals (3.5%. We concluded that LA enlargement was common in healthy, young athletes participating in endurance sport disciplines with a high level of static exertion and was strictly correlated with exercise capacity, therefore, could be perceived as another sign of athlete’s heart.

  5. Gender differences in triple jump phase ratios and arm swing motion of international level athletes

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    Vassilios Panoutsakopoulos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Female triple jumping is a relatively new athletics event. A limited number of researchers have focused on comparing male and female jumpers competing in international events, resulting in scarce findings in the literature regarding gender differences of the determinants of triple jump performance. Objective: The aim of the study was to examine the possible gender differences in the approach step characteristics, the spatiotemporal parameters of the separate phases of the triple jump as performed by athletes participating in sub-elite international events. Methods: The male and female participants of the 2015 European Team Championships triple jump event were recorded with a panning video camera. Approach speed was measured using photocells. Kinematical parameters were extracted using the APAS WIZARD 13.3.0.3 software. The relationships between the examined parameters and the actual triple jump performance were examined with Pearson's correlation analysis. Repeated measures ANOVA and chi-square statistical tests were run to examine the significance of the differences between genders. Results: Approach speed significantly correlated with the actual jumping distance in both males and females (p < .05. Significant gender differences (p < .05 existed concerning basic kinematical parameters. Men were found to have larger average horizontal speed of the 11 m to 1 m segment of the final approach, step length of the final six steps of the approach, step frequency of the final two steps, actual phase distances and percentage distribution of the step. Women, unlike men, used solely single arm swing techniques. No athlete executed the jump using a jump dominated technique. Conclusions: Gender differences in triple jump performance lies upon the kinematical parameters of the final two steps of the approach, the length of the step phase and the support time for the jump. The technique elements of the penultimate step are suggested to

  6. Relationships between Sprint, Jumping and Strength Abilities, and 800 M Performance in Male Athletes of National and International Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachero-Mena, Beatriz; Pareja-Blanco, Fernando; Rodríguez-Rosell, David; Yáñez-García, Juan Manuel; Mora-Custodio, Ricardo; González-Badillo, Juan José

    2017-09-01

    This study analysed the relationships between sprinting, jumping and strength abilities, with regard to 800 m running performance. Fourteen athletes of national and international levels in 800 m (personal best: 1:43-1:58 min:ss) completed sprint tests (20 m and 200 m), a countermovement jump, jump squat and full squat test as well as an 800 m race. Significant relationships (p relationship between the first to the last 50 m interval times and the 800 m time tended to increase (1st 50 m: r = 0.71; 2nd 50 m: r = 0.72; 3rd 50 m: r = 0.81; 4th 50 m: r = 0.85). Performance in 800 m also correlated significantly (p < 0.01-0.05) with strength variables: the countermovement jump (r = -0.69), jump squat (r = -0.65), and full squat test (r = -0.58). Performance of 800 m in high-level athletes was related to sprint, strength and jumping abilities, with 200 m and the latest 50 m of the 200 m being the variables that most explained the variance of the 800 m performance.

  7. Analysis on the Level of Assertiveness of the Athletes Took Part in Eliminations for Adults Taekwondo National Team

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    Taner YILMAZ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Several elements may affect assertiveness. Woman's traditional sister or caretaker role causes her sometimes to become aggressive by behaving in a stiff, authoritarian way and sometimes passive. The aim of this study is to research the level of as sertiveness of the athletes took part in the Turkey Taekwondo National Team eliminations in 2014. 106 males at the average age of 21, 12 and 56 females at the average age of 20,39 took part in the research. RAE (Rathus Assertiveness Schedule developed by Rathus in 1977 and adapted to Turkish by Nilüfer Voltan Acar (1980 was used to determine the level of assertiveness. In conclusion, no significant difference was found between males and females in terms of assertiveness level scores.

  8. State-Level Implementation of Health and Safety Policies to Prevent Sudden Death and Catastrophic Injuries Within Secondary School Athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, William M; Scarneo, Samantha E; Casa, Douglas J

    2017-09-01

    , Louisiana, Maryland, Oklahoma, Connecticut, Idaho, and South Carolina, respectively. States ranked 41 through 51 (from 38.73% to 23.00%) were Michigan, North Dakota, Nebraska, New Hampshire, Kansas, Wyoming, Minnesota, Montana, Iowa, California, and Colorado, respectively. State scores ranged from 23.00% to 78.75% for the implementation of evidence-based best practices for preventing the leading causes of sudden death and catastrophic injuries (sudden cardiac arrest, traumatic head injuries, exertional heat stroke, and exertional sickling) in sport. Continued advocacy for the development and implementation of policies at the secondary school level surrounding sudden death and catastrophic injuries is warranted to optimize the health and safety of these student athletes.

  9. Anthropometric and Athletic Performance Combine Test Results Among Positions Within Grade Levels of High School-Aged American Football Players.

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    Leutzinger, Todd J; Gillen, Zachary M; Miramonti, Amelia M; McKay, Brianna D; Mendez, Alegra I; Cramer, Joel T

    2018-05-01

    Leutzinger, TJ, Gillen, ZM, Miramonti, AM, McKay, BD, Mendez, AI, and Cramer, JT. Anthropometric and athletic performance combine test results among positions within grade levels of high school-aged American football players. J Strength Cond Res 32(5): 1288-1296, 2018-The purpose of this study was to investigate differences among player positions at 3 grade levels in elite, collegiate-prospective American football players. Participants' data (n = 7,160) were analyzed for this study (mean height [Ht] ± SD = 178 ± 7 cm, mass [Bm] = 86 ± 19 kg). Data were obtained from 12 different high school American football recruiting combines hosted by Zybek Sports (Boulder, Colorado). Eight 2-way (9 × 3) mixed factorial analysis of variances {position (defensive back [DB], defensive end, defensive lineman, linebacker, offensive lineman [OL], quarterback, running back, tight end, and wide receiver [WR]) × grade (freshmen, sophomores, and juniors)} were used to test for differences among the mean test scores for each combine measure (Ht, Bm, 40-yard [40 yd] dash, proagility [PA] drill, L-cone [LC] drill, vertical jump [VJ], and broad jump [BJ]). There were position-related differences (p ≤ 0.05) for Ht, 40 yd dash, and BJ, within each grade level and for Bm, PA, LC, and VJ independent of grade level. Generally, the results showed that OL were the tallest, weighed the most, and exhibited the lowest performance scores among positions. Running backs were the shortest, whereas DBs and WRs weighed the least and exhibited the highest performance scores among positions. These results demonstrate the value of classifying high school-aged American football players according to their specific position rather than categorical groupings such as "line" vs. "skill" vs. "big skill" when evaluating anthropometric and athletic performance combine test results.

  10. Beetroot Juice Improves On-Water 500 M Time-Trial Performance, and Laboratory-Based Paddling Economy in National and International-Level Kayak Athletes.

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    Peeling, Peter; Cox, Gregory R; Bullock, Nicola; Burke, Louise M

    2015-06-01

    We assessed the ingestion of a beetroot juice supplement (BR) on 4-min laboratory-based kayak performance in national level male (n = 6) athletes (Study A), and on 500 m on-water kayak time-trial (TT) performance in international level female (n = 5) athletes (Study B). In Study A, participants completed three laboratory-based sessions on a kayak ergometer, including a 7 × 4 min step test, and two 4 min maximal effort performance trials. Two and a half hours before the warm-up of each 4 min performance trial, athletes received either a 70 ml BR shot containing ~4.8 mmol of nitrate, or a placebo equivalent (BRPLA). The distance covered over the 4 min TT was not different between conditions; however, the average VO2 over the 4 min period was significantly lower in BR (p = .04), resulting in an improved exercise economy (p = .05). In Study B, participants completed two field-based 500 m TTs, separated by 4 days. Two hours before each trial, athletes received either two 70 ml BR shots containing ~9.6 mmol of nitrate, or a placebo equivalent (BRPLA). BR supplementation significantly enhanced TT performance by 1.7% (p = .01). Our results show that in national-level male kayak athletes, commercially available BR shots (70 ml) containing ~4.8 mmol of nitrate improved exercise economy during laboratory-based tasks predominantly reliant on the aerobic energy system. Furthermore, greater volumes of BR (140 ml; ~9.6 mmol nitrate) provided to international-level female kayak athletes resulted in enhancements to TT performance in the field.

  11. Practice Makes Perfect: Correlations Between Prior Experience in High-level Athletics and Robotic Surgical Performance Do Not Persist After Task Repetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shee, Kevin; Ghali, Fady M; Hyams, Elias S

    Robotic surgical skill development is central to training in urology as well as in other surgical disciplines. Here, we describe a pilot study assessing the relationships between robotic surgery simulator performance and 3 categories of activities, namely, videogames, musical instruments, and athletics. A questionnaire was administered to preclinical medical students for general demographic information and prior experiences in surgery, videogames, musical instruments, and athletics. For follow-up performance studies, we used the Matchboard Level 1 and 2 modules on the da Vinci Skills Simulator, and recorded overall score, time to complete, economy of motion, workspace range, instrument collisions, instruments out of view, and drops. Task 1 was run once, whereas task 2 was run 3 times. All performance studies on the da Vinci Surgical Skills Simulator took place in the Simulation Center at Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center. All participants were medical students at the Geisel School of Medicine. After excluding students with prior hands-on experience in surgery, a total of 30 students completed the study. We found a significant correlation between athletic skill level and performance for both task 1 (p = 0.0002) and task 2 (p = 0.0009). No significant correlations were found for videogame or musical instrument skill level. Students with experience in certain athletics (e.g., volleyball, tennis, and baseball) tended to perform better than students with experience in other athletics (e.g., track and field). For task 2, which was run 3 times, this association did not persist after the third repetition due to significant improvements in students with low-level athletic skill (levels 0-2). Our study suggests that prior experience in high-level athletics, but not videogames or musical instruments, significantly influences surgical proficiency in robot-naive students. Furthermore, our study suggests that practice through task repetition can overcome initial differences

  12. THE RELATIONSHIP OF MEDICAL AND SOCIAL PREDICTORS OF DISADAPTATION AND INDICATORS OF THE QUALITY OF LIFE AMONG FORMER ATHLETES DEPENDING ON THE LEVEL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

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    Irina Victorovna Fedotova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Negative aspects of post-professional adaptation and indicators of quality of life among former athletes with various level of physical activity are analysed in the work. We conducted a survey of 456 former athletes of high qualification categories of cyclic and acyclic sports. A special author’s questionnaire to study the basic medical and social factors of disadaptive disorders among former athletes was used. According to the results of the survey we formed two groups depending on the level of physical activity. Quality of life was studied using a questionnaire MOS SF-36. There were significant correlations between predictors of medical and social disadaptation and the level of quality of life, depending on the mode of the physical activity among former athletes. Timely evaluation of the social dimension of disadaptation and level of quality of life allows you to create a system of medico-social monitoring and to provide a successful adaptation to the completion of the sports career. The necessity of maintaining a high level of athletes’ physical activity at an early post-sport period with a gradual decrease in stress after the cessation of intensive training and competitive activity is established.

  13. Examination of the Relationship between Coach-Athlete Communication Levels and Perceived Motivational Climate for Volleyball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Kübra Seden; Çepikkurt, Fatma; Kale, Esen Kizildag

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to reveal the relationship between the athlete-coach relationship and the motivational climate created by the coach. In this study, relational survey model was used. The study sample included 96 female volleyball players who are active players at Turkey Women Volleyball 3rd League. "The Coach-Athlete Relationship…

  14. Differences in self-regulatory skills among talented athletes : The significance of competitive level and type of sport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, Laura; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Visscher, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown that talented athletes outscore their mainstream peers on the basis of self-regulation. Although valuable, this does not tell us more about the distinction between good athletes and the best, which is a prerequisite in talent development. Therefore, we examined the self-regulatory

  15. Elevated plasma low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in amenorrheic athletes: effects of endogenous hormone status and nutrient intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friday, K E; Drinkwater, B L; Bruemmer, B; Chesnut, C; Chait, A

    1993-12-01

    To determine the interactive effects of hormones, exercise, and diet on plasma lipids and lipoproteins, serum estrogen and progesterone levels, nutrient intake, and plasma lipid, lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein concentrations were measured in 24 hypoestrogenic amenorrheic and 44 eumenorrheic female athletes. When compared to eumenorrheic athletes, amenorrheic athletes had higher levels of plasma cholesterol (5.47 +/- 0.17 vs. 4.84 +/- 0.12 mmol/L, P = 0.003), triglyceride (0.75 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.61 +/- 0.03 mmol/L, P = 0.046), low-density lipoprotein (LDL; 3.16 +/- 0.15 vs. 2.81 +/- 0.09 mmol/L, P = 0.037), high-density lipoprotein (HDL; 1.95 +/- 0.07 vs. 1.73 +/- 0.05 mmol/L, P = 0.007), and HDL2 (0.84 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.68 +/- 0.04 mmol/L, P = 0.02) cholesterol. Plasma LDL/HDL cholesterol ratios, very low-density lipoprotein and HDL3 cholesterol, and apolipoprotein A-I and A-II levels were similar in the two groups. Amenorrheic athletes consumed less fat than eumenorrheic subjects (52 +/- 5 vs. 75 +/- 3 g/day, P = 0.02), but similar amounts of calories, cholesterol, protein, carbohydrate, and ethanol. HDL cholesterol levels in amenorrheic subjects correlated positively with the percent of dietary calories from fat (r = 0.42, n = 23, P = 0.045) but negatively with the percent from protein (r = -0.49, n = 23, P = 0.017). Thus, exercise-induced amenorrhea may adversely affect cardiovascular risk by increasing plasma LDL and total cholesterol. However, cardioprotective elevations in plasma HDL and HDL2 cholesterol may neutralize the risk of cardiovascular disease in amenorrheic athletes.

  16. Análisis del rendimiento en competición entre corredores de 100 metros lisos de diferente nivel. (Performance analysis in competition between athletes 100 meters dash athletes of different levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Floria Martín

    2011-10-01

    án hacer ajustes individuales en el entrenamiento con objeto de mejorar las desventajas que se producen en competición.AbstractIn the literature there are studies that compare the technique and performance of athletes of very different level, but these studies are not relevant for elite athletes. The well-trained athlete with good records who do not win competitions must know what needs to achieve to improve their record with respect to the champion. The purpose of this study was to conduct an analysis of well-trained athletes, finalists in the 100 meters of the national championship in order to obtain biomechanical criteria to compare faster athletes with slower athletes and thus determine in which section causes of disadvantage. Were analyzed 14 men, 100 m. finalists in two Spanish championships. Using two-dimensional photogrammetric technique carried out a kinematic analysis on sections of ten meters along the race 100 m. The results indicated that the time spent in sections 0-10 m and 20-30 m, in the acceleration phase, was higher in slower athletes (2.04 vs. 1.93 s, P = 0.003, and 1.01 vs. 0.98 s, P = 0.031, respectively. Similarly, slower athletes spent more time to travel the 80-90 m section of the deceleration phase (0.97 vs. 0.92 s, P = 0.014. The maximum speeds were reached between 40-50 m and 50-60 m sections no significant differences were found between athletes. These results support the hypothesis that to win in a 100 m. the acceleration should be increased in the first 10 meters of the race since the slower athletes run only 44.6% of their maximum speed, while the faster athletes do 47% of their maximum speed. In the section of 80-90 m slower athletes lost 5.6% of its maximum speed, while the fastest athletes lose only 2%. These data will make individual adjustments in training to improve the handicaps that occur in competition.

  17. The Impact of Athletic Facilities on the Recruitment of Potential Student-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Ray; Messenger, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the impact that athletic facilities and other college choice factors have on the recruitment of student-athletes to play Division I college hockey compared to the influence of other college choice factors. Although athletic facilities and their seeming importance in the recruitment of top level student-athletes are…

  18. Analysis of group cohesion levels and pre-competitive psychological stress in volleyball athletes.. http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2012v14n6p704

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Moraes Balbim

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This descriptive study was designed to analyze the level of group cohesion and pre-competitive psychological stress of adult volleyball athletes. The subjects consisted of 155 male and female athletes from the state of Parana who played in the JAPS/ 1st division (A, and 2nd division (B. The assessment instruments used were the Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ and the Volleyball Psychic Stress Test (V-PST. For data analysis, the following tools were used: Cronbach’s alpha, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Mann-Whitney, one-way Anova, and Tukey’s post hoc (p<0.05. The results revealed that athletes of division A were more negatively influenced by stress factors than the athletes of division B; in terms of individual attraction to the social group (p=0.014 and tasks (p=0016 athletes of division B had higher levels of group cohesion than athletes from division A; athletes with low social cohesion were negatively impacted by factors of "inappropriate physical conditioning" and "excessive nervousness;" athletes with low levels of cohesion for the task were negatively influenced by the factors of "Pressure from other people to win" and positively by the factor "Behavior of the fans in the game outside." It was concluded that group cohesion is demonstrated to be an intervening factor in pre-competitive stress thereby demonstrating that the higher the dispute level, the higher the negative influence of stress.

  19. Serum complexed and free prostate specific antigen levels are lower in female elite athletes in comparison to control women [version 1; referees: 2 approved

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    Emma Eklund

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: We hypothesize that prostate specific antigen (PSA, a protein that it is under regulation by androgens, may be differentially expressed in female elite athletes in comparison to control women. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 106 female athletes and 114 sedentary age-matched controls.  Serum from these women was analyzed for complexed prostate specific antigen (cPSA and free prostate specific antigen (fPSA, by fifth generation assays with limits of detection of around 6 and 140 fg/mL, respectively.  A panel of estrogens, androgens and progesterone in the same serum was also quantified by tandem mass spectrometry.  Results: Both components of serum PSA (cPSA and fPSA were lower in the elite athletes vs the control group (P=0.033 and 0.013, respectively.  Furthermore, estrone (p=0.003 and estradiol (p=0.004 were significantly lower, and dehydroepiandrosterone  (p=0.095 and 5-androstene-3β, 17β-diol (p=0.084 tended to be higher in the athletes vs controls. Oral contraceptive use was similar between groups and significantly associated with increased cPSA and fPSA in athletes (p= 0.046 and 0.009, respectively.  PSA fractions were not significantly associated with progesterone changes. The Spearman correlation between cPSA and fPSA in both athletes and controls was 0.75 (P < 0.0001 and 0.64 (P < 0.0001, respectively.  Conclusions: Elite athletes have lower complexed and free PSA, higher levels of androgen precursors and lower levels of estrogen in their serum than sedentary control women. Abbreviations: cPSA, complexed PSA; fPSA, free PSA; PCOS, polycystic ovarian syndrome; E1, estrone; E2, estradiol; DHEA, dehydroepiandrosterone, Testo, testosterone; DHT, dihydrotestosterone; PROG, progesterone; Delta 4, androstenedione; Delta 5, androst-5-ene-3β, 17β-diol; BMD, body mineral density; LLOQ, lower limit of quantification; ULOQ, upper limit of quantification; LOD, limit of detection; ACT, α1-antichymotrypsin

  20. 25(OHD3 Levels Relative to Muscle Strength and Maximum Oxygen Uptake in Athletes

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    Książek Anna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is mainly known for its effects on the bone and calcium metabolism. The discovery of Vitamin D receptors in many extraskeletal cells suggests that it may also play a significant role in other organs and systems. The aim of our study was to assess the relationship between 25(OHD3 levels, lower limb isokinetic strength and maximum oxygen uptake in well-trained professional football players. We enrolled 43 Polish premier league soccer players. The mean age was 22.7±5.3 years. Our study showed decreased serum 25(OHD3 levels in 74.4% of the professional players. The results also demonstrated a lack of statistically significant correlation between 25(OHD3 levels and lower limb muscle strength with the exception of peak torque of the left knee extensors at an angular velocity of 150°/s (r=0.41. No significant correlations were found between hand grip strength and maximum oxygen uptake. Based on our study we concluded that in well-trained professional soccer players, there was no correlation between serum levels of 25(OHD3 and muscle strength or maximum oxygen uptake.

  1. Effect of inspired air conditions on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction and urinary CC16 levels in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolger, C; Tufvesson, E; Anderson, S D; Devereux, G; Ayres, J G; Bjermer, L; Sue-Chu, M; Kippelen, P

    2011-10-01

    Injury to the airway epithelium has been proposed as a key susceptibility factor for exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). Our goals were to establish whether airway epithelial cell injury occurs during EIB in athletes and whether inhalation of warm humid air inhibits this injury. Twenty-one young male athletes (10 with a history of EIB) performed two 8-min exercise tests near maximal aerobic capacity in cold dry (4°C, 37% relative humidity) and warm humid (25°C, 94% relative humidity) air on separate days. Postexercise changes in urinary CC16 were used as a biomarker of airway epithelial cell perturbation and injury. Bronchoconstriction occurred in eight athletes in the cold dry environment and was completely blocked by inhalation of warm humid air [maximal fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 s = 18.1 ± 2.1% (SD) in cold dry air and 1.7 ± 0.8% in warm humid air, P air [median CC16 increase pre- to postchallenge = 1.91 and 0.35 ng/μmol in cold dry and warm humid air, respectively, in athletes with EIB (P = 0.017) and 1.68 and 0.48 ng/μmol in cold dry and warm humid air, respectively, in athletes without EIB (P = 0.002)]. The results indicate that exercise hyperpnea transiently disrupts the airway epithelium of all athletes (not only in those with EIB) and that inhalation of warm moist air limits airway epithelial cell perturbation and injury.

  2. Determination of the Organization Satisfaction Levels of Participants in the 14th World Athletics Championship

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    Rıza ERDAL

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate to what extent the participants of different countries who attend to the 14th World Indoor Championship in Is tanbul are satisfied by the same service. The sample of this study consists of 851 people who are selected by random method. 445 of this group is Turkish, 416 of this group is participants who have come from 26 countries. As research method of this study, a survey of 17 questions is improved according to likert method (5 and the reliability coefficient is found as %85 . SPSS 16.0 programme has been used for the data that are gathered out of surveys including descriptive statistics and percentile compariso ns and illustrated at the tables and at the graphics. As a result of this research, the ticket prices , the physical condition of the sports hall , the employees, the programme flow are assessed as good. The participants of other countries stated that they h ad some difficulties about tr ansportation to the sports hall and found food and beverage. It has been found out that the satisfaction level is low because of the difficulty of spectators’ viewing ceremonies and all the competi tions due to seating location .

  3. Analysis of serum cortisol levels by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy for diagnosis of stress in athletes

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    Lia Campos Lemes

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy is a technique with great potential for body fluids analyses. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of session training on cortisol concentrations in rugby players by means of infrared analysis of serum. Methods Blood collections were performed pre, post and 24 hours after of rugby training sessions. Serum cortisol was analyzed by FT-IR spectroscopy and chemiluminescent immunoassay. Results There was a significant difference between the integrated area, in the region of 1180-1102 cm-1, of the spectra for pre, post and post 24 h serums. The cortisol concentration obtained by chemiluminescent immunoassay showed no significant difference between pre, post and post 24 h. Positive correlations were obtained between the techniques (r = 0.75, post (r = 0.83 and post 24 h (r = 0.73. Conclusion The results showed no increase in cortisol levels of the players after the training sessions, as well as positive correlations indicating that FT-IR spectroscopy have produced promising results for the analysis of serum for diagnosis of stress.

  4. Performance Motivation of Elite Athletes, Recreational Athletes and Non-Athletes

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    Šmela Pavel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to widen knowledge about motivation of elite, recreational athletes and non-athletes. Participants from the elite athletes group (n = 35, 16.7 ± .70 years old were football players of the Slovak national team. Recreational athletes (n = 31, 16.8 ± .80 years old and non-athletes (n = 29, 15.7 ± .60 years old are visiting Grammar School in Zvolen. D-M-V standardized questionnaire was used to determine performance motivation. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov's test disconfirmed the null hypothesis on the normality of data. We used the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests to determine the statistical significance of the differences. The results showed that there were significant (p .0.01 differences with large effect size (η2 ≥ .14 in all the three (the performance motives scale, the anxiety inhibiting performance scale and the anxiety supporting performance scale dimensions among the research groups. The motivation of elite athletes is significantly higher (p = .048; r = .25 compared to the recreational athletes. Also, compared to the non-athletes, the level of performance motivation is significantly higher (p = .002; r = .51 in the elite athletes. Based on the results of the study we can formulate the statement that the level of performance motivation is contingent on the level of sport activity.

  5. Identifying the Physical Fitness, Anthropometric and Athletic Movement Qualities Discriminant of Developmental Level in Elite Junior Australian Football: Implications for the Development of Talent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudion, Sarah L; Doma, Kenji; Sinclair, Wade; Banyard, Harry G; Woods, Carl T

    2017-07-01

    Gaudion, SL, Doma, K, Sinclair, W, Banyard, HG, and Woods, CT. Identifying the physical fitness, anthropometric and athletic movement qualities discriminant of developmental level in elite junior Australian football: implications for the development of talent. J Strength Cond Res 31(7): 1830-1839, 2017-This study aimed to identify the physical fitness, anthropometric and athletic movement qualities discriminant of developmental level in elite junior Australian football (AF). From a total of 77 players, 2 groups were defined according to their developmental level; under 16 (U16) (n = 40, 15.6 to 15.9 years), and U18 (n = 37, 17.1 to 17.9 years). Players performed a test battery consisting of 7 physical fitness assessments, 2 anthropometric measurements, and a fundamental athletic movement assessment. A multivariate analysis of variance tested the main effect of developmental level (2 levels: U16 and U18) on the assessment criterions, whilst binary logistic regression models and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were built to identify the qualities most discriminant of developmental level. A significant effect of developmental level was evident on 9 of the assessments (d = 0.27-0.88; p ≤ 0.05). However, it was a combination of body mass, dynamic vertical jump height (nondominant leg), repeat sprint time, and the score on the 20-m multistage fitness test that provided the greatest association with developmental level (Akaike's information criterion = 80.84). The ROC curve was maximized with a combined score of 180.7, successfully discriminating 89 and 60% of the U18 and U16 players, respectively (area under the curve = 79.3%). These results indicate that there are distinctive physical fitness and anthropometric qualities discriminant of developmental level within the junior AF talent pathway. Coaches should consider these differences when designing training interventions at the U16 level to assist with the development of prospective U18 AF players.

  6. From which level of competition in clubs are adolescents at greater risk of injury compared with outside-of-clubs athletes? A school-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiggi, Maxime; Rindler, Victoria; Griffet, Jean

    2018-02-01

    Sport practice is a key factor in a person's physical and mental health but, for adolescent athletes, some injuries lead to health problems in the long term. The literature provides multiple factors for understanding injury but does not give information about injury risk related to each level of play in a large sample of multisport athletes. This study investigates this relationship in 14- to 19-year-old adolescents. The survey on adolescents and health was conducted in classrooms of France, from February to March 2015. Only sports players were included in the analyses (n = 986). The levels of play were divided into five categories: outside of a club/no competition, club player/no competition, club player/local level, club player/state level and club player/national and higher level. A three-step binary logistic regression analysis with age, sex, type of sport, weekly hours of exposure, and level of play was used. During the past year, 48.1% of the adolescents were injured. Age and sex were not risk factors. The injury risk associated with the increases in level of play is higher than those related to the hours of exposure per week or the type of sport. In clubs, adolescents who do not compete or play at a local level showed no evidence of greater injury risk whereas state-level and national- and higher-level athletes were at greater risk than outside-of-club players (OR = 2.18, 95%CI = 1.13-3.94 and OR = 3.89, 95%CI = 2.07-7.31, respectively). Adolescents who play sports in clubs are clearly more exposed to injury than those who play outside of a club, mainly from state level. Age and sex are not related to injury. Future epidemiological studies should control adolescents' level of play. Special attention should be accorded to the injury risk of athletes playing at these levels of competition.

  7. Radiographic evidence of femoroacetabular impingement in athletes with athletic pubalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economopoulos, Kostas J; Milewski, Matthew D; Hanks, John B; Hart, Joseph M; Diduch, David R

    2014-03-01

    Two of the most common causes of groin pain in athletes are femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and athletic pubalgia. An association between the 2 is apparent, but the prevalence of radiographic signs of FAI in patients undergoing athletic pubalgia surgery remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of radiologic signs of FAI in patients with athletic pubalgia. We hypothesized that patients with athletic pubalgia would have a high prevalence of underlying FAI. Case series. Level 4. A retrospective review of all patients evaluated at our institution with athletic pubalgia who underwent surgical treatment (ie, for sports hernia) from 1999 to 2011 was performed. The radiographs of patients with athletic pubalgia were reviewed for radiographic signs of FAI. Alpha angles were measured using frog-leg lateral radiographs. Pincer lesions were identified by measuring the lateral center-edge angle and identifying the presence of a "crossover" sign on anteroposterior radiographs. Phone follow-up was performed 2 years or more after the initial sports hernia surgery to evaluate recurrent symptoms. Forty-three patients underwent 56 athletic pubalgia surgeries. Radiographic evidence of FAI was identified in at least 1 hip in 37 of 43 patients (86%). Cam lesions were identified in 83.7% of the population; the alpha angle averaged 66.7° ± 17.9° for all hips. Pincer lesions were present in 28% of the hips. Eight patients had recurrent groin pain, 3 patients had revision athletic pubalgia surgery, and 1 had hip arthroscopy. The study demonstrates a high prevalence of radiographic FAI in patients with athletic pubalgia. Underlying FAI may be a cause of continued groin pain after athletic pubalgia surgery. Patients with athletic pubalgia should be evaluated closely for FAI.

  8. The Effect o f Entertaining Fun Athletics Training Program R elated To the Self - Confidence Levels among Children Aged 12 - 14 Years

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    Erkan YARIMKAYA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the effect of entertaining fun athletics training program on the self - conf i dence levels of children. The sample group of the study is occuring 160 students in 12 - 14 age group from Keçiören Hacı Sabancı Primary School loc ated in Keçiören district of Ankara. Both the experimental and the control group were applied Piers - Harris Self - Confidence test developed by Piers and Harr i s (1984 before and after 8 - week procedure. The SPSS statistical program (version 15.0 was used for data analysis.The research indicates a statistical difference (P<0,05 between the experimental and the control group in terms of post - test. In the compari son of pre - test and post - test results of the experimental group, there is a significant difference between pre - test and post - test results. ( P<0,05. In those comparisons, it was found that the post - test results are higher than pre - test results. As a resul t, in the survey made for inspecting the self - confidence of the children in 12 – 14 age group who are making e ntertaining fun athletics excersises, it is fixed that the entertaining fun athletics excersise applied to the test group effects the self - confide nce level of the kids significiantly. In this context, we can say that e ntertaining fun athletics excersise positively effect the self - confidence properties of the kids in 12 - 14 age group.

  9. Train hard, sleep well? Perceived training load, sleep quantity and sleep stage distribution in elite level athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knufinke, M.; Nieuwenhuys, A.; Geurts, S.A.E.; Mø st, E.I.S.; Maase, K.; Moen, M.H.; Coenen, A.M.L.; Kompier, M.A.J.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: Sleep is essential for recovery and performance in elite athletes. While it is generally assumed that exercise benefits sleep, high training load may jeopardize sleep and hence limit adequate recovery. To examine this, the current study assessed objective sleep quantity and sleep stage

  10. The effect of sesamine and aerobic exercise on plasma levels of total antioxidant capacity and glutathione peroxidase in athlete men

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    Yousef Saberi

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: Aerobic exercise and supplementation of sesamin is an effective method to improve the health of mens athlete's immune system. In addition, combining supplementation with aerobic exercise can increase some of the beneficial effects of exercise during a 10-week period.

  11. Hypermobility in Adolescent Athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Heidi; Pedersen, Trine Lykke; Junge, Tina

    2017-01-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional. Background Generalized joint hypermobility (GJH) may increase pain and likelihood of injuries and also decrease function and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in elite-level adolescent athletes. Objective To assess the prevalence of GJH in elite-level adolescent...

  12. MRI of overuse injury in elite athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, E.S.; Lee, J.C.; Healy, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    Overuse injuries are a common finding in elite athletes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the optimal method for the diagnosis of overuse injury in athletes of all levels. We present a review of common and important overuse injuries occurring in elite athletes. A systematic approach based on the functional anatomic units - tendons, bones and joints - may assist in diagnosis of these injuries

  13. The microbiome of professional athletes differs from that of more sedentary subjects in composition and particularly at the functional metabolic level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Wiley; Penney, Nicholas C; Cronin, Owen; Garcia-Perez, Isabel; Molloy, Michael G; Holmes, Elaine; Shanahan, Fergus; Cotter, Paul D; O'Sullivan, Orla

    2018-04-01

    It is evident that the gut microbiota and factors that influence its composition and activity effect human metabolic, immunological and developmental processes. We previously reported that extreme physical activity with associated dietary adaptations, such as that pursued by professional athletes, is associated with changes in faecal microbial diversity and composition relative to that of individuals with a more sedentary lifestyle. Here we address the impact of these factors on the functionality/metabolic activity of the microbiota which reveals even greater separation between exercise and a more sedentary state. Metabolic phenotyping and functional metagenomic analysis of the gut microbiome of professional international rugby union players (n=40) and controls (n=46) was carried out and results were correlated with lifestyle parameters and clinical measurements (eg, dietary habit and serum creatine kinase, respectively). Athletes had relative increases in pathways (eg, amino acid and antibiotic biosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism) and faecal metabolites (eg, microbial produced short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) acetate, propionate and butyrate) associated with enhanced muscle turnover (fitness) and overall health when compared with control groups. Differences in faecal microbiota between athletes and sedentary controls show even greater separation at the metagenomic and metabolomic than at compositional levels and provide added insight into the diet-exercise-gut microbiota paradigm. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Changes in cytokines, leptin, and IGF-1 levels in overtrained athletes during a prolonged recovery phase: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joro, Raimo; Uusitalo, Arja; DeRuisseau, Keith C; Atalay, Mustafa

    2017-12-01

    We investigated how cytokines are implicated with overtraining syndrome (OTS) in athletes during a prolonged period of recovery. Plasma IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IL-1β, adipokine leptin, and insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentrations were measured in overtrained (OA: 5 men, 2 women) and healthy control athletes (CA: 5 men, 5 women) before and after exercise to volitional exhaustion. Measurements were conducted at baseline and after 6 and 12 months. Inflammatory cytokines did not differ between groups at rest. However, resting leptin concentration was lower in OA than CA at every measurement (P IGF-1 decreased with exercise in OA (P IGF-1 were observed. In conclusion, low leptin level at rest and a pro-inflammatory cytokine response to acute exercise may reflect a chronic maladaptation state in overtrained athletes. In contrast, the accentuation of IL-6 and TNF-α responses to acute exercise seemed to associate with the progression of recovery from overtraining.

  15. Markers of Oxidative stress in Smoker and Nonsmoker Athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahba, O.; Shalby, H.; Ashry, Kh.

    2009-01-01

    To Investigate the effect of smoking on oxidative stress in male athletes. Plasma levels of nitric oxide (NO), apoptosis % in circulating lymphocytes and inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA (iNOS mRNA) expression in neutrophils, erythrocytes antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were measured in the blood of 40 non smoker and 25 smoker athletes compared to age and socioeconomic class matching 20 smoker and 20 non-smoker non-athlete controls. Plasma levels NO, apoptosis % in circulating lymphocytes and inducible iNOS mRNA expression in neutrophils were significantly higher among athletes compared to non athletes and exhibited the highest levels in athlete smokers followed by control smokers. Concurrently, erythrocytes SOD was significantly higher among athletes compared to non athletes and exhibited highest levels in athlete smokers followed by control smokers. Conclusion: The results of this work demonstrate the impact of smoking on the health of athletes

  16. Train hard, sleep well? Perceived training load, sleep quantity and sleep stage distribution in elite level athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knufinke, Melanie; Nieuwenhuys, Arne; Geurts, Sabine A E; Møst, Els I S; Maase, Kamiel; Moen, Maarten H; Coenen, Anton M L; Kompier, Michiel A J

    2018-04-01

    Sleep is essential for recovery and performance in elite athletes. While it is generally assumed that exercise benefits sleep, high training load may jeopardize sleep and hence limit adequate recovery. To examine this, the current study assessed objective sleep quantity and sleep stage distributions in elite athletes and calculated their association with perceived training load. Mixed-methods. Perceived training load, actigraphy and one-channel EEG recordings were collected among 98 elite athletes during 7 consecutive days of regular training. Actigraphy revealed total sleep durations of 7:50±1:08h, sleep onset latencies of 13±15min, wake after sleep onset of 33±17min and sleep efficiencies of 88±5%. Distribution of sleep stages indicated 51±9% light sleep, 21±8% deep sleep, and 27±7% REM sleep. On average, perceived training load was 5.40±2.50 (scale 1-10), showing large daily variability. Mixed-effects models revealed no alteration in sleep quantity or sleep stage distributions as a function of day-to-day variation in preceding training load (all p's>.05). Results indicate healthy sleep durations, but elevated wake after sleep onset, suggesting a potential need for sleep optimization. Large proportions of deep sleep potentially reflect an elevated recovery need. With sleep quantity and sleep stage distributions remaining irresponsive to variations in perceived training load, it is questionable whether athletes' current sleep provides sufficient recovery after strenuous exercise. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Drug abuse in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reardon CL

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Claudia L Reardon, Shane Creado Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA Abstract: Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines the history of doping in athletes, the effects of different classes of substances used for doping, side effects of doping, the role of anti-doping organizations, and treatment of affected athletes. Doping goes back to ancient times, prior to the development of organized sports. Performance-enhancing drugs have continued to evolve, with “advances” in doping strategies driven by improved drug testing detection methods and advances in scientific research that can lead to the discovery and use of substances that may later be banned. Many sports organizations have come to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs and have very strict consequences for people caught using them. There is variable evidence for the performance-enhancing effects and side effects of the various substances that are used for doping. Drug abuse in athletes should be addressed with preventive measures, education, motivational interviewing, and, when indicated, pharmacologic interventions. Keywords: doping, athletes, steroids, drug abuse, mental illness

  18. Effects of hypobaric Endurance Training on Graded Exercise Induced Lymphocyte Mobilization, Senescence and Their Surface Thiol Levels in Elite Male Athletes

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    Karim - Azali Alamdari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of each hypoxemic exercise session or overall training period still remains to be more elucidated in elite athletes. Therefore, we investigated the effects of hypobaric endurance training on lymphocytes mobilization and senescence and also their surface Thiol levels following to graded exercise test (GXT in elite male athletes. Fourty six volunteer subjects were randomized into normobaric control (NC, hypobaric control (HC, normobaric exercise (NE and hypobaric exercise (HE groups. The NE and HE groups were exposed to homeland (700 mmHg and 2800 meters above sea level (570 mmHg simulated barometric pressures respectively, while HC and NC groups were remained sedentary at the same conditions. The training was included on treadmill running for four weeks, five sessions/week, 45 min/ session. Each session was consisted of three-min warmed up period, three cycles of 10-min running at 65% maximal heart rate reserve (HRRmax interspersed with a three-min active recovery and three-min cool-down running period. Two GXTs were performed before (baseline and after the interventions and blood samples were collected three times at both occasions. In all groups, mobilization of CD8+lymphocytes and senescent phenotype population of their both CD4+ and CD8+ subsets were increased after both GXTs, however; these changes were reversed following to recovery period(P<0.05. Moreover, HE were decreased lymphocytes surface thiol levels before and after the second GXT (P<0.05.it can be concluded that HE has no additional benefits for elite athletes regarded to lymphocytes mobilization and senescence, however; it may render them to oxidative stress.  

  19. The Effect of High-intensity Interval Training (HIIT on Plasma Levels of Resistin in Male Non-athlete Students (A Trial Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Dehghani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Adipose tissue as a source of energy, is known as an important endocrine organ that releases various hormones including resistin. Resistin plays an important role in regulation of energy homeostasis and metabolism. The effect of high-intensity interval training (HIIT on resistin concentration in individuals is not clearly defined. The present study aimed to determine the effect of 10-weeks of HIIT on plasma resistin levels in male non-athlete students.   Methods: In this semi-experimental study, 26 male non-athlete students were randomly selected and divided into two groups of experimental and control. The experimental group performed interval trainings, in a 10-week training program (3 times a week according to the training program with the intensity of 85-100% HRmax. Blood samples were taken after 14 hours of fasting at different stages and similar conditions, and plasma levels of resistin were measured using a resistin kit (BOSTER Company, USA. The data were analyzed using independent and dependent t-tests at the significance level of α < 0.05.   Results: In this study, 10 weeks of HIIT caused a significant decrease in the plasma levels of resistin in the experimental group compared to the control group (p≤0.05.   Conclusion: From the obtained results, it can be said that HIIT, as a new and effective training method, has a preventive effect on cardiovascular diseases through a significant reduction of resistin.

  20. The Effect of Athletic Identity and Locus of Control on the Stress Perceptions of Community College Student-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Joshua C.

    2016-01-01

    Over 72,000 student-athletes compete annually in athletic programs at the community college level. However, research addressing the effect of athletic participation on the psychological well-being of the community college student-athlete is sparse. This study represents an attempt to address this gap by examining the relationship among perceived…

  1. Analysis of the association between isokinetic knee strength with offensive and defensive jumping capacity in high-level female volleyball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Tine; Sekulic, Damir; Esco, Michael R; Mahmutovic, Ifet; Hadzic, Vedran

    2015-09-01

    Isokinetic-knee-strength was hypothesized to be an important factor related to jumping performance. However, studies examining this relation among elite female athletes and sport-specific jumps are lacking. This investigation determined the influence of isokinetic-knee flexor/extensor strength measures on spike-jump (offensive) and block-jump (defensive) performance among high-level female volleyball players. Cross-sectional laboratory study. Eighty-two female volleyball athletes (age = 21.3 ± 3.8 years, height = 175.4 ± 6.76 cm, and weight = 68.29 ± 8.53 kg) volunteered to participate in this study. The studied variables included spike-jump and block-jump performance and a set of isokinetic tests to evaluate the eccentric and concentric strength capacities of the knee extensors (quadriceps - Q), and flexors (hamstring - H) for both legs. Both jumping tests showed high intra-session reliability (ICC of 0.87 and 0.95 for spike-jump and block-jump, respectively). The athletes were clustered into three achievement-groups based on their spike-jump and block-jump performances. For the block-jump, ANOVA identified significant differences between achievement-groups for all isokinetic variables except the Right-Q-Eccentric-Strength. When observed for spike-jump, achievement-groups differed significantly in all tests but Right-H-Concentric-Strength. Discriminant canonical analysis showed that the isokinetic-strength variables were more associated with block-jump then spike-jump-performance. The eccentric isokinetic measures were relatively less important determinants of block-jump than for the spike-jump performance. Data support the hypothesis of the importance of isokinetic strength measures for the expression of rapid muscular performance in volleyball. The results point to the necessity of the differential approach in sport training for defensive and offensive duties. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Athletic Hip Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, T Sean; Bedi, Asheesh; Larson, Christopher M

    2017-04-01

    Historically, athletic hip injuries have garnered little attention; however, these injuries account for approximately 6% of all sports injuries and their prevalence is increasing. At times, the diagnosis and management of hip injuries can be challenging and elusive for the team physician. Hip injuries are seen in high-level athletes who participate in cutting and pivoting sports that require rapid acceleration and deceleration. Described previously as the "sports hip triad," these injuries consist of adductor strains, osteitis pubis, athletic pubalgia, or core muscle injury, often with underlying range-of-motion limitations secondary to femoroacetabular impingement. These disorders can happen in isolation but frequently occur in combination. To add to the diagnostic challenge, numerous intra-articular disorders and extra-articular soft-tissue restraints about the hip can serve as pain generators, in addition to referred pain from the lumbar spine, bowel, bladder, and reproductive organs. Athletic hip conditions can be debilitating and often require a timely diagnosis to provide appropriate intervention.

  3. The female athlete triad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazis, Keren; Iglesias, Elba

    2003-02-01

    The female athlete triad is a syndrome consisting of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. The syndrome is increasing in prevalence as more women are participating in sports at a competitive level. Behaviors such as intense exercise or disordered eating patterns can lead to dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitarian-ovarian (HPO) axis, resulting in amenorrhea. Hypothalamic amenorrhea can lead to osteoporosis and increased fracture risk. Adolescents may particularly be at risk because it is during this crucial time that females attain their peak bone mass. Prevention of the female athlete triad through education and identification of athletes at risk may decrease the incidence of long-term deleterious consequences. Treatment of the female athlete triad is initially aimed at increasing caloric intake and decreasing physical activity until there is resumption of normal menses. Treatment of decreased bone mineral density and osteoporosis in the adolescent population, however, is controversial, with new treatment modalities currently being investigated in order to aid in the management of this disorder.

  4. Design and Laboratory Level Production of High Energy Survival Tablets for Athletes, Tourists and People who Faced Natural Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nezami Asl

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: People affected by natural disasters like flood or earthquakes and also athletes like mountain climbers and also sailors who continuously go to jungles or deserts, might get into trouble in the nature and need help to get back to their home and therefore, they might need high energy supplements to keep them alive up to the time they find a food source. The goal of this study was to design and make these laboratory prototypes of high energy tablets. Methods: For making tablets 15 different formulations were designed and made in the laboratory and then were tested to be suit. We objected to design formulations that could provide at least 20 kcal per each tab and amount of daily protein (about 25 grams, Tablets were design to provide not only the minimum energy needed but also the minimum protein needs and daily requirements of some vitamins and minerals of a healthy male adult. Results: Laboratory samples of 5 gram high energy (21 Kcal were produced. The best formulation that had the capacity to be converted into tablets consisted of olive oil (16%, maltodextrin (36%, high biological value protein powder (25%, sesame seed (17% and wheat germ (6%. 25 tablets should be taken each day which provides 525 kcal energy, 25g protein and different vitamins and minerals, daily; therefore, they will provide the minimum energy needs for at least 10 days if provided in 1.2 kg packs.  Conclusion: The production of high energy tab rations can provide minimum energy needs for at least 7 days for athletes, tourists and people who face natural disasters when there is no access to any other food resources because they occupy the minimum volume and their production is accessible in Iran.

  5. Eating disorder pathology in elite adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giel, Katrin Elisabeth; Hermann-Werner, Anne; Mayer, Jochen; Diehl, Katharina; Schneider, Sven; Thiel, Ansgar; Zipfel, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to investigate eating disorder pathology in German elite adolescent athletes. Evidence suggests that eating disorder pathology is more common in adult elite sports, especially in female athletes and in sports emphasizing leanness. There is a scarcity of studies in elite adolescent athletes who are in a vulnerable developmental stage and are affected by general as well as sport-specific risk factors. Our data was derived from the German Young Olympic Athletes' Lifestyle and Health Management Study (GOAL) which conducted a survey in 1138 elite adolescent athletes. In this sample, we assessed body weight, weight control behavior, body acceptance and screened overall for core symptoms of eating disorders, depression and anxiety. We performed a tree analysis to identify high risk groups for eating disorder pathology. High risk groups comprised (a) athletes competing in weight dependent sports, and among athletes competing in disciplines other than weight dependent sports (b) athletes who are high on negative affectivity, (c) female athletes and (d) male athletes competing in endurance, technical or power sports. Athletes competing in weight dependent disciplines reported wide spread use of compensatory behaviors to influence body weight. Athletes reporting eating disorder pathology showed higher levels of depression and anxiety than athletes without eating disorder pathology. Increased psychosocial burden in athletes with eating disorder pathology suggests that eating disorder symptoms should not be accepted as an unproblematic and functional part of elite sports. The prevention and management of eating disorder pathology is especially important in weight dependent sports. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:553-562). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The effect of the MTHFR C677T mutation on athletic performance and the homocysteine level of soccer players and sedentary individuals

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    Dinç Nurten

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated athletic performance and homocysteine (Hcy levels in relation to the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T mutation and explored the relationship between this mutation and other cardiac risk factors in soccer players and sedentary individuals. The study groups consisted of randomly selected soccer players (n=48 from the Turkish Super and Major League and sedentary male students (n=48 aged 18-27. Anthropometric variables, aerobic and anaerobic thresholds were measured, furthermore, biochemical assays were performed. The level of HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglyceride, Hcy, folate, vitamin B12, hemogram and MTHFR C677T was investigated. The results showed that there was a statistical difference between the two groups in terms of body mass, body fat, the BMI, the aerobic threshold heart rate (ATHR, aerobic threshold velocity (ATVL and anaerobic threshold velocity (ANTVL. The soccer players were found to have lower levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol, and higher levels of folate than the sedentary participants. The analysis of the alleles of the MTHFR C677T polymorphism showed that the participants that carried TT genotypes had a lower level of vitamin B12 and folate, and a higher level of Hcy than the participants carrying CC and CT genotypes. In conclusion, the baseline homocysteine and cardiovascular fitness levels of healthy young males with the TT genotypes of the MTHFR C677T genotype were found to strongly correlate with their levels of Hcy.

  7. Sports Hernia/Athletic Pubalgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Sports hernia/athletic pubalgia has received increasing attention as a source of disability and time lost from athletics. Studies are limited, however, lacking consistent objective criteria for making the diagnosis and assessing outcomes. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed database through January 2013 and hand searches of the reference lists of pertinent articles. Study Design: Review article. Level of Evidence: Level 5. Results: Nonsurgical outcomes have not been well reported. Various surgical approaches have return-to–athletic activity rates of >80% regardless of the approach. The variety of procedures and lack of outcomes measures in these studies make it difficult to compare one surgical approach to another. There is increasing evidence that there is an association between range of motion–limiting hip disorders (femoroacetabular impingement) and sports hernia/athletic pubalgia in a subset of athletes. This has added increased complexity to the decision-making process regarding treatment. Conclusion: An association between femoroacetabular impingement and athletic pubalgia has been recognized, with better outcomes reported when both are managed concurrently or in a staged manner. PMID:24587864

  8. The Athletic Shoe in Football

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastifer, James; Kent, Richard; Crandall, Jeff; Sherwood, Chris; Lessley, David; McCullough, Kirk A.; Coughlin, Michael J.; Anderson, Robert B.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Foot and ankle injuries are common in sports, particularly in cleated athletes. Traditionally, the athletic shoe has not been regarded as a piece of protective equipment but rather as a part of the uniform, with a primary focus on performance and subjective feedback measures of comfort. Changes in turf and shoe design have poorly understood implications on the health and safety of players. Evidence Acquisition: A literature search of the MEDLINE and PubMed databases was conducted. Keywords included athletic shoewear, cleated shoe, football shoes, and shoewear, and search parameters were between the years 2000 and 2016. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 5. Results: The athletic shoe is an important piece of protective sports equipment. There are several important structural considerations of shoe design, including biomechanical compliance, cleat and turf interaction, and shoe sizing/fit, that affect the way an athlete engages with the playing surface and carry important potential implications regarding player safety if not understood and addressed. Conclusion: Athletic footwear should be considered an integral piece of protective equipment rather than simply an extension of the uniform apparel. More research is needed to define optimal shoe sizing, the effect that design has on mechanical load, and how cleat properties, including pattern and structure, interact with the variety of playing surfaces. PMID:28151702

  9. Dynamic changes in left ventricular mass and in fat-free mass in top-level athletes during the competitive season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ascenzi, Flavio; Pelliccia, Antonio; Cameli, Matteo; Lisi, Matteo; Natali, Benedetta Maria; Focardi, Marta; Giorgi, Andrea; D'Urbano, Giorgio; Causarano, Andrea; Bonifazi, Marco; Mondillo, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Previous cross-sectional studies have demonstrated that fat-free mass (FFM) is an important determinant of left ventricular mass (LVM) in athletes. However, cross-sectional investigations have not the ability to detect the dynamic adaptation occurring with training. We hypothesized that LVM adapts concurrently with the increase of FFM induced by exercise conditioning. We sought to study the relationship between the variations of LVM and of FFM occurring in top-level soccer players during the season. Twenty-three male top-level athletes were recruited. LVM was assessed by echocardiography and FFM by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serial measurements were performed pre-season, after 1 month, at mid- and end-season, and after 2 months of detraining. LVM significantly increased at mid-season versus pre-season values, reaching the highest value at the end of the season (p FFM significantly increased (p FFM (R = 0.36, p = 0.005; R = 0.35, p = 0.005, respectively). When ΔLVM index was set as dependent variable, the only independent predictor was ΔFFM (R = 0.87, p = 0.002). Changes in LVM occur in close association with changes in FFM, suggesting that the left ventricle adapts concurrently with the increase of the metabolically active tissue induced by training, i.e. the FFM. Therefore, the dynamic changes in FFM and LVM may reflect a physiological adaptation induced by intensive training. © The European Society of Cardiology 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  10. Less Is More: The Physiological Basis for Tapering in Endurance, Strength, and Power Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A. Murach

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Taper, or reduced-volume training, improves competition performance across a broad spectrum of exercise modes and populations. This article aims to highlight the physiological mechanisms, namely in skeletal muscle, by which taper improves performance and provide a practical literature-based rationale for implementing taper in varied athletic disciplines. Special attention will be paid to strength- and power-oriented athletes as taper is under-studied and often overlooked in these populations. Tapering can best be summarized by the adage “less is more” because maintained intensity and reduced volume prior to competition yields significant performance benefits.

  11. Une expérience singulière A Singular Experience. The Process of Reconversion of High Level Athletes in France, in Fencing and Table Tennis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Javerlhiac

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Le sport est interrogé, ici, dans sa dimension probablement la plus valorisée par les médias : la reconversion des sportifs de haut niveau (SHN. Généralement, le discours est apologétique et vante la reconversion réussie des SHN les plus connus. Mais derrière les résultats glorieux et la médiatisation, se cache une face plus sombre : la précarisation d’anciens athlètes qui reste un sujet tabou. Les exemples ne manquent pourtant pas et prennent à revers bien des idées reçues sur la réussite sociale des SHN. La question de “l’après sport” s’avère pourtant souvent cruciale et difficile pour les athlètes des sports non professionnels ou moins médiatisés ou, tout simplement, pour ceux qui n’avaient rien prévu et qui ont dû stopper leur carrière de manière inopinée à la suite d’une blessure par exemple. La disqualification sociale (Paugam, 1991 est d’autant plus douloureuse à vivre que ce processus de marginalisation marque la fin d’un statut d’exception et s’accompagne de la construction d’une identité négative lorsque l’athlète éprouve des difficultés à s’insérer professionnellement. Le sport de haut niveau, qu’il soit professionnel ou non, médiatisé ou non, en raison tout à la fois de l’entre soi qui le caractérise et de l’attention qui est portée à ceux qui réussissent, ne prépare pas à résister au stigmate et la dimension ternaire de l’identité (Heinich, 1999 trouve ici un exemple “négativement” parfait.Sport is in question here, probably in its dimension most valued by the media : the reconversion of high level athletes (HLA. Generally, the speech is laudatory and praises the successful reconversion of the most famous HLA. But behind the glorious results and the media coverage lurks a darker side : the precarious situation of former athletes, which remains a taboo subject. Yet examples are not lacking and readily upset a good many commonly held notions on

  12. The Athletic Shoe in Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastifer, James; Kent, Richard; Crandall, Jeff; Sherwood, Chris; Lessley, David; McCullough, Kirk A; Coughlin, Michael J; Anderson, Robert B

    Foot and ankle injuries are common in sports, particularly in cleated athletes. Traditionally, the athletic shoe has not been regarded as a piece of protective equipment but rather as a part of the uniform, with a primary focus on performance and subjective feedback measures of comfort. Changes in turf and shoe design have poorly understood implications on the health and safety of players. A literature search of the MEDLINE and PubMed databases was conducted. Keywords included athletic shoewear, cleated shoe, football shoes, and shoewear, and search parameters were between the years 2000 and 2016. Clinical review. Level 5. The athletic shoe is an important piece of protective sports equipment. There are several important structural considerations of shoe design, including biomechanical compliance, cleat and turf interaction, and shoe sizing/fit, that affect the way an athlete engages with the playing surface and carry important potential implications regarding player safety if not understood and addressed. Athletic footwear should be considered an integral piece of protective equipment rather than simply an extension of the uniform apparel. More research is needed to define optimal shoe sizing, the effect that design has on mechanical load, and how cleat properties, including pattern and structure, interact with the variety of playing surfaces.

  13. Assessment of psychological pain management techniques: a comparative study between athletes and non-athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azevedo Daniel Câmara

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Athletes usually deal with injuries and pain. They seem to have similar pain threshold when compared to non-athletes, although they have higher pain tolerance and the exact cause for that is unknown. High levels for pain tolerance and control can improve performance and time for injury recovery. The literature shows that use of coping strategies can increase pain control; possible differences on coping with pain between athletes and non-athletes are poorly described. The purpose of this study was to evaluate frequency of coping strategies used by athletes and non-athletes of both genders and look for possible association between preferred coping style and pain intensity. The sample included 160 subjects with actual pain experience, 80 athletes (52 male, 28 female and 80 non-athletes (50 male and 30 female. All subjects were evaluated for pain intensity, frequency and duration and for coping strategies using a questionnaire (SBS-V. The results show that athletes and non-athletes, despite of gender, use with the same frequency coping strategies. The less common coping strategies for all groups were those poor-adaptative (p < 0.001; the most commonly strategy used was self-statement and regulation of body tension (p < 0.001. Female athletes use more frequently poor-adaptative strategies when pain intensity increases (p < 0.05.

  14. Athletic Engagement and Athletic Identity in Top Croatian Sprint Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babić, Vesna; Sarac, Jelena; Missoni, Sasa; Sindik, Josko

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the research was to determine construct validity and reliability for two questionnaires (Athlete Engagement Questionnaire-AEQ and Athletic Identity Measurement Scale-AIMS), applied on elite Croatian athletes-sprinters, as well as the correlations among the dimensions in these measuring instruments. Then, we have determined the differences in the dimensions of sport engagement and sport identity, according to gender, education level and winning medals on international competitions. A total of 71 elite athletes-sprinters (former and still active) are examined, from which 27 (38%) females and 44 (62%) males. The results of factor analyses revealed the existence of dimensions very similar as in the original instruments, which showed moderate to-high reliabilities. A small number of statistically significant correlations have been found between the dimensions of sport engagement and sport identity, mainly in male sprinter runners. Small number of statistically significant differences in the dimensions of sport engagement and sport identity have been found according to the gender, education level and winning medals on the international competitions. The most reasonable explanation of these differences could be given in terms of very similar characteristics of elite athletes on the same level of sport excellence.

  15. Isokinetic knee strength qualities as predictors of jumping performance in high-level volleyball athletes: multiple regression approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Tine; Sekulic, Damir; Spasic, Miodrag; Osmankac, Nedzad; Vicente João, Paulo; Dervisevic, Edvin; Hadzic, Vedran

    2016-01-01

    ) than that of the spike-jump (39% and 34% of the explained variance for validation and cross-validation subsample, respectively). Differences between prediction models calculated for males and females are mostly explained by gender-specific biomechanics of jumping. Study defined importance of knee-isokinetic-strength in volleyball jumping performance in female athletes. Further studies should evaluate association between ankle-isokinetic-strength and volleyball-specific jumping performances. Results reinforce the need for the cross-validation of the prediction-models in sport and exercise sciences.

  16. Coping skills of olympic developmental soccer athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, M C; Stewart, C C; Laurent, C M; Leunes, A D; Bourgeois, A E

    2008-12-01

    Athletes at Olympic Developmental Program (ODP) camps experience unusually high levels of expectations and inherent mental and physical challenges within such a short span of time. With the increasing emphasis on talent development, there has been consensus by the ODP staff to more clearly define present levels of coping skills, in order to enhance athletic prediction, maximize training efforts, identify the predisposition to injury, and focus on areas pertinent to successful performance. This study examined athletic and pain coping skills of U. S. ODP soccer athletes not previously investigated. Following written informed consent, 70 males completed the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory and the Sports Inventory for Pain. Data were analyzed by competitive level (U-14, U-15), and skill position (goalkeeper/defense, midfield/foward). MANOVA indicated a significant main effect across competitive level (Wilks' Lambda F(12,57) = 2.27; p = 0.02; n-beta = 0.915) but no significant effect by skill position (Wilks' Lambda F(12,57) = 0.931; p = 0.523; n-beta = 0.457). Post hoc analyses indicated that U-15 athletes scored significantly higher in concentration (p = 0.01) and body awareness (p = 0.03), but lower in avoidance (p = 0.01) than U-14 competitors. In conclusion, older, more experienced athletes revealed more positive athletic and pain coping skills than younger, less experienced athletes, although athletes in skill positions requiring spontaneous decision-making skills and split-second adjustment in a constantly changing sport environment (forwards, midfielders) did not exhibit more positive athletic and pain coping skills than those positions requiring reaction and protection (defenders, goalkeepers).

  17. Ethnic Differences in Drinking Motives and Alcohol Use among College Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumas, Diana M.; Midgett, Aida

    2015-01-01

    This study examined drinking motives, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems among White college athletes and college athletes of color (N = 113). Results indicated no differences in drinking motives between the 2 groups. White athletes reported higher levels of alcohol use, whereas athletes of color reported higher levels of alcohol-related…

  18. Creatine and the Male Adolescent Athlete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumaker, Shauna; Eyers, Christina; Cappaert, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    As the level of competition in youth sports increases, so does athletes' vulnerability to experimenting with performance-enhancing aids (PEAs) at alarmingly young ages. One of the more commonly used PEAs is a supplement called creatine, which has the ability to generate muscular energy, allowing athletes to train at higher intensities for longer…

  19.  ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE OF SWIMMERS AFTER ALTITUDE TRAINING (2,300 M ABOVE SEA LEVEL IN VIEW OF THEIR BLOOD MORPHOLOGY CHANGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Adamczyk

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to estimate changes in blood morphology caused by participation of record-seeking swimmers in a high altitude training camp at 2,300 m above sea level and to assess their performance during major competitions before and after the camp. Eight swimmers (two females and six males - record-holders and medallists of the Polish National Championships, as well as finalists and medallists of the European and World Championships and the Olympic Games (including a two-time holder of the world record - were recruited. During the 2006/2007 season the athletes attended a training camp organized according to the principle “live high and train high”. The camp lasted 23 days and consisted of three micro-cycles of training, each of them with specific training objectives. Before and after participation in the training camp erythrocyte (red blood cells; RBC count, haemoglobin (Hb concentration and haematocrit (Hct were estimated at a hospital laboratory. Scores amassed by the examined athletes during major competitions were presented after their transformation into points based on the FINA (International Swimming Federation tables for years 2005-2008. The best results (time for a distance achieved during competitions organized before and after participation in the camp were regarded as reference points. Additionally, liquid balance of the body was monitored during 30 selected training units (15 in the morning and 15 in the evening. The response of the examined swimmers from the Polish Olympic Team to the high altitude training (at 2,300 m above sea level was represented by an almost three-fold increase in blood reticulocyte count during the first micro-cycle of training as well as by an elevated erythrocyte count (by 14.4% and haemoglobin (by 13.5% and haematocrit (by 14.8% levels estimated after completion of the training, as compared to the results obtained before the camp. Six out of eight subjects improved their performance in

  20. Use of relaxation skills in differentially skilled athletes.

    OpenAIRE

    Kudlackova, K.; Eccles, D. W.; Dieffenbach, K.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the use of relaxation skills by differentially skilled athletes in relation to the deliberate practice framework. Design: Differentially skilled athletes completed a survey about their use of relaxation skills. Method: 150 athletes representing three skill levels (recreational, college, and professional) completed the deliberate relaxation for sport survey, which assessed relaxation on three deliberate practice dimensions (relevancy, concentration, and ...

  1. Self Reported Perceptions of Physical Demands on Athletic Training Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Jeffrey K.; Babcock, Garth; Little, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Context: According to the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education (CAATE) Standards for the Accreditation of Entry-Level Athletic Training Education Programs, athletic training students (ATSs) must complete clinical experiences that provide opportunities to integrate cognitive function, psychomotor skills, and affective…

  2. Life Span Exercise Among Elite Intercollegiate Student Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Sorenson, Shawn C.; Romano, Russell; Azen, Stanley P.; Schroeder, E. Todd; Salem, George J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite prominent public attention, data on life span health and exercise outcomes among elite, competitive athletes are sparse and do not reflect the diversity of modern athletes. Hypothesis: Life span exercise behavior differs between National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) student athletes and a nonathlete control group. Sustained exercise is associated with improved cardiopulmonary health outcomes. Study Design: Cross-sectional, descriptive epidemiology study. Level of...

  3. Effect of exhausting exercise and calcium supplementation on potassium, magnesium, copper, zinc and calcium levels in athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cinar, V.; Baltaci, A.K.; Mogulkoc, R.

    2009-01-01

    Present study was performed to determine four week calcium supplementation and athleticism exercise on plasma potassium, calcium, magnesium, cupper and zinc levels in resting and exhaustion. Research was carried out on 30 healthy male people. Group 1; Exercise, Group 2; Exercise + Calcium supplementation, Group 3; Sedentary + Calcium supplemented. All elements levels increased by exhausting exercise (P<0.05). Plasma K and Ca levels increased in exercise group after supplementation (P<0.05). Ca levels increased in exercise + supplemented group (P<0.05). This increase was much more in group three (P<0.05). Plasma Cu levels increased by Ca supplementation in sedentary (P<0.05). Exhausting exercise increased Zn levels in sedentary after supplementation (P<0.05). The results of present study show that calcium supplementation for 4 week does not have clear affect on potassium and Mg. However, calcium levels were increased by supplementation and Cu after the supplementation. It was also exhausting exercise that caused increase in all parameters. (author)

  4. Psychological Properties and Stress Tolerance of High-Qualified Athletes Specializing in Athletic Walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasyl Vasylyuk

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the field of sports, there is a strong interest in the behavioral strategies of professional athletes, thus the study of the psychological characteristics of highly skilled athletes is a very topical issue. The article raises the question of the characteristics of the sports environment and the manifestations of stress among athletes. In the paper the psychological features of the personalities of highly qualified athletes who specialize in athletic walking on a scale of neuroticism and extraversion are investigated and the level of neuro-psychological stability of highly skilled athletes specializing in athletic walking is revealed. The main factors of stress in sports activities are: intense competition during a sporting contestation aimed at establishing a record or achieving victory over the rival; maximum physical and psychological stress during the contestation; systematic, long and intense training, which significantly affect the daily regime and everyday life. Two types of stress among athletes are singled out: social-emotional and training. A study of 12 highly qualified athletes who specialize in athletic walking showed that most of them (50 % have ambivert abilities. They are concordants and normostenics that are characterized by significant emotional stability, good adaptability, resistance to external influences. However, among the respondents there were some with low and below average neuropsychic stability.

  5. Balance ability and athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrysomallis, Con

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between balance ability and sport injury risk has been established in many cases, but the relationship between balance ability and athletic performance is less clear. This review compares the balance ability of athletes from different sports, determines if there is a difference in balance ability of athletes at different levels of competition within the same sport, determines the relationship of balance ability with performance measures and examines the influence of balance training on sport performance or motor skills. Based on the available data from cross-sectional studies, gymnasts tended to have the best balance ability, followed by soccer players, swimmers, active control subjects and then basketball players. Surprisingly, no studies were found that compared the balance ability of rifle shooters with other athletes. There were some sports, such as rifle shooting, soccer and golf, where elite athletes were found to have superior balance ability compared with their less proficient counterparts, but this was not found to be the case for alpine skiing, surfing and judo. Balance ability was shown to be significantly related to rifle shooting accuracy, archery shooting accuracy, ice hockey maximum skating speed and simulated luge start speed, but not for baseball pitching accuracy or snowboarding ranking points. Prospective studies have shown that the addition of a balance training component to the activities of recreationally active subjects or physical education students has resulted in improvements in vertical jump, agility, shuttle run and downhill slalom skiing. A proposed mechanism for the enhancement in motor skills from balance training is an increase in the rate of force development. There are limited data on the influence of balance training on motor skills of elite athletes. When the effectiveness of balance training was compared with resistance training, it was found that resistance training produced superior performance results for

  6. National athletic trainers' association position statement: management of the athlete with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Carolyn C; Corcoran, Matthew H; Crawley, James T; Guyton Hornsby, W; Peer, Kimberly S; Philbin, Rick D; Riddell, Michael C

    2007-01-01

    To present recommendations for the certified athletic trainer in the management of type 1 diabetes in the athlete. In managing diabetes, the most important goal is to keep blood glucose levels at or as close to normal levels as possible without causing hypoglycemia. This goal requires the maintenance of a delicate balance among hypoglycemia, euglycemia, and hyperglycemia, which is often more challenging in the athlete due to the demands of physical activity and competition. However, effectively managing blood glucose, lipid, and blood pressure levels is necessary to ensuring the long-term health and well-being of the athlete with diabetes. These recommendations are intended to provide the certified athletic trainer participating in the management of an athlete with type 1 diabetes mellitus with the specific knowledge and problem-solving skills needed. Athletic trainers have more contact with the athlete with diabetes than most members of the diabetes management team do and so must be prepared to assist the athlete as required.

  7. Results of voluntary cardiovascular examination of elite athletes in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tischer, Susanne Glasius; Mattsson, N; Storgaard, M

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the cardiovascular status of elite athletes in Denmark, the extent of abnormal cardiac findings--both training related and pathologic--and how participating in cardiac examination was perceived by the athletes. A standardized protocol of questionnaires, physical examination, resting...... a cardiac diagnosis; one athlete (0.2%) diagnosed with long QT syndrome was advised against competition level sports. In total, 60 athletes (11.6%) were referred for additional testing. The athletes presented a very low level of psychological stress before and a slight decrease immediately after...

  8. The Effects of 8 Eight Weeks Resistance Versus Endurance Training on Lipocalin-2 level in Non-Athlete Male Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mohammadi Domiyeh

    2012-12-01

    Resistance training performed 3 three d/wk at an intensity corresponding to 65–80% of one-repetition maximum, 8-12 repetitions and 2-4 sets for 8 weeks. Endurance training group, underwent an 8-week intervention with a frequency of 3 d/wk at an intensity corresponding to 65, – 80% maximum heart rate for 20- – 38 minutes. Expressing lipocalin-2 plasma levels in samples were measured before and after intervention. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Results: Plasma expressing level of lipocalin 2 in the control group before and after intervention, were respectively 11./1 ± 4./5 & 13./05 ± 2/.04, µg/L, respectively. The plasma level of lipocalin 2 and in the endurance training group, were 22./7 ± 8/.3 & and 17/.7 ± 6/.8 , and while these level werein the resistance training group 22/.2 ± 6/.2 & 19/.9 ± 6/.5 in the resistance training group. micrograms per liter, which was not statistically different.The differences between three groups were not statistically significant (p>0/.05. Conclusion: This study showed that 8 eight weeks of endurance & and resistance exercise training has no effect on lipocalin-2 plasma levels. Key words: Resistance training, Endurance training, Lipocalin-2, Insulin Resistance

  9. Bibliography on Collegiate Athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Denise; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A bibliography on collegiate athletics with approximately 400 items is presented. Topics include: sports administration, sports histories, women's athletics, physical education, problems and scandals, sports organizations, sports and health, and references on many specific sports, especially football. (JMD)

  10. Paraoxonase activity in athletic adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Alpay; Zeyrek, Dost; Atas, Ali; Erel, Ozcan

    2010-02-01

    Regular physical activity may play a protective role against cardiovascular disease in adults, and paraoxonase activity may serve to mediate this effect. This study compared paraoxonase activity and that of other antioxidative agents in adolescent athletes compared with inactive youth. Paraoxonase level was 177.32 +/- 100.10 (U/L) in children with regular physical activity and 98.11 +/- 40.92 (U/L) in the control group (P total antioxidative capacity, total oxidative status, oxidative stress index, and lipid hydroperoxide were significantly higher in the athlete group compared with controls (P < 0.0001). Paraoxonase activity was found to be greater in adolescent athletes, suggesting that regular exercise might provide a cardio-protective effect by this means.

  11. Coping with the Stress of Athletic Injury: How Coaches Can Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jenelle N.; Lyon, Hayden; Wahl, Mary-tyler

    2015-01-01

    Sport participation can be a stressful experience for some high school athletes. Sustaining a sport injury can further increase athletes' stress levels. Coaches may feel uncomfortable interacting with injured athletes and can unconsciously or purposefully marginalize them. However, coaches have a responsibility toward all of their athletes,…

  12. Athletic pubalgia and associated rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, Abigail A; Zoland, Mark P; Tyler, Timothy F

    2014-11-01

    Evaluation and treatment of groin pain in athletes is challenging. The anatomy is complex, and multiple pathologies often coexist. Different pathologies may cause similar symptoms, and many systems can refer pain to the groin. Many athletes with groin pain have tried prolonged rest and various treatment regimens, and received differing opinions as to the cause of their pain. The rehabilitation specialist is often given a non-specific referral of "groin pain" or "sports hernia." The cause of pain could be as simple as the effects of an adductor strain, or as complex as athletic pubalgia or inguinal disruption. The term "sports hernia" is starting to be replaced with more specific terms that better describe the injury. Inguinal disruption is used to describe the syndromes related to the injury of the inguinal canal soft tissue environs ultimately causing the pain syndrome. The term athletic pubalgia is used to describe the disruption and/or separation of the more medial common aponeurosis from the pubis, usually with some degree of adductor tendon pathology. Both non-operative and post-operative treatment options share the goal of returning the athlete back to pain free activity. There is little research available to reference for rehabilitation guidelines and creation of a plan of care. Although each surgeon has their own specific set of post-operative guidelines, some common concepts are consistent among most surgeons. Effective rehabilitation of the high level athlete to pain free return to play requires addressing the differences in the biomechanics of the dysfunction when comparing athletic pubalgia and inguinal disruption. Proper evaluation and diagnostic skills for identifying and specifying the difference between athletic pubalgia and inguinal disruption allows for an excellent and efficient rehabilitative plan of care. Progression through the rehabilitative stages whether non-operative or post-operative allows for a focused rehabilitative program. As more

  13. Coaching the Vegetarian Athlete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandali, Swarna L.

    2011-01-01

    Good nutrition is important for optimal athletic performance. Adolescent athletes often depend on their coaches for nutritional information on weight management, dietary supplements, and dietary practices. Some dietary practices, such as vegetarianism, have the potential to be harmful to the adolescent athlete if not followed with careful…

  14. Navigational strategies during fast walking: a comparison between trained athletes and non-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérin-Lajoie, Martin; Ronsky, Janet L; Loitz-Ramage, Barbara; Robu, Ion; Richards, Carol L; McFadyen, Bradford J

    2007-10-01

    Many common activities such as walking in a shopping mall, moving in a busy subway station, or even avoiding opponents during sports, all require different levels of navigational skills. Obstacle circumvention is beginning to be understood across age groups, but studying trained athletes with greater levels of motor ability will further our understanding of skillful adaptive locomotor behavior. The objective of this work was to compare navigational skills during fast walking between elite athletes (e.g. soccer, field hockey, basketball) and aged-matched non-athletes under different levels of environmental complexity in relation to obstacle configuration and visibility. The movements of eight women athletes and eight women non-athletes were measured as they walked as fast as possible through different obstacle courses in both normal and low lighting conditions. Results showed that athletes, despite similar unobstructed maximal speeds to non-athletes, had faster walking times during the navigation of all obstructed environments. It appears that athletes can process visuo-spatial information faster since both groups can make appropriate navigational decisions, but athletes can navigate through complex, novel, environments at greater speeds. Athletes' walking times were also more affected by the low lighting conditions suggesting that they normally scan the obstructed course farther ahead. This study also uses new objective measures to assess functional locomotor capacity in order to discriminate individuals according to their level of navigational ability. The evaluation paradigm and outcome measures developed may be applicable to the evaluation of skill level in athletic training and selection, as well as in gait rehabilitation following impairment.

  15. Stress Biomarkers, Mood States, and Sleep during a Major Competition: "Success" and "Failure" Athlete's Profile of High-Level Swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chennaoui, Mounir; Bougard, Clément; Drogou, Catherine; Langrume, Christophe; Miller, Christian; Gomez-Merino, Danielle; Vergnoux, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate stress markers, mood states, and sleep indicators in high-level swimmers during a major 7-days competition according to the outcomes. Nine swimmers [six men and three women (age: 22 ± 2 and 22 ± 4 years, respectively)] were examined. Before (PRE) and after (POST) each race (series, semi-finals, and finals), salivary concentrations of cortisol, α-amylase (sAA), and chromogranin-A (CgA) were determined. Mood states were assessed by the profile of mood state (POMS) questionnaire completed before and after the 7-days, and self-reported sleep diaries were completed daily. In the "failure" group, cortisol and sAA significantly increased between PRE-POST measurements (p failure group." In this group, fatigue, confusion and depression scores, and sleep duration before the finals increased. The results in the "success" group show tendencies for increased cortisol and sCgA concentrations in response to competition, while sAA was not changed. Cortisol levels before the semi-finals and finals and sCgA levels before the finals were positively correlated to the fatigue score in the "failure" group only (r = 0.89). sAA levels before and after the semi-finals were negatively correlated to sleep duration measured in the subsequent night (r = -0.90). In conclusion, the stress of the competition could trigger a negative mood profile and sleep disturbance which correspond to different responses of biomarkers related to the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity, cortisol, sAA, and CgA.

  16. Female Athletic Training Students' Perceptions of Motherhood and Retention in Athletic Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Gavin, Kerri

    2013-01-01

    Context: Motherhood appears to be a catalyst in job turnover for female athletic trainers, especially those employed at the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I level. However, most researchers examining this topic have investigated the perspectives of those who are currently employed rather than those who are preparing to enter the profession. Objective: To evaluate female athletic training students' perceptions of motherhood and retention. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: Athletic training education program. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 18 female athletic training students volunteered to participate. They were enrolled in 1 Commission on Accrediting Athletic Training Education–accredited athletic training program and represented 3 levels of academic study. Data Collection and Analysis: The participants responded to a series of questions related to work–life balance and retention in athletic training. Analysis of the data followed a general inductive process. Credibility was established by interpretive member checks and peer review. Results: The first theme, clinical setting, speaks to the belief that work–life balance and retention in athletic training require an employment setting that fosters a family-friendly atmosphere and a work schedule (including travel) that allows for time at home. The second theme, mentorship, reflects the acknowledgment that a female mentor who is successful in balancing the roles of mother and athletic trainer can serve as a role model. The final theme, work–life balance strategies, illustrates the need to have a plan in place to meet the demands of both home and work life. Conclusions: A female athletic trainer who is successfully balancing her career and family responsibilities may be the most helpful factor in retention, especially for female athletic training students. Young professionals need to be educated on the importance of developing successful work–life balance strategies, which can

  17. Female athletic training students' perceptions of motherhood and retention in athletic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Gavin, Kerri

    2013-01-01

    Motherhood appears to be a catalyst in job turnover for female athletic trainers, especially those employed at the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I level. However, most researchers examining this topic have investigated the perspectives of those who are currently employed rather than those who are preparing to enter the profession. To evaluate female athletic training students' perceptions of motherhood and retention. Qualitative study. Athletic training education program. A total of 18 female athletic training students volunteered to participate. They were enrolled in 1 Commission on Accrediting Athletic Training Education-accredited athletic training program and represented 3 levels of academic STUDY. The participants responded to a series of questions related to work-life balance and retention in athletic training. Analysis of the data followed a general inductive process. Credibility was established by interpretive member checks and peer review. The first theme, clinical setting, speaks to the belief that work-life balance and retention in athletic training require an employment setting that fosters a family-friendly atmosphere and a work schedule (including travel) that allows for time at home. The second theme, mentorship, reflects the acknowledgment that a female mentor who is successful in balancing the roles of mother and athletic trainer can serve as a role model. The final theme, work-life balance strategies, illustrates the need to have a plan in place to meet the demands of both home and work life. A female athletic trainer who is successfully balancing her career and family responsibilities may be the most helpful factor in retention, especially for female athletic training students. Young professionals need to be educated on the importance of developing successful work-life balance strategies, which can be helpful in reducing attrition from the profession.

  18. Medications for Sleep Schedule Adjustments in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Matthew B; Asif, Irfan M

    Sleep schedule adjustments are common requirements of modern-day athletes. Many nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic strategies exist to facilitate circadian rhythm shifts to maximize alertness and performance during competition. This review summarizes the evidence for commonly used pharmacologic agents and presents recommendations for the sports medicine provider. MEDLINE searches were performed using the following keywords: sleep aids, circadian rhythm adjustment, athletes and sleep, caffeine and sports, melatonin and athletes, and sleep aids and sports. Pertinent articles were extracted and discussed. Clinical review. Level 2. There are very few available studies investigating pharmacologic sleep aids in athletes. Data from studies involving shift workers and airline personnel are more abundant and were used to formulate recommendations and conclusions. Melatonin, caffeine, and nonbenzodiazepine sleep aids have a role in facilitating sleep schedule changes in athletes and maximizing sports performance through sleep enhancement.

  19. Preventive Neuromuscular Training for Young Female Athletes: Comparison of Coach and Athlete Compliance Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Dai; Mattacola, Carl G; Bush, Heather M; Thomas, Staci M; Foss, Kim D Barber; Myer, Gregory D; Hewett, Timothy E

    2017-01-01

     Fewer athletic injuries and lower anterior cruciate ligament injury incidence rates were noted in studies of neuromuscular-training (NMT) interventions that had high compliance rates. However, several groups have demonstrated that preventive NMT interventions were limited by low compliance rates.  To descriptively analyze coach and athlete compliance with preventive NMT and compare the compliance between study arms as well as among school levels and sports.  Randomized, controlled clinical trial.  Middle and high school athletic programs. Participants or Other Participants: A total of 52 teams, comprising 547 female athletes, were randomly assigned to the experimental or control group and followed for 1 athletic season.  The experimental group (n = 30 teams [301 athletes]: 12 basketball teams [125 athletes], 6 soccer teams [74 athletes], and 12 volleyball teams [102 athletes]) participated in an NMT program aimed at reducing traumatic knee injuries through a trunk-stabilization and hip-strengthening program. The control group (n = 22 teams [246 athletes]: 11 basketball teams [116 athletes], 5 soccer teams [68 athletes], and 6 volleyball teams [62 athletes]) performed a resistive rubber-band running program.  Compliance with the assigned intervention protocols (3 times per week during the preseason [mean = 3.4 weeks] and 2 times per week in-season [mean = 11.9 weeks] of coaches [coach compliance] and athletes [athlete compliance]) was measured descriptively. Using an independent t test, we compared coach and athlete compliance between the study arms. A 2-way analysis of variance was calculated to compare differences between coach and athlete compliance by school level (middle and high schools) and sport (basketball, soccer, and volleyball).  The protocols were completed at a mean rate of 1.3 ± 1.1 times per week during the preseason and 1.2 ± 0.5 times per week in-season. A total of 88.4% of athletes completed 2/3 of the intervention sessions

  20. Student versus athlete: Professional socialisation influx | Burnett ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... sport and increased professional opportunities for high performance athletes, ... Continued participation and self-reported high levels of motivation relate to sporting success (69.4%), ...

  1. A systematic review of studies comparing body image concerns among female college athletes and non-athletes, 1997-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnes, Julia R; Stellefson, Michael L; Janelle, Christopher M; Dorman, Steven M; Dodd, Virginia; Miller, M David

    2013-09-01

    Research prior to 2001 indicated that athletes experienced better body image than non-athletes, with no differences among sport types. Since then, female athletes have become increasingly sexually objectified in the media, and the sociocultural beauty ideal has shifted to emphasize appearing both athletic and thin. Part I of this paper explores the literature describing these changes. Part II presents a systematic and comprehensive literature review of 10 recent studies comparing body image concerns (BIC) among collegiate female athletes and non-athletes to identify the current status of BIC in female athletes. Findings indicate that involvement in collegiate athletics provides some protection from BIC; however, this protection appears attenuated for athletes in more feminine sports (e.g., gymnastics), and higher level athletes (Division I). Researchers should examine how sociocultural pressures unrelated to competition predict female athletes' BIC using measures that focus on objectification, positive body image, body functionality, and thin- and athletic-ideal internalization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Charlie's Words: Supporting Gifted Male Athletes Using Athletes' Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Richard

    2012-01-01

    A gifted student-athlete, Charlie Bloomfield is introduced to athlete's journals by his coaches at Burke Mountain Academy (Vermont), an elite American ski school. Used by Olympians and professionals alike, journals provide athletes with ways to organize and reflect on training and competitions. Athlete's journals help gifted male athletes address…

  3. Sports Specialization in Young Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanthi, Neeru; Pinkham, Courtney; Dugas, Lara; Patrick, Brittany; LaBella, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    Context: Sports specialization is intense training in 1 sport while excluding others. Sports specialization in early to middle childhood has become increasingly common. While most experts agree that some degree of sports specialization is necessary to achieve elite levels, there is some debate as to whether such intense practice time must begin during early childhood and to the exclusion of other sports to maximize potential for success. There is a concern that sports specialization before adolescence may be deleterious to a young athlete. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed and OVID were searched for English-language articles from 1990 to 2011 discussing sports specialization, expert athletes, or elite versus novice athletes, including original research articles, consensus opinions, and position statements. Results: For most sports, there is no evidence that intense training and specialization before puberty are necessary to achieve elite status. Risks of early sports specialization include higher rates of injury, increased psychological stress, and quitting sports at a young age. Sports specialization occurs along a continuum. Survey tools are being developed to identify where athletes fall along the spectrum of specialization. Conclusion: Some degree of sports specialization is necessary to develop elite-level skill development. However, for most sports, such intense training in a single sport to the exclusion of others should be delayed until late adolescence to optimize success while minimizing injury, psychological stress, and burnout. PMID:24427397

  4. Cardiovascular Effects of Altitude on Performance Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ankit B; Coplan, Neil

    Altitude plays an important role in cardiovascular performance and training for athletes. Whether it is mountaineers, skiers, or sea-level athletes trying to gain an edge by training or living at increased altitude, there are many potential benefits and harms of such endeavors. Echocardiographic studies done on athletes at increased altitude have shown evidence for right ventricular dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension, but no change in left ventricular ejection fraction. In addition, 10% of athletes are susceptible to pulmonary hypertension and high-altitude pulmonary edema. Some studies suggest that echocardiography may be able to identify athletes susceptible to high-altitude pulmonary edema prior to competing or training at increased altitudes. Further research is needed on the long-term effects of altitude training, as repeated, transient episodes of pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular dysfunction may have long-term implications. Current literature suggests that performance athletes are not at higher risk for ventricular arrhythmias when training or competing at increased altitudes. For sea-level athletes, the optimal strategy for attaining the benefits while minimizing the harms of altitude training still needs to be clarified, although-for now-the "live high, train low" approach appears to have the most rationale.

  5. Predictors of Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Elite Athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toennesen, Louise L; Porsbjerg, Celeste; Pedersen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Elite athletes frequently experience asthma and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). We aimed to investigate predictors of airway pathophysiology in a group of unselected elite summer-sport athletes, training for the summer 2008 Olympic Games, including markers of airway inflammation......, systemic inflammation, and training intensity. METHODS: Fifty-seven Danish elite summer-sport athletes with and without asthma symptoms all gave a blood sample for measurements of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF....... In these subjects, no association was found between the levels of AHR to mannitol and methacholine (r = 0.032, P = 0.91). CONCLUSION: AHR in elite athletes is related to the amount of weekly training and the level of serum TNF-α. No association was found between the level of AHR to mannitol and methacholine...

  6. Student retention in athletic training education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Thomas M; Mitchell, Murray F; Mensch, James M

    2009-01-01

    The success of any academic program, including athletic training, depends upon attracting and keeping quality students. The nature of persistent students versus students who prematurely leave the athletic training major is not known. Understanding the profiles of athletic training students who persist or leave is important. To (1) explore the relationships among the following variables: anticipatory factors, academic integration, clinical integration, social integration, and motivation; (2) determine which of the aforementioned variables discriminate between senior athletic training students and major changers; and (3) identify which variable is the strongest predictor of persistence in athletic training education programs. Descriptive study using a qualitative and quantitative mixed-methods approach. Thirteen athletic training education programs located in District 3 of the National Athletic Trainers' Association. Ninety-four senior-level athletic training students and 31 college students who changed majors from athletic training to another degree option. Data were collected with the Athletic Training Education Program Student Retention Questionnaire (ATEPSRQ). Data from the ATEPSRQ were analyzed via Pearson correlations, multivariate analysis of variance, univariate analysis of variance, and a stepwise discriminant analysis. Open-ended questions were transcribed and analyzed using open, axial, and selective coding procedures. Member checks and peer debriefing techniques ensured trustworthiness of the study. Pearson correlations identified moderate relationships among motivation and clinical integration (r = 0.515, P accounting for 37.2% of the variance between groups. The theoretic model accurately classified 95.7% of the seniors and 53.8% of the major changers. A common theme emerging from the qualitative data was the presence of a strong peer-support group that surrounded many of the senior-level students. Understanding student retention in athletic training is

  7. The FTO A/T Polymorphism and Elite Athletic Performance: A Study Involving Three Groups of European Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eynon, Nir; Nasibulina, Emiliya S.; Banting, Lauren K.; Cieszczyk, Pawel; Maciejewska-Karlowska, Agnieszka; Sawczuk, Marek; Bondareva, Elvira A.; Shagimardanova, Roza R.; Raz, Maytal; Sharon, Yael; Williams, Alun G.; Ahmetov, Ildus I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The FTO A/T polymorphism (rs9939609) is a strong candidate to influence obesity-related traits. Elite athletes from many different sporting disciplines are characterized by low body fat. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess whether athletic status is associated with the FTO A/T polymorphism. Subjects and Methods A large cohort of European Caucasians from Poland, Russia and Spain were tested to examine the association between FTO A/T polymorphism (rs9939609) and athletic status. A total of 551 athletes were divided by type of sport (endurance athletes, n = 266 vs. sprint/power athletes, n = 285) as well as by level of competition (elite-level vs. national-level). The control group consisted of 1,416 ethnically-matched, non-athletic participants, all Europeans. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between FTO A/T genotypes and athletic status/competition level. Results There were no significantly greater/lesser odds of harbouring any type of genotype when comparing across athletic status (endurance athletes, sprint/power athletes or control participants). These effects were observed after controlling for sex and nationality. Furthermore, no significantly greater/lesser odds ratios were observed for any of the genotypes in respect to the level of competition (elite-level vs. national-level). Conclusion The FTO A/T polymorphism is not associated with elite athletic status in the largest group of elite athletes studied to date. Large collaborations and data sharing between researchers, as presented here, are strongly recommended to enhance the research in the field of exercise genomics. PMID:23573268

  8. The FTO A/T polymorphism and elite athletic performance: a study involving three groups of European athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nir Eynon

    Full Text Available The FTO A/T polymorphism (rs9939609 is a strong candidate to influence obesity-related traits. Elite athletes from many different sporting disciplines are characterized by low body fat. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess whether athletic status is associated with the FTO A/T polymorphism.A large cohort of European Caucasians from Poland, Russia and Spain were tested to examine the association between FTO A/T polymorphism (rs9939609 and athletic status. A total of 551 athletes were divided by type of sport (endurance athletes, n = 266 vs. sprint/power athletes, n = 285 as well as by level of competition (elite-level vs. national-level. The control group consisted of 1,416 ethnically-matched, non-athletic participants, all Europeans. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between FTO A/T genotypes and athletic status/competition level.There were no significantly greater/lesser odds of harbouring any type of genotype when comparing across athletic status (endurance athletes, sprint/power athletes or control participants. These effects were observed after controlling for sex and nationality. Furthermore, no significantly greater/lesser odds ratios were observed for any of the genotypes in respect to the level of competition (elite-level vs. national-level.The FTO A/T polymorphism is not associated with elite athletic status in the largest group of elite athletes studied to date. Large collaborations and data sharing between researchers, as presented here, are strongly recommended to enhance the research in the field of exercise genomics.

  9. Effect of inhaled corticosteroids on bronchial asthma in Japanese athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Yoshifumi; Koya, Toshiyuki; Kagamu, Hiroshi; Tsukioka, Keisuke; Toyama, Mio; Sakagami, Takuro; Hasegawa, Takashi; Narita, Ichiei; Arakawa, Masaaki; Suzuki, Eiichi

    2015-04-01

    Asthma has a higher prevalence in athlete populations such as Olympic athletes than in the general population. Correct diagnosis and management of asthma in athletes is important for symptom control and avoidance of doping accusations. However, few reports are available on asthma treatment in the athlete population in clinical practice. In this study, we focused on the clinical efficacy of inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) for asthma in a Japanese athlete population. The study subjects included athletes who visited the Niigata Institute for Health and Sports Medicine, Niigata, Japan for athletic tests and who were diagnosed with asthma on the basis of respiratory symptoms and positive results in a bronchodilator or bronchial provocation test such as exercise, hypertonic saline, or methacholine provocation. The athletes received ICS alone for at least 3 months, and the clinical background, sports type, and treatment efficacy were analyzed. The study population comprised 80 athletes (59 men and 21 women) with a median age of 16.0 years. Regarding sports type, 28 athletes engaged in winter sports (35%), 22 in endurance sports (27.5%), and 25 in indoor sports (31.3%). Although ICS is the primary treatment in athlete asthma, 16.3% of the athletes showed an unsatisfactory response to treatment according to the Global Evaluation of Treatment Effectiveness (GETE). These subjects were characterized by a decreased response to methacholine and lower values for FEV1/FVC and type 2 helper T cell (Th2)-associated biomarkers relative to responsive athletes. In multivariate analysis, FEV1/FVC and the logarithm to the base 10 of the IgE level were independently associated with the ICS response. These data suggest that ICS is effective for asthma in most athletes. However, certain asthmatic athletes are less responsive to ICS than expected. The pathogenesis in these subjects may differ from that of conventional asthma characterized by chronic allergic airway inflammation. Copyright

  10. Splenic injuries in athletes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Elizabeth H; Howard, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Splenic injuries can be challenging to the sports medicine physician. While these injuries are not common among athletes, they can have serious, potentially fatal consequences if not properly diagnosed and managed in a prompt and timely fashion. Currently, there are no evidence-based guidelines on returning athletes to previous levels of activity after sustaining a splenic injury. In addition, there is no consensus on follow-up imaging after injury. This article discusses the evaluation of athletes with blunt abdominal trauma for splenic injury, including the imaging, management, and current return-to-play guidelines.

  11. ACUTE EFFECTS OF TWO DIFFERENT WARM-UP PROTOCOLS ON FLEXIBILITY AND LOWER LIMB EXPLOSIVE PERFORMANCE IN MALE AND FEMALE HIGH LEVEL ATHLETES

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    Charilaos Tsolakis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of two different warm-up protocols on lower limb power and flexibility in high level athletes. Twenty international level fencers (10 males and 10 females performed two warm-up protocols that included 5-min light jogging and either short (15s or long (45s static stretching exercises for each of the main leg muscle groups (quadriceps, hamstrings and triceps surae, followed by either 3 sets of 3 (short stretching treatment, or 3 sets of 5 tuck jumps (long stretching treatment, in a randomized crossover design with one week between treatments. Hip joint flexion was measured with a Lafayette goniometer before and after the 5-min warm-up, after stretching and 8 min after the tuck jumps, while counter movement jump (CMJ performance was evaluated by an Ergojump contact platform, before and after the stretching treatment, as well as immediately after and 8 minutes after the tuck jumps. Three way ANOVA (condition, time, gender revealed significant time (p < 0.001 and gender (p < 0.001 main effects for hip joint flexion, with no interaction between factors. Flexibility increased by 6. 8 ± 1.1% (p < 0.01 after warm-up and by another 5.8 ± 1.6% (p < 0.01 after stretching, while it remained increased 8 min after the tuck jumps. Women had greater ROM compared with men at all time points (125 ± 8° vs. 94 ± 4° p<0.01 at baseline, but the pattern of change in hip flexibility was not different between genders. CMJ performance was greater in men compared with women at all time points (38.2 ± 1.9 cm vs. 29.8 ± 1.2 cm p < 0.01 at baseline, but the percentage of change CMJ performance was not different between genders. CMJ performance remained unchanged throughout the short stretching protocol, while it decreased by 5.5 ± 0.9% (p < 0.01 after stretching in the long stretching protocol However, 8 min after the tuck jumps, CMJ performance was not different from the baseline value (p = 0.075. In conclusion, lower limb power may

  12. High School Sport Specialization Patterns of Current Division I Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Eric G; Thein-Nissenbaum, Jill M; Stiffler, Mikel R; Brooks, M Alison; Bell, David R; Sanfilippo, Jennifer L; Trigsted, Stephanie M; Heiderscheit, Bryan C; McGuine, Timothy A

    Sport specialization is a strategy to acquire superior sport performance in 1 sport but is associated with increased injury risk. Currently, the degree of high school specialization among Division I athletes is unknown. College athletes will display increased rates of specialization as they progress through their high school careers. Descriptive epidemiological study. Level 4. Three hundred forty-three athletes (115 female) representing 9 sports from a Midwest Division I University completed a previously utilized sport specialization questionnaire regarding sport participation patterns for each grade of high school. McNemar and chi-square tests were used to investigate associations of grade, sport, and sex with prevalence of sport specialization category (low, moderate, high) (a priori P ≤ 0.05). Specialization increased throughout high school, with 16.9% (n = 58) and 41.1% (n = 141) of athletes highly specialized in 9th and 12th grades, respectively. Football athletes were less likely to be highly specialized than nonfootball athletes for each year of high school ( P 0.23). The majority of Division I athletes were not classified as highly specialized throughout high school, but the prevalence of high specialization increased as athletes progressed through high school. Nonfootball athletes were more likely to be highly specialized than football athletes at each grade level. Most athletes who are recruited to participate in collegiate athletics will eventually specialize in their sport, but it does not appear that early specialization is necessary to become a Division I athlete. Athletes should be counseled regarding safe participation in sport during high school to minimize injury and maximize performance.

  13. Type 1 diabetes mellitus and exercise in competitive athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratjen, I; Weber, K S; Roden, M; Herrmann, M-E; Müssig, K

    2015-07-01

    The number of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus who are actively participating in competitive sports is increasing. Here, we aimed to assess individual experiences of competitive athletes with type 1 diabetes and to compare these experiences with current recommendations. A survey of 20 competitive athletes with type 1 diabetes, categorized as endurance (n=10) and non-endurance (n=10) athletes, was performed. Endurance and non-endurance athletes did not differ in gender distribution, age, body mass index, and known diabetes duration. Self-reported target blood glucose values prior to exercise were lower in non-endurance than in endurance athletes (195±34 vs. 137±28 mg/dl, P=0.001). The majority of all athletes experienced activity-induced hypo- and hyperglycemic events, independently of exercise type. However, endurance athletes used additional carbohydrate units to prevent activity-induced hypoglycemic events more frequently without monitoring their blood glucose levels than non-endurance athletes (50% vs. 0%, P=0.01). The reduction of the insulin dose on training and competition days compared to days without exercise was similar for endurance and non-endurance athletes. These results point to a very individual adaption of the athlete's therapy during training and competition. However, there are distinct differences in diabetes management between endurance and non-endurance athletes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. High School Sport Specialization Patterns of Current Division I Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Post, Eric G.; Thein-Nissenbaum, Jill M.; Stiffler, Mikel R.; Brooks, M. Alison; Bell, David R.; Sanfilippo, Jennifer L.; Trigsted, Stephanie M.; Heiderscheit, Bryan C.; McGuine, Timothy A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sport specialization is a strategy to acquire superior sport performance in 1 sport but is associated with increased injury risk. Currently, the degree of high school specialization among Division I athletes is unknown. Hypothesis: College athletes will display increased rates of specialization as they progress through their high school careers. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Methods: Three hundred forty-three athletes (115 female) rep...

  15. Athlete's Foot: Clinical Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, M L

    1989-10-01

    In brief: Athletes are particularly prone to athlete's foot because they are generally more exposed than others to conditions that encourage fungal growth, eg, communal showers and locker rooms. Diagnosis of athlete's foot rests on clinical suspicion and laboratory testing. Treatment may consist of topical antifungal agents and, for more resistant cases, oral griseofulvin. Preventive measures include keeping the feet dry, wearing nonocclusive leather shoes or sandals and absorbent cotton socks, and applying talcum or antifungal powder at least twice daily.

  16. Sleep and Athletic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew M

    Sleep is an essential component of health and well-being, with significant impacts on physical development, emotional regulation, cognitive performance, and quality of life. Along with being an integral part of the recovery and adaptive process between bouts of exercise, accumulating evidence suggests that increased sleep duration and improved sleep quality in athletes are associated with improved performance and competitive success. In addition, better sleep may reduce the risk of both injury and illness in athletes, not only optimizing health but also potentially enhancing performance through increased participation in training. Despite this, most studies have found that athletes fail to obtain the recommended amount of sleep, threatening both performance and health. Athletes face a number of obstacles that can reduce the likelihood of obtaining proper sleep, such as training and competition schedules, travel, stress, academic demands, and overtraining. In addition, athletes have been found to demonstrate poor self-assessment of their sleep duration and quality. In light of this, athletes may require more careful monitoring and intervention to identify individuals at risk and promote proper sleep to improve both performance and overall health. This review attempts to highlight the recent literature regarding sleep issues in athletes, the effects of sleep on athletic performance, and interventions to enhance proper sleep in athletes.

  17. [Sleep and academic performance in young elite athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poussel, M; Laure, P; Genest, J; Fronzaroli, E; Renaud, P; Favre, A; Chenuel, B

    2014-07-01

    In French law (Code du Sport), the status of elite athlete is allowed for young athletes beginning at the age of 12 years. For these young athletes, the aim is to reach the highest level of performance in their sport without compromising academic performance. Training time is therefore often substantial and sleep patterns appear to play a key role in performance recovery. The aim of this study was to assess sleep patterns and their effects on academic performance in young elite athletes. Sleep patterns were assessed using questionnaires completed during a specific information-based intervention on sports medicine topics. The academic performance of young elite athletes was assessed by collecting their grades (transmitted by their teachers). Sleep patterns were assessed for 137 young elite athletes (64 females, 73 males; mean age, 15.7 years) and academic performance for 109 of them. Daily sleep duration during school periods (8h22 ± 38 min) were shorter compared to holidays and week-ends (10h02 ± 1h16, Psleep quality as poor or just sufficient. Poor sleep quality was correlated with poor academic performance in this specific athlete population. Sleep is the most important period for recovery from daily activity, but little information is available regarding the specific population of young elite athletes. The results reported herein suggest insufficiency (quantitatively and qualitatively) of sleep patterns in some of the young athletes, possibly leading to detrimental effects on athletic performance. Moreover, disturbed sleep patterns may also impact academic performance in young elite athletes. Teachers, athletic trainers, physicians, and any other professionals working with young elite athletes should pay particular attention to this specific population regarding the possible negative repercussions of poor sleep patterns on academic and athletic performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Oxidative stress and antioxidants in athletes undertaking regular exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Trent A; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley K; Garg, Manohar L

    2005-04-01

    Exercise has been shown to increase the production of reactive oxygen species to a point that can exceed antioxidant defenses to cause oxidative stress. Dietary intake of antioxidants, physical activity levels, various antioxidants and oxidative stress markers were examined in 20 exercise-trained "athletes" and 20 age- and sex-matched sedentary "controls." Plasma F2-isoprostanes, antioxidant enzyme activities, and uric acid levels were similar in athletes and sedentary controls. Plasma alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene were higher in athletes compared with sedentary controls. Total antioxidant capacity tended to be lower in athletes, with a significant difference between male athletes and male controls. Dietary intakes of antioxidants were also similar between groups and well above recommended dietary intakes for Australians. These findings suggest that athletes who consume a diet rich in antioxidants have elevated plasma alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene that were likely to be brought about by adaptive processes resulting from regular exercise.

  19. Negligence and Athletic Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.

    2001-01-01

    Although athletic events generate their share of negligence lawsuits, the relatively small number, compared with other education areas, suggests that defenses (like assumption or risk and contributory negligence) have a better fit in athletics. Implications of newer litigation trends involving coaches' misconduct and interpretation of state…

  20. Panhellenic athletics at Olympia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Heine

    2014-01-01

    The paper discusses Olympia as a panhellenic venue for athletics and the city-state interaction which took place at the sanctuary......The paper discusses Olympia as a panhellenic venue for athletics and the city-state interaction which took place at the sanctuary...

  1. THROWING INJURIES IN THE ADOLESCENT ATHLETE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thigpen, Chuck

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Adolescents ranging in age from 11–15 (early‐mid adolescence) comprise the largest percentage of baseball and softball athletes in the United States. Shoulder and elbow injuries are commonly experienced by these athletes with baseball pitchers and softball position players most likely to be injured. Common Injuries: Physeal injury often termed “Little League” shoulder or elbow is common and should be differentiated from soft tissue injuries such as biceps, rotator cuff, or UCL injuries. Regardless of diagnosis, rehabilitation of these athletes’ shoulder and elbow injuries provide a unique challenge given their rapidly changing physical status. Treatment: Common impairments include alterations in shoulder range of motion, decreased muscle performance, and poor neuromuscular control of the scapula, core, and lower extremity. A criterion based, progressive rehabilitation program is presented. Discharge from formal rehabilitation should occur only when the athlete has demonstrated a resolution of symptoms, acceptable ROM, muscle performance, and neuromuscular control while progressing through a symptom free return to sport. Prevention of Reinjury: Reintegration into the desired level of sport participation should be guided by the sports medicine professional with a focus on long‐term durability in sport performance as well as injury prevention. A prevention program which includes parent, coach, and athlete education, regular screening to identify those athletes at the highest risk, and monitoring athletes for the development of risk factors or warning signs of injury over the course of participation is indicated. Level of Evidence: 5 PMID:24175142

  2. Female athlete triad update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Katherine A; Meyer, Nanna L

    2007-01-01

    The passage of Title IX legislation in 1972 provided enormous opportunities for women to reap the benefits of sports participation. For most female athletes, sports participation is a positive experience, providing improved physical fitness, enhanced self-esteem, and better physical and mental health. Nonetheless, for a few female athletes, the desire for athletic success combined with the pressure to achieve a prescribed body weight may lead to the development of a triad of medical disorders including disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density (BMD)--known collectively as the female athlete triad. Alone or in combination, the disorders of the triad can have a negative impact on health and impair athletic performance.

  3. Asthma in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athletes...... their physical capacity. Elite athletes should undergo comprehensive assessment to confirm an asthma diagnosis and determine its degree of severity. Treatment should be as for any other asthmatic individual, including the use of ß2-agonist, inhaled steroid as well as leukotriene-antagonist. It should, however......, be noted that daily use of ß-agonists could expose elite athletes to the risk of developing tolerance towards these drugs. Use of ß2-agonist should be replaced with daily inhaled corticosteroid treatment, the most important treatment of exercise-induced asthma. All physicians treating asthma should...

  4. Asthma in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athletes...... their physical capacity. Elite athletes should undergo comprehensive assessment to confirm an asthma diagnosis and determine its degree of severity. Treatment should be as for any other asthmatic individual, including the use of β2-agonist, inhaled steroid as well as leukotriene-antagonist. It should, however......, be noted that daily use of β-agonists could expose elite athletes to the risk of developing tolerance towards these drugs. Use of β2-agonist should be replaced with daily inhaled corticosteroid treatment, the most important treatment of exercise-induced asthma. All physicians treating asthma should...

  5. Proposed algorithm for the management of athletes with athletic pubalgia (sports hernia): a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachingwe, Aimie F; Grech, Steven

    2008-12-01

    A case series of 6 athletes with a suspected sports hernia. Groin pain in athletes is common, and 1 source of groin pain is athletic pubalgia, or a sports hernia. Description of this condition and its management is scarce in the physical therapy literature. The purpose of this case series is to describe a conservative approach to treating athletes with a likely sports hernia and to provide physical therapists with an algorithm for managing athletes with this dysfunction. Six collegiate athletes (age range, 19-22 years; 4 males, 2 females) with a physician diagnosis of groin pain secondary to possible/probable sports hernia were referred to physical therapy. A method of evaluation was constructed and a cluster of 5 key findings indicative of a sports hernia is presented. The athletes were managed according to a proposed algorithm and received physical therapy consisting of soft tissue and joint mobilization/manipulation, neuromuscular re-education, manual stretching, and therapeutic exercise. Three of the athletes received conservative intervention and were able to fully return to sport after a mean of 7.7 sessions of physical therapy. The other 3 athletes reached this outcome after surgical repair and a mean of 6.7 sessions of physical therapy. Conservative management including manual therapy appears to be a viable option in the management of athletes with a sports hernia. Follow-up randomized clinical trials should be performed to further investigate the effectiveness of conservative rehabilitation compared to a homogeneous group of patients undergoing surgical repair for this condition. Therapy, level 4.

  6. Comparação de características da personalidade entre atletas brasileiros de alto rendimento e indivíduos não-atletas Comparacion de las características de la personalidad entre atletas brasileros de alto-rendimento y los indivíduos no atletas Comparison of personality characteristics between high-level Brazilian athletes and non-athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Gattás Bara Filho

    2005-04-01

    constituiran la muestra. Se utilizó el FPI-R (Inventario de Personalidad de Freiburg como instrumento de personalidad. RESULTADOS: Las diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p BACKGROUND: Comparison of psychological characteristics between athletes and non-athletes is one of the most explored topics in the personality study in sports. To find a possible personality profile for high-level athletes has been one of the main goals of researchers, studying and comparing samples of athletes with those of non-athletes. OBJECTIVE: To compare the personality profiles between Brazilian high-level athletes and non-athletes through psychological characteristics, verifying similarities and differences between them. METHODS: Two hundred and nine athletes (108 men and 101 women from four sport modalities (volleyball, basketball, judo and swimming and 214 non-athletes (169 men and 45 women composed the study sample. The FPI-R (Freiburg Personality Inventory was used to evaluate personality. RESULTS: Significant differences (p < 0.05 were found in eight out of the 12 FPI instrument variables: Inhibition, Irritability, Aggressiveness, Fatigability, Physical Complaints, Health Concern, Frankness, and Emotionality between athletes and non-athletes. When subgroups of athletes and non-athletes men and women were compared, the data indicated more generalities and small specificities in the differences between them, presenting significant differences (p < 0.05 in the eight variables previous mentioned, as well as in Self-satisfaction (p < 0.05. Finally, when non-athletes and athletes of team sports (volleyball and basketball and individual sports (swimming and judo were compared, once again significant differences (p < 0.05 were observed in the same variables and also in Self-satisfaction (p < 0.000 and Social Orientation (p < 0.01. CONCLUSIONS: It is observed that there are specific and unique psychological characteristics of Brazilian high-level athletes when compared with a non-athletes

  7. Athletics in the Academic Marketplace: Using Revenue Theory of Cost to Compare Trends in Athletic Coaching Salaries and Instructional Salaries and Tuition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirko, Scott; Suggs, David Welch; Orleans, Jeffrey H.

    2013-01-01

    This study reviewed publicly available institutional financial and participation reports at the highest level of athletic competition, National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I. Institutions were grouped by NCAA subdivision status, athletic conference, flagship status, football Bowl Championship Series automatic qualifying status,…

  8. Dietary antioxidants for the athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalay, Mustafa; Lappalainen, Jani; Sen, Chandan K

    2006-06-01

    Physical exercise induces oxidative stress and tissue damage. Although a basal level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is required to drive redox signaling and numerous physiologic processes, excess ROS during exercise may have adverse implications on health and performance. Antioxidant nutrients may be helpful in that regard. Caution should be exercised against excess antioxidant supplements, however. This article presents a digest for sports practitioners. The following three recommendations are made: 1) it is important to determine the individual antioxidant need of each athlete performing a specific sport; 2) multinutrient preparations, as opposed to megadoses of any single form of nutrient, seem to be a more prudent path to choose; and 3) for outcomes of antioxidant supplementation, performance should not be the only criteria. Overall well being of the athlete, faster recovery, and minimization of injury time could all be affected by antioxidant therapy.

  9. Radiographic Evidence of Femoroacetabular Impingement in Athletes With Athletic Pubalgia

    OpenAIRE

    Economopoulos, Kostas J.; Milewski, Matthew D.; Hanks, John B.; Hart, Joseph M.; Diduch, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Two of the most common causes of groin pain in athletes are femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and athletic pubalgia. An association between the 2 is apparent, but the prevalence of radiographic signs of FAI in patients undergoing athletic pubalgia surgery remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of radiologic signs of FAI in patients with athletic pubalgia. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that patients with athletic pubalgia would have a high prevale...

  10. Sonographic evaluation of athletic pubalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Nicholas; Grant, Thomas; Blount, Kevin; Omar, Imran

    2016-05-01

    Athletic pubalgia, or "sports hernia", represents a constellation of pathologic conditions occurring at and around the pubic symphysis. These injuries are primarily seen in athletes or those involved in athletic activity. In this article, we review the sonographic appearance of the relevant complex anatomy, scanning technique for ultrasound evaluation of athletic pubalgia, and the sonographic appearances of associated pathologic conditions.

  11. Sexual Health of Polish Athletes with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Plinta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine sexual functioning of Polish athletes with disabilities (including paralympians. The study encompassed 218 people with physical disabilities, aged between 18 and 45 (149 men and 69 women. The entire research population was divided into three groups: Polish paralympians (n = 45, athletes with disabilities (n = 126 and non-athletes with disabilities (n = 47. The quality of sexual life of Polish paralympians was measured by using the Polish version of Female Sexual Function Index and International Index of Erectile Function. Clinically significant erectile dysfunctions were most often diagnosed in non-athletes (83.33% with 50% result of severe erectile dysfunctions, followed by athletes and paralympians with comparable results of 56.98% and 54.17% respectively (p = 0.00388. Statistically significant clinical sexual dysfunctions concerned lubrication, orgasm as well as pain domains, and prevailed among female non-athletes (68.42%, 68.42% and 57.89%. Practising sports at the highest level has a favourable effect on the sexuality of men and women with physical disabilities. Men with physical disabilities manifest more sexual disorders than women, an aspect which should be considered by health-care professionals working with people with disabilities.

  12. Athletes and Supplements: Prevalence and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garthe, Ina; Maughan, Ronald J

    2018-03-01

    In elite sport, where opponents are evenly matched, small factors can determine the outcome of sporting contests. Not all athletes know the value of making wise nutrition choices, but anything that might give a competitive edge, including dietary supplements, can seem attractive. Between 40% and 100% of athletes typically use supplements, depending on the type of sport, level of competition, and the definition of supplements. However, unless the athlete has a nutrient deficiency, supplementation may not improve performance and may have a detrimental effect on both performance and health. Dietary supplements are classified as a subcategory of food, so manufacturers are not required to provide evidence of product safety and efficacy, nor obtain approval from regulatory bodies before marketing supplements. This creates the potential for health risks, and serious adverse effects have been reported from the use of some dietary supplements. Athletes who compete in sports under an anti-doping code must also realize that supplement use exposes them to a risk of ingesting banned substances or precursors of prohibited substances. Government systems of regulations do not include specific laboratory testing for banned substances according to the WADA list, so a separate regulatory framework to evaluate supplements for their risk of provoking a failed doping test is needed. In the high-performance culture typical of elite sport, athletes may use supplements regardless of possible risks. A discussion around medical, physiological, cultural, and ethical questions may be warranted to ensure that the athlete has the information needed to make an informed choice.

  13. Athletic pubalgia (sports hernia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, Demetrius E M; Sneider, Erica B; McEnaney, Patrick M; Busconi, Brian D

    2011-04-01

    Athletic pubalgia or sports hernia is a syndrome of chronic lower abdomen and groin pain that may occur in athletes and nonathletes. Because the differential diagnosis of chronic lower abdomen and groin pain is so broad, only a small number of patients with chronic lower abdomen and groin pain fulfill the diagnostic criteria of athletic pubalgia (sports hernia). The literature published to date regarding the cause, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of sports hernias is confusing. This article summarizes the current information and our present approach to this chronic lower abdomen and groin pain syndrome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Peptide YY in Adolescent Athletes with Amenorrhea, Eumenorrheic Athletes and Non-Athletic Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Melissa; Stark, Jenna; Nayak, Shriddha; Miller, Karen K.; Herzog, David B.; Klibanski, Anne; Misra, Madhusmita

    2009-01-01

    Background Bone mineral density (BMD) is lower in amenorrheic athletes (AA) compared with eumenorrheic athletes (EA). Decreased energy availability and altered levels of appetite regulating hormones (ghrelin and leptin) in AA contribute to hypogonadism, an important cause of low BMD. The role of other nutritionally regulated hormones such as peptide YY (PYY) and adiponectin in mediating gonadal status and bone metabolism remains to be determined. Objectives Our objective was to determine whether PYY and adiponectin are higher in AA compared with EA and contribute to hypogonadism and impaired bone metabolism in AA. Methods We determined PYY and adiponectin in 16 AA, 15 EA and 16 non-athletic controls 12–18 years old, and other nutritionally dependent hormones including ghrelin, leptin and IGF-1. We also measured testosterone, estradiol, PINP and NTX (markers of bone formation and resorption) and BMD. Results PYY was higher in AA than EA (111±52 vs. 61±29 ng/ml, p<0.05), whereas adiponectin did not differ between groups. Although activity scores did not differ, BMI was lower in AA than EA and a larger proportion (62.5% vs. 6.7%) reported disordered eating, indicating lower energy availability. PYY and adiponectin were independent predictors of testosterone in a regression model (p=0.01 and 0.04), but did not predict estradiol. PYY, but not adiponectin, was an independent and negative predictor of PINP (p=0.002) and lumbar bone mineral apparent density Z-scores (p=0.045) in this model. Conclusion High PYY levels (but not adiponectin) differentiate AA from EA, and may be an important factor contributing to low bone density in athletes. PMID:19344792

  15. Physical activity participation and constraints among athletic training students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanek, Justin; Rogers, Katherine; Anderson, Jordan

    2015-02-01

    Researchers have examined the physical activity (PA) habits of certified athletic trainers; however, none have looked specifically at athletic training students. To assess PA participation and constraints to participation among athletic training students. Cross-sectional study. Entry-level athletic training education programs (undergraduate and graduate) across the United States. Participants were 1125 entry-level athletic training students. Self-reported PA participation, including a calculated PA index based on a typical week. Leisure constraints and demographic data were also collected. Only 22.8% (252/1105) of athletic training students were meeting the American College of Sports Medicine recommendations for PA through moderate-intensity cardiorespiratory exercise. Although 52.3% (580/1105) were meeting the recommendations through vigorous-intensity cardiorespiratory exercise, 60.5% (681/1125) were meeting the recommendations based on the combined total of moderate or vigorous cardiorespiratory exercise. In addition, 57.2% (643/1125) of respondents met the recommendations for resistance exercise. Exercise habits of athletic training students appear to be better than the national average and similar to those of practicing athletic trainers. Students reported structural constraints such as lack of time due to work or studies as the most significant barrier to exercise participation. Athletic training students experienced similar constraints to PA participation as practicing athletic trainers, and these constraints appeared to influence their exercise participation during their entry-level education. Athletic training students may benefit from a greater emphasis on work-life balance during their entry-level education to promote better health and fitness habits.

  16. Female Athlete Triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for some competitive female athletes, problems such as low self-esteem, a tendency toward perfectionism, and family stress place ... depression, pressure from coaches or family members, or low self-esteem and can help her find ways to deal ...

  17. Feeding Your Child Athlete

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bread and cereal, and plenty of fruits and vegetables. Drink Up! It's important for young athletes to drink plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration, which can zap strength, energy, and coordination and ...

  18. The Athlete Within

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Olympians to be memorialized as works of art in oil painting exhibition 0lympic medallists, having already reached the pinnacle of popular acclaim through their athletic feats as seen on TV screens world wide, are

  19. NUTRIONAL NEEDS OF ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Pandey

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim – is to provide a comprehensive information regarding the nutritional needs of athletes, followed by female athletes who have a higher necessity for Iron. Sports and nutrition are directly related to each other. Taking into consideration the fact that sports person need more energy to carry out their sporting activity effectively, it becomes of prime importance to take care for sports performance. Athletes must supposedly eat the perfect ratio of Protein, carbohydrate and fat at each meal and snack to control the hormonal systems and thus reach their maximum performance and ideal weight .The carbohydrate/protein/fat ratio of the 40-30-30 diet allegedly maintains the proper balance between the hormones insulin and glucagon. The present review focuses on the intake for a wholesome nutrient and well balanced diet for better performance among male as well as female athletes.

  20. Expected Time to Return to Athletic Participation After Stress Fracture in Division I Collegiate Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Timothy L; Jamieson, Marissa; Everson, Sonsecharae; Siegel, Courtney

    2017-12-01

    Few studies have documented expected time to return to athletic participation after stress fractures in elite athletes. Time to return to athletic participation after stress fractures would vary by site and severity of stress fracture. Retrospective cohort study. Level 3. All stress fractures diagnosed in a single Division I collegiate men's and women's track and field/cross-country team were recorded over a 3-year period. Site and severity of injury were graded based on Kaeding-Miller classification system for stress fractures. Time to return to full unrestricted athletic participation was recorded for each athlete and correlated with patient sex and site and severity grade of injury. Fifty-seven stress fractures were diagnosed in 38 athletes (mean age, 20.48 years; range, 18-23 years). Ten athletes sustained recurrent or multiple stress fractures. Thirty-seven injuries occurred in women and 20 in men. Thirty-three stress fractures occurred in the tibia, 10 occurred in the second through fourth metatarsals, 3 occurred in the fifth metatarsal, 6 in the tarsal bones (2 navicular), 2 in the femur, and 5 in the pelvis. There were 31 grade II stress fractures, 11 grade III stress fractures, and 2 grade V stress fractures (in the same patient). Mean time to return to unrestricted sport participation was 12.9 ± 5.2 weeks (range, 6-27 weeks). No significant differences in time to return were noted based on injury location or whether stress fracture was grade II or III. The expected time to return to full unrestricted athletic participation after diagnosis of a stress fracture is 12 to 13 weeks for all injury sites. Athletes with grade V (nonunion) stress fractures may require more time to return to sport.

  1. What Are the Safety Considerations for Insulin Control for Athletes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Larry W.; Olson, Sara; Gaudet, Laura; Jackson, Allen

    2010-01-01

    Athletes diagnosed with diabetes may have difficulty with their blood sugar levels fluctuating during intense exercise. Considerations for athletes with insulin concerns may range anywhere from exercise rehabilitation to the use of an automatic insulin pump. The automatic insulin pump is a small battery-operated device about the size of a pager.…

  2. Give It Your Best! Profiles of Native American Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Russell; Kast, Sherry

    The purpose of this publication is to encourage and enhance the participation of American Indian and Alaska Native athletes in organized sports at the secondary, collegiate, and professional levels. Profiles are given of 37 young Native American women and men who are succeeding in competitive athletics, as well as in the classroom. One page is…

  3. Sudden death in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrado, Domenico; Zorzi, Alessandro

    2017-06-15

    Competitive sports activity is associated with an increased risk of sudden cardiovascular death (SCD) in adolescents and young adults with clinically silent cardiovascular disorders. While in middle-aged/senior athletes atherosclerotic coronary artery disease accounts for the vast majority of SCDs, in young athletes the spectrum of substrates is wider and includes inherited (cardiomyopathies) and congenital (anomalous origin of coronary arteries) structural heart diseases. Inherited ion channel diseases have been implicated in SCDs occurring with an apparently normal heart at autopsy. Screening including the ECG allows identification of athletes affected by heart muscle diseases at a pre-symptomatic stage and may lead to reduction of the risk of SCD during sports. The use of modern criteria for interpretation of the ECG in the athlete offers the potential to improve the screening accuracy by reducing the number of false positives. Screening with exercise testing middle aged/senior athletes engaged in leisure sports activity is likely to be effective in patients with significant coronary risk factors, while it is not useful in low-risk subgroups. The availability of automated external defibrillator on the athletic field provides a "back-up" preventive strategy for unpredictable arrhythmic cardiac arrest, mostly occurring in patients with coronary artery diseases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. female collegiate athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JL Ayers

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Olympic weightlifting movements and their variations are believed to be among the most effective ways to improve power, strength, and speed in athletes. This study investigated the effects of two Olympic weightlifting variations (hang cleans and hang snatches, on power (vertical jump height, strength (1RM back squat, and speed (40-yard sprint in female collegiate athletes. 23 NCAA Division I female athletes were randomly assigned to either a hang clean group or hang snatch group. Athletes participated in two workout sessions a week for six weeks, performing either hang cleans or hang snatches for five sets of three repetitions with a load of 80-85% 1RM, concurrent with their existing, season-specific, resistance training program. Vertical jump height, 1RM back squat, and 40-yard sprint all had a significant, positive improvement from pre-training to post-training in both groups (p≤0.01. However, when comparing the gain scores between groups, there was no significant difference between the hang clean and hang snatch groups for any of the three dependent variables (i.e., vertical jump height, p=0.46; 1RM back squat, p=0.20; and 40-yard sprint, p=0.46. Short-term training emphasizing hang cleans or hang snatches produced similar improvements in power, strength, and speed in female collegiate athletes. This provides strength and conditioning professionals with two viable programmatic options in athletic-based exercises to improve power, strength, and speed.

  5. Physical fitness profile of elite athletes with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Vliet, P; Rintala, P; Fröjd, K; Verellen, J; van Houtte, S; Daly, D J; Vanlandewijck, Y C

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the physical fitness profile of high-performance athletes with intellectual disability (ID) in comparison with able-bodied individuals. Participants were 231 male and 82 female athletes. All evaluations were done using the EUROFIT physical fitness test. In comparison with population data, both male and female athletes with ID score better for flexibility and upper body muscle endurance, but have similar or lower values for running speed, speed of limb movement, and strength measures. Compared with age-matched physical education students, male athletes with ID score better for running speed and flexibility, and worse for strength. Female athletes with ID score not different from able-bodied individuals for flexibility, running speed, and upper body muscle endurance, but worse for strength measures. Athletes with ID also have poorer cardio respiratory endurance capacity compared with sportive peers without ID. Furthermore, male athletes have a more differentiated profile depending upon their sports discipline, compared with female athletes. It can be concluded that high-performance athletes with ID reach physical fitness levels that are equal to or lower than those of able-bodied sportive counterparts. Further research should investigate the importance of reduced muscle strength to be the limiting factor.

  6. Psychological and social correlates of doping attitudes among Italian athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchetti, Giulia; Candela, Filippo; Villosio, Carlo

    2015-02-01

    This study aims to identify the main psychological and social correlates of doping attitudes among Italian athletes. It is well recognized that athlete disposition and attitude towards doping is one of the factors responsible for doping behavior. Less is known, however, about the factors that sustain the level of athletes' attitudes towards doping. The main psychological (i.e., perfectionism, sport motivation, self-confidence and life satisfaction) and social correlates (i.e., social network and contact with people who use sports drugs) of attitudes towards doping among Italian athletes are examined in this paper. Differences are hypothesized regarding the type of sport (resistance sport vs. non-resistance sport) and athlete participation in competitive sport (i.e., agonistics) or in non-competitive sport (i.e., amateurs) on the level of attitude towards doping. The research hypothesis is that each of these constructs affects the level of athletes' attitudes toward doping. Data were collected from a sample of athletes (N=109), aged from 15 to 45 (M=31.5; SD=13.78) recruited in a Sports Medicine Center. Socio-demographic information, attitude towards doping, psychological and social variables were assessed through self-report questionnaire. Hierarchical multiple regression showed that both psychological (i.e., extrinsic motivation, perfectionism) and social variables (i.e., athletes' contact with doping users) were associated with athletes' attitudes towards doping. The results highlighted that athletes with excessive perfectionism, extrinsically motivated and who have contact with doping users have a positive attitude toward doping. Athletes who exhibit these characteristics should be considered at risk and monitored to prevent possible future sports drug use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Critical-Thinking Skills of First-Year Athletic Training Students Enrolled in Professional Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Dana K.; Sikkema, Jill A.; Nynas, Suzette M.; Culp, Clinton

    2017-01-01

    Context: The Examination of Professional Degree Level document presented to the National Athletic Trainers' Association Board of Directors states that research in athletic training education has not investigated differences in the critical-thinking skills of professional athletic training students. Objective: Investigate the differences in…

  8. Determination of Career Planning Profiles of Turkish Athletes Who Are Ranked in the Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulya, Bingol; Cemal, Gundogdu; Sukru, Bingol

    2012-01-01

    This study researched in the level of career planning of Turkish athletes ranked in the Olympics during the time they were active in sports and after they retired. This study which aimed to determine the career planning efficiency of Turkish athletes ranked in the Olympics based on the viewpoints of the athletes holding Olympic degree is scanning…

  9. Association between eating disorders and body image in athletes and non-athlete students in Qazvin University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Miri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Body image dissatisfaction and eating disorders are of common problems in adolescence and adulthood especially among athletes. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the association of eating disorders and body image in athletes and non-athlete students in Qazvin University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 226 athlete students and 350 non-athlete students of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences during 2013-2014. Students who followed a specific sport field and had participated in at least one sport event were considered as athlete students. All athlete students were entered the study by census method. Non-athlete students were selected among students who had not any exercise activity and by random sampling method. Data were collected through demographic questionnaire, Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26, and Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ. Data were analyzed using T-test and Chi-square test. Results: Mean age was 21.92±3.19 years and mean body mass index (BMI was 22.24±3.18 kg/m2. The frequency of eating disorders was 11.5% among the athlete students and 11.2% among the non-athlete students. Anorexia nervosa was found to be more prevalent than bulimia nervosa in both groups. The students with normal BMI had better body image perception and less eating disorders symptoms than other students. The association of age, educational level, and gender with eating disorders and body image was not statistically significant. The association of eating disorders and body image was not statistically significant. Eating disorders were more prevalent in males than females but the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: With regards to the results, it seems that eating disorders and body image dissatisfaction are relatively prevalent among both athletes and non-athlete students and BMI is predictor of eating disorders.

  10. Peer-Assisted Learning in the Athletic Training Clinical Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Jolene M; Weidner, Thomas G; Jones, James

    2006-01-01

    Context: Athletic training educators often anecdotally suggest that athletic training students enhance their learning by teaching their peers. However, peer-assisted learning (PAL) has not been examined within athletic training education in order to provide evidence for its current use or as a pedagogic tool. Objective: To describe the prevalence of PAL in athletic training clinical education and to identify students' perceptions of PAL. Design: Descriptive. Setting: “The Athletic Training Student Seminar” at the National Athletic Trainers' Association 2002 Annual Meeting and Clinical Symposia. Patients or Other Participants: A convenience sample of 138 entry-level male and female athletic training students. Main Outcome Measure(s): Students' perceptions regarding the prevalence and benefits of and preferences for PAL were measured using the Athletic Training Peer-Assisted Learning Assessment Survey. The Survey is a self-report tool with 4 items regarding the prevalence of PAL and 7 items regarding perceived benefits and preferences. Results: A total of 66% of participants practiced a moderate to large amount of their clinical skills with other athletic training students. Sixty percent of students reported feeling less anxious when performing clinical skills on patients in front of other athletic training students than in front of their clinical instructors. Chi-square analysis revealed that 91% of students enrolled in Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs–accredited athletic training education programs learned a minimal to small amount of clinical skills from their peers compared with 65% of students in Joint Review Committee on Educational Programs in Athletic Training–candidacy schools (χ2 3 = 14.57, P < .01). Multiple analysis of variance revealed significant interactions between sex and academic level on several items regarding benefits and preferences. Conclusions: According to athletic training students, PAL is occurring in

  11. Female Athletes Facing Discrimination: Curriculum Regarding Female Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palis, Regina

    There continues to be oppression among female athletes, even after the enactment of Title IX in 1972. Female athletes in secondary schools deal with low self-esteem, eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia, and depression. Female athletes struggle with societal pressures to maintain a model-like figure, while trying to train and perform for…

  12. The Athletic Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Andrew

    2016-09-10

    This paper seeks to explore the attraction and the beauty of the contemporary athletic body. It will be suggested that a body shaped through muscular bulk and definition has come to be seen as aesthetically normative. This body differs from the body of athletes from the early and mid-twentieth century. It will be argued that the contemporary body is not merely the result of advances in sports science, but rather that it is expressive of certain meanings and values. The visual similarity of the contemporary athletic body and that of the comic book superhero suggests that both bodies carry a similar potential for narrative story-telling, and that their attraction is bound up with this narrative potential. The superhero and athlete live meaningful lives, pursuing clear and morally unambiguous goals. The aesthetic attraction of the body lies in its capacity to facilitate the articulation of a story of a meaningful life, and to do so in the face of the growing anomie and thus meaninglessness of life as experienced in contemporary society. Athleticism offers an illusion of meaning, serving to reproduce dominant justificatory narratives and social stereotypes. Yet, as an illusion of meaning, it may be challenged and negotiated, not least with respect to its bias towards a certain form of the male body. The female athletic body disrupts the illusion, opening up new existential possibilities, new ways of living and being, and thus new, and potentially disruptive, narratives.

  13. The study of athletes' body perception and gender role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastug, Gulsum

    2011-12-01

    In this study, it has been aimed to examine athletes' body perception and gender role. 120 male athletes and 120 non-athletic male university students participated in the study voluntarily. In the study, as the data collecting means, The Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire-MBSRQ was used in order to determine males' body perception levels, BEM Sex Role Inventory-BSRI was used to determine gender roles and Personal Information Form developed by the researcher was used to ascertain personal features of the subjects. When the athletes' body perception levels are examined, the features of physical competence orientation, health orientation, appearance evaluation, fitness evaluation, health evaluation and body areas satisfaction have been found to be higher than non-athletes' (p orientation (p > 0.05). When gender roles are examined, athletes have been found to have higher values than non-athletes' in terms of masculinity, femininity and social desirability (p gender role, it is also thought that athletes care about health, appearance and physical competence and are glad of body parts because of their muscled body structure developing due to the exercises and have flexible personality to show feminine and masculine features that the environment needs in terms of gender role.

  14. Skin Cancer Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors in Collegiate Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney Hobbs

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor athletes represent an important group at risk for skin cancer because they are routinely exposed to high levels of ultraviolet radiation. The purpose of this study was to assess current skin cancer knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among collegiate athletes. A modified version of the Melanoma Risk Behavior Survey was completed by 343 athletes attending a Southern University in the USA, generating an 87% response rate. Survey results demonstrated that the majority of the athletes do not limit their sun exposure and reported low levels of sun protective behaviors. In addition, athletes lacked knowledge about skin cancer and sun protection. Eighty-three percent of the athletes stated that tanning beds improve one’s overall health. Race was significantly associated with skin cancer knowledge, whereas, gender was found to be significantly associated with knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors towards skin cancer. Additionally, there was a significant relationship between knowledge and behavior, but not between attitude and behavior. This study highlights the need to educate athletes about the hazards of tanning to minimize UV exposure and promote sun protection habits. Moreover, athletes should be educated on the dangers of indoor tanning facilities and encouraged to avoid these facilities.

  15. Nontraumatic femur fracture in an oligomenorrheic athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugowson, C E; Drinkwater, B L; Clark, J M

    1991-12-01

    Exercise-associated amenorrhea is the cessation of menses in a woman following onset of training or an increase in training intensity. Its physiologic basis is characterized by consistently low levels of gonadotropin and ovarian hormones, but the underlying cause of this phenomenon is unknown. Although osteopenia has been described in amenorrheic women athletes, it has been primarily a laboratory diagnosis. Several recent studies have described a significantly lower bone mineral density (BMD) in the lumbar spine of amenorrheic athletes. Marcus et al. also reported an increased number of metatarsal and tibial stress fractures in a group of amenorrheic women. We report here the first case of a nontraumatic femur fracture in an amenorrheic athlete. A 32-yr-old white female, with four prior fibular stress fractures, suffered a left femoral shaft fracture during the 13th mile of a half-marathon. The fracture was successfully internally fixed. Biochemical studies showed no metabolic abnormality. Bone mineral density of the lumbar spine, femoral neck, tibia, and fibula were below the mean for both eumenorrheic and amenorrheic female athletes. Exercise-associated amenorrhea is a medical problem that may have serious implications for both competitive and high-intensity recreational female athletes.

  16. Quantifying Parental Influence on Youth Athlete Specialization: A Survey of Athletes' Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padaki, Ajay S; Ahmad, Christopher S; Hodgins, Justin L; Kovacevic, David; Lynch, Thomas Sean; Popkin, Charles A

    2017-09-01

    Youth athlete specialization has been linked to decreased enjoyment, burnout, and increased injury risk, although the impact of specialization on athletic success is unknown. The extent to which parents exert extrinsic influence on this phenomenon remains unclear. The goal of this study was to assess parental influences placed on young athletes to specialize. It was hypothesized that parents generate both direct and indirect pressures on specialized athletes. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A survey tool was designed by an interdisciplinary medical team to evaluate parental influence on youth specialization. Surveys were administered to parents of the senior author's orthopaedic pediatric patients. Of the 211 parents approached, 201 (95.3%) completed the assessment tool. One-third of parents stated that their children played a single sport only, 53.2% had children who played multiple sports but had a favorite sport, and 13.4% had children who balanced their multiple sports equally. Overall, 115 (57.2%) parents hoped for their children to play collegiately or professionally, and 100 (49.7%) parents encouraged their children to specialize in a single sport. Parents of highly specialized and moderately specialized athletes were more likely to report directly influencing their children's specialization ( P = .038) and to expect their children to play collegiately or professionally ( P = .014). Finally, parents who hired personal trainers for their children were more likely to believe that their children held collegiate or professional aspirations ( P = .009). Parents influence youth athlete specialization both directly and by investment in elite coaching and personal instruction. Parents of more specialized athletes exert more influence than parents of unspecialized athletes.

  17. Respiratory inflammation and infections in high-performance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Maree; Pyne, David B

    2016-02-01

    Upper respiratory illness is the most common reason for non-injury-related presentation to a sports medicine clinic, accounting for 35-65% of illness presentations. Recurrent or persistent respiratory illness can have a negative impact on health and performance of athletes undertaking high levels of strenuous exercise. The cause of upper respiratory symptoms (URS) in athletes can be uncertain but the majority of cases are related to common respiratory viruses, viral reactivation, allergic responses to aeroallergens and exercise-related trauma to the integrity of respiratory epithelial membranes. Bacterial respiratory infections are uncommon in athletes. Undiagnosed or inappropriately treated asthma and/or allergy are common findings in clinical assessments of elite athletes experiencing recurrent URS. High-performance athletes with recurrent episodes of URS should undergo a thorough clinical assessment to exclude underlying treatable conditions of respiratory inflammation. Identifying athletes at risk of recurrent URS is important in order to prescribe preventative clinical, training and lifestyle strategies. Monitoring secretion rates and falling concentrations of salivary IgA can identify athletes at risk of URS. Therapeutic interventions are limited by the uncertainty of the underlying cause of inflammation. Topical anti-inflammatory sprays can be beneficial for some athletes. Dietary supplementation with bovine colostrum, probiotics and selected antioxidants can reduce the incidence or severity of URS in some athletes. Preliminary studies on athletes prone to URS indicate a genetic predisposition to a pro-inflammatory response and a dysregulated anti-inflammatory cytokine response to intense exercise as a possible mechanism of respiratory inflammation. This review focuses on respiratory infections and inflammation in elite/professional athletes.

  18. Inguinal Hernia in Athletes: Role of Dynamic Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileff, William Kelton; Nekhline, Mikhail; Kolowich, Patricia A; Talpos, Gary B; Eyler, Willam R; van Holsbeeck, Marnix

    Inguinal hernia is a commonly encountered cause of pain in athletes. Because of the anatomic complexity, lack of standard imaging, and the dynamic condition, there is no unified opinion explaining its underlying pathology. Athletes with persistent groin pain would have a high prevalence of inguinal hernia with dynamic ultrasound, and herniorrhaphy would successfully return athletes to activity. Case-control study. Level 3. Forty-seven amateur and professional athletes with sports-related groin pain who underwent ultrasound were selected based on history and examination. Patients with prior groin surgery or hip pathology were excluded. Clinical and surgical documentation were correlated with imaging. The study group was compared with 41 age-matched asymptomatic athletes. Ultrasound was positive for hernia with movement of bowel, bladder, or omental tissue anterior to the inferior epigastric vessels during Valsalva maneuver. The 47-patient symptomatic study group included 41 patients with direct inguinal hernias, 1 with indirect inguinal hernia, and 5 with negative ultrasound. Of 42 patients with hernia, 39 significantly improved with herniorrhaphy, 2 failed to improve after surgery and were diagnosed with adductor longus tears, and 1 improved with physical therapy. Five patients with negative ultrasound underwent magnetic resonance imaging and were diagnosed with hip labral tear or osteitis pubis. The 41-patient asymptomatic control group included 3 patients with direct inguinal hernias, 2 with indirect inguinal hernias, and 3 with femoral hernias. Inguinal hernias are a major component of groin pain in athletes. Prevalence of direct inguinal hernia in symptomatic athletes was greater than that for controls ( P < 0.001). Surgery was successful in returning these athletes to sport: 39 of 42 (93%) athletes with groin pain and inguinal hernia became asymptomatic. Persistent groin pain in the athlete may relate to inguinal hernia, which can be diagnosed with dynamic

  19. Detailed heart rate variability analysis in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Orsolya; Sydó, Nóra; Vargha, Péter; Vágó, Hajnalka; Czimbalmos, Csilla; Édes, Eszter; Zima, Endre; Apponyi, Györgyi; Merkely, Gergő; Sydó, Tibor; Becker, Dávid; Allison, Thomas G; Merkely, Béla

    2016-08-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis has been used to evaluate patients with various cardiovascular diseases. While the vast majority of HRV studies have focused on pathological states, our study focuses on the less explored area of HRV analysis across different training intensity and sports. We aimed to measure HRV in healthy elite and masters athletes and compare to healthy, but non-athletic controls. Time-domain HRV analysis was applied in 138 athletes (male 110, age 28.4 ± 8.3) and 100 controls (male 56, age 28.3 ± 6.9) during Holter monitoring (21.3 ± 3.0 h). All studied parameters were higher in elite athletes compared to controls [SDNN (CI) 225.3 (216.2-234.5) vs 158.6 (150.2-167.1) ms; SDNN Index (CI) 99.6 (95.6-103.7) vs 72.4 (68.7-76.2) ms; pNN50 (CI) 24.2 (22.2-26.3) vs 14.4 (12.7-16.3) %; RMSSD (CI) 71.8 (67.6-76.2) vs 50.8 (46.9-54.8) ms; p HRV values than controls, but no significant differences were found between elite athletes and masters athletes. Some parameters were higher in canoeists-kayakers and bicyclists than runners. Lower cut-off values in elite athletes were SDNN: 147.4 ms, SDNN Index: 66.6 ms, pNN50: 9.7 %, RMSSD: 37.9 ms. Autonomic regulation in elite athletes described with HRV is significantly different than in healthy controls. Sports modality and level of performance, but not age- or sex-influenced HRV. Our study provides athletic normal HRV values. Further investigations are needed to determine its role in risk stratification, optimization of training, or identifying overtraining.

  20. Does Caffeine Enhance Athletic Performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcou Juliana

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Caffeine consumption may enhance athletic endurance, based on strong evidence, but further research needs to be conducted. High caffeine doses than the optimal, 3-6 mg/kg, before exercise does not confer any additional improvement in athletic performance. Additional, higher caffeine doses may cause side effects in athletes.

  1. Diet Quality of Collegiate Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Kelly; Stoess, Amanda Ireland; Forsythe, Hazel; Kurzynske, Janet; Vaught, Joy Ann; Adams, Bailey

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Collegiate athletes generally appear healthy according to weight for height and body fat standards. Despite the fact that there are well known connections between athletic performance and nutrition, little is known about the diets of collegiate athletes. The objective of this study was to determine the diet quality of 138…

  2. Sports Nutrition for Young Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.; McBee, Sheldon

    2005-01-01

    Nutritional needs for peak athletic performance include sufficient calorie intake, adequate hydration, and attention to timing of meals. Student athletes and their advisors often are misinformed or have misconceptions about sports nutrition. This paper identifies nutritional needs of young athletes, reviews common misconceptions, and examines the…

  3. Energy availability in athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loucks, Anne B; Kiens, Bente; Wright, Hattie H

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This review updates and complements the review of energy balance and body composition in the Proceedings of the 2003 IOC Consensus Conference on Sports Nutrition. It argues that the concept of energy availability is more useful than the concept of energy balance for managing the diets...... of athletes. It then summarizes recent reports of the existence, aetiologies, and clinical consequences of low energy availability in athletes. This is followed by a review of recent research on the failure of appetite to increase ad libitum energy intake in compensation for exercise energy expenditure...

  4. Control of physical fitness of athletes specializing in combat sambo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Tron

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Confiscation of informative educational tests to assess motor qualities of skilled athletes. The survey was attended by 94 athletes (18 to 30 years. This group of tests includes: running too far on the bridge (second coups in space (second; perform 100 punches on the punching bag (second, perform 50 kicks on the punching bag (second. It was found that the highest correlation between the result and the qualifications of athletes seen in tests involving the use of wrestling skills (rushing on the bridge and from the place of revolutions. It is shown that in the groups of athletes of medium and heavy weight categories in tests measuring the speed of the application of various attacks on the punching bag have a weak relationship with the level of sportsmanship. The trend is strengthening correlation sports training and exercise, describing the power of athletes of different skills to increase their weight classes.

  5. Exploring athletes' perceptions of coach stress in elite sport environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelwell, Richard C; Wagstaff, Christopher R D; Rayner, Adam; Chapman, Michael; Barker, Jamie

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to extend research that has focused on the identification of stressors associated with coaching practice by systematically evaluating how such stressors effect athletes, and more broadly, the coach-athlete relationship. A total of 13 professional- and national-level athletes were interviewed to address the three study aims: how they detect when a coach is encountering stressors, how coach experiences of stress effects them as an athlete, and how effective the coach is when experiencing stress. Following content analysis, the data suggested athletes were able to detect when a coach was experiencing stress and this was typically via a variety of verbal and behavioural cues. Despite some positive effects of the coach experiencing stress, the majority were negative and varied across a range of personal influences on the athlete, and effects on the general coaching environment. It was also the broad view of the athletes that coaches were less effective when stressed, and this was reflected in performance expectations, perceptions of competence, and lack of awareness. The findings are discussed in relation to the existing theory and with reference to their implications for applied practice, future research, and development of the coach-athlete relationship.

  6. Visual efficiency among teenaged athletes and non-athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokiah Omar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare visual efficiency, specifically accom-modation, vergence, and oculomotor functions among athletes and non-athletes. METHODS: A cross-sectional study on sports vision screening was used to evaluate the visual skills of 214 elementary students (107 athletes, 107 non-athletes, aged between 13 and 16y. The visual screening assessed visual parameters such as ocular motor alignment, accommodation, and vergence functions. RESULTS: Mean visual parameters were compared between age-group matched athletes (mean age 14.82±0.98y and non-athletes (mean age 15.00±1.04y. The refractive errors of all participants were corrected to maximal attainable best corrected visual acuity of logMAR 0.0. Accommodation function assessment evaluated amplitude of accommodation and accommodation facility. Vergence functions measured the near point of convergence, vergence facility, and distance fusional vergence at break and recovery point. Ocular motor alignment was not statistically significant between both groups. Athletes had a statistically significant amplitude of accommodation for both the right eye (t=2.30, P=0.02 and the left eye (t=1.99, P=0.05. Conversely, non-athletes had better accommodation facility (t=-2.54, P=0.01 and near point of convergence (t=4.39, P<0.001 when compared to athletes. Vergence facility was found to be better among athletes (t=2.47, P=0.01. Nevertheless, non-athletes were significantly better for both distance negative and positive fusional vergence. CONCLUSION: Although the findings are still inconclusive as to whether athletes had superior visual skills as compared to non-athletes, it remains important to identify and elucidate the key visual skills needed by athletes in order for them to achieve higher performance in their sports.

  7. The role of endogenous opiates in athletic amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, M H; Sanborn, C F; Hofeldt, F; Robbins, R

    1991-03-01

    We hypothesized that menstrual disturbances in female athletes arise from opioid-induced abnormalities in gonadotropin and/or prolactin (PRL) secretion. To investigate this hypothesis, we measured luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and PRL levels in eumenorrheic and amenorrheic athletes during thyrotropin-releasing hormone and gonadotropin-releasing hormone tests at baseline, after naloxone infusions, after exercise to exhaustion, and after similar exercise during naloxone infusions. Contrary to our hypothesis, amenorrheic runners did not have significant alterations in basal, postexercise, or stimulated hormone levels compared with eumenorrheic runners. In addition, opioid blockade by naloxone did not enhance gonadotropin release by amenorrheic athletes.

  8. Fueling the vegetarian (vegan) athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrman, Joel; Ferreri, Deana M

    2010-01-01

    Vegetarian diets are associated with several health benefits, but whether a vegetarian or vegan diet is beneficial for athletic performance has not yet been defined. Based on the evidence in the literature that diets high in unrefined plant foods are associated with beneficial effects on overall health, lifespan, immune function, and cardiovascular health, such diets likely would promote improved athletic performance as well. In this article, we review the state of the literature on vegetarian diets and athletic performance, discuss prevention of potential micronutrient deficiencies that may occur in the vegan athlete, and provide strategies on meeting the enhanced caloric and protein needs of an athlete with a plant-based diet.

  9. Use of oral creatine as an ergogenic aid for increased sports performance: perceptions of adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, T R; Eck, J C; Covington, L A; Murphy, R B; Williams, R; Knudtson, J

    2001-06-01

    Competitive athletes, including adolescents, seek ways to gain advantage over competitors. One ergogenic aid is creatine, a naturally occurring nitrogen compound found primarily in skeletal muscle. Increasing creatine levels may prolong skeletal muscle activity, enhancing work output. A questionnaire assessing awareness and use of creatine supplementation was completed by 674 athletes from 11 high schools. Data were statistically analyzed to determine variation among groups. Of those surveyed, 75% had knowledge of creatine supplements, and 16% used creatine to enhance athletic performance. Percentage of use increased with age and grade level. Awareness and use were greater among boys than girls. Adverse effects were reported by 26%. Most athletes consumed creatine using a method inconsistent with scientific recommendations. Use of creatine by adolescent athletes is significant and inconsistent with optimal dosing. Physicians, athletic trainers, and coaches should disseminate proper information and advise these adolescent athletes.

  10. Commercialism in Intercollegiate Athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delany, James E.

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the history of intercollegiate athletics and the evolution of commercialization in college sports, particularly through television. Argues that few Division I programs could be self-sufficient; the issue is the degree to which sports are commercialized for revenue, and the challenge to balance schools' needs, private sector interests, and…

  11. Athletic Coaching Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathanson, Stephen J.

    1979-01-01

    This article describes a study conducted to identify the competencies appropriate for an athletic coach and to incorporate those competencies into a competency based coaching education program for the four-year colleges and universities within the New York state systems. (JMF)

  12. Age matters. A study on motivation, flow and self-esteem in competing athletes.

    OpenAIRE

    Fossmo, Toril

    2006-01-01

    The present study tested whether there were any differences between athletes varying in age, or practising different sports at different levels, on the variables motivation, flow, self-esteem and personality. Of the 145 athletes that participated in the study, there were 85 males and 59 females (one missing) ranging from 18 to 40 years of age (M = 21.34, SD = 3.89). The athletes were grouped as team sport athletes (n = 74) and individual sport athletes (n = 71) in order to determine if th...

  13. Early Single-Sport Specialization: A Survey of 3090 High School, Collegiate, and Professional Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Patrick S.; Bishop, Meghan; Kane, Patrick; Ciccotti, Michael C.; Selverian, Stephen; Exume, Dominique; Emper, William; Freedman, Kevin B.; Hammoud, Sommer; Cohen, Steven B.; Ciccotti, Michael G.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Youth participation in organized sports in the United States is rising, with many athletes focusing on a single sport at an increasingly younger age. Purpose: To retrospectively compare single-sport specialization in current high school (HS), collegiate, and professional athletes with regard to the rate and age of specialization, the number of months per year of single-sport training, and the athlete’s perception of injury related to specialization. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A survey was distributed to HS, collegiate, and professional athletes prior to their yearly preparticipation physical examination. Athletes were asked whether they had chosen to specialize in only 1 sport, and data were then collected pertaining to this decision. Results: A total of 3090 athletes completed the survey (503 HS, 856 collegiate, and 1731 professional athletes). A significantly greater percentage of current collegiate athletes specialized to play a single sport during their childhood/adolescence (45.2% of HS athletes, 67.7% of collegiate athletes, and 46.0% of professional athletes; P < .001). The age of single-sport specialization differed between groups and occurred at a mean age of 12.7 ± 2.4 (HS), 14.8 ± 2.5 (collegiate), and 14.1 ± 2.8 years (professional) (P < .001). Current HS (39.9%) and collegiate athletes (42.1%) recalled a statistically greater incidence of sport-related injury than current professional athletes (25.4%) (P < .001). The majority (61.7%) of professional athletes indicated that they believed specialization helps the athlete play at a higher level, compared with 79.7% of HS and 80.6% of collegiate athletes (P < .001). Notably, only 22.3% of professional athletes said they would want their own child to specialize to play only 1 sport during childhood/adolescence. Conclusion: This study provides a foundation for understanding current trends in single-sport specialization in all athletic levels. Current

  14. Reliability and Validity of Athletes Disability Index Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noormohammadpour, Pardis; Hosseini Khezri, Alireza; Farahbakhsh, Farzin; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Smuck, Matthew; Kordi, Ramin

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate validity and reliability of a new proposed questionnaire for assessment of functional disability in athletes with low back pain (LBP). Validity and reliability study. Elite athletes participating in different fields of sports. Participants were 165 male and female athletes (between 12 and 50 years old) with LBP. Athlete Disability Index (ADI) Questionnaire which is developed by the authors for assessing LBP-related disability in athletes, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RDQ). Self-reported responses were collected regarding LBP-related disability through ADI, ODI, and RDQ. The test-retest reliability was strong, and intraclass correlation value ranged between 0.74 and 0.94. The Cronbach alpha coefficient value of 0.91 (P visual analog scale was r = 0.626 (P disability levels were mild in the large majority of subjects (91.5% and 86.0%, respectively). Alternatively, disability assessments by the ADI did not cluster at the mild level and ranged more broadly from mild to very high. The ADI is a reliable and valid instrument for assessing disability in athletes with LBP. Compared with the available LBP disability questionnaires used in the general population, ADI can more precisely stratify the disability levels of athletes due to LBP.

  15. Outcomes of Hip Arthroscopy in Competitive Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perets, Itay; Hartigan, David E; Chaharbakhshi, Edwin O; Ashberg, Lyall; Ortiz-Declet, Victor; Domb, Benjamin G

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the minimum 2-year postoperative clinical outcomes and the rate of return to sports in athletes who underwent capsular plication for the treatment of ligamentous laxity and/or borderline dysplasia during hip arthroscopy for the treatment of femoroacetabular impingement and labral pathology. Since 2008, data were prospectively collected on patients who underwent hip arthroscopy for the treatment of femoroacetabular impingement and/or labral tears. Inclusion criteria were as follows: athlete at the high school, collegiate, or professional levels preoperatively, underwent capsular plication, and preoperatively recorded patient-reported outcome scores including modified Harris hip score (mHHS), nonarthritic athletic hip score (NAHS), hip outcome score-sports-specific subscale (HOS-SSS), and visual analog scale (VAS). Exclusion criteria were as follows: 1, and previous hip conditions. Sports activity and competitive levels were collected at a minimum of 2 years postoperatively. Fifty-one hips (49 patients) met the inclusion criteria, and 41 hips (39 patients) had minimum 2-year follow-up (80.4% follow-up). Mean mHHS increased from 67.1 preoperatively to 83.5 (P arthroscopies allowed the patients to return to sports at follow-up. Thirty-four (82.9%) hip arthroscopies allowed the patients to maintain their competitive physical abilities at follow-up. Patient-reported outcomes and VAS in athletes significantly improved at a minimum of 2 years after capsular plication as a part of hip arthroscopy addressing varying pathologies. In addition, most patients returned to sports at similar or higher competitive levels. These results suggest that capsular plication is a favorable treatment option in athletes with ligamentous laxity and/or borderline dysplasia. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. National collegiate athletic association division and primary job title of athletic trainers and their job satisfaction or intention to leave athletic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terranova, Aaron B; Henning, Jolene M

    2011-01-01

    Membership in the National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) has declined in recent years, generating much debate about professional commitment. To compare the contributing factors of job satisfaction and intention to leave athletic training of certified athletic trainers (ATs) employed in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) institutions. Cross-sectional study. A link to a Web-based questionnaire containing the Spector Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) and an original Intention to Leave Survey (ITLS) was distributed by e-mail to 1003 certified members of the National Athletic Trainers' Association. A total of 191 certified members of the NATA employed in a college or university setting in a primarily clinical capacity; representing all NCAA divisions; and having the job title of head athletic trainer, associate/assistant athletic trainer, or graduate assistant/intern athletic trainer. We used separate 3 x 3 factorial analyses of variance to compare the mean scores of each JSS subscale and of the ITLS with NCAA division and job title. A stepwise multiple regression was used to determine the strength of the relationships between the JSS subscales and the ITLS. We found differences for job title in the subscales of Fringe Benefits (F(2182) = 7.82, P = .001 ) and Operating Conditions (F(2,182) = 12.01, P < .001). The JSS subscale Nature of Work was the'greatest indicator of intention to leave (β = -0.45). We found a strong negative correlation between various facets of job satisfaction and intention to leave athletic training. The NCAA division seemed to have no effect on an individual's job satisfaction or intention to leave the profession. In addition, only Fringe Benefits and Operating Conditions seemed to be affected by job title. The ATs had similar levels of job satisfaction regardless of NCAA division, and their job titles were not a major factor in job satisfaction.

  17. National Athletic Trainers' Association-accredited postprofessional athletic training education: attractors and career intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Dodge, Thomas M

    2012-01-01

    Anecdotally, we know that students select graduate programs based on location, finances, and future career goals. Empirically, however, we lack information on what attracts a student to these programs. To gain an appreciation for the selection process of graduate study. Qualitative study. Postprofessional programs in athletic training (PPATs) accredited by the National Athletic Trainers' Association. A total of 19 first-year PPAT students participated, representing 13 of the 16 accredited PPAT programs. All interviews were conducted via phone and transcribed verbatim. Analysis of the interview data followed the procedures as outlined by a grounded theory approach. Trustworthiness was secured by (1) participant checks, (2) participant verification, and (3) multiple analyst triangulations. Athletic training students select PPAT programs for 4 major reasons: reputation of the program or faculty (or both), career intentions, professional socialization, and mentorship from undergraduate faculty or clinical instructors (or both). Participants discussed long-term professional goals as the driving force behind wanting an advanced degree in athletic training. Faculty and clinical instructor recommendations and the program's prestige helped guide the decisions. Participants also expressed the need to gain more experience, which promoted autonomy, and support while gaining that work experience. Final selection of the PPAT program was based on academic offerings, the assistantship offered (including financial support), advanced knowledge of athletic training concepts and principles, and apprenticeship opportunities. Students who attend PPAT programs are attracted to advancing their entry-level knowledge, are committed to their professional development as athletic trainers, and view the profession of athletic training as a life-long career. The combination of balanced academics, clinical experiences, and additional professional socialization and mentorship from the PPAT program

  18. Does Love Influence Athletic Performance? The Perspectives of Olympic Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kelly; Hosseini, Cheyenne; Myers, Kelly; Calub, Nina

    2016-06-01

    In this brief report, we provide an initial account of the association between love and athletic performance from the perspective of Olympic athletes. We posit that Romantic Passionate Love (RPL) and athletic performance may both involve the reward-motivation system of the brain. Based on this premise, we explored whether activation in one domain (love) might influence the other (sport). Our investigation was framed using Sternberg's triangular theory of love. Twenty Olympic athletes representing different sports were interviewed at the Games. Most athletes (n = 15) reported that their performance was better while in love; however, qualitative responses suggested that the benefits were correlated with rather than resulting from RPL. Although the athletes were provided with a definition of RPL and affirmed that their relationship met the criteria, interview responses reflected companionate rather than passionate love, suggesting that RPL may be differentially conceptualized across cultures. The study provides preliminary data that may be used to inform and refine future work on this topic.

  19. Are Elite Female Soccer Athletes at Risk for Disordered Eating Attitudes, Menstrual Dysfunction, and Stress Fractures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Heidi; Hunt, Devyani; McKeon, Kathryn; Simpson, Scott; Meyer, E Blair; Yemm, Ted; Brophy, Robert

    2016-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of stress fractures, menstrual dysfunction and disordered eating attitudes in elite female soccer athletes. Cross-sectional descriptive study. Female soccer athletes were recruited from a national level youth soccer club, an NCAA Division I university team, and a women's professional team. Two hundred twenty female soccer athletes with a mean age of 16.4 ± 4 years and BMI of 20.8 ± 2 kg/m(2) completed the study, representing all athletes from the included teams. One-time surveys completed by the athletes. Height and weight were recorded, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated for each athlete. Athletes reported age of menarche, history of missing 3 or more menses within a 12-month period and stress fracture. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was used to assess the athlete's body perception and attitudes toward eating. Of the 220 soccer athletes, 3 athletes (1.6%) had a low BMI for their age, and 19 (8.6%) reported stress fractures of the lower extremity. Among athletes who had reached menarche, the average onset was 13 + 1 year; menstrual dysfunction were present in 21 (19.3%). On the EAT-26, 1 player scored in the high risk range (>20) and 17 (7.7%) scored in the intermediate risk range (10-19) for eating disorders. Athletes with an EAT-26 score ≥ 10 points had a significantly higher prevalence of menstrual dysfunction in the past year compared to athletes with an EAT-26 score of less than 10 (P = .02). Elite female soccer athletes are susceptible to stress fractures and menstrual dysfunction and have delayed onset of menarche despite normal BMI and appropriate body perception and attitudes towards eating. Further studies are needed to better understand stress fracture risk in female soccer athletes and in other team sports to determine how these findings relate to long-term bone health in this population. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Stress fractures in athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschberger, R.; Henning, A.; Graff, K.H.

    1984-01-01

    The early exclusion of the presence of a stress fracture may be decisive for the success of an athlete. Scintigraphy with a bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical is suitable for the early detection of stress lesions. Of 30 athletes, fractures were demonstrated in 17 whereas in 6 they were excluded. We found most fractures in the tarsal bones such as os naviculare pedis, ossa cuneiformia and talus. The type of sport engaged in appears to be an important factor in determining the location of the fracture. Scintiphotos were taken in several views using region of interest techniques and two phase-scintigraphy. This method is considered to be useful for localization and follow-up of skeletal stress lesions as well as for differential diagnosis. (orig.) [de

  1. Stress fractures in athletes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirschberger, R; Henning, A; Graff, K H

    1984-12-01

    The early exclusion of the presence of a stress fracture may be decisive for the success of an athlete. Scintigraphy with a bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical is suitable for the early detection of stress lesions. Of 30 athletes, fractures were demonstrated in 17 whereas in 6 they were excluded. We found most fractures in the tarsal bones such as os naviculare pedis, ossa cuneiformia and talus. The type of sport engaged in appears to be an important factor in determining the location of the fracture. Scintiphotos were taken in several views using region of interest techniques and two phase-scintigraphy. This method is considered to be useful for localization and follow-up of skeletal stress lesions as well as for differential diagnosis.

  2. Epistaxis in the Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, H; Taunton, J E

    1988-12-01

    In brief: Epistaxis is common among nonathletes as well as athletes, but because athletes may be more likely to sustain nasal/facial trauma, they probably are more at risk for epistaxis than nonathletes. An epistaxis tray containing the proper equipment should be kept readily available to be used to stop bleeding that does not stop spontaneously. Supplies should include cotton pledgets, antibiotic ointment, a nasal suction tip, a suction source, a topical anesthetic/vasoconstrictor, and more. In some cases reduction of an associated nasal fracture may be required before bleeding will stop. The author outlines the local and systemic causes of epistaxis, the field and hospital treatment for anterior and posterior epistaxis, and the possible complications.

  3. Chronic lack of sleep is associated with increased sports injuries in adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewski, Matthew D; Skaggs, David L; Bishop, Gregory A; Pace, J Lee; Ibrahim, David A; Wren, Tishya A L; Barzdukas, Audrius

    2014-03-01

    Much attention has been given to the relationship between various training factors and athletic injuries, but no study has examined the impact of sleep deprivation on injury rates in young athletes. Information about sleep practices was gathered as part of a study designed to correlate various training practices with the risk of injury in adolescent athletes. Informed consent for participation in an online survey of training practices and a review of injury records was obtained from 160 student athletes at a combined middle/high school (grades 7 to 12) and from their parents. Online surveys were completed by 112 adolescent athletes (70% completion rate), including 54 male and 58 female athletes with a mean age of 15 years (SD=1.5; range, 12 to 18 y). The students' responses were then correlated with data obtained from a retrospective review of injury records maintained by the school's athletic department. Multivariate analysis showed that hours of sleep per night and the grade in school were the best independent predictors of injury. Athletes who slept on average Sleep deprivation and increasing grade in school appear to be associated with injuries in an adolescent athletic population. Encouraging young athletes to get optimal amounts of sleep may help protect them against athletic injuries. Level III.

  4. Publicizing female athletes' weights: implications for female psychology undergraduates acting as spectators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm-Denoma, Jill; Smith, April; Waesche, Matthew

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of including female athletes' weights in athletic event programs on female spectators' body image, eating disorder symptoms, self-esteem, and affective state and to investigate whether the magnitude of the athletes' reported weights had differential effects on female spectators (i.e., do female spectators who view heavier athletes respond differently than those who view less heavy athletes?). We used an experimental design to examine hypotheses derived from competing theories to determine whether exposure to female athletes of varying weight would adversely or beneficially impact female undergraduates (N = 152) who served as athletic event spectators. Analyses indicated that in this simulated study, female spectators' body image, eating disorder symptoms, self-esteem, and affective states were not impacted by the presence or by the magnitude of female athletes' weights in athletic event programs. The results imply that including athletes' weights in game-day programs at women's athletic events does not affect female spectators on an individual level.

  5. A Comparison between Learning Style Preferences, Gender, Sport and Achievement in Elite Team Sport Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Braakhuis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Athletes have preferences for the way in which they internalize and process information, whether that is visual, aural, by-doing (kinesthetic, reading or a mixture of preferences. Health professionals that interact with athletes rarely consider the individual learning style prior to any communication or education, despite mounting evidence for the benefits of learning-style tailored education. The aim of this study was to characterize athletes with regards to their preferred learning style. Athletes (n = 93 from 24 sports and various sport achievement levels completed a questionnaire, including the visual (V, auditory (A, reading/writing (R, kinesthetic (K/(VARK Questionnaire for Athletes. Questionnaire outcomes were analysed by X2 analysis on SPSS. The main findings were: (1 very few athletes have a visual learning-style preference; (2 there was a significant relationship between gender and VARK preference (X2 = 13.84, p = 0.003; (3 and between athletic status and VARK preference (X2 = 9.2, p = 0.025; (4 there was a trivial association between individual/ team sport athletes and assessed VARK preference (X2 = 3.95, p = 0.265. Our findings show significant variation in learning-style preference between males and females, and those of different athletic status. Health professionals should be aware of the inadequacy of visual information presentation when working with athletes. Furthermore, health professionals working with elite and female athletes should be comfortable using a mixture of learning styles (multi-modal.

  6. Subacute posteromedial impingement of the ankle in athletes: MR imaging evaluation and ultrasound guided therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messiou, Christina; Robinson, Philip; O'Connor, Philip J.; Grainger, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    To describe the use of MR imaging and efficacy of ultrasound-guided steroid injection in the diagnosis and management of athletes with clinical posteromedial impingement of the ankle. A retrospective analysis of imaging findings on MR was undertaken in nine elite athletes with clinical posteromedial ankle impingement. MR studies from six professional athletes with posterolateral pain were also reviewed as an imaging control group. The two reviewing radiologists were blinded to the clinical details and the proportion of control and study subjects. The nine study athletes also underwent diagnostic ultrasound and ultrasound-guided injection of steroid and anaesthetic into the posteromedial capsular abnormality. Follow-up was by telephone interview. Posteromedial capsular thickening was seen only in athletes with posteromedial impingement (7/9). Posteromedial synovitis was present in all athletes with posteromedial impingement; however, posterior and posterolateral synovitis was also seen in these athletes. Mild posteromedial synovitis was present in two control athletes. Ultrasound identified abnormal posteromedial soft tissue thickening deep to tibialis posterior between the medial malleolus and talus in all nine athletes. After injection all athletes returned to their previous level of sport, with eight of the nine not experiencing any residual or recurrent symptoms. If MR imaging excludes significant coexistent abnormality, ultrasound can localise posteromedial soft tissue abnormality and guide injection therapy, allowing return to athletic activity without surgical intervention. (orig.)

  7. YOUNG ATHLETES' MOTIVATIONAL PROFILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Moreno Murcia

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between motivational characteristics and dispositional flow. In order to accomplish this goal, motivational profiles emerging from key constructs within Achievement Goal Theory and Self-Determination Theory were related to the dispositional flow measures. A sample of 413 young athletes (Age range 12 to 16 years completed the PMCSQ-2, POSQ, SMS and DFS measures. Cluster analysis results revealed three profiles: a "self-determined profile" characterised by higher scores on the task-involving climate perception and on the task orientation; a "non-self-determined profile", characterised by higher scores on ego-involving climate perception and ego orientation; and a "low self-determined and low non-self-determined profile" which had the lowest dispositional flow. No meaningful differences were found between the "self-determined profile" and the "non-self-determined profile" in dispositional flow. The "self-determined profile" was more commonly associated with females, athletes practising individual sports and those training more than three days a week. The "non-self-determined profile" was more customary of males and athletes practising team sports as well as those training just two or three days a week

  8. Abnormal hip physical examination findings in asymptomatic female soccer athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Devyani; Rho, Monica; Yemm, Ted; Fong, Kathryn; Brophy, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Examination of the hip provides information regarding risk for pre-arthritic hip disorders, knee injuries, and low back pain. The purpose of this study was to report a hip screening examination of asymptomatic female soccer athletes and to test the hypothesis that these findings vary by competition experience. Methods Asymptomatic females from a youth soccer club, a college, and a professional team were evaluated. Passive hip range of motion, hip abduction strength, and hip provocative tests were assessed. Data were compared for the grade/middle school, high school, college, and professional athletes. Results One hundred and seventy-two athletes with a mean age of 16.7 ± 5 years (range 10–30) participated. Professional athletes had less flexion (HF) for both hips (p hips as compared to all other groups (p hip abduction strength as compared to other groups (p hip tests were found in 22 % of all players and 36 % of the professionals. In professionals, a positive provocative test was associated with ipsilateral decreased HF (p = 0.04). Conclusion Asymptomatic elite female soccer athletes with the most competition experience had less bilateral hip flexion and preferred kicking leg IR than less-experienced athletes. Positive provocative hip tests were found in 22 % of athletes. Future studies are needed to show whether these findings link to risk for intra-articular hip or lumbar spine and knee disorders. Level of evidence III. PMID:24150125

  9. Dietary supplement usage, motivation, and education in young, Canadian athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Kristin; Erdman, Kelly Anne; Stadnyk, Megan; Parnell, Jill A

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate dietary supplement use in young Canadian athletes, their motivation for consuming supplements, and their sources of information. A questionnaire tested for content validity and reliability was administered to 567 athletes between the ages of 11 and 25 years from the Canadian athletic community in face-to-face meetings. Demographics and sport variables were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Fisher's exact tests were used to examine dietary supplementation patterns and sources of information regarding dietary supplement use between categories of gender, age, sport type, and competition level. Ninety-eight percent of athletes were taking at least one dietary supplement. Males were more likely to consume protein powder, energy drinks, recovery drinks, branched chain amino acids, beta-alanine, and glutamine (p performance. Primary sources of information were family and friends, coaches, and athletic trainers; with 48% of athletes having met with a dietitian. Preferred means of education included individual consultations, presentations, and the internet. The majority of young athletes are using dietary supplements with the belief they will improve performance and health; however, may not always have reliable information. Educational programs using individual consultations and electronic media are recommended for this demographic.

  10. Pre-competition habits and injuries in Taekwondo athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Choung Young

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past decade, there has been heightened interest in injury rates sustained by martial arts athletes, and more specifically, Taekwondo athletes. Despite this interest, there is a paucity of research on pre-competition habits and training of these athletes. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess training characteristics, competition preparation habits, and injury profiles of Taekwondo athletes. Methods A retrospective survey of Canadian male and female Taekwondo athletes competing in a national tournament was conducted. Competitors at a Canadian national level tournament were given a comprehensive survey prior to competition. Items on training characteristics, diet, and injuries sustained during training and competition were included. Questionnaires were distributed to 60 athletes. Results A response rate of 46.7% was achieved. Of those that responded, 54% dieted prior to competition, and 36% dieted and exercised pre-competition. Sixty-four percent of the athletes practised between 4–6 times per week, with 54% practicing 2 hours per session. Lower limb injuries were the most common (46.5%, followed by upper extremity (18%, back (10%, and head (3.6%. The majority of injuries consisted of sprains/strains (45%, followed by contusions, fractures, and concussions. More injuries occurred during training, including 59% of first injuries. Conclusion More research needs to be conducted to further illustrate the need for appropriate regulations on weight cycling and injury prevention.

  11. Pre-competition habits and injuries in Taekwondo athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Mohsen; Shearer, Heather; Su Choung, Young

    2005-01-01

    Background Over the past decade, there has been heightened interest in injury rates sustained by martial arts athletes, and more specifically, Taekwondo athletes. Despite this interest, there is a paucity of research on pre-competition habits and training of these athletes. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess training characteristics, competition preparation habits, and injury profiles of Taekwondo athletes. Methods A retrospective survey of Canadian male and female Taekwondo athletes competing in a national tournament was conducted. Competitors at a Canadian national level tournament were given a comprehensive survey prior to competition. Items on training characteristics, diet, and injuries sustained during training and competition were included. Questionnaires were distributed to 60 athletes. Results A response rate of 46.7% was achieved. Of those that responded, 54% dieted prior to competition, and 36% dieted and exercised pre-competition. Sixty-four percent of the athletes practised between 4–6 times per week, with 54% practicing 2 hours per session. Lower limb injuries were the most common (46.5%), followed by upper extremity (18%), back (10%), and head (3.6%). The majority of injuries consisted of sprains/strains (45%), followed by contusions, fractures, and concussions. More injuries occurred during training, including 59% of first injuries. Conclusion More research needs to be conducted to further illustrate the need for appropriate regulations on weight cycling and injury prevention. PMID:15921510

  12. High-intensity interval training and athletic performance in Taekwondo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monks, Lynne; Seo, Myong-Won; Kim, Hyun-Bae; Jung, Hyun C; Song, Jong K

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on athletic performance in Taekwondo athletes. Thirty-three male and female collegiate Taekwondo athletes were randomly divided into a HIIT group (N.=16) or a high-intensity continuous running (HICR) group (N.=17). The HIIT group undertook training of high-intensity sprints interspersed with active rest periods whilst the HICR group participated in high-intensity running for a continuous period. Both groups completed 11 sessions over 4 weeks. Physique, body composition, Wingate anaerobic test and VO2max test were measured. The vertical jump test, agility T-test and sit-ups were used to assess physical fitness. Repeated measures ANCOVAs with sex as a covariate were applied and significant level was set at 0.05. Following 11 sessions of training, significant improvements in anaerobic peak power (Ptraining, specifically the influence of training intensity on anaerobic capacity.

  13. Managing respiratory problems in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, James H; Ansley, Les; Robson-Ansley, Paula; Parsons, Jonathan P

    2012-08-01

    Respiratory problems are common in athletes of all abilities and can significantly impact upon their health and performance. In this article, we provide an overview of respiratory physiology in athletes. We also discuss the assessment and management of common clinical respiratory conditions as they pertain to athletes, including airways disease, respiratory tract infection and pneumothorax. We focus on providing a pragmatic approach and highlight important caveats for the physician treating respiratory conditions in this highly specific population.

  14. [Athletic pubalgia and hip impingement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthaudin, A; Schindler, M; Ziltener, J-L; Menetrey, J

    2014-07-16

    Athletic pubalgia is a painful and complex syndrom encountered by athletes involved in pivoting and cutting sports such as hockey and soccer. To date, there is no real consensus on the criteria for a reliable diagnostic, the different investigations, and the appropriate therapy. Current literature underlines intrinsic and extrinsic factors contributing to athletic pubalgia. This review article reports upon two novelties related to the issue: the importance and efficience of prevention program and the association of femoro-acetabular impingement with the pubalgia.

  15. Exercise Addiction in Athletes and Leisure Exercisers: The Moderating Role of Passion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Vega, Ricardo; Parastatidou, Irini S; Ruíz-Barquín, Roberto; Szabo, Attila

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims Recently, empirical research has linked obsessive passion to the etiology of exercise addiction, and the conceptual reason behind the fact that the latter is more prevalent in athletes than leisure exercisers has been challenged. The aim of this study was to determine the link between exercise addiction and harmonious passion, obsessive passion, and dedication to sports, in the context of athletic levels. Method A sample comprised of low- and high-level competitive athletes and non-competitive leisure exercisers (n = 313) was examined, in a cross-sectional design, in which participants completed the Spanish validated versions of the Exercise Addiction Inventory (Sicilia, Alías-García, Ferriz, & Moreno-Murcia, 2013) and Passion Scale (Chamarro et al., 2015). Results Obsessive passion and dedication to sports emerged as strong predictors of exercise addiction. Competitive athletes scored higher than leisure exercisers on all measures. Athletes competing at low and high levels only differed in dedication to their sports from each other. Team-sports athletes reported greater harmonious and obsessive passions, and dedication to sports, but not different exercise addictions, than people taking part in individual sports. Conclusions The concept of exercise addiction is not a plain and independent construct and may not reflect a psychological dysfunction in the athletic population. Athletes could interpret exercise addiction screening-items differently from non-athletes. Athletes in team sports report greater passion and dedication than those practicing individual sports.

  16. Sports Nutrition Knowledge among Mid-Major Division I University Student-Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Andrews

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Competitive athletes have goals to optimize performance and to maintain healthy body composition. Sports nutrition is a component of training programs often overlooked by student-athletes and their coaches. The purpose of this study was to examine student-athletes’ sports nutrition knowledge across sex, class level, team, and completion of prior nutrition coursework. Participants included 123 mid-major Division I university student-athletes (47 females and 76 males from baseball, softball, men’s soccer, track and field, and tennis. The student-athletes completed a survey questionnaire to determine adequate sports nutrition knowledge (mean ≥ 75%. The overall mean sports nutrition knowledge score for the student-athletes was 56.9% which was considered inadequate sports nutrition knowledge (mean < 75%. Only 12 student-athletes achieved adequate sports nutrition knowledge score of 75% or higher. There were no differences by sex, class level, team, and completion of prior nutrition coursework. Student-athletes’ inadequate sports nutrition knowledge may place them at nutrition risk, lead to impaired performance, and affect their lean body mass and energy levels. Athletics personnel should not assume student-athletes have adequate sports nutrition knowledge. Athletic departments may make available a board certified Sports Dietitian or Registered Dietitian and offer classroom or online courses facilitating student-athletes to optimize nutrition knowledge and behaviors.

  17. Elite athletes and pubertal delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapczuk, Karina

    2017-10-01

    Intensive physical training and participation in competitive sports during childhood and early adolescence may affect athletes' pubertal development. On the other hand, pubertal timing, early or late, may impact on an athlete selection for a particular sport. Genetic predisposition, training load, nutritional status and psychological stress determine athletes' pubertal timing. Athletes that practice esthetic sports, especially gymnasts, are predisposed to a delay in pubertal development. The growing evidence indicates that energy deficiency, not a systemic training per se, plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of functional hypothalamic hypogonadism in female athletes. Metabolic and psychologic stress activate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and suppress hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Female athletes who do not begin secondary sexual development by the age of 14 or menstruation by the age of 16 warrant a comprehensive evaluation and a targeted treatment. Somatic growth and sexual maturation of elite female athletes are largely sport-specific since each sport favors a particular somatotype and requires a specific training. Chronic negative energy balance resulting from a systemic physical training and inadequate energy intake may delay pubertal development in elite athletes. Youth athletes, especially those engaged in competitive sports that emphasize prepubertal or lean appearance, are at risk of developing relative energy deficiency in sport associated with disordered eating or eating disorders. Management strategies should address the complex conditions underlying functional hypothalamic hypogonadism.

  18. Athletic Training Clinical Instructors as Situational Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Linda Platt

    2002-12-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present Situational Leadership as a model that can be implemented by clinical instructors during clinical education. Effective leadership occurs when the leadership style is matched with the observed followers' characteristics. Effective leaders anticipate and assess change and adapt quickly and grow with the change, all while leading followers to do the same. As athletic training students' levels of readiness change, clinical instructors also need to transform their leadership styles and strategies to match the students' ever-changing observed needs in different situations. DATA SOURCES: CINAHL (1982-2002), MEDLINE (1990-2001), SPORT Discus (1949-2002), ERIC (1966-2002), and Internet Web sites were searched. Search terms included leadership, situational leadership, clinical instructors and leadership, teachers as leaders, and clinical education. DATA SYNTHESIS: Situational Leadership is presented as a leadership model to be used by clinical instructors while teaching and supervising athletic training students in the clinical setting. This model can be implemented to improve the clinical-education process. Situational leaders, eg, clinical instructors, must have the flexibility and range of skills to vary their leadership styles to match the challenges that occur while teaching athletic training students. CONCLUSIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS: This leadership style causes the leader to carry a substantial responsibility to lead while giving power away. Communication is one of the most important leadership skills to develop to become an effective leader. It is imperative for the future of the profession that certified athletic trainers continue to develop effective leadership skills to address the changing times in education and expectations of the athletic training profession.

  19. Spatial Ability Differences in Athletes and Non-Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Cynthia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cognitive processes, specifically spatial abilities, are responsible for integration of daily activities. Many factors contribute to the plasticity of the brain which, furthermore, alter the spatial ability. Physical activity, which can be further grouped into sport and exercise, is a modifiable factor that enhances the cognitive processes through a divergent mechanism. This study aimed to gain further understanding on whether sport differs from exercise in altering spatial ability in athletes and non-athletes. Methods: This observational study compared the spatial ability score of athletes of Indonesia National Sport Comitte (Komite Olahraga Nasional Indonesia, KONI in West Java (n= 21 and non-athletes (n= 21. Sampling were performed using stratified random technique and data were collected between August and October 2015 which included spatial scores and demographic of subjects. Results: The difference in spatial scores between athletes and non-athletes were not significant (p=0.432. Conclusions: This study suggests an insignificant difference in spatial ability in athletes performing sport and non-athletes performing exercise. Hence, the cognitive component skills in sport experience do not alter the spatial ability.

  20. Quality of Life in Professional, Semiprofessional, and Amateur Athletes

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    Ana Lúcia Padrão dos Santos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the Ferrans and Powers Quality of Life Index (QLI and its domains in Brazilian athletes. The sample comprised 219 athletes from six sports, and included 127 men and 92 women, with mean age of 23.1 years (±5.2. All participants were associated with a sports organization and participated in official competitions at the professional, semiprofessional, and amateur levels, and completed a self-report demographics survey and the QLI during one testing session. Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney U tests were utilized to compare differences between competitive levels and gender, respectively. Significant differences were reported between professional and amateur athletes for the socioeconomic (p = .016; professional: 17.2, amateur: 15.1 and psychological/spiritual (p = .011; professional: 24.3, amateur: 21.9 domains and between genders on the family domain (p = .027; male: 21.8, female: 20.2. These findings suggest that professional athletes are more satisfied from a socioeconomic and psychological/spiritual perspective when compared with the amateur group. In addition, the results suggest that family issues are more satisfying and/or have less importance for males than for females. This study provides further insights into the quality of life of athletes and suggests differences based on competition levels and gender. Future studies are needed to further our understanding of the quality of life in athletes.

  1. A comparison of well-peer mentored and non-peer mentored athletes' perceptions of satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Matt D; Loughead, Todd M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare well-peer mentored and non-peer mentored athletes' perceptions of satisfaction. A total of 444 intercollegiate athletes (272 well-peer mentored and 172 non-peer mentored) from a variety of sport teams participated in the study. Athletes from both well-peer mentored and non-peer mentored groups reported their satisfaction levels using the Athlete Satisfaction Questionnaire. The results of a MANOVA and follow-up post hoc ANOVAs showed that well-peer mentored athletes were significantly more satisfied than their non-peer mentored counterparts in terms of individual performance, personal dedication, team task contribution, team social contribution, team integration, ethics, ability utilisation and training and instruction. Overall, the findings suggest that athletes who are well-peer mentored by a teammate perceive higher satisfaction levels with various aspects of their athletic experience than athletes who are not peer mentored by a teammate. Given these positive findings, practitioners (i.e., coaches, sport psychology consultants) should inform athletes on the benefits of peer-to-peer mentoring. The practical implications of the results and strategies to promote peer athlete mentoring relationships in sport are highlighted.

  2. Muscular effects of vitamin D in young athletes and non-athletes and in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koundourakis, Nikolaos E; Avgoustinaki, Pavlina D; Malliaraki, Niki; Margioris, Andrew N

    2016-10-01

    Muscles are major targets of vitamin D. Exposure of skeletal muscles to vitamin D induces the expression of multiple myogenic transcription factors enhancing muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. At the same time vitamin D suppresses the expression of myostatin, a negative regulator of muscle mass. Moreover, vitamin D increases the number of type II or fast twitch muscle cells and in particular that of type IIA cells, while its deficiency causes type IIA cell atrophy. Furthermore, vitamin D supplementation in young males with low vitamin D levels increases the percentage of type IIA fibers in muscles, causing an increase in muscular high power output. Vitamin D levels are strongly associated with exercise performance in athletes and physically active individuals. In the elderly and in adults below the age of 65, several studies have established a close association between vitamin D levels and neuromuscular coordination. The aim of this review is to appraise our current understanding of the significance of vitamin D on muscular performance in both older and frail individuals as well as in younger adults, athletes or non-athletes with regard to both ordinary everyday musculoskeletal tasks and peak athletic performance.

  3. Treatment of athletes with symptomatic intra-articular hip pathology and athletic pubalgia/sports hernia: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Christopher M; Pierce, Bradley R; Giveans, M Russell

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the results of surgical treatment in athletes with associated intra-articular hip pathology and extra-articular sports pubalgia. Between December 2003 and September 2009, 37 hips (mean patient age, 25 years) were diagnosed with both symptomatic athletic pubalgia and symptomatic intra-articular hip joint pathology. There were 8 professional athletes, 15 collegiate athletes, 5 elite high school athletes, and 9 competitive club athletes. Outcomes included an evaluation regarding return to sports and modified Harris Hip Score, Short Form 12 score, and visual analog scale score. We evaluated 37 hips at a mean of 29 months (range, 12 to 78 months) after the index surgery. Thirty-one hips underwent thirty-five athletic pubalgia surgeries. Hip arthroscopy was performed in 32 hips (30 cases of femoroacetabular impingement treatment, 1 traumatic labral tear, and 1 borderline dysplasia). Of 16 hips that had athletic pubalgia surgery as the index procedure, 4 (25%) returned to sports without limitations, and 11 (69%) subsequently had hip arthroscopy at a mean of 20 months after pubalgia surgery. Of 8 hips managed initially with hip arthroscopy alone, 4 (50%) returned to sports without limitations, and 3 (43%) had subsequent pubalgia surgery at a mean of 6 months after hip arthroscopy. Thirteen hips had athletic pubalgia surgery and hip arthroscopy at one setting. Concurrent or eventual surgical treatment of both disorders led to improved postoperative outcomes scores (P pubalgia or intra-articular hip pathology in this patient population, outcomes were suboptimal. Surgical management of both disorders concurrently or in a staged manner led to improved postoperative outcomes scoring and an unrestricted return to sporting activity in 89% of hips. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2011 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The rodeo athlete: sport science: part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Michael C; Laurent, C Matthew

    2010-05-01

    Based on the tradition, history and lore of the American West, as well as the individualistic nature and lifestyle of the sport of rodeo, the rodeo athlete has achieved iconic status in sport, literature, art and entertainment. For over half a century, rodeo has become a staple of organized sport programmes in high schools, universities and international competitions. The origins of rodeo grew from ranch work dating back to the Spanish vaqueros in the 1700s. The sport was officially organized in 1929 and, by the 1930s, championships were determined and the sport of rodeo surpassed baseball and auto racing in spectator attendance. Since then, sponsorship has grown, resulting in extensive worldwide popularity through major media outlets. Despite growing popularity, few investigations exist regarding the scientific aspects of the sport. Rodeo competition is an activity that is basically intermittent in nature, with short periods of highly intense activity. When considering that experience and, thus, improvement in rodeo is achieved solely through constant and punishing practices involving actual and repetitive, human versus livestock competition, the practices closely imitate a sport-specific form of interval training. Studies, which address the anthropometric and performance characteristics of rodeo competitors, reveal that they are comparable to athletes in more traditional sports. The psychological constructs conducive to performance in rodeo have been varied and limited, with most research efforts focused on personality characteristics, sensation seeking and competitive anxiety. Nevertheless, when evaluated relative to higher levels of traditional sport performance, rodeo participants closely resemble their mainstream counterparts. Although efforts to quantify this non-traditional sport are still in the initial stages, information concerning what the optimal fitness level of rodeo athletes should be for maximal performance levels, in a basically anaerobic sport

  5. Coping with the Trauma of Professional Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Dovzhik L. M.; Nartova-Bochaver S.K.

    2015-01-01

    The investigation considers sports injuries as a psychological phenomenon, reveals the personality traits of athletes in terms of their vulnerability and resource to overcome injuries. Authors suggest the specificity of athletes’ coping strategies composition, as well as differences in their emotional state depending on the psychological well-being level. We consider gender-specific study links. In the survey, 124 participants were interviewed (M age = 22.1, SD age = 4; 80 male, 44 female). ...

  6. Rehabilitation Strategies for the Athletic Individual with Early Knee Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayabalan, Prakash; Ihm, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a major cause of disability in the United States. The condition has most commonly been associated with elderly sedentary individuals; however, it also can affect those who participate in regular athletic activities. The diagnosis and management of these individuals can be challenging because of both their higher level of physical activity and their overall athletic goals. Treatment requires an appropriate exercise regimen, rehabilitation program, and education of both the athlete and the coach. The focus of our article is to provide an up-to-date overview of the evaluation and management of the athletic individual who presents with symptomatic early knee OA, in particular, the nonsurgical rehabilitation treatment options available to the practitioner and the evidence to support these recommendations.

  7. Intercollegiate Athletics and Modeling Multiculturalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirko, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Research about student athletes contends that participation enhances both learning and character development, including leadership, interpersonal skills, social self-esteem, discipline, personal health, motivation, dedication, and life lessons. Other research expresses concern about the cognitive outcomes of student athletes relative to…

  8. Injury prevalence in young athletes

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    Ariadne Maria dos Santos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The injuries in young athletes are becoming more frequent, due to the wade dissemination of sports and the excessive training aimed at high performance. The requirements in sports can lead to the development of pathologies and injuries that could be prevented if the young athlete's training was well oriented. We emphasize the importance of professional and competition calendar planning always seeking the recovery of the athlete. It’s also important to have knowledge of injuries, training load, the previous history of the athlete, and correction of improper movement technique.Objective: To identify the most common injuries in young athletes of different sports. Material and Methods: The study included 36 athletes, aged 12-17 years, of both sexes, the Athletics rules, futsal, swimming and volleyball. An interview that contained information about age, practice time and sport was initially applied. Then two questionnaires were applied, the first consisting of a pain distribution table by body region and the second by a pain scale and this interference in daily activities. Results:Obtained results as mean age 13.86 years. Among the participants, 66.7% reported practicing sports or other physical activities, 55.6% reported that they have suffered injury in some cases with recurrence and 50% who have had any treatment for pain.Conclusion: Based on the results we conclude the importance of knowledge about sports injury prevention strategies in young athletes as a way to ensure longevity in the sport.

  9. Athletics Reform and Faculty Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Janet; Ott, Molly; Hendricks, Lori

    2009-01-01

    Since their inception, intercollegiate athletics have engendered controversy and stimulated debate. Supporters assert that "college sports are significant in defining the essence of the American college and university", suggesting that benefits associated with athletics include more increased fundraising, positive public perceptions of graduates,…

  10. Stress Biomarkers, Mood States, and Sleep during a Major Competition: “Success” and “Failure” Athlete's Profile of High-Level Swimmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chennaoui, Mounir; Bougard, Clément; Drogou, Catherine; Langrume, Christophe; Miller, Christian; Gomez-Merino, Danielle; Vergnoux, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate stress markers, mood states, and sleep indicators in high-level swimmers during a major 7-days competition according to the outcomes. Nine swimmers [six men and three women (age: 22 ± 2 and 22 ± 4 years, respectively)] were examined. Before (PRE) and after (POST) each race (series, semi-finals, and finals), salivary concentrations of cortisol, α-amylase (sAA), and chromogranin-A (CgA) were determined. Mood states were assessed by the profile of mood state (POMS) questionnaire completed before and after the 7-days, and self-reported sleep diaries were completed daily. In the “failure” group, cortisol and sAA significantly increased between PRE-POST measurements (p failure group.” In this group, fatigue, confusion and depression scores, and sleep duration before the finals increased. The results in the “success” group show tendencies for increased cortisol and sCgA concentrations in response to competition, while sAA was not changed. Cortisol levels before the semi-finals and finals and sCgA levels before the finals were positively correlated to the fatigue score in the “failure” group only (r = 0.89). sAA levels before and after the semi-finals were negatively correlated to sleep duration measured in the subsequent night (r = −0.90). In conclusion, the stress of the competition could trigger a negative mood profile and sleep disturbance which correspond to different responses of biomarkers related to the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity, cortisol, sAA, and CgA. PMID:27014092

  11. Coping with the Trauma of Professional Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dovzhik L. M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The investigation considers sports injuries as a psychological phenomenon, reveals the personality traits of athletes in terms of their vulnerability and resource to overcome injuries. Authors suggest the specificity of athletes’ coping strategies composition, as well as differences in their emotional state depending on the psychological well-being level. We consider gender-specific study links. In the survey, 124 participants were interviewed (M age = 22.1, SD age = 4; 80 male, 44 female. Authors has found significant differences in the ways of overcoming ordinary and sports stress among athletes having high or low level of well-being, gender-specific coping with the situation of injury have been shown. In the male group, athletes with high level of well-being use Problem-solving strategies, as well as Sport coping skills significantly more often. In the female group, in addition to coping peculiar to men, there is an appeal to Goal Setting and Mental Preparation, besides that they use Coach ability coping strategy. The study also identified coping strategies that contributed to the experience of well-being. Authors propose the practical aspects and perspectives of research.

  12. Motivation towards dual career of European student-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Corrado; Guidotti, Flavia; Goncalves, Carlos E; Moreira, Liliana; Doupona Topic, Mojca; Bellardini, Helena; Tonkonogi, Michail; Colin, Allen; Capranica, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate motivations for the dual career of European student-athletes living in countries providing different educational services for elite athletes: State-centric regulation-State as sponsor/facilitator (State), National Sporting Federations/Institutes as intermediary (Federation) and Laisser Faire, no formal structures (No Structure). Therefore, the European Student-athletes' Motivation towards Sports and Academics Questionnaire (SAMSAQ-EU) was administered to 524 European student-athletes. Exploratory Factor Analysis, and Confirmatory Factor Analysis were applied to test the factor structure, and the reliability and validity of the SAMSAQ-EU, respectively. A multivariate approach was applied to verify subgroup effects (P ≤ 0.05) according to gender (i.e., female and male), age (i.e., ≤ 24 years, > 24 years), type of sport (i.e., individual sport and team sport) and competition level (i.e., national and international). Insufficient confirmatory indexes were reported for the whole European student-athlete group, whereas distinct three factor models [i.e., Student Athletic Motivation (SAM); Academic Motivation (AM); Career Athletic Motivation (CAM)] emerged, with acceptable reliability estimates, for State (SAM = 0.82; AM = 0.75; and CAM = 0.75), Federation (SAM = 0.82; AM = 0.66; and CAM = 0.87) and No Structure (SAM = 0.78; AM = 0.74; and CAM = 0.79) subgroups. Differences between subgroups were found only for competition level (P student-athletes' motivation for dual career has to be specifically investigated according to social contexts.

  13. Social Connectedness, Self-Esteem, and Depression Symptomatology among Collegiate Athletes versus Nonathletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Shelley; Oomen-Early, Jody

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors compared collegiate athletes and nonathletes to see whether there were significant differences in the perceived levels of social connectedness, self-esteem, and depression and if an interaction among the variables of athlete status, gender, GPA, BMI, and levels of weekly exercise and sleep were associated with depression…

  14. Coaches' Immediacy Behaviors as Predictors of Athletes' Perceptions of Satisfaction and Team Cohesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turman, Paul D.

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether coaches' immediacy behaviors serve as predictors of athletes' satisfaction and team cohesion levels. Participants included 307 male and female high school athletes who completed measures assessing perceptions of their coaches' verbal and nonverbal immediacy behaviors, as well as their own levels of…

  15. Alcohol-Related Consequences among Intercollegiate Student Athletes: The Role of Drinking Motives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumas, Diana M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined drinking motives as predictors of alcohol-related consequences among student athletes and nonathletes. Results indicated that the highest level of alcohol-related consequences was reported by student athletes with high levels of both coping and conformity motives. (Contains 2 tables and 2 figures.)

  16. The Effect of Sport Specialization on Lower Extremity Injury Rates in High School Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    McGuine, Timothy A.; Bell, David; Brooks, Margaret Alison; Hetzel, Scott; Pfaller, Adam; Post, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Sport specialization has been shown to be associated with increased risk of musculoskeletal lower extremity injuries (LEI) in adolescent athletes presenting in clinical settings. However, the association of sport specialization and incidence of LEI has not been studied prospectively in a large population of adolescent athletes. The objective of this study was to compare the incidence of LEI in high school athletes identified as having low (LOW), moderate (MOD) or high (HIGH) level...

  17. Leptin: A Link Between Energy Imbalance and Exercise-Induced Amenorrhea in Female Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Miles, Marie

    2001-01-01

    Up to a quarter of female athletes may experience exercise-induced amenorrhea, depending on the type of sport and the level of competition. This amenorrhea is a component of the Female Athlete Triad, a term used to describe three interrelated conditions commonly seen together in the elite female athlete: chronic dieting and/or disordered eating, amenorrhea, and decreased bone mass. Leptin, a hormone secreted by adipose tissue and believed to play a central role in eating behaviors and energy ...

  18. Importance of Vitamin D in Athletes and Exercise; A mini review

    OpenAIRE

    Alexis Kafkalias Marios Stavrou

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin D has an important role in the function of the cardiovascular, immune, and musculoskeletal systems. Regarding to this role there is a potential for vitamin D to affect the physical and athletic performance. To consider whether vitamin D is related to exercise, physical and athletic performance. We have examined a large number of literature related to the effect of vitamin D on exercise, physical and athletic performance. In elderly people with insufficient vitamin D levels, vitamin D ...

  19. Athlete endorsements in food marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Marie A; Yanamadala, Swati; Roberto, Christina A; Harris, Jennifer L; Brownell, Kelly D

    2013-11-01

    This study quantified professional athletes' endorsement of food and beverages, evaluated the nutritional quality of endorsed products, and determined the number of television commercial exposures of athlete-endorsement commercials for children, adolescents, and adults. One hundred professional athletes were selected on the basis of Bloomberg Businessweek's 2010 Power 100 rankings, which ranks athletes according to their endorsement value and prominence in their sport. Endorsement information was gathered from the Power 100 list and the advertisement database AdScope. Endorsements were sorted into 11 endorsement categories (eg, food/beverages, sports apparel). The nutritional quality of the foods featured in athlete-endorsement advertisements was assessed by using a Nutrient Profiling Index, whereas beverages were evaluated on the basis of the percentage of calories from added sugar. Marketing data were collected from AdScope and Nielsen. Of 512 brands endorsed by 100 different athletes, sporting goods/apparel represented the largest category (28.3%), followed by food/beverages (23.8%) and consumer goods (10.9%). Professional athletes in this sample were associated with 44 different food or beverage brands during 2010. Seventy-nine percent of the 62 food products in athlete-endorsed advertisements were energy-dense and nutrient-poor, and 93.4% of the 46 advertised beverages had 100% of calories from added sugar. Peyton Manning (professional American football player) and LeBron James (professional basketball player) had the most endorsements for energy-dense, nutrient-poor products. Adolescents saw the most television commercials that featured athlete endorsements of food. Youth are exposed to professional athlete endorsements of food products that are energy-dense and nutrient-poor.

  20. Cardiac pre-competiton screening in Swiss athletes. Current situation in competitive athletes and short-time assessment of an exemplary local screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmied, Christian; Notz, Sara; Cribari, Marco; Gähwiler, Roman; Keller, Dagmar I; Lüscher, Thomas F

    2012-05-31

    In Switzerland, screening concepts for the prevention of sports-associated sudden cardiac death are still insufficiently established in the large group of competitive athletes who are not integrated in an Olympic- or other high-level squad. The aim of the present study was to objectively determine the current situation in this particular group of athletes concerning cardiac pre-competition screening and define specific features of an "ideal" Swiss screening concept. Based on these data, the feasibility and validity was tested by the implementation of an exemplary local screening programme. A standardised questionnaire was completed by 1,047 competitive athletes of different ages and gender. The individual, sports-specific profile of an athlete and furthermore, the personal attitude towards and the vision of a "perfect" cardiac screening were assessed. Based on the results, an exemplary local screening programme for competitive athletes was implemented at the "Academic Sports Association Zurich" (ASVZ) in Zurich, Switzerland and evaluated 1 year after its introduction. Only 9% of the 1,047 interviewed competitive athletes (aged 13 to 64 years; median age 22 years, SD = 5.87) had previously undergone a cardiac screening. Only 47% of the interviewed competitive athletes expressed their interest to undergo a cardiac screening at all. Male and older athletes showed a significantly higher acceptance rate for the screening programme than women and younger athletes. All athletes accepted to bear the expenses for the baseline screening programme, adapted to international standards (minimal accepted fee of 60 Swiss Francs). Almost half of the athletes (49.2%) preferred easy accessibility to a sports cardiologist (max. distance of 10 kilometres). The exemplary local screening programme proved to be feasible and successful. However, only 30% of the 102 screened individuals were female and most of the athletes (80%) who made use of the screening had a specific concern or

  1. Perceptions of Coach-Athlete Relationship Are More Important to Coaches than Athletes in Predicting Dyadic Coping and Stress Appraisals: An Actor-Partner Independence Mediation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Adam R; Perry, John L

    2016-01-01

    Most attempts to manage stress involve at least one other person, yet coping studies in sport tend to report an athlete's individual coping strategies. There is a limited understanding of coping involving other people, particularly within sport, despite athletes potentially spending a lot of time with other people, such as their coach. Guided by the systemic-transactional model of stress and coping among couples (Bodenmann, 1995), from relationship psychology, we assessed dyadic coping, perceptions of relationship quality, and primary stress appraisals of challenge and threat among 158 coach-athlete dyads (n = 277 participants). The athletes competed at amateur (n = 123), semi-professional (n = 31), or professional levels (n = 4). Coaches and athletes from the same dyad completed a measure of dyadic coping, coach-athlete relationship, and stress appraisals. We tested an Actor-Partner Interdependence Mediation Model to account for the non-independence of dyadic data. These actor-partner analyses revealed differences between athletes and coaches. Although the actor effects were relatively large compared to partner effects, perceptions of relationship quality demonstrated little impact on athletes. The mediating role of relationship quality was broadly as important as dyadic coping for coaches. These findings provide an insight in to how coach-athlete dyads interact to manage stress and indicate that relationship quality is of particular importance for coaches, but less important for athletes. In order to improve perceptions of relationship quality among coaches and athletes, interventions could be developed to foster positive dyadic coping among both coaches and athletes, which may also impact upon stress appraisals of challenge and threat.

  2. The Impact of Aerobic and Anaerobic Exercises on the Level of Depression, Anxiety, Stress and Happiness of Non-Athlete Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toktam Kianian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives Exercises bring about health. Therefore, knowing what kind of exercise is more effective in individuals’ spirituals health indices is important. Thus, the present study aims at comparing the impact of aerobic and anaerobic exercises on the level of depression, anxiety, stress, and happiness of nonathletic male students. Methods In this clinical trial study, sample included the nonathletic male students of Zahedan Azad University in 2014. 90 students were selected through convenience sampling and they were divided randomly into two experimental groups (aerobic and anaerobic and one control group. The aerobic group must do aerobic exercises and the anaerobic group must do anaerobic exercises for a period of 10 weeks (3 sessions a week, each lasted for 60 minutes. The data were collected using DASS-21 questionnaire for measuring the level of depression, anxiety and stress, and Oxford OHI questionnaire for measuring the amount of happiness before and after the intervention. The results were analyzed using statistical tests of MANCOVA in SPSS-13. Results The results showed that in both aerobic and anaerobic groups the mean score of depression, anxiety, stress and happiness improved after treatment. However, the improve in the mean score of anxiety, stress and happiness was more apparent in the anaerobic group. The results also showed that only stress and happiness resulted in a significant difference in different groups. Conclusions Both aerobic and anaerobic exercises result in reduction of stress and Anxiety. So it seems necessary to include such exercises in students’ daily schedule.

  3. Effect of competition program "Acrobatics" category "B-Class" at the level of technical preparedness of athletes in acrobatic rock and roll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petro Kyzim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to define the level of technique of execution of acrobatic competition program «Acrobatics» elements a category «В-class» in acrobatic rock-and-roll. Material and Methods: the followings methods of research were used: theoretical analysis and generalization of information of the special scientific-methodical literature; photography, videosurvey, computer analysis, pedagogical supervision. The competition programs are analysed from 1 to a 6 place on World Cup of 2014 and 2015. Results: on the basis of evaluation scale of implementation of acrobatic directory of WRRC (version 2 entries, the evaluation results of technique of implementation of acrobatic competition program «Acrobatic» elements are got separately every sporting pair of skilled sportsmen of category of «В-сlass» of the World Cup final in Krakov 2014 (6 pair and World Cup final in Krakov 2015 (6 pair. Certainly dynamics of evaluation results of technique of execution of acrobatic competition program «Acrobatic» elements separately every sporting pair of skilled sportsmen of category of «В-сlass» in the World Cup final in Krakov 2015. Conclusions: including of acrobatic elements of enhanceable complication and combinations from two acrobatic elements and two rotations allowed substantially to promote the level of technical preparedness of participants of the World Cup final 2015 years

  4. Mortality in former Olympic athletes: retrospective cohort analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwiers, R; Zantvoord, F W A; van Bodegom, D; van der Ouderaa, F J G; Westendorp, R G J

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the mortality risk in subsequent years (adjusted for year of birth, nationality, and sex) of former Olympic athletes from disciplines with different levels of exercise intensity. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Former Olympic athletes. Participants 9889 athletes (with a known age at death) who participated in the Olympic Games between 1896 and 1936, representing 43 types of disciplines with different levels of cardiovascular, static, and dynamic intensity exercise; high or low risk of bodily collision; and different levels of physical contact. Main outcome measure All cause mortality. Results Hazard ratios for mortality among athletes from disciplines with moderate cardiovascular intensity (1.01, 95% confidence interval 0.96 to 1.07) or high cardiovascular intensity (0.98, 0.92 to 1.04) were similar to those in athletes from disciplines with low cardiovascular intensity. The underlying static and dynamic components in exercise intensity showed similar non-significant results. Increased mortality was seen among athletes from disciplines with a high risk of bodily collision (hazard ratio 1.11, 1.06 to 1.15) and with high levels of physical contact (1.16, 1.11 to 1.22). In a multivariate analysis, the effect of high cardiovascular intensity remained similar (hazard ratio 1.05, 0.89 to 1.25); the increased mortality associated with high physical contact persisted (hazard ratio 1.13, 1.06 to 1.21), but that for bodily collision became non-significant (1.03, 0.98 to 1.09) as a consequence of its close relation with physical contact. Conclusions Among former Olympic athletes, engagement in disciplines with high intensity exercise did not bring a survival benefit compared with disciplines with low intensity exercise. Those who engaged in disciplines with high levels of physical contact had higher mortality than other Olympians later in life. PMID:23241269

  5. Rhabdomyolysis in adolescent athletes: review of cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Kevin; Gregory, Andrew; Desai, Neerav; Diamond, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is a syndrome characterized by muscle pain, weakness and myoglobinuria and ranges in severity from asymptomatic to life threatening with acute kidney failure. While a common condition in adult populations, it is understudied in pediatrics and the majority of adolescent cases are likely exercise-induced, caused by strenuous exercise in athletes. Recently, in our pediatric sports medicine practice, we have seen numerous cases of late adolescent high school athletes who present with severe muscle pain and were found to have elevated creatine kinase levels. The cases review potential contributing factors including characteristics of the workout, use of supplements, caffeine, medication, and metabolic or genetic predisposition. Treatment for exercised-induced rhabdomyolysis rarely requires more than rehydration. Return to play should be progressive, individualized, and include acclimatization and monitoring of hydration status, though guidelines require further review.

  6. Athlete's Heart and Left Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gregorio, Cesare; Di Nunzio, Dalia; Di Bella, Gianluca

    2018-01-01

    Physical activity comprises all muscular activities that require energy expenditure. Regular sequence of structured and organized exercise with the specific purpose of improving wellness and athletic performance is defined as a sports activity.Exercise can be performed at various levels of intensity and duration. According to the social context and pathways, it can be recreational, occupational, and competitive. Therefore, the training burden varies inherently and the heart adaptation is challenging.Although a general agreement on the fact that sports practice leads to metabolic, functional and physical benefits, there is evidence that some athletes may be subjected to adverse outcomes. Sudden cardiac death can occur in apparently healthy individuals with unrecognized cardiovascular disease.Thus, panels of experts in sports medicine have promoted important pre-participation screening programmes aimed at determining sports eligibility and differentiating between physiological remodeling and cardiac disease.In this review, the most important pathophysiological and diagnostic issues are discussed.

  7. Concussion associated with head trauma in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Murguía Cánovas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been increased attention to concussions that occur during sports activities, both at school level or amateur and professional level. Concussion is defined as a sudden and transient alteration of consciousness induced by traumatic biomechanical forces transmitted directly or indirectly to the brain. Such injuries most commonly occur in contact sports such as boxing, football, soccer, wrestling, hockey, among others. Concussion should be suspected in any athlete who suffers a head injury, whether or not it is associated to loss of consciousness. These athletes should not return to their sports activities immediately, and a few days of mental and physical leave are recommended in order to ensure full recovery. Repeat head injuries should be avoided, since there is evidence that in some athletes they can lead to chronic traumatic encephalopathy. The present review focuses on the different definitions of concussion, management and long-term consequences. It also contains the Spanish version of the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 2 (SCAT2.

  8. Predictors variables of anxiety in the Spanish master athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Zarauz Sancho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years Spain has seen a very significant increase in adults over 35 who often train and compete at all levels in athletics tracks. They are master athletes and, above them, there is no nationwide study and very few internationally there. Therefore, the objective of this research is on the one hand, know their training habits, athletic history and their anxiety level, analyzing gender differences, and secondly, obtain predictive models of anxiety based on their training habits and athletic history. We start from the assumption that, in the Spanish veteran athletes, in both sexes, there should be a moderate pre-competitive anxiety (cognitive and somatic and high self-confidence, and anxiety will be predict by a high score in the other state of anxiety, by scoring low in self-confidence as well as to train fewer days a week and take less years training, for the highest level of competition in which they participates and not having support from a coach. By contrast, self-confidence can be predicted by low rate in the two states of anxiety, by training more days a week and have more years training, by the lower level of the competition in which it participates and for having supported a coach. The results confirmed the hypothesis regarding levels of anxiety and self-confidence but, however, unexpected results were obtained regarding the prediction thereof which are discussed later

  9. Socioeconomic Factors for Sports Specialization and Injury in Youth Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanthi, Neeru A; Holt, Daniel B; LaBella, Cynthia R; Dugas, Lara R

    2018-05-01

    The effect of socioeconomic status (SES) on rates of sports specialization and injury among youth athletes has not been described previously. Young athletes from lower socioeconomic status will have lower rates of sports specialization and subsequently lower risk of overuse injuries. Cohort study. Level 3. Injured athletes aged 7 to 18 years were recruited from 2 hospital-based sports medicine clinics and compared with uninjured athletes presenting for sports physicals at primary care clinics between 2010 and 2013. Participants completed surveys on training patterns. Electronic medical records provided injury details as well as patient zip code, race, and health insurance type. SES was estimated from zip codes. The sample was divided into SES tertiles. Analysis of variance and multivariate regression were used for continuous variables, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore relationships between risk factors and injury. Of 1190 athletes surveyed, 1139 (96%) had satisfactory SES data. Compared with low-SES athletes, high-SES athletes reported more hours per week spent playing organized sports (11.2 ± 6.0 vs 10.0 ± 6.5; P = 0.02), trained more months per year in their main sport (9.7 ± 3.1 vs 7.6 ± 3.7; P sports (64.8% vs 40.0%; P sports to free play increased with SES. Accounting for age and weekly organized sports hours, the odds of reporting a serious overuse injury increased with SES (odds ratio, 1.5; P sports specialization, more hours per week playing organized sports, higher ratio of weekly hours in organized sports to free play, and greater participation in individual sports. As SES increases, young athletes report higher degrees of sports specialization, greater participation in individual sports, and more serious overuse injuries.

  10. Amenorrhea in the Female Athlete: What to Do and When to Worry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berz, Kate; McCambridge, Teri

    2016-03-01

    Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea is a diagnosis of exclusion that is common in female athletes, particularly those participating in aesthetic sports (ballet, other dance genres, figure skating, and gymnastics) and endurance sports (cross-country running). Although common, it should be considered abnormal even in the high-level elite athlete. Amenorrhea in combination with low energy availability and low bone density is labeled "the Female Athlete Triad." Studies have demonstrated numerous long-term consequences of athletes suffering from all or a portion of this triad, including increased rate of musculoskeletal injuries, stress fractures, abnormal lipid profiles, endothelial dysfunction, potential irreversible bone loss, depression, anxiety, low self- esteem, and increased mortality. This article provides the clinician with the tools to evaluate an athlete with secondary amenorrhea, reviews the recommended treatment options for affected athletes, and discusses when to return to the activity in an effort to facilitate "healthy" participation. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Sports hernia/athletic pubalgia: evaluation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Christopher M

    2014-03-01

    Sports hernia/athletic pubalgia has received increasing attention as a source of disability and time lost from athletics. Studies are limited, however, lacking consistent objective criteria for making the diagnosis and assessing outcomes. PubMed database through January 2013 and hand searches of the reference lists of pertinent articles. Review article. Level 5. Nonsurgical outcomes have not been well reported. Various surgical approaches have return-to-athletic activity rates of >80% regardless of the approach. The variety of procedures and lack of outcomes measures in these studies make it difficult to compare one surgical approach to another. There is increasing evidence that there is an association between range of motion-limiting hip disorders (femoroacetabular impingement) and sports hernia/athletic pubalgia in a subset of athletes. This has added increased complexity to the decision-making process regarding treatment. An association between femoroacetabular impingement and athletic pubalgia has been recognized, with better outcomes reported when both are managed concurrently or in a staged manner.

  12. Orthorexia nervosa: a frequent eating disordered behavior in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-García, C; Papaianni, M C; Caglioti, F; Procopio, L; Nisticò, C G; Bombardiere, L; Ammendolia, A; Rizza, P; De Fazio, P; Capranica, L

    2012-12-01

    Striving for enhancing athletic performance, many sportsmen undergo rigid dietary habits, which could lead to eating disorders (EDs) or Orthorexia Nervosa (ON), a psychopathological condition characterized by the obsession for high quality food. The aim of the study was to examine the occurrence of ON in athletes and to verify the relationship between ON and EDs. Five-hundred-seventy-seven athletes and 217 matched controls were administered the following tests: ORTO-15, Eating Attitude Test 26 (EAT-26), Body Uneasiness Test (BUT) and Yale-Brown-Cornell Eating Disorder Scale (YBC-EDS). High positivity to ORTO-15 (28%) and EAT-26 (14%) emerged in athletes, whereas a high rate of BUT positivity was evident among controls (21%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that independent predictors of ON are previous dieting, age, positivity to YBC-EDS, positivity to EAT-26, competition level, and number of YBC-EDS preoccupations and rituals. Sharing many features with both EDs and Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum, ON represents a crossroad between these pathologic conditions and might compromise the health state of an athlete. Therefore, coaches should consider important to detect symptoms of EDs and ON in their athletes.

  13. Endurance running performance in athletes with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, W; Williams, C; Nute, M G

    1990-01-01

    Laboratory assessment was made during maximal and submaximal exercise on 16 endurance trained male runners with asthma (aged 35 +/- 9 years) (mean +/- S.D.). Eleven of these asthmatic athletes had recent performance times over a half-marathon, which were examined in light of the results from the laboratory tests. The maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) of the group was 61.8 +/- 6.3 ml kg-1 min-1 and the maximum ventilation (VEmax) was 138.7 +/- 24.7 l min-1. These maximum cardio-respiratory responses to exercise were positively correlated to the degree of airflow obstruction, defined as the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (expressed as a percentage of predicted normal). The half-marathon performance times of 11 of the athletes ranged from those of recreational to elite runners (82.4 +/- 8.8 min, range 69-94). Race pace was correlated with VO2max (r = 0.863, P less than 0.01) but the highest correlation was with the running velocity at a blood lactate concentration of 2 mmol l-1 (r = 0.971, P less than 0.01). The asthmatic athletes utilized 82 +/- 4% VO2max during the half-marathon, which was correlated with the %VO2max at 2 mmol l-1 blood lactate (r = 0.817, P less than 0.01). The results of this study suggest that athletes with mild to moderate asthma can possess high VO2max values and can develop a high degree of endurance fitness, as defined by their ability to sustain a high percentage of VO2max over an endurance race. In athletes with more severe airflow obstruction, the maximum ventilation rate may be reduced and so VO2max may be impaired. The athletes in the present study have adapted to this limitation by being able to sustain a higher %VO2max before the accumulation of blood lactate, which is an advantage during an endurance race. Therefore, with appropriate training and medication, asthmatics can successfully participate in endurance running at a competitive level.

  14. Posterior shoulder instability in the athletic population: Variations in assessment, clinical outcomes, and return to sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLong, Jeffrey M; Bradley, James P

    2015-12-18

    Posterior instability of the shoulder is becoming an increasingly recognized shoulder injury in the athletic population. Diagnostic elements, such as etiology, directionality, and degree of instability are essential factors to assess in the unstable athletic shoulder. Concomitant injuries and associated pathologic lesions continue to be a significant challenge in the surgical management of posterior shoulder instability. Return to sport and previous level of play is ultimately the goal for every committed athlete and surgeon, thus subpopulations of athletes should be recognized as distinct entities requiring unique diagnostic, functional outcome measures, and surgical approaches.

  15. Personality and psychological factors as predictors of disordered eating among female collegiate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Trent A; Greenleaf, Christy; Reel, Justine; Carter, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This article examined the relationship of perfectionism, psychological well-being (self-esteem and optimism), reasons for exercising and appearance orientation to eating disorder classification among 204 female collegiate athletes. Multivariate analyses showed that only self-esteem, exercising to improve appearance and be more attractive, and appearance orientation differentiated significantly between the symptomatic/eating disordered athletes and those who were asymptomatic. No differences existed between the two groups of athletes on perfectionism, optimism, or exercising for fitness/health. For athletes, self-esteem, appearance orientation and exercising to be attractive and improve appearance were most important for understanding their level of disordered eating.

  16. Cooling athletes with a spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Katy E; Price, Michael J; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L

    2015-01-01

    Cooling strategies that help prevent a reduction in exercise capacity whilst exercising in the heat have received considerable research interest over the past 3 decades, especially in the lead up to a relatively hot Olympic and Paralympic Games. Progressing into the next Olympic/Paralympic cycle, the host, Rio de Janeiro, could again present an environmental challenge for competing athletes. Despite the interest and vast array of research into cooling strategies for the able-bodied athlete, less is known regarding the application of these cooling strategies in the thermoregulatory impaired spinal cord injured (SCI) athletic population. Individuals with a spinal cord injury (SCI) have a reduced afferent input to the thermoregulatory centre and a loss of both sweating capacity and vasomotor control below the level of the spinal cord lesion. The magnitude of this thermoregulatory impairment is proportional to the level of the lesion. For instance, individuals with high-level lesions (tetraplegia) are at a greater risk of heat illness than individuals with lower-level lesions (paraplegia) at a given exercise intensity. Therefore, cooling strategies may be highly beneficial in this population group, even in moderate ambient conditions (~21 °C). This review was undertaken to examine the scientific literature that addresses the application of cooling strategies in individuals with an SCI. Each method is discussed in regards to the practical issues associated with the method and the potential underlying mechanism. For instance, site-specific cooling would be more suitable for an athlete with an SCI than whole body water immersion, due to the practical difficulties of administering this method in this population group. From the studies reviewed, wearing an ice vest during intermittent sprint exercise has been shown to decrease thermal strain and improve performance. These garments have also been shown to be effective during exercise in the able-bodied. Drawing on

  17. Approach to the Underperforming Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Mary L; Weiss Kelly, Amanda K

    2016-03-01

    Children and adolescents who participate in intense sports training may face physical and psychologic stresses. The pediatric health care provider can play an important role in monitoring an athlete's preparation by obtaining a proper sports history, assessing sleep hygiene, discussing nutrition and hydration guidelines, and evaluating physiologic causes of fatigue. Educating parents and athletes on the potential risks of high-intensity training, inadequate rest and sleep, and a poor diet may improve the athlete's performance and prevent symptoms of overtraining syndrome. Infectious mononucleosis must also be considered a cause of fatigue among adolescents. The signs and symptoms of overtraining and burnout are discussed in this article. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Understanding Athletic Pubalgia: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Brian; Kleinhenz, Dominic; Schiller, Jonathan; Tabaddor, Ramin

    2016-10-04

    Athletic Pubalgia, more commonly known as sports hernia, is defined as chronic lower abdominal and groin pain without the presence of a true hernia. It is increasingly recognized in athletes as a source of groin pain and is often associated with other pathology. A comprehensive approach to the physical exam and a strong understanding of hip and pelvic anatomy are critical in making the appropriate diagnosis. Various management options are available. We review the basic anatomy, patholophysiology, diagnostic approach and treatment of athletic pubalgia as well as discuss associated conditions such as femoroacetabular impingement. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2016-10.asp].

  19. Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Christopher J.

    Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance but also to combat the immunosuppressive effects of intense endurance training. It is imperative for each athlete to research the legality of certain supplements for their specific sport or event. Once the legality has been established, it is often up to each individual athlete to decipher the ethics involved with ingesting nutritional supplements with the sole intent of improving performance.

  20. Athletic Involvement and Adolescent Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnick, Merrill J.; Barnes, Grace M.; Sabo, Don; Farrell, Michael P.

    2007-01-01

    Athough conventional wisdom suggests that organized sport deters delinquency by building character, structuring adolescents’ time, and providing incentives for socially approved behavior, the empirical evidence to date has been mixed. Based on a sample of approximately 600 Western New York adolescents, the present study examined how self-reported jock identity, school athlete status, and frequency of athletic activity differentially influenced a range of delinquent behaviors. Neither athlete status nor frequency of athletic activity predicted these behaviors; however, jock identity was associated with significantly more incidents of delinquency. This finding was robust across both gender and race. Follow-up analyses indicated that jock identity facilitated both minor and major delinquency, with major delinquency effects for white but not black adolescents. PMID:18079971

  1. Perceptions of Coach-Athlete Relationship are more Important to Coaches than Athletes in Predicting Dyadic Coping and Stress Appraisals: An Actor-Partner Independence Mediation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Robert Nicholls

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Most attempts to manage stress involve at least one other person, yet coping studies in sport tend to report an athlete’s individual coping strategies. There is a limited understanding of coping involving other people, particularly within sport, despite athletes potentially spending a lot of time with other people, such as their coach. Guided by the systemic-transactional model of stress and coping among couples (Bodenmann, 1995, from relationship psychology, we assessed dyadic coping, perceptions of relationship quality, and primary stress appraisals of challenge and threat among 158 coach-athlete dyads (n = 277 participants. The athletes competed at amateur (n = 123, semi-professional (n = 31, or professional levels (n = 4. Coaches and athletes from the same dyad completed a measure of dyadic coping, coach-athlete relationship, and stress appraisals. We tested an Actor-Partner Interdependence Mediation Model to account for the nonindependence of dyadic data. These actor-partner analyses revealed differences between athletes and coaches. Although the actor effects were relatively large compared to partner effects, perceptions of relationship quality demonstrated little impact on athletes. The mediating role of relationship quality was broadly as important as dyadic coping for coaches. These findings provide an insight in to how coach-athlete dyads interact to manage stress and indicate that relationship quality is of particular importance for coaches, but less important for athletes. In order to improve perceptions of relationship quality among coaches and athletes, interventions could be developed to foster positive dyadic coping among both coaches and athletes, which may also impact upon stress appraisals of challenge and threat.

  2. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I football players' perceptions of women in the athletic training room using a role congruity framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Caitlin; Grappendorf, Heidi; Burton, Laura; Harmon, Sandra M; Henderson, Angela C; Peel, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Previous researchers have demonstrated that male and female athletes feel more comfortable with treatment by a same-sex athletic trainer for sex-specific injuries and conditions. To address football players' comfort with care provided by same-sex and opposite-sex athletic trainers for sex-specific and non-sex-specific injuries and conditions through the lens of role congruity theory. Cross-sectional study for the quantitative data and qualitative study for the qualitative data. Two National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Bowl Series university football programs. Male football players within the 2 university programs. We replicated existing methods and an existing survey to address male football players' comfort levels. Additionally, an open-ended question was used to determine male football players' perceptions of female athletic trainers. Paired-samples t tests were conducted to identify differences between the responses for the care given by a male athletic trainer and for the care given by a female athletic trainer. Three categories were analyzed: general medical conditions, psychological conditions, and sex-specific injuries. The qualitative data were coded and analyzed using content analysis. Male football players were more comfortable with treatment by a male athletic trainer (mean = 3.61 +/- 1.16) for sex-specific injuries and conditions than they were with treatment by a female athletic trainer (mean = 2.82 +/- 1.27; P female athletic trainer was preferred over a male athletic trainer for the treatment of depression (mean = 3.71 +/- 1.07 versus mean = 3.39 +/- 1.16, respectively; P < .001). Qualitative data provided support for role congruity theory. Both quantitative and qualitative evidence were provided for the support of role congruity theory.

  3. A cross-national comparison of the transition out of elite sport of Swiss, Danish and Polish athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Küttel, Andreas; Boyle, Eleanor; Christensen, Mette Krogh

    2018-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to compare the transition out of elite sport of former Swiss, Danish, and Polish athletes in terms of (a) preconditions of retirement, (b) the transitional and adaptation period, and (c) consequences of the transition. The sample consisted of 231 Swiss, 86 Danish...... athletes relocated mainly in jobs connected to the sport and thus rated their previous sport network as more important for finding an occupation compared to Swiss and Danish athletes. Based on our results and in line with findings of previous cross-national studies, we emphasize that it is important...... from the three countries. Athletes differed significantly in their educational level, their athletic identity, and their working experience while active in the sport. Swiss athletes experienced the least distress during the transition, while Polish athletes reported the highest difficulties. Polish...

  4. [Measurement of shoulder disability in the athlete: a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayad, F; Mace, Y; Lefevre-Colau, M M; Poiraudeau, S; Rannou, F; Revel, M

    2004-08-01

    To identify all available shoulder disability questionnaires and to examine those that could be used for athlete. We systematically reviewed the literature in Medline using the keywords shoulder, function, scale, index, score, questionnaire, disability, quality of life, assessment, and evaluation. We searched for scales used for athletes with the keywords scale name AND (sport OR athlete). Data were completed by using the "Guide des Outils de Mesure et d'Evaluation en Médecine Physique et de Réadaptation" textbook. Analysis took into account the clinimetric quality of the instruments and the number of items specifically related to sports. A total of 37 instruments have been developed to measure disease-, shoulder-specific or upper extremity specific outcome. Older instruments were developed before the advent of modern measurement methods. They usually combined objective and subjective measures. Recent instruments were designed with use of more advanced methods. Most are self-administered questionnaires. Fourteen scales included items assessing sport activity. Four of these scales have been used to assess shoulder disability in athlete. Six scales have been used to assess such disability but do not have specific items related to sports. There is no gold standard for assessing shoulder outcome in the general population and no validated outcome instruments specifically for athletes. We suggest the use of ASES, WOSI and WORC scales for evaluating shoulder function in the recreational athletes. The DASH scale should be evaluated in this population. The principal criterion in evaluating shoulder function in the high level athlete is a return to the same level of sport performance. Further studies are required to identify measurement tools for shoulder disability that have a high predictive value for return to sport.

  5. Effects of Sport-Specific Training Intensity on Sleep Patterns and Psychomotor Performance in Adolescent Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppiah, Haresh T; Low, Chee Yong; Chia, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Adolescent student-athletes face time constraints due to athletic and scholastic commitments, resulting in habitually shortened nocturnal sleep durations. However, there is a dearth of research on the effects of sleep debt on student-athlete performance. The study aimed to (i) examine the habitual sleep patterns (actigraphy) of high-level student-athletes during a week of training and academic activities, (ii) ascertain the effects of habitual sleep durations experienced by high-level student-athletes on psychomotor performance, and (iii) examine the impact of sport training intensities on the sleep patterns of high-level student-athletes that participate in low and high intensity sports. Sleep patterns of 29 high-level student-athletes (14.7 ± 1.3 yrs) were monitored over 7 days. A psychomotor vigilance task was administered on weekdays to ascertain the effects of habitual sleep durations. Weekend total sleep time was longer than weekdays along with a delay in bedtime, and waketimes. Psychomotor vigilance reaction times on Monday were faster than on Thursday and Friday, with reaction times on Tuesday also faster than on Friday. False starts and lapses were greater on Friday compared with Monday. There was a negative impact of sleep debt on student-athletes' psychomotor performance.

  6. Correlates of Female Athletic Participation: Masculinity, Femininity, Self-Esteem, and Attitudes toward Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colker, Ruth; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    1980-01-01

    Investigates self-esteem, psychological masculinity and femininity, and attitudes toward women of female athletes in an attempt to examine the validity of various stereotypes and to investigate potential subgroup distinctions based on sport played, level of commitment to athletics, and experience. (Author)

  7. Hearing in Athletes with Intellectual Disabilities: The Need for Improved Ear Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, W.; Lumm, J.; Laoide-Kemp, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Special Olympics offer the opportunity for athletes with intellectual disabilities to participate in a range of sports at regional, national and international level. A parallel Healthy Athletes programme was introduced to ensure safety at the games but also to collect data on the health needs of those with intellectual disabilities…

  8. Sports Betting and Other Gambling in Athletes, Fans, and Other College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Toben F.; LaBrie, Richard A.; LaPlante, Debi A.; Stanton, Michael; Shaffer, Howard J.; Wechsler, Henry

    2007-01-01

    Gambling on college and professional sports and the influence of attending colleges with differing levels of "sports interest" were examined among athletes, sports fans, and other students (N = 10,559) at 119 colleges in the United States using multilevel statistical analysis. Athletes and fans reported more sports gambling compared to…

  9. Coaches' Coaching Competence in Relation to Athletes' Perceived Progress in Elite Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Frode; Federici, Roger A.

    2013-01-01

    This article looks at whether higher levels of perceived coaching competencies focusing on relational issues, were associated with higher satisfaction among elite athletes with their progress in sport. In order to explore this, we investigated elite athletes' perceptions of their coaches' coaching competence (CCS) and how these perceptions related…

  10. Seasonal Vitamin D Status in Polish Elite Athletes in Relation to Sun Exposure and Oral Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzywanski, Jaroslaw; Mikulski, Tomasz; Krysztofiak, Hubert; Mlynczak, Marcel; Gaczynska, Ewa; Ziemba, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D does not only influence the musculoskeletal health and mineral homeostasis but it also affects cardiovascular, endocrine, nervous, immune and mental functions, thus it is of considerable importance for both physically active people and elite athletes. However, vitamin D deficiency is common worldwide and results from inadequate endogenous skin synthesis (insufficient ultraviolet B exposure) and diet. To improve the vitamin D status elite athletes often travel to lower latitude during winter. The aim of the study was to evaluate the seasonal vitamin D status in Polish elite athletes according to the sun exposure and oral supplementation. Serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured in the years 2010-2014 in 409 elite athletes, who were divided into the following groups: OUTD-outdoor sports, represented by track and field athletes, who trained in Poland; IND-weightlifters, handball and volleyball players who trained indoors in Poland; SUN-track and field athletes who trained during Polish winter in lower latitude with high sunshine exposure; SUPL-track and field athletes who trained in Poland, had an inadequate vitamin D status (25(OH)D Vitamin D status was observed in 80% of OUTD and 84% of IND athletes in winter, whereas in summer the values amounted to 42% and 83%, respectively. The athletes exposed to sun in winter had significantly higher vitamin D concentration than OUTD group. Oral supplementation improved vitamin D concentration by 45%, whereas winter sun exposure caused its increase by 85%. Except for a few summer months an inadequate status of vitamin D was found in the majority of Polish elite athletes, with the deficiency level being similar to the one observed in non-athletic population. The most serious deficiency was observed in indoor disciplines. Adequate vitamin D status can be achieved by both increased sun exposure, especially in winter, and oral supplementation. Athletes should therefore routinely assess their

  11. Two distinct phenotypes of asthma in elite athletes identified by latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Mariana; Stang, Julie; Horta, Luís; Stensrud, Trine; Severo, Milton; Mowinckel, Petter; Silva, Diana; Delgado, Luís; Moreira, André; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon

    2015-01-01

    Clusters of asthma in athletes have been insufficiently studied. Therefore, the present study aimed to characterize asthma phenotypes in elite athletes using latent class analysis (LCA) and to evaluate its association with the type of sport practiced. In the present cross-sectional study, an analysis of athletes' records was carried out in databases of the Portuguese National Anti-Doping Committee and the Norwegian School of Sport Sciences. Athletes with asthma, diagnosed according to criteria given by the International Olympic Committee, were included for LCA. Sports practiced were categorized into water, winter and other sports. Of 324 files screened, 150 files belonged to asthmatic athletes (91 Portuguese; 59 Norwegian). LCA retrieved two clusters: "atopic asthma" defined by allergic sensitization, rhinitis and allergic co-morbidities and increased exhaled nitric oxide levels; and "sports asthma", defined by exercise-induced respiratory symptoms and airway hyperesponsiveness without allergic features. The risk of developing the phenotype "sports asthma" was significantly increased in athletes practicing water (OR = 2.87; 95% CI [1.82-4.51]) and winter (OR = 8.65; 95% CI [2.67-28.03]) sports, when compared with other athletes. Two asthma phenotypes were identified in elite athletes: "atopic asthma" and "sports asthma". The type of sport practiced was associated with different phenotypes: water and winter sport athletes had three- and ninefold increased risk of "sports asthma". Recognizing different phenotypes is clinically relevant as it would lead to distinct targeted treatments.

  12. Body dissatisfaction and sociodemographic, anthropometric and maturational factors among artistic gymnastics athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Mockdece NEVES

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the overall body dissatisfaction and in specific areas in adolescents who practice artistic gymnastic in elite and non-elite levels, and to analyze the influence of sociodemographic, anthropometric and maturational factors on body dissatisfaction. The research is characterized as transversal, quantitative, descriptive and correlational. The sample consisted of 285 adolescents, of both sexes, practicing gymnastics. They were divided into two groups: 245 non-elite athletes and 40 elite athletes. The participants were aged between 10 and 18 years (mean 12.86 ± 1.80 and were resident of the city of Três Rios-RJ. The assessment instruments were: Body Shape Questionnaire, Body Areas Scale, Critério de Classificação Econômica Brasil and socio-demographic questionnaire. Anthropometric and somatic maturation data were collected. The results showed that 24.9% of the non-elite athletes and 15% of elite athletes were dissatisfied with their body as a whole. For specific body areas, nonelite athletes were significantly more dissatisfied with their body area “weight” than the elite athletes. Sociodemographic and economic factors had no influence on overall body dissatisfaction. For non-elite athletes, only the body percentage of fat and somatic maturation were predictors for the overall body dissatisfaction and in specific areas, respectively. It was concluded that the non-elite athletes were more dissatisfied with their body and weight than the elite athletes.

  13. Resiliency against stress among athletes

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    Kamila Litwic-Kaminska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of this paper is to describe the results of a study concerning the relationship between resiliency and appraisal of a stressful situation, anxiety reactions and undertaken methods of coping among sportsmen. Participants and procedure The research concerned 192 competitors who actively train in one of the Olympic disciplines – individual or team. We used the following instruments: Resiliency Assessment Scale (SPP-25; Stress Appraisal Questionnaire A/B; Reactions to Competition Questionnaire; Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS; Sport Stress Coping Strategies Questionnaire (SR3S, self-constructed. Results Athletes most frequently apply positive types of stress appraisal, and they cope with stress through a task-oriented style during competitions. There is a relationship between the level of resiliency and the analysed aspects of the process of stress. The higher the resiliency, the more positive is the appraisal of a stressful situation and the more task-oriented are the strategies applied. Similarly, in everyday situations resilient sportspeople positively appraise difficult situations and undertake mostly task-oriented strategies. Resiliency is connected with less frequently experiencing reactions in the form of anxiety. Conclusions The obtained results, similarly to previous research, suggest that resiliency is connected with experiencing positive emotions. It causes more frequent appraisal of stressful situations as a challenge. More resilient people also choose more effective and situation-appropriate coping strategies. Therefore they are more resistant to stress.

  14. Validation of the computer code system ATHLET / ATHLET-CD. Final report; Validierung des Rechenprogrammsystems ATHLET / ATHLET-CD. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austregesilo, H.; Bals, C.; Erdmann, W.; Horche, W.; Krzykacz-Hausmann, B.; Pointner, W.; Schoeffel, P.; Skorek, T.; Weber, S.; Wielenberg, A.

    2010-04-15

    In the frame of the reactor safety project RS1173, sponsored by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology, analyses of international integral and separate effects tests have been performed for the validation of the code system ATHLET/ATHLET-CD. The work mainly comprised post-test calculations of selected experiments and the contributions to the working groups accompanying the experimental programs. For the assessment of the thermal-hydraulic models in ATHLET 8 integral tests and 4 separate effect tests have been considered. Together with the corroboration of the existing models, the validation analyses were mainly dedicated to the assessment of the modelling of non-condensable gases and their influence on two-phase natural circulation and on the primary heat removal through steam generators, as well as of the simulation of multi-dimensional flow processes. The validation calculations with respect to the simulation of multi-dimensional one- and two-phase flows aimed to investigate the range of applicability and limitations of the method of parallel channels in connection with the separate momentum equations for water and steam current used in ATHLET as well as to assess the status of the coupled version ATHLET/FLUBOX-3D. The ATHLET-CD validation analyses included the post-test calculations of 9 bundle tests, and was mainly focussed on the assessment of the improved and new models for core degradation, including the models for oxidation, melt formation and relocation for BWR components, as well as of the modelling of fission products and aerosol transport within the primary circuit taking into account chemical reactions within the module SOPHAEROS. As an additional contribution to code validation, the GRS methodology of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis was applied exemplarily to two validation calculations, one with ATHLET and one with ATHLET-CD. The results of these uncertainty analyses endorse the capability of the code system to reproduce

  15. Recovery process of elite athletes: A review of contemporary methods

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    Veljović Draško

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerous training stimulus and competition as well can reduce level of abilities among athletes. This decline of performance can be a temporary phenomenon, with duration of several minutes or several hours after a workout, or take much longer, even a several days. The lack of adequate recovery process can influence on athletes not being able to train at the desired intensity or do not fully meet the tasks at the next training session. Chronic fatigue can lead to injuries, and therefore, full recovery is necessary for achieving optimal level of abilities that will ensure a better athletic performance. For this reasons, athletes often carry out a variety of techniques and methods aimed to recover after training or match. They have become a part of the training process and their purpose is reduction of stress and fatigue incurred as a result of daily exposure to intense training stimulus. There are numerous methods and techniques today that can accelerate the recovery process of athletes. For this reason it is necessary to know the efficiency of an adequate method which will be applied in the training process. The aim of this review article is to point to those currently used and their effects on the process of recovery after physical activity in elite sport.

  16. Groin Injuries (Athletic Pubalgia) and Return to Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elattar, Osama; Choi, Ho-Rim; Dills, Vickie D; Busconi, Brian

    2016-07-01

    Groin pain is a common entity in athletes involved in sports that require acute cutting, pivoting, or kicking such as soccer and ice hockey. Athletic pubalgia is increasingly recognized as a common cause of chronic groin and adductor pain in athletes. It is considered an overuse injury predisposing to disruption of the rectus tendon insertion to the pubis and weakness of the posterior inguinal wall without a clinically detectable hernia. These patients often require surgical therapy after failure of nonoperative measures. A variety of surgical options have been used, and most patients improve and return to high-level competition. PubMed databases were searched to identify relevant scientific and review articles from January 1920 to January 2015 using the search terms groin pain, sports hernia, athletic pubalgia, adductor strain, osteitis pubis, stress fractures, femoroacetabular impingement, and labral tears. Clinical review. Level 4. Athletic pubalgia is an overuse injury involving a weakness in the rectus abdominis insertion or posterior inguinal wall of the lower abdomen caused by acute or repetitive injury of the structure. A variety of surgical options have been reported with successful outcomes, with high rates of return to the sport in the majority of cases. © 2016 The Author(s).

  17. Positive Factors Influencing the Advancement of Women to the Role of Head Athletic Trainer in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Divisions II and III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Eason, Christianne M

    2016-07-01

    Research suggests that women do not pursue leadership positions in athletic training due to a variety of reasons, including family challenges, organizational constraints, and reluctance to hold the position. The literature has been focused on the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting, limiting our full understanding. To examine factors that help women as they worked toward the position of head athletic trainer. Qualitative study. Divisions II and III. Seventy-seven women who were employed as head athletic trainers at the Division II or III level participated in our study. Participants were 38 ± 9 (range = 24-57) years old and had an average of 14 ± 8 (range = 1-33) years of athletic training experience. We conducted online interviews. Participants journaled their reflections to a series of open-ended questions pertaining to their experiences as head athletic trainers. Data were analyzed using a general inductive approach. Credibility was secured by peer review and researcher triangulation. Three organizational facilitators emerged from the data, workplace atmosphere, mentors, and past work experiences. These organizational factors were directly tied to aspects within the athletic trainer's employment setting that allowed her to enter the role. One individual-level facilitator was found: personal attributes that were described as helpful for women in transitioning to the role of the head athletic trainer. Participants discussed being leaders and persisting toward their career goals. Women working in Divisions II and III experience similar facilitators to assuming the role of head athletic trainer as those working in the Division I setting. Divisions II and III were viewed as more favorable for women seeking the role of head athletic trainer, but like those in the role in the Division I setting, women must have leadership skills.

  18. Sleep Quality, Mood and Performance: A Study of Elite Brazilian Volleyball Athletes

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    Alexandro Andrade, Guilherme G. Bevilacqua, Danilo R. Coimbra, Fabiano S. Pereira, Ricardo Brandt

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This investigation analyzed the relationships between sleep quality, mood, and game results in the elite athletes participating in Brazilian volleyball competitions. Participants (n = 277 elite Brazilian volleyball athletes, 214 (77.3% men and 63 (22.7% women completed the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS and reported their subjective sleep perception. Athletes with poor sleep quality reported higher scores for confusion compared to athletes with good sleep quality (p < 0.01, d = 0.43. In addition, athletes who lost their game at the time of evaluation showed higher tension (p < 0.01, d = 0.49 and confusion (p < 0.01, d = 0.32 levels compared to athletes who won their game. A regression analysis demonstrated that for each point increase in the confusion level, there was a 19.7% reduction in sleep quality. Multivariate analysis of variance indicated that athletes who slept well, and won their games, had lower tension levels. Further, our results indicated that the athletes’ mood associated with their success in the competitions. Therefore, in a competition, it is important that the athletes show good sleep quality, and use techniques and strategies to ease their mood variations.

  19. Evaluation of physical conditional capabilities in athletes with physical motors limitations

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    Indira de las Mercedes Saínz-Reyes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out in the province of Holguin with the disabled athletes competing in T53 mode event 100 m levels. It was determined as a scientific problem: How to evaluate the conditional physical capabilities in athletes with physical motor limitations in athletics? and as objective: To adapt functional tests to evaluate the conditional physical capabilities in athletes with physical motor limitations in athletics. A selection of functional test was carried out applying then some methodological modifications in order to make them easier for disabled athletes in wheelchairs. Theoretical and empirical levels methods as well as consensus techniques were used. The research has an adequate scientific rigor since a methodologies theoretical foundation on conditional physical capabilities and their evaluation by functional testing. Through the nominal group it could be determined the feasibility of the proposal, since the consulted experts came to the consensus that the chosen and modified functional tests can be applied to disabled athletes in wheelchairs, and recognized that through them it can be checked the training level of these athletes and the influence of the physical exercise in their organism.

  20. Stress fractures in athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steingruber, I.E.; Wolf, C.; Gruber, H.; Czermak, B.V.; Mallouhi, A.; Jaschke, W.; Gabriel, M.

    2002-01-01

    Stress fractures may pose a diagnostic dilemma for radiologists since they are sometimes difficult to demonstrate on plain films and may simulate a tumour. They were first described in military personnel and professional athletes. Recently, there is an increasing incidence in the general population due to increasing sportive activities. Stress fractures occur most often in the lower extremities, especially in the tibia, the tarsal bone, the metatarsal bone, the femur and the fibula. In the upper extremities, they are commonly found in the humerus, the radius and the ulna. Some fractures of the lower extremities appear to be specific for particular sports, for example, fractures of the tibia affect mostly distance runners. Whereas stress fractures of the upper extremities are generally associated with upper limb-dominated sports. A correct diagnosis requires a careful clinical evaluation. The initial plain radiography may be normal. Further radiological evaluation could be performed by means of computerised tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and bone scanning. The latter two techniques are especially helpful for establishing a correct initial diagnosis. (orig.) [de

  1. Patellofemoral pain in athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Wolf; Rembitzki, Ingo; Liebau, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is a frequent cause of anterior knee pain in athletes, which affects patients with and without structural patellofemoral joint (PFJ) damage. Most younger patients do not have any structural changes to the PFJ, such as an increased Q angle and a cartilage damage. This clinical entity is known as patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). Older patients usually present with signs of patellofemoral osteoarthritis (PFOA). A key factor in PFPS development is dynamic valgus of the lower extremity, which leads to lateral patellar maltracking. Causes of dynamic valgus include weak hip muscles and rearfoot eversion with pes pronatus valgus. These factors can also be observed in patients with PFOA. The available evidence suggests that patients with PFP are best managed with a tailored, multimodal, nonoperative treatment program that includes short-term pain relief with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), passive correction of patellar maltracking with medially directed tape or braces, correction of the dynamic valgus with exercise programs that target the muscles of the lower extremity, hip, and trunk, and the use of foot orthoses in patients with additional foot abnormalities. PMID:28652829

  2. Athletes with seizure disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Byron Don; Pleacher, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with seizure disorders have long been restricted from participation in certain sporting activities. Those with seizure disorders are more likely than their peers to have a sedentary lifestyle and to develop obesity. Regular participation in physical activity can improve both physical and psychosocial outcomes for persons with seizure disorders. Seizure activity often is reduced among those patients who regularly engage in aerobic activity. Recent literature indicates that the diagnosis of seizure disorders remains highly stigmatizing in the adolescent population. Persons with seizure disorders may be more accepted by peer groups if they are allowed to participate in sports and recreational activities. Persons with seizure disorders are encouraged to participate in regular aerobic activities. They may participate in team sports and contact or collision activities provided that they utilize appropriate protective equipment. There seems to be no increased risk of injury or increasing seizure activity as the result of such participation. Persons with seizure disorders still are discouraged from participating in scuba diving and skydiving. The benefits of participation in regular sporting activity far outweigh any risk to the athlete with a seizure disorder who chooses to participate in sports.

  3. Sport Psychology Service Provision: Preferences for Consultant Characteristics and Mode of Delivery among Elite Malaysian Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnusamy, Vellapandian; Grove, J Robert

    2014-09-01

    Factors relevant to the working alliance between athletes and sport psychology consultants were investigated in a sample of elite Malaysian athletes (n = 217). The athletes represented a variety of team and individual sports, and they provided information about the perceived importance of seven consultant characteristics/behaviors as well as seven program delivery options. At a full-sample level, general preferences were expressed for consultants to lead a physically active lifestyle, regularly attend training sessions and competitions, and have prior experience as an athlete or coach. General preferences were also expressed for program content to be determined by the coach or consultant, and for regular, small doses of mental skills training to be delivered in a face-to-face context throughout the year. At a sub-group level, team sport athletes had stronger preferences than individual sport athletes for program delivery on a group/team basis, while individual sport athletes had stronger preferences than team sport athletes for having a role in determining program content. Findings are discussed in relation to dominant value themes within Malaysian society and the reinforcement of these themes within specific sport subcultures. Key pointsConsultant characteristics and program delivery methods have an impact on the effectiveness of sport psychology services.Preferred consultant characteristics and preferred methods of delivery may be affected by cultural and subcultural values.Elite Malaysian athletes prefer consultants to lead a physically active lifestyle; to regularly attend training/competition; and to have prior experience as an athlete or coach.Elite Malaysian athletes also prefer that the coach or consultant determine program content, and that mental skills training take place in a face-to-face context throughout the year.

  4. Sport Psychology Service Provision: Preferences for Consultant Characteristics and Mode of Delivery among Elite Malaysian Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnusamy, Vellapandian; Grove, J. Robert

    2014-01-01

    Factors relevant to the working alliance between athletes and sport psychology consultants were investigated in a sample of elite Malaysian athletes (n = 217). The athletes represented a variety of team and individual sports, and they provided information about the perceived importance of seven consultant characteristics/behaviors as well as seven program delivery options. At a full-sample level, general preferences were expressed for consultants to lead a physically active lifestyle, regularly attend training sessions and competitions, and have prior experience as an athlete or coach. General preferences were also expressed for program content to be determined by the coach or consultant, and for regular, small doses of mental skills training to be delivered in a face-to-face context throughout the year. At a sub-group level, team sport athletes had stronger preferences than individual sport athletes for program delivery on a group/team basis, while individual sport athletes had stronger preferences than team sport athletes for having a role in determining program content. Findings are discussed in relation to dominant value themes within Malaysian society and the reinforcement of these themes within specific sport subcultures. Key points Consultant characteristics and program delivery methods have an impact on the effectiveness of sport psychology services. Preferred consultant characteristics and preferred methods of delivery may be affected by cultural and subcultural values. Elite Malaysian athletes prefer consultants to lead a physically active lifestyle; to regularly attend training/competition; and to have prior experience as an athlete or coach. Elite Malaysian athletes also prefer that the coach or consultant determine program content, and that mental skills training take place in a face-to-face context throughout the year. PMID:25177193

  5. Star Excursion Balance Test Anterior Asymmetry Is Associated With Injury Status in Division I Collegiate Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiffler, Mikel R; Bell, David R; Sanfilippo, Jennifer L; Hetzel, Scott J; Pickett, Kristen A; Heiderscheit, Bryan C

    2017-05-01

    Study Design Retrospective cohort. Background Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) performance differs by sport in healthy collegiate athletes, and lower extremity injury rates also vary by sport, sex, and athletic exposure. The relationship between SEBT performance and injury risk has not been evaluated with consideration of these additional variables, which may be necessary to fully describe the relationship between SEBT performance and injury risk. Objectives To assess the association between preseason SEBT performance and noncontact injury occurrence to the knee or ankle in Division I collegiate athletes when controlling for sport, sex, and athletic exposure. Methods Star Excursion Balance Test performance, starting status, and injury status were reviewed retrospectively in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate athletes from a single institution. A total of 147 athletes were healthy at the time of preseason SEBT testing and either remained healthy (n = 118) or sustained a noncontact injury to the knee or ankle (n = 29) during their sport's subsequent competitive season. Side-to-side asymmetries were calculated in each direction as the absolute difference in reach distance between limbs. Star Excursion Balance Test reach distances and asymmetries were compared between groups using multivariable regression, controlling for sport, sex, and athletic exposure (starter, nonstarter). Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to determine optimal sensitivity and specificity for significant models. Results When controlling for sport, sex, and athletic exposure, SEBT side-to-side asymmetry in the anterior direction, expressed as an absolute or normalized to limb length, discriminated between injured and noninjured athletes (area under the curve greater than 0.82). Conclusion Assessing side-to-side reach asymmetry in the anterior direction of the SEBT may assist in identifying collegiate athletes who are at risk for sustaining noncontact

  6. Anxiety and burnout in young athletes: The mediating role of cognitive appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, A R; Faria, S; Vilela, C

    2017-12-01

    This study tested the relationship between trait anxiety, cognitive appraisal, and athletes' burnout proposing two hypotheses: (a) there is a direct relationship between athletes' trait anxiety and cognitive appraisal and burnout, and (b) cognitive appraisal mediates the relationship between trait anxiety and burnout, and this mediation occurs despite the competitive level and sport records of athletes. The study included 673 young athletes and provided measures of trait anxiety, cognitive appraisal, and burnout. Structural equation modeling indicated that cognitive appraisal mediates the relationship between trait anxiety and burnout, confirming hypothesis 2, and this model provided better fit than the direct model of hypothesis 1. However, the mediation also indicated that the direct relationship between trait anxiety and burnout should be considered. The mediating model was invariant according to competitive levels and sport records. In conclusion, cognitive appraisal is an important variable in explaining athletes' burnout. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. High incidence of athletic pubalgia symptoms in professional athletes with symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammoud, Sommer; Bedi, Asheesh; Magennis, Erin; Meyers, William C; Kelly, Bryan T

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence of symptoms consistent with athletic pubalgia (AP) in athletes requiring surgical treatment for femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and the frequency of surgical treatment of both AP and FAI in this group of patients. Thirty-eight consecutive professional athletes, with a mean age of 31 years, underwent arthroscopic surgery for symptomatic FAI that limited their ability to play competitively. In all cases a cam and/or focal rim osteoplasty with labral refixation or debridement was performed. In 1 case concomitant intramuscular lengthening of the psoas was performed. Retrospective data regarding prior AP surgery and return to play were collected. Thirty-two percent of patients had previously undergone AP surgery, and 1 patient underwent AP surgery concomitantly with surgical treatment of FAI. No patient returned to his previous level of competition after isolated AP surgery. Thirty-nine percent had AP symptoms that resolved with FAI surgery alone. Of the 38 patients, 36 returned to their previous level of play; all 12 patients with combined AP and FAI surgery returned to professional competition. The mean duration before return to play was 5.9 months (range, 3 to 9 months) after arthroscopic surgery. There is a high incidence of symptoms of AP in professional athletes with FAI of the hip. This study draws attention to the overlap of these 2 diagnoses and highlights the importance of exercising caution in diagnosing AP in a patient with FAI. Level IV, therapeutic, retrospective case series. Copyright © 2012 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Visual Structure and Function in Collision Sport Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Danielle; Morettin, Christina; Messner, Leonard V; Steinmetz, Robert J; Pang, Yi; Galetta, Steven L; Balcer, Laura J

    2017-09-06

    Vision-based measures have been shown to be useful markers in multiple sclerosis (MS), Alzheimer and Parkinson disease. Therefore, these testing paradigms may have applications to populations explaining repetitive head trauma that has been associated with long-term neurodegenerative sequelae. We investigated retinal structure and visual function in professional collision sport athletes compared to age- and race-matched control participants. In this cross-sectional study, participants underwent spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) measurements of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and macular ganglion cell complex (GCC = ganglion cell + inner plexiform layers) thickness. High-contrast visual acuity (100% level), low-contrast letter acuity (LCLA) (1.25% and 2.5% levels), and King-Devick Test of rapid number naming performance were administered. Vision-specific quality of life (QOL) measures were assessed. Among 46 collision sport athletes (boxing, n = 14; football, n = 29; ice hockey, n = 3) and 104 control participants, average RNFL thickness was a significant predictor of athlete vs control status with athletes demonstrating 4.8-μm of thinning compared to controls (P = 0.01, generalized estimating equation [GEE] models accounting for age and within-subject, intereye correlations). Athlete vs control status was not a predictor of RNFL thickness for the subgroup of football players in this cohort (P = 0.60). Binocular (P = 0.001) and monocular (P = 0.02) LCLA at 2.5% contrast and vision-specific QOL (P = 0.04) were significant predictors of athlete vs control status (GEE models accounting for age and within-subject, intereye correlations). Rapid number naming performance times were not significantly different between the control and athlete groups. This study showed that retinal axonal and neuronal loss is present among collision sport athletes, with most notable differences seen in boxers. These findings are accompanied by reductions in

  9. The Organizational Climate in Collegiate Athletics: An Athletic Trainer's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Eason, Christianne M

    2018-01-01

      An organizational climate is largely based on an employee's perceptions of the working conditions in which he or she engages regularly. A multifaceted concept, the organizational climate is often formed by perceptions of employee welfare, rewards, and support. Achieving work-life balance is also a part of the climate.   To learn collegiate athletic trainers' perceptions of organizational climate and specifically how it may pertain to their work-life balance.   Phenomenologic study.   Collegiate practice setting.   Thirty athletic trainers working in the collegiate athletics setting took part in 1-on-1 phone interviews. The participants were 30.5 (interquartile range [IQR] = 7.75) years old and had been certified for 7 (IQR = 5) years and at their current position for 4 (IQR = 3) years.   Participants completed a phone interview that followed a semistructured framework. All transcribed interviews were analyzed using a phenomenologic approach. Researcher triangulation, expert review, and data saturation were used to establish credibility.   Athletic trainers working in the collegiate athletics setting who had positive perceptions of their work-life balance described their organizational climate as family friendly. Our participants' supervisors allowed for autonomy related to work scheduling, which provided opportunities for work-life balance. These athletic trainers believed that they worked in a climate that was collegial, which was helpful for work-life balance. In addition, the importance of placing family first was part of the climate.   The perceptions of our participants revealed a climate of family friendliness, supervisor support, and collegiality among staff members, which facilitated the positive climate for work-life balance. The mindset embraced the importance of family and recognized that work did not always have to supersede personal priorities.

  10. Team physicians in college athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Mark E; Quigley, D Bradford; Wang, Frank; Balint, Christopher R; Boland, Arthur L

    2005-10-01

    There has been little documentation of what constitutes the clinical work of intercollegiate team physicians. Team physicians could be recruited based on the needs of athletes. A multidisciplinary team of physicians is necessary to treat college athletes. Most physician evaluations are for musculoskeletal injuries treated nonoperatively. Descriptive epidemiology study. For a 2-year period, a database was created that recorded information on team physician encounters with intercollegiate athletes at a major university. Data on imaging studies, hospitalizations, and surgeries were also recorded. The diagnoses for physician encounters with all undergraduates through the university's health service were also recorded. More initial athlete evaluations were for musculoskeletal diagnoses (73%) than for general medical diagnoses (27%) (P respiratory infections and dermatologic disorders, or multiple visits for concussions. Football accounted for 22% of all physician encounters, more than any other sport (P athletes did not require a greater number of physician encounters than did the general undergraduate pool of students on a per capita basis. Intercollegiate team physicians primarily treat musculoskeletal injuries that do not require surgery. General medical care is often single evaluations of common conditions and repeat evaluations for concussions.

  11. SOCIAL SECURITY OF TURKISH ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış ÖZTUNA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Law No. 5510 realized within the social security reform aims providing a structure which presents equal scope and quality of social security service other all citizens. According to Labor Law No 4857, unionization of sportsmen in Turkish legal environment is possible, sport clubs and sportsmen are continuing to live without so many rights and obligations but they didn’t. Aim of this study; to prove sportsmen of location of the labour law and to mark off. The purpose of the study is explained according to Law No. 4857 and Law No. 5510 Turkish athletes. Profesional athletes deemed to be insurance holders for the purposes of implementing short and long term insurance branches of No 5510 Law. But amateur athletes don't seem to be insurance holders for the purposes of implementing short and long term insurance branches of No 5510 Law. According to the law 5774 regarding to be called as an g overnment athlete, within the adults category of the sports that are accepted as olympic, paralympic and deaflympic; pension is paid to the amateur athletes who became first, second or third at Olymic games, World or European Champions as an individual or team sports and to the national team coaches and assistant coaches of the athletes’ who became Olympic or World Champion as a team.

  12. Cannabinoids cases in polish athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Pokrywka

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the number of cases and the profiles of Polish athletes who had occasionally been using marijuana or hashish throughout the period of 1998-2004, with respect to: sex, age, and discipline of sport as well as the period of testing (in- and out-of-competition. Results of the study were compared with some data reported by other WADA accredited anti-doping laboratories. Totally, 13 631 urine samples taken from Polish athletes of both sexes, aged 10-67 years, performing 46 disciplines of sport were tested. Cannabinoids were detected in 267 samples. Among Polish athletes the relative number of positive THC (tetrahydrocannabinol samples was one of the highest in Europe. The group of young Polish athletes (aged 16-24 years was the most THC-positive. THC-positive cases were noted more frequently in male athletes tested during out of competitions. The so-called contact sports (rugby, ice hockey, skating, boxing, badminton, body building and acrobatic sports were those sports, where the higher risk of cannabis use was observed. The legal interpretation of some positive cannabinoids results would be difficult because of some accidental and unintentional use of the narcotics by sportsmen. It was concluded that national anti-doping organizations (NADO’s, which are competent to judge whether the anti-doping rules were violated, should take into account the possibility of non-intentional doping use of cannabinoids via passive smoking of marijuana.

  13. How Stereotypes Affect Current Collegiate Female Athletes' Athletic Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    Stereotype discrimination affects female athletes' athletic experiences. Studies have been conducted of former collegiate female athletes' perceptions of the lesbian stereotype found that they were discriminated against because of their sport participation. These limit the recalling of thoughts and experience from the female athletes' playing…

  14. Injured Athletes' Perceived Loss of Identity: Educational Implications for Athletic Trainers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Barbara D.

    2010-01-01

    Context: As educators, athletic trainers should familiarize athletes with the concepts of self acceptance self-esteem and identity to assuage psychological trauma accompanying injury because the more a person identifies with being an athlete, the more difficult it is to deal with athletic injury. Objective: The objective of this article is to…

  15. High Baseline Postconcussion Symptom Scores and Concussion Outcomes in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Aimee; Sufrinko, Alicia; Elbin, R J; Covassin, Tracey; Collins, Micky; Kontos, Anthony

    2016-02-01

    Some healthy athletes report high levels of baseline concussion symptoms, which may be attributable to several factors (eg, illness, personality, somaticizing). However, the role of baseline symptoms in outcomes after sport-related concussion (SRC) has not been empirically examined. To determine if athletes with high symptom scores at baseline performed worse than athletes without baseline symptoms on neurocognitive testing after SRC. Cohort study. High school and collegiate athletic programs. A total of 670 high school and collegiate athletes participated in the study. Participants were divided into groups with either no baseline symptoms (Postconcussion Symptom Scale [PCSS] score = 0, n = 247) or a high level of baseline symptoms (PCSS score > 18 [top 10% of sample], n = 68). Participants were evaluated at baseline and 2 to 7 days after SRC with the Immediate Post-concussion Assessment and Cognitive Test and PCSS. Outcome measures were Immediate Post-concussion Assessment and Cognitive Test composite scores (verbal memory, visual memory, visual motor processing speed, and reaction time) and total symptom score on the PCSS. The groups were compared using repeated-measures analyses of variance with Bonferroni correction to assess interactions between group and time for symptoms and neurocognitive impairment. The no-symptoms group represented 38% of the original sample, whereas the high-symptoms group represented 11% of the sample. The high-symptoms group experienced a larger decline from preinjury to postinjury than the no-symptoms group in verbal (P = .03) and visual memory (P = .05). However, total concussion-symptom scores increased from preinjury to postinjury for the no-symptoms group (P = .001) but remained stable for the high-symptoms group. Reported baseline symptoms may help identify athletes at risk for worse outcomes after SRC. Clinicians should examine baseline symptom levels to better identify patients for earlier referral and treatment for their

  16. Secondary Amenorrhea among Female Athletes. Current Understandings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasiene, Gwen Hagenbuch

    1983-01-01

    Research pertaining to female athletes' problems with secondary amenorrhea is reviewed. Studies point to stress, weight loss, anorexia nervosa, obesity, arduous athletic training, and age of onset of training as factors which may contribute to this disorder. (PP)

  17. Exploring Touch Communication Between Coaches and Athletes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    influential relational and emotional components (closeness, commitment, complementarity and .... of coaches and athletes, it is critical to understand how coaches and athletes .... relationship members in general are motivated to achieve and ...

  18. Infectious Mononucleosis: Recognition and Management in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichner, Edward R.

    1987-01-01

    Infectious mononucleosis strikes many young athletes. Considered here are its epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, natural course, complications, and management. The focus is on concerns of athletes with a perspective on personality, convalescence, and chronic fatigue. (Author/MT)

  19. Helping Athletes Avoid Hazardous Weight Control Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janz, Kathleen

    1988-01-01

    This article addresses dangerous dieting techniques used by athletes and provides coaches and teachers specific strategies to aid in preventing eating-related disorders among athletes. Symptoms of anorexia and of bulimia are described. (JL)

  20. Creating Healthy Environments For Youth Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has created a presentation and companion checklist to help coaches and athletic administrators better understand the environmental health risks associated with youth sports and the steps they can follow to protect young athletes.

  1. The pediatric athlete: younger athletes with sport-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, William P; Taylor, Alex M; Proctor, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Although much of the lay media attention surrounding sport-related concussion (SRC) focuses on professional athletes, SRC is a common injury in pediatric sports. The anatomy, biomechanics, and response to injury of the developing pediatric brain differ from those of the adult. Similarly, the neurocognitive abilities of the child are developing more rapidly than in an adult. The effects of concussive brain injury on the life of a child are different from those of an adult. This article focuses on the aspects of SRC that are specific to the younger athletes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. ANTIOXIDANT AGENTS: THEIR ROLE IN NUTRITION AND HEALTH OF ATHLETS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Gerin Fanhani e Márcia Pires Ferreira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical exercise, when practiced with moderation, proporcionates organic benefits. However, physical activities, which exceed physiological limits, promote an increase in production of oxygen free radicals. These radicals, when not neutralized, may initiate a deleterious process in cells and tissues, named oxidative stress. This degenerative process may originate different illnesses and, moreover, it seems to play an important role in the process of early aging. This study aimed to evaluate the consumption levels of food that contains antioxidants and the knowledge about its benefits among athletes, practitioners of different sportive modalities, of both sexes, in Umuarama-Paraná. A form containing four questions and an alimentary consumption frequency table was used. Were included in the study 11 men (22 to 30 years and 10 women (18 to 22 years, all of them had the sport as a professional activity. It was observed that the athletes do not possess enough information about the action mechanisms of antioxidant substances in organism, as well as about its effect in the prevention of illnesses and early aging. Considering the frequency of antioxidant food consumption, 70% of the male athletes rarely ingest selenium and flavonoids, 50% rarely ingest vitamin E. Among female athletes, 73% and 55% rarely consume selenium and flavonoids, respectively. Thus, this research evidences the need to inform athletes about the importance of varied and balanced feeding that includes antioxidant foods in their day-by-day, preventing chronic illnesses and early aging.

  3. Lower Body Stiffness Modulation Strategies in Well Trained Female Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millett, Emma L; Moresi, Mark P; Watsford, Mark L; Taylor, Paul G; Greene, David A

    2016-10-01

    Millett, EL, Moresi, MP, Watsford, ML, Taylor, PG, and Greene, DA. Lower body stiffness modulation strategies in well trained female athletes. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2845-2856, 2016-Lower extremity stiffness quantifies the relationship between the amount of leg compression and the external load to which the limb are subjected. This study aimed to assess differences in leg and joint stiffness and the subsequent kinematic and kinetic control mechanisms between athletes from various training backgrounds. Forty-seven female participants (20 nationally identified netballers, 13 high level endurance athletes and 14 age and gender matched controls) completed a maximal unilateral countermovement jump, drop jump and horizontal jump to assess stiffness. Leg stiffness, joint stiffness and associated mechanical parameters were assessed with a 10 camera motion analysis system and force plate. No significant differences were evident for leg stiffness measures between athletic groups for any of the tasks (p = 0.321-0.849). However, differences in joint stiffness and its contribution to leg stiffness, jump performance outcome measures and stiffness control mechanisms were evident between all groups. Practitioners should consider the appropriateness of the task utilised in leg stiffness screening. Inclusion of mechanistic and/or more sports specific tasks may be more appropriate for athletic groups.

  4. Eating psychopathology amongst athletes: links to current attachment styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Vaithehy; Jowett, Sophia; Meyer, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the study were two-fold; first to determine the associations between current attachment styles, and eating psychopathology amongst athletes, and second to simultaneously assess the mediating effects of self-esteem, perfectionism, and depression in this association. Four hundred and eleven British athletes completed self-report instruments pertaining to eating psychopathology, attachment styles, self-esteem, depression, and perfectionism. Athletes who scored highly on both avoidant and anxious attachment styles, reported elevated eating psychopathology scores. However, such associations were indirect and mediated via athletes' levels of self-esteem, self-critical perfectionism, and depression, with self-esteem and depression identified as more salient mediators than self-critical perfectionism. The current findings provide evidence to suggest that insecure attachment styles influence athletes' eating psychopathology via their impact on self-esteem, depression, and self-critical perfectionism. Moreover, self-esteem and depression may play more significant role in transferring the impact of insecure attachment styles on elevated eating psychopathology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Management of the athlete with a failed shoulder instability procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwathmey, F Winston; Warner, Jon J P

    2013-10-01

    The athlete with a failed instability procedure requires a thoughtful and systematic approach to achieve a good outcome. Goals of treatment should be defined and realistic expectations should be set. Revision stabilization has a high rate of recurrent instability, low rates of return to play, and low clinical outcome scores. Fundamental to successful revision surgery is choosing the correct procedure. The decision is straightforward in athletes with clear factors that predict recurrence (significant glenoid bone loss, engaging Hill-Sachs lesions) because only a bony procedure can restore the articular arc of the glenoid. Arthroscopic revision Bankart repair may be appropriate in those athletes who have an obvious Bankart tear and no bone loss after a traumatic reinjury. The challenge for the shoulder surgeon is identifying the best surgery for the athlete who does not have such clear-cut indications. Each factor that has the potential to lead to a poor outcome needs to be collected and calculated. Patient factors (age, laxity, type and level of sport), injury factors (mechanism of injury, capsulolabral injury, glenoid bone loss, Hill-Sachs lesion), and technical factors (previous surgery performed, integrity of repair, scarring) must be integrated into the treatment algorithm. Based on this collection of factors, the shoulder surgeon should be prepared to provide the athlete with the surgery that provides the best chance to return to playing sports and the lowest risk of recurrent instability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Doping and supplementation: the attitudes of talented young athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloodworth, A J; Petróczi, A; Bailey, R; Pearce, G; McNamee, M J

    2012-04-01

    There is evidence of a small but significant proportion of adolescents engaging in doping practices. Young athletes face very specific pressures to achieve results as they strive for a career at an elite level. This study used an anonymized questionnaire to survey 403 (12-21 years old) talented young athletes' attitudes toward performance-enhancing substances and supplements. Two-thirds of the sample comprised males. Athletes were generally against the use of doping substances to enhance sporting performance. Within this generally unfavorable view, males tended to express a more permissive attitude toward performance-enhancing methods than females. Those convinced of the necessity of supplementation for sporting success were also more likely to express permissive attitudes. When asked whether they would take a "magic" drug that, while undetectable, would significantly enhance performance, the overwhelming majority of athletes said "no," but many thought others would take the substance. Interestingly, there was a significant association between the projected use of the hypothetical drug by competitors and the individual respondent's willingness to take the hypothetically "magic" substance. The study offers an insight into young athletes' attitudes toward specific forms of performance enhancement, and the strength of their beliefs in the face of a tempting hypothetical scenario. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. The Size and Scope of Collegiate Athletic Training Facilities and Staffing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallucci, Andrew R; Petersen, Jeffrey C

    2017-08-01

    Athletic training facilities have been described in terms of general design concepts and from operational perspectives. However, the size and scope of athletic training facilities, along with staffing at different levels of intercollegiate competition, have not been quantified.   To define the size and scope of athletic training facilities and staffing levels at various levels of intercollegiate competition. To determine if differences existed in facilities (eg, number of facilities, size of facilities) and staffing (eg, full time, part time) based on the level of intercollegiate competition.   Cross-sectional study.   Web-based survey.   Athletic trainers (ATs) who were knowledgeable about the size and scope of athletic training programs.   Athletic training facility size in square footage; the AT's overall facility satisfaction; athletic training facility component spaces, including satellite facilities, game-day facilities, offices, and storage areas; and staffing levels, including full-time ATs, part-time ATs, and undergraduate students.   The survey was completed by 478 ATs (response rate = 38.7%) from all levels of competition. Sample means for facilities were 3124.7 ± 4425 ft 2 (290.3 ± 411 m 2 ) for the central athletic training facility, 1013 ± 1521 ft 2 (94 ± 141 m 2 ) for satellite athletic training facilities, 1272 ± 1334 ft 2 (118 ± 124 m 2 ) for game-day athletic training facilities, 388 ± 575 ft 2 (36 ± 53 m 2 ) for athletic training offices, and 424 ± 884 ft 2 (39 ± 82 m 2 ) for storage space. Sample staffing means were 3.8 ± 2.5 full-time ATs, 1.6 ± 2.5 part-time ATs, 25 ± 17.6 athletic training students, and 6.8 ± 7.2 work-study students. Division I schools had greater resources in multiple categories (P facilities in recent years was common, and almost half of ATs reported that upgrades have been approved for the near future.   This study provides benchmark descriptive data on athletic training staffing and

  8. Prevalence of Jumper's knee among nonelite athletes from different sports: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwerver, Johannes; Bredeweg, Steven W; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge

    2011-09-01

    The prevalence of jumper's knee among nonelite athletes from different sports is unknown. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of jumper's knee in nonelite athletes from different sports and to determine potential risk factors for jumper's knee. Cohort study (prevalence); Level of evidence, 2. The authors interviewed 891 male and female nonelite athletes from 7 popular sports in The Netherlands: basketball, volleyball, handball, korfball, soccer, field hockey, and track and field. Using a specially developed questionnaire, information was obtained about individual characteristics (age, height, and weight), training background, previous and actual knee problems, and the VISA-P (Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Patella) score. The overall prevalence of current jumper's knee was 8.5% (78 of 891 athletes), showing a significant difference between sports with different loading characteristics. Prevalence was highest among volleyball players (14.4%) and lowest among soccer players (2.5%); it was significantly higher among male athletes (51 of 502 [10.2%]) than female athletes (25 of 389 [6.4%]) (χ(2) = 3.91, P = .048). The mean duration of symptoms was 18.9 months (standard deviation [SD], 21.6; median value, 12.0; range, 2.0-59.8). The mean VISA-P score of the athletes with jumper's knee was 71.4 (SD, 13.8). Athletes with jumper's knee were significantly younger, taller, and heavier than those without jumper's knee. Prevalence of jumper's knee is high among nonelite athletes and varies between 14.4% and 2.5% for different sports. Jumper's knee is almost twice as common among male nonelite athletes compared with female athletes. Different sport-specific loading characteristics of the knee extensor apparatus, a younger age, a taller body stature, and higher body weight seem to be risk factors associated with patellar tendinopathy.

  9. IS GNB3 C825T POLYMORPHISM ASSOCIATED WITH ELITE STATUS OF POLISH ATHLETES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sawczuk

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The GNB3 gene encodes the beta 3 subunit of heterotrimeric G-proteins that are key components of intracellular signal transduction between G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR and intracellular effectors and might be considered as a potential candidate gene for physical performance. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare frequency distribution of the common C to T polymorphism at position 825 (C825T of the GNB3 gene between athletes and nonathletic controls of the Polish population as well as to compare the genotype distribution and allele frequency of C825T variants within a group of athletes, i.e. between athletes of sports of different metabolic demands and competitive levels. Methods: The study was performed in a group of 223 Polish athletes of the highest nationally competitive standard (123 endurance-oriented athletes and 100 strength/power athletes. Control samples were prepared from 354 unrelated, sedentary volunteers. Results: The χ2 test revealed no statistical differences between the endurance-oriented athletes and the control group or between sprint/strength athletes and the control group across the GNB3 825C/T genotypes. There were no male-female genotype or allele frequency differences in controls or in either strength/power or endurance-oriented athletes. No statistically significant differences in either allele frequencies or genotype distribution were noted between the top-elite, elite or sub-elite of endurance-oriented and strength/power athletes and the control group. Conclusions: No association between elite status of Polish athletes and the GNB3 C825T polymorphic site has been found.

  10. Acute hand and wrist injuries in athletes: evaluation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, W J; Slowman, L S

    2001-01-01

    Acute hand and wrist injuries in the athlete constitute a unique orthopaedic challenge. Because of the particular demands on the athlete (e.g., financial implications, coaching and administration pressures, self-esteem issues), a specialized management approach is often necessary. Common sites of injury include the ulnar collateral ligament of the thumb metacarpophalangeal joint, proximal interphalangeal joint, metacarpals and phalanges, scaphoid, hamate, and distal radius. Treatment of these injuries varies depending on the patient's age, sport, position played, and level of competition, but departures from standard practice as regards surgery, rehabilitation, and return to competition should never compromise care.

  11. THE EFFECT OF FUN ATHLETICS EXERCISES ON PSYCHOMOTOR DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Güler

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of fun athletics exercises on the psychomotor development. The research group consisted of 9 boys and 27 girls with a total of 36 students between 11-14 ages in Kocaeli. In the study, the fun athletics exercises (featured somersault, obstacles to jump, slip under the barrier, slalom, training ladder, double jump, medicine ball handling applied for 90 minutes a day and 3 days a week over 8 weeks. The data was analyzed with Wilcoxon Matched Pairs Test and significance level was determined as α=0.05. According to findings of this study significant differences were found between pre and post tests results. As a result this study showed that fun athletic exercises have a positive effect on 11-14 aged children’s psychomotor development.

  12. The evolved athlete a guide for elite sport enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Ivancevic, Tijana; Gojkovic, Zoran; Greenberg, Ronald; Greenberg, Helen; Jovanovic, Bojan; Lukman, Aleksandar

    2017-01-01

    This handbook provides insights into becoming a better and more evolved athlete. It offers aspiring athletes, regardless of skill level, a better understanding of their bodies and how to unlock the unlimited potential of muscles without injury. It focuses on the “superhero” muscle: the iliopsoas, and also sheds light on Diamond-Corporation’s new technology and elite athleticism, and how these can contribute to a healthier life. Lastly, the authors explore the mindset of success and provide exercises for remaining calm under pressure. This stand-alone book is the sequel to Paradigm Shift for Future Tennis and Enhancing Performance and Reducing Stress in Sport (2014, Springer). This book is written by scientists, whose expertise collectively spans the fields of biomechanics, clinical surgery, current and former elite athleticism, engineering and naturopath doctoral work. Together, they aim to inspire and educate athletes on how to improve their sports performance by using new technologies, world class bio...

  13. The theoretical analysis content correctional massage for athletes with disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanna Rudenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze the content authoring methodology of correction massage for athletes with disabilities. Material and Methods: analysis and synthesis of information for scientific, methodical and special literature; pedagogical supervision; analysis of medical cards; methods of mathematical statistics. The study involved 60 athletes with disabilities qualifications of different nosological groups. Results: of correction massage technique developed taking into account the level of physical activity, nosological group, physiological effects of massage techniques on the system. Forms of correction massage must meet the intensity of physical activity, main course and related diseases in the training cycle athletes with disabilities. Conclusions: apply total, partial, intermittent, local, segmental-reflex massage, paravertebral zones, taking into account intensity physical activity, individual tolerance for exercise

  14. Awareness and use of caffeine by athletes competing at the 2005 Ironman Triathlon World Championships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbrow, Ben; Leveritt, Michael

    2006-10-01

    This study assessed the knowledge, prevalence, and quantity of caffeine use by athletes competing at the 2005 Ironman Triathlon World Championships. Caffeine-related questionnaires were self-administered to 140 (105 male and 35 female, 40.3 +/- 10.7 y) athletes representing 16 countries. Fifty of these athletes further consented to immediate post-race blood samples for analysis of plasma caffeine and paraxanthine using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Seventy-two percent of 70 athletes correctly identified caffeine as being an unrestricted substance in triathlon. The majority of athletes [125 (89%)] were planning on using a caffeinated substance immediately prior to or throughout the race. Cola drinks (78%), caffeinated gels (42%), coffee (usually pre-race) (37%), energy drinks (13%), and NoDoz tablets (9%) were the most popular caffeinated choices. Mean +/- standard deviation (and range) post race plasma caffeine and paraxanthine levels were 22.3 +/- 20 micromol/L (1.7 to 98.4) and 9.4 +/- 6 micromol/L (1.8 to 28.9), respectively. Seven athletes (14%) finished with plasma caffeine levels > or = 40 micromol/L. Plasma values from elite athletes did not differ from age group competitors. Despite the prevalence of its consumption and the training experience of this athletic group, over one quarter of athletes remained either confused or uninformed about caffeine's legality. Levels of plasma caffeine taken immediately post race indicated that athletes typically finish with quantities of caffeine that have been shown to improve endurance performance (i.e., approximately 20 micromol/L or a dose of > or = 3 mg/kg body weight).

  15. Transportation Practices in Community College Athletics

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVetter, David; Kim, Hyun Duck

    2010-01-01

    Over 45,000 U.S. community college athletes were transported to events during 2005-2006. Transporting college athletes has been an overlooked risk management issue facing administrators. Team travel accidents have caused death, injury, liability claims, property loss, and grief. National Junior College Athletic Association (NJCAA) member…

  16. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: How Vulnerable Are Athletes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichner, Edward R.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses chronic fatigue syndrome as it affects elite athletes, noting that overtraining may mimic it. In some cases, athletes who have it perform exceedingly well in the face of debilitating fatigue. Among athletes and nonathletes, the cause and the mind-body connection are areas of controversy and research. (Author/SM)

  17. Intercollegiate Athletics Subsidies: A Regressive Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denhart, Matthew; Vedder, Richard

    2010-01-01

    For most colleges and universities in the United States, intercollegiate athletics is a losing financial proposition. The vast majority ICA departments do not break even and require subsidization from the institution as a whole. When schools are forced to heavily subsidize athletics, ICA serves to impose an "athletics tax" on other dimensions of…

  18. Gender Verification of Female Olympic Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Barry D.; Genel, Myron; Robinowitz, Carolyn B.; Turner, Patricia L.; Woods, Gary L.

    2002-01-01

    Gender verification of female athletes has long been criticized by geneticists, endocrinologists, and others in the medical community. Recently, the International Olympic Committee's Athletic Commission called for discontinuation of mandatory laboratory-based gender verification of female athletes. This article discusses normal sexual…

  19. A Study of Character among Collegiate Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heupel, Jill D.

    2017-01-01

    The idea that sport builds character has been around for a long time. However, sports may not build the type of character once thought. Character of athletes was defined based on differing views held by sport scholars, coaches, athletes, and sport enthusiast. Sport scholars tend to view character of athletes from a moral perspective. Coaches,…

  20. 2009 Collegiate Athletic Department Sustainability Survey Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSherry, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This report shows that while sustainability efforts appear to be growing within collegiate athletics, commitment to sustainability is lower among athletic departments than compared to their institutions as a whole and to professional sports teams. The survey was distributed to the 119 athletic departments at National Collegiate Athletic…

  1. COMPOSITION OF THE ATHLETES DIET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastislav Salaj

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available  Sports nutrition is a constantly evolving field with many of research papers published annually. However, designing the most suitable sports diet is very difficult. It must be given to the type of training, its duration and intensity, the age and sex of the athlete and also for overall health. The aim of this article is to summarize knowledges about sports nutrition, especially intake of carbohydrates, proteins, fats and dietary supplements and their influence on the performance and recovery of the athlete.doi:10.5219/126 

  2. Cannabinoids cases in polish athletes

    OpenAIRE

    A Pokrywka; Z Obmiński; D Kwiatkowska; R Grucza

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the number of cases and the profiles of Polish athletes who had occasionally been using marijuana or hashish throughout the period of 1998-2004, with respect to: sex, age, and discipline of sport as well as the period of testing (in- and out-of-competition). Results of the study were compared with some data reported by other WADA accredited anti-doping laboratories. Totally, 13 631 urine samples taken from Polish athletes of both sexes, aged 10-67 year...

  3. High-Risk Drinking Characteristics in Collegiate Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, James; Swanik, Kathleen

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors aimed to further describe the relationship of alcohol use by college athletes to variables, such as sport participation, time of year, and level of competition. Participants: There were 720 participants from Divisions I, II, and III who participated in either a team sport or an individual sport. Methods: The authors measured…

  4. The role of athlete's sponsorship on the marketing strategy of a sports brand : A qualitative study conducted at HEAD France

    OpenAIRE

    BOUVIER, Matthieu; LESAULE, Marlène

    2017-01-01

    Athletes sponsorship has become an important part of the marketing communication mix for sports brands today. We know that athletes are major celebrities within the mass media in modern society and they can use their image and the power they have directly through their network to interact with customers. Their level of fame and popularity is still increasing, and many star athletes have million dollars’ endorsement contracts with brands who want to be associated with the athlete’s image. The ...

  5. Predictors of disordered eating in a sample of elite Division I college athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Scott G; Johnson, Craig; Powers, Pauline S; Crosby, Ross D; Wonderlich, Steve A; Wittrock, David A; Mitchell, James E

    2003-11-01

    The present study sought to investigate the relationship between a number of areas of elite student-athletes' lives and disordered eating. We surveyed 1445 elite Division I athletes at 11 different institutions and in 11 different sports. Hierarchical regression was used to indicate specific areas of the participants' collegiate experience that may be associated with disordered eating attitudes and symptomatology. Results demonstrate that the variables entered into each model predicted between 40.5% and 46.4% of the variance for the restriction of food, body dissatisfaction, and drive for thinness. Categories of variables that generally predicted the most variance for each dependent measure were demographics, athletic involvement, and personality. Of the 11 sports included in the analysis, wrestling and gymnastics demonstrated elevated levels of drive for thinness, food restriction, and purging behavior compared to other athletes. Findings suggest that in elite athletes gender, ethnicity, sport, and self-esteem are associated with several behaviors and attitudes indicative of disordered eating.

  6. Are NCAA Division I Athletes Prepared for End-of-Athletic-Career Transition? A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lauren; Buttell, Frederick P

    2018-01-01

    This review focuses on research that specifically highlights the constructs, paradigms, and factors that impact the end-of-athletic-career transition. However, the majority of the research conducted around this topic is established outside of the United States and regarding professional athletes. The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) is one of the most dominant athletic institutions in the world, and arguably transitions the most end-of-athletic-career athletes per year, and minimal research exists on this specific collegiate athletic population. The purpose of this review is to review the existent literature on this topic and highlight the leading research and components impacting athletes during the end-of-athletic-career transition in order to inform future research and practices with the college athletics population. This review utilizes a Client Oriented Practical Evidence Search question as an Evidence Based Practice approach to guide the literature search and literature review process while identifying the leading research contributing to end-of-athletic-career transition. Following rigorous search criteria, a total of 14 articles were included in the literature review. The selected articles identified central constructs impacting the athletic career transition process, including retirement planning, identity loss, coping skills, and support systems. Additional research is warranted in the United States, particularly with the NCAA collegiate athletes in order to better understand the end-of-athletic-career transition process, as well as instituting interventions to increase resilience in college senior NCAA athletes transitioning out of sport.

  7. The female athlete triad in student track and field athletes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Outcome measures: Athletes completed a demographic, health and sport questionnaire; pathogenic body weight control questionnaire; menstrual history questionnaire; four 24-hour dietary recalls and one three-day diet and exercise record form. Body composition and bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed with dual ...

  8. Oral health and impact on performance of athletes participating in the London 2012 Olympic Games: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needleman, I; Ashley, P; Petrie, A; Fortune, F; Turner, W; Jones, J; Niggli, J; Engebretsen, L; Budgett, R; Donos, N; Clough, T; Porter, S

    2013-01-01

    Background Oral health is important both for well-being and successful elite sporting performance. Reports from Olympic Games have found significant treatment needs; however, few studies have examined oral health directly. The aim of this study was to evaluate oral health, the determinants of oral health and the effect of oral health on well-being, training and performance of athletes participating in the London 2012 Games. Methods Cross-sectional study at the dental clinic within the Polyclinic in the athletes’ village. Following informed consent, a standardised history, clinical examination and brief questionnaire were conducted. Results 302 athletes from 25 sports were recruited with data available for 278. The majority of athletes were from Africa, the Americas and Europe. Overall, the results demonstrated high levels of poor oral health including dental caries (55% athletes), dental erosion (45% athletes) and periodontal disease (gingivitis 76% athletes, periodontitis 15% athletes). More than 40% of athletes were ‘bothered’ by their oral health with 28% reporting an impact on quality of life and 18% on training and performance. Nearly half of the participants had not undergone a dental examination or hygiene care in the previous year. Conclusions The oral health of athletes attending the dental clinic of the London 2012 Games was poor with a resulting substantial negative impact on well-being, training and performance. As oral health is an important element of overall health and well-being, health promotion and disease prevention interventions are urgently required to optimise athletic performance. PMID:24068332

  9. Examining coaches' perceptions of how their stress influences the coach-athlete relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelwell, Richard C; Wagstaff, Christopher R D; Chapman, Michael T; Kenttä, Göran

    2017-10-01

    This study extends recent coach stress research by evaluating how coaches perceive their stress experiences to affect athletes, and the broader coach-athlete relationship. A total of 12 coaches working across a range of team sports at the elite level took part in semi-structured interviews to investigate the 3 study aims: how they perceive athletes to detect signals of coach stress; how they perceive their stress experiences to affect athletes; and, how effective they perceive themselves to be when experiencing stress. Following content analysis, data suggested that coaches perceived athletes able to detect when they were experiencing stress typically via communication, behavioural, and stylistic cues. Although coaches perceived their stress to have some positive effects on athletes, the overwhelming effects were negative and affected "performance and development", "psychological and emotional", and "behavioural and interaction" factors. Coaches also perceived themselves to be less effective when stressed, and this was reflected in their perceptions of competence, self-awareness, and coaching quality. An impactful finding is that coaches are aware of how a range of stress responses are expressed by themselves, and to how they affect athletes, and their coaching quality. Altogether, findings support the emerging view that coach stress affects their own, and athlete performance.

  10. Altitude training for elite endurance athletes: A review for the travel medicine practitioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Gerard; O'Connor, Rory; Johnston, Niall

    2016-01-01

    High altitude training is regarded as an integral component of modern athletic preparation, especially for endurance sports such as middle and long distance running. It has rapidly achieved popularity among elite endurance athletes and their coaches. Increased hypoxic stress at altitude facilitates key physiological adaptations within the athlete, which in turn may lead to improvements in sea-level athletic performance. Despite much research in this area to date, the exact mechanisms which underlie such improvements remain to be fully elucidated. This review describes the current understanding of physiological adaptation to high altitude training and its implications for athletic performance. It also discusses the rationale and main effects of different training models currently employed to maximise performance. Athletes who travel to altitude for training purposes are at risk of suffering the detrimental effects of altitude. Altitude illness, weight loss, immune suppression and sleep disturbance may serve to limit athletic performance. This review provides an overview of potential problems which an athlete may experience at altitude, and offers specific training recommendations so that these detrimental effects are minimised. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Optimizing the physical conditioning of the NASCAR sprint cup pit crew athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, David P; Davis, Adam M; Lightfoot, J Timothy

    2015-03-01

    Stock car racing is the largest spectator sport in the United States. As a result, National Association for Stock Car Automobile Racing (NASCAR) Sprint Cup teams have begun to invest in strength and conditioning programs for their pit crew athletes. However, there is limited knowledge regarding the physical characteristics of elite NASCAR pit crew athletes, how the NASCAR Sprint Cup season affects basic physiological parameters such as body composition, and what is the most appropriate physical training program that meets the needs of a pit crew athlete. We conducted 3 experiments involving Sprint Cup motorsport athletes to determine predictors of success at the elite level, seasonal physiological changes, and appropriate physical training programs. Our results showed that hamstring flexibility (p = 0.015) and the score on the 2-tire front run test (p = 0.012) were significant predictors of NASCAR Sprint Cup Pit Crew athlete performance. Additionally, during the off season, pit crew athletes lost lean body mass, which did not return until the middle of the season. Therefore, a strength and conditioning program was developed to optimize pit crew athlete performance throughout the season. Implementation of this strength and conditioning program in 1 NASCAR Sprint Cup team demonstrated that pit crew athletes were able to prevent lean body mass loss and have increased muscle power output from the start of the season to the end of the season.

  12. Is athletic background associated with a future lower prevalence of risk factors for chronic disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano H.X. Batista

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study examined whether the prevalence of behavioral and biological risk factors of former elite athletes (both men and women, differed from nonelite athletes and nonathletes. A total of 491 individuals (225 former elite athletes, 168 former nonelite athletes, and 98 nonathletes participated in this study. Major behavioral and biological risk factors identified in the 2002 World Health Report were assessed. Apart from alcohol consumption, former elite athletes had at least 70% lower likelihood than nonathletes for the other behavioral risk factors. Regarding biological factors, being overweight/obesity seems to be the one where minor differences exist, with a significant odds ratio only among female former elite athletes (0.09, p < 0.001 when compared to nonathletes. In general, the results showed healthy outcomes among former elite athletes. Albeit the results extend to both sexes, women appear to have slightly healthier outcomes. Being a former athlete, especially at an elite level, seems to be associated with decreased risk factors for major chronic diseases.

  13. [Perception, processing of visual information and resistance to emotional stresses in athletes of different ages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobeĭnikova, L H; Makarchuk, M Iu

    2013-01-01

    Among the numerous studies devoted to the study of perception and information processing, no data available on the effects of age on these processes. In this paper we studied the influence of psycho-emotional stress and different levels of stress on the mental processes of perception and information processing in highly skilled athletes divided into two groups. The first group included the athletes aged 19-24 years (12 athletes, members of the Ukrainian team in Greco-Roman wrestling), the second group included the athletes aged 27-31 years (7 highly skilled athletes, members of the Ukrainian team in Greco-Roman wrestling). We revealed that the athletes of the first group had higher productivity and better visual perception and visual information processing efficiency, compared with athletes from the second group. This observation suggests a dependency of cognitive component of perception and information processing on the age of the athletes. Sportsmen from the second group had higher stress resistance compared to the older age group.

  14. Eating psychopathology as a risk factor for depressive symptoms in a sample of British athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Vaithehy; Jowett, Sophia; Meyer, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Within the clinical literature it is accepted that there is a strong connection between eating disorders and depression; however the nature of the casual relationship is somewhat unclear. Therefore the aim of the present study was to determine the prospective relationship between eating psychopathology and depressive symptoms among competitive British athletes. A total of 122 athletes completed the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire and the depression subscale of the Symptom Checklist-90R over a 6-month period. Partial correlations revealed that when controlling for baseline eating psychopathology, athletes' baseline depressive symptoms was not related to their eating psychopathology 6 months later. However, when controlling for baseline depressive symptoms, athletes' initial eating psychopathology was positively and significantly related to depressive symptoms 6 months later. Subsequent hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed athletes' initial levels of eating psychopathology significantly predicted depressive symptoms 6 months later. The current findings support the assertion that elevated eating psychopathology serves as a potential risk factor for the development of depression in athletes. Thus, National Governing Bodies, athletic clubs, sport organisations and universities need to recognise and be aware that exposure to the factors that increase the risk of eating disorders inadvertently serves to increase athletes' vulnerability for depression.

  15. Need for and Interest in a Sports Nutrition Mobile Device Application Among Division I Collegiate Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga, Krystle E; Downey, Darcy L; McCluskey, Ryan; Rivers, Carley

    2017-02-01

    The majority of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) programs do not have a sports nutritionist, leaving athletes to gather information from resources that vary in reputability. The objective of this study was to identify a need for the development of accessible and reputable resources of nutrition information by assessing the current use of nutrition information resources, dietary habits, and sports nutrition knowledge among Division I collegiate athletes. Seventy-two athletes across eight sports completed questionnaires concerning nutrition resources used, dietary habits, and sports nutrition knowledge. In addition, interest levels in a mobile device application for delivery of nutrition information and tools were assessed. Primary sources for nutrition information included parents and family, athletic trainers (AT), and the internet/media, and athletes felt most comfortable discussing nutrition with parents and family, ATs, and strength and conditioning specialists. Performance on a sports nutrition knowledge questionnaire indicated a general lack of nutrition knowledge, and the high frequency of "unsure" responses suggested a lack of confidence in nutrition knowledge. Athletes conveyed a high likelihood that they would use a mobile device application as a nutrition resource, but were more interested in access to nutrition topics than tools such as a food log. We found that college athletes possess minimal sports nutrition knowledge, obtain nutrition information from nonprofessional resources, and were interested in utilizing a mobile device application as a resource. Further research is needed to explore the feasibility and effectiveness of alternative resources, such as a mobile device application, to deliver nutrition information and improve nutrition knowledge.

  16. Personal and Environmental Characteristics Predicting Burnout Among Certified Athletic Trainers at National Collegiate Athletic Association Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, Michelle L; Meyer, Barbara B; Ebersole, Kyle T

    2009-01-01

    Context: Recent research in the health care professions has shown that specific personal and environmental characteristics can predict burnout, which is a negative coping strategy related to stressful situations. Burnout has been shown to result in physiologic (eg, headaches, difficulty sleeping, poor appetite), psychological (eg, increased negative self-talk, depression, difficulty in interpersonal relationships), and behavioral (eg, diminished care, increased absenteeism, attrition) symptoms. Objective: To examine the relationship between selected personal and environmental characteristics and burnout among certified athletic trainers (ATs). Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: A demographic survey that was designed for this study and the Maslach Burnout Inventory–Human Services Survey. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 206 ATs employed at National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) institutions as clinical ATs volunteered. Main Outcome Measure(s): We assessed personal and environmental characteristics of ATs with the demographic survey and measured burnout using the Maslach Burnout Inventory–Human Services Survey. Multiple regression analyses were performed to examine relationships between specific personal and environmental characteristics and each of the 3 subscales of burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, personal accomplishment). Results: Most ATs we surveyed experienced low to average levels of burnout. Personal characteristics predicted 45.5% of the variance in emotional exhaustion (P teachers. The results also support the Cognitive-Affective Model of Athletic Burnout proposed by Smith. Finally, these results indicate new areas of concentration for burnout research and professional practice. PMID:19180220

  17. Athletes' Perception of Athletic Trainer Empathy: How Important Is It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Shannon; Larson, Mary

    2018-01-01

    Health care practitioners face increasing expectations to provide patient-centered care. Communication skills, specifically empathy, are critical in the provision of patient-centered care. Past work correlates empathy with improved patient satisfaction, compliance, and treatment outcomes. In particular, a predictive relationship exists between clients' ratings of their clinician's empathy and treatment outcomes. There is a dearth of studies examining empathy using qualitative methodology and factors of empathy in athletic training. To gain an understanding of athletes' perceptions of empathy in the patient-clinician relationship. Qualitative interviews were completed using grounded-theory techniques. A quiet office. A typical, purposeful sample of 15 college-age Division I student-athletes (8 female, 7 male; 19.3 ± 1.2 y) from a variety of sports (football, wrestling, volleyball, baseball, etc) participated. Researchers utilized an interview protocol designed to understand the factors of empathy related to athletic training. The interview protocol established a concept of empathy to help facilitate discussion of ideas. Data were transcribed, coded, and analyzed for themes and patterns using grounded-theory techniques. Trustworthiness of the data was ensured using an external auditor, member checks, and methods triangulation. Five themes described empathy: advocacy, communication, approachability, access, and competence. Advocacy was described as the athletic trainer (AT) representing the patient. Communication was the ability to listen reflectively; approachability emerged as the comfort and personal connection the patient felt with the AT. Access and technical competence were bridges required for the development of empathy. Providing patient-centered care facilitated by developing good patient-clinician relationships is critical in enabling the best treatment outcomes. ATs portray empathy through advocacy, communication, and approachability. Empathy

  18. Sleep quality evaluation, chronotype, sleepiness and anxiety of Paralympic Brazilian athletes: Beijing 2008 Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Andressa; Queiroz, Sandra Souza; Winckler, Ciro; Vital, Roberto; Sousa, Ronnie Andrade; Fagundes, Vander; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the sleep quality, sleepiness, chronotype and the anxiety level of Brazilian Paralympics athletes before the 2008 Beijing Paralympic Games. Cross-sectional study. Setting Exercise and Psychobiology Studies Center (CEPE) and Universidade Federal de São Paulo, an urban city in Brazil. A total of 27 Paralympics athletes of both genders (16 men and 11 women) with an average age of 28±6 years who practised athletics (track and field events) were evaluated. Sleep quality was evaluated using the Pittsburgh Scale and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale to evaluate sleepiness. Chronotype was determined by the Horne and Östberg questionnaire and anxiety through the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The evaluations were performed in Brazil 10 days before the competition. The study's results demonstrate that 83.3% of the athletes that presented excessive daytime sleepiness also had poor sleep quality. The authors noted that 71.4% were classified into the morning type and 72% of the athletes who presented a medium anxiety level also presented poor sleep quality. Athletes with poor sleep quality showed significantly lower sleep efficiency (p=0.0119) and greater sleep latency (p=0.0068) than athletes with good sleep quality. Athletes who presented excessive daytime sleepiness presented lower sleep efficiency compared to non-sleepy athletes (p=0.0241). The authors conclude that the majority of athletes presented poor sleep quality before the competition. This information should be taken into consideration whenever possible when scheduling rest, training and competition times.

  19. The impact of perfectionism traits on motivation in high-performance soccer athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Pestillo de Oliveira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2015v17n5p601   This study investigated the impact of performance traits on self-determined motivation in high-performance soccer athletes. Participants were professionalized and non-professionalized athletes from a soccer club of the state of Paraná, totaling 182 subjects. Data were collected using the Sport Motivation Scale and the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale through previous scheduling and the application of research instruments occurred through direct contact with subjects during practices, which were individually answered with average duration of 35 minutes. For data analysis, Mann-Whitney, Spearman correlation and Simple Regression were conducted (p<0.05. Results showed that professional athletes had higher levels in externally controlled motivation compared to non-professionalized (p<0.05 athletes, while non-professionalized athletes were more amotivated (p=0.002. Professionalized athletes had higher scores in the adaptive perfectionism domains compared to non-professionalized athletes (p<0.05. Adaptive perfectionism had significant impact (p<0.05 on the self-determined motivation regulations in professional athletes, while maladaptive perfectionism had an effect (p<0.05 on the external regulation of non-professionalized athletes. It was concluded that for athletes who reach professional level, adaptive perfectionism is an intervening element in the development of self-determined motivation. In addition, for non-professionalized

  20. ATHLET validation using accident management experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teschendorff, V.; Glaeser, H.; Steinhoff, F. [Gasellschaft fuer Anlagen - und Reaktorsicherheit (GSR) mbH, Garching (Germany)

    1995-09-01

    The computer code ATHLET is being developed as an advanced best-estimate code for the simulation of leaks and transients in PWRs and BWRs including beyond design basis accidents. The code has features that are of special interest for applications to small leaks and transients with accident management, e.g. initialisation by a steady-state calculation, full-range drift-flux model, and dynamic mixture level tracking. The General Control Simulation Module of ATHLET is a flexible tool for the simulation of the balance-of-plant and control systems including the various operator actions in the course of accident sequences with AM measures. The systematic validation of ATHLET is based on a well balanced set of integral and separate effect tests derived from the CSNI proposal emphasising, however, the German combined ECC injection system which was investigated in the UPTF, PKL and LOBI test facilities. PKL-III test B 2.1 simulates a cool-down procedure during an emergency power case with three steam generators isolated. Natural circulation under these conditions was investigated in detail in a pressure range of 4 to 2 MPa. The transient was calculated over 22000 s with complicated boundary conditions including manual control actions. The calculations demonstrations the capability to model the following processes successfully: (1) variation of the natural circulation caused by steam generator isolation, (2) vapour formation in the U-tubes of the isolated steam generators, (3) break-down of circulation in the loop containing the isolated steam generator following controlled cool-down of the secondary side, (4) accumulation of vapour in the pressure vessel dome. One conclusion with respect to the suitability of experiments simulating AM procedures for code validation purposes is that complete documentation of control actions during the experiment must be available. Special attention should be given to the documentation of operator actions in the course of the experiment.

  1. Multi-indicator Evaluation System for Broadsword, Rod, Sword and Spear Athletes Based on Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lin

    2017-08-01

    In the practical selection of Wushu athletes, the objective evaluation of the level of athletes lacks sufficient technical indicators and often relies on the coach’s subjective judgments. It is difficult to accurately and objectively reflect the overall quality of the athletes without a fully quantified indicator system, thus affecting the level improvement of Wushu competition. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is a systemic analysis method combining quantitative and qualitative analysis. This paper realizes structured, hierarchized and quantified decision-making process of evaluating broadsword, rod, sword and spear athletes in the AHP. Combing characteristics of the athletes, analysis is carried out from three aspects, i.e., the athlete’s body shape, physical function and sports quality and 18 specific evaluation indicators established, and then combining expert advice and practical experience, pairwise comparison matrix is determined, and then the weight of the indicators and comprehensive evaluation coefficient are obtained to establish the evaluation model for the athletes, thus providing a scientific theoretical basis for the selection of Wushu athletes. The evaluation model proposed in this paper has realized the evaluation system of broadsword, rod, sword and spear athletes, which has effectively improved the scientific level of Wushu athletes selection in practical application.

  2. Bone alterations by stress in athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doege, H.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes our experiences with the bone imaging in athletes. We studied 10 athletes and 10 other patients with spondylolisthesis of the lumbar spine and 16 athletes with suspicion of alterations of extremities. An increased uptake of this radiopharmaceutical was detected in six of 10 athletes with spondylolisthesis caused probably by stress fracture. Bone scans were negative in seven of 16 athletes with suspicion of lesion of extremities. In the remaining 9 patients scans were abnormal and showed periosteal injuries, epiphyseal alteration, joint abnormalities, tibial stress fractures and couvert fracture. It was also abnormal in bone injuries not evident in radiography. (orig.) [de

  3. Special nutritional concerns for the female athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Kathe A

    2006-06-01

    Inadequate dietary intake is the primary nutritional concern of today's female athlete. As these athletes fail to consume enough energy to support the physical demands of training, they become at risk for disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis, conditions collectively identified as the female athlete triad. This review addresses nutritional concerns of the female athlete, identification of those at risk, relationship of energy intake to menstrual irregularities, and recently identified chronic diseases associated with the female athlete triad. Strategies are offered to prevent harmful behaviors leading to the comorbidities associated with inadequate dietary intakes.

  4. Sport fans' impressions of gay male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jamonn; Cothren, Denise; Rogers, Ross; Kistler, Lindsay; Osowski, Anne; Greenauer, Nathan; End, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine sport fans' impressions of gay male athletes. Participants formed impressions of a fictional athlete from their favorite team after reading a short scenario about the player. The scenarios described the athlete as being gay or straight, and either becoming a distraction or not causing a distraction to the team. While males' ratings of the athlete did not significantly differ, female fans formed significantly more positive impressions of the gay male player than the straight athlete. These results are discussed in terms of the ingroup bias and the shifting culture of homophobia in sport.

  5. Self Hypnosis for Elite Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Colin P.

    A summary of the use of hypnosis in sport (Morgan 1980) has suggested that the evidence in this area is equivocal, particularly in strength, endurance, and psychomotor tasks. However, some experiments have demonstrated the potential use of hypnosis. This paper presents examples of two elite Australian athletes who achieve success using hypnosis or…

  6. A Corporate Pitch for Athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Steve

    1998-01-01

    The challenge of funding new athletic programs with no additional tax revenue forced a Colorado Springs school district to supplement existing funding arrangements (participation fees, gate admissions, and team fundraising) with a new income source--a lucrative Coca-Cola contract. This article explains how to negotiate (and justify) favorable…

  7. Women's Athletics: Coping with Controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoepner, Barbara J., Ed.

    This book is a collection of papers discussing controversial topics in women's athletics. Section one, "Overview--Women's Rights," includes articles on women's rights and equal opportunities in sports, the emergence of women in sports, and significant events in a century of American women's sports. Section two, "Women's Intercollegiate…

  8. Foot Health Facts for Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common foot problems affecting athletes: Prevent Foot & Ankle Running Injuries (downloadable PDF) Back-to-School Soccer Season Surgeons ... and Ankle Soccer is hard on the feet! Injuries to the foot and ankle can occur from running and side-to-side cutting, sliding or tackling ...

  9. Native American Ceremonial Athletic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, Wilma J.

    This is a report on the relationship of North American Indian athletic games to ceremonies. Data for this investigation were researched from 48 "Annual Reports of the Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution" published from 1881 to 1933, and the 84 volumes of the "American Anthropologist" published from 1888 to 1974. Observational…

  10. CARBOHYDRATE INTAKE CONSIDERATIONS FOR YOUNG ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Montfort-Steiger

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Good nutritional practices are important for exercise performance and health during all ages. Athletes and especially growing children engaged in heavy training have higher energy and nutrient requirements compared to their non-active counterparts. Scientific understanding of sports nutrition for the young athlete is lacking behind the growing number of young athletes engaged in sports. Most of the sports nutrition recommendations given to athletic children and adolescents are based on adult findings due to the deficiency in age specific information in young athletes. Therefore, this review reflects on child specific sports nutrition, particularly on carbohydrate intake and metabolism that distinguishes the child athlete from the adult athlete. Children are characterised to be in an insulin resistance stage during certain periods of maturation, have different glycolytic/metabolic responses during exercise, have a tendency for higher fat oxidation during exercise and show different heat dissipation mechanisms compared to adults. These features point out that young athletes may need different nutritional advice on carbohydrate for exercise to those from adult athletes. Sport drinks for example may need to be adapted to children specific needs. However, more research in this area is warranted to clarify sports nutrition needs of the young athlete to provide better and healthy nutritional guidance to young athletes

  11. Antioxidant status of interval-trained athletes in various sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dékány, M; Nemeskéri, V; Györe, I; Harbula, I; Malomsoki, J; Pucsok, J

    2006-02-01

    Muscular exercise results in an increased production of free radicals and other forms of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Further, developing evidence implicates cytotoxins as an underlying etiology of exercise-induced stimuli in muscle redox status, which could result in muscle fatigue and/or injury. Two major classes of endogenous protective mechanisms (enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants) work together to reduce the harmful effects of oxidants in the cell. This study examined the effects of acute physical exercise on the enzymatic antioxidant systems of different athletes and comparison was made to the mechanism of action of three main antioxidant enzymes in the blood. Handball players (n = 6), water-polo players (n = 20), hockey players (n = 22), basketball players (n = 24), and a sedentary control group (n = 10 female and n = 9 male) served as the subjects of this study. The athletes were divided into two groups according to the observed changes of activity of superoxide dismutase enzyme. The antioxidant enzyme systems were characterized by catalase (CAT), glutathione-peroxidase (GPX), and superoxide-dismutase (SOD) and measured by spectrophotometry. An important finding in the present investigation is that when the activities of SOD increased, the activities of GPX and CAT increased also and this finding related to the physical status of interval-trained athletes. Positive correlation between SOD and GPX activities was observed (r = 0.38 females, r = 0.56 males; p antioxidant enzyme systems of athletes are sport specific, and different from control subjects. Presumably, with interval-trained athletes, hydrogen-peroxide is significantly eliminated by glutathione-peroxidase. From these results it can be concluded that the blood redox status should be taken into consideration when establishing a fitness level for individual athletes.

  12. Association Between Concussion and Lower Extremity Injuries in Collegiate Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Frances C; Burdette, G Trey; Joyner, A Barry; Llewellyn, Tracy A; Buckley, Thomas A

    Concussions have been associated with elevated musculoskeletal injury risk; however, the influence of unreported and unrecognized concussions has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between concussion and lower extremity musculoskeletal injury rates across a diverse array of sports among collegiate student-athletes at the conclusion of their athletic career. The hypothesis was that there will be a positive association between athletes who reported a history of concussions and higher rates of lower extremity injuries. Cross-sectional study. Level 3. Student-athletes (N = 335; 62.1% women; mean age, 21.2 ± 1.4 years) from 13 sports completed a reliable injury history questionnaire. Respondents indicated the total number of reported, unreported, and potentially unrecognized concussions as well as lower extremity injuries including ankle sprains, knee injuries, and muscle strains. Chi-square analyses were performed to identify the association between concussion and lower extremity injuries. There were significant associations between concussion and lateral ankle sprain ( P = 0.012), knee injury ( P = 0.002), and lower extremity muscle strain ( P = 0.031). There were also significant associations between reported concussions and knee injury ( P = 0.003), unreported concussions and knee injury ( P = 0.002), and unrecognized concussions and lateral ankle sprain ( P = 0.001) and lower extremity muscle strains ( P = 0.006), with odds ratios ranging from 1.6 to 2.9. There was a positive association between concussion history and lower extremity injuries (odds ratios, 1.6-2.9 elevated risk) among student-athletes at the conclusion of their intercollegiate athletic careers. Clinicians should be aware of these elevated risks when making return-to-participation decisions and should incorporate injury prevention protocols.

  13. Vegan diets: practical advice for athletes and exercisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogerson, David

    2017-01-01

    With the growth of social media as a platform to share information, veganism is becoming more visible, and could be becoming more accepted in sports and in the health and fitness industry. However, to date, there appears to be a lack of literature that discusses how to manage vegan diets for athletic purposes. This article attempted to review literature in order to provide recommendations for how to construct a vegan diet for athletes and exercisers. While little data could be found in the sports nutrition literature specifically, it was revealed elsewhere that veganism creates challenges that need to be accounted for when designing a nutritious diet. This included the sufficiency of energy and protein; the adequacy of vitamin B12, iron, zinc, calcium, iodine and vitamin D; and the lack of the long-chain n -3 fatty acids EPA and DHA in most plant-based sources. However, via the strategic management of food and appropriate supplementation, it is the contention of this article that a nutritive vegan diet can be designed to achieve the dietary needs of most athletes satisfactorily. Further, it was suggested here that creatine and β-alanine supplementation might be of particular use to vegan athletes, owing to vegetarian diets promoting lower muscle creatine and lower muscle carnosine levels in consumers. Empirical research is needed to examine the effects of vegan diets in athletic populations however, especially if this movement grows in popularity, to ensure that the health and performance of athletic vegans is optimised in accordance with developments in sports nutrition knowledge.

  14. Sexuality of Disabled Athletes Depending on the Form of Locomotion

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    Plinta Ryszard

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to determine sexuality of disabled athletes depending on the form of locomotion. The study included 170 disabled athletes, aged between 18 and 45. The entire population was divided into 3 research groups depending on the form of locomotion: moving on wheelchairs (n=52, on crutches (n=29 and unaided (n=89. The research tool was a questionnaire voluntarily and anonymously completed by the respondents of the research groups. The questionnaire was composed of a general part concerning the socio-demographic conditions, medical history, health problems, a part dedicated to physical disability as well as the Polish version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI evaluating sexual life. STATISTICA 10.0 for Windows was used in the statistical analysis. Subjects moving on crutches were significantly older than ones moving on wheelchairs and unaided (34.41 ±11.00 vs. 30.49 ±10.44 and 27.99 ±10.51 years, respectively (p=0.018. Clinically significant erectile dysfunctions were most often diagnosed in athletes moving on wheelchairs (70.27%, followed by athletes moving on crutches and moving unaided (60% and 35.42%, respectively; p=0.048. Clinical sexual dysfunctions were diagnosed on a similar level among all female athletes. It was concluded that the form of locomotion may determine sexuality of disabled men. Males on wheelchair revealed the worst sexual functioning. Female athletes moving on wheelchairs, on crutches and moving unaided were comparable in the aspect of their sexual life.

  15. The Chronotype of Elite Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Gregory D.; Halson, Shona L.; Sargent, Charli

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aims of this study were (i) to compare the chronotype distribution of elite athletes to a young adult population and (ii) to determine if there was a tendency for athletes to select and/or participate in sports which suited their chronotype. A total of 114 elite athletes from five sports (cricket, cycling, hockey, soccer and triathlon) participated in this study. The participants’ chronotype, sleepiness, sleep satisfaction and sleep quality were determined using the Horne and Östberg Morningness and Eveningness questionnaire, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and questions concerning their sleep satisfaction and quality. All questionnaires were administered during a typical training phase that was not in the lead up to competition and/or post competition. No differences between chronotype group for sleepiness, sleep satisfaction or sleep quality were found. There was a significantly higher proportion of triathletes that were morning and intermediate types compared to the control group χ2 (2) = 7.5, p = 0.02. A significant relationship between sport and chronotype group (χ2(4)=15.9, p = 0.04) was observed, with a higher frequency of morning types involved in sports that required morning training. There was a clear indication that athletes tended to select and pursue sports that suited their chronotype. This was evident by the amount of morning types involved in morning sports. Given that athletes are more likely to pursue and excel in sports which suit their chronotype, it is recommended that coaches consider the athlete’s chronotype during selection processes or if possible design and implement changes to training schedules to either suit the athletes’ chronotype or the timing of an upcoming competition. PMID:28031772

  16. Prevalence of clinically elevated depressive symptoms in college athletes and differences by gender and sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolanin, Andrew; Hong, Eugene; Marks, Donald; Panchoo, Kelly; Gross, Michael

    2016-02-01

    There are approximately 400,000 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) student athletes and 5-7 million high school student athletes competing each year. According to the US Department of Health and Human Services, the depression prevalence rate for young adults, which ranges from 10% to 85% across studies, is higher than that of other age groups. Given the relatively high prevalence of depression in individuals of collegiate age in the general population, the prevalence of depression among athletes in this age group warrants further study. This multiyear study examined the prevalence of depressive symptoms in college athletes, as well as demographic factors related to increased or decreased rates of depressive symptoms by gender and sport. To describe the prevalence of depression symptoms among NCAA division I student athletes at a single institution over 3 consecutive years. Participants (n=465) completed a battery of measures during their yearly spring sports medicine physical across 3 consecutive years. The battery included the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and a demographic questionnaire, administered during the course of routine sports medicine physical examinations. Differences in depressive symptoms prevalence and relative risk ratios were calculated by gender and sport. The prevalence rate for a clinically relevant level of depressive symptoms, as measured on the CES-D (CES-D ≥16), was 23.7%. A moderate to severe level of depressive symptoms was reported by 6.3%. There was a significant gender difference in prevalence of depressive symptoms, χ(2) (1)=7.459, p=0.006, with female athletes exhibiting 1.844 times the risk of male athletes for endorsing clinically relevant symptoms. The CES-D identified clinically relevant levels of depressive symptoms in nearly one-quarter of college student athletes in this large cross-sectional sample. Female college athletes reported significantly more depressive symptoms than males

  17. The Effects of Specialization and Sex on Anterior Y-Balance Performance in High School Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Madeline M; Trapp, Jessica L; Post, Eric G; Trigsted, Stephanie M; McGuine, Timothy A; Brooks, M Alison; Bell, David R

    Sport specialization and movement asymmetry have been separately discussed as potential risk factors for lower extremity injury. Early specialization may lead to the development of movement asymmetries that can predispose an athlete to injury, but this has not been thoroughly examined. Athletes rated as specialized would exhibit greater between-limb anterior reach asymmetry and decreased anterior reach distance on the Y-balance test (YBT) as compared with nonspecialized high school athletes, and these differences would not be dependent on sex. Cross-sectional study. Level 3. Two hundred ninety-five athletes (117 male, 178 female; mean age, 15.6 ± 1.2 years) from 2 local high schools participating in basketball, soccer, volleyball, and tennis responded to a questionnaire regarding sport specialization status and performed trials of the YBT during preseason testing. Specialization was categorized according to 3 previously utilized specialization classification methods (single/multisport, 3-point scale, and 6-point scale), and interactions between specialization and sex with Y-balance performance were calculated using 2-way analyses of variance. Single-sport male athletes displayed greater anterior reach asymmetry than other interaction groups. A consistent main effect was observed for sex, with men displaying greater anterior asymmetry and decreased anterior reach distance than women. However, the interaction effects of specialization and sex on anterior Y-balance performance varied based on the classification method used. Single-sport male athletes displayed greater anterior reach asymmetry on the YBT than multisport and female athletes. Specialization classification method is important because the 6- and 3-point scales may not accurately identify balance abnormalities. Male athletes performed worse than female athletes on both of the Y-balance tasks. Clinicians should be aware that single-sport male athletes may display deficits in dynamic balance, potentially

  18. Epidemiology of Basketball, Soccer, and Volleyball Injuries in Middle-School Female Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber Foss, Kim D.; Myer, Greg D.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background An estimated 30 to 40 million school children participate in sports in the United States; 34% of middle-school participants become injured and seek medical treatment at an annual cost close to $2 billion. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the injury incidence and rates in female athletes in the middle-school setting during the course of 3 seasons. Methods Female basketball, soccer, and volleyball players were recruited from a single county public school district in Kentucky consisting of 5 middle schools. A total of 268 female athletes (162 basketball, 26 soccer, and 80 volleyball) participated. Athletes were monitored for sports-related injury and number of athlete exposures (AEs) by an athletic trainer. Injury rates were calculated for specific types of injuries within each sport. Injury rates for games and practices were also calculated and compared for each sport. Results A total of 134 injuries were recorded during the 3 sport seasons. The knee was the most commonly injured body part (99 injuries [73.9%]), of which patellofemoral dysfunction (31.3%), Osgood-Schlatter disease (10.4%), and Sinding-Larsen-Johansson/patella tendinosis (9%) had the greatest incidence. The ankle was the second most commonly injured body part, accounting for 16.4% of all injuries. The overall rates of injury by sport were as follows: soccer, 6.66 per 1000 AEs; volleyball, 3.68 per 1000 AEs; and basketball, 2.86 per 1000 AEs. Conclusions Female middle-school athletes displayed comparable injury patterns to those seen in their high-school counterparts. Future work is warranted to determine the potential for improved outcomes in female middle-school athletes with access to athletic training services. Clinical Relevance As the participation levels and number of injuries continue to rise, middle-school athletes demonstrate an increasing need for medical services provided by a certified athletic trainer. PMID:24875981

  19. Asthma prevalence in German Olympic athletes: A comparison of winter and summer sport disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selge, Charlotte; Thomas, Silke; Nowak, Dennis; Radon, Katja; Wolfarth, Bernd

    2016-09-01

    Prevalence of asthma in elite athletes shows very wide ranges. It remains unclear to what extent this is influenced by the competition season (winter vs. summer) or the ventilation rate achieved during competition. The aim of this study was to evaluate prevalence of asthma in German elite winter and summer athletes from a wide range of sport disciplines and to identify high risk groups. In total, 265 German elite winter athletes (response 77%) and 283 German elite summer athletes (response 64%) answered validated respiratory questionnaires. Using logistic regression, the asthma risks associated with competition season and ventilation rate during competition, respectively, were investigated. A subset of winter athletes was also examined for their FENO-levels and lung function. With respect to all asthma outcomes, no association was found with the competition season. Regarding the ventilation rate, athletes in high ventilation sports were at increased risk of asthma, as compared to athletes in low ventilation sports (doctors' diagnosed asthma: OR 2.32, 95% CI 1.19-4.53; use of asthma medication: OR 4.46, 95% CI 1.52-13.10; current wheeze or use of asthma medication: OR 2.78, 95% CI 1.34-5.76). Athletes with doctors' diagnosed asthma were at an approximate four-fold risk of elevated FENO-values. The clinically relevant finding of this study is that athletes' asthma seems to be more common in sports with high ventilation during competition, whereas the summer or winter season had no impact on the frequency of the disease. Among winter athletes, elevated FENO suggested suboptimal control of asthma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of spine MRIs in athletes participating in the Rio de Janeiro 2016 Summer Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Michael S; Guermazi, Ali; Jarraya, Mohamed; Engbretsen, Lars; AbdelKader, Mohamad; Roemer, Frank W; Hayashi, Daichi; Crema, Michel D; Mian, Asim Z

    2018-01-01

    In high-level Olympic athletes, many spinal pathologies arise from overuse, while others are the result of acute injury. Our aim is to analyse the epidemiology of spinal pathologies detected on MRI in athletes participating in the 2016 Rio de Janeiro Summer Olympics. In this retrospective study, all spine MRIs performed during the 2016 Rio Games were analysed. Descriptive data from the MRIs were tabulated and analysed for disc degeneration, spinal canal and/or neural foraminal narrowing, and acute/chronic fractures. Data were analysed by sport, continent of origin, age and sex. Of 11 274 athletes participating in the Olympic games, 100 received spine MRI. Fifty-two of the 100 (52%) athletes who received cervical, thoracic and/or lumbar spine MRI showed moderate to severe spinal disease. The highest sport-specific incidence of moderate to severe spine disease was seen in aquatic diving athletes (67%, 3 per 100 divers). Weightlifting had the second highest sport-specific incidence of spine disease (67%, 1.5 per 100 weightlifters). Athletics used the most spine MRIs (31 of 107 MRIs, 29%). European athletes had more spine MRIs than all other continents combined (55 of 107 MRIs, 51%). Athletes over 30 years old had the highest rate of moderate to severe spine disease on MRI (24 of 37 athletes >30 years old, 65%). A high number of the world's premier athletes demonstrated moderate to severe spine disease on MRI during the 2016 Summer Olympics, including moderate/severe degenerative disc changes with varying degrees of disc bulges and herniations.

  1. Effect of shoulder stabilization on career length in national football league athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Robert H; Gill, Corey S; Lyman, Stephen; Barnes, Ronnie P; Rodeo, Scott A; Warren, Russell F

    2011-04-01

    Shoulder instability and surgical stabilization are common in college football athletes. The effect of shoulder stabilization during college on the length of an athlete's career in the National Football League (NFL) has not been well examined. Athletes with a history of shoulder stabilization before the NFL combine have a shorter career than do matched controls. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A database containing the injury history and career NFL statistics of athletes from 1987 to 2000 was used to match athletes with a history of shoulder stabilization and no other surgery or significant injury to controls without a history of any previous surgery or significant injury. Athletes were matched by position, year drafted, round drafted, and additional minor injury history. Forty-two athletes with a history of shoulder stabilization were identified and matched with controls. A history of shoulder stabilization significantly reduced the length of career in terms of years (5.2 ± 3.9 vs 6.9 ± 3.6 years; P = .01) and games played (56 ± 53 vs 77 ± 50, P = .03) as compared with controls. By position, linemen and linebackers (20 athletes) with a history of shoulder stabilization had a significantly shorter career in years (4.7 ± 3.8 vs 6.7 ± 3.4 years; P = .049) and games played (51 ± 58 vs 81 ± 48; P = .046) than did controls. Among the other positions (22 athletes), the difference was not statistically significant in this small cohort. A history of shoulder stabilization shortens the expected career of a professional football player, particularly for linemen and linebackers. Further research is warranted to better understand how these injuries and surgeries affect an athlete's career and what can be done to improve the long-term outcome after treatment.

  2. Exhaustion Experiences in Junior Athletes: The Importance of Motivation and Self-Control Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordalen, Gro; Lemyre, Pierre-Nicolas; Durand-Bush, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Quality of motivation, self-control competencies, as well as past performance experience influence sport participation outcomes in developing athletes. Studies have shown that junior athletes high in self-determined motivation are less prone to experience burnout, while self-control competencies help developing athletes to be conscious and deliberate in their self-regulatory efforts toward elite sport performances and avoid negative sport participation outcomes. Combining the self-determination theory framework and psychosocial theories of self-regulation, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine how various types of motivation and self-control competencies together are associated with the development of burnout symptoms in junior athletes. High-level Norwegian winter-sport athletes from elite sport academies ( N = 199; female n = 72; 16-20 years of age) consented to participate. Associations between six types of motivational regulation, self-control, and indices of exhaustion were investigated. We hypothesized that athletes' self-control competencies are important to operate successfully, and influenced by different types of motivation, they are expected to help athletes avoid negative sport participation outcomes such as emotional and physical exhaustion. Structural equation modeling analyses were conducted to analyze these relationships, and results revealed some multifaceted associations. When identifying antecedents of sport participation exhaustion and burnout, there is a need to go beyond the unique framework of motivation theories, and explore what cognitive competencies ensure fulfillment of motivation desires. In the current study, differences in junior athletes' quality of motivation influenced self-control competencies when predicting exhaustion. Interestingly, young athletes driven by self-determined (intrinsic, integrated, and identified), and controlled (introjected and amotivation) regulations in association with self-control offered the

  3. Potassium evaluation in blood of Brazilian athletes using NAA

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    Kovacs, L.; Zamboni, C.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nunes, L.A.S.; Lourenco, T.F.; Macedo, D. Vaz de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Full text: According to nutrition sources an athlete needs per day at least one gram of potassium for keeping the correct mineral balance in the organism. Its deficiency or even instantaneous low concentration in blood can diminish the athlete performance originating nervous irritability, muscular weakness, and mental disorientation and in more several causes cardiac arrhythmias. In this study the K levels in blood were determined in athletes submitted to constant load exercise at treadmill at LABEX (Laboratorio de Bioquimica do Exercicio - UNICAMP, Brazil) using Neutron Activation Analyses (NAA). The blood samples were collected from male athletes, age 18 to 26 years, before and after the physical training. Immediately after the collection an amount of 10 micro liters of whole blood was transferred to the filter paper and dried for a few minutes using an infrared lamp. To determine the concentration of potassium each sample was irradiated in the nuclear reactor (IEA-R1, 2-4MW, pool type) at IPEN and was gamma counted using an HPGe Spectrometer of High Energy Resolution. The concentrations of the selected element, 1525keV related to the potassium activated {sup 42}K, were calculated using in -house software. The potassium levels were evaluated before and after the physical exercise and the data were compared with the normal range. (author)

  4. Potassium evaluation in blood of Brazilian athletes using NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, L.; Zamboni, C.B.; Nunes, L.A.S.; Lourenco, T.F.; Macedo, D. Vaz de

    2010-01-01

    Full text: According to nutrition sources an athlete needs per day at least one gram of potassium for keeping the correct mineral balance in the organism. Its deficiency or even instantaneous low concentration in blood can diminish the athlete performance originating nervous irritability, muscular weakness, and mental disorientation and in more several causes cardiac arrhythmias. In this study the K levels in blood were determined in athletes submitted to constant load exercise at treadmill at LABEX (Laboratorio de Bioquimica do Exercicio - UNICAMP, Brazil) using Neutron Activation Analyses (NAA). The blood samples were collected from male athletes, age 18 to 26 years, before and after the physical training. Immediately after the collection an amount of 10 micro liters of whole blood was transferred to the filter paper and dried for a few minutes using an infrared lamp. To determine the concentration of potassium each sample was irradiated in the nuclear reactor (IEA-R1, 2-4MW, pool type) at IPEN and was gamma counted using an HPGe Spectrometer of High Energy Resolution. The concentrations of the selected element, 1525keV related to the potassium activated 42 K, were calculated using in -house software. The potassium levels were evaluated before and after the physical exercise and the data were compared with the normal range. (author)

  5. Sports specialization in young athletes: evidence-based recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanthi, Neeru; Pinkham, Courtney; Dugas, Lara; Patrick, Brittany; Labella, Cynthia

    2013-05-01

    Sports specialization is intense training in 1 sport while excluding others. Sports specialization in early to middle childhood has become increasingly common. While most experts agree that some degree of sports specialization is necessary to achieve elite levels, there is some debate as to whether such intense practice time must begin during early childhood and to the exclusion of other sports to maximize potential for success. There is a concern that sports specialization before adolescence may be deleterious to a young athlete. PubMed and OVID were searched for English-language articles from 1990 to 2011 discussing sports specialization, expert athletes, or elite versus novice athletes, including original research articles, consensus opinions, and position statements. For most sports, there is no evidence that intense training and specialization before puberty are necessary to achieve elite status. Risks of early sports specialization include higher rates of injury, increased psychological stress, and quitting sports at a young age. Sports specialization occurs along a continuum. Survey tools are being developed to identify where athletes fall along the spectrum of specialization. Some degree of sports specialization is necessary to develop elite-level skill development. However, for most sports, such intense training in a single sport to the exclusion of others should be delayed until late adolescence to optimize success while minimizing injury, psychological stress, and burnout.

  6. Monitoring of sport participation and injury risk in young athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisoux, Laurent; Frisch, Anne; Urhausen, Axel; Seil, Romain; Theisen, Daniel

    2013-11-01

    Careful modulation of training characteristics in high-level sports optimizes performance and avoids inappropriate workloads and associated sports injury risk. The aims of this study were to compare sport participation characteristics in different youth sport categories and to investigate their relationship with injury. Prospective cohort follow-up. Young (12-19 years) high-level athletes (n=154) from a regional sport school were followed during 41 weeks regarding sport participation characteristics and traumatic and overuse sports injuries (time-loss definition). All data were self-recorded by the athletes in an electronic system "TIPPS" (Training and Injury Prevention Platform for Sports) and subject to a systematic data quality control. Volume and intensity (self-rated perceived exertion) of each sport session were used to compute weekly load, monotony and strain. Sport categories were defined as team, racket, and individual sports. All sport participation characteristics were dependent on sport category (psports were associated with lower injury risk (HR=0.37 and 0.34, p=0.001 and psports. Average sport participation characteristics were not related to injury according to the survival analysis. However, intensity during the week prior to injury was significantly higher (psport participation pattern and injury risk in young athletes. The monitoring method was sensitive to variations according to pertinent variables and might help identify athletes with increased sports injury risk. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Predictor variables of addiction to training in Spanish master athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Zarauz Sancho

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last fifteen years has been in Spain a very significant increase in people over 35 years practicing Athletics at federative level. The aim of this study is to know their addiction to training and relationships with different variables of this training and athletic history. Also, get a sufficiently robust predictive models by sex, taking their addiction to these variables. Valuable descriptive data and training habits and athletic history were obtained, and that the addiction in Spanish master athletes have average levels, with the pleasure and relaxation subscale (positive and desirable that obtains higher values, and abstinence and craving subscale (negative and undesirable which gets lower. Both correlations as in the regression analysis, only one variant has been analyzed to be related or be predictive of addiction or any of its subscales. Due to these results it is necessary to further investigate this population in future research about your addiction to training including psychological variables as predictors of it (motivation, perception and beliefs about the causes of success, intrinsic satisfaction, etc. to explainmore fully his addiction to training, especially in the case of men.

  8. Predictors of postconcussion syndrome in collegiate student-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Scott L; Yengo-Kahn, Aaron M; Buckley, Thomas A; Solomon, Gary S; Sills, Allen K; Kerr, Zachary Y

    2016-04-01

    OBJECTIVE Sport-related concussion (SRC) has emerged as a public health problem, especially among student-athletes. Whereas most concussions resolve by 2 weeks, a minority of patients experience postconcussion syndrome (PCS), in which symptoms persist for months. The objective of this study was to elucidate factors predictive of PCS among a sample of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) student-athletes in the academic years 2009-2010 to 2014-2015. METHODS The SRC data originated from the NCAA Injury Surveillance Program (ISP) in the 2009-2010 to 2014-2015 academic seasons. The NCAA ISP is a prospective database made up of a convenience sample of schools across all divisions. All SRCs are reported by certified athletic trainers. The PCS group consisted of concussed student-athletes with concussion-related symptoms that lasted ≥ 4 weeks. The non-PCS group consisted of concussed student-athletes with symptom resolution in ≤ 2 weeks. Those with symptoms that resolved in the intermediate area of 2-4 weeks were excluded. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using logistic regression. RESULTS During the 2009-2010 to 2014-2015 seasons, 1507 NCAA student-athletes sustained an SRC, 112 (7.4%) of whom developed PCS (i.e., concussion-related symptoms that lasted ≥ 4 weeks). Men's ice hockey contributed the largest proportion of concussions to the PCS group (28.6%), whereas men's football contributed the largest proportion of concussions in the non-PCS group (38.6%). In multivariate analysis, recurrent concussion was associated with increased odds of PCS (OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.28-3.36). Concussion symptoms that were also associated with increased odds of PCS included retrograde amnesia (OR 2.75, 95% CI 1.34-5.64), difficulty concentrating (OR 2.35, 95% CI 1.23-4.50), sensitivity to light (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.09-3.57), and insomnia (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.30-3.68). Contact level, sex, and loss of consciousness were not associated with PCS. CONCLUSIONS Postconcussion syndrome

  9. Elite athletes: is survival shortened in boxers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, M; Fabbricatore, C; Sanna, N; Fabiano, C; Palmieri, V; Zeppilli, P

    2007-08-01

    Moderate exercise and intense physical training are associated with increased life expectancy (LE). Boxing is characterized by intentional and repetitive head blows, sometimes causing brain injury, possibly reducing LE. We examined a sample of male athletes born between 1860 and 1930 selected from the international "hall of fame" inductees in baseball (n = 154), ice hockey (n = 130), tennis (n = 83), football (n = 81), boxing (n = 81), track and field (n = 59), basketball (n = 58), swimming (n = 37) and wrestling (n = 32). In boxing, we analyzed the number of disputed bouts/rounds and career records. Sports were also analyzed according to physiological demand and occurrence and kind of contact (intentional, unintentional). The Kaplan-Meier product limit method was used to compare survival curves (significance: p LE of the samples was 76.0 yrs and no differences were observed in different sports, although it was lower in boxers (73.0 yrs) and higher in tennis players (79.0 yrs). Sports of different physiological demand were similar in respect to LE. No differences in LE were found related to occurrence and kind of impact. Similar LE was found in boxers of different weight or career records. In conclusion, this study indicates that LE in top-level athletes is unaffected by the type of discipline, and not related to physiological demand and intentional contact.

  10. The sporting body: body image and eating disorder symptomatology among female athletes from leanness focused and nonleanness focused sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peiling; Harris, Lynne M

    2015-01-01

    Female athletes experience pressure to conform to social and sporting norms concerning body weight. This study compared general and sporting body dissatisfaction and disordered eating symptomatology among 320 elite, recreational, and noncompetitive female athletes aged 17 to 30 years competing in leanness focused sports and nonleanness focused sports. Participants completed an online questionnaire including demographic questions, the Eating Attitudes Test, and the Figure Rating Scale. Athletes from leanness focused sports reported higher levels of body dissatisfaction and greater disordered eating symptomatology regardless of participation level. Elite athletes reported higher levels of body dissatisfaction and greater disordered eating symptomatology regardless of sport type, and differences between recreational and noncompetitive athletes were not found. More than 60% of elite athletes from leanness focused and nonleanness focused sports reported pressure from coaches concerning body shape. The findings have important implications for identifying risk factors for eating disorders among female athletes, where athletes who compete at elite level and those who compete in leanness focused sports at any level may be at higher risk for developing eating disorders.

  11. Return to Sports and Recurrences After Arthroscopic Anterior Shoulder Stabilization in Martial Arts Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranalletta, Maximiliano; Rossi, Luciano A; Sirio, Adrian; Dilernia, Fernando Diaz; Bertona, Agustin; Maignon, Gastón D; Bongiovanni, Santiago L

    2017-09-01

    The high demands to the glenohumeral joint and the violent shoulder blows experienced during martial arts (MA) could compromise return to sports and increase the recurrence rate after arthroscopic stabilization for anterior shoulder instability in these athletes. To report the functional outcomes, return to sports, and recurrences in a series of MA athletes with anterior shoulder instability treated with arthroscopic stabilization with suture anchors. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A total of 20 consecutive MA athletes were treated for anterior shoulder instability at a single institution between January 2008 and December 2013. Range of motion (ROM), the Rowe score, a visual analog scale (VAS), and the Athletic Shoulder Outcome Scoring System (ASOSS) were used to assess functional outcomes. Return-to-sport and recurrence rates were also evaluated. The mean age at the time of surgery was 25.4 years (range, 18-35 years), and the mean follow-up was 71 months (range, 36-96 months). No significant difference in preoperative and postoperative shoulder ROM was found. The Rowe, VAS, and ASOSS scores showed statistical improvement after surgery ( P < .001). In all, 19 athletes (95%) returned to sports. However, only 60% achieved ≥90% recovery after surgery. The recurrence rate was 20%. In this retrospective study of a consecutive cohort of MA athletes, arthroscopic anterior shoulder stabilization significantly improved functional scores. However, only 60% of the athletes achieved the same level of competition, and there was a 20% recurrence rate.

  12. Features of manifestation of self-trained athletes specialized in jumping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liashenko V.N.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Analyze different approaches to the formation and self-determination of the individual and the structure of a value judgment, the foundation of which is to assess the world around us. There are three kinds of value judgment: look at the world, look at yourself and look at yourself and the situation in general through the eyes of the third. It is examined the levels of self-manifestation at the qualified athletes, specializing in athletic jumps. The contingent of 30 athletes were tested-athletes of different skill levels between the ages of 17 to 32 years. Self-esteem has 5.5% of the surveyed athletes at the Master of Sports. Overpriced - 38.5% of the athletes. Of them - 10% of the MSIC, 10% and 13.5% of MS CCM. The rest of the respondents athletes who are - 61%, there is a tendency to inflate self-esteem. Determined that the self-assessment is necessary in order to better know their strengths and weaknesses, and use them in their struggle for achieving the goals.

  13. Dispositional Differences of Collegiate Athletes' Flow State: A Cross-Cultural Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weina; Ji, Liu; Watson, Jack C

    2015-03-17

    Csikszentmihalyi (1990) suggested that certain types of people might be better psychologically equipped to experience flow. The purpose of this study was to determine if differences exist in one's ability to experience flow based upon factors such as cultural background, gender, years of specialized training, skill level, and sport event type. The English and Chinese versions of the Dispositional Flow Scale-2 were used to assess trait flow in American (N = 160) and Chinese collegiate athletes (N = 341). Using a one-way ANOVA analysis, the flow scores of American participants were found to be higher than those of Chinese participants, η2 = 0.175, 95% CI: 3.536-3.622, p flow scores of male athletes were higher than those of female athletes within the Chinese sample, η2 = 0.032, 95% CI: 3.390-3.486, p flow scores of university athletes were higher than those of national team level athletes within the Chinese sample, η2 = 0.044, 95% CI: 3.279-3.501, p Flow scores for athletes in skill-showing events were higher than those of athletes participating in physical ability-showing events for the American participants, η2 = 0.074, 95% CI: 3.812-3.948, p flow.

  14. Reflections on providing sport science support for athletes with learning difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Laura; Utley, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    To highlight the benefits and the need for sport science support for athletes with learning difficulties, and to reflect on our experience of working with the GB squad for athletes with learning difficulties. A review of key and relevant literature is presented, followed by a discussion of the sport science support provision and the issues that emerged in working with athletes with learning difficulties. Pre- and post- physiological tests along with evaluations of athletes' potential to benefit from sport psychology support were conducted. The aim of these tests was to provide information for the athletes and the coaches on fitness levels, to use this information to plan future training, and to identify how well the performance could be enhanced. A case study is presented for one athlete, who had competed in distance events. The focus is the psychological support that was provided. It is clear that athletes with learning difficulties require the same type of sports science support as their mainstream peers. However, sport scientists will need to consider ways to extend their practice in order to provide the appropriate level of support.

  15. Rotator Cuff Repair in Adolescent Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, Michael G; Dugas, Jeffrey R; Andrews, James R; Goldstein, Samuel R; Emblom, Benton A; Cain, E Lyle

    2018-04-01

    Rotator cuff tears are rare injuries in adolescents but cause significant morbidity if unrecognized. Previous literature on rotator cuff repairs in adolescents is limited to small case series, with few data to guide treatment. Adolescent patients would have excellent functional outcome scores and return to the same level of sports participation after rotator cuff repair but would have some difficulty with returning to overhead sports. Case series; Level of evidence 4. A retrospective search of the practice's billing records identified all patients participating in at least 1 sport who underwent rotator cuff repair between 2006 and 2014 with an age Rotator Cuff Index. Thirty-two consecutive adolescent athletes (28 boys and 4 girls) with a mean age of 16.1 years (range, 13.2-17.9 years) met inclusion criteria. Twenty-nine patients (91%) had a traumatic event, and 27 of these patients (93%) had no symptoms before the trauma. The most common single tendon injury was to the supraspinatus (21 patients, 66%), of which 2 were complete tendon tears, 1 was a bony avulsion of the tendon, and 18 were high-grade partial tears. Fourteen patients (56%) underwent single-row repair of their rotator cuff tear, and 11 (44%) underwent double-row repair. All subscapularis injuries were repaired in open fashion, while all other tears were repaired arthroscopically. Twenty-seven patients (84%) completed the outcome questionnaires at a mean 6.2 years after surgery (range, 2-10 years). The mean ASES score was 93 (range, 65-100; SD = 9); mean Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index, 89% (range, 60%-100%; SD = 13%); and mean numeric pain rating, 0.3 (range, 0-3; SD = 0.8). Overall, 25 patients (93%) returned to the same level of play or higher. Among overhead athletes, 13 (93%) were able to return to the same level of play, but 8 (57%) were forced to change positions. There were no surgical complications, but 2 patients did undergo a subsequent operation. Surgical repair of high-grade partial

  16. Injured athletes' perceptions about social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Damien; Shannon, Vanessa R

    2011-11-01

    According to the buffering hypothesis, social support moderates the harmful effects of stress and, in turn, indirectly affects injured athletes' health and well-being. Previous research suggests that perceptions of social support influence athletes' psychological reactions, as well as their rehabilitation adherence, but additional research in this area is warranted. To examine injured athletes' perceptions regarding satisfaction, availability, and contribution for each of the 8 types of social support. Descriptive. Mid-Atlantic Division II and III institutions. 49 injured athletes. Social support was assessed using a modified version of the Social Support Survey. Injured athletes were significantly more satisfied with social support provided by athletic trainers (ATCs) than that provided by coaches and teammates. In addition, injured athletes reported that social support provided by ATCs contributed significantly more to their overall well-being. Athletes reported several significant differences regarding satisfaction and contribution to well-being among the 8 different types of social support. Injury, an unavoidable part of sport, is often accompanied by negative psychological reactions. This reaction may have a negative influence on an athlete's experience of injury and rehabilitation. Findings suggest that perceptions of social support provided by ATCs have the greatest influence on injured athletes' rehabilitation and well-being.

  17. [Vitamin-antioxidant sufficiency of winter sports athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beketova, N A; Kosheleva, O V; Pereverzeva, O G; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Kodentsova, V M; Solntseva, T N; Khanfer'ian, R A

    2013-01-01

    The sufficiency of 169 athletes (six disciplines: bullet shooting, biathlon, bobsleigh, skeleton, freestyle skiing, snowboarding) with vitamins A, E, C, B2, and beta-carotene has been investigated in April-September 2013. All athletes (102 juniors, mean age--18.5 +/- 0.3 years, and 67 adult high-performance athletes, mean age--26.8 +/- 0.7 years) were sufficiently supplied with vitamin A (70.7 +/- 1.7 mcg/dl). Mean blood serum retinol level was 15% higher the upper limit of the norm (80 mcg/dl) in biathletes while median reached 90.9 mcg/dl. Blood serum level of tocopherols (1.22 +/- 0.03 mg/dl), ascorbic acid (1.06 +/- 0.03 mg/dl), riboflavin (7.1 +/- 0.4 ng/ml), and beta-carotene (25.1 +/- 1.7 mcg/dl) was in within normal range, but the incidence of insufficiency of vitamins E, C, B2, and carotenoid among athletes varied in the range of 0-25, 0-17, 15-67 and 42-75%, respectively. 95% of adults and 80% of younger athletes were sufficiently provided with vitamin E. Vitamin E level in blood serum of juniors involved in skeleton and biathlon was lower by 51 and 72% (p antioxidants (beta-carotene and vitamins E and C). In other sports, the relative quantity of athletes sufficiently supplied with these essential nutrients did not exceed 56%. The quota of supplied with all antioxidants among bullet shooters (31.1%) and bobsledders (23.5%) was significantly (p antioxidant (mainly beta-carotene) was most often recorded among persons engaged in bullet shooting (67%). The simultaneous lack of all three antioxidants was found only in freestylers and bobsledders (about 5%). Decreased level of antioxidants in blood serum in 40% of athletes was combined with vitamin B2 deficiency. The data obtained suggest the necessity to optimize diet vitamin content of all athletes, taking into account the age and gender differences. Contrary to prevailing stereotypes the optimization must involve not only an increase in the consumption of vitamins (vitamins E, B group) and carotenoids, but

  18. Prevalence of Surgical Repair for Athletic Pubalgia and Impact on Performance in Football Athletes Participating in the National Football League Combine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Derrick M; Gebhart, Jeremy J; Nho, Shane J; Tanenbaum, Joseph E; Voos, James E; Salata, Michael J

    2017-05-01

    To examine the prevalence and impact of athletic pubalgia (AP) surgery in elite American football athletes participating in the National Football League (NFL) Combine. Results from 1,311 athletes participating in the Combine from 2012 to 2015 were evaluated. Athletes with a history of AP repair were identified using the NFL Combine Database. Athlete history and available imaging was reviewed. NFL performance based on draft status, games played, games started, and current status in the NFL was gathered using publicly available databases. Statistical analysis was performed to detect for significant associations between athlete history and NFL performance in the presence of AP repair and pelvic pathology on postsurgical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). AP repair was identified in 4.2% (n = 55) of athletes. MRI was performed in 35% (n = 19 of 55) with AP repair, of which 53% (n = 10 of 19) had positive pathology. Athletes with repair were not at risk of playing (P = .87) or starting (P = .45) fewer regular season games, going undrafted (P = .27), or not being on an active NFL roster (P = .51). Compared with athletes with negative imaging findings, positive pathology on MRI did not have a significant impact on games played (P = .74), games started (P = .48), draft status (P = .26), or being on an active roster (P = .74). Offensive linemen (P = .005) and athletes with a history of repair within 1 year of the Combine (P = .03) had a significantly higher risk of possessing positive pathology on MRI. Athletes with a history of successful AP surgery invited to the NFL Combine and those with persistent pathology on MRI are not at increased risk for diminished performance in the NFL. Offensive linemen and athletes less than 1 year out from surgery have a higher risk for positive MRI findings at the pubic symphysis. Level IV, prognostic study-case series. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Experiences of Female Athletic Trainers in the Role of the Head Athletic Trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Burton, Laura; Cotrufo, Raymond J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Very few women have leadership positions in athletic training (ie, head athletic training positions) in intercollegiate athletics. Research exists on the barriers to attaining the role; however, our understanding about the experiences of those currently engaged in the role is limited. Objective: To examine the experiences of female head athletic trainers as they worked toward and attained the position of head athletic trainer. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting. Patients or Other Participants: Eight female athletic trainers serving in the role of head athletic trainer participated in our study. The mean age of the participants was 45 ± 12 years, with 5 ± 1.5 years of experience in the role of head athletic trainer and 21 ± 10 years of experience as athletic trainers. Data Collection and Analysis: We conducted phone interviews with the 8 participants following a semistructured format. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed following a general inductive approach as described by Thomas. To establish credibility, we used a peer reviewer, member checks, and multiple-analyst triangulation. Results: Six major themes emerged from our analysis regarding the experiences of female head athletic trainers. Opportunities to become a head athletic trainer, leadership qualities, and unique personal characteristics were discussed as factors leading to the assumption of the role of the head athletic trainer. Where women hold back, family challenges, and organizational barriers speak to the potential obstacles to assuming the role of head athletic trainer. Conclusions: Female head athletic trainers did not seek the role, but through persistence and encouragement, they find themselves assuming the role. Leadership skills were discussed as important for success in the role of head athletic trainer. Life balancing and parenting were identified as barriers to women seeking the role of head athletic

  20. The experiences of female athletic trainers in the role of the head athletic trainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Burton, Laura; Cotrufo, Raymond J

    2015-01-01

    Very few women have leadership positions in athletic training (ie, head athletic training positions) in intercollegiate athletics. Research exists on the barriers to attaining the role; however, our understanding about the experiences of those currently engaged in the role is limited. To examine the experiences of female head athletic trainers as they worked toward and attained the position of head athletic trainer. Qualitative study. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting. Eight female athletic trainers serving in the role of head athletic trainer participated in our study. The mean age of the participants was 45 ± 12 years, with 5 ± 1.5 years of experience in the role of head athletic trainer and 21 ± 10 years of experience as athletic trainers. We conducted phone interviews with the 8 participants following a semistructured format. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed following a general inductive approach as described by Thomas. To establish credibility, we used a peer reviewer, member checks, and multiple-analyst triangulation. Six major themes emerged from our analysis regarding the experiences of female head athletic trainers. Opportunities to become a head athletic trainer, leadership qualities, and unique personal characteristics were discussed as factors leading to the assumption of the role of the head athletic trainer. Where women hold back, family challenges, and organizational barriers speak to the potential obstacles to assuming the role of head athletic trainer. Female head athletic trainers did not seek the role, but through persistence and encouragement, they find themselves assuming the role. Leadership skills were discussed as important for success in the role of head athletic trainer. Life balancing and parenting were identified as barriers to women seeking the role of head athletic trainer.

  1. Campus Environmental Impact--Fallout for Women Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawshaw, Linda S.

    1990-01-01

    Although participation in college athletics by women has increased, the number of women in athletic administrative positions has decreased. Factors which contribute to the paucity of women athletic administrators, implications for female athletes, and steps which may increase the number of women in collegiate athletic administration are discussed.…

  2. Study quality on groin injury management remains low: A systematic review on treatment of groin pain in athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Serner (Andreas); C.H.J. van Eijck (Casper); B.R. Beumer (Berend); P. Hölmich (Per); A. Weir (Adam); R.J. de Vos (Robert-Jan)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Groin pain in athletes is frequent and many different treatment options have been proposed. The current level of evidence for the efficacy of these treatments is unknown. Objective: Systematically review the literature on the efficacy of treatments for groin pain in athletes.

  3. Comparison of Body Image between Disabled Athletes, Disabled Non-Athletes and Non-Disable Non-Athletes Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Ghasemi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this research was to compare the body image between disabled athletes with disabled and non-disabled non- athletes. Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional and comparative study, fifty disabled athletes from the handicapped sports club, fifty disabled non athletes from Kahrizak disabled rest house and fifty non athlete healthy persons from governmental administrations were selected randomly by classified clustered method and their body image were compared. Data collection tools included a personal information questionnaire and a physical self description questionnaire (PSDQ which included 11 sub-scales such as power, endurance, coordination, general health, flexibility, self-esteem, athletic competence, fat, body appearance, body activity and the global physical. The statistical procedures used in this study comprised one way ANOVA and the Newman-keuls test. Results: Body image of disabled athletes in the sub-scales of power, endurance, coordination, flexibility, self-esteem, athletic competence, body activity were higher than disabled and non-disabled individuals who were not athletes (P&le0.001. In addition the sub-scales of the body fat (P=0.012, body appearance (P=0.002 and general health (P=0.001, the results showed that a higher significance for the disabled athletes, however, there wasn’t significant difference for the non-disabled athletes. Conclusion: Thus the result showed that the attitude of the disabled and non-disabled individual in due to their continuous physical activity in that the disabled athletes have got better body images as compared to the disabled and non-disabled individual who have not physical activity.

  4. Sudden cardiac death in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Camilo Pellegrino dos Santos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The most accepted definition of sudden cardiac death nowadays is an unexplained death occurred suddenly within one hour of symptom onset. If it was not witnessed, individuals need to had been observed for at least 24 hours before the event and should be discarded the possibility of non cardiac causes of sudden death, pulmonary embolism or extensive malignancy. The term athlete refers to individuals of any age who participate in collective or individual regular physical activity, as well as physical training program for regular competitions. The sudden death of a young athlete, whether amateur or professional, especially during competitions, is always dramatic, with strong negative social impact and in the media. The fact that sports are recommended as a formula for longevity and quality of life makes these events a cause for concern in sports and society in general.

  5. Apophyseal damage in adolescent athlete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nehrer, S.; Huber, W.; Dirisamer, A.; Kainberger, F.

    2002-01-01

    The increasing demands on the adolescent athlete in high perfomance sports puts high biomechanical stress on the growing structures of the active and passive locomotor system. The ''growing factor'' itself increases stretching forces on tendon insertions, which are often overloaded when a physical demanding sport is performed additionally. The apophysis is an ossification nucleus near the tendon insertion, which appears before the growing age resumes and these apophysis finally fuses with the adjacent bone. The tensile forces from vigorous sports activity leads to a chronic or acute avulsion of the ossifying tendon insertion. The radiological appearance of this apophyseal damage with ossification and osteolytic processes is sometimes difficult with respect to differential diagnoses. Apophyseal impairment is associated with pain, tenderness to palpation and decreased muscle function. If it is not diagnosed and treated properly it can lead to end of career in many adolescent athletes. (orig.) [de

  6. Coach-athlete attachment and the quality of the coach-athlete relationship: implications for athlete's well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Louise; Jowett, Sophia

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether athletes' attachment styles with the coach were linked to aspects of the coach-athlete relationship quality and, in turn, whether relationship quality was linked to athletes' well-being. One hundred and ninety-two athletes completed a questionnaire measuring their attachment styles and relationship quality with the coach as well as their feelings of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA). Structural equation modelling (SEM) analysis found athletes' avoidant and secure attachment styles to be associated with aspects of coach-athlete relationship quality such as social support, relationship depth, and interpersonal conflict. Interpersonal conflict appeared to play a key role in athletes' PA and NA. From a practical perspective, an understanding of conflict management could provide a resource that allows athletes (and coaches) to enhance the quality of their sporting relationships. Specifically, an awareness of proactive strategies (e.g., steps to clarify expectations) and reactive strategies (e.g., cooperation during the discussion of disagreements) could potentially lead both coaches and athletes to "broaden" their viewpoints and in turn "build" connections that are capable of generating positive emotions including interest, excitement, happiness, and zeal.

  7. Cerebrovascular reactivity changes in asymptomatic female athletes attributable to high school soccer participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svaldi, Diana O; McCuen, Emily C; Joshi, Chetas; Robinson, Meghan E; Nho, Yeseul; Hannemann, Robert; Nauman, Eric A; Leverenz, Larry J; Talavage, Thomas M

    2017-02-01

    As participation in women's soccer continues to grow and the longevity of female athletes' careers continues to increase, prevention and care for mTBI in women's soccer has become a major concern for female athletes since the long-term risks associated with a history of mTBI are well documented. Among women's sports, soccer exhibits among the highest concussion rates, on par with those of men's football at the collegiate level. Head impact monitoring technology has revealed that "concussive hits" occurring directly before symptomatic injury are not predictive of mTBI, suggesting that the cumulative effect of repetitive head impacts experienced by collision sport athletes should be assessed. Neuroimaging biomarkers have proven to be valuable in detecting brain changes that occur before neurocognitive symptoms in collision sport athletes. Quantifying the relationship between changes in these biomarkers and head impacts experienced by female soccer athletes may prove valuable to developing preventative measures for mTBI. This study paired functional magnetic resonance imaging with head impact monitoring to track cerebrovascular reactivity changes throughout a season and to test whether the observed changes could be attributed to mechanical loading experienced by female athletes participating in high school soccer. Marked cerebrovascular reactivity changes were observed in female soccer athletes, relative both to non-collision sport control measures and pre-season measures and were localized to fronto-temporal aspects of the brain. These changes persisted 4-5 months after the season ended and recovered by 8 months after the season. Segregation of the total soccer cohort into cumulative loading groups revealed that population-level changes were driven by athletes experiencing high cumulative loads, although athletes experiencing lower cumulative loads still contributed to group changes. The results of this study imply a non-linear relationship between cumulative

  8. Return to Play After Shoulder Instability Surgery in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Intercollegiate Football Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, R Judd; Daruwalla, Jimmy H; Gamradt, Seth C; McCarty, Eric C; Dragoo, Jason L; Hancock, Robert E; Guy, Jeffrey A; Cotsonis, George A; Xerogeanes, John W; Tuman, Jeffrey M; Tibone, James E; Javernick, Matthew A; Yochem, Eric M; Boden, Stephanie A; Pilato, Alexis; Miley, Jennifer H; Greis, Patrick E

    2017-08-01

    Recent attention has focused on the optimal surgical treatment for recurrent shoulder instability in young athletes. Collision athletes are at a higher risk for recurrent instability after surgery. To evaluate variables affecting return-to-play (RTP) rates in Division I intercollegiate football athletes after shoulder instability surgery. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Invitations to participate were made to select sports medicine programs that care for athletes in Division I football conferences (Pac-12 Conference, Southeastern Conference [SEC], Atlantic Coast Conference [ACC]). After gaining institutional review board approval, 7 programs qualified and participated. Data on direction of instability, type of surgery, time to resume participation, and quality and level of play before and after surgery were collected. There were 168 of 177 procedures that were arthroscopic surgery, with a mean 3.3-year follow-up. Overall, 85.4% of players who underwent arthroscopic surgery without concomitant procedures returned to play. Moreover, 15.6% of athletes who returned to play sustained subsequent shoulder injuries, and 10.3% sustained recurrent instability, resulting in reduction/revision surgery. No differences were noted in RTP rates in athletes who underwent anterior labral repair (82.4%), posterior labral repair (92.9%), combined anterior-posterior repair (84.8%; P = .2945), or open repair (88.9%; P = .9362). Also, 93.3% of starters, 95.4% of utilized players, and 75.7% of rarely used players returned to play. The percentage of games played before the injury was 49.9% and rose to 71.5% after surgery ( P surgery. Scholarship status significantly correlated with RTP after surgery ( P = .0003). The majority of surgical interventions were isolated arthroscopic stabilization procedures, with no statistically significant difference in RTP rates when concomitant arthroscopic procedures or open stabilization procedures were performed. Athletes who returned to play often

  9. Enhancing team-sport athlete performance: is altitude training relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billaut, François; Gore, Christopher J; Aughey, Robert J

    2012-09-01

    Field-based team sport matches are composed of short, high-intensity efforts, interspersed with intervals of rest or submaximal exercise, repeated over a period of 60-120 minutes. Matches may also be played at moderate altitude where the lower oxygen partial pressure exerts a detrimental effect on performance. To enhance run-based performance, team-sport athletes use varied training strategies focusing on different aspects of team-sport physiology, including aerobic, sprint, repeated-sprint and resistance training. Interestingly, 'altitude' training (i.e. living and/or training in O(2)-reduced environments) has only been empirically employed by athletes and coaches to improve the basic characteristics of speed and endurance necessary to excel in team sports. Hypoxia, as an additional stimulus to training, is typically used by endurance athletes to enhance performance at sea level and to prepare for competition at altitude. Several approaches have evolved in the last few decades, which are known to enhance aerobic power and, thus, endurance performance. Altitude training can also promote an increased anaerobic fitness, and may enhance sprint capacity. Therefore, altitude training may confer potentially-beneficial adaptations to team-sport athletes, which have been overlooked in contemporary sport physiology research. Here, we review the current knowledge on the established benefits of altitude training on physiological systems relevant to team-sport performance, and conclude that current evidence supports implementation of altitude training modalities to enhance match physical performances at both sea level and altitude. We hope that this will guide the practice of many athletes and stimulate future research to better refine training programmes.

  10. Physiological and perceptual effects of precooling in wheelchair basketball athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumpa, Kate; Knight, Emma; Miller, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the physiological and perceptual effects of three precooling strategies during pre-exercise rest in athletes with a spinal cord injury (SCI). Design Randomized, counterbalanced. Participants were precooled, then rested for 60 minutes (22.7 ± 0.2°C, 64.2 ± 2.6%RH). Setting National Wheelchair Basketball Training Centre, Australia. Participants Sixteen wheelchair basketball athletes with a SCI. Interventions Participants were precooled through; 1) 10 minutes of 15.8°C cold water immersion (CWI), 2) ingestion of 6.8 g/kg−1 of slushie (S) from sports drink; 3) ingestion of 6.8 g/kg−1 of slushie with application of iced towels to the legs, torso and back/arms (ST); or 4) ingestion of 6.8 g/kg−1 of room temperature (22.3°C) sports drink (CON). Outcome measures Core temperature (Tgi), skin temperature (Tsk), heart rate (HR), and thermal and gastrointestinal comfort. Results Following CWI, a significant reduction in Tgi was observed compared to CON, with a greatest reduction of 1.58°C occurring 40 minutes post-cooling (95% CI [1.07, 2.10]). A significant reduction in Tgi following ST compared to CON was also observed at 20 minutes (0.56°C; [0.03, 1.09]) and 30 minutes (0.56°C; [0.04, 1.09]) post-cooling. Additionally, a significant interaction between impairment level and time was observed for Tgi and HR, demonstrating athletes with a higher level of impairment experienced a greater reduction in HR and significant decrease in rate of decline in Tgi, compared to lesser impaired athletes. Conclusion CWI and ST can effectively lower body temperature in athletes with a SCI, and may assist in tolerating warm conditions. PMID:27192132

  11. Dual career pathways of transnational athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryba, T. V.; Stambulova, N. B.; Ronkainen, Noora J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Transnationalism, as part of the globalization processes, has transformed the lifestyle and the course of athletes' careers. This presents previously unexplored challenges encountered by student-athletes in combining athletic and academic pursuits. In this article, we propose a concep......Objectives: Transnationalism, as part of the globalization processes, has transformed the lifestyle and the course of athletes' careers. This presents previously unexplored challenges encountered by student-athletes in combining athletic and academic pursuits. In this article, we propose...... patterns of transnational DC were discerned from the narratives based on the direction of geographic mobility and the core migration motive underpinning the storyline. Within the present dataset, the taxonomies are: (1) Within EU mobility: the sport exile DC pathway; (2) Mobility to the U.S.A.: the sport...

  12. Motivational climate, behaviour regulation and perceived effort in soccer athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Monteiro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to test the integration of two motivational theoretical models (self-determination theory and the achievement goal theory to analyze the impact of motivational climate in the regulation of motivation and athletes´ effort perception. Participated in the study 460 athletes (male football players at both regional and national level, on the categories of beginners, youth, juniors and seniors, with 17.42 ± 4.37 years-old. The quality of the structural equation model was examined by the Chi-square value and some complementary model fit indices. The results support the model fit (S-Bχ²= 288.84, df= 147, p< 0.001, S-Bχ²/df= 1.96, SRMR= 0.049, NNFI= 0.912, CFI= 0.924, RMSEA= 0.046, 90%IC RMSEA= 0.038−0.054, suggesting that a motivational task-oriented climate has a significant positive effect on autonomous motivation, which in turn has a significant positive effect on athletes' effort perception. On the other hand, an ego-oriented environment had a positive effect on the controlled motivation, which in turn had a negative effect on athletes' effort perception, although not significant.

  13. Effect of salbutamol on neuromuscular function in endurance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decorte, Nicolas; Bachasson, Damien; Guinot, Michel; Flore, Patrice; Levy, Patrick; Verges, Samuel; Wuyam, Bernard

    2013-10-01

    The potential ergogenic effects of therapeutic inhaled salbutamol doses in endurance athletes have been controversially discussed for decades. We hypothesized that salbutamol inhalation may increase peripheral muscle contractility, reduce fatigability, and improve force recovery after a localized exercise in endurance athletes. Eleven healthy, nonasthmatic male athletes with high aerobic capacities were recruited to be compared in a double-blinded, randomized crossover study of two dose levels of salbutamol (200 and 800 μg) and a placebo administered by inhalation before a quadriceps fatigue test. Subjects performed an incremental exercise protocol consisting in sets of 10 intermittent isometric contractions starting at 20% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) with 10% MVC increment until exhaustion. Femoral nerve magnetic stimulation was used during and after MVC to evaluate neuromuscular fatigue after each set, at task failure, and after 10 and 30 min of recovery. Initial MVC and evoked muscular responses were not modified with salbutamol (P > 0.05). The total number of submaximal contractions until task failure significantly differed between treatments (placebo, 72 ± 7; 200 µg, 78 ± 8; and 800 µg, 82 ± 7; P 0.05). Voluntary activation was unaffected by the fatiguing task and treatments (P > 0.05). Supratherapeutic inhaled doses of β2-agonists increased quadriceps endurance during an incremental and localized fatiguing task in healthy endurance-trained athletes without significant effect on neuromuscular fatigue. Further studies are needed to clarify the underlying mechanisms.

  14. Hip and groin pain in the child athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadley, Penny; Offiah, Amaka C

    2014-11-01

    An increasing number of children are taking up sporting activities and at more competitive levels. For this reason (pediatric) radiologists should expect to receive greater numbers of requests from their orthopedic colleagues to image the athletic child who presents with hip or groin pain: "athletic pubalgia."Lower limb sports-related pathology is particularly common in sports such as ballet, football, hockey, rugby, and running. Injuries to the hip and groin may account for up to a quarter of injuries seen in athletic children and may be acute or chronic, osseous, cartilaginous, ligamentous, or muscular. The radiologist should also bear in mind the possibility of non-sports-related pathology such as inflammation or tumor and of complications related to previous trauma such as avascular necrosis or femoroacetabular impingement complicating previous slipped capital femoral epiphysis. Radiologists should avoid use of the term sports hernia and provide a more specific description of the true abnormality.The major imaging modalities are radiographs and MRI. In this article we provide an overview of the common sports-related pathologies of the hip and groin that may be encountered in the athletic child. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  15. ATHLET. Mod 3.0 Cycle A. Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerchl, G.; Austregesilo, H.; Glaeser, H.; Hrubisko, M.; Luther, W.

    2012-09-15

    ATHLET is an advanced best-estimate code which has been initially developed for the simulation of design basis and beyond design basis accidents (without core degradation) in light water reactors, including VVER and RBMK reactors. Furthermore, this program version enables the simulation of further working fluids like helium and liquid metals. The one-dimensional, two-phase fluiddynamic models are based on a five-equation model supplemented by a full-range drift-flux model, including a dynamic mixture-level tracking capability. Moreover, a two-fluid model based on six conservation equations is provided. The heat conduction and heat transfer module allows a flexible simulation of fuel rods and structures. The nuclear heat generation is calculated by a point-kinetics or by a one-dimensional kinetics model. A general control simulation module is provided for a flexible modelling of BOP- and auxiliary plant systems. Systematic code validation is performed by GRS and independent organizations. This Validation Manual is the fourth volume of the ATHLET Code Documentation comprising four volumes. This manual presents an overview about the complete ATHLET validation effort spent up to now. In addition, the results of five test cases simulated with the present ATHLET program version are compared with the experimental data.

  16. Spondylolysis in the adolescent athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han Jo; Green, Daniel W

    2011-02-01

    Spondylolysis is a common cause for back pain in the adolescent athlete. Increased awareness of the presentation of this subset of patients can aid in optimal outcomes. This paper aims to review the typical presentation of spondylolysis in the adolescent with specific focus on the adolescent athlete. We review current controversies in diagnosis and management and aim to provide a thorough review to aid the pediatrician in making clinical decisions for this subset of patients. The optimal algorithm for diagnostic imaging is controversial. Single positron emission computerized tomography can provide good sensitivity but poor specificity for spondylolysis. Computerized tomography can be useful as a follow-up exam to visualize the bony anatomy and osseous healing but has the concern of high radiation exposure. MRI may be a useful tool for diagnosis and follow-up examination, which may have significant advantages over traditional imaging techniques. Brace use is controversial and most likely functions as an adjunct for limiting motion to promote activity restrictions. Spondylolysis in the adolescent athlete is a common problem. MRI is a good study for diagnosis, although further studies need to be done in order to show its advantages over traditional diagnostic methods. Brace wear is encouraged as a method for promoting activity modification, although its efficacy in promoting healing and success in treating spondylolysis is controversial.

  17. Low back pain functional disability in athletes; conceptualization and initial development of a questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Elham; Kordi, Ramin; Nourian, Ruhollah; Noorian, Negin; Memari, Amir Hossein; Shariati, Mohammad

    2014-12-01

    Low Back Pain (LBP) is one of the most prevalent causes of disability not only in the general population but also in athletes. Despite a large number of self-reported back specific disability questionnaires, there is no specific, well documented, outcome measure for athletes suffering from back pain. This study aimed to identify the main descriptive themes representing functional disability in athletes due to LBP. We conducted a qualitative study using in-depth interviews to characterize the experiences of athletes with LBP. Twenty athletes with LBP were recruited and the main descriptive elements of their LBP related disability were extracted. Then a preliminary questionnaire using these themes was proposed. The main disability indicators were pain intensity; stretching exercises, strengthening exercises, sport specific skills, back range of motion (ROM), sitting, walking, sleep patterns, self-care, and recreational activities, fear of pain and avoidance behavior, and changes in sexual activity. The findings of this study suggest that apart from non-sports items, some sport related items should be included in the assessment of LBP disability levels in athletes. Our results have also been organized as a preliminary LBP disability questionnaire for athletes.

  18. Peripheral vision and perceptual asymmetries in young and older martial arts athletes and nonathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muiños, Mónica; Ballesteros, Soledad

    2014-11-01

    The present study investigated peripheral vision (PV) and perceptual asymmetries in young and older martial arts athletes (judo and karate athletes) and compared their performance with that of young and older nonathletes. Stimuli were dots presented at three different eccentricities along the horizontal, oblique, and vertical diameters and three interstimulus intervals. Experiment 1 showed that although the two athlete groups were faster in almost all conditions, karate athletes performed significantly better than nonathlete participants when stimuli were presented in the peripheral visual field. Experiment 2 showed that older participants who had practiced a martial art at a competitive level when they were young were significantly faster than sedentary older adults of the same age. The practiced sport (judo or karate) did not affect performance differentially, suggesting that it is the practice of martial arts that is the crucial factor, rather than the type of martial art. Importantly, older athletes lose their PV advantage, as compared with young athletes. Finally, we found that physical activity (young and older athletes) and age (young and older adults) did not alter the visual asymmetries that vary as a function of spatial location; all participants were faster for stimuli presented along the horizontal than for those presented along the vertical meridian and for those presented at the lower rather than at the upper locations within the vertical meridian. These results indicate that the practice of these martial arts is an effective way of counteracting the processing speed decline of visual stimuli appearing at any visual location and speed.

  19. Evaluation of ACE gene I/D polymorphism in Iranian elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahmoradi, Somayeh; Ahmadalipour, Ali; Salehi, Mansoor

    2014-01-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is an important gene, which is associated with the successful physical activity. The ACE gene has a major polymorphism (I/D) in intron 16 that determines its plasma and tissue levels. In this study, we aimed to determine whether there is an association between this polymorphism and sports performance in our studied population including elite athletes of different sports disciplines. We investigated allele frequency and genotype distribution of the ACE gene in 156 Iranian elite athletes compared to 163 healthy individuals. We also investigated this allele frequency between elite athletes in three functional groups of endurance, power, and mixed sports performances. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was performed on intron 16 of the ACE gene. The ACE genotype was determined for each subject. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS 15, and results were analyzed by Chi-Square test. There was a significant difference in genotype distribution and allele frequency of the ACE gene in athletes and control group (P = 0.05, P = 0.03, respectively). There was also a significant difference in allele frequency of the ACE gene in 3 groups of athletes with different sports disciplines (P = 0.045). Proportion of the ACE gene D allele was greater in elite endurance athletes (37 high-distance cyclists) than two other groups. Findings of the present study demonstrated that there is an association between the ACE gene I/D polymorphism and sports performance in Iranian elite athletes.

  20. Perceived parenting styles differ between genders but not between elite athletes and controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Brand

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Serge Brand1, Markus Gerber2, Johannes Beck1, Nadeem Kalak1, Martin Hatzinger1,3, Uwe Pühse2, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler11Depression and Sleep Research Unit, Psychiatric Hospital of the University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 2Institute of Exercise and Health Sciences, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 3Psychiatric Hospital, Solothurn, SwitzerlandAbstract: For adolescent elite athletes, parental financial and emotional support is crucial. However, parents of elite athletes may be critical and demanding. Moreover, there is evidence that girls report more favorable perceived parenting styles compared with boys. The aim of the present study was to investigate perceived parenting styles among female and male adolescent elite athletes and controls. We sampled 258 adolescent elite athletes (139 females, 119 males and 176 controls (139 females, 37 males. Participants completed a questionnaire to assess perceived parenting styles (support, commendation, reproach, restriction, inconsistency. Results showed that parenting styles did not differ between athletes and controls, except for restriction, for which athletes reported lower levels. Female adolescents had higher scores for positive and lower scores for negative perceived parenting styles.Keywords: parenting style, gender, elite athletes, controls

  1. Whole-body cryotherapy in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfi, Giuseppe; Lombardi, Giovanni; Colombini, Alessandra; Melegati, Gianluca

    2010-06-01

    Cold therapy is commonly used as a procedure to relieve pain symptoms, particularly in inflammatory diseases, injuries and overuse symptoms. A peculiar form of cold therapy (or stimulation) was proposed 30 years ago for the treatment of rheumatic diseases. The therapy, called whole-body cryotherapy (WBC), consists of exposure to very cold air that is maintained at -110 degrees C to -140 degrees C in special temperature-controlled cryochambers, generally for 2 minutes. WBC is used to relieve pain and inflammatory symptoms caused by numerous disorders, particularly those associated with rheumatic conditions, and is recommended for the treatment of arthritis, fibromyalgia and ankylosing spondylitis. In sports medicine, WBC has gained wider acceptance as a method to improve recovery from muscle injury. Unfortunately, there are few papers concerning the application of the treatment on athletes. The study of possible enhancement of recovery from injuries and possible modification of physiological parameters, taking into consideration the limits imposed by antidoping rules, is crucial for athletes and sports physicians for judging the real benefits and/or limits of WBC. According to the available literature, WBC is not harmful or detrimental in healthy subjects. The treatment does not enhance bone marrow production and could reduce the sport-induced haemolysis. WBC induces oxidative stress, but at a low level. Repeated treatments are apparently not able to induce cumulative effects; on the contrary, adaptive changes on antioxidant status are elicited--the adaptation is evident where WBC precedes or accompanies intense training. WBC is not characterized by modifications of immunological markers and leukocytes, and it seems to not be harmful to the immunological system. The WBC effect is probably linked to the modifications of immunological molecules having paracrine effects, and not to systemic immunological functions. In fact, there is an increase in anti

  2. Motivation Mediates the Perfectionism-Burnout Relationship: A Three-Wave Longitudinal Study With Junior Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madigan, Daniel J; Stoeber, Joachim; Passfield, Louis

    2016-08-01

    Perfectionism in sports has been shown to predict longitudinal changes in athlete burnout. What mediates these changes over time, however, is still unclear. Adopting a self-determination theory perspective and using a three-wave longitudinal design, the current study examined perfectionistic strivings, perfectionistic concerns, autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and athlete burnout in 141 junior athletes (mean age = 17.3 years) over 6 months of active training. When multilevel structural equation modeling was employed to test a mediational model, a differential pattern of between- and within-person relationships emerged. Whereas autonomous motivation mediated the negative relationship that perfectionistic strivings had with burnout at the between- and within-person level, controlled motivation mediated the positive relationship that perfectionistic concerns had with burnout at the between-persons level only. The present findings suggest that differences in autonomous and controlled motivation explain why perfectionism predicts changes in athlete burnout over time.

  3. THE INFLUENCE OF SELF-ESTEEM ON THE EMOTIONAL STATE OF AN ATHLETE AS PERSONALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vysochina N.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Annotation. Studies and analyses the influence of psychological factors on the emotional state of an athlete as personality. Scientific literature elucidates poorly the impact of self-esteem on the emotional state of an athlete as a factor promoting optimization of professional activity, which has made this problem very interesting for the study. The aim of this study is to trace the relationship between the self-esteem level and emotional state of an athlete personality as a factor promoting optimization of professional activity. The following methods were used: theoretical analysis, compilation and systematization of data from scientific literature. Research shows that the level of self-esteem exerts direct effect on the emotional state of an athlete, which predetermines his professional results.

  4. Application of serum CK and BUN determination in monitoring pre-competition training of badminton athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yun

    2007-02-01

    In order to investigate the feasibility of serum creatine kinase (CK) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in monitoring pre-competition training of badminton athletes, the pre-competition training load of 20 badminton athletes was studied, and serum CK and BUN were determined before, immediate and next morning after training. The results showed that after intensive training for one week, serum CK levels were significantly increased by 57.53 mmol/L (P0.05). After intermittent training, there was significant difference in the average increased levels of serum CK in athletes (P0.05). It was concluded that serum CK was one of the biochemical indicators monitoring the training load sensitivity of badminton athletes, but BUN was of little value in monitoring the training load. Both serum CK and BUN recovered slowly after one-week intensive training and intermittent training, suggesting the metabolic mechanism of human body in training needs further study.

  5. An Interpersonal Psychotherapy Approach to Counseling Student Athletes: Clinical Implications of Athletic Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heird, Emily Benton; Steinfeldt, Jesse A.

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that disruptive circumstances in an athlete's career (temporary injury, permanent injury, retirement) can pose significant difficulties, especially if the athlete has developed a salient athletic identity at the expense of a multidimensional self-concept. The authors present an interpersonal psychotherapy approach to case…

  6. Support Services for Student-Athletes: Assessing the Differences in Usage among Student-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the usage rates of support services for student-athletes at a small, private college in the southeast with membership in the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA), in efforts to understand how universities and sport organizations can assist in the challenges student-athletes face when…

  7. Organic food consumption by athletes in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranauskas, Marius; Stukas, Rimantas; Tubelis, Linas; Žagminas, Kęstutis; Šurkienė, Genė; Dobrovolskij, Valerij; Jakubauskienė, Marija; Giedraitis, Vincentas Rolandas

    2015-01-01

    With environmental pollution increasing, interest in organic farming and organic foodstuffs has been growing all over the world. Data on organic food consumption by Lithuanian athletes is not yet available. This lack of data determined the aim of this study: to identify the particulars of organic foodstuff consumption among athletes. In September-November 2012, we polled 158 of the best-performing athletes of the Olympic sports team through direct interviews. An approved questionnaire was used to identify the specifics of organic foodstuff consumption among athletes. The survey results showed that 97% of athletes consume organic foodstuffs, and 80% of athletes highlighted the positive impact of organic food on health. Nevertheless, a slim majority of athletes (51.7%) consume organic foodstuffs seldomly, 2-3 times per week. The range of organic foodstuffs consumed depends on the gender of athletes, and the consumption of some products depends on monthly incomes. Survey results confirm the need for the production and expansion of the variety of organic foodstuffs. In the course of the development of the organic food market, it should be beneficial for manufacturers to target high-performance athletes and physically active people.

  8. Comparative analysis of the physical readiness athletes of different qualifying groups specializing in run orienteering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himenes K. R.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Confirmed the leading role of physical preparation in the structure of the training process of athletes who specialize in run orienteering. It is shown that more skilled orienteriers (I discharge and CMS had much more significant correlations between indexes of physical preparedness (eight than less-skilled (III-II discharges athletes (three. This suggests that the growth of sportsmanship is associated not only with increasing level of physical preparedness, but also its structure.

  9. THE INVESTIGATION TO THE SEX OF BODY COMPOSITION AND PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE OF ELITE MASTER ATHLETES

    OpenAIRE

    Aksel ÇELİK; Mert TUNER

    2010-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of regular aerobic exercise on body composition by bioelektrik impedance analysis (BIA) methods, respiratory function parameters and physical performance levels. 20 men and 10 women, total 30 long-distance elite master athletes who had joined World, European and The Balkans Championships in Athletics and into at least one degree, were included in the study. The body composition such as skeletal muscle mass, body fat weight, Waist-hip ratio an...

  10. Comparative outcomes of extracorporeal shockwave therapy for shoulder tendinitis or partial tears of the rotator cuff in athletes and non-athletes: Retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Wen-Yi; Wang, Ching-Jen; Wu, Kuan-Ting; Yang, Ya-Ju; Cheng, Jai-Hong; Wang, Shih-Wei

    2018-03-01

    Refractory shoulder tendinitis or partial thickness rotator cuff tears (PTRCTs) are common findings in overhead athletes. Previous studies have examined the effectiveness of extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) for shoulder tendinitis. In the current study, we recruited 36 shoulders and performed a comparison between the professional athletes (13 shoulders, athletic group; AG) and the non-athletic population (23 shoulders, non-athletic group, NAG) with PTRCTs or shoulder tendinitis of the shoulder after ESWT. Patients with symptomatic tendinitis of the shoulder with or without a partial tear of the rotator cuff tendon and failed oral medication and physical therapy for more than 3 months were treated with electrohydraulic mode of ESWT. All patients that met the inclusion criteria were categorized into two groups according to their pre-treatment activity level. We found that NAG exhibited significant aging and degenerative change around the glenohumeral joint and subacromial space. After ESWT treatment, the patients in AG were with 53.8% high satisfaction rating and patients in NAG were 52.1% by one-year followed up. The results showed ESWT was equally effective treatment in both AG and NAG. In light of its efficacy and less-invasive nature, we suggest ESWT can be used to treat athletes with refractory tendinitis or PTRCTs before proceeding to arthroscopic intervention. Copyright © 2018 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Health in elite sports from a salutogenetic perspective: athletes' sense of coherence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Mayer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Considering the high number of stressors encountered in the context of elite sports, a high sense of coherence (SOC is crucial to allow athletes to maintain their health from both short- and long-term perspectives. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate SOC in a population of elite athletes, focusing on identification of subsets of athletes with particularly high and low SOC scores, and any related predictors. The elite athletes' SOC scores were also evaluated for differences with those of the general population of Germany; whether a correlation between SOC and subjective health existed was additionally examined. METHOD: In total, 698 male and female elite athletes, drawn from Germany's highest-level national track and field squads, and first and second division handball teams, completed a survey that included the SOC-L9 Scale and measures of subjective health, sociodemographic information, and the number of injury lay-offs experienced during the athletes' careers to date. RESULTS: Classification tree analysis reveals six contrast groups with varying SOC scores. Several interacting factors determine the group to which an athlete belongs. Together with overuse injuries, additional factors are age, gender, and completed/not completed apprenticeship/degree. Female athletes aged between 19 and 25, who had already been subject to lay-offs due to overuse injuries, comprise the group with the lowest SOC scores. Overall, the SOC of elite athletes is slightly lower than in the general population. In accordance with other studies, a stronger SOC is also correlated significantly with better global subjective health. CONCLUSION: The identification of contrast groups with varying SOC scores contributes to the development of more targeted salutogenetic health promotion programs. Such programs would ideally include learning modules pertaining to coping with overuse injuries, as well as social support systems aiming to effectively

  12. Fluid Balance During Training in Elite Young Athletes of Different Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaoutis, Giannis; Kavouras, Stavros A; Angelopoulou, Athanasia; Skoulariki, Chara; Bismpikou, Stefani; Mourtakos, Stamatis; Sidossis, Labros S

    2015-12-01

    Although there are many studies demonstrating a high percentage of adult athletes who start exercise in suboptimal hydration state, limited data concerning hydration levels in athletic youth exist. The purpose of this study was to identify the hydration status of elite young athletes of different sports, during a typical day of training. Fifty-nine young elite male athletes from different sports (basketball, gymnastics, swimming, running, and canoeing) participated in the study (age: 15.2 ± 1.3 years; years of training: 7.7 ± 2.0). Hydration status was assessed in the morning, before and immediately after practice. Data collection took place at the same time of the day, with mean environmental temperature and humidity at the time of the measurements at 27.6 ± 0.9° C and 58 ± 8%, respectively. All athletes trained for approximately 90 minutes, and they were consuming fluids ad libitum throughout their practice. Over 89% of the athletes were hypohydrated (urine specific gravity [USG] ≥1.020 mg·dl) based on their first morning urine sample. Pretraining urine samples revealed that 76.3% of the athletes were hypohydrated, whereas a significant high percent remained hypohydrated even after training according to USG values ≥1.020 mg·dl (74.5%) and urine color scale: 5-6 (76.3%). Mean body weight loss during training was -1.1 ± 0.07%. We concluded that the prevalence of hypohydration among elite young athletes is very high, as indicated by the USG and urine color values. The majority of the athletes was hypohydrated throughout the day and dehydrated even more during practice despite fluid availability.

  13. Prevalence and Impact of Hip Arthroscopic Surgery on Future Participation in Elite American Football Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Derrick M; Sheehan, Joe; Nho, Shane J; Voos, James E; Salata, Michael J

    2018-02-01

    Intra-articular injuries to the hip in elite athletes represent a source of significant pain and disability. Hip arthroscopic surgery has become the gold standard for the treatment of disorders involving the hip joint. To examine the incidence of and abnormalities treated with hip arthroscopic surgery as well as the impact on future participation in American football athletes invited to the National Football League (NFL) Scouting Combine with a history of hip arthroscopic surgery. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Athletes invited to the NFL Combine from 2012 to 2015 were evaluated for a history of hip arthroscopic surgery. Athlete demographics, imaging findings, and physical examination results were gathered using the NFL Combine database. Information on prospective participation in the NFL with regard to draft status, games played, games started, and current status was gathered using publicly available databases and compared against all other athletes participating in the combine. Fourteen athletes (15 hips) had a history of arthroscopic hip surgery. Acetabular labral tears were treated in 93% (14 hips), with femoroacetabular impingement decompression performed in 33% (5 hips). Compared with athletes who had no history of hip arthroscopic surgery, those undergoing arthroscopic surgery did not possess a lower likelihood of being drafted (66% vs 71%, respectively; P = .78) or of being on an active roster (52% vs 43%, respectively; P = .44) after their first season in the NFL. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the number of regular-season games played (10.9 ± 4.8 with arthroscopic surgery vs 11.0 ± 5.1 without; P = .96) or started (7.0 ± 3.6 with arthroscopic surgery vs 7.1 ± 5.3 without; P = .98). American football athletes invited to the NFL Combine with a history of hip arthroscopic surgery were not at risk for diminished participation when compared with all other athletes during their first season in the NFL.

  14. Division I Student Athletes' Perceptions: How Well Does the Athletic Department Promote Student Athlete Development in an Urban-Serving University?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermillion, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to identify student athletes' perceptions of their athletic department regarding student development. Student athletes from a Division I athletic department were surveyed (n = 369) in order to monitor their development. Regression analyses, which included respondent's sport, gender, classification, reports of abuse,…

  15. Athletic performance outcomes following lumbar discectomy in professional basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anakwenze, Okechukwu A; Namdari, Surena; Auerbach, Joshua D; Baldwin, Keith; Weidner, Zachary D; Lonner, Baron S; Huffman, G R; Sennett, Brian J

    2010-04-01

    Retrospective case-control study. To quantify the athletic performance profiles after lumbar discectomy (LD) in a cohort of National Basketball Association (NBA) players in comparison with a control group of matched NBA players who did not undergo LD during the same study period. LD provides symptomatic relief and improved functional outcomes in the majority of patients as assessed by validated measures such as Oswestry Disability Index, Visual Analog Scale, and Short Form-36 (SF-36). Among professional athletes, however, the goal of lumbar HNP treated by discectomy is not only to improve functional status but also, ultimately, to return the player to preinjury athletic performance levels. No study to date has compared the athletic performance profiles before and after discectomy in professional athletes. An analysis of NBA games summaries, weekly injury reports, player profiles, and press releases was performed to identify 24 NBA players who underwent LD for symptomatic lumbar HNP between 1991 and 2007. A 1:2 case: control study was performed using players without history of lumbar HNP who were matched for age, position, experience, and body mass index as control subjects (n = 48). Paired t tests were conducted on the following parameters: games played, minutes per game, points per 40 minutes, rebounds per 40 minutes, assists per 40 minutes, steals per 40 minutes, blocks per 40 minutes, and shooting percentage. For each athletic performance outcome, between-group comparisons evaluating preindex to postindex season performance were done (index season = season of surgery). In the LD group, 18 of 24 players (75%) returned to play again in the NBA, compared with 42 of 48 players (88%, P = 0.31) in the control group. One year after surgery, between-group comparisons revealed statistically significant increase in blocked shots per 40 minutes in the LD (0.18) versus control group (-0.33; P = 0.008) and a smaller decrease in rebounds per 40 minutes in the LD (-0

  16. Shoulder complaints in wheelchair athletes: A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar W Heyward

    Full Text Available In recent years the popularity of disabled sports and competition among disabled athletes has grown considerably. With this rise in exposure of, and participation in wheelchair sports comes an increase in related stressors, including musculoskeletal load. External mechanical loading may increase the risk of shoulder complaints. The objective of this literature review was to 1 identify and describe the prevalence and/or incidence of shoulder complaints in wheelchair athletes in the literature, to 2 examine the factors and underlying mechanisms that could be potentially involved, and 3 provide some insights into the development of preventative measures.A literature search was conducted using PubMed, Scopus and Embase databases, to identify relevant published articles. All articles in the English language that contained any type of shoulder complaint in relation with a wheelchair sports player, at any level of status (recreational to elite, of any sport, were included. Articles were excluded if they did not include any statistical analysis. Articles that included studies with wheelchair athletes in combination with athletes of other disability sports were excluded in order to be able to differentiate between the two. Narrative, exploratory and case studies were also excluded. Two reviewers independently assessed articles for inclusion. Thirteen articles matched the selection criteria. These were judged on their quality by use of an adapted version of the Webster checklist.Of the included studies the overall quality was low. A relatively high prevalence of complaints was found, ranging from 16% to 76%. Pain was found to be a common complaint in wheelchair athletes. Based on the current literature the cause of shoulder problems is difficult to identify and is likely multifactorial, nevertheless characteristics of the user (i.e. increased years of disability, age and BMI were shown to increase risk. Preventative measures were indistinct. There may be

  17. Tempo de reação simples auditivo e visual em surfistas com diferentes níveis de habilidade: comparação entre atletas profissionais, amadores e praticantes Auditory and visual single reaction span in surfers with different ability levels: comparison of professional, amateur athletes and surf practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Augusto Otero Vaghetti

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O tempo de reação simples (TRS representa o nível de coordenação neuromuscular, no qual os estímulos visuais, auditivos ou táteis são decodificados pelo corpo através de diferentes processos físico-químicos e mecânicos. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi identificar os TRS auditivo e visual em surfistas profissionais, amadores e praticantes, verificar se existem diferenças estatísticas entre os grupos de surfistas e correlacionar os tempos de reação com a performance dos atletas. Participaram deste estudo 103 surfistas: 42 atletas profissionais do sexo masculino (brasileiros e estrangeiros, 11 atletas profissionais do sexo feminino, 25 atletas amadores universitários e 25 praticantes de surfe. A coleta de dados foi realizada nas praias onde aconteceram os respectivos eventos, WQS (World Qualifyng Series, etapa do circuito mundial, Superfsurf (etapa do campeonato brasileiro de surfe profissional, CCSU (etapa do circuito catarinense de surfe universitário. Foram utilizados como instrumentação um interruptor com uma tecla de sensibilidade de 0,8N, um LED para estímulo visual, duas caixas acústicas, com 315Hz de freqüência e 81dB de pressão sonora, para estímulo auditivo e um dispositivo eletrônico com a finalidade de gerar o sinal auditivo, visual e de sincronismo. A aquisição dos dados foi realizada utilizando o software SAD versão 32. Foram encontradas diferenças estatisticamente significativas para os TRS auditivo e visual entre os profissionais (masculinos versus praticantes, profissionais (femininos versus praticantes. Entre os amadores versus praticantes foram encontradas diferenças estatisticamente significativas apenas para o TRS visual, com TRS menores para os mais experientes. Uma correlação positiva foi encontrada para o TRS visual entre os profissionais (femininos versus no ranking.The reaction span RS (RTS represents the level of neuromuscular coordination in which the visual, auditory or touch stimuli are

  18. The Influence of Varsity Athletics on Midshipman Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harvey, M

    2003-01-01

    .... Academic performance averages, military performance averages, conduct grade, and honor violation are analyzed with respect to Midshipmen participating in varsity athletics versus non-varsity athletics...

  19. Susceptibility to eating disorders among collegiate female student-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLester, Cherilyn N; Hardin, Robin; Hoppe, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Research has suggested that the prevalence of young women with eating disorders (EDs) is increasing, but determining the exact prevalence of EDs within the female student-athlete (FS-A) population is difficult. Looking at certain traits may help us to identify their level of susceptibility to developing an ED. To determine the susceptibility of FS-As to EDs in relation to self-concept, including self-esteem and body image. Cross-sectional study. Athletic training and health centers at National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I, II, and III institutions via e-mail questionnaire correspondence. A total of 439 FS-As from 17 participating institutions completed the questionnaires. The sample was primarily white (83.1%) and underclass (61.8%). The questionnaire consisted of 4 parts: 3 subscales of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Body Cathexis Scale, and demographic items. A total of 6.8% of FS-As were susceptible to anorexia and 1.8% were susceptible to bulimia. The majority of FS-As (61%) reported normal self-esteem levels, whereas 29.4% had high self-esteem. Overall, 64.5% were satisfied and 23% were very satisfied with their body image. These results are generally positive in that they suggest FS-As have high levels of self-concept and are at low risk to develop EDs. However, these findings do not mean that all concerns should be dismissed. Although more than 90% of the respondents were not susceptible to an ED, there are still FS-As who may be. Athletic departments should evaluate their FS-As' levels of self-concept so that their susceptibility to EDs can be addressed. The emotional aspect of health care should be included in providing holistic care for student-athletes. Athletic trainers often are the primary health care providers for FS-As, so they should be made aware of this concern.

  20. Susceptibility to Eating Disorders Among Collegiate Female Student–Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLester, Cherilyn N.; Hardin, Robin; Hoppe, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Context: Research has suggested that the prevalence of young women with eating disorders (EDs) is increasing, but determining the exact prevalence of EDs within the female student–athlete (FS-A) population is difficult. Looking at certain traits may help us to identify their level of susceptibility to developing an ED. Objective: To determine the susceptibility of FS-As to EDs in relation to self-concept, including self-esteem and body image. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Athletic training and health centers at National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I, II, and III institutions via e-mail questionnaire correspondence. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 439 FS-As from 17 participating institutions completed the questionnaires. The sample was primarily white (83.1%) and underclass (61.8%). Main Outcome Measure(s): The questionnaire consisted of 4 parts: 3 subscales of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Body Cathexis Scale, and demographic items. Results: A total of 6.8% of FS-As were susceptible to anorexia and 1.8% were susceptible to bulimia. The majority of FS-As (61%) reported normal self-esteem levels, whereas 29.4% had high self-esteem. Overall, 64.5% were satisfied and 23% were very satisfied with their body image. Conclusions: These results are generally positive in that they suggest FS-As have high levels of self-concept and are at low risk to develop EDs. However, these findings do not mean that all concerns should be dismissed. Although more than 90% of the respondents were not susceptible to an ED, there are still FS-As who may be. Athletic departments should evaluate their FS-As' levels of self-concept so that their susceptibility to EDs can be addressed. The emotional aspect of health care should be included in providing holistic care for student–athletes. Athletic trainers often are the primary health care providers for FS-As, so they should be made aware of this concern. PMID:24762233

  1. Surgical Management of Recurrent Musculotendinous Hamstring Injury in Professional Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnery-Cottet, Bertrand; Daggett, Matt; Gardon, Roland; Pupim, Barbara; Clechet, Julien; Thaunat, Mathieu

    2015-10-01

    Hamstring injury is the most common muscular lesion in athletes. The conservative treatment is well described, and surgical management is often indicated for proximal tendinous avulsions. To our knowledge, no surgical treatment has been proposed for failure of conservative treatment in musculotendinous hamstring lesions. To describe the surgical management of proximal and distal hamstring musculotendinous junction lesions in professional athletes after failure of conservative treatment. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A consecutive series of 10 professional athletes, including 4 soccer players, 4 rugby players, and 2 handball players, underwent surgical intervention between October 2010 and June 2014 for the treatment of recurrent musculotendinous hamstring injuries. All athletes had failed at least 3 months of conservative treatment for a recurrent musculotendinous hamstring injury. Surgical resection of the musculotendinous scar tissue was performed using a longitudinal muscular suture. Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS) and Marx scores were obtained at the 3-month follow-up, and a final phone interview was completed to determine recurrence of hamstring injury and return to previous level of play. The mean age at surgery was 25.2 years (range, 19-35 years). The musculotendinous hamstring lesions involved 8 semitendinosus and 2 biceps femoris, with 6 injuries located proximally and 4 distally. Conservative treatment lasted a mean 5.1 months (range, 3-9 months) after last recurrence, and the patients had an average of 2.7 (range, 2-5) separate incidents of injury recurrence before surgical intervention was decided upon. At the 3-month follow-up, all patients had Marx activity scores of 16 and LEFS scores of 80. All 10 patients returned to the same level of play at a mean 3.4 months (range, 2-5 months). At a mean follow-up of 28.7 months, none of the athletes had suffered a recurrence. No surgical complication was encountered. In cases of failed conservative

  2. Surgical Management of Recurrent Musculotendinous Hamstring Injury in Professional Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnery-Cottet, Bertrand; Daggett, Matt; Gardon, Roland; Pupim, Barbara; Clechet, Julien; Thaunat, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hamstring injury is the most common muscular lesion in athletes. The conservative treatment is well described, and surgical management is often indicated for proximal tendinous avulsions. To our knowledge, no surgical treatment has been proposed for failure of conservative treatment in musculotendinous hamstring lesions. Purpose: To describe the surgical management of proximal and distal hamstring musculotendinous junction lesions in professional athletes after failure of conservative treatment. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A consecutive series of 10 professional athletes, including 4 soccer players, 4 rugby players, and 2 handball players, underwent surgical intervention between October 2010 and June 2014 for the treatment of recurrent musculotendinous hamstring injuries. All athletes had failed at least 3 months of conservative treatment for a recurrent musculotendinous hamstring injury. Surgical resection of the musculotendinous scar tissue was performed using a longitudinal muscular suture. Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS) and Marx scores were obtained at the 3-month follow-up, and a final phone interview was completed to determine recurrence of hamstring injury and return to previous level of play. Results: The mean age at surgery was 25.2 years (range, 19-35 years). The musculotendinous hamstring lesions involved 8 semitendinosus and 2 biceps femoris, with 6 injuries located proximally and 4 distally. Conservative treatment lasted a mean 5.1 months (range, 3-9 months) after last recurrence, and the patients had an average of 2.7 (range, 2-5) separate incidents of injury recurrence before surgical intervention was decided upon. At the 3-month follow-up, all patients had Marx activity scores of 16 and LEFS scores of 80. All 10 patients returned to the same level of play at a mean 3.4 months (range, 2-5 months). At a mean follow-up of 28.7 months, none of the athletes had suffered a recurrence. No surgical

  3. Research on problem solving skills of orienteering athletes in terms of some variables

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    Eroğlu Başak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the problem solving skills of orienteering athletes in terms of different variables. 157 male and 43 female orienteering athletes, making a total of 200 athletes that joined the 3rd Level of Turkey Championship in 2015 have participated in this study which is in a survey model. The data collection tools were the Problem Solving Inventory and Personal Information Form that were formed by Heppner & Peterson (1982 and adapted into Turkish by Şahin, Şahin & Heppner (1993. In the data analysis, descriptive statics, anova, t test and Tukey test have been utilized. In the line with the findings, it has been determined that the difference between the total mean values (85.55+20.45 that the orienteering athletes got from the problem solving inventory and their age, marital status, sports age, the years of practice in orienteering sports, and the status of being national player is significant (p<0.05. It has been found that male orienteering athletes perform higher evaluating approach compared to the female athletes, and that as the age levels increase, the problem solving skill is affected more positively. Furthermore, it has been determined that the perceptions of the participants that have more experience and sports age in orienteering sports and that do orienteering sports at a national level are more positive in the matter of problem solving skills.

  4. Iron status and the acute post-exercise hepcidin response in athletes.

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    Peter Peeling

    Full Text Available This study explored the relationship between serum ferritin and hepcidin in athletes. Baseline serum ferritin levels of 54 athletes from the control trial of five investigations conducted in our laboratory were considered; athletes were grouped according to values 100 μg/L (SF>100. Data pooling resulted in each athlete completing one of five running sessions: (1 8 × 3 min at 85% vVO2peak; (2 5 × 4 min at 90% vVO2peak; (3 90 min continuous at 75% vVO2peak; (4 40 min continuous at 75% vVO2peak; (5 40 min continuous at 65% vVO2peak. Athletes from each running session were represented amongst all four groups; hence, the mean exercise duration and intensity were not different (p>0.05. Venous blood samples were collected pre-, post- and 3 h post-exercise, and were analysed for serum ferritin, iron, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and hepcidin-25. Baseline and post-exercise serum ferritin levels were different between groups (p0.05. Post-exercise IL-6 was significantly elevated compared to baseline within each group (p100; p<0.05. An athlete's iron stores may dictate the baseline hepcidin levels and the magnitude of post-exercise hepcidin response. Low iron stores suppressed post-exercise hepcidin, seemingly overriding any inflammatory-driven increases.

  5. The rodeo athlete: injuries - Part II.

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    Meyers, Michael C; Laurent, C Matthew

    2010-10-01

    A previous instalment to this review focused on the sport science for rodeo, the history behind the sport and what is currently known about the physical and physiological status, coronary risk profile, strength and power levels, event-specific kinesiological and biomechanical aspects, nutritional habits and psychological indices associated with the rodeo athlete. In regards to injury, rodeo is well known for its high-velocity, high-impact atmosphere where athletes compete against the clock and uncooperative livestock. Considered by many to be a dangerous sport with high vulnerability towards trauma and frequent injuries, animal/human contact events comprise ∼80% of reported injuries. Severe trauma includes fractures, dislocations, subluxations, concussions, ligament ruptures, pneumothorax and various neurapraxias. Head and neck trauma account for 10-29% of total trauma and up to 63% of upper body injuries, with concussion incidence rates of 3.4 per 1000 competitive exposures. The incidence of thoracic, back and abdominal injuries comprise 11-84% of trauma, while shoulder injuries, involving anterior/posterior arthralgia, inflammation, instability and increasing weakness, account for 8-15% of upper extremity cases. Lower extremity trauma accounts for 26-34% of cases, with the majority involving the knee. Many believe that the incidence of trauma is underestimated, with studies hampered by numerous limitations such as a lack of injury awareness, missing data, poor injury recall, an array of reporting sources, delays in subject response and treatment, no uniform definition of injury or reporting system and predisposing factors prior to injury. Primary mechanisms of injuries are attributed to physical immaturity, fatigue, age and experience, behaviour, the violent nature of the sport and lack of adequate medical intervention. Although there is limited adherence to organized conditioning programmes, when properly planned, sport-specific conditioning may enhance

  6. Isokinetic dynamometry of knee flexors and extensors: comparative study among non-athletes, jumper athletes and runner athletes

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    Siqueira Cássio Marinho

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Participation in intensive sports activities leads to muscular specializations that may generate alterations in involved articular forces and cause static (posture and dynamic changes (alterations of articular stability, coordination, etc.. Prevention of injury requires specific functional muscular evaluation in all athletes and for any kind of sport. OBJECTIVE: To dynamically evaluate, through isokinetic tests, the peak torque, total work, and average power of the knee flexor and extensor muscles of jumper and runner athletes and compare them to those of a non-athletic population, evaluating dominance and balance between agonistic and antagonistic muscle groups. RESULTS: In the non-athlete group, we noted a higher asymmetry between the dominant and nondominant members. The jumpers had the highest values of the evaluated parameters of all groups, whereas parameters for the runners were intermediate between non-athletes and jumpers.

  7. Alterations in redox homeostasis in the elite endurance athlete.

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    Lewis, Nathan A; Howatson, Glyn; Morton, Katie; Hill, Jessica; Pedlar, Charles R

    2015-03-01

    The production of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS) is a fundamental feature of mammalian physiology, cellular respiration and cell signalling, and essential for muscle function and training adaptation. Aerobic and anaerobic exercise results in alterations in redox homeostasis (ARH) in untrained, trained and well trained athletes. Low to moderate doses of ROS and RNS play a role in muscle adaptation to endurance training, but an overwhelming increase in RNS and ROS may lead to increased cell apoptosis and immunosuppression, fatigued states and underperformance. The objectives of this systematic review are: (a) to test the hypotheses that ARH occur in elite endurance athletes; following an acute exercise bout, in an endurance race or competition; across a micro-, meso- or macro-training cycle; following a training taper; before, during and after altitude training; in females with amenorrhoea versus eumenorrhoea; and in non-functional over-reaching (NFOR) and overtraining states (OTS); (b) to report any relationship between ARH and training load and ARH and performance; and (c) to apply critical difference values for measures of oxidative stress/ARH to address whether there is any evidence of ARH being of physiological significance (not just statistical) and thus relevant to health and performance in the elite athlete. Electronic databases, Embase, MEDLINE, and SPORTDiscus were searched for relevant articles. Only studies that were observational articles of cross-sectional or longitudinal design, and included elite athletes competing at national or international level in endurance sports were included. Studies had to include biomarkers of ARH; oxidative damage, antioxidant enzymes, antioxidant capacity, and antioxidant vitamins and nutrients in urine, serum, plasma, whole blood, red blood cells (RBCs) and white blood cells (WBCs). A total of 3,057 articles were identified from the electronic searches. Twenty-eight articles met the inclusion criteria

  8. A NEW METHOD HIGHLIGHTING PSYCHOMOTOR SKILLS AND COGNITIVE ATTRIBUTES IN ATHLETE SELECTIONS

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    Engin Sagdilek

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Talents are extraordinary but not completely developed characteristics in a field. These attributes cover a relatively wide range in sports. Tests perused in selection of athletes are generally motoric sports tests and measure predominantly conditional attributes. It is known that in sports, performance is related to cognitive skills as well as physical features and motor skills. This study explored a new method that could be utilized in the selection and tracking the level of improvement of athletes, and evaluate their attention, perception and learning levels, on athlete and other female students. 9 female table tennis athletes that trained for 16 hours per week for the last 5 years and 9 female students that never played in any sports, aged between 10 and 14 years, were participated in our study. For the Selective Action Array, developed for this study, a table tennis robot was utilized. Robot was set up to send a total of 26 balls in 3 different colors (6 whites, 10 yellows, 10 pinks to different areas of the table, in random colors and at the rate of 90 balls per minute. The participants were asked to ignore the white balls, to touch the yellow balls and to grab the pink balls using their dominant hands. Pursuant to explaining the task to the participants, two consecutive trials were executed and recorded using a camera. Every action performed/not performed by the participants was transformed into points in the scoring system. First trial total points in the Selective Action Array were 104±17 for athletes and 102±19 for non-athletes, whereas on the second trial total points were 122±11 and 105±20, respectively. The higher scores obtained in the second trial were significant for the athletes; the difference in the scores for non-athletes was minor. Non-athletes scored 33% better for the white balls as compared to the table tennis athletes. For the yellow balls, athletes and non-athletes scored similar points on the first trial, whereas

  9. Rent Sharing and Gender Discrimination in Collegiate Athletics

    OpenAIRE

    Lackner, Mario; Zulehner, Christine

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the effect of market power on the share of females in top management positions using data from a market in which some firms have market power due to an institutionalized cartel. We investigate collegiate athletics and interpret coaches as top-level managers or chief executive officers (CEOs). The causal link between market power and female employment is established by exploiting the existence of the Bowl Championship Series (BCS) as an exogenous shock. Our results sh...

  10. Prevalence of Sport Specialization in High School Athletics: A 1-Year Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David R; Post, Eric G; Trigsted, Stephanie M; Hetzel, Scott; McGuine, Timothy A; Brooks, M Alison

    2016-06-01

    The prevalence of sport specialization in high school athletes is unknown. This information is needed to determine the scope of this issue in an active population. To determine the prevalence of sport specialization in high school athletes and to determine if specialization is influenced by classification method, year in school, sex, and school size. A secondary purpose was to determine if highly specialized athletes would be more likely to report a history of lower extremity injuries. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. High school athletes between the ages of 13 and 18 years from 2 local high schools completed both a sport specialization survey and an injury history survey. Athletes were classified into low, moderate, or high specialization groups using a recently developed 3-point system and were also classified using a self-classification method. A total of 302 athletes completed the surveys and were classified as low specialization (n = 105, 34.8%), moderate specialization (n = 87, 28.8%), or high specialization (n = 110, 36.4%). Athletes from the small school were more likely to be classified in the low specialization group (low, 43%; moderate, 32%; high, 25%) compared with those from the large school (low, 26%; moderate, 26%; high, 48%) (P single sport (n = 89, 29.5%). Athletes from the small school were more likely to classify themselves as multisport (n = 128, 86%) (P school (n = 85, 56%). There were no differences in the history of hip, knee, or ankle injuries between athletes who self-classified as single sport (hip: n = 10, 3%; knee: n = 19, 6%; ankle: n = 35, 12%) versus those who self-classified as multisport (hip: n = 45, 8%; knee: n = 23, 15%; ankle: n = 98, 33%) (P > .370). Classification method and school size influenced the prevalence of specialization in high school athletes. Highly specialized athletes were more likely to report a history of overuse knee or hip injuries. Participating in a single sport for more than 8 months per year

  11. Seasonal Vitamin D Status in Polish Elite Athletes in Relation to Sun Exposure and Oral Supplementation.

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    Jaroslaw Krzywanski

    Full Text Available Vitamin D does not only influence the musculoskeletal health and mineral homeostasis but it also affects cardiovascular, endocrine, nervous, immune and mental functions, thus it is of considerable importance for both physically active people and elite athletes. However, vitamin D deficiency is common worldwide and results from inadequate endogenous skin synthesis (insufficient ultraviolet B exposure and diet. To improve the vitamin D status elite athletes often travel to lower latitude during winter. The aim of the study was to evaluate the seasonal vitamin D status in Polish elite athletes according to the sun exposure and oral supplementation. Serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD was measured in the years 2010-2014 in 409 elite athletes, who were divided into the following groups: OUTD-outdoor sports, represented by track and field athletes, who trained in Poland; IND-weightlifters, handball and volleyball players who trained indoors in Poland; SUN-track and field athletes who trained during Polish winter in lower latitude with high sunshine exposure; SUPL-track and field athletes who trained in Poland, had an inadequate vitamin D status (25(OHD < 30 ng/ml and were supplemented orally. Inadequate Vitamin D status was observed in 80% of OUTD and 84% of IND athletes in winter, whereas in summer the values amounted to 42% and 83%, respectively. The athletes exposed to sun in winter had significantly higher vitamin D concentration than OUTD group. Oral supplementation improved vitamin D concentration by 45%, whereas winter sun exposure caused its increase by 85%. Except for a few summer months an inadequate status of vitamin D was found in the majority of Polish elite athletes, with the deficiency level being similar to the one observed in non-athletic population. The most serious deficiency was observed in indoor disciplines. Adequate vitamin D status can be achieved by both increased sun exposure, especially in winter, and oral

  12. The effect of coach education on reporting of concussions among high school athletes after passage of a concussion law.

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    Rivara, Frederick P; Schiff, Melissa A; Chrisman, Sara P; Chung, Shana K; Ellenbogen, Richard G; Herring, Stanley A

    2014-05-01

    Increasing attention has been paid to concussions and especially sports-related concussions in youth. To prevent an inappropriate return to play while symptomatic, nearly all states have now passed legislation on youth sports-related concussions. To determine (1) the incidence of sports-related concussions in high school athletes using a unique system to collect reports on concussions, (2) the proportion of athletes with concussions who play with concussive symptoms, and (3) the effect of the type and modality of coach education on the likelihood of athletes reporting symptoms to the coach or playing with concussive symptoms. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. This study was conducted with high school football and girls' soccer athletes playing in fall 2012 and their coaches and parents in 20 urban or rural high schools in Washington State. The main outcome was the incidence of concussions per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs), the proportion of concussed