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Sample records for level employment status

  1. Impacts of education level and employment status on healthrelated quality of life in multiple sclerosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Šabanagić-Hajrić

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim To evaluate the impacts of education level and employment status on health-related quality of life (HRQoL in multiple sclerosis patients. Methods This study included 100 multiple sclerosis patients treated at the Department of Neurology, Clinical Center of the University of Sarajevo. Inclusion criteria were the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS score between 1.0 and 6.5, age between 18 and 65 years, stable disease on enrollment. Quality of life (QoL was evaluated by the Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 questionnaire (MSQoL-54. Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis test were used for comparisons. Linear regression analyses were performed to evaluate prediction value of educational level and employment status in predicting MSQOL-54 physical and mental composite scores. Results Full employment status had positive impact on physical health (54.85 vs. 37.90; p<0.001 and mental health (59.55 vs. 45.90; p<0.001 composite scores. Employment status retained its independent predictability for both physical (r2=0.105 and mental (r2=0.076 composite scores in linear regression analysis. Patients with college degree had slightly higher median value of physical (49.36 vs. 45.30 and mental health composite score (66.74 vs. 55.62 comparing to others, without statistically significant difference. Conclusion Employment proved to be an important factor in predicting quality of life in multiple sclerosis patients. Higher education level may determine better QOL but without significant predictive value. Sustained employment and development of vocational rehabilitation programs for MS patients living in the country with high unemployment level is an important factor in improving both physical and mental health outcomes in MS patients.

  2. Educational level and employment status in adults with congenital heart disease.

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    Pfitzer, Constanze; Helm, Paul C; Rosenthal, Lisa-Maria; Walker, Christoph; Ferentzi, Hannah; Bauer, Ulrike M M; Berger, Felix; Schmitt, Katharina R L

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Through this study we aimed to assess the educational level and employment status of adults with CHD in Germany. Data were acquired from an online survey carried out in 2015 by the German National Register for Congenital Heart Defects. A total of 1458 adults with CHD participated in the survey (response rate: 37.6%). For 1198 participants, detailed medical information, such as main cardiac diagnosis and information from medical reports, was available. Of the participants surveyed (n=1198), 54.5% (n=653) were female, and the mean age was 30 years. The majority of respondents (59.4%) stated that they had high education levels and that they were currently employed (51.1%). Patients with simple CHD had significantly higher levels of education (peducation levels and the majority were employed. The association between CHD and its severity and individuals' educational attainment should be investigated more closely in future studies.

  3. Male fertility in Greece: Trends and differentials by education level and employment status

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    Alexandra Tragaki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: More than downplayed, the role of men in the demographic analysis of reproduction has been entirely neglected. However, male fertility can be an important issue for exploring how economic and employment uncertainties relate to fertility and family dynamics. Objective: This paper intends to study fertility variations over time, relying solely on data referring to father's socio-demographic characteristics; in particular, their age, education level, and employment status. Methods: We use a combination of Labor Force Survey and Demographic Statistics data on population and Vital Statistics on births to estimate male fertility indicators and fertility differentials by education level and employment status, for the period 1992-2011 in Greece. In addition, over-time developments in male TFR are separated into structural (education-specific and employment-specific distributions and behavioral (fertility, per se changes. Results: We find that the male fertility level is declining, the fertility pattern is moving into higher ages, and the reproduction period for men is getting shorter. From 1992 up to 2008, changes in male fertility were mostly driven by behavioral rather than compositional factors. However, the decline of male fertility over the period of economic recession (2008-2011 is largely attributed to the continuous decrease in the proportions of employed men. Conclusions: The study suggests that male fertility merits further exploration. In particular, years of economic downturn and countries where household living standards are mostly associated with male employment, a father's employability is likely to emerge as an increasingly important factor of fertility outcomes.

  4. Differences between men and women in substance use: the role of educational level and employment status.

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    Teixidó-Compañó, Ester; Espelt, Albert; Sordo, Luis; Bravo, María J; Sarasa-Renedo, Ana; Indave, B Iciar; Bosque-Prous, Marina; Brugal, M Teresa

    To determine differences between men and women in hazardous drinking, heavy cannabis use and hypnosedative use according to educational level and employment status in the economically active population in Spain. Cross-sectional study with data from 2013 Spanish Household Survey on Alcohol and Drugs on individuals aged 25-64 [n=14,113 (women=6,171; men=7,942)]. Dependent variables were hazardous drinking, heavy cannabis use and hypnosedative consumption; the main independent variables were educational level and employment situation. Associations between dependent and independent variables were calculated with Poisson regression models with robust variance. All analyses were stratified by sex. Hazardous drinking and heavy cannabis use were higher in men, while women consumed more hypnosedatives. The lower the educational level, the greater the gender differences in the prevalence of this substances owing to different consumption patterns in men and women. While men with a lower educational level were higher hazardous drinkers [RII=2.57 (95%CI: 1.75-3.78)] and heavy cannabis users [RII=3.03 (95%CI: 1.88-4.89)] compared to higher educational level, in women the prevalence was the same. Women with a lower education level and men with a higher education level had higher hypnosedative consumption. Unemployment was associated with increased heavy cannabis use and hypnosedative use in both women and men and with lower hazardous drinking only in women. There are differences between men and women in the use of psychoactive substances that can be explained by the unequal distribution of substance use in them according to educational level. Unemployment was associated with substance use in both men and women. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Impacts of education level and employment status on health-related quality of life in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šabanagić-Hajrić, Selma; Alajbegović, Azra

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the impacts of education level and employment status on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in multiple sclerosis patients. This study included 100 multiple sclerosis patients treated at the Department of Neurology, Clinical Center of the University of Sarajevo. Inclusion criteria were the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score between 1.0 and 6.5, age between 18 and 65 years, stable disease on enrollment. Quality of life (QoL) was evaluated by the Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 questionnaire (MSQoL-54). Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis test were used for comparisons. Linear regression analyses were performed to evaluate prediction value of educational level and employment status in predicting MSQOL-54 physical and mental composite scores. Full employment status had positive impact on physical health (54.85 vs. 37.90; p les than 0.001) and mental health (59.55 vs. 45.90; p les than 0.001) composite scores. Employment status retained its independent predictability for both physical (r(2)=0.105) and mental (r(2)=0.076) composite scores in linear regression analysis. Patients with college degree had slightly higher median value of physical (49.36 vs. 45.30) and mental health composite score (66.74 vs. 55.62) comparing to others, without statistically significant difference. Employment proved to be an important factor in predicting quality of life in multiple sclerosis patients. Higher education level may determine better QOL but without significant predictive value. Sustained employment and development of vocational rehabilitation programs for MS patients living in the country with high unemployment level is an important factor in improving both physical and mental health outcomes in MS patients.

  6. Effects of education level and employment status on HRQoL in early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patti, F; Pozzilli, C; Montanari, E; Pappalardo, A; Piazza, L; Levi, A; Onesti, E; Pesci, I

    2007-07-01

    To evaluate the effects of education level and employment status on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a large cohort of patients affected by relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Patients This study included 648 patients with RRMS attending 40 Italian MS centers. Inclusion criteria were an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score between 1.0 and 5.5; stable disease on enrollment; and no previous treatment with interferons, glatiramer acetate, or immunosuppressive drugs. Quality of life (QoL) was evaluated by the Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 questionnaire (MSQoL-54). Employed patients scored significantly higher than other patient groups in the majority of MSQoL-54 domains. Similarly, patients with academic degrees and secondary education had higher scores than those with primary education (ie, eight years of education) in several domains of HRQoL. Patients who were employed with a high educational level achieved significantly better scores than unemployed patients with a lower educational level. In multivariate analysis, occupation and educational level were found to be significant and independent predictors of HRQoL. The results of our study suggest the importance of sustaining employment after a recent diagnosis of MS. In addition, education has a great influence on HRQoL; a higher education level may determine a stronger awareness of the disease, and a better ability to cope with the challenges of a chronic disease such as MS.

  7. Employment status and occupational level of adult survivors of childhood cancer in Great Britain: The British childhood cancer survivor study.

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    Frobisher, Clare; Lancashire, Emma R; Jenkinson, Helen; Winter, David L; Kelly, Julie; Reulen, Raoul C; Hawkins, Michael M

    2017-06-15

    The British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (BCCSS) provides the first detailed investigation of employment and occupation to be undertaken in a large population-based cohort. Previous studies have been limited by design issues such as using small numbers of survivors with specific diagnoses, and involved limited assessment of employment status and occupational level. The BCCSS includes 17,981 5-year survivors of childhood cancer. Employment status and occupational level were ascertained by questionnaire from eligible survivors (n = 14,836). Multivariate logistic regression was used to explore factors associated with employment and occupation, and to compare survivors to their demographic peers in the general population. Employment status was available for 10,257 survivors. Gender, current age, cancer type, radiotherapy, age at diagnosis and epilepsy were consistently associated with being: employed; unable to work; in managerial or non-manual occupations. Overall, survivors were less likely to be working than expected (OR (99% CI): 0.89 (0.81-0.98)), and this deficit was greatest for irradiated CNS neoplasm survivors (0.34 (0.28-0.41)). Compared to the general population, survivors were fivefold more likely to be unable to work due to illness/disability; the excess was 15-fold among CNS neoplasm survivors treated with radiotherapy. Overall survivors were less likely to be in managerial occupations than expected (0.85 (0.77-0.94)). However, bone sarcoma survivors were more likely to be in these occupations than expected (1.37 (1.01-1.85)) and also similarly for non-manual occupations (1.90 (1.37-2.62)). Survivors of retinoblastoma (1.55 (1.20-2.01)) and 'other' neoplasm group (1.62 (1.30-2.03)) were also more likely to be in non-manual occupations than expected. © 2017 The Authors International Journal of Cancer published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of UICC.

  8. Examining differences in physical activity levels by employment status and/or job activity level: Gender-specific comparisons between the United States and Sweden.

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    Kwak, Lydia; Berrigan, David; Van Domelen, Dane; Sjöström, Michael; Hagströmer, Maria

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between employment status and job activity level with physical activity (PA) and sedentary time, stratified by gender and country. Cross-sectional study design. Data from working age adults (18-65 years) from two cross-sectional studies, the Swedish 2001-2002 and 2007-2008 Attitude Behavior and Change Study (ABC; n=1165) and the 2003-2006 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; n=4201), were stratified by employment status (employed and not employed) and job activity level (active, sedentary and mixed). PA in counts×min(-1) and time spent in sedentary, low and moderate or higher intensity were measured with accelerometers. Analyses were conducted in 2012-2013. In NHANES, the employed had significantly higher counts×min(-1) and spent more time in moderate or higher intensity PA than those not employed. In ABC, no significant differences were observed between employed and unemployed. Adults with active versus sedentary occupations had higher counts×min(-1) and less sedentary time in both the USA and Sweden and in both men and women. For example, counts×min(-1) were 20-40% greater in active versus sedentary jobs. Employment status is related to PA and sedentary time among men and women in the USA but not in Sweden. Among the employed, occupational PA is associated with total PA and sedentary time for both genders and in both countries. Comparisons of PA levels based on objective measurements can refine understanding of country differences in activity. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. All rights reserved.

  9. Differences between men and women in substance use: the role of educational level and employment status

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    Ester Teixidó-Compañó

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: There are differences between men and women in the use of psychoactive substances that can be explained by the unequal distribution of substance use in them according to educational level. Unemployment was associated with substance use in both men and women.

  10. Associations of employment status and educational levels with mortality and hospitalization in the dialysis outcomes and practice patterns study in Japan.

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    Yasuo Imanishi

    Full Text Available Socioeconomic status (SES factors such as employment, educational attainment, income, and marital status can affect the health and well-being of the general population and have been associated with the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD. However, no studies to date in Japan have reported on the prognosis of patients with CKD with respect to SES. This study aimed to investigate the influences of employment and education level on mortality and hospitalization among maintenance hemodialysis (HD patients in Japan.Data on 7974 HD patients enrolled in Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study phases 1-4 (1999-2011 in Japan were analysed. Employment status, education level, demographic data, and comorbidities were abstracted at entry into DOPPS from patient records. Mortality and hospitalization events were collected during follow-up. Patients on dialysis < 120 days at study entry were excluded from the analyses. Cox regression modelled the association between employment and both mortality and hospitalization among patients < 60 years old. The association between education and outcomes was also assessed. The association between patient characteristics and employment among patients < 60 years old was assessed using logistic regression.During a median follow-up of 24.9 months (interquartile range, 18.4-32.0, 10% of patients died and 43% of patients had an inpatient hospitalization. Unemployment was associated with mortality (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.57; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-2.36 and hospitalization (HR = 1.25; 95% CI: 1.08-1.44. Compared to patients who graduated from university, patients with less than a high school (HS education and patients who graduated HS with some college tended to have elevated mortality (HR = 1.41; 95% CI, 1.04-1.92 and HR = 1.36; 95% CI: 1.02-1.82, respectively but were not at risk for increased hospitalizations. Factors associated with unemployment included lower level of education, older age, female

  11. Employment status, employment functioning, and barriers to employment among VA primary care patients.

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    Zivin, Kara; Yosef, Matheos; Levine, Debra S; Abraham, Kristen M; Miller, Erin M; Henry, Jennifer; Nelson, C Beau; Pfeiffer, Paul N; Sripada, Rebecca K; Harrod, Molly; Valenstein, Marcia

    2016-03-15

    Prior research found lower employment rates among working-aged patients who use the VA than among non-Veterans or Veterans who do not use the VA, with the lowest reported employment rates among VA patients with mental disorders. This study assessed employment status, employment functioning, and barriers to employment among VA patients treated in primary care settings, and examined how depression and anxiety were associated with these outcomes. The sample included 287 VA patients treated in primary care in a large Midwestern VA Medical Center. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted examining associations between socio-demographic and clinical predictors of six employment domains, including: employment status, job search self-efficacy, work performance, concerns about job loss among employed Veterans, and employment barriers and likelihood of job seeking among not employed Veterans. 54% of respondents were employed, 36% were not employed, and 10% were economically inactive. In adjusted analyses, participants with depression or anxiety (43%) were less likely to be employed, had lower job search self-efficacy, had lower levels of work performance, and reported more employment barriers. Depression and anxiety were not associated with perceived likelihood of job loss among employed or likelihood of job seeking among not employed. Single VA primary care clinic; cross-sectional study. Employment rates are low among working-aged VA primary care patients, particularly those with mental health conditions. Offering primary care interventions to patients that address mental health issues, job search self-efficacy, and work performance may be important in improving health, work, and economic outcomes. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Employment status and working conditions

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    Goudswaard, A.; Andries, F.

    2002-01-01

    In the 1990s an increasing number of employees were engaged in non-permanent contract work in the European Union. This can, to a large extent, be explained by an active labour market policy where job creation was the focus, and this type of employment provided a way of meeting the increased demand

  13. Employment status and mental health care use in times of economic contraction: a repeated cross-sectional study in Europe, using a three-level model.

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    Buffel, Veerle; van de Straat, Vera; Bracke, Piet

    2015-03-11

    Framed within the recent economic crisis, in this study we investigate the medical mental health care use of the unemployed compared with that of the employed in Europe, and whether the relationship between employment status and mental health care use varies across macro-economic conditions. We examine whether the macro-economic context and changes therein are related to mental health care use, via their impact on mental health, or more directly, irrespective of mental health. We use data from three waves of the Eurobarometer (2002, 2005/2006, and 2010), which has a repeated cross-sectional and cross-national design. Linear and logistic multilevel regression analyses are performed with mental health, contacting a general practitioner, and contacting a psychiatrist for mental health problems as dependent variables. The multilevel design has three levels (the individual, the period-country, and the country), which allows us to estimate both longitudinal and cross-sectional macro-effects. The macro-economic context and changes therein are assessed using national unemployment rates and growth rates in Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The mean unemployment rate is negatively related to mental health, although for women, this effect only applies to the employed. Among women, no relationship is found between changes in the macro-economic context and mental health. The unemployment rate, and changes in both the unemployment rate and the real GDP growth rate, are associated with men's care use, regardless of their mental health, whereas this does not hold for women. In countries with an increase in the unemployment rate, both unemployed and employed men tend to medicalize their problems more by contacting a general practitioner, irrespective of their mental health, while the likelihood of contacting a psychiatrist is lower among employed men. Our findings stress the importance of taking the macro-economic context and changes therein into account when studying the mental health

  14. Service Level Status

    CERN Multimedia

    Lopienski, S

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays, IT departments provide, and people use, computing services of an increasingly heterogeneous nature. There is thus a growing need for a status display that groups these different services and reports status and availability in a uniform way. The Service Level Status (SLS) system addresses these needs by providing a web-based display that dynamically shows availability, basic information and statistics about various IT services, as well as the dependencies between them.

  15. Predicting the effect of disability on employment status and income.

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    Randolph, Diane Smith

    2004-01-01

    Research shows that participation in employment contributes to life satisfaction for persons with disabilities [18]. Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) sought to prohibit discrimination against persons with disabilities in the workplace, however, the ADA's effectiveness remains controversial. This research utilizes data from the disability supplement of the 2000 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to examine the impact of disability status on predicting employment status and income. Confounding variables such as gender, age, educational level, race and marital/parental status are examined regarding their influence on results. Results from analysis utilizing zero-order correlation, linear and logistic regression analysis techniques revealed that disability status has a significant predictive effect on inability to work. Furthermore, results continue to show that despite legislation, the higher the level of disability, the lower the employment status (those employed for wages) and income. Finally, disability status, coupled with being female or decreased educational level, consistently shows significance in predicting lower employment status and income than men or non-minorities with disabilities. Future research opportunities and policy implications are discussed with regard to the results presented.

  16. Employment status and mortality in the context of high and low regional unemployment levels in Belgium (2001–2011): A test of the social norm hypothesis across educational levels

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    Hagedoorn, Paulien; Vanroelen, Christophe; Gadeyne, Sylvie

    2018-01-01

    Because of compositional effects (more highly educated unemployed) and differences in the vulnerability towards the health consequences of unemployment (i.e. disappointment paradox hypothesis and/or status inconsistency for highly educated unemployed), it is argued that indicators of educational attainment need to be included when investigating the social norm of unemployment. Data from the 2001 census linked to register data from 2001–2011 are used, selecting all Belgian employed and unemployed between 30 and 59-year-old at time of the census. Poisson multilevel modelling was used to account for clustering of respondents within sub-districts. For individuals with low education levels, the relative difference in mortality rate ratios between the unemployed and employed is smallest in those regions where aggregate unemployment levels are high. For highly educated, this social norm effect was not found. This study suggest that the social norm effect is stronger for workers with low education levels, while highly educated workers suffer from disappointment and status inconsistency. PMID:29420646

  17. Change in employment status of 5-year cancer survivors.

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    Torp, Steffen; Nielsen, Roy A; Fosså, Sophie D; Gudbergsson, Saevar B; Dahl, Alv A

    2013-02-01

    To follow the employment status of 5-year cancer survivors for 5 years after diagnosis with their first lifetime invasive cancer and to identify socio-demographic, work-related and cancer-related predictors of employment status after 5 years. This prospective registry study concerned all 3278 people in Norway (18-61 years old) diagnosed with their first lifetime invasive cancer in 1999 and alive in 2004 and a cancer-free control group (n = 6368) matched by sex, age, educational level and employment status in 1998. The employment rate among male cancer survivors declined steadily every year, from 94% the year before diagnosis (1998) to 77% 5 years after diagnosis (2004). This change did not differ significantly from that of male controls. The employment rate of female survivors also declined steadily, from 87% (1998) to 69% (2004). This decline was greater than that among female controls, and in 2004 survivors had a significantly lower employment rate. For both men and women, the significant pre-diagnosis predictors of being employed in 2004 concerned higher socio-economic position. For both sexes, lung cancer survivors had the highest decline in employment rate, and male skin cancer survivors had a lower decline in employment rate than controls. Socio-demographic and work-related factors explained more of the variance in employment status than did cancer diagnosis. The employment rate among 5-year cancer survivors did not change significantly except for female survivors. Low socio-economic position is a risk factor for decline in employment rate and should be focused on to prevent cancer-related inequity.

  18. Employment: Labor Force Status (1983-2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Civilian labor force data consists of the number of employed persons, the number of unemployed persons, an unemployment rate and the total count of both employed and...

  19. The Relationship between Maternal Employment Status and Pregnancy Outcomes.

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    Khojasteh, Farnoush; Arbabisarjou, Azizollah; Boryri, Tahere; Safarzadeh, Amneh; Pourkahkhaei, Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    Women comprise a large percentage of the workforce in industrial countries. In Europe and many other places in the world, women of reproductive age comprise a significant proportion of the workforce at the workplaces, and the rules and regulations require employers to evaluate and minimize health risks to pregnant women. In U.K, 70%, and in the United States 59% of women are employed. In Iran, 13% of women are employed, which comes down to less than 5% at Sistan& Baluchestan Province. Various studies have reported contradictory results about the effects of maternal employment tasks such as standing, repetitive bending, climbing stairs, and lifting heavy objects during pregnancy on fetal growth, preterm birth and other obstetric complications. Given the growing number of working women, and potential complications for mothers, the present study has conducted to investigate the relationship between maternal employment status and pregnancy outcomes in Zahedan city, Iran. This cross-sectional study was based on survey conducted on 227 women (121 housewives, and 106 employed women) attending health centers in 2014. Using purposive convenient sampling method, eligible pregnant mothers (with no chronic diseases, singleton pregnancy, gravida 1-3, and no addiction) were selected as study subjects. Data were collected and recorded through a researcher-made questionnaire and also from mothers' medical records, including personal details, prenatal and labor complications, and infant's details. Collected data were fed into the SPSS version 21(IBM Corp, USA). Frequency of placental abruption was greater among housewives (P=0.02), and a significant relationship was found between employment status and lifting heavy objects, which was more frequent among housewives (P=0.01). Lifting heavy objects during pregnancy was only significantly related to reduced amniotic fluid (P=0.001) and low birth weight (P=0.01). Frequency of preterm labor was higher among housewives compared to

  20. Employment status and job insecurity: On the subjective appraisal of an objective status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klandermans, B.; Klein Hesselink, J.; Vuuren, T. van

    2010-01-01

    The article argues that job insecurity has subjective aspects that are not determined by the objective levels of security of someone's employment status. These subjective aspects can be divided into two elements: the perceived probability and the perceived severity of job loss. The psychological

  1. State-level employment, accessibility and rurality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey Abington

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Employment and economic growth in rural areas as a policy issue has been recently highlighted by the federal government. In August 2011, the White House released a report entitled “Jobs and Economic Security for Rural America”. While the document listed various programs and policies that have reportedly benefited rural America, it also stated that rural communities are still facing many challenges. For example, many rural communities have lower incomes and higher poverty rates than more urban areas. One possible reason for rural communities being at a disadvantage compared to urban areas involves transportation, especially in terms of journey to work. Thus, one can ask how employment rates vary with accessibility, as measured by journey to work times, as well as location (rural versus urban. Using 2007 state level data, OLS analysis is used to examine the relationship between employment rates and journey to work times and rurality. The analysis confirms that employment rates decrease with increased journey to work times. However, measures of rurality were only marginally significant and the negative coefficient on each measure indicates that employment rates decrease with greater urbanization. Improving accessibility between (very rural and larger areas might improve employment opportunities. Although weighing the benefits of such (reduced unemployment against the costs of providing better highways or public transit might lead to a different conclusion.

  2. Veteran status, disability rating, and public sector employment.

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    Winters, John V

    2018-06-01

    This paper used microdata from the 2013-2015 American Community Survey to examine differences in federal government, state and local government, private sector, and self-employment among employed veterans and nonveterans. The U.S. federal and state governments have hiring preferences to benefit veterans, especially disabled veterans. Other factors may also push veterans toward public sector employment. I found that veteran status substantially increased the likelihood of federal employment, with the largest magnitudes for severely disabled veterans. Differences in state and local government employment were modest and exhibited heterogeneity by disability severity. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Temporary Employment and the Future Labor Market Status

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    Tomas Berglund

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe and explain the development of temporary employment in Sweden between 1992 and 2010, and to investigate the effect of temporary employment for individuals’ future career on the labor market. The article analyzes temporary employees’ status transitions on the labor market using Swedish Labour Force Survey (LFS data for the period 1992–2010. Each cohort consists of 2-year panels and focuses on changes between the first and last measuring points. The findings indicate that the specific type of temporary employment is crucial as regards whether or not it constitutes a stepping-stone toward permanent employment. The chances are greater in the case of, for example, substitutes, but are considerably less in the case of on-call employment. Certain types of temporary employment thus seem to be used by the employer to screen the employability of the employee, while others are used for achieving flexibility

  4. Employment growth, human capital and educational levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Høgni Kalsø; Winther, Lars

    2015-01-01

    human capital in understanding regional growth. We examine to what extent different labour competences and capabilities relate to municipal employment growth using nine stratified, educational categories as proxies for different levels of human capital. Dividing municipalities into four spatial...... categories ranging from the urban to the peripheral, we conclude that there is a strong spatial distinction of educational structures with an urban bias, and that educational categories other than academic human capital can make an important contribution to our understanding of what drives employment growth......Contemporary studies in urban and regional development stress the importance of large city-regions as key places in modern capitalism taking the form of agglomerations of economic activities by industries, firms and highly skilled people. In this article, we challenge the strong focus on academic...

  5. Does Marital Status Influence the Parenting Styles Employed by Parents?

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    Ashiono, Benard Litali; Mwoma, Teresa B.

    2015-01-01

    The current study sought to establish whether parents' marital status, influence their use of specific parenting styles in Kisauni District, Kenya. A correlational research design was employed to carry out this study. Stratified sampling technique was used to select preschools while purposive sampling technique was used to select preschool…

  6. Breastfeeding Initiation and Continuation by Employment Status among Korean Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kang, N.M.; Lee, J.E.; Bai, Y.; Achterberg, T. van; Hyun, T.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to examine the factors associated with initiation and continuation of breastfeeding among Korean women in relation to their employment status. METHODS: Data were collected using a web-based self-administered questionnaire from 1,031 Korean mothers living in

  7. Employment Status of the Members of Tehran Deaf Community

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    Shahrooz nemati

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Regarding the importance of employment in social and emotional status of individuals, it would be important for the deaf. The purpose of the present study was to assess the employment status of the members of Tehran deaf community.Methods: This descriptive study was performed on all members of Tehran deaf community. A researchers-made questionnaire which had three parts (demographic information, employment status of the deaf members and their attitudes regarding employment was used in this study. The obtained data were analyzed using descriptive methods.Results: Majority of deaf community members were adult (ages ranging between 18 and 30. Sixty-eight of them (52.5% were female and 53 (47.5% were male, from our participants, 56.2% were unemployed and 43.8% were employed. Main problems were: having no access to facilities regarding their disability (14.5%, communication problems (9.4%, lower salaries because of their disability (12.4%, being far from the working place (15.4%, disproportion of working environment to their disability (11.4%, maltreatment of their coworkers (13.2%, maltreatment of their employer (12.5% and discrimination because of their disability (11.2%, the attitudes of the deaf members were positive regarding the employment in all areas: 90% of them considered it as an essential part of life versus 10% of them mentioned not very important issue.Conclusion: Our findings showed that most of the deaf were supported by their family members, but not by the social facilities or their past education. The social policies should be reformed to support employment of the deaf.

  8. EMPLOYMENT LEVEL ANALYSIS FROM THE DETERMINANT FACTORS PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Diana ŞERB

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Neglecting the human factor as part of the labor market causes losses for society as any activity that is initiated within it, has as a starting point, and also as a finishing point, the human intervention. The starting point of the article is represented by the projections made by the European    Commission in the Population Ageing Report in 2015 underlying assumptions and projections, and also by the projections of the United Nations report in 2015, and this resulted in many conclusions including the one that for the first time in Romania the average aging in 2015 exceeds the values measured by EU till present day, and this is reflected in the employment level (active aging population. The hypothesis behind the article is that the evolution of the population and migrants has repercussions on employment. Structured in three parts: knowledge status, the analysis of employment indicators and information about the intensity and direction of the link between a number of factors and employment level, this article aims to establish the determinant factors of employment through a research focused on the analysis of secondary sources, and also using the regression model. The most important lesson learned as a result of this research is that the labor market works with a variety of factors with a higher or lower influence, and in turn the labor market influences other factors.

  9. Visual difficulty and employment status in the world.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanen Harrabi

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Using a world-wide, population-based dataset, we sought to examine the relationship between visual difficulty and employment status. METHODS: The World Health Survey was conducted in 70 countries throughout the world in 2003 using a random, multi-stage, stratified, cluster sampling design. Far vision was assessed by asking about the level of difficulty in seeing and recognizing a person you know across the road (i.e. from a distance of about 20 meters. Responses included none, mild, moderate, severe, or extreme/unable. Participants were asked about their current job, and if they were not working, the reason why (unable to find job, ill health, homemaker, studies, unpaid work, other. The occupation in the last 12 months was obtained. Multinomial regression was used accounting for the complex survey design. RESULTS: Of those who wanted to work, 79% of those with severe visual difficulty and 64% of those with extreme visual difficulty were actually working. People who had moderate, severe, or extreme visual difficulty had a higher odds of not working due to an inability to find a job and of not working due to ill health after adjusting for demographic and health factors (P<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: As the major causes of visual impairment in the world are uncorrected refractive error and cataract, countries are losing a great deal of labor productivity by failing to provide for the vision health needs of their citizens and failing to help them integrate into the workforce.

  10. Visual difficulty and employment status in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrabi, Hanen; Aubin, Marie-Josee; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Haddad, Slim; Freeman, Ellen E

    2014-01-01

    Using a world-wide, population-based dataset, we sought to examine the relationship between visual difficulty and employment status. The World Health Survey was conducted in 70 countries throughout the world in 2003 using a random, multi-stage, stratified, cluster sampling design. Far vision was assessed by asking about the level of difficulty in seeing and recognizing a person you know across the road (i.e. from a distance of about 20 meters). Responses included none, mild, moderate, severe, or extreme/unable. Participants were asked about their current job, and if they were not working, the reason why (unable to find job, ill health, homemaker, studies, unpaid work, other). The occupation in the last 12 months was obtained. Multinomial regression was used accounting for the complex survey design. Of those who wanted to work, 79% of those with severe visual difficulty and 64% of those with extreme visual difficulty were actually working. People who had moderate, severe, or extreme visual difficulty had a higher odds of not working due to an inability to find a job and of not working due to ill health after adjusting for demographic and health factors (P<0.05). As the major causes of visual impairment in the world are uncorrected refractive error and cataract, countries are losing a great deal of labor productivity by failing to provide for the vision health needs of their citizens and failing to help them integrate into the workforce.

  11. 42 CFR 411.104 - Current employment status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... furloughed, temporarily laid off, or who are on sick leave; (2) Teachers and seasonal workers who normally do not work throughout the year; and (3) Persons who have health coverage that extends beyond or between... employer or a certain level of commissions earned from work for that employer at any time; and (2) the...

  12. Disclosure of diagnosis of multiple sclerosis in the workplace positively affects employment status and job tenure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk-Brown, A K; Van Dijk, P A; Simmons, R D; Bourne, M P; Cooper, B K

    2014-06-01

    For many employees with multiple sclerosis (MS), disclosure of their diagnosis at work is seen as a high-risk strategy that might lead to diminished perceptions of their capabilities by supervisors and colleagues, if not outright discrimination. The consequence of this mistrust surrounding the disclosure process is that employees with MS may leave it until too late to effectively manage symptoms at work. The objective of this paper is to statistically evaluate the relationship between disclosure of diagnosis at work and maintenance of employment. Three annual, large-sample self-report surveys of MS patients prospectively examined the relationship between disclosure of diagnosis at work and employment status. A total of 1438 people responded to all three surveys. Of employed persons in 2010 (n = 946), 673 also responded to the 2012 survey. Of these 673 respondents 564 were still employed. People who had disclosed their MS status to an employer were more likely to remain in employment in Year 3. The effect of disclosure in predicting employment status remained after controlling for age, gender, hours worked and level of disability. This study provides the first empirical support for the positive role of disclosure in maintaining employment status, measured both as job retention and tenure in current employment. © The Author(s) 2013.

  13. Employment characteristics and health status among men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, J H; Pope, C R

    1987-01-01

    This study examines the characteristics of jobs held by women as compared to men during the 1970s and assesses associations between job characteristics and family status with health status by sex. Sex differences in perceptions about the meaning of work, commitment to the work role, and stresses and rewards are considered. Survey data on 1490 employed men and women, ages 18-64, drawn from a random sample of enrollees of a large health maintenance organization in 1970-71 are linked with medical record data covering seven years of outpatient and inpatient services. The findings suggest important differences in the characteristics of jobs held by men and women and in the relative importance of these job characteristics in relation to health. Men held jobs with higher quality intrinsic work characteristics and perceived their jobs to be less stressful and less physically and mentally tiring than did women. Social support and integration through work and occupational status were significantly related to health status for both sexes, however, family responsibilities interact with job characteristics to affect health status for women. Single motherhood, in combination with low social support and integration through work, was related to poor health among women.

  14. Cultural Employment by Level of Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Sava

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The sector of the creative economy brings benefits to the economy, more exactly, through the cultural sector, due to the unlimited resources needed to develop – the human resources represented by their mind or talent. The industrial development and innovation lead towards many changes in the cultural industries mostly due to the digitization effect, an irreversible change in the creation of various cultural goods and services, resulting even new cultural domains and also new regulation in the cultural field. The goods and services produced by the new cultural sector “encompass artistic, aesthetic, symbolic and spiritual values (… their system of valorisation, which includes a characteristic irreproducible, is linked to its appreciation or pleasure” makes them different from other goods and services as Throsby mentioned (UNESCO, 2009:22. This paper aims to show some positive impacts of the creative economy, highlighting social and economic aspects, such as cultural diversity, tolerance, freedom of expression of the cultural identity and by the other hand, new jobs for artists, earnings’ increases, creative clusters, cultural employment etc. We will also show more clearly the activities and the occupations which concern the cultural employment and figures regarding cultural employment in Europe.

  15. Smaller socioeconomic inequalities in health among women: the role of employment status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stronks, K.; van de Mheen, H.; van den Bos, J.; Mackenbach, J. P.

    1995-01-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities in health are smaller among women than among men. In this paper, it is hypothesized that this is due to a gender difference in employment status. We used data from the baseline of a Dutch longitudinal study. The socioeconomic indicators were educational level of the

  16. Employment Status and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder following Compensation Seeking in Victims of Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunst, Maarten J. J.

    2011-01-01

    The current study was developed to explore the associations between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), level of compensation for pain and suffering, and employment status in a sample of victims of violence (n = 226) who had held a full-time job at time of victimization and had filed a claim with the Dutch Victim Compensation Fund (DVCF)…

  17. Longitudinal perspectives on caregiving, employment history and marital status in midlife in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Harriet; Grundy, Emily

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, we examine associations between employment history and marital status and unpaid care provision among those aged 40-59 in England and Wales. We used data from a large nationally representative longitudinal study, the Office for National Statistics Longitudinal Study. Initially based on a sample drawn from the 1971 Census, in 2001 this study included data on 110,464 people aged 40-59 of whom 5% provided 20 or more hours per week of unpaid care. We analysed associations between caregiving of this intensity and current employment, employment history, employment characteristics, marital status, and employment after childbearing. Among men, caregiving was associated with a history of lower levels of employment. The small group of men with a history of least employment were 70% more likely to provide care than those with a history of most employment. Among women, caregiving was associated with a history of non-employment, but there were no differences between those with fully engaged and partially engaged labour market histories. Analyses of a subset of data on women who had a child between 1981 and 1991 showed that those who had returned to full-time paid work by 1991 were over 50% less likely to later become caregivers. Some associations between employment characteristics and propensity to provide 20 or more hours per week of care were also identified. Those in public sector jobs and those previously in employment with a caregiving dimension were 20-30% more likely than other working women to provide unpaid care. These results suggest a continuing gender dimension in care provision which interacts with marital status and employment in gender-specific ways. It also suggests that implementation of strategies to enable those in midlife to combine caregiving and work responsibilities, should they wish to do so, should be an urgent priority.

  18. Employment Status and Perceived Health Status in Younger and Older People with Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krokavcova, Martina; Nagyova, Iveta; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Gavelova, Miriam; Middel, Berrie; Gdovinova, Zuzana; Groothoff, Johan W.; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how employment is associated with perceived physical and mental health status in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) adjusted for sociodemographic and clinical variables stratified by age. The sample consisted of 184 MS patients divided into a younger (less than 45 years) and an older (greater than or equal to 45 years) age…

  19. Employment Status, Depression, Drinking, and Alcohol Use Disorder in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice A C; Mills, Britain; Canino, Glorisa

    2016-04-01

    Our aim was to examine the association between employment status, depression, drinking, binge drinking, and DSM-5 alcohol use disorder in Puerto Rico. Data are from a 2013 to 2014 household random sample of individuals 18 to 64 years of age in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Bivariate analyses showed that depression was 5 times higher among unemployed males than among those employed full time (21% vs. 4%) and 2 times higher among unemployed females compared to those employed part time or full time (18% vs. 7% and 9%). Employment status was not associated with weekly volume of drinking, but nonparticipation in the workforce was protective against drinking (odds ratio [OR] = 2.17; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03 to 4.57; p gender was a factor of risk for being a current drinker (OR = 2; 95% CI = 1.53 to 2.6; p gender was protective against depression (OR = 0.32; 95% CI = 0.14 to 0.73; p employed only part time were almost 5 times more likely than females employed full time to be depressed (OR = 4.66; 95% CI = 1.25 to 17.38; p Employment status in Puerto Rico is associated with depression and with current drinking, but not with other alcohol-related outcomes. Perhaps Puerto Rico is a "wet" environment, where drinking is already at a relatively high level that is not affected by employment status. Perhaps the chronic high rate of unemployment in the island has also created familial (e.g., support) and personal level accommodations (e.g., participation in the informal economy) that do not include increased drinking. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  20. Employment status and sick-leave following obesity surgery: a five-year prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, John Roger; Hernæs, Ulrikke J V; Hufthammer, Karl Ove; Våge, Villy

    2015-01-01

    Background. Severe obesity is a risk factor for lower participation in paid work, but whether employment increases and sick leave decreases after obesity surgery is not well documented. Methods. We assessed 224 Norwegian patients with severe obesity (mean age: 40; mean BMI: 49; 61% female) regarding employment status (working versus not working) and the number of days of sick leave during the preceding 12 months, before and five years after obesity surgery (75% follow-up rate). Logistic regression analysis was used to study preoperative predictors of employment status after surgery. Results. There were no change in the employment rate over time (54% versus 58%), but the number of days of sick leave per year was significantly reduced, from a mean of 63 to a mean of 26, and from a median of 36 to a median of 4. Most of this change was attributable to patients with zero days of sick leave, which increased from 25% to 41%. Being female, older, having low education level, receiving disability pension and not being employed before obesity surgery were important risk factors for not being employed after obesity surgery. The type of obesity surgery, BMI and marital status were not useful predictors. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that undergoing obesity surgery is not associated with a higher rate of employment, although it may reduce the number of days of sick leave. Additional interventions are likely needed to influence the employment status of these patients. The significant preoperative predictors of not being employed in this study provide suggestions for further research.

  1. Employment status and sick-leave following obesity surgery: a five-year prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Roger Andersen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Severe obesity is a risk factor for lower participation in paid work, but whether employment increases and sick leave decreases after obesity surgery is not well documented.Methods. We assessed 224 Norwegian patients with severe obesity (mean age: 40; mean BMI: 49; 61% female regarding employment status (working versus not working and the number of days of sick leave during the preceding 12 months, before and five years after obesity surgery (75% follow-up rate. Logistic regression analysis was used to study preoperative predictors of employment status after surgery.Results. There were no change in the employment rate over time (54% versus 58%, but the number of days of sick leave per year was significantly reduced, from a mean of 63 to a mean of 26, and from a median of 36 to a median of 4. Most of this change was attributable to patients with zero days of sick leave, which increased from 25% to 41%. Being female, older, having low education level, receiving disability pension and not being employed before obesity surgery were important risk factors for not being employed after obesity surgery. The type of obesity surgery, BMI and marital status were not useful predictors.Conclusions. Our findings suggest that undergoing obesity surgery is not associated with a higher rate of employment, although it may reduce the number of days of sick leave. Additional interventions are likely needed to influence the employment status of these patients. The significant preoperative predictors of not being employed in this study provide suggestions for further research.

  2. The association of employment status and family status with health among women and men in four Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, E; Lahelma, E; Saastamoinen, P; Elstad, J-I

    2005-01-01

    The Nordic countries have relatively equal employment participation between men and women, but some differences between countries exist in labour market participation. The aim was to examine the association between employment status and health among women and men in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden, and analyse whether this association is modified by marital status and parental status. The data come from nationally representative cross-sectional surveys carried out in Denmark (n = 2,209), Finland (n = 4,604), Norway (n = 1,844) and Sweden (n = 5,360) in 1994-95. Women and men aged 25-49 were included. Employment status was categorized into full-time employed, part-time employed, unemployed, and housewives among women and into employed and unemployed among men. Health was measured by perceived health and limiting longstanding illness. Logistic regression analysis was used, adjusting for age and education. Marital status and parental status were analysed as modifying factors. The non-employed were more likely to report perceived health as below good and limiting longstanding illness than the employed among both women and men. The association between employment status and perceived health remained unchanged when marital status and parental status were adjusted for among all men and Finnish women, but the association was slightly strengthened among Danish and Swedish women, with the housewives becoming more likely to report ill health than employed women. The association between employment status and limiting longstanding illness was slightly strengthened among women, and slightly weakened among Norwegian men when marital and parental status were adjusted for. Non-employment was associated with poorer health in all countries, although there are differences in the employment patterns between the countries. Among women marital status and parental status showed a modest or no influence on the association between employment status and health. Among men there was no

  3. Farmers as Employers. Numeracy. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batman, Kangan; Tully, Chris

    This publication contains the three numeracy units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in the area of farmers as employers: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her numeracy skills needed to deal with employment of agriculture…

  4. Impact of maternal education, employment and family size on nutritional status of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftikhar, Aisha; Bari, Attia; Bano, Iqbal; Masood, Qaisar

    2017-01-01

    To determine the impact of maternal education, employment, and family size on nutritional status of children. It was case control study conducted at OPD of children Hospital Lahore, from September 2015 to April 2017. Total 340 children (170 cases and 170 controls) with age range of six months to five years along with their mothers were included. Anthropometric measurements were plotted against WHO growth Charts. 170 wasted (Maternal education, employment and family size were compared between the cases and control. Confounding variables noted and dichotomized. Univariate analysis was carried out for factors under consideration i.e.; Maternal Education, employment and family size to study the association of each factor. Logistic regression analysis was applied to study the independent association. Maternal education had significant association with growth parameters; OR of 1.32 with confidence interval of (CI= 1.1 to 1.623). Employment status of mothers had OR of 1.132 with insignificant confidence interval of (CI=0.725 to 1.768). Family size had OR of one with insignificant confidence interval (CI=0.8 -1.21). Association remained same after applying bivariate logistic regression analysis. Maternal education has definite and significant effect on nutritional status of children. This is the key factor to be addressed for prevention or improvement of childhood malnutrition. For this it is imperative to launch sustainable programs at national and regional level to uplift women educational status to combat this ever increasing burden of malnutrition.

  5. A case-control study of employment status and mortality in a cohort of Australian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, S; Taylor, R; Quine, S; Kerr, C; Western, J

    1999-08-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated a link in young populations between unemployment and ill health. The purpose of this study is to correlate mortality with employment status in two cohorts of young Australian males, aged 17-25 years, from 1984 to 1988. Two youth cohorts consisting of an initially unemployed sample (n = 1424 males) and a population sample (n = 4573 males), were surveyed annually throughout the study period. Those lost to follow-up during the survey period were matched with death registries across Australia. Employment status was determined from weekly diaries and death certificates and was designated as: employed or student; unemployed; not in the work force (excluding students). Conditional logistic regression, using age- and cohort- matched cases (deaths) and controls (alive), was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) of dying with regard to employment status, taking into account potential confounders such as ethnicity, aboriginality, educational attainment, pre-existing health problems, socio-economic status of parents, and other factors. Twenty three male survey respondents were positively matched to death registry records. Compared to those employed or students (referent group), significantly elevated ORs were found to be associated with neither being in the workforce nor a student for all cause, external cause, and external cause mortality other than suicide. Odds ratios were adjusted for age, survey cohort, ethnicity, pre-existing physical and mental health status, education level, and socio-economic status of parent(s). A statistically significant increasing linear trend in odds ratios of male mortality for most cause groups was found across the employment categories, from those employed or student (lowest ORs), through those unemployed, to those not in the workforce (highest ORs). Suicide was higher, but not statistically significantly, in those unemployed or not in the workforce. Suicide also was associated, though not significantly, with

  6. Depressed mood, usual activity level, and continued employment after starting dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutner, Nancy G; Zhang, Rebecca; Huang, Yijian; Johansen, Kirsten L

    2010-11-01

    When patients start dialysis, their employment rate declines and disability benefits are an option. With patient sociodemographic and clinical characteristics including disability income status controlled, we investigated the significance of depressed mood and usual activity level as predictors of patients' continued employment after dialysis start. Incident patients from 296 randomly selected dialysis clinics were surveyed in the Comprehensive Dialysis Study (CDS). Participants provided information about employment status, disability income status, education, depressive symptoms measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2), and usual activity level/energy expenditure measured by the Human Activity Profile. Age, gender, race, insurance, diabetes, inability to ambulate or transfer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular conditions, and hemoglobin and serum albumin values at treatment start were obtained from US Renal Data System files. Dialysis modality was defined at time of interview. Among 585 CDS participants who worked in the previous year, 191 (32.6%) continued working after dialysis start. On the basis of the PHQ-2 cutoff score ≥3, 12.1% of patients who remained employed had possible or probable depression, compared with 32.8% of patients who were no longer employed. In adjusted analyses, higher Human Activity Profile scores were associated with increased likelihood of continued employment, and there was a borderline association between lower PHQ-2 scores and continued employment. Screening and management of depressive symptoms and support for increased activity level may facilitate patients' opportunity for continued employment after dialysis start, along with generally improving their overall quality of life.

  7. Socioeconomic and employment status of patients with rheumatoid arthritis in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jeong-Mi; Rhee, Jinnie; Ku, Hyemin; Lee, Eui-Kyung

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by gender and socio-economic characteristics. It also explores the differences in the employment status between RA patients and the general population without RA in Korea. We analyzed data from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV) conducted from 2007 to 2009. Prevalence rates were estimated for female and male patients with RA in terms of age, residence, education, income level, and occupation type. The female respondents aged 45 to 64 were divided into the RA population and the non-RA population in order to compare the employment status between the two groups. The annual physician-diagnosed RA prevalence rate was 1.45%. The prevalence rate was 2.27% for women and 0.62% for men. Individuals with RA had a significantly lower employment rate than individuals without RA (41.7 vs. 68.1%). The main reason for non-employment among RA patients was health-related problems (47.1%). There was statistically significant difference in employment type among the two groups. The experience rates for sick leave and sick-in-bed due to RA were 1.7 and 3.9%, respectively. Middle- and old-aged women accounted for the majority of the Korean RA population, which had a significant lower employment rate compared to the population without RA for both sexes. RA resulted in considerable productivity loss in Korea.

  8. Education and employment status of children and adults with thalassemia in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakbaz, Zahra; Treadwell, Marsha; Kim, Hae-Young; Trachtenberg, Felicia; Parmar, Nagina; Kwiatkowski, Janet L; Cunningham, Melody J; Martin, Marie; Sweeters, Nancy; Neufeld, Ellis J; Giardina, Patricia J; Olivieri, Nancy; Yamashita, Robert C; Vichinsky, Elliott

    2010-10-01

    Advances in the management of thalassemia have resulted in increased life expectancy and new challenges. We conducted the first survey of education and employment status of people with thalassemia in North America. A total of 633 patients (349 adults and 284 school age children) enrolled in the Thalassemia Clinical Research Network (TCRN) registry in Canada and the U.S. were included in the data analysis. Predictors considered for analysis were age, gender, race/ethnicity, site of treatment (Canada vs. United States), transfusion and chelation status, serum ferritin, and clinical complications. Seventy percent of adults were employed of which 67% reported working full-time. Sixty percent had a college degree and 14% had achieved some post-college education. Eighty-two percent of school age children were at expected grade level. In a multivariate analysis for adults, Whites (OR = 2.76, 95% CI: 1.50-5.06) were more likely to be employed compared to Asians. Higher education in adults was associated with older age (OR = 1.67, 95% CI: 1.29-2.15), female gender (OR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.32-3.23) and absence of lung disease (OR = 14.3, 95% CI: 2.04-100). Younger children (OR = 5.7 for 10-year increments, 95% CI: 2.0-16.7) and Canadian patients (OR = 5.6, 95% CI: 1.5-20) were more likely to be at the expected education level. Neither transfusion nor chelation was associated with lower employment or educational achievement. Individuals with thalassemia in North America can achieve higher education; however, full-time employment remains a problem. Transfusion and chelation do not affect employment or education status of this patient population. Copyright 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Farmers as Employers. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batman, Kangan; Gadd, Nick; Lucas, Michele

    This publication contains the three communication skills units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in the area of farmers as employers: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her written and spoken communication and numeracy skills…

  10. Employment and Socioeconomic Factors Associated With Children's Up-to-Date Vaccination Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiwei; Elam-Evans, Laurie D; Hill, Holly A; Yankey, David

    2017-04-01

    This study examined whether additional information on parents' employment and household characteristics would help explain the differences in children's up-to-date (UTD) vaccination status using the 2008 National Immunization Survey and its associated Socioeconomic Status Module. After controlling for basic sociodemographic factors in multivariable analyses, parent's work schedules and ease of taking time off from work were not associated with UTD vaccination status among 19- to 35-month-old children. We also conducted a stratified analysis to test the heterogeneous effects of the factors among children at 3 age-restricted maternal education levels and found the benefit of paid sick leave had a significant association only among families where the mother had a college degree. Families who had moved since the child's birth, especially if the mother had high school or lower education, were less likely to have children UTD on the vaccine series.

  11. Self-reported mood, general health, wellbeing and employment status in adults with suspected DCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Amanda; Williams, Natalie; Thomas, Marie; Hill, Elisabeth L

    2013-04-01

    Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) affects around 2-6% of the population and is diagnosed on the basis of poor motor coordination in the absence of other neurological disorders. Its psychosocial impact has been delineated in childhood but until recently there has been little understanding of the implications of the disorder beyond this. This study aims to focus on the longer term impact of having DCD in adulthood and, in particular, considers the effect of employment on this group in relation to psychosocial health and wellbeing. Self-reported levels of life satisfaction, general health and symptoms of anxiety and depression were investigated in a group of adults with a diagnosis of DCD and those with suspected DCD using a number of published self-report questionnaire measures. A comparison between those in and out of employment was undertaken. As a group, the unemployed adults with DCD reported significantly lower levels of life satisfaction. Whilst there was no significant difference between those who were employed and unemployed on General Health Questionnaire scores; both groups reported numbers of health related issues reflective of general health problems in DCD irrespective of employment status. While both groups reported high levels of depressive symptoms and rated their satisfaction with life quite poorly, the unemployed group reported significantly more depressive symptoms and less satisfaction. Additionally, the results identified high levels of self-reported anxiety in both groups, with the majority sitting outside of the normal range using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. These findings add to the small but increasing body of literature on physical and mental health and wellbeing in adults with DCD. Furthermore, they are the first to provide insight into the possible mediating effects of employment status in adults with DCD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Work Ethic and Employment Status: A Study of Jobseekers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Roger B.; Fouts, Susan

    2005-01-01

    Although there have been numerous changes within the workplace during the past century, employers continue to search for employees with a strong work ethic. Employers often cite a strong work ethic as the most desired characteristic in a new employee. Work ethic can be described as a set of characteristics and attitudes in which an individual…

  13. Mental health, family roles and employment status inside and outside the household in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-de la Torre, Jorge; Molina, Antonio J; Fernández-Villa, Tania; Artazcoz, Lucía; Martín, Vicente

    2018-02-13

    To document the prevalence of poor mental health by gender and social class, and to analyze if poor mental health is associated with the family roles or the employment status inside and outside the household. A cross-sectional study based on a representative sample of the Spanish population was carried out (n = 14,247). Mental health was evaluated using GHQ-12. Employment status, marital status, family roles (main breadwinner and the person who mainly carries out the household work) and educational level were considered as explanatory variables. Multiple logistic regression models stratified by gender and social class were fitted and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were obtained. Gender and social class differences in the prevalence of poor mental health were observed. Unemployment was associated with higher prevalence. Among men the main breadwinner role was related to poor mental health mainly in those that belong to manual classes (aOR = 1.2). Among women, mainly among nonmanual classes, these problems were associated to marital status: widowed, separated or divorced (aOR = 1.9) and to dealing with the household work by themselves (aOR = 1.9). In Spain, gender and social class differences in mental health still exist. In addition, family roles and working situation, both inside and outside the household, could constitute a source of inequalities in mental health. Copyright © 2018 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Employment status, medical support and Income as significant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    significant differences in affordability between individuals who had full time paid employment and those who ... Studies have shown that the direct costs of healthcare services2, travel time, patients' income, and ..... and age was their real ages.

  15. Burnout among Volunteers in the Social Services: The Impact of Gender and Employment Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, Liat

    2006-01-01

    This study examines whether gender and employment status affect burnout, motives for volunteering, and difficulties associated with volunteer activity in social and community services in Israel. The sample included 375 men and women aged 16 through 80. Participants were divided into four groups by employment status: high school students, employed…

  16. Influence of parental employment status on Dutch and Slovak adolescents' health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleskova, M.; Tuinstra, J.; Geckova, A.M.; van Dijk, J.P.; Salonna, F.; Groothoff, J.W.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Recent research shows the possibility that the link between parental employment status and children's health can be affected by different cultural or societal settings. The aim of this study was to explore whether the effect of father's and mother's employment status on several aspects

  17. A social work study on impact of gender, marital status and employment status on internet addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available During the past two decades, internet has penetrated into people’s personal lives, significantly. People communicate with each other through internet facilities such as email services, social web pages, etc. Internet has influenced so much of our lives that many people get addicted and it has become a serious issue among different societies. In this study, we perform an empirical study to find the relationship of three issues of age, gender and employment status on internet addiction behavior. The survey selects 190 men and 160 women from a city of NajafAbad located in province of Esfahan, Iran and a questionnaire consists of 35 questions are distributed among them. The survey uses Chi-Square statistics to examine the effects of three mentioned factors and the results indicate that internet addiction is more among singles than married (Chi-Square=19.94. The survey also indicates that internet addition is more on men than women do (Chi-Square=6.64. However, our survey does not find any evidence to believe job employment has any impact on internet addiction.

  18. The relationship between changes in employment status and mortality risk based on the Korea Labor and Income Panel Study (2003-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Man; Son, Nak-Hoon; Park, Eun-Cheol; Nam, Chung Mo; Kim, Tae Hyun; Cho, Woo-Hyun

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between the mortality rate and changes in employment status. This study used mortality data from the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study. To analyze the relationship between the mortality rate and changes in employment status, the population was classified into employed, unemployed, or economically inactive. Demographic and socioeconomic variables such as gender, age, educational level, annual household income, marital status, and self-rated health status were controlled. In this study, the generalized estimating equations were used to analyze the relationship between the morality rate and the changes in employment status. The mortality rate was higher (odds ratio = 4.31) among the population that experienced a change in economic status from employed to unemployed than those who maintained employment. The mortality rate for the population who became unemployed or economically inactive was higher (odds ratio = 5.05) in cases of death by disease. © 2013 APJPH.

  19. Employment and weight status: The extreme case of body concern in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seung-Yong; Brewis, Alexandra A; SturtzSreetharan, Cindi

    2018-05-01

    For an industrialized nation, obesity rates in South Korea are extremely low. Yet, reflecting an extremely fat-averse, thin-positive society, efforts to lose weight are now reportedly very common. Since the 1980s, South Korea has experienced an increasingly flexible and insecure labor market which was exacerbated by the 1997 economic recession. In this social and economic setting, body shape and weight status, as human capital, may have gained significant bargaining power in the labor market. Consequently, we propose that Koreans, particularly those who are employed in "stable" jobs (i.e., non-manual and regular jobs), would increasingly engage in intense weight management and reduction activities even when not technically overweight or obese as a means to job security and upward mobility. Using nationally-representative data from the Korean Nutrition and Health Examination Survey (KNHANES), we identify the changing role of weight concerns versus actual body weight in predicting South Korean efforts to lose weight between 2001 (KNHANES-phase 1) and 2007-2009 (phase 4). The patterns were examined by occupation type (manual and non-manual jobs) and status (regular and non-regular jobs). Oaxaca decomposition analysis supported that people's perception of being "fat," rather than actual weight status, was crucial to explaining accelerated weight management efforts in South Korea over the decade (coef. = 0.062 and p-value < .0001 for male with regular work; coef. = 0.031 and p-value = .002 for female with regular work). Occupation status, rather than employment in itself, mattered. Job stability predicted increased effort; the pattern of change through time suggests efforts to invest high levels of effort in appearance positively impacts both employment opportunity and stability. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Employment Status of Magistrates in South Africa and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJM Venter

    2017-11-07

    Nov 7, 2017 ... remuneration paid to an employee.7 An employer is also in certain ... Defence Force and the State Security Agency from its scope and application. ... Cole Management Theory and Practice 408. .... principal, in the sense that they have their chambers at court and they ...... Instances exist where the executive.

  1. The Impact Of Minimum Wage On Employment Level And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research work has been carried out to analyze the critical impact of minimum wage of employment level and productivity in Nigeria. A brief literature on wage and its determination was highlighted. Models on minimum wage effect are being look into. This includes research work done by different economist analyzing it ...

  2. Women's Employment Status, Coercive Control, and Intimate Partner Violence in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Andres

    2007-01-01

    Findings from previous studies examining the relation between women's employment and the risk of intimate partner violence have been mixed. Some studies find greater violence toward women who are employed, whereas others find the opposite relation or no relation at all. I propose a new framework in which a woman's employment status and her risk of…

  3. Employment status of patients with neuromuscular diseases in relation to personal factors, fatigue and health status : A secondary analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rob Oostendorp; Peter Huijbregts; Marie-Antoinette Minis; Joke Kalkman; Baziel Engelen; Reinier Akkermans; Gijs Bleijenberg; Josephine Engels

    2010-01-01

    To determine the number of employed people in a group of patients with neuromuscular diseases and in 3 separate subgroups (facioscapulo-humeral dystrophy, hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy, and myotonic dystrophy) to investigate any differences in employment status between the patient groups,

  4. Employment status of patients with neuromuscular diseases in relation to personal factors, fatigue and health status: a secondary analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minis, M.A.H; Kalkman, J.S.; Akkermans, R.P.; Engels, J.A.; Huijbregts, P.A.; Bleijenberg, G.; Oostendorp, R.A.B.; Engelen, B.G.M. van

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the number of employed people in a group of patients with neuromuscular diseases and in 3 separate subgroups (facioscapulo-humeral dystrophy, hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy, and myotonic dystrophy) to investigate any differences in employment status between the

  5. Employability Skills Valued by Employers as Important for Entry-Level Employees with and without Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Song; Zhang, Dalun; Pacha, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with disabilities face persistent challenges in gaining meaningful employment. One of the barriers to successful employment is a lack of employability skills. The purpose of this study was to identify employability skills that employers value as being important and to examine whether employers have different expectations for…

  6. Changes in Employment Status after Myocardial Infarction among Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyda Şahan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to the Turkey Burden of Disease Study, 10% of the national burden of disease is attributed to cardiovascular diseases. Although the standardized coronary heart disease (CHD rate is falling in general, CHD prevalence among young people is rising. On the other hand, as a result of increased life expectancy and higher retirement ages, the CHD rate among workers is also increasing. Therefore, work ability and return to work after diagnosis are important for population health and well-being. Socioeconomic factors and working conditions may play a key role as well as clinical conditions described in the literature that affect returning to work. Aims: The aims of this qualitative study are exploring the changes in employment and working conditions of the patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI and affecting factors such as socioeconomic, personal and environmental. Study design: Qualitative research. Methods: The research population are fifty-three patients who are engaged in paid employment when the people have been diagnosed with myocardial infarction for the first time between 2011 and 2012 at a university hospital coronary care unit. We intended to reach the whole population. Twenty- seven patients were contacted whose phone numbers were accessible from the hospital records. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with twelve patients in a meeting room at the hospital. The interviews were tape-recorded accompanied by note-taking and the content analysis method were evaluated. Results: While many of the participants continued to work at the same job by working less, one third of them said that they were thinking about getting an easier job if they have the opportunity. On the other hand, in most cases, there were neither assessments about their work ability, nor changes to their working conditions after AMI. They had to cope with their conditions, such as economic or psychosocial, without any support

  7. Employment as a Social Determinant of Health: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies Exploring the Relationship between Employment Status and Physical Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Zeglin, Robert J.; McGuire-Kuletz, Maureen; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To explore employment as a social determinant of health through examining the relationship between employment status and physical health. Method: The authors explored the causal relationship between employment status and physical health through conducting a systematic review of 22 longitudinal studies conducted in Finland, France, the…

  8. Employability Skills, Personal Qualities, and Early Employment Problems of Entry-Level Auditors: Perspectives from Employers, Lecturers, Auditors, and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yet-Mee; Lee, Teck Heang; Yap, Ching Seng; Ling, Chui Ching

    2016-01-01

    The authors examine the issue of employability of university accounting students from the perspectives of accounting firm employers, junior auditors, accounting lecturers, and accounting students. Areas of investigation include perceived importance of employability skills and desirable personal qualities; and early employment problems encountered…

  9. The impact of prenatal employment on breastfeeding intentions and breastfeeding status at 1 week postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasio, Laura; Kozhimannil, Katy B; McGovern, Patricia; Gjerdingen, Dwenda; Johnson, Pamela Jo

    2013-11-01

    Postpartum employment is associated with non-initiation and early cessation of breastfeeding, but less is known about the relationship between prenatal employment and breastfeeding intentions and behaviors. This study aimed to estimate the relationship between prenatal employment status, a strong predictor of postpartum return to work, and breastfeeding intentions and behaviors. Using data from the Listening to Mothers II national survey (N = 1573), we used propensity score matching methods to account for non-random selection into employment patterns and to measure the impact of prenatal employment status on breastfeeding intentions and behaviors. We also examined whether hospital practices consistent with the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI), assessed based on maternal perception, were differentially associated with breastfeeding by employment status. Women who were employed (vs unemployed) during pregnancy were older, were more educated, were less likely to have had a previous cesarean delivery, and had fewer children. After matching, these differences were eliminated. Although breastfeeding intention did not differ by employment, full-time employment (vs no employment) during pregnancy was associated with decreased odds of exclusive breastfeeding 1 week postpartum (adjusted odds ratio = 0.48; 95% confidence interval, 0.25-0.92; P = .028). Higher BFHI scores were associated with higher odds of breastfeeding at 1 week but did not differentially impact women by employment status. Women employed full-time during pregnancy were less likely to fulfill their intention to exclusively breastfeed, compared to women who were not employed during pregnancy. Clinicians should be aware that employment circumstances may impact women's breastfeeding decisions; this may help guide discussions during clinical encounters.

  10. Brain MRI lesions and atrophy are associated with employment status in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauhid, Shahamat; Chu, Renxin; Sasane, Rahul; Glanz, Bonnie I; Neema, Mohit; Miller, Jennifer R; Kim, Gloria; Signorovitch, James E; Healy, Brian C; Chitnis, Tanuja; Weiner, Howard L; Bakshi, Rohit

    2015-11-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) commonly affects occupational function. We investigated the link between brain MRI and employment status. Patients with MS (n = 100) completed a Work Productivity and Activity Impairment (WPAI) (general health version) survey measuring employment status, absenteeism, presenteeism, and overall work and daily activity impairment. Patients "working for pay" were considered employed; "temporarily not working but looking for work," "not working or looking for work due to age," and "not working or looking for work due to disability" were considered not employed. Brain MRI T1 hypointense (T1LV) and T2 hyperintense (T2LV) lesion volumes were quantified. To assess lesional destructive capability, we calculated each subject's ratio of T1LV to T2LV (T1/T2). Normalized brain parenchymal volume (BPV) assessed brain atrophy. The mean (SD) age was 45.5 (9.7) years; disease duration was 12.1 (8.1) years; 75 % were women, 76 % were relapsing-remitting, and 76 % were employed. T1LV, T1/T2, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores, and activity impairment were lower and BPV was higher in the employed vs. not employed group (Wilcoxon tests, p 0.05). In multivariable logistic regression modeling, adjusting for age, sex, and disease duration, higher T1LV predicted a lower chance of employment (p 0.05). We report a link between brain atrophy and lesions, particularly lesions with destructive potential, to MS employment status.

  11. Labor Market Effects on Dropping out of High School: Variation by Gender, Race, and Employment Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, Ralph B., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    It is known from previous research that the likelihood of dropping out is affected by a number of individual traits, including, among others, socioeconomic status (SES), race/ethnicity, gender, and employment status. It is also known that dropping out is contingent on a variety of school characteristics. What is less known about is how dropping…

  12. The Employment and Postsecondary Educational Status of Transition-Age Youths with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnall, Michele Capella

    2010-01-01

    A limited amount of information is available about the employment and postsecondary educational status of transition-age youths with visual impairments. Reports on the employment and postsecondary education tend to focus on overall results and usually do not provide detailed analyses by disability groups. In this article, the author presents the…

  13. Employment status and subjective well-being: The role of the social norm to work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, K.; Sieben, I.J.P.; Verbakel, C.M.C.; Graaf, P.M. de

    2016-01-01

    This article examines to what extent a social norm to work moderates the relationship between employment status and subjective well-being. It was expected that the detrimental impact of non-employment on subjective well-being would be larger in countries with a stronger social norm. Using a direct

  14. Marital Violence and Women's Employment and Property Status: Evidence from North Indian Villages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh); A. Chhachhi (Amrita); M. Bhattacharyya (Manasi)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractDominant development policy approaches recommend women’s employment on the grounds that it facilitates their empowerment, which in turn is believed to be instrumental in enhancing women’s well-being. However, empirical work on the relationship between women’s employment status and

  15. Employment status and subjective well-being : The role of the social norm to work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, K.; Sieben, I.J.P.; Verbakel, C.M.C.; de Graaf, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines to what extent a social norm to work moderates the relationship between employment status and subjective well-being. It was expected that the detrimental impact of non-employment on subjective well-being would be larger in countries with a stronger social norm. Using a direct

  16. Self-rated health and employment status in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krokavcova, Martina; Nagyova, Iveta; Van Dijk, Jitse P; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Gavelova, Miriam; Middel, Berrie; Szilasiova, Jarmila; Gdovinova, Zuzana; Groothoff, Johan W

    2010-01-01

    The aim is to explore the association between self-rated health and employment status in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) when controlling for age, gender, functional disability, disease duration, anxiety and depression. One hundred eighty-four people with MS completed a sociodemographic questionnaire that included questions on employment status, the first item of the Short Form-36 Health Survey and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Functional disability was assessed using the Expanded Disability Status Scale. The probability of good self-rated health in employed persons was investigated using stepwise logistic regression analyses. Patients with MS who reported good self-rated health were 2.46 times more likely to be employed (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-5.59). Patients without anxiety were 2.64 times more likely to be employed (95%CI: 1.23-5.67). Patients with higher EDSS scores were 0.49 times less likely to be employed (95%CI: 0.33-0.70). Age, gender, disease duration and the presence of depression did not show an increased chance of patient employment. Patients with MS with good self-rated health are more likely to be employed, even after adjusting for age, gender, education, functional disability, disease duration, depression and anxiety. Dependent on the findings of longitudinal studies unravelling the relevant causal pahways, self-rated health might be used as a quick and cheap prognostic marker, which could warn about the possible loss of employment, or changes in functional disability.

  17. The relationship between employment and veteran status, disability and gender from 2004-2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Diane L

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, about 1.8 million or 8 percent of the 22.2 million veterans were women in the US. The unemployment rate for female veterans of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan rose to 13.5%, above the 8.4% for non-veteran adult women. To examine data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), from 2004-2011 to determine the relationship between employment and veteran status, disability and gender. Chi square analysis was used to determine if significant differences existed between the employment rate of female veterans with disabilities and female veterans without disabilities, female non-veterans with disabilities and male veterans with disabilities. Binomial logistic regression analysis was used to determine how veteran status, disability and gender affected the likelihood of not being employed. Significant differences were found in employment rate between female veterans with disabilities and female veterans without disabilities, but not when compared to female non-veterans with disabilities or male veterans with disabilities. Disability was the strongest factor increasing the likelihood of not being employed, though veteran status and female gender were also predictive. Female veterans with disabilities experience low levels of employment. Policies and programs are needed to address the unique needs of these veterans.

  18. Markups and Firm-Level Export Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Loecker, Jan; Warzynski, Frederic

    We derive an estimating equation to estimate markups using the insight of Hall (1986) and the control function approach of Olley and Pakes (1996). We rely on our method to explore the relationship between markups and export behavior using plant-level data. We find significantly higher markups when...... we control for unobserved productivity shocks. Furthermore, we find significant higher markups for exporting firms and present new evidence on markup-export status dynamics. More specifically, we find that firms' markups significantly increase (decrease) after entering (exiting) export markets. We...... see these results as a first step in opening up the productivity-export black box, and provide a potential explanation for the big measured productivity premia for firms entering export markets....

  19. Predicting employment status and subjective quality of life in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruo Fujino

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Although impaired social functioning, particularly poor employment status, is a cardinal feature of patients with schizophrenia and leads to decreased quality of life (QOL, few studies have addressed the relationship between these two clinical issues. The aim of this study was to determine whether employment status predicts subjective QOL and to evaluate a model in which functional capacity mediates the relationship between general cognitive performance and employment status. Ninety-three patients with schizophrenia were administered a comprehensive battery of cognitive tests, the UCSD Performance-based Skills Assessment-Brief version (UPSA-B, the Social Functioning Scale (SFS, and the Subjective Quality of Life Scale (SQLS. First, we evaluated a model for predicting the employment/occupation subscale score of the SFS using path analysis, and the model fitted well (χ2 (4 = 3.6, p = 0.46; CFI = 1.0; RMSEA < 0.001, with 90% CIs: 0–0.152. Employment status was predicted by negative symptoms and functional capacity, which was in turn predicted by general cognitive performance. Second, we added subjective QOL to this model. In a final path model, QOL was predicted by negative symptoms and employment status. This model also satisfied good fit criteria (χ2 (7 = 10.3, p = 0.17; CFI = 0.987; RMSEA = 0.072, with 90% CIs: 0–0.159. The UPSA-B and SFS scores were moderately correlated with most measures of cognitive performance. These results support the notion that better employment status enhances subjective QOL in patients with schizophrenia.

  20. Employment status, inflation and suicidal behaviour: an analysis of a stratified sample in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Paola; Pizzorno, Enrico; Gallina, Anna M; Mattei, Chiara; Gabrielli, Filippo; Kayman, Joshua

    2012-09-01

    There is abundant empirical evidence of a surplus risk of suicide among the unemployed, although few studies have investigated the influence of economic downturns on suicidal behaviours in an employment status-stratified sample. We investigated how economic inflation affected suicidal behaviours according to employment status in Italy from 2001 to 2008. Data concerning economically active people were provided by the Italian Institute for Statistical Analysis and by the International Monetary Fund. The association between inflation and completed versus attempted suicide with respect to employment status was investigated in every year and quarter-year of the study time frame. We considered three occupational categories: employed, unemployed who were previously employed and unemployed who had never worked. The unemployed are at higher suicide risk than the employed. Among the PE, a significant association between inflation and suicide attempt was found, whereas no association was reported concerning completed suicides. No association was found between completed and attempted suicides among the employed, the NE and inflation. Completed suicide in females is significantly associated with unemployment in every quarter-year. The reported vulnerability to suicidal behaviours among the PE as inflation rises underlines the need of effective support strategies for both genders in times of economic downturns.

  1. Hospital nurse job attitudes and performance: the impact of employment status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Cheng-I; Hsu, Yao-Feng

    2011-03-01

    According to the 2007 Taiwan Labor Front Human Resources Report, as much as 47.6% of nurses at some public hospitals were contracted rather than full time. Furthermore, turnover rates for contract nurses were found to be as high as five to eight times of those for full-time nurses. Because high turnover rates are likely to induce negative impacts on the stability of care provided in the absence of staffing continuity, the association between nursing employment arrangement and nursing care quality is attracting greater attention. This study was designed to investigate the work status of contract versus full-time nurses at a public hospital in Taiwan and to examine the impact of such on work-related attitudes, organizational citizenship behavior, and job performance. Samples were recruited from a public hospital in Taiwan. In addition to self-rated items, researchers used supervisor-rated structured questionnaires for job performance to attenuate the possible effect of common method bias. The study investigated the impact of hospital nurse employment status on work-related attitudes, organizational citizenship behavior, and job performance using a regression model that included the critical work-related attitudes variables of job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Study findings included the following: (a) organizational commitment, job satisfaction, organizational citizenship behavior, and job performance correlate positively with one another. (b) No significant difference between contract and full-time nurses was found in terms of organizational commitment, job satisfaction, organizational citizenship behavior, and self-rated job performance. However, when rated by supervisors, reported job performance levels for full-time nurses were significantly higher than those of contract nurses. (c) Organizational citizenship behavior exhibited a mediating effect between job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and job performance. In this study, supervisors

  2. Mother employment status and nutritional patterns in Japanese junior high schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaina, A; Sekine, M; Chandola, T; Marmot, M; Kagamimori, S

    2009-07-01

    To investigate associations between mothers' employment (full, part time and no employment) and nutrition habits (regularity of breakfast, snack, dinner, meal speed and portion size) in a sample of Japanese junior high schoolchildren, 12-13 years of age. A total of 10 453 children aged 12-13 years from the Toyama birth cohort study (fourth phase) participated, of whom 8906 children (89% response rate) responded to all questions related to the examined variables. Nutrition habits consisted of breakfast, snack, dinner, meal speed and meal portion. Children's obesity/overweight was measured by body mass index (BMI). Fathers' employment had no effect on their children's nutrition patterns. Children of full-time employed mothers were the most likely to snack and to skip dinner. Children of part-time employed mothers ate larger meal portions, and those of non-employed mothers reported faster meal speeds. BMI was significantly (P<0.001) higher among children of full-time employed mothers (19.3), and lowest among non-employed mothers (19.00). Children of full-time employed mothers are more likely to be overweight, but not obese compared with other children. There was a strong relationship between mother's employment and nutrition patterns in this cohort of Japanese schoolchildren; special programs focused on children's nutrition patterns should take into account the mothers' employment status.

  3. Marital violence and women's employment and property status: evidence from North Indian villages

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya, Manasi; Bedi, Arjun S.; Chhachhi, Amrita

    2009-01-01

    textabstractDominant development policy approaches recommend women’s employment on the grounds that it facilitates their empowerment, which in turn is believed to be instrumental in enhancing women’s well-being. However, empirical work on the relationship between women’s employment status and their well-being as measured by freedom from marital violence yields an ambiguous picture. Motivated by this ambiguity, this paper draws on testimonies of men and women and data gathered from rural Uttar...

  4. Employment status and work-related difficulties in lung cancer survivors compared with the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Ae; Yun, Young Ho; Chang, Yoon Jung; Lee, Jongmog; Kim, Moon Soo; Lee, Hyun-Sung; Zo, Jae Ill; Kim, Jhingook; Choi, Yong Soo; Shim, Young Mog; Yoon, Seok-Jun

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the employment status of lung cancer survivors and the work-related problems they face. Although the number of lung cancer survivors is increasing, little is known about their employment and work-related issues. We enrolled 830 lung cancer survivors 12 months after lung cancer curative surgery (median time after diagnosis, 4.11 years) and 1000 volunteers from the general population. All participants completed the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire, Core 30-item and a questionnaire that included items relating to their jobs. We used logistic regression analysis to identify independent predictors of unemployment. The employment rate of lung cancer survivors decreased from 68.6% at the time of diagnosis to 38.8% after treatment, which was significantly lower than the employment rate of the general population (63.5%; adjusted odds ratio = 2.31, 95% confidence interval: 1.66-3.22). The posttreatment unemployment rate was higher for women than for men. Among survivors, employment was inversely associated with older age, household income, number of comorbidities, and poor social functioning. Fatigue (78.6%) was the most common work-related problem reported by survivors. Lung cancer survivors experienced more difficulties in employment than did the general population. Age, monthly household income, number of comorbidities, and social functioning appear to be important factors influencing employment status. These findings suggest that lung cancer survivors need support to cope with the financial impact of cancer.

  5. Education and employment status of adults with autism spectrum disorders in Germany - a cross-sectional-survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Fabian; Jablotschkin, Martina; Arthen, Tobias; Riedel, Andreas; Fangmeier, Thomas; Hölzel, Lars P; Tebartz van Elst, Ludger

    2018-03-27

    Adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) experience challenges in participating in the labour market and struggle to achieve and maintain appropriate professional positions, possibly due to impairments of communication and social interaction. Studies have shown high rates of unemployment as well as evidence of inadequate employment. As knowledge on the participation in the German labour market is scarce, the aim of our study was to examine employment status, type of occupation and inadequate employment in a sample of clinically mostly late-diagnosed and most likely not intellectually disabled adults with ASD in Germany. We conducted a cross-sectional-survey in clinically mostly late-diagnosed adults with ASD. Employment status, type of occupation, and the level of formal education and training were examined through a postal questionnaire. Inadequate employment regarding participants' current and longest practised occupation was assessed by transforming participants' information into skill levels of the "Classification of Occupations 2010" of the German Federal Employment Agency, and comparing these with participants' level of formal education and training. The response rate was 43.2% (N = 185 of N = 428 potential participants). 94.6% were first-time diagnosed when being 18 years of age or older. 56.8% held a general university entrance-level qualification and 24.9% had obtained a Masters' or diploma degree as their highest vocational qualification. 94.1% had been employed at some time. Of these, 68.4% reported being currently employed, 13.5% being currently unemployed and 17.0% being retired for health reasons. Regarding the longest-practised and the current occupation, the highest proportion of participants was found in the occupational area "health and social sector, teaching and education" (22.4% and 23.3%, respectively). With respect to inadequate employment, 22.1% were found to be overeducated in relation to their longest-practised occupation and 31

  6. Reflection into China's Business English Teaching Practices Based on GDUFS Graduates' Employment Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenzhong; Wu, Si; Guo, Tingting

    2009-01-01

    GDUFS, as one of China's top three foreign language universities with the longest history in business English teaching, has accumulated over 20-year experiences in this discipline. This research reflects into its business English teaching practices based on its graduates' employment status in recent years, and concludes that the students of…

  7. Parental Employment Status and Symptoms of Children Abused during a Recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobey, Trina; McAuliff, Kathleen; Rocha, Celina

    2013-01-01

    Incidences and severity of child abuse have increased since the start of the recession. This study examined the relationship between employment status and severity of symptoms in children abused during a recession year. Participants included 154 females and 65 males between 2 and 17 years old referred to Dallas Children's Advocacy Center after…

  8. Marital Status, Gender, and Home-to-Job Conflict among Employed Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomaguchi, Kei M.

    2012-01-01

    Although researchers argue that single parents perceive more work-family conflict than married parents, little research has examined nuances in such differences. Using data from the 2002 National Study of Changing Workforce (N = 1,430), this study examines differences in home-to-job conflict by marital status and gender among employed parents.…

  9. Employment status, difficulties at work and quality of life in inflammatory bowel disease patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Boer, Angela G. E. M.; Evertsz', Floor Bennebroek; Stokkers, Pieter C.; Bockting, Claudia L.; Sanderman, Robbert; Hommes, Daniel W.; Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2016-01-01

    ObjectivesTo assess employment status, difficulties at work and sick leave in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients and their relation with sociodemographic and clinical factors, quality of life (QoL), and anxiety and depression.Materials and methodsIBD patients attending an IBD outpatients'

  10. Association between employment status and self-rated health: Korean working conditions survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Kimin; Park, Jae Bum; Lee, Kyung-Jong; Cho, Yoon-Sik

    2016-01-01

    This research was conducted with an aim of determining the association between employment status and self-rated health. Using the data from the Third Korean Working Conditions Survey conducted in 2011, We included data from 34,783 respondents, excluding employers, self-employed workers, unpaid family workers, others. Self-rated health was compared according to employment status and a logistic regression analysis was performed. Among the 34,783 workers, the number of permanent and non-permanent workers was 27,564 (79.2 %) and 7,219 (20.8 %). The risk that the self-rated health of non-permanent workers was poor was 1.20 times higher when both socio-demographic factors, work environment and work hazards were corrected. In this study, perceived health was found to be worse in the non-permanent workers than permanent workers. Additional research should investigate whether other factors mediate the relationship between employment status and perceived health.

  11. Employment status, residential and workplace food environments: associations with women's eating behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Lukar E; Lamb, Karen E; Ball, Kylie

    2013-11-01

    There remains a lack of consistent evidence linking food environments with eating behaviours. Studies to date have largely ignored the way different individuals interact with their local food environment and have primarily focussed on exposures within the residential neighbourhood without consideration of exposures around the workplace, for example. In this study we firstly examine whether associations between the residential food environment and eating behaviours differ by employment status and, secondly, whether food environments near employed women's workplaces are more strongly associated with dietary behaviours than food environments near home. Employment status did not modify the associations between residential food environments and eating behaviours, however results showed that having access to healthy foods near the workplace was associated with healthier food consumption. Policies focused on supportive environments should consider commercial areas as well as residential neighbourhoods. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. THE CONTRACT OF EMPLOYMENT STATUS AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE JOB SATISFACTION OF ACADEMICS WITHIN SOUTH AFRICAN UNIVERSITIES OF TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Ntisa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available South African higher education has gone through numerous changes in terms ofrestructuring and transformation. Rapid changes of this nature, within the highereducation system, necessitate alternative work arrangements, which have potentialnegative effects on job satisfaction of academics. Research on the contracts ofemployment of academic staff in the context of developing countries such asSouth Africa has remained scarce. The primary purpose of the study was toexplore the relationship between the status of the contract of employment and jobsatisfaction. Data were analysed from 494 (n academics within South Africanuniversities of technology. Correlation analysis was used to establish therelationship between the status of the contract of employment and job satisfaction.A negative correlation between the status of the contract and job satisfaction wasobserved. Significant differences were found between the status of the contractand job satisfaction. The results showed that those who are permanently employedexperience high levels of job satisfaction and those who have fixed-term andtemporary contracts experience lower levels of job satisfaction. This study concludes by discussing managerial implications of the results. Limitations andimplication for further research are explored.

  13. Health service utilisation of rural-to-urban migrants in Guangzhou, China: does employment status matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaolei; Zou, Guanyang; Chen, Wen; Han, Siqi; Zou, Xia; Ling, Li

    2017-01-01

    To describe the self-reported health status and service utilisation of employed, retired and unemployed migrants in Guangzhou, a megacity in southern China. A cross-sectional study adapted from the National Health Service Survey was conducted between September and December in 2014. Based on the distribution of occupation of migrants, multistage sampling was used to recruit individuals. Logistic regression was applied to explore the factors influencing their service utilisation. Of 2906 respondents, 76.6% were employed, 9.2% retired and 14.2% unemployed. Only 8.1% reported having an illness in the previous 2 weeks, and 6.5% reported having been hospitalised in the previous year. Employed migrants had the lowest recent physician consultation rate (3.4%) and the lowest annual hospitalisation rate (4.5%) (P rates (6.8% and 14.5% respectively, P employed (1.5%) and unemployed migrants (3.4%) (P gender, employment status remained significant in explaining the recent two-week treatment-seeking behaviour of migrants (P Employed migrants make the least use of health services. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Employment Status and Mental Health: Mediating Roles of Social Support and Coping Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreault, Michel; Touré, El Hadj; Perreault, Nicole; Caron, Jean

    2017-09-01

    Although it has been established that unemployment and underemployment increase distress and depression, the psychological mechanisms involved are not very clear. This study examines the roles of social support and coping strategies as mediators of the association between employment status and mental health, as well as gender and age differences as moderators. Residents from the epidemiological catchment area of south-west Montreal responded to a randomized household survey for adults in 2009. A follow-up was conducted based on participants' employment status 2 and 4 years later. ANOVAs tests were computed with SPSS to evaluate group differences, and structural equation modeling was performed with AMOS to test mediation effects. At baseline, among participants between 18 and 64 years old (n = 2325), 14.3 % were unemployed/not studying, 14.4 % worked part-time, and 56.5 % worked full-time. Employment status was found to significantly affect depression among those under 45 years old (chi-square = 23.4, p employment with depression, which was fully mediated by social support, less coping with drugs/medication, and less distress. A negative association with full-time employment was also noted with distress, which was partially mediated by increased social support, coping with alcohol, and less coping with drugs/medication. The total indirect effect suggests that full-time employees generally have more resources and do not tend to use avoidance strategies like coping with drugs/medication, resulting in less distress (β = -0.05; p employment, namely full-time employment, in communities.

  15. Are Level of Education and Employment Related to Symptoms of Common Mental Disorders in Current and Retired Professional Footballers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Aoki, Haruhito; Verhagen, Evert; Kerkhoffs, Gino

    2016-01-01

    Mental disorders have become a topic of increasing interest in research due to their serious consequences for quality of life and functioning. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship of level of education, employment status and working hours with symptoms of common mental

  16. Are Level of Education and Employment Related to Symptoms of Common Mental Disorders in Current and Retired Professional Footballers?

    OpenAIRE

    Gouttebarge; Aoki; Verhagen; Kerkhoffs

    2016-01-01

    Background Mental disorders have become a topic of increasing interest in research due to their serious consequences for quality of life and functioning. Objectives The objective of this study was to explore the relationship of level of education, employment status and working hours with symptoms of common mental disorders (distress, anxiety/depression, sleep disturbance, adverse alcohol behaviour, smoking, adverse nutritional beh...

  17. Employment status in persons with and without HIV infection in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Rebecca; Omland, Lars Haukali; Kronborg, Gitte

    2014-01-01

    .v.) drug abuse as a route of HIV infection or diagnosed with hepatitis C infection (n = 2799) and 22,369 individually matched persons from the background population. Study inclusion was 1 January 1996 or HIV diagnosis, which ever came last. METHODS: Data on employment status and disability pension were......OBJECTIVE: To estimate annual employment rates and disability retirement rates (DRRs) among HIV-infected individuals and population controls during the period 1996-2011. DESIGN: A population-based cohort study including all HIV-infected individuals born in Denmark and not reporting intravenous (i...... extracted from Danish national registries. Employment rate and DRR were estimated in each calendar year after study inclusion for the cohorts included before 1996 (pre-1996), 1996-1999 and 2000-2011. RESULTS: Employment rate in the year of study inclusion increased from 54.8% [95% confidence interval (CI...

  18. Employment status of patients receiving maintenance dialysis – peritoneal and hemodialysis: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B S Lakshmi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The long-term dialysis therapy for end-stage renal disease takes a heavy toll of quality of life of the patient. Several factors such as fatigue and decreased physical capability, impaired social and mental functioning, contribute to this forlorn state. To meld maintenance dialysis treatment with a regular employment can be a serious test. A cross-sectional study of employment of patients on hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis in a state government tertiary institute in South India was performed between June 2015 and December 2015. Patients who completed 3 months of regular dialysis were only included in the study. The number of patients on hemodialysis was 157 and on peritoneal dialysis was 69. The employment status before the initiation of dialysis was 60% (93 out of 155 and 63.7% (44 out of 69 in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis, respectively. After initiation, the loss of employment was observed in 44% (41 out of 93 in hemodialysis and 51.2% (26 out of 44 in peritoneal dialysis (P = 0.2604. Even though there was fall of absolute number of job holders in both the blue and white collar jobs, the proportion of jobholders in the white collar job holders improved. On univariate analysis, the factors which influenced the loss of employment were males, age between 50 and 60 years, number of comorbidities >2, illiteracy and blue collar versus white collar job before the initiation of dialysis. The majority of patients had the scores above 80 on Karnofsky performance scale and the majority belonged upper and middle classes than lower classes on modified Kuppuswamy's socioeconomic status scale; however, the loss of employment was also disproportionately high. There appeared a substantial difference in the attitude of the patients toward the employment. There was no difference between hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis in the loss of employment of our patients.

  19. Cross-sectional associations of active transport, employment status and objectively measured physical activity: analyses from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin; Hu, Liang; Hipp, J Aaron; Imm, Kellie R; Schutte, Rudolph; Stubbs, Brendon; Colditz, Graham A; Smith, Lee

    2018-05-05

    To investigate associations between active transport, employment status and objectively measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in a representative sample of US adults. Cross-sectional analyses of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total of 5180 adults (50.2 years old, 49.0% men) were classified by levels of active transportation and employment status. Outcome measure was weekly time spent in MVPA as recorded by the Actigraph accelerometer. Associations between active transport, employment status and objectively measured MVPA were examined using multivariable linear regression models adjusted for age, body mass index, race and ethnicity, education level, marital status, smoking status, working hour duration (among the employed only) and self-reported leisure time physical activity. Patterns of active transport were similar between the employed (n=2897) and unemployed (n=2283), such that 76.0% employed and 77.5% unemployed engaged in no active transport. For employed adults, those engaging in high levels of active transport (≥90 min/week) had higher amount of MVPA than those who did not engage in active transport. This translated to 40.8 (95% CI 15.7 to 65.9) additional minutes MVPA per week in men and 57.9 (95% CI 32.1 to 83.7) additional minutes MVPA per week in women. Among the unemployed adults, higher levels of active transport were associated with more MVPA among men (44.8 min/week MVPA, 95% CI 9.2 to 80.5) only. Findings from the present study support interventions to promote active transport to increase population level physical activity. Additional strategies are likely required to promote physical activity among unemployed women. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. REMPAN at international level: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souchkevitch, Guennadi

    1997-01-01

    This document describes the current status of the Radiation Emergency medical Preparedness and Assistance Network - REMPAN, for the promotion of radiation emergency medical and public health preparedness and for practical assistance and advising countries, in a case of overexposure from any sources of radiation, by initiative of the World Health Organization - WHO

  1. A social work study to investigate the relationships between women’s personal characteristics and employment status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Basity

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Women play important role on building a sustainable family oriented society; they could also contribute to society by contributing to labor market. However, women’s personal characteristics such as educational background, years of experience, etc. could impact their future occupations. In this paper, we study the impact of various factors on women’s job status. The measurement tools for social factors of employment in this research is a questionnaire consists of 32 questions. The study measures the reflection of repliers to different social factors including social position, popularity, socialize, social manners, self-reliance, speech abilities, responsibility, etc. Data were gathered from a sample of 300 people using random sampling and analyzed using descriptive mono factor statistics, Spearman correlation, Kramer correlation coefficient, Chi-square, regression and path analysis. The validity of questionnaire is tested by using Cronbach alpha (%75. The results indicate that there are some meaningful relationships between woman’s educational level, age, residency status, socialization capability, urbanity, skill & ability and their employment. The study, however, does not find any relationship between marital status and number of children and outcome of woman’s employment.

  2. Self-rated health and employment status in chronic haemodialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molsted, Stig; Aadahl, Mette; Schou, Lone

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Along with survival and other types of clinical outcome, physical, mental and social well-being are important indicators of the effectiveness of the medical care that haemodialysis (HD) patients receive. The present cross-sectional study was designed to assess self-rated health in HD...... patients were included. They were asked to complete the Short Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire and additional questions concerning education and employment status. The SF-36 consists of eight scales representing physical, social, mental and general health. Clinical, biochemical and dialysis adequacy data were...... patients from a large Danish HD centre compared to a Danish general population sample with similar sex and age distributions. Furthermore, employment status and associations between self-rated health and clinical, social and demographic factors were investigated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 150...

  3. Employment as a Social Determinant of Health: A Review of Longitudinal Studies Exploring the Relationship between Employment Status and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Zeglin, Robert J.; McGuire-Kuletz, Maureen; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To explore employment as a social determinant of health through examining the relationship between employment status and mental health. Method: The authors conducted a systematic review of 48 longitudinal studies conducted in Australia, Canada, Croatia, Germany, Ireland, Israel, the Netherlands, Norway, United Kingdom, and United States…

  4. Employment status, difficulties at work and quality of life in inflammatory bowel disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boer, Angela G E M; Bennebroek Evertsz', Floor; Stokkers, Pieter C; Bockting, Claudia L; Sanderman, Robert; Hommes, Daniel W; Sprangers, Mirjam A G; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2016-10-01

    To assess employment status, difficulties at work and sick leave in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients and their relation with sociodemographic and clinical factors, quality of life (QoL), and anxiety and depression. IBD patients attending an IBD outpatients' clinic received self-report questionnaires on employment status, IBD-related difficulties at work and sick leave (Trimbos/iMTA questionnaire for Costs associated with Psychiatric Illness), sociodemographic factors, QoL (Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire and 12-item Short-form Health Survey) and anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). Disease activity was assessed by their gastroenterologist. Associations between paid employment and sick leave with sociodemographic and clinical factors, QoL and anxiety and depression were assessed by regression analyses. In total, 202 IBD patients of working age, with a mean age of 41 years, participated; 63% had Crohn's disease and 37% had ulcerative colitis, and 57% were women and 19% had active disease. In all, 123 (61%) patients were in paid employment, of whom 31 (25%) were on sick leave, whereas 46 (23%) received a disability pension. Concentration problems (72%), low working pace (78%) and delayed work production (50%) were the most prevalent IBD-related work difficulties. IBD patients without paid employment were older and more often women, with active disease, lower QoL and higher anxiety and depression rates. Sick leave was associated with lower QoL and higher anxiety and depression rates. More than half of IBD patients were in paid employment, whereas almost a quarter was receiving a disability pension. A large majority experienced work difficulties. Having no paid employment was associated with poorer QoL and more anxiety and depression symptomatology.

  5. The employment status of 1995 graduates from radiation oncology training programs in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, Daniel F.; Kresl, John J.; Sheldon, John M.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the employment status of 1995 graduates of radiation oncology training programs in the United States. Methods and Materials: All senior residents (149) and fellows (36) who completed training in 1995 were mailed an employment survey questionnaire by the Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology (ARRO). Telephone follow-up of nonrespondents achieved a 100% response rate. Twenty graduates who chose to continue training and five who returned to their home countries were removed from the study. Of the 160 who attempted to enter the U.S. workforce, 106 were men and 54 were women. Initial job status and job status at 6-8 months following graduation were determined. Results: Unemployment was 6.9% at graduation and 4.4% at 6-8 months. Underemployment (part-time employment) was 10.6% at graduation and 11.9% at 6-8 months postgraduation. Of those working part-time 6-8 months after graduation, 63% (12 of 19) did so involuntarily after unsuccessfully seeking full-time employment. For the 20 graduates who chose to continue training with fellowships, seven (35%) did so solely to avoid unemployment, four (20%) were partially influenced by the job market, and nine (45%) were not influenced by the job market. Adverse employment search outcome was defined as being either unemployed as a radiation oncologist or involuntarily working part-time. Excluding those who chose to work part-time, a total of 19 (11.9%) graduates at 6-8 months following graduation, compared to 22 (13.8%) at graduation, were either unemployed or involuntarily working part-time. In terms of gender, this represented 18.5% (10 of 54) of females and 8.6% (9 of 105) of males. In terms of geographic restrictions in the job search, 56% of males and 70% of females with an adverse employment outcome limited their job search to certain parts of the country. This compares to 62% of all graduates in this study with geographic restrictions in their job search. In terms of perceptions of the

  6. The employment status of 1995 graduates from radiation oncology training programs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, D F; Kresl, J J; Sheldon, J M

    1999-03-15

    To quantify the employment status of 1995 graduates of radiation oncology training programs in the United States. All senior residents (149) and fellows (36) who completed training in 1995 were mailed an employment survey questionnaire by the Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology (ARRO). Telephone follow-up of nonrespondents achieved a 100% response rate. Twenty graduates who chose to continue training and five who returned to their home countries were removed from the study. Of the 160 who attempted to enter the U.S. workforce, 106 were men and 54 were women. Initial job status and job status at 6-8 months following graduation were determined. Unemployment was 6.9% at graduation and 4.4% at 6-8 months. Underemployment (part-time employment) was 10.6% at graduation and 11.9% at 6-8 months postgraduation. Of those working part-time 6-8 months after graduation, 63% (12 of 19) did so involuntarily after unsuccessfully seeking full-time employment. For the 20 graduates who chose to continue training with fellowships, seven (35%) did so solely to avoid unemployment, four (20%) were partially influenced by the job market, and nine (45%) were not influenced by the job market. Adverse employment search outcome was defined as being either unemployed as a radiation oncologist or involuntarily working part-time. Excluding those who chose to work part-time, a total of 19 (11.9%) graduates at 6-8 months following graduation, compared to 22 (13.8%) at graduation, were either unemployed or involuntarily working part-time. In terms of gender, this represented 18.5% (10 of 54) of females and 8.6% (9 of 105) of males. In terms of geographic restrictions in the job search, 56% of males and 70% of females with an adverse employment outcome limited their job search to certain parts of the country. This compares to 62% of all graduates in this study with geographic restrictions in their job search. In terms of perceptions of the workforce and employment opportunities, 95% of

  7. Effects of service provider attitudes and employment status on citizenship behaviors and customers' attitudes and loyalty behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Stephanie C; Webber, Sheila Simsarian

    2006-03-01

    The relationship among job satisfaction, affective commitment, service-oriented organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs), customer satisfaction, and customer loyalty were examined for a sample of 249 hairstylists and 1 of their corresponding customers. Employee satisfaction was positively related to service-oriented OCBs, customer satisfaction, and customer loyalty, whereas affective commitment was not related to these outcomes. The extent to which the predictor variables interacted with one another and the role of employment status on these relationships was also explored. High levels of job satisfaction or affective commitment resulted in more service-oriented OCBs for employees and self-employed workers, whereas high levels of both resulted in more service-oriented OCBs for owners.

  8. INCREASING EMPLOYMENT LEVELS THROUGH THE USE OF CREATIVE JOBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie Andreea HORDAU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we want to raise awareness of how important is for an economy the existence of creative jobs. In the last years the employment rate has grown in the sector of creative jobs. This research came out due the need of creative jobs contribution to the development of an economy, in particular Romanian economy. In this paper we want to stress on the importance of creative industry and also to propose some solutions for increasing employment in this sectors , being well-known that creative industry is attractive to smart and talented people. Nevertheless, it is important to point out the development of IT as part of creative industry. Not at last, we will take in consideration the role that small and medium enterprises have, the impact of fiscal facilities in the economy and the need for appropriate financial instruments to support this kind of business.

  9. Is temporary employment related to health status? Analysis of the Northern Swedish Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waenerlund, Anna-Karin; Virtanen, Pekka; Hammarström, Anne

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether temporary employment was related to non-optimal self-rated health and psychological distress at age 42 after adjustment for the same indicators at age 30, and to analyze the effects of job insecurity, low cash margin and high job strain on this relationship. A subcohort of the Northern Swedish Cohort that was employed at the 2007 follow-up survey (n = 907, response rate of 94%) was analyzed using data from 1995 and 2007 questionnaires. Temporary employees had a higher risk of both non-optimal self-rated health and psychological distress. After adjustment for non-optimal self-rated health at age 30 and psychological distress at age 30 as well as for sociodemographic variables, the odds ratios decreased but remained significant. However, after adjustment for job insecurity, high job strain and low cash margin the odds ratio dropped for non-optimal self-rated health but remained significant for psychological distress. Temporary employment may have adverse effects on self-rated health and psychological health after adjustment for previous health status and sociodemographic variables. Our findings indicate that low cash margin and job insecurity may partially mediate the association between temporary employment and health status.

  10. The Optimum Level of Argumentativeness for Employed Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schullery, Nancy M.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the relationship between argumentativeness and women's supervisory level in organizations. Finds no simple relationship between supervisory level and argumentativeness for women, but indicates that moderation in argumentativeness increases with supervisory level. Notes implications for pedagogy: would-be female executives should be…

  11. Has the employment status of people living with HIV changed since the early 2000s?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annequin, Margot; Lert, France; Spire, Bruno; Dray-Spira, Rosemary

    2015-07-31

    In a context marked by major changes in the field of HIV and in the general socioeconomic context, this study aimed at investigating changes in the employment situation of people living with HIV (PLWHIV) in France since the early 2000s. Repeated cross-sectional survey among two nationally representative samples of PLWHIV followed at hospital in France in 2003 (N = 2932) and 2011 (N = 3022). Differences between 2003 and 2011 in (1) rates of employment, unemployment, and inactivity and (2) rates of work cessation and access to work following HIV diagnosis were measured using two-step multivariate Poisson regression models adjusted for individual sociodemographic determinants of position on the labor market, and then additionally for health status characteristics. Overall, among working-age PLWHIV 60.9% in 2003 and 59.6% in 2011 were employed; 12.6 and 15.8%, respectively, were unemployed; and 26.5 and 24.6%, respectively, were inactive. Adjusting for sociodemographic determinants of position on the labor market, while employment rate was not different in 2011 compared with 2003, inactivity rate significantly decreased (adjusted prevalence rate ratio: 0.83, 95% confidence interval: [0.72-0.96]) and unemployment rate significantly increased (1.28 [1.04-1.57]). After additional adjustment for health status characteristics, the difference was no longer significant for inactivity (0.89 [0.77-1.03]) but remained significant for unemployment (1.55 [1.24-1.93]). Compared with 2003, in 2011 transitions to unemployment following HIV diagnosis tended to be more frequent (1.58 [0.92-2.68]) and access to work was significantly less frequent (0.57 [0.33-0.99]). Improvements in HIV care have not translated into improvements in PLWHIV's situation regarding employment.

  12. Pain, fatigue and hand function closely correlated to work ability and employment status in systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandqvist, Gunnel; Scheja, Agneta; Hesselstrand, Roger

    2010-09-01

    To identify factors, individual and work related, influencing work ability, and to assess the association between work ability and employment status, activities of daily life (ADLs) and quality of life in patients with SSc. Fifty-seven consecutive patients (53 females/4 males) with SSc (47 lcSSc/10 dcSSc) were included. Median age was 58 [interquartile range (IQR) 47-62] years and disease duration 14 (9-19) years. The patients were assessed for socio-demographic characteristics, disease parameters, symptoms, work ability, empowerment and adaptations in a workplace, social support, ADLs and quality of life. Work ability, assessed with the Work Ability Index (WAI) could be evaluated in 48 of 57 patients. The correlation between employment status and WAI was good (r(s) = 0.79, P work (P work (P Employment interventions should include support in job adaptations as well as self-management strategies to help patients deal with pain and fatigue and to enhance the confidence to perform their work.

  13. Markups and Firm-Level Export Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Loecker, Jan; Warzynski, Frederic

    and export behavior using plant-level data. We find that i) markups are estimated significantly higher when controlling for unobserved productivity, ii) exporters charge on average higher markups and iii) firms' markups increase (decrease) upon export entry (exit).We see these findings as a first step...... in opening up the productivity-export black box, and provide a potential explanation for the big measured productivity premia for firms entering export markets....

  14. Changes in the Employment Status and Risk of Stroke and Stroke Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshak, Ehab S; Honjo, Kaori; Iso, Hiroyasu; Ikeda, Ai; Inoue, Manami; Sawada, Norie; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2017-05-01

    Because of limited evidence, we investigated a long-term impact of changes in employment status on risk of stroke. This was a prospective study of 21 902 Japanese men and 19 826 women aged 40 to 59 years from 9 public health centers across Japan. Participants were followed up from 1990 to 1993 to the end of 2009 to 2014. Cox proportional hazard ratio of stroke (incidence and mortality) and its types (hemorrhagic and ischemic) was calculated according to changes in the employment status within 5 years interval between 1990 to 1993 and 1995 to 1998 (continuously employed, job loss, reemployed, and continuously unemployed). During the follow-up period, 973 incident cases and 275 deaths from stroke in men and 460 cases and 131 deaths in women were documented. Experiencing 1 spell of unemployment was associated with higher risks of morbidity and mortality from total, hemorrhagic, and ischemic stroke in both men and women, even after propensity score matching. Compared with continuously employed subjects, the multivariable hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for total stroke incidence in job lost men was 1.58 (1.18-2.13) and in job lost women was 1.51 (1.08-2.29), and those for total stroke mortality were 2.22 (1.34-3.68) in men and 2.48 (1.26-4.77) in women. The respective hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) in reemployed men was 2.96 (1.89-4.62) for total stroke incidence and 4.21 (1.97-8.97) for mortality, whereas those in reemployed women were 1.30 (0.98-1.69) for incidence and 1.28 (0.76-2.17) for mortality. Job lost men and women and reemployed men had increased risks for both hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke incidence and mortality. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Health-related quality of life and employment status of liver transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberg, Fredrik; Rissanen, Anne M; Sintonen, Harri; Roine, Risto P; Höckerstedt, Krister; Isoniemi, Helena

    2009-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is one preferable outcome measure of medical interventions such as liver transplantation (LT). The aim of this study was to compare HRQoL of LT patients with that of the general population and to assess the employment status of LT patients. HRQoL was measured with the 15D instrument, a validated, non-disease-specific, 15-dimensional, self-administered HRQoL instrument. The questionnaire was sent to all adult LT patients in Finland (401 patients) alive in June 2007. The response rate was 89% (353 patients). The results were compared to those of 6050 age-standardized and gender-standardized controls from the general population. LT patients (mean age, 55 years; range, 20-82) had slightly worse HRQoL scores than the general population (mean 15D score, 0.889 versus 0.907; P gender-adjusted analyses. HRQoL decreased with increasing age (P employed at the time of the study. Persons that were employed had significantly better HRQoL than those unemployed (15D scores, 0.934 versus 0.859; P Employment is an indicator of HRQoL. Copyright 2008 AASLD.

  16. Disclosure of disease status among employed multiple sclerosis patients: association with negative work events and accommodations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frndak, Seth E; Kordovski, Victoria M; Cookfair, Diane; Rodgers, Jonathan D; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Benedict, Ralph H B

    2015-02-01

    Unemployment is common in multiple sclerosis (MS) and detrimental to quality of life. Studies suggest disclosure of diagnosis is an adaptive strategy for patients. However, the role of cognitive deficits and psychiatric symptoms in disclosure are not well studied. The goals of this paper were to (a) determine clinical factors most predictive of disclosure, and (b) measure the effects of disclosure on workplace problems and accommodations in employed patients. We studied two overlapping cohorts: a cross-sectional sample (n = 143) to determine outcomes associated with disclosure, and a longitudinal sample (n = 103) compared at four time points over one year on reported problems and accommodations. A case study of six patients, disclosing during monitoring, was also included. Disclosure was associated with greater physical disability but not cognitive impairment. Logistic regression predicting disclosure status retained physical disability, accommodations and years of employment (p work problems and accommodations over time. The case study revealed that reasons for disclosing are multifaceted, including connection to employer, decreased mobility and problems at work. Although cognitive impairment is linked to unemployment, it does not appear to inform disclosure decisions. Early disclosure may help maintain employment if followed by appropriate accommodations. © The Author(s), 2014.

  17. Relationship between stress levels and the status of serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationship between stress levels and the status of serum antioxidant vitamins. ... Abstract. Background: Alternative methods for stress monitoring and evaluation prove very useful in proper dealing with it. Thus ... from 32 Countries: Algeria (5) ...

  18. The Deployment Trauma Phenotype and Employment Status in Veterans of the Wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amick, Melissa M; Meterko, Mark; Fortier, Catherine B; Fonda, Jennifer R; Milberg, William P; McGlinchey, Regina E

    To determine the prevalence of comorbid mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depression, termed the deployment trauma phenotype (DTP), and its constituent diagnoses' impact on unemployment status in a national cohort of veterans. Retrospective analysis of the comprehensive TBI evaluation, a Veterans Affairs-wide protocol for assessing TBI, employment status, and psychiatric impressions. The final data set consisted of 48 821 veterans. Frequency of mTBI, PTSD, and depression in isolation and combinations and their association with unemployment status. Age- and education-adjusted risk ratios (RRs) showed that the mTBI-only group was the least likely to be unemployed, RR = 0.65 (0.59-0.71). By contrast, the greatest likelihood of unemployment was associated with membership in the DTP group, RR = 1.45 (1.36-1.56), and the comorbid PTSD and depression group, RR = 1.39 (1.27-1.52). Furthermore, the DTP was nearly 3 times more prevalent (16.4%) in this sample compared with comorbid PTSD and depression (5.7%), indicating that the DTP conveys risk for unemployment to a significantly greater number of individuals. The comorbid and interactive conditions of PTSD, depression, and mTBI, rather than mTBI in isolation, were linked to significant risk for unemployment in this veteran cohort. These findings suggest that multifaceted assessments and interventions to improve postdeployment reintegration are needed.

  19. Subjective Well-Being in Older Chinese and Korean Immigrants in the United States: Effects of Self-Rated Health and Employment Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bum Jung; Jun, Hyeyoun; Lee, Jisun; Linton, Kristen; Kim, Meehye; Browne, Colette

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of association between self-rated health and employment status on subjective well-being among older Chinese and Korean immigrants in the United States. Data were collected from 171 Chinese and 205 Korean older adult immigrants living in Los Angeles County. The primary variables included demographic data, subjective index of well-being, self-rated health, and employment status. Data support the association between self-rated health and subjective well-being for both groups. Employment, education, and age were associated with the level of subjective well-being only for older Korean immigrants. Similarities and differences were noted in these two Asian American subgroups. Findings suggest the need to develop health promotion services for both populations and employment opportunities targeted more so for Korean older immigrants to further support their subjective well-being. Results may have implications for other for older immigrants.

  20. The Influences of Employment Status and Daily Stressors on Physiological Functioning in a Sample of Midlife and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jen D; Shobo, Yetunde

    2016-06-01

    This study examines the influences of employment status and the moderating role of daily stressors on cortisol levels and responsivity in 182 workers and 253 retirees between 55 and 75 years old from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS-II). As a part of the Daily Diary Study, participants completed telephone interviews about their daily experiences across eight evenings and provided saliva samples across 4 days. Multilevel models showed that workers who experienced greater number of non-work related daily stressors significantly exhibited higher cortisol level at 30 min post awakening (b = 0.252, SE = 0.109, p stressors. Findings demonstrate the important consideration of daily stressors in identifying the ways in which social roles influence physiological functioning in midlife and late adulthood. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. The relation of family violence, employment status, welfare benefits, and alcohol drinking in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Eunice; Lasch, Kathryn E; Chandra, Pinky; Lee, Jennifer

    2001-01-01

    Objective To examine the contribution of employment status, welfare benefits, alcohol use, and other individual and contextual factors to physical aggression during marital conflict. Methods Logistic regression models were used to analyze panel data collected in the National Survey of Families and Households in 1987 and 1992. A total of 4,780 married or cohabiting persons reinterviewed in 1992 were included in the analysis. Domestic violence was defined as reporting that both partners were physically violent during arguments. Results Unemployed respondents are not at greater risk of family violence than employed respondents, after alcohol misuse, income, education, age, and other factors are controlled for; however, employed persons receiving welfare benefits are at significantly higher risk. Alcohol misuse, which remains a predictor of violence even after other factors are controlled for, increases the risk of family violence, and satisfaction with social support from family and friends is associated with its decrease. Conclusions Alcohol misuse has an important effect on domestic violence, and the potential impact of welfare reform on domestic violence needs to be monitored. PMID:11342506

  2. Self-Reported Employment Status and Social Participation After Successful Kidney Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parajuli, Sandesh; Singh, Jagmeet; Sandal, Shaifali; Liebman, Scott E; Demme, Richard A

    2016-03-01

    Kidney transplantation (KTX) is considered the treatment of choice for most individuals with end-stage kidney disease. The purpose of this study was to assess the employment status and social participation after successful KTX. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study. Eligible participants were patients who received a transplant ≥1 year ago and who were previously on hemodialysis (HD) for ≥1 year. Two hundred individuals participated in this study. A significant number (93.5%) of patients reported they were working prior to HD versus 35% while on HD. Only 14% reported receiving disability benefits prior to HD versus 75% receiving disability while on HD. Comparing transplant recipients with pre-HD patients, 35.5% versus 93.5% reported working, and 74.5% versus 14% reported receiving disability benefits, respectively. After transplant, patients were more likely to join recreational clubs, travel frequently, and participate in recreational/religious activities and social events than when they were on HD. Posttransplant, these individuals are more likely to participate in social and leisure activities, but the majority did not resume employment and continued to receive disability payments. Future studies could explore barriers to employment in patients who underwent successful transplantation and the causes and factors as to why these individuals continue to receive disability benefits. © 2016, NATCO.

  3. Consequences of occupational asthma on employment and financial status: a follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameille, J; Pairon, J C; Bayeux, M C; Brochard, P; Choudat, D; Conso, F; Devienne, A; Garnier, R; Iwatsubo, Y

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe changes in employment and income following a diagnosis of occupational asthma, and to determine what factors might affect these changes. Two hundred and nine patients with occupational asthma were reviewed on average 3.1 yrs after the diagnosis had been made. They were contacted by telephone or were sent a self-administered questionnaire by post. Multiple logistic regression models were constructed to determine which variables were associated with loss of employment after the diagnosis. At the time of review, 44% of patients had left their previous job and 25% were currently unemployed. Remarkably, 32% remained exposed to the offending agents in the same job. Forty six percent of the patients had suffered a reduction of income (84% of those who had left their employer versus 19% of those still employed in the same company (p company, level of education, and age at the time of diagnosis were significantly associated with a risk for becoming unemployed or having a new employer after the diagnosis of occupational asthma. Occupational asthma results in severe socioeconomic consequences. The French compensation system for occupational asthma should be revised, as the criteria currently used to determine compensation for this disease largely underestimate the social and occupational damages.

  4. Employment status and perceived health in the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overland, Simon; Glozier, Nicholas; Mæland, John Gunnar; Aarø, Leif Edvard; Mykletun, Arnstein

    2006-01-01

    Background Most western countries have disability benefit schemes ostensibly based upon requiring (1) a work inhibiting functional limitation that (2) can be attributed to a diagnosable condition, injury or disease. The present paper examines to what extent current practice matches the core premises of this model by examining how much poorer the perceived health of disability benefit recipients is, compared to the employed and the unemployed, and further to examine to what extent any poorer perceived health among benefit recipients can be attributed to mental or somatic illness and symptoms. Methods Information on disability benefit recipiency was obtained from Norwegian registry data, and merged with health information from the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK) in Western Norway, 1997–99. Participants (N = 14 946) aged 40–47 were assessed for perceived physical and mental health (Short Form-12), somatic symptoms, mental health, and self reported somatic conditions and diseases treated with medication. Differences associated with employment status were tested in chi-square and t-tests, as well as multivariate and univariate regression models to adjust for potential confounders. Results Recipients of disability benefits (n = 1 351) had poorer perceived physical and mental health than employees (n = 13 156); group differences were 1.86 and 0.74 pooled standard deviations respectively. Self reported somatic diagnoses, mental health and symptoms accounted for very little of this difference in perceived health. The unemployed (n = 439) were comparable to the employed rather than the recipients of disability benefits. Conclusion Recipients of disability benefits have poor perceived health compared to both the employed and the unemployed. Surprisingly little of this difference can be ascribed to respondents' descriptions of their illnesses and symptoms. Even allowing for potential underascertainment of condition severity, this finding supports the increasing focus on non

  5. Employment status and perceived health in the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarø Leif

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most western countries have disability benefit schemes ostensibly based upon requiring (1 a work inhibiting functional limitation that (2 can be attributed to a diagnosable condition, injury or disease. The present paper examines to what extent current practice matches the core premises of this model by examining how much poorer the perceived health of disability benefit recipients is, compared to the employed and the unemployed, and further to examine to what extent any poorer perceived health among benefit recipients can be attributed to mental or somatic illness and symptoms. Methods Information on disability benefit recipiency was obtained from Norwegian registry data, and merged with health information from the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK in Western Norway, 1997–99. Participants (N = 14 946 aged 40–47 were assessed for perceived physical and mental health (Short Form-12, somatic symptoms, mental health, and self reported somatic conditions and diseases treated with medication. Differences associated with employment status were tested in chi-square and t-tests, as well as multivariate and univariate regression models to adjust for potential confounders. Results Recipients of disability benefits (n = 1 351 had poorer perceived physical and mental health than employees (n = 13 156; group differences were 1.86 and 0.74 pooled standard deviations respectively. Self reported somatic diagnoses, mental health and symptoms accounted for very little of this difference in perceived health. The unemployed (n = 439 were comparable to the employed rather than the recipients of disability benefits. Conclusion Recipients of disability benefits have poor perceived health compared to both the employed and the unemployed. Surprisingly little of this difference can be ascribed to respondents' descriptions of their illnesses and symptoms. Even allowing for potential underascertainment of condition severity, this finding supports the

  6. The changing role of employment status in marriage formation among young Korean adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keuntae Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite a persistent decline in Korea's marriage rates over the past three decades, there is a striking lack of research on the transition to marriage among young Koreans. Similarly, few studies have examined how economic determinants have evolved over the past several decades, even as the Korean social and socioeconomic structure has undergone substantial transformation. Methods: This paper examines changes over time in the determinants of marriage formation in Korea, using employment history data from the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study (KLIPS on three cohorts of young adults born in the 1950s‒1970s. Results: Results indicate that, for women, the marital implications of being employed reversed over the three decades examined. While working decreased the odds of getting married for women born in the 1950s, it had no statistically significant effect for those born in the 1960s, and it strongly increased the odds of marriage for the most recent (1970s cohort of women. For their part, men's employment not only continued to positively predict getting married over the three decades, but its impact became stronger with each cohort, so that a man's odds of transition to first marriage was most strongly tied to his employment status for those born in the 1970s, as compared to earlier cohorts. Contribution: This study contributes to the literature by addressing the relationship between marriage timing and economic resources using more direct measures, examining the association between mandatory military service and marriage formation, and testing if determinants of marriage timing may evolve over time in Korea.

  7. Periodontal status and serum creatine kinase levels among young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: It is hypothesized that soccer players with periodontal disease exhibit raised serum creatine kinase (CK) levels as compared to those without periodontal disease. We assessed the clinical gingival status and serum CK levels among young soccer players. Materials and Methods: Demographic data were ...

  8. Employment status and work-related problems of gastrointestinal cancer patients at diagnosis: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, A. G. E. M.; Bruinvels, D. J.; Tytgat, K. M. A. J.; Schoorlemmer, A.; Klinkenbijl, J. H. G.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the employment status of patients with gastrointestinal cancer at diagnosis and to examine work-related problems of employed patients. Design New, consecutive patients were included at the Gastrointestinal Oncology Center Amsterdam, a one-stop, rapid access diagnostic assessment

  9. Do changes in spousal employment status lead to domestic violence? Insights from a prospective study in Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Suneeta; Rocca, Corinne H; Hubbard, Alan E; Subbiah, Kalyani; Edmeades, Jeffrey; Padian, Nancy S

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of physical domestic violence--violence against women perpetrated by husbands--is staggeringly high across the Indian subcontinent. Although gender-based power dynamics are thought to underlie women's vulnerability, relatively little is known about risk and protective factors. This prospective study in southern India examined the association between key economic aspects of gender-based power, namely spousal employment status, and physical domestic violence. In 2005-2006, 744 married women, aged 16-25, residing in low-income communities in Bangalore, India were enrolled in the study. Data were collected at enrollment, 12 and 24 months. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the prospective association between women's employment status, their perceptions of their husband's employment stability, and domestic violence. Women who were unemployed at one visit and began employment by the next visit had an 80% higher odds of violence, as compared to women who maintained their unemployed status. Similarly, women whose husbands had stable employment at one visit and newly had difficulty with employment had 1.7 times the odds of violence, as compared to women whose husbands maintained their stable employment. To our knowledge, this study is the first from a developing country to confirm that changes in spousal employment status are associated with subsequent changes in violence risk. It points to the complex challenges of violence prevention, including the need for interventions among men and gender-transformative approaches to promote gender-equitable attitudes, practices and norms among men and women.

  10. Changes in employment status and experience of discrimination among cancer patients: findings from a nationwide survey in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Hyun; Park, Jong-Hyock; Kim, Sung-Gyeong; Lee, Kyung-Sook; Hahm, Myung-Il

    2010-12-01

    As the number of working cancer patients increases, workplace discrimination and its relationship to changes in employment status among cancer patients is becoming an increasingly important social concern. The aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive overview of the relationship between changes in employment status and discrimination following a diagnosis of cancer. A total of 748 cancer patients, aged 18 years and older, who were employed before receiving a diagnosis of cancer, were enrolled in this study. Patients were recruited from ten cancer centers in Korea. Sociodemographic data, work-related data, and clinical information, as well as information on changes in employment status and incidences of discrimination, were collected from all patients. A change in employment status was reported by 73.4% of the sample, with unemployment being the most common change (46.4%). Forty-two (5.6%) patients reported that they had experienced discrimination in the workplace. Reports of discrimination were only weakly correlated with changes in employment status, but were significantly correlated with forced unemployment. Additional analyses revealed that being female, being from a lower socioeconomic status group and having a disability were risk-factors for unemployment, while being male, being from a higher socioeconomic status group and having a disability were risk-factors for workplace discrimination or forced unemployment. More attention should be paid to vulnerable who are diagnosed with cancer. An individualized and culture-based approach should be taken to minimize undesirable changes in employment status and to reduce discrimination among patients receiving a diagnosis of cancer. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Women's status and child well-being: a state-level analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenen, Karestan C; Lincoln, Alisa; Appleton, Allison

    2006-12-01

    We conducted an ecologic analysis of the relation between women's status and child well-being in the 50 United States. State-level women's status was assessed via four composite indices: women's political participation, economic autonomy, employment and earnings, and reproductive rights. Child well-being was measured via five outcomes: percentage of low birthweight babies, infant mortality, teen mortality, high school dropout rate, and teen birth rate. Higher state-level women's status on all indicators was associated with significantly better state-level child well-being in unadjusted analyses. Several associations remained significant after adjusting for income inequality and state racial composition. Women's political participation was associated with a significantly lower percentage of low birthweight babies (peconomic and social autonomy for women was associated with better child outcomes on all measures (ppolitical, economic, and social status. Women's status is an important aspect of children's social context which may impact their well-being. Multi-level analyses of the association between state-level women's status and child well-being are needed.

  12. The influence of marital status and spousal employment on retirement behavior in Germany and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radl, Jonas; Himmelreicher, Ralf K

    2015-05-01

    This article analyzes the impact of marital status and spousal employment on the timing of retirement in Germany and Spain. Retirement behavior is examined by means of event-history models, with a competing risks framework being used to distinguish between voluntary and involuntary work-exit transitions. To take account of the role of social policies, we adopt a comparative approach. Data are drawn from a 2006 special retirement module implemented analogously in national labor force surveys. The results show that spousal labor market participation plays a large role in work-exit transitions, even when retirement is involuntary. This finding questions the widespread belief that coretirement is exclusively due to preference for joint retirement shared among spouses. Moreover, widows and widowers tend to retire prematurely in Germany, whereas no such effect could be found in Spain. This finding is explained by reference to specific economic incentives arising from national pension legislation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Predictors for Employment Status in People With Multiple Sclerosis: A 10-Year Longitudinal Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forslin, Mia; Fink, Katharina; Hammar, Ulf; von Koch, Lena; Johansson, Sverker

    2018-01-31

    To identify predictors for employment status after 10 years in a cohort of people with multiple sclerosis (MS), with the aim to increase knowledge concerning factors present at an early stage that are important for working life and work-life balance. A 10-year longitudinal observational cohort study. University hospital. A consecutive sample of people with MS (N=154) of working age were included at baseline, of which a total of 116 people participated in the 10-year follow-up; 27 people declined participation and 11 were deceased. Not applicable. Baseline data on personal factors and functioning were used as independent variables. Employment status 10 years after baseline, categorized as full-time work, part-time work, and no work, was used as the dependent variable. A generalized ordinal logistic regression was used to analyze the predictive value of the independent variables. Predictors for full- or part-time work after 10 years were young age (P=.002), low perceived physical impact of MS (P=.02), fatigue (P=.03), full-time work (P=.001), and high frequency of social/lifestyle activities (P=.001) at baseline. Low perceived physical impact of MS (P=.02) at baseline also predicted full-time work after 10 years. This study underlines the complexity of working life for people with MS, and indicates that it may be valuable to give more attention to the balance between working and private life, both in clinical practice and future research, to achieve a sustainable working life over time. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The education and employment status of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marri, Sheetal R; Buchman, Alan L

    2005-02-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has the propensity to affect patients who are in their late teens and early 20s, an age when most people decide on their educational and career directions. This review describes the effects that IBD has on the continuum of education and employment. Patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis attain a similar level of education as that of the general population. The quality of life of such patients in school, as measured by both patients' and teachers' perceptions, indicates that, despite the difficulties that students face in terms of missed school time and physical inconveniences, teachers are generally perceived by students to have favorable attitudes toward helping them. Even though earlier work in the area of employment has suggested that the occurrence of IBD is clustered among people in white-collar positions, recent data have suggested that certain environmental risks for IBD (i.e., sedentary or indoor jobs) may be associated with jobs classified as being white-collar, and therefore having a white-collar job may in itself not be a risk factor for the development of IBD. Patients with IBD have a higher rate of nonparticipation in the labor force, and the participation rate seems to maintain steady levels over time. A majority of patients with IBD continue in the same employment positions over a period of years. Patients with IBD, especially those who have undergone surgery, took more sick leave than their counterparts without IBD. A majority of patients with IBD favored the disclosure of their diagnosis to their employers and perceived little discrimination in the workplace. Furthermore, most employers were perceived by their employees with IBD as having fair attitudes toward the compensation provided for their employees with IBD.

  15. The association between loss of work ability and depression: a focus on employment status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Ah; Ju, Yeong Jun; Han, Kyu-Tae; Choi, Jae Woo; Yoon, Hyo Jung; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2017-01-01

    Work-related factors are one of the known risk factors for depression. Given that the ability to work is considered an important aspect of well-being and health status, we investigated the association between the loss of work ability and depression. We further examined the association stratified by employment status. We used data from the Korea Welfare Panel Study. The dependent variable of the present study was depression, which is measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Work ability transition from the previous year was divided into three categories: maintained, loss, and complete loss. A linear mixed-effects model was performed for the analysis. The work ability loss group (β = 2.071, p work ability completely loss group (β = 2.651, p = 0.015) had higher depression scores compared to those who maintained their work ability from the previous year. Specifically, those who lost their work ability and their job (β = 3.685, p = 0.0068) had the highest depression scores compared to those who maintained their work ability and job. We found that those who lost their ability to work may be at risk of depression, and this finding was particularly prominent among those who also became unemployed. Therefore, psychological support is needed for these individuals to overcome the negative influence of the loss of work ability.

  16. Employment status is associated with both physical and mental health quality of life in people living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Sergio; Raboud, Janet; Mustard, Cameron; Bayoumi, Ahmed; Lavis, John N; Rourke, Sean B

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the relationship between employment status and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in HIV/AIDS. A total of 361 participants provided baseline data in the context of an ongoing cohort study examining the natural history of neurobehavioral functioning and its effects on HRQOL. We administered tests and collected laboratory data to determine demographic status, HIV disease markers, psychosocial symptom burden, neurocognitive function and HRQOL (MOS-HIV). We performed regression analyses to evaluate the contribution of employment status to the physical and mental health components of quality of life (QOL). Multivariate analyses showed that employment status was strongly related to better physical and mental health QOL after controlling for potential confounders. We found, however, that employment status had a greater impact on physical health than mental health QOL [physical health (β = 6.8, 95% CI 4.6 to 9.1) and mental health QOL (β = 3.3, 95% CI 0.93 to 5.7)]. The effect of employment for physical health QOL was stronger than that observed for ethnicity, social support, or having an AIDS diagnosis and was comparable to that observed with having many HIV-related symptoms. This cross-sectional study suggests that there may be physical and mental health benefits associated with obtaining or keeping employment, or more likely that both selection and causation mechanisms comprise an interactional and reinforcing process.

  17. Post-harvest technologies for various crops of pakistan: status quo, employment generation and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.

    2005-01-01

    The climatic conditions of Pakistan vary from tropical to temperate, allow 40 different kinds of vegetables, 21 type of fruit, and 5 major crops (wheat, cotton, rice, sugarcane, and maize) to grow. During the peak harvest-season, a great proportion of fresh agricultural/horticultural produce is lost, due to unavailability of suitable post-harvest technologies. An effort was made to present the status quo, constraints, Government policies and possible post-harvest technologies that can be developed/adopted in the country to generate employment in the rural areas. Secondary processing-industry (flour mills, sugar mills, oil mills etc.) is fairly developed in the country. However. primary processing of agricultural produce is poorly developed in the country. The higher cost of the processed products, consumers habits of eating fresh commodities, seasonability of fresh fruit and vegetables, and low quality of the processed products are the key-constraints for the slow growth of post-harvest processing industry. By removing these constraints, and by developing/adopting various technologies, identified in this paper, we may help to establish post-harvest processing industry on sound footings. Consequently, the employment-opportunities will increase in the rural areas of the country. (author)

  18. Employment Policies for a Green Economy at the European Union Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Mihaela Pociovălișteanu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable economic development requires ensuring economic growth and development in terms of environmental protection by providing a bridge between sustainable economic growth, improvement in human health, social justice, employment and environmental protection. Our paper aims to study the situation of green jobs at the European Union level and the relationship between environment and employment, by analysing the link between employment and environmental policies. It highlights the main trends recorded at the European Union level in the field of employment policy to promote green jobs for sustainable economic development. Although there is little effect from environmental policies on employment, the effects are positive, which shows that the relationship between environmental and employment policy should be continued and improved by measures taken at both the macro- and microeconomic levels.

  19. Service level status-a new real-time status display for IT services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopienski, S [IT Department, FIO group CERN, European Organization for Nuclear Research, 1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland)], E-mail: Sebastian.Lopienski@cern.ch

    2008-07-15

    Nowadays, IT departments provide, and people use, computing services of an increasingly heterogeneous nature. There is thus a growing need for a status display that groups these different services and reports their status and availability in a uniform way. The Service Level Status (SLS) system addresses these needs by providing a web-based display that dynamically shows availability, basic information and statistics about various IT services, as well as the dependencies between them. This paper first introduces the requirements SLS had to meet, and the main concepts behind it, like service availability and status, Key Performance Indicators (KPIs), sub/meta-services, and service dependencies. It then describes the SLS system architecture, and some interesting implementation details, such as the usage of XML Schemas. Since clear visualization of service availability and status is one of the main goals of SLS, emphasis is put on describing the intuitive web-based user interface.

  20. Service level status-a new real-time status display for IT services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopienski, S

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays, IT departments provide, and people use, computing services of an increasingly heterogeneous nature. There is thus a growing need for a status display that groups these different services and reports their status and availability in a uniform way. The Service Level Status (SLS) system addresses these needs by providing a web-based display that dynamically shows availability, basic information and statistics about various IT services, as well as the dependencies between them. This paper first introduces the requirements SLS had to meet, and the main concepts behind it, like service availability and status, Key Performance Indicators (KPIs), sub/meta-services, and service dependencies. It then describes the SLS system architecture, and some interesting implementation details, such as the usage of XML Schemas. Since clear visualization of service availability and status is one of the main goals of SLS, emphasis is put on describing the intuitive web-based user interface

  1. Serum Albumin Levels and Economic Status in Japanese Older Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asami Ota

    Full Text Available Low serum albumin levels are associated with aging and medical conditions such as cancer, liver dysfunction, inflammation, and malnutrition and might be an independent predictor of long-term mortality in healthy older populations. We tested the hypothesis that economic status is associated with serum albumin levels and explained by nutritional and health status in Japanese older adults.We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation study (JAGES. The study participants were 6528 functionally independent residents (3189 men and 3339 women aged ≥65 years living in four municipalities in Aichi prefecture. We used household income as an indicator of economic status. Multiple linear regression was used to compare serum albumin levels in relation to household income, which was classified as low, middle, and high. Additionally, mediation by nutritional and health-related factors was analyzed in multivariable models.With the middle-income group as reference, participants with low incomes had a significantly lower serum albumin level, even after adjustment for sex, age, residential area, education, marital status, and household structure. The estimated mean difference was -0.17 g/L (95% confidence interval, -0.33 to -0.01 g/L. The relation between serum albumin level and low income became statistically insignificant when "body mass index", "consumption of meat or fish", "self-rated health", "presence of medical conditions", "hyperlipidemia", or "respiratory disease "was included in the model.Serum albumin levels were lower in Japanese older adults with low economic status. The decrease in albumin levels appears to be mediated by nutrition and health-related factors with low household incomes. Future studies are needed to reveal the existence of other pathways.

  2. State-level women's status and psychiatric disorders among US women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A; Xuan, Ziming; Subramanian, S V; Koenen, Karestan C

    2011-11-01

    Although greater gender equality at the state-level is associated with fewer depressive symptoms in women after controlling for individual-level confounders, the extent to which state-level women's status is related to psychiatric disorders in women and gender differences in psychopathology has never been examined. We examined these associations in the current report. We used data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n=34,653), a national probability sample of US adults. Respondents completed structured diagnostic assessments of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders. We used generalized estimating equations to examine associations between four state-level indicators of women's status (political participation, employment/earnings, social/economic autonomy, and reproductive rights) and odds of 12-month mood and anxiety disorders among women. We also tested whether women's status predicted the magnitude of gender differences in psychiatric disorders. State-level political participation, employment/earnings, and social/economic autonomy were unrelated to odds of 12-month mood and anxiety disorders among women. However, the prevalence of major depression and post-traumatic stress disorder was lower in states where women have greater reproductive rights (OR 0.93-0.95), controlling for individual-level risk factors. None of the women's status indicators predicted gender differences in mood and anxiety disorder prevalence. State-level women's status was largely unrelated to mood and anxiety disorders in women or to gender differences in these disorders. Investigation of social factors that play a role in shaping the distribution of individual-level risk factors that are associated with gender disparities in psychiatric disorders represents an important avenue for future research.

  3. Corpus callosum atrophy as a marker of clinically meaningful cognitive decline in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. Impact on employment status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathanasiou, Athanasios; Messinis, Lambros; Zampakis, Petros; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis

    2017-09-01

    Cognitive impairment in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is more frequent and pronounced in secondary progressive MS (SPMS). Cognitive decline is an important predictor of employment status in patients with MS. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) markers have been used to associate tissue damage with cognitive dysfunction. The aim of the study was to designate the MRI marker that predicts cognitive decline in SPMS and explore its effect on employment status. 30 SPMS patients and 30 healthy participants underwent neuropsychological assessment using the Trail Making Test (TMT) parts A and B, semantic and phonological verbal fluency task and a computerized cognitive screening battery (Central Nervous System Vital Signs). Employment status was obtained as a quality of life measure. Brain MRI was performed in all participants. We measured total lesion volume, third ventricle width, thalamic and corpus callosum atrophy. The frequency of cognitive decline for our SPMS patients was 80%. SPMS patients differed significantly from controls in all neuropsychological measures. Corpus callosum area was correlated with cognitive flexibility, processing speed, composite memory, executive functions, psychomotor speed, reaction time and phonological verbal fluency task. Processing speed and composite memory were the most sensitive markers for predicting employment status. Corpus callosum area was the most sensitive MRI marker for memory and processing speed. Corpus callosum atrophy predicts a clinically meaningful cognitive decline, affecting employment status in our SPMS patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Employment status at time of first hospitalization for heart failure is associated with a higher risk of death and rehospitalization for heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørth, Rasmus; Fosbøl, Emil L; Mogensen, Ulrik M

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: Employment status at time of first heart failure (HF) hospitalization may be an indicator of both self-perceived and objective health status. In this study, we examined the association between employment status and the risk of all-cause mortality and recurrent HF hospitalization in a nation......AIMS: Employment status at time of first heart failure (HF) hospitalization may be an indicator of both self-perceived and objective health status. In this study, we examined the association between employment status and the risk of all-cause mortality and recurrent HF hospitalization...

  5. Employment policies at the plant level : job and worker flows for heterogeneous labour in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Salvanes, Kjell Gunnar

    1999-01-01

    Despite the large degree of plant-specific heterogeneity in turnover patterns recently found in the gross job and worker literature, very little is known about the sources of the heterogeneity in plant level employment policies. The present paper, studies in detail the employment management policies for heterogeneous plants and for heterogeneous labour, using a matched worker-employer data set for Norway. Within an econometric framework, I find that the job and worker flows above ...

  6. CHILDHOOD BLOOD LEAD LEVELS NOT AFFECTED BY HOUSING COMPLIANCE STATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a secondary analysis of data from the Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program of Philadelphia (July 1, 1999 through September 1, 2004), the authors evaluated the effect of housing compliance status and time to achieve compliance on changes in children's blood lead levels. ...

  7. EXPLORING THE QUALITY OF EMPLOYMENT IN ROMANIA AT DIFFERENT TERRITORIAL LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena MOCANU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to explore the quality of employment at different territorial levels (national, macro-regional, regional, county and local level. The first section of the study approaches the quality of employment in terms of several perspectives (sociological, economic and geographical. Methodological aspects are discussed in the second section, with focus on the selection of statistical indicators by two main criteria: the relevance of the indicators and their availability for all the mentioned territorial levels. The largest part of the paper presents the analysis results, basically the typologies of the mentioned territorial levels in terms of selected indicators mirroring the quality of employment. The study shows that there exists a relationship between the situation of the quality of employment (weak, average or good and the different territorial levels analysed.

  8. Groundwater level status report for 2010, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Richard J.; Schmeer, Sarah

    2011-03-01

    The status of groundwater level monitoring at Los Alamos National Laboratory in 2010 is provided in this report. This report summarizes groundwater level data for 194 monitoring wells, including 63 regional aquifer wells (including 10 regional/intermediate wells), 34 intermediate wells, 97 alluvial wells, and 12 water supply wells. Pressure transducers were installed in 162 monitoring wells for continuous monitoring of groundwater levels. Time-series hydrographs of groundwater level data are presented along with pertinent construction and location information for each well. The report also summarizes the groundwater temperatures recorded in intermediate and regional aquifer monitoring wells and seasonal responses to snowmelt runoff observed in intermediate wells.

  9. Groundwater level status report for 2009, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Richard J.; Schmeer, Sarah

    2010-03-01

    The status of groundwater level monitoring at Los Alamos National Laboratory in 2009 is provided in this report. This report summarizes groundwater level data for 179 monitoring wells, including 55 regional aquifer wells (including 11 regional/intermediate wells), 26 intermediate wells, 98 alluvial wells, and 12 water supply wells. Pressure transducers were installed in 161 monitoring wells for continuous monitoring of groundwater levels. Time-series hydrographs of groundwater level data are presented along with pertinent construction and location information for each well. The report also summarizes the groundwater temperatures recorded in intermediate and regional aquifer monitoring wells.

  10. The effect of self-efficacy, depression and symptom distress on employment status and leisure activities of liver transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Li-Chueh; Huang, Hsiu-Li; Wang, Yi-Wen; Lee, Wei-Chen; Chen, Kang-Hua; Yang, Tsui-Yun

    2014-07-01

    To examine the effect of self-efficacy, subjective work ability, depression and symptom distress on and to provide a description of, the employment and leisure activities of liver transplant recipients. Return to work and leisure activities have become an important aspect of life for liver transplant recipients worldwide. An investigation of the factors that influence the employment status and leisure activities has been recommended as a means to help transplant recipients restore their productivity. This was a cross-sectional, descriptive and correlational study in 2010. A convenience sampling method was used. Data were collected using a set of questionnaires that were administered retrospectively. A total of 106 liver transplant patients were included in this study. The post-transplantation employment rate was 45.2%. The positive predictors of employment were higher subjective work ability and higher symptom distress. Gender (female), monthly family income (employment status. Of the 106 patients, 62 (58.5%) were in the low-diversity group (score of less than 3) of leisure activities. Monthly family income of employment, while depression was a negative predictor. Nurses in the transplant team should focus on increasing a sense of confidence, decreasing depressive symptoms and monitoring the severity of symptoms to improve the employment status of liver transplant recipients. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Employment stability and mental health in Spain: towards understanding the influence of gender and partner/marital status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortès-Franch, Imma; Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Benach, Joan; Artazcoz, Lucía

    2018-04-02

    The growing demand for labour flexibility has resulted in decreasing employment stability that could be associated with poor mental health status. Few studies have analysed the whole of the work force in considering this association since research on flexible forms of employment traditionally analyses employed and unemployed people separately. The gender division of work, and family characteristics related to employment situation, could modify its association with mental wellbeing. The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between a continuum of employment stability and mental health taking into account gender and partner/marital status. We selected 6859 men and 5106 women currently salaried or unemployed from the 2006 Spanish National Health Survey. Employment stability was measured through a continuum from the highest stability among employed to lowest probability of finding a stable job among the long-term unemployed. Mental health was measured with the 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire. Logistic regression models were fitted for each combination of partner/marital status and gender. In all groups except among married women employment stability was related to poor mental health and a gradient between a continuum of employment stability and mental health status was found. For example, compared with permanent civil servants, married men with temporary contract showed an aOR = 1.58 (95%CI = 1.06-2.35), those working without a contract aOR = 2.15 (95%CI = 1.01-4.57) and aOR = 3.73 (95%CI = 2.43-5.74) and aOR = 5.35 (95%CI = 2.71-10.56) among unemployed of up to two years and more than two years, respectively. Among married and cohabiting people, the associations were stronger among men. Poor mental health status was related to poor employment stability among cohabiting women but not among married ones. The strongest association was observed among separated or divorced people. There is a rise in poor

  12. Cancer and heart attack survivors’ expectations of employment status: results from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia F. A. Duijts

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sociodemographic, health- and work-related factors have been found to influence return to work in cancer survivors. It is feasible though that behavioural factors, such as expectation of being at work, could also affect work-related outcomes. Therefore, the effect of earlier identified factors and expectation of being at work on future employment status in cancer survivors was explored. To assess the degree to which these factors specifically concern cancer survivors, a comparison with heart attack survivors was made. Methods Data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing were used. Cancer and heart attack survivors of working age in the UK were included and followed up for 2 years. Baseline characteristics of both cancer and heart attack survivors were compared regarding employment status. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed in survivors at work, and the interaction between independent variables and diagnose group was assessed. Results In cancer survivors at work (N = 159, alcohol consumption, participating in moderate or vigorous sport activities, general health and participation were univariate associated with employment status at two-year follow-up. Only fair general health (compared to very good general health remained statistically significant in the multivariate model (OR 0.31; 95% CI 0.13–0.76; p = 0.010. In heart attack survivors at work (N = 78, gender, general health and expectation of being at work were univariate associated with employment status at follow-up. Female gender (OR 0.03; 95% CI 0.00–0.57; p = 0.018 and high expectation of being at work (OR 10.68; 95% CI 1.23–93.92; p = 0.033 remained significant in the multivariate model. The influence of gender (p = 0.066 and general health (p = 0.020 regarding employment status was found to differ significantly between cancer and heart attack survivors. Conclusions When predicting future employment status in cancer

  13. Cancer and heart attack survivors' expectations of employment status: results from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duijts, Saskia F A; van der Beek, Allard J; Bleiker, Eveline M A; Smith, Lee; Wardle, Jane

    2017-08-07

    Sociodemographic, health- and work-related factors have been found to influence return to work in cancer survivors. It is feasible though that behavioural factors, such as expectation of being at work, could also affect work-related outcomes. Therefore, the effect of earlier identified factors and expectation of being at work on future employment status in cancer survivors was explored. To assess the degree to which these factors specifically concern cancer survivors, a comparison with heart attack survivors was made. Data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing were used. Cancer and heart attack survivors of working age in the UK were included and followed up for 2 years. Baseline characteristics of both cancer and heart attack survivors were compared regarding employment status. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed in survivors at work, and the interaction between independent variables and diagnose group was assessed. In cancer survivors at work (N = 159), alcohol consumption, participating in moderate or vigorous sport activities, general health and participation were univariate associated with employment status at two-year follow-up. Only fair general health (compared to very good general health) remained statistically significant in the multivariate model (OR 0.31; 95% CI 0.13-0.76; p = 0.010). In heart attack survivors at work (N = 78), gender, general health and expectation of being at work were univariate associated with employment status at follow-up. Female gender (OR 0.03; 95% CI 0.00-0.57; p = 0.018) and high expectation of being at work (OR 10.68; 95% CI 1.23-93.92; p = 0.033) remained significant in the multivariate model. The influence of gender (p = 0.066) and general health (p = 0.020) regarding employment status was found to differ significantly between cancer and heart attack survivors. When predicting future employment status in cancer survivors in the UK, general health is the most relevant factor

  14. Parental employment status and adolescents' health: the role of financial situation, parent-adolescent relationship and adolescents' resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacikova-Sleskova, Maria; Benka, Jozef; Orosova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with parental employment status and its relationship to adolescents' self-reported health. It studies the role of the financial situation, parent-adolescent relationship and adolescent resilience in the relationship between parental employment status and adolescents' self-rated health, vitality and mental health. Multiple regression analyses were used to analyse questionnaire data obtained from 2799 adolescents (mean age 14.3) in 2006. The results show a negative association of the father's, but not mother's unemployment or non-employment with adolescents' health. Regression analyses showed that neither financial strain nor a poor parent-adolescent relationship or a low score in resilience accounted for the relationship between the father's unemployment or non-employment and poorer adolescent health. Furthermore, resilience did not work as a buffer against the negative impact of fathers' unemployment on adolescents' health.

  15. The Influence of Race on Employment Status and Earnings of African Immigrant Men in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Djamba, Yanyi K.; Kimuna, Sitawa R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses the labor queue theory to examine the changing influence of race on the employment status and earnings of African immigrant men in the United States between 1980 and 2008. The results show that the white advantage echoed in previous research has diminished. Black African immigrant men's chance of being employed is now greater than that of their white counterparts when their sociodemographic characteristics are...

  16. COMPARATIVE ASPECTS OF EMPLOYMENT RATES BY EDUCATIONAL LEVEL IN SOUTH-WEST OLTENIA, ROMANIA AND EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Zaharia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available South West Region includes the counties of Dolj, Gorj, Meheninţi, Olt and Valcea and together West Region make up the Macro 4. The geographical, economic and social structural changes in the last two decades, and the economic crisis have led to some peculiarities of labor market in this development region. This paper provides a comparative analysis of employment rates by level of education in the EU (27, some EU countries, as in Romania during 2000-2011. It also analyzes the structure of employment in South West Oltenia development region, by age, level of education, sex and area, in 2010 compared to the structure of employment in Macro 4 and in some cases, with that recorded in Western region. Compared to developments in Romania and Macro 4 level, the employment rates and the structure of employees have certain characteristics. Thus features occur in age groups 55-64 years and especially in the age group over 64 years, the South West region these represents 9.05% of total employment, compared to only 1.74% in the West region. Also, in rural areas, the percentage of employed population 25 to 64 years with low levels of education and medium education level, reach 96.8% of the total, which is a weakness of this region.

  17. Postnatal paternal involvement and maternal emotional disturbances: The effect of maternal employment status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wan-Chien; Chang, Shin-Yow; Chen, Yi-Ting; Lee, Hsin-Chien; Chen, Yi-Hua

    2017-09-01

    Recently, studies have begun emphasizing paternal involvement during the perinatal period and its impact on maternal health. However, most studies have assessed maternal perception and focused on adolescents or minority groups in Western countries. Therefore, the current study investigated the association between paternal involvement and maternal postnatal depression and anxiety, along with the effects of maternal job status in the Asian society of Taiwan. This study recruited pregnant women in the first trimester of pregnancy as well as their partners on prenatal visits from July 2011 to September 2013 at four selected hospitals in metropolitan areas of Taipei, Taiwan. In total, 593 parental pairs completed the first interview and responded to the follow-up questionnaires until 6 months postpartum. Self-reported data were collected, and multiple logistic regression models were used for analyses. Lower paternal childcare and nursing frequency was independently associated with an increased risk of maternal postpartum depression (adjusted odds ratio (OR) =4.33, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.34-13.98), particularly among unemployed mothers. Furthermore, among unemployed mothers, the risk of postnatal anxiety was 3.14 times higher in couples with fathers spending less time with the child, compared with couples with fathers spending more time (95% CI=1.10-8.98). However, no significant findings were obtained for employed mothers. The high prevalence of maternal postnatal emotional disturbances warrants continual consideration. Higher paternal involvement in childcare arrangements should be emphasized to aid in ameliorating these maternal emotional disturbances, particularly among unemployed mothers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Are ethnic minorities disadvantaged? The employment participation and occupational status of Moroccan and Turkish second generation migrants in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gracia, P.; Vazquez, L.; van de Werfhorst, H.G.

    2014-01-01

    We use data from the 2009/10 Wave of the Netherlands Longitudinal Lifecourse Study to analyze the employment participation and occupational status of Moroccan and Turkish Second Generation Migrants (SGM) in the Netherlands. By considering measures of family background (i.e. parental education,

  19. Employment status matters: a statewide survey of quality-of-life, prevention behaviors, and absenteeism and presenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, James A; Kelly, Kevin M; Burmeister, Leon F; Lozier, Matt J; Amendola, Alison; Lind, David P; KcKeen, Arlinda; Slater, Tom; Hall, Jennifer L; Rohlman, Diane S; Buikema, Brenda S

    2014-07-01

    To estimate quality-of-life (QoL), primary care, health insurance, prevention behaviors, absenteeism, and presenteeism in a statewide sample of the unemployed, self-employed, and organizationally employed. A statewide survey of 1602 Iowans included items from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention QoL and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey prevention behavior questionnaires used to assess employee well-being; their indicator results are related to World Health Organization's Health and Work Performance Questionnaire-derived absenteeism and presenteeism scores. The unemployed exhibited poorer QoL and prevention behaviors; the self-employed exhibited many better QoL scores due largely to better prevention behaviors than those employed by organizations. Higher QoL measures and more prevention behaviors are associated with lower absenteeism and lower presenteeism. Employment status is related to measures of well-being, which are also associated with absenteeism and presenteeism.

  20. Type 1 diabetes, quality of life, occupational status and education level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena B.; Ovesen, Louise L.; Mortensen, Laust H.

    2016-01-01

    among women, as compared to men. No significant differences were found with regard to working hours. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that type 1 diabetes is associated with lower health-related quality of life, higher unemployment and additional sick leave. The negative association with type 1 diabetes......, occupational status (level of employment, working hours and sick leave) and education level. METHODS: 2415 adults (aged 18-98years) with type 1 diabetes were compared to 48,511 adults (aged 18-103years) from the general population. Data were obtained from two cross-sectional surveys conducted in 2010 and 2011...... is more pronounced in women and older adults....

  1. The effect of ill health and socioeconomic status on labor force exit and re-employment: a prospective study with ten years follow-up in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuring, Merel; Robroek, Suzan J W; Otten, Ferdy W J; Arts, Coos H; Burdorf, Alex

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ill health and socioeconomic status on labor force exit due to unemployment, early retirement, disability pension, or becoming economically inactive. A secondary objective was to investigate the effect of ill health and socioeconomic status on return to work. A representative sample of the Dutch working population (N=15 152) was selected for a prospective study with ten years follow-up (93 917 person-years). Perceived health and individual and household characteristics were measured at baseline with the Permanent Quality of Life Survey (POLS) during 1999-2002. Statistics Netherlands ascertained employment status monthly from January 1999 to December 2008. Cox proportional hazards analyses were used to determine the factors that predicted labor force exit and return to work. Ill health increased the likelihood of labor force exit into unemployment [hazard ratio (HR) 1.89], disability pension (HR 6.39), and early retirement (HR 1.20), but was not a determinant of becoming economically inactive (HR 1.07). Workers with low socioeconomic status were, even after adjusting for ill health, more likely to leave the labor force due to unemployment, disability pension, and economic inactivity. Workers with ill health at baseline were less likely to return to work after unemployment (HR 0.75) or disability pension (HR 0.62). Socioeconomic status did not influence re-employment. Ill health is an important determinant for entering and maintaining paid employment. Workers with lower education were at increased risk for health-based selection out of paid employment. Policies to improve labor force participation, especially among low socioeconomic level workers, should protect workers with health problems against exclusion from the labor force.

  2. The Relation Between Skill Levels and the Cyclical Variability of Employment, Hours, and Wages

    OpenAIRE

    Michael P. Keane; Eswar S Prasad

    1993-01-01

    This paper uses micro data to examine differences in the cyclical variability of employment, hours, and wages for skilled and unskilled workers. Contrary to conventional wisdom, we find that, at the aggregate level, skilled and unskilled workers are subject to essentially the same degree of cyclical variation in wages. That is, relative offer wage differentials between skilled and unskilled workers are acyclical. However, we do find important differences in the patterns of employment and hour...

  3. Return to work after organ transplantation: a cross-sectional study on working ability evaluation and employment status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, A; Verga, F C; Piolatto, P G; Pira, E

    2014-12-01

    Organ transplantation has increased in Italy over the last decade. Thus, an increasing number of workers may face the problem of returning to work. The aim of this study was to provide an assessment of working ability of transplant recipients in comparison with their actual employment status. This study was based on 150 patients who underwent transplantation since 1994 and who underwent periodic post-transplantation examination during 2012. Fifty patients who had undergone heart transplantation (HT), 50 liver transplantation (LT), and 50 kidney transplantation (KT) and survived at least 12 months after surgery were eligible for this study. All patients underwent the International Classification of Functioning, Disabilities and Health (ICF) questionnaire; ten questions were further applied to those who were employed at the time of the study. X(2) statistics were used to compare working ability evaluation and employment status and for internal comparison among different organ recipients. The employment status was as follows: 92 (61%) patients were in paid employment, 6 (4%) were students or housewives, 36 (24%) were unemployed, and 17 (11%) were retired because of invalidity benefits. According to our fitness evaluation only 4% to 10% of the patients were unfit for any job. When we excluded retired subjects, the X(2) statistics for correlated observations showed a highly significant statistical difference (P working ability evaluation by ICF questionnaire and other questions. This may be due to several factors including health status and the possibility of gaining an adequate job. The ICF questionnaire proved to be a useful framework that can be used for research but also by occupational physicians in their usual practice after specific training. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Common symptoms in middle aged women: their relation to employment status, psychosocial work conditions and social support in a Swedish setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, G; Ostergren, P O

    2000-03-01

    Over the past few decades there has been a growing interest among researchers, in women's overall life circumstances and their relation to women's health status. For example, paid employment has been considered an important part of women's living conditions in Western societies as the number of women entering the labour market has grown constantly over the past decades. When comparing men's and women's health, one of the most consistent findings is a higher rate of symptoms among women. The most commonly reported symptoms in women are depressive symptoms, symptoms of bodily tension and chronic pain from muscles and joints. The aim of this study was to investigate whether socioeconomic factors, employment status, psychosocial work conditions and social network/support are associated with middle aged women's health status in terms of common symptoms. A mailed questionnaire was used in a cross sectional design assessing socioeconomic factors, employment status, psychosocial work conditions according to the demand/control model, social network/support and an index based on the 15 most frequent symptoms presented by middle aged women when seeking health care. A rural community with 13,200 inhabitants in the western part of Sweden. Women were randomly selected from the general population in the study area, 40 to 50 years of age. The response rate was 81.7 per cent. Women who were non-employed had a significantly increased odds of a high level of common symptoms (OR = 2.82; 95% confidence intervals 1.69, 4.70), as well as women exposed to job strain (OR = 3.27; 1.92, 5.57), independently of the level of social network/support. Furthermore, exposure to low social support, low social anchorage or low social participation independently showed significantly increased odds of a high level of common symptoms (OR = 2.75; 1.71, 4.42; OR = 2.91; 1.81, 4.69 and OR = 1.69; 1.10, 2.61, respectively). Work related factors, such as non-employment and job strain, and circumstances

  5. Employability Skills among Students and Employers’ Perceptions: An Assessment of Levels of Employability Skills Acquired by Business Students at Ishik University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayeq Ali Ali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Skills are prerequisite for managers and employees success, especially for newly graduate students. This study is to evaluate the employability skills of business students at Ishik University and to assess how employability skills are perceived by potential employers. Three sets of employability skills have been used in this study such as basic academic skills, high-order thinking, and personal qualities. A questionnaire has been developed which included above dimensions and was distributed among students in the faculty of administrative sciences and economics at Ishik University, Kurdistan Region. Respondents’ opinions were assessed using a Likert scale analysis that shows divergent opinions between two extremes of levels of agreement and disagreement. Another technique of an open-ended questionnaire was used when conducting interviews with a few of the potential employers in some private sector companies. Study focuses on the common employability skills of business graduates by evaluating the faculty of administrative sciences and economics courses. Study find out that communication skills, team working skills, computer skills, and critical thinking were among the employability skills which are expected by potential employers. The paper concludes that business graduates have developed an adequate level of employability skill through their years of academic training at business department in Ishik University. Thus, the curriculum of business department at Ishik University is adequately developed to prompt the employability skills that are sought by potential employers that every business student should acquire to stand out in the aggressively competitive job market.

  6. Family violence, employment status, welfare benefits, and alcohol drinking in the United States: what is the relation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, E; Lasch, K; Chandra, P; Lee, J

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—This study examined the contribution of employment status, welfare benefits, alcohol use, and other individual, and contextual factors to physical aggression during marital conflict.
METHODS—Logistic regression models were used to analyse panel data collected in the National Survey of Families and Households in 1987 and 1992. A total of 4780 married or cohabiting persons re-interviewed in 1992 were included in the analysis. Domestic violence was defined as reporting that both partners were physically violent during arguments.
RESULTS—It was found that non-employed respondents are not at greater risk of family violence in comparison with employed respondents, after controlling for alcohol misuse, income, education, age, and other factors; however, employed persons receiving welfare benefits are at significantly higher risk. Alcohol misuse, which remains a predictor of violence even after controlling for other factors, increases the risk of family violence while satisfaction with social support from family and friends decreases it.
CONCLUSION—These results underscore the important effect of alcohol misuse on domestic violence, and the need to monitor the potential impact of welfare reform on domestic violence.


Keywords: family violence; alcohol misuse; employment status; welfare benefits PMID:11160171

  7. oculo-visual status of newly employed workers in a tertiary institution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-12-01

    Dec 1, 2015 ... on pre- employment visual screenings in Nigeria because not ... poor vision because they are not corrected for one form of refractive .... vision standards should be viewed as guidelines and not as ... in a worker is primarily an issue of safety. ... matters into effect, so as to get the full potentials from employed ...

  8. Temporary Employment and Social Inequality in Canada: Exploring Intersections of Gender, Race and Immigration Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Sylvia; Vosko, Leah F.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the 2002-2004 waves of Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics, this article investigates the consequences of different types of temporary employment--fixed-term or contract, casual, agency and seasonal employment--for differently situated workers in Canada. Attention to intersecting social locations of gender, race and immigrant…

  9. Power of national economy, disease control and employment status in patients with RA-an analytical multi-site ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieringer, Herwig; Puchner, Rudolf; Pohanka, Erich; Danninger, Kathrin

    2016-02-01

    In rheumatology, sufficient disease control is a central part of the treatment concept. However, modern treatment strategies are associated with a substantial economic burden for health care systems. Ecological studies offer the unique opportunity to analyse differences between groups as well as group level effects. In the present analytical multi-site ecological study, we investigated whether more powerful national economies as measured by the gross domestic product per capita (GDPpc) are associated with better disease control in RA patients as measured by the disease activity score 28 (DAS28). We used aggregated data on RA patients from the recently published COMORA study as well as the World Health Organization database. There was a strong negative correlation between DAS28 and GDPpc (r = -0.815; p = 0.0002). Adjustment for sex, smoking status, disease duration or current employment status did not significantly change this association. There was a strong, negative correlation between DAS28 and age (r = -0.870; p < 0.001) and a strong, positive correlation between GDPpc and age (r = 0.737; p = 0.002). Adjustment for age reduced the regression coefficient (DAS28/GDPpc) to -0.000018 (p = 0.054). There was a negative correlation between DAS28 and current employment status (r = -0.642; p = 0.008) and a positive correlation between GDPpc and employment status (r = 0.722; p = 0.002). In conclusion, there is evidence of an association between disease control and GDPpc. This association is alleviated after adjustment for age. Of note, in countries with higher GDPpc, a higher proportion of RA patients are currently employed. This is true despite the fact that RA patients in countries with higher GDPpc are also older.

  10. Supported employment for persons with serious mental illness: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueser, K T; McGurk, S R

    2014-06-01

    The individual placement and supported (IPS) model of supported employment is the most empirically validated model of vocational rehabilitation for persons with schizophrenia or another serious mental illness. Over 18 randomized controlled trials have been conducted throughout the world demonstrating the effectiveness of supported employment at improving competitive work compared to other vocational programs: IPS supported employment is defined by the following principles: 1) inclusion of all clients who want to work; 2) integration of vocational and clinical services; 3) focus on competitive employment; 4) rapid job search and no required prevocational skills training; 5) job development by the employment specialist; 6) attention to client preferences about desired work and disclosure of mental illness to prospective employers; 7) benefits counseling; and 8) follow-along supports after a job is obtained. Supported employment has been successfully implemented in a wide range of cultural and clinical populations, although challenges to implementation are also encountered. Common challenges are related to problems such as the failure to access technical assistance, system issues, negative beliefs and attitudes of providers, funding restrictions, and poor leadership. These challenges can be overcome by tapping expertise in IPS supported employment, including standardized and tested models of training and consultation. Efforts are underway to increase the efficiency of training methods for supported employment and the overall program, and to improve its effectiveness for those clients who do not benefit. Progress in IPS supported employment offers people with a serious mental illness realistic hope for achieving their work goals, and taking greater control over their lives. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  11. Are Level of Education and Employment Related to Symptoms of Common Mental Disorders in Current and Retired Professional Footballers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Aoki, Haruhito; Verhagen, Evert; Kerkhoffs, Gino

    2016-06-01

    Mental disorders have become a topic of increasing interest in research due to their serious consequences for quality of life and functioning. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship of level of education, employment status and working hours with symptoms of common mental disorders (distress, anxiety/depression, sleep disturbance, adverse alcohol behaviour, smoking, adverse nutritional behaviour) among current and retired professional footballers. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on baseline questionnaires from an ongoing prospective cohort study among current and retired professional footballers. Based on validated scales, an electronic questionnaire was set up and distributed by players' unions in 11 countries across three continents. A total of 607 current professional footballers (mean age of 27 years) and 219 retired professional footballers (mean age of 35 years) were involved in the study. Among retired professional footballers, statistically significant negative correlations were found between employment status and symptoms of distress and anxiety/depression (P working hours and symptoms of anxiety/depression (P working hours was weakly correlated to symptoms of distress and anxiety/depression. Combining a football career with sustainable attention for educational and career planning might be important and of high priority.

  12. Entry-Level Employment Prospects for Women in College-Student Personnel Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuh, George D.

    1979-01-01

    Women are no longer underrepresented in student personnel preparation programs. However, an increased number of female master's degree graduates are seeking a limited number of entry-level positions. Women (and men) should be made aware of the inherent free-market employment risks when contemplating a career in student personnel work. (Author)

  13. A social work study to investigate the relationships between women’s personal characteristics and employment status

    OpenAIRE

    Shahram Basity; Mohammad Reza Iravani; Zahra Ghassabi; Faezeh Taghipour; Hajar Jannesari

    2013-01-01

    Women play important role on building a sustainable family oriented society; they could also contribute to society by contributing to labor market. However, women’s personal characteristics such as educational background, years of experience, etc. could impact their future occupations. In this paper, we study the impact of various factors on women’s job status. The measurement tools for social factors of employment in this research is a questionnaire consists of 32 questions. The study measur...

  14. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers--plasma levels and thyroid status of workers at an electronic recycling facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julander, A; Karlsson, M; Hagström, K; Ohlson, C G; Engwall, M; Bryngelsson, I-L; Westberg, H; van Bavel, B

    2005-08-01

    Personnel working with electronic dismantling are exposed to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which in animal studies have been shown to alter thyroid homeostasis. The aim of this longitudinal study was to measure plasma level of PBDEs in workers at an electronic recycling facility and to relate these to the workers' thyroid status. PBDEs and three thyroid hormones: triiodothyronine (T(3)), thyroxin (T(4)) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were repeatedly analysed in plasma from 11 workers during a period of 1.5 years. Plasma levels of PBDEs at start of employment were plasma levels of PBDEs fluctuated during the study period. Due to small changes in thyroid hormone levels it was concluded that no relevant changes were present in relation to PBDE exposure within the workers participating in this study.

  15. Current employment status, occupational category, occupational hazard exposure, and job stress in relation to telomere length: The Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujishiro, Kaori; Diez-Roux, Ana V; Landsbergis, Paul; Jenny, Nancy Swords; Seeman, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Objective Telomere length has been proposed as a biomarker of cell senescence, which is associated with a wide array of adverse health outcomes. While work is a major determinant of health, few studies have investigated the association of telomere length with various dimensions of occupation. Accelerated cellular aging could be a common pathway linking occupational exposure to several health outcomes. Methods Leukocyte telomere length was assessed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) in a community-based sample of 981 individuals (age: 45–84 years old). Questionnaires were used to collect information on current employment status, current or main occupation before retirement, and job strain. The O*NET (Occupational Resource Network) database was linked to the questionnaire data to create 5 exposure measures: physical activity on the job, physical hazard exposure, interpersonal stressors, job control, and job demands. Linear regression was used to estimate associations of occupational characteristics with telomere lengths after adjustment for age, sex, race, socioeconomic position, and several behavioral risk factors. Results There were no mean differences in telomere lengths across current employment status, occupational category, job strain categories or levels of most O*NET exposure measures. There was also no evidence that being in lower status occupational categories or being exposed to higher levels of adverse physical or psychosocial exposures accelerated the association between age and telomere shortening. Conclusions Cellular aging as reflected by shorter telomeres does not appear to be an important pathway linking occupation to various health outcomes. PMID:23686115

  16. Circulating Irisin Levels Are Not Regulated by Nutritional Status, Obesity, or Leptin Levels in Rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiñones, Mar; Folgueira, Cintia; Sánchez-Rebordelo, Estrella; Al-Massadi, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Irisin is a cleaved and secreted fragment of fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5) that is mainly released by skeletal muscle and was proposed to mediate the beneficial effects of exercise on metabolism. In the present study we aim to investigate the regulation of the circulating levels of irisin in obese animal models (diet-induced obese (DIO) rats and leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice), as well as the influence of nutritional status and leptin. Irisin levels were measured by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and Radioimmunoassay (RIA). Serum irisin levels remained unaltered in DIO rats and ob/ob mice. Moreover, its circulating levels were also unaffected by fasting, leptin deficiency, and exogenous leptin administration in rodents. In spite of these negative results we find a negative correlation between irisin and insulin in DIO animals and a positive correlation between irisin and glucose under short-term changes in nutritional status. Our findings indicate that serum irisin levels are not modulated by different physiological settings associated to alterations in energy homeostasis. These results suggest that in rodents circulating levels of irisin are not involved in the pathophysiology of obesity and could be unrelated to metabolic status; however, further studies should clarify its precise role in states of glucose homeostasis imbalance.

  17. Circulating Irisin Levels Are Not Regulated by Nutritional Status, Obesity, or Leptin Levels in Rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Quiñones

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Irisin is a cleaved and secreted fragment of fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5 that is mainly released by skeletal muscle and was proposed to mediate the beneficial effects of exercise on metabolism. In the present study we aim to investigate the regulation of the circulating levels of irisin in obese animal models (diet-induced obese (DIO rats and leptin-deficient (ob/ob mice, as well as the influence of nutritional status and leptin. Irisin levels were measured by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA and Radioimmunoassay (RIA. Serum irisin levels remained unaltered in DIO rats and ob/ob mice. Moreover, its circulating levels were also unaffected by fasting, leptin deficiency, and exogenous leptin administration in rodents. In spite of these negative results we find a negative correlation between irisin and insulin in DIO animals and a positive correlation between irisin and glucose under short-term changes in nutritional status. Our findings indicate that serum irisin levels are not modulated by different physiological settings associated to alterations in energy homeostasis. These results suggest that in rodents circulating levels of irisin are not involved in the pathophysiology of obesity and could be unrelated to metabolic status; however, further studies should clarify its precise role in states of glucose homeostasis imbalance.

  18. Analysis of employment rate and social status in young adults with childhood-onset rheumatic disease in Catalonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Mendoza, Ana Carolina; Modesto Caballero, Consuelo; Navarro-Cendejas, José

    2015-07-11

    Rheumatic diseases of childhood, in particular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, are chronic conditions associated with considerable morbidity and mortality that can have repercussions on aspects of adult life. The aim of this study was to determine the employment rate and social status of patients with childhood-onset rheumatic disease attending a pediatric rheumatology transition unit. A census was taken of patients seen in the Pediatric Rheumatology Transition Unit of Hospital Vall d'Hebron (Barcelona, Spain). We collected demographic and clinical variables and determined the patients' functional capacity. All patients seen during the period of September to December 2013 underwent a survey containing items related to their social situation, maximum academic level achieved, and working life. Correlations were sought between clinical variables associated with a poor prognosis and the patients' job performance. The data were analyzed and compared with those of an age-matched cohort from the general population of Catalonia. Of 130 patients included in the census, 96 responded to the survey. Steinbrocker grade III and IV disability (poorer functional capacity) (p = 0.0025) and longer disease duration (p = 0.017) were significantly related to greater difficulty getting a job. Patients with grade III and IV disability and those with more severe disease showed trends to having more problems carrying out work-related tasks. Our cohort included a higher percentage of students than the age-matched comparison population (50 % vs 24 %, respectively) (p = 0.0001); 82 % of patients had completed studies beyond the compulsory education level. The employment rate was lower in our patient cohort than in the comparison cohort (38.3 % vs 59.9 %) (p = 0.0001), whereas the percentage of unemployed was similar. Patients with milder disease had a higher probability of living with their parents up to a later age (OR = 3.2, 95 % CI 0.38-6.15; p = 0

  19. Role of the employment status and education of mothers in the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in Mexican rural schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagan Paul

    2006-09-01

    .0. Conclusion Intestinal parasitism remains an important public health problem in Sinaloa (north-western Mexico and Oaxaca (south-eastern Mexico. Lower income, defecation in open areas, employment status and a lower education level of mothers were the significant factors related to these infections. We conclude that mothers should be involved in health initiatives to control intestinal parasitism in Mexico.

  20. Status of low-level radioactive waste management in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.J. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    1993-03-01

    The Republic of Korea has accomplished dramatic economic growth over the past three decades; demand for electricity has rapidly grown more than 15% per year. Since the first nuclear power plant, Kori-1 [587 MWe, pressurized water reactor (PWR)], went into commercial operation in 1978, the nuclear power program has continuously expanded and played a key role in meeting the national electricity demand. Nowadays, Korea has nine nuclear power plants [eight PWRs and one Canadian natural uranium reactor (CANDU)] in operation with total generating capacity of 7,616 MWe. The nuclear share of total electrical capacity is about 36%; however, about 50% of actual electricity production is provided by these nine nuclear power plants. In addition, two PWRs are under construction, five units (three CANDUs and two PWRs) are under design, and three more CANDUs and eight more PWRs are planned to be completed by 2006. With this ambitious nuclear program, the total nuclear generating capacity will reach about 23,000 MWe and the nuclear share will be about 40% of the total generating capacity in the year 2006. In order to expand the nuclear power program this ambitiously, enormous amounts of work still have to be done. One major area is radioactive waste management. This paper reviews the status of low-level radioactive waste management in Korea. First, the current and future generation of low-level radioactive wastes are estimated. Also included are the status and plan for the construction of a repository for low-level radioactive wastes, which is one of the hot issues in Korea. Then, the nuclear regulatory system is briefly mentioned. Finally, the research and development activities for LLW management are briefly discussed.

  1. Prediction of habitual physical activity level and weight status from fundamental movement skill level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Elizabeth Sarah; James, Rob S; Birch, Samantha Louise; Duncan, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Fundamental movement skills (FMS) have been assessed in children in order to investigate the issues of the low proportion of children who meet physical activity (PA) guidelines and rising levels of obesity. The aim of this research was to identify whether previous or current FMS level is a better predictor of PA levels and weight status in children. In January 2012 (year 1), 281 children were recruited from one primary school in the West Midlands, UK. Children performed eight FMS three times, which were videoed and assessed using a subjective checklist. Sprint speed and jump height were measured objectively. Height and mass were measured to calculate the body mass index to determine the weight status. Skinfold calliper readings were used to calculate body fat percentage. One year later, in January 2013, all these tests were repeated on the same children, with the additional collection of PA data via the use of pedometers. Following multiple linear regression, it was identified that prior mastery in FMS was a better predictor of current PA, whereas current FMS was a better predictor of current weight status. Overall, FMS mastery is needed in childhood to be able to participate in PA and maintain a healthy weight status.

  2. Mental health trajectories from childhood to young adulthood affect the educational and employment status of young adults: results from the TRAILS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldman, Karin; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Ortiz, Josue Almansa; Verhulst, Frank C; Bültmann, Ute

    2015-06-01

    Young adults at work without basic educational level (BEL), and young adults in Neither Employment, Education nor Training (NEET) are at high risk of adverse employment outcomes. Evidence lacks on the impact of mental health problems during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood on employment outcomes of young adults. Therefore, the aims of this study were to (1) identify trajectories of mental health problems from childhood to young adulthood and (2) investigate the relation between these trajectories and the educational or employment status of young adults. Data were used from the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), a Dutch prospective cohort study with 9-year follow-up. Trajectories of mental health problems measured at ages 11, 13.5, 16 and 19 years were identified in 1711 young adults with latent class growth models. Young adults with high-stable trajectories of total problems, from childhood to young adulthood, were more likely to work without BEL or be in NEET at age 19, than to be at school or to work with BEL (28.0% vs 16.0%, p=0.01). The same was found for externalising problems (35.3% vs 23.2%, p=0.02). For internalising and attention problems, no statistically significant differences were found. Young adults with high-stable trajectories of mental health problems from age 11 to 19, were at risk of adverse employment outcomes. Interventions reducing mental health problems in childhood may improve the educational or employment status of young adults and their chances for successfully entering the labour market. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Cyanobacteria perceive nitrogen status by sensing intracellular 2-oxoglutarate levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro-Pastor, M I; Reyes, J C; Florencio, F J

    2001-10-12

    The regulatory circuits that control nitrogen metabolism are relatively well known in several bacterial model groups. However, much less is understood about how the nitrogen status of the cell is perceived in vivo. In cyanobacteria, the transcription factor NtcA is required for regulation (activation or repression) of an extensive number of genes involved in nitrogen metabolism. In contrast, how NtcA activity is regulated is largely unknown. Assimilation of ammonium by most microorganisms occurs through the sequential action of two enzymes: glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthase. Interestingly, regulation of the expression of NtcA-dependent genes in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is altered in mutants with modified levels of GS activity. Two types of mutants were analyzed: glnA null mutants that lack GS type I and gif mutants unable to inactivate GS in the presence of ammonium. Changes in the intracellular pools of 19 different amino acids and the keto acid 2-oxoglutarate were recorded in wild-type and mutant strains under different nitrogen conditions. Our data strongly indicate that the nitrogen status in cyanobacteria is perceived as changes in the intracellular 2-oxoglutarate pool.

  4. The influence of socioeconomic status on the hemoglobin level and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Poor socioeconomic status has an adverse effect on the nutritional status and hemoglobin of SCA patients. ... Date of Acceptance: 15-Mar-2011 ..... This study was designed to determine the relationship .... mobiles and devices.

  5. Employment status and psychological distress in a population-based cross-sectional study in Sweden: the impact of migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorchuk, Anna; Engström, Karin; Johnson, Charisse M; Kayser Leeoza, Naima; Möller, Jette

    2017-04-07

    Unemployment and temporary employment are known to impact psychological health. However, the extent to which the effect is altered by migration-related and sociodemographic determinants is less clear. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the association between employment status and psychological distress differs between immigrants and Swedish-born and to what extent, the association is modified by gender and reason for immigration. Cross-sectional survey study. Data from public health surveys undertaken in 2002, 2006 and 2010 from random samples of Stockholm County residents, Sweden, were used to analyse a weighted sample of 51 118 individuals aged 18-64 (43 444 Swedish-born, 4055 non-refugees, 3619 refugees). According to their activity in the labour market, the participants were categorised into permanently/self-employed, temporarily employed and unemployed. Associations between self-reported employment and psychological distress measured by a 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire were explored across individuals with different migration status and reasons for immigration using logistic regression and pairwise comparisons. The analyses were stratified by gender and adjusted for age, socioeconomic characteristics and survey year. Unemployment was associated with elevated likelihood of psychological distress across the study population, regardless of migration status and gender. Fully adjusted models revealed nearly a 3-fold higher odds of distress in unemployed Swedish-born (OR 3.05, 95% CI 2.66 to 3.51), non-refugees (OR 3.51, 95% CI 2.44 to 5.05) and refugees (OR 2.91, 95% CI 2.20 to 3.85) when compared with permanently/self-employed. Temporary employment also increased the likelihood of distress, particularly among refugees and Swedish-born. The effect of unemployment on increased likelihood of poor psychological well-being overcomes gender-specific and migration-specific differences and is equally pronounced for Swedish

  6. Employment status of women with disabilities from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (1995-2002).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Diane Lynn

    2007-01-01

    Among working aged adults (18-64) with disabilities, three out of 10 (32%) work full or part-time, compared to eight out of 10 (81%) of those without disabilities [9]. In addition, 24.7% of women with a severe disability and 27.8% of men with a severe disability are employed, while women with a non-severe disability have an employment rate of 68.4% and men with a non-severe disability have an employment rate of 85.1% [14]. This study examined data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey from 1995-2002 to determine whether or not disparities exist in the rate of unemployment for women with disabilities, compared to men with disabilities and women and men without disabilities. In addition, regression analysis looked at the how disability and gender predict the outcome of unemployment. Results showed that there has been essentially no change with regard to employment for any of these populations. In addition, disability and gender were found to be the strongest predictors of unemployment for women with disabilities. Possible explanations were discussed as to the reasons for the results and issues were presented for future research.

  7. Parks and recreation employment status: implications from a civil service perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel Frater; Arthur Graham

    2002-01-01

    Current research on the credentialing process in parks, recreation and leisure services has focused primarily on accreditation and certification and has largely ignored the civil service exam as a credentialing toll or condition of employment in many state and municipal parks and recreation departments.

  8. Effects of the Minimum Wage on the Employment Status of Youths. An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellington, Alison J.

    1991-01-01

    Using data from 1954-86, including the 1980s period of relative decline in the value of the minimum wage, a study found that a 10 percent increase in minimum wage reduced teen unemployment by less than 1 percent. In addition, no apparent effect on employment of adults aged 20-24 was found, and minimal differences appeared for sex and race. (SK)

  9. Should I stay or should I go? A prospective investigation examining individual factors impacting employment status among individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strober, Lauren B; Chiaravalloti, Nancy; DeLuca, John

    2018-01-01

    Rates of unemployment among individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) are as high as 80%. While several factors for such high rates of unemployment have been identified, they do not account for the majority of the variance. This study examines person-specific factors such as personality and coping, which may better account for individuals leaving the workforce. Forty individuals with MS (20 considering reducing work hours or leaving the workforce and 20 remaining employed) were matched on age, gender, education, disease duration, and disease course, and administered a comprehensive survey of factors purported to be related to employment status. Based on multiple, logistic regression analyses certain disease factors and person-specific factors differentiate those who are considering leaving work or reducing work hours and those staying employed. In particular, those expressing the need to reduce work hours or leaving the workforce reported more fatigue, anxiety, depression, and use of behavioral disengagement as a means of coping. In contrast, those staying employed reported greater levels of extraversion, self-efficacy, and use of humor as a means of coping. Together, fatigue, use of humor, and use of behavioral disengagement as a means of coping were the most significant factors, accounting for 44% of the variance. Findings suggest that greater consideration be given to these factors and that interventions tailored to address these factors may assist individuals with MS staying employed and/or making appropriate accommodations.

  10. Pathways of the association between maternal employment and weight status among women and children: Qualitative findings from Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddo, Vanessa M; Surkan, Pamela J; Hurley, Kristen M; Lowery, Caitlin; de Ponce, Silvia; Jones-Smith, Jessica C

    2018-01-01

    The double burden of malnutrition, defined by the coexistence of undernutrition and overweight, is well documented in low- and middle-income countries. However, the mechanisms by which employment may be related to maternal and child weight status in low- and middle-income countries are not well understood. We conducted in-depth interviews among 20 mothers who participated in Project MIEL, a contemporary trial which evaluated the effects of an integrated micronutrient supplement and parenting intervention in rural Guatemala. We utilized semi-structured interviews to explore the pathways by which maternal employment might influence bodyweight. Interviews were structured to explore the factors that mothers considered when deciding whether or not to participate in the labor force and how mothers perceived the influence of employment on determinants of their own bodyweight and that of their children. Themes were used to develop a conceptual framework. Mothers described four pathways through which employment could lead to changes in weight status: changes in food purchasing; improved household well-being; changes in time allocation; and psychological effects. Mothers described purchasing increased quantities and more varied types of food, as well as the purchase of energy-dense foods. Less time to devote to food preparation resulted in mothers preparing quicker meals and relying on substitute childcare. Mothers also expressed feelings of worry and neglect in relation to being employed, and perceived that these feelings would affect weight. A better understanding of these mechanisms is important for developing policies and programs to support women in the workplace and also reducing maternal and child overweight in Guatemala. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The influence of social environment on the smoking status of women employed in health care facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Nikšić

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bosnia and Herzegovina has a high prevalence of smoking among women, especially among health care professionals. The goal of this study is to investigate the influence of the social environment of women employed in health institutions in relation to the cigarettes smoking habits.Methods: The study included 477 women employed in hospitals, outpatient and public health institutions in Sarajevo Canton Bosnia and Herzegovina. We used a modifi ed questionnaire assessing smoking habits of medical staff in European hospitalsResults: The results showed that 50% of women are smokers, with the highest incidence among nurses (58.1% and administrative staff (55.6%. The social environment is characterized by a high incidence of colleagues (60.1% and friends who are smokers (54.0% at the workplace and in the family (pConclusion: Workplace and social environment support smoking as an acceptable cultural habit and is contributing to increasing rates of smoking among women.

  12. The relationship between employment status and self-rated health among wage workers in South Korea: the moderating role of household income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyejin; Kimm, Heejin; Song, In Han

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of the study reported in this article was to investigate the relationship between employment status and self-rated health (SRH) and the moderating effect of household income among wage workers in South Korea. This research analyzed the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study, 2005 to 2008. Of the 10,494 respondents participating in the survey during the period, a total of 1,548 people whose employment status had remained either precarious or nonprecarious were selected. A moderated multiple regression model was used to examine the main effect of employment status on SRH and the moderating effect of total household income on the relationship between employment status and SRH. Among 343 precarious workers and 1,205 nonprecarious workers, after controlling for gender, age, education, smoking, and drinking, employment status was associated with SRH of wage workers, and household income was found to have a moderating effect on SRH in that higher income buffers the link between unstable employment status and low SRH. Unstable employment, combined with low income, was significantly related to precarious wage workers' perceived health. To promote public health, efforts may be needed to secure not only people's employment, but also their income.

  13. When is a partner/LLP member not a partner/LLP member? The interface with employment and worker status

    OpenAIRE

    Berry, E

    2017-01-01

    The answer to the question of whether a partner can also simultaneously be an employee of his partnership has long been considered to be settled law. However, the introduction of limited liability partnerships (LLPs) in 2001 has not only raised the new question of whether LLP members can also be employees but has, in doing so, reopened the question of the employment status of partners, questions which now need to be viewed in the context of the widespread practice of having both equity and ot...

  14. Evaluation of the level of social responsibility of the state in the field of employment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernobay Liana Ivanivna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of public authorities in the development of society was grounded in terms of the Welfare State. The priority of employment policies was proved to ensure a sufficient level of social responsibility of the state. Qualitative and quantitative characteristics of human resources were investigated at the current stage of development of Ukraine. Evaluation of the efficiency of the social state was proposed by means of the Social Responsibility Index (SRI. The method of selection of state policy was developed in the light of the evaluation of the social responsibility of the state in employment using the SRI and The Map of states of partial indicators. Measures were proposed on the base of method to enhance the functioning of Ukraine as a Social State.

  15. Factors associated with contraceptive practices of married women in Bangladesh with respect to their employment status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskar, M S; Mahbub, M H; Yokoyama, Kenjiro; Inoue, Masaiwa; Harada, Noriaki

    2006-09-01

    There might be a difference between non-working and working women in their perception of rights and privileges which may influence their contraceptive behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine contraceptive behavior among non-working and working women in Bangladesh determining associated factors. Analysis was based on data from the 1999-2000 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey which employs nationally representative sample. The prevalence of current contraceptive use (any method) was 58.2% among non-working women and 65.5% among working women. Both rates are still low for the country. Some factors, such as discussed family planning with husband, husband approves family planning, desire for more children, and husband lives together, were influential determinants of lower contraceptive prevalence among the non-working women. The results indicate a necessity for social activities promoting husband-wife communication and women's participation in employment to enhance the use of contraceptives among Bangladeshi women, especially non-working women.

  16. The influence of social environment on the smoking status of women employed in health care facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Nikšić

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bosnia and Herzegovina has a high prevalence of smoking among women, especially among health care professionals. The goal of this study is to investigate the influence of the social environment of women employed in health institutions in relation to the cigarettes smoking habits.Methods: The study included 477 women employed in hospitals, outpatient and public health institutions in Sarajevo Canton Bosnia and Herzegovina. We used a modifi ed questionnaire assessing smoking habits of medical staff in European hospitalsResults: The results showed that 50% of women are smokers, with the highest incidence among nurses (58.1% and administrative staff (55.6%. The social environment is characterized by a high incidence of colleagues (60.1% and friends who are smokers (54.0% at the workplace and in the family (p<0.005. One third of women (27.8%, mainly non-smokers, states that the work environment supports employees smoking (p=0.003.Conclusion: Workplace and social environment support smoking as an acceptable cultural habit and is contributing to increasing rates of smoking among women.

  17. Physical Activity among Men and Women in Midlife: Variations by Class and Employment Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Mark; Arber, Sarah; Ginn, Jay

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of data on British midlife adults indicated that being out of the work force between age 50 and state pension age has a different impact on participation in physical activity according to class and gender. Highest levels of inactivity are found among the unemployed working class and relate to low levels of education, poor health, and…

  18. Influence of marital status and employment status on long-term adherence with continuous positive airway pressure in sleep apnea patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnadoux, Frédéric; Le Vaillant, Marc; Goupil, François; Pigeanne, Thierry; Chollet, Sylvaine; Masson, Philippe; Humeau, Marie-Pierre; Bizieux-Thaminy, Acya; Meslier, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Long-term adherence is a major issue in patients receiving home continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy for obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). In a multicenter prospective cohort (the Institut de Recherche en Santé Respiratoire des Pays de la Loire [IRSR] sleep cohort) of consecutive OSAHS patients in whom CPAP had been prescribed for at least 90 days, we studied the impact on long-term treatment adherence of socioeconomic factors, patients and disease characteristics prior to CPAP initiation. Among 1,141 patients in whom CPAP had been prescribed for an average of 504±251 days (range: 91 to 1035), 674 (59%) were adherent with a mean daily use of CPAP≥4 h (mean: 6.42±1.35 h). Stepwise regression analysis identified 4 independent factors of CPAP adherence including apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) (OR: 1.549, 95%CI 1.163 to 2.062 for AHI≥30 vs. AHIstatus (OR: 1.414, 95%CI 1.097-1.821 for retired vs. employed; p = 0.007) and marital status (OR: 1.482, 95%CI 1.088-2.019 for married or living as a couple vs. living alone; p = 0.01). Age, gender, Epworth sleepiness scale, depressive syndrome, associated cardiovascular morbidities, educational attainment and occupation category did not influence CPAP adherence. Marital status and employment status are independent factors of CPAP adherence in addition to BMI and disease severity. Patients living alone and/or working patients are at greater risk of non-adherence, whereas adherence is higher in married and retired patients. These findings suggest that the social context of daily life should be taken into account in risk screening for CPAP non-adherence. Future interventional studies targeting at-risk patients should be designed to address social motivating factors and work-related barriers to CPAP adherence.

  19. Indomethacin can downregulate the levels of inflammatory mediators in the hippocampus of rats submitted to pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Juliane Vieira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Refractory status epilepticus is one of the most life-threatening neurological emergencies and is characterized by high morbidity and mortality. Additionally, the use of anti-inflammatory drugs during this period is very controversial. Thus, this study has been designed to analyze the effect of a low dose of indomethacin (a COX inhibitor on the expression of inflammatory molecules. METHOD: The hippocampus of rats submitted to pilocarpine-induced long-lasting status epilepticus was analyzed to determine the expression of inflammatory molecules with RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Compared with controls, reduced levels of the kinin B2 receptors IL1β and TNFα were found in the hippocampus of rats submitted to long-lasting status epilepticus and treated with indomethacin. CONCLUSIONS: These data show that low doses of indomethacin could be employed to minimize inflammation during long-lasting status epilepticus.

  20. Organizational Commitment and Organizational Citizenship Behavior of Preschool Teachers Based on their Employment Status

    OpenAIRE

    Özlem BAYRAK; Mehmet Ali HAMEDOĞLU

    2017-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the organizational commitment and organizational citizenship levels of preschool teachers on the basis of different variables. 254 preschool teachers were included in the research. “Organizational Commitment Questionnaire” and “Organizational Citizenship Questionnaire” were respectively used for determination of the organizational commitment and organizational citizenship levels of preschool teachers. Statistical analysis of the obtained data was perf...

  1. Immigrants from the Crimea in Russia: Employment and Legal Status »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Belyakov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The author is attempting to summarize all available information on the Crimean immigrants in the Russian state of the 15th–17th centuries. The article examines immigration processes of the Chinggisids: both the Gerays as well as other branches’ representatives, tribal noblemen and the “ordinary” Tatars. The author offers the following periodization of migration: 1 the last quarter of the 15th century – the 1530s; 2 the 1580s – early 17th century; 3 period after the completion of the Time of Troubles. According to the conclusions of the author, compared with migrants from other areas immigrants from the Crimean Khanate more easily integrated into the serving class of the local population and successfully maintained and expanded their “privileges”. At the same time, taking into account the specific nature of available sources, our knowledge is limited almost exclusively on the upper strata of the Crimean immigrants. Surviving documents contain very fragmentary information on immigrants who had inferior status in the social hierarchy compared to the Chinggisids or representatives of the clan aristocracy.

  2. Videoscopic assessment of the maintenance status of gamma radiography exposure containers employed in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candeias, J P; Estrada, J J S; Pinho, A S; D'Avila, R L; Ramalho, A T

    2007-01-01

    Industrial radiography is the most frequent method of non-destructive testing (NDT) used by Brazilian industrial facilities for investigating the material integrity of a test object. In Brazil, industrial radiography employs around 220 x-ray and 290 gamma radiography machines. About 90% of the latter uses iridium ( 192 Ir) sources. The large majority of 192 Ir projectors in operation in Brazil have been in continuous usage for more than 25 years, which means that they are old and worn-out. Usually the majority of accidents concerning gamma radiography occur during the return of the source into the exposure container. Poor maintenance or imperfections of the internal channel of the exposure container can lead to accidental source exposure. In the present work the internal tube of 65 gamma machines from nine Brazilian companies that render gamma radiography services were analysed using an industrial videoscope. The internal images from the projectors were compared with the internal image of an apparatus that had never been used, i.e. has never received a radioactive source. From the 65 machines evaluated, nine showed irregularities of the internal tube. It was also observed that each company follows a different methodology for the maintenance and lubrication of the exposure containers and drive cables

  3. Videoscopic assessment of the maintenance status of gamma radiography exposure containers employed in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candeias, J P; Estrada, J J S; Pinho, A S; D'Avila, R L; Ramalho, A T

    2007-03-01

    Industrial radiography is the most frequent method of non-destructive testing (NDT) used by Brazilian industrial facilities for investigating the material integrity of a test object. In Brazil, industrial radiography employs around 220 x-ray and 290 gamma radiography machines. About 90% of the latter uses iridium ((192)Ir) sources. The large majority of (192)Ir projectors in operation in Brazil have been in continuous usage for more than 25 years, which means that they are old and worn-out. Usually the majority of accidents concerning gamma radiography occur during the return of the source into the exposure container. Poor maintenance or imperfections of the internal channel of the exposure container can lead to accidental source exposure. In the present work the internal tube of 65 gamma machines from nine Brazilian companies that render gamma radiography services were analysed using an industrial videoscope. The internal images from the projectors were compared with the internal image of an apparatus that had never been used, i.e. has never received a radioactive source. From the 65 machines evaluated, nine showed irregularities of the internal tube. It was also observed that each company follows a different methodology for the maintenance and lubrication of the exposure containers and drive cables.

  4. Videoscopic assessment of the maintenance status of gamma radiography exposure containers employed in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candeias, J P [IME, Military Institute of Engineering, Praca Gal Tiburcio 80, Praia Vermelha, Rio de Janeiro, 22290-270 (Brazil); Estrada, J J S [IME, Military Institute of Engineering, Praca Gal Tiburcio 80, Praia Vermelha, Rio de Janeiro, 22290-270 (Brazil); Pinho, A S [Institute of Radioprotection and Dosimetry (IRD/CNEN), Avenida Salvador Allende, PO Box 37750, Rio de Janeiro, 22780-160 (Brazil); D' Avila, R L [Institute of Radioprotection and Dosimetry (IRD/CNEN), Avenida Salvador Allende, PO Box 37750, Rio de Janeiro, 22780-160 (Brazil); Ramalho, A T [Institute of Radioprotection and Dosimetry (IRD/CNEN), Avenida Salvador Allende, PO Box 37750, Rio de Janeiro, 22780-160 (Brazil)

    2007-03-01

    Industrial radiography is the most frequent method of non-destructive testing (NDT) used by Brazilian industrial facilities for investigating the material integrity of a test object. In Brazil, industrial radiography employs around 220 x-ray and 290 gamma radiography machines. About 90% of the latter uses iridium ({sup 192}Ir) sources. The large majority of {sup 192}Ir projectors in operation in Brazil have been in continuous usage for more than 25 years, which means that they are old and worn-out. Usually the majority of accidents concerning gamma radiography occur during the return of the source into the exposure container. Poor maintenance or imperfections of the internal channel of the exposure container can lead to accidental source exposure. In the present work the internal tube of 65 gamma machines from nine Brazilian companies that render gamma radiography services were analysed using an industrial videoscope. The internal images from the projectors were compared with the internal image of an apparatus that had never been used, i.e. has never received a radioactive source. From the 65 machines evaluated, nine showed irregularities of the internal tube. It was also observed that each company follows a different methodology for the maintenance and lubrication of the exposure containers and drive cables.

  5. F/H area high level waste tank status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, C.R. Jr.; Wells, M.N.

    1997-03-01

    Section IX.E.3 of the SRS Federal Facility Agreement requires the DOE to submit to EPA and SCDHEC, an annual report on the status of tanks being removed from service. Tanks that are slated for removal from service either do not meet secondary containment standards or have leak sites. The attached document is intended to meet this annual report requirement. An updated status of relevant portions of the Waste Removal Plan and Schedule is also included

  6. The incidence of chronic low back pain on employment status in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, due to medical and work related reasons a number of subjects dropped out. At the end there were 10 subjects in the conservative exercise group and 11 in the progressive-aggressive group. Statistically significant differences at the 5% level of significance were found at the post-test measurements between the ...

  7. Municipal wastewater treatment in Mexico: current status and opportunities for employing ecological treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurita, Florentina; Roy, Eric D; White, John R

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the current status of municipal wastewater (MWW) treatment in Mexico, as well as to assess opportunities for using ecological treatment systems, such as constructed wetlands. In 2008, Mexico had 2101 MWW treatment plants that treated only 84 m3/s of wastewater (208 m3/s ofMWW were collected in sewer systems). Unfortunately, most treatment plants operate below capacity owing to a lack of maintenance and paucity of properly trained personnel. The main types of treatment systems applied in Mexico are activated sludge and waste stabilization ponds, which treat 44.3% and 18% of the MWW collected, respectively. As in many other developing nations around the world, there is a great need in Mexico for low-cost, low-maintenance wastewater treatment systems that are both economically and environmentally sustainable. In 2005, 24.3 million Mexicans lived in villages of less than 2500 inhabitants and 14.1 million lived in towns with 2500-15,000 inhabitants. An opportunity exists to extend the use of ecological treatment systems to these low population density areas and considerably increase the percentage of MWW that is treated in Mexico. Small-scale and medium-size constructed wetlands have been built successfully in some states, primarily during the past five years. Several barriers need to be overcome to increase the adoption and utilization of ecological wastewater technology in Mexico, including: a lack of knowledge about this technology, scarce technical information in Spanish, and the government's concentration on constructing MWW treatment plants solely in urban areas.

  8. Migration experiences, employment status and psychological distress among Somali immigrants: a mixed-method international study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfa, Nasir; Curtis, Sarah; Watters, Charles; Carswell, Ken; Ingleby, David; Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2012-09-07

    The discourse about mental health problems among migrants and refugees tends to focus on adverse pre-migration experiences; there is less investigation of the environmental conditions in which refugee migrants live, and the contrasts between these situations in different countries. This cross-national study of two samples of Somali refugees living in London (UK) and Minneapolis, Minnesota, (USA) helps to fill a gap in the literature, and is unusual in being able to compare information collected in the same way in two cities in different countries. There were two parts to the study, focus groups to gather in-depth qualitative data and a survey of health status and quantifiable demographic and material factors. Three of the focus groups involved nineteen Somali professionals and five groups included twenty-eight lay Somalis who were living in London and Minneapolis. The quantitative survey was done with 189 Somali respondents, also living in London and Minneapolis. We used the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) to assess ICD-10 and DSM-IV mental disorders. The overall qualitative and quantitative results suggested that challenges to masculinity, thwarted aspirations, devalued refugee identity, unemployment, legal uncertainties and longer duration of stay in the host country account for poor psychological well-being and psychiatric disorders among this group. The use of a mixed-methods approach in this international study was essential since the quantitative and qualitative data provide different layers and depth of meaning and complement each other to provide a fuller picture of complex and multi-faceted life situations of refugees and asylum seekers. The comparison between the UK and US suggests that greater flexibility of access to labour markets for this refugee group might help to promote opportunities for better integration and mental well-being.

  9. Migration experiences, employment status and psychological distress among Somali immigrants: a mixed-method international study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warfa Nasir

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The discourse about mental health problems among migrants and refugees tends to focus on adverse pre-migration experiences; there is less investigation of the environmental conditions in which refugee migrants live, and the contrasts between these situations in different countries. This cross-national study of two samples of Somali refugees living in London (UK and Minneapolis, Minnesota, (USA helps to fill a gap in the literature, and is unusual in being able to compare information collected in the same way in two cities in different countries. Methods There were two parts to the study, focus groups to gather in-depth qualitative data and a survey of health status and quantifiable demographic and material factors. Three of the focus groups involved nineteen Somali professionals and five groups included twenty-eight lay Somalis who were living in London and Minneapolis. The quantitative survey was done with 189 Somali respondents, also living in London and Minneapolis. We used the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI to assess ICD-10 and DSM-IV mental disorders. Results The overall qualitative and quantitative results suggested that challenges to masculinity, thwarted aspirations, devalued refugee identity, unemployment, legal uncertainties and longer duration of stay in the host country account for poor psychological well-being and psychiatric disorders among this group. Conclusion The use of a mixed-methods approach in this international study was essential since the quantitative and qualitative data provide different layers and depth of meaning and complement each other to provide a fuller picture of complex and multi-faceted life situations of refugees and asylum seekers. The comparison between the UK and US suggests that greater flexibility of access to labour markets for this refugee group might help to promote opportunities for better integration and mental well-being.

  10. Proton therapy for prostate cancer treatment employing online image guidance and an action level threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Carlos; Falchook, Aaron; Indelicato, Daniel; Yeung, Anamaria; Henderson, Randall; Olivier, Kenneth; Keole, Sameer; Williams, Christopher; Li, Zuofeng; Palta, Jatinder

    2009-04-01

    The ability to determine the accuracy of the final prostate position within a determined action level threshold for image-guided proton therapy is unclear. Three thousand one hundred ten images for 20 consecutive patients treated in 1 of our 3 proton prostate protocols from February to May of 2007 were analyzed. Daily kV images and patient repositioning were performed employing an action-level threshold (ALT) of > or = 2.5 mm for each beam. Isocentric orthogonal x-rays were obtained, and prostate position was defined via 3 gold markers for each patient in the 3 axes. To achieve and confirm our action level threshold, an average of 2 x-rays sets (median 2; range, 0-4) was taken daily for each patient. Based on our ALT, we made no corrections in 8.7% (range, 0%-54%), 1 correction in 82% (41%-98%), and 2 to 3 corrections in 9% (0-27%). No patient needed 4 or more corrections. All patients were treated with a confirmed error of < 2.5 mm for every beam delivered. After all corrections, the mean and standard deviations were: anterior-posterior (z): 0.003 +/- 0.094 cm; superior-inferior (y): 0.028 +/- 0.073 cm; and right-left (x) -0.013 +/- 0.08 cm. It is feasible to limit all final prostate positions to less than 2.5 mm employing an action level image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) process. The residual errors after corrections were very small.

  11. Employment of a Dual Status Commander in a Multi-State Disaster Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    most pressing needs. The element did not do the same for any inbound National Guard elements from other states nor did it have a firmly established...USNORTHCOM CONOPs fail to recognize an intermediary position beyond the state level to economize and unify the parallel operations. Since the dual...major national disaster? Ultimately, changing laws could be beneficial but would not necessarily be the most effective or economical means to improve

  12. The Effects of Employment Status and Daily Stressors on Time Spent on Daily Household Chores in Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jen D.; Almeida, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the study: This study examines how employment status (worker vs. retiree) and life course influences (age, gender, and marital status) are associated with time spent on daily household chores. Second, this study assesses whether the associations between daily stressors and time spent on daily household chores differ as a function of…

  13. Two Level Versus Matrix Converters Performance in Wind Energy Conversion Systems Employing DFIG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Gongati Pandu Ranga; Kumar, M. Vijaya

    2017-10-01

    Wind power capacity has received enormous growth during past decades. With substantial development of wind power, it is expected to provide a fifth of world's electricity by the end of 2030. In wind energy conversion system, the power electronic converters play an important role. This paper presents the two level and matrix converters performance in wind energy conversion system employing Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG). The DFIG is a wound rotor induction generator. Because of the advantages of the DFIG over other generators it is being used for most of the wind applications. This paper also discusses control of converters using the space vector pulse width modulation technique. The MATLAB/SIMULINK ® software is used to study the performance of the converters.

  14. Immigration, work and health in Spain: the influence of legal status and employment contract on reported health indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Emily; Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés; Benavides, Fernando G; Schenker, Marc; García, Ana M; Benach, Joan; Delclos, Carlos; López-Jacob, María José; Ruiz-Frutos, Carlos; Ronda-Pérez, Elena; Porthé, Victoria

    2010-10-01

    To analyze the relationship of legal status and employment conditions with health indicators in foreign-born and Spanish-born workers in Spain. Cross-sectional study of 1,849 foreign-born and 509 Spanish-born workers (2008-2009, ITSAL Project). Considered employment conditions: permanent, temporary and no contract (foreign-born and Spanish-born); considered legal statuses: documented and undocumented (foreign-born). Joint relationships with self-rated health (SRH) and mental health (MH) were analyzed via logistical regression. When compared with male permanently contracted Spanish-born workers, worse health is seen in undocumented foreign-born, time in Spain ≤3 years (SRH aOR 2.68, 95% CI 1.09-6.56; MH aOR 2.26, 95% CI 1.15-4.42); in Spanish-born, temporary contracts (SRH aOR 2.40, 95% CI 1.04-5.53); and in foreign-born, temporary contracts, time in Spain >3 years (MH: aOR 1.96, 95% CI 1.13-3.38). In females, highest self-rated health risks are in foreign-born, temporary contracts (aOR 2.36, 95% CI 1.13-4.91) and without contracts, time in Spain >3 years (aOR 4.63, 95% CI 1.95-10.97). Contract type is a health determinant in both foreign-born and Spanish-born workers. This study offers an uncommon exploration of undocumented migration and raises methodological issues to consider in future research.

  15. Gender, socio-economic status and educational level as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple regression procedure and t-test statistics were utilized to analyse data. Results indicated that the regression equation of career maturity using the three predictor variables was significant; the scores on socio-economic status were the best predictor of career maturity. On the basis of this finding, suggestions were ...

  16. Periodontal status and serum creatine kinase levels among young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-12-02

    Dec 2, 2015 ... Key words: Periodontal disease, serum creatine kinase, soccer players ... has also been reported that poor oral health status influences the quality of life of an individual ..... A short‑term longitudinal randomized case‑control study. Clin Oral ... crevicular fluid from chronic periodontitis patients before and after.

  17. Employment status five years after a randomised controlled trial comparing multidisciplinary and brief intervention in employees on sick leave due to low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Pernille; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Jensen, Ole Kudsk; Jensen, Chris; Labriola, Merete

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate differences in employment status, during a five-year follow-up period in patients on sick leave due to low back pain who had participated in a trial comparing a brief and a multidisciplinary intervention. From 2004 to 2008, 535 patients were referred to the Spine Centre at the Regional Hospital in Silkeborg if they had been on sick leave for 3-16 weeks due to low back pain. All patients underwent a clinical examination by a rehabilitation physician and a physiotherapist, and were randomised to either the brief intervention or the multidisciplinary intervention. The outcome was employment status from randomisation to five years of follow-up and was measured by the mean number of weeks in four different groups of employment status (sequence analysis) and a fraction of the number of weeks working (work participation score) that were accumulated over the years. A total of 231 patients were randomised to the brief intervention and 233 patients to the multidisciplinary intervention. No statistically significant differences in the mean weeks spent within the different employment statuses were found between the two intervention groups. After five years of follow-up, participants in the multidisciplinary intervention had a 19% higher risk of not having a work participation score above 75% compared to participants in the brief intervention. After five years of follow-up no differences in employment status were found between participants in the brief and the multidisciplinary intervention.

  18. Tryptophan levels, excessive exercise, and nutritional status in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaro, A; Caregaro, L; Burlina, A B; Santonastaso, P

    2000-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that reduced dietary availability of tryptophan may be the cause of impaired serotonin activity in underweight anorexics. The study reported here evaluated the relationship between tryptophan availability in the blood and nutritional status in anorexia nervosa. The total amount of tryptophan and the ratio between tryptophan and other large neutral amino acids (TRP/LNAA) were assessed in a sample of 16 starving anorexic patients. Body weight and composition and energy intake were evaluated in all patients. All subjects also completed self-reported questionnaires such as the Hopkins Symptom Checklist and Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI). The TRP/LNAA ratio seems to be higher in patients with a more severe catabolic status. It is, in fact, significantly inversely correlated with body mass index, body fat, muscle mass, daily energy intake, and daily tryptophan intake. The TRP/LNAA ratio also correlates with growth hormone and the EDI drive for thinness. Patients who exercise excessively had significantly higher TRP/LNAA ratios. In starving anorexic patients, the TRP/LNAA ratio does not seem to be determined by the content of tryptophan in the diet, but it correlates with measures of catabolism. The relationship of the TRP/LNAA ratio to excessive exercise and starvation indicates the importance of further investigations exploring the role of tryptophan availability in maintaining anorexia nervosa.

  19. Explaining individual- and country-level variations in unregistered employment using a multi-level model: evidence from 35 Eurasian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasniqi Besnik A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate the individual- and country-level variations in unregistered employment. To analyse whether it is marginalised groups who are more likely to engage in unregistered employment and explain the country-level variations, a 2010 Life in Transition Survey (LiTS involving 38,864 interviews in 35 Eurasian countries is reported. Multilevel logistic regression analysis reveals that younger age groups, the divorced, and those with fewer years in education, are more likely to be unregistered employed. On a country-level, meanwhile, the prevalence of unregistered employment is strongly associated with tax morale; the greater the asymmetry between informal and formal institutions, the greater is the prevalence of unregistered employment. It is also higher when GDP per capita as well as social distribution and state intervention (subsidies and transfers, social contribution expenditure, health expenditure are lower. The paper concludes by discussing the theoretical and policy implications.

  20. Labor market experience, work organization, gender inequalities and health status: results from a prospective analysis of US employed women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Campo, Patricia; Eaton, William W; Muntaner, Carles

    2004-02-01

    Women's labor force participation has increased dramatically over the past several decades. Although previous research has documented that a wide array of labor market characteristics affect health, more work is needed to understand how women are impacted by gender-specific employment patterns and exposures. We examine a cohort of 659 employed women from the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) study in the USA. Baseline and follow-up data collected 13 years apart are used to identify associations between demographic, labor market, work organization, and occupational gender inequality with four health outcomes: generalized distress, depressive syndrome, anxiety and fair or poor health. We also use gender-specific data on the workplace to create indicators of occupational gender inequality. We found wide gender inequalities in terms of pay and power in this sample of employed women. Financial strain was associated with all of our mental health outcomes with those reporting financial strain having increased odds of distress, depressive syndrome and anxiety for the 13 years prior to the interview. Workplace factors that were found to be associated with the four outcomes included experiencing a promotion or demotion in the 13 years prior to the interview; working at a large firm; and being a professional. Occupations where women compared to men had lower levels of job strain-domestic workers in private households, machine operator and transportation-showed increased risk for anxiety or fair/poor health. Our findings suggest that measuring the complexities of employment including promotion or demotion history, firm characteristics and even occupational gender inequality can yield important information about associations with health among women.

  1. The Changing Logic of Japanese Employment Practices: A Firm-Level Analysis of Four Industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B. Keizer

    2005-01-01

    textabstractIn previous decades, the perception of Japan’s employment practices has been strongly intertwined with its economic fortunes. From the 1970s, Japan’s employment practices came to be seen as one of the cornerstones of its economic success. However, this perception changed, albeit with a

  2. Seeking and securing work: Individual-level predictors of employment of psychiatric survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Peter V; Montgomery, Phyllis; Davie, Samantha; Dickins, Kevin; Forchuk, Cheryl; Jeng, Momodou S; Kersey, Melissa; Meier, Amanda; Lahey, Pam; Rudnick, Abraham; Solomon, Michelle; Warner, Laura

    2015-01-01

    For people with mental illness (psychiatric survivors), seeking and securing employment involves personal, social, and environmental factors. In Canada, psychiatric survivors are under-represented in the workforce, and services can help by tailoring their supports to help make the most gains in employment. Determine whether individual socio-demographic and health factors predict seeking and securing employment among psychiatric survivors. A community sample of psychiatric survivors from a Southwestern Ontario region participated in this study. Stepwise logistic regression was used to analyze data from 363 participants who had completed a variety of questionnaires to ascertain individual characteristics and employment outcomes. Health service utilization, living circumstances, homelessness, substance use issues, general health, social integration, ethnicity, having children under 18, and being a student emerged as significant predictors of seeking and securing work. Other commonly accepted human capital indicators, such as education and age, were not predictive of employment search behavior and outcomes. Individual characteristics that predict employment search and success outcomes for psychiatric survivors include aspects related to treatment and living circumstances, which stands in contrast to predictors of employment for the general population, suggesting that employment support services may need to be tailored to psychiatric survivors specifically.

  3. Employment status and health related quality of life among Hodgkin-lymphoma survivors'- results based on data from a major treatment center in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magyari, Ferenc; Kósa, Karolina; Berecz, Roland; Illés, Anna; Miltényi, Zsófia; Simon, Zsófia; Illés, Árpád

    2017-09-19

    Due to risk and response adapted treatment strategies, more than 80% of newly diagnosed classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients can be cured, and become long-term survivors. However, a high proportion of survivors suffer from treatment-related long-term side effects such as secondary malignancy, organ failure, persistent fatigue and psychological distress. The aim of this study was to evaluate psychological distress and its risk factors among our HL survivors. One hundred sixty-three (50% female) adult HL survivors were contacted between January 1, 2012 and march 31, 2015 in our outpatient centre. The patients were asked to complete a standardized, validated, self-administered Hungarian questionnaire with demographic questions and the following scales: Hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS14), general health questionnaire (GHQ12), sense of coherence (SOC13) perceived stress scale (PSS4), dysfunctional attitude scale (DAS17). Disease and treatment data were acquired from hospital records. Majority of HL survivors are in early adulthood, our most important goal should be to return them to normal life after their lymphoma is cured. The employment status at the time of survey seemed to be crucial so patients were divided into either active (n = 93) or inactive (n = 47) group. Retired survivors (n = 19) were excluded from the subgroup analysis. Psychological distress was significantly lower in active patients. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed significant differences between the inactive and active subgroups, such as age at diagnosis (≥30 years or below, p = 0.001), education level (below college vs. college, p = 0.032) and treatment related long-term side effects (yes vs. no, p employment status and treatment-related long-term side effects play a critical role in the health related quality of life outcome among Hungarian HL survivors.

  4. Status of vitrification for DOE low-level mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, R.F.; Jantzen, C.M.; Plodinec, M.J.

    1993-04-01

    Vitrification is being considered by the Department of Energy for solidification of many low-level mixed waste streams. Some of the advantages, requirements, and potential problem areas are described. Recommendations for future efforts are presented

  5. Do employed and nonemployed Korean mothers experience different levels of psychological well-being in relation to their gender role attitudes and role qualities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H

    1998-06-01

    This study explored the association of gender role attitudes (GRAs) and the quality of roles with the psychological well-being among employed and nonemployed mothers in Korea. Evidence supports the thesis that employed mothers with more liberal GRAs will report higher levels of psychological well-being. All role qualities were expected to be related to women's psychological well-being regardless of work status. Maternal role was expected to be more important in determining a working mothers well-being, but wife role was in fact the most important. Among nonemployed mothers, both the maternal and wife role affected well-being. Participants were recruits from a variety of institutional settings in Seoul, Korea, in 1995. The sample included 700 mothers, of whom 263 were working mothers; 295 were nonemployed mothers. Most were highly educated and affluent. The first model included only social structural variables, which were unrelated to the relationship between employment status and well-being. Gender of children was the only significant variable. Nonemployed mothers with a son had greater well-being than those without a son. The model excluding all social structural variables showed that GRA was unrelated to employed mothers' well-being. But, inclusion of the interaction between attitude and group suggests that well-being was related to agreement with whatever their role was. A model that included role qualities found that roles as wife, mother, and employee were positively related to well-being. The role of wife was significantly related to well-being among employed mothers. The wife and mother roles were significantly related to well-being among nonemployed mothers.

  6. Relationship between stress levels and the status of serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    2014-07-26

    Jul 26, 2014 ... very useful in proper dealing with it. Thus ... of examination, mean serum vitamin A levels was found to be significantly lower before than after ... [2] Cognitive and emotional signs and symptoms ... found that endurance exercise and stress can increase ... and 7 female, ages between 22-30 years) served as ...

  7. Geographical associations between radon and cancer: is domestic radon level a marker of socioeconomic status?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, S.P.; Stern, G.

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies showing a geographical association between radon and various cancers, particularly the leukaemias and lymphomas, appear to be confounded by the role of radon levels as a surrogate for socioeconomic status. Higher socioeconomic status (at least at the UK county level) is correlated with higher levels of domestic radon. Controlling for the relationship between socioeconomic status and radon removes the correlation between radon exposure and lymphoproliferative disease. Reported associations between radon and lymphoproliferative disease (and possibly other cancers) may be secondary to socioeconomic variables. (author)

  8. Relationship status and relationship instability, but not dominance, predict individual differences in baseline cortisol levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Maestripieri

    Full Text Available We investigated variation in baseline cortisol levels in relation to relationship status (single or in a relationship, relationship characteristics (length, stability, presence or absence of clear dominance, or individual attributes (dominant or subordinate status, relative physical attractiveness, relationship worries. Study participants were 77 men and 75 women aged between 18 and 38 years. Individuals in romantic relationships had lower cortisol levels than singles. Individuals of African ethnicity, however, showed the opposite pattern. Individuals who perceived their relationship to be highly unstable had higher cortisol levels. Aside from African-Americans, married individuals reported the lowest relationship instability and the lowest cortisol levels, followed by individuals in long-term relationships, and by individuals in short-term relationships. The presence or absence of clear dominance in the relationship, dominance status, or relationship worries did not affect cortisol levels. Therefore relationship status and relationship instability were better predictors of variation in cortisol (presumably through stress-related mechanisms than individual attributes.

  9. Relationship status and relationship instability, but not dominance, predict individual differences in baseline cortisol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestripieri, Dario; Klimczuk, Amanda C E; Seneczko, Marianne; Traficonte, Daniel M; Wilson, M Claire

    2013-01-01

    We investigated variation in baseline cortisol levels in relation to relationship status (single or in a relationship), relationship characteristics (length, stability, presence or absence of clear dominance), or individual attributes (dominant or subordinate status, relative physical attractiveness, relationship worries). Study participants were 77 men and 75 women aged between 18 and 38 years. Individuals in romantic relationships had lower cortisol levels than singles. Individuals of African ethnicity, however, showed the opposite pattern. Individuals who perceived their relationship to be highly unstable had higher cortisol levels. Aside from African-Americans, married individuals reported the lowest relationship instability and the lowest cortisol levels, followed by individuals in long-term relationships, and by individuals in short-term relationships. The presence or absence of clear dominance in the relationship, dominance status, or relationship worries did not affect cortisol levels. Therefore relationship status and relationship instability were better predictors of variation in cortisol (presumably through stress-related mechanisms) than individual attributes.

  10. Status of the French nuclear high level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sombret, C.

    1985-09-01

    French research on high level waste processing has led to the development of industrial vitrification facilities. Borosilicate glass is still being investigated for its long-term storage properties, since it is itself a component of the containment system. The other constituents of this system, the engineered barriers, are also being actively investigated. The geological barrier is now being assessed using a methodology applicable to various types of geological formations, and final site qualification should be possible before the end of 1992

  11. Uprated OMS Engine Status-Sea Level Testing Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolino, J. D.; Boyd, W. C.

    1990-01-01

    The current Space Shuttle Orbital Maneuvering Engine (OME) is pressure fed, utilizing storable propellants. Performance uprating of this engine, through the use of a gas generator driven turbopump to increase operating pressure, is being pursued by the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). Component level design, fabrication, and test activities for this engine system have been on-going since 1984. More recently, a complete engine designated the Integrated Component Test Bed (ICTB), was tested at sea level conditions by Aerojet. A description of the test hardware and results of the sea level test program are presented. These results, which include the test condition operating envelope and projected performance at altitude conditions, confirm the capability of the selected Uprated OME (UOME) configuration to meet or exceed performance and operational requirements. Engine flexibility, demonstrated through testing at two different operational mixture ratios, along with a summary of projected Space Shuttle performance enhancements using the UOME, are discussed. Planned future activities, including ICTB tests at simulated altitude conditions, and recommendations for further engine development, are also discussed.

  12. ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger: Status and Development

    CERN Document Server

    Bracinik, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger seeds all the calorimeter-based triggers in the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The inputs to the system are analogue signals of reduced granularity, formed by summing cells from both the ATLAS Liquid Argon and Tile calorimeters. Several stages of analogue then digital processing, largely performed in FPGAs, refine these signals via configurable and flexible algorithms into identified physics objects, for example electron, tau or jet candidates. The complete processing chain is performed in a pipelined system at the LHC bunch-crossing frequency, and with a fixed latency of about 1us. The first LHC run from 2009-2013 provided a varied and challenging environment for first level triggers. While the energy and luminosity were below the LHC design, the pile-up conditions were similar to the nominal conditions. The physics ambitions of the experiment also tested the performance of the Level-1 system while keeping within the rate limits set by detector readout. This presentation will ...

  13. The relationship between socio-demographic factors, health status, treatment type, and employment outcome in patients with inflammatory bowel disease in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlich, J; Matsuoka, K; Nakamura, Y; Sruamsiri, R

    2017-07-04

    Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) constitutes a huge burden for patients and studies show that IBD patients have difficulties remaining in employment. Because there is no data about the unemployment of IBD patients in Japan. We surveyed a representative sample of 1068 Japanese IBD patients regarding their employment status. We found that the labor force participation rate is lower and unemployment higher for patients with IBD compared to the general population. Factors associated with unemployment in the IBD sample are older age, female gender, and the prevalence of depression. IBD constitutes a high burden for patients in Japan regarding employment outcome.

  14. The relationship between socio-demographic factors, health status, treatment type, and employment outcome in patients with inflammatory bowel disease in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Mahlich

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD constitutes a huge burden for patients and studies show that IBD patients have difficulties remaining in employment. Because there is no data about the unemployment of IBD patients in Japan. Methods We surveyed a representative sample of 1068 Japanese IBD patients regarding their employment status. Results We found that the labor force participation rate is lower and unemployment higher for patients with IBD compared to the general population. Factors associated with unemployment in the IBD sample are older age, female gender, and the prevalence of depression. Discussion IBD constitutes a high burden for patients in Japan regarding employment outcome.

  15. Age and gender differential relationship between employment status and body mass index among middle-aged and elderly adults : a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noh, Jin-Won; Kim, Jinseok; Park, Jumin; Oh, In-Hwan; Kwon, Young Dae

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the influence of age and gender, respectively, on the association between employment status and body mass index (BMI) in Korean adults using a large, nationally representative sample. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: South Korea. Participants: 7228 from fourth wave of

  16. Employment Status after Spinal Cord Injury (1992-2005): A Review with Implications For Interpretation, Evaluation, Further Research, and Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Amanda E.; Murphy, Gregory C.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to review the research conducted on the topic of employment status after spinal cord injury that was published between 1992 and 2005. This study follows on from an earlier review that focused on papers published between 1976 and 1991. The current study extends the earlier review by reporting an aggregate employment…

  17. A Descriptive Study of Perceived Impact of Gender on Employment Status, Type of Work, Industry Relationships, Working Environment & Job Satisfaction in Livestock Industry Magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Dennis W.

    A two-part study examined the employment status, distribution, job satisfaction, and promotion opportunities of women working for livestock industry magazines. Livestock publications were chosen for this research because they are typical of industry-related magazines and are traditionally dominated by males. The mastheads of 59 magazines were…

  18. Social class, employment status and inequality in psychological well-being in the UK: Cross-sectional and fixed effects analyses over two decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Lindsay; Paskov, Marii

    2016-10-01

    A body of academic research has shown a social class gradient in psychological well-being. Some recent work has also suggested that the gradient is worsening over time, though the evidence is mixed. We focus on two straightforward research questions: Is there a class gradient in mental health? Has this gradient changed over time? We answer these questions with attention to two specific causal pathways: employment status and unobserved heterogeneity. We use two data sources: repeated cross-sections from the Health Survey of England (HSE) and longitudinal data from the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS). The combination of pooled OLS regression (with HSE) and fixed effects analysis (with BHPS) allows for a robust analysis of the relationship between class and psychological well-being. We argue that employment status is a confounder in the analysis of class inequalities and show that, along with unobserved heterogeneity, these two pathways go a long way to explain the class gradient. The effects of employment status are substantive and, unlike social class, cannot be explained away by unobserved heterogeneity. We conclude that employment status deserves greater prominence in the debate as both a pathway by which the class gradient transpires, and as another 'dimension' of inequality in its own right. Our overtime analysis suggests that skilled and unskilled manual workers had higher psychological well-being in the 1990s but by 2008 were closer to the average. Class inequalities do not appear to be widening. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of serum Vitamin B12 level and related nutritional status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-29

    Mar 29, 2016 ... This study was aimed to investigate the association between serum. Vitamin B12 ... Consumption of certain types of food contributes to increase vitB12 level. Key words: ... nutritional status among apparently healthy obese.

  20. The ALICE High Level Trigger: status and plans

    CERN Document Server

    Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Gorbunov, Sergey; Breitner, Timo; Lehrbach, Johannes; Lindenstruth, Volker; Berzano, Dario

    2015-01-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger (HLT) is an online reconstruction, triggering and data compression system used in the ALICE experiment at CERN. Unique among the LHC experiments, it extensively uses modern coprocessor technologies like general purpose graphic processing units (GPGPU) and field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) in the data flow. Realtime data compression is performed using a cluster finder algorithm implemented on FPGA boards. These data, instead of raw clusters, are used in the subsequent processing and storage, resulting in a compression factor of around 4. Track finding is performed using a cellular automaton and a Kalman filter algorithm on GPGPU hardware, where both CUDA and OpenCL technologies can be used interchangeably. The ALICE upgrade requires further development of online concepts to include detector calibration and stronger data compression. The current HLT farm will be used as a test bed for online calibration and both synchronous and asynchronous processing frameworks already before t...

  1. Status and tendencies in combating computer crime at European level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisarić Milana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Without certain adjustments to specifics of computer crime, as to a phenomenon of global proportions, detection, investigation and prosecution of this type of crime is almost impossible. Therefore, the need for setting up a legal framework for combating cyber crime has been identified, in order to define which activities related to information systems are considered computer crime; to determine the specific procedural rules, which would enable the access to data, computer and networks during investigating and prosecuting computer crime and to provide continuous training of members of the institutions responsible for countering this form of crime. This legal framework should consist of substantive and procedural rules adapted to this type of crime due its aim is the improvement of international cooperation in the framework of global and regional approach to combating cyber crime. In this this paper the current situation of strategic and legal framework of countering cyber crime is presented (at the level of the Council of Europe and of the European Union as well as trends in the development of systematic approach towards countering the mentioned abuses within these regional organizations. At the European level, the legal framework to combat cyber crime is set in the Council of Europe Convention on cyber crime and the Council of EU Framework Decision on attacks against information systems. In a series of documents organs of EU confirmed the strategic support of COE Convention and the encouragement of Member States to ratify the Convention. In addition, the Convention represent the base of the said Framework Decision. These two legal instruments have the same goal - removing the differences between national legislation, the introduction of new powers in the discovery and evidence of computer crime and improvement of the international cooperation in combating cyber crime. Although their legal nature and scope vary, its objectives will be achieved

  2. Current status of low-level-waste-segregation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.E.; Colombo, P.; Sailor, V.L.

    1982-01-01

    The adoption of improved waste segregation practices by waste generators and burial sites will result in the improved disposal of low-level wastes (LLW) in the future. Many of the problems connected with this disposal mode are directly attributable to or aggravated by the indiscriminate mixing of various waste types in burial trenches. Thus, subsidence effects, contact with ground fluids, movement of radioactivity in the vapor phase, migration of radionuclides due to the presence of chelating agents or products of biological degradation, deleterious chemical reactions, and other problems have occurred. Regulations are currently being promulgated which will require waste segregation to a high degree at LLW burial sites. The state-of-the-art of LLW segregation technology and current practices in the USA have been surveyed at representative facilities. Favorable experience has been reported at various sites following the application of segregation controls. This paper reports on the state-of-the-art survey and addresses current and projected LLW segregation practices and their relationship to other waste management activities

  3. Fast Food Intake in Relation to Employment Status, Stress, Depression, and Dietary Behaviors in Low-Income Overweight and Obese Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mei-Wei; Brown, Roger; Nitzke, Susan

    2016-07-01

    Objective This study explored fast food intake as a potential mediator of the relationships among employment status; stress; depression; and fruit, vegetable, and fat intakes by race (African American vs. Non-Hispanic White) and body mass index (BMI category: overweight vs. obesity). Methods Low-income overweight and obese pregnant women (N = 332) were recruited from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children in Michigan. Path analysis was performed to explore mediation effects by race and BMI category. Results Fast food intake mediated the relationship between employment status and fat intake (p = 0.02) in Non-Hispanic White women, but no mediation effect was detected in African American women. For overweight women, fast food intake mediated the relationship between employment status and fat intake (p = 0.04) and the relationship between depression and vegetable intake (p = 0.01). Also, fast food intake partially mediated the relationship between depression and fat intake (p = 0.003). For obese women, fast food intake mediated the relationship between employment status and fat intake (p = 0.04). Conclusion Fast food is an important topic for nutrition education for overweight and obese pregnant women. Future interventions may be more successful if they address issues associated with employment status (e.g., lack of time to plan and cook healthy meals) and depressive mood (e.g., inability to plan meals or shop for groceries when coping with negative emotions).

  4. Association of Educational Level and Marital Status With Obesity: A Study of Chinese Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chunxiao; Gao, Wenjing; Cao, Weihua; Lv, Jun; Yu, Canqing; Wang, Shengfeng; Li, Chunxiao; Pang, Zengchang; Cong, Liming; Dong, Zhong; Wu, Fan; Wang, Hua; Wu, Xianping; Jiang, Guohong; Wang, Xiaojie; Wang, Binyou; Li, Liming

    2018-04-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity is growing rapidly in many countries. Socioeconomic inequalities might be important for this increase. The aim of this study was to determine associations of body mass index (BMI), overweight and obesity with educational level and marital status in Chinese twins. Participants were adult twins recruited through the Chinese National Twin Registry (CNTR), aged 18 to 79 years, and the sample comprised 10,448 same-sex twin pairs. Current height, weight, educational attainment, and marital status were self-reported. Regression analyses and structural equation models were conducted to evaluate BMI, overweight, and obesity associated with educational level and marital status in both sexes. At an individual level, both educational level and marital status were associated with higher BMI and higher risk of being overweight and obesity in men, while in women the effects of educational level on BMI were in the opposite direction. In within-Monozygotic (MZ) twin-pair analyses, the effects of educational level on BMI disappeared in females. Bivariate structural equation models showed that genetic factors and shared environmental confounded the relationship between education and BMI in females, whereas marital status was associated with BMI on account of significant positive unique environmental correlation apart in both sexes. The present data suggested that marital status and BMI were associated, independent of familiar factors, for both sexes of this study population, while common genetic and shared environmental factors contributed to education-associated disparities in BMI in females.

  5. [Immune status in infantile autism. Correlation between the immune status, autistic symptoms and levels of serotonin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, P; Marescot, M R; Moulias, R; Bursztejn, C; Deville Chabrolle, A; Thiollet, M; Lesourd, B; Braconnier, A; Dreux, C; Zarifian, E

    1988-01-01

    In sixteen autistic children high values of IgG and a high level of lymphocyte stimulation with PHA were observed. Principal component analysis showed: 1) a significant correlation between basic lymphocyte mitogenic activity and the clinical symptoms opposition and hyperactivity, 2) a significant correlation between high Ig levels, high PHA stimulation responses and the main autistic symptoms (withdrawal, inaffectivity, hypoactivity, mannerism, stereotypy and negatively echolalia), 3) a significant correlation with serotonin uptake by platelets and high immunological responses. Such correlations are strongly in favor of an immunologic component in autistic disease.

  6. Influence of marital status on psysical activity levels among older adults.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pettee, K.K.; Brach, J.; Boudreau, R.; Colbert, L.H.; Harris, T.B.; Visser, M.; Richardson, C.; Newman, A.B.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of these analyses was to describe the levels and types of activity in relationship to current marital status among older adults and determine if the physical activity level of the husband was related to the physical activity level of his wife. Methods: Participants included 3075

  7. 2013 status of the Lake Ontario lower trophic levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holeck, Kristen T.; Rudstam, Lars G.; Hotaling, Christopher; McCullough, Russ D.; Lemon, Dave; Pearsall, Web; Lantry, Jana R.; Connerton, Michael J.; LaPan, Steve; Trometer, Betsy; Lantry, Brian F.; Walsh, Maureen; Weidel, Brian C.

    2014-01-01

    abundant in the summer, peaking at ~7 mg/m3in the offshore. Bythotrephes peaked in October (~0.7 mg/m3), but Bythotrephes biomass was at its lowest biomass in both offshore and nearshore stations since 2005.Summer nearshore zooplankton density and biomass have declined significantly since 1995 at rates of 9-10% per year. Nearshore epilimnetic zooplankton density and biomass have remained stable since 2005 at low levels relative to previous years.Summer offshore zooplankton density and biomass in the epilimnion of Lake Ontario have also declined since 1995 at rates of 10-14% per year, but those declines are marginally significant; density declined significantly in the long-term (since 1981) but has remained at a lower stable level since 2005.Bosminid and cyclopoid copepod biomass declined significantly in nearshore waters. The same pattern occurred in the offshore but declines were significant for bosminids and marginally significant for cyclopoid copepods. Daphnid biomass has also declined significantly in the nearshore.The decline in Daphnid biomass nearshore and Bythotrephes biomass offshore and nearshore is indicative of increased planktivory by alewife. Significant declines in Bosminid and cyclopoid copepod biomass is indicative of increased invertebrate predation by Cercopagis and Bythotrephes in recent years.

  8. 2014 status of the Lake Ontario lower trophic levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holeck, Kristen T.; Rudstam, Lars G.; Hotaling, Christopher; McCullough, Russ D.; Lemon, Dave; Pearsall, Web; Lantry, Jana; Connerton, Michael J.; LaPan, Steve; Biesinger, Zy; Lantry, Brian F.; Walsh, Maureen; Weidel, Brian C.

    2015-01-01

    Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentrations have been stable in nearshore and offshore habitats since 1998 (0.4 – 3.3 μg/L). SRP concentrations were low in 2014; Apr/May – Oct mean values were Water Quality Agreement of 1978 for offshore waters of Lake Ontario. TP concentrations were low at both nearshore and offshore locations; Apr/May – Oct mean values from individual sites ranged from 4.6 – 9.1 μg/L. Spring TP has declined significantly in the longer data series (since 1981), but not since 1995 indicating stable nutrient loading into Lake Ontario for nearly two decades. It averaged 7.8 μg/L in the nearshore and 5.6 μg/L in the offshore in 2014.Chlorophyll-a and secchi depth values are indicative of oligotrophic conditions in nearshore and offshore habitats. Offshore summer chlorophyll-a declined significantly in both the short- (2000-2014) and long-term (1981-2014) time series at a rate of 4-6% per year. Nearshore chlorophyll-a increased after 2003 but then declined again after 2009. Epilimnetic chlorophyll-a averaged between 0.6 and 1.6 μg/L across sites with no difference between nearshore and offshore habitats. Apr/May – Oct Secchi depth ranged from 4.0 m to 10.8 m at individual sites and was higher in the offshore (average 9.1 m) than nearshore (5.9 m).In 2014, Apr/May – Oct epilimnetic zooplankton density, size, and biomass were not different between the offshore and the nearshore, and there were no differences in epilimnetic biomass between offshore and nearshore areas for any of the zooplankton groups.Zooplankton density and biomass peaked in September, an atypical pattern. This coincided with peaks in calanoid copepod, daphnid, and Holopedium biomass. Holopedium biomass in the nearshore increased significantly since 1995.The predatory cladoceran Cercopagis continued to be abundant in the summer, peaking at ~10 mg/m3in the offshore. Bythotrephes biomass was at its lowest level since 2005 in both offshore and nearshore habitats

  9. FAMILY’S ECONOMIC LEVEL AND CULTURE CORRELATE WITH NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF CHILDREN UNDER FIVE YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Muhith

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nutrition is an important thing for human life. Variety in family’s economic level and culture have effect on family’s eating habit. Family with higher economic status have big opportunity to met under fi ve year’s nutrition. Cultural diversity on each family has an impact on the difference of raw food selection, processing methods, and presentation of food. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between family’s economic level and culture with nutritional status of children under fi ve year. Method: Research design was observational analytic with cross sectional approach. The population were mother and their children under fi ve years at Desa Jatigono Kunir, Kabupaten Lumajang. Sampel were 184 respondents, taken by using cluster sampling. Independent variables were family’s economic level and culture. Dependent variable was nutritional status of children under fi ve years. Data were collected by using questionnaire and observational sheet. Then, data were analyzed by using Spearman Rho Test with α<0.05. Result: The results showed that 140 (76.1% respondents have low economic level, 105 (57.1% respondents have negative culture in children’s nutrition, and 89 (48% respondents have good nutritional status. The result of Spearman-rho test showed that family’s economic level (p=0.000 and culture (0.019 have correlated with nutritional status of children under five years. Discussion: It can be concluded that family’s economic level and culture have correlated with nutritional status of children under fi ve years. Nurses should develop health education and counseling to improve family’s knowledge about nutrition, so children will have good nutritional status. Keywords: economic level, family’s culture, nutritional status, children under five years

  10. Low density lipoprotein levels linkage with the periodontal status patients of coronary heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nafisah Ibrahim; Masulili, Sri Lelyati C.; Lessang, Robert; Radi, Basuni

    2017-02-01

    Studies found an association between periodontitis and coronary heart disease (CHD), but relationship between periodontal status CHD patients with LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein) levels, as risk factors for atherosclerosis, has not been studied. Objective: To analyze relationship between LDL and periodontal status CHD. Methods: Periodontal status of 60 CHD, 40 controls were examined (PBI, PPD, CAL) and their blood was taken to assess levels of LDL. Result: Found significant differences LDL (p=0.005), correlation between LDL with PPD (p=0.003) and CAL CHD (p=0.013), and PPD (p=0.001), CAL (p=0.008) non-CHD, but no significant correlation between LDL with PBI CAD (p=0.689) and PBI non-CHD (p=0.320). Conclusion: There is a correlation between the LDL levels with periodontal status.

  11. Land rental market, off-farm employment and agricultural production in Southeast China: A plot-level case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, S.; Heerink, N.; Ruben, R.; Qu, F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper performs a plot-level analysis of the impact of land rental market participation and off-farm employment on land investment, input use, and rice yields for 215 plots cultivated by 52 households in three villages in Northeast Jiangxi Province. Our findings show that households that rent

  12. Cross-Age Mentoring to Support A-Level Pupils' Transition into Higher Education and Undergraduate Students' Employability

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Alana I.

    2014-01-01

    Two challenges identified for psychology higher education are supporting entry students' transition, and supporting graduates' transition into employment. The evaluation of the first phase of a cross-age mentoring action research project targeting these issues is presented; eight psychology undergraduates mentored 20 A-level psychology pupils in…

  13. The impact of colorectal cancer and self-efficacy beliefs on work ability and employment status: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bains, M; Munir, F; Yarker, J; Bowley, D; Thomas, A; Armitage, N; Steward, W

    2012-09-01

    We examined how colorectal cancer patients' treatment and symptom management impacted perceptions of work ability and subsequent work decisions. Fifty patients completed questionnaires at baseline (post-surgery/pretreatment), 3 months and 6 months. Questionnaires assessed fatigue, depression, quality-of-life (QoL), cancer self-efficacy, job self-efficacy (JSE) and work ability. Factors related to perceived work ability were occupation (β= 0.31, P= 0.0005) and QoL (β= 0.42, P= 0.01) at baseline, treatment type (β=-0.19, P= 0.05) at 3 months, and JSE at 3 months (β= 0.57, P= 0.0005) and 6 months (β= 0.50, P= 0.006). Factors related to being on sick leave were lower levels of JSE (OR = 2.20, 95% CI: 1.17-4.13) at baseline and being employed in a manual occupation (OR = 0.03, 95% CI: 0.00-0.86), and perceived work ability (OR = 3.05, 95% CI: 1.00-12.80) at 6 months. Along with self-assessed work ability at baseline (β= 0.67, P= 0.0005), receiving chemotherapy or a combination of treatments (β=-0.24, P= 0.05) were the strongest predictors of poorer perceptions of follow-up work ability. Self-efficacy beliefs may add to understanding and should be considered in future research. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Mental health trajectories from childhood to young adulthood affect the educational and employment status of young adults : results from the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, Karin; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Almansa, Josue; Verhulst, Frank C.; Bultmann, Ute

    Background Young adults at work without basic educational level (BEL), and young adults in Neither Employment, Education nor Training (NEET) are at high risk of adverse employment outcomes. Evidence lacks on the impact of mental health problems during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood on

  15. Shoulder Activity Level is Associated With Type of Employment and Income in the Normative Population Without Shoulder Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Robert H; Lin, Kenneth M; Skillington, S Andrew; Hepper, C Tate; Smith, Matthew V

    2016-10-01

    Socioeconomic variables influence various healthcare issues in different ways. The effect of socioeconomic variables on the shoulder has not been well studied. Because activity level, defined by how much a patient actually does, is an important patient outcome measure and prognostic factor for the shoulder, studying its association with occupation and income will advance our understanding of how these variables relate to shoulder disorders, treatments, and outcomes. We asked: (1) Does shoulder activity score correlate with income level, stratified by gender? (2) Do different employment groups-heavy, moderate, light, student, retired-have different shoulder activity scores, as stratified by gender? (3) Is type of sports participation (contact or overhead) associated with income level, employment type, race, or household size? A survey collected the Brophy and Marx shoulder activity score and demographic information, such as age, gender, race, income, type of employment, and household size from 1625 individuals 18 years and older with no current or previous shoulder pain or injury who are members of a research panel matched to the United States population by age, gender, household income and size, race/ethnicity, and geography. Men and women were analyzed separately. Activity level was controlled for age. Shoulder activity correlated with income level among men (R = 0.03; p employment had the highest Shoulder Activity Scale (SAS) level (12.1 ± 4.9), which was more than SAS levels in sedentary (9.1 ± 4.5; mean difference, 3.0; 95% CI, 2.5-3.6; p = 0.001), student (8.8 ± 5.1; mean difference, 3.3; 95% CI, 3.0-3.7; p = 0.007), retired (8.0 ± 4.6; mean difference, 4.1; 95% CI, 3.6-4.7; p = 0.0001), and not working (7.5 ± 5.3; mean difference, 4.6; 95% CI, 4.6-4.6; p employment had the highest SAS level (12.0 ± 5.8). However, as there were few women working in heavy labor, the only significant difference in women was between moderate employment (8.8 ± 4.2) and

  16. A Longitudinal Investigation of Work-Family Strains and Gains, Work Commitment, and Subsequent Employment Status among Partnered Working Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvaney, Matthew K.; McNall, Laurel A.; Morrissey, Rebecca A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the work-family interface on mothers' commitment to work and the implications of that work commitment for subsequent employment. The study included a sample of employed partnered mothers who participated in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child…

  17. The Purdue Elementary Problem-Solving Inventory (PEPSI), Grade Level, and Socioeconomic Status: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, David W.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of grade level and socioeconomic status upon Purdue Elementary Problem-Solving Inventory (PEPSI) scores were investigated with 123 elementary students. It was concluded that the PEPSI is usable with most grade two through grade six pupils at both lower and middle socioeconomic levels, and has potential utility in teaching…

  18. A formal guidance for handling different uncertainty sources employed in the level 2 PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Kwang Il; Yang, Joon Eon; Ha, Jae Joo

    2004-01-01

    The methodological framework of the level 2 PSA appears to be currently standardized in a formalized fashion, but there have been different opinions on the way the sources of uncertainty are characterized and treated. This is primarily because the level 2 PSA deals with complex phenomenological processes that are deterministic in nature rather than random processes, and there are no probabilistic models characterizing them clearly. As a result, the probabilistic quantification of the level 2 PSA CET/APET is often subjected to two sources of uncertainty: (a) incomplete modeling of accident pathways or different predictions for the behavior of phenomenological events and (b) expert-to-expert variation in estimating the occurrence probability of phenomenological events. While a clear definition of the two sources of uncertainty involved in the level 2 PSA makes it possible to treat an uncertainty in a consistent manner, careless application of these different sources of uncertainty may produce different conclusions in the decision-making process. The primary purpose of this paper is to characterize typical sources of uncertainty that would often be addressed in the level 2 PSA and to provide a formal guidance for quantifying their impacts on the PSA level 2 risk results. An additional purpose of this paper is to give a formal approach on how to combine random uncertainties addressed in the level 1 PSA with subjectivistic uncertainties addressed in the level 2 PSA

  19. Generic versus specific competencies of entry-level public health graduates: employers' perceptions in Poland, the UK, and the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesma, Regien G; Pavlova, Milena; Vaatstra, Rina; van Merode, Godefridus G; Czabanowska, Katarzyna; Smith, Tony; Groot, Wim

    2008-08-01

    Constant changes in society and the public health domain force public health professionals into new roles and the development of new competencies. Public health professionals will need to be trained to respond to this challenge. The aim of this comparative study among Poland, the UK and the Netherlands is to identify competence needs for Master of Public Health graduates entering the labour market from a European perspective. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to employers in the three countries, rating the importance of competency in public health on a master's level. In all three countries, interpersonal competencies, like team working and communication skills, are rated as highly important. However, employers in the UK and Poland generally rate public health specific competencies as much more important than their Dutch colleagues. It is concluded that while public health specific knowledge is providing a useful starting point for entry-level public health professionals, employers increasingly recognise the value of generic competencies such as communication and team working skills. The results suggest a stronger emphasis on teaching methods that encourage active learning and the integration of skills, which is crucial for enhancing graduates' employability, and foster an open attitude to multidisciplinary working, which is essential in modern health care.

  20. Social support and employment status modify the effect of intimate partner violence on depression symptom severity in women: results from the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougé, Nathalie; Lehman, Erik B; McCall-Hosenfeld, Jennifer S

    2014-01-01

    Depression and intimate partner violence (IPV) are significant health issues for U.S. women. Interaction effects between IPV and other psychosocial factors on the severity of depressive symptoms have not been fully explored. This study assessed effect modification, that is, how IPV interacts with sociodemographics, psychosocial factors and health risk behaviors, on the severity of depressive symptoms in women. We utilized cross-sectional data from female respondents (n = 16,106) of the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance Survey. Sociodemographics, psychosocial variables, and health risk behaviors determined to be significantly associated with depression were tested for interaction effects with IPV. Weighted ordinal logistic regression and predicted probabilities illustrated the effect of IPV status on depressive symptom severity, stratified by interaction effects. Recent and lifetime IPV exposure were associated with more severe depressive symptoms compared with no IPV exposure. IPV history interacted with employment status and social support on the severity of depressive symptoms in women. Overall, any IPV exposure was associated with more severe depressive symptoms among women with low social support and unemployment, although the effect of recent (versus lifetime) IPV was most pronounced among women with high social support or employed women. Social support and employment status interact with IPV on the severity of depressive symptoms in women. Therefore, social support or workplace interventions designed to improve depressive symptoms should examine IPV history. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Effect of Moral Reasoning Level and Emotional Intelligence on Employment Ethics Assessment of Earnings Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewita Puspawati

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of moral level reasoning and emotional intelligence on the assessment of earnings management ethics. The theory used is the theory of planned behavior. Respondents in this study are S1 Accounting Department Faculty of Economics and Business University of Muhammadiyah Surakarta. The samples used were 89 respondents with convenience sampling technique. The results showed that the moral level of reasoning affect the evaluation of earnings management ethics, while emotional intelligence does not affect the dependent variable.

  2. Impact of County-Level Socioeconomic Status on Oropharyngeal Cancer Survival in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megwalu, Uchechukwu C

    2017-04-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of county-level socioeconomic status on survival in patients with oropharyngeal cancer in the United States. Study Design Retrospective cohort study via a large population-based cancer database. Methods Data were extracted from the SEER 18 database (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results) of the National Cancer Institute. The study cohort included 18,791 patients diagnosed with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma between 2004 and 2012. Results Patients residing in counties with a low socioeconomic status index had worse overall survival (56.5% vs 63.0%, P socioeconomic status index. On multivariable analysis, residing in a county with a low socioeconomic status index was associated with worse overall survival (hazard ratio, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.14-1.29; P status, year of diagnosis, site, American Joint Committee on Cancer stage group, presence of distant metastasis, presence of unresectable tumor, histologic grade, surgical resection of primary site, treatment with neck dissection, and radiation therapy. Conclusion Residing in a county with a low socioeconomic status index is associated with worse survival. Further research is needed to elucidate the mechanism by which socioeconomic status affects survival in oropharyngeal cancer.

  3. Does mothers' employment affect adolescents' weight and activity levels? Improving our empirical estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly A. Martin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Women’s lives are marked by complex work and family routines — routines that have implications for their children’s health. Prior research suggests a link between mothers' work hours and their children’s weight, but few studies investigate the child health implications of increasingly common work arrangements, such as telecommuting and flexible work schedules. We examine whether changes in mothers’ work arrangements are associated with changes in adolescents’ weight, physical activity, and sedentary behavior using longitudinal data and fixed effects models to better account for mothers’ social selection in to different work arrangements and children’s underlying preferences. With data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (N = 10,518, we find that changes in mothers’ work arrangements are not significantly associated with adolescents’ weight gain or physical activity but are significantly associated with adolescents’ sedentary behavior. Adolescents’ sedentary behavior declines when mothers become more available after school and increases when mothers work more hours or become unemployed. In sum, after accounting for unobserved, stable traits, including mothers’ selection into jobs with more or less flexibility, mothers’ work arrangements are most strongly associated with adolescents’ sedentary behavior. Keywords: Obesity, Physical activity, Sedentary behavior, Adolescence, Maternal employment, Work arrangements

  4. Taking "O" Level GCE Examinations: The Strategies Employed by Candidates and Their Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the relationship of study techniques and test-taking strategies to success on the "O" level of the British General Certificate of Education (GCE) examination. Findings showed that teachers and students felt that course reviews, including study of past examinations, was the best preparation. (AM)

  5. Reading Strategies Employed by University Business English Majors with Different Levels of Reading Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Intaraprasert, Channarong

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of reading strategies by the university Business English majors in relation to their levels of reading proficiency. The participants were 926 university Business English majors from 6 universities in southwest China. The Strategy Questionnaire for Business English Reading (SQBER) and the…

  6. Developing Skills for Employability at the Secondary Level: Effective Models for Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaram, Shubha; Engmann, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Globally, enormous gains have been made towards the goal of universal primary education, leading to increased demands for secondary education. Consequently, more youth and young adults are now entering the formal and informal labour markets from the secondary level, which makes it important to ensure that secondary schools teach skills relevant to…

  7. Employability Competencies for Entry Level Occupations in Electronics. Part One: Basic Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Claire

    This syllabus, which is the first of a two-volume set describing the basic competencies needed by entry-level workers in the field of electronics, deals with the basic theories of electricity and electronics. Competencies are organized according to the following skills areas: the meaning of electricity, how electricity works, resistors, Ohm's law,…

  8. Cross-age mentoring to support A-level pupils’ transition into Higher Education and undergraduate students’ employability

    OpenAIRE

    James, Alana I.

    2014-01-01

    Two challenges identified for psychology higher education are supporting entry students’ transition, and supporting graduates’ transition into employment. The evaluation of the first phase of a cross-age mentoring action research project targeting these issues is presented; eight psychology undergraduates mentored 20 A-level psychology pupils in two schools. Mentors showed significant increases in two of nine psychological literacies, in self-efficacy but not self-esteem, were highly satisfie...

  9. Relationships between Family Levels of Socioeconomic Status and Distribution of Breast Cancer Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohaghegh, Pegah; Yavari, Parvin; Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil; Abadi, Alireza; Ahmadi, Farzaneh; Shormeij, Zeinab

    2015-01-01

    Not only the expand development of knowledge for reducing risk factors, but also the improvement in early diagnosis and treatment of cancer, and socioeconomic inequalities could affect cancer incidence, diagnosis stage, and mortality. The aim of this study was investigation the relationships between family levels of socioeconomic status and distribution of breast cancer risk factors. This descriptive cross-sectional study has conducted on 526 patients who were suffering from breast cancer, and have registered in Cancer Research Center of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences from March 2008 to December 2013. A reliable and valid questionnaire about family levels of socioeconomic status has filled by interviewing the patients via phone. For analyzing the data, Multinomial logistic regression, Kendal tau-b correlation coefficient and Contingency Coefficient tests have executed by SPSS19. The mean age of the patients was 48.30 (SD=11.41). According to the results of this study, there was a significant relationship between family socioeconomic status and patient's age at diagnosis of breast cancer (p valuesocioeconomic status and number of pregnancies, and duration of breast feeding were significant (p value> 0.001). In the multiple logistic regressions, the relationship between excellent socioeconomic status and number of abortions was significant (p value> 0.007). Furthermore, the relationships between moderate and good socioeconomic statuses and smoking were significant (p value=0.05 and p value=0.02, respectively). The results have indicated that among those patients having better socioeconomic status, age at cancer diagnosis, number of pregnancies and duration of breast feeding was lower, and then number of abortions was more than the others. According to the results of this study, it was really important to focus on family socioeconomic status as a critical and effective variable on breast cancer risk factors among the Iranian women.

  10. Alkaline phosphatase levels in patients with coronary heart disease saliva and its relation with periodontal status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunita, Dina Suci; Masulili, Sri Lelyati C.; Tadjoedin, Fatimah M.; Radi, Basuni

    2017-02-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a disease that causes narrowing of the coronary arteries. Currently, there is a hypothesis regarding periodontal infection that increases risk for heart disease. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as a marker of inflammation will increase in atherosclerosis and periodontal disease. The objective of this research is analyzing the relationship between the levels of alkaline phosphatase in saliva with periodontal status in patients with CHD and non CHD. Here, saliva of 104 subjects were taken, each 1 ml, and levels of Alkaline Phosphatase was analyzed using Abbott ci4100 architect. We found that no significant difference of Alkaline Phosphatase levels in saliva between CHD patients and non CHD. Therefore, it can be concluded that Alkaline Phosphatase levels in patients with CHD saliva was higher than non CHD and no association between ALP levels with periodontal status.

  11. Influence of different thyroid functional statuses on human serum IL-8, TNF levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Feng; Jiao Yanxiang; Guang Yancen; Zhang Zhu; Wei Cuiying

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of different statuses of thyroid function (hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism as well as euthyroid status) on serum IL-8, TNF levels. Methods: Serum IL-8, TNF levels of 95 hyperthyroidism patients (41 males, 54 females), 53 hypothyroidism patients (23 males, 30 females), 45 euthyroid controls (24 males, 21 females) were measured with RIA. Results: 1. Serum IL-8 levels in hyperthyroidism (Graves' disease) patients were significantly higher than those in controls. (F=2.93, p 0.05). IL-8 and TNF levels were also not correlated to age and thyroid hormone levels. Conclusion: Both IL-8 and TNF took part in many auto-immure pathological processes including hyper-and hypo-thyroidism

  12. The Influence of Workers' Health Status on Employers' Decision-Making During Personnel Restructuring in a Typical Public Limited Enterprise in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margan, Andrea; Dodič-Fikfak, Metoda

    2015-09-01

    Alongside individual indicators of job performance, even workers' health status could be a criterion for selection. The mechanisms for health selection are a reduction of productivity in relation to illness or certain health behaviour. The aim of the study was to establish how indicators of workers' health status, which are accessible to the employer, influence the employer's decision-making on which workers to retain and which to dismiss during personnel restructuring in the enterprise. Due to a planned closure of a plant, the observed company began personnel restructuring which included a strategic decrease in the number of employees and the relocation of workers within the company. Two nested case control studies were conducted. The cases were divided into two groups and defined as follows: employees who were relocated and employees whose employment contract was terminated. The results show that the disability category and long-time sick leave exert the greatest influence on the employer's decision on the selection of workers. Workers with work-related disability have lower odds to be relocated to a new workplace (OR=0.5; 95% CI 0.2 to 1.1) and higher odds to be dismissed (OR=6.51; 95% CI 3.33 to 12.72). The workers with a history of a long-time sick leave also have lower odds to be relocated (OR=0.31; 95% CI 0.11 to 0.88) and higher odds to be dismissed (OR=4.32; 95% CI 2.08 to 8.96). Indicators of health which were accessible to the employer actually exerted influence on the employer's decision-making, which could show a direct form of health selection.

  13. [Physical activity levels among Colombian adults: inequalities by gender and socioeconomic status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Silvia; Lozano, Óscar; Ramírez, Andrea; Grijalba, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide studies show inequalities in physical activity levels related to socio-demographic characteristics. In Colombia, among the countries in Latin America with the highest inequality, the evidence related to inequalities in physical activity is limited. It is imperative to identify disparities in physical activity in the country, to guide the design of public policies aimed at promoting physical activity. 1) To estimate the prevalence and associated factors of meeting physical activity recommendations; 2) to assess inequalities by gender and socioeconomic status in meeting physical activity recommendations, and 3) to assess the trends in physical activity prevalence within a five-year period. A secondary analysis of data from the 2010 National Nutrition Survey was conducted. The sample included 27,243 adults. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to measure leisure time and transport domains. Socioeconomic status was measured by the Sisben level. Compared to men, women were less likely to meet physical activity recommendations in all domains. Compared to adults from high socioeconomic-status households, low socioeconomic-status adults had a lower prevalence of meeting physical activity recommendations during leisure time and the highest prevalence of using a bicycle for transport. The factors associated with meeting physical activity recommendations differed by gender and physical activity domain. Household and individual variables explained 13.6% of the inequalities observed by gender, and 23.2% of the inequalities by socioeconomic status. In a five-year period, the prevalence of physical activity in leisure time decreased, while the physical activity of walking for transport increased and biking for transport did not change. Future interventions to increase physical activity levels in Colombia must consider inequalities by gender and socioeconomic status. Of special concern is the low prevalence of meeting physical activity

  14. Nutritional Status and Effect of Maternal Employment among Children Aged 6-59 Months in Wolayta Sodo Town, Southern Ethiopia: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshete, Hiwot; Abebe, Yewelsew; Loha, Eskindir; Gebru, Teklemichael; Tesheme, Tesfalem

    2017-03-01

    Childhood malnutrition remains common in many parts of the world; the magnitude of worldwide stunting, underweight and wasting in children under five years of age were 24.7 %, 15.1 % and 7.8 %, respectively. More than 150 million children under the age of five years in the developing world are malnourished. Ethiopia is one of the countries in sub-Saharan Africa with the highest rates of malnutrition. In Ethiopia, 44.4% and 9.7% of children under-five years old were stunted and wasted, respectively. This study was aimed to assess nutritional status and effect of maternal employment among children aged 6-59 months. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Wolayta Sodo Town, Southern Ethiopia. Socio-demographic characteristics, child feeding and healthcare seeking practice of mothers, and child's anthropometric status were assessed. Probability proportional to size sampling approach was used to select a sample of 316 mothers having children aged 6-59 months. The study was ethically approved by Institutional Review Board of Health Science College, Hawasa University. The overall result revealed that the prevalence of stunting was 22.2%, of which 21.8% and 22.6% were in children of employed and unemployed mothers, respectively. Low-weight-for age was 10.8% for children of employed mothers and 13.4% for children of unemployed mothers. Wasting was 8.8% and 10.8% for children of employed and unemployed mothers, respectively. There was no statistically significant association between maternal employment and nutritional status of their children. However, chronic malnutrition (stunting) was influenced by being educated mother (OR: 0.37) child age group of 24-59 months (OR: 0.36) and households' fifth wealth quintile (OR: 0.28). Low prevalence of stunting was observed. Stunting is a public health concern in the study area. Furthermore, stunting is significantly influenced by mothers' education, household wealth and child age. However, maternal employment was not statistically

  15. Association between family structure, maternal education level, and maternal employment with sedentary lifestyle in primary school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Nava, Francisco; Treviño-Garcia-Manzo, Norberto; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Carlos F; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Eliza M

    2013-01-01

    To determine the association between family structure, maternal education level, and maternal employment with sedentary lifestyle in primary school-age children. Data were obtained from 897 children aged 6 to 12 years. A questionnaire was used to collect information. Body mass index (BMI) was determined using the age- and gender-specific Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definition. Children were categorized as: normal weight (5(th) percentile≤BMImaternal educational level and having a working mother, appears to be associated with sedentary lifestyle in overweight primary school-age children. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Non-weight-bearing status compromises the functional level up to 1 yr after hip fracture surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariza-Vega, Patrocinio; Jiménez-Moleón, José Juan; Kristensen, Morten Tange

    2014-01-01

    , age, health status, and cognitive impairment of the patient were associated negatively with the 1-yr functional outcome (P ≤ 0.03). Prefracture functional level and non-WB status were the strongest determinants of functional level (β = 0.599 and -0.204, respectively; P ... after surgery, in addition to prefracture function, cognitive status, health status, age and fracture type, was found to be an independent predictor of the 1-yr functional outcome in hip fracture patients....

  17. The Market for Ph.D. Holders in Greece: Probit and Multinomial Logit Analysis of their Employment Status

    OpenAIRE

    Joan Daouli; Eirini Konstantina Nikolatou

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the factors influencing the probability that a Ph.D. holder in Greece will work in the academic sector, as well as the probability of his or her choosing employment in various sectors of industry and occupational categories. Probit/multinomial logit models are employed using the 2001 Census data. The empirical results indicate that being young, married, having a Ph.D. in Natural Sciences and/or in Engineering, granted by a Greek university, increa...

  18. Evaluation of the choline status in mink fed different levels and sources of choline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Damgaard, Birthe Marie; Clausen, T.N.

    2012-01-01

    Choline is an essential nutrient but the daily need for choline in mink has never been determined. Two experiments were performed to evalutate the choline status in mink kits and full-grown mink fed different levels of choline. In the first experiment mink kits were fed a synthetic diet with chol...

  19. Socioeconomic Status, Higher-Level Mathematics Courses, Absenteeism, and Student Mobility as Indicators of Work Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folds, Lea D.; Tanner, C. Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the relations among socioeconomic status, highest-level mathematics course, absenteeism, student mobility and measures of work readiness of high school seniors in Georgia. Study participants were 476 high school seniors in one Georgia county. The full regression model explained 27.5% of the variance in…

  20. Association between blood cholesterol level with periodontal status of coronary heart disease patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valensia, Rosy; Masulili, Sri Lelyati C.; Lessang, Robert; Radi, Basuni

    2017-02-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is an abnormal narrowing of heart arteries associated with local accumulation of lipids, in the form of cholesterol and triglycerides. Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory that suggests link to the development of CHD. In periodontitis have been reported changes in lipid profile, include increased of cholesterol levels of blood. Objective: to analyse correlation between blood cholesterol level with periodontal status of CHD and non CHD subjects. Methods: Periodontal status and blood cholesterol level of 60 CHD and 40 non CHD subjects was measured. Result: Blood cholesterol level in CHD subjects differs from non CHD subjects (p=0.032). Blood cholesterol level correlates with pocket depth (p=0.003) and clinical attachment loss (CAL) (p=0.000) in CHD subjects. Blood cholesterol level correlates with pocket depth (p=0.010) in non CHD subjects. There is no significant correlation between blood cholesterol level and bleeding on probing (BOP) in CHD subjects. There is no significant correlation between blood cholesterol level with BOP and CAL in non CHD subjects. Conclusion: Blood cholesterol level in control group is higher than CHD patients. Blood cholesterol level positively associated with pocket depth (r=0.375) and CAL (r=0.450) in CHD patients. Blood cholesterol level is positively associated with pocket depth (r=0.404) in control group.

  1. Linking Employment Status, Maternal Psychological Well-Being, Parenting, and Children's Attributions about Poverty in Families Receiving Government Assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murry, Velma McBride; Brody, Gene H.; Brown, Anita; Wisenbaker, Joseph; Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Simons, Ronald L.

    2002-01-01

    Using an ecological risk-protection perspective, explores functional changes in single African American mothers (N=96) receiving government assistance. Examines links among maternal employment, mothers' physical and psychological health, and children's attributions about causes of poverty. Maternal psychological distress was linked with children's…

  2. Status of technology for isolating high-level radioactive wastes in geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klingsberg, C.; Duguid, J.

    1980-10-01

    This report attempts to summarize the status of scientific and technological knowledge relevant to long-term isolation of high-level and transuranic wastes in a mined geologic repository. It also identifies and evaluates needed information and identifies topics in which work is under way or needed to reduce uncertainties. The major findings and conclusions on the following topics are presented: importance of the systems approach; prospects for successful isolation of wastes; need for site-specific investigations; human activities in the future; importance of modelling; disposal of transuranic wastes; status of technology of isolation barriers, performance assessment, site selection and characterization, and potential host rocks

  3. Hepatic encephalopathy before and neurological complications after liver transplantation have no impact on the employment status 1 year after transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Pflugrad, Henning; Tryc, Anita B; Goldbecker, Annemarie; Strassburg, Christian P; Barg-Hock, Hannelore; Klempnauer, J?rgen; Weissenborn, Karin

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the impact of hepatic encephalopathy before orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) and neurological complications after OLT on employment after OLT. METHODS One hundred and fourteen patients with chronic liver disease aged 18-60 years underwent neurological examination to identify neurological complications, neuropsychological tests comprising the PSE-Syndrome-Test yielding the psychometric hepatic encephalopathy score, the critical flicker frequency and the Repeatable Batt...

  4. Asymmetric Information under the Kafala Sponsorship System: Impacts on Foreign Domestic Workers' Income and Employment Status in the GCC Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Malit, Froilan T.; Naufal, George S

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the legal and policy implications of information asymmetry on foreign domestic workers employed under the Kafala sponsorship system in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. Drawing from ethnographic and field-based observations in large GCC migrant destinations – including Kuwait, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) – we investigate the information flows and market uncertainties between five key stakeholders: labor-receiving governments, labor-sending governm...

  5. Employer Toolkit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuli, Kelli J.; Hong, Esther

    This document consists of two guides intended for either employers or service providers involved in school to work partnerships for students with disabilities. "Tools for Service Providers" is intended to be used for training local-level providers who are developing school to work linkages with employers. Following an introduction, this…

  6. [Impact of the labour market on vocational retraining centre participants' return to work: a study on employment agencies level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzel, C; Flach, T; Schmidt, C

    2012-08-01

    This paper is aimed at identifying labour market factors impacting vocational retraining centre participants' return to work on Employment Agencies level and at comparing results to unemployed people's return to work (Social Code Book III). Databases are regional return to work rates of 2006 graduates, selected labour market indicators 2007, and the 2007 labour market classification of the Institute for Employment Research (IAB). The n = 75 Employment Agency districts where 74.5 % of the participants followed-up lived were analyzed using analyses of variance and multiple loglinear regression. Compared to the unemployment context (Social Code Book III), the impact of the labour market is much lower and less complex. In the multiple model, the regional unemployment rate and the regional tertiarization rate (size of the service sector) are found to be significant and superior to the IAB-classification. Hence, participants' return to work is less dependent on labour market conditions than unemployed people's return to work (Social Code Book III). © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. The Impact of Physical Work Demands on Need for Recovery, Employment Status, Retirement Intentions, and Ability to Extend Working Careers: A Longitudinal Study Among Older Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gommans, Fleur G; Jansen, Nicole W H; Mackey, Martin G; Stynen, Dave; de Grip, Andries; Kant, I Jmert

    2016-04-01

    Prospectively investigating whether different approaches of physical work demands are associated with need for recovery (NFR), employment status, retirement intentions, and ability to prolong working life among older employees from the industry and health care sector. A subsample from the Maastricht Cohort Study was studied (n = 1126). Poisson, Cox, and logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate outcomes. Perceiving physical work demands as strenuous was associated with higher NFR. Continuous physical strain was associated with being out of employment 4 years later. Employees with the highest amount of physical work demands perceived they were less able to prolong working life, although no significant associations between physical work demands and retirement intentions were found. Overall, physical work demands were associated with adverse outcomes, with divergent insights for the different approaches of physical work demands.

  8. Do early unemployment and health status among young men and women affect their chances of later employment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarström, A; Janlert, U

    2000-03-01

    The aim of this 5-year prospective study was to investigate the risk of future unemployment among young people who had experienced early unemployment, and to examine whether this risk was influenced by their health status. A total of 1,083 pupils in the final year of compulsory schooling were included in the cohort. The non-participation rate was 2%. At the time of a five-year follow-up, of those who were unemployed during the first two-year period, 71% of the men and 49% of the women were unemployed, had recent experience of unemployment, or were outside the labour market. The relative risk of being unemployed was 2.39 for men (95% CI 1.85-3.10) and 1.76 for women (95% CI 1.25-2.48) among those who had experienced early unemployment compared with those who had been in Youth Opportunities Programmes (YOP) or in work. Young women in YOP had the same risk of later unemployment as those who had experienced early unemployment, while young men in YOP did not have increased risk. Health status and health behaviour had only a minor influence on the risk of unemployment.

  9. County-Level Population Economic Status and Medicare Imaging Resource Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Hughes, Danny R; Prabhakar, Anand M; Duszak, Richard

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess relationships between county-level variation in Medicare beneficiary imaging resource consumption and measures of population economic status. The 2013 CMS Geographic Variation Public Use File was used to identify county-level per capita Medicare fee-for-service imaging utilization and nationally standardized costs to the Medicare program. The County Health Rankings public data set was used to identify county-level measures of population economic status. Regional variation was assessed, and multivariate regressions were performed. Imaging events per 1,000 Medicare beneficiaries varied 1.8-fold (range, 2,723-4,843) at the state level and 5.3-fold (range, 1,228-6,455) at the county level. Per capita nationally standardized imaging costs to Medicare varied 4.2-fold (range, $84-$353) at the state level and 14.1-fold (range, $33-$471) at the county level. Within individual states, county-level utilization varied on average 2.0-fold (range, 1.1- to 3.1-fold), and costs varied 2.8-fold (range, 1.1- to 6.4-fold). For both large urban populations and small rural states, Medicare imaging resource consumption was heterogeneously variable at the county level. Adjusting for county-level gender, ethnicity, rural status, and population density, countywide unemployment rates showed strong independent positive associations with Medicare imaging events (β = 26.96) and costs (β = 4.37), whereas uninsured rates showed strong independent positive associations with Medicare imaging costs (β = 2.68). Medicare imaging utilization and costs both vary far more at the county than at the state level. Unfavorable measures of county-level population economic status in the non-Medicare population are independently associated with greater Medicare imaging resource consumption. Future efforts to optimize Medicare imaging use should consider the influence of local indigenous socioeconomic factors outside the scope of traditional beneficiary-focused policy

  10. Psychosocial and Demographic Correlates of Employment versus Disability Status in a National Community Sample of Adults with Chronic Pain: Toward a Psychology of Pain Presenteeism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoly, Paul; Ruehlman, Linda S.; Okun, Morris A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although chronic pain is a source of work-related disability, relatively little research has addressed the psychological factors that differentiate individuals in chronic pain who leave the workforce from those who remain on the job despite their pain. Objective The present study examined a small set of attitudinal and coping-related factors as potential correlates of pain-related disability versus continued part- or full time employment over and above the role of well-known risk factors. Methods A large sample of adult men and women with chronic pain drawn from across the United States (N= 1293) by means of random digit dialing was subdivided into two groups: working (N = 859) and on disability (N = 434). Both groups were interviewed (by telephone) to complete a set of instruments (called the Profile of Chronic Pain: Extended Assessment [PCP: EA] Battery) measuring pain attitudes and coping methods. Results Logistic regression analysis revealed, as expected, that continued employment status was inversely related to pain severity and work status was positively related to higher education and being Hispanic. After controlling for severity and demographic factors, belief in a medical cure and catastrophizing tendencies were significant inverse predictors and task persistence was a positive predictor of continued employment. Conclusions Results revealed both demographic and attitudinal predictors of continued employment, and highlight the value of harnessing insights from the psychology of work engagement to better understand the processes underlying pain presenteeism. Interventions designed to keep persons with pain in the active work force should build upon and extend the present findings. PMID:24010682

  11. Physiological relevance of plant 2-Cys peroxiredoxin overoxidation level and oligomerization status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerveau, Delphine; Ouahrani, Djelloul; Marok, Mohamed Amine; Blanchard, Laurence; Rey, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Peroxiredoxins are ubiquitous thioredoxin-dependent peroxidases presumed to display, upon environmental constraints, a chaperone function resulting from a redox-dependent conformational switch. In this work, using biochemical and genetic approaches, we aimed to unravel the factors regulating the redox status and the conformation of the plastidial 2-Cys peroxiredoxin (2-Cys PRX) in plants. In Arabidopsis, we show that in optimal growth conditions, the overoxidation level mainly depends on the availability of thioredoxin-related electron donors, but not on sulfiredoxin, the enzyme reducing the 2-Cys PRX overoxidized form. We also observed that upon various physiological temperature, osmotic and light stress conditions, the overoxidation level and oligomerization status of 2-Cys PRX can moderately vary depending on the constraint type. Further, no major change was noticed regarding protein conformation in water-stressed Arabidopsis, barley and potato plants, whereas species-dependent up- and down-variations in overoxidation were observed. In contrast, both 2-Cys PRX overoxidation and oligomerization were strongly induced during a severe oxidative stress generated by methyl viologen. From these data, revealing that the oligomerization status of plant 2-Cys PRX does not exhibit important variation and is not tightly linked to the protein redox status upon physiologically relevant environmental constraints, the possible in planta functions of 2-Cys PRX are discussed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The Potential Positive Impact of Sup-ported Employment on the Oral Health Status, Attitudes and Behavior of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios Margaritis

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities (ID con-stitute a unique but heterogeneous population, which includes a great variety of mental and developmental disorders, as well as congenital syndromes. Nowadays, many persons with mild or moderate ID, with specific training, can make considerable efforts to improve their lives, by having a job in either open or supported employment. On the other hand, since dental caries and periodontal diseases are among the most common secondary conditions affecting people with ID, oral diseases may detract the quality of life from disabled persons.The hypothesis: Employment (sheltered workshop, open or supported employment of persons with ID, may enable these individuals to improve their oral health status, attitudes and behavior, compared to the ID individuals who are not working, due to the development of specific socio-emotional characteristics and dexterities.Evaluation of the hypothesis: According to previous reports, employed people with ID demonstrated better self-esteem and greater autonomy, more satisfaction with their vocational/non-vocational ac-tivities and higher quality of life.

  13. Changes in adiposity levels in schoolchildren according to nutritional status: analysis over a 30-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Luis de Moraes Ferrari

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze changes in adiposity levels over a 30-year period in schoolchildren according to nutritional status. This study is part of Projeto Misto Longitudinal de Crescimento, Desenvolvimento e Aptidão Física de Ilhabela. 1.144 schoolchildren of both sexes, aged between 10 and 11 years, met the following inclusion criteria: (a have at least one complete evaluation in one of the analyzed periods; (b be in the prepubertal stage of sexual maturation;and (c be apparently healthy. Analyzed periods were 1978/1980 (Baseline,1988/1990 (10 years, 1998/2000 (20 years, 2008/2010 (30 years. Analyzed variables were: body mass (kg, height (cm and adiposity levels (mm. Children were classified into three categories: eutrophic, overweight and obese, according to nutritional status, using World Health Organization (WHO body mass index (BMI curves for age and sex. For a comparison between periods, Two-Factor Analysis of Variance and Bonferroni’s test were used. In both sexes, the most significant increase in adiposity levels occurred among the eutrophic group, followed by the overweight group and obese group. Results showed an increase in adiposity levels over a 30-year period, even with nutritional status control. It shows that individuals with a similar BMI may vary in proportion and distribution of subcutaneous adipose tissue.

  14. Changes in adiposity levels in schoolchildren according to nutritional status: analysis over a 30-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Luis de Moraes Ferrari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2013v15n4p405 The aim of this study was to analyze changes in adiposity levels over a 30-year period in schoolchildren according to nutritional status. This study is part of Projeto Misto Longitudinal de Crescimento, Desenvolvimento e Aptidão Física de Ilhabela. 1.144 schoolchildren of both sexes, aged between 10 and 11 years, met the following inclusion criteria: (a have at least one complete evaluation in one of the analyzed periods; (b be in the prepubertal stage of sexual maturation;and (c be apparently healthy. Analyzed periods were 1978/1980 (Baseline,1988/1990 (10 years, 1998/2000 (20 years, 2008/2010 (30 years. Analyzed variables were: body mass (kg, height (cm and adiposity levels (mm. Children were classified into three categories: eutrophic, overweight and obese, according to nutritional status, using World Health Organization (WHO body mass index (BMI curves for age and sex. For a comparison between periods, Two-Factor Analysis of Variance and Bonferroni’s test were used. In both sexes, the most significant increase in adiposity levels occurred among the eutrophic group, followed by the overweight group and obese group. Results showed an increase in adiposity levels over a 30-year period, even with nutritional status control. It shows that individuals with a similar BMI may vary in proportion and distribution of subcutaneous adipose tissue.

  15. Malnutrition on the menu: nutritional status of institutionalised elderly Australians in low-level care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, J L; Walker, K Z; Iuliano Burns, S; Strauss, B J

    2009-10-01

    Most studies reporting malnutrition in the elderly relate to high-level care. However, one third of Australians in aged care reside in low-level care facilities. Data is limited on their nutritional status. To investigate the nutritional status of elderly in low-level care facilities. A cross sectional study design. 14 low-level aged care facilities in metropolitan Melbourne. Convenience sample of 103 ambulatory elderly (86 +/- 6.6 years (mean +/- SD), 76% female, comprising 15% of the hostel population) able to perform daily functions of living. Nutritional intake assessed by three-day weighed food records, and nutritional status by haematological and biochemical markers and body composition (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry). FOOD served did not supply the estimated average requirements (EAR) for 5 of the 14 nutrients analysed. Compared with EAR, 34% of participants were protein malnourished and 62% had energy intake deficits. Micronutrient intake was low for calcium, magnesium, folate, zinc (for men) and dietary fibre. Vitamin D deficiency (serum 25OH Vitamin D sarcopenia, 28% of men and 44% women had excess body fat (> 28% and >40%, respectively) and 14% of men and 12 % of women were sarcopenic-obese. Only 12% showed no sign of undernutrition using seven different nutritional indicators. Around 65% had two or more indicators of undernutrition. These findings highlight the need for the supply of more, better quality, nutrient dense food to residents and better detection of undernutrition in aged care facilities. Maintenance of nutritional status has the potential to reduce morbidity and delay the transition to high-level care.

  16. Vitamin D status is associated with anxiety levels in postmenopausal women evaluated for osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Martino

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D status has been previously associated with a wide range of acute and chronic diseases. The nervous system express vitamin D receptors and thus vitamin D may be involved in mental health. Poor data exist about the correlation between vitamin D and anxiety levels.Our aim was to investigate the association of vitamin D status with anxiety severity. A group of 177 postmenopausal women (mean age 65.5±8.22 yr. referring to an outpatients clinic for the prevention of osteoporosis were evaluated. Severity of perceived anxiety symptoms was measured by the Hamilton Anxiety rating scale (HAMA. Depression levels were also evaluated using the Beck Depression Inventory-second edition scale (BDI-II.  25(OHD serum levels, indicative of vitamin D status, were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography. 25(OHD levels were significantly related HAMA-score (r=-0.15, p=0.04; particularly a deep association was observed between 25(OHD levels and somatic symptoms (r=-0.195, p=0.009. HAMA score was associated with BDI-II score (r=0.487, p=<0.001; HAMA psychic symptom score was also related with age and time since menopause (r=0.149, p=0.039 and r=0.222, p=0.003, respectively. At a multiple regression analysis, after correcting for age and depression levels, 25(OHD was predictive of HAMA score (β =-0,05961, p= 0.02, SE=-2.206, but the strength of association was lost further correcting for time since menopause.  In conclusion, in a setting of postmenopausal women, we observed a significant association between anxiety levels and serum 25(OHD concentrations irrespective of age and depression levels.

  17. Impact of Helicobacter pylori Immunoglobulin G Levels and Atrophic Gastritis Status on Risk of Metabolic Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Takeoka

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (HP infection is implicated in gastric and extra-gastric diseases. While gastritis-related chronic inflammation represents a known trigger of metabolic disturbances, whether metabolic syndrome (MetS is affected by gastritis status remains unclear. We aimed to clarify the effect of HP-related gastritis on the risk of MetS.We retrospectively enrolled patients undergoing screening for MetS between 2014 and 2015. Investigations included HP-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG antibody assays to detect HP infection, and serum pepsinogen assays to evaluate atrophic gastritis status. The risk of MetS was evaluated via multiple logistic regression analyses with two covariates: serum HP infection status (IgG levels and atrophic gastritis status (two criteria were applied; pepsinogen I/II ratio < 3 or both pepsinogen I levels ≤ 70 μg/L and pepsinogen I/II ratio < 3.Of 1,044 participants, 247 (23.7% were HP seropositive, and 62 (6.0% had MetS. HP seronegative and seropositive patients had similar risks of MetS. On the other hand, AG (defined in terms of serum PG I/II <3 was significant risk of MetS (OR of 2.52 [95% CI 1.05-7.52]. After stratification according to HP IgG concentration, patients with low HP infection status had the lowest MetS risk (defined as an odds ratio [OR] adjusted for age, sex, smoking, drinking and physical activity status. Taking this result as a reference, patients with negative, moderate, and high HP infection status had ORs (with 95% confidence intervals [CI] of 2.15 (1.06-4.16, 3.69 (1.12-16.7, and 4.05 (1.05-26.8.HP-associated gastritis represents a risk factor for MetS. Research should determine why low and not negative HP infection status is associated with the lowest MetS risk.

  18. Blood lead levels in pregnant women of high and low socioeconomic status in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, P; Borja-Aburto, V H; Rios, C; Hertz-Picciotto, I; Rojas-Lopez, M; Chavez-Ayala, R

    1996-10-01

    This study examined the determinants of blood lead (BPb) in 513 pregnant women in Mexico City: 311 from public hospital prenatal clinics, representing primarily women of low socioeconomic status (SES), and 202 from private hospitals, primarily women of high SES. Overall, BPb levels ranged from 1.38 to 29 micrograms/dl, with geometric means of 6.7 and 11.12 micrograms/dl for women from private and public hospitals, respectively. The crude geometric means difference obtained by t-test was 4.42 (p Consumption of tortillas (corn bread rich in calcium) decreased BPb levels in the lower SES group, but the relationship was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Consumption of milk products significantly (p socioeconomic status.

  19. [Appraisal of occupational stress in different gender, age, work duration, educational level and marital status groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Ming; Jin, Tai-Yi

    2006-05-01

    This study was conducted to assess occupational stress in different gender, age, work duration, educational level and marital status group. A test of occupational stress in different gender, age, work duration, educational level and marital status group, was carried out with revised occupational stress inventory (OSI-R) for 4278 participants. The results of gender show that there are heavier occupational role, stronger interpersonal and physical strain in male than that in female, and the differences are statistically significant (P 0.05). The occupational stress so as to improve the work ability of different groups. Different measure should be taken to reduce the occupational stress so as to improve the work ability of different groups.

  20. Status of the NA62 liquid krypton electromagnetic calorimeter Level 0 trigger processor

    CERN Document Server

    Bonaiuto, V; Fucci, A; Paoluzzi, G; Salamon, A; Salina, G; Santovetti, E; Sargeni, F; Venditti, S

    2013-01-01

    The NA62 experiment at the CERN SPS aims to measure the Branching Ratio of the very rare kaon decay K(+)→π(+)νbar nu collecting O(100) events with a 10% background in two years of data taking. To reject the K(+)→π(+)π(0) background the NA48 liquid krypton calorimeter will be used in the 1-10 mrad angular region. The status of the Liquid Krypton Electromagnetic Calorimeter Level 0 Trigger is presented.

  1. [Functional status, self-rated health and level of physical activity of patients with osteoarthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val Jiménez, Carmen Llanos; López-Torres Hidalgo, Jesús; García Atienza, Eva María; Navarro Ruiz, María Soledad; Hernández Cerón, Inmaculada; Moreno de la Rosa, Lorena

    2017-04-01

    To describe the functional status and self-rated health of patients with osteoarthritis (OA) in Primary Care, and checking their relationship with the level of physical activity and sociodemographic characteristics. Study of prevalence and cross association. Primary Care Clinics. Adult patients with a diagnosis of OA in any joint in their clinical records. Out of a total of 487 selected, 346 (71.0%) took part in the study. Functional capacity (WOMAC scale), self-rated quality of life (EuroQol- 5D questionnaire), physical activity (IPAQ questionnaire), number of affected joints, pain level, and sociodemographic characteristics. A mean score of 30.2 (SD: 20.8; CI 95% CI: 28.0 to 32.4) was obtained on the WOMAC scale, with pain, stiffness, and functional capacity scores of 6.5 (SD: 4.8), 1.9 (SD: 2.0), and 21.7 (SD: 15.7), respectively. The score showed a linear trend (P<.001) compared to the level of physical activity, being 41.1 (SD: 19.9) in inactive subjects, 24.3 (SD: 18.7) in subjects with moderate activity, and 22.3 (SD: 19.8) in subjects with intense activity. In the multiple linear regression, the score on the WOMAC scale, as well as that obtained in self-rated health status, maintained their association with physical activity level after adjusting for sociodemographic variables and the number of affected joints. In patients with OA, pain and functional capacity are the most affected dimensions. Functional status and self-rated health status are higher in active patients, regardless of the number of joints affected and their demographic characteristics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Current R and D Status on High-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal in Selected Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Hwang, Yong Soo

    2008-11-15

    Current R and D status of such countries moving forward as the United States, Sweden, France, Japan and a few other countries for high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal in deep geological formation has been reviewed. Even though no HLW repositories have not practically constructed nor operated yet, lots of related R and D are being proceeded in many countries as well as in Korea. Through this brief review further progress is anticipated in this related R and D area in Korea.

  3. Poverty levels and children's health status: study of risk factors in an urban population of low socioeconomic level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issler Roberto M.S.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available To test the hypothesis that the low socioeconomic population living is shanty towns in Porto Alegre presents different levels of poverty which are reflected on its health status, a cross-sectional study was designed involving 477 families living in Vila Grande Cruzeiro, Porto Alegre, Brazil. The poverty level of the families was measured by using an instrument specifically designed for poor urban populations. Children from families living in extreme poverty (poorest quartile were found to have higher infant mortality rate, lower birth weights, more hospitalizations, and higher malnutrition rates, in addition to belonging to more numerous families. Thus, the shanty town population of Porto Alegre is not homogeneous, and priority should be given to the more vulnerable subgroups.

  4. Poverty levels and children's health status: study of risk factors in an urban population of low socioeconomic level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto M.S. Issler

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available To test the hypothesis that the low socioeconomic population living is shanty towns in Porto Alegre presents different levels of poverty which are reflected on its health status, a cross-sectional study was designed involving 477 families living in Vila Grande Cruzeiro, Porto Alegre, Brazil. The poverty level of the families was measured by using an instrument specifically designed for poor urban populations. Children from families living in extreme poverty (poorest quartile were found to have higher infant mortality rate, lower birth weights, more hospitalizations, and higher malnutrition rates, in addition to belonging to more numerous families. Thus, the shanty town population of Porto Alegre is not homogeneous, and priority should be given to the more vulnerable subgroups.

  5. Employment and Adults Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing: Current Status and Experiences of Barriers, Accommodations, and Stress in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punch, Renée

    2016-01-01

    In an integrative review of the literature covering the period 2004-2016, the author presents a current picture of the situation of people who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH) relative to employment and careers--particularly the barriers, facilitators, and stress levels experienced by working DHH adults. First, an overview is provided of findings…

  6. [SOMATOTYPE, NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION STUDENTS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés-Badilla, Pablo; Salvador Soler, Noemí; Godoy-Cumillaf, Andrés; Carmona-López, María Ines; Fernández, Juan José; Durán-Agüero, Samuel

    2015-09-01

    classical studies have compared the glycemia with the nutritional status in both children and adults; however studies that consider also somatotype are unknown. associating the somatotype and nutritional status with the glycemic level of students of Pedagogy in Physical Education (PPE). the sample included 40 subjects, divided between 13 women and 27 men. It was determined in each subject BMI, somatotype and also a fasting blood glucose sample was obtained. the somatotype in male PPE students was mesomorphic (3-2-2) with a nutritional status of overweight (25 kg/m2) and balanced mesomorphic (4-4-2) with normal weight (22 kg/m2) in women PPE students. While average fasting blood glucose was 69 mg / dl. No association between somatotype and BMI with blood sugar levels of students of PPE, however, women of PEF showed significant positive correlations between mesomorphy and the ICC (0.577) and between glycemia and height (0.650). somatotype and BMI of the students of PPE are consistent with their age and sex, but no association between somatotype and glucose was observed. Moreover, the average blood glucose levels were somewhat lower compared to normative tables, a situation that could be related to physical activity, however, requires further study to confirm it. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  7. State-level differences in breast and cervical cancer screening by disability status: United States, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Brian S; Thierry, JoAnn M; Wolf, Lesley A

    2009-01-01

    Despite reported disparities in the use of preventive services by disability status, there has been no national surveillance of breast and cervical cancer screening among women with disabilities in the United States. To address this, we used state-level surveillance data to identify disparities in breast and cervical cancer screening among women by disability status. Data from the 2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were used to estimate disability prevalence and state-level differences in breast and cervical cancer screening among women by disability status. Overall, modest differences in breast cancer screening were found; women with a disability were less likely than those without to report receiving a mammogram during the past 2 years (72.2% vs. 77.8%; p < .001). However, disparities in breast cancer screening were more pronounced at the state level. Furthermore, women with a disability were less likely than those without a disability to report receiving a Pap test during the past 3 years (78.9% vs. 83.4%; p < .001). This epidemiologic evidence identifies an opportunity for federal and state programs, as well as other stakeholders, to form partnerships to align disability and women's health policies. Furthermore, it identifies the need for increased public awareness and resource allocation to reduce barriers to breast and cervical cancer screening experienced by women with disabilities.

  8. The relationship between leptin level and oxidative status parameters in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horoz, Mehmet; Aslan, Mehmet; Koylu, Ahmet O; Bolukbas, Cengiz; Bolukbas, Filiz F; Selek, Sahbettin; Erel, Ozcan

    2009-01-01

    Both serum leptin level and oxidative stress are increased in hemodialysis (HD) patients. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether there is association between oxidative status and leptin level in HD patients. Thirty-five HD patients and 25 healthy controls were enrolled in the present study. Serum leptin level, total peroxide (TP) level, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and oxidative stress index (OSI) were determined. Serum leptin level, TP level, and OSI were significantly higher in HD patients than controls (all P < 0.001) while TAC was lower (P < 0.001). In HD patients, serum leptin level was significantly correlated with TP level and OSI (r = 0.372, P < 0.001 and r = 0.409, P < 0.001, respectively). The correlation of serum leptin level with TP level and OSI remained statistically significant after adjusting for age, gender, and body-fat percentage (r = 0.446, P < 0.001 and r = 0.463, P < 0.001, respectively). Hyperleptinemia seems to be associated with increased oxidative stress in HD patients, and this association may provide better understanding about the disorders related to either elevated serum leptin levels and/or increased oxidative stress in HD patients.

  9. Pre-diagnosis employment status and financial circumstances predict cancer-related financial stress and strain among breast and prostate cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Linda; Timmons, Aileen

    2016-02-01

    Cancer may have a significant financial impact on patients, but the characteristics that predispose patients to cancer-related financial hardship are poorly understood. We investigated factors associated with cancer-related financial stress and strain in breast and prostate cancer survivors in Ireland, which has a complex mixed public-private healthcare system. Postal questionnaires were distributed to 1373 people diagnosed with cancer 3-24 months previously identified from the National Cancer Registry Ireland. Outcomes were cancer-related financial stress (impact of cancer diagnosis on household ability to make ends meet) and financial strain (concerns about household financial situation since cancer diagnosis). Modified Poisson regression was used to estimate relative risks (RR) for factors associated with cancer-related financial stress and strain. Seven hundred forty survivors participated (response rate = 54 %). Of the respondents, 48 % reported cancer-related financial stress and 32 % cancer-related financial strain. Compared to those employed at diagnosis, risk of cancer-related financial stress was significantly lower in those not working (RR = 0.71, 95 % CI 0.58-0.86) or retired (RR = 0.48, 95 % CI 0.34-0.68). It was significantly higher in those who had dependents; experienced financial stress pre-diagnosis; had a mortgage/personal loans; had higher direct medical out-of-pocket costs; and had increased household bills post-diagnosis. For cancer-related financial strain, significant associations were found with dependents, pre-diagnosis employment status and pre-diagnosis financial stress; risk was lower in those with higher direct medical out-of-pocket costs. Cancer-related financial stress and strain are common. Pre-diagnosis employment status and financial circumstances are important predictors of post-diagnosis financial wellbeing. These findings could inform development of tools to identify patients/survivors most in need of financial

  10. Employment status is related to sleep problems in adults with autism spectrum disorder and no comorbid intellectual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Emma K; Richdale, Amanda L; Hazi, Agnes

    2018-02-01

    Both sleep problems and unemployment are common in adults with autism spectrum disorder; however, little research has explored this relationship in this population. This study aimed to explore factors that may be associated with the presence of an International Classification of Sleep Disorders-Third Edition defined sleep disorder in adults with autism spectrum disorder (IQ > 80). A total of 36 adults with autism spectrum disorder and 36 controls were included in the study. Participants completed a 14-day actigraphy assessment and questionnaire battery. Overall, 20 adults with autism spectrum disorder met the International Classification of Sleep Disorders-Third Edition criteria for insomnia and/or a circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorder, while only 4 controls met criteria for these disorders. Adults with autism spectrum disorder and an International Classification of Sleep Disorders-Third Edition sleep disorder had higher scores on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and were more likely to be unemployed compared to adults with autism spectrum disorder and no sleep disorder. The findings demonstrate, for the first time, that sleep problems are associated with unemployment in adults with autism spectrum disorder. Further research exploring the direction of this effect is required; sleep problems that have developed during adolescence make attainment of employment for those with autism spectrum disorder difficult, or unemployment results in less restrictions required for optimal and appropriate sleep timing.

  11. The Impact of Acculturation Level on Weight Status and Weight Outcomes in Hispanic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Jennette P; Vaughan, Elizabeth; Hernandez, Daphne; Cameron, Ryan T; Foreyt, John P; Johnston, Craig A

    2016-12-01

    Previous studies revealed that higher levels of acculturation are related to obesity in Hispanic adults. Conflicting findings exist regarding this relationship in children, and little is known about the impact of acculturation on children's success in pediatric weight management programs. The purposes of the study were to (1) examine the relationship between acculturation and overweight/obese weight status and (2) determine the impact of acculturation on the changes in weight status among overweight/obese children 12 and 24 months after having participated in a weight management intervention. This is a secondary analysis of aggregated data from three randomized control trials that occurred between 2005 and 2009. Height, weight, and level of acculturation using the Child Short Scale for Hispanics (C-SASH) were measured in a sample of Hispanic children (n = 559). Logistic regression models were used to study phase 1 (n = 559) and phase 2 (n = 142), controlling for child and family characteristics. Children reporting high levels of acculturation had a 52 % lower odds of being overweight or obese. Among overweight/obese children who participated in the intervention, high levels of acculturation demonstrated greater reductions in standardized body mass index (zBMI) at 24 months. The results of this study indicate a need to tailor weight management programs for Hispanic children who have lower levels of acculturation.

  12. Progranulin levels in status epilepticus as a marker of neuronal recovery and neuroprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huchtemann, T; Körtvélyessy, P; Feistner, H; Heinze, H J; Bittner, D

    2015-08-01

    Recently, a mouse model showed that progranulin, a mediator in neuroinflammation and a neuronal growth factor, was elevated in the hippocampus after status epilepticus (SE). This elevated level might mirror compensating neuronal mechanisms after SE. Studies concerning neuronal recovery and neuroprotective mechanisms after SE in humans are scarce, so we tested for progranulinin the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) after various types of SE. We performed a retrospective analysis of progranulin levels in CSF in patients (n = 24) who underwent lumbar puncture as part of diagnostic workup after having SE and in patients after having one single tonic-clonic seizure who comprised the control group (n = 8). In our group with SE, progranulin levels in CSF were not significantly elevated compared to our control group. Furthermore, there was no correlation between progranulin levels and the time interval between lumbar puncture and SE. Additionally, in cases of higher CSF progranulin levels, we found no impact on the clinical outcome after SE. Although our cohort is heterogeneous and not fully sufficient, we conclude that progranulin in CSF is not elevated after SE in our cohort. Therefore, our results do not suggest a change in cerebral progranulin metabolism as a possible neuroregenerative or neuroprotective mechanism in humans after SE in acute and subacute phases. A larger cohort study is needed to further strengthen this result. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Status Epilepticus". Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The transition from managed care to consumerism: a community-level status report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, Jon B; Ginsburg, Paul B; Draper, Debra A

    2008-01-01

    This paper assesses the evolving "facilitated consumerism" model of health care at the community level using data from the Community Tracking Study (CTS). We find that in a relatively short time, large employers and health plans have made notable progress in putting the building blocks in place to support their vision of consumerism. However, developments in the CTS communities suggest that the consumerism strategy evolving in local markets is more nuanced than implied by some descriptions of health care consumerism.

  14. The Active Subjects of Welfare Reform: a Street-Level Comparison of Employment Services in Australia and Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the similarities and differences between Denmark and Australia in adopting welfare reform activation measures in the field of employment services. In Australia and Denmark the discourse of welfare reform centres the 'activation' of citizens through 'mutual obligation' type requirements. Through various forms of case management, unemployed individuals are encouraged to act upon themselves in creating the right set of ethical dispositions congruent with 'active citizenship'. At the same time any resistance to heightened conditionality on the part of the unemployed person is dealt with through a range of coercive and disciplinary techniques. A comparative case study between these two countries allows us to consider how similar ideas, discourse and principles are shaping policy implementation in countries that have very different welfare state trajectories and institutional arrangements for the delivery of social welfare generally and employment services specifically. And in research terms, a comparison between a Nordic welfare state and an Anglo-Saxon welfare state provides an opportunity to critically examine the utility of 'welfare regime' type analyses and the neo-liberal convergence thesis in comparative welfare research. On the basis of empirical analysis, the article concludes that a single focus on abstract typologies or political ideologies is not very helpful in getting the measure of welfare reform (or any other major policy development for that matter. At the 'street-level' of policy practice there is considerably more ambiguity, incoherence and contradiction than is suggested by linear accounts of welfare reform.

  15. Comparison of Serum Adipocytokine Levels according to Metabolic Health and Obesity Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hoon Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMetabolic health is an emerging concept that is highly correlated with various metabolic complications, and adipocytokines have been causally linked to a wide range of metabolic diseases. Thus, this study compared serum adipocytokine levels according to metabolic health and obesity status.MethodsFour hundred and fifty-six nondiabetic subjects (mean age, 40.5 years were categorized into four groups according to metabolic health and obesity status: metabolically healthy nonobese (MHNO, metabolically healthy obese (MHO, metabolically unhealthy nonobese (MUHNO, and metabolically unhealthy obese (MUHO. Being metabolically healthy was defined as the presence of fewer than two of the following five metabolic abnormalities: high blood pressure, high fasting blood glucose, high triglyceride, low high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and being in the highest decile of the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance index. Obesity status was assessed using body mass index (BMI, with obesity defined as a BMI higher than 25 kg/m2. Levels of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, and adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP were also evaluated.ResultsOf the 456 subjects, 247 (54.2% were in the MHNO group, 66 (14.5% were in the MHO group, 66 (14.5% were in the MUHNO group, and 77 (16.9% were in the MUHO group. There were no significant differences in IL-6 or MCP-1 levels among the groups, but levels of TNF-α and A-FABP were significantly higher in the MUHNO group compared to the MHNO group.ConclusionHigh TNF-α and A-FABP levels are significantly associated with metabolically unhealthiness in nonobese Korean individuals.

  16. Association between individual-level and community-level socio-economic status and blood pressure among Inuit in Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mylène Riva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite abundant evidence that socio-economic status (SES is a fundamental determinant of health, there is a dearth of research examining association between SES, measured at the individual and community levels, and cardiovascular risk factors and morbidity among indigenous populations. Objectives: To examine the influence of individual-level and community-level SES on systolic and diastolic blood pressure among Greenlandic Inuit. Methods: Multilevel analysis of cross-sectional data from the Inuit Health in Transition – Greenland Survey, to which 3,108 Greenlandic Inuit aged 18 years and older participated. Blood pressure is measured using an automatic device, according to standardized protocol. Individual SES is measured by education. Community socio-economic conditions are measured using combined information on average disposable household income and settlement type. Results: Education was not significantly associated with blood pressure. There was an inverse U-shape association between community socio-economic conditions and blood pressure with significantly lower SBP and DBP among participants living in remote traditional villages characterized by lower average disposable household income and in affluent more urbanized towns. Sex-stratified analyses demonstrate the salience of community conditions for men. Conclusions: The association observed between blood pressure and community-level socio-economic conditions suggests that public health and social policies, programmes and interventions aiming to improve living conditions might improve cardiovascular health in Greenland. Studies are required to further examine social gradients in cardiovascular risk factors and morbidity among indigenous populations using different measures of SES.

  17. Association between individual-level and community-level socio-economic status and blood pressure among Inuit in Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Mylène; Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Despite abundant evidence that socio-economic status (SES) is a fundamental determinant of health, there is a dearth of research examining association between SES, measured at the individual and community levels, and cardiovascular risk factors and morbidity among indigenous populations. To examine the influence of individual-level and community-level SES on systolic and diastolic blood pressure among Greenlandic Inuit. Multilevel analysis of cross-sectional data from the Inuit Health in Transition - Greenland Survey, to which 3,108 Greenlandic Inuit aged 18 years and older participated. Blood pressure is measured using an automatic device, according to standardized protocol. Individual SES is measured by education. Community socio-economic conditions are measured using combined information on average disposable household income and settlement type. Education was not significantly associated with blood pressure. There was an inverse U-shape association between community socio-economic conditions and blood pressure with significantly lower SBP and DBP among participants living in remote traditional villages characterized by lower average disposable household income and in affluent more urbanized towns. Sex-stratified analyses demonstrate the salience of community conditions for men. The association observed between blood pressure and community-level socio-economic conditions suggests that public health and social policies, programmes and interventions aiming to improve living conditions might improve cardiovascular health in Greenland. Studies are required to further examine social gradients in cardiovascular risk factors and morbidity among indigenous populations using different measures of SES.

  18. Status of 25(OHD levels in pregnancy: A study from the North Eastern part of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Dasgupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: An increased prevalence of vitamin D deficiency has been reported from across the globe including India. Various studies have shown an intrinsic relation between various parameters of maternal and fetal wellbeing with maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy. Aims: To look for any association of vitamin D status during pregnancy with the modifiable factors - extent of sun exposure, sunscreen use, vegetarian diet, dietary calcium intake, and multivitamin supplementation. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 pregnant females, aged 20-40 years were studied during the first trimester of pregnancy. Fifty age and body mass index (BMI matched females were taken as controls. Serum 25(OHD was measured by radioimmunoassay (Diasorin. Result: Forty-two percent of the cases were found to have vitamin D deficiency and 14% were found to have vitamin D insufficiency, whereas 20% of the controls had vitamin D deficiency and 24% had vitamin D insufficiency (P =0.0375. There was a significant association of 25(OHD levels with extent of sun exposure, sunscreen use, and vegetarian diet. There was no association of 25(OHD levels with multivitamin supplementation or dietary calcium intake. Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency was less in our study group as compared with that reported in other Indian studies. Sun exposure, sunscreen use, and vegetarian diet are important modifiable variables significantly associated with vitamin D status in pregnancy.

  19. Gender disparities among the association between cumulative family-level stress & adolescent weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Daphne C; Pressler, Emily

    2015-04-01

    To investigate precursors to gender-related obesity disparities by examining multiple family-level stress indices. Analyses was based on adolescents born between 1975 and 1991 to women from the 1979 National Longitudinal Study of Youth data set (N=4762). Three types of family-level stressors were captured from birth to age 15: family disruption and conflict, financial strain, and maternal risky health behaviors, along with a total cumulative risk index. Body mass index was constructed on reference criteria for children outlined by the Centers for Disease Control. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted for the three types of family stressors and for the total cumulative index. The accumulation of family disruption and conflict and financial stress was positively related to female adolescents being overweight/obese. Childhood exposure to maternal risky health behaviors was positively associated with higher weight status for male adolescents. Total cumulative stress was related to overweight/obesity for females, but not males. Different family-level stress indices are associated with the weight status of female and male adolescents. Combining types of family-level stress into one cumulative index appears to mask these differences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Importance of vitamin D and vitamin D levels status in Puerto Ricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Martínez, Edu B; Pérez, Cynthia M; Cruz, Sofia K; Khorsandi, Shayan; Chardón, Camile; Ferder, Leon

    2013-11-01

    There is growing and compelling evidence demonstrating the extra-skeletal role of vitamin D and the importance of maintaining adequate levels of this nutrient. Currently, there is very limited information available on the vitamin D status in children and adults in underserved groups, including Puerto Ricans. We assessed the vitamin D status of 4,090 Puerto Ricans living in six geographical regions in the island. Only 31.5% of the studied population had sufficient vitamin D levels (>30 ng/ml). The 18-39 year age group and the females showed inadequate (<30 ng/ml) levels of vitamin D (76.9% and 69.8%, respectively). Participants aged 60 or older showed the highest mean values of serum 25(OH)D (28.8 ng/ml) and the highest percentage (37.1%) of sufficient levels (>30 ng/ml). Future studies are certainly warranted to understand the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and influencing factors (including obesity) in Puerto Ricans.

  1. Individual-level socioeconomic status and community-level inequality as determinants of stigma towards persons living with HIV who inject drugs in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Travis; Zelaya, Carla; Latkin, Carl; Quan, Vu Minh; Frangakis, Constantine; Ha, Tran Viet; Minh, Nguyen Le; Go, Vivian

    2013-01-01

    Introduction HIV infection may be affected by multiple complex socioeconomic status (SES) factors, especially individual socioeconomic disadvantage and community-level inequality. At the same time, stigma towards HIV and marginalized groups has exacerbated persistent concentrated epidemics among key populations, such as persons who inject drugs (PWID) in Vietnam. Stigma researchers argue that stigma fundamentally depends on the existence of economic power differences in a community. In rapidly growing economies like Vietnam, the increasing gap in income and education levels, as well as an individual's absolute income and education, may create social conditions that facilitate stigma related to injecting drug use and HIV. Methods A cross-sectional baseline survey assessing different types of stigma and key socioeconomic characteristics was administered to 1674 PWID and 1349 community members living in physical proximity throughout the 32 communes in Thai Nguyen province, Vietnam. We created four stigma scales, including HIV-related and drug-related stigma reported by both PWID and community members. We then used ecologic Spearman's correlation, ordinary least-squares regression and multi-level generalized estimating equations to examine community-level inequality associations, individual-level SES associations and multi-level SES associations with different types of stigma, respectively. Results There was little urban–rural difference in stigma among communes. Higher income inequality was marginally associated with drug-related stigma reported by community members (p=0.087), and higher education inequality was significantly associated with higher HIV-related stigma reported by both PWID and community members (pstigma (HIV and drug related) reported by both PWID and community members. Part-time employed PWID reported more experiences and perceptions of drug-related stigma, while conversely unemployed community members reported enacting lower drug-related stigma

  2. Status of the high-level nuclear waste disposal program in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uematsu, K.

    1985-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Commission (JAEC) initiated a high-level radioactive waste disposal program in 1976. Since then, the Advisory Committee on Radioactive Waste Management of JAEC has revised the program twice. The latest revision was issued in 1984. The committee recommended a four-phase program and the last phase calls for the beginning of emplacement of the high-level nuclear waste into a selected repository in the Year 2000. The first phase is already completed, and the second phase of this decade calls for the selection of a candidate disposal site and the conducting of the RandD of waste disposal in an underground research laboratory and in a hot test facility. This paper covers the current status of the high-level nuclear waste disposal program in Japan

  3. Relation between infants'/toddlers' developmental status and their levels of object play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urška Fekonja

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of introduced study was to establish the connection between the highest achieved levels of infant' and toddler's object play and their developmental status. 23 Slovenian infants and toddlers were included in the sample. They were engaged in solitary play with standard toys. Global and partial quotients were established using the early childhood development scale RT-R. The levels of child's solitary play were estimated using assesment scale designed by Belsky and Most. The results showed some statisticaly significant correlations between children's developmental qoutients (global and partial and their highest achieved levels of object play. As the basis for the interpretation of results I used the theories which explain the development of child's language, cognition and play.

  4. Relationships among sense of coherence, oral health status, nutritional status and care need level of older adults according to path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewake, Nanae; Hamasaki, Tomoko; Sakai, Rie; Yamada, Shima; Nima, Yuko; Tomoe, Miki; Kakuta, Satoko; Iwasaki, Masanori; Soh, Inho; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Ansai, Toshihiro

    2017-11-01

    Sense of coherence (SOC) is a measurement of ability of an individual to cope with psychological stress and remain in good health. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationships among SOC score, oral health status, nutritional status and care need level of older adults using path analysis. We enrolled 53 older adults (17 men and 36 women) who were attending a day care service (mean age 80.4 ± 6.5 years). SOC was assessed using a 13-item, seven-scale instrument. Oral health status (number of present teeth, denture use) and nutritional status (assessed with Mini-Nutritional Assessment Short-Form) were also evaluated. Path analysis was used to examine the relationship of SOC with other related factors, including care need level. The mean SOC score was 57.0 ± 13.9. Mini-Nutritional Assessment Short-Form results showed that one participant (1.8%) was malnourished, 26 (49.1%) were at risk of malnutrition and 26 (49.1%) had normal nutritional status. Participants with high SOC scores showed a strong positive attitude, had a relatively large number of teeth, were in good nutritional condition and showed low care need levels. The present results showed that maintaining a high SOC level and good oral health help to reduce care need levels in older adults, and also prevent a worsening of their nutritional condition. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 2083-2088. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  5. Type 1 diabetes, quality of life, occupational status and education level - A comparative population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Helena B; Ovesen, Louise L; Mortensen, Laust H; Lau, Cathrine J; Joensen, Lene E

    2016-11-01

    Type 1 diabetes requires extensive self-management to avoid complications and may have negative effects on the everyday life of people with the disease. The aim of this study was to compare adults with type 1 diabetes to the general population in terms of health-related quality of life, occupational status (level of employment, working hours and sick leave) and education level. 2415 adults (aged 18-98years) with type 1 diabetes were compared to 48,511 adults (aged 18-103years) from the general population. Data were obtained from two cross-sectional surveys conducted in 2010 and 2011 of adults living or treated in the Capital Region in Denmark. Differences between adults with type 1 diabetes and the general population were standardised for age and sex and analyzed using linear probability models and negative binomial regression. Differences were further analyzed in subgroups. Compared to the general population, adults with type 1 diabetes experienced lower health-related quality of life, were more frequently unemployed, had more sick leave per year and were slightly better educated. Differences in health-related quality of life and employment increased with age and were larger among women, as compared to men. No significant differences were found with regard to working hours. Our findings suggest that type 1 diabetes is associated with lower health-related quality of life, higher unemployment and additional sick leave. The negative association with type 1 diabetes is more pronounced in women and older adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Micronutrient levels and nutritional status of school children living in Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amare Bemnet

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several micronutrients are essential for adequate growth of children. However, little information is available on multiple micronutrient status of school children in Ethiopia. The present study was designed to evaluate the relationship between multiple micronutrient levels and nutritional status among school children. Method In this cross-sectional study, anthropometric data, blood and stool samples were collected from 100 children at Meseret Elementary School in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. Serum concentration of magnesium, calcium, iron, copper, zinc, selenium and molybdenum were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Anthropometric indices of weight-for-age, height-for-age and BMI-for-age were used to estimate the children's nutritional status. Stool samples were examined by standard microscopic methods for intestinal parasites. Results The prevalence of stunting, underweight, wasting and intestinal parasitoses among school children was 23%, 21%, 11% and18%, respectively. The mean serum levels of magnesium, calcium, iron, copper, zinc, selenium and molybdenum were 2.42±0.32 (mg/dl, 15.31±2.14 (mg/dl, 328.19±148.91 (μg/dl, 191.30±50.17 (μg/dl, 86.40±42.40 (μg/dl, 6.32±2.59 (μg/dl, and 0.23±0.15 (μg/dl, respectively. Selenium deficiency, zinc deficiency and magnesium deficiency occurred in 62%, 47%, and 2% of the school children, respectively. Height-for-age showed significant positive correlation with the levels of copper and molybdenum (p = 0.01 and with the levels of magnesium (p = 0.05. Conclusion Deficiencies of selenium and zinc were high among the school children although the deficiencies were not significantly related with their nutritional status. The prevalence of both malnutrition and intestinal parasitism was not negligible. These calls for the need to undertake multicentre studies in various parts of the country to substantiate the data obtained in the present study so that

  7. Blood lead levels in pregnant women of high and low socioeconomic status in Mexico City.

    OpenAIRE

    Farias, P; Borja-Aburto, V H; Rios, C; Hertz-Picciotto, I; Rojas-Lopez, M; Chavez-Ayala, R

    1996-01-01

    This study examined the determinants of blood lead (BPb) in 513 pregnant women in Mexico City: 311 from public hospital prenatal clinics, representing primarily women of low socioeconomic status (SES), and 202 from private hospitals, primarily women of high SES. Overall, BPb levels ranged from 1.38 to 29 micrograms/dl, with geometric means of 6.7 and 11.12 micrograms/dl for women from private and public hospitals, respectively. The crude geometric means difference obtained by t-test was 4.42 ...

  8. Micronutrient levels and nutritional status of school children living in Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amare, Bemnet; Moges, Beyene; Fantahun, Bereket; Tafess, Ketema; Woldeyohannes, Desalegn; Yismaw, Gizachew; Ayane, Tilahun; Yabutani, Tomoki; Mulu, Andargachew; Ota, Fusao; Kassu, Afework

    2012-12-13

    Several micronutrients are essential for adequate growth of children. However, little information is available on multiple micronutrient status of school children in Ethiopia. The present study was designed to evaluate the relationship between multiple micronutrient levels and nutritional status among school children. In this cross-sectional study, anthropometric data, blood and stool samples were collected from 100 children at Meseret Elementary School in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. Serum concentration of magnesium, calcium, iron, copper, zinc, selenium and molybdenum were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Anthropometric indices of weight-for-age, height-for-age and BMI-for-age were used to estimate the children's nutritional status. Stool samples were examined by standard microscopic methods for intestinal parasites. The prevalence of stunting, underweight, wasting and intestinal parasitoses among school children was 23%, 21%, 11% and 18%, respectively. The mean serum levels of magnesium, calcium, iron, copper, zinc, selenium and molybdenum were 2.42±0.32 (mg/dl), 15.31±2.14 (mg/dl), 328.19±148.91 (μg/dl), 191.30±50.17 (μg/dl), 86.40±42.40 (μg/dl), 6.32±2.59 (μg/dl), and 0.23±0.15 (μg/dl), respectively. Selenium deficiency, zinc deficiency and magnesium deficiency occurred in 62%, 47%, and 2% of the school children, respectively. Height-for-age showed significant positive correlation with the levels of copper and molybdenum (p = 0.01) and with the levels of magnesium (p = 0.05). Deficiencies of selenium and zinc were high among the school children although the deficiencies were not significantly related with their nutritional status. The prevalence of both malnutrition and intestinal parasitism was not negligible. These calls for the need to undertake multicentre studies in various parts of the country to substantiate the data obtained in the present study so that appropriate and beneficial strategies for micronutrient

  9. An analysis of the technical status of high level radioactive waste and spent fuel management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, T.; Miller, C.; Bullard, E.; Campbell, R.; Chockie, A.; Divita, E.; Douthitt, C.; Edelson, E.; Lees, L.

    1977-01-01

    The technical status of the old U.S. mailine program for high level radioactive nuclear waste management, and the newly-developing program for disposal of unreprocessed spent fuel was assessed. The method of long term containment for both of these waste forms is considered to be deep geologic isolation in bedded salt. Each major component of both waste management systems is analyzed in terms of its scientific feasibility, technical achievability and engineering achievability. The resulting matrix leads to a systematic identification of major unresolved technical or scientific questions and/or gaps in these programs.

  10. Determinations of tritium levels in urine and blood samples, medical checkups of persons employed at RC Seibersdorf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irlweck, K.; Teherani, D.K.

    1975-07-01

    Tritium determinations in urine and blood samples were performed with a liquid scintillation counter (Tri Carb No. 3375, PACKARD). In urine samples tritiated water (HTO) was measured after separation of organic substances by adsorption with activated charcoal and following distillation to dryness. In some urine and blood samples total Tritium content was determinated by conbustion in a sample Oxidizer (Mod. 306, PACKARD). Detection limits for HTO and total Tritium measurements were 2,5 pCi/ml and 7 or 15 pCi/ml respectively, taking 2 sigma of statistical error of background values. Tritiumconcentrations in daily urine of occupational exposed persons, employed in RC Seibersdorf occurred up to 8 pCi HTO/ml. An arithmetic mean was 3,85+-2,11 pCi/ml from investigations on 16 persons. Tritiumcontent in urine samples of occupational non exposed persons were about the same level up to 10 pCi HTO/ml. An arithmetic mean was 3,70+-2,65 pCi/ml from measurements on 20 persons. Statistical error of single values was sigma=+-1,85 pCi/ml. There was found no significantly higher concentration in urine of occupational exposed persons compared with a group of non exposed ones. Total Tritium content in urine samples seemed to be somewhat higher than HTO concentrations, also for occupational non exposed persons. Tritium levels in blood were notably higher than have to be expected assuming homogeneous distribution of HTO in body fluids. For occupational exposed persons in RC Seibersdorf Tritium concentrations between 26-58 pCi/ml were found. An estimation about Tritium intake based on such results showed no more than 0,5% of maximum permissible intake for occupational exposed persons in the most unfavorable case. For occupational non exposed persons total Tritium levels in blood were only about 10,7+-5,8 pCi/ml (arithmetic mean of measurements on 15 persons). (author)

  11. Suicide mortality and marital status for specific ages, genders, and education levels in South Korea: Using a virtually individualized dataset from national aggregate data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo Kyung; Lee, Chung Kwon; Kim, Haeryun

    2018-09-01

    Previous studies in Eastern as well as Western countries have shown a relationship between marital status and suicide mortality. However, to date, no Korean study has calculated national suicide rates by marital status for specific genders, ages, and education levels. This study investigated whether the relationship between marital status and suicide differs by age, gender, and educational attainment, and analyzed the effect of marital status on suicide risk after controlling for these socio-demographic variables. Using national mortality data from 2015, and aggregated census data from 2010 in South Korea, we created a virtually individualized dataset with multiple weighting algorithms, including individual socio-demographic characteristics and suicide rates across the entire population. The findings show that the following groups faced the highest relative suicide risks: 1) divorced men of all ages and men aged more than 75 years, particularly divorced men aged more than 75; and 2) never-married men aged 55-64 years, and never-married women of lower education status. We did not account for important variables such as mental health, substance abuse, employment insecurity, social integration, perceived loneness, and family income which we were unable to access. This current research extends prior theoretical and methodological work on suicide, aiding efforts to reduce suicide mortality in South Korea. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Cognitive Status Correlates with CXCL10/IP-10 Levels in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Pessoa Rocha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment and depressive symptoms are of great interest in Parkinson’s disease (PD, since they are very common and lead to increased disability with poor quality of life. Inflammatory mechanisms have been implicated in PD and its nonmotor symptoms. In the current pilot study, we aimed to evaluate plasma levels of chemokines in PD patients and to analyze the putative association of chemokines with depressive symptoms and cognitive performance. We hypothesized that higher chemokines levels are associated with worse cognitive performance and increased depressive symptoms in PD. For this purpose, 40 PD patients and 25 age- and gender-matched controls were subjected to a clinical evaluation including cognitive and mood tests. Peripheral blood was drawn and plasma levels of CCL2/MCP-1, CCL11/eotaxin, CCL24/eotaxin-2, and CXCL10/IP-10 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. PD patients and control individuals presented comparable plasma concentrations of all the evaluated chemokines. In PD patients, CXCL10/IP-10 plasma levels correlated positively with Hoehn and Yahr staging scale. In addition, the higher CXCL10/IP-10 levels, the worse performance on cognitive tests. Although there was no significant difference between PD patients and control individuals regarding chemokines levels, our preliminary results showed that CXCL10/IP-10 may be associated with cognitive status in PD.

  13. Zinc and copper levels in the plasma of Nubian goat as affected by the physiological status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamid, Tag-Eldin Mohamed [Faculty of Animal Production, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)

    1997-11-01

    This study is undertaken directed to determine the blood concentration of micro (trace) minerals, particularly zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu), in dairy goats as affected by the different physiological status. Animals selected were the Nubian goats as an important dairy breed in sudan. The animals were divided into eight groups as follows: Young animals (4-6 month old), adult animals (9-12 month old), up to 50 days after first kidding, up to 50 days after second kidding, up to 50 days after third kidding, low yielder, high yielder. Each of the above groups consisted of 5 animals. The analysis was carried by using the spectrophotometer technique and the results revealed that, plasma Zn concentration decreased with increase of age while that of Cu increased with the increase of age. The plasma Zn level showed continuous increase through first pregnancy, after first kidding, after second kidding and after third kidding. It increased in the lactating animals. The plasma Cu concentration fluctuated throughout the groups with different physiological status, it showed the same levels in the pregnant group, up to 50 days after second kidding, and up to 50 days after third kidding groups, while it showed a marked decrease in the group of up to 50 days after first kidding. No significant differences were observed between the low lactating and the high lactating groups. (Author) 68 refs. , 3 tabs. , 2 figs.

  14. Zinc and copper levels in the plasma of Nubian goat as affected by the physiological status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid, Tag-Eldin Mohamed

    1997-11-01

    This study is undertaken directed to determine the blood concentration of micro (trace) minerals, particularly zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu), in dairy goats as affected by the different physiological status. Animals selected were the Nubian goats as an important dairy breed in sudan. The animals were divided into eight groups as follows: Young animals (4-6 month old), adult animals (9-12 month old), up to 50 days after first kidding, up to 50 days after second kidding, up to 50 days after third kidding, low yielder, high yielder. Each of the above groups consisted of 5 animals. The analysis was carried by using the spectrophotometer technique and the results revealed that, plasma Zn concentration decreased with increase of age while that of Cu increased with the increase of age. The plasma Zn level showed continuous increase through first pregnancy, after first kidding, after second kidding and after third kidding. It increased in the lactating animals. The plasma Cu concentration fluctuated throughout the groups with different physiological status, it showed the same levels in the pregnant group, up to 50 days after second kidding, and up to 50 days after third kidding groups, while it showed a marked decrease in the group of up to 50 days after first kidding. No significant differences were observed between the low lactating and the high lactating groups. (Author)

  15. Fatty Acid Status and Its Relationship to Cognitive Decline and Homocysteine Levels in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Baierle

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, especially the n-3 series, are known for their protective effects. Considering that cardiovascular diseases are risk factors for dementia, which is common at aging, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether fatty acid status in the elderly was associated with cognitive function and cardiovascular risk. Forty-five elderly persons (age ≥60 years were included and divided into two groups based on their Mini-Mental Status Examination score adjusted for educational level: the case group (n = 12 and the control group (n = 33. Serum fatty acid composition, homocysteine (Hcy, hs-CRP, lipid profile and different cognitive domains were evaluated. The case group, characterized by reduced cognitive performance, showed higher levels of 14:0, 16:0, 16:1n-7 fatty acids and lower levels of 22:0, 24:1n-9, 22:6n-3 (DHA and total PUFAs compared to the control group (p < 0.05. The n-6/n-3 ratio was elevated in both study groups, whereas alterations in Hcy, hs-CRP and lipid profile were observed in the case group. Cognitive function was positively associated with the 24:1n-9, DHA and total n-3 PUFAs, while 14:0, 16:0 and 16:1n-7 fatty acids, the n-6/n-3 ratio and Hcy were inversely associated. In addition, n-3 PUFAs, particularly DHA, were inversely associated with cardiovascular risk, assessed by Hcy levels in the elderly.

  16. Changes in Area-level Socioeconomic Status and Oral Health of Indigenous Australian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Diep H; Do, Loc G; Luzzi, Liana; Mejia, Gloria C; Jamieson, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Dental diseases have shown to be influenced by area-level socioeconomic status. This study aims to assess the effects of change in area-level SES on the oral health of Australian Indigenous children. Data were collected from a national surveillance survey for children's dental health at two points of time (2000-2002/2007-2010). The study examines caries experienced by area-level SES and whether changes in area-level SES (stable-high, upwardly-mobile, downwardly-mobile and stable low) affects caries experience. Dental caries in both the deciduous and permanent dentition increased significantly among Indigenous children during the study period. In stable low-SES areas, the experience of decayed, missing and overall dmft/DMFT in both dentitions was highest compared with other groups at both Time 1(2.15 vs 1.61, 1.77, 1.87 and 0.86 vs 0.55, 0.67, 0.70 respectively) and Time 2 (3.23 vs 2.08, 2.17, 2.02 and 1.49 vs 1.18, 1.21 respectively). A change in area-level SES was associated with experience of dental disease among Indigenous Australian children.

  17. Total oxidant status, total antioxidant capacity and ischemia modified albumin levels in children with celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayar, Ersin; Özdem, Sebahat; Uzun, Gülbahar; İşlek, Ali; Yılmaz, Aygen; Artan, Reha

    2015-01-01

    In our study, we aimed to investigate ischemia modified albumin (IMA) as an oxidative stress marker, as well as other oxidant and antioxidant markers that have not been evaluated in children with celiac disease. A total of 37 pediatric patients who were diagnosed with celiac disease (CD) and 29 healthy children were enrolled in this prospective study. We evaluated the IMA, total oxidant status, total antioxidant capacity, sulfhydryl, and advanced oxidation protein products in all of the subjects. We also compared the levels at the time of the diagnosis, and following a gluten-free diet (GFD) in the children with CD. While the IMA and the other oxidant marker levels were significantly higher in the patient group compared to the control group, the antioxidant marker levels were found to be significantly lower in the patient group, compared to the control group. We also determined that the tissue transglutaminase IgA showed a highly positive correlation, and that the IMA showed a moderately positive correlation with the Marsh-Oberhuber histopathological stage. Additionally, the IMA and other oxidant marker levels were significantly lower, while the antioxidant marker levels were significantly higher after the GFD, compared to the pre-diet period. We detected that oxidative stress played a role in the pathogenesis of CD, and that this could be evaluated using oxidative stress markers, which would regress after the GFD. We also detected that IMA is a marker that shows a correlation with the histopathological stage, and may be used in the diagnosis.

  18. Effect of cross-level interaction between individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status on adult mortality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkleby, Marilyn; Cubbin, Catherine; Ahn, David

    2006-12-01

    We examined whether the influence of neighborhood-level socioeconomic status (SES) on mortality differed by individual-level SES. We used a population-based, mortality follow-up study of 4476 women and 3721 men, who were predominately non-HIspanic White and aged 25-74 years at baseline, from 82 neighborhoods in 4 California cities. Participants were surveyed between 1979 and 1990, and were followed until December 31, 2002 (1148 deaths; mean follow-up time 17.4 years). Neighborhood SES was defined by 5 census variables and was divided into 3 levels. Individual SES was defined by a composite of educational level and household income and was divided into tertiles. Death rates among women of low SES were highest in high-SES neighborhoods (1907/100000 person-years), lower in moderate-SES neighborhoods (1323), and lowest in low-SES neighborhoods (1128). Similar to women, rates among men of low SES were 1928, 1646, and 1590 in high-, moderate-, and low-SES neighborhoods, respectively. Differences were not explained by individual-level baseline risk factors. The disparities in mortality by neighborhood of residence among women and men of low SES demonstrate that they do not benefit from the higher quality of resources and knowledge generally associated with neighborhoods that have higher SES.

  19. Current status of high level radioactive waste disposal in Japan and foreign countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Satoru; Tanabe, Hiromi; Inagaki, Yusuke; Ishida, Hisahiro; Kato, Osamu; Kurata, Mitsuyuki; Yamachika, Hidehiko

    2002-01-01

    At a time point of 2002, there is no country actually disposing high level radioactive wastes into grounds, but in most of countries legislative preparation and practicing agents are carried out and site selection is promoted together with energetic advancement of its R and Ds. As disposal methods of the high level radioactive wastes, various methods such as space disposal, oceanic bottom disposal, ice bed disposal, ground disposal, and so on have been examined. And, a processing technology called partitioning and transmutation technology separating long-lived radionuclides from liquid high level radioactive waste and transmutation into short-lived or harmless radionuclides has also been studied. Here was introduced their wrestling conditions in Japan and main foreign countries, as a special issue of the Current status of high level radioactive waste disposal in Japan and foreign countries'. The high level radioactive wastes (glassification solids or spent nuclear fuels) are wastes always formed by nuclear power generation and establishment of technologies is an important subject for nuclear fuel cycle. (G.K.)

  20. The status of the safeguards implementation under the State-Level Approach at the HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. S.; Lee, B. D.; Kim, I. C.; Kim, H. J.; Jung, J. A.; Lee, S. H.

    2016-01-01

    The IAEA developed the SLA(State-Level Approach) for the States in order to maximize effectiveness of safeguards in an environment of constrained resources. The SLA has been implemented at KAERI-Daejeon site in the ROK since 2015. The ten nuclear facilities and one LOF(Location Outsides Facility) of the KAERI-Daejeon site are grouped into three categories under the SLA. The HANARO(High flux Advanced Neutron Application ReactOr) and PIEF(Post Irradiation Examination Facility) are involved in the category I “self-contained capability” facilities that have at least one significant quantity of suitable nuclear material and which could support undeclared plutonium production/separation activities without other supporting infrastructures. This paper described the status of the safeguards implementation at the HANARO involved in the category I under the SLA. The status of a model inventory management system for a research reactor developed in 2013 was also investigated. In this paper, the features and status of the safeguards implementation of the HANARO under the SLA were analyzed. Under the SLA, the monthly, quarterly and annual advanced facility operational information for the HANARO has been submitted to the IAEA in a timely manner. The IAEA inspection at HANARO has been successfully performed under the SLA. It is expected that the safeguards implementation work at HANARO under the SLA has the similar level with that under IS. Under the SLA, the data occurred from the surveillance cameras and other equipment installed at HANARO enables to transmit remotely to the IAEA. The IAEA is targeting 2017~2018 to upgrade them. In addition, the development status of a model inventory management system for a research reactor was investigated. It aims at controlling the material inventory for the nuclear material accounting work and the convenient facility operation. The major functions of it are to trace the transfer history of the nuclear materials and non-nuclear materials

  1. The status of the safeguards implementation under the State-Level Approach at the HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H. S.; Lee, B. D.; Kim, I. C.; Kim, H. J.; Jung, J. A.; Lee, S. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The IAEA developed the SLA(State-Level Approach) for the States in order to maximize effectiveness of safeguards in an environment of constrained resources. The SLA has been implemented at KAERI-Daejeon site in the ROK since 2015. The ten nuclear facilities and one LOF(Location Outsides Facility) of the KAERI-Daejeon site are grouped into three categories under the SLA. The HANARO(High flux Advanced Neutron Application ReactOr) and PIEF(Post Irradiation Examination Facility) are involved in the category I “self-contained capability” facilities that have at least one significant quantity of suitable nuclear material and which could support undeclared plutonium production/separation activities without other supporting infrastructures. This paper described the status of the safeguards implementation at the HANARO involved in the category I under the SLA. The status of a model inventory management system for a research reactor developed in 2013 was also investigated. In this paper, the features and status of the safeguards implementation of the HANARO under the SLA were analyzed. Under the SLA, the monthly, quarterly and annual advanced facility operational information for the HANARO has been submitted to the IAEA in a timely manner. The IAEA inspection at HANARO has been successfully performed under the SLA. It is expected that the safeguards implementation work at HANARO under the SLA has the similar level with that under IS. Under the SLA, the data occurred from the surveillance cameras and other equipment installed at HANARO enables to transmit remotely to the IAEA. The IAEA is targeting 2017~2018 to upgrade them. In addition, the development status of a model inventory management system for a research reactor was investigated. It aims at controlling the material inventory for the nuclear material accounting work and the convenient facility operation. The major functions of it are to trace the transfer history of the nuclear materials and non-nuclear materials

  2. Effect of Maternal Nutritional Status, Socioeconomic Class and Literacy Level on Birth Weight of Babies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Ambike

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of Low Birth Weight (LBW is higher in Asia than elsewhere predominantly because of undernutrition and poor socioeconomic status of mothers. Nearly half of the pregnant women still suffer from varying degrees of anaemia with the highest prevalence in India. Optimal weight gain during pregnancy and a desirable foetal outcome in terms of normal birth weight of the baby may be a result of synergistic effect of literacy, knowledge, improved food intake, and higher level of socioeconomic status of the pregnant women and their family. Aim: To observe the influence of maternal nutritional, socioeconomic status and literacy level on birth weight of babies. Materials and Methods: Total 250 mothers who delivered babies and admitted to the post natal ward of B.S.T. Rural Hospital, Talegaon Dabhade, District Pune, Maharashtra, India, were randomly selected and the relevant information was recorded in self prepared and pre validated questionnaire. Dietary history was collected by 24 hours recall method. Results: A total of 250 mothers and their babies were included. The average birth weight of babies was 2.65 Kg with the lowest birth weight of 1.2 Kg while the highest birth weight of 4 Kg. The prevalence of LBW babies was 27.6%. Most of the women (77.2% had caloric intake less than 1800 Kcal, 80% of mothers had protein intake of less than 45 gm. Nearly, 31.60% of women who were taking daily intake of calories less than 1800 Kcal delivered LBW babies. About 30.50% of the women with protein intake less than 45 gm/ day delivered LBW babies. In all 34.86% of the women with hemoglobin level below 11 gm% delivered LBW babies. These findings were statistically significant. Conclusion: Maternal caloric and protein deficiencies including anaemia during pregnancy had direct effect on the birth weight of newborns, as less nourished mothers were found to deliver higher percentage of LBW babies as compared to the mothers who were better

  3. STATE-LEVEL DIETARY DIVERSITY AS A CONTEXTUAL DETERMINANT OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF CHILDREN IN INDIA: A MULTILEVEL APPROACH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkotoky, Kakoli; Unisa, Sayeed; Gupta, Ashish Kumar

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the determinants of nutritional status of children in India with a special focus on dietary diversity at the state level. Household-level consumption data from three rounds of the Consumer Expenditure Survey of the National Sample Survey Organization (1993-2012) were used. Information on the nutritional status of children was taken from the National Family Health Survey (2005-06). Dietary diversity indices were constructed at the state level to examine diversity in quantity of food consumed and food expenditure. Multilevel regression analysis was applied to examine the association of state-level dietary diversity and other socioeconomic factors with the nutritional status of children. It was observed that significant variation in childhood stunting, wasting and underweight could be explained by community- and state-level factors. The results indicate that dietary diversity has increased in India over time, and that dietary diversity at the state level is significantly associated with the nutritional status of children. Moreover, percentage of households with a regular salaried income in a state, percentage of educated mothers and mothers receiving antenatal care in a community are important factors for improving the nutritional status of children. Diversity in complementary child feeding is another significant determinant of nutritional status of children. The study thus concludes that increasing dietary diversity at the state level is an effective measure to reduce childhood malnutrition in India.

  4. Qualifications, skills and more! : Characteristics employers look for when hiring newly graduated applicants for a higher occupational level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballafkih, A.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis is on characteristics employers considered when selecting employees’. By studying the characteristics used in the staffing process, this thesis contributes to the sociological and economic debate on inequality and stratification as results of job allocation and employer selection. Research

  5. STRESS LEVEL AND SMOKING STATUS IN CENTRAL IRAN: ISFAHAN HEALTHY HEART PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Roohafza

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Individuals are faced with numerous stressful life events which can negatively influence mental health. Many individuals use smoking as a means of confronting stress. Given the relatively high prevalence of smoking in central Iran, the present study was conducted to compare stress levels in smokers, non-smokers and those who had quit smoking.    METHODS: This study was conducted as part of Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Program on 9752 individuals in the cities of Isfahan, Arak, and Najafabad in 2008. Sampling was performed using multi-stage cluster randomization method. Data on age, sex, demographic characteristics, and smoking status was collected through interviews. Stress level detected by General Health questionnaire.Logistic regression and chi- squere test was used for data analyzing.    RESULTS: In the present study, 30% of non-smokers, 32.1% ex- smoker and 36.9% of smokers had GHQ of 4 and higher (P = 0.01. In regression analysis, the final model which was controlled for age, sex, socioeconomic statues (including place of residence, marital status and education level showed that the odds ratio of stress in smokers and ex- smoker was significantly higher than in non-smokers (OR = 1.66 and OR = 1.12, respectively.    CONCLUSION: Since in conducted studies, mental problems and stresses have had an important role in people’s smoking, it seems suitable to use the results of this study to present intervention for correct methods of coping with stress towards reducing the prevalence of smoking in the community.Keywords: Cigarette, Stress, Community-based Program.

  6. Species-level persistence probabilities for recovery and conservation status assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che-Castaldo, Judy P; Neel, Maile C

    2016-12-01

    Recovery planning for species listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act has been hampered by a lack of consistency and transparency, which can be improved by implementing a standardized approach for evaluating species status and developing measurable recovery criteria. However, managers lack an assessment method that integrates threat abatement and can be used when demographic data are limited. To help meet these needs, we demonstrated an approach for evaluating species status based on habitat configuration data. We applied 3 established persistence measures (patch occupancy, metapopulation capacity, and proportion of population lost) to compare 2 conservation strategies (critical habitat designated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the Forest Service's Carbonate Habitat Management Strategy) and 2 threat scenarios (maximum limestone mining, removal of all habitat in areas with mining claims; minimum mining, removal of habitat only in areas with existing operations and high-quality ore) against a baseline of existing habitat for 3 federally listed plant species. Protecting all area within the designated critical habitat maintained a similar level (83.9-99.9%) of species persistence as the baseline, whereas maximum mining greatly reduced persistence (0.51-38.4% maintained). The 3 persistence measures provided complementary insights reflecting different aspects of habitat availability (total area, number of patches, patch size, and connectivity). These measures can be used to link recovery criteria developed following the 3 R principles (representation, redundancy, and resilience) to the resulting improvements in species viability. By focusing on amount and distribution of habitat, our method provides a means of assessing the status of data-poor species to inform decision making under the Endangered Species Act. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. The Mediator Effect Of Depression Level On The Effects Of Work Stress On The Intention Of Leaving Employment Among Education Employee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Cezmi SAVAS

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of depression level on the effects of work stress on the intention of leaving employment among education employee. The sample of the current research includes 67 principals, 79 assistant principals, and 163 teachers who work in various schools in the city center of Gaziantep during 2013-2014 education year. It was found that work stress and depression level were significant predictors of intention of leaving employment. Based on the results that the mediator effect of depression level when the level of work stress of education employee is predicting the intention of leaving of employment, it was found the level of depression is a mediator, and related solutions are presented.

  8. School level contextual factors are associated with the weight status of adolescent males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Tracy K; Subramanian, S V

    2008-06-01

    To determine whether school context influences the BMI of adolescent males and females. Our sample was 17,007 adolescents (aged 12-19) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). We used gender-stratified multilevel modeling to examine the contribution of schools to the overall variance in adolescent BMIs, calculated from self-reported weight and height. We then examined the associations of individual attributes with BMI after controlling for the average BMI of the school and the association of two school-level variables with BMI. Participants attended schools that were segregated by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES). In females, when controlling only for individual-level attributes, individual household income was inversely associated (beta = -0.043, P = 0.01) while Hispanic (beta = 0.89, P school racial/ethnic makeup and the school level median household income, the relationship between individual race/ethnicity and BMI was attenuated in both male and female adolescents. Higher school level median household income was associated with lower individual BMIs in adolescent girls (gamma = -0.37, P school. Male and female adolescents attending schools with higher median household incomes have on average lower BMIs. Resources available to or cultural norms within schools may constitute critical mechanisms through which schools impact the BMI of their students.

  9. Cortisol levels during prolonged exercise: the influence of menstrual phase and menstrual status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaley, J A; Boileau, R A; Bahr, J M; Misner, J E; Nelson, R A

    1992-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of menstrual phase and menstrual status on the cortisol response during 90 minutes of treadmill running at 60% VO2max. Eight eumenhorrheic athletes were tested in the early follicular (EF) (day 3-5), late follicular (LF) (day 13-15) and mid-luteal (ML) (day 22-24) phases. Six amenorrheic athletes were tested on two separate occasions. The resting cortisol levels were similar in each menstrual phase and overall a decreasing pattern of cortisol response to exercise was observed in all menstrual phases (P greater than .05). The amenorrheic athletes had a significantly greater (P less than .01) pattern of cortisol response than was observed in eumenorrheic athletes. The net increment in cortisol levels during exercise were distinctly greater (P less than .01) in amenorrheic than eumenorrheic athletes (amenorrheic: 413.8 +/- 113.1, eumenorrheic: EF: -482.8 +/- 88.3, LF: -311.8 +/- 102.1, ML: -386.3 +/- 146.2 nmol.l-1). In conclusion the cortisol levels are independent of menstrual phase. Also a larger cortisol increment is observed in amenorrheic athletes in response to prolonged submaximal exercise. The elevated cortisol levels in amenorrheics at rest and throughout exercise provides further evidence that disturbances in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function are associated with exercise-induced amenorrhea, although the site(s) of physiological disturbance have not been identified.

  10. Health status convergence at the local level: empirical evidence from Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gächter Martin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Health is an important dimension of welfare comparisons across individuals, regions and states. Particularly from a long-term perspective, within-country convergence of the health status has rarely been investigated by applying methods well established in other scientific fields. In the following paper we study the relation between initial levels of the health status and its improvement at the local community level in Austria in the time period 1969-2004. Methods We use age standardized mortality rates from 2381 Austrian communities as an indicator for the health status and analyze the convergence/divergence of overall mortality for (i the whole population, (ii females, (iii males and (iv the gender mortality gap. Convergence/Divergence is studied by applying different concepts of cross-regional inequality (weighted standard deviation, coefficient of variation, Theil-Coefficient of inequality. Various econometric techniques (weighted OLS, Quantile Regression, Kendall's Rank Concordance are used to test for absolute and conditional beta-convergence in mortality. Results Regarding sigma-convergence, we find rather mixed results. While the weighted standard deviation indicates an increase in equality for all four variables, the picture appears less clear when correcting for the decreasing mean in the distribution. However, we find highly significant coefficients for absolute and conditional beta-convergence between the periods. While these results are confirmed by several robustness tests, we also find evidence for the existence of convergence clubs. Conclusions The highly significant beta-convergence across communities might be caused by (i the efforts to harmonize and centralize the health policy at the federal level in Austria since the 1970s, (ii the diminishing returns of the input factors in the health production function, which might lead to convergence, as the general conditions (e.g. income, education etc. improve

  11. Indicators of deprivation, voting patterns, and health status at area level in the Republic of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, C; Timoney, A; Friel, S; McKeown, D

    2002-01-01

    To determine what relation, if any, exists between mortality patterns, indicators of deprivation, general lifestyle and social attitudes, as exemplified by general election voting pattern, in the Republic of Ireland. A relation has been demonstrated previously between voting and mortality patterns in the United Kingdom. Cross sectional ecological study using three data sources. Standardised mortality ratios (SMR) were based on mortality rates at county level and 1996 census data from the Central Statistics Office, 1997 general election first preference voting data in all 41 constituencies were aggregated to county level. Selected reported measures of health status, lifestyle and social circumstances are from the first ever National survey on lifestyles, attitudes and nutrition (SLAN). This study comprised adults over 18 years sampled by post using the electoral register from 273 representative district electoral divisions. Univariate inter-relations were examined at individual level for the dataset as a whole, adjusting for age and at aggregated level for 26 county borough areas, which included the two largest cities and for 22 county areas, which afforded correlation with voting pattern, using the method of Pearson's correlation coefficient. 1,806,932 votes were cast nationally at the 1997 general election, representing a voter turnout of 65.92 %. There was an overall response rate of 62% to SLAN comprising 6539 adults (47% male). The demographic pattern of survey respondents was consistent with that of the general population over 18 years. At individual level there was a large number of highly significant inter-relations between indicators of deprivation, various measures of self rated health status and lifestyle factors. Aggregated at 26 county level percentage unemployed (r=0.408, p=0.038), and level of education (r=0.475, p=0.014) related significantly to SMR and inversely to both fruit and vegetable consumption (r= -0.672, p=0.001) and excess alcohol

  12. State-level school competitive food and beverage laws are associated with children's weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Erin; Oh, April; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Chriqui, Jamie F; Mâsse, Louise C; Moser, Richard P; Perna, Frank

    2014-09-01

    This study attempted to determine whether state laws regulating low nutrient, high energy-dense foods and beverages sold outside of the reimbursable school meals program (referred to as "competitive foods") are associated with children's weight status. We use the Classification of Laws Associated with School Students (CLASS) database of state codified law(s) relevant to school nutrition. States were classified as having strong, weak, or no competitive food laws in 2005 based on strength and comprehensiveness. Parent-reported height and weight along with demographic, behavioral, family, and household characteristics were obtained from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses estimated the association between states' competitive food laws and children's overweight and obesity status (body mass index [BMI]-for-age ≥85th percentile). Children (N = 16,271) between the ages of 11-14 years with a BMI for age ≥5th percentile who attended public school were included. Children living in states with weak competitive food laws for middle schools had over a 20% higher odds of being overweight or obese than children living in states with either no or strong school competitive food laws. State-level school competitive food and beverage laws merit attention with efforts to address the childhood obesity epidemic. Attention to the specificity and requirements of these laws should also be considered. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. Impact of night sleep duration on glycemic and triglyceride levels in Chinese with different glycemic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu; Wang, Anping; Pan, Changyu; Lu, Juming; Dou, Jingtao; Lu, Zhaohui; Ba, Jianming; Wang, Baoan; Mu, Yiming

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between night sleep duration and glycemic and triglyceride (TG) levels among people with different glycemic status. In all, 18,121 subjects aged ≥40 years were enrolled in this cross-sectional study, including 4318 with impaired glucose regulation (IGR), 4225 with diabetes, and 9578 with normal glucose regulation (NGR). The IGR + diabetes and NGR groups were divided into three subgroups according to self-reported night sleep duration as follows: (i) 9 h. The associations of sleep duration with HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h post-load plasma glucose (PPG), and TG levels were examined. Long night sleep duration (>9 h) was associated with higher HbA1c, FPG, PPG, and TG levels compared with sleep duration of 6-9 h (P index and depressive symptoms, and remained significant even after adjusting for snoring. A significant interaction between sleep duration and TG or snoring was observed for HbA1c levels, which attenuated the sleep-HbA1c association in the IGR + diabetes group. However, no significant association was observed between short night sleep duration and HbA1c levels. Long night sleep duration is associated with higher HbA1c, FPG, PPG, and TG levels in IGR and diabetes patients, independent of potential confounders. This may be important in clinical management of IGR and diabetes patients. © 2014 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Status of standardization efforts for packaging and transportation of spent fuel and high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggers, P.E.; Dawson, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper provides a current review of the status of efforts to develop standards and guidelines related to the packaging and transportation of spent fuel and high-level waste. An overview of each of the organizations and agencies developing standards and guidelines is discussed and includes the efforts of the N14 Division of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), NUPACK Committee of Section III of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Department of Energy. This comparative overview identifies the scope and areas of application of each standard and guideline. In addition, the current or proposed standards and guidelines are considered collectively with commentary on areas of apparent or potential complimentary fit, overlap and incompatability. Finally, the paper reviews initiatives now being taken within the N14 division of ANSI to identify where new standards development activities are required

  15. Child Mortality Levels and Trends by HIV Status in Blantyre, Malawi: 1989-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Taha E.; Dadabhai, Sufia S.; Sun, Jin; Rahman, M. Hafizur; Kumwenda, Johnstone; Kumwenda, Newton

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Continuous evaluation of child survival is needed in sub-Saharan Africa where HIV prevalence among women of reproductive age continues to be high. We examined mortality levels and trends over a period of ~20 years among HIV-unexposed and exposed children in Blantyre, Malawi. Methods Data from five prospective cohort studies conducted at a single research site from 1989-2009 were analyzed. In these studies, children born to HIV-infected and uninfected mothers were enrolled at birth and followed longitudinally for at least two years. Information on socio-demographic, HIV infection status, survival and associated risk factors was collected in all studies. Mortality rates were estimated using birth-cohort analyses stratified by maternal and infant HIV status. Multivariate Cox regression models were used to determine risk factors associated with mortality. Results The analysis included 8,286 children. From 1989-1995, overall mortality rates (per 100 person-years) in these clinic-based cohorts remained comparable among HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-uninfected mothers (range 3.3-6.9) or to HIV-infected mothers (range 2.5-7.5). From 1989-2009, overall mortality remained high among all children born to HIV-infected mothers (range 6.3-19.3), and among children who themselves became infected (range 15.6-57.4, 1994-2009). Only lower birth weight was consistently and significantly (P<0.05) associated with higher child mortality. Conclusions HIV infection among mothers and children contributed to high levels of child mortality in the African setting in the pre-treatment era. In addition to services that prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV, other programs are needed to improve child survival by lowering HIV-unrelated mortality through innovative interventions that strengthen health infrastructure. PMID:22692091

  16. Association of Serum Triglyceride Level and Gemfibrozil Consumption With Periodontal Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayar, Ferena; Akhondi, Nasrin; Fallah, Soltanali; Moalemnia, Amir Abbas; Cheraghi, Azra

    2017-05-01

    Hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Considering the suggested association between periodontal and cardiovascular diseases, this study sought to assess the association, if any, between serum triglyceride (TG) levels and gemfibrozil consumption with periodontal parameters. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 90 participants, including 30 individuals with a normal lipid profile (group H), 30 patients with hypertriglyceridemia and not on medication (group N), and 30 patients with hypertriglyceridemia and taking gemfibrozil over a 3-month period (group M). Periodontal parameters including probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), bleeding on probing (BOP), and plaque index were measured at four sites of each tooth. Serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), TG, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein were measured. Mean values for PD and CAL in the two hypertriglyceridemic groups were significantly higher than those of the H group (P <0.001). After controlling for confounding variables, significant linear correlations were noted between PD and BOP, PD and TC, PD and TG, and CAL and TG in each group (P <0.01). Patients with hypertriglyceridemia had worse periodontal status than healthy controls. Patients with hypertriglyceridemia who were taking gemfibrozil did not show significant differences in CAL and PD compared with untreated patients with hypertriglyceridemia.

  17. Relationship Between Symptoms of Temporomandibular Disorders and Estrogen Levels in Women With Different Menstrual Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivković, Nedeljka; Racic, Maja; Lecic, Radoslavka; Bozovic, Djordje; Kulic, Milan

    2018-03-21

    To evaluate whether serum estrogen level is associated with chronic pain, masticatory dysfunction, and depressive symptoms and/or somatization in women with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and different menstrual cycle status. A total of 64 women were allocated into one of three groups: one composed of women with normal menstrual cycles (Group 1), one composed of pregnant women (Group 2), and one composed of women in surgical menopause (Group 3). All respondents underwent a standardized clinical examination with the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD). Diagnoses were generated according to Axis I, and grades of chronic pain, depressive symptoms, and somatization were evaluated according to Axis II. The level of serum estradiol was measured by using the immunofluorescent method. Analysis of variance, Kruskal-Wallis test with post hoc comparisons via series of Mann-Whitney U tests, and Spearman correlation coefficient were used for comparisons between study participants. Reported pain was decreased with the progress of pregnancy among the women from Group 2 and was the lowest at the 36th week of pregnancy. Women in surgical menopause reported higher pain intensity as well as more difficulties with chewing and eating hard and soft food compared to the other subjects. Depressive symptoms and somatization were lowest among the women with advanced pregnancy and the highest among menopausal women. TMD-related chronic pain grade, masticatory dysfunction, and depressive symptoms and somatization are the highest when the estrogen level is the lowest.

  18. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC ASPECTS REGARDING EMPLOYMENT AND ACTIVITY OF HIGHER EDUCATION GRADUATES FROM THE UNIVERSITY OF PETROŞANI AND AT NATIONAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ILIE RĂSCOLEAN

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the problems met by the graduates of the bachelor program in Petroşani University and at national level, promotion 2009, in looking for employment and finding a job. The correlation/lack of correlation between the academic offer of professionals and demand on the market is also observed. The demand is much under the offer, the employment market absorbing in the respective professional education only 15% of the graduates at institutional level and 27% at national level.

  19. Evaluation of oxidative status with exhaled breath 8-isoprostane levels in patients with hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastug, Emrah; Tasliyurt, Turker; Kutluturk, Faruk; Sahin, Safak; Yilmaz, Ayse; Sivgin, Hakan; Yelken, Berna Murat; Ozturk, Banu; Yilmaz, Abdulkerim; Sahin, Semsettin

    2013-12-01

    Studies conducted so far on the effect of hyperthyroidism on oxidative stress (OS) have employed blood and urine samples. Exhaled Breath Condensate (EBC) is a non-invasive technique used to take sample from lungs to determine many biological indications. The aim of the present study was determine the possibility of using 8- isoprostane levels in EBC as an indicator of OS in hyperthyroid patients. The present study was performed on 42 patients with hyperthyroidism and 42 healthy control subjects. Hyperthyroid patients included patients with newly diagnosed Graves' disease, toxic multinodular goiter and toxic adenoma. Exhaled breath condensates were collected from patients in each group using a condensing device. 8- isoprostane levels as an indicator of OS in EBC were detected via immunoassay method. Hyperthyroid patients and control groups had 8-isoprostane levels of 6.08±6.31 and 1.56±0.88 pg/ml, respectively. The difference between patient and control groups was statistically significant (phyperthyroid patients, eleven had Graves', 21 multinodular goiter, and 10 toxic adenoma diagnosis. There were no significant differences among patients of different diagnoses for 8-isoprostane levels (p=0.541). No significant correlations were found between 8-isoprostane and free thyroxine (fT4) or thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. In the present study, 8-isoprostane levels in EBC of hyperthyroid patients were found to be significantly higher than that in healthy control group. This study is important in that it is the first to evaluate the effects on respiratory system of elevated OS of hyperthyroidism in EBC.

  20. School- and Individual-level Predictors of Weight Status Misperception among Korean Adolescents: A National Online Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongjoo; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Growing body of literature has reported that weight status estimation pattern, including accurate-, under-, and overestimation, was associated with weight related behaviors and weight change among adolescents and young adults. However, there have been a few studies investigating the potential role of school contexts in shaping adolescents' weight status estimation pattern among Korea adolescents. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between weight status misperception patterns and factors at individual-, family-, and school-level, simultaneously, and whether there was significant between schools variation in the distribution of each weight status misperception pattern, underestimation and overestimation respectively, among Korean adolescents aged 12-18 years. Data from the Eighth Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBS), 2012, a nationally representative online survey of 72,228 students (boys = 37,229, girls = 34,999) from a total of 797 middle and high schools were used. Sex stratified multilevel random intercept multinomial logistic models where adolescents (level 1) were nested within schools (level 2) were performed. At the school level, attending a school with higher average BMI (kg/m2) was positively associated with weight status underestimation, and inversely associated with weight status overestimation among boys and girls. Single-sex schooling was positively associated with weight status underestimation among girls. At the family level, higher household income (high/middle versus low) was inversely associated with both weight status under- and overestimation among boys and girls. Higher maternal education (equal to or more than college graduate versus equal to or less than high school graduate) was positively associated with weight status overestimation among boys, and living with both parents (compared to not living with both parents) was inversely associated with weight status underestimation among girls. At the

  1. School- and Individual-level Predictors of Weight Status Misperception among Korean Adolescents: A National Online Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjoo Kim

    Full Text Available Growing body of literature has reported that weight status estimation pattern, including accurate-, under-, and overestimation, was associated with weight related behaviors and weight change among adolescents and young adults. However, there have been a few studies investigating the potential role of school contexts in shaping adolescents' weight status estimation pattern among Korea adolescents.The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between weight status misperception patterns and factors at individual-, family-, and school-level, simultaneously, and whether there was significant between schools variation in the distribution of each weight status misperception pattern, underestimation and overestimation respectively, among Korean adolescents aged 12-18 years.Data from the Eighth Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBS, 2012, a nationally representative online survey of 72,228 students (boys = 37,229, girls = 34,999 from a total of 797 middle and high schools were used. Sex stratified multilevel random intercept multinomial logistic models where adolescents (level 1 were nested within schools (level 2 were performed.At the school level, attending a school with higher average BMI (kg/m2 was positively associated with weight status underestimation, and inversely associated with weight status overestimation among boys and girls. Single-sex schooling was positively associated with weight status underestimation among girls. At the family level, higher household income (high/middle versus low was inversely associated with both weight status under- and overestimation among boys and girls. Higher maternal education (equal to or more than college graduate versus equal to or less than high school graduate was positively associated with weight status overestimation among boys, and living with both parents (compared to not living with both parents was inversely associated with weight status underestimation among girls. At

  2. DIFFERENCES IN THE LEVELS OF LIPID STATUS IN PATIENTS WITH ISACHEMIC HEART DISEASE AND MALIGNANT DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beretka Atila

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Arteriosclerosis is the basis of all cardiovascular diseases. Numerous risk factors lead to the rise of malignant and cardiovascular diseases. Those are: elevated artery blood pressure, raised plasma cholesterol and triglycerides, low level of HDL-cholesterol, smoking, diabetes mellitus, diet, lack of physical exercises, heredity, stress, gender.The aim of the study was to compare the lipid status of patients with cardiovascular disease or malignancy.The database of the biochemical laboratory and oncology counseling unit of the "Ostrog Clinic" was used. The method of random sample was used and patients (n=29 of both genders were selected, who were at the age of 40 to 47, with cardiovascular diseases, and had significant occlusive coronary disease, which required operation or surgical revascularization procedure. The patients were classified in two groups: G1 (n=14 with statin therapy and G2 (n=15 without statin therapy. Both groups were statistically compared with a group of female patients (n=30 with breast cancer, who were between 37 and 69 years of age. Control group comprised 25 healthy subjects. Standard statistical methods were used for processing the lipid status parameters, namely: the arithmetic mean, standard deviation SDn and SDn-1, correlation coefficient, post hock test and a single factor analysis of variance.The results obtained have pointed to the existence of a marked hyperlipoproteinemia type 4 in the group of cardiovascular patients who did not use statin (G2. In G2, higher levels of cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and plasma triglycerides in comparison with the control and G1, while the value of HDL-cholesterol was within the range of referent values. The obvious suppressing effect of statin on cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol was observed in G1. Group G3 had, in comparison with the control and cardiovascular patients, significantly lower levels of cholesterol and triglycerides in plasma, as well as lower index of atherosclerosis

  3. How do macro-level contexts and policies affect the employment chances of chronically ill and disabled people? Part I: The impact of recession and deindustrialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holland, Paula; Burström, Bo; Whitehead, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Low employment rates of chronically ill and disabled people are of serious concern. Being out of work increases the risk of poverty and social exclusion, which may further damage the health of these groups, exacerbating health inequalities. Macro-level policies have a potentially tremendous impact......, periods of high unemployment have sparked a downward trend in employment for already marginalized groups who did not feel the benefits when the economy improved. Norway and Sweden have been better able to protect the employment of these groups than the United Kingdom and Canada. These contextual...

  4. [Role of employment or scholar status and gender: Drug use among 18 to 25 year-olds in France in 2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legleye, S; Beck, F; Peretti-Watel, P; Chau, N

    2008-10-01

    In France, drug use levels of college students remain quite unknown, mainly because of the lack of representative samples of this specific part of the population. There is also a lack of studies concerning gender and drug use. The Health barometer 2005 is a wide national telephone survey which is representative of the 12-75-year-olds (n=30,514). Among the 18-25-year-olds, 1290 students were surveyed, besides 1480 employed and 538 unemployed people. Various licit and illicit drug use levels of these three groups were compared using logistic regression models for men and women, controlling for age, level of diploma, category of area of residence, living in couple, religion and type of phone equipment. These results were compared with those obtained in the Health Barometer 2000, with exactly the same variables and definitions. Analysis showed that among women, alcohol and cannabis use as well as drunkenness were more frequent among unemployed and college students than among workers. For men, drug use, and especially illicit drug use, appeared more frequent among unemployed. As a consequence, gender differences for alcohol and cannabis use were lower among students than among workers or unemployed. For both sexes, logistic models controlling for age showed that alcohol consumption as well as daily tobacco smoking were less frequent among students than among employed people, contrarily to drunkenness and cannabis use. For almost all drug uses, differences between genders are smaller among students. Except for alcohol and tobacco use, these differences disappeared when controlling for other sociodemographic variables. Compared with data from year 2000, differences among the three groups appeared smaller, especially for drunkenness and cannabis smoking among college students. Alchol and tobacco uses are less frequent among students than active people, employed or not, but there is no significant difference for drunkenness and cannabis use. For both genders, unemployment

  5. Employment of women in mauritian industry: opportunity or exploitation?

    OpenAIRE

    Hein C

    1981-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper on industrial sector employment of woman workers in Mauritius - based on interviews and a 1977 survey, examines the conditions (lower minimum wages, higher labour productivity, less absenteeism and easier human relations) dictating employer preference for female industrial workers, discusses motivations, employment by age group, marital status and educational level, job satisfaction and employment policy issues, and includes questionnaire. Bibliography pp. 33 an...

  6. Individual, household and community level factors associated with keeping tuberculosis status secret in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Amo-Adjei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In tuberculosis (TB control, early disclosure is recommended for the purposes of treatment as well as a means of reducing or preventing person-to-person transmission of the bacteria. However, disclosure maybe avoided as a means of escaping stigma, and possible discrimination. This study aimed at providing insights into factors associated with intentions of Ghanaians to keep positive TB diagnosis in their families’ a secret. Methods The paper was based on data from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. Descriptive statistics of proportions with Chi-square test and binary logistic regression were used to identify individual, household and community level factors that predicted the outcome variable (keeping TB secret. Results Women were more inclined (33% than men (25% to keep TB in the family a secret. Views about keeping TB secret declined with age for both sexes. For women, higher education had a positive association with whether TB in the family would be kept a secret or not but the same was not observed for men. In a multivariable regression model, the strongest predictor of keeping TB secret was whether the respondent would keep HIV secret, and this was uniform among women (OR = 6.992, p < 0.001 and men (OR = 9.870, p < 0.001. Conclusion Unwillingness towards disclosing TB status in Ghana is associated with varied socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, which may be driven by fears of stigma and discrimination. Addressing TB-related stigma and discrimination can enhance positive attitudes towards TB disclosure. For an infectious disease such as TB, openness towards status disclosure is important for public health.

  7. How Does the Choice of A-level Subjects Vary with Students' Socio-Economic Status in English State Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilnot, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The reasons why students from lower socio-economic groups are under-represented at high status universities are not yet entirely understood, but evidence suggests that part of the gap may be a consequence of differential choice of A-levels by social background. The Russell Group of universities has since 2011 published guidance on A-level subject…

  8. Comparison of pain intensity, emotional status and disability level in patients with chronic neck and low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altuğ, Filiz; Kavlak, Erdoğan; Kurtca, Mine Pekesen; Ünal, Ayşe; Cavlak, Uğur

    2015-01-01

    This study was planned to compare of pain, emotional status and disability level in patients with chronic neck pain and low back pain. In this study, fifty patients with chronic low back pain (Group I) and fifty patients with chronic neck pain (Group II) at least 6 months were evaluated. A Visual Analog Scale was used to describe pain intensity. To determine emotional status of the subjects, the Beck Depression Scale was used The Oswestry Disability Index and the Neck Disability Index were used to evaluate disability level. The mean age of the patients with low back pain and neck pain were 39.70 ± 9.71 years, 45.44 ± 10.39 years, respectively. It was not found a significant difference between in low back pain (Group I) and neck pain (Group II) in results of pain intensity (p= 0.286) and pain duration (p= 0.382). It was found a significant difference between group I and group II in results of emotional status (p= 0.000) and disability level (p= 0.000). The emotional status and disability level scores were found highest in patient's with low back pain. Chronic low back pain is affect in patients than chronic neck pain as a emotional status and disability level.

  9. Racial Disparities and Similarities in Post-Release Recidivism and Employment Among Ex-prisoners with a Different Level of Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Klinker Lockwood

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies rarely examined racial disparities in post-release employment and recidivism. Finding a job is an immediate challenge to all released ex-prisoners, and often more difficult for African American ex-prisoners who typically return to economically-depressed neighborhoods upon release from prison. The present researchers conducted a 5-year (2005-2009 follow-up study in an attempt to understand racial disparities in post-release employment and recidivism among 6,394 released ex-prisoners (2,531 Caucasian and 3,863 African American, while controlling for the ex-prisoner’s level of education. Results of this study showed that African American ex-prisoners had a higher unemployment rate and recidivism rate than Caucasian ex-prisoners. This study also revealed that released ex-prisoners, if employed, would likely be under-employed and experience difficulties in sustaining employment, regardless of the ex-prisoner’s ethnicity. Most importantly, post-release employment and level of education were the two most influential predictors to recidivism among ex-prisoners, regardless of ethnicity.

  10. Serum Levels of Gelatinase Associated Lipocalin as Indicator of the Inflammatory Status in Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Kafkas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease and the acute clinical manifestations represent acute on chronic inflammation. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL is found in the granules of human neutrophils, with many diverse functions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that levels NGAL in blood may reflect the inflammatory process in various stages of coronary artery disease. Methods. We studied 140 patients, with SA 40, UA 35, NSTEMI 40, and STEMI 25, and 20 healthy controls. Serum NGAL was measured upon admission and before coronary angiography. Results. Significant differences were observed in median serum-NGAL(ng/mL between patients with SA (79.23 (IQR, 37.50–100.32, when compared with UA (108.00 (68.34–177.59, NSTEMI (166.49 (109.24–247.20, and STEMI (178.63 (111.18–305.92 patients and controls (50.31 (44.30–69.78 with significant incremental value from SA to STEMI. We observed a positive and significant correlation between serum-NGAL and hs-CRP (spearman coefficient rho = 0.685, <0.0001 as well as with neutrophil counts (r = 0.511, <0.0001. Conclusions. In patients with coronary artery disease serum levels of NGAL increase and reflect the degree of inflammatory process. In patients with acute coronary syndromes, serum levels of NGAL have high negative predictive value and reflecting the inflammatory status could show the severity of coronary clinical syndrome.

  11. Thyroid status and urinary iodine levels in women of endemic goiter area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, S.; Shabbir, I.; Hussain, R.; Islam, M.U.; Aasim, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To determine the thyroid function tests and urinary iodine levels in women belonging to goiter endemic area. Study type and settings: Descriptive study conducted in women of goiter endemic area in Saggian Lahore. Subjects and Methods: Saggian Lahore is a goiter endemic area. A total of 293 women between the ages of 18-45 years residing in the area were clinically screened for goiter. Of them 73 women having goiter were recruited for the study. Information regarding demographic profile clinical presentation and physical examination of the goiter was recorded on a questionnaire. The goiter size was graded according to WHO, UNICEF and the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorder. About 5ml of blood sample was drawn from each women and run for thyroid function tests i.e. T3 T4 and TSH using Elisa kits (Human scientific Co. Germany). Urinary iodine was checked by chemical method. Results: Mean age of 73 women was 28.5 years. Marital status showed that 48(65.7%) were married and 25(34.3%) were unmarried. Visible diffuse goiter was seen in 56(77%) cases. Pressure symptoms as cough and shortness of breath was seen in 30(41%) and 31(42.5%) women respectively. Among the 73 women 24.6% (18 cases) took treatment for goiter. Adverse pregnancy outcome secondary to goiter was seen in 58% (28 cases) out of 48 married women. Thyroid function tests result showed that 72% (53 cases) were euthyroid, 18% (13 cases) were hypothyroid, and 10% (7 cases) were hyperthyroid. Urinary iodine levels showed that 99% women were iodine deficient. Conclusions: Thyroid functions do not indicate iodine deficiency in all cases of goiter, therefore, Urinary iodine levels need be estimated while investigating goiter cases. Policy message: Iodine deficiency should be diagnosed and treated on priority basis. (author)

  12. Prevalence of visual impairment in El Salvador: inequalities in educational level and occupational status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius, Anna; Guisasola, Laura; Sabidó, Meritxell; Leasher, Janet L; Moriña, David; Villalobos, Astrid; Lansingh, Van C; Mujica, Oscar J; Rivera-Handal, José Eduardo; Silva, Juan Casrlos

    2014-11-01

    To examine the prevalence of blindness, visual impairment, and related eye diseases and conditions among adults in El Salvador, and to explore socioeconomic inequalities in their prevalence by education level and occupational status, stratified by sex. Based upon the Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness (RAAB) methodology, this nationwide sample comprised 3 800 participants (3 399 examined) ≥ 50 years old from 76 randomly selected clusters of 50 persons each. The prevalence of blindness, visual impairment and related eye diseases and conditions, including uncorrected refractive error (URE), was calculated for categories of education level and occupational status. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and stratified by sex. Age-adjusted prevalence was 2.4% (95% CI: 2.2-2.6) for blindness (men: 2.8% (95% CI: 2.5-3.1); women: 2.2% (95% CI: 1.9-2.5)) and 11.8% (95% CI: 11.6-12.0) for moderate visual impairment (men: 10.8% (95% CI: 10.5-11.1); women: 12.6% (95% CI: 12.4-12.8)). The proportion of visual impairment due to cataract was 43.8% in men and 33.5% in women. Inverse gradients of socioeconomic inequalities were observed in the prevalence of visual impairment. For example, the age-adjusted OR (AOR) was 3.4 (95% CI: 2.0-6.4) for visual impairment and 4.3 (95% CI: 2.1-10.4) for related URE in illiterate women compared to those with secondary education, and 1.9 (95% CI: 1.1-3.1) in cataract in unemployed men. Blindness and visual impairment prevalence is high in the El Salvador adult population. The main associated conditions are cataract and URE, two treatable conditions. As socioeconomic and gender inequalities in ocular health may herald discrimination and important barriers to accessing affordable, good-quality, and timely health care services, prioritization of public eye health care and disability policies should be put in place, particularly among women, the unemployed, and

  13. Prevalence of visual impairment in El Salvador: inequalities in educational level and occupational status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rius

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence of blindness, visual impairment, and related eye diseases and conditions among adults in El Salvador, and to explore socioeconomic inequalities in their prevalence by education level and occupational status, stratified by sex. METHODS: Based upon the Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness (RAAB methodology, this nationwide sample comprised 3 800 participants (3 399 examined ≥ 50 years old from 76 randomly selected clusters of 50 persons each. The prevalence of blindness, visual impairment and related eye diseases and conditions, including uncorrected refractive error (URE, was calculated for categories of education level and occupational status. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted to calculate odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs and stratified by sex. RESULTS: Age-adjusted prevalence was 2.4% (95% CI: 2.2-2.6 for blindness (men: 2.8% (95% CI: 2.5-3.1; women: 2.2% (95% CI: 1.9-2.5 and 11.8% (95% CI: 11.6-12.0 for moderate visual impairment (men: 10.8% (95% CI: 10.5-11.1; women: 12.6% (95% CI: 12.4-12.8. The proportion of visual impairment due to cataract was 43.8% in men and 33.5% in women. Inverse gradients of socioeconomic inequalities were observed in the prevalence of visual impairment. For example, the age-adjusted OR (AOR was 3.4 (95% CI: 2.0-6.4 for visual impairment and 4.3 (95% CI: 2.1-10.4 for related URE in illiterate women compared to those with secondary education, and 1.9 (95% CI: 1.1-3.1 in cataract in unemployed men. CONCLUSIONS: Blindness and visual impairment prevalence is high in the El Salvador adult population. The main associated conditions are cataract and URE, two treatable conditions. As socioeconomic and gender inequalities in ocular health may herald discrimination and important barriers to accessing affordable, good-quality, and timely health care services, prioritization of public eye health care and disability policies should be put in place

  14. LEVELS OF STATE REGULATION OF THE LEGAL STATUS OF THE DISPLACED PERSONS IN THE GOLD MINING INDUSTRY OF THE USSR (1930-1950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochegarova Elena Danilovna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Repressive policy of the Soviet state remains one of the actual problems of Russian historical science. The peculiarities of the legal status of displaced persons, their contribution to the socio-economic development of certain regions, the use of labor by industry and government agencies deserve more attention. Purpose The purpose of this work is the analysis of public policy at different levels and reconstruction of the mechanism of development, adoption and implementation of government decisions in the employment of special group in the gold mining industry. Methodology The dialectical approach is a methodological basis of the research and was implemented through the principles of historicism, scientism, objectivity. Results General thrust of the state policy is determined by the directive of the central, regional and local authorities have particularized or duplicated relevant legal documents at higher levels. Dynamics of changes in the legal status of the displaced persons determined mutually exclusive trends: 1 the weakening or removal of restrictions, 2 toughening control. Priority in decisions belonged Party committees at all levels of management, while the real power had repressive authorities. The practical implementation of government decisions at the local level distorted and was adjusted based on personal or group interests. Practical implications The results can be used for further scientific development of the problem of forced migration.

  15. Monitoring fluid status at the outpatient level: the need for more precision.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonald, Ken

    2010-07-01

    Accurate determination of fluid status in patients with heart failure is a critical aspect of care of this population. Early detection of emerging fluid overload would allow for prompt intervention, potentially aborting clinical deterioration and avoiding hospitalization. While many strategies are available to determine fluid status of patients, all areas are compromised by less-than-optimal sensitivity and specificity. Recent work on the role of bioimpedance as a means of assessing a patient\\'s fluid status indicates that this parameter may have a role in monitoring patients with heart failure. This article reviews present techniques available for assessment of fluid status and focuses on the additional information provided by bioimpedance assessment.

  16. Monitoring fluid status at the outpatient level: the need for more precision.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonald, Ken

    2012-02-01

    Accurate determination of fluid status in patients with heart failure is a critical aspect of care of this population. Early detection of emerging fluid overload would allow for prompt intervention, potentially aborting clinical deterioration and avoiding hospitalization. While many strategies are available to determine fluid status of patients, all areas are compromised by less-than-optimal sensitivity and specificity. Recent work on the role of bioimpedance as a means of assessing a patient\\'s fluid status indicates that this parameter may have a role in monitoring patients with heart failure. This article reviews present techniques available for assessment of fluid status and focuses on the additional information provided by bioimpedance assessment.

  17. How do macro-level contexts and policies affect the employment chances of chronically ill and disabled people? Part I: The impact of recession and deindustrialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Paula; Burström, Bo; Whitehead, Margaret; Diderichsen, Finn; Dahl, Espen; Barr, Ben; Nylén, Lotta; Chen, Wen-Hao; Thielen, Karsten; van der Wel, Kjetil A; Clayton, Stephen; Uppal, Sharanjit

    2011-01-01

    Low employment rates of chronically ill and disabled people are of serious concern. Being out of work increases the risk of poverty and social exclusion, which may further damage the health of these groups, exacerbating health inequalities. Macro-level policies have a potentially tremendous impact on their employment chances, and these influences urgently need to be understood as the current economic crisis intensifies. In Part I of this two-part study, the authors examine employment trends for people who report a chronic illness or disability, by gender and educational level, in Canada, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom in the context of economic booms and busts and deindustrialization. People with the double burden of chronic illness and low education have become increasingly marginalized from the labor market. Deindustrialization may have played a part in this process. In addition, periods of high unemployment have sparked a downward trend in employment for already marginalized groups who did not feel the benefits when the economy improved. Norway and Sweden have been better able to protect the employment of these groups than the United Kingdom and Canada. These contextual differences suggest that other macro-level factors, such as active and passive labor market polices, may be important, as examined in part II.

  18. Valuing productivity loss due to absenteeism: firm-level evidence from a Canadian linked employer-employee survey

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wei; Sun, Huiying; Woodcock, Simon; Anis, Aslam H.

    2017-01-01

    In health economic evaluation studies, to value productivity loss due to absenteeism, existing methods use wages as a proxy value for marginal productivity. This study is the first to test the equality between wage and marginal productivity losses due to absenteeism separately for team workers and non-team workers. Our estimates are based on linked employer-employee data from Canada. Results indicate that team workers are more productive and earn higher wages than non-team workers. However, t...

  19. Success and failure in narrowing the disability employment gap: comparing levels and trends across Europe 2002-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Ben Baumberg; van der Wel, Kjetil A; Tøge, Anne Grete

    2017-12-02

    International comparisons of the disability employment gap are an important driver of policy change. However, previous comparisons have used the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC), despite known comparability issues. We present new results from the higher-quality European Social Survey (ESS), compare these to EU-SILC and the EU Labour Force Survey (EU-LFS), and also examine trends in the disability employment gap in Europe over the financial crisis for the first time. For cross-sectional comparisons of 25 countries, we use micro-data for ESS and EU-SILC for 2012 and compare these to published EU-LFS 2011 estimates. For trend analyses, we use seven biannual waves of ESS (2002-2014) with a total sample size of 182,195, and annual waves of EU-SILC (2004-2014) with a total sample size of 2,412,791. (i) Cross-sectional: countries that have smaller disability employment gaps in one survey tend to have smaller gaps in the other surveys. Nevertheless, there are some countries that perform badly on the lower-quality surveys but better in the higher-quality ESS. (ii) Trends: the disability employment gap appears to have declined in ESS by 4.9%, while no trend is observed in EU-SILC - but this has come alongside a rise in disability in ESS. There is a need for investment in disability measures that are more comparable over time/space. Nevertheless, it is clear to policymakers there are some countries that do consistently well across surveys and measures (Switzerland), and others that do badly (Hungary).

  20. Comprehensive assessment of the status scientific and technical projects using Technology Project Readiness Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Petrov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The balanced methodology for assessing the Technology Project Readiness Level for commercialization (TPRL is proposed. TPRL allows to determine the dynamics and balance of development projects that use the standardized approaches used in assessing the readiness of the technology. Validation of the methodology undertaken for the projects of Federal target programs “Research and development on priority directions of development of scientific-technological complex of Russia for 2007–2013” and “Research and development on priority directions of development of scientific-technological complex of Russia for 2014–2020”. The obtained results showed the possibility of application of the methodology for the evaluation of projects, improving efficiency of expert activity in the evaluation of projects, monitoring the status of individual project and group of projects (portfolio. The application of the methodology allowed us to improve the management of individual project and portfolio of projects.Methodology TPRL will allow the implementers, industry partners, investors, and innovative industrial companies to improve the efficiency of its activities.

  1. Review and Current Status of Opisthorchis viverrini Infection at the Community Level in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewpitoon, Natthawut; Kootanavanichpong, Nusorn; Kompor, Ponthip; Chavenkun, Wasugree; Kujapun, Jirawoot; Norkaew, Jun; Ponphimai, Sukanya; Matrakool, Likit; Tongtawee, Taweesak; Panpimanmas, Sukij; Rujirakul, Ratana; Padchasuwan, Natnapa; Pholsripradit, Poowadol; Eksanti, Thawatchai; Phatisena, Tanida; Loyd, Ryan A; Kaewpitoon, Soraya J

    2015-01-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini is remains a public health problem in Thailand, particularly in the northeast and north regions which have the highest incidences of chonalgiocarcinoma (CCA). O. viverrini causes the disease opithorchiasis, and its has been classified as a group 1 biological carcinogen. Humans, dogs, and cats become infected with O. viverrini by ingesting raw or undercooked fish containing infective metacercariae. The first human cases of O. viverrini infection were reported in Thailand 100 years ago, and it's still a problem at the community level. Based on data for the year 2009, more than 6 million people were infected with O. viverrini. Associated medical care and loss of wages in Thailand costs about $120 million annually. This review highlights the current status of O. viverrini infection in communities of Thailand through active surveillance for the five years period from 2010 and 2015. A total of 17 community-based surveys were conducted, most in the northeast region. Some 7 surveys demonstrated a high prevalence over 20%, and the highest was 45.7%. Most commonly infection was found in age group of 35 years and older, males, and agricultural workers. Although, the national prevalence may be decreasing but the results show that the O. viverrini infection is still high in communities of the northeast region. Therefore, the focus in populations living in northeast Thailand should be screening of infection and changing their eating behavior.

  2. Low-level radioactive waste management at the Nevada Test Site - Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, B.D.; Crowe, B.M.; Gertz, C.P.; Clayton, W.A.

    1999-01-01

    The performance objectives of the Department of Energy's Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) disposal facilities located at the Nevada Test Site transcend those of any other radioactive waste disposal site in the US. Situated at the southern end of the Great Basin, 800 feet above the water table, the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) has utilized a combination of engineered shallow land disposal cells and deep augured shafts to dispose a variety of waste streams. These include high volume low-activity wastes, classified materials, and high-specific-activity special case wastes. Twenty miles north of Area 5 is the Area 3 RWMS. Here bulk LLW disposal takes place in subsidence craters formed from underground testing of nuclear weapons. Earliest records indicate that documented LLW disposal activities have occurred at the Area 5 and Area 3 RWMS's since 1961 and 1968, respectively. However, these activities have only been managed under a formal program since 1978. This paper describes the technical attributes of the facilities, present and future capacities and capabilities, and provides a description of the process from waste approval to final disposition. The paper also summarizes the current status of the waste disposal operations

  3. Level of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and nutritional status of higher education institution servers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Vidal Andreato

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the level of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and nutritional status of Brazilian higher education institution servers. Method: 134 public servants (80 men and 54 women were evaluated to estimate body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist/hip ratio (WHR, aerobic fitness and blood pressure at rest. Results: most of the servers were classified as insufficiently active (62%. BMI results show a high prevalence of obesity (39% mild and 33% moderate. WC showed a prevalence of high (30% and very high risk (27%, and WHR showed a prevalence of high (28% or very high risk (12%. The ergometric test showed that 41% of the servers presented very poor (17% or poor (24% aerobic fitness and 23%, regular aerobic fitness. Considering blood pressure, 15% of the servers presented blood pressure considered as borderline and 30% considered as hypertension. No associations were found between physical condition (active or inactive with WC (χ2 = 3.4, p = 0.179, WHR (χ2 = 7.0, p = 0.073, aerobic fitness (χ2 = 4.3, p = 0.368 and blood pressure (χ2 = 2.9, p = 0.734. Although no association was observed between physical activity and BMI (χ2 = 7.6, p = 0.062, significance values (p < 0.07 suggested an association trend, with worse ratings for the sedentary group. Closing remarks: among higher education institution servers, there is high prevalence of physical inactivity, obesity and risk factors, and the majority of the sample had aerobic fitness below recommended levels.

  4. Sulphur levels in saliva as an estimation of sulphur status in cattle: a validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dermauw, V.; Froidmont, E.; Dijkstra, J.; Boever, de J.L.; Vyverman, W.; Debeer, A.E.; Janssens, G.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Effective assessment of sulphur (S) status in cattle is important for optimal health, yet remains difficult. Rumen fluid S concentrations are preferred, but difficult to sample under practical conditions. This study aimed to evaluate salivary S concentration as estimator of S status in cattle.

  5. Elevated homocysteine levels indicate suboptimal folate status in pediatric sickle cell patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Dijs, FPL; Schnog, JJB; Brouwer, DAJ; Velvis, HJR; van den Berg, GA; Bakker, AJ; Duits, AJ; Muskiet, FD

    1998-01-01

    We investigated whether pediatric patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) (9 +/- 4 years; 27 homozygous SCD [HbSS]; 19 sickle-C disease [HbSC]) have different folate status compared with age-, sex-, and race-matched normal hemoglobin (HbAA) controls (n = 20), and whether their folate status can be

  6. Depression and Hopelessness Levels of University Students According to Their Opinions on Finding Employment or Falling out of Labor Force in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakus, Özlem

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to reveal the effects of the thoughts on university students' depression and hopelessness levels about whether to become employed or unemployed after graduation. The study sampling consists of 980 students from the departments of Selcuk University, such as the Faculties of Health Sciences, Law, Veterinary, Science,…

  7. Self-esteem level and stability, admission functional status, and depressive symptoms in acute inpatient stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickery, Chad D; Sepehri, Arash; Evans, Clea C; Jabeen, Linsa N

    2009-11-01

    Explore the relationship of self-esteem level, self-esteem stability, and admission functional status on discharge depressive symptoms in acute stroke rehabilitation. One hundred twenty stroke survivors serially completed a measure of state self-esteem during inpatient rehabilitation and completed a measure of depressive symptoms at discharge. Functional status was rated at admission using the Functional Independence Measure (FIM). Regressions explored main effects and interactions of self-esteem level and stability and admission FIM self-care, mobility, and cognitive functioning on discharge depressive symptoms. After controlling for potential moderating variables, self-esteem level interacted with FIM self-care and cognitive functioning to predict discharge depressive symptoms, such that survivors with lower self-rated self-esteem and poorer functional status indicated higher levels of depressive symptoms. Self-esteem stability interacted with FIM mobility functioning, such that self-esteem instability in the presence of lower mobility functioning at admission was related to higher depressive symptoms at discharge. These results suggest that self-esteem variables may moderate the relationship between functional status and depressive symptoms. Self-esteem level and stability may differentially moderate functional domains, although this conclusion requires further empirical support.

  8. Physiological Regulation of Gut Peptide Hormone (PYY) Levels by Age, Sex, Hormonal and Nutritional Status in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebashy, M.I.A.; Mazen, G.M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Peptide YY hormone (PYY) was recently appreciated as an important gut hormonal regulator of appetite. PYY is produced by the gut and released into the circulation after food intake and is found to decrease appetite. The main form of PYY, both stored and circulated, is PYY(3-36), the N-terminal truncated form of the full length peptide so, peripheral injections of PYY(3-36) in rats inhibit food intake in experimental animals as well as in lean and obese human subjects. Also, this hormone has been suggested to be an attractive therapeutic option for obesity. PYY levels are influenced by age and the highest hormone level is achieved in early postnatal life (day 30) and is decreased thereafter. PYY levels were also dependent on thyroid hormone status and being decreased in hyperthyroid rats. The PYY levels observed in acute and chronic food restricted rats indicated that, in situations of decreased energy intake, the lower PYY levels could serve to regulate central pathways and facilitate food intake. Contrary, in pregnant rats, PYY levels were enhanced at late gestation. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of age, sex, thyroid status, pregnancy and food restriction on PYY levels in rats. The underling mechanisms through which PYY levels alternated as a result of sex, age, pregnancy, thyroidal and nutritional status were discussed in the light of recent research outcomes

  9. Bone status and adipokine levels in children on vegetarian and omnivorous diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Chełchowska, Magdalena; Szamotulska, Katarzyna; Rowicka, Grażyna; Klemarczyk, Witold; Strucińska, Małgorzata; Gajewska, Joanna

    2018-03-23

    Measurements of bone mineral density (BMD) reflect bone status but not the dynamics of bone turnover. Biochemical markers, which show global skeletal activity, were validated for the assessment of bone formation and resorption processes. Adipokines also play a significant role in the regulation of bone metabolism. To assess body composition, bone mineral density, bone turnover markers and adipokine levels in relation to vegetarian and omnivorous diets. The study included 53 vegetarian and 53 omnivorous prepubertal healthy children matched for age and sex (median age 7.0 years). Body composition and BMD were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathormone levels were measured by chemiluminescence method. Serum carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I collagen (CICP), total osteocalcin (OC) and its forms carboxylated (c-OC) and undercarboxylated (uc-OC), C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of collagen type I (CTX), leptin and adiponectin levels were determined using immunoenzymatic assays. Both groups of children were comparable in terms of body composition, except for the percentage of fat mass, which was lower (19.24 vs. 21.77%, p = 0.018) in vegetarians. Mean values of total BMD z-score and lumbar spine BMD z-score were lower (-0.583 vs. -0.194, p = 0.009 and -0.877 vs. -0.496, p = 0.019, respectively) in vegetarians compared with omnivores. Serum leptin level was about 2-fold lower (1.39 vs. 2.94 ng/mL, p vegetarians, however, adiponectin concentration was similar in both groups. Vegetarians had similar concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, but higher parathormone (40.8 vs. 32.1 pg/mL, p = 0.015) and CTX (1.94 vs. 1.76 ng/mL, p = 0.077) levels than omnivores. Total osteocalcin and CICP concentrations were comparable in both groups, however, c-OC/uc-OC ratio was higher (1.43 vs. 1.04 ng/mL, p vegetarians. We found positive correlation between c-OC and nutritional parameters adjusted for total energy intake (plant

  10. Serum Levels of ApoA1 and ApoA2 Are Associated with Cognitive Status in Older Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Cheng; Li, Jin; Bao, Zhijun; Ruan, Qingwei; Yu, Zhuowei

    2015-01-01

    Background. Advancing age, chronic inflammation, oxidative damage, and disorders of lipid metabolism are positively linked to the late-life cognitive impairment. Serum biomarkers may be associated with the cognitive status in older men. Methods. 440 old male subjects with different cognitive functions were recruited to investigate probable serum markers. Pearson Chi-Squared test, univariate analysis, and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to evaluate biomarkers which may be associated with cognitive status. Results. Levels of fundus atherosclerosis (AS) (P age (P age, AS levels, POD, IL-6, HDL-C, ApoA2, and ApoC2 were significantly related to cognitive status. Moreover, ApoA1 and ApoA2 were independently associated with cognitive impairment and late-life dementia. PMID:26682220

  11. United States high-level radioactive waste management program: Current status and plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.

    1992-01-01

    The inventory of spent fuel in storage at reactor sites in the United States is approximately 20,000 metric tons heavy metal (MTHM). It is increasing at a rate of 1700 to 2100 MTHM per year. According to current projections, by the time the last license for the current generation of nuclear reactors expires, there will be an estimated total of 84,000 MTHm. No commercial reprocessing capacity exists or is planned in the US. Therefore, the continued storage of spent fuel is required. The majority of spent fuel remains in the spent fuel pools of the utilities that generated it. Three utilities are presently supplementing pool capacity with on-site dry storage technologies, and four others are planning dry storage. Commercial utilities are responsible for managing their spent fuel until the Federal waste management system, now under development, accepts spent fuel for storage and disposal. Federal legislation charges the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) within the US Department of Energy (DOE) with responsibility for developing a system to permanently dispose of spent fuel and high level radioactive waste in a manner that protects the health and safety of the public and the quality of the environment. We are developing a waste management system consisting for three components: a mined geologic repository, with a projected start date of 2010; a monitored retrievable storage facility (MRS), scheduled to begin waste acceptance in 1998; and a transportation system to support MRS and repository operations. This paper discusses the background and framework for the program, as well as the current status and plans for management of spent nuclear fuel at commercial utilities; the OCRWM's development of a permanent geologic repository, an MRS, and a transportation system; the OCRWM's safety approach; the OCRWM's program management initiatives; and the OCRWM's external relations activities

  12. Indian Employment in New Mexico State Government: 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Ernest J.

    To update a 1974 report on the status of American Indian employment in the state of New Mexico, a 1977 study on the composition of the state's work force was undertaken, including descriptions of the overall distribution of state employment by job category, grade, and salary level. Despite progress, it was found that: (1) Indians still constituted…

  13. Current construction status of Korea Wolsong Nuclear Environment Management Center (low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal facility)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yasuo

    2010-01-01

    Through the RANDEC delegation tour to Korea in Nov. 2009, we have earned new information on recent development of the radioactive waste management in Korea. In this report, we will introduce such development in Korea, focusing on the current construction status of Korean LILW (low and intermediate level radioactive waste) disposal site, now called, Wolsong Nuclear Environment Management Center. (author)

  14. Association between family structure, maternal education level, and maternal employment with sedentary lifestyle in primary school-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Vázquez-Nava

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: : Living in a non-intact family, more than low maternal educational level and having a working mother, appears to be associated with sedentary lifestyle in overweight primary school-age children.

  15. Beyond return to work from sickness absence due to mental disorders : 5-year longitudinal study of employment status among production workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norder-Kuper, Giny; van der Ben, Claartje A; Roelen, Corne A. M.; Heymans, Martijn W.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Bultmann, Ute

    2017-01-01

    Background: Mental disorders are increasing and account for one-third of all disability benefits in OECD countries. This study investigated the work status after mental sickness absence (SA). Methods: Five-year longitudinal cohort study of 6678 male production workers. Work status, work schedule and

  16. Mobilität der Solo-Selbständigen im europäischen Vergleich (The employment status mobility of the solo-self-employed and their social protection in a European comparison)

    OpenAIRE

    Schulze Buschoff, Karin; Schmidt, Claudia

    2005-01-01

    "In the past decades self-employment has gained in importance in the majority of EU Member States. In particular the proportion of small and one-person businesses shows an increasing trend. In contrast to the classical research into business start-ups, which usually focuses on sustainability in the sense of the longest possible survival of the enterprises, this paper determinedly goes into the dynamics and flexibility on the labour market of solo-self-employment. In the context of the theory ...

  17. Red palm oil supplementation does not increase blood glucose or serum lipids levels in Wistar rats with different thyroid status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauchová, H; Vokurková, M; Pavelka, S; Vaněčková, I; Tribulová, N; Soukup, T

    2018-01-05

    Red palm oil (RPO) is a rich natural source of antioxidant vitamins, namely carotenes, tocopherols and tocotrienols. However, it contains approximately 50 % saturated fatty acids the regular consumption of which could negatively modify lipid profile. The aim of our study was to test whether 7 weeks of RPO supplementation (1 g/kg body weight/day) would affect blood glucose and lipid metabolism in adult male Wistar rats with altered thyroid status. We induced hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism in rats by oral administration of either methimazole or mixture of thyroid hormones. Different thyroid status (EU - euthyroid, HY - hypothyroid and HT - hyperthyroid) was characterized by different serum thyroid hormones levels (total and free thyroxine and triiodothyronine), changes in the activity of a marker enzyme of thyroid status - liver mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and altered absolute and relative heart weights. Fasting blood glucose levels were higher in HT rats in comparison with EU and HY rats, but the changes caused by RPO supplementation were not significant. The achievement of the HY status significantly increased serum levels of total cholesterol, as well as with high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol: 2.43+/-0.15, 1.48+/-0.09, 0.89+/-0.08 mmol/l, compared to EU: 1.14+/-0.06, 0.77+/-0.06, 0.34+/-0.05 mmol/l and HT: 1.01+/-0.06, 0.69+/-0.04, 0.20+/-0.03 mmol/l, respectively. RPO supplementation did not increase significantly levels of blood lipids but tended to increase glutathione levels in the liver. In conclusion, RPO supplementation did not induce the presumed deterioration of glucose and lipid metabolism in rats with three well-characterized alterations in thyroid status.

  18. [Level of education comparing to eating behaviours and anthropometrical indicators of nutritional status among men of Cracovian population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacek, Maria; Chrzanowska, Maria

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate of educating level effect as one indicator of social status on eating behaviours and anthropometrical parameters of nutritional status in professionally active men aged 20-60 at city environment. The research was conducted into 1320 workers of Tadeusz Sendzimir's Steelworks in Cracov. The research tool was the author's questionnaire which included questions about meal consumption regularity and frequency of consuming selected groups of foodstuffs. The indicators of nutritional status were fixed on the base of anthropometrical measurements, whereas the body content was estimated by method of bioimpendation with the use of electronic scales TBF-300P. Differentiation of some eating behaviours depending on the level of education was proved; but one cannot definitely estimate the relation of these parameters, as the higher educated people aged 40-60 years old more frequently declare two meal style of eating and more often consume confectionery than the lower educated; in turn vocationally educated men aged 20-40 more often declare consuming fast food products. Statistically considerable differentiation in some anthropometrical indicators of nutritional status depending of the level of education among men aged 40-60 was also proved. Men of vocational education are characterized by the highest value of WHR indicator but at the same time lower value of the 4 skin-fatty folds sum than higher educated people.

  19. Valuing productivity loss due to absenteeism: firm-level evidence from a Canadian linked employer-employee survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Sun, Huiying; Woodcock, Simon; Anis, Aslam H

    2017-12-01

    In health economic evaluation studies, to value productivity loss due to absenteeism, existing methods use wages as a proxy value for marginal productivity. This study is the first to test the equality between wage and marginal productivity losses due to absenteeism separately for team workers and non-team workers. Our estimates are based on linked employer-employee data from Canada. Results indicate that team workers are more productive and earn higher wages than non-team workers. However, the productivity gap between these two groups is considerably larger than the wage gap. In small firms, employee absenteeism results in lower productivity and wages, and the marginal productivity loss due to team worker absenteeism is significantly higher than the wage loss. No similar wage-productivity gap exists for large firms. Our findings suggest that productivity loss or gain is most likely to be underestimated when valued according to wages for team workers. The findings help to value the burden of illness-related absenteeism. This is important for economic evaluations that seek to measure the productivity gain or loss of a health care technology or intervention, which in turn can impact policy makers' funding decisions.

  20. Employers' Perception of Graduates with Entry-Level Technical Skills from Construction Industry Programs in Ghana and Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheampong, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this comparative study was to identify the technical skills and abilities needed by prospective employees of construction industries in Ghana and Nigeria. Potential employees were defined here as recent graduates of construction industry programs with entry-level technical skills. The continuous growth in and expansion of these two…

  1. Association Between PAI-1 Activity Levels and t-PA Antigen with Glycemic Status in Prediabetic Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Fachruddin Benyamin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to evaluate an association between fibrinolysis defect and glycemic status in prediabetic population by assessing the levels of t-PA antigen and PAI-1 activity. Methods: it was an observational study with cross-sectional approach. There were 72 subjects aged 30-50 years who had met the inclusion criteria. The diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (DM and glycemic index were determined based on the American Diabetes Association (ADA criteria. The PAI-1 and t-PA antigen levels were measured quantitatively using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Analysis between the levels of t-PA antigen and PAI-1 activity was performed using ANOVA. Results: the t-PA antigen level was significantly higher in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and impaired fasting blood glucose (IFBG as well as subject with impaired fasting blood glucose (IFBG than those with normal glucose tolerance (NGT (p=0.047. The PAI-1 activity was significantly higher in subjects with IGT, IFBG and subjects with IFBG than NGT (p=0.024. There was a significant association between glycemic status in prediabetic subjects and PAI-1 activity (p=0.04. Conclusion: the level of t-PA antigen and PAI-1 activity were significantly higher in prediabetic subjects than those with NGT; and there was a significant association between glycemic status in prediabetic subjects and PAI-1 activity.

  2. [Association between intracellular zinc levels and nutritional status in HIV-infected and uninfected children exposed to the virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez G, Erika María; Maldonado C, María Elena; Rojas L, Mauricio; Posada J, Gladys

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition, growth retardation and opportunistic infections outlast the metabolic, immune and gastrointestinal disorders produced by HIV. Zinc deficiency has been associated with deteriorating nutritional status, growth failure, and risk of infection. The aim of this study is to determine the association between zinc levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and the nutritional status of HIV-infected and uninfected children exposed to the virus. An analytical, observational, cross-sectional study was conducted on 17 infected and 17 exposed children, aged 2-10 years. Anthropometric measurements, clinical and nutritional history, 24h recall, measurement of physical activity, and zinc in PBMC by flow cytometry analysis were recorded. Height according to age, energy consumption and adequacy of energy, protein and dietary zinc were significantly higher in children exposed to the virus compared to those infected with HIV (P .05). However, the median levels of zinc in monocytes of infected patients was higher (218.6) compared to the control group (217.0). No association was found between zinc intake and levels of intracellular zinc. The deterioration of nutritional status and growth retardation in children were associated with HIV, but not with the levels of intracellular zinc. The dietary intake of this nutrient was not associated with levels of zinc in monocytes or CD4 + and CD4- lymphocytes. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  3. Vitamin D status in Egyptian euthyroid multinodular non-toxic goiter patients and its correlation with TSH levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboelnaga, Mohamed M; Elshafei, Maha M; Elsayed, Eman

    2016-10-01

    Although the prevalence of MNG is widespread throughout the world, its pathogenesis is poorly understood, and the complex interactions of both genetic predisposition and the individuals' environment are likely. However, to the best of our knowledge, it remains unknown whether there is a relationship between vitamin D status and prevalence or pathogenesis of euthyroid MNG. Therefore, the goal of the present study was determination of vitamin D status in euthyroid MNG as well as exploration of the correlation between vitamin D status & TSH levels. A total of 77 patients diagnosed with euthyroid MNG and 50 subjects without goiter were matched according to age, weight and BMI as control group in this case control study. We found that patients with euthyroid MNG had statistically significant lower mean of [25(OH)D] (24.21±8.68ng/mL) in comparison with its mean in control subjects (28.37±10.91ng/mL, P value=0.019). The 28 sufficient vitamin D MNG patients had statistically significant lower level of TSH than 49 insufficient vitamin D MNG patients. Vitamin D and TSH levels correlate with vitamin D levels in MNG patients in Pearson correlation. Also 25 OH vitamin D was a significant independent predictor for TSH levels among euthyroid MNG patients in regression analysis. Patients with euthyroid MNG have lower levels of vitamin D and TSH levels correlate with vitamin D levels in euthyroid MNG patients. In addition, 25 OH vitamin D was a significant independent predictor for TSH levels among euthyroid MNG patients. We recommend hypovitaminosis D evaluation and correction in patients with MNG. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Status of Credentialing Structures Related to Secondary Transition: A State-Level Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Monica L.; Novak, Jeanne A.; Mazzotti, Valerie L.

    2018-01-01

    To understand the current status of transition-related credentialing systems in driving personnel preparation, it is necessary to identify which state education and rehabilitation services agencies are currently providing certification and licensure in the area of secondary transition. The purpose of this study was to examine the current state of…

  5. Clean Energy Policy Analyses: Analysis of the Status and Impact of Clean Energy Policies at the Local Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, S.

    2010-12-01

    This report takes a broad look at the status of local clean energy policies in the United States to develop a better understanding of local clean energy policy development and the interaction between state and local policies. To date, the majority of clean energy policy research focuses on the state and federal levels. While there has been a substantial amount of research on local level climate change initiatives, this is one of the first analyses of clean energy policies separate from climate change initiatives. This report is one in a suite of reports analyzing clean energy and climate policy development at the local, state, and regional levels.

  6. Clean Energy Policy Analyses. Analysis of the Status and Impact of Clean Energy Policies at the Local Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-12-01

    This report takes a broad look at the status of local clean energy policies in the United States to develop a better understanding of local clean energy policy development and the interaction between state and local policies. To date, the majority of clean energy policy research focuses on the state and federal levels. While there has been a substantial amount of research on local level climate change initiatives, this is one of the first analyses of clean energy policies separate from climate change initiatives. This report is one in a suite of reports analyzing clean energy and climate policy development at the local, state, and regional levels.

  7. THE STATUS OF THE EMPLOYED PEOPLE WITH MENTAL RETARDATION IN THE PROTECTIVE COMPANIES IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA ACCORDING TO THE CONTEMPORARY LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena DIMKOVA

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Employment, i.e. the right of people with disabili­ties to work, is the last phase of an extended and complex process of their rehabilitation. The em­ployment is the last phase of the integration of these people in the social environment. In all developed counties, the right to work presents one of the fundamental human rights. The question regarding employment of people with mental retar­dation is a current issue at present, especially be­cause a lot of people with disability who are able to work have met resistance by the employers.

  8. LEVEL OF NUTTRITION ADEQUACY, PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF YOUNG MEN ATHLETES SOCCER SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL IN DENPASAR 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Gede Karyamitha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Soccer is a favorite sport for  people around the world including in Indonesia. Not only the method of training or talent that will determine the achievement, but the intake of daily nutrients directly proper also provide a positive influence on performance and achievements of athletes. The purpose of this study was to determine the adequacy of nutrition, physical activity, and nutritional status of young men athletes soccer. This study useds cross-sectional method. The number of samples taken as much as 96 athletes from all senior high schools in Denpasar and selected systematic random sampling. Results showed the average level of nutritional adequacy of athletes still in the category of less (<80%. Respectively for energy, carbohydrates, proteins, and fats are 75.95%, 77.24%, 78.96% and 75.83%. If seen the proportion of athletes that sufficient levels of nutrients in enough categories, then each for energy, carbohydrates, proteins, and fats are 58.3%, 57.3%, 51%, and 53.1%. Level of physical activity in athletes only low (56.3% and moderate category (43.8%. Most athletes have normal nutritional status (94.8%, there was only 1% having thin status, and 4.2% had nutritional status of overweight. The advice can be given to provide knowledges that related with intake of nutrients for the coaches and athletes, increasing physical activity for athletes who have low physical activity, and can be the nutritional status as a selection soccer athletes. However, further research can be done is to measure the physical endurance athletes associated with the intake of nutrients or physical activity.

  9. Self-concept clarity and compulsive Internet use: The role of preference for virtual interactions and employment status in British and North-American samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinones, Cristina; Kakabadse, Nada Korak

    2015-12-01

    Compulsive Internet Use (CIU) describes a maladaptive relationship with the Internet characterised by loss of control and conflict. Although also affecting adults, most studies use teenage samples, and theoretical development on risk factors is scarce. According to Davis (2001), the social connectivity function of the Internet is key in identifying traits associated with CIU. Since Self-Concept Clarity (SCC) is strongly related to social anxiety, and virtual interactions allow "self-edition", we hypothesized that individuals low in SCC could choose virtual interactions as safer alternative to satisfy their social needs. This could in turn increase the risk of CIU. Building on a previous study, we also expected CIU to be more harmful in the unemployed. We collected samples from the U.K. (N = 532) and U.S. (N = 502) with equal distribution of employed and unemployed individuals. We ran Measurement Invariance tests to confirm that the constructs were equivalent across countries. Subsequently, we conducted mediation and moderation analysis to test our hypothesis with Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Measurement Invariance was confirmed. The relationship between SCC and CIU was partially mediated by preference of virtual interactions in both countries. This preference was significantly related to lower social support. Short term unemployment seemed to accentuate the negative impact of CIU on life satisfaction in both countries, although only marginally significantly in the U.S. The unemployed reported significantly lower levels of life satisfaction. We demonstrated that SCC is a key vulnerability factor to CIU in adults, and confirmed the additional risks for the unemployed.

  10. Leptin Levels and Nutritional Status of Indigenous Tepehuán and Mestizo Subjects in Durango, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgadillo Guzmán, Dealmy; Marchat Marchau, Laurence Annie; Reyes, José L.; Loera Castañeda, Verónica; Sosa Macías, Martha; García Vivas, Jessica; Asseff, Ismael Lares

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess differences in nutritional status and their association with circulating leptin levels in the indigenous Tepehuán people of Mezquital Durango and Mestizo populations of Durango City, Mexico. A group of 128 volunteers aged 18 through 59 years were recruited for the study: 60 indigenous Tepehuán from Mezquital and 68 Mestizo individuals from Durango City. The classification of nutritional status was through body mass index (BMI). Clinical evaluations, including anthropometry and lipid profiles, were performed to ascertain the health of the participants. Circulating leptin levels were determined in blood samples after at 08 hours of fasting. The healthy subjects were classified according to BMI: 32 Tepehuán and 30 Mestizo subjects were of normal weight (NW), and 28 Tepehuán and 38 Mestizo subjects were overweight or obese (OW/O). Both NW and OW/O Tepehuán subjects showed lower leptin concentrations than the comparable Mestizo subjects. Statistical analysis showed a negative Pearson's correlation (r = −0.5; P < 0.05) between BMI and leptin levels in NW Tepehuán subjects, but no significant correlation was found in other groups. The differences found in Tepehuán compared with Mestizo subjects might be explained by poor nutritional status, which leads to scarce adipose tissue and low levels of leptin synthesis. Leptin concentration and its relationship to BMI are associated with ethnicity. PMID:24825928

  11. Association of iodine status with IQ level and academic achievement of rural primary school children in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koushik Bhowal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iodine being an integral component of the thyroid hormones is crucial for physical and mental development. Iodine status & intake is often measured by a surrogate measure, namely urine iodine excretion, as almost all ingested iodine is excreted in the urine. Aims &Objectives: To investigate the body Iodine status of rural primary school children and its association with their intelligence level (IQ & academic achievement. Materials & Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was carried out in three Government schools in the district of 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India among  300 children (150 boys & 150 girls aged 6 to 8 years  studying in class II to IV. Urinary iodine was estimated by the 'Wet Digestion Method (Sandell-Kolthoff reaction. IQ level was evaluated using Ravens Progressive Matrices test. Academic achievement was evaluated on the marks obtained in the term end examinations.  Result: 12.34%, 15.6% & 24.3% of the children were in the severe, moderate & mild range of iodine deficiency in terms of urinary iodine excretion. It was found that 85.67% & 14.33% of the children were consumed iodated salt ≥15 ppm &< 15 ppm of iodine level. 0.67%, 5% & 27.34 % of them achieved A, B & C of IQ grades, respectively.62.34 % of the students achieved first three academic grades. Body Iodine status of the children has significant positive correlation (P<0.01 with IQ grades and academic achievement. Academic achievement of the children has significant positive correlation (P<0.05 with their intelligence level. Conclusions: Poor body Iodine status of the rural primary school children may be one of the causes for their poor intelligence level and academic achievement.

  12. Association of iodine status with IQ level and academic achievement of rural primary school children in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koushik Bhowal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iodine being an integral component of the thyroid hormones is crucial for physical and mental development. Iodine status & intake is often measured by a surrogate measure, namely urine iodine excretion, as almost all ingested iodine is excreted in the urine. Aims &Objectives: To investigate the body Iodine status of rural primary school children and its association with their intelligence level (IQ & academic achievement. Materials & Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was carried out in three Government schools in the district of 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India among  300 children (150 boys & 150 girls aged 6 to 8 years  studying in class II to IV. Urinary iodine was estimated by the 'Wet Digestion Method (Sandell-Kolthoff reaction. IQ level was evaluated using Ravens Progressive Matrices test. Academic achievement was evaluated on the marks obtained in the term end examinations.  Result: 12.34%, 15.6% & 24.3% of the children were in the severe, moderate & mild range of iodine deficiency in terms of urinary iodine excretion. It was found that 85.67% & 14.33% of the children were consumed iodated salt ≥15 ppm &< 15 ppm of iodine level. 0.67%, 5% & 27.34 % of them achieved A, B & C of IQ grades, respectively.62.34 % of the students achieved first three academic grades. Body Iodine status of the children has significant positive correlation (P<0.01 with IQ grades and academic achievement. Academic achievement of the children has significant positive correlation (P<0.05 with their intelligence level. Conclusions: Poor body Iodine status of the rural primary school children may be one of the causes for their poor intelligence level and academic achievement.

  13. Where you go depends on where you come from: The influence of father's employment status on young adult's labour market experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Zwysen, Wouter

    2013-01-01

    The transmission of economic (dis-)advantage over time should take into account the probability of employment as well as employment conditions, especially given the recent increase in the proportion of non-working people. We study the effect of young people experiencing their father not working on a range of labour market outcomes as young adults using the UKHLS. We find that children of non-working fathers are less likely to work themselves and are less satisfied when working despite similar...

  14. Drugs prescribed by general practitioners according to age, gender and socioeconomic status after adjustment for multimorbidity level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skoog, Jessica; Midlöv, Patrik; Beckman, Anders

    2014-01-01

    of prescription drugs among patients, issued in primary health care, according to age, gender and socioeconomic status after adjustment for multimorbidity level.MethodData were collected on all individuals above 20 years of age in Östergötland county with about 400 000 inhabitants in year 2006. The John Hopkins...... ACG Case-mix was used as a proxy for multimorbidity level. Odds ratio (OR) of having prescription drugs issued in primary health care in the population and rates of prescription drug use among patients in primary health care, stated as incidence rate ratio (IRR), according to age, gender......BackgroundAge, gender and socioeconomic status have been shown to be associated with the use of prescription drugs, even after adjustment for multimorbidity. General practitioners have a holistic and patient-centred perspective and our hypothesis is that this may reflect on the prescription...

  15. Employer Sanctions and the Wages of Mexican Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Brownell

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Wage differences between authorized and unauthorized Mexican immigrants can be explained by human capital factors prior to the 1986 passage of employer sanctions, which prohibited knowingly hiring unauthorized aliens. However, a significant post-1986 wage differential has been interpreted as employers “passing along” expected costs of sanctions through lower wages for unauthorized immigrants. I test this explanation using administrative data on employer sanctions enforcement, finding employer sanctions enforcement levels are related to Mexican immigrants’ wages but have no statistically significant differential effect based on legal status. Estimated savings to employers due to the pay gap are orders of magnitude larger than actual fines.

  16. Lifetime-based optical sensor for high-level pCO2 detection employing fluorescence resonance energy transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueltzingsloewen, Christoph von; McEvoy, Aisling K.; McDonagh, Colette; MacCraith, Brian D.

    2003-01-01

    An optical sensor for the measurement of high levels of carbon dioxide in gas phase has been developed. It is based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between a long-lifetime ruthenium polypyridyl complex and the pH-active disazo dye Sudan III. The donor luminophore and the acceptor dye are both immobilised in a hydrophobic silica sol-gel/ethyl cellulose hybrid matrix material. Tetraoctylammonium hydroxide (TOA-OH) is used as an internal buffering system. Fluorescence lifetime is measured in the frequency domain, using low-cost phase modulation measurement technology. The use of Sudan III as an acceptor dye has enabled the sensor to have a dynamic range up to 100% carbon dioxide. The sensor displays 11.2 deg. phase shift between the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.06 and 100% CO 2 with a resolution of better than 2%. The encapsulation in the silica/polymer hybrid material has provided the sensor with good mechanical and chemical stability. The effect of molecular oxygen, humidity and temperature on the sensor performance was studied in detail

  17. A firm-level dataset for analyzing entry, exit, employment and R&D expenditures in the UK: 1997-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugur, Mehmet; Trushin, Eshref; Solomon, Edna

    2016-09-01

    This data article is related to the research article entitled "Inverted-U relationship between R&D intensity and survival: Evidence on scale and complementarity effects in UK data" (Ugur et al., In press) [1]. It describes the trends in R&D expenditures, employment of R&D personnel and firm entry and exit rates in the UK from 1998 to 2012. We also provide statistics on net employment creation and net R&D investments due to firm entry and exits. In addition, we compute the correlation coefficients between entry and exit rates at the two digit industry level so as to examine whether the correlations are contemporaneous or inter-temporal. Finally, we provide information about the underlying dataset to which secure access is available through UK Data Service Archive 7716 at http://dx.doi.org/10.5255/UKDA-SN-7716-1.

  18. Level of acculturation, food intake, dietary changes, and health status of first-generation Filipino Americans in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dela Cruz, Felicitas A; Lao, Brigette T; Heinlein, Catherine

    2013-11-01

    This exploratory descriptive study investigates the acculturation level, food intake, dietary changes and practices, health status perceptions, and diet-related health indicators-body mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumferences, and waist-to-hip ratio-of first-generation Filipino Americans (FAs) in Southern California. Healthy FA adults-20 women and 10 men-were interviewed. Acculturation level was obtained using A Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans. A 24-h dietary recall elicited their food intake. Survey questions revealed dietary changes and practices, health status perceptions, and sociodemographic characteristics. Height, weight, waist and hip circumferences were measured. FAs consider themselves more Filipino than American, but their acculturation level reflects transitioning into biculturalism. FAs relinquish, maintain, and adapt elements of both Philippine and U.S. cultures in food intake, dietary changes, and practices. Although FAs perceive their health status as very good to excellent, many exceed the cut-off points for BMI, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio. This study underscores the importance of nurse practitioners and other healthcare givers conducting cultural dietary assessment as a basis for culturally appropriate dietary counseling. The inclusion of waist measurement to regularly monitor abdominal obesity-a predictor of cardiovascular disease and diabetes-is highly recommended. ©2013 The Author(s) ©2013 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  19. Effects of chronic low level radiation in the population residing in the high level natural radiation area in Kerala, India: employing heritable DNA mutation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shazia; Koya, P K M; Seshadri, M

    2013-03-18

    To study the effect of chronic low level radiation, 4040 meiosis were screened at eight microsatellite and five minisatellite (2485 and 1555 meiosis respectively) marker loci in people residing in high and normal level natural radiation areas of Kerala. Variants in the repeat length of allele were considered as mutants. Mutation rates (expressed as the number of mutations observed in the total number of meiosis) were 6.4×10(-3) (16/2485) and 2.6×10(-3) (4/1555) at microsatellite and minisatellite respectively. The germline microsatellite mutation frequency of father was 1.78 times higher at 7.52×10(-3) (8/1064) compared to 4.22×10(-3) (6/1421) of mother (P=0.292, Fisher's Exact two-sided test). The paternal and maternal mutation rates at minisatellite loci were more or less similar at 2.78×10(-3) (2/719) and 2.39×10(-3) (2/836), respectively (P=1.0, Fisher's Exact two-sided test). Higher but statistically non-significant microsatellite mutation frequency was observed in HLNRA compared to NLNRA (7.25×10(-3) vs 3.64×10(-3); P=0.547). The apparent increase in the mutation rate of microsatellite loci with the increase in radiation dose was also not statistically significant. All the four minisatellite mutation observed were from HLNRA (1198 meiosis) and no mutation was observed among 357 meiosis screened from NLNRA families. All the markers used in the present study were in the non-coding region and hence mutations in these regions may not cause adverse health effects, but the study is important in understanding the effect of chronic low level radiation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Increase in Schooling of Mexico’s Active Population and the Effects on their Employment Status and Income, 1992-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María De Ibarrola

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article there are presented some results on the subject of how the dramatic increase in schooling in Mexico is expressed in the employment destination of the country’s non-agricultural, economically-active population (EAP, age 24 to 60. The distribution of this population is analyzed by categories of education attained, income/schedule and employer for five different industrial sectors in the country: two informal (self-employed and micro-entrepreneurs and three formal (government sector, companies of the industrial sector, and service sector companies. Data from 1992 to 2004 is compared. The results derive from a database developed for Mexico, as part of several national studies conducted by the Information System on Educational Trends in Latin America (SITEAL for its acronym in Spanish, based on the National Survey of Income-Expenditure.

  1. The effect of ill health and socioeconomic status on labor force exit and re-employment: A prospective study with ten years follow-up in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Schuring (Merel); S.J.W. Robroek (Suzan); F.W.J. Otten (Ferdy); C.H. Arts (Coos); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractObjectives The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ill health and socioeconomic status on labor force exit due to unemployment, early retirement, disability pension, or becoming economically inactive. A secondary objective was to investigate the effect of ill health and

  2. Technical area status report for low-level mixed waste final waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayberry, J.L.; DeWitt, L.M.; Darnell, R.

    1993-08-01

    The Final Waste Forms (FWF) Technical Area Status Report (TASR) Working Group, the Vitrification Working Group (WG), and the Performance Standards Working Group were established as subgroups to the FWF Technical Support Group (TSG). The FWF TASR WG is comprised of technical representatives from most of the major DOE sites, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the EPA Office of Solid Waste, and the EPA's Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL). The primary activity of the FWF TASR Working Group was to investigate and report on the current status of FWFs for LLNM in this TASR. The FWF TASR Working Group determined the current status of the development of various waste forms described above by reviewing selected articles and technical reports, summarizing data, and establishing an initial set of FWF characteristics to be used in evaluating candidate FWFS; these characteristics are summarized in Section 2. After an initial review of available information, the FWF TASR Working Group chose to study the following groups of final waste forms: hydraulic cement, sulfur polymer cement, glass, ceramic, and organic binders. The organic binders included polyethylene, bitumen, vinyl ester styrene, epoxy, and urea formaldehyde. Section 3 provides a description of each final waste form. Based on the literature review, the gaps and deficiencies in information were summarized, and conclusions and recommendations were established. The information and data presented in this TASR are intended to assist the FWF Production and Assessment TSG in evaluating the Technical Task Plans (TTPs) submitted to DOE EM-50, and thus provide DOE with the necessary information for their FWF decision-making process. This FWF TASR will also assist the DOE and the MWIP in establishing the most acceptable final waste forms for the various LLMW streams stored at DOE facilities

  3. Technical area status report for low-level mixed waste final waste forms. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayberry, J.L.; DeWitt, L.M. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Darnell, R. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

    1993-08-01

    The Final Waste Forms (FWF) Technical Area Status Report (TASR) Working Group, the Vitrification Working Group (WG), and the Performance Standards Working Group were established as subgroups to the FWF Technical Support Group (TSG). The FWF TASR WG is comprised of technical representatives from most of the major DOE sites, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the EPA Office of Solid Waste, and the EPA`s Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL). The primary activity of the FWF TASR Working Group was to investigate and report on the current status of FWFs for LLNM in this TASR. The FWF TASR Working Group determined the current status of the development of various waste forms described above by reviewing selected articles and technical reports, summarizing data, and establishing an initial set of FWF characteristics to be used in evaluating candidate FWFS; these characteristics are summarized in Section 2. After an initial review of available information, the FWF TASR Working Group chose to study the following groups of final waste forms: hydraulic cement, sulfur polymer cement, glass, ceramic, and organic binders. The organic binders included polyethylene, bitumen, vinyl ester styrene, epoxy, and urea formaldehyde. Section 3 provides a description of each final waste form. Based on the literature review, the gaps and deficiencies in information were summarized, and conclusions and recommendations were established. The information and data presented in this TASR are intended to assist the FWF Production and Assessment TSG in evaluating the Technical Task Plans (TTPs) submitted to DOE EM-50, and thus provide DOE with the necessary information for their FWF decision-making process. This FWF TASR will also assist the DOE and the MWIP in establishing the most acceptable final waste forms for the various LLMW streams stored at DOE facilities.

  4. Association between individual-level and community-level socio-economic status and blood pressure among Inuit in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riva, Mylène; Larsen, C. V. L.; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2016-01-01

    and older participated. Blood pressure is measured using an automatic device, according to standardized protocol. Individual SES is measured by education. Community socio-economic conditions are measured using combined information on average disposable household income and settlement type. Results....... Education was not significantly associated with blood pressure. There was an inverse U-shape association between community socio-economic conditions and blood pressure with significantly lower SBP and DBP among participants living in remote traditional villages characterized by lower average disposable...... household income and in affluent more urbanized towns. Sex-stratified analyses demonstrate the salience of community conditions for men. Conclusions. The association observed between blood pressure and community-level socio-economic conditions suggests that public health and social policies, programmes...

  5. A decision aid to assist decisions on disclosure of mental health status to an employer: protocol for the CORAL exploratory randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henderson Claire

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The UK Equality Act 2010 makes it unlawful for employers to ask health questions before making an offer of employment except in certain circumstances. While the majority of employers would prefer applicants to disclose a mental illness at the application stage, many people either wait until they have accepted the job and then disclose to an occupational health professional, or do not do so at all due to the anticipation of discrimination or a wish for privacy. However, non disclosure precludes the ability to request reasonable adjustments in the workplace or to make a claim of direct discrimination. Disclosure to employers is therefore a difficult decision. A recent pilot study by our group of the CORAL decision aid showed that it helped mental health service users clarify their needs and values regarding disclosure and led to reduction in decisional conflict. The present proof of concept trial aims to determine whether a full scale randomised controlled trial (RCT is justifiable and feasible, and to optimise its design. Methods In this single blind exploratory RCT in London, a total of 80 participants (inclusion criteria: age ≥18 years, on the caseload of a specialist employment adviser working with people with mental illness; referred to the adviser either from primary care via Improving Access to Psychological Therapies or secondary mental health service; currently seeking or interested in either paid or voluntary employment, and a Decisional Conflict Scale score of 37.5 or greater and stage of decision score 1–5 will be recruited from vocational advice services. After completing a baseline assessment, participants will be randomly assigned to one of two conditions (1 Use of the CORAL Decision Aid (DA in addition to treatment as usual or (2 Treatment as usual. Those allocated to the DA condition will be given it to read and complete, and the researcher will be present to record the time taken and any content that

  6. Uroguanylin levels in intestine and plasma are regulated by nutritional status in a leptin-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folgueira, C; Sanchez-Rebordelo, E; Barja-Fernandez, S; Leis, R; Tovar, S; Casanueva, F F; Dieguez, C; Nogueiras, R; Seoane, L M

    2016-03-01

    Uroguanylin (UGN) is a 16 amino acid peptide produced mainly by intestinal epithelial cells. Nutrients intake increases circulating levels of prouroguanylin that is processed and converted to UGN to activate the guanylyl cyclase 2C receptor (GUCY2C). Given that the UGN-GUCY2C system has been proposed as a novel gut-brain endocrine axis regulating energy balance, the aim of the present study was to investigate the regulation of UGN protein levels in duodenum and circulating levels in lean and obese mice under different nutritional conditions and its potential interaction with leptin. Swiss, C57BL/6 wild-type and ob/ob male adult mice under different nutritional conditions were used: fed ad libitum standard diet (control); 48 h fasting (fasted); 48 h fasting followed by 24 h of feeding (refed); and fed high-fat diet (45 %) during 10 weeks. In addition, peripheral leptin administration was performed. Intestinal uroguanylin expression was studied by Western blot analysis; plasma levels were measured by ELISA. Food deprivation significantly reduced plasma UGN levels, which were correlated with the lower protein levels of UGN in duodenum. These effects were reverted after refeeding and leptin challenge. Consistently, in ob/ob mice UGN expression was decreased, whereas leptin treatment up-regulated UGN levels in duodenum in these genetically modified mice compared to WT. Diet-induced obese mice displayed increased UGN levels in intestine and plasma in comparison with lean mice. Our findings suggest that UGN levels are correlated with energy balance status and that the regulation of UGN by nutritional status is leptin-dependent.

  7. Comparison of nutritional status and inflammatory stress levels after gastric cancer patients with chemotherapy received palonosetron hydrochloride injection and tropisetron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the nutritional status and inflammatory stress levels after gastric cancer patients with chemotherapy received palonosetron and tropisetron. Methods: 94 patients with advanced gastric cancer undergoing FOLFOX4 intravenous chemotherapy in our hospital between May 2014 and March 2016 were selected and randomly divided into observation group (n=47 and control group (n=47 who received palonosetron and tropisetron for chemotherapy anti-emesis respectively. After four cycles of chemotherapy, serum samples were collected from two groups of patients to determine nutritional status, inflammatory reaction and stress reaction indexes. Results: After four cycles of chemotherapy, serum albumin (ALB, prealbumin (PAB, transferrin (TFN, immunoglobulin A (IgA, IgG and IgM content of observation group were significantly higher than those of control group (P<0.05. After four cycles of chemotherapy, serum Keap1 content of observation group was significantly higher than that of control group (P<0.05, while Nrf2, ARE, NQO1, HO-1, interferon-γ (IFN-γ, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, interleukin-4 (IL-4 and IL-10 content were significantly lower than those of control group (P<0.05. Conclusions: Palonosetron has better antiemetic effect than tropisetron for gastric cancer patients with chemotherapy, and after chemotherapy, the nutritional status is better and the inflammatory stress level is lighter.

  8. Relationship between methylation status of vitamin D-related genes, vitamin D levels, and methyl-donor biochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Louise Beckett

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is known for its role in the regulation of gene expression via the vitamin D receptor, a nuclear transcription factor. More recently, a role for vitamin D in regulating DNA methylation has been identified as an additional mechanism of modulation of gene expression. How methylation status influences vitamin D metabolism and response pathways is not yet clear. Therefore, we aimed to assess the relationship between plasma 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OHD and the methylation status of vitamin D metabolism enzyme genes (CYP2R1, CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 and the vitamin D receptor gene (VDR. This analysis was conducted in the context of dietary vitamin D, and background methyl donor related biochemistry, with adjustment for several dietary and lifestyle variables. Percentage methylation at CpG sites was assessed in peripheral blood cells using methylation sensitive and dependent enzymes and qPCR. Standard analytical techniques were used to determine plasma 25(OHD and homocysteine, and serum folate and B12, with the relationship to methylation status assessed using multi-variable regression analysis. CYP2R1 and VDR methylation were found to be independent predictors of plasma 25(OHD, when adjusted for vitamin D intake and other lifestyle variables. CYP24A1 was related to plasma 25(OHD directly, but not in the context of vitamin D intake. Methyl-group donor biochemistry was associated with the methylation status of some genes, but did not alter the relationship between methylation and plasma 25(OHD. Modulation of methylation status of CYP2R1, CYP24A1 and VDR in response to plasma 25(OHD may be part of feedback loops involved in maintaining vitamin D homeostasis, and may explain a portion of the variance in plasma 25(OHD levels in response to intake and sun exposure. Methyl-group donor biochemistry, while a potential independent modulator, did not alter this effect.

  9. Circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I correlate with disease status in leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues Luciana

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caused by Mycobacterium leprae (ML, leprosy presents a strong immune-inflammatory component, whose status dictates both the clinical form of the disease and the occurrence of reactional episodes. Evidence has shown that, during the immune-inflammatory response to infection, the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I (GH/IGF-I plays a prominent regulatory role. However, in leprosy, little, if anything, is known about the interaction between the immune and neuroendocrine systems. Methods In the present retrospective study, we measured the serum levels of IGF-I and IGBP-3, its major binding protein. These measurements were taken at diagnosis in nonreactional borderline tuberculoid (NR BT, borderline lepromatous (NR BL, and lepromatous (NR LL leprosy patients in addition to healthy controls (HC. LL and BL patients who developed reaction during the course of the disease were also included in the study. The serum levels of IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α were evaluated at diagnosis and during development of reversal (RR or erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL reaction by the solid phase, enzyme-labeled, chemiluminescent-immunometric method. Results The circulating IGF-I/IGFBP-3 levels showed significant differences according to disease status and occurrence of reactional episodes. At the time of leprosy diagnosis, significantly lower levels of circulating IGF-I/IGFBP-3 were found in NR BL and NR LL patients in contrast to NR BT patients and HCs. However, after treatment, serum IGF-I levels in BL/LL patients returned to normal. Notably, the levels of circulating IGF-I at diagnosis were low in 75% of patients who did not undergo ENL during treatment (NR LL patients in opposition to the normal levels observed in those who suffered ENL during treatment (R LL patients. Nonetheless, during ENL episodes, the levels observed in RLL sera tended to decrease, attaining similar levels to those found in NR LL patients

  10. Interracial and intraracial contact, school-level diversity, and change in racial identity status among African American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Tiffany; Seaton, Eleanor K; Sellers, Robert M

    2010-01-01

    Among 224 African American adolescents (mean age=14), the associations between interracial and intraracial contact and school-level diversity on changes in racial identity over a 3-year period were examined. Youths were determined to be diffused, foreclosed, moratorium, or achieved, and change or stability in identity status was examined. Contact with Black students, Black friends, and White friends predicted change in identity status. Furthermore, in racially diverse schools, having more Black friends was associated with identity stability. Students reporting low contact with Black students in racially diverse schools were more likely to report identity change if they had few Black friends. In students reporting high contact with Blacks in predominantly White schools, their identity was less likely to change for students with fewer White friends. © 2010 The Authors. Child Development © 2010 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  11. The relationship between periodontal status and peripheral levels of neutrophils in two consanguineous siblings with severe congenital neutropenia: case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tözüm, Tolga Fikret; Berker, Ezel; Ersoy, Fügen; Tezcan, Iihan; Sanal, Ozden

    2003-03-01

    Congenital neutropenia is characterized by a severe reduction in absolute neutrophil counts, resulting in an almost total absence of neutrophils. It is well known that severe neutropenia affects periodontal status. Oral manifestations include ulcerations, gingival desquamation, gingival inflammation, attachment loss, and alveolar bone loss which may result in tooth loss. Treatment with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) may improve this periodontal condition. This article reports the relationship between periodontal disease status and peripheral neutrophil levels in two consanguineous siblings with severe congenital neutropenia who did not receive routine G-CSF for 2 years prior to examination. Both siblings were given scaling, root planing, and periodontal prophylaxis in regular follow-up visits. This report demonstrates that periodontal therapy supported by adequate oral hygiene may result in restoration of neutrophil counts in siblings with congenital neutropenia.

  12. Socio-demographic analysis of status and level of nutrition and physical activity in two schools in Granada (Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María I. Tovar-Galvez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Currently, nutritional habits and the lifestyle of Spanish schoolchildren have undergone important changes. This study aimed to analyze the sociodemographic characteristics, eating habits and physical activity of schoolchildren of two different schools and determine possible differences in nutritional status and body composition, as well as nutrition and physical activity level of school children. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 114 schoolchildren between 8 and 13 years old, from Granada, Spain. An assessment of the nutritional status was performed by anthropometry and an analysis of body composition by bioelectrical impedance. Two questionnaires were used, one ad hoc about sociodemographic and nutritional data and the Krece-Plus test to assess nutritional status and physical activity. Results: There are no noteworthy significant differences in the nutritional habits of schoolchildren in both centers, most performed five daily meals. There are significant differences in the use of transport to go to school; schoolchildren of the Albayzín attend to school walking everyday, with a higher prevalence of low weight and ideal fat percentage lower than recommended. On the other hand, the schoolchildren in the center of the capital have low regular physical activity and nutritional status. There are sociodemographic differences between the two populations of students, both comply with the recommendations on the number of daily intakes. Conclusion: Students who reside in the center of Granada are more sedentary than their counterparts in the Albayzín and have a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity. Students of the Albayzín have better nutrition and physical activity level.

  13. Employer Branding

    OpenAIRE

    Stroblová, Zuzana

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the Master Thesis is to describe how to build Employer Brand a company. It is based on the description of Employer Branding project of a particular company and the evaluation its process. The thesis is a case study and consists of theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part focuses on trends and changes in leadership approach, definition of Employer Branding and HR Marketing. The practical part deals with the brand building process itself, describes the outputs of the proj...

  14. Employer branding

    OpenAIRE

    Mičková, Kateřina

    2008-01-01

    The demand for qualified employees is higher then the offering, both in Czech republic and internationally. Demand for specific skills, in addition to a greater demand for workforce generally, is making employee recruitment and retention much more difficult and expensive. Employer Branding claims to be an answer to this new challenge. This international concept focuses on developing an "employer brand" - mental image of a company as an employer. To achieve this, it is necessary to demonstrate...

  15. Relation of salivary antioxidant status and cytokine levels to clinical parameters of oral health in pregnant women with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surdacka, Anna; Ciężka, Edyta; Pioruńska-Stolzmann, Maria; Wender-Ożegowska, Ewa; Korybalska, Katarzyna; Kawka, Edyta; Kaczmarek, Elżbieta; Witowski, Janusz

    2011-05-01

    Both pregnancy and diabetes are thought to predispose to the impairment of oral health. As saliva contributes to oral homeostasis, we have characterised its properties and flow rate in pregnant women with or without diabetes. Unstimulated whole mixed saliva was collected from 63 women in the first trimester of pregnancy and analysed for the concentration of selected antioxidants, cytokines, and growth factors. Pregnant women with diabetes were found to have markedly increased indexes of caries activity, plaque formation, gingival and periodontal status, as well as increased salivary antioxidant capacity and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. These changes were more pronounced in patients with long-term disease and systemic diabetic complications, but only partly correlated with the level of blood glycated haemoglobin. Of the cytokines examined, salivary VEGF and HGF concentrations in diabetic pregnant women correlated in a positive and negative manner, respectively, with the prevalence of caries. Moreover, VEGF levels in this group correlated inversely with the probing depth and clinical attachment levels. All such associations did not occur in healthy individuals. In contrast, the salivary pH and flow rate correlated inversely with several parameters of caries and plaque formation irrespectively of whether the pregnant women were diabetic or not. Diabetes in pregnant women significantly changes saliva properties, which may contribute to accelerated deterioration of the oral status in this population. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Conflict Management Styles and Job Satisfaction by Organizational Level and Status in a Private University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Irene Ana

    2011-01-01

    Effective handling of conflict can result in effective teamwork and leadership, higher morale, increased productivity, satisfied customers, and satisfied employees. Ineffective conflict management styles in the workplace can lead to low levels of job satisfaction, resulting in high levels of turnover. Research indicates that the economic cost to…

  17. The influence of work- and home-related stress on the levels and diurnal variation of ambulatory blood pressure and neurohumoral factors in employed women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kario, Kazuomi; James, Gary D; Marion, RoseMerie; Ahmed, Mustafa; Pickering, Thomas G

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of self-reported perceived stress at work and home on the levels, variation and co-variation of ambulatory blood pressure (BP), pulse rate (PR) and urinary catecholamine, cortisol, and aldosterone excretion measured at work, home and during sleep in women employed outside the home. The subjects of the study were 134 women (mean age 34.4 +/- 9.6 years, range 18 to 64 years) who were employed in managerial, technical or clerical positions at the same work place. Perceived stress at work and home was self-reported on a scale from 0 (low) to 10 (high). BP, PR and the urinary rates of excretion of epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol and aldosterone were averaged in the daily work environment from 11 AM to 3 PM, in the daily home environment from approximately 6 PM to 10 PM, and during sleep from approximately 10 PM to 6 AM the following morning. The results showed that systolic and diastolic BP (SBP and DBP) and the rates of urinary catecholamine, cortisol, and aldosterone excretion measured in the work environment were significantly higher than corresponding measurements taken in the home environment. SBP measured at work was also positively correlated with the difference in perceived stress between work and home (p home environment were positively correlated with stress at home. When the subjects were divided into groups based on whether the work or home environment was perceived to be most stressful, women reporting greater stress at work (n=85) had higher work SBP (p work DBP (p home environment to be more stressful (n=34). There were no differences in the urinary hormonal excretion rates between these perceived-stress groups. Among women with greater perceived stress at home, the home-stress score was positively correlated with sleep SBP level (r = 0.310, p home pulse rate ( r= 0.414, p work stress may increase ambulatory BP levels throughout the day, while home stress may induce additional sympathetic

  18. Potentiometric-level monitoring program: Mississippi and Louisiana. Annual status report for fiscal year 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    Potentiometric-level data presented in this report were collected from October 1983 through September 1984 at 79 wells in Mississippi and Louisiana. These wells are located near Richton and Cypress Creek Domes in Mississippi and Vacherie Dome in Louisiana. Fourteen wells were added to the program during this period. Two of these wells were not measurable. Two wells previously unmeasurable were located and measured. One well was destroyed during military maneuvers in the area. Analysis of the data indicated minimal, if any, change in potentiometric levels during the past year in the Citronelle, Hattiesburg, Cockfield, Sparta, and Wilcox Formations in Mississippi. A continuing decline in potentiometric levels, ranging from 0.3 to 0.6 foot per year, occurred in the wells screened in the caprock at Richton and Cypress Creek Domes. The Catahoula Formation experienced a continuing decline in potentiometric levels of about 2 feet per year. Two wells in the Cook Mountain Formation showed a continuing rise in potentiometric levels ranging from 8 to 30 ft during the past fiscal year. Wells screened in the Austin Formation in Louisiana showed a fall in potentiometric levels of 2 to 3 ft over the past fiscal year. Other formations in Louisiana generally showed no change in potentiometric levels over the past year. 26 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Vitamin D Status in Population of Bukovyna and Subcarpathia Depending on Residence above Sea Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Povoroznyuk

    2016-04-01

    ding on the residence above sea level. Objective: to determine the level of vitamin D in the blood serum of people, who live in different regions of the Subcarpathia and Bukovyna, depending on the location of the settlement above sea le-vel. Material and methods. In the cross-sectional study, we have examined 353 individuals, aged 18 to 86 years, permanently residing in different parts of the Subcarpathia (Kolomyia, Kosiv, Verhovyna districts and Bukovyna (Vyzhny-tsia district. Results. Only in 28 cases (7.9 %, the content of 25(OHD in the blood serum was in the normal range, and in other cases (92.1 %, there was a deficiency and a lack of vitamin D. The severe form of vitamin D deficiency has been detected in 7 (1.9 % patients. When comparing the performance of 25(OHD in the areas of inspection, it was found that the level of vitamin D in the blood serum was significantly higher in residents of Verkhovyna and Kosiv districts (located higher than 450 meters above sea level as compared with residents of Vyzhnytsia and Kolomyia. Conclusion. The average level of vitamin D in the blood serum of the adult population depends on residence and increases with height above sea level.

  20. SCIENCE EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS AND AT TERTIARY LEVEL: STATUS QUO OR EMBRACING CHANGE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André du Plessis

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Society is changing as the influence of technologies and the implementation of innovative practices are driving change. Change and innovation are not simple processes for all (Rogers, 2003. Yet, companies, corporates and small business are managed and lead to ensure not only efficiency, but also to yield the best possible financial gain. When one analises change in the world of commerce, one does not have to be a rocket scientist to come to the conclusion that there have been tremendous changes. Not only has the ergonomics of buildings and factories changed, there has also been change pertaining to the number of people employed, as technologies afford opportunities to make certain positions that people occupied, redundant. Robotic tools are used more and more in the manufacturing chain to increase productivity and to ensure greater quality, or so we are informed.

  1. Status and advice of the low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal sites in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng Keyan; Lu Caixia

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid development of nuclear power industry in China, as well as the decommissioning of the nuclear facilities, and the process of radioactive waste management, a mount of the low and intermediate level radioactive solid wastes will increase rapidly. How to dispose the low and intermediate level radioactive solid wastes, that not only related to Chinese nuclear energy and nuclear technology with sustainable development, but also related to the public health, environment safety. According to Chinese « long-term development plan of nuclear power (2005- 2020) », when construct the nuclear power, should simultaneous consider the sites that dispose the low and intermediate level radioactive waste, In order to adapt to the needs that dispose the increasing low and intermediate level radioactive waste with development of nuclear power. In the future, all countries are facing the enormous challenge of nuclear waste disposal. (authors)

  2. Individual-level socioeconomic status and community-level inequality as determinants of stigma towards persons living with HIV who inject drugs in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Travis; Zelaya, Carla; Latkin, Carl; Quan, Vu Minh; Frangakis, Constantine; Ha, Tran Viet; Minh, Nguyen Le; Go, Vivian

    2013-11-13

    HIV infection may be affected by multiple complex socioeconomic status (SES) factors, especially individual socioeconomic disadvantage and community-level inequality. At the same time, stigma towards HIV and marginalized groups has exacerbated persistent concentrated epidemics among key populations, such as persons who inject drugs (PWID) in Vietnam. Stigma researchers argue that stigma fundamentally depends on the existence of economic power differences in a community. In rapidly growing economies like Vietnam, the increasing gap in income and education levels, as well as an individual's absolute income and education, may create social conditions that facilitate stigma related to injecting drug use and HIV. A cross-sectional baseline survey assessing different types of stigma and key socioeconomic characteristics was administered to 1674 PWID and 1349 community members living in physical proximity throughout the 32 communes in Thai Nguyen province, Vietnam. We created four stigma scales, including HIV-related and drug-related stigma reported by both PWID and community members. We then used ecologic Spearman's correlation, ordinary least-squares regression and multi-level generalized estimating equations to examine community-level inequality associations, individual-level SES associations and multi-level SES associations with different types of stigma, respectively. There was little urban-rural difference in stigma among communes. Higher income inequality was marginally associated with drug-related stigma reported by community members (p=0.087), and higher education inequality was significantly associated with higher HIV-related stigma reported by both PWID and community members (pinequality and HIV-related stigma is superseded by the effect of individual-level education. The results of the study confirm that socioeconomic factors at both the individual level and community level affect different types of stigma in different ways. Attention should be paid to these

  3. SERUM magnesium levels as an indicator of status of Diabetes Mellitus type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadass, S; Basu, Sharbari; Srinivasan, A R

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium deficiency is commonly associated with endocrine and metabolic disorders, especially with Diabetes Mellitus type 2 though the mechanism of hypomagnesemia in Diabetes Mellitus is not completely known. There is a close association between metabolic control of Diabetes Mellitus and impaired magnesium balance. To estimate the serum levels of magnesium in patients of with Diabetes Mellitus type 2 and to find a correlation if any, with the duration and control (by estimating HbA1c) of Diabetes Mellitus type 2. Fifty patients of Diabetes Mellitus type 2 were included in the study. Blood samples were analyzed for fasting and post prandial glucose, HbA1c and magnesium. The patients were grouped into three categories based upon their HbA1c levels into those with good control, need intervention and poor control. The three groups were compared with reference to their mean levels of blood glucose and magnesium. Association of serum magnesium levels with HbA1c, Fasting and postprandial blood glucose and duration of Diabetes Mellitus was also done. Serum magnesium levels were found to decline with rise in HbA1c levels and with duration of Diabetes Mellitus type 2. Hypomagnesemia is linked to poor control of Diabetes Mellitus type 2 and depletion of serum magnesium occurs exponentially with duration of disease. Copyright © 2014 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Meeting Recommended Levels of Physical Activity in Relation to Preventive Health Behavior and Health Status Among Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D. Hart

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of meeting the recommended levels of physical activity (PA with health status and preventive health behavior in adults. Methods A total of 5630 adults 18 years of age or older were included in this study. PA was assessed using a series of questions that categorized activities based on their metabolic equivalent values and then categorized individuals based on the reported frequency and duration of such activities. Participants reporting 150 minutes or more of moderate-intensity PA per week were considered to have met the PA guidelines. Multiple logistic regression was used to model the relationships between meeting PA guidelines and health status and preventive health behavior, while controlling for confounding variables. Results Overall, 53.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 51.9 to 55.9% of adults reported meeting the recommended levels of PA. Among adults with good general health, 56.9% (95% CI, 54.7 to 59.1% reported meeting the recommended levels of PA versus 43.1% (95% CI, 40.9 to 45.3% who did not. Adults who met the PA guidelines were significantly more likely not to report high cholesterol, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, arthritis, asthma, depression, or overweight. Furthermore, adults meeting the PA guidelines were significantly more likely to report having health insurance, consuming fruits daily, consuming vegetables daily, and not being a current cigarette smoker. Conclusions In this study, we found meeting the current guidelines for PA to have a protective relationship with both health status and health behavior in adults. Health promotion programs should focus on strategies that help individuals meet the current guidelines of at least 150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity PA.

  5. Health status in routine clinical practice: validity of the clinical COPD questionnaire at the individual patient level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Vos Barbara

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a growing interest to use health status or disease control questionnaires in routine clinical practice. However, the validity of most questionnaires is established using techniques developed for group level validation. This study examines a new method, using patient interviews, to validate a short health status questionnaire, the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ, at the individual patient level. Methods Patients with COPD who visited an outpatient clinic completed the CCQ before the consultation, and the specialist physician completed it after the consultation. After the consultation all patients had a semi-structured in-depth interview. The patients' CCQ scores were compared with those of the treating clinician, and with mean scores from 5 clinicians from a pool of 20 who scored the CCQ after reading the transcript of the in-depth interviews only. Agreement was assessed using Lin's concordance correlation coefficient (CCC, and Blant and Altman plots. Interviews with patients with low agreement were reviewed for possible explanations. Results A total of 44 COPD patients (32 male, mean age 66 years, FEV1 45% of predicted participated. Agreement between the patients' CCQ scores and those of the treating clinicians (CCC = 0.87 and the mean score of the reviewing clinicians (CCC = 0.86 was very high. No systematic error was detected. No explanation for individuals with low agreement was found. Conclusion The validity of the CCQ on the individual patient level, as assessed by these methods, is good. Individual health status assessment with the CCQ is therefore sufficiently accurate to be used in routine clinical practice.

  6. Management of endocrine disease: value and limitations of assessing vitamin D nutritional status and advised levels of vitamin D supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagnoli, Elisabetta; Pepe, Jessica; Piemonte, Sara; Cipriani, Cristiana; Minisola, Salvatore

    2013-10-01

    The growing attention to the role of vitamin D in skeletal and extra-skeletal diseases over the last decade induced an increased demand for vitamin D determination as well as a dramatic rise of sales of vitamin D supplement. However, several critical points in this field remain to be clarified. We lack a clear consensus about the definition of vitamin D deficiency, insufficiency, and sufficiency. The identification of different thresholds defining vitamin D status has relevant implications in clinical practice. In fact, the worldwide prevalence of low vitamin D status is highly varying according to the level of 25(OH)D utilized to define sufficiency. Therefore, the assessment of 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels may have a critical role, but a number of different technical problems associated with its determination may interfere in interpreting the results. The hydrophobic nature of vitamin D and the tight binding to its carrier (vitamin D binding protein), the different forms circulating in blood, and the issue of standardization are among the most important factors influencing the measurement of this metabolite. Another controversial point relies on the conflicting guidance on prevention and treatment of vitamin D deficiency endorsed by different medical and scientific communities. In particular, uncertainty exists about how to replete vitamin D stores, how to maintain normal 25(OH)D levels after repletion, which form of vitamin D is preferable for supplementation, and which route of administration and dosing regimens are advisable. Finally, concerns have been raised regarding vitamin D toxicity and its adverse effects.

  7. Effects of Dietary Calcium Levels on Productive Performance, Eggshell Quality and Overall Calcium Status in Aged Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. An

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of diets with varying levels of calcium on egg production, shell quality and overall calcium status in aged laying hens. A total of five hundred 70-wk-old Hy-Line Brown layers were divided five groups and fed one of the five experimental diets with 3.5%, 3.8%, 4.1%, 4.4%, or 4.7% Ca, for 10 weeks. There were no significant differences in feed intake, egg production and egg weight among groups. The cracked eggs were linearly reduced as dietary Ca levels increased to 4.7% (p<0.01. A significant linear improvement for eggshell strength and thickness were determined with increasing dietary Ca levels (p<0.01. The contents of serum Ca and phosphorus were not affected by dietary Ca levels. With increase in dietary Ca levels, the tibial breaking strength slightly increased. There were no significant differences in the tibial contents of ash, Ca and phosphorus among groups. In conclusion, eggshell quality, as measured by appearance, strength and thickness of eggshell, were influenced by dietary Ca content as expected (p<0.05. These results suggested that aged laying hens require relatively higher level of Ca than required levels from current Korean feeding standards for poultry.

  8. Technology status of spray calcination--vitrification of high-level liquid waste for full-scale application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeley, R.B.; Bonner, W.F.; Larson, D.E.

    1977-01-01

    Spray calcination and vitrification technology for stabilization of high-level nuclear wastes has been developed to the point that initiation of technology transfer to an industrial-sized facility could begin. This report discusses current process and equipment development status together with additional R and D studies and engineering evaluations needed. Preliminary full-scale process and equipment descriptions are presented. Technology application in a full-scale plant would blend three distinct maintenance design philosophies, depending on service life anticipated: (1) totally remote maintenance with limited viewing and handling equipment, (2) totally remote maintenance with extensive viewing and handling equipment, and (3) contact maintenance

  9. Albumin and pre-albumin levels do not reflect the nutritional status of female adolescents with restrictive eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huysentruyt, Koen; De Schepper, Jean; Vanbesien, Jesse; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2016-04-01

    Albumin and pre-albumin are frequently used as nutritional markers in clinical practice. We examined whether serum albumin and pre-albumin were predicted by body mass index (BMI), hydration and/or inflammation in female adolescents with a recently diagnosed restrictive eating disorder (RED). This was a retrospective study of female adolescents with RED from 2002 to 2011. Low albumin and pre-albumin levels were defined as nutritional status in adolescents with RED. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Plant nutritional status modulates glutamine synthetase levels in ripe tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Micro-Tom).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpeci, Telma E; Marro, Martin L; Bortolotti, Santiago; Boggio, Silvana B; Valle, Estela M

    2007-02-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening implies that chloroplastic proteins are degraded and new proteins are synthesized. Supplementary nutrition is frequently required when tomato plants begin to fruit and continues until the end of the plant's life cycle. Ammonium assimilation is crucial in these fruit maturation and ripening processes. Glutamine synthetase (GS; EC 6.3.1.2), the main ammonium-fixing enzyme in plants, could not be detected in red fruits of several tomato varieties when growing under standard nutrition. In this paper, we analyze the influence of the nutritional status on the ammonium assimilation capacity of ripe tomato (cv. Micro-Tom) fruit. For this purpose, GS expression and protein profiles were followed in mature green and red fruits harvested from plants grown under standard or supplemented nutrition. Under standard nutrient regime (weekly supplied with 0.5 x Hoagland solution) GS activity was found in chloroplasts (GS2) of mature green fruits, but it was not detected either in the chromoplasts or in the cytosol of red fruits. When plants were shifted to a supplemented nutritional regime (daily supplied with 0.5 x Hoagland solution), GS was found in red fruits. Also, cytosolic transcripts (gs1) preferentially accumulated in red fruits under high nutrition. These results indicate that mature green Micro-Tom fruits assimilate ammonia through GS2 under standard nutrition, while ripe red fruits accumulate GS1 under high nutrition, probably in order to assimilate the extra N-compounds made available through supplemented nutrition.

  11. Iron status of Filipino infants and preschoolers using plasma ferritin and transferrin receptor levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuizon, M D; Madriaga, J R; Desnacido, J A; Cheong, R L; Perlas, L A

    1996-06-01

    Iron status of 1,861 Filipino infants and preschoolers was evaluated by measurements of plasma ferritin (PF), transferrin receptor (TR) and hemoglobin (Hb). One group of subjects (Group I) consisted of all anemic subjects together with a systematic subsample from the Fourth National Nutrition Survey-Biochemical Phase. Results showed that depleted iron stores based on PF ( 8.5 mg/l) was present in higher proportion (80.0% and 73.7% for infants and preschoolers) which was comparable to the proportion of anemia (80.3%). In a subgroup of subjects from the Country Program for Children IV (Group 2) elevated TR was present in 61.4% of infants and 46.5% of preschoolers. A lower proportion of depleted iron stores of 22.7% in infants and 15.2% in preschoolers was observed. Correlation test showed that there was a closer relationship between Hb and TR (r = -0.42) than Hb and PF (r = 0.20) even if PF was expected to give a higher proportion of values below normal. The occurrence of anemia in the presence of elevated TR without any decrease in PF values suggest that the diagnostic ability of PF could be limited in the presence of infection. Therefore, future studies should include biochemical tests such as C-reactive proteins (CRP) to determine the extent of association between anemia and infection.

  12. Status of metal levels and their potential sources of contamination in Southeast Asian rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanpiwat, Penradee; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong

    2014-01-01

    To assess the concentration and status of metal contaminants in four major Southeast Asian river systems, water were collected from the Tonle Sap-Bassac Rivers (Cambodia), Citarum River (Indonesia), lower Chao Phraya River (Thailand), and Saigon River (Vietnam) in both dry and wet seasons. The target elements were Be, Al, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Ba, Tl, and Pb and the concentrations exceeded the background metal concentrations by 1- to 88-fold. This distinctly indicates enrichment by human urban area activities. The results of a normalization technique used to distinguish natural from enriched metal concentrations confirmed contamination by Al, Cd, Co, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn. Cluster analysis revealed the probable source of metals contamination in most sampling sites on all rivers studied to be anthropogenic, including industrial, commercial, and residential activities. Stable lead isotopes analyses applied to track the sources and pathways of anthropogenic lead furthermore confirmed that anthropogenic sources of metal contaminated these rivers. Discharges of wastewater from both industrial and household activities were major contributors of Pb into the rivers. Non-point sources, especially road runoff and street dust, also contributed contamination from Pb and other metals.

  13. Status of activities: Low-level radioactive waste management in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, C.B.; Shilkett, R.C.; Kirkpatrick, T.D.

    1989-01-01

    A primary objective of low-level radioactive waste management in the United States is to protect the health and safety of the public and the quality of the environment. In support of this objective is the development of waste treatment and disposal technologies designed to provide stabilization and long-term institutional control of low-level radioactive wastes. Presented herein is a technical review of specific low-level radioactive waste management activities in the United States. Waste treatment and disposal technologies are discussed along with the performance objectives of the technologies aimed at protecting the health and safety of the public and the quality of the environment. 13 refs., 4 figs

  14. High-level radioactive waste management in the United States. Background and status: 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    The US high-level radioactive waste disposal program is investigating a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to determine whether or not it is a suitable location for the development of a deep mined geologic repository. At this time, the US program is investigating a single site, although in the past, the program involved successive screening and comparison of alternate locations. The United States civilian reactor programs do not reprocess spent fuel; the high-level waste repository will be designed for the emplacement or spent fuel and a limited amount of vitrified high-level wastes from previous reprocessing in the US. The legislation enabling the US program also contains provisions for a Monitored Retrievable Storage facility, which could provide temporary storage of spent fuel accepted for disposal, and improve the flexibility of the repository development schedule

  15. Validation of self-reported smoking status by measuring serum cotinine levels: an Indian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeemon, P; Agarwal, S; Ramakrishnan, L; Gupta, R; Snehi, U; Chaturvedi, V; Reddy, K S; Prabhakaran, D

    2010-01-01

    Serum cotinine levels are a reliable marker of tobacco use. Few studies have validated questionnaires assessing smoking and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) against serum levels. We undertook such a study in industrial workers in India. We chose 426 individuals by stratified random sampling from a database of 3397 individuals surveyed at New Delhi for the cardiovascular disease surveillance programme in a large industrial setting. Questionnaires assessing details of smoking practices and duration of exposure to ETS (if any) were administered. Cotinine levels were measured in the blood samples of these individuals. The study population comprised 142 nonsmokers not exposed to ETS, 142 non-smokers exposed to ETS and 142 active smokers. Cotinine levels among nonsmokers not exposed to ETS were non-detectable; and for non-smokers exposed to ETS and active smokers, the median (interquartile range) levels were non-detectable (non-detectable to 46.1 ng/ml) and 336 ng/ml (204-500 ng/ml), respectively. The best combined sensitivity (91%) and specificity (87.2%) yielded a cotinine cut-off level of 40.35 ng/ml to differentiate active smokers from non-smokers not exposed to ETS and those exposed to ETS (area under the curve 0.902). The cut-off cotinine level was estimated at 10.95 ng/ml using a similar analysis (sensitivity 43%, specificity 82%; area under the curve 0.64) to distinguish non-smokers not exposed to ETS from those exposed to ETS. The misclassification rate was estimated at 19% and 57.1% among self-reported non-smokers not exposed to ETS and those exposed to ETS, respectively. Obtaining a history of tobacco use is an accurate method of detecting smokers in epidemiological studies whereas serum cotinine levels accurately differentiate smokers from non-smokers. However, a brief questionnaire assessing passive exposure to smoke has poor sensitivity in distinguishing non-smokers exposed to ETS from those not exposed to ETS.

  16. Status of commercial nuclear high-level waste disposal. Special report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dau, G.J.; Williams, R.F.

    1976-09-01

    The results of this review, presented in the form of a functional description of high level waste management system, shows that technology is available to dispose of nuclear waste safely by several different processes. The most attractive alternative in terms of available technology and shortness of time to demonstrate it at commercial scale is a system that converts the waste to a solid by immobilizing the radioactive elements in a glass matrix. Brief comments are also given on international efforts in high level waste management and advanced disposal concepts

  17. Status of low-level radioactive waste disposal: how to plan a disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McArthur, W.C.

    1979-01-01

    The nuclear industry is faced with serious problems in the transportation and burial of low-level radioactive wastes. Soaring burial costs, state regulations regarding transportation routes, and lack of direction from regulatory agencies are problems that must quickly be resolved. In order to gain control of this situation four major steps must be taken. First, states must accept their fair share of responsibility in the waste problem. Regulatory agencies must recognize the seriousness of the problem and develop a schedule for action. The nuclear industry must assert itself in a positive manner regarding the safety of nuclear power, and the low-level waste burial ground situation must improve

  18. High level nuclear waste repository in salt: Sealing systems status and planning report: Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    This report documents the initial conceptual design studies for a repository sealing system for a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt. The first step in the initial design studies was to review the current design level, termed schematic designs. This review identified practicality of construction and development of a design methodology as two key issues for the conceptual design. These two issues were then investigated during the initial design studies for seal system materials, seal placement, backfill emplacement, and a testing and monitoring plan. The results of these studies have been used to develop a program plan for completion of the sealing system conceptual design. 60 refs., 26 figs., 18 tabs

  19. The impact of acculturation level on weight status and weight outcomes in Mexican American children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currently 39% of Hispanic children and adolescents are overweight and obese. Higher levels of acculturation have been shown to be related to obesity in Mexican American adults. Conflicting findings exists regarding this relationship in children and little is known about the impact of acculturation o...

  20. Low-level radioactive-waste compacts. Status report as of July 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-07-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act (P.L. 96-573), enacted in December 1980, established as federal policy that states take responsibility for providing disposal capacity for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated within their borders, except for defense waste and Federal R and D. At the request of Senator James A. McClure, Chairman of the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, DOE has documented the progress of states individually and collectively in fulfilling their responsibilities under the Public Law. Regionalization through formation of low-level waste compacts has been the primary vehicle by which many states are assuming this responsibility. To date seven low-level waste compacts have been drafted and six have been enacted by state legislatures or ratified by a governor. As indicated by national progress to date, DOE considers the task of compacting achievable by the January 1, 1986, exclusionary date set in law, although several states and NRC questioned this.

  1. Correlation between male social status, testosterone levels, and parasitism in a dimorphic polygynous mammal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra S Negro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Life history trade-offs have often been assumed to be the consequence of restrictions in the availability of critical resources such as energy and nutrients, which necessitate the differential allocation of resources to costly traits. Here, we examined endocrine (testosterone and health (parasite burdens parameters in territorial and non-territorial New Zealand fur seal males. We documented intra-sexual differences in sexual behaviours, testosterone levels, and parasitism that suggest a trade-off exists between reproductive success and physical health, particularly susceptibility to helminths and acanthocephalans, in males displaying different mating tactics (i.e., territorial and non-territorial tactics. Levels of testosterone were higher in territorial males and correlated positively with reproductive effort (i.e., intra- and inter-sexual interactions. However, these territorial males also exhibited high levels of parasitic infection, which may impair survival in the long-term. Our study, while limited in sample size, provides preliminary evidence for a link between male mating tactics, testosterone levels and parasite loads, and potential effects on reproductive success and life history that should be explored further.

  2. Stress Levels of Kuwaiti Mothers of Children with SLD: Does Work and Educational Status Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazemi, Saad S.; Hadadian, Azar; Merbler, John B.; Wang, Cen

    2015-01-01

    Existing research literature indicates that parents of children with disabilities have higher stress. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in stress levels between mothers in relation to their children with specific learning disabilities (SLD). A sub sample of 91 mothers participated in the study. The outcome of the research…

  3. Low-level radioactive-waste compacts. Status report as of July 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act (P.L. 96-573), enacted in December 1980, established as federal policy that states take responsibility for providing disposal capacity for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated within their borders, except for defense waste and Federal R and D. At the request of Senator James A. McClure, Chairman of the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, DOE has documented the progress of states individually and collectively in fulfilling their responsibilities under the Public Law. Regionalization through formation of low-level waste compacts has been the primary vehicle by which many states are assuming this responsibility. To date seven low-level waste compacts have been drafted and six have been enacted by state legislatures or ratified by a governor. As indicated by national progress to date, DOE considers the task of compacting achievable by the January 1, 1986, exclusionary date set in law, although several states and NRC questioned this

  4. China's deep geological disposal program for high level radioactive waste, background and status 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju Wang; Xu Guoqing; Guo Yonghai

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the background and progress made in the study of China's high level radioactive waste, including site screening, site evaluation, the study on radionuclide migration, bentonite, natural analogue studies, and performance assessment, etc. The study on Beishan area, the potential area for China's geological repository, is also presented in this paper. (author)

  5. An evaluation of wheelchair basketball players' nutritional status and nutritional knowledge levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskici, Günay; Ersoy, Gülgün

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to assess the nutritional status of women paralympic athletes and their nutritional knowledge. Twenty two players of National Wheelchair Women Basketball Team (15-38 years) participated in this study and answered a questionnaire (76 questions) Players were at sport camp during the assessment where their body weight is measured regularly by the team coach. The waist, hip size and the height of the players who are able to stand have been used for the assessment, while the knee height of the players who are not able to stand have been measured for the study. SPSS 15.0 and BEBIS (Nutritional Data System) have been used for statistical assessment. The average age and sport years as a player of the participants are; respectively; 25.5±7.2 years and 3.9±2.8 years. The average daily energy consumption is 2867.8±523.6 kcal/day. The average proportion of energy, converted from carbohydrate, protein, fat are been calculated as, respectively; 42.7% (5.3±1.5 g/kg/day), 13.3% (1.6±0.3 g/kg/day), 44% (2.5±0.8 g/kg/day). It is also found that Vitamin B1, folic acid, magnesium, iron and fiber have not been consumed enough. The questions about sport nutrition have been mostly answered incorrectly. Athletes have inadequate food consumption and nutrition information. The athletes have to be educated more about nutrition and they should have nutritional counseling support.

  6. VIA Employability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Mariendal

    2017-01-01

    ’s realized at the entrance to the labor market and in the future career. The purpose is to find opportunities to improve employability-developing activities and to adapt it to specific needs from the students. Based on a number of qualitative interviews and personality tests of the graduates, an increased......The fact that students develop employability during their education is a key point for educational institutions and the focus on this issue has never been greater. This project looks into personal experience from VIA-graduates of "developing their employability" during the education and how it...

  7. Status report on Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avant, R.V. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    In 1981, the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority was created by Article 4590f-1 to site, develop, operate, decommission, and close a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility for Texas generated waste. In 1989, the Authority's act was recodified by the Texas legislature in the Health and Safety Code., Title 5. Sanitation and Environmental Quality, Subtitle D. Nuclear and Radioactive Materials, Chapter 402. The Authority is governed by a Board of Directors appointed by the Governor, composed of a certified health physicist, geologist, attorney, medical doctor, and two private citizens. Under the statute, low-level radioactive waste is defined as any radioactive material with a half-life of 35 years or less or having less than 10 nanocuries per gram of transuranics. Materials with half-lives of greater than 35 years may be classed as low-level waste if special criteria are established by the Texas Department of Health Bureau of Radiation Control. Subsequent sessions of the legislature have amended the act to revise siting criteria, require consideration of state land, create a Citizen's Advisory Committee, incorporate alternative designs, and establish a special low-level radioactive waste account in the state treasury. The Authority began its activities in 1982. The Authority has proposed a site in far West Texas near Fort Hancock, but El Paso County, the neighboring county to the west, has instituted three separate lawsuits to slow or stop the site selection process. Particular attention was paid early in the site selection process to items which could be fatal flaws from a licensing standpoint. This paper discusses the Fort Hancock site description, site evaluation studies, siting issues, waste volume projections, facility design, license application, cost and schedule

  8. Potentiometric-level monitoring program, Mississippi and Louisiana: Annual status report for fiscal year 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    Potentiometric-level data presented in this report were collected at 82 wells in Mississippi and Louisiana from October 1984 through September 1985. These wells are located near Richton and Cypress Creek Domes in Mississippi and Vacherie dome in Louisiana. Three wells were reinstated to the program during this period. Two previously destroyed wells were deleted from the program. Protective barriers were installed around 26 shallow borings in Mississippi. Cursory analysis of the data in Mississippi indicated minimal, if any, change in potentiometric level during the past year in the Citronelle, Hattiesburg, Cockfield, Sparta, and Wilcox Formations. A slight decline, on the order of 0.3 meter (1 foot), occurred during the past year in well MCCG-1, which is screened in the caprock of Cypress Creek Dome. The potentiometric level in well MRIG-9, in the caprock of Richton Dome, stabilized during fiscal year 1985 following 5 years of increase. The Catahoula Formation experienced a continuing decline of about 0.3 meter/year (1 foot/year). Well MH-5C, screened in the Cook Mountain Formation, showed a continuing, long-term, upward trend on the order of 1.5 meters (4.9 feet) during the past year. The potentiometric level of well MH-8C, screened in the Cook Mountain Formation, stabilized during fiscal year 1985, following 5 years of large annual increases. Wells screened in the Austin Formation in Louisiana showed a downward trend of 0.3 to 1 meter (1 to 3.3 feet) during fiscal year 1985. Other formations in Louisiana generally showed no change in potentiometric level

  9. Licit prescription drug use in a Swedish population according to age, gender and socioeconomic status after adjusting for level of multi-morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorell, Kristine; Skoog, Jessica; Zielinski, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    There is a great variability in licit prescription drug use in the population and among patients. Factors other than purely medical ones have proven to be of importance for the prescribing of licit drugs. For example, individuals with a high age, female gender and low socioeconomic status are more...... and socioeconomic status after adjustment for multi-morbidity level....

  10. Status of the Texas low-level radioactive waste disposal site - construction sequencing and staffing patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobi, L.R. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority, an agency of the State of Texas, has been attempting to develop a site for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste in Texas for more than fourteen years. Since 1991, the agency has been evaluating a site near Sierra Blanca, in far west Texas. Site characterization was completed in 1992, and a license application was filed that year. Construction plans were completed in 1993. In April 1996, the licensing agency, the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission, completed its review and proposed to issue a license. The administrative hearings on the proposed license should be completed by July 1997. The Authority is prepared to begin construction and operations as soon as a final license can be issued

  11. Technical area status report for low-level mixed waste final waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayberry, J.L.; Huebner, T.L.; Ross, W.; Nakaoka, R.; Schumacher, R.; Cunnane, J.; Singh, D.; Darnell, R.; Greenhalgh, W.

    1993-08-01

    This report presents information on low-level mixed waste forms.The descriptions of the low-level mixed waste (LLMW) streams that are considered by the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) are given in Appendix A. This information was taken from descriptions generated by the Mixed Waste Treatment Program (MWTP). Appendix B provides a list of characteristic properties initially considered by the Final Waste Form (FWF) Working Group (WG). A description of facilities available to test the various FWFs discussed in Volume I of DOE/MWIP-3 are given in Appendix C. Appendix D provides a summary of numerous articles that were reviewed on testing of FWFS. Information that was collected by the tests on the characteristic properties considered in this report are documented in Appendix D. The articles reviewed are not a comprehensive list, but are provided to give an indication of the data that are available

  12. Status of high level and alpha bearing waste management in PNC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uematsu, Kunihiko

    1982-04-01

    For completing the nuclear fuel cycle in Japan, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) has a role to promote the management of high level and alpha bearing wastes. For high level waste management, it is planned in Japan to initiate the operation of a vitrification pilot plant by 1987 for the development of the solidification process, and to make it possible to initiate trial disposal by 2015 for the development of geological disposal technology. In PNC, monolithic borosilicate glass was selected as the final form of solidification. Alpha bearing wastes have been produced in the mixed oxide fuel fabrication facility and the reprocessing plant in PNC; and the amount should increase considerably in the future in Japan. About these two areas of waste management, the policy and the research/development programs are described. (J.P.N.)

  13. Status of the North Carolina/Southeast Compact low-level radioactive waste disposal project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, C.K. [North Carolina Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Authority, NC (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The Southeast Compact is a sited region for low-level radioactive waste because of the current facility at Barnwell, South Carolina. North Carolina has been designated as the next host state for the compact, and the North Carolina Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Authority is the agency charged with developing the new facility. Chem-Nuclear Systems, Inc., has been selected by the Authority as its primary site development and operations contractor. This paper will describe the progress currently being made toward the successful opening of the facility in January 1996. The areas to be addressed include site characterization, performance assessment, facility design, public outreach, litigation, finances, and the continued operation of the Barnwell facility.

  14. Status of Safeguards and Separations Model Development at Plant and Molecular Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Almeida, Valmor F [ORNL; Hay, Benjamin [ORNL; DePaoli, David W [ORNL

    2009-10-01

    A primary goal of the Safeguards and Separations IPSC effort is the development of process modeling tools that allow dynamic simulations of separations plant operations under various configurations and conditions, and integration of relevant safeguards analyses. A requirement of the effort is to develop codes on modern, expandable architectures, with flexibility to explore and evaluate a wide range of process options. During FY09, efforts at ORNL have been focused on two priority tasks toward achieving the IPSC goal: (1) a top-down exploration of architecture - Subtask 1: Explore framework for code development and integration for plant-level simulation; and (2) a bottom-up fundamental modeling effort - Subtask 2: Development of molecular-level agent design code. Subtask 1 is important because definition and development of architecture is a key issue for the overall effort, as selection of an overall approach and code/data requirements is a necessary first step in the organization, design and development of separations and safeguards codes that will be incorporated. The agent design effort of Subtask 2 is a molecular-level modeling effort that has a direct impact on a near-term issue of the Separations and Waste Forms Campaign. A current focus of experimental efforts is the development of robust agents and processes for separation of Am/Cm. Development of enhanced agent-design codes will greatly accelerate discovery and experimental testing.

  15. Status of Safeguards and Separations Model Development at Plant and Molecular Levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Almeida, Valmor F.; Hay, Benjamin; DePaoli, David W.

    2009-01-01

    A primary goal of the Safeguards and Separations IPSC effort is the development of process modeling tools that allow dynamic simulations of separations plant operations under various configurations and conditions, and integration of relevant safeguards analyses. A requirement of the effort is to develop codes on modern, expandable architectures, with flexibility to explore and evaluate a wide range of process options. During FY09, efforts at ORNL have been focused on two priority tasks toward achieving the IPSC goal: (1) a top-down exploration of architecture - Subtask 1: Explore framework for code development and integration for plant-level simulation; and (2) a bottom-up fundamental modeling effort - Subtask 2: Development of molecular-level agent design code. Subtask 1 is important because definition and development of architecture is a key issue for the overall effort, as selection of an overall approach and code/data requirements is a necessary first step in the organization, design and development of separations and safeguards codes that will be incorporated. The agent design effort of Subtask 2 is a molecular-level modeling effort that has a direct impact on a near-term issue of the Separations and Waste Forms Campaign. A current focus of experimental efforts is the development of robust agents and processes for separation of Am/Cm. Development of enhanced agent-design codes will greatly accelerate discovery and experimental testing.

  16. The effect of a nutrition education program on the nutritional knowledge, hemoglobin levels, and nutritional status of Nicaraguan adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jean Burley; Pawloski, Lisa; Rodriguez, Claudia; Lumbi, Laura; Ailinger, Rita

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a community-based nutrition education program on the nutritional knowledge, hemoglobin levels, and nutritional status of Nicaraguan adolescent girls and the nutritional knowledge of their mothers. Self-care deficit nursing theory was used in this study. This longitudinal study used a mixed quantitative/qualitative design to study the effect of the nutrition education program. The nonprobability sample consisted of 182 adolescent girls and 67 of their mothers. The setting for the study was a community (barrio) in Managua, Nicaragua. INTERVENTION/MEASUREMENT: A team of nurse and nutrition researchers created the nutrition education program designed to improve girls' and mother's nutrition-related self-care operations. Data collection was carried out for 4 years for girls and 2 years for mothers in Managua, Nicaragua, using questionnaires, a HemoCue, and anthropometric measures. The findings of this study were that girls' and mothers' nutritional knowledge scores significantly improved in most cases after participation in the nutrition intervention program. Girls' hemoglobin levels did not significantly improve and their nutritional status findings were mixed. Girls and mothers described what dietary changes girls made and why.

  17. Employment protection

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Scarpetta

    2014-01-01

    Laws on hiring and firing are intended to protect workers from unfair behavior by employers, to counter imperfections in financial markets that limit workers’ ability to insure themselves against job loss, and to preserve firm-specific human capital. But by imposing costs on firms’ adaptation to changes in demand and technology, employment protection legislation may reduce not only job destruction but also job creation, hindering the efficient allocation of labor and productivity growth....

  18. Socioeconomic status in children is associated with hair cortisol levels as a biological measure of chronic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vliegenthart, J; Noppe, G; van Rossum, E F C; Koper, J W; Raat, H; van den Akker, E L T

    2016-03-01

    Low socioeconomic status (SES) may be associated with a high risk of lifestyle-related diseases such as cardiovascular diseases. There is a strong association between parental SES, stress and indicators of child health and adult health outcome. The exact mechanisms underlying this association have not yet been fully clarified. Low SES may be associated with chronic stress, which may lead to activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis, resulting in a higher circulating level of the stress hormone cortisol. Therefore, chronic stress may mediate the association between low SES and elevated cortisol levels and its adverse outcomes. We investigated whether SES was associated with a chronic measure of cortisol exposure in a child population. Cortisol and cortisone were measured in scalp hair in 270 children and adolescents, aged 4-18 years, enrolled through school visits. Neighborhood level SES was based on a score developed by the Netherlands Institute for Social Research using postal codes, and this includes neighborhood measures of income education and unemployment. Maternal and paternal education level were used as indicators of family SES. Neighborhood level socioeconomic status score was significantly associated with hair cortisol (β=-0.103, p=0.007, 95%CI [-0.179, -0.028]) and hair cortisone (β=-0.091, p=0.023, 95%CI [-0.167, -0.015]), adjusted for age and sex. Additionally, hair cortisol was significantly correlated with maternal education level and hair cortisone was significantly correlated with paternal education level. The results of our study suggest that the widely shown association between low family SES and adverse child health outcomes may be mediated by chronic stress, given the chronically higher levels of cortisol in children and adolescents in families with low SES. It is especially notable that the association between SES and cortisol was already found in children of young age as this can have major consequences, such as increased

  19. Status report and approaches for siting a low level waste disposal facility in Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    On July 24, 1991, Michigan was expelled from the Midwest Interstate Low Level Radioactive Waste Compact. This action resulted in Ohio becoming the primary host state based on actions taken by the commission in 1987 when Ohio was designated as first alternate host state. Ohio recognized early on that the existing Midwest Compact needed to be amended and negotiations on a compact document that met the concerns of Ohio were initially completed in June 1993. A region-wide review and comment period was provided and meetings or hearings on the amended and restated compact were completed in all party states with the unamimous adoption of the document by the Commission on November 29, 1993. The document will now be forwarded to the party state for action by their state legislatures. Ohio is expected to enact the compact amendments first with each of the other states following in short order. On October 30, 1992 the governor of Ohio appointed a 13 member blue ribbon committee on siting criteria. In September 1993, the Blue Ribbon Commission on Siting Criteria and Ohio's Low-Level Radioactive Waste Advisory Committee each issued their reports to the Governor, the leadership of the Ohio General Assembly, and the general public. The Blue Ribbon Commission Report focused on concerns relative to siting while the advisory committee concentrated on the overall administrative structural process associated with developing, licensing and operating a low-level waste facility in Ohio. Legislation is currently being drafted based on these reports. Ohio leadership will consider the package in the session which begins in January 1995

  20. Tear ascorbic acid levels and the total antioxidant status in contact lens wearers: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Sai

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The tear ascorbate owing to its high concentration, functions as an effective antioxidant against the oxidative damage of cornea. Contact lens wearers (CLW are prone to oxidative stress due to the lens-induced hypoxic conditions. A pilot study was done to compare the tear ascorbic acid level and the total antioxidant capacity give as in normal and CLW. Materials and Methods: In this study 21 CLW (Mean age 23 ± 3 years ; M-2, F-19, who were daily wear users, with duration of wear not more than four years, along with age-matched 28 controls (Mean age 28 ± 3 ; M-15, F-13 were recruited in the study for collection of reflex tears using Schirmer′s strip. Ascorbic acid in tears was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, total antioxidant capacity (TAC and total protein assay by spectrophotometric analysis. Results: CLW showed no significant change in the tear ascorbic acid levels (0.4 ± 0.26 mM compared to the control subjects (0.61 ± 0.59 mM. The amount of ascorbic acid in tears did not correlate with the TAC or the total protein of the tears. The mean TAC in CLW was 0.69 ± 0.16 mM, with a total protein of 1.35 ± 0.46 mg/ml while in controls it was 0.7 ± 0.18 mM and 1.21 ± 0.47 mg/ml respectively . Conclusions: Soft contact lens wear did not show any significant change in tear ascorbic acid, TAC and total protein levels compared to controls.

  1. Engineering task plan and status of 241-S-106 Enraf level gauge wire break

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, T.L.

    1994-09-01

    This report discusses the findings of a task team which was formed which identified the need for short-term actions to re-establish tank waste level monitoring and to permanently address wire failure. The failed wire was removed and sent to Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for analysis. It was determined that the cause of the wire failure was due to chloride ion stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of the 316 stainless steel (SS) wire. Radiation induced breakdown of the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) riser liners is suspected to be the source of the chloride ions

  2. Image quality validation of Sentinel 2 Level-1 products: performance status at the beginning of the constellation routine phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francesconi, Benjamin; Neveu-VanMalle, Marion; Espesset, Aude; Alhammoud, Bahjat; Bouzinac, Catherine; Clerc, Sébastien; Gascon, Ferran

    2017-09-01

    Sentinel-2 is an Earth Observation mission developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) in the frame of the Copernicus program of the European Commission. The mission is based on a constellation of 2-satellites: Sentinel-2A launched in June 2015 and Sentinel-2B launched in March 2017. It offers an unprecedented combination of systematic global coverage of land and coastal areas, a high revisit of five days at the equator and 2 days at mid-latitudes under the same viewing conditions, high spatial resolution, and a wide field of view for multispectral observations from 13 bands in the visible, near infrared and short wave infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum. The mission performances are routinely and closely monitored by the S2 Mission Performance Centre (MPC), including a consortium of Expert Support Laboratories (ESL). This publication focuses on the Sentinel-2 Level-1 product quality validation activities performed by the MPC. It presents an up-to-date status of the Level-1 mission performances at the beginning of the constellation routine phase. Level-1 performance validations routinely performed cover Level-1 Radiometric Validation (Equalisation Validation, Absolute Radiometry Vicarious Validation, Absolute Radiometry Cross-Mission Validation, Multi-temporal Relative Radiometry Vicarious Validation and SNR Validation), and Level-1 Geometric Validation (Geolocation Uncertainty Validation, Multi-spectral Registration Uncertainty Validation and Multi-temporal Registration Uncertainty Validation). Overall, the Sentinel-2 mission is proving very successful in terms of product quality thereby fulfilling the promises of the Copernicus program.

  3. Adaptation level as the basic health status characteristics: possibilitics of its assessment and forecasting of desadaptation violations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vysochyna I.L.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of comprehensive survey with integrative assessment of health state (medical history data, physical examination, anthropometry, battery of psychological tests (Eysenck, Shmishek’s Personality Inventory (teen version, tapping - test by E.P. Ilyin, children's questionnaire of neuroses; test for rapid assessment of health, activity and mood, anxiety diagnosis by Spielberg - Khanin; Luscher test, color relations test level of adaptation was defined in 236 children from orphanages aged from 4 to 18 years. The manifestations of maladjustment were registered both on psychological level (neuroticism, high anxiety, decreased performance, activity and psychological endurance, sleep disturbance, presence of accentuation and neurotic disorders and somatic level (recurrent acute respiratory infections, poor physical development, exacerbation of chronic foci of infection and burdened biological history; this summarizes conclusions on a low level of health status of children in orphanages. The author has developed mathematical models of adaptation assessment and prediction of desadaptation, which allowed to identify children at risk for the development of adaptation disorders and children with maladjustment; according to the level and severity of maladaptive disorders correction programs are designed.

  4. Development of a low level radioactive waste disposal site in Texas - 1994 status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobi, L.R. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The Texas Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority, an agency of the State of Texas, has been trying to develop a site for the disposal of low level radioactive waste in Texas for over ten years. Since 1991, the agency has been evaluating a site near Sierra Blanca, in far west Texas. Site characterization has been completed and a license application has been filed with the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission. Construction plans were completed in 1993, and the agency is prepared to begin construction and operations as soon as a license can be issued. Development costs for the site are borne by the utility companies and other major generators in Texas through the assessment of a planning and implementation fee. Total costs to date are approximately $26 million. As the project moves toward completion, state and national anti-nuclear activist groups have become more involved in attempts to thwart the Texas government's effort to solve the radioactive waste problem. To counter this increased opposition, the Texas utility companies and medical radioactive waste generators have also become more active in responding to these groups. This has been very helpful and is in keeping with the elements of building block 12 of the Nuclear Power Oversight Committee's Strategic Plan for Building New Nuclear Power Plants. This paper and poster session look at the schedule, design, and long term prospects for ultimate success of the project

  5. 324 Radiochemical engineering cells and high level vault tanks mixed waste compliance status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The 324 Building in the Hanford 300 Area contains Radiochemical Engineering Cells and High Level Vault tanks (the open-quotes REC/HLVclose quotes) for research and development activities involving radioactive materials. Radioactive mixed waste within this research installation, found primarily in B-Cell and three of the high level vault tanks, is subject to RCRA/DWR (open-quotes RCRAclose quotes) regulations for storage. This white paper provides a baseline RCRA compliance summary of MW management in the REC/HLV, based on best available knowledge. The REC/HLV compliance project, of which this paper is a part, is intended to achieve the highest degree of compliance practicable given the special technical difficulties of managing high activity radioactive materials, and to assure protection of human health and safety and the environment. The REC/HLV was constructed in 1965 to strict standards for the safe management of highly radioactive materials. Mixed waste in the REC/HLV consists of discarded tools and equipment, dried feed stock from nuclear waste melting experiments, contaminated particulate matter, and liquid feed stock from various experimental programs in the vault tanks. B-Cell contains most of these materials. Total radiological inventory in B-Cell is estimated at 3 MCi, about half of which is potentially open-quotes dispersibleclose quotes, that is, it is in small pieces or mobile particles. Most of the mixed waste currently in the REC/HLV was generated or introduced before mixed wastes were subjected to RCRA in 1987

  6. New York State low-level radioactive waste status report for 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelk, H.

    1999-06-01

    This report summarizes data on low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) generated in New York State: it is based on reports from generators that must be filed annually with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and on data from the US Department of Energy (US DOE). The New York State Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Act (State Act) requires LLRW generators in the State to submit annual reports detailing the classes and quantities of waste generated. This is the 13th year generators have been required to submit these reports to NYSERDA. The data are summarized in a series of tables and figures. There are four sections in the report. Section 1 covers volume, activity, and other characteristics of waste shipped for disposal in 1998. Activity is the measure of a material's radioactivity, or the number of radiation-emitting events occurring each second. Section 2 summarizes volume, activity, and other characteristics of waste held for storage as of December 31, 1998. Section 3 shows historical LLRW generation and includes generators' projections for the next five years. Section 4 provides a list, by county, of all facilities from which 1998 LLRW reports were received. 2 figs., 23 tabs

  7. Information Literacy and Employability

    OpenAIRE

    O'Keeffe, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Information Literacy (IL) and its relationship to third level graduates’ employability has gained more attention in recent years. This article examines how IL has evolved from skills initially associated with academic libraries into a key workplace skill set of the knowledge economy. It outlines the challenges interviewees encounter when selling IL to employers, how IL can be utilised when preparing for upcoming interviews and suggests a distinction between workplace IL and employability IL. ...

  8. Maternal nutritional status during pregnancy and surma use determine cord lead levels in Karachi, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janjua, Naveed Zafar; Delzell, Elizabeth; Larson, Rodney R.; Meleth, Sreelatha; Kabagambe, Edmond K.; Kristensen, Sibylle; Sathiakumar, Nalini

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the umbilical cord blood lead levels (BLLs) of Pakistani neonates and to identify determinants for umbilical BLLs. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of mothers and infants at one of the two obstetric units of two tertiary care hospitals in Karachi during January-August 2005. Information from 540 mothers selected randomly from those registered for delivery was obtained about their pregnancy, diet, and current and past lead exposures. We collected umbilical cord blood for lead levels analyzed using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. We computed geometric and arithmetic means. We performed multiple linear regression analysis to identify factors associated with log-transformed umbilical cord BLLs. We also performed logistic regression analysis to identify determinants of high lead cord BLLs (≥10 μg/dl). Results: The geometric mean cord BLL of the neonates was 9.6 μg/dl; arithmetic mean (S.D.) was 10.8 μg/dl (5.7) with a median of 9.7 μg/dl and a range of 1.8-48.9 μg/dl. Women who reported intake of less than 58.5 mg of elemental iron supplement per day during pregnancy had cord BLL of 10.0 μg/dl; in comparison those women who had higher iron intake had lower cord BLL (8.4 μg/dl). Those who used surma (an eye cosmetic) daily had higher cord BLL (11.5 μg/dl) as compared to those who used it less frequently (9.4 μg/dl). In multivariable linear regression model, higher iron intake, owning a car, and being in 2nd quartile of mid-arm circumference were associated with low lead levels while father's occupation in lead-based industry was associated with significantly higher umbilical cord BLLs. There was interaction of daily surma use and ethnicity. Geometric mean BLLs were varied among surma users by ethnicity. Conclusions: Umbilical cord BLLs are high in Karachi, Pakistan, in comparison to those in developed countries such as United States. Measures are needed to reduce fetal lead exposure to prevent adverse

  9. An investigation report on the status of very low level radioactive waste management in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Donghui

    2008-01-01

    This report briefly introduces the result of investigation on the study of Very Low Level Waste (VLLW) management and the engineering details of landfill facilities for slightly contaminated waste produced during past few decades in China. Since it has been recognized by IAEA and some countries, that VLLW can be disposed in the landfill for hazardous waste, industrial waste or garbage from cities, standards involved with the non-radioactive solid waste disposal were collected and the brief information in situ for some landfill projects, just like in Beijing and Shanghai, are also given in this report. In the end, some questions and points of view are raised, on which I wish to discuss with you. These points could be very important, when we want to develop the standard for VLLW management. (authors)

  10. The status of siting activities for a low level waste repository in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdezco, E.M.; Visitacion, M.; Palattao, B.; Marcelo, E.A.; Venida, L.L.

    2001-01-01

    The process of site selection for a low level waste repository was initiated in 1976 when the Philippine Government decided to go nuclear and constructed the first Philippine Nuclear Power Plant in the Bataan Peninsula. However, all siting activities were suspended when the nuclear power plant was mothballed and the final decision was made to convert the plant into a combined cycle power plant. In 1995, an inter-agency committee was created under the Nuclear Power Steering Committee and mandated to conduct studies on siting of radioactive waste disposal facilities, and at the same time, perform R and D activities in support of the project. This paper describes the various siting activities carried out to date. (author)

  11. New York State low-level radioactive waste status report for 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    This report summarizes data on low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) generated in New York State. It is based on reports from generators that must be filed annually with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and on data from the US Department of Energy (US DOE). The data are summarized in a series of tables and figures. There are four sections in this report. Section 1 covers volume, activity, and other characteristics of waste shipped for disposal in 1997. (Activity is the measure of a material's radioactivity, or the number of radiation-emitting events occurring each second.) Section 2 summarizes volume, activity, and other characteristics of waste held for storage as of December 31, 1997. Section 3 shows historical LLRW generation and includes generators' projections for the next five years. Section 4 provides a list, by county, of all facilities from which 1997 LLRW reports were received

  12. Status of a study of stabilization and fine positioning of CLIC quadrupoles to the nanometre level

    CERN Document Server

    Artoos, K; Esposito, M; Fernandez Carmona, P; Guinchard, M; Hauviller, C; Janssens, S; Kuzmin, A; Leuxe, R; Moron Ballester, R

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical stability to the nanometre and below is required for the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) quadrupoles to frequencies as low as 1 Hz. An active stabilization and positioning system based on very stiff piezo electric actuators and inertial reference masses is under study for the Main Beam Quadrupoles (MBQ). The stiff support was selected for robustness against direct forces and for the option of incrementally repositioning the magnet with nanometre resolution. The technical feasibility was demonstrated by a representative test mass being stabilized and repositioned to the required level in the vertical and lateral direction. Technical issues were identified and the development programme of the support, sensors, and controller was continued to increase the performance, integrate the system in the overall controller, adapt to the accelerator environment, and reduce costs. The improvements are implemented in models, test benches, and design of the first stabilized prototype CLIC magnet. The characterizati...

  13. Status of the United States' high-level nuclear waste disposal program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusche, B.

    1985-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 is a remarkable piece of legislation in that there is general agreement on its key provisions. Nevertheless, this is a program intended to span more than a century, with some choices by Congress, states, Indian tribes and the nuclear power industry yet to be made. The crafters of the Act clearly recognized this. And further, the crafters recognized ''. . .that. . .state, Indian tribe and public participation in the planning and development of repositories is essential in order to promote public confidence in the safety of disposal of such waste and spent fuel . . . High-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel have become major subjects of public concern, and appropriate precautions must be taken to ensure that such waste and spent fuel do not adversely affect the public health and safety and the environment for this or future generations

  14. Economic security of the Russian Federation: current status, level and threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Grigoryeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems of national and economic security maintenanceis aggravating in modern conditions of globalization and international competition related to controlof market channels, technological, information and natural resources.Today Russia is making all efforts to protect its position on the world stage and improve the lives of its citizens.Despite the worsening of the present economic, political and social differences in the world, the Russian Federation has its own national interests, which can be possible to fulfill only on the basis of sustainable development of the national economic security system.The latter traditionally determines the ability of the state economic system to maintain normal conditions for the national economy functioning and the population activity. The national economic securitystabilitycan be estimated only by the application of elaborate tools of the economic development indicators analysis and the threshold values examinationaimed at the determination of the quality characteristic of actual and the most successful model of the economic activity.The analysis of the current Russian economic situation showed the presence of some serious problems existing in the national economy. The economic security level of Russia, having a tendency to increase in the period of 1998-2013, has been sharply reduced to critical points since 2014. So, it is necessary to take some measures to restructure the system of economic security of the state. Based on the research it was identified the list of the most dangerous threats to the modern Russian economy, which includes: low level of the country industrial production; the economy dependence on goods import and raw materials export; low living standards of the population; the rapid growth of the shadow economy and corruption; the lack of civil science and innovationdevelopment. The main strategic directions for economic security levelincrease in Russia today and in the future are aimed at

  15. Decreased expression level of BER genes in Alzheimer's disease patients is not derivative of their DNA methylation status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwinska, Agnieszka; Sitarek, Przemysław; Toma, Monika; Czarny, Piotr; Synowiec, Ewelina; Krupa, Renata; Wigner, Paulina; Bialek, Katarzyna; Kwiatkowski, Dominik; Korycinska, Anna; Majsterek, Ireneusz; Szemraj, Janusz; Galecki, Piotr; Sliwinski, Tomasz

    2017-10-03

    Neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease can be caused by accumulation of oxidative DNA damage resulting from altered expression of genes involved in the base excision repair system (BER). Promoter methylation can affect the profile of BER genes expression. Decreased expression of BER genes was observed in the brains of AD patients. The aim of our study was to compare the expression and methylation profiles of six genes coding for proteins involved in BER, namely: hOGG1, APE1, MUTYH, NEIL1, PARP1 and XRCC1, in the peripheral blood cells of AD patients and healthy volunteers. The study consisted of 100 persons diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease according to DSM-IV criteria, and 110 healthy volunteers. DNA and total RNA were isolated from venous blood cells. Promoter methylation profiles were obtained by High Resolution Melting (HRM) analysis of bisulfide converted DNA samples. Real-time PCR with TaqMan probes was employed for gene expression analysis. APE1, hOGG1, MUTYH, PARP1 and NEIL1 were significantly (pgenes. The methylation status of promoters is not associated with downregulation of BER genes. Our results show that downregulation of BER genes detected in peripheral blood samples could reflect the changes occurring in the brain of patients with AD, and may be a useful biomarker of this disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Employer Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann, Søren; Mønsted, Bolette Rye

    2012-01-01

    Employer branding er både for den private og den offentlige sektor blevet en måde, de kan imødekomme ændrede arbejdsmarkedsvilkår og organisatoriske udfordringer i en postmoderne og globaliseret verden. Den aktuelle finanskrise har skabt nye udfordringer for organisationer i deres bestræbelser på...... at tiltrække- og fastholde attraktive medarbejdere. Men hvilken betydning har det, når Grundfos siger ”Mennesket er i fokus”, og hvad siger ”mangfoldighed” om Københavns Kommune som arbejdsplads i relation til employer branding? Er der egentlig sammenhæng mellem tankerne bag employer branding og de eksternt...... kommunikerede employer brandprodukter. Eller bliver det unikke ved arbejdspladserne ersattet af buzzwords uden substans og inddragelse af ansatte og interessenter? Artiklen har til formål at vurdere disse spørgsmål på baggrund af analyser af to cases med employer branding....

  17. Is having a job a protective factor? Employment status and state of medical care as subjectively perceived by adults with CHD in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, Paul C; Sticker, Elisabeth J; Keuchen, Roland; Koerten, Marc-André; Diller, Gerhard-Paul; Tutarel, Oktay; Bauer, Ulrike M M

    2017-08-01

    Most patients born with CHD nowadays reach adulthood, and thus quality of life, life situation, and state of medical care aspects are gaining importance in the current era. The present study aimed to investigate whether patients' assessment depends on their means of occupation. The findings are expected to be helpful in optimising care and for developing individual treatment plans. The present study was based on an online survey conducted in cooperation with patient organisations. Participants were recruited from the database of the German National Register for Congenital Heart Defects. In total, 1828 individuals (777 males, 1051 females) took part. Participants were asked to rate aspects such their state of health on a six-tier scale (1=worst specification). Response behaviour was measured against the background of occupational details. Training for or pursuing a profession was found to be significantly associated with participants' rating of five of the six examined aspects (pemployment status. To work out such an optimal and individual treatment plan for each adult CHD patient, an objective tool to measure patients' actual CHD-specific knowledge precluding socially accepted response bias would be very useful.

  18. Omega-3 fatty acids status in human subjects estimated using a food frequency questionnaire and plasma phospholipids levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garneau Véronique

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intakes of omega-3 (n-3 fatty acids (FA are associated with several health benefits. The aim of this study was to verify whether intakes of n-3 FA estimated from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ correlate with n-3 FA levels measured in plasma phospholipids (PL. Methods The study sample consisted of 200 French-Canadians men and women aged between 18 to 55 years. Dietary data were collected using a validated FFQ. Fasting blood samples were collected and the plasma PL FA profile was measured by gas chromatography. Results Low intakes of n-3 long-chain FA together with low percentages of n-3 long-chain FA in plasma PL were found in French-Canadian population. Daily intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA were similar between men and women. Yet, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA and total n-3 FA intakes were significantly higher in men compared to women (ALA: 2.28 g and 1.69 g, p n-3 FA: 2.57 g and 1.99 g, p n-3 FA (men: r = 0.47, p  Conclusion Estimated n-3 long-chain FA intake among this young and well-educated French-Canadian population is lower than the recommendations. Further, FFQ data is comparable to plasma PL results to estimate DHA and total n-3 FA status in healthy individuals as well as to evaluate the EPA and DPA status in women. Overall, this FFQ could be used as a simple, low-cost tool in future studies to rank n-3 FA status of individuals.

  19. Association of High Vitamin D Status with Low Circulating Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Independent of Thyroid Hormone Levels in Middle-Aged and Elderly Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A recent study has reported that high circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] is associated with low circulating thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels, but only in younger individuals. The goal of the present study was to explore the relationship between vitamin D status and circulating TSH levels with thyroid autoimmunity and thyroid hormone levels taken into consideration in a population-based health survey of middle-aged and elderly individuals. Methods. A total of 1,424 Chinese adults, aged 41–78 years, were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Serum levels of 25(OHD, TSH, thyroid hormones, and thyroid autoantibodies were measured. Results. The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency was 94.29% in males and 97.22% in females, and the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 55.61% in males and 69.64% in females. Vitamin D status was not associated with positive thyroid autoantibodies after controlling for age, gender, body mass index, and smoking status. Higher 25(OHD levels were associated with lower TSH levels after controlling for age, FT4 and FT3 levels, thyroid volume, the presence of thyroid nodule(s, and smoking status in males. Conclusion. High vitamin D status in middle-aged and elderly males was associated with low circulating TSH levels independent of thyroid hormone levels.