WorldWideScience

Sample records for level description language

  1. Systems Biology Graphical Notation: Process Description language Level 1 Version 1.3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodie, Stuart; Le Novère, Nicolas; Demir, Emek; Mi, Huaiyu; Villéger, Alice

    2015-09-04

    The Systems Biological Graphical Notation (SBGN) is an international community effort for standardized graphical representations of biological pathways and networks. The goal of SBGN is to provide unambiguous pathway and network maps for readers with different scientific backgrounds as well as to support efficient and accurate exchange of biological knowledge between different research communities, industry, and other players in systems biology. Three SBGN languages, Process Description (PD), Entity Relationship (ER) and Activity Flow (AF), allow for the representation of different aspects of biological and biochemical systems at different levels of detail. The SBGN Process Description language represents biological entities and processes between these entities within a network. SBGN PD focuses on the mechanistic description and temporal dependencies of biological interactions and transformations. The nodes (elements) are split into entity nodes describing, e.g., metabolites, proteins, genes and complexes, and process nodes describing, e.g., reactions and associations. The edges (connections) provide descriptions of relationships (or influences) between the nodes, such as consumption, production, stimulation and inhibition. Among all three languages of SBGN, PD is the closest to metabolic and regulatory pathways in biological literature and textbooks, but its well-defined semantics offer a superior precision in expressing biological knowledge.

  2. Hardware description languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Jerry H.

    1994-01-01

    Hardware description languages are special purpose programming languages. They are primarily used to specify the behavior of digital systems and are rapidly replacing traditional digital system design techniques. This is because they allow the designer to concentrate on how the system should operate rather than on implementation details. Hardware description languages allow a digital system to be described with a wide range of abstraction, and they support top down design techniques. A key feature of any hardware description language environment is its ability to simulate the modeled system. The two most important hardware description languages are Verilog and VHDL. Verilog has been the dominant language for the design of application specific integrated circuits (ASIC's). However, VHDL is rapidly gaining in popularity.

  3. Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML) Level 1 Version 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Frank T; Cooper, Jonathan; Le Novère, Nicolas; Nickerson, David; Waltemath, Dagmar

    2015-09-04

    The number, size and complexity of computational models of biological systems are growing at an ever increasing pace. It is imperative to build on existing studies by reusing and adapting existing models and parts thereof. The description of the structure of models is not sufficient to enable the reproduction of simulation results. One also needs to describe the procedures the models are subjected to, as recommended by the Minimum Information About a Simulation Experiment (MIASE) guidelines. This document presents Level 1 Version 2 of the Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML), a computer-readable format for encoding simulation and analysis experiments to apply to computational models. SED-ML files are encoded in the Extensible Markup Language (XML) and can be used in conjunction with any XML-based model encoding format, such as CellML or SBML. A SED-ML file includes details of which models to use, how to modify them prior to executing a simulation, which simulation and analysis procedures to apply, which results to extract and how to present them. Level 1 Version 2 extends the format by allowing the encoding of repeated and chained procedures.

  4. Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML Level 1 Version 3 (L1V3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergmann Frank T.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The creation of computational simulation experiments to inform modern biological research poses challenges to reproduce, annotate, archive, and share such experiments. Efforts such as SBML or CellML standardize the formal representation of computational models in various areas of biology. The Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML describes what procedures the models are subjected to, and the details of those procedures. These standards, together with further COMBINE standards, describe models sufficiently well for the reproduction of simulation studies among users and software tools. The Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML is an XML-based format that encodes, for a given simulation experiment, (i which models to use; (ii which modifications to apply to models before simulation; (iii which simulation procedures to run on each model; (iv how to post-process the data; and (v how these results should be plotted and reported. SED-ML Level 1 Version 1 (L1V1 implemented support for the encoding of basic time course simulations. SED-ML L1V2 added support for more complex types of simulations, specifically repeated tasks and chained simulation procedures. SED-ML L1V3 extends L1V2 by means to describe which datasets and subsets thereof to use within a simulation experiment.

  5. Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML) Level 1 Version 3 (L1V3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Frank T; Cooper, Jonathan; König, Matthias; Moraru, Ion; Nickerson, David; Le Novère, Nicolas; Olivier, Brett G; Sahle, Sven; Smith, Lucian; Waltemath, Dagmar

    2018-03-19

    The creation of computational simulation experiments to inform modern biological research poses challenges to reproduce, annotate, archive, and share such experiments. Efforts such as SBML or CellML standardize the formal representation of computational models in various areas of biology. The Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML) describes what procedures the models are subjected to, and the details of those procedures. These standards, together with further COMBINE standards, describe models sufficiently well for the reproduction of simulation studies among users and software tools. The Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML) is an XML-based format that encodes, for a given simulation experiment, (i) which models to use; (ii) which modifications to apply to models before simulation; (iii) which simulation procedures to run on each model; (iv) how to post-process the data; and (v) how these results should be plotted and reported. SED-ML Level 1 Version 1 (L1V1) implemented support for the encoding of basic time course simulations. SED-ML L1V2 added support for more complex types of simulations, specifically repeated tasks and chained simulation procedures. SED-ML L1V3 extends L1V2 by means to describe which datasets and subsets thereof to use within a simulation experiment.

  6. Addressing the Language Description Deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ali Bolgiin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Well-described language features are key to successful teaching and learning, especially for achieving advanced levels of proficiency. Other measures, such as simply increasing the number of reading and listening passages in a language program alone are not enough to bring the student to a higher level in a given skill. In fact, even being present in the target culture does not suffice. Angelelli and Degueldre (2002 argue that at advanced levels, even spending time in a country where the language is spoken is not necessarily sufficient for learners: "They do not need just exposure; they need answers to questions and explanations that they can rarely get by simply being immersed in a language/ culture." Less commonly taught languages (LCTLs lack descriptions that have such answers and explanations (cf. Fotos, 2002. It is argued in this paper that corpuslinguistic analyses help to provide actual usage-based, rather than intuition-based, descriptions and explanations of language features. Such approach is illustrated through English and Turkish examples.

  7. Epsilon. A System Description Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten

    This paper discusses the use of Petri nets as a semantic tool in the design of languages and in the construction and analysis of system descriptions. The topics treated are: -- Languages based on nets. -- The problem of time in nets. -- Nets and related models. -- Nets and formal semantics...

  8. Automation in the Teaching of Descriptive Geometry and CAD. High-Level CAD Templates Using Script Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, R.; Bazán, A. M.

    2017-10-01

    The main purpose of this work is to study improvements to the learning method of technical drawing and descriptive geometry through exercises with traditional techniques that are usually solved manually by applying automated processes assisted by high-level CAD templates (HLCts). Given that an exercise with traditional procedures can be solved, detailed step by step in technical drawing and descriptive geometry manuals, CAD applications allow us to do the same and generalize it later, incorporating references. Traditional teachings have become obsolete and current curricula have been relegated. However, they can be applied in certain automation processes. The use of geometric references (using variables in script languages) and their incorporation into HLCts allows the automation of drawing processes. Instead of repeatedly creating similar exercises or modifying data in the same exercises, users should be able to use HLCts to generate future modifications of these exercises. This paper introduces the automation process when generating exercises based on CAD script files, aided by parametric geometry calculation tools. The proposed method allows us to design new exercises without user intervention. The integration of CAD, mathematics, and descriptive geometry facilitates their joint learning. Automation in the generation of exercises not only saves time but also increases the quality of the statements and reduces the possibility of human error.

  9. Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML Level 1 Version 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergmann Frank T.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The number, size and complexity of computational models of biological systems are growing at an ever increasing pace. It is imperative to build on existing studies by reusing and adapting existing models and parts thereof. The description of the structure of models is not sufficient to enable the reproduction of simulation results. One also needs to describe the procedures the models are subjected to, as recommended by the Minimum Information About a Simulation Experiment (MIASE guidelines.

  10. Natural Language Description of Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemzadeh, Abe

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation studies how people describe emotions with language and how computers can simulate this descriptive behavior. Although many non-human animals can express their current emotions as social signals, only humans can communicate about emotions symbolically. This symbolic communication of emotion allows us to talk about emotions that we…

  11. The geometry description markup language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chytracek, R.

    2001-01-01

    Currently, a lot of effort is being put on designing complex detectors. A number of simulation and reconstruction frameworks and applications have been developed with the aim to make this job easier. A very important role in this activity is played by the geometry description of the detector apparatus layout and its working environment. However, no real common approach to represent geometry data is available and such data can be found in various forms starting from custom semi-structured text files, source code (C/C++/FORTRAN), to XML and database solutions. The XML (Extensible Markup Language) has proven to provide an interesting approach for describing detector geometries, with several different but incompatible XML-based solutions existing. Therefore, interoperability and geometry data exchange among different frameworks is not possible at present. The author introduces a markup language for geometry descriptions. Its aim is to define a common approach for sharing and exchanging of geometry description data. Its requirements and design have been driven by experience and user feedback from existing projects which have their geometry description in XML

  12. VAL language: description and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGraw, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    VAL is a high-level, function-based language designed for use on data flow computers. A data flow computer has many small processors organized to cooperate in the executive of a single computation. A computation is represented by its data flow graph; each operator in a graph is scheduled for execution on one of the processors after all of its operands' values are known. VAL promotes the indentification of concurrency in algorithms and simplifies the mapping into data graphs. This paper presents a detailed introduction to VAL and analyzes its usefulness for programming in a highly concurrent environment. VAL provides implicit concurrency (operations that can execute simultaneously are evident without the need for any explicit language notation). The language uses function- and expression-based features that prohibit all side effects, which simplifies translation to graphs. The salient language features are described and illustrated through examples taken from a complete VAL program for adaptive quadrature. Analysis of the language shows that VAL meets the critical needs for a data flow environment. The language encourages programmers to think in terms of general concurrency, enhances readability (due to the absence of side effects), and possesses a structure amenable to verification techniques. However, VAL is still evolving. The language definition needs refining, and more support tools for programmer use need to be developed. Also, some new kinds of optimization problems should be addressed

  13. The Athena data dictionary and description language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazan, Alain; Bouedo, Thierry; Ghez, Philippe; Marino, Massimo; Tull, Craig

    2003-01-01

    Athena is the ATLAS off-line software framework, based upon the GAUDI architecture from LHCb. As part of ATLAS' continuing efforts to enhance and customize the architecture to meet our needs, we have developed a data object description tool suite and service for Athena. The aim is to provide a set of tools to describe, manage, integrate and use the Event Data Model at a design level according to the concepts of the Athena framework (use of patterns, relationships,...). Moreover, to ensure stability and reusability this must be fully independent from the implementation details. After an extensive investigation into the many options, we have developed a language grammar based upon a description language (IDL, ODL) to provide support for object integration in Athena. We have then developed a compiler front end based upon this language grammar, JavaCC, and a Java Reflection API-like interface. We have then used these tools to develop several compiler back ends which meet specific needs in ATLAS such as automatic generation of object converters, and data object scripting interfaces. We present here details of our work and experience to date on the Athena Definition Language and Athena Data Dictionary. (authors)

  14. The Athena Data Dictionary and Description Language

    CERN Document Server

    Bazan, A; Ghez, P; Marino, M; Tull, C

    2003-01-01

    Athena is the ATLAS off-line software framework, based upon the GAUDI architecture from LHCb. As part of ATLAS' continuing efforts to enhance and customise the architecture to meet our needs, we have developed a data object description tool suite and service for Athena. The aim is to provide a set of tools to describe, manage, integrate and use the Event Data Model at a design level according to the concepts of the Athena framework (use of patterns, relationships, ...). Moreover, to ensure stability and reusability this must be fully independent from the implementation details. After an extensive investigation into the many options, we have developed a language grammar based upon a description language (IDL, ODL) to provide support for object integration in Athena. We have then developed a compiler front end based upon this language grammar, JavaCC, and a Java Reflection API-like interface. We have then used these tools to develop several compiler back ends which meet specific needs in ATLAS such as automatic...

  15. The athena data dictionary and description language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazan, A.; Ghez, P.; Le Flour, T.; Lieunard, S.; Tull, C.

    2001-01-01

    The authors have developed a data object description tool suite and service for Athena consisting of: a language grammar based upon an extended proper subset of IDL 2.0, a compiler front end based upon this language grammar, JavaCC, and a Java Reflection API-like interface, and several compiler back ends which meet specific needs in ATLAS such as automatic generation of object converters, and data object scripting interfaces. The authors present here details of the work and experience to date on the Athena Definition Language and Athena Data Dictionary

  16. Computer hardware description languages - A tutorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiva, S. G.

    1979-01-01

    The paper introduces hardware description languages (HDL) as useful tools for hardware design and documentation. The capabilities and limitations of HDLs are discussed along with the guidelines needed in selecting an appropriate HDL. The directions for future work are provided and attention is given to the implementation of HDLs in microcomputers.

  17. Visualizing Natural Language Descriptions: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Hassani, Kaveh; Lee, Won-Sook

    2016-01-01

    A natural language interface exploits the conceptual simplicity and naturalness of the language to create a high-level user-friendly communication channel between humans and machines. One of the promising applications of such interfaces is generating visual interpretations of semantic content of a given natural language that can be then visualized either as a static scene or a dynamic animation. This survey discusses requirements and challenges of developing such systems and reports 26 graphi...

  18. A comparison of hardware description languages. [describing digital systems structure and behavior to a computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiva, S. G.

    1978-01-01

    Several high level languages which evolved over the past few years for describing and simulating the structure and behavior of digital systems, on digital computers are assessed. The characteristics of the four prominent languages (CDL, DDL, AHPL, ISP) are summarized. A criterion for selecting a suitable hardware description language for use in an automatic integrated circuit design environment is provided.

  19. Production Logistics Simulation Supported by Process Description Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohács Gábor

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The process description languages are used in the business may be useful in the optimization of logistics processes too. The process description languages would be the obvious solution for process control, to handle the main sources of faults and to give a correct list of what to do during the logistics process. Related to this, firstly, the paper presents the main features of the frequent process description languages. The following section describes the currently most used process modelling languages, in the areas of production and construction logistics. In addition, the paper gives some examples of logistics simulation, as another very important field of logistics system modelling. The main edification of the paper, the logistics simulation supported by process description languages. The paper gives a comparison of a Petri net formal representation and a Simul8 model, through a construction logistics model, as the major contribution of the research.

  20. LISp-Miner Control Language description of scripting language implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Simunek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the LISp-Miner Control Language – a scripting language for the LISp-Miner system, an academic system for knowledge discovery in databases. The main purpose of this language is to provide programmable means to all the features of the LISp-Miner system and mainly to automate the main phases of data mining – from data introduction and preprocessing, formulation of analytical tasks, to discovery of the most interesting patterns. In this sense, the language is a necessary prerequisite for the EverMiner project of data mining automation. Language will serve other purposes too – for an automated verification of the LISp-Miner system functionality before a new version is released and as an educational tool in advanced data mining courses.

  1. A Petri Net Definition of a System Description Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    1979-01-01

    This paper introduces a language for the description of systems with concurrency, and presents a formal definition of its semantics. The language is based on Delta and the semantic model is an extension of Petri nets with a data part and with expressions attached to transitions and to places....

  2. Concept of APDL, the atomic process description language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Akira

    2004-01-01

    The concept of APDL, the Atomic Process Description Language, which provides simple and complete description of atomic model is presented. The syntax to describe electron orbital and configuration is defined for the use in the atomic structure, kinetics and spectral synthesis simulation codes. (author)

  3. SELECTION OF ONTOLOGY FOR WEB SERVICE DESCRIPTION LANGUAGE TO ONTOLOGY WEB LANGUAGE CONVERSION

    OpenAIRE

    J. Mannar Mannan; M. Sundarambal; S. Raghul

    2014-01-01

    Semantic web is to extend the current human readable web to encoding some of the semantic of resources in a machine processing form. As a Semantic web component, Semantic Web Services (SWS) uses a mark-up that makes the data into detailed and sophisticated machine readable way. One such language is Ontology Web Language (OWL). Existing conventional web service annotation can be changed to semantic web service by mapping Web Service Description Language (WSDL) with the semantic annotation of O...

  4. Descriptive markup languages and the development of digital humanities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Bosančić

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the role of descriptive markup languages in the development of digital humanities, a new research discipline that is part of social sciences and humanities, which focuses on the use of computers in research. A chronological review of the development of digital humanities, and then descriptive markup languages is exposed, through several developmental stages. It is shown that the development of digital humanities since the mid-1980s and the appearance of SGML, markup language that was the foundation of TEI, a key standard for the encoding and exchange of humanities texts in the digital environment, is inseparable from the development of markup languages. Special attention is dedicated to the presentation of the Text Encoding Initiative – TEI development, a key organization that developed the titled standard, both from organizational and markup perspectives. By this time, TEI standard is published in five versions, and during 2000s SGML is replaced by XML markup language. Key words: markup languages, digital humanities, text encoding, TEI, SGML, XML

  5. Semantics by levels: An example for an image language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasciano, M.; Levialdi, S.; Tortora, G.

    1984-01-01

    Ambiguities in formal language constructs may decrease both the understanding and the coding efficiency of a program. Within an image language, two semantic levels have been detected, corresponding to the lower level (pixel-based) and to the higher level (image-based). Denotational semantics has been used to define both levels within PIXAL (an image language) in order to enable the reader to visualize a concrete application of the semantic levels and their implications in a programming environment. This paper presents the semantics of different levels of conceptualization in the abstract formal description of an image language. The disambiguation of the meaning of special purpose constructs that imply either the elementary (pixels) level or the high image (array) level is naturally obtained by means of such semantic clauses. Perhaps non Von architectures on which hierarchical computations may be performed could also benefit from the use of semantic clauses to explicit the different levels where such computations are executed

  6. Prolog as description and implementation language in computer science teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    population with uneven mathematical backgrounds. % Definitional interpreters, compilers, and other models of computation are defined in a systematic way as Prolog programs, and as a result, formal descriptions become running prototypes that can be tested and modified by the students. These programs can......Prolog is a powerful pedagogical instrument for theoretical elements of computer science when used as combined description language and experimentation tool. A teaching methodology based on this principle has been developed and successfully applied in a context with a heterogeneous student...

  7. High-level language computer architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Yaohan

    1975-01-01

    High-Level Language Computer Architecture offers a tutorial on high-level language computer architecture, including von Neumann architecture and syntax-oriented architecture as well as direct and indirect execution architecture. Design concepts of Japanese-language data processing systems are discussed, along with the architecture of stack machines and the SYMBOL computer system. The conceptual design of a direct high-level language processor is also described.Comprised of seven chapters, this book first presents a classification of high-level language computer architecture according to the pr

  8. Students' Motivation toward English Language Learning at Undergraduate Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mumtaz; Aftab, Maria; Yaqoob, Humaira

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this descriptive research is to explore the fact that why students are less motivated towards English language learning at undergraduate level. It also throws light upon the very facts of motivation with regard to the factors like student-teacher relationship, class room environment, self esteem or self respect, and willingness…

  9. Acceptance Testing Of Web Applications With Test Description Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Olek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acceptance tests are usually created by a client after a part of a system is implemented. However, some methodologies propose the elaboration of test cases before implementing a system. This approach increases the probability of system implementation that fulfills requirements, but may be problematic for customers and testers. To allow acceptance testing in such conditions, we propose to define test cases by recording them on an interactive mockup (a low detailed user-interface prototype. The paper focuses on Test Description Language, a notation used to store test cases.

  10. Language Learning Strategy Use across Proficiency Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Abbas, Ali; Baharestani, Nooshin

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the use of language learning strategies (LLS) by Iranian EFL learners across proficiency levels, a total of 180 Iranian adult female EFL learners were selected and divided into three different proficiency level groups. To collect data, Oxford's (1990) Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) was used. One-way ANOVA procedures…

  11. GSFC Systems Test and Operation Language (STOL) functional requirements and language description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, R.; Hall, G.; Mcguire, J.; Merwarth, P.; Mocarsky, W.; Truszkowski, W.; Villasenor, A.; Brosi, F.; Burch, P.; Carey, D.

    1978-01-01

    The Systems Tests and Operation Language (STOL) provides the means for user communication with payloads, applications programs, and other ground system elements. It is a systems operation language that enables an operator or user to communicate a command to a computer system. The system interprets each high level language directive from the user and performs the indicated action, such as executing a program, printing out a snapshot, or sending a payload command. This document presents the following: (1) required language features and implementation considerations; (2) basic capabilities; (3) telemetry, command, and input/output directives; (4) procedure definition and control; (5) listing, extension, and STOL nucleus capabilities.

  12. Descriptive study of 192 adults with speech and language disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Lessa Mansur

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Aphasia is a very disabling condition caused by neurological diseases. In Brazil, we have little data on the profile of aphasics treated in rehabilitation centers. OBJECTIVE: To present a descriptive study of 192 patients, providing a reference sample of speech and language disturbances among Brazilians. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Speech Pathology Unit linked to the Neurology Division of the Hospital das Clínicas of the Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo. SAMPLE: All patients (192 referred to our Speech Pathology service from 1995 to 2000. PROCEDURES: We collected data relating to demographic variables, etiology, language evaluation (functional evaluation, Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination, Boston Naming and Token Test, and neuroimaging studies. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: The results obtained in language tests and the clinical and neuroimaging data were organized and classified. Seventy aphasics were chosen for constructing a profile. Fourteen subjects with left single-lobe dysfunction were analyzed in detail. Seventeen aphasics were compared with 17 normal subjects, all performing the Token Test. RESULTS: One hundred subjects (52% were men and 92 (48% women. Their education varied from 0 to 16 years (average: 6.5; standard deviation: 4.53. We identified the lesion sites in 104 patients: 89% in the left hemisphere and 58% due to stroke. The incidence of aphasia was 70%; dysarthria and apraxia, 6%; functional alterations in communication, 17%; and 7% were normal. Statistically significant differences appeared when comparing the subgroup to controls in the Token Test. CONCLUSIONS: We believe that this sample contributes to a better understanding of neurological patients with speech and language disturbances and may be useful as a reference for health professionals involved in the rehabilitation of such disorders.

  13. Teaching of science and language by elementary teachers who emphasize the integrated language approach: A descriptive study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouch, Kathleen Kennedy

    This research involved investigating the nature of science and language instruction in 13 elementary classrooms where teachers have restructured their language programs to reflect an integrated or holistic view of language instruction. The teachers were identified by school administrators and other professionals as teachers who have implemented instructional reforms described in the Pennsylvania Framework for Reading, Writing and Speaking Across the Curriculum (PCRPII), (Lytle & Botel, 1900). The instruction utilized by these teachers was described as atypical when compared to that of teachers utilizing the more traditional didactic skills oriented approach to language literacy. The research involved observing, recording and categorizing teaching behaviors during both science and language instruction. Videotaped observations were followed by analyses and descriptions of these behaviors. Interviews were also conducted to ascertain the basis for selection of the various instructional approaches. The instruction was compared on four dimensions: participation patterns, time the behaviors were practiced, type of tasks and levels of questioning. The instruction was then described in light of constructivist teaching practices: student collaboration, student autonomy, integration and higher order thinking. Constructivist practices differed among teachers for science and language instruction. During science instruction teachers spent more time involved in teacher-whole group participation patterns with more direct questioning as compared to language instruction in which children participated alone or in groups and had opportunity to initiate conversations and questions. Student inquiry was evidenced during language instruction more so than during science. The 13 teachers asked a variety of levels and types of questions both in science and language instruction. More hands-on science experiences were observed when science was taught separately compared to when integrated with

  14. Proceedings of the of the Tenth Workshop on Language Descriptions, Tools and Applications (LDTA 2010)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus

    2010-01-01

    -Louis Giavitto ("A Domain Specific Language for Complex Natural & Artificial Systems Simulations") and the 11 contributed papers that were selected for presentation and the proceedings by the programme committee from 30 submissions (i.e., 37% acceptance rate). Every submission was reviewed by at least three......This volume contains the proceedings of the Tenth Workshop on Language Descriptions, Tools and Applications (LDTA 2010), held in Paphos, Cyprus on March 28--29, 2010. LDTA is a two-day satellite event of ETAPS (European Joint Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software) organized in cooperation...... with ACM Sigplan. LDTA is an application and tool-oriented forum on meta programming in a broad sense. A meta program is a program that takes other programs as input or output. The focus of LDTA is on generated or otherwise efficiently implemented meta programs, possibly using high level descriptions...

  15. From General Game Descriptions to a Market Specification Language for General Trading Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielscher, Michael; Zhang, Dongmo

    The idea behind General Game Playing is to build systems that, instead of being programmed for one specific task, are intelligent and flexible enough to negotiate an unknown environment solely on the basis of the rules which govern it. In this paper, we argue that this principle has the great potential to bring to a new level artificially intelligent systems in other application areas as well. Our specific interest lies in General Trading Agents, which are able to understand the rules of unknown markets and then to actively participate in them without human intervention. To this end, we extend the general Game Description Language into a language that allows to formally describe arbitrary markets in such a way that these specifications can be automatically processed by a computer. We present both syntax and a transition-based semantics for this Market Specification Language and illustrate its expressive power by presenting axiomatizations of several well-known auction types.

  16. Reproducible computational biology experiments with SED-ML--the Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltemath, Dagmar; Adams, Richard; Bergmann, Frank T; Hucka, Michael; Kolpakov, Fedor; Miller, Andrew K; Moraru, Ion I; Nickerson, David; Sahle, Sven; Snoep, Jacky L; Le Novère, Nicolas

    2011-12-15

    The increasing use of computational simulation experiments to inform modern biological research creates new challenges to annotate, archive, share and reproduce such experiments. The recently published Minimum Information About a Simulation Experiment (MIASE) proposes a minimal set of information that should be provided to allow the reproduction of simulation experiments among users and software tools. In this article, we present the Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML). SED-ML encodes in a computer-readable exchange format the information required by MIASE to enable reproduction of simulation experiments. It has been developed as a community project and it is defined in a detailed technical specification and additionally provides an XML schema. The version of SED-ML described in this publication is Level 1 Version 1. It covers the description of the most frequent type of simulation experiments in the area, namely time course simulations. SED-ML documents specify which models to use in an experiment, modifications to apply on the models before using them, which simulation procedures to run on each model, what analysis results to output, and how the results should be presented. These descriptions are independent of the underlying model implementation. SED-ML is a software-independent format for encoding the description of simulation experiments; it is not specific to particular simulation tools. Here, we demonstrate that with the growing software support for SED-ML we can effectively exchange executable simulation descriptions. With SED-ML, software can exchange simulation experiment descriptions, enabling the validation and reuse of simulation experiments in different tools. Authors of papers reporting simulation experiments can make their simulation protocols available for other scientists to reproduce the results. Because SED-ML is agnostic about exact modeling language(s) used, experiments covering models from different fields of research

  17. Reproducible computational biology experiments with SED-ML - The Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The increasing use of computational simulation experiments to inform modern biological research creates new challenges to annotate, archive, share and reproduce such experiments. The recently published Minimum Information About a Simulation Experiment (MIASE) proposes a minimal set of information that should be provided to allow the reproduction of simulation experiments among users and software tools. Results In this article, we present the Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML). SED-ML encodes in a computer-readable exchange format the information required by MIASE to enable reproduction of simulation experiments. It has been developed as a community project and it is defined in a detailed technical specification and additionally provides an XML schema. The version of SED-ML described in this publication is Level 1 Version 1. It covers the description of the most frequent type of simulation experiments in the area, namely time course simulations. SED-ML documents specify which models to use in an experiment, modifications to apply on the models before using them, which simulation procedures to run on each model, what analysis results to output, and how the results should be presented. These descriptions are independent of the underlying model implementation. SED-ML is a software-independent format for encoding the description of simulation experiments; it is not specific to particular simulation tools. Here, we demonstrate that with the growing software support for SED-ML we can effectively exchange executable simulation descriptions. Conclusions With SED-ML, software can exchange simulation experiment descriptions, enabling the validation and reuse of simulation experiments in different tools. Authors of papers reporting simulation experiments can make their simulation protocols available for other scientists to reproduce the results. Because SED-ML is agnostic about exact modeling language(s) used, experiments covering models from

  18. Neural systems language: a formal modeling language for the systematic description, unambiguous communication, and automated digital curation of neural connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ramsay A; Swanson, Larry W

    2013-09-01

    Systematic description and the unambiguous communication of findings and models remain among the unresolved fundamental challenges in systems neuroscience. No common descriptive frameworks exist to describe systematically the connective architecture of the nervous system, even at the grossest level of observation. Furthermore, the accelerating volume of novel data generated on neural connectivity outpaces the rate at which this data is curated into neuroinformatics databases to synthesize digitally systems-level insights from disjointed reports and observations. To help address these challenges, we propose the Neural Systems Language (NSyL). NSyL is a modeling language to be used by investigators to encode and communicate systematically reports of neural connectivity from neuroanatomy and brain imaging. NSyL engenders systematic description and communication of connectivity irrespective of the animal taxon described, experimental or observational technique implemented, or nomenclature referenced. As a language, NSyL is internally consistent, concise, and comprehensible to both humans and computers. NSyL is a promising development for systematizing the representation of neural architecture, effectively managing the increasing volume of data on neural connectivity and streamlining systems neuroscience research. Here we present similar precedent systems, how NSyL extends existing frameworks, and the reasoning behind NSyL's development. We explore NSyL's potential for balancing robustness and consistency in representation by encoding previously reported assertions of connectivity from the literature as examples. Finally, we propose and discuss the implications of a framework for how NSyL will be digitally implemented in the future to streamline curation of experimental results and bridge the gaps among anatomists, imagers, and neuroinformatics databases. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The Subsystem of Numerals in Catalan Sign Language: Description and Examples from a Psycholinguistic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Mariana; Tolchinsky, Liliana

    2004-01-01

    Linguistic descriptions of sign languages are important to the recognition of their linguistic status. These languages are an essential part of the cultural heritage of the communities that create and use them and vital in the education of deaf children. They are also the reference point in language acquisition studies. Ours is exploratory…

  20. Specialized Language Activities: A Description of the First Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxford Hills High School, South Paris, ME.

    The Specialized Language Activities Program (ESEA Title 3 Project) to motivate students to improve their oral language was conducted in an essentially rural section of Maine with an experimental group and a control group of 80 ninth-grade students with an I.Q. range of 85-100 and poor language usage. Sixty-seven percent of them had repeated at…

  1. Teacher Language Competence Description: Towards a New Framework of Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, Nataliya

    2012-01-01

    The article is centred around the concept of "language competence of a foreign language (FL) teacher" and the ways it can be evaluated. Though the definition of teacher language competence might sound obvious it has not yet been clearly structured and, therefore, no component has been thoroughly described. I use this fact as a starting…

  2. Automated generation of partial Markov chain from high level descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brameret, P.-A.; Rauzy, A.; Roussel, J.-M.

    2015-01-01

    We propose an algorithm to generate partial Markov chains from high level implicit descriptions, namely AltaRica models. This algorithm relies on two components. First, a variation on Dijkstra's algorithm to compute shortest paths in a graph. Second, the definition of a notion of distance to select which states must be kept and which can be safely discarded. The proposed method solves two problems at once. First, it avoids a manual construction of Markov chains, which is both tedious and error prone. Second, up the price of acceptable approximations, it makes it possible to push back dramatically the exponential blow-up of the size of the resulting chains. We report experimental results that show the efficiency of the proposed approach. - Highlights: • We generate Markov chains from a higher level safety modeling language (AltaRica). • We use a variation on Dijkstra's algorithm to generate partial Markov chains. • Hence we solve two problems: the first problem is the tedious manual construction of Markov chains. • The second problem is the blow-up of the size of the chains, at the cost of decent approximations. • The experimental results highlight the efficiency of the method

  3. Word level language identification in online multilingual communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Dong-Phuong; Dogruoz, A. Seza

    2013-01-01

    Multilingual speakers switch between languages in online and spoken communication. Analyses of large scale multilingual data require automatic language identification at the word level. For our experiments with multilingual online discussions, we first tag the language of individual words using

  4. Evaluating Pragmatic Competence in Nigerian Undergraduates’ Language Errors within Descriptive ESL Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Sa’idu Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the level of pragmatic competence for ESL writing skills among Nigerian undergraduates. Methodologically, it adopts descriptive research design within the explanatory framework of the QUAN-Qual model. The instruments used are descriptive essay text and focus group interview questions. In writing the descriptive essays, a total of 402 undergraduates’ participated through convenience sampling. Quantitatively, an independent samples t-test was carried out. The results indicated the females required putting more efforts towards improving their pragmatic competence in the ESL writing as they achieved a higher means for language errors, compared to that of the males. Moreover, the ttest value demonstrated that the females lacked skills in the pragmatic skills of mechanical structure, grammatical function, and sentence structures and this made them commit more language errors. Qualitatively, a focus group interview was held randomly with 12 participants out of the 402 undergraduates through purposive sampling. The results of the interview sessions revealed novelties of culture-specific, learning feasibility and the academic discourse as the key elements that constraint most of the Nigerian undergraduates ESL writing skills, particularly the females. Therefore, this study revealed strong implications on how best to develop Nigerian learners’ pragmatic competence in ESL writing skills

  5. Descriptions of Selected Career-Related College Language Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knodel, Arthur J.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Seven courses or programs at different colleges emphasizing specific career applications of languages are described. They include: Technical French; Spanish for Law Enforcement and Correctional Personnel; Executive German; Proyecto Desarrollo Economico; Spanish for Medical Professions; Elements of Foreign Language, and Business French and Business…

  6. Hardware Descriptive Languages: An Efficient Approach to Device ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contemporarily, owing to astronomical advancements in the very large scale integration (VLSI) market segments, hardware engineers are now focusing on how to develop their new digital system designs in programmable languages like very high speed integrated circuit hardwaredescription language (VHDL) and Verilog ...

  7. Self consitent description of nuclear level densitities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barranco, M.; Treiner, J.

    1980-03-01

    We present a self consistent calculation of the nuclear level density based on a generalization to finite temperature of a modified Thomas-Fermi method. A simple expression is derived for the so-called level density parameter a entering the expression of the density of states Xi(E)=Esup(-5/4)e 2 √aE and relating the excitation energy to the temperature E=a T 2 , in terms of nucleons equilibrium densities at T=0 only. One thus avoids the difficulty of adding external constraints to calculate isolated nuclei at finite temperature which are shown to be unstable against particle emission. The role of the nuclear surface is discussed. It is shown that the effective mass of the interaction plays a crucial role in determining the value of a and comparison with experiment confirms the value m*/m > = 1 near the Fermi level obtained through more microscopic analysis

  8. Foreign Language Education Levels in the Dutch Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud-de Glas, Maria; Peels, Fons

    1991-01-01

    Reports on levels of foreign language education and foreign language competence among Dutch students, discussing the sharp decline in the teaching of French and German, a lack of foreign language training in technical education, where it is most needed, and the limitations of the data collected regarding foreign language attainment in the…

  9. Using Open Geographic Data to Generate Natural Language Descriptions for Hydrological Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Martin; Sanchez-Soriano, Javier; Corcho, Oscar

    2015-07-03

    Providing descriptions of isolated sensors and sensor networks in natural language, understandable by the general public, is useful to help users find relevant sensors and analyze sensor data. In this paper, we discuss the feasibility of using geographic knowledge from public databases available on the Web (such as OpenStreetMap, Geonames, or DBpedia) to automatically construct such descriptions. We present a general method that uses such information to generate sensor descriptions in natural language. The results of the evaluation of our method in a hydrologic national sensor network showed that this approach is feasible and capable of generating adequate sensor descriptions with a lower development effort compared to other approaches. In the paper we also analyze certain problems that we found in public databases (e.g., heterogeneity, non-standard use of labels, or rigid search methods) and their impact in the generation of sensor descriptions.

  10. Using Open Geographic Data to Generate Natural Language Descriptions for Hydrological Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Molina

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Providing descriptions of isolated sensors and sensor networks in natural language, understandable by the general public, is useful to help users find relevant sensors and analyze sensor data. In this paper, we discuss the feasibility of using geographic knowledge from public databases available on the Web (such as OpenStreetMap, Geonames, or DBpedia to automatically construct such descriptions. We present a general method that uses such information to generate sensor descriptions in natural language. The results of the evaluation of our method in a hydrologic national sensor network showed that this approach is feasible and capable of generating adequate sensor descriptions with a lower development effort compared to other approaches. In the paper we also analyze certain problems that we found in public databases (e.g., heterogeneity, non-standard use of labels, or rigid search methods and their impact in the generation of sensor descriptions.

  11. CAMAC and high-level-languages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degenhardt, K.H.

    1976-05-01

    A proposal for easy programming of CAMAC systems with high-level-languages (FORTRAN, RTL/2, etc.) and interpreters (BASIC, MUMTI, etc.) using a few subroutines and a LAM driver is presented. The subroutines and the LAM driver are implemented for PDP11/RSX-11M and for the CAMAC controllers DEC CA11A (branch controller), BORER type 1533A (single crate controller) and DEC CA11F (single crate controller). Mixed parallel/serial CAMAC systems employing KINETIC SYSTEMS serial driver mod. 3992 and serial crate controllers mod. 3950 are implemented for all mentioned parallel controllers, too. DMA transfers from or to CAMAC modules using non-processor-request controllers (BORER type 1542, DEC CA11FN) are available. (orig.) [de

  12. Towards a Pattern Language Approach to Document Description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Waller

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Pattern libraries, originating in architecture, are a common way to share design solutions in interaction design and software engineering. Our aim in this paper is to consider patterns as a way of describing commonly-occurring document design solutions to particular problems, from two points of view. First, we are interested in their use as exemplars for designers to follow, and second, we suggest them as a means of understanding linguistic and graphical data for their organization into corpora that will facilitate descriptive work. We discuss the use of patterns across a range of disciplines before suggesting the need to place patterns in the context of genres, with each potentially belonging to a “home genre” in which it originates and to which it makes an implicit intertextual reference intended to produce a particular reader response in the form of a reading strategy or interpretative stance. We consider some conceptual and technical issues involved in the descriptive study of patterns in naturally-occurring documents, including the challenges involved in building a document corpus.

  13. The carbohydrate sequence markup language (CabosML): an XML description of carbohydrate structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Norihiro; Kameyama, Akihiko; Nakaya, Shuuichi; Ito, Hiromi; Sato, Takashi; Shikanai, Toshihide; Takahashi, Yoriko; Narimatsu, Hisashi

    2005-04-15

    Bioinformatics resources for glycomics are very poor as compared with those for genomics and proteomics. The complexity of carbohydrate sequences makes it difficult to define a common language to represent them, and the development of bioinformatics tools for glycomics has not progressed. In this study, we developed a carbohydrate sequence markup language (CabosML), an XML description of carbohydrate structures. The language definition (XML Schema) and an experimental database of carbohydrate structures using an XML database management system are available at http://www.phoenix.hydra.mki.co.jp/CabosDemo.html kikuchi@hydra.mki.co.jp.

  14. Post O-Level English--The Study of Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, P.

    1976-01-01

    Examines objections to the study of language and linguistics in secondary education and suggests that it is time to resolve the false dichotomy between English literature and English language by providing a modest optional language element in A-level English. (Author/RK)

  15. Visual space perception at different levels of depth description

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šikl, Radovan; Šimeček, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 6 (2015), 2098–2107 ISSN 1943-3921 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-28709S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : visual space perception * Depth scales * Level of description Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 1.782, year: 2015

  16. a linguistic description of the language of ghanaian newspapers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    inform implications for the readability, comprehensibility and information function of ... Thus, in the past sixteen years, especially with the repeal of the criminal libel law (see ..... and children above the 4th grade level. .... word length of 31 and 5 respectively, and about 27% of its tokens are ... augmented, dimension, rationale.

  17. Evaluating Pragmatic Competence in Nigerian Undergraduates' Language Errors within Descriptive ESL Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Anas Sa'idu; Nair, Subadrah Madhawa

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the level of pragmatic competence for ESL writing skills among Nigerian undergraduates. Methodologically, it adopts descriptive research design within the explanatory framework of the QUAN-Qual model. The instruments used are descriptive essay text and focus group interview questions. In writing the descriptive essays, a…

  18. Proceedings of the of the Eleventh Workshop on Language Descriptions, Tools and Applications (LDTA 2011)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Eleventh Workshop on Language Descriptions, Tools and Applications (LDTA 2011), held in Saarbrücken, Germany on March 26 & 27, 2011. LDTA is a two-day satellite event of ETAPS (European Joint Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software) and organized...... in cooperation with ACM SIGPLAN. LDTA is an application and tool-oriented workshop focused on grammarware---software based on grammars in some form. Grammarware applications are typically language processing applications and traditional examples include parsers, program analyzers, optimizers and translators......, as well as techniques and tools, to the test in a new way in the form of the LDTA Tool Challenge. Tool developers were invited to participate in the Challenge by developing solutions to a range of language processing tasks over a simple but evolving set of imperative programming languages. Tool challenge...

  19. Second-Language Composition Instruction, Computers and First-Language Pedagogy: A Descriptive Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, T. Edward

    1987-01-01

    A national survey of full-time instructional faculty (N=208) at universities, 2-year colleges, and high schools regarding attitudes toward using computers in second-language composition instruction revealed a predomination of Apple and IBM-PC computers used, a major frustration in lack of foreign character support, and mixed opinions about real…

  20. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML: Language Specification for Level 3 Version 1 Core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hucka Michael

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Computational models can help researchers to interpret data, understand biological functions, and make quantitative predictions. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML is a file format for representing computational models in a declarative form that different software systems can exchange. SBML is oriented towards describing biological processes of the sort common in research on a number of topics, including metabolic pathways, cell signaling pathways, and many others. By supporting SBML as an input/output format, different tools can all operate on an identical representation of a model, removing opportunities for translation errors and assuring a common starting point for analyses and simulations. This document provides the specification for Release 2 of Version 1 of SBML Level 3 Core. The specification defines the data structures prescribed by SBML, their encoding in XML (the eXtensible Markup Language, validation rules that determine the validity of an SBML document, and examples of models in SBML form. No design changes have been made to the description of models between Release 1 and Release 2; changes are restricted to the format of annotations, the correction of errata and the addition of clarifications. Other materials and software are available from the SBML project website at http://sbml.org/.

  1. HCIDL: Human-computer interface description language for multi-target, multimodal, plastic user interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamia Gaouar

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available From the human-computer interface perspectives, the challenges to be faced are related to the consideration of new, multiple interactions, and the diversity of devices. The large panel of interactions (touching, shaking, voice dictation, positioning … and the diversification of interaction devices can be seen as a factor of flexibility albeit introducing incidental complexity. Our work is part of the field of user interface description languages. After an analysis of the scientific context of our work, this paper introduces HCIDL, a modelling language staged in a model-driven engineering approach. Among the properties related to human-computer interface, our proposition is intended for modelling multi-target, multimodal, plastic interaction interfaces using user interface description languages. By combining plasticity and multimodality, HCIDL improves usability of user interfaces through adaptive behaviour by providing end-users with an interaction-set adapted to input/output of terminals and, an optimum layout. Keywords: Model driven engineering, Human-computer interface, User interface description languages, Multimodal applications, Plastic user interfaces

  2. Looking into Burnout Levels among English Language Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Eda Ercan; Cephe, Pasa Tevfik

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the burnout levels of English language instructors who are currently teaching at School of Foreign Languages, namely Konya Necmettin Erbakan University, Selçuk University and Gazi University, to look for the factors leading to burnout and to see if there is a relationship between their burnout levels and teaching…

  3. High-Level Language Production in Parkinson's Disease: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori J. P. Altmann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses impairments of high-level, complex language production in Parkinson's disease (PD, defined as sentence and discourse production, and situates these impairments within the framework of current psycholinguistic theories of language production. The paper comprises three major sections, an overview of the effects of PD on the brain and cognition, a review of the literature on language production in PD, and a discussion of the stages of the language production process that are impaired in PD. Overall, the literature converges on a few common characteristics of language production in PD: reduced information content, impaired grammaticality, disrupted fluency, and reduced syntactic complexity. Many studies also document the strong impact of differences in cognitive ability on language production. Based on the data, PD affects all stages of language production including conceptualization and functional and positional processing. Furthermore, impairments at all stages appear to be exacerbated by impairments in cognitive abilities.

  4. SADE: system of acquisition of experimental data. Definition and analysis of an experiment description language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagniere, Jean-Michel

    1983-01-01

    This research thesis presents a computer system for the acquisition of experimental data. It is aimed at acquiring, at processing and at storing information from particle detectors. The acquisition configuration is described by an experiment description language. The system comprises a lexical analyser, a syntactic analyser, a translator, and a data processing module. It also comprises a control language and a statistics management and plotting module. The translator builds up series of tables which allow, during an experiment, different sequences to be executed: experiment running, calculations to be performed on this data, building up of statistics. Short execution time and ease of use are always looked for [fr

  5. Low-level Battle Management Language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alstad, A.; Mevassvik, O.M.; Nielsen, M.N.; Løvlid, R.A.; Henderson, H.C.; Jansen, R.E.J.; Reus, N.M. de

    2013-01-01

    TNO (The Netherlands) and FFI (Norway) are cooperating in extending a COTS Computer Generated Forces (CGF) tool with a Coalition Battle Management Language (C-BML) interface for executing C-BML orders and issuing reports. Due to the lack of satisfactory models for command and control (C2)/combat

  6. Using Specification and Description Language (SDL) for capturing and reusing human experts' knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Far, B.H.; Koono, Zenya

    1994-01-01

    Conventional knowledge engineering techniques for acquiring experts' knowledge can not produce quality knowledge due to improper knowledge documentation and informal knowledge acquisition method. We propose a new method for knowledge documentation and acquisition using Specification and Description Language (SDL). SDL is used to describe both the target system and the reasoning process. The main idea is to follow deterministic problem solving behavior of human experts and document it. Then knowledge can be extracted by comparing documents of the successive steps. This knowledge is recorded and reused in similar or novel cases. We present an implementation of this method in a tool for software design. The implemented system consists of a SDL CASE tool and an expert system for applying the design knowledge. This system serves as an experimental platform for the study of human design by simulating the design at the lowest level. However, we have found that by acquiring enough domain knowledge, this system can simulate general problem solving of human experts. (author)

  7. A comparison of English and Japanese taste languages: taste descriptive methodology, codability and the umami taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, M; Ishii, R

    1986-05-01

    Everyday taste descriptions for a range of stimuli were obtained from selected groups of American and Japanese subjects, using a variety of stimuli, stimulus presentation procedures and response conditions. In English there was a tendency to use a quadrapartite classification system: 'sweet', 'sour', 'salty' and 'bitter'. The Japanese had a different strategy, adding a fifth label: 'Ajinomoto', referring to the taste of monosodium glutamate. This label was generally replaced by umami--the scientific term--by Japanese who were workers or trained tasters involved with glutamate manufacture. Cultural differences in taste language have consequences for taste psychophysicists who impose a quadrapartite restriction on allowable taste descriptions. Stimulus presentation by filter-paper or aqueous solution elicited the same response trends. Language codability was only an indicator of degree of taste mixedness/singularity if used statistically with samples of sufficient size; it had little value as an indicator for individual subjects.

  8. Root system markup language: toward a unified root architecture description language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobet, Guillaume; Pound, Michael P; Diener, Julien; Pradal, Christophe; Draye, Xavier; Godin, Christophe; Javaux, Mathieu; Leitner, Daniel; Meunier, Félicien; Nacry, Philippe; Pridmore, Tony P; Schnepf, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    The number of image analysis tools supporting the extraction of architectural features of root systems has increased in recent years. These tools offer a handy set of complementary facilities, yet it is widely accepted that none of these software tools is able to extract in an efficient way the growing array of static and dynamic features for different types of images and species. We describe the Root System Markup Language (RSML), which has been designed to overcome two major challenges: (1) to enable portability of root architecture data between different software tools in an easy and interoperable manner, allowing seamless collaborative work; and (2) to provide a standard format upon which to base central repositories that will soon arise following the expanding worldwide root phenotyping effort. RSML follows the XML standard to store two- or three-dimensional image metadata, plant and root properties and geometries, continuous functions along individual root paths, and a suite of annotations at the image, plant, or root scale at one or several time points. Plant ontologies are used to describe botanical entities that are relevant at the scale of root system architecture. An XML schema describes the features and constraints of RSML, and open-source packages have been developed in several languages (R, Excel, Java, Python, and C#) to enable researchers to integrate RSML files into popular research workflow. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Intermediate-Level Foreign Language Courses for BBA Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortuno, Manuel J.; Uber, David M.

    Following the early success of its inclusion of languages in the master's-level business administration curriculum, Baylor University began to emphasize foreign language study more heavily in its undergraduate business administration program. The revised program, to be fully implemented in 1989, encourages students to choose 11 hours of language…

  10. Translation of a High-Level Temporal Model into Lower Level Models: Impact of Modelling at Different Description Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Peter; Sørensen, Jens Otto

    2001-01-01

    The paper attempts theoretically to clarify the interrelation between various levels of descriptions used in the modelling and the programming of information systems. We suggest an analysis where we characterise the description levels with respect to how precisely they may handle information abou...... and other textual models. We also consider the aptness of models that include procedural mechanisms such as active and object databases...

  11. Cascade Boosting-Based Object Detection from High-Level Description to Hardware Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Khattab

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Object detection forms the first step of a larger setup for a wide variety of computer vision applications. The focus of this paper is the implementation of a real-time embedded object detection system while relying on high-level description language such as SystemC. Boosting-based object detection algorithms are considered as the fastest accurate object detection algorithms today. However, the implementation of a real time solution for such algorithms is still a challenge. A new parallel implementation, which exploits the parallelism and the pipelining in these algorithms, is proposed. We show that using a SystemC description model paired with a mainstream automatic synthesis tool can lead to an efficient embedded implementation. We also display some of the tradeoffs and considerations, for this implementation to be effective. This implementation proves capable of achieving 42 fps for 320×240 images as well as bringing regularity in time consuming.

  12. A thermodynamic description of quarks at the subquark level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    A thermodynamic basis for the description of quarks at the subquark level is proposed. It is suggested that subquarks are ultrarelativistic objects confined to the quark radius R. Thus they experience accelerations of the order a≅c/sup 2//R. But this means that information excluding horizons (iota) comparable to quark radii R, namely iota≅c/sup 2//a≅R, are present. Such horizons force us to describe quarks, at the subquark level, via thermodynamics. This thermodynamic description must involve unconventional negative energy Rindler vacua, rather than the conventional zero energy Minkowski vacuum. In an average thermodynamic sense, these Rindler vacua cancel excess kinetic energy of the subquarks, thereby removing an objection to theories involving subquarks. In any such theory it is necessary to assign an Unruh temperature T, where kT≅(h/2πc)a≅(hc/2πR), to the subquark matter. The author argues that T must be the temperature of the early universe phase transition (probably first order) at which quarks condensed into hadrons. Thus quarks have a temperature T independent of hadron mass. He shows how quark properties may be derived in the foregoing thermodynamic context

  13. Second foreign language learning strategies and their variations across language proficiency levels among Iranian EFL learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pazhakh, A

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study has attempted to determine weather there is any relationship between language learning strategies employed by language learners, and if so what relationship exists between them. Furthermore, it has tried to investigate what effective and useful strategies the learners employ while learning English as a foreign language correspondent with their proficiency levels. A simulated TOEFL (REA, 1993 test was initially administered to classify the learners into three classes of proficiency levels. Oxford‟s Strategy Inventory, SILL, (Oxford, 1990 was used to determine the frequency of the language learning strategies applied by learners. The results of this study provide confirmation of previous research findings concerning the direct relationship between language learning strategies and language proficiency level, and represent the types of the strategies adopted by advanced, intermediate and elementary language learners. The implications of this study are to suggest both the metacognitive compensatory strategies, the most frequent strategies employed by advanced learners be instructed to the language learners in order to upgrade their proficiency level.

  14. Description of the Seibersdorf incineration plant for low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalupa, G.; Petschnik, G.

    1986-09-01

    After a description of the design and the construction principles of the incinerator building, the furnace and its attached auxilary devices are explained. The incinerator is layed out for low level wastes. It has a vertical furnace, operates with discontinuous feeding for trashes with heat-values between 600 and 10000 kcal/kg waste. The maximum throughput amounts 40 kg/h. The purification of the off-gas is guaranteed by a multistage filter system: 2 stages with ceramic candles, cooling column and a HEPA-filter system. The control of the off-gas cleaning is carried out by a stack instrumentation, consisting of an aerosol-, gas-, Iodine- and Tritium-monitor; the building is surveilled by doserate- and aerosolmonitors. (Author)

  15. Using Specification and Description Language for Life Cycle Assesment in Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pau Fonseca i Casas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The definition of a Life Cycle Assesment (LCA for a building or an urban area is a complex task due to the inherent complexity of all the elements that must be considered. Furthermore, a multidisciplinary approach is required due to the different sources of knowledge involved in this project. This multidisciplinary approach makes it necessary to use formal language to fully represent the complexity of the used models. In this paper, we explore the use of Specification and Description Language (SDL to represent the LCA of a building and residential area. We also introduce a tool that uses this idea to implement an optimization and simulation mechanism to define the optimal solution for the sustainability of a specific building or residential.

  16. Efficiency of Picture Description and Storytelling Methods in Language Sampling According to the Mean Length of Utterance Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salime Jafari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Due to limitation of standardized tests for Persian-speakers with language disorders, spontaneous language sampling collection is an important part of assessment of languageprotocol. Therefore, selection of a language sampling method, which will provide information of linguistic competence in a short time, is important. Therefore, in this study, we compared the languagesamples elicited with picture description and storytelling methods in order to determine the effectiveness of the two methods.Methods: In this study 30 first-grade elementary school girls were selected with simple sampling. To investigate picture description method, we used two illustrated stories with four pictures. Languagesamples were collected through storytelling by telling a famous children’s story. To determine the effectiveness of these two methods the two indices of duration of sampling and mean length ofutterance (MLU were compared.Results: There was no significant difference between MLU in description and storytelling methods(p>0.05. However, duration of sampling was shorter in the picture description method than the storytelling method (p<0.05.Conclusion: Findings show that, the two methods of picture description and storytelling have the same potential in language sampling. Since, picture description method can provide language samples with the same complexity in a shorter time than storytelling, it can be used as a beneficial method forclinical purposes.

  17. Gender Representation in Elementary Level, African Language Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Folarin Schleicher

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Foreign language learners' perceptions and understanding of a target culture(s are affected by the infonnation presented by their teacher(s, textbooks and other instructional materials. This paper focuses on an analysis of gender representation in elementary level, African language textbooks, with a specific concentration on Hausa, Swahili, Yoruba, and Zulu textbooks. Although the study of gender representation in textbooks is not new (see Blankenship, 1984; Clausen, 1982; Neussel, 1977 and others, relatively few authors have focused on gender representation in foreign language textbooks (Graci, 1989; Rifkin, 1998. This study seeks to extend the work of these scholars into the field of African languages. As a result, the present analysis focuses on (1 establishing criteria for evaluating African language textbooks for gender representation; (2 applying these criteria to seventeen different, elementary level, African language textbooks to create a basis for a comparative case study; (3 presenting the findings of a detailed analysis; and ( 4 utilizing the findings to formulate guidelines for future textbook writers.

  18. A high-level language for rule-based modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Michael; Phillips, Andrew; Plotkin, Gordon D

    2015-01-01

    Rule-based languages such as Kappa excel in their support for handling the combinatorial complexities prevalent in many biological systems, including signalling pathways. But Kappa provides little structure for organising rules, and large models can therefore be hard to read and maintain. This paper introduces a high-level, modular extension of Kappa called LBS-κ. We demonstrate the constructs of the language through examples and three case studies: a chemotaxis switch ring, a MAPK cascade, and an insulin signalling pathway. We then provide a formal definition of LBS-κ through an abstract syntax and a translation to plain Kappa. The translation is implemented in a compiler tool which is available as a web application. We finally demonstrate how to increase the expressivity of LBS-κ through embedded scripts in a general-purpose programming language, a technique which we view as generally applicable to other domain specific languages.

  19. Diversity, variation and fairness: Equivalence in national level language assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Weideman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The post-1994 South African constitution proudly affirms the language diversity of the country, as do subsequent laws, while ministerial policies, both at further and higher education level, similarly promote the use of all 11 official languages in education. However, such recognition of diversity presents several challenges to accommodate potential variation. In language education at secondary school, which is nationally assessed, the variety being promoted immediately raises issues of fairness and equivalence. The final high-stakes examination of learners’ ability in home language at the exit level of their pre-tertiary education is currently contentious in South Africa. It is known, for example, that in certain indigenous languages, the exit level assessments barely discriminate among learners with different abilities, while in other languages they do. For that reason, the Council for Quality Assurance in General and Further Education, Umalusi, has commissioned several reports to attempt to understand the nature of the problem. This article will deal with a discussion of a fourth attempt by Umalusi to solve the problem. That attempt, undertaken by a consortium of four universities, has already delivered six interim reports to this statutory body, and the article will consider some of their content and methodology. In their reconceptualisation of the problem, the applied linguists involved first sought to identify the theoretical roots of the current curriculum in order to articulate more sharply the construct being assessed. That provides the basis for a theoretical justification of the several solutions being proposed, as well as for the preliminary designs of modifications to current, and the introduction of new assessments. The impact of equivalence of measurement as a design requirement will be specifically discussed, with reference to the empirical analyses of results of a number of pilots of equivalent tests in different languages.

  20. Flexible Description Language for HPC based Processing of Remote Sense Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandra, Constantin; Gorgan, Dorian; Bacu, Victor

    2016-04-01

    When talking about Big Data, the most challenging aspect lays in processing them in order to gain new insight, find new patterns and gain knowledge from them. This problem is likely most apparent in the case of Earth Observation (EO) data. With ever higher numbers of data sources and increasing data acquisition rates, dealing with EO data is indeed a challenge [1]. Geoscientists should address this challenge by using flexible and efficient tools and platforms. To answer this trend, the BigEarth project [2] aims to combine the advantages of high performance computing solutions with flexible processing description methodologies in order to reduce both task execution times and task definition time and effort. As a component of the BigEarth platform, WorDeL (Workflow Description Language) [3] is intended to offer a flexible, compact and modular approach to the task definition process. WorDeL, unlike other description alternatives such as Python or shell scripts, is oriented towards the description topologies, using them as abstractions for the processing programs. This feature is intended to make it an attractive alternative for users lacking in programming experience. By promoting modular designs, WorDeL not only makes the processing descriptions more user-readable and intuitive, but also helps organizing the processing tasks into independent sub-tasks, which can be executed in parallel on multi-processor platforms in order to improve execution times. As a BigEarth platform [4] component, WorDeL represents the means by which the user interacts with the system, describing processing algorithms in terms of existing operators and workflows [5], which are ultimately translated into sets of executable commands. The WorDeL language has been designed to help in the definition of compute-intensive, batch tasks which can be distributed and executed on high-performance, cloud or grid-based architectures in order to improve the processing time. Main references for further

  1. Community-level Language Planning for Chinese Heritage Language Maintenance in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Chung Cheng

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the development of Chinese heritage language in the United States from the perspective of language policy and planning. The case study examines the Chinese heritage language maintenance through community-based Chinese schools (CHS, and CHS’s relationships with Chinese American community, as well as governments and non-government organizations in China, Taiwan, and the United States. The paper starts with a theoretical discussion on the definition of language policy and planning, and then describes the history and heritage language education of Chinese Americans in the United States. The paper also presents micro-level planning activities initiated by CHSs in the Chinese American community and non-government organizations. Special focus is placed on the interaction between non-government organizations in the US and governmental bodies in Taiwan and mainland China and in the United States. This paper suggests that micro planning of heritage language maintenance is beneficial when initiated in the community, but it can only be developed and sustained within the wider scope of macro-level planning from governments

  2. CHEMICAL REACTIONS ON ADSORBING SURFACE: KINETIC LEVEL OF DESCRIPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.P.Kostrobii

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the effective Hubbard model we suggest a statistical description of reaction-diffusion processes for bimolecular chemical reactions of gas particles adsorbed on the metallic surface. The system of transport equations for description of particles diffusion as well as reactions is obtained. We carry out the analysis of the contributions of all physical processes to the formation of diffusion coefficients and chemical reactions constants.

  3. Predicting the Proficiency Level of Language Learners Using Lexical Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Scott A.; Salsbury, Tom; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how second language (L2) texts written by learners at various proficiency levels can be classified using computational indices that characterize lexical competence. For this study, 100 writing samples taken from 100 L2 learners were analyzed using lexical indices reported by the computational tool Coh-Metrix. The L2 writing…

  4. Integration of literacy into speech-language therapy: a descriptive analysis of treatment practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambyraja, Sherine R; Schmitt, Mary Beth; Justice, Laura M; Logan, Jessica A R; Schwarz, Sadie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was: (a) to examine the extent to which speech-language therapy provided to children with language disorders in the schools targets code-based literacy skills (e.g., alphabet knowledge and phonological awareness) during business-as-usual treatment sessions, and (b) to determine whether literacy-focused therapy time was associated with factors specific to children and/or speech-language pathologists (SLPs). Participants were 151 kindergarten and first-grade children and 40 SLPs. Video-recorded therapy sessions were coded to determine the amount of time that addressed literacy. Assessments of children's literacy skills were administered as well as questionnaires regarding characteristics of SLPs (e.g., service delivery, professional development). Results showed that time spent addressing code-related literacy across therapy sessions was variable. Significant predictors included SLP years of experience, therapy location, and therapy session duration, such that children receiving services from SLPs with more years of experience, and/or who utilized the classroom for therapy, received more literacy-focused time. Additionally, children in longer therapy sessions received more therapy time on literacy skills. There is considerable variability in the extent to which children received literacy-focused time in therapy; however, SLP-level factors predict time spent in literacy more than child-level factors. Further research is needed to understand the nature of literacy-focused therapy in the public schools. Readers will be able to: (a) define code-based literacy skills, (b) discuss the role that speech-language pathologists have in fostering children's literacy development, and (c) identify key factors that may currently influence the inclusion of literacy targets in school-based speech-language therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. How we understand mathematics conceptual integration in the language of mathematical description

    CERN Document Server

    Woźny, Jacek

    2018-01-01

    This volume examines mathematics as a product of the human mind and analyzes the language of "pure mathematics" from various advanced-level sources. Through analysis of the foundational texts of mathematics, it is demonstrated that math is a complex literary creation, containing objects, actors, actions, projection, prediction, planning, explanation, evaluation, roles, image schemas, metonymy, conceptual blending, and, of course, (natural) language. The book follows the narrative of mathematics in a typical order of presentation for a standard university-level algebra course, beginning with analysis of set theory and mappings and continuing along a path of increasing complexity. At each stage, primary concepts, axioms, definitions, and proofs will be examined in an effort to unfold the tell-tale traces of the basic human cognitive patterns of story and conceptual blending. This book will be of interest to mathematicians, teachers of mathematics, cognitive scientists, cognitive linguists, and anyone interested...

  6. Modal intersection types, two-level languages, and staged synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henglein, Fritz; Rehof, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    -linguistic framework for staged program synthesis, where metaprograms are automatically synthesized which, when executed, generate code in a target language. We survey the basic theory of staged synthesis and illustrate by example how a two-level language theory specialized from λ∩ ⎕ can be used to understand......A typed λ-calculus, λ∩ ⎕, is introduced, combining intersection types and modal types. We develop the metatheory of λ∩ ⎕, with particular emphasis on the theory of subtyping and distributivity of the modal and intersection type operators. We describe how a stratification of λ∩ ⎕ leads to a multi...... the process of staged synthesis....

  7. An Analysis of Writing Activities in the Student Workbooks of a Secondary-Level Turkish Language Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çerçi, Arif

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze writing activities in the student workbooks of a secondary-level Turkish language course (grades 5 to 8) according to the principles of progressive writing. The study is descriptive and employs content analysis as a qualitative research paradigm. The writing activities of the books in this study all…

  8. A Unified Description of Structural Levels in Biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macarulla, Alberto; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A single, didactic criterion for the description of all biological macromolecules is proposed. This criterion is applicable to globular, fibrous or mixed proteins, as well as to nucleic acids and lipids or polysaccharides. Specific examples are given for all except lipids and polysaccarides. (KR)

  9. Translation of a High-Level Temporal Model into Lower Level Models: Impact of Modelling at Different Description Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Peter; Sørensen, Jens Otto

    2001-01-01

    given types of properties, and examine how descriptions on higher levels translate into descriptions on lower levels. Our example looks at temporal properties where the information is concerned with the existence in time. In a high level temporal model with information kept in a three-dimensional space...... the existences in time can be mapped precisely and consistently securing a consistent handling of the temporal properties. We translate the high level temporal model into an entity-relationship model, with the information in a two-dimensional graph, and finally we look at the translations into relational...... and other textual models. We also consider the aptness of models that include procedural mechanisms such as active and object databases...

  10. Telidon Videotex presentation level protocol: Augmented picture description instructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrien, C. D.; Brown, H. G.; Smirle, J. C.; Lum, Y. F.; Kukulka, J. Z.; Kwan, A.

    1982-02-01

    The Telidon Videotex system is a method by which graphic and textual information and transactional services can be accessed from information sources by the general public. In order to transmit information to a Telidon terminal at a minimum bandwidth, and in a manner independent of the type of communications channel, a coding scheme was devised which permits the encoding of a picture into the geometric drawing elements which compose it. These picture description instructions are an alpha geometric coding model and are based on the primitives of POINT, LINE, ARC, RECTANGLE, POLYGON, and INCREMENT. Text is encoded as (ASCII) characters along with a supplementary table of accents and special characters. A mosaic shape table is included for compatibility. A detailed specification of the coding scheme and a description of the principles which make it independent of communications channel and display hardware are provided.

  11. FADO 2. 0: A high level tagging language

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, C.M.L. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). EP-Div.); Pimenta, M.; Varela, J. (LIP, Lisbon (Portugal)); Souza, J. (Rio de Janeiro Univ. (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia)

    1989-12-01

    FADO 2.0 is a high level language, developed in the context of the 4th level trigger of the DELPHI data acquisition project at CERN, that provides a simple and concise way to define physics criteria for event tagging. Its syntax is based on mathematical logic and set theory, as it was found the most appropriate framework to describe the properties of single HEP events. The language is one of the components of the FADO tagging system. The system also implements implicitly a mechanism to selectively reconstruct the event data that are needed to fulfil the physics criteria, following the speed requirements of the online data-acquisition system. A complete programming environment is now under development, which will include a syntax directed editor, and incremental compiler, a debugger and a configurer. This last tool can be used to transport the system into the context of other HEP applications, namely offline event selection and filtering. (orig.).

  12. PRAXIS, High Level Computer Language for System Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, F.W.

    1998-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: PRAXIS is a systems implementation programming language designed especially for control and communications programming. It is a modern, strongly-typed, block-structured language similar to PASCAL but with extensions and features particular to control systems applications. The software consists of three PRAXIS compilers and three associated support utilities - the PRAXIS RMS-11 Interface, a set of procedures, functions, and type declarations which allow PRAXIS programs to interface to the RMS-11 Input/Output system under VAX/VMS and the RSX-11M systems; TEXTIO, character I/O software for terminal and line-printer text operations; and UNPASCAL, a program which translates simple PASCAL programs into PRAXIS. The compilers included are: a VAX/VMS version which generates VAX code, a VAX/VMS version which generates PDP11 codes, and a PDP11/RSX-11M version which generates PDP11 code. NESC Edition B of PRAXIS is designated as Version 7.3 by the contributors. The PDP11 compiler is not supported and has not been changed since February 1982. 2 - Method of solution: The PRAXIS compilers use LALR parsing technique to generate an intermediate machine-independent code. This is then processed using templates for the target computer to generate actual machine instructions

  13. Systems Biology Graphical Notation: Entity Relationship language Level 1 Version 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorokin Anatoly

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Systems Biological Graphical Notation (SBGN is an international community effort for standardized graphical representations of biological pathways and networks. The goal of SBGN is to provide unambiguous pathway and network maps for readers with different scientific backgrounds as well as to support efficient and accurate exchange of biological knowledge between different research communities, industry, and other players in systems biology. Three SBGN languages, Process Description (PD, Entity Relationship (ER and Activity Flow (AF, allow for the representation of different aspects of biological and biochemical systems at different levels of detail.

  14. Systems Biology Graphical Notation: Activity Flow language Level 1 Version 1.2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Huaiyu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Systems Biological Graphical Notation (SBGN is an international community effort for standardized graphical representations of biological pathways and networks. The goal of SBGN is to provide unambiguous pathway and network maps for readers with different scientific backgrounds as well as to support efficient and accurate exchange of biological knowledge between different research communities, industry, and other players in systems biology. Three SBGN languages, Process Description (PD, Entity Relationship (ER and Activity Flow (AF, allow for the representation of different aspects of biological and biochemical systems at different levels of detail.

  15. Systems Biology Graphical Notation: Activity Flow language Level 1 Version 1.2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Huaiyu; Schreiber, Falk; Moodie, Stuart; Czauderna, Tobias; Demir, Emek; Haw, Robin; Luna, Augustin; Le Novère, Nicolas; Sorokin, Anatoly; Villéger, Alice

    2015-09-04

    The Systems Biological Graphical Notation (SBGN) is an international community effort for standardized graphical representations of biological pathways and networks. The goal of SBGN is to provide unambiguous pathway and network maps for readers with different scientific backgrounds as well as to support efficient and accurate exchange of biological knowledge between different research communities, industry, and other players in systems biology. Three SBGN languages, Process Description (PD), Entity Relationship (ER) and Activity Flow (AF), allow for the representation of different aspects of biological and biochemical systems at different levels of detail. The SBGN Activity Flow language represents the influences of activities among various entities within a network. Unlike SBGN PD and ER that focus on the entities and their relationships with others, SBGN AF puts the emphasis on the functions (or activities) performed by the entities, and their effects to the functions of the same or other entities. The nodes (elements) describe the biological activities of the entities, such as protein kinase activity, binding activity or receptor activity, which can be easily mapped to Gene Ontology molecular function terms. The edges (connections) provide descriptions of relationships (or influences) between the activities, e.g., positive influence and negative influence. Among all three languages of SBGN, AF is the closest to signaling pathways in biological literature and textbooks, but its well-defined semantics offer a superior precision in expressing biological knowledge.

  16. Systems Biology Graphical Notation: Entity Relationship language Level 1 Version 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Anatoly; Le Novère, Nicolas; Luna, Augustin; Czauderna, Tobias; Demir, Emek; Haw, Robin; Mi, Huaiyu; Moodie, Stuart; Schreiber, Falk; Villéger, Alice

    2015-09-04

    The Systems Biological Graphical Notation (SBGN) is an international community effort for standardized graphical representations of biological pathways and networks. The goal of SBGN is to provide unambiguous pathway and network maps for readers with different scientific backgrounds as well as to support efficient and accurate exchange of biological knowledge between different research communities, industry, and other players in systems biology. Three SBGN languages, Process Description (PD), Entity Relationship (ER) and Activity Flow (AF), allow for the representation of different aspects of biological and biochemical systems at different levels of detail. The SBGN Entity Relationship language (ER) represents biological entities and their interactions and relationships within a network. SBGN ER focuses on all potential relationships between entities without considering temporal aspects. The nodes (elements) describe biological entities, such as proteins and complexes. The edges (connections) provide descriptions of interactions and relationships (or influences), e.g., complex formation, stimulation and inhibition. Among all three languages of SBGN, ER is the closest to protein interaction networks in biological literature and textbooks, but its well-defined semantics offer a superior precision in expressing biological knowledge.

  17. Description of the Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills Revisited (ABLLS-R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenovich M.L.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostics and assessment of the functional skills of children with disabilities and autism spectrum disorders are to be conducted to develop comprehensive remedial educational programmes. The described Methodology of the Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills — Revisited (ABLLS-R allows to simplify and make the diagnostics more efficient, to conduct a comprehensive examination of the child in different areas of development, detect the formed and deficit skills. The second and final part of the description of the methodology offers recommendations on the filling of the Table of the Results of Initial and Repeated Testing and on the choice of goals of correctional work with a child on the basis of performance of individual test scales. The pattern of the table filled after the initial and repeated testing is given. In drawing up of the programme of individual development the willingness of the child to the development of that skill should be considered. Regular practice of selected skills in various situations and the preventive measures against the regression of skills are also important. Conclusive part. Beginning in № 3 (48, 2015

  18. High-Level Waste System Process Interface Description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Entremont, P.D.

    1999-01-01

    The High-Level Waste System is a set of six different processes interconnected by pipelines. These processes function as one large treatment plant that receives, stores, and treats high-level wastes from various generators at SRS and converts them into forms suitable for final disposal. The three major forms are borosilicate glass, which will be eventually disposed of in a Federal Repository, Saltstone to be buried on site, and treated water effluent that is released to the environment

  19. Who Studies Which Language and Why? : A Cross-Language Survey of First-Year College-Level Language Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn M. Howard

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on surveys of first-year language learners studying 19 different languages at two large East Coast Universities. The survey included questions about why students decided to study these languages, including career plans, study abroad, interest in liter-ature and culture, desire to communicate with speakers of the lan-guage, desire to speak with family members, building on previous language skills, and love of languages in general. Results were broken down by language and by language types, such as whether the lan-guages were commonly taught in the United States, how the lan-guages are politicized in the current historical context, and how the languages intersect with historical and geographic trends in immigra-tion and immigration policy. This article examines in particular the presence of heritage language learners in these language classrooms, the varying reasons that students choose to study these languages, and students’ prior attainment and exposure to the language. The pa-per discusses the political, historical, and social contexts of language study in the United States and the associated implications for effec-tive language recruitment and effective language program design.

  20. The Experience of Teaching of Descriptive Geometry and Engineering Graphics in Russian Language as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronina, Marianna V.; Tretyakova, Zlata O.

    2017-01-01

    The article considers the peculiarities of training foreign students subject "Descriptive geometry and Engineering Graphics" in a modern engineering university of Russia. The relevance of the problem conditioned by the fact that virtually there are no special studies of teaching Descriptive Geometry and Engineering Graphics in Russian…

  1. Descriptions of Improvisational Thinking by Artist-Level Jazz Musicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norgaard, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Thought processes of seven artist-level jazz musicians, each of whom recorded an improvised solo, were investigated. Immediately after completing their improvisations, participants listened to recordings of their playing and looked at the notation of their solos as they described in a directed interview the thinking processes that led to the…

  2. Philippine and North Bornean Languages: Issues in Description, Subgrouping, and Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobel, Jason William

    2013-01-01

    The Philippines, northern Sulawesi, and northern Borneo are home to two or three hundred languages that can be described as Philippine-type. In spite of nearly five hundred years of language documentation in the Philippines, and at least a century of work in Borneo and Sulawesi, the majority of these languages remain grossly underdocumented, and…

  3. High-level waste description, inventory and hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, J.; Hennelly, E.J.; McElroy, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    High-level nuclear waste (HLW), including its origin, is described and the current differences in definitions discussed. Quantities of defense and commercial radioactive HLW, both volume and curie content, are given. Current waste handling, which is interimin nature, is described for the several sites. The HLW hazard is defined by the times during which various radionuclides are the dominant contributors. The hazard is also compared to that of the ore. Using ICRP-2, which is the legal reference in the US, the hazard of the waste reduces to a level equal to the ore in about 300 years. The disposal plans are summarized and it is shown that regulatory requirements will probably govern disposal operations in such a conservative manner that the risk (product of hazard times probability of release) may well be lower than for any other wastes in existence or perhaps lower than those for any other human endeavor

  4. Conceptual modular description of the high-level waste management system for system studies model development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, R.W.; Young, J.R.; Konzek, G.J.

    1992-08-01

    This document presents modular descriptions of possible alternative components of the federal high-level radioactive waste management system and the procedures for combining these modules to obtain descriptions for alternative configurations of that system. The 20 separate system component modules presented here can be combined to obtain a description of any of the 17 alternative system configurations (i.e., scenarios) that were evaluated in the MRS Systems Studies program (DOE 1989a). First-approximation descriptions of other yet-undefined system configurations could also be developed for system study purposes from this database. The descriptions include, in a modular format, both functional descriptions of the processes in the waste management system, plus physical descriptions of the equipment and facilities necessary for performance of those functions

  5. A high level language for a high performance computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrott, R. H.

    1978-01-01

    The proposed computational aerodynamic facility will join the ranks of the supercomputers due to its architecture and increased execution speed. At present, the languages used to program these supercomputers have been modifications of programming languages which were designed many years ago for sequential machines. A new programming language should be developed based on the techniques which have proved valuable for sequential programming languages and incorporating the algorithmic techniques required for these supercomputers. The design objectives for such a language are outlined.

  6. Nurses’ Knowledge Levels of Chest Drain Management: A Descriptive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve Tarhan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The physician is responsible for inserting one or more chest tubes into the pleural space or the mediastinal space and connecting them to an appropriate drainage system. When the general principles about care of patients with chest drains were implemented correctly and effectively by nurses, nurse will contribute to accelerate the healing process of patients. In this context, the aim of this study was to determine the nurses’ level of knowledge regarding the care of patients with chest drains. Methods: The study was conducted with 153 nurses who worked in a chest diseases and thoracic surgery hospital in July 2014. Questionnaire form of 35 questions prepared by investigators was used to collect data. For the analysis of results, frequency tests, independent sample t-test and oneway ANOVA test were used. Results: 69.3% of nurses stated that they had obtained information from colleguages. 35.3% considered their knowledge about chest drain management to be inadequate. 55.6% scored 13 points and above from knowledge questionnaire about chest drain management. There were statistically significant difference between knowledge level and educational background, clinic work type, working unit, years of professional experience and institutional experience, frequency of contact patients with chest drain and perception of knowledge level (p<0.05. Conclusion: Results of this study indicate that lack of evidence-based nursing care and insufficient training has resulted in uncertainty and knowledge deficit in important aspects of chest drain care. It can be concluded that nurses receive training needs and training protocols are about chest drain management.

  7. Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettit, N. E.

    2001-01-01

    The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the accesses using a rail mounted transporter, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The defense high level waste (HLW) disposal container provides long-term confinement of the commercial HLW and defense HLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms [IPWF]) placed within disposable canisters, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. US Department of Energy (DOE)-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a defense HLW disposal container along with commercial HLW waste forms, which is known as co-disposal. The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container/waste package maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual canister temperatures after emplacement, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Defense HLW disposal containers for HLW disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters. Defense HLW disposal containers for co-disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters arranged in a ring and one DOE SNF canister inserted in the center and/or one or more DOE SNF canisters displacing a HLW canister in the ring. Defense HLW disposal containers also will hold two Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) and two HLW canisters in one disposal container. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinders, outer and inner cylinder lids, and may include a canister guide. An exterior label will provide a means by

  8. An automated approach for generating and checking control logic for reversible hardware description language-based designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wille, Robert; Keszocze, Oliver; Othmer, Lars

    2017-01-01

    to significantly different design challenges to be addressed. In this work, we consider problems that occur when describing a reversible control flow using Hardware Description Languages (HDLs). Here, the commonly used conditional statements must, in addition to the established if-condition for forward computation......, be provided with an additional fi-condition for backward computation. Unfortunately, deriving correct and consistent fi-conditions is often not obvious. Moreover, HDL descriptions exist which may not be realized with a reversible control flow at all. In this work, we propose automatic solutions, which...

  9. Trust Levels Definition On Virtual Learning Platforms Through Semantic Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Montenegro-Marin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Trust level concept is a topic that has opened a knowledge area about the profile evaluation and the people participation in Social Networks. These have presented a high knowledge profit, but at the same time it is necessary to analyze a group of variables to determine the trust participants’ degree.In addition, this is a topic that from some years ago has been presenting a big expectation to settle some alternatives to generate confidence in an activer community on internet. To establish these parameters it is important to define a model to abstract some variables that are involved in this process. For this, it is relevant to take into account the semantic languages as one of the alternatives that allow these kinds of activities. The purpose of this article is to analyze the Trust Levels definition in the contents that are shared on Open Source Virtual learning Platforms through the use of a model of representation of semantic languages. The last ones allow determining the trust in the use of learning objects that are shared in this kind of platforms

  10. Spanish Oral Language Guide: Kindergarten Level. Espanol como Segundo Idioma. Teacher's Guide: Level I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbell, Gloria; And Others

    This teacher's guide to Spanish language at the kindergarten level includes a recommended subject presentation sequence for the Spanish curriculum, a sample schedule, a grouping of students using three stations, and a classroom layout. The grouping would be effective when at least one-third of the children are Spanish-speaking or bilingual. The…

  11. Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the accesses using a rail mounted transporter, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The defense high level waste (HLW) disposal container provides long-term confinement of the commercial HLW and defense HLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms (IPWF)) placed within disposable canisters, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a defense HLW disposal container along with commercial HLW waste forms, which is known as 'co-disposal'. The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container/waste package maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual canister temperatures after emplacement, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Defense HLW disposal containers for HLW disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters. Defense HLW disposal containers for co-disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters arranged in a ring and one DOE SNF canister in the ring. Defense HLW disposal containers also will hold two Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) and two HLW canisters in one disposal container. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinders, outer and inner cylinder lids, and may include a canister guide. An exterior label will provide a means by which to identify the disposal container and its contents. Different materials

  12. Agent based models of language competition: macroscopic descriptions and order–disorder transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, F; Castelló, X; San Miguel, M

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of two agent based models of language competition. In the first model, each individual can be in one of two possible states, either using language X or language Y, while the second model incorporates a third state XY, representing individuals that use both languages (bilinguals). We analyze the models on complex networks and two-dimensional square lattices by analytical and numerical methods, and show that they exhibit a transition from one-language dominance to language coexistence. We find that the coexistence of languages is more difficult to maintain in the bilinguals model, where the presence of bilinguals facilitates the ultimate dominance of one of the two languages. A stability analysis reveals that the coexistence is more unlikely to happen in poorly connected than in fully connected networks, and that the dominance of just one language is enhanced as the connectivity decreases. This dominance effect is even stronger in a two-dimensional space, where domain coarsening tends to drive the system towards language consensus

  13. Formal Specification and Description Language and Message Sequence Chart to Model and Validate Session Initiation Protocol Services

    OpenAIRE

    Sa'ed Abed; Mohammad H. Al Shayeji; Ovais Ahmed; Sahel Alouneh

    2016-01-01

    Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is a signaling layer protocol for building, adjusting and ending sessions among participants including Internet conferences, telephone calls and multimedia distribution. SIP facilitates user movement by proxying and forwarding requests to the present location of the user. In this paper, we provide a formal Specification and Description Language (SDL) and Message Sequence Chart (MSC) to model and define the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) SIP protocol a...

  14. BILINGUALISM AMONG STUDENTS OF THE FACULTY OF LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE, SALATIGA, INDONESIA: A DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Indrayanti Timotius

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Although bilingualism is an interesting phenomenon these days, not many researchers explore bilingualism in Asia. Most research in a similar field, like that done by Yip and Matthews (2007, and Harding-Esch and Riley (2003, show that children become bilingual because their parents are from countries with different mother tongues. This is not necessarily true in Asian countries like Indonesia. In Indonesia, most of its citizens are bilingual, even though both parents are Indonesian. This happens because children are not only exposed to and taught one language from a young age. Many of them are exposed to at least two languages, which are Indonesian (the national language and lingua franca of Indonesia and their local language – which is different depending on which area of Indonesia they were born or grew up. In addition, it is highly possible that exposure to other languages, such as English, may add to their capability to speak more than just two languages and thus, they become multilingual. This phenomenon has piqued the interest of the writers to conduct a study on bilingualism in Indonesia. The aim of the study is to describe bilingualism/multilingualism among a group of students in Indonesia. The data is collected by distributing questionnaires to 240 participants who are students in the Faculty of Language and Literature (FLL, Satya Wacana Christian University, Salatiga. The study reveals that there are three languages mostly spoken or used by the participants. They are Indonesian, English, and a regional language (mostly Javanese. Also, most of the students‘ first language is Indonesian. As for the second language, it is quite varied, including regional languages and English.

  15. Levels of processing and language modality specificity in working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudner, Mary; Karlsson, Thomas; Gunnarsson, Johan; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2013-03-01

    Neural networks underpinning working memory demonstrate sign language specific components possibly related to differences in temporary storage mechanisms. A processing approach to memory systems suggests that the organisation of memory storage is related to type of memory processing as well. In the present study, we investigated for the first time semantic, phonological and orthographic processing in working memory for sign- and speech-based language. During fMRI we administered a picture-based 2-back working memory task with Semantic, Phonological, Orthographic and Baseline conditions to 11 deaf signers and 20 hearing non-signers. Behavioural data showed poorer and slower performance for both groups in Phonological and Orthographic conditions than in the Semantic condition, in line with depth-of-processing theory. An exclusive masking procedure revealed distinct sign-specific neural networks supporting working memory components at all three levels of processing. The overall pattern of sign-specific activations may reflect a relative intermodality difference in the relationship between phonology and semantics influencing working memory storage and processing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. SEL/Project Language. Level II, Kindergarten, Teacher's Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, Ann E.; Lynch, Helen C.

    The Teacher's Handbook is part of the publication series of the Southeastern Education Laboratory/Project Language (SEL/PL), an 8-year language-centered program designed to alleviate the language deficiencies of disadvantaged children between the ages of four and eleven. For teachers utilizing SEL/PL, the Handbook provides a research summary and…

  17. A description of Automath and some aspects of its language theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Daalen, D.T.; Nederpelt, R.P.; Geuvers, J.H.; Vrijer, de R.C.

    1994-01-01

    definition and an overview of the language theory. Thus it can serve as an introduction to the papers [van Benthem Jutting 73] and [Zandlevem 73 (E.1)]. Among the various Automath languages this paper concentrates on the original version AUT-68 (because of its relative simplicity) and one extension

  18. Extending a Petri-net based workflow description language for e-business atomicity support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norta, A.H.; Artishchev, S.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper an extension of XRL is presented for supporting Webbased and inter-organizational e-business atomicity spheres in workflow applications. XRL (eXchangable Routing Language), is an extensible, instance-based language that is intended for inter-organizational workflow processes having an

  19. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML: Language Specification for Level 3 Version 2 Core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hucka Michael

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Computational models can help researchers to interpret data, understand biological functions, and make quantitative predictions. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML is a file format for representing computational models in a declarative form that different software systems can exchange. SBML is oriented towards describing biological processes of the sort common in research on a number of topics, including metabolic pathways, cell signaling pathways, and many others. By supporting SBML as an input/output format, different tools can all operate on an identical representation of a model, removing opportunities for translation errors and assuring a common starting point for analyses and simulations. This document provides the specification for Version 2 of SBML Level 3 Core. The specification defines the data structures prescribed by SBML, their encoding in XML (the eXtensible Markup Language, validation rules that determine the validity of an SBML document, and examples of models in SBML form. The design of Version 2 differs from Version 1 principally in allowing new MathML constructs, making more child elements optional, and adding identifiers to all SBML elements instead of only selected elements. Other materials and software are available from the SBML project website at http://sbml.org/.

  20. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML): Language Specification for Level 3 Version 2 Core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hucka, Michael; Bergmann, Frank T; Dräger, Andreas; Hoops, Stefan; Keating, Sarah M; Le Novère, Nicolas; Myers, Chris J; Olivier, Brett G; Sahle, Sven; Schaff, James C; Smith, Lucian P; Waltemath, Dagmar; Wilkinson, Darren J

    2018-03-09

    Computational models can help researchers to interpret data, understand biological functions, and make quantitative predictions. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) is a file format for representing computational models in a declarative form that different software systems can exchange. SBML is oriented towards describing biological processes of the sort common in research on a number of topics, including metabolic pathways, cell signaling pathways, and many others. By supporting SBML as an input/output format, different tools can all operate on an identical representation of a model, removing opportunities for translation errors and assuring a common starting point for analyses and simulations. This document provides the specification for Version 2 of SBML Level 3 Core. The specification defines the data structures prescribed by SBML, their encoding in XML (the eXtensible Markup Language), validation rules that determine the validity of an SBML document, and examples of models in SBML form. The design of Version 2 differs from Version 1 principally in allowing new MathML constructs, making more child elements optional, and adding identifiers to all SBML elements instead of only selected elements. Other materials and software are available from the SBML project website at http://sbml.org/.

  1. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML): Language Specification for Level 3 Version 1 Core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hucka, Michael; Bergmann, Frank T; Hoops, Stefan; Keating, Sarah M; Sahle, Sven; Schaff, James C; Smith, Lucian P; Wilkinson, Darren J

    2015-09-04

    Computational models can help researchers to interpret data, understand biological function, and make quantitative predictions. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) is a file format for representing computational models in a declarative form that can be exchanged between different software systems. SBML is oriented towards describing biological processes of the sort common in research on a number of topics, including metabolic pathways, cell signaling pathways, and many others. By supporting SBML as an input/output format, different tools can all operate on an identical representation of a model, removing opportunities for translation errors and assuring a common starting point for analyses and simulations. This document provides the specification for Version 1 of SBML Level 3 Core. The specification defines the data structures prescribed by SBML as well as their encoding in XML, the eXtensible Markup Language. This specification also defines validation rules that determine the validity of an SBML document, and provides many examples of models in SBML form. Other materials and software are available from the SBML project web site, http://sbml.org/.

  2. Dual Language as a Social Movement: Putting Languages on a Level Playing Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, Regina; Makar, Carmina; Mount-Cors, Mary Faith

    2015-01-01

    As a social movement, dual language challenges and co-exists alongside traditional English-only classrooms in the US. Using Manuel Pastor's social movements framework, we demonstrate how dual language provides teaching methods and languages of instruction that allow varying student populations to excel in learning the official curriculum. In this…

  3. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) Level 3 Package: Layout, Version 1 Core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauges, Ralph; Rost, Ursula; Sahle, Sven; Wengler, Katja; Bergmann, Frank Thomas

    2015-09-04

    Many software tools provide facilities for depicting reaction network diagrams in a visual form. Two aspects of such a visual diagram can be distinguished: the layout (i.e.: the positioning and connections) of the elements in the diagram, and the graphical form of the elements (for example, the glyphs used for symbols, the properties of the lines connecting them, and so on). For software tools that also read and write models in SBML (Systems Biology Markup Language) format, a common need is to store the network diagram together with the SBML representation of the model. This in turn raises the question of how to encode the layout and the rendering of these diagrams. The SBML Level 3 Version 1 Core specification does not provide a mechanism for explicitly encoding diagrams, but it does provide a mechanism for SBML packages to extend the Core specification and add additional syntactical constructs. The Layout package for SBML Level 3 adds the necessary features to SBML so that diagram layouts can be encoded in SBML files, and a companion package called SBML Rendering specifies how the graphical rendering of elements can be encoded. The SBML Layout package is based on the principle that reaction network diagrams should be described as representations of entities such as species and reactions (with direct links to the underlying SBML elements), and not as arbitrary drawings or graphs; for this reason, existing languages for the description of vector drawings (such as SVG) or general graphs (such as GraphML) cannot be used.

  4. Chinese as a Second Language, Level I: Teacher's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Helene

    The lessons in this booklet are developed for the Chinese Bilingual Pilot Program, San Francisco Unified School District. The main objective is to teach Cantonese to non-Chinese speaking children so that they can use this new language in a meaningful way such as, carry on a simple conversation in that language. The ultimate goal in the oral…

  5. Descriptional Complexity of the Languages KaL: Automata, Monoids and Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Klíma

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The first step when forming the polynomial hierarchies of languages is to consider languages of the form KaL where K and L are over a finite alphabet A and from a given variety V of languages, a being a letter from A. All such KaL's generate the variety of languages BPol1(V. We estimate the numerical parameters of the language KaL in terms of their values for K and L. These parameters include the state complexity of the minimal complete DFA and the size of the syntactic monoids. We also estimate the cardinality of the image of A* in the Schuetzenberger product of the syntactic monoids of K and L. In these three cases we obtain the optimal bounds. Finally, we also consider estimates for the cardinalities of free monoids in the variety of monoids corresponding to BPol1(V in terms of sizes of the free monoids in the variety of monoids corresponding to V.

  6. A brief description and comparison of programming languages FORTRAN, ALGOL, COBOL, PL/1, and LISP 1.5 from a critical standpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, F. P.

    1972-01-01

    Several common higher level program languages are described. FORTRAN, ALGOL, COBOL, PL/1, and LISP 1.5 are summarized and compared. FORTRAN is the most widely used scientific programming language. ALGOL is a more powerful language for scientific programming. COBOL is used for most commercial programming applications. LISP 1.5 is primarily a list-processing language. PL/1 attempts to combine the desirable features of FORTRAN, ALGOL, and COBOL into a single language.

  7. High Level Rule Modeling Language for Airline Crew Pairing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Erdal; Birbil, Ş. Ilker; Bülbül, Kerem; Yenigün, Hüsnü

    2011-09-01

    The crew pairing problem is an airline optimization problem where a set of least costly pairings (consecutive flights to be flown by a single crew) that covers every flight in a given flight network is sought. A pairing is defined by using a very complex set of feasibility rules imposed by international and national regulatory agencies, and also by the airline itself. The cost of a pairing is also defined by using complicated rules. When an optimization engine generates a sequence of flights from a given flight network, it has to check all these feasibility rules to ensure whether the sequence forms a valid pairing. Likewise, the engine needs to calculate the cost of the pairing by using certain rules. However, the rules used for checking the feasibility and calculating the costs are usually not static. Furthermore, the airline companies carry out what-if-type analyses through testing several alternate scenarios in each planning period. Therefore, embedding the implementation of feasibility checking and cost calculation rules into the source code of the optimization engine is not a practical approach. In this work, a high level language called ARUS is introduced for describing the feasibility and cost calculation rules. A compiler for ARUS is also implemented in this work to generate a dynamic link library to be used by crew pairing optimization engines.

  8. Brain metabolite levels and language abilities in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, Catherine; MacMaster, Frank P; Dewey, Deborah

    2016-10-01

    Language acquisition occurs rapidly during early childhood and lays the foundation for future reading success. However, little is known about the brain-language relationships in young children. The goal of this study was to investigate relationships between brain metabolites and prereading language abilities in healthy preschool-aged children. Participants were 67 healthy children aged 3.0-5.4 years scanned on a 3T GE MR750w MRI scanner using short echo proton spectroscopy with a voxel placed in the anterior cingulate gyrus ( n  = 56) and/or near the left angular gyrus ( n  = 45). Children completed the NEPSY-II Phonological Processing and Speeded Naming subtests at the same time as their MRI scan. We calculated glutamate, glutamine, creatine/phosphocreatine, choline, inositol, and NAA concentrations, and correlated these with language skills. In the anterior cingulate, Phonological Processing Scaled Scores were significantly correlated with glutamate, creatine, and inositol concentrations. In the left angular gyrus, Speeded Naming Combined Scaled Scores showed trend correlations with choline and glutamine concentrations. For the first time, we demonstrate relationships between brain metabolites and prereading language abilities in young children. Our results show relationships between language and inositol and glutamate that may reflect glial differences underlying language function, and a relationship of language with creatine. The trend between Speeded Naming and choline is consistent with previous research in older children and adults; however, larger sample sizes are needed to confirm whether this relationship is indeed significant in young children. These findings help understand the brain basis of language, and may ultimately lead to earlier and more effective interventions for reading disabilities.

  9. AutoBD: Automated Bi-Level Description for Scalable Fine-Grained Visual Categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hantao; Zhang, Shiliang; Yan, Chenggang; Zhang, Yongdong; Li, Jintao; Tian, Qi

    Compared with traditional image classification, fine-grained visual categorization is a more challenging task, because it targets to classify objects belonging to the same species, e.g. , classify hundreds of birds or cars. In the past several years, researchers have made many achievements on this topic. However, most of them are heavily dependent on the artificial annotations, e.g., bounding boxes, part annotations, and so on . The requirement of artificial annotations largely hinders the scalability and application. Motivated to release such dependence, this paper proposes a robust and discriminative visual description named Automated Bi-level Description (AutoBD). "Bi-level" denotes two complementary part-level and object-level visual descriptions, respectively. AutoBD is "automated," because it only requires the image-level labels of training images and does not need any annotations for testing images. Compared with the part annotations labeled by the human, the image-level labels can be easily acquired, which thus makes AutoBD suitable for large-scale visual categorization. Specifically, the part-level description is extracted by identifying the local region saliently representing the visual distinctiveness. The object-level description is extracted from object bounding boxes generated with a co-localization algorithm. Although only using the image-level labels, AutoBD outperforms the recent studies on two public benchmark, i.e. , classification accuracy achieves 81.6% on CUB-200-2011 and 88.9% on Car-196, respectively. On the large-scale Birdsnap data set, AutoBD achieves the accuracy of 68%, which is currently the best performance to the best of our knowledge.Compared with traditional image classification, fine-grained visual categorization is a more challenging task, because it targets to classify objects belonging to the same species, e.g. , classify hundreds of birds or cars. In the past several years, researchers have made many achievements on this topic

  10. From oral traditions to elementary textbooks: a description of the maternal languages project in Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, C L

    1983-12-01

    Niger is experimenting with maternal language instruction in grades 1-3, within a broader context of educational reform. In these early grades, some 25 experimental schools distributed throughout the country are using 1 of 5 national languages -- Hausa, Zarma-Songhai, Fulfulde, Tamajaq, or Kanuri -- as the language of instruction and of standardized examinations, as in traditional schools. The curriculum in these experimental schools for the early grades is also innovative and favors an interdisciplinary approach. Lessons in various subjects are linked at any given time by a them selected by teachers and students. Niger's national pedagogical institute, in collaboration with the US Agency for International Development (USAID), designed a testbook project which was built around a recorded collection of oral traditions. Once assembled, this collection served as a resource to draw on for production of readers for grades 1 through 3. These readers provide content appropriate to the curriculum and serve as an archive of oral traditions for future use. The Institute's procedure for producing elementary readers in maternal languages has not only yielded the desired books but has also facilitated institutional development in several organizations committed to producing national language materials. The project has had several phases, including the collection, transcription, and cataloging of oral materials; the preselection, adaptation, final editing, and illustration of tests; the publication of the textbooks; and the evaluation of the textbooks. Over 70 primary school teachers participated in the collection phase during the summer vacation of 1981. The teachers were selected to assure a distribution of regions and dialects for each of the 5 languages. Before returning to their villages, trainees were issued Panasonic RQ 230 9A tape recorders, batteries, and a box of 20 cassettes. Supervisory teams composed of at least 1 linguist and 1 pedagogical advisor visited each

  11. Learning Language Levels in Students Accurate with a History Academic Achievement History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorlela Binti Noordin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to evaluate the Malay proficiency among students in Form Two especially non-Malay students and its relationship to academic achievement History. To achieve the purpose of the study there are two objectives, the first is to look at the difference between mean of Malay Language test influences min of academic achievement of History subject among non-Malay students in Form Two and the second is the relationship between the level of Malay proficiency and their academic achievement for History. This study used quantitative methods, which involved 100 people of Form Two non-Malay students in one of the schools in Klang, Selangor. This study used quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and statistical inference with IBM SPSS Statistics v22 software. This study found that there was a relationship between the proficiency of Malay language among non-Malay students with achievements in the subject of History. The implications of this study are discussed in this article.

  12. Polish as a foreign language at elementary level of instruction : crosslinguistic influences in writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Gabrys-Barker

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Being a minority European language, Polish has not attracted the attention of second language research (SLA very much. Most studies in the area focus on English and other major languages describing variables and process observed in learners’ interlanguage development. This article looks at the language performance of elementary learners of Polish as a foreign language with a view to diagnosing areas of difficulty at the initial stages of language instruction. It is a case study of five learners’ written production after a year of intensive language instruction in the controlled conditions of a classroom. The objective of the study presented here is: 1. to determine the types of error produced in a short translation task at different levels of language (morphosyntactic, lexical 2. to observe manifestations of crosslinguistic influences between languages the subjects know (interlingual transfer as well as those related to the language learnt itself (intralingual transfer.The small sample of texts produced does not allow for any generalized observations and conclusions, however, at the level of elementary competence in any foreign language, as other research shows, the amount of individual variation is not the most significant factor. Thus the incorrect forms produced may testify to some more universally error-prone areas of language. The value of this kind of analysis lies in this direct application to the teaching of Polish as a synthetic language. The study also demonstrates the fact that communicative teaching has a limited contribution to make in the case of this family of languages. It suggests that overt and explicit teaching of a synthetic language will give a sounder basis for further development of language competence in its communicative dimension

  13. MDEP Generic Common Position No DICWG-05. Common position on the treatment of hardware description language (HDL) programmed devices for use in nuclear safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Following other industries, the nuclear industry developed increasing interest in the use of programmable logic components that are implemented using hardware description language (HDL) such as such as FPGAs, CPLDs or ASICs. HDL programmed devices (HPD) has both characteristics of software and hardware. Therefore applications using HPDs has many similarities with the traditional software (in particular the design may be affected by errors) and characteristics of traditional electronic design (e.g. electronic-level timing and electrical issues). However, due to the unique nature of HPDs, there exist several differences between HPDs and traditional software. Some key differences include: - HPDs use parallel processing with dedicated hardware for each function instead of executing instructions sequentially as in the case of traditional software. - Safety critical software uses imperative languages which specify each instruction of the program whereas HPDs use declarative languages. - The target of software is a microprocessor, which guarantees properties such as memory consistency after each instruction. Such properties are not inherent in HPDs and thus the design process needs different steps to build and guarantee behavioural properties. - Translation of the HDL description to bit-streams in HPDs is much more involved than the translation of source code to binary in software compilation. In the HPD case, this process is not fully automatic, and therefore designer must guide the tools, which may result in undetectable errors. The Digital Instrumentation and Controls Working Group (DICWG) has agreed that a common position on this topic is warranted given the increase of use of Digital I and C in new reactor designs, its safety implications, and the need to develop a common understanding from the perspectives of regulatory authorities. This action follows the DICWG examination of the regulatory requirements of the participating members and of relevant industry

  14. A descriptive study of culture related terms in translation of Harry Potter Novel from English to Urdu language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Mansoor

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Translation of children fantasy novels and problems faced by translators in translating these novels into different languages is one of the core issues in the field of translation studies. This issue has got attention of many researchers and an extensive study has been carried out on various novels. The Harry Potter series of novels written by British author J.K. Rowling is one of the famous children fantasy novels that gained popularity worldwide and was translated into 73 languages. The use of various cultural terms and made up words in the novel has posed a great challenge for the translators. The purpose of the present study is to identify these cultural related terms and made up words in the novel “Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets” and to investigate the strategies used by the translator in translating them into Urdu language. A descriptive analysis of the translation of culture related items and made up words was made using the strategies proposed by Davies (2003. The findings of this research showed that translator mostly emphasized and predominantly used localization and transformation strategies for food items, magical objects and imaginative words.

  15. Towards "Thick Description" of Educational Transfer: Understanding a Japanese Institution's "Import" of European Language Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappleye, Jeremy; Imoto, Yuki; Horiguchi, Sachiko

    2011-01-01

    Globalisation and convergence in educational policy worldwide has reinvigorated, while rendering more complex, the classic theme of educational transfer. Framed by this wider pursuit of new understandings of a changing transfer/context puzzle, this paper explores how an ethnographic "thick description" might complement and extend recent…

  16. PyDecay/GraphPhys: A Unified Language and Storage System for Particle Decay Process Descriptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunietz, Jesse N.; /MIT /SLAC

    2011-06-22

    To ease the tasks of Monte Carlo (MC) simulation and event reconstruction (i.e. inferring particle-decay events from experimental data) for long-term BaBar data preservation and analysis, the following software components have been designed: a language ('GraphPhys') for specifying decay processes, common to both simulation and data analysis, allowing arbitrary parameters on particles, decays, and entire processes; an automated visualization tool to show graphically what decays have been specified; and a searchable database storage mechanism for decay specifications. Unlike HepML, a proposed XML standard for HEP metadata, the specification language is designed not for data interchange between computer systems, but rather for direct manipulation by human beings as well as computers. The components are interoperable: the information parsed from files in the specification language can easily be rendered as an image by the visualization package, and conversion between decay representations was implemented. Several proof-of-concept command-line tools were built based on this framework. Applications include building easier and more efficient interfaces to existing analysis tools for current projects (e.g. BaBar/BESII), providing a framework for analyses in future experimental settings (e.g. LHC/SuperB), and outreach programs that involve giving students access to BaBar data and analysis tools to give them a hands-on feel for scientific analysis.

  17. High level language for measurement complex control based on the computer E-100I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubkov, B. V.

    1980-01-01

    A high level language was designed to control the process of conducting an experiment using the computer "Elektrinika-1001". Program examples are given to control the measuring and actuating devices. The procedure of including these programs in the suggested high level language is described.

  18. Levels of Text Comprehension in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): The Influence of Language Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Rebecca; Norbury, Courtenay Frazier

    2014-01-01

    Many children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have reading comprehension difficulties, but the level of processing at which comprehension is most vulnerable and the influence of language phenotype on comprehension skill is currently unclear. We explored comprehension at sentence and passage levels across language phenotypes. Children with ASD…

  19. Thermodynamic approach to rheological modeling and simulations at the configuration space level of description

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongschaap, R.J.J.; Denneman, A.I.M.; Denneman, A.I.M.; Conrads, W.

    1997-01-01

    The so-called matrix model is a general thermodynamic framework for microrheological modeling. This model has already been proven to be applicable for a wide class of systems, in particular to models formulated at the configuration tensor level of description. For models formulated at the

  20. TAPS: an automated tool for identification of skills, knowledges, and abilities using natural language task description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorgensen, C.C.; Carter, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    A prototype, computer-based tool (TAPS) has been developed to aid training system developers in identifying skills, knowledges, and abilities (SKAs) during task analysis. TAPS uses concepts of flexible pattern matching to evaluate English descriptions of job behaviors and to recode them as SKA lists. This paper addresses the rationale for TAPS and describes its design including SKA definitions and task analysis logic. It also presents examples of TAPS's application

  1. TAPS: an automated tool for identification of skills, knowledges, and abilities using natural language task description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgensen, C.C.; Carter, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    A prototype, computer-based tool (TAPS) has been developed to aid training system developers in identifying skills, knowledges, and abilities (SKAs) during task analysis. TAPS uses concepts of flexible pattern matching to evaluate English descriptions of job behaviors and to recode them as SKA lists. This paper addresses the rationale for TAPS and describes its design including SKA definitions and task analysis logic. It also presents examples of TAPS's application.

  2. TAPS - An automated tool for identification of skills, knowledges, and abilities using natural language task description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorgensen, C.C.; Carter, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    A prototype, computer-based tool (TAPS) has been developed to aid training system developers in identifying skills, knowledges, and abilities (SKAs) during task analysis. TAPS uses concepts of flexible pattern matching to evaluate English descriptions of job behaviors and to recode them as SKA lists. This paper addresses the rationale for TAPS and describes its design including SKA definitions and task analysis logic. It also presents examples of TAPS's application

  3. Systemic functional grammar in natural language generation linguistic description and computational representation

    CERN Document Server

    Teich, Elke

    1999-01-01

    This volume deals with the computational application of systemic functional grammar (SFG) for natural language generation. In particular, it describes the implementation of a fragment of the grammar of German in the computational framework of KOMET-PENMAN for multilingual generation. The text also presents a specification of explicit well-formedness constraints on syntagmatic structure which are defined in the form of typed feature structures. It thus achieves a model of systemic functional grammar that unites both the strengths of systemics, such as stratification, functional diversification

  4. Teaching Computer Languages and Elementary Theory for Mixed Audiences at University Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2004-01-01

    Theoretical issues of computer science are traditionally taught in a way that presupposes a solid mathematical background and are usually considered more or less unaccessible for students without this. An effective methodology is described which has been developed for a target group of university...... into a learning-by-doing approach having the students to develop such descriptions themselves from an informal introduction....... students with different backgrounds such as natural science or humanities. It has been developed for a course that integrates theoretical material on computer languages and abstract machines with practical programming techniques. Prolog used as meta-language for describing language issues is the central...... instrument in the approach: Formal descriptions become running prototypes that are easy and appealing to test and modify, and can be extended into analyzers, interpreters, and tools such as tracers and debuggers. Experience shows a high learning curve, especially when the principles are extended...

  5. Expert Knowledge, Distinctiveness, and Levels of Processing in Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The foreign language vocabulary learning research literature often attributes strong mnemonic potency to the cognitive processing of meaning when learning words. Routinely cited as support for this idea are experiments by Craik and Tulving (C&T) demonstrating superior recognition and recall of studied words following semantic tasks ("deep"…

  6. Imaging network level language recovery after left PCA stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Rajani; Long, Charltien; Purcell, Jeremy J; Faria, Andreia V; Lindquist, Martin; Jarso, Samson; Race, David; Davis, Cameron; Posner, Joseph; Wright, Amy; Hillis, Argye E

    2016-05-11

    The neural mechanisms that support aphasia recovery are not yet fully understood. Our goal was to evaluate longitudinal changes in naming recovery in participants with posterior cerebral artery (PCA) stroke using a case-by-case analysis. Using task based and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and detailed language testing, we longitudinally studied the recovery of the naming network in four participants with PCA stroke with naming deficits at the acute (0 week), sub acute (3-5 weeks), and chronic time point (5-7 months) post stroke. Behavioral and imaging analyses (task related and resting state functional connectivity) were carried out to elucidate longitudinal changes in naming recovery. Behavioral and imaging analysis revealed that an improvement in naming accuracy from the acute to the chronic stage was reflected by increased connectivity within and between left and right hemisphere "language" regions. One participant who had persistent moderate naming deficit showed weak and decreasing connectivity longitudinally within and between left and right hemisphere language regions. These findings emphasize a network view of aphasia recovery, and show that the degree of inter- and intra- hemispheric balance between the language-specific regions is necessary for optimal recovery of naming, at least in participants with PCA stroke.

  7. Foreign Languages at the Pre-School Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, Raymond; Ford, James F.

    French was added to the early childhood curriculum at the New School in Fayetteville, Arkansas, after a review of the literature on the subject indicated potential beneficial effects of teaching foreign languages to young children. Some of the advantages to be gained by the children were greater readiness for school work in general, greater…

  8. Relevance of Trust Marks and CE Labels in German-Language Store Descriptions of Health Apps: Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Urs-Vito; Hillebrand, Uta; von Jan, Ute

    2018-04-25

    In addition to mandatory CE marking ("CE" representing Conformité Européenne, with the CE marking being a symbol of free marketability in the European Economic Area) for medical devices, there are various seals, initiatives, action groups, etc, in the health app context. However, whether manufacturers use them to distinguish their apps and attach relevance to them is unclear. The objective was to take a snapshot of quality seals, regulatory marks, and other orientation aids available on the German app market and to determine whether manufacturers deem such labels relevant enough to apply them to their apps, namely as reflected by mentions in app description texts in a typical app store (ie, Apple's App Store). A full survey of the metadata of 103,046 apps from Apple's German App Store in the Medicine and Health & Fitness categories was carried out. For apps with German-language store descriptions (N=8767), these were automatically searched for the occurrence of relevant keywords and validated manually (N=41). In addition, the websites of various app seal providers were checked for assigned seals. Few manufacturers referenced seals in the descriptions (5/41), although this would have been expected more often based on the seals we were able to identify from the seal providers' Web pages, and there were 34 of 41 that mentioned CE status in the descriptions. Two apps referenced an app directory curated by experts; however, this is not an alternative to CE marks and seals of approval. Currently, quality seals seem to be irrelevant for manufacturers. In line with regulatory requirements, mentions of medical device status are more frequent; however, neither characteristic is effective for identifying high-quality apps. To improve this situation, a possibly legally obligatory, standardized reporting system should be implemented. ©Urs-Vito Albrecht, Uta Hillebrand, Ute von Jan. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (http://mhealth.jmir.org), 25.04.2018.

  9. Forms of Cooperative Learning in Language Teaching in Slovenian Language Classes at the Primary School Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Rot Vrhovec

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Slovenian language syllabus, teachers are recommended to provide a greater share of group work during class. During types of learning such as cooperative learning in smaller groups or pairs, students actively develop communicative competence. The present article presents a survey that attempted to determine whether teachers from the first to the fifth grade execute cooperative learning in language classes. The purpose of the article is to raise teachers’ awareness and encourage them to design and execute cooperative learning more frequently.

  10. Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the consequences of globalisation in the area of corporate communication, and investigate how language may be managed as a strategic resource. Design/methodology/approach: – A review of previous studies on the effects of globalisation on corporate...... communication and the implications of language management initiatives in international business. Findings: – Efficient language management can turn language into a strategic resource. Language needs analyses, i.e. linguistic auditing/language check-ups, can be used to determine the language situation...... of a company. Language policies and/or strategies can be used to regulate a company’s internal modes of communication. Language management tools can be deployed to address existing and expected language needs. Continuous feedback from the front line ensures strategic learning and reduces the risk of suboptimal...

  11. Beyond description. Comment on "Approaching human language with complex networks" by Cong and Liu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-i-Cancho, R.

    2014-12-01

    In their historical overview, Cong & Liu highlight Sausurre as the father of modern linguistics [1]. They apparently miss G.K. Zipf as a pioneer of the view of language as a complex system. His idea of a balance between unification and diversification forces in the organization of natural systems, e.g., vocabularies [2], can be seen as a precursor of the view of complexity as a balance between order (unification) and disorder (diversification) near the edge of chaos [3]. Although not mentioned by Cong & Liu somewhere else, trade-offs between hearer and speaker needs are very important in Zipf's view, which has inspired research on the optimal networks mapping words into meanings [4-6]. Quantitative linguists regard G.K. Zipf as the funder of modern quantitative linguistics [7], a discipline where statistics plays a central role as in network science. Interestingly, that centrality of statistics is missing Saussure's work and that of many of his successors.

  12. Comparing the subjective task difficulty of human operators with task description levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Kyun; Jung, Won Dea; Yang, Joon Eon

    2011-01-01

    Without the loss of generality, it is reasonable to say that an operating procedure consists of many steps including detailed descriptions that provide necessary information in conducting the required tasks safely and effectively. In this regard, since it is widely perceived that procedures are effective for reducing the occurrence of human performance related problems, the use of procedures is very popular in large process control systems including nuclear power plants (NPPs), commercial airplanes and railway systems. However, the secure of an operational safety by using an operating procedure can be accomplished only if human operators are able to effectively obtain necessary information from it. In other words, it is hard to expect the reduction of human performance related problems, if task descriptions are so ambiguous or incomplete that human operators feel an undue difficulty in identifying 'what have to be done' and 'how to do it' from procedures. Unfortunately, it seems that a systematic method that can be used to distinguish the proper level of task descriptions is rare. For this reason, Park et al. developed a decision chart that could be helpful for characterizing the level of task descriptions. In this study, in order to ensure the appropriateness of the suggested decision chart, more detailed investigations were conducted with the support of human operators who are working as the operating personnel of NPPs

  13. Socio-cultural differences in the self-descriptions of two groups of Azerbaijanian students learning in the Russian and Azerbaijani languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzherelievskaya M.A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The dimension of individualism-collectivism is regarded as one of the most important cultural factors that influence a person’s self-consciousness, and help shape his/her sense of self as independent or interdependent. Moreover, studies support the conclusion that the salience of both tendencies may vary not only within a single national culture (depending on the place of residence, language environment, etc., but also on the level of the individual self (depending on the current situation. In our research we have assumed that the language environment (receiving education in one’s native or a foreign language acts as a socio-cultural factor affecting the self-concept of students of the same nationality–more specifically, the intensity of their individualistic and collectivistic characteristics. Objective: Finding socio-cultural differences in self-image between two groups of Azerbaijanian students (learning in Russian and Azerbaijanian, respectively. Design: The sample included one hundred students from Baku colleges and universities equally divided into two groups. Participants in the first group were studying in Azerbaijani while those in the second group were learning in Russian. We collected data in the form of open-ended self-descriptions. We examined these texts using contentanalysis procedures. Then we calculated correlations between certain defined characteristics for each group. Results: The self-descriptions produced by students learning in Azerbaijanian contained the following features: norm compliance as a significant factor in emotional wellbeing; self-criticism related to negative feelings and expectation of outside criticism; the prevalence of self-justification and bravado as basic forms of psychological defense, combined with the lack of self-enhancement; and focus on society and interpersonal relations affecting the respondents’ inner feelings. The second group’s (those learning in Russian self-descriptions

  14. Forms of Cooperative Learning in Language Teaching in Slovenian Language Classes at the Primary School Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrhovec, Alenka Rot

    2015-01-01

    In the Slovenian language syllabus, teachers are recommended to provide a greater share of group work during class. During types of learning such as cooperative learning in smaller groups or pairs, students actively develop communicative competence. The present article presents a survey that attempted to determine whether teachers from the first…

  15. Dual Sticky Hierarchical Dirichlet Process Hidden Markov Model and Its Application to Natural Language Description of Motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weiming; Tian, Guodong; Kang, Yongxin; Yuan, Chunfeng; Maybank, Stephen

    2017-09-25

    In this paper, a new nonparametric Bayesian model called the dual sticky hierarchical Dirichlet process hidden Markov model (HDP-HMM) is proposed for mining activities from a collection of time series data such as trajectories. All the time series data are clustered. Each cluster of time series data, corresponding to a motion pattern, is modeled by an HMM. Our model postulates a set of HMMs that share a common set of states (topics in an analogy with topic models for document processing), but have unique transition distributions. For the application to motion trajectory modeling, topics correspond to motion activities. The learnt topics are clustered into atomic activities which are assigned predicates. We propose a Bayesian inference method to decompose a given trajectory into a sequence of atomic activities. On combining the learnt sources and sinks, semantic motion regions, and the learnt sequence of atomic activities, the action represented by the trajectory can be described in natural language in as automatic a way as possible. The effectiveness of our dual sticky HDP-HMM is validated on several trajectory datasets. The effectiveness of the natural language descriptions for motions is demonstrated on the vehicle trajectories extracted from a traffic scene.

  16. Sign language typology: The contribution of rural sign languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, C.; Pfau, R.

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1990s, the field of sign language typology has shown that sign languages exhibit typological variation at all relevant levels of linguistic description. These initial typological comparisons were heavily skewed toward the urban sign languages of developed countries, mostly in the Western

  17. SymexTRON: Symbolic Execution of High-Level Transformation Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sibahi, Ahmad Salim; Dimovski, Aleksandar; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Transformations form an important part of developing domain specific languages, where they are used to provide semantics for typing and evaluation. Yet, few solutions exist for verifying transformations written in expressive high-level transformation languages. We take a step towards that goal, b...

  18. Unified Modeling Language description of the object-oriented multi-scale adaptive finite element method for Step-and-Flash Imprint Lithography Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paszynski, Maciej; Gurgul, Piotr; Sieniek, Marcin; Pardo, David

    2010-01-01

    In the first part of the paper we present the multi-scale simulation of the Step-and-Flash Imprint Lithography (SFIL), a modern patterning process. The simulation utilizes the hp adaptive Finite Element Method (hp-FEM) coupled with Molecular Statics (MS) model. Thus, we consider the multi-scale problem, with molecular statics applied in the areas of the mesh where the highest accuracy is required, and the continuous linear elasticity with thermal expansion coefficient applied in the remaining part of the domain. The degrees of freedom from macro-scale element's nodes located on the macro-scale side of the interface have been identified with particles from nano-scale elements located on the nano-scale side of the interface. In the second part of the paper we present Unified Modeling Language (UML) description of the resulting multi-scale application (hp-FEM coupled with MS). We investigated classical, procedural codes from the point of view of the object-oriented (O-O) programming paradigm. The discovered hierarchical structure of classes and algorithms makes the UML project as independent on the spatial dimension of the problem as possible. The O-O UML project was defined at an abstract level, independent on the programming language used.

  19. Descriptive Metaphysics, Natural Language Metaphysics, Sapir-Whorf, and All That Stuff: Evidence from the Mass-Count Distinction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Jeffry Pelletier

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Strawson (1959 described ‘descriptive metaphysics’, Bach (1986a described ‘natural language metaphysics’, Sapir (1929 and Whorf (1940a,b, 1941 describe, well, Sapir-Whorfianism. And there are other views concerning the relation between correct semantic analysis of linguistic phenomena and the “reality” that is supposed to be thereby described. I think some considerations from the analyses of the mass-count distinction can shed some light on that very dark topic.ReferencesBach, Emmon. 1986a. ‘Natural Language Metaphysics’. In Ruth Barcan Marcus, G.J.W. Dorn & Paul Weingartner (eds. ‘Logic, Methodology, and Philosophy of Science, VII’, 573–595. Amsterdam: North Holland.Bach, Emmon. 1986b. ‘The Algebra of Events’. Linguistics and Philosophy 9: 5–16.Berger, Peter & Luckmann, Thomas. 1966. The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge. New York: Doubleday.Boroditsky, Lera, Schmidt, Lauren & Phillips, Webb. 2003. ‘Sex, Syntax, and Semantics’. In Dedre Gentner & Susan Goldin-Meadow (eds. ‘Language in Mind: Advances in the Study of Language and Cognition’, 59–80. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Cheng, L. & Sybesma, R. 1999. ‘Bare and Not-So-Bare Nouns and the structure of NP’. Linguistic Inquiry 30: 509–542.http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/002438999554192Chierchia, Gennaro. 1998a. ‘Reference to Kinds across Languages’. Natural Language Semantics 6: 339–405.http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1008324218506Chierchia, Gennaro. 1998b. ‘Plurality of Mass Nouns and the Notion of ‘Semantic Parameter’ ’. In S. Rothstein (ed. ‘Events and Grammar’, 53–103. Dordrecht: Kluwer.Chierchia, Gennaro. 2010. ‘Mass Nouns, Vagueness and Semantic Variation’. Synthèse 174: 99–149.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11229-009-9686-6Doetjes, Jenny. 1997. Quantifiers and Selection: On the Distribution of Quantifying Expressions in French, Dutch and English. Ph.D. thesis, University of Leiden, Holland

  20. High-Level Management of Communication Schedules in HPF-like Languages

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benkner, Siegfried

    1997-01-01

    ..., providing the users with a high-level language interface for programming scalable parallel architectures and delegating to the compiler the task of producing an explicitly parallel message-passing program...

  1. Analysis of the structure and operation of the level F PL/1 compiler: problems raised by the coupling of programmes written in different languages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rambou Sek, Jiri

    1974-01-01

    As the PL/1 programming language allows the treatment of a large range of commercial and scientific problems, it also raises specific problems for the development of a compiler on the one hand, and for the implementation of a management system within an installation comprising software written in different programming languages. The author reports the analysis of the level F PL/1 compiler developed by IBM, discusses issues related to the management of a PL/1 software within the framework of the OS/360 operating system. He reports the study of the linking conditions between PL/1 and the main existing programming languages under OS/360. He presents an interface system which allows a common exploitation of software written in different programming languages. He describes the syntax of the DECLARE statement, and its analysis by the interface system. The last part reports the generation of different data description vectors which are necessary for argument transmission [fr

  2. Text-Based Argumentation with Multiple Sources: A Descriptive Study of Opportunity to Learn in Secondary English Language Arts, History, and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litman, Cindy; Marple, Stacy; Greenleaf, Cynthia; Charney-Sirott, Irisa; Bolz, Michael J.; Richardson, Lisa K.; Hall, Allison H.; George, MariAnne; Goldman, Susan R.

    2017-01-01

    This study presents a descriptive analysis of 71 videotaped lessons taught by 34 highly regarded secondary English language arts, history, and science teachers, collected to inform an intervention focused on evidence-based argumentation from multiple text sources. Studying the practices of highly regarded teachers is valuable for identifying…

  3. The Study of the Use of Picture Descriptions in Enhancing Communication Skills among the 8th- Grade Students--Learners of English as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavalle, Pamela I.; Briesmaster, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL) encourage students to take a more active role in the oral activities in the classroom through different strategies. This study examines the use of picture descriptions as a strategy to develop and enhance communication skills among the eighth-grade students attending a private English school in…

  4. From phonemes to images : levels of representation in a recurrent neural model of visually-grounded language learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelderloos, L.J.; Chrupala, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    We present a model of visually-grounded language learning based on stacked gated recurrent neural networks which learns to predict visual features given an image description in the form of a sequence of phonemes. The learning task resembles that faced by human language learners who need to discover

  5. Functional and anatomical correlates of word-, sentence-, and discourse-level integration in sign language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoo eInubushi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In both vocal and sign languages, we can distinguish word-, sentence-, and discourse-level integration in terms of hierarchical processes, which integrate various elements into another higher level of constructs. In the present study, we used magnetic resonance imaging and voxel-based morphometry to test three language tasks in Japanese Sign Language (JSL: word-level (Word, sentence-level (Sent, and discourse-level (Disc decision tasks. We analyzed cortical activity and gray matter volumes of Deaf signers, and clarified three major points. First, we found that the activated regions in the frontal language areas gradually expanded in the dorso-ventral axis, corresponding to a difference in linguistic units for the three tasks. Moreover, the activations in each region of the frontal language areas were incrementally modulated with the level of linguistic integration. These dual mechanisms of the frontal language areas may reflect a basic organization principle of hierarchically integrating linguistic information. Secondly, activations in the lateral premotor cortex and inferior frontal gyrus were left-lateralized. Direct comparisons among the language tasks exhibited more focal activation in these regions, suggesting their functional localization. Thirdly, we found significantly positive correlations between individual task performances and gray matter volumes in localized regions, even when the ages of acquisition of JSL and Japanese were factored out. More specifically, correlations with the performances of the Word and Sent tasks were found in the left precentral/postcentral gyrus and insula, respectively, while correlations with those of the Disc task were found in the left ventral inferior frontal gyrus and precuneus. The unification of functional and anatomical studies would thus be fruitful for understanding human language systems from the aspects of both universality and individuality.

  6. Site descriptions for preliminary radiological assessments of low-level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, W.E.; Jones, C.H.; Sumerling, T.J.; Ashton, J.

    1988-07-01

    The environmental contexts of four sites, previously under investigation by UK Nirex Ltd. as potential locations for low-level waste disposal facilities, are described. Information on geographical setting, climate, surface hydrology, land use, agriculture, fisheries, geology and hydrogeology is presented. The geological and hydrogeological data are interpreted with the support of deterministic modelling of groundwater conditions. The routes by which radionuclides may migrate from the site are identified and reduced to 1D statistical descriptions suitable for use in probabilistic risk assessments. Additional data required to improve the assessment of the performance of the site are identified. (author)

  7. LANGUAGE SCHOOLS AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE STUDYING PROGRAMS IN PORTUGAL

    OpenAIRE

    Hritchenko, Iryna

    2017-01-01

    The article is devoted to the description and characterizing of language schools and foreign language studying programs in Portugal. The relevance of language learning for professional, mobility, self-developing means is shown. The main courses and programs are observed and the advantages and disadvantages of each of them are given. It is stated that Portuguese courses mostly follow the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. A small synopsis of the abilities for each level is p...

  8. Crossroads language skills development at First Certificate level

    CERN Document Server

    Hinton, Michael

    1982-01-01

    Crossroads is an imaginative course for students at First Certificate Level which will improve reading, oral/aural and written competence through a wide range of communicative tasks and provide a good grounding in exam related techniques.

  9. Assessment the Relationship Between Parents' Literacy Level with Children Growth in Mashhad: An Analytic Descriptive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masumeh Saeidi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Present children are the investments of community in the future. Preparing children health which leads to the stability of community health, provided to accurate implementation of educational and health programs in the community and especially in mothers. So it is necessary to determine the relationship between parents' literacy  with growth rate in children. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 300 mothers referring to 10 selected Mashhad health-care centers for monitoring their 6-24-month year old infants. They completed questionnaire. Participants were selected by cluster and simple random sampling. Data were analyzed by descriptive- analytic statistics and using SPSS 16. Results: Presentfindings showed a significant relationship between literacy  level of parents with child growth status, breast feeding rate, junk food consumption, referring to health care center for growth monitoring, the age of initiating supplementary nutrition, the use of oil and butter in baby food and rate of attending in educational classes. So that higher literacy  level of parents was associated with using more formula, less junk food, oil and butter in baby's food and more referring times to health care center for monitoring child growth, desirable growth, and  also initiating supplementary food more at the assigned time (p

  10. Assessment the Relationship between Parents' Literacy Level with Children Growth in Mashhad: An Analytic Descriptive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibi Leila Hoseini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Present children are the investments of community in the future. Preparing children health which leads to the stability of community health, provided to accurate implementation of educational and health programs in the community and especially in mothers. So it is necessary to determine the relationship between parents' literacy with growth rate in children.   Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 300 mothers referring to 10 selected Mashhad health-care centers for monitoring their 6-24-month year old infants. They completed questionnaire. Participants were selected by cluster and simple random sampling. Data were analyzed by descriptive- analytic statistics and using SPSS 16.   Results: Presentfindings showed a significant relationship between literacy  level of parents with child growth status, breast feeding rate, junk food consumption, referring to health care center for growth monitoring, the age of initiating supplementary nutrition, the use of oil and butter in baby food and rate of attending in educational classes. So that higher literacy  level of parents was associated with using more formula, less junk food, oil and butter in baby's food and more referring times to health care center for monitoring child growth, desirable growth, and  also initiating supplementary food more at the assigned time (P

  11. Language Efficiency, Term Quality, and the Basic Level of Categorization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Birthe

    2011-01-01

    The overall aim of the paper is to analyse and discuss the role played by terms at the basic or generic levels of the sub-hierarchies of very 'deep' concept hierarchies such as SNOMED CT, a medical nomenclature system. On the basis of an analysis of selected sub-hierarchies of SNOMED-CT, the types...

  12. Adapting high-level language programs for parallel processing using data flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Hilda M.

    1988-01-01

    EASY-FLOW, a very high-level data flow language, is introduced for the purpose of adapting programs written in a conventional high-level language to a parallel environment. The level of parallelism provided is of the large-grained variety in which parallel activities take place between subprograms or processes. A program written in EASY-FLOW is a set of subprogram calls as units, structured by iteration, branching, and distribution constructs. A data flow graph may be deduced from an EASY-FLOW program.

  13. Is the Levels of Processing effect language-limited?

    OpenAIRE

    Baddeley, Alan David; Hitch, Graham James

    2017-01-01

    The concept of Levels of Processing (LOP), proposing that deep coding enhances retention,has played a central role in the study of episodic memory. Evidence has however been based almost entirely on retention of individual words. Across five experiments, we compare LOP effects between visual and verbal stimuli, using judgments of pleasantness as a method of inducing deep encoding and a range of shallow encoding judgments selected so as to be applicable to both verbal and visual stimuli. LOP e...

  14. An approach to separating the levels of hierarchical structure building in language and mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makuuchi, Michiru; Bahlmann, Jörg; Friederici, Angela D

    2012-07-19

    We aimed to dissociate two levels of hierarchical structure building in language and mathematics, namely 'first-level' (the build-up of hierarchical structure with externally given elements) and 'second-level' (the build-up of hierarchical structure with internally represented elements produced by first-level processes). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated these processes in three domains: sentence comprehension, arithmetic calculation (using Reverse Polish notation, which gives two operands followed by an operator) and a working memory control task. All tasks required the build-up of hierarchical structures at the first- and second-level, resulting in a similar computational hierarchy across language and mathematics, as well as in a working memory control task. Using a novel method that estimates the difference in the integration cost for conditions of different trial durations, we found an anterior-to-posterior functional organization in the prefrontal cortex, according to the level of hierarchy. Common to all domains, the ventral premotor cortex (PMv) supports first-level hierarchy building, while the dorsal pars opercularis (POd) subserves second-level hierarchy building, with lower activation for language compared with the other two tasks. These results suggest that the POd and the PMv support domain-general mechanisms for hierarchical structure building, with the POd being uniquely efficient for language.

  15. Hi-LAB: A New Measure of Aptitude for High-Level Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linck, Jared A.; Hughes, Meredith M.; Campbell, Susan G.; Silbert, Noah H.; Tare, Medha; Jackson, Scott R.; Smith, Benjamin K.; Bunting, Michael F.; Doughty, Catherine J.

    2013-01-01

    Few adult second language (L2) learners successfully attain high-level proficiency. Although decades of research on beginning to intermediate stages of L2 learning have identified a number of predictors of the rate of acquisition, little research has examined factors relevant to predicting very high levels of L2 proficiency. The current study,…

  16. Languages on the screen: is film comprehension related to the viewers' fluency level and to the language in the subtitles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaur, Jean-Marc; Bairstow, Dominique

    2011-12-01

    This research aimed at studying the role of subtitling in film comprehension. It focused on the languages in which the subtitles are written and on the participants' fluency levels in the languages presented in the film. In a preliminary part of the study, the most salient visual and dialogue elements of a short sequence of an English film were extracted by the means of a free recall task after showing two versions of the film (first a silent, then a dubbed-into-French version) to native French speakers. This visual and dialogue information was used in the setting of a questionnaire concerning the understanding of the film presented in the main part of the study, in which other French native speakers with beginner, intermediate, or advanced fluency levels in English were shown one of three versions of the film used in the preliminary part. Respectively, these versions had no subtitles or they included either English or French subtitles. The results indicate a global interaction between all three factors in this study: For the beginners, visual processing dropped from the version without subtitles to that with English subtitles, and even more so if French subtitles were provided, whereas the effect of film version on dialogue comprehension was the reverse. The advanced participants achieved higher comprehension for both types of information with the version without subtitles, and dialogue information processing was always better than visual information processing. The intermediate group similarly processed dialogues in a better way than visual information, but was not affected by film version. These results imply that, depending on the viewers' fluency levels, the language of subtitles can have different effects on movie information processing.

  17. Transport-level description of the 252Cf-source method using the Langevin technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolle, A.M.; Akcasu, A.Z.

    1991-01-01

    The fluctuations in the neutron number density and detector outputs in a nuclear reactor can be analyzed conveniently by using the Langevin equation approach. This approach can be implemented at any level of approximation to describe the time evolution of the neutron population, from the most complete transport-level description to the very basic point reactor analysis of neutron number density fluctuations. In this summary, the complete space- and velocity-dependent transport-level formulation of the Langevin equation approach is applied to the analysis of the 252 Cf-source-driven noise analysis (CSDNA) method, an experimental technique developed by J.T. Mihalczo at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which makes use of noise analysis to determine the reactivity of subcritical media. From this analysis, a theoretical expression for the subcritical multiplication factor is obtained that can then be used to interpret the experimental data. Results at the transport level are in complete agreement with an independent derivation performed by Sutton and Doub, who used the probability density method to interpret the CSDNA experiment, but differed from other expressions that have appeared in the literature

  18. Improving the description of collective effects within the combinatorial model of nuclear level densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilaire, S.; Girod, M.; Goriely, S.

    2011-01-01

    The combinatorial model of nuclear level densities has now reached a level of accuracy comparable to that of the best global analytical expressions without suffering from the limits imposed by the statistical hypothesis on which the latter expressions rely. In particular, it provides naturally, non Gaussian spin distribution as well as non equipartition of parities which are known to have a significant impact on cross section predictions at low energies. Our first global model developed in Ref. 1 suffered from deficiencies, in particular in the way the collective effects - both vibrational and rotational - were treated. We have recently improved this treatment using simultaneously the single particle levels and collective properties predicted by a newly derived Gogny interaction, therefore enabling a microscopic description of energy-dependent shell, pairing and deformation effects. In addition, for deformed nuclei, the transition to sphericity is coherently taken into account on the basis of a temperature-dependent Hartree-Fock calculation which provides at each temperature the structure properties needed to build the level densities. This new method is described and shown to give promising preliminary results with respect to available experimental data. (authors)

  19. Allowable residual contamination levels for decommissioning. Part 1. A description of the method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, B.A.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.

    1984-10-01

    This paper contains a description of the methods used in a study sponsored by UNC Nuclear Industries to determine Allowable Residual Contamination Levels (ARCL) for decommissioning facilities in the 100 Areas of the Hanford Site. The ARCL method is based on a scenario/exposure-pathway analysis and compliance with an annual dose limit for three specific modes of future use of the land and facilities. Thes modes of use are restricted, controlled, and unrestricted. The information on ARCL values for restricted and controlled use is intended to permit a full consideration of decommissioning alternatives. The analysis results in site-specific ARCL values that can be used for determining compliance with any annual dose limit selected. This flexibility permits proper consideration of field situations involving the radionuclide mixtures and physical conditions encountered. In addition, this method permits a full determination of as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) conditions

  20. Using humour in teaching English as a foreign language at more advanced levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodanović-Stankić Diana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The unique properties of humour make it a valuable tool in the process of teaching and acquiring English as a foreign language, especially when more advanced courses at the university level are concerned. In the first place, using humour based on language play (involving different aspects of linguistic structure in a variety of teaching materials can be very beneficial to helping students improve their ability with language structures. Moreover, it is important that students develop an awareness of humour that is related to culture in order to achieve better command of English. In order to determine the effect humour has on students’ level of attainment, a small-scale study was conducted at the English Department, University of Novi Sad in the course Integrated Language Skills. In the study, humour was used both as a tool, to improve the learning environment, and as a resource for teaching new vocabulary or revising grammatical structures. The results of the study indicate that humour can be applied to teaching a foreign language and improving students’ proficiency level. Moreover, using humour both as a tool and as a resource affected students’ motivation and willingness to study.

  1. Intercultural Sensitivity Levels of Turkish Pre-Service Foreign Language Teachers: Examples from Education Faculties of Two Universities in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetis, Veda Aslim; Kurt, Çigdem

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether intercultural sensitivity levels vary among foreign language teacher candidates in terms of variables such as target language, year of study (grade), and gender in both intra and inters programs. Research sample consists of 1,049 Turkish freshmen, sophomore, junior, and senior foreign language teacher…

  2. Wetland Ecohydrology: stochastic description of water level fluctuations across the soil surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamea, S.; Muneepeerakul, R.; Laio, F.; Ridolfi, L.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.

    2009-12-01

    Wetlands provide a suite of social and ecological critical functions such as being habitats of disease-carrying vectors, providing buffer zones against hurricanes, controlling sediment transport, filtering nutrients and contaminants, and a repository of great biological diversity. More recently, wetlands have also been recognized as crucial for carbon storage in the context of global climate change. Despite such importance, quantitative approaches to many aspects of wetlands are far from adequate. Therefore, improving our quantitative understanding of wetlands is necessary to our ability to maintain, manage, and restore these invaluable environments. In wetlands, hydrologic factors and ecosystem processes interplay and generate unique characteristics and a delicate balance between biotic and abiotic elements. The main hydrologic driver of wetland ecosystems is the position of the water level that, being above or below ground, determines the submergence or exposure of soil. When the water level is above the soil surface, soil saturation and lack of oxygen causes hypoxia, anaerobic functioning of microorganisms and anoxic stress in plants, that might lead to the death of non-adapted organisms. When the water level lies below the soil surface, the ecosystem becomes groundwater-dependent, and pedological and physiological aspects play their role in the soil water balance. We propose here a quantitative description of wetland ecohydrology, through a stochastic process-based water balance, driven by a marked compound Poisson noise representing rainfall events. The model includes processes such as rainfall infiltration, evapotranspiration, capillary rise, and the contribution of external water bodies, which are quantified in a simple yet realistic way. The semi-analytical steady-state probability distributions of water level spanning across the soil surface are validated with data from the Everglades (Florida, USA). The model and its results allow for a quantitative

  3. Automatic classification of written descriptions by healthy adults: An overview of the application of natural language processing and machine learning techniques to clinical discourse analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Cíntia Matsuda; Cunha, Andre; Scarton, Carolina; Aluísio, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Discourse production is an important aspect in the evaluation of brain-injured individuals. We believe that studies comparing the performance of brain-injured subjects with that of healthy controls must use groups with compatible education. A pioneering application of machine learning methods using Brazilian Portuguese for clinical purposes is described, highlighting education as an important variable in the Brazilian scenario. The aims were to describe how to:(i) develop machine learning classifiers using features generated by natural language processing tools to distinguish descriptions produced by healthy individuals into classes based on their years of education; and(ii) automatically identify the features that best distinguish the groups. The approach proposed here extracts linguistic features automatically from the written descriptions with the aid of two Natural Language Processing tools: Coh-Metrix-Port and AIC. It also includes nine task-specific features (three new ones, two extracted manually, besides description time; type of scene described - simple or complex; presentation order - which type of picture was described first; and age). In this study, the descriptions by 144 of the subjects studied in Toledo 18 were used,which included 200 healthy Brazilians of both genders. A Support Vector Machine (SVM) with a radial basis function (RBF) kernel is the most recommended approach for the binary classification of our data, classifying three of the four initial classes. CfsSubsetEval (CFS) is a strong candidate to replace manual feature selection methods.

  4. Automatic classification of written descriptions by healthy adults: An overview of the application of natural language processing and machine learning techniques to clinical discourse analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Matsuda Toledo

    Full Text Available Discourse production is an important aspect in the evaluation of brain-injured individuals. We believe that studies comparing the performance of brain-injured subjects with that of healthy controls must use groups with compatible education. A pioneering application of machine learning methods using Brazilian Portuguese for clinical purposes is described, highlighting education as an important variable in the Brazilian scenario.OBJECTIVE: The aims were to describe how to: (i develop machine learning classifiers using features generated by natural language processing tools to distinguish descriptions produced by healthy individuals into classes based on their years of education; and (ii automatically identify the features that best distinguish the groups.METHODS: The approach proposed here extracts linguistic features automatically from the written descriptions with the aid of two Natural Language Processing tools: Coh-Metrix-Port and AIC. It also includes nine task-specific features (three new ones, two extracted manually, besides description time; type of scene described - simple or complex; presentation order - which type of picture was described first; and age. In this study, the descriptions by 144 of the subjects studied in Toledo18 were used, which included 200 healthy Brazilians of both genders.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:A Support Vector Machine (SVM with a radial basis function (RBF kernel is the most recommended approach for the binary classification of our data, classifying three of the four initial classes. CfsSubsetEval (CFS is a strong candidate to replace manual feature selection methods.

  5. Word Recognition Subcomponents and Passage Level Reading in a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Junko

    2013-01-01

    Despite the growing number of studies highlighting the complex process of acquiring second language (L2) word recognition skills, comparatively little research has examined the relationship between word recognition and passage-level reading ability in L2 learners; further, the existing results are inconclusive. This study aims to help fill the…

  6. Can Synchronous Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) Help Beginning-Level Foreign Language Learners Speak?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chao-Jung

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the possibility that initial-level learners may acquire oral skills through synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC). Twelve Taiwanese French as a foreign language (FFL) students, divided into three groups, were required to conduct a variety of tasks in one of the three learning environments (video/audio, audio,…

  7. The Effect of Peer Support on University Level Students' English Language Achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Irfan; Çeliköz, Nadir; Ünal, Süleyman

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of peer support on university level students' English language achievements. An experimental model with pretest-posttest experimental and control group was used with 800 students who were studying at a university in Istanbul vicinity. As experiment group, 400 students (200 of whom…

  8. Predicting Patterns of Grammatical Complexity across Language Exam Task Types and Proficiency Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biber, Douglas; Gray, Bethany; Staples, Shelley

    2016-01-01

    In the present article, we explore the extent to which previous research on register variation can be used to predict spoken/written task-type variation as well as differences across score levels in the context of a major standardized language exam (TOEFL iBT). Specifically, we carry out two sets of linguistic analyses based on a large corpus of…

  9. Is there a domain-general cognitive structuring system? Evidence from structural priming across music, math, action descriptions, and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Cavey, Joris; Hartsuiker, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive processing in many domains (e.g., sentence comprehension, music listening, and math solving) requires sequential information to be organized into an integrational structure. There appears to be some overlap in integrational processing across domains, as shown by cross-domain interference effects when for example linguistic and musical stimuli are jointly presented (Koelsch, Gunter, Wittfoth, & Sammler, 2005; Slevc, Rosenberg, & Patel, 2009). These findings support theories of overlapping resources for integrational processing across domains (cfr. SSIRH Patel, 2003; SWM, Kljajevic, 2010). However, there are some limitations to the studies mentioned above, such as the frequent use of unnaturalistic integrational difficulties. In recent years, the idea has risen that evidence for domain-generality in structural processing might also be yielded though priming paradigms (cfr. Scheepers, 2003). The rationale behind this is that integrational processing across domains regularly requires the processing of dependencies across short or long distances in the sequence, involving respectively less or more syntactic working memory resources (cfr. SWM, Kljajevic, 2010), and such processing decisions might persist over time. However, whereas recent studies have shown suggestive priming of integrational structure between language and arithmetics (though often dependent on arithmetic performance, cfr. Scheepers et al., 2011; Scheepers & Sturt, 2014), it remains to be investigated to what extent we can also find evidence for priming in other domains, such as music and action (cfr. SWM, Kljajevic, 2010). Experiment 1a showed structural priming from the processing of musical sequences onto the position in the sentence structure (early or late) to which a relative clause was attached in subsequent sentence completion. Importantly, Experiment 1b showed that a similar structural manipulation based on non-hierarchically ordered color sequences did not yield any priming effect

  10. Anxiety Level and Descriptive Features of Women Requesting Mammography at Early Diagnosis Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadime Gok Ozer

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This research was conducted as a descriptive study for the purpose of determining the level of anxiety of women requesting to have mammography done in Denizli State Hospital at the Early Diagnosis Center. METHODS: The research population was comprised of all individuals who came to the Early Diagnosis Center between December 2005 and May 2006 to have mammography done. Between these dates refer to the center (101 persons and women who received oral onamlari working group formed. Data were collected using a survey form and Beck Anxiety Inventory in face-to-face interviews. In the analysis of the data, number and percentage calculations, t test, Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney U tests were used. RESULTS: The mean age of the women participating in the research was 50.68±7.43 years. The majority (71.3% of the women were housewives, married (89.1%, had a child (97.0%, did not have a family history of breast cancer (86.1%, had not previously been diagnosed with any kind of cancer (92.1%, had not had any previous breast-related illness (84.2%, had not had radiation therapy for any reason (86.1%. A statistically significant association was found between women's status of having previously had radiation therapy and their anxiety level (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: The anxiety level of women who had previously had radiation therapy for any reason was found to be higher. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(4.000: 333-338

  11. Cell layer level generalized dynamic modeling of a PEMFC stack using VHDL-AMS language

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Fei; Blunier, Benjamin; Miraoui, Abdellatif; El-Moudni, Abdellah [Transport and Systems Laboratory (SeT) - EA 3317/UTBM, University of Technology of Belfort-Montbeliard, Rue Thierry Mieg, 90000 Belfort (France)

    2009-07-15

    A generalized, cell layer scale proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack dynamic model is presented using VHDL-AMS (IEEE standard Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language-Analog and Mixed-Signal Extensions) modeling language. A PEMFC stack system is a complex energy conversion system that covers three main energy domains: electrical, fluidic and thermal. The first part of this work shows the performance and the advantages of VHDL-AMS language when modeling such a complex system. Then, using the VHDL-AMS modeling standards, an electrical domain model, a fluidic domain model and a thermal domain model of the PEMFC stack are coupled and presented together. Thus, a complete coupled multi-domain fuel cell stack 1-D dynamic model is given. The simulation results are then compared with a Ballard 1.2 kW NEXA fuel cell system, and show a great agreement between the simulation and experimentation. This complex multi-domain VHDL-AMS stack model can be used for a model based control design or a Hardware-In-the-Loop application. (author)

  12. PROFICIENCY LEVEL AND LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGIES AMONG JORDANIAN STUDENTS AT UNIVERSITI UTARA MALAYSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Jaradat, Eshraq Mahmoud Mustafa; Bakrin, Haryati

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between proficiency level and language learning strategies (LLSs) among Jordanian students enrolled at Universiti Utara Malaysia. The frequency level of the LLSs employed by the students was also investigated. The theoretical foundation for the study was provided by three comprehensive theories which are the Behaviorism, the Cognitive Psychology, and the Schema Theory. The data for the LLSs was obtained from using Oxford’s (1990) Strategy Inventory for Lan...

  13. Acceptance noise level: effects of the speech signal, babble, and listener language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lu-Feng; Azcona, Gabrielly; Buten, Lupe

    2015-04-01

    The acceptable noise level (ANL) measure has gained much research/clinical interest in recent years. The present study examined how the characteristics of the speech signal and the babble used in the measure may affect the ANL in listeners with different native languages. Fifteen English monolingual, 16 Russian-English bilingual, and 24 Spanish-English bilingual listeners participated. The ANL was obtained in eight conditions varying in the language of the signal (English and Spanish), language of the babble (English and Spanish), and number of talkers in the babble (4 and 12). Test conditions were randomized across listeners. The ANL for each condition was based on a minimum of two trials. Russian-English bilinguals yielded higher ANLs than other listeners; the intergroup difference of 4-5 dB was statistically and clinically significant. Spanish signals yielded significantly higher ANLs than English signals, but this difference of 0.5 dB was clinically negligible. The language and composition of the babble had a significant effect on Russian-English bilinguals, who yielded higher ANLs with the Spanish than English 12-talker babble. The above findings do not fully support the notion that the ANL is language- and population-independent. Clinicians should be aware of possible effects on ANL measures due to listeners' linguistic/cultural background.

  14. Blunt traumatic injury during pregnancy: a descriptive analysis from a level 1 trauma center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Thani, Hassan; El-Menyar, Ayman; Sathian, Brijesh; Mekkodathil, Ahammed; Thomas, Sam; Mollazehi, Monira; Al-Sulaiti, Maryam; Abdelrahman, Husham

    2018-03-27

    The precise incidence of trauma in pregnancy is not well-known, but trauma is estimated to complicate nearly 1 in 12 pregnancies and it is the leading non-obstetrical cause of maternal death. A retrospective study of all pregnant women presented to national level 1 trauma center from July 2013 to June 2015 was conducted. Descriptive and inferential statistics applied for data analysis. Across the study period, a total of 95 pregnant women were presented to the trauma center. The average incidence rate of traumatic injuries was 250 per 1000 women of childbearing age presented to the Hamad Trauma Center. The mean age of patients was 30.4 ± SD 5.6 years, with age ranging from 20 to 42 years. The mean gestational age at the time of injury was 24.7 ± 8.7 weeks which ranged from 5 to 37 weeks. The majority (47.7%) was in the third trimester of the pregnancy. In addition, the large majority of injuries was due to MVCs (74.7%) followed by falls (15.8%). Trauma during pregnancy is not an uncommon event particularly in the traffic-related crashes. As it is a complex condition for trauma surgeons and obstetrician, an appropriate management protocol and multidisciplinary team are needed to improve the outcome and save lives of both the mother and fetus.

  15. A Qualitative Descriptive Case Study of the Requirements of the IT Industry for Entry-Level IT Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerherm, Todd Michael

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative descriptive case study explored the requirements of the IT industry for education, IT certification, and work experience for entry-level IT professionals. Research has shown a growing problem where IT graduates were not able to meet the requirements for entry-level IT jobs. IT enrollment has decreased considerably over the past…

  16. Politeness Strategies and Levels In Tourism-Service Language in Surakarta Residency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Purnomo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In tourism industry, tourists act as guests and tourism industry practitioners act as hosts. Typically tourism industry practitioners will try to act politely and follow politeness strategies as well as possible when serving tourists to ensure their satisfaction. Levels of satisfaction could be determined by the politeness of the hosts' behaviour towards their guests, including the politeness levels of their tourism-service language. This research was done in Surakarta Residency, the main tourist destination in Central Java. Data sources of this research came from (1 informants and (2 events.  The data were analyzed by Brown and Levinson’s politeness strategies (1987. The results of this research show that the tourism industry practitioners in Surakarta Residency use various politeness strategies and levels in tourism-service language to serve their guests.

  17. Description and status update on GELLO: a proposed standardized object-oriented expression language for clinical decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sordo, Margarita; Boxwala, Aziz A; Ogunyemi, Omolola; Greenes, Robert A

    2004-01-01

    A major obstacle to sharing computable clinical knowledge is the lack of a common language for specifying expressions and criteria. Such a language could be used to specify decision criteria, formulae, and constraints on data and action. Al-though the Arden Syntax addresses this problem for clinical rules, its generalization to HL7's object-oriented data model is limited. The GELLO Expression language is an object-oriented language used for expressing logical conditions and computations in the GLIF3 (GuideLine Interchange Format, v. 3) guideline modeling language. It has been further developed under the auspices of the HL7 Clinical Decision Support Technical Committee, as a proposed HL7 standard., GELLO is based on the Object Constraint Language (OCL), because it is vendor-independent, object-oriented, and side-effect-free. GELLO expects an object-oriented data model. Although choice of model is arbitrary, standardization is facilitated by ensuring that the data model is compatible with the HL7 Reference Information Model (RIM).

  18. The Human Brain Does Not Need High Levels of Motivation to Learn a Foreign Language: Motivation Has Had Its Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Kieran

    2016-01-01

    Language is nature in action and something humans do. This literature review presents evidence from the literature that suggests that learning a foreign language in a classroom situation does not require high levels of student motivation. It is instead suggested that high levels of motivation are needed to make progress when a teacher is using…

  19. The data module, the missing link in high level control languages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley-Milling, M.C.

    1979-01-01

    In order to be able to use the full power and simplicity of a high level language for writing plant control programs, it must be possible to use the plant variables in the same manner as program variables, completely transparent to the address structure of the hardware and interface. Some of the high level languages provide facilities for writing procedures or subroutines to make this possible. However, most of the facilities provided share a number of disadvantages: they are usually relatively complicated for the user, involving passing many parameters which the programmer has to specify at each call; they usually have restrictions on the data types that can be used, and the data bases are normally organised to suit the interface system. However, the high level programmer is interested in the equipment to be controlled such as motors, pumps, power supplies, valves, etc., rather than the means of interfacing the equipment, and it greatly simplifies his task if he can call for actions on these items, using simple mnemonic names and a simple format. The design of the control system for the CERN 400 GeV proton accelerator, using a network of some thirty computers, provided the opportunity to try out a different approach, using an interpreter for the high-level control language NODAL, together with special functions which are called 'data modules'. The use of the data module and interpreter are described. (author)

  20. Deaf college students' mathematical skills relative to morphological knowledge, reading level, and language proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ronald R; Gaustad, Martha G

    2007-01-01

    This study of deaf college students examined specific relationships between their mathematics performance and their assessed skills in reading, language, and English morphology. Simple regression analyses showed that deaf college students' language proficiency scores, reading grade level, and morphological knowledge regarding word segmentation and meaning were all significantly correlated with both the ACT Mathematics Subtest and National Technical Institute for the Deaf (NTID) Mathematics Placement Test scores. Multiple regression analyses identified the best combination from among these potential independent predictors of students' performance on both the ACT and NTID mathematics tests. Additionally, the participating deaf students' grades in their college mathematics courses were significantly and positively associated with their reading grade level and their knowledge of morphological components of words.

  1. Differences Across Levels in the Language of Agency and Ability in Rating Scales for Large-Scale Second Language Writing Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Salena Sampson

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available While large-scale language and writing assessments benefit from a wealth of literature on the reliability and validity of specific tests and rating procedures, there is comparatively less literature that explores the specific language of second language writing rubrics. This paper provides an analysis of the language of performance descriptors for the public versions of the TOEFL and IELTS writing assessment rubrics, with a focus on linguistic agency encoded by agentive verbs and language of ability encoded by modal verbs can and cannot. While the IELTS rubrics feature more agentive verbs than the TOEFL rubrics, both pairs of rubrics feature uneven syntax across the band or score descriptors with either more agentive verbs for the highest scores, more nominalization for the lowest scores, or language of ability exclusively in the lowest scores. These patterns mirror similar patterns in the language of college-level classroom-based writing rubrics, but they differ from patterns seen in performance descriptors for some large-scale admissions tests. It is argued that the lack of syntactic congruity across performance descriptors in the IELTS and TOEFL rubrics may reflect a bias in how actual student performances at different levels are characterized.

  2. Zur linguistischen Beschreibung kommunikativer Einheiten in gesprochener Sprache (On the Linguistic Description of Communicative Units in Oral Language)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Rainer

    1973-01-01

    Slightly revised version of a lecture ( Zur grammatischen Beschreibung kommunikativer Elemente in Sprechakten'' Y On Grammatical Description of Communicative Elements in Speech''I) presented in Saarbrucken, West Germany, November 10, 1972. (DD)

  3. Teaching a Large Multi-Level Class Using Different Strategies and Activities to Motivate English Language Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Sevy

    2016-01-01

    Many challenges face English language teachers today, but two common problems in Ecuador specifically in universities are large class sizes and multi-level students. These problems can create boredom, anxiety, and over all lack of interest in English language learning. It is shown in this article how to combat these particular problems through various strategies utilized to teach to the students’ needs, help them work together and intrinsically motivate them to learn different English languag...

  4. Detailed description of an SSAC at the facility level for research laboratory facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.J.

    1985-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a detailed description of a system for the accounting for and control of nuclear material in a research laboratory facility which can be used by a facility operator to establish his own system to comply with a national system for nuclear material accounting and control and to facilitate application of IAEA safeguards. The scope of this document is limited to descriptions of the following SSAC elements: (1) Nuclear Material Measurements; (2) Measurement Quality; (3) Records and Reports; (4) Physical Inventory Taking; (5) Material Balance Closing

  5. Detailed description of an SSAC at the facility level for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.J.

    1984-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a detailed description of a system for the accounting for and control of nuclear material in a research reactor facility which can be used by a facility operator to establish his own system to comply with a national system for nuclear material accounting and control and to facilitate application of IAEA safeguards. The scope of this document is limited to descriptions of the following SSAC elements: (1) Nuclear Material Measurements; (2) Measurement Quality; (3) Records and Reports; (4) Physical Inventory Taking; (5) Material Balance Closing

  6. Detailed description of an SSAC at the facility level for mixed oxide fuel fabrication facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.J.

    1985-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a detailed description of a system for the accounting for and control of nuclear material in a mixed oxide fuel fabrication facility which can be used by a facility operator to establish his own system to comply with a national system for nuclear material accounting and control and to facilitate application of IAEA safeguards. The scope of this document is limited to descriptions of the following SSAC elements: (1) Nuclear Material Measurements; (2) Measurement Quality; (3) Records and Reports; (4) Physical Inventory Taking; (5) Material Balance Closing

  7. Readability Level of Spanish-Language Patient-Reported Outcome Measures in Audiology and Otolaryngology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coco, Laura; Colina, Sonia; Atcherson, Samuel R.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the readability level of the Spanish versions of several audiology- and otolaryngology-related patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) and include a readability analysis of 2 translation approaches when available—the published version and a “functionalist” version—using a team-based collaborative approach including community members. Method Readability levels were calculated using the Fry Graph adapted for Spanish, as well as the Fernandez-Huerta and the Spaulding formulae for several commonly used audiology- and otolaryngology-related PROMs. Results Readability calculations agreed with previous studies analyzing audiology-related PROMs in English and demonstrated many Spanish-language PROMs were beyond the 5th grade reading level suggested for health-related materials written for the average population. In addition, the functionalist versions of the PROMs yielded lower grade-level (improved) readability levels than the published versions. Conclusion Our results suggest many of the Spanish-language PROMs evaluated here are beyond the recommended readability levels and may be influenced by the approach to translation. Moreover, improved readability may be possible using a functionalist approach to translation. Future analysis of the suitability of outcome measures and the quality of their translations should move beyond readability and include an evaluation of the individual's comprehension of the written text. PMID:28892821

  8. Detailed description of a state system for accounting for and control of nuclear material at the state level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.J.

    1985-02-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a detailed description of the technical elements of a system for the accounting for and control of nuclear material at the State Authority level which can be used by a state in the establishment of a national system for nuclear material accounting and control. It is expected that a state system designed along the lines described also will assist the IAEA in carrying out its safeguards responsibilities. The scope of this document is limited to descriptions of the technical elements of a state level system concerned with Laws and Regulations, the Information System, and the Establishment of Requirements for Nuclear Material Accounting and Control. The discussion shows the relationship of these technical elements at the state level to the principal elements of an SSAC at the facility levels

  9. Generic packet descriptions : Verified Parsing and Pretty Printing of Low-Level Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geest, Marcell; Swierstra, Wouter

    2017-01-01

    Complex protocols describing the communication or storage of binary data are difficult to describe precisely. This paper presents a collection of data types for describing a binary data formats; the corresponding parser and pretty printer are generated automatically from a data description. By

  10. A descriptive analysis of language and speech skills in 4- to 5-yr-old children with hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth M; Crawford, Leah; Ni, Andy; Durieux-Smith, Andrée

    2011-01-01

    Early intervention through hearing aids (HAs) and cochlear implants (CIs) aims to reduce the negative effects of childhood hearing loss and to promote optimal communication development over time. The primary goal of this study was to examine the communication outcomes of children with CIs and children with HAs at age 4 to 5 yrs and to consider their spoken language skills relative to a group of typically developing hearing peers. In this multicenter observational study, communication results were obtained for a total of 88 children at age 4 to 5 yrs. Participants were recruited from three clinical programs in two cities in the province of Ontario, Canada. This study was undertaken shortly after the introduction of a new provincial population screening initiative and included both children who were screened and not screened for hearing loss. The study sample comprised 51 children with sensorineural hearing loss and 37 children with normal hearing. Of the 51 children with hearing loss, 26 used CIs and 25 used HAs. The degree of hearing loss ranged from mild to profound. All children were enrolled in rehabilitation programs focused on oral language development. Children's language skills were assessed with an extensive battery of child- and parent-administered speech and language measures. Assessment of language skills showed no significant differences between the children with severe to profound hearing loss using CIs and children with varying degrees of hearing loss using HAs. However, children with HAs showed better articulation skills. Overall, both groups of children obtained scores on communication measures that were lower than their hearing peers. The number of children with hearing loss who obtained spoken speech-language scores within 1 SD of normative populations ranged from 65 to 86% depending on the test measure. Children with average hearing loss of 70 dB HL or better generally obtained scores on all measures in line with those of age-matched norms while

  11. User-Defined Data Distributions in High-Level Programming Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaconescu, Roxana E.; Zima, Hans P.

    2006-01-01

    One of the characteristic features of today s high performance computing systems is a physically distributed memory. Efficient management of locality is essential for meeting key performance requirements for these architectures. The standard technique for dealing with this issue has involved the extension of traditional sequential programming languages with explicit message passing, in the context of a processor-centric view of parallel computation. This has resulted in complex and error-prone assembly-style codes in which algorithms and communication are inextricably interwoven. This paper presents a high-level approach to the design and implementation of data distributions. Our work is motivated by the need to improve the current parallel programming methodology by introducing a paradigm supporting the development of efficient and reusable parallel code. This approach is currently being implemented in the context of a new programming language called Chapel, which is designed in the HPCS project Cascade.

  12. Teacher Professionalism--An Innovative Programme for Teaching Mathematics to Foundation Level Learners with Limited Language Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naude, H.; Pretorius, E.; Vandeyar, S.

    2003-01-01

    Details a study of the ways that limited language proficiency affected learners' readiness for mathematics instruction among disadvantaged preschoolers within a Griqua community in South Africa. Notes a link between limited language proficiency and nonreadiness for foundation level mathematics due to limited thinking skills, which constitute…

  13. Reading Comprehension, Working Memory and Higher-Level Language Skills in Children with SLI and/or Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Anita M.-Y.; Ho, Connie S.-H.; Au, Terry K.-F.; McBride, Catherine; Ng, Ashley K.-H.; Yip, Lesley P.-W.; Lam, Catherine C.-C.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined (1) whether working memory and higher-level languages skills--inferencing and comprehension monitoring--accounted for individual differences among Chinese children in Chinese reading comprehension, after controlling for age, Chinese word reading and oral language skills, and (2) whether children with specific language…

  14. COMPETENCIES OF GERMAN LANGUAGE TEACHERS IN INDONESIA AND VIETNAM BASED ON COMMON EUROPEAN FRAMEWORK OF REFERENCE FOR LANGUAGES (CEFR)

    OpenAIRE

    Pratomo Widodo; Akbar K Setiawan; Le Hoai An

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to (1) identify and compare the language competencies of German language teachers in Indonesia and Vietnam, and (2) identify the factors attributable to their competency levels. This was a qualitative descriptive study. The data were collected by means of questionnaires. The study shows that, based on the CEFR, the competencies of German language teachers in Vietnam are in the B2 level, while those of German language teachers in Indonesia are in the B1 level. T...

  15. Ontology Language to Support Description of Experiment Control System Semantics, Collaborative Knowledge-Base Design and Ontology Reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyurjyan, Vardan; Abbott, D.; Heyes, G.; Jastrzembski, E.; Moffit, B.; Timmer, C.; Wolin, E.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the control domain specific ontology that is built on top of the domain-neutral Resource Definition Framework (RDF). Specifically, we will discuss the relevant set of ontology concepts along with the relationships among them in order to describe experiment control components and generic event-based state machines. Control Oriented Ontology Language (COOL) is a meta-data modeling language that provides generic means for representation of physics experiment control processes and components, and their relationships, rules and axioms. It provides a semantic reference frame that is useful for automating the communication of information for configuration, deployment and operation. COOL has been successfully used to develop a complete and dynamic knowledge-base for experiment control systems, developed using the AFECS framework.

  16. Hierarchical levels of representation in language prediction: The influence of first language acquisition in highly proficient bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinaro, Nicola; Giannelli, Francesco; Caffarra, Sendy; Martin, Clara

    2017-07-01

    Language comprehension is largely supported by predictive mechanisms that account for the ease and speed with which communication unfolds. Both native and proficient non-native speakers can efficiently handle contextual cues to generate reliable linguistic expectations. However, the link between the variability of the linguistic background of the speaker and the hierarchical format of the representations predicted is still not clear. We here investigate whether native language exposure to typologically highly diverse languages (Spanish and Basque) affects the way early balanced bilingual speakers carry out language predictions. During Spanish sentence comprehension, participants developed predictions of words the form of which (noun ending) could be either diagnostic of grammatical gender values (transparent) or totally ambiguous (opaque). We measured electrophysiological prediction effects time-locked both to the target word and to its determiner, with the former being expected or unexpected. Event-related (N200-N400) and oscillatory activity in the low beta-band (15-17Hz) frequency channel showed that both Spanish and Basque natives optimally carry out lexical predictions independently of word transparency. Crucially, in contrast to Spanish natives, Basque natives displayed visual word form predictions for transparent words, in consistency with the relevance that noun endings (post-nominal suffixes) play in their native language. We conclude that early language exposure largely shapes prediction mechanisms, so that bilinguals reading in their second language rely on the distributional regularities that are highly relevant in their first language. More importantly, we show that individual linguistic experience hierarchically modulates the format of the predicted representation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. INTERACTION LEVEL OF SPEAKING ACTIVITIES IN A COURSEBOOK SERIES OF TEACHING TURKISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE

    OpenAIRE

    YAVUZ KIRIK, Muazzez

    2015-01-01

    Informed by the principles of communicative foreign language teaching, this study focuses on the interaction level of speaking activities in the coursebook series of ‘İstanbul- Yabancılar İçin Türkçe Ders Kitabı’. To this end, the study analyzed firstly the rate of two-way speech to one-way speech among speaking activities and then the characteristics of two-way activities were explored with a focus on their compatibility with the nature of real interaction as described in the relevant litera...

  18. Spoken Spanish Language Development at the High School Level: A Mixed-Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Aleidine J.; Theiler, Janine

    2014-01-01

    Communicative approaches to teaching language have emphasized the centrality of oral proficiency in the language acquisition process, but research investigating oral proficiency has been surprisingly limited, yielding an incomplete understanding of spoken language development. This study investigated the development of spoken language at the high…

  19. Measuring Second Language Proficiency with EEG Synchronization: How Functional Cortical Networks and Hemispheric Involvement Differ as a Function of Proficiency Level in Second Language Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiterer, Susanne; Pereda, Ernesto; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the question of whether university-based high-level foreign language and linguistic training can influence brain activation and whether different L2 proficiency groups have different brain activation in terms of lateralization and hemispheric involvement. The traditional and prevailing theory of hemispheric involvement in…

  20. Effects of Sound, Vocabulary, and Grammar Learning Aptitude on Adult Second Language Speech Attainment in Foreign Language Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazuya

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between different types of language learning aptitude (measured via the LLAMA test) and adult second language (L2) learners' attainment in speech production in English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) classrooms. Picture descriptions elicited from 50 Japanese EFL learners from varied proficiency levels were analyzed…

  1. English Language Teaching at Secondary School Level in Bangladesh: An Overview of the Implementation of Communicative Language Teaching Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sofe

    2012-01-01

    The concept of globalization has brought dynamism in each aspect of the world. The changes have also touched the field of English language teaching (ELT) throughout the world. Bangladesh is no more far from that transformation. It has already attempted to the innovation of ELT. The country has moved from long term-practiced Grammar Translation…

  2. NMR paves the way for atomic level descriptions of sparsely populated, transiently formed biomolecular conformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar, Ashok; Kay, Lewis E

    2013-08-06

    The importance of dynamics to biomolecular function is becoming increasingly clear. A description of the structure-function relationship must, therefore, include the role of motion, requiring a shift in paradigm from focus on a single static 3D picture to one where a given biomolecule is considered in terms of an ensemble of interconverting conformers, each with potentially diverse activities. In this Perspective, we describe how recent developments in solution NMR spectroscopy facilitate atomic resolution studies of sparsely populated, transiently formed biomolecular conformations that exchange with the native state. Examples of how this methodology is applied to protein folding and misfolding, ligand binding, and molecular recognition are provided as a means of illustrating both the power of the new techniques and the significant roles that conformationally excited protein states play in biology.

  3. The Processing Speed of Scene Categorization at Multiple Levels of Description: The Superordinate Advantage Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banno, Hayaki; Saiki, Jun

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies have sought to determine which levels of categories are processed first in visual scene categorization and have shown that the natural and man-made superordinate-level categories are understood faster than are basic-level categories. The current study examined the robustness of the superordinate-level advantage in a visual scene categorization task. A go/no-go categorization task was evaluated with response time distribution analysis using an ex-Gaussian template. A visual scene was categorized as either superordinate or basic level, and two basic-level categories forming a superordinate category were judged as either similar or dissimilar to each other. First, outdoor/ indoor groups and natural/man-made were used as superordinate categories to investigate whether the advantage could be generalized beyond the natural/man-made boundary. Second, a set of images forming a superordinate category was manipulated. We predicted that decreasing image set similarity within the superordinate-level category would work against the speed advantage. We found that basic-level categorization was faster than outdoor/indoor categorization when the outdoor category comprised dissimilar basic-level categories. Our results indicate that the superordinate-level advantage in visual scene categorization is labile across different categories and category structures. © 2015 SAGE Publications.

  4. ANALYSIS OF MODERN REQUIREMENTS FOR THE LEVEL OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY OF ENGINEERING SPECIALISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Inozemtseva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. At present, in Russian higher professional education we can observe a shift to the new educational paradigm based on Professional Standards (PS. According to the Federal Law of 02.05.2015 № 122 «About amendments to the Labour Code of Russian Federation and the articles 11 and 73 of «The Law on Education in Russian Federation» formation of the Federal State Educational Standards of Higher Education requirements for expected learning outcomes on universities’ main educational programs is implemented on the basis of relevant Professional Standards. This causes necessity of work on conjunction of Professional Standards, Federal State Educational Standards and universities’ main educational programs.The aim of this article is to demonstrate the influence of a new educational paradigm on the choice of contents, technologies and activities used in foreign language teaching at Russian technical universities.Methodology and research methods. The research methodology is based on the concept of diversification of engineers’ continuous professional foreign language training (T. Yu. Polyakova. In view of priority value of PS for developing universities’ main educational programs the updating of the above concept needs thorough analysis of both PS requirements for the level of foreign language proficiency of engineering specialists and study of scientific literature on the above problem.Results. This research results in interpretation and clarification of generalized PS requirements for the actual needs of industries and individuals in foreign language proficiency. The research also causes Language for Specific Purposes (LSP program developers’ and LSP teachers’ pedagogical reflection about their readiness to form foreign language (FL professional communicative competence of an engineer. It is concluded that a teacher needs to consider axiological aspects of engineering activity in order to understand the nature of the work

  5. Microscopic description of average level spacing in even-even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huong, Le Thi Quynh; Hung, Nguyen Quang; Phuc, Le Tan

    2017-01-01

    A microscopic theoretical approach to the average level spacing at the neutron binding energy in even-even nuclei is proposed. The approach is derived based on the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory at finite temperature and projection M of the total angular momentum J , which is often used to describe the superfluid properties of hot rotating nuclei. The exact relation of the J -dependent total level density to the M -dependent state densities, based on which the average level spacing is calculated, was employed. The numerical calculations carried out for several even-even nuclei have shown that in order to reproduce the experimental average level spacing, the M -dependent pairing gaps as well as the exact relation of the J -dependent total level density formula should be simultaneously used. (paper)

  6. Accurate description of phase diagram of clathrate hydrates on molecular level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belosludov, V.; Subbotin, O. [Niklaev Inst. of Inorganic Chemistry, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Science; Belosludov, R.; Mizuseki, H.; Kawazoe, Y. [Tohoku Univ., Aoba-ku, Sendai (Japan). Inst. for Materials Research

    2008-07-01

    A number of experimental and theoretical studies of hydrogen hydrates have been conducted using different methods. In order to accurately estimate the thermodynamic properties of clathrate hydrates that multiply filling the cages, this paper presented a method based on the solid solution theory of van der Waals and Platteeuw with several modifications, including multiple occupancies, host relaxation, and the description of the quantum nature of hydrogen behavior in the cavities. The validity of the proposed approach was verified for argon, methane, and xenon hydrates. The results were in agreement with known experimental data. The model was then used to calculate the curves of monovariant three-phase equilibrium gas-hydrate-ice and the degree of filling of the large and small cavities for pure hydrogen and mixed hydrogen/propane hydrates in a wide range of pressure and at low temperatures. The paper presented the theory, including equations, monovariant equilibria, and computational details. It was concluded that the proposed model accounted for the influence of guest molecules on the host lattice and guest-guest interaction. The model could be used with other inclusion compounds with the same type of composition such as clathrate silicon, zeolites, and inclusion compounds of semiconductor elements. The calculated curves of monovariant equilibrium agree with the experiment. 33 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs.

  7. Beyond the knowledge level : descriptions of rational behavior for sharing and reuse

    OpenAIRE

    Schmalhofer, Franz; Aitken, J. Stuart; Bourne, Lyle E.

    1994-01-01

    The currently dominant approach to the sharing and reuse of knowledge strives to develop ontologies, with clearly constrained interpretations. The idea of ontological commitments is based on the knowledge level perspective. Several shortcomings of the knowledge level have been identified (Clancey, 1991). Pursuing Clancey's argument, if KBS are to be situated in ever changing environments, their purposes and significance will change over time and they have to be redescribed accordingly. The be...

  8. Code Description for Generation of Meteorological Height and Pressure Level and Layer Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    defined by user input height or pressure levels. It can process input profiles from sensing systems such as radiosonde, lidar, or wind profiling radar...routine may be required for different input types and formats. meteorological sounding interpolation , integrated mean layer values, US Army Research...or other radiosonde soundings. There are 2 main versions or “methods” that produce output in height- or pressure-based profiles of interpolated level

  9. Application of language blood oxygenation level dependent functional MRI in the navigating operation of neurosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shuyong; Li Min; Yao Chengjun; Geng Daoying

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To verify the accuracy of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD)-based activation using electrocortical stimulation mapping (ESM) and explore the value of language fMRI in the navigating operation of neurosurgery. Methods: In 8 cases with brain tumors, BOLD-fMRI examinations were done before the operations. Under the state of awake anesthesia,the patients were aroused and ESM was conducted. Point-to-point comparison between the BOLD signal activations and the ESM was carried out under the surveillance of the neuro-navigation technology. In order to observe the sensibility and specificity of BOLD activations, the location of BOLD activations and the point of ESM was compared to calculate the stimulating positive points inside the regions of BOLD signals (real positive), outside BOLD regions (pseudo- negative), the stimulating negative points inside the regions of BOLD signals (pseudo-positive), and outside BOLD region (real negative). Two kinds of criteria for assessment were used. One was that the positive stimulating points were located in BOLD regions, and the other was that the positive stimulating points were located within 1 cm around the range of BOLD regions. Removal of the lesions were conducted with the tissue 1 cm around the language region preserved, and the cortex inside 0.5-1.0 cm distance from the positive points were retained. Results: Of the 8 cases, only 6 finished the tasks. Among them, 3 cases were with astrocytoma of grade 2, 2 were with astrocytoma of grade 3, and one with glioblastoma. The total number of stimulating points was 48, among which the positive points were 11. When the first criteria was applied, the sensitivity was 72.7% (8/11), and the specificity was 81.8% (30/37). When the second criteria was applied, the sensitivity was 82.0% (9/11), and the specificity was 75.6% (28/37). Follow-up after operation showed no aphasia occurred. Conclusions: BOLD-fMRI had a high sensitivity and specificity in displaying the language

  10. Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML Level 2 Version 5: Structures and Facilities for Model Definitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hucka Michael

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Computational models can help researchers to interpret data, understand biological function, and make quantitative predictions. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML is a file format for representing computational models in a declarative form that can be exchanged between different software systems. SBML is oriented towards describing biological processes of the sort common in research on a number of topics, including metabolic pathways, cell signaling pathways, and many others. By supporting SBML as an input/output format, different tools can all operate on an identical representation of a model, removing opportunities for translation errors and assuring a common starting point for analyses and simulations. This document provides the specification for Version 5 of SBML Level 2. The specification defines the data structures prescribed by SBML as well as their encoding in XML, the eXtensible Markup Language. This specification also defines validation rules that determine the validity of an SBML document, and provides many examples of models in SBML form. Other materials and software are available from the SBML project web site, http://sbml.org/.

  11. A higher level language data acquisition system (III) - the user data acquisition program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, J.M.; Gulbranson, R.L.; Huang, T.L.

    1983-01-01

    The nuclear physics group at the University of Illinois has implemented a data acquisition system using modified versions of the Concurrent Pascal and Sequential Pascal languages. The user, a physicist, develops a data acquisition ''operating system'', written in these higher level languages, which is tailored to the planned experiment. The user must include only those system functions which are essential to the task, thus improving efficiency. The user program is constructed from simple modules, mainly consisting of Concurrent Pascal PROCESSes, MONITORs, and CLASSes together with appropriate data type definitions. Entire programs can be put together using ''cut and paste'' techniques. Planned enhancements include the automating of this process. Systems written for the Perkin-Elmer 3220 using this approach can easily exceed 2 kHz data rates for event by event handling; 20 kHz data rates have been achieved by the addition of buffers in the interrupt handling software. These rates have been achieved without the use of special-purpose hardware such as micro-programmed branch drivers. With the addition of such devices even higher data rates should be possible

  12. Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) Level 2 Version 5: Structures and Facilities for Model Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hucka, Michael; Bergmann, Frank T; Dräger, Andreas; Hoops, Stefan; Keating, Sarah M; Le Novère, Nicolas; Myers, Chris J; Olivier, Brett G; Sahle, Sven; Schaff, James C; Smith, Lucian P; Waltemath, Dagmar; Wilkinson, Darren J

    2015-09-04

    Computational models can help researchers to interpret data, understand biological function, and make quantitative predictions. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) is a file format for representing computational models in a declarative form that can be exchanged between different software systems. SBML is oriented towards describing biological processes of the sort common in research on a number of topics, including metabolic pathways, cell signaling pathways, and many others. By supporting SBML as an input/output format, different tools can all operate on an identical representation of a model, removing opportunities for translation errors and assuring a common starting point for analyses and simulations. This document provides the specification for Version 5 of SBML Level 2. The specification defines the data structures prescribed by SBML as well as their encoding in XML, the eXtensible Markup Language. This specification also defines validation rules that determine the validity of an SBML document, and provides many examples of models in SBML form. Other materials and software are available from the SBML project web site, http://sbml.org.

  13. Design Automation Using Script Languages. High-Level CAD Templates in Non-Parametric Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, R.; Bazán, A. M.

    2017-10-01

    The main purpose of this work is to study the advantages offered by the application of traditional techniques of technical drawing in processes for automation of the design, with non-parametric CAD programs, provided with scripting languages. Given that an example drawing can be solved with traditional step-by-step detailed procedures, is possible to do the same with CAD applications and to generalize it later, incorporating references. In today’s modern CAD applications, there are striking absences of solutions for building engineering: oblique projections (military and cavalier), 3D modelling of complex stairs, roofs, furniture, and so on. The use of geometric references (using variables in script languages) and their incorporation into high-level CAD templates allows the automation of processes. Instead of repeatedly creating similar designs or modifying their data, users should be able to use these templates to generate future variations of the same design. This paper presents the automation process of several complex drawing examples based on CAD script files aided with parametric geometry calculation tools. The proposed method allows us to solve complex geometry designs not currently incorporated in the current CAD applications and to subsequently create other new derivatives without user intervention. Automation in the generation of complex designs not only saves time but also increases the quality of the presentations and reduces the possibility of human errors.

  14. Gender differences in second language motivation: An investigation of micro- and macro-level influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Kissau

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present article is part of a large-scale study conducted in Ontario that investigated gender differences in motivation to learn French. However, for this particular article second language (L2 motivation theory is the primary focus. Over the past 30 years of research, the study of L2 motivation has evolved. There appears to be a definite shift away from the societal (macro-level approaches that dominated the research of the 1970s and 1980s toward an approach that emphasizes the influence of the L2 classroom. The researcher calls into question this evolution in research. A mixed methodology was used to determine if gender differences in a variety of motivational factors exist among Grade 9 French as a second language (FSL students. Approximately 500 students in Grade 9 completed a questionnaire. The significant findings of the questionnaire were then explored in interviews with students and teachers. Quantitative results indicated significant differences in regard to several motivational factors. However, the qualitative data emphasized that at the root of these differences were societal influences.

  15. Brain and Behavioral Assessment of Executive Functions for Self-Regulating Levels of Language in Reading Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berninger, Virginia W; Richards, Todd L; Abbott, Robert D

    2017-11-01

    This brief research report examines brain-behavioral relationships specific to levels of language in the complex reading brain. The first specific aim was to examine prior findings for significant fMRI connectivity from four seeds (left precuneus, left occipital temporal, left supramarginal, left inferior frontal) for each of four levels of language-subword, word (word-specific spelling or affixed words), syntax (with and without homonym foils or affix foils), and multi-sentence text to identify significant fMRI connectivity (a) unique to the lower level of language when compared to the immediately higher adjacent level of language across subword-word, word-syntax, and syntax-text comparisons; and (b) involving a brain region associated with executive functions. The second specific aim was to correlate the magnitude of that connectivity with standard scores on tests of Focused Attention (D-K EFS Color Word Form Inhibition) and Switching Attention (Wolf & Denckla Rapid Automatic Switching). Seven correlations were significant. Focused Attention was significantly correlated with the word level (word-specific spellings of real words) fMRI task in left cingulum from left inferior frontal seed. Switching Attention was significantly correlated with the (a) subword level (grapheme-phoneme correspondence) fMRI task in left and right Cerebellum V from left supramarginal seed; (b) the word level (word-specific spelling) fMRI task in right Cerebellum V from left precuneus seed; (c) the syntax level (with and without homonym foils) fMRI task in right Cerebellum V from left precuneus seed and from left supramarginal seed; and (d) syntax level (with and without affix foils) fMRI task in right Cerebellum V from left precuneus seed. Results are discussed in reference to neuropsychological assessment of supervisory attention (focused and switching) for specific levels of language related to reading acquisition in students with and without language-related specific learning

  16. Structural Differences between English and Indian Languages at the Sentence and Discourse Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Dipti Misra

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a very preliminary attempt to look at how languages encode information. Different languages use different linguistic devices. Indian languages encode information morphologically or lexically. This provides flexibility in their word order. English, on the other hand, uses position for encoding information which results in a relatively…

  17. Preparing English as a Second Language Students for College Level Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Hector

    2014-01-01

    In a diverse classroom, there are students who are in need of both mathematics and English as a second language instruction. One of the challenges faced at Lake Washington Institute of Technology (LWIT) was the development of a pathway for English language learners into core academic courses at the college. In addition, English language learners…

  18. An Exploratory Study of Translanguaging Practices in an Online Beginner-Level Foreign Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adinolfi, Lina; Astruc, Lluïsa

    2017-01-01

    Translanguaging, the movement between communicative modes and features of different languages, is becoming an established research tradition in content-focused second language learning contexts. Pedagogic translanguaging practices nevertheless remain under-applied and under-researched in foreign language instructional settings, whether…

  19. A spatial and seasonal description of return-levels for the Berlin-Brandenburg region (Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Madlen; Rust, Henning W.; Ulbrich, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    Extreme precipitation events have a strong impact on the environment, society and economy. Besides the direct effect, e.g. damage due to hail, extreme precipitation can cause flood events, mudslides and increased erosion, which in turn lead to serious damage. Typically, return levels derived from annual maxima of daily precipitation sums are used for the design of hydraulic structures or for risk assessment in insurance companies. Seasonally or monthly resolved return levels are rarely considered, although they provide additional information: the higher temporal resolution can be beneficial for risk management, e.g. for agriculture or tourism sector. In addition, annual return levels derived from monthly maxima offer lower uncertainties, since a larger data basis are used for estimation. Here, the generalized extreme value distribution (GEV) is used to calculate monthly resolved return levels for 323 stations in the region Berlin-Brandenburg (Germany). Instead of estimating the parameters of the GEV for each month separately, the seasonal variation is captured by harmonic functions. This natural approach is particularly suitable for an efficient characterization of the seasonal variation of extreme precipitation. In a first step, a statistical model is developed for each station separately to estimate the monthly return levels. Besides the seasonal smoothness, also smoothness in space is exploited here. We use functions of longitude, latitude and altitude to describe the spatial variation of GEV parameters in the second step. Thus, uncertainty is reduced at gauges with short time series and estimates for ungauged sites can be obtained in a meaningful way.

  20. Process description and plant design for preparing ceramic high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grantham, L.F.; McKisson, R.L.; Guon, J.; Flintoff, J.F.; McKenzie, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    The ceramics process flow diagram has been simplified and upgraded to utilize only two major processing steps - fluid-bed calcination and hot isostatic press consolidating. Full-scale fluid-bed calcination has been used at INEL to calcine high-level waste for 18 y; and a second-generation calciner, a fully remotely operated and maintained calciner that meets ALARA guidelines, started calcining high-level waste in 1982. Full-scale hot isostatic consolidation has been used by DOE and commercial enterprises to consolidate radioactive components and to encapsulate spent fuel elements for several years. With further development aimed at process integration and parametric optimization, the operating knowledge of full-scale demonstration of the key process steps should be rapidly adaptable to scale-up of the ceramic process to full plant size. Process flowsheets used to prepare ceramic and glass waste forms from defense and commercial high-level liquid waste are described. Preliminary layouts of process flow diagrams in a high-level processing canyon were prepared and used to estimate the preliminary cost of the plant to fabricate both waste forms. The estimated costs for using both options were compared for total waste management costs of SRP high-level liquid waste. Using our design, for both the ceramic and glass plant, capital and operating costs are essentially the same for both defense and commercial wastes, but total waste management costs are calculated to be significantly less for defense wastes using the ceramic option. It is concluded from this and other studies that the ceramic form may offer important advantages over glass in leach resistance, waste loading, density, and process flexibility. Preliminary economic calculations indicate that ceramics must be considered a leading candidate for the form to immobilize high-level wastes

  1. Effective description of general extensions of the Standard Model: the complete tree-level dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Blas, J.; Criado, J. C.; Pérez-Victoria, M.; Santiago, J.

    2018-03-01

    We compute all the tree-level contributions to the Wilson coefficients of the dimension-six Standard-Model effective theory in ultraviolet completions with general scalar, spinor and vector field content and arbitrary interactions. No assumption about the renormalizability of the high-energy theory is made. This provides a complete ultraviolet/infrared dictionary at the classical level, which can be used to study the low-energy implications of any model of interest, and also to look for explicit completions consistent with low-energy data.

  2. Assessment the Relationship between Parents' Literacy Level with Children Growth in Mashhad: An Analytic Descriptive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Saeidi

    2014-04-01

    Results: Presentfindings showed a significant relationship between literacy  level of parents with child growth status, breast feeding rate, junk food consumption, referring to health care center for growth monitoring, the age of initiating supplementary nutrition, the use of oil and butter in baby food and rate of attending in educational classes. So that higher literacy  level of parents was associated with using more formula, less junk food, oil and butter in baby's food and more referring times to health care center for monitoring child growth, desirable growth, and  also initiating supplementary food more at the assigned time (P

  3. Relating Language and Music Skills in Young Children: A First Approach to Systemize and Compare Distinct Competencies on Different Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohrdes, Caroline; Grolig, Lorenz; Schroeder, Sascha

    2016-01-01

    Children in transition from kindergarten to school develop fundamental skills important for the acquisition of reading and writing. Previous research pointed toward substantial correlations between specific language- and music-related competencies as well as positive transfer effects from music on pre-literacy skills. However, until now the relationship between diverse music and language competencies remains unclear. In the present study, we used a comprehensive approach to clarify the relationships between a broad variety of language and music skills on different levels, not only between but also within domains. In order to do so, we selected representative language- and music-related competencies and systematically compared the performance of N = 44 5- to 7-year-old children with a control group of N = 20 young adults aged from 20 to 30. Competencies were organized in distinct levels according to varying units of vowels/sounds, words or syllables/short melodic or rhythmic phrases, syntax/harmony and context of a whole story/song to test for their interrelatedness within each domain. Following this, we conducted systematic correlation analyses between the competencies of both domains. Overall, selected competencies appeared to be appropriate for the measurement of language and music skills in young children with reference to comprehension, difficulty and a developmental perspective. In line with a hierarchical model of skill acquisition, performance on lower levels was predictive for the performance on higher levels within domains. Moreover, correlations between domains were stronger for competencies reflecting a similar level of cognitive processing, as expected. In conclusion, a systematic comparison of various competencies on distinct levels according to varying units turned out to be appropriate regarding comparability and interrelatedness. Results are discussed with regard to similarities and differences in the development of language and music skills as well

  4. Relating language and music skills in young children: a first approach to systemize and compare distinct competencies on different levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Cohrdes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Children in transition from kindergarten to school develop fundamental skills important for the acquisition of reading and writing. Previous research pointed towards substantial correlations between specific language- and music-related competencies as well as positive transfer effects from music on pre-literacy skills. However, until now the relationship between diverse music and language competencies remains unclear. In the present study we used a comprehensive approach to clarify the relationships between a broad variety of language and music skills on different levels, not only between but also within domains. In order to do so, we selected representative language- and music-related competencies and systematically compared the performance of N = 44 5- to 7-year-old children with a control group of N = 20 young adults aged from 20 to 30. Competencies were organized in distinct levels according to varying units of vowels/sounds, words or syllables/short melodic or rhythmic phrases, syntax/harmony and context of a whole story/song to test for their interrelatedness within each domain. Following this, we conducted systematic correlation analyses between the competencies of both domains. Overall, selected competencies appeared to be appropriate for the measurement of language and music skills in young children with reference to comprehension, difficulty and a developmental perspective. In line with a hierarchical model of skill acquisition, performance on lower levels was predictive for the performance on higher levels within domains. Moreover, correlations between domains were stronger for competencies reflecting a similar level of cognitive processing, as expected. In conclusion, a systematic comparison of various competencies on distinct levels according to varying units turned out to be appropriate regarding comparability and interrelatedness. Results are discussed with regard to similarities and differences in the development of language and

  5. Beyond Gender Stereotypes in Language Comprehension: Self Sex-Role Descriptions Affect the Brain's Potentials Associated with Agreement Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal, Paolo; Garnham, Alan; Oakhill, Jane

    2015-01-01

    We recorded Event-Related Potentials to investigate differences in the use of gender information during the processing of reflexive pronouns. Pronouns either matched the gender provided by role nouns (such as "king" or "engineer") or did not. We compared two types of gender information, definitional information, which is semantic in nature (a mother is female), or stereotypical (a nurse is likely to be female). When they followed definitional role-nouns, gender-mismatching pronouns elicited a P600 effect reflecting a failure in the agreement process. When instead the gender violation occurred after stereotypical role-nouns the Event Related Potential response was biphasic, being positive in parietal electrodes and negative in anterior left electrodes. The use of a correlational approach showed that those participants with more "feminine" or "expressive" self sex-role descriptions showed a P600 response for stereotype violations, suggesting that they experienced the mismatch as an agreement violation; whereas less "expressive" participants showed an Nref effect, indicating more effort spent in linking the pronouns with the possible, although less likely, counter-stereotypical referent.

  6. Beyond gender stereotypes in language comprehension: self sex-role descriptions affect the brain's potentials associated with agreement processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo eCanal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We recorded Event-Related Potentials to investigate differences in the use of gender information during the processing of reflexive pronouns. Pronouns either matched the gender provided by role nouns (such as king or engineer or did not. We compared two types of gender information, definitional information, which is semantic in nature (a mother is female, or stereotypical (a nurse is likely to be female. When they followed definitional role-nouns, gender-mismatching pronouns elicited a P600 effect reflecting a failure in the agreement process. When instead the gender violation occurred after stereotypical role-nouns the ERP response was biphasic, being positive in parietal electrodes and negative in anterior left electrodes. The use of a correlational approach showed that those participants with more feminine or expressive self sex-role descriptions showed a P600 response for stereotype violations, suggesting that they experienced the mismatch as an agreement violation; whereas less expressive participants showed an Nref effect, indicating more effort spent in linking the pronouns with the possible, although less likely, counter-stereotypical referent.

  7. SuperPixel based mid-level image description for image recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tasli, H.E.; Sicre, R.; Gevers, T.

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes a mid-level feature descriptor and aims to validate improvement on image classification and retrieval tasks. In this paper, we propose a method to explore the conventional feature extraction techniques in the image classification pipeline from a different perspective where

  8. High-level intuitive features (HLIFs) for intuitive skin lesion description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelard, Robert; Glaister, Jeffrey; Wong, Alexander; Clausi, David A

    2015-03-01

    A set of high-level intuitive features (HLIFs) is proposed to quantitatively describe melanoma in standard camera images. Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer. With rising incidence rates and subjectivity in current clinical detection methods, there is a need for melanoma decision support systems. Feature extraction is a critical step in melanoma decision support systems. Existing feature sets for analyzing standard camera images are comprised of low-level features, which exist in high-dimensional feature spaces and limit the system's ability to convey intuitive diagnostic rationale. The proposed HLIFs were designed to model the ABCD criteria commonly used by dermatologists such that each HLIF represents a human-observable characteristic. As such, intuitive diagnostic rationale can be conveyed to the user. Experimental results show that concatenating the proposed HLIFs with a full low-level feature set increased classification accuracy, and that HLIFs were able to separate the data better than low-level features with statistical significance. An example of a graphical interface for providing intuitive rationale is given.

  9. [The Italian deprivation index at census block level: definition, description and association with general mortality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caranci, Nicola; Biggeri, Annibale; Grisotto, Laura; Pacelli, Barbara; Spadea, Teresa; Costa, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    the study is aimed at developing a nationwide deprivation index at municipality and census block level, based on the 2001 Census data, and meeting epidemiological needs. The study uses data drawn from the 2001 General Census of Population and Housing. From the 280 variables defined at census block level (352,605 census tracts with average number of inhabitants 169, standard deviation 225; and average area 0.6 km², sd 2.4 km²) five traits that operationally combine to represent the multidimensionality of the social and material deprivation concept have been selected; these are: low level of education, unemployment, non-home ownership, one parent family and overcrowding. The index is calculated by summing standardized indicators and it is also available as categorical by quintiles of population. The same procedure is applied to aggregate frequency data at municipality level. The correlation between mortality and deprivation has been evaluated using 2000-2004 general mortality. considering national data, a strong north-south gradient in deprivation was observed. The municipality deprivation index 2001 is highly correlated to the index likewise calculated on the basis of the previous 1991 Census (r=0.91). General mortality was positively correlated to the index (in particular in population up to 64 years and in larger size municipalities). the pattern described by the deprivation index was coherent with what is already known about geographic distribution of poverty and its impact on mortality. Such outcome bears out the index use for epidemiological purposes.

  10. Descriptions of health states associated with increasing severity and frequency of hypoglycemia: a patient-level perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris SB

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Stewart B Harris,1 Kamlesh Khunti,2 Mona Landin-Olsson,3 Claus B Galbo-Jørgensen,4 Mette Bøgelund,4 Barrie Chubb,5 Jens Gundgaard,6 Marc Evans71Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, ON, Canada; 2Diabetes Research Unit, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK; 3Department of Medicine, Helsingborg Hospital, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; 4Incentive, Holte Stationsvej, Holte, Denmark; 5EU Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Novo Nordisk Ltd, Crawley, UK; 6Health Economics and HTA, Novo Nordisk A/S, Søborg, Denmark; 7Department of Diabetes, University Hospital Llandough, Cardiff, UKAims: We sought to develop descriptions of health states associated with daytime and nocturnal hypoglycemia in a structured fashion from the patient's perspective under different combinations of severity and frequency of hypoglycemic events.Methods: An expert meeting followed by two patient focus groups was used to develop comprehensive descriptions of acute consequences of severe and non-severe, daytime and nocturnal hypoglycemia. Patients with diabetes (type 1 = 85, type 2 = 162 from a survey panel then validated these descriptions and assessed how often they worried and took different actions to prevent hypoglycemia. Severity and frequency of hypoglycemia were compared with respect to how often people worried and took actions to prevent an event. The effect of hypoglycemia on 35 different life activities was quantitatively compared for patients who had and had not experienced a severe hypoglycemic event.Results: At least 95% of respondents agreed that the detailed patient-level descriptions of health states accurately reflected their experience of severe and non-severe, daytime and nocturnal hypoglycemia, thereby validating these descriptions. Respondents who had experienced a severe hypoglycemic event were generally more adversely affected in their worries and actions and life events than those who experienced only non

  11. Kinematic Description of Elite Vs. Low Level Players in Team-Handball Jump Throw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Herbert; Buchecker, Michael; von Duvillard, Serge P.; Müller, Erich

    2010-01-01

    The jump throw is the most applied throwing technique in team- handball (Wagner et al., 2008); however, a comprehensive analysis of 3D-kinematics of the team-handball jump throw is lacking. Therefore, the purpose of our study was: 1) to measure differences in ball release speed in team- handball jump throw and anthropometric parameters between groups of different levels of performance and (2) to analyze upper body 3D-kinematics (flexion/extension and rotation) to determine significant differences between these groups. Three-dimensional kinematic data was analyzed via the Vicon MX 13 motion capturing system (Vicon Peak, Oxford, UK) from 26 male team-handball players of different performance levels (mean age: 21.2 ± 5.0 years). The participants were instructed to throw the ball (IHF Size 3) onto a target at 8 m distance, and to hit the center of a square of 1 × 1 m at about eye level (1.75 m), with maximum ball release speed. Significant differences between elite vs. low level players were found in the ball release speed (p handball players who were taller and of greater body weight have the ability to achieve a higher ball release speed in the jump throw, and that an increase in trunk flexion and rotation angular velocity improve the performance in team-handball jump throw that should result in an increase of ball release speed. Key points Team-handball players who were taller and of greater body weight have the ability to achieve a higher ball release speed. An increase in trunk flexion, trunk rotation and shoulder internal rotation angular velocity should result in an increase of ball release speed. Trunk movements are normally well observable for experienced coaches, easy correctable and therefore practical to improve the performance in team-handball jump throw of low level players during training without using complex measurement devices. PMID:24149381

  12. A translator writing system for microcomputer high-level languages and assemblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, W. R.; Knight, J. C.; Noonan, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    In order to implement high level languages whenever possible, a translator writing system of advanced design was developed. It is intended for routine production use by many programmers working on different projects. As well as a fairly conventional parser generator, it includes a system for the rapid generation of table driven code generators. The parser generator was developed from a prototype version. The translator writing system includes various tools for the management of the source text of a compiler under construction. In addition, it supplies various default source code sections so that its output is always compilable and executable. The system thereby encourages iterative enhancement as a development methodology by ensuring an executable program from the earliest stages of a compiler development project. The translator writing system includes PASCAL/48 compiler, three assemblers, and two compilers for a subset of HAL/S.

  13. The choice of the optimum terms for semi-empirical description of s-wave neutron resonance level densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaczmarczyk, Maria; Lason, Lech [Division of Nuclear Physics, University of Lodz, ul Pomorska 149/153, 90-236 Lodz (Poland)

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents a function describing the dependence of the neutron resonance level density {rho} on the neutron number N in the target nucleus. The function describes quite well, with an accuracy of one order, the experimental data for 284 nuclides. Moreover, it adequately describes the general tendency and shell model effects for magic nuclei and for nuclei close to magic ones. The achieved agreement between the values obtained from the proposed description and the experimental data {rho}{sub exp} can be improved if the {rho}{sub exp} values are normalized energetically and reduced to a narrow range of angular momentum J.

  14. Multi-Level Simulated Fault Injection for Data Dependent Reliability Analysis of RTL Circuit Descriptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIMARA, S.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes data-dependent reliability evaluation methodology for digital systems described at Register Transfer Level (RTL. It uses a hybrid hierarchical approach, combining the accuracy provided by Gate Level (GL Simulated Fault Injection (SFI and the low simulation overhead required by RTL fault injection. The methodology comprises the following steps: the correct simulation of the RTL system, according to a set of input vectors, hierarchical decomposition of the system into basic RTL blocks, logic synthesis of basic RTL blocks, data-dependent SFI for the GL netlists, and RTL SFI. The proposed methodology has been validated in terms of accuracy on a medium sized circuit – the parallel comparator used in Check Node Unit (CNU of the Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC decoders. The methodology has been applied for the reliability analysis of a 128-bit Advanced Encryption Standard (AES crypto-core, for which the GL simulation was prohibitive in terms of required computational resources.

  15. Preparing medical students for obstetrics and gynecology milestone level one: a description of a pilot curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Morgan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The implementation of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME Milestones in the field of obstetrics and gynecology has arrived with Milestones Level One defined as the level expected of an incoming first-year resident. Purpose: We designed, implemented, and evaluated a 4-week elective for fourth-year medical school students, which utilized a multimodal approach to teaching and assessing the Milestones Level One competencies. Methods: The 78-hour curriculum utilized traditional didactic lectures, flipped classroom active learning sessions, a simulated paging curriculum, simulation training, embalmed cadaver anatomical dissections, and fresh-frozen cadaver operative procedures. We performed an assessment of student knowledge and surgical skills before and after completion of the course. Students also received feedback on their assessment and management of eight simulated paging scenarios. Students completed course content satisfaction surveys at the completion of each of the 4 weeks. Results: Students demonstrated improvement in knowledge and surgical skills at the completion of the course. Paging confidence trended toward improvement at the completion of the course. Student satisfaction was high for all of the course content, and the active learning components of the curriculum (flipped classroom, simulation, and anatomy sessions had higher scores than the traditional didactics in all six categories of our student satisfaction survey. Conclusions: This pilot study demonstrates a practical approach for preparing fourth-year medical students for the expectations of Milestones Level One in obstetrics and gynecology. This curriculum can serve as a framework as medical schools and specific specialties work to meet the first steps of the ACGME's Next Accreditation System.

  16. The k-Language Classification, a Proposed New Theory for Image Classification and Clustering at Pixel Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alwi Aslan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This theory attempted to explore the possibility of using regular language further in image analysis, departing from the use of string to represent the region in the image. But we are not trying to show an alternative idea about how to generate a string region, where there are many different ways how the image or region produces strings representing, in this paper we propose a way how to generate regular language or group of languages which performs both classify the set of strings generated by a group of a number of image regions. Researchers began by showing a proof that there is always a regular language that accepts a set of strings that produced the image, and then use the language to perform the classification. Research then expanded to the pixel level, on whether the regular language can be used for clustering pixels in the image, the researchers propose a systematic solution of this question. As a tool used to explore regular language is deterministic finite automata. On the end part before conclusion of this paper, we add revision version of this theory. There is another point of view to revision version, added for make this method more precision and more powerfull from before.

  17. A Research about the Level of Using Language Teaching Methods and Its Effect on Some Variables: In Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okmen, Burcu; Kilic, Abdurrahman

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to define language teaching methods used by English teachers in Turkey and their usage level and to define if the level of usage changes according to gender, seniority and graduated school types. The research group consisted of 95 English teachers who study in secondary school in Duzce in 2013-2014. Survey method was…

  18. Longitudinal Relationships of Levels of Language in Writing and between Writing and Reading in Grades 1 to 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Robert D.; Berninger, Virginia W.; Fayol, Michel

    2010-01-01

    Longitudinal structural equation modeling was used to evaluate longitudinal relationships across adjacent grade levels 1 to 7 for levels of language in writing (Model 1, subword letter writing, word spelling, and text composing) or writing and reading (Model 2, subword letter writing and word spelling and reading; Model 3, word spelling and…

  19. Description of a ceramic waste form and canister for Savannah River Plant high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, J.L.; Allender, J.S.; Gould, T.H. Jr.

    1982-04-01

    A canistered ceramic waste form for possible immobilization of Savannah River Plant (SRP) high-level radioactive wastes is described. Characteristics reported for the form include waste loading, chemical composition, heat content, isotope inventory, mechanical and thermal properties, and leach rates. A conceptual design of a potential production process for making this canistered form are also described. The ceramic form was selected in November 1981 as the primary alternative to the reference waste form, borosilicate glass, for making a final waste form decision for SRP waste by FY-1983. 11 tables

  20. Towards Implementation of a Generalized Architecture for High-Level Quantum Programming Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameen, El-Mahdy M.; Ali, Hesham A.; Salem, Mofreh M.; Badawy, Mahmoud

    2017-08-01

    This paper investigates a novel architecture to the problem of quantum computer programming. A generalized architecture for a high-level quantum programming language has been proposed. Therefore, the programming evolution from the complicated quantum-based programming to the high-level quantum independent programming will be achieved. The proposed architecture receives the high-level source code and, automatically transforms it into the equivalent quantum representation. This architecture involves two layers which are the programmer layer and the compilation layer. These layers have been implemented in the state of the art of three main stages; pre-classification, classification, and post-classification stages respectively. The basic building block of each stage has been divided into subsequent phases. Each phase has been implemented to perform the required transformations from one representation to another. A verification process was exposed using a case study to investigate the ability of the compiler to perform all transformation processes. Experimental results showed that the efficacy of the proposed compiler achieves a correspondence correlation coefficient about R ≈ 1 between outputs and the targets. Also, an obvious achievement has been utilized with respect to the consumed time in the optimization process compared to other techniques. In the online optimization process, the consumed time has increased exponentially against the amount of accuracy needed. However, in the proposed offline optimization process has increased gradually.

  1. Bilingual recognition memory: stronger performance but weaker levels-of-processing effects in the less fluent language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Wendy S; Gutiérrez, Marisela

    2012-04-01

    The effects of bilingual proficiency on recognition memory were examined in an experiment with Spanish-English bilinguals. Participants learned lists of words in English and Spanish under shallow- and deep-encoding conditions. Overall, hit rates were higher, discrimination greater, and response times shorter in the nondominant language, consistent with effects previously observed for lower frequency words. Levels-of-processing effects in hit rates, discrimination, and response time were stronger in the dominant language. Specifically, with shallow encoding, the advantage for the nondominant language was larger than with deep encoding. The results support the idea that memory performance in the nondominant language is impacted by both the greater demand for cognitive resources and the lower familiarity of the words.

  2. Understanding the Role of Teaching Materials in a Beginners’ Level English as a Foreign Language Course: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elio Jesús Cruz Rondón

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Learning a foreign language may be a challenge for most people due to differences in the form and structure between one’s mother tongue and a new one. However, there are some tools that facilitate the teaching and learning of a foreign language, for instance, new applications for digital devices, video blogs, educational platforms, and teaching materials. Therefore, this case study aims at understanding the role of teaching materials among beginners’ level students learning English as a foreign language. After conducting five non-participant classroom observations and nine semi-structured interviews, we found that the way the teacher implemented a pedagogical intervention by integrating the four language skills, promoting interactive learning through the use of online resources, and using the course book led to a global English teaching and learning process.

  3. Microscopic description of dissipative dynamics of a level-crossing transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scala, M.; Militello, B.; Messina, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Palermo, Via Archirafi 36, I-90123 Palermo (Italy); Vitanov, N. V. [Department of Physics, Sofia University, 5 James Bourchier Boulevard, BG-1164 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2011-08-15

    We analyze the effect of a dissipative bosonic environment on the Landau-Zener-Stueckelberg-Majorana (LZSM) level crossing model by using a microscopic approach to derive the relevant master equation. For an environment at zero temperature and weak dissipation, our microscopic approach confirms the independence of the survival probability on the decay rate that has been predicted earlier by the simple phenomenological LZSM model. For strong decay the microscopic approach predicts a notable increase of the survival probability, which signals dynamical decoupling of the initial state. Unlike the phenomenological model, our approach makes it possible to study the dependence of the system dynamics on the temperature of the environment. In the limit of very high temperature we find that the dynamics is characterized by a very strong dynamical decoupling of the initial state--the temperature-induced quantum Zeno effect.

  4. GELCOM: a geothermal levelized busbar cost model. Description and user's guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, J.N.; Leigh, J.G.

    1978-01-01

    The model described is designed to project the costs of electricity generated from liquid dominated hydrothermal resources. It is presented in the form of an interactive computer program called GELCOM, written in Fortran IV, together with an analytic explanation of the methodology. GELCOM starts from resource data and estimates the capital and operating costs for the production field and electrical generating plant. The methodology implemented in GELCOM to determine the engineering cost, operating parameter estimates, and the levelized busbar cost is described. The output displayed by GELCOM for one prospect is explained. The input data files maintained in the computer system and the input data card formats are included. A sample session with GELCOM and the economic reports which may be generated from the GELCOM are illustrated. A completed listing of the computer program is given in an appendix. (MHR)

  5. A descriptive study of noise in the neonatal intensive care unit: ambient levels and perceptions of contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcy, Ashley E; Hancock, Lauren E; Ware, Emily J

    2008-10-01

    To examine the baseline acoustic environment in several mid-Atlantic region neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and investigate the perceived factors contributing to noise levels in these NICUs. Quantitative data were collected from 3 urban, mid-Atlantic level IIIB and level IIIC NICUs. Qualitative data were collected via interview from 2 RNs employed in each of the study NICUs. This was an exploratory descriptive study utilizing a mixed-methods approach. A quantitative method was used for sound-level data collection, and a qualitative method was utilized during interviews with nurses to examine perceptions of factors contributing to noise. Ambient sound levels, measured in decibels, were taken at 5-minute intervals over a 2-hour period during both day and night shifts in a central location at each NICU. In addition, nurses were interviewed using a standardized interview questionnaire, and these interviews were then reviewed to determine themes regarding perceived factors contributing to sound levels. Hourly mean sound levels in each NICU ranged from 53.9 dB to 60.6 dB, with no statistically significant difference between noise levels recorded on day shift versus night shift, and no statistically significant difference among sites. Qualitative data showed that nurses' believed day shift to be louder than night shift and many perceived their own NICU as "pretty quiet." Key contributing factors to increased sound levels were stated as monitors or alarms, performing invasive procedures, presence of family, nurses or doctors giving report or rounds, and ringing phones. Noise levels were found to be above the American Academy of Pediatrics-recommended 45-dB level and often louder than the 50-dB level, which should not be exceeded more than 10% of the time. The recommended impulse maximum of 65 dB was also exceeded. Environmental Protection Agency recommendations for hospitals include sound levels no louder than 35 dB on night shift; this standard was also violated

  6. A descriptive study of noise in the neonatal intensive care unit. Ambient levels and perceptions of contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcy, Ashley E; Hancock, Lauren E; Ware, Emily J

    2008-06-01

    To examine the baseline acoustic environment in several mid-Atlantic region neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and investigate the perceived factors contributing to noise levels in these NICUs. Quantitative data were collected from 3 urban, mid-Atlantic level IIIB and level IIIC NICUs. Qualitative data were collected via interview from 2 RNs employed in each of the study NICUs. This was an exploratory descriptive study utilizing a mixed-methods approach. A quantitative method was used for sound-level data collection, and a qualitative method was utilized during interviews with nurses to examine perceptions of factors contributing to noise. Ambient sound levels, measured in decibels, were taken at 5-minute intervals over a 2-hour period during both day and night shifts in a central location at each NICU. In addition, nurses were interviewed using a standardized interview questionnaire, and these interviews were then reviewed to determine themes regarding perceived factors contributing to sound levels. Hourly mean sound levels in each NICU ranged from 53.9 dB to 60.6 dB, with no statistically significant difference between noise levels recorded on day shift versus night shift, and no statistically significant difference among sites. Qualitative data showed that nurses' believed day shift to be louder than night shift and many perceived their own NICU as "pretty quiet." Key contributing factors to increased sound levels were stated as monitors or alarms, performing invasive procedures, presence of family, nurses or doctors giving report or rounds, and ringing phones. Noise levels were found to be above the American Academy of Pediatrics--recommended 45-dB level and often louder than the 50-dB level, which should not be exceeded more than 10% of the time. The recommended impulse maximum of 65 dB was also exceeded. Environmental Protection Agency recommendations for hospitals include sound levels no louder than 35 dB on night shift; this standard was also violated

  7. Program of Hanford high-level waste retrieval task: a narrative description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallskog, H.A.

    1976-12-01

    The objective of this task is to develop and demonstrate the equipment and methods for the retrieval of high-level radioactive wastes from underground storage tanks at Hanford. The approach will be to continue with engineering studies and the conceptual design in progress and follow on with the engineering design, construction, testing and demonstration of a Prototype Retrieval System. This system will consist of a large, mobile platform providing the support and control of an articulated arm used to remotely position waste recovery/removal tools. Other major components include the equipment needed to bring the material up to the platform for packaging and subsequent transport to a processing facility, and the television viewing and lighting subsystem. This prototype system will be functionally complete and will contain items such as a control center, tool change and maintenance/repair capability, etc. The program includes a complete non-radioactive demonstration of the system in a mock waste tank as well as a radioactive demonstration involving one or more waste tanks

  8. Pressure ulcer prevention in nursing homes: nurse descriptions of individual and organization level factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellefield, Mary Ellen; Magnabosco, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    Sustaining pressure ulcer prevention (PUP) in nursing homes has been difficult to achieve. Implementation science researchers suggest that identification of individual staff and organizational factors influencing current practices is essential to the development of an effective and customized plan to implement practice changes in a specific setting. A mixed methods approach was used to describe nurses' perceptions of individual and organization-level factors influencing performance of PUP in two Veterans Health Administration (VHA) nursing homes prior to implementation of a national VHA initiative on Hospital Acquired Pressure Ulcers (HAPUs). Individual interviews of 16 nursing staff were conducted. Individual factors influencing practice were a personal sense of responsibility to Veterans and belief in the effectiveness and importance of preventive measures. Organizational factors were existence of cooperative practices between nursing assistants and licensed nurses in assessing risk; teamwork, communication, and a commitment to Veterans' well-being. Integration and reinforcement of such factors in the development and maintenance of customized plans of PUP initiatives is recommended. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  9. Digital Board Game: Is there a need for it in language learning among tertiary level students?

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Zuraina; Mohamad Ghazali Mohd Amir Izzudin; Ismail Rosnani; Muhammad Nurul Nadia; Zainal Abidin Noor Azlinda; Abdul Malek Nabila

    2018-01-01

    The concept of learning while playing to learn language is a pedagogy that can enhance students’ learning interest. In this digital era, the use of board games, for instance, has provided a solution to learning a language. A considerable literature has grown up around the theme of digital board in language learning. Therefore, this paper aims at finding the significance of developing a digital board game for the purpose of vocabulary learning. Fifty-seven (57) students from Universiti Malaysi...

  10. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML Level 3 Package: Layout, Version 1 Core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauges Ralph

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Many software tools provide facilities for depicting reaction network diagrams in a visual form. Two aspects of such a visual diagram can be distinguished: the layout (i.e.: the positioning and connections of the elements in the diagram, and the graphical form of the elements (for example, the glyphs used for symbols, the properties of the lines connecting them, and so on. For software tools that also read and write models in SBML (Systems Biology Markup Language format, a common need is to store the network diagram together with the SBML representation of the model. This in turn raises the question of how to encode the layout and the rendering of these diagrams. The SBML Level 3 Version 1 Core specification does not provide a mechanism for explicitly encoding diagrams, but it does provide a mechanism for SBML packages to extend the Core specification and add additional syntactical constructs. The Layout package for SBML Level 3 adds the necessary features to SBML so that diagram layouts can be encoded in SBML files, and a companion package called SBML Rendering specifies how the graphical rendering of elements can be encoded.

  11. Automatic compilation from high-level biologically-oriented programming language to genetic regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Jacob; Lu, Ting; Weiss, Ron

    2011-01-01

    The field of synthetic biology promises to revolutionize our ability to engineer biological systems, providing important benefits for a variety of applications. Recent advances in DNA synthesis and automated DNA assembly technologies suggest that it is now possible to construct synthetic systems of significant complexity. However, while a variety of novel genetic devices and small engineered gene networks have been successfully demonstrated, the regulatory complexity of synthetic systems that have been reported recently has somewhat plateaued due to a variety of factors, including the complexity of biology itself and the lag in our ability to design and optimize sophisticated biological circuitry. To address the gap between DNA synthesis and circuit design capabilities, we present a platform that enables synthetic biologists to express desired behavior using a convenient high-level biologically-oriented programming language, Proto. The high level specification is compiled, using a regulatory motif based mechanism, to a gene network, optimized, and then converted to a computational simulation for numerical verification. Through several example programs we illustrate the automated process of biological system design with our platform, and show that our compiler optimizations can yield significant reductions in the number of genes (~ 50%) and latency of the optimized engineered gene networks. Our platform provides a convenient and accessible tool for the automated design of sophisticated synthetic biological systems, bridging an important gap between DNA synthesis and circuit design capabilities. Our platform is user-friendly and features biologically relevant compiler optimizations, providing an important foundation for the development of sophisticated biological systems.

  12. Maternal Education Level Predicts Cognitive, Language, and Motor Outcome in Preterm Infants in the Second Year of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Kousiki; Greene, Michelle M; Patel, Aloka L; Meier, Paula

    2016-07-01

    Objective To evaluate the relative impact of maternal education level (MEL) on cognitive, language, and motor outcomes at 20 months' corrected age (CA) in preterm infants. Study Design A total of 177 preterm infants born between 2008 and 2010 were tested at 20 months' CA using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III. Multiple regression analyses were done to determine the relative impact of MEL on cognitive, language, and motor scores. Results Infants born to mothers with high school MEL were 3.74 times more likely to have a subnormal motor index, while those born to mothers with some college and graduate school MEL had reduced odds (0.36 and 0.12, respectively) of having subnormal language index at 20 months. In linear regression, MEL was the strongest predictor of cognitive, language, and motor scores, and graduate school MEL was associated with increases in cognitive, motor, and language scores of 8.49, 8.23, and 15.74 points, respectively. Conclusions MEL is the most significant predictor of cognitive, language, and motor outcome at 20 months' CA in preterm infants. Further research is needed to evaluate if targeted interventions that focus on early childhood learning and parenting practices can ameliorate the impact of low MEL. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  13. Negotiating Narratives, Accessing Asylum: Evaluating Language Policy as Multi-Level Practice, Beliefs and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Khan, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Theories of language policy increasingly emphasise focusing on the specific contexts in which language management occurs. In government settings, policy seeks to shape how individuals interact with officials. Australian asylum procedure is an area where policy aims at tight control. I examine how communication is managed in this setting, in which…

  14. Sociolinguistic Variation and Change in British Sign Language Number Signs: Evidence of Leveling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamp, Rose; Schembri, Adam; Fenlon, Jordan; Rentelis, Ramas

    2015-01-01

    This article presents findings from the first major study to investigate lexical variation and change in British Sign Language (BSL) number signs. As part of the BSL Corpus Project, number sign variants were elicited from 249 deaf signers from eight sites throughout the UK. Age, school location, and language background were found to be significant…

  15. Does socioeconomic level have an effect on school-age language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socioeconomic status (SES) has been reported in several contexts as a predictor of child language skills. This study questions whether this holds true for New Zealand, a developed country in which government provides funding for additional academic support to low-SES schoolchildren. The language of 67 ...

  16. SEL/Project Language. Level II, Kindergarten, Volume I (Lessons 1-16).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, Ann E.; And Others

    The document is an intervention curriculum guide designed to facilitate the initial adjustment of disadvantaged Southeastern children to kindergarten or first grade. The major emphasis is on the teaching of language skills in combination with subject matter learning using a language-experience approach. This volume contains Lessons 1-16 of a…

  17. The Meta Language of Accounting: What's the Level of Students' Understanding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elson, Raymond J.; O'Callaghan, Susanne; Walker, John P.; Williams, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Students rely on rote knowledge to learn accounting concepts. However, this approach does not allow them to understanding the meta language of accounting. Meta language is simply the concepts and terms that are used in a profession and are easily understood by its users. Terms such as equity, assets, and balance sheet are part of the accounting…

  18. Using Online Translators in the Second Language Classroom: Ideas for Advanced-Level Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkin, Elizabeth; Mejias-Bikani, Errapel

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the benefits of using online translators in the foreign language classroom. Specifically, we discuss how faulty online translator output can be used to create activities that help raise metalinguistic awareness of second language grammar and of the differences between grammatical constructions in the first and second…

  19. Beliefs in Context: Understanding Language Policy Implementation at a Systems Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on institutional theory, this study describes how cognitive, normative, and regulative mechanisms shape bilingual teachers' language policy implementation in both English-only and bilingual contexts. Aligned with prior educational language policy research, findings indicate the important role that teachers' beliefs play in the policy…

  20. Life Cycle V and V Process for Hardware Description Language Programs of Programmable Logic Device-based Instrumentation and Control Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, K. H.; Lee, D. Y.

    2010-01-01

    Programmable Logic Device (PLD), especially Complex PLD (CPLD) or Field Programmable Logic Array (FPGA), has been growing in interest in nuclear Instrumentation and Control (I and C) applications. PLD has been applied to replace an obsolete analog device or old-fashioned microprocessor, or to develop digital controller, subsystem or overall system on hardware aspects. This is the main reason why the PLD-based I and C design provides higher flexibility than the analog-based one, and the PLD-based I and C systems shows better real-time performance than the processor-based I and C systems. Due to the development of the PLD-based I and C systems, their nuclear qualification has been issued in the nuclear industry. Verification and Validation (V and V) is one of necessary qualification activities when a Hardware Description Language (HDL) is used to implement functions of the PLD-based I and C systems. The life cycle V and V process, described in this paper, has been defined as satisfying the nuclear V and V requirements, and it has been applied to verify Correctness, Completeness, and Consistency (3C) among design outputs in a safety-grade programmable logic controller and a safety-critical data communication system. Especially, software engineering techniques such as the Fagan Inspection, formal verification, simulated verification and automated testing have been defined for the life cycle V and V tasks of behavioral, structural, and physical design in VHDL

  1. Teacher Education that Works: Preparing Secondary-Level Math and Science Teachers for Success with English Language Learners Through Content-Based Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margo Elisabeth DelliCarpini

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Little research exists on effective ways to prepare secondary mathematics and science teachers to work with English language learners (ELLs in mainstream mathematics and science (subsequently referred to as STEM classrooms. Given the achievement gap that exists between ELLs and their native-speaking counterparts in STEM subjects, as well as the growing numbers of ELLs in US schools, this becomes a critical issue, as academic success for these students depends on the effectiveness of instruction they receive not only in English as a second language classes (ESL, but in mainstream classrooms as well. This article reports on the effects of a program restructuring that implemented coursework specifically designed to prepare pre-service and in-service mathematics, science, and ESL teachers to work with ELLs in their content and ESL classrooms through collaboration between mainstream STEM and ESL teachers, as well as effective content and language integration. We present findings on teachers’ attitudes and current practices related to the inclusion of ELLs in the secondary-level content classroom and their current level of knowledge and skills in collaborative practice. We further describe the rationale behind the development of the course, provide a description of the course and its requirements as they changed throughout its implementation during two semesters, and present findings from the participants enrolled. Additionally, we discuss the lessons learned; researchers’ innovative approaches to implementation of content-based instruction (CBI and teacher collaboration, which we term two-way CBI (DelliCarpini & Alonso, 2013; and implications for teacher education programs.

  2. System Description:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten; Poswolsky, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Delphin is a functional programming language [Adam Poswolsky and Carsten Schürmann. Practical programming with higher-order encodings and dependent types. In European Symposium on Programming (ESOP), 2008] utilizing dependent higher-order datatypes. Delphin's two-level type-system cleanly separates...

  3. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) Level 3 Package: Flux Balance Constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Brett G; Bergmann, Frank T

    2015-09-04

    Constraint-based modeling is a well established modelling methodology used to analyze and study biological networks on both a medium and genome scale. Due to their large size, genome scale models are typically analysed using constraint-based optimization techniques. One widely used method is Flux Balance Analysis (FBA) which, for example, requires a modelling description to include: the definition of a stoichiometric matrix, an objective function and bounds on the values that fluxes can obtain at steady state. The Flux Balance Constraints (FBC) Package extends SBML Level 3 and provides a standardized format for the encoding, exchange and annotation of constraint-based models. It includes support for modelling concepts such as objective functions, flux bounds and model component annotation that facilitates reaction balancing. The FBC package establishes a base level for the unambiguous exchange of genome-scale, constraint-based models, that can be built upon by the community to meet future needs (e. g. by extending it to cover dynamic FBC models).

  4. Implementation of Malaria Dynamic Models in Municipality Level Early Warning Systems in Colombia. Part I: Description of Study Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Daniel; Cerón, Viviana; Molina, Adriana M.; Quiñónes, Martha L.; Jiménez, Mónica M.; Ahumada, Martha; Gutiérrez, Patricia; Osorio, Salua; Mantilla, Gilma; Connor, Stephen J.; Thomson, Madeleine C.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the Integrated National Adaptation Pilot project and the Integrated Surveillance and Control System, the Colombian National Institute of Health is working on the design and implementation of a Malaria Early Warning System framework, supported by seasonal climate forecasting capabilities, weather and environmental monitoring, and malaria statistical and dynamic models. In this report, we provide an overview of the local ecoepidemiologic settings where four malaria process-based mathematical models are currently being implemented at a municipal level. The description includes general characteristics, malaria situation (predominant type of infection, malaria-positive cases data, malaria incidence, and seasonality), entomologic conditions (primary and secondary vectors, mosquito densities, and feeding frequencies), climatic conditions (climatology and long-term trends), key drivers of epidemic outbreaks, and non-climatic factors (populations at risk, control campaigns, and socioeconomic conditions). Selected pilot sites exhibit different ecoepidemiologic settings that must be taken into account in the development of the integrated surveillance and control system. PMID:24891460

  5. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Quality Assurance Program description for high-level waste form development and qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project has been established to convert the high-level radioactive waste associated with nuclear defense production at the Hanford Site into a waste form suitable for disposal in a deep geologic repository. The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant will mix processed radioactive waste with borosilicate material, then heat the mixture to its melting point (vitrification) to forin a glass-like substance that traps the radionuclides in the glass matrix upon cooling. The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Quality Assurance Program has been established to support the mission of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant. This Quality Assurance Program Description has been written to document the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Quality Assurance Program

  6. Iranian Language Teachers’ and Students’ Perspectives on Top Notch Series (2nd edition at Intermediate Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Azadsarv

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As the means of transferring knowledge between teachers and students, coursebooks play a significant role in educational practices all over the world. Evaluation of coursebooks is also of great significance as it manages to a better understanding of the nature of a specific teaching/learning situation. The present study is an attempt to evaluateTop Notch coursebook from both Iranian EFL learners’ and teachers’ perspectives. One hundred students and 20 teachers participated in this study. Sixty four of the students and nine of the teachers were male and 36 of the students and 11 of the teachers were female. The range of teachers' experience of teaching the coursebook was between 2-4 years and the range of students' experience of studying the coursebook was between 1-3 years. The data collection took place in three language institutes of Gilan and Mazandaran provinces. The coursebook, evaluated based on modified version of Cunningsworth's (1995 checklist, was the intermediate level of Top Notch. It was evaluated by both students and teachers based on administering written questionnaires. In order to triangulate the gathered data, 25 percent of the teachers and 10 percent of the students attended an interview session. Data analysis indicated that strengths of Top Notch from teachers' perspective are grammar, visuals, supplementary materials and culture and from students' point of view are content, grammar, phonology and visuals.

  7. Dimensions of Discourse Level Oral Language Skills and Their Relation to Reading Comprehension and Written Composition: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace; Park, Cheahyung; Park, Younghee

    2015-01-01

    We examined the relations of discourse-level oral language skills [i.e., listening comprehension, and oral retell and production of narrative texts (oral retell and production hereafter)] to reading comprehension and written composition. Korean-speaking first grade students (N = 97) were assessed on listening comprehension, oral retell and…

  8. Elicited Imitation: A Vehicle for Assessing the Language Functioning Level of Echolalic Autistic Children. Final Report 53.8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Gudrun

    The booklet discusses and reports on a study of elicited imitation as a vehicle for assessing the language-functioning level of echolalic autistic children. An historical overview is presented of the diagnosis of early infantile autism. The question of whether or not early infantile autism is a distinct syndrome is addressed. The theoretical and…

  9. Task-Based Language Teaching for Beginner-Level Learners of L2 French: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlam, Rosemary; Ellis, Rod

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of input-based tasks on the acquisition of vocabulary and grammar by beginner-level learners of L2 French and reported the introduction of task-based teaching as an innovation in a state secondary school. The experimental group (n = 19) completed a series of focused input-based language tasks, taught by their…

  10. A Changing Paradigm in Language Planning: English-Medium Instruction Policy at the Tertiary Level in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nor Liza

    2013-01-01

    The literature shows that English-medium instruction (EMI) programmes at the tertiary level in various parts of the world have positioned EMI as a language-planning tool to promote students' mastery of English. English proficiency is believed to be intertwined with the overall economic development of a country. In addition to internationalising…

  11. Learning English as a Second Language at the University Level in Jordan: Motivation, Self-Regulation and Learning Environment Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzubaidi, Eman; Aldridge, Jill M.; Khine, Myint Swe

    2016-01-01

    The overarching aim of this study was to investigate students' perceptions of the learning environment and whether these influenced their motivation and self-regulation in learning English as a second language at the university level in Jordan. Our sample involved 994 students, drawn from 13 schools, within three faculties (humanities, health…

  12. Inventory of greenhouse gases at the municipality level. Description of calculation methods; Denmark; Drivhusgasopgoerelse paa kommuneniveau. Beskrivelse af beregningsmetoder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, M.; Gyldenkaerne, S.; Lyck, E.; Thomsen, Marianne; Hoffmann, L.; Fauser, P.

    2009-02-15

    This report includes a description of methodologies, data and algorithms behind the inventories of greenhouse gases at the municipality level divided into sectors. The starting point for the sectors in this report is the sectors used for the official Danish emission inventories. A simplified generalization of the equations used in emission calculations is based on the assumption that emissions of a given activity is estimated using data descriptive for the size of the activity multiplied by an emission factor pr unit of activity. Emissions of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O are converted to CO{sub 2} equivalents. In this project this generalization and these conversions are also the basis for all methodologies. The sectors included in this report are: the collective power and heating, individual heating, mobile sources, transportation and machinery, industrial processes, solvents, agriculture, land use and waste depositing and wastewater. The methods include calculations of the greenhouse gases that are most important for the sectors. The importance is estimated from the national emission inventory. This report covers methodologies for the greenhouse gases CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O. Due to the mentioned importance criteria for some sectors not all greenhouse gases are included. As for the national inventories the calculation is built into several levels (Tiers) with increased requirements for municipalities regarding data. Tier 1 is mainly based on the Danish national greenhouse gas inventory data using appropriate distribution keys for a given activity into municipality level. Tier 2 is more detailed and includes emission factors used in the Danish national greenhouse gas inventories, for some sectors the emission factors are aggregated, while municipalities can enter their own activity data. At Tier 3, which is the most detailed level, there is - for some sectors - the opportunity to enter municipality specific emission factors and activity data. For other

  13. The Learning Styles and Language Learning Strategies of the EFL Students at Tertiary Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diemroh Ihsan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study are to discover the learning styles, and the language learning strategies most preferred, correlation among the variables exists, and the degree of influence each independent variable exerts on the dependent variables. For data collection, the Barsch Learning Styles Inventory and the Strategy Inventory of Language Learning were distributed to 156 students of English at the University of Sriwijaya, Palembang. The results showed that: (1 visual is the most preferred learning style, whereas metacognitive ang effective are the most preferred language learning strategies; (2 certain independent variables have a significant correlation with certain dependent variables, for example, visual with memory, auditory with cognitive, tactile with affective, and semester with compensation; (3 females use a greater variety of language learning strategies than males; and (4 semester has a significant correlation with compensation but not with other strategies

  14. Does socioeconomic level have an effect on school-age language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    These language-related differences between high- and low-SE children ... Studies in several countries have indicated the above-mentioned ...... they are connected (cf., amongst others, Bloom, Lahey, Hood, Lifter and Fliess 1980; Eisenberg.

  15. lANGUAGE AND ART ACTIVITIES AT PRIMARY lEVEl: THE E E ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The inter-relationship of language and art with environmental education (££) within the ... materials and methods and to change the attitudes of principals ... Environmental Studies each week. .... one said to his friend, "The leaves look green,.

  16. The C language auto-generation of reactor trip logic caused by steam generator water level using CASE tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jang Yeol; Lee, Jang Soo

    1999-01-01

    The purpose is to produce a model of nuclear reactor trip logic caused by the steam generator water level of Wolsung 2/3/4 unit through an activity chart and a statechart and to produce C language automatically using statechart-based formalism and statemate MAGNUM toolset suggested by David Harel Formalism. It was worth attempting auto-generation of C language through we manually made Software Requirement specification(SRS) for safety-critical software using statechart-based formalism. Most of the phase of the software life-cycle except the software requirement specification of an analysis phase were generated automatically by Computer Aided Software Engineering(CASE) tools. It was verified that automatically produced C language has high productivity, portability, and quality through the simulation. (Author). 6 refs., 6 figs

  17. Teaching a Large Multi-Level Class Using Different Strategies and Activities to Motivate English Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Sevy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Many challenges face English language teachers today, but two common problems in Ecuador specifically in universities are large class sizes and multi-level students. These problems can create boredom, anxiety, and over all lack of interest in English language learning. It is shown in this article how to combat these particular problems through various strategies utilized to teach to the students’ needs, help them work together and intrinsically motivate them to learn different English language skills, specifically grammar and sentence structure. These strategies include group work, task-based learning, the inverted or flipped classroom, role-play and intrinsic learning. The author explains how these strategies work in a specific group of university pupils in Ecuador to overcome these specific problems in a classroom, but without student participation they can be flawed.

  18. Sequential Prediction of Literacy Achievement for Specific Learning Disabilities Contrasting in Impaired Levels of Language in Grades 4 to 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Elizabeth A; Berninger, Virginia W; Abbott, Robert D

    Sequential regression was used to evaluate whether language-related working memory components uniquely predict reading and writing achievement beyond cognitive-linguistic translation for students in Grades 4 through 9 ( N = 103) with specific learning disabilities (SLDs) in subword handwriting (dysgraphia, n = 25), word reading and spelling (dyslexia, n = 60), or oral and written language (oral and written language learning disabilities, n = 18). That is, SLDs are defined on the basis of cascading level of language impairment (subword, word, and syntax/text). A five-block regression model sequentially predicted literacy achievement from cognitive-linguistic translation (Block 1); working memory components for word-form coding (Block 2), phonological and orthographic loops (Block 3), and supervisory focused or switching attention (Block 4); and SLD groups (Block 5). Results showed that cognitive-linguistic translation explained an average of 27% and 15% of the variance in reading and writing achievement, respectively, but working memory components explained an additional 39% and 27% of variance. Orthographic word-form coding uniquely predicted nearly every measure, whereas attention switching uniquely predicted only reading. Finally, differences in reading and writing persisted between dyslexia and dysgraphia, with dysgraphia higher, even after controlling for Block 1 to 4 predictors. Differences in literacy achievement between students with dyslexia and oral and written language learning disabilities were largely explained by the Block 1 predictors. Applications to identifying and teaching students with these SLDs are discussed.

  19. Digital Board Game: Is there a need for it in language learning among tertiary level students?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Zuraina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of learning while playing to learn language is a pedagogy that can enhance students’ learning interest. In this digital era, the use of board games, for instance, has provided a solution to learning a language. A considerable literature has grown up around the theme of digital board in language learning. Therefore, this paper aims at finding the significance of developing a digital board game for the purpose of vocabulary learning. Fifty-seven (57 students from Universiti Malaysia Pahang (UMP were selected as samples using purposive random sampling to collect data for the current study. A questionnaire was employed to explore their needs of a digital board game to learn vocabulary. The findings revealed that digital board game has significant needs among students to learn vocabulary, and further support the idea of using digital board game in language classroom. Majority of them believed that digital board game may provide a significant impact on vocabulary learning. Overall, the current study proves to be particularly valuable to language teachers to incorporate digital board game into their instructional activity. Also, these findings suggest a role for interactive learning in motivating language learner to enrich their vocabulary size.

  20. Sociolinguistic Typology and Sign Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schembri, Adam; Fenlon, Jordan; Cormier, Kearsy; Johnston, Trevor

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines the possible relationship between proposed social determinants of morphological 'complexity' and how this contributes to linguistic diversity, specifically via the typological nature of the sign languages of deaf communities. We sketch how the notion of morphological complexity, as defined by Trudgill (2011), applies to sign languages. Using these criteria, sign languages appear to be languages with low to moderate levels of morphological complexity. This may partly reflect the influence of key social characteristics of communities on the typological nature of languages. Although many deaf communities are relatively small and may involve dense social networks (both social characteristics that Trudgill claimed may lend themselves to morphological 'complexification'), the picture is complicated by the highly variable nature of the sign language acquisition for most deaf people, and the ongoing contact between native signers, hearing non-native signers, and those deaf individuals who only acquire sign languages in later childhood and early adulthood. These are all factors that may work against the emergence of morphological complexification. The relationship between linguistic typology and these key social factors may lead to a better understanding of the nature of sign language grammar. This perspective stands in contrast to other work where sign languages are sometimes presented as having complex morphology despite being young languages (e.g., Aronoff et al., 2005); in some descriptions, the social determinants of morphological complexity have not received much attention, nor has the notion of complexity itself been specifically explored.

  1. Sociolinguistic Typology and Sign Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schembri, Adam; Fenlon, Jordan; Cormier, Kearsy; Johnston, Trevor

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines the possible relationship between proposed social determinants of morphological ‘complexity’ and how this contributes to linguistic diversity, specifically via the typological nature of the sign languages of deaf communities. We sketch how the notion of morphological complexity, as defined by Trudgill (2011), applies to sign languages. Using these criteria, sign languages appear to be languages with low to moderate levels of morphological complexity. This may partly reflect the influence of key social characteristics of communities on the typological nature of languages. Although many deaf communities are relatively small and may involve dense social networks (both social characteristics that Trudgill claimed may lend themselves to morphological ‘complexification’), the picture is complicated by the highly variable nature of the sign language acquisition for most deaf people, and the ongoing contact between native signers, hearing non-native signers, and those deaf individuals who only acquire sign languages in later childhood and early adulthood. These are all factors that may work against the emergence of morphological complexification. The relationship between linguistic typology and these key social factors may lead to a better understanding of the nature of sign language grammar. This perspective stands in contrast to other work where sign languages are sometimes presented as having complex morphology despite being young languages (e.g., Aronoff et al., 2005); in some descriptions, the social determinants of morphological complexity have not received much attention, nor has the notion of complexity itself been specifically explored. PMID:29515506

  2. Sociolinguistic Typology and Sign Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Schembri

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the possible relationship between proposed social determinants of morphological ‘complexity’ and how this contributes to linguistic diversity, specifically via the typological nature of the sign languages of deaf communities. We sketch how the notion of morphological complexity, as defined by Trudgill (2011, applies to sign languages. Using these criteria, sign languages appear to be languages with low to moderate levels of morphological complexity. This may partly reflect the influence of key social characteristics of communities on the typological nature of languages. Although many deaf communities are relatively small and may involve dense social networks (both social characteristics that Trudgill claimed may lend themselves to morphological ‘complexification’, the picture is complicated by the highly variable nature of the sign language acquisition for most deaf people, and the ongoing contact between native signers, hearing non-native signers, and those deaf individuals who only acquire sign languages in later childhood and early adulthood. These are all factors that may work against the emergence of morphological complexification. The relationship between linguistic typology and these key social factors may lead to a better understanding of the nature of sign language grammar. This perspective stands in contrast to other work where sign languages are sometimes presented as having complex morphology despite being young languages (e.g., Aronoff et al., 2005; in some descriptions, the social determinants of morphological complexity have not received much attention, nor has the notion of complexity itself been specifically explored.

  3. Differences Across Levels in the Language of Agency and Ability in Rating Scales for Large-Scale Second Language Writing Assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson Salena Sampson

    2017-01-01

    While large-scale language and writing assessments benefit from a wealth of literature on the reliability and validity of specific tests and rating procedures, there is comparatively less literature that explores the specific language of second language writing rubrics. This paper provides an analysis of the language of performance descriptors for the public versions of the TOEFL and IELTS writing assessment rubrics, with a focus on linguistic agency encoded by agentive verbs and language of ...

  4. Built environment interventions aimed at improving physical activity levels in rural Ontario health units: a descriptive qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coghill, Cara-Lee; Valaitis, Ruta K; Eyles, John D

    2015-05-03

    Few studies to date have explored the relationship between the built environment and physical activity specifically in rural settings. The Ontario Public Health Standards policies mandate that health units in Ontario address the built environment; however, it is unclear how public health practitioners are integrating the built environment into public health interventions aimed at improving physical activity in chronic disease prevention programs. This descriptive qualitative study explored interventions that have or are being implemented which address the built environment specifically related to physical activity in rural Ontario health units, and the impact of these interventions. Data were collected through twelve in-depth semi-structured interviews with rural public health practitioners and managers representing 12 of 13 health units serving rural communities. Key themes were identified using qualitative content analysis. Themes that emerged regarding the types of interventions that health units are employing included: Engagement with policy work at a municipal level; building and working with community partners, committees and coalitions; gathering and providing evidence; developing and implementing programs; and social marketing and awareness raising. Evaluation of interventions to date has been limited. Public health interventions, and their evaluations, are complex. Health units who serve large rural populations in Ontario are engaging in numerous activities to address physical activity levels. There is a need to further evaluate the impact of these interventions on population health.

  5. A quantitative description of state-level taxation of oil and gas production in the continental U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Jeremy G.; Wang, Yongsheng; Chomas, Maxwell

    2016-01-01

    We provide a quantitative description of state-level taxation of oil and gas production in the continental U.S. for 2004–2013. Aggregate revenues from production taxes nearly doubled in real terms over the period, reaching $10.3 billion and accounting for 20% of tax receipts in the top ten revenue states. The average state had a tax rate of 3.6%; nationally, the average dollar of production was taxed at 4.2%. The oil-specific rate estimated for the study period is $2.4 per barrel or $5.5 per ton of carbon. Lastly, state-level tax rates are two-thirds higher in states excluding oil and gas wells from local property taxes, suggesting that the policies are substitutes for one another. - Highlights: •State tax revenue from oil and gas production nearly doubled from 2004 to 2013. •Nationally, the typical dollar of production is taxed at 4.2%. •The rate applied to the typical dollar of production did not increase over time. •On average oil is taxed at $2.4 per barrel or $5.5 per ton of carbon. •State tax rates are two-thirds higher where oil and gas are not taxed as property.

  6. Variations in Classroom Language Environments of Preschool Children Who Are Low Income and Linguistically Diverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Brook; Atkins-Burnett, Sally; Sandilos, Lia; Scheffner Hammer, Carol; Lopez, Lisa; Blair, Clancy

    2018-01-01

    Research Findings: This study aimed to (a) provide an in-depth description of the frequency and type of language interactions that children who are low income and/or dual language learners (DLLs) experience in their classrooms and (b) examine whether differences exist in children's language experiences based on children's DLL status and level of…

  7. The language parallel Pascal and other aspects of the massively parallel processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, A. P.; Bruner, J. D.

    1982-01-01

    A high level language for the Massively Parallel Processor (MPP) was designed. This language, called Parallel Pascal, is described in detail. A description of the language design, a description of the intermediate language, Parallel P-Code, and details for the MPP implementation are included. Formal descriptions of Parallel Pascal and Parallel P-Code are given. A compiler was developed which converts programs in Parallel Pascal into the intermediate Parallel P-Code language. The code generator to complete the compiler for the MPP is being developed independently. A Parallel Pascal to Pascal translator was also developed. The architecture design for a VLSI version of the MPP was completed with a description of fault tolerant interconnection networks. The memory arrangement aspects of the MPP are discussed and a survey of other high level languages is given.

  8. Using micro-contexts to describe a writing process in Estonian as a second language across proficiency levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Pastuhhova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to describe the writing process of native Russian‑speaking students in Estonian as a second language. 34 participants were given the assignment of writing a text in the L2. The written texts were then rated as being at levels from A2 to C1 according to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR. The data were collected by computer keystroke logging and analysed based on the concept of a ‘micro-context’. Micro-contexts were analysed according to their frequency and duration and were compared across proficiency levels. The results show that writing in the L2 is not a smooth process. The longest transitions in micro-contexts reveal that the most cognitive effort is made between paragraphs and sentences and when deletions are involved. The growing number of consecutive deletions demonstrates that even with developing proficiency, the linear production text is subject to constant revision, correction and modification.

  9. Teaching vocabulary to elementary level students learning Russian as a foreign language: topic "My family and I"

    OpenAIRE

    Vesnina, L. E.

    2017-01-01

    The article describes a lesson "My Family and I" for elementary level students learning Russian as a foreign language. This topic is the first in the academic subject Russian Vocabulary. The article sums up the experience of teaching this subject to Chinese students learning Russian at the Ural State Pedagogical University. The content and the aims of the lesson "My Family and I", as well as the subject Russian Vocabulary, are based on the communicative approach to teaching Russian as a forei...

  10. The Examination of Listening Anxiety Level of the Students Who Learn Turkish as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halat, Sercan; Özbay, Murat

    2018-01-01

    In 21st century which witnesses a range of extraordinary technological improvements; along with the world's turning into global-village-like place, it is a vital need that a common communication network being built up as a result of the interaction among the people whose nation, culture, language and beliefs differ drastically. With the aim of…

  11. Abs: a high-level modeling language for cloud-aware programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Bezirgiannis (Nikolaos); F.S. de Boer (Frank)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractCloud technology has become an invaluable tool to the IT business, because of its attractive economic model. Yet, from the programmers’ perspective, the development of cloud applications remains a major challenge. In this paper we introduce a programming language that allows Cloud

  12. Learning a generative probabilistic grammar of experience: a process-level model of language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodny, Oren; Lotem, Arnon; Edelman, Shimon

    2015-03-01

    We introduce a set of biologically and computationally motivated design choices for modeling the learning of language, or of other types of sequential, hierarchically structured experience and behavior, and describe an implemented system that conforms to these choices and is capable of unsupervised learning from raw natural-language corpora. Given a stream of linguistic input, our model incrementally learns a grammar that captures its statistical patterns, which can then be used to parse or generate new data. The grammar constructed in this manner takes the form of a directed weighted graph, whose nodes are recursively (hierarchically) defined patterns over the elements of the input stream. We evaluated the model in seventeen experiments, grouped into five studies, which examined, respectively, (a) the generative ability of grammar learned from a corpus of natural language, (b) the characteristics of the learned representation, (c) sequence segmentation and chunking, (d) artificial grammar learning, and (e) certain types of structure dependence. The model's performance largely vindicates our design choices, suggesting that progress in modeling language acquisition can be made on a broad front-ranging from issues of generativity to the replication of human experimental findings-by bringing biological and computational considerations, as well as lessons from prior efforts, to bear on the modeling approach. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  13. SEL/Project Language. Level II, Kindergarten, Volume II (Lessons 17-32).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, Ann E.; And Others

    This curriculum guide contains the Southeastern Education Laboratory/Project Language Lessons 17-32 stressing listening, speaking, and reading readiness for disadvantaged kindergarten children. The lessons are designed to be used in the SEL's mobile preschool units or as readiness materials for kindergarten. The major emphasis of this intervention…

  14. New levels of language processing complexity and organization revealed by Granger causation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Gow

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Granger causation analysis of high spatiotemporal resolution reconstructions of brain activation offers a new window on the dynamic interactions between brain areas that support language processing. Premised on the observation that causes both precede and uniquely predict their effects, this approach provides an intuitive, model-free means of identifying directed causal interactions in the brain. It requires the analysis of all nonredundant potentially interacting signals, and has shown that even early processes such as speech perception involve interactions of many areas in a strikingly large network that extends well beyond traditional left hemisphere perisylvian cortex that play out over hundreds of milliseconds. In this paper we describe this technique and review several general findings that reframe the way we think about language processing and brain function in general. These include the extent and complexity of language processing networks, the central role of interactive processing dynamics, the role of processing hubs where the input from many distinct brain regions are integrated, and the degree to which task requirements and stimulus properties influence processing dynamics and inform our understanding of language-specific localized processes.

  15. Acquisition of English as a Second Language at College Level--An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anil, Beena

    2015-01-01

    English has a universal appeal and in India, English is associated with modernity and progress sometimes with the ideology of its cultural values. The economic value of English is very high in India as even a layman uses English words in his/her "native" communication. The second language acquisition happens for learners at various…

  16. My Website Reads at an Eighth Grade Level: Why Plain Language Benefits Your Users (and You)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaggs, Danielle

    2017-01-01

    Writing in plain language aims to help users find what they need and ensures that the information is both useful and understandable. This is key for distance students whose primary library interaction may be with the library Website. A mix of user research and readability scores can be used to measure whether content is findable, useful, and…

  17. New levels of language processing complexity and organization revealed by granger causation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, David W; Caplan, David N

    2012-01-01

    Granger causation analysis of high spatiotemporal resolution reconstructions of brain activation offers a new window on the dynamic interactions between brain areas that support language processing. Premised on the observation that causes both precede and uniquely predict their effects, this approach provides an intuitive, model-free means of identifying directed causal interactions in the brain. It requires the analysis of all non-redundant potentially interacting signals, and has shown that even "early" processes such as speech perception involve interactions of many areas in a strikingly large network that extends well beyond traditional left hemisphere perisylvian cortex that play out over hundreds of milliseconds. In this paper we describe this technique and review several general findings that reframe the way we think about language processing and brain function in general. These include the extent and complexity of language processing networks, the central role of interactive processing dynamics, the role of processing hubs where the input from many distinct brain regions are integrated, and the degree to which task requirements and stimulus properties influence processing dynamics and inform our understanding of "language-specific" localized processes.

  18. Naming homographs in your second language: A study of response level effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandra, D.M.J.; Smits, E.M.G.; Martensen, H.E.; Dijkstra, A.F.J.

    2006-01-01

    Interlingual homographs are words from different languages that have identical spelling patterns but unrelated meanings, such as the English word ROOM which is identical in form to the Dutch word for ‘cream’. This paper focusses on the process of response selection in the naming of such homographs,

  19. Extricating Manual and Non-Manual Features for Subunit Level Medical Sign Modelling in Automatic Sign Language Classification and Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R, Elakkiya; K, Selvamani

    2017-09-22

    Subunit segmenting and modelling in medical sign language is one of the important studies in linguistic-oriented and vision-based Sign Language Recognition (SLR). Many efforts were made in the precedent to focus the functional subunits from the view of linguistic syllables but the problem is implementing such subunit extraction using syllables is not feasible in real-world computer vision techniques. And also, the present recognition systems are designed in such a way that it can detect the signer dependent actions under restricted and laboratory conditions. This research paper aims at solving these two important issues (1) Subunit extraction and (2) Signer independent action on visual sign language recognition. Subunit extraction involved in the sequential and parallel breakdown of sign gestures without any prior knowledge on syllables and number of subunits. A novel Bayesian Parallel Hidden Markov Model (BPaHMM) is introduced for subunit extraction to combine the features of manual and non-manual parameters to yield better results in classification and recognition of signs. Signer independent action aims in using a single web camera for different signer behaviour patterns and for cross-signer validation. Experimental results have proved that the proposed signer independent subunit level modelling for sign language classification and recognition has shown improvement and variations when compared with other existing works.

  20. The Relationship between Learner Autonomy and Vocabulary Learning Strategies in Iranian EFL Learners with Different Language Proficiency Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Azimi Mohammad Abadi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Vocabulary learning is incredibly noteworthy to English language acquisition. It is unfeasible for a learner to communicate without the required vocabulary. In high education levels, learners are habitually forced to become autonomous and make conscious effort to learn vocabulary outside of the classroom. Consequently, the autonomy of the learners plays an important role in developing and enhancing their vocabulary. Learner autonomy is a huge assistance for learners in vocabulary learning since it provides the learners with numerous diverse privileges such as independency from teacher. The researcher investigated whether there is any statistically significant relationship between learner autonomy and vocabulary learning strategies use in Iranian EFL learners with different language proficiency levels. To meet the above purpose, a total number of 190 male and female EFL learners participated in this study. The methodology underlying this study was quantitative (thorough the administration of two questionnaires and two language proficiency test – TOEFL for advanced group, and Nelson for intermediate level. The quantitative data was analyzed using a set of correlational analysis revealing a significant positive correlation between learner autonomy and vocabulary learning strategies use in high proficient group, and a significant positive relationship between these two constructs in low proficient group, however not as strong as in the advanced group.

  1. Analysis of Item-Level Bias in the Bayley-III Language Subscales: The Validity and Utility of Standardized Language Assessment in a Multilingual Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Shaun K Y; Tham, Elaine K H; Magiati, Iliana; Sim, Litwee; Sanmugam, Shamini; Qiu, Anqi; Daniel, Mary L; Broekman, Birit F P; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne

    2017-09-18

    The purpose of this study was to improve standardized language assessments among bilingual toddlers by investigating and removing the effects of bias due to unfamiliarity with cultural norms or a distributed language system. The Expressive and Receptive Bayley-III language scales were adapted for use in a multilingual country (Singapore). Differential item functioning (DIF) was applied to data from 459 two-year-olds without atypical language development. This involved investigating if the probability of success on each item varied according to language exposure while holding latent language ability, gender, and socioeconomic status constant. Associations with language, behavioral, and emotional problems were also examined. Five of 16 items showed DIF, 1 of which may be attributed to cultural bias and another to a distributed language system. The remaining 3 items favored toddlers with higher bilingual exposure. Removal of DIF items reduced associations between language scales and emotional and language problems, but improved the validity of the expressive scale from poor to good. Our findings indicate the importance of considering cultural and distributed language bias in standardized language assessments. We discuss possible mechanisms influencing performance on items favoring bilingual exposure, including the potential role of inhibitory processing.

  2. THE ‘UNFORGETTABLE’ EXPERIENCE OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE ANXIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morana Drakulić

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Foreign language anxiety (FLA has long been recognized as a factor that hinders the process of foreign language learning at all levels. Among numerous FLA sources identified in the literature, language classroom seems to be of particular interest and significance, especially in the formal language learning context, where the course and the teacher are often the only representatives of language. The main purpose of the study is to determine the presence and potential sources of foreign language anxiety among first year university students and to explore how high anxiety levels shape and affect students’ foreign language learning experience. In the study both the questionnaire and the interviews were used as the data collection methods. Thematic analysis of the interviews and descriptive statistics suggest that most anxiety-provoking situations stem from the language classroom itself.

  3. An intelligent tutoring system that generates a natural language dialogue using dynamic multi-level planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Chong Woo; Evens, Martha W; Freedman, Reva; Glass, Michael; Shim, Leem Seop; Zhang, Yuemei; Zhou, Yujian; Michael, Joel

    2006-09-01

    The objective of this research was to build an intelligent tutoring system capable of carrying on a natural language dialogue with a student who is solving a problem in physiology. Previous experiments have shown that students need practice in qualitative causal reasoning to internalize new knowledge and to apply it effectively and that they learn by putting their ideas into words. Analysis of a corpus of 75 hour-long tutoring sessions carried on in keyboard-to-keyboard style by two professors of physiology at Rush Medical College tutoring first-year medical students provided the rules used in tutoring strategies and tactics, parsing, and text generation. The system presents the student with a perturbation to the blood pressure, asks for qualitative predictions of the changes produced in seven important cardiovascular variables, and then launches a dialogue to correct any errors and to probe for possible misconceptions. The natural language understanding component uses a cascade of finite-state machines. The generation is based on lexical functional grammar. Results of experiments with pretests and posttests have shown that using the system for an hour produces significant learning gains and also that even this brief use improves the student's ability to solve problems more then reading textual material on the topic. Student surveys tell us that students like the system and feel that they learn from it. The system is now in regular use in the first-year physiology course at Rush Medical College. We conclude that the CIRCSIM-Tutor system demonstrates that intelligent tutoring systems can implement effective natural language dialogue with current language technology.

  4. New Levels of Language Processing Complexity and Organization Revealed by Granger Causation

    OpenAIRE

    Gow, David W.; Caplan, David N.

    2012-01-01

    Granger causation analysis of high spatiotemporal resolution reconstructions of brain activation offers a new window on the dynamic interactions between brain areas that support language processing. Premised on the observation that causes both precede and uniquely predict their effects, this approach provides an intuitive, model-free means of identifying directed causal interactions in the brain. It requires the analysis of all non-redundant potentially interacting signals, and has shown that...

  5. Teaching Computer Languages and Elementary Theory for Mixed Audiences at University Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2004-01-01

    Theoretical issues of computer science are traditionally taught in a way that presupposes a solid mathematical background and are usually considered more or less unaccessible for students without this. An effective methodology is described which has been developed for a target group of university...... into a learning-by-doing approach having the students to develop such descriptions themselves from an informal introduction....

  6. Teaching Computer Languages and Elementary Theory for Mixed Audiences at University Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    Theoretical issues of computer science are traditionally taught in a way that presupposes a solid mathematical background and are usually considered more or less unaccessible for students without this. An effective methodology is described which has been developed for a target group of university...... into a learning-by-doing approach having the students to develop such descriptions themselves from an informal introduction....

  7. Understanding the inheritors: The perception of beginning-level students toward their Spanish as a Heritage Language program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damián Vergara Wilson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available How do students perceive their Spanish as a Heritage Language (SHL program at a large southwestern university? Student perceptions of their language classes may be linked to affective needs and motivation (Tse, 2000 and a resolution of the potential mismatch between the perceptions of educators and students can lead to greater engagement and student satisfaction (Beaudrie, 2015. This study reports on the perspective of beginning-level students in 35 interviews conducted by the authors in order to gain insight into how participants conceive of the SHL program. The findings show that the participants respond positively to and comprehend the value of a pedagogical approach that values students’ home varieties. They also recognize both the social importance and pedagogical potential of exploring bilingual community practices, such as code-switching. The findings support an approach that fosters engagement with the participants’ speech communities as a valuable source of linguistic and cultural input.

  8. Developing media and information literacy education to improve foreign language learning : working with Internet resources at advanced levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Górecka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to discuss the relevance of media and information education in language learning at advanced levels. The present paper is based on the empirical data obtained during the action-research conducted with the Romance philology students attending the course of French as a foreign language. The main object of the research is to establish to what degree an oral argumentation task, preceded by the task of planning the discussion on Wiki is considered to be a learning situation by students themselves. The research focuses on a selected aspect of the learning process, namely, on the use of media resources while negotiating the discussion outline and specifically, while negotiating its topic, objectives and its cognitive value. The principal conclusions indicate 1 that the task scenario should be based on the critical and dialogical approach to media and 2 that this kind of instruction can reinforce the argumentative dimension of the discussion.

  9. The Effect of Target Language and Code-Switching on the Grammatical Performance and Perceptions of Elementary-Level College French Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viakinnou-Brinson, Lucie; Herron, Carol; Cole, Steven P.; Haight, Carrie

    2012-01-01

    Grammar instruction is at the center of the target language (TL) and code-switching debate. Discussion revolves around whether grammar should be taught in the TL or using the TL and the native language (L1). This study investigated the effects of French-only grammar instruction and French/English grammar instruction on elementary-level students'…

  10. Detailed description of an SSAC at the facility level for on-load refueled power reactor facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.J.

    1985-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a detailed description of a system for the accounting for and control of nuclear material in an on-load refueled power reactor facility which can be used by a facility operator to establish his own system to comply with a national system for nuclear material accounting and control and to facilitate application of IAEA safeguards. The scope of this document is limited to descriptions of the following SSAC elements: (1) Nuclear Material Measurements; (2) Measurement Quality; (3) Records and Reports; (4) Physical Inventory Taking; (5) Material Balance Closing

  11. Detecting Source Code Plagiarism on .NET Programming Languages using Low-level Representation and Adaptive Local Alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Karnalim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though there are various source code plagiarism detection approaches, only a few works which are focused on low-level representation for deducting similarity. Most of them are only focused on lexical token sequence extracted from source code. In our point of view, low-level representation is more beneficial than lexical token since its form is more compact than the source code itself. It only considers semantic-preserving instructions and ignores many source code delimiter tokens. This paper proposes a source code plagiarism detection which rely on low-level representation. For a case study, we focus our work on .NET programming languages with Common Intermediate Language as its low-level representation. In addition, we also incorporate Adaptive Local Alignment for detecting similarity. According to Lim et al, this algorithm outperforms code similarity state-of-the-art algorithm (i.e. Greedy String Tiling in term of effectiveness. According to our evaluation which involves various plagiarism attacks, our approach is more effective and efficient when compared with standard lexical-token approach.

  12. Performance/Design Requirements and Detailed Technical Description for a Computer-Directed Training Subsystem for Integration into the Air Force Phase II Base Level System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, A. K.; And Others

    The performance/design requirements and a detailed technical description for a Computer-Directed Training Subsystem to be integrated into the Air Force Phase II Base Level System are described. The subsystem may be used for computer-assisted lesson construction and has presentation capability for on-the-job training for data automation, staff, and…

  13. Language Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Paul

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the role of linguistics in the investigation of language disorders, focusing on the application of phonetics, descriptive grammatic frameworks, grammatical theory, and concepts from semantics and pragmatics to a variety of disorders and their remediation. Some trends and examples from the field of clinical linguistics are discussed. (GLR)

  14. Proceedings of the International Workshop on High-Level Language Computer Architecture, May 26-28, 1980, Fort Lauderdale, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    primitive, speed languages, all of which contribute negatively to increases approaching that of a ’truly’ high-level the economics of data processing...for the direct dlude vector tunctiona. it was indicated that the processor, it was shoam that 2816 speed gain over maximum MPU per formance is 22 "eA...strictly ’ local. economical way of changing access lists, since it 147 .. . ..".’ ’. .".". . I, rv -’ M WJ, 11 1 P is done at zero cost in conjunction

  15. HI-VISUAL: A language supporting visual interaction in programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monden, N.; Yoshino, Y.; Hirakawa, M.; Tanaka, M.; Ichikawa, T.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a language named HI-VISUAL which supports visual interaction in programming. Following a brief description of the language concept, the icon semantics and language primitives characterizing HI-VISUAL are extensively discussed. HI-VISUAL also shows a system extensively discussed. HI-VISUAL also shows a system extendability providing the possibility of organizing a high level application system as an integration of several existing subsystems, and will serve to developing systems in various fields of applications supporting simple and efficient interactions between programmer and computer. In this paper, the authors have presented a language named HI-VISUAL. Following a brief description of the language concept, the icon semantics and language primitives characterizing HI-VISUAL were extensively discussed

  16. English Word-Level Decoding and Oral Language Factors as Predictors of Third and Fifth Grade English Language Learners' Reading Comprehension Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, Laura L.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the application of the Simple View of Reading (SVR), a reading comprehension theory focusing on word recognition and linguistic comprehension, to English Language Learners' (ELLs') English reading development. This study examines the concurrent and predictive validity of two components of the SVR, oral language and word-level…

  17. Detailed description of an SSAC at the facility level for light water moderated (off-load refueled) power reactor facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.J.

    1985-03-01

    This report is intended to provide the technical details of an effective State Systems of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material (SSAC) which Member States may use, if they wish, to establish and maintain their SSACs. It is expected that systems designed along the lines described would be effective in meeting the objectives of both national and international systems for nuclear material accounting and control. This document accordingly provides a detailed description of a system for the accounting for and control of nuclear material in an off-load refueled light water moderated power reactor facility which can be used by a facility operator to establish his own system to comply with a national system for nuclear material accounting and control and to facilitate application of IAEA safeguards. The scope of this document is limited to descriptions of the following elements: (1) Nuclear Material Measurements; (2) Measurement Quality; (3) Records and Reports; (4) Physical Inventory Taking; (5) Material Balance Closing

  18. The Pearl Side of Online Portfolios: A Descriptive Study on the Rich Experience of Using PearlTrees by Master Students of Teaching English as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaiz, Tahany

    2016-01-01

    Teaching English to ESL teachers is a challenging task for a number of reasons, the lack of connection between the target language and the native one being one of the most challenging factors (Ferlazzo & Sypnieski, 2013). Therefore, teachers are supposed to be innovators in creating the tools that could boost the learning process, as well as…

  19. Language Skills and Level of Experience among Arabic-Speaking Healthcare Interpreters in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Itani, Nada; Khalil, Mohammad; Sodemann, Morten

    2017-01-01

    services has recently been discussed by politicians and the media. The present explorative study investigated the sociodemographic characteristics, level of experience and linguistic skills of Arabic-speaking healthcare interpreters in Denmark. Method: Snowball sampling (including social media) was used...

  20. Second language learners’ reflections on the effectiveness of dictogloss: A multi-sectional, multi-level analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Gallego

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the extensive research conducted regarding Focus on Form instruction, no conclusive results have been provided concerning (a the issue of which techniques contribute most effectively to L2 acquisition, and b at which level of proficiency those techniques should be implemented for best results. Dictogloss, one of these techniques, has been proven to be effective (Fortune, 2005; Kowal & Swain, 1994; Malmqvist, 2005; Nabei, 1996; Swain, 1998. While previous studies evaluating dictogloss explored feedback opportunities and the amount and type of language related episodes produced, fewer studies have reported on the effectiveness and its applicability according to proficiency level (Fortune, 2005; García Mayo, 2002 and none have explored learners’ conceptions about the task. Therefore, this study seeks to determine which proficiency level might be most appropriate for the implementation of dictogloss and to gather learners’ opinions regarding its usefulness and effectiveness. A total of 497 participants enrolled in novice-mid (N = 275 and advanced-low (N = 222 levels took part in the study. All participants engaged in two dictogloss tasks and completed a survey afterwards. Overall, results indicate that dictogloss was better received by advanced-low level students and that most students found it both useful and effective for learning.

  1. Family Ratings of Communication Largely Reflect Expressive Language and Conversation-Level Ability in People With Aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucetola, Robert; Tabor Connor, Lisa

    2015-11-01

    Family ratings of communication and social interactions represent an important source of information about people with aphasia. Because of the reliance on family/partner ratings as an outcome measure in many aphasia treatment studies and in the clinic, there is a great need for the validation of commonly used family/partner rating measures, and a better understanding of predictors of family ratings of communication. The communication ability of 130 individuals with aphasia due to neurologic illness was rated by family members/partners on the Communicative Effectiveness Index (CETI; Lomas et al., 1989). Information on aphasia severity, mood, quality of life, nonverbal cognitive functioning, and various demographic factors was collected. Principal component analysis confirmed a 2-factor model best represents the relationships among CETI rating items, and this model largely consists of a conversation-level ability factor. Family ratings were largely predicted by the patient's expressive (not receptive) language but also patient self-perceived quality of communication life. Family/partners typically rate the effectiveness of communication based largely on expressive language, despite the fact that other aspects of the aphasia (e.g., listening comprehension) are as important for everyday communication.

  2. Interpretation and use of the 5-level EQ-5D response labels varied with survey language among Asians in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Nan; Wang, Ye; How, Choon How; Tay, Ee Guan; Thumboo, Julian; Herdman, Michael

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the comparability of the English, Chinese, and Malay versions of the 5-level EQ-5D (EQ-5D-5L) response labels in Singapore. Visitors to a primary care institution in Singapore (n = 743) were asked to complete two exercises: (1) rating the severity of the EQ-5D-5L response labels presented in English, Chinese, or Malay using a 0-100 numeric rating scale and (2) using the labels to describe various hypothetical health problems. Label ratings and choices between language versions were compared using regression analysis. Perceived severity of the English and Chinese labels was similar. Compared with their English counterparts, the Malay label "slight(ly)" was rated as more severe (adjusted mean difference: 10.5 to 14.5) and "unable"/"extreme(ly)" as less severe (adjusted mean difference: -13.3 to -11.0) (P language versions of the instrument. Future studies need to investigate ways to reduce the variations and increase the cross-cultural measurement equivalence of the instrument. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Intervention Techniques Used With Autism Spectrum Disorder by Speech-Language Pathologists in the United States and Taiwan: A Descriptive Analysis of Practice in Clinical Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ming-Yeh; Lynch, Georgina; Madison, Charles

    2018-04-27

    This study examined intervention techniques used with children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) by speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in the United States and Taiwan working in clinic/hospital settings. The research questions addressed intervention techniques used with children with ASD, intervention techniques used with different age groups (under and above 8 years old), and training received before using the intervention techniques. The survey was distributed through the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association to selected SLPs across the United States. In Taiwan, the survey (Chinese version) was distributed through the Taiwan Speech-Language Pathologist Union, 2018, to certified SLPs. Results revealed that SLPs in the United States and Taiwan used 4 common intervention techniques: Social Skill Training, Augmentative and Alternative Communication, Picture Exchange Communication System, and Social Stories. Taiwanese SLPs reported SLP preparation program training across these common intervention strategies. In the United States, SLPs reported training via SLP preparation programs, peer therapists, and self-taught. Most SLPs reported using established or emerging evidence-based practices as defined by the National Professional Development Center (2014) and the National Standards Report (2015). Future research should address comparison of SLP preparation programs to examine the impact of preprofessional training on use of evidence-based practices to treat ASD.

  4. Detailed description of an SSAC at the facility level for a low-enriched uranium conversion and fuel fabrication facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.J.

    1984-09-01

    Some States have expressed a need for more detailed guidance with regard to the technical elements in the design and operation of SSACs for both the national and the international objectives. To meet this need the present document has been prepared, describing the technical elements of an SSAC in considerable detail. The purpose of this document is therefore, to provide a detailed description of a system for the accounting for and control of nuclear material in a model low enriched uranium conversion and fuel fabrication facility which can be used by a facility operator to establish his own system in a way which will provide the necessary information for compliance with a national system for nuclear material accounting and control and for the IAEA to carry out its safeguards responsibilities

  5. Language Training: Anglais

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. Writing Professional Documents in English This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken English. Duration: 2 hours a week between 26 April and 1 July 2004. Timetable: Thursdays 12.00 to 14.00 Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students and 20 hours) For registration and further information, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow: tel. 72957 FORMATION EN LANGUES LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 language.training@cern.ch

  6. Computer language evaluation for MFTF SCDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.E.; McGoldrick, P.R.; Wyman, R.H.

    1979-01-01

    The computer languages available for the systems and application implementation on the Supervisory Control and Diagnostics System (SCDS) for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) were surveyed and evaluated. Four language processors, CAL (Common Assembly Language), Extended FORTRAN, CORAL 66, and Sequential Pascal (SPASCAL, a subset of Concurrent Pascal [CPASCAL]) are commercially available for the Interdata 7/32 and 8/32 computers that constitute the SCDS. Of these, the Sequential Pascal available from Kansas State University appears best for the job in terms of minimizing the implementation time, debugging time, and maintenance time. This improvement in programming productivity is due to the availability of a high-level, block-structured language that includes many compile-time and run-time checks to detect errors. In addition, the advanced data-types in language allow easy description of the program variables. 1 table

  7. English language proficiency and other factors influencing mathematics achievement at junior secondary level in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howie, Sarah J.; Plomp, T.

    2001-01-01

    South Africa participated in the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS)in 1995 and its repeat in 1999. In 1995, none of the data on school or teacher level could be analyzed to provide the context for the students' poor achievements in mathematics and science. With the 1999 data

  8. Academic Writing for Graduate-Level English as a Second Language Students: Experiences in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidman-Taveau, Rebekah; Karathanos-Aguilar, Katya

    2015-01-01

    Graduate-level ESL students in Education are future multicultural educators and promising role models for our diverse K-12 students. However, many of these students struggle with academic English and, in particular, writing. Yet little research or program development addresses the specific writing-support needs of this group. This article shares…

  9. Spelling across Tasks and Levels of Language in a Transparent Orthography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigozzi, Lucia; Tarchi, Christian; Pinto, Giuliana

    The paper reports the results of two studies on the spelling performance of 1st graders in a transparent writing system. The spelling performance of Italian children was assessed to determine the cross-task relationship between spelling to dictation and spontaneous spelling at the single word level (Study 1) and at the text level (Study 2), respectively. In study 1, 132 Italian children's spelling performance was assessed in 1st grade through two standardized tasks, i.e., word dictation, and spontaneous word spelling. In study 2, spelling performance of 81 Italian children was assessed in 1st grade through two tasks, i.e., text dictation, and spontaneous text spelling. In Study 1, spelling words and pseudo-words to dictation was found to be more difficult than spontaneous spelling of words. This effect was verified for all children (including low achievers and spelling impaired). The moderate correlation found between spelling to dictation and spontaneous spelling indicated that the two tasks are supported by partially different spelling processes and confirmed suggestions for including both types of spelling assessments in the school. In Study 2, children's spelling performances were not dependent across the two tasks (i.e., spelling a text under dictation or spontaneously). The two tasks shared the level of difficulty but performance in one task was not predictive of performance in the second task. Strong individual differences between children were found at the text level as a function of task. Similar to Study 1, the moderate correlation between spelling text to dictation and spontaneous spelling confirmed the usefulness of adopting both spelling assessments at school.

  10. Spelling across Tasks and Levels of Language in a Transparent Orthography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Bigozzi

    Full Text Available The paper reports the results of two studies on the spelling performance of 1st graders in a transparent writing system. The spelling performance of Italian children was assessed to determine the cross-task relationship between spelling to dictation and spontaneous spelling at the single word level (Study 1 and at the text level (Study 2, respectively. In study 1, 132 Italian children's spelling performance was assessed in 1st grade through two standardized tasks, i.e., word dictation, and spontaneous word spelling. In study 2, spelling performance of 81 Italian children was assessed in 1st grade through two tasks, i.e., text dictation, and spontaneous text spelling. In Study 1, spelling words and pseudo-words to dictation was found to be more difficult than spontaneous spelling of words. This effect was verified for all children (including low achievers and spelling impaired. The moderate correlation found between spelling to dictation and spontaneous spelling indicated that the two tasks are supported by partially different spelling processes and confirmed suggestions for including both types of spelling assessments in the school. In Study 2, children's spelling performances were not dependent across the two tasks (i.e., spelling a text under dictation or spontaneously. The two tasks shared the level of difficulty but performance in one task was not predictive of performance in the second task. Strong individual differences between children were found at the text level as a function of task. Similar to Study 1, the moderate correlation between spelling text to dictation and spontaneous spelling confirmed the usefulness of adopting both spelling assessments at school.

  11. Language arts achievement level, attitude survey format, and adolescents' attitudes towards reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L R; Ryan, B E

    1997-01-01

    The joint effects of student achievement level and attitude survey format upon attitudes toward reading were investigated. Sixth-grade students completed reading attitude surveys involving a standard Likert-type format or one involving pictures of the comic strip character, Garfield. The survey items were identical for both formats; only the presentation format was varied. There was no significant main effect on attitude responses due to achievement level, but the main effect due to survey format was significant, with the Likert-type format producing significantly higher attitude responses than the Garfield format. The interaction between achievement level and format also was significant, with above average students and average students giving higher attitude responses than did below average students when the Garfield format was used. When the Likert-type format was used, average students and below average students gave higher attitude responses than did above average students. The results imply that attitude responses of adolescents can be manipulated by varying the format of the survey.

  12. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) Level 3 Package: Qualitative Models, Version 1, Release 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouiya, Claudine; Keating, Sarah M; Berenguier, Duncan; Naldi, Aurélien; Thieffry, Denis; van Iersel, Martijn P; Le Novère, Nicolas; Helikar, Tomáš

    2015-09-04

    Quantitative methods for modelling biological networks require an in-depth knowledge of the biochemical reactions and their stoichiometric and kinetic parameters. In many practical cases, this knowledge is missing. This has led to the development of several qualitative modelling methods using information such as, for example, gene expression data coming from functional genomic experiments. The SBML Level 3 Version 1 Core specification does not provide a mechanism for explicitly encoding qualitative models, but it does provide a mechanism for SBML packages to extend the Core specification and add additional syntactical constructs. The SBML Qualitative Models package for SBML Level 3 adds features so that qualitative models can be directly and explicitly encoded. The approach taken in this package is essentially based on the definition of regulatory or influence graphs. The SBML Qualitative Models package defines the structure and syntax necessary to describe qualitative models that associate discrete levels of activities with entity pools and the transitions between states that describe the processes involved. This is particularly suited to logical models (Boolean or multi-valued) and some classes of Petri net models can be encoded with the approach.

  13. XML Diagnostics Description Standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neto, A.; Fernandes, H.; Varandas, C.; Lister, J.; Yonekawa, I.

    2006-01-01

    A standard for the self-description of fusion plasma diagnostics will be presented, based on the Extensible Markup Language (XML). The motivation is to maintain and organise the information on all the components of a laboratory experiment, from the hardware to the access security, to save time and money when problems arises. Since there is no existing standard to organise this kind of information, every Association stores and organises each experiment in different ways. This can lead to severe problems when the organisation schema is poorly documented or written in national languages. The exchange of scientists, researchers and engineers between laboratories is a common practice nowadays. Sometimes they have to install new diagnostics or to update existing ones and frequently they lose a great deal of time trying to understand the currently installed system. The most common problems are: no documentation available; the person who understands it has left; documentation written in the national language. Standardisation is the key to solving all the problems mentioned. From the commercial information on the diagnostic (component supplier; component price) to the hardware description (component specifications; drawings) to the operation of the equipment (finite state machines) through change control (who changed what and when) and internationalisation (information at least in the native language and in English), a common XML schema will be proposed. This paper will also discuss an extension of these ideas to the self-description of ITER plant systems, since the problems will be identical. (author)

  14. Interim oceanographic description of the North-East Atlantic site for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurbutt, P.A.; Dickson, R.R.

    1983-01-01

    Within the terms of the Surveillance Mechanism for Sea Dumping of Radioactive Wastes, NEA is requested to assess the suitability of dumping sites proposed by Participating countries and to keep under review those previously thought suitable. The aim of this volume is to provide a further interim description of the North-East Atlantic dumpsite itself. Quantities of known wastes dumpings are summarized. A review of the available data on sediment distribution in the area is presented. The flow field at the site is described so that an experiment to determine the influence on the deep flow of large scale topographic features at the dumpsite. The tide gauge results are briefly presented. The state of knowledge of the hydrographic and chemical conditions prior to 1977 is reviewed; recent results are added. The results of the radioactivity determination in the surface layer (3cm thick) of box cored sediments and the vertical radioactivity profiles are presented in tables. Some results on adsorption and geochemical partitioning of long-lived radionuclides on dumpsite sediments are briefly reviewed. Biological studies have been undertaken: concentration of radionuclides in biological materials, radiation effects on the dumpsite fauna. A dose-limit (critical group) calculation model is presented. Collective dose commitment and mass transfer are briefly discussed. The concentration of radionuclides in sediments and some organisms of the Bay of Biscay has been evaluated. Some isopycnal data for the eastern Atlantic, windstress and stratification are briefly mentioned

  15. Antipsychotic Medication in Children and Adolescents : A Descriptive Review of the Effects on Prolactin Level and Associated Side Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roke, Yvette; van Harten, Peter N.; Boot, Annemieke M.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    Objective: This review reports the incidence of hyperprolactinemia, its relationship with genotype, and prolactin-related side effects in children and adolescents treated with antipsychotics. Method: Data on prolactin levels were available for haloperidol, pimozide, risperidone, olanzapine,

  16. Antipsychotic medication in children and adolescents: a descriptive review of the effects on prolactin level and associated side effects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roke, Y.; Harten, P.N. van; Boot, A.M.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This review reports the incidence of hyperprolactinemia, its relationship with genotype, and prolactin-related side effects in children and adolescents treated with antipsychotics. METHOD: Data on prolactin levels were available for haloperidol, pimozide, risperidone, olanzapine,

  17. Technical baseline description of high-level waste and low-activity waste feed mobilization and delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papp, I.G.

    1997-01-01

    This document is a compilation of information related to the high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) feed staging, mobilization, and transfer/delivery issues. Information relevant to current Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) inventories and activities designed to feed the Phase I Privatization effort at the Hanford Site is included. Discussions on the higher level Phase II activities are offered for a perspective on the interfaces

  18. A Species-Level Phylogeny of Extant Snakes with Description of a New Colubrid Subfamily and Genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Alex; McKelvy, Alexander D; Grismer, L Lee; Bell, Charles D; Lailvaux, Simon P

    2016-01-01

    With over 3,500 species encompassing a diverse range of morphologies and ecologies, snakes make up 36% of squamate diversity. Despite several attempts at estimating higher-level snake relationships and numerous assessments of generic- or species-level phylogenies, a large-scale species-level phylogeny solely focusing on snakes has not been completed. Here, we provide the largest-yet estimate of the snake tree of life using maximum likelihood on a supermatrix of 1745 taxa (1652 snake species + 7 outgroup taxa) and 9,523 base pairs from 10 loci (5 nuclear, 5 mitochondrial), including previously unsequenced genera (2) and species (61). Increased taxon sampling resulted in a phylogeny with a new higher-level topology and corroborate many lower-level relationships, strengthened by high nodal support values (> 85%) down to the species level (73.69% of nodes). Although the majority of families and subfamilies were strongly supported as monophyletic with > 88% support values, some families and numerous genera were paraphyletic, primarily due to limited taxon and loci sampling leading to a sparse supermatrix and minimal sequence overlap between some closely-related taxa. With all rogue taxa and incertae sedis species eliminated, higher-level relationships and support values remained relatively unchanged, except in five problematic clades. Our analyses resulted in new topologies at higher- and lower-levels; resolved several previous topological issues; established novel paraphyletic affiliations; designated a new subfamily, Ahaetuliinae, for the genera Ahaetulla, Chrysopelea, Dendrelaphis, and Dryophiops; and appointed Hemerophis (Coluber) zebrinus to a new genus, Mopanveldophis. Although we provide insight into some distinguished problematic nodes, at the deeper phylogenetic scale, resolution of these nodes may require sampling of more slowly-evolving nuclear genes.

  19. Seasonal Variation in Objectively Assessed Physical Activity among Young Norwegian Talented Soccer Players: A Description of Daily Physical Activity Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig A. Sæther, Nils P. Aspvik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available ‘Practise makes perfect’ is a well-known expression in most sports, including top-level soccer. However, a high training and match load increases the risk for injury, overtraining and burnout. With the use of accelerometers and a self-report questionnaire, the aim of this study was to describe talented players’ physical activity (PA level. Data were collected three times during the 2011 Norwegian Football season (March, June and October. The accelerometer output, counts·min–1 (counts per unit time registered, reports the daily PA-level for young talented soccer players. Results showed a stable PA-level across the season (March: 901.2 counts·min–1, June: 854.9 counts·min–1, October: 861.5 counts·min–1. Furthermore, comparison of five different training sessions across the season showed that the PA-level ranged from 2435.8 to 3745.4 counts·min–1. A one-way ANOVA showed no significant differences between the three measured weeks during the soccer season (p≤0.814. However, the training sessions in January had a significantly higher PA-level than those in June and October (p≤0.001. Based on these results, we discuss how potential implications of PA-level affect factors such as risk of injury, overtraining and burnout. We argue that player development must be seen as part of an overall picture in which club training and match load should be regarded as one of many variables influencing players’ PA-level.

  20. A Species-Level Phylogeny of Extant Snakes with Description of a New Colubrid Subfamily and Genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvy, Alexander D.; Grismer, L. Lee; Bell, Charles D.; Lailvaux, Simon P.

    2016-01-01

    Background With over 3,500 species encompassing a diverse range of morphologies and ecologies, snakes make up 36% of squamate diversity. Despite several attempts at estimating higher-level snake relationships and numerous assessments of generic- or species-level phylogenies, a large-scale species-level phylogeny solely focusing on snakes has not been completed. Here, we provide the largest-yet estimate of the snake tree of life using maximum likelihood on a supermatrix of 1745 taxa (1652 snake species + 7 outgroup taxa) and 9,523 base pairs from 10 loci (5 nuclear, 5 mitochondrial), including previously unsequenced genera (2) and species (61). Results Increased taxon sampling resulted in a phylogeny with a new higher-level topology and corroborate many lower-level relationships, strengthened by high nodal support values (> 85%) down to the species level (73.69% of nodes). Although the majority of families and subfamilies were strongly supported as monophyletic with > 88% support values, some families and numerous genera were paraphyletic, primarily due to limited taxon and loci sampling leading to a sparse supermatrix and minimal sequence overlap between some closely-related taxa. With all rogue taxa and incertae sedis species eliminated, higher-level relationships and support values remained relatively unchanged, except in five problematic clades. Conclusion Our analyses resulted in new topologies at higher- and lower-levels; resolved several previous topological issues; established novel paraphyletic affiliations; designated a new subfamily, Ahaetuliinae, for the genera Ahaetulla, Chrysopelea, Dendrelaphis, and Dryophiops; and appointed Hemerophis (Coluber) zebrinus to a new genus, Mopanveldophis. Although we provide insight into some distinguished problematic nodes, at the deeper phylogenetic scale, resolution of these nodes may require sampling of more slowly-evolving nuclear genes. PMID:27603205

  1. Seasonal Variation in Objectively Assessed Physical Activity among Young Norwegian Talented Soccer Players: A Description of Daily Physical Activity Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sæther, Stig A; Aspvik, Nils P

    2014-12-01

    'Practise makes perfect' is a well-known expression in most sports, including top-level soccer. However, a high training and match load increases the risk for injury, overtraining and burnout. With the use of accelerometers and a self-report questionnaire, the aim of this study was to describe talented players' physical activity (PA) level. Data were collected three times during the 2011 Norwegian Football season (March, June and October). The accelerometer output, counts·min(-1) (counts per unit time registered), reports the daily PA-level for young talented soccer players. Results showed a stable PA-level across the season (March: 901.2 counts·min(-1), June: 854.9 counts·min(-1), October: 861.5 counts·min(-1)). Furthermore, comparison of five different training sessions across the season showed that the PA-level ranged from 2435.8 to 3745.4 counts·min(-1). A one-way ANOVA showed no significant differences between the three measured weeks during the soccer season (p≤0.814). However, the training sessions in January had a significantly higher PA-level than those in June and October (p≤0.001). Based on these results, we discuss how potential implications of PA-level affect factors such as risk of injury, overtraining and burnout. We argue that player development must be seen as part of an overall picture in which club training and match load should be regarded as one of many variables influencing players' PA-level. Key pointsIt is well established that to achieve a high performance level in sport, one must implement a high training and match load in childhood and youth.With the use of accelerometers and a self-reported questionnaire, the aim of this study was to describe talented players' total physical activity (PA) load.These results indicate that young talented soccer players must overcome large doses of PA on a weekly basis, exposing them to a high risk of injury, overtraining and burnout.

  2. WebWorkFlow : An Object-Oriented Workflow Modeling Language for Web Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemel, Z.; Verhaaf, R.; Visser, E.

    2008-01-01

    Preprint of paper published in: MODELS 2008 - International Conference on Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 5301, 2008; doi:10.1007/978-3-540-87875-9_8 Workflow languages are designed for the high-level description of processes and are typically not

  3. Social Positioning, Participation, and Second Language Learning: Talkative Students in an Academic ESL Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayi-Aydar, Hayriye

    2014-01-01

    Guided by positioning theory and poststructural views of second language learning, the two descriptive case studies presented in this article explored the links between social positioning and the language learning experiences of two talkative students in an academic ESL classroom. Focusing on the macro- and micro-level contexts of communication,…

  4. Description logic rules

    CERN Document Server

    Krötzsch, M

    2010-01-01

    Ontological modelling today is applied in many areas of science and technology,including the Semantic Web. The W3C standard OWL defines one of the most important ontology languages based on the semantics of description logics. An alternative is to use rule languages in knowledge modelling, as proposed in the W3C's RIF standard. So far, it has often been unclear how to combine both technologies without sacrificing essential computational properties. This book explains this problem and presents new solutions that have recently been proposed. Extensive introductory chapters provide the necessary

  5. System-Level Shared Governance Structures and Processes in Healthcare Systems With Magnet®-Designated Hospitals: A Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Carlisa M; Hayne, Arlene N

    The purpose was to identify and describe structures and processes of best practices for system-level shared governance in healthcare systems. Currently, more than 64.6% of US community hospitals are part of a system. System chief nurse executives (SCNEs) are challenged to establish leadership structures and processes that effectively and efficiently disseminate best practices for patients and staff across complex organizations, geographically dispersed locations, and populations. Eleven US healthcare SCNEs from the American Nurses Credentialing Center's repository of Magnet®-designated facilities participated in a 35-multiquestion interview based on Kanter's Theory of Organizational Empowerment. Most SCNEs reported the presence of more than 50% of the empowerment structures and processes in system-level shared governance. Despite the difficulties and complexities of growing health systems, SCNEs have replicated empowerment characteristics of hospital shared governance structures and processes at the system level.

  6. arXiv Effective description of general extensions of the Standard Model: the complete tree-level dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    de Blas, J.; Perez-Victoria, M.; Santiago, J.

    2018-03-19

    We compute all the tree-level contributions to the Wilson coefficients of the dimension-six Standard-Model effective theory in ultraviolet completions with general scalar, spinor and vector field content and arbitrary interactions. No assumption about the renormalizability of the high-energy theory is made. This provides a complete ultraviolet/infrared dictionary at the classical level, which can be used to study the low-energy implications of any model of interest, and also to look for explicit completions consistent with low-energy data.

  7. Neutron-capture gamma-ray study of levels in 135Ba and description of nuclear levels in the interacting-boson-fermion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrien, R.E.; Koene, B.K.S.; Stelts, M.L.; Meyer, R.A.; Brant, S.; Paar, V.; Lopac, V.

    1993-01-01

    We have performed neutron-capture gamma-ray studies on natural and enriched targets of 134 Ba in order to investigate the nuclear levels of 135 Ba. The low-energy level spectra were compared with the calculations using the interacting-boson-fermion model (IBFM) and the cluster-vibration model. The level densities up to 5 MeV that are calculated within the IBFM are in accordance with the constant temperature Fermi gas model. From the spin distribution we have determined the corresponding spin cutoff parameter σ and compared it to the prediction from nuclear systematics

  8. Language Teachers’ Burnout and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboobeh Jamshidirad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of gender on the three burnout dimensions; emotional exhaustion (EE, depersonalization (DP and personal accomplishment (PA among English language teachers in Malaysia. This study was a quantitative survey study. The Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educators Survey (MBI-ES (Maslach, Jackson, & Schwab, 1986 was used to collect the data to determine the burnout levels of the teachers with respect to its three dimensions. These Data was collected from 28 English language teachers (50% female. Descriptive and inferential statistics including frequency, percentage, means, standard deviations, and t-test were used in the analysis. The results showed that gender was not a predictor of burnout in this sample. The study can have useful implications for educational administrators who deal with language teachers.

  9. Levels of anxiety in parents in the 24 hr before and after their child's surgery: A descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomicino, Laura; Maccacari, Elena; Buchini, Sara

    2018-01-01

    To (i) investigate pre- and postoperative anxiety levels in parents of surgical patients; (ii) identify factors that affect parental anxiety; and (iii) analyse assistance provided and overall parental satisfaction to assess whether and how this aspect can impact their anxiety level. Surgery as an event generates anxiety in children and their parents. Children who are anxious before surgery are likely to develop more postoperative psychological and physiological complications than those who are not. The role parents play in influencing emotional states of their children has been well demonstrated. However, specific national programmes aimed at helping parents develop new models for coping are relatively inexistent in Italy. Longitudinal study. One hundred and one parents of children undergoing surgery at a healthcare facility in Padua, Italy, completed the Italian version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Form Y questionnaire. They also answered questions about their parents' socio-demographic situation, the amount and quality of preoperative information received, assistance provided and their overall satisfaction with this information. The preoperative level of anxiety in parents who were interviewed was higher than Italian normative data, especially in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery and Pediatric Urology departments. Mothers had a significantly higher level of anxiety than fathers. Communicating possible complications of surgical procedures increased anxiety, while providing information about pre- and postsurgery nutrition and pain management and providing local anaesthetic on children decreased parental anxiety. Parents expressed a sufficiently high level of satisfaction although they defined the hospital environment as uncomfortable. Aspects of care that can make hospitalisation less traumatic for parents are as follows: greater support, involving them in the treatment process, improving hospital department admission procedures and providing thorough preoperative

  10. Language in education: The case of Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nababan, P. W. J.

    1991-03-01

    Although over 400 languages are spoken in Indonesia, by 1986 60% of the population had some competence in the Indonesian national language, a substantial increase over 1971. Bahasa Indonesia was declared the state language in the 1945 constitution, and reformed spelling was agreed in 1972. It is the sole medium of instruction, except in the first three grades of elementary school in nine regions, where vernaculars may be used transitionally. Thereafter vernaculars are taught as school subjects. Bilingualism, and even multilingualism in Indonesian and one or more vernaculars and/or foreign languages is increasing, and despite the use of Indonesian for official documentary purposes at all levels it does not appear that vernaculars are dying out, although their spheres of use are restricted. Bahasa Indonesia fulfils the four functions: cognitive, instrumental, integrative and cultural, while vernaculars are only integrative and cultural. The curriculum of Indonesian, established centrally, is pragmatic or communicative. It is expressed in a standard syllabus for course books. This approach equally applies to foreign languages, which are introduced at secondary level, although here receptive reading is given more weight than productive skills. A full description of the syllabus organization of the various languages is given. Nonformal language learning also takes place, in the national basic education and literacy programme, which teaches Bahasa Indonesia, and in vocational courses in foreign languages for commerce.

  11. Quantum logical description of microsystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stachow, E.-W.

    1984-01-01

    An abstract object language with respect to single microsystems and its pragmatic foundation are considered in a systematic way. The quantum physical restrictions of local operations of a speaker lead to a propositional language which, under certain conditions, can be referred to an individual microsystem. The time dependence of the propositions according to the measuring process is discussed. Finally the language is extended to a space-time description of microsystems. Hereby relativity imposes certain constraints on the validi ty regions of propositions in space-time. Via realization, the language establishes the essential features of quantum physics in Hilbert space. (author)

  12. Creativity in Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jack C.

    2013-01-01

    One quality among the many that characterize effective teachers is the ability to bring a creative disposition to teaching. In second language teaching, creativity has also been linked to levels of attainment in language learning. Many of the language tasks favored by contemporary language teaching methods are believed to release creativity in…

  13. SADE: system of acquisition of experimental data. Definition and analysis of an experiment description language; SADE: systeme d'acquisition de donnees experimentales. Definition et analyse d'un langage descripteur d'experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagniere, Jean-Michel

    1983-06-10

    This research thesis presents a computer system for the acquisition of experimental data. It is aimed at acquiring, at processing and at storing information from particle detectors. The acquisition configuration is described by an experiment description language. The system comprises a lexical analyser, a syntactic analyser, a translator, and a data processing module. It also comprises a control language and a statistics management and plotting module. The translator builds up series of tables which allow, during an experiment, different sequences to be executed: experiment running, calculations to be performed on this data, building up of statistics. Short execution time and ease of use are always looked for [French] Cette these presente un systeme informatique d'acquisition de donnees experimentales, dit S.A.D.E. Ce systeme est destine a acquerir, a traiter et a stocker les informations en provenance de detecteurs de particules. La configuration d'acquisition est decrite par un langage descripteur d'experiences. Le systeme comporte un analyseur lexical, un analyseur syntaxique, un traducteur et un module de traitement des donnees. Le systeme comporte egalement un langage de commande et un module de gestion et trace de statistiques. Le traducteur construit des series de tables, qui permettent, lors du deroulement d'une experience, l'execution des differentes sequences: lecture des donnees, calculs a effectuer sur ces donnees, construction des statistiques. Tout au long de la realisation, deux objectifs fondamentaux sont consideres: recherche de la rapidite d'execution et facilite d'utilisation. (auteur)

  14. Logic-programming language enriches design processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitson, B.; Ow-Wing, K.

    1984-03-22

    With the emergence of a set of high-level CAD tools for programmable logic devices, designers can translate logic into functional custom devices simply and efficiently. The core of the package is a blockstructured hardware description language called PLPL, for ''programmable-logic programming language.'' The cheif advantage of PLPL lies in its multiple input formats, which permit different design approaches for a variety of design problems. The higher the level of the approach, the closer PLPL will come to directly specifying the desired function. Intermediate steps in the design process can be eliminated, along with the errors that might have been generated during those steps.

  15. The Linguistic Interpretation for Language Union – Language Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Balalykina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper is dedicated to the problem of determination of the essence of language union and language family in modern linguistics, which is considered important, because these terms are often used as absolute synonyms. The research is relevant due to the need to distinguish the features of languages that are inherited during their functioning within either language union or language family when these languages are compared. The research has been carried out in order to present the historical background of the problem and to justify the need for differentiation of language facts that allow relating languages to particular language union or language family. In order to fulfill the goal of this work, descriptive, comparative, and historical methods have been used. A range of examples has been provided to prove that some languages, mainly Slavonic and Baltic languages, form a language family rather than a language union, because a whole number of features in their systems are the heritage of their common Indo-European past. Firstly, it is necessary to take into account changes having either common or different nature in the system of particular languages; secondly, one must have a precise idea of what features in the phonetic and morphological systems of compared languages allow to relate them to language union or language family; thirdly, it must be determined whether the changes in compared languages are regular or of any other type. On the basis of the obtained results, the following conclusions have been drawn: language union and language family are two different types of relations between modern languages; they allow identifying both degree of similarity of these languages and causes of differences between them. It is most important that one should distinguish and describe the specific features of two basic groups of languages forming language family or language union. The results obtained during the analysis are very important for linguistics

  16. Can I Hear You? A Descriptive Longitudinal Study of Hearing Levels of Aeromedical Technicians and Flight Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    flightline) and in flight. The acuity with which they can perceive sound is important to the determination and the communi- cation of the patient’s... Preschool child 60dB 69dB School child 77dB 77dB Housewife 64dB 67dB Office Wroker 72dB 70dB Factory Worker 87dB 87dB ii eq( 2 4 ) - average sound level for...work or home environment, Jansen and Klensch have shown that the audiological re- sponses to pleasant music and to unpleasant noise were similar

  17. Alternative methods for dispoal of low-level radioactive wastes. Task 1. Description of methods and assessment of criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, R.D.; Miller, W.O.; Warriner, J.B.; Malone, P.G.; McAneny, C.C.

    1984-04-01

    The study reported herein contains the results of Task 1 of a four-task study entitled Criteria for Evaluating Engineered Facilities. The overall objective of this study is to ensure that the criteria needed to evaluate five alternative low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal methods are available to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Agreement States. The alternative methods considered are belowground vaults, aboveground vaults, earth mounded concrete bunkers, mined cavities, and augered holes. Each of these alternatives is either being used by other countries for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal or is being considered by other countries or US agencies. In this report the performance requirements are listed, each alternative is described, the experience gained with its use is discussed, and the performance capabilities of each method are addressed. Next, the existing 10 CFR Part 61 Subpart D criteria with respect to paragraphs 61.50 through 61.53, pertaining to site suitability, design, operations and closure, and monitoring are assessed for applicability to evaluation of each alternative. Preliminary conclusions and recommendations are offered on each method's suitability as an LLW disposal alternative, the applicability of the criteria, and the need for supplemental or modified criteria

  18. Understanding the Role of Teaching Materials in a Beginners' Level English as a Foreign Language Course: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz Rondón, Elio Jesús; Velasco Vera, Leidy Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    Learning a foreign language may be a challenge for most people due to differences in the form and structure between one's mother tongue and a new one. However, there are some tools that facilitate the teaching and learning of a foreign language, for instance, new applications for digital devices, video blogs, educational platforms, and teaching…

  19. Word translation at three levels of proficiency in a second language: the ubiquitous involvement of conceptual memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, A.M.B.; Poot, R.

    1997-01-01

    Three groups of 20 unbalanced bilinguals, different from one another in second language (L2) fluency, translated one set of words from L1, Dutch, to L2, English (forward translation), and a second set of matched words from L2 to L1 (backward translation). In both language sets we orthogonally

  20. Hispanic Faces: An Exploratory Study of How University-Level Spanish Language Instruction Impacts Perceptions of Hispanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gordon, Maria Teresa; McDonough, Colleen; Palmerio-Roberts, Ramona

    2016-01-01

    Immigration and globalization have dramatically changed the ethnic landscape of the United States, yet stereotypes about race continue to exist. Foreign language classrooms are at the heart of teaching about diversity. We investigated whether undergraduates (with varying exposure to Spanish language education) could accurately identify the race of…

  1. Evalutive Descriptions of Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Lah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the fact that, throughout history, certain artworks have been considered as “worth of watching” (according to the Greek etymon ἀξιοϑέατος / aksioteatos, preservation, or theorizing, while others were not, one is led to investigate the various types of evaluative descriptions. Those artworks that are more valuable than others, or simply valuable in themselves on the basis of rather specific features, have always represented the paradigmatic model for the evaluator, thus revealing the identitary nature of value as different from one epoch to another. Our aim has been to discern, with regard to this starting point, the way in which the process of evaluating artworks fits the general matrix of the universal theory of value, with its clearly distinguished levels of evaluation, beginning with value descriptions, continuing through the features of evaluation or abstract qualities of values extracted from these descriptions, and ending with value norms or systems of accepted generalizations in evaluation. Value standpoints in such an evaluation matrix represent dispositions or preferences in procedures, which reflect the norms or signifying concepts of the time. Corresponding procedures, or applications of the hierarchicized signification of artworks, are manifested in all known forms of artwork assessment: attribution, institutionalization, and setting of priorities in terms of exhibition, conservation, acquisition, restoration, and so on. Research in the history of European art-historical ideas has corroborated the hypothesis that, prior to the late 18th century, clear normative patterns were applied when it came to the evaluation of artworks. However, with the emergence of early Romanticism, this could no longer be done in the traditional way. Before the period in question, visual art was created (regardless of some stylistic discrepancies between individual authors and classified according to well-defined thematic

  2. STAR - A computer language for hybrid AI applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchardt, G. C.

    1986-01-01

    Constructing Artificial Intelligence application systems which rely on both symbolic and non-symbolic processing places heavy demands on the communication of data between dissimilar languages. This paper describes STAR (Simple Tool for Automated Reasoning), a computer language for the development of AI application systems which supports the transfer of data structures between a symbolic level and a non-symbolic level defined in languages such as FORTRAN, C and PASCAL. The organization of STAR is presented, followed by the description of an application involving STAR in the interpretation of airborne imaging spectrometer data.

  3. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Quality Assurance Program description for defense high-level waste form development and qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hand, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the quality assurance (QA) program of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project. The purpose of the QA program is to control project activities in such a manner as to achieve the mission of the HWVP Project in a safe and reliable manner. A major aspect of the HWVP Project QA program is the control of activities that relate to high-level waste (HLW) form development and qualification. This document describes the program and planned actions the Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) will implement to demonstrate and ensure that the HWVP Project meets the US Department of Energy (DOE) and ASME regulations. The actions for meeting the requirements of the Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications (WAPS) will be implemented under the HWVP product qualification program with the objective of ensuring that the HWVP and its processes comply with the WAPS established by the federal repository

  4. Cd toxicity in Ash amended to plantations; the dilemma of different answers at different levels of description

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren; Ekelund, Flemming; Kjøller, Rasmus

    2018-01-01

    . Other more abundant cations like Zn regulate Cd uptake. Mycorrhiza reduce Cd uptake in several plants. In barley Cd gradually decrease from root via stem to seeds. In conclusion for ash amounts up to 10 t/ha, we do not find metal toxicity of ash or evidence for bioaccumulation of metals in soil...... growth, equally because of the pH increase and the nutrients added. The pH increase stimulates decomposition activity. Soil carbon availability is not permanently increased with ash amendment, however, which may suggest that decomposition increase is coupled to primary production increase. Plantation....... Wood ash increase plantation soil Cd, and so did Cd in grass although at a very low level, Cd in lichens and Cd in the small biomass of earthworms. The toxicity of Cd is regulated by metal binding to soil being several orders of magnitude lower than in pure liquid. Ash is toxic towards microarthropods...

  5. Detailed description of a new management system for solid, short-lived low and intermediate level radioactive waste at Ignalina NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The objective is to modify and extend the existing system at the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) for handling of Very Low Level Waste (VLLW), short lived Low and Intermediate Level Waste (LLW-SL and ILW-SL). The ultimate aim is to reduce the risks and the influence on the personnel and the environment. According to the request from INPP, the modified system is based on the existence of an incineration plant. This system description describes treatment of non-combustible VLLW, LLW-SL and ILW-SL at a new waste handling facility (WHF) located in the future buildings 159/2 and 159/3 at the INPP. The new WHF is also handling Exempt Waste (EW), Reusable Material (RM) and Free Release Goods (FRG). The buildings 159/2 and 159/3 are future extensions of the existing building 159. (author)

  6. OPG's long term management proposal for low and intermediate level radioactive waste: project description, operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witzke, P.

    2011-01-01

    Although the Deep Geologic Repository (DGR) is approximately 8 years away from being placed into service, it is time to start planning for operations. Ontario Power Generation's (OPG) Nuclear Waste Management Division (NWMD) has a systematic approach to preparing for operation of any new facility that is readily applicable to the DGR. The DGR Operational Readiness Plan has been benchmarked at similar facilities in North America and Europe. The operating vision is a living model, and is constantly being reviewed and refined to align with the detailed design of the DGR as it proceeds through its phases of development. Combined with 40 years of operating surface storage facilities for the storage of Low and Intermediate Level Waste (LILW), the DGR operating vision will enable NWMD to provide meaningful input during COMS (Constructability, Operability, Maintainability, and Safety) review in the DGR project detailed-design phase in 2011/2012. A Work Breakdown Structure has been used to communicate the detail of the operating vision, and also to estimate the costs of Operational Readiness and Operations during the lifetime of the facility. (author)

  7. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant quality assurance program description for defense high-level waste form development and qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hand, R.L.

    1990-12-01

    The US Department of Energy-Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management has been designated the national high-level waste repository licensee and the recipient for the canistered waste forms. The Office of Waste Operations executes overall responsibility for producing the canistered waste form. The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project, as part of the waste form producer organization, consists of a vertical relationship. Overall control is provided by the US Department of Energy-Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Headquarters; with the US Department of Energy-Office of Waste Operations; the US Department of Energy- Headquarters/Vitrification Project Branch; the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office/Vitrification Project Office; and the Westinghouse Hanford Company, operations and engineering contractor. This document has been prepared in response to direction from the US Department of Energy-Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management through the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office for a quality assurance program that meets the requirements of the US Department of Energy. This document provides guidance and direction for implementing a quality assurance program that applies to the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project. The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project management commits to implementing the quality assurance program activities; reviewing the program periodically, and revising it as necessary to keep it current and effective. 12 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  8. Snapshots of language and literature teaching in Denmark and England

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Peter; Dorf, Hans

    2016-01-01

    To illustrate differences in lower secondary-level language and literature teaching, we contrast a typical teaching episode in Denmark with one in England. Both reflect the dominant discourses in each country alongside recent policy initiatives, and each exemplifies a different orientation...... to language and literature teaching focussing on performance in England and a personal formation in Denmark. Descriptions of the episodes are linked to wider debates and potential areas for further consideration are identified....

  9. Event-related brain potentials and second language learning: syntactic processing in late L2 learners at different L2 proficiency levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hell, J.G. van; Tokowicz, N.

    2010-01-01

    There are several major questions in the literature on late second language (L2) learning and processing. Some of these questions include: Can late L2 learners process an L2 in a native-like way? What is the nature of the differences in L2 processing among L2 learners at different levels of L2

  10. Use of English Vocabulary Learning Strategies by Thai Tertiary-Level Students in Relation to Fields of Study and Language-Learning Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonkongsaen, Nathaya; Intaraprasert, Channarong

    2014-01-01

    The present study was intended to examine the effects of 1) fields of study (arts, business and science-oriented); and 2) language-learning experiences (whether limited or non-limited to formal classroom instructions) on the use of VLSs among Thai tertiary-level students. The participants were 905 Thai EFL students studying in the Northeast of…

  11. Suggested Curriculum Guidelines for an Effective Bilingual Program. 1972-1973. Destrezas Comunicativas del Idioma Espanol. Spanish Language Skills. Second Grade, Level 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artesia Public Schools, NM.

    This volume contains suggested curriculum guidelines for an effective bilingual program, with specific focus on Spanish language skills for the second grade level. The philosophy of the program views bilingual education as a vehicle and pedagogical tool to be used to better prepare all children to function in society. The point of departure for…

  12. Suggested Curriculum Guidelines for an Effective Bilingual Program, 1972-1973. Destrezas Comunicativas del Idioma Espanol. Spanish Language Skills. Third Grade, Level 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artesia Public Schools, NM.

    This volume contains suggested curriculum guidelines for an effective bilingual program, with specific focus on Spanish language skills for the third grade level. The philosophy of the program views bilingual education as a vehicle and pedagogical tool to be used to better prepare all children to function in society. The point of departure for…

  13. Language of advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Krchňáková, Leontina

    2015-01-01

    This work is devoted to the Russian language advertising, which examines in an independent system. It aims are analyzing the text of Russian advertising in terms of its information and formal structure. It focuses on a specific aesthetic qualities of language, which the text uses. Work is further focused on the categorization of neologisms and neologisation of the Russian advertising. Next focus is on loanwords from the English language. Used research methods are descriptive and comparative. ...

  14. Descriptive Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigram, Anthony Lewis

    2003-01-01

    Descriptive research is described by Lathom-Radocy and Radocy (1995) to include Survey research, ex post facto research, case studies and developmental studies. Descriptive research also includes a review of the literature in order to provide both quantitative and qualitative evidence of the effect...... starts will allow effect size calculations to be made in order to evaluate effect over time. Given the difficulties in undertaking controlled experimental studies in the creative arts therapies, descriptive research methods offer a way of quantifying effect through descriptive statistical analysis...

  15. Level crossing analysis of chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization: Towards a common description of liquid-state and solid-state cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosnovsky, Denis V.; Ivanov, Konstantin L., E-mail: ivanov@tomo.nsc.ru [International Tomography Centre of SB RAS, Institutskaya 3a, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova 2, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Jeschke, Gunnar [Institut für Physikalische Chemie, ETH Zürich, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 2, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Matysik, Jörg [Institut für Analytische Chemie, Universität Leipzig, Linnéstr. 3, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Vieth, Hans-Martin [International Tomography Centre of SB RAS, Institutskaya 3a, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Institut für Experimentalphysik, Freie Universität Berlin, Arnimallee 14, D-14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-04-14

    Chemically Induced Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (CIDNP) is an efficient method of creating non-equilibrium polarization of nuclear spins by using chemical reactions, which have radical pairs as intermediates. The CIDNP effect originates from (i) electron spin-selective recombination of radical pairs and (ii) the dependence of the inter-system crossing rate in radical pairs on the state of magnetic nuclei. The CIDNP effect can be investigated by using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) methods. The gain from CIDNP is then two-fold: it allows one to obtain considerable amplification of NMR signals; in addition, it provides a very useful tool for investigating elusive radicals and radical pairs. While the mechanisms of the CIDNP effect in liquids are well established and understood, detailed analysis of solid-state CIDNP mechanisms still remains challenging; likewise a common theoretical frame for the description of CIDNP in both solids and liquids is missing. Difficulties in understanding the spin dynamics that lead to the CIDNP effect in the solid-state case are caused by the anisotropy of spin interactions, which increase the complexity of spin evolution. In this work, we propose to analyze CIDNP in terms of level crossing phenomena, namely, to attribute features in the CIDNP magnetic field dependence to Level Crossings (LCs) and Level Anti-Crossings (LACs) in a radical pair. This approach allows one to describe liquid-state CIDNP; the same holds for the solid-state case where anisotropic interactions play a significant role in CIDNP formation. In solids, features arise predominantly from LACs, since in most cases anisotropic couplings result in perturbations, which turn LCs into LACs. We have interpreted the CIDNP mechanisms in terms of the LC/LAC concept. This consideration allows one to find analytical expressions for a wide magnetic field range, where several different mechanisms are operative; furthermore, the LAC description gives a way to determine CIDNP sign

  16. Descriptions and characterizations of water-level data and groundwater flow for the Brewster Boulevard and Castle Hayne Aquifer Systems and the Tarawa Terrace Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faye, Robert E.; Jones, L. Elliott; Suárez-Soto, René J.

    2013-01-01

    This supplement of Chapter A (Supplement 3) summarizes results of analyses of groundwater-level data and describes corresponding elements of groundwater flow such as vertical hydraulic gradients useful for groundwater-flow model calibration. Field data as well as theoretical concepts indicate that potentiometric surfaces within the study area are shown to resemble to a large degree a subdued replica of surface topography. Consequently, precipitation that infiltrates to the water table flows laterally from highland to lowland areas and eventually discharges to streams such as Northeast and Wallace Creeks and New River. Vertically downward hydraulic gradients occur in highland areas resulting in the transfer of groundwater from shallow relatively unconfined aquifers to underlying confined or semi-confined aquifers. Conversely, in the vicinity of large streams such as Wallace and Frenchs Creeks, diffuse upward leakage occurs from underlying confined or semi-confined aquifers. Point water-level data indicating water-table altitudes, water-table altitudes estimated using a regression equation, and estimates of stream levels determined from a digital elevation model (DEM) and topographic maps were used to estimate a predevelopment water-table surface in the study area. Approximate flow lines along hydraulic gradients are shown on a predevelopment potentiometric surface map and extend from highland areas where potentiometric levels are greatest toward streams such as Wallace Creek and Northeast Creek. The distribution of potentiometric levels and corresponding groundwater-flow directions conform closely to related descriptions of the conceptual model.

  17. Linguistic Corpora and Language Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murison-Bowie, Simon

    1996-01-01

    Examines issues raised by corpus linguistics concerning the description of language. The article argues that it is necessary to start from correct descriptions of linguistic units and the contexts in which they occur. Corpus linguistics has joined with language teaching by sharing a recognition of the importance of a larger, schematic view of…

  18. Individual Differences in Language Acquisition and Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Evan; Donnelly, Seamus; Christiansen, Morten H

    2018-02-01

    Humans differ in innumerable ways, with considerable variation observable at every level of description, from the molecular to the social. Traditionally, linguistic and psycholinguistic theory has downplayed the possibility of meaningful differences in language across individuals. However, it is becoming increasingly evident that there is significant variation among speakers at any age as well as across the lifespan. Here, we review recent research in psycholinguistics, and argue that a focus on individual differences (IDs) provides a crucial source of evidence that bears strongly upon core issues in theories of the acquisition and processing of language; specifically, the role of experience in language acquisition, processing, and attainment, and the architecture of the language system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Low-level neural auditory discrimination dysfunctions in specific language impairment—A review on mismatch negativity findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teija Kujala

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In specific language impairment (SLI, there is a delay in the child’s oral language skills when compared with nonverbal cognitive abilities. The problems typically relate to phonological and morphological processing and word learning. This article reviews studies which have used mismatch negativity (MMN in investigating low-level neural auditory dysfunctions in this disorder. With MMN, it is possible to tap the accuracy of neural sound discrimination and sensory memory functions. These studies have found smaller response amplitudes and longer latencies for speech and non-speech sound changes in children with SLI than in typically developing children, suggesting impaired and slow auditory discrimination in SLI. Furthermore, they suggest shortened sensory memory duration and vulnerability of the sensory memory to masking effects. Importantly, some studies reported associations between MMN parameters and language test measures. In addition, it was found that language intervention can influence the abnormal MMN in children with SLI, enhancing its amplitude. These results suggest that the MMN can shed light on the neural basis of various auditory and memory impairments in SLI, which are likely to influence speech perception. Keywords: Specific language impairment, Auditory processing, Mismatch negativity (MMN

  20. Description and assessment of regional sea-level trends and variability from altimetry and tide gauges at the northern Australian coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharineiat, Zahra; Deng, Xiaoli

    2018-05-01

    This paper aims at providing a descriptive view of the low-frequency sea-level changes around the northern Australian coastline. Twenty years of sea-level observations from multi-mission satellite altimetry and tide gauges are used to characterize sea-level trends and inter-annual variability over the study region. The results show that the interannual sea-level fingerprint in the northern Australian coastline is closely related to El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) events, with the greatest influence on the Gulf Carpentaria, Arafura Sea, and the Timor Sea. The basin average of 14 tide-gauge time series is in strong agreement with the basin average of the altimeter data, with a root mean square difference of 18 mm and a correlation coefficient of 0.95. The rate of the sea-level trend over the altimetry period (6.3 ± 1.4 mm/yr) estimated from tide gauges is slightly higher than that (6.1 ± 1.3 mm/yr) from altimetry in the time interval 1993-2013, which can vary with the length of the time interval. Here we provide new insights into examining the significance of sea-level trends by applying the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test. This test is applied to assess if the trends are significant (upward or downward). Apart from a positive rate of sea-level trends are not statistically significant in this region due to the effects of natural variability. The findings suggest that altimetric trends are not significant along the coasts and some parts of the Gulf Carpentaria (14°S-8°S), where geophysical corrections (e.g., ocean tides) cannot be estimated accurately and altimeter measurements are contaminated by reflections from the land.

  1. Descrição de línguas indígenas em gramáticas missionárias do Brasil colonial Description of indian languages in missionary grammars of the colonial period in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo de Oliveira Batista

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Nos séculos XVI e XVII, jesuítas escreveram gramáticas de duas das línguas indígenas faladas no Brasil colonial: José de Anchieta e Luís Figueira descreveram o tupi antigo em 1595 e ca. 1621 respectivamente; Luís Vincencio Mamiani, a língua indígena quiriri em 1699. Essa produção teve como objetivo facilitar, por meio da aprendizagem das línguas, o contato entre jesuítas e indígenas, tendo em vista a colonização e a catequização. Neste trabalho, são analisados alguns dos métodos e práticas de descrição das línguas pelos jesuítas. Para isso, seguem-se as indicações metodológicas da historiografia lingüística (Koerner 1989, 1996 e Swiggers 1979, 1981, 1983 em relação à seleção, descrição e análise do material, procurando caracterizar o que chamamos de tradição brasileira da lingüística missionária. O exame das obras nos mostrará uma forma de produção gramatical comum aos três autores e a sua inserção numa tradição posteriormente chamada de lingüística missionária, que teve como uma de suas características mais destacadas a relação com o que se convencionou nomear na história da lingüística de Gramática Tradicional.In the 16th and 17th centuries, Jesuits wrote two of the Indian language grammar spoken in Brazil in the colonial period. José de Anchieta and Luiz Figueira described the ancient Tupi in 1595 and in about 1621 respectively, and Luiz Vincencio Mamiani the Quiriri Indian Language in 1699. This production aimed at facilitating, through language learning, the contact between Indians and Jesuits and consequently their colonization and catechization. Some methods and practices of Jesuits language description will be analyzed in this paper. To do so, we will follow linguistic historiography methodologies (Koerner 1989, 1996 and Swiggers 1979, 1983 concerning material selection, description and analysis, trying to characterize what we call missionary linguistics in the Brazilian

  2. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Quality Assurance Program description for high-level waste form development and qualification. Revision 3, Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project has been established to convert the high-level radioactive waste associated with nuclear defense production at the Hanford Site into a waste form suitable for disposal in a deep geologic repository. The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant will mix processed radioactive waste with borosilicate material, then heat the mixture to its melting point (vitrification) to forin a glass-like substance that traps the radionuclides in the glass matrix upon cooling. The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Quality Assurance Program has been established to support the mission of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant. This Quality Assurance Program Description has been written to document the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Quality Assurance Program.

  3. User's guide for the implementation of level one of the proposed American National Standard Specifications for an information interchange data descriptive file on control data 6000/7000 series computers

    CERN Document Server

    Wiley, R A

    1977-01-01

    User's guide for the implementation of level one of the proposed American National Standard Specifications for an information interchange data descriptive file on control data 6000/7000 series computers

  4. The Manu-Facturing of a Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washabaugh, William

    1980-01-01

    Discusses Providence Island Sign Language (PSL), an autochthonous and relatively immature language of about 20 speakers. It is a nascent and evolving language whose description can produce rich results for linguistic theory. Such a description will also be an explanation of the phylogeny of a linguistic system. (Author/PJM)

  5. Language Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelde, Peter Hans

    1995-01-01

    Examines the phenomenon of language contact and recent trends in linguistic contact research, which focuses on language use, language users, and language spheres. Also discusses the role of linguistic and cultural conflicts in language contact situations. (13 references) (MDM)

  6. Problem of identifying an object in a robotics scene from an imprecise verbal description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farreny, H; Prade, H

    1983-01-01

    The authors investigate the problem of relating imprecise and incomplete verbal descriptions to noisy high-level features supplied by an image analyzer. Pattern-matching problems are specially addressed. The proposed approach allows the direct processing of human-like descriptions. Moreover, the imprecision due to the use of natural language expressions or to the noisiness of the image analyzer, is taken into account. 26 references.

  7. Language and Language-in-Education Planning in Multilingual India: A Minoritized Language Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groff, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    This article explores India's linguistic diversity from a language policy perspective, emphasizing policies relevant to linguistic minorities. The Kumaun region of Utterakhand provides a local, minority-language perspective on national-level language planning. A look at the complexity of counting India's languages reveals language planning…

  8. The Need for a Study into Stakeholders Needs and Expectations of Schools Graduates English Language Level and Skills for Entry into the Tertiary Education Level in the Sultanate of Oman

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid Salim Al-Jardani

    2014-01-01

    During the last forty years, the Sultanate of Oman has undergone rapid economic growth and development. As a result, the country is facing the challenge of preparing its youth for life and work in the modern global economy. It is essential that young people are provided with a high level of knowledge and skills in Maths, Science, Technology and Languages to deal with the changes in society, life style, technology and international business (Ministry of Education, 2010). High levels of knowled...

  9. Parsimonious Language Models for Information Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; Robertson, Stephen; Zaragoza, Hugo

    We systematically investigate a new approach to estimating the parameters of language models for information retrieval, called parsimonious language models. Parsimonious language models explicitly address the relation between levels of language models that are typically used for smoothing. As such,

  10. [Examination of relationship between level of hearing and written language skills in 10-14-year-old hearing impaired children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turğut, Nedim; Karlıdağ, Turgut; Başar, Figen; Yalçın, Şinasi; Kaygusuz, İrfan; Keleş, Erol; Birkent, Ömer Faruk

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to review the relationship between written language skills and factors which are thought to affect this skill such as mean hearing loss, duration of auditory deprivation, speech discrimination score, and pre-school education attendance and socioeconomic status of hearing impaired children who attend 4th-7th grades in primary school in inclusive environment. The study included 25 hearing impaired children (14 males, 11 females; mean age 11.4±1.4 years; range 10 to 14 years) (study group) and 20 children (9 males, 11 females; mean age 11.5±1.3 years; range 10 to 14 years) (control group) with normal hearing in the same age group and studying in the same class. Study group was separated into two subgroups as group 1a and group 1b since some of the children with hearing disability used hearing aid while some used cochlear implant. Intragroup comparisons and relational screening were performed for those who use hearing aids and cochlear implants. Intergroup comparisons were performed to evaluate the effect of the parameters on written language skills. Written expression skill level of children with hearing disability was significantly lower than their normal hearing peers (p=0.001). A significant relationship was detected between written language skills and mean hearing loss (p=0.048), duration of auditory deprivation (p=0.021), speech discrimination score (p=0.014), and preschool attendance (p=0.005), when it comes to socioeconomic status we were not able to find any significant relationship (p=0.636). It can be said that hearing loss affects written language skills negatively and hearing impaired individuals develop low-level written language skills compared to their normal hearing peers.

  11. Students’ Attitudes towards Vocational Foreign Language Course

    OpenAIRE

    Ozer, Selda; Yılmaz, Ercan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine students’attitudes towards Vocational Foreign Language Course and if the their attitudesdisplay significant differences in terms of gender, age, department, the placethey live, passing marks, the type of high school they graduated from, theirmothers’ and fathers’ graduation levels and being abroad. The study was carriedout in descriptive survey method. The population of the study comprised ofsenior students at two vocational colleges of Nevşehir Hacı Bekt...

  12. [The values of different study designs on the levels of evidence: a descriptive analysis of the researches published in four general medical journals in 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zu-yao; Zhang, Yuan; Wu, Shan-shan; Zhou, Yuan; DU, Yu-kun; Zhan, Si-yan

    2010-12-01

    To discuss the levels of evidence provided by different study designs. Websites of N Engl J Med, JAMA, Lancet, and BMJ were accessed to identify research articles (systematic review and meta-analysis included) published in 2009. A standardized data collection form was established using Epidata 3.1 software to extract the "title", "country of lead author", "clinical problem" (such as treatment, diagnosis, etc.) and "study design" of eligible studies. Descriptive statistics was conducted with SPSS 13.0. Over all, 844 studies were included, among which 35.7% were RCT, 9.4% systematic review and Meta-analysis, and 54.9% other types of studies. Regarding clinical problems, 34.2%, 19.7%, 13.7%, 6.0% and 5.1% of the included researches addressed the issues of treatment, etiology/risk factors, prevention, disease frequency and prognosis, respectively. The study designs that were most frequently adopted to explore these problems were RCT (70.6%), cohort study (44.6%), RCT (68.1%), cross-sectional study (56.9%), and cohort study (93.0%), respectively. High-level evidence does not come exclusively from RCT and systematic review, as each type of study may have its unique value in health related research. The clinical problem of interest, the previous work that has been done to approach the same issue, as well as other factors should be taken into account when deciding whether the selected study design is appropriate.

  13. An Analysis of Learners' Motivation and Attitudes toward Learning English Language at Tertiary Level in Turkish EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, Zubeyde Sinem; Aydin, Fulya

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate Turkish students' (n = 462) motivation and attitudes toward learning English as a foreign language at a state university in Turkey and the relation between their attitudes, motivation and the variables such as gender, parental involvement, their fields of study at university, and academic achievement. It…

  14. Pour Adolescent et Adulte, Francais Langue Etrangere, Niveau 1 (French as a Foreign Language, Level 1, for Adolescents and Adults)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibert, Pierre

    1975-01-01

    This annotated bibliography lists dictionaries and reading materials including stories and legends, biographies, works relating to cinema, theatre and French civilization, magazines, and educational activities and games for introductory instruction of French as a foreign language to adults and adolescents. (Text is in French.) (CLK)

  15. Sequential Prediction of Literacy Achievement for Specific Learning Disabilities Contrasting in Impaired Levels of Language in Grades 4 to 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Elizabeth A.; Berninger, Virginia W.; Abbott, Robert D.

    2018-01-01

    Sequential regression was used to evaluate whether language-related working memory components uniquely predict reading and writing achievement beyond cognitive-linguistic translation for students in Grades 4 through 9 (N = 103) with specific learning disabilities (SLDs) in subword handwriting (dysgraphia, n = 25), word reading and spelling…

  16. 114 African Languages and African Literature Cecilia A. Eme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ike Odimegwu

    multidimensional realizations which are represented in ideas, beliefs, and oral and ... broadly literature in African languages, literature in European languages etc. ..... death and language maintenance: Theoretical, practical and descriptive ...

  17. Descriptive statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nick, Todd G

    2007-01-01

    Statistics is defined by the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) thesaurus as the science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The two broad categories of summarizing and analyzing data are referred to as descriptive and inferential statistics. This chapter considers the science and art of summarizing data where descriptive statistics and graphics are used to display data. In this chapter, we discuss the fundamentals of descriptive statistics, including describing qualitative and quantitative variables. For describing quantitative variables, measures of location and spread, for example the standard deviation, are presented along with graphical presentations. We also discuss distributions of statistics, for example the variance, as well as the use of transformations. The concepts in this chapter are useful for uncovering patterns within the data and for effectively presenting the results of a project.

  18. COMPARISON OF PYTHON (AN OPEN SOURCE PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE) WITH OTHER PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES

    OpenAIRE

    Sushil Kumar*1 & Richa Aggarwal2

    2018-01-01

    Language is a communication tool through which we can communicate with each other like Hindi, English etc any other language. So if we want to communicate with computer, we need computer programming languages. So in computer we have two types of languages, one is low level language which is easily understood by computer but difficult to learn. Second is high level language which is same like English language, not understood by computer but easy to learn. Python is a high level language. This...

  19. An Application for Descriptive Nearness: Iris Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polat Kadirhan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Near Set Theory has various applications in the literature. In this paper, using the concept descriptive nearness, we show how to perform iris recognition. This process has a few algorithms given via Mathematica Script Language.

  20. Higher Education Language Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary of recommendations HEIs are encouraged, within the framework of their own societal context, mission, vision and strategies, to develop the aims and objectives of a Higher Education Language Policy (HELP) that allows them to implement these strategies. In this process, they may want......: As the first step in a Higher Education Language Policy, HEIs should determine the relative status and use of the languages employed in the institution, taking into consideration the answers to the following questions:  What is/are the official language(s) of the HEI?  What is/are the language...... and the level of internationalisation the HEI has or wants to have, and as a direct implication of that, what are the language proficiency levels expected from the graduates of these programme?  Given the profile of the HEI and its educational strategies, which language components are to be offered within...

  1. Corporate Language Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    This paper offers a review of literature dealing with language policies in general and corporate language policies in particular. Based on a discussion of various definitions of these concepts within two research traditions, i.e. sociolinguistics and international management, a three......-level definition of corporate language policies is presented, emphasising that a corporate language policy is a context-specific policy about language use. The three-level definition is based on the argument that in order to acquire a complete understanding of what corporate language policies involve, one needs...... to consider three progressive questions; 1) what is a policy? 2) what is a language policy?, and ultimately, 3) what is a corporate language policy?...

  2. Corporate Language Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a review of literature dealing with language policies in general and corporate language policies in particular. Based on a discussion of various definitions of these concepts within two research traditions, i.e. sociolinguistics and international management, a three......-level definition of corporate language policies is presented, emphasising that a corporate language policy is a context-specific policy about language use. The three-level definition is based on the argument that in order to acquire a complete understanding of what corporate language policies involve, one needs...... to consider three progressive questions; 1) what is a policy? 2) what is a language policy?, and ultimately, 3) what is a corporate language policy?...

  3. Student Voice on the Instructional Qualities of the Effective English Language Teacher: A Collective Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Vong Siu Phern

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A majority of Malaysian students only have average English language proficiency, although instructional qualities of the effective English language teacher have by far been expounded by English language experts. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the extent to which the responses of student voice representing above average, average and below average English language proficiency from the primary, secondary and tertiary levels - have agreed with expert opinion’s description of instructional qualities of the effective English language teacher. In this respect, student voice was analysed using triangulation not only on the instructional qualities discussed, but also on the literature review. Interesting findings revealed that student voice still had something extra to contribute in determining the instructional qualities of the effective English language teacher, with a touch of irony and constructive criticism on how such qualities of English language teachers/lecturers could still improve, so as to appear more effective in learners’ eyes.

  4. Algebraic computability and enumeration models recursion theory and descriptive complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Nourani, Cyrus F

    2016-01-01

    This book, Algebraic Computability and Enumeration Models: Recursion Theory and Descriptive Complexity, presents new techniques with functorial models to address important areas on pure mathematics and computability theory from the algebraic viewpoint. The reader is first introduced to categories and functorial models, with Kleene algebra examples for languages. Functorial models for Peano arithmetic are described toward important computational complexity areas on a Hilbert program, leading to computability with initial models. Infinite language categories are also introduced to explain descriptive complexity with recursive computability with admissible sets and urelements. Algebraic and categorical realizability is staged on several levels, addressing new computability questions with omitting types realizably. Further applications to computing with ultrafilters on sets and Turing degree computability are examined. Functorial models computability is presented with algebraic trees realizing intuitionistic type...

  5. MITLL 2015 Language Recognition Evaluation System Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-27

    912 8.18 qsl-rus Russian 2021 37.80 ara-ary Maghrebi 919 46.91 spa-car Carib. Spa. 194 30.59 ara-arz Egyptian 440 97.27 spa-eur Eur. Spa. 366 8.55...qsl-pol Polish 695 32.14 ara-arb MSA 912 8.18 qsl-rus Russian 2021 37.80 ara-ary Maghrebi 919 46.91 spa-car Carib. Spa. 194 30.59 ara-arz Egyptian ...BOTTLENECK I-VECTOR SYSTEM (BNF1) The Deep Neural Network architecture that we used for this system was composed of seven hidden layers. The sixth

  6. Interim oceanographic description of the North-East-Atlantic site for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, R.R.; Gurbutt, P.A.; Kershaw, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    The NEA Co-ordinated Research and Environmental Surveillance Programme (CRESP) related to sea disposal of radioactive waste was started in 1981 following a recommendation of the Group of experts convened every five years by NEA to review the continued suitability of the dumping site for radioactive waste in the North-East Atlantic. The objective of CRESP is to increase the available scientific data base related to the oceanographic and biological characteristics of the dump site and elaborate a site specific model of the transfers of radionuclides to human populations. Volume one of the ''Interim Oceanographic Description of the North-East Atlantic Site for the Disposal of Low-Level Radioactive Waste'' was published in early 1983. It was an attempt to identify remaining gaps in current knowledge of conditions at the site and relate these conditions to the physical environment of the North-East Atlantic Ocean as a whole. The amount of data obtained by the CRESP Programme is now sufficient to justify publication of this second volume. Scientists present results of research which is of direct relevance to a better assessment of the impact from dumping radioactive waste in the North-East Atlantic, in particular an evaluation of the potential radiation doses to man. These two volumes represent part of the scientific contribution of the CRESP Programme to the 1985 Review of the Continued Suitability of the North-East Atlantic dump site

  7. Examining the Relationship among Reading Curriculum-Based Measures, Level of Language Proficiency, and State Accountability Test Scores with Middle School Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Nicole Osterman

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the predictive ability of oral reading fluency (R-CBM) on a sixth grade high-stakes assessment with ELL and non-ELL students, as well as determine the average rate of growth on R-CBM and how that relates to level of English Proficiency. The participants in the current study included 350 sixth grade…

  8. Towards the management of the databases founded on descriptions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The canonical model is defined in the concept language, developed in our research ... the notion of classes to produce descriptions which are, also, used in the reasoning process. ... Keys-Words: Descriptions logic/ Databases/ Semantics.

  9. High-level context effects on spatial displacement: the effects of body orientation and language on memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, David W; Abney, Drew H; Dale, Rick; Matlock, Teenie

    2014-01-01

    Three decades of research suggests that cognitive simulation of motion is involved in the comprehension of object location, bodily configuration, and linguistic meaning. For example, the remembered location of an object associated with actual or implied motion is typically displaced in the direction of motion. In this paper, two experiments explore context effects in spatial displacement. They provide a novel approach to estimating the remembered location of an implied motion image by employing a cursor-positioning task. Both experiments examine how the remembered spatial location of a person is influenced by subtle differences in implied motion, specifically, by shifting the orientation of the person's body to face upward or downward, and by pairing the image with motion language that differed on intentionality, fell versus jumped. The results of Experiment 1, a survey-based experiment, suggest that language and body orientation influenced vertical spatial displacement. Results of Experiment 2, a task that used Adobe Flash and Amazon Mechanical Turk, showed consistent effects of body orientation on vertical spatial displacement but no effect of language. Our findings are in line with previous work on spatial displacement that uses a cursor-positioning task with implied motion stimuli. We discuss how different ways of simulating motion can influence spatial memory.

  10. High-level context effects on spatial displacement: The effects of body orientation and language on memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Vinson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Three decades of research suggests that cognitive simulation of motion is involved in the comprehension of object location, bodily configuration, and linguistic meaning. For example, the remembered location of an object associated with actual or implied motion is typically displaced in the direction of motion. In this paper, two experiments explore context effects in spatial displacement. They provide a novel approach to estimating the remembered location of an implied motion image by employing a cursor-positioning task. Both experiments examine how the remembered spatial location of a person is influenced by subtle differences in implied motion, specifically, by shifting the orientation of the person’s body to face upward or downward, and by pairing the image with motion language that differed on intentionality, fell versus jumped. The results of Experiment 1, a survey-based experiment, suggest that language and body orientation influenced vertical spatial displacement. Results of Experiment 2, a task that used Adobe Flash and Amazon Mechanical Turk, showed consistent effects of body orientation on vertical spatial displacement but no effect of language. Our findings replicate are in line with previous work on spatial displacement task that used a cursor-positioning task with implied motion stimuli. We discuss how different ways of simulating motion can influence spatial memory.

  11. Meeting the Standards for Foreign Language Leaming through an Internet-Based Newspaper Project: Case Studies of Advanced-Level Japanese Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyuki Fukai

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Published in 1996, the Standards far Foreign Language Learning (Standards, define knowledge and abilities that foreign language learners should acquire in the U.S. The Internet is believed to facilitate standards-based instruction because of its capabilities as a communication medium, information provider, and publication tool. This paper presents one part of a study that investigated this claim through examining an Internet-based newspaper project in an advanced-level college Japanese course in light of the Japanese Standards. Six students were selected to serve as case studies, with their experiences in relation to this project analyzed in depth. The results show that the students found using the Internet to read authentic materials with the help of an online dictionary to be a positive experience. This then resulted in their actively using Japanese for personal enjoyment outside the classroom. These results suggest that the project was particularly successful in two goal areas: Communication and Communities.

  12. A Fundamental Scale of Descriptions for Analyzing Information Content of Communication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Febres

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of the description of a system is a function of the entropy of its symbolic description. Prior to computing the entropy of the system’s description, an observation scale has to be assumed. In texts written in artificial and natural languages, typical scales are binary, characters, and words. However, considering languages as structures built around certain preconceived set of symbols, like words or characters, limits the level of complexity that can be revealed analytically. This study introduces the notion of the fundamental description scale to analyze the essence of the structure of a language. The concept of Fundamental Scale is tested for English and musical instrument digital interface (MIDI music texts using an algorithm developed to split a text in a collection of sets of symbols that minimizes the observed entropy of the system. This Fundamental Scale reflects more details of the complexity of the language than using bits, characters or words. Results show that this Fundamental Scale allows to compare completely different languages, such as English and MIDI coded music regarding its structural entropy. This comparative power facilitates the study of the complexity of the structure of different communication systems.

  13. Language Revitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Leanne

    2003-01-01

    Surveys developments in language revitalization and language death. Focusing on indigenous languages, discusses the role and nature of appropriate linguistic documentation, possibilities for bilingual education, and methods of promoting oral fluency and intergenerational transmission in affected languages. (Author/VWL)

  14. Towards reproducible descriptions of neuronal network models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eilen Nordlie

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Progress in science depends on the effective exchange of ideas among scientists. New ideas can be assessed and criticized in a meaningful manner only if they are formulated precisely. This applies to simulation studies as well as to experiments and theories. But after more than 50 years of neuronal network simulations, we still lack a clear and common understanding of the role of computational models in neuroscience as well as established practices for describing network models in publications. This hinders the critical evaluation of network models as well as their re-use. We analyze here 14 research papers proposing neuronal network models of different complexity and find widely varying approaches to model descriptions, with regard to both the means of description and the ordering and placement of material. We further observe great variation in the graphical representation of networks and the notation used in equations. Based on our observations, we propose a good model description practice, composed of guidelines for the organization of publications, a checklist for model descriptions, templates for tables presenting model structure, and guidelines for diagrams of networks. The main purpose of this good practice is to trigger a debate about the communication of neuronal network models in a manner comprehensible to humans, as opposed to machine-readable model description languages. We believe that the good model description practice proposed here, together with a number of other recent initiatives on data-, model-, and software-sharing, may lead to a deeper and more fruitful exchange of ideas among computational neuroscientists in years to come. We further hope that work on standardized ways of describing--and thinking about--complex neuronal networks will lead the scientific community to a clearer understanding of high-level concepts in network dynamics, and will thus lead to deeper insights into the function of the brain.

  15. RSYST - a short description of the modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruehle, R.

    1976-04-01

    The modular system RSYST is used for reactor and shielding calculations. A data base managed by a central program, data blocks containing structure descriptions, and hierarchical linking of data blocks enable flexible management of all data. Module sequences are formulated using a user command language. The language features logical branches, variables and arithmetic experssions. Sections of the user language may be stored in the data base and activated at any time. (orig.) [de

  16. Descriptive studies of Purepecha: Introductory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Vázquez Rojas Maldonado

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Seven papers in this volume are the result of a collective project of linguistic description. This introduction offers a general background for such enterprise. It provides information about some sociolinguistic and grammatical aspects of the Purepecha language, a list of some recent studies on the language, it describes the orthographic conventions employed. We also provide details about the elicitation methodology and the demographic information of the language consultants.

  17. Automated Linguistic Personality Description and Recognition Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danylyuk Illya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relevance of our research, above all, is theoretically motivated by the development of extraordinary scientific and practical interest in the possibilities of language processing of huge amount of data generated by people in everyday professional and personal life in the electronic forms of communication (e-mail, sms, voice, audio and video blogs, social networks, etc.. Purpose: The purpose of the article is to describe the theoretical and practical framework of the project "Communicative-pragmatic and discourse-grammatical lingvopersonology: structuring linguistic identity and computer modeling". The description of key techniques is given, such as machine learning for language modeling, speech synthesis, handwriting simulation. Results: Lingvopersonology developed some great theoretical foundations, its methods, tools, and significant achievements let us predict that the newest promising trend is a linguistic identity modeling by means of information technology, including language. We see three aspects of the modeling: 1 modeling the semantic level of linguistic identity – by means of the use of corpus linguistics; 2 sound level formal modeling of linguistic identity – with the help of speech synthesis; 3 formal graphic level modeling of linguistic identity – with the help of image synthesis (handwriting. For the first case, we suppose to use machine learning technics and vector-space (word2vec algorithm for textual speech modeling. Hybrid CUTE method for personality speech modeling will be applied to the second case. Finally, trained with the person handwriting images neural network can be an instrument for the last case. Discussion: The project "Communicative-pragmatic, discourse, and grammatical lingvopersonology: structuring linguistic identity and computer modeling", which is implementing by the Department of General and Applied Linguistics and Slavonic philology, selected a task to model Yuriy Shevelyov (Sherekh

  18. External and Internal Conditionality of Language Borrowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Лилия Михайловна Букина

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at the factors that condition borrowings in language. The exposure of borrowings in the language system is based on precise differentiation of intralinguistic and extralinguistic factors. The theoretical basis for this study were the works of Russian and foreign scientists (Bagana Zh., Breiter M.A., Crystal D., Kryisin L.P., et al who were interested in such diversified phenomena as borrowings, in general, and in particular the reasons for them. Research is being conducted on the basis of the French language, certain illustrative units derived empirically in the process of researching these French websites: http://www.linternaute.com, http://www.elle.fr, http://www.wuzz.fr, http://www.eurosport.fr, etc. Borrowing can occur on all levels of language, but we considered the factors that facilitate borrowing and assimilation in the recipient language of lexical borrowings. The research is aimed at considering points of view of different linguists on the problem of borrowing into the recipient language and revealing similarities and differences in the views of scientists. Notwithstanding the fact that external reasons are acting as stimuli for borrowing, there are many linguistic research works that highlight their importance in the appearance and customization of foreign words in the recipient language. Intralinguistic factors dominate in the process of adopting a foreign word into the vocabulary of another language. Psychological factors play one of the key roles in the appearance of borrowings, as language contact is performed when bilingual speakers who have separate linguistic identities communicate. During the research the following methods were used: continuous sampling method, descriptive and analytical method, method of semantic analysis, method of comparison and contrasting.

  19. Description langugage for the modelling and analysis of temporal change of instrumentation and control system structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goering, Markus Heinrich

    2013-01-01

    comprehensive requirements for the superposition of event sequences and failure combinations. For this reason, the synthesis of a description language, under consideration of the aforementioned challenges, is necessary; supplemented by a method utilising the description language for efficient engineering and I and C design analysis. Due to the abstraction of AutomationML as a meta-metamodel, it is utilised as the basis for the description language synthesis, however AutomationML also does not fulfil all target criteria. On one hand, the description language synthesis is based on the syntax of AutomationML, and on the other hand, the semantics are determined by the context of computer-based I and C in nuclear power plants and structured utilising the general product, function, and location structures of standard IEC 81346. When modelling I and C failure combinations in addition to event sequences, the description language is completed by an event structure, for which CDL is utilised for the conceptualisation and the formalisation is accomplished with PSL. The PSL formalisation allows for implementing the description language in a knowledge-based system, so that automated engineering is enabled. The I and C modelling, as part of the method, is embedded in the IEC 61513 I and C safety life-cycle and is realised in two steps. Consequently, the I and C design can be analysed at both plant and system level. For the I and C design analysis the concepts of the D3-analysis, FTA, ETA, and FMEA are combined. The thesis is concluded with an example applying the description language and method to the modernisation of a reactor protection system; this illustrates the validation of the overall concept developed in this thesis.

  20. Description langugage for the modelling and analysis of temporal change of instrumentation and control system structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goering, Markus Heinrich

    2013-10-25

    comprehensive requirements for the superposition of event sequences and failure combinations. For this reason, the synthesis of a description language, under consideration of the aforementioned challenges, is necessary; supplemented by a method utilising the description language for efficient engineering and I and C design analysis. Due to the abstraction of AutomationML as a meta-metamodel, it is utilised as the basis for the description language synthesis, however AutomationML also does not fulfil all target criteria. On one hand, the description language synthesis is based on the syntax of AutomationML, and on the other hand, the semantics are determined by the context of computer-based I and C in nuclear power plants and structured utilising the general product, function, and location structures of standard IEC 81346. When modelling I and C failure combinations in addition to event sequences, the description language is completed by an event structure, for which CDL is utilised for the conceptualisation and the formalisation is accomplished with PSL. The PSL formalisation allows for implementing the description language in a knowledge-based system, so that automated engineering is enabled. The I and C modelling, as part of the method, is embedded in the IEC 61513 I and C safety life-cycle and is realised in two steps. Consequently, the I and C design can be analysed at both plant and system level. For the I and C design analysis the concepts of the D3-analysis, FTA, ETA, and FMEA are combined. The thesis is concluded with an example applying the description language and method to the modernisation of a reactor protection system; this illustrates the validation of the overall concept developed in this thesis.

  1. Flexible Language Interoperability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekman, Torbjörn; Mechlenborg, Peter; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2007-01-01

    Virtual machines raise the abstraction level of the execution environment at the cost of restricting the set of supported languages. Moreover, the ability of a language implementation to integrate with other languages hosted on the same virtual machine typically constrains the features...... of the language. In this paper, we present a highly flexible yet efficient approach to hosting multiple programming languages on an object-oriented virtual machine. Our approach is based on extending the interface of each class with language-specific wrapper methods, offering each language a tailored view...... of a given class. This approach can be deployed both on a statically typed virtual machine, such as the JVM, and on a dynamic virtual machine, such as a Smalltalk virtual machine. We have implemented our approach to language interoperability on top of a prototype virtual machine for embedded systems based...

  2. Balance Toward Language Mastery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia R. Heslinga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Problems in attaining language mastery with students from diverse language backgrounds and levels of ability confront educators around the world. Experiments, research, and experience see positive effects of adding sign language in communication methods to pre-school and K-12 education. Augmentative, alternative, interactive, accommodating, and enriching strategies using sign language aid learners in balancing the skills needed to mastery of one language or multiple languages. Theories of learning that embrace play, drama, motion, repetition, socializing, and self-efficacy connect to the options for using sign language with learners in inclusive and mainstream classes. The methodical use of sign language by this researcher-educator over two and a half decades showed signing does build thinking skills, add enjoyment, stimulate communication, expand comprehension, increase vocabulary acquisition, encourage collaboration, and helps build appreciation for cultural diversity.

  3. Language Management Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    This paper offers a review of existing literature on the topic of language management tools – the means by which language is managed – in multilingual organisations. By drawing on a combination of sociolinguistics and international business and management studies, a new taxonomy of language...... management tools is proposed, differentiating between three categories of tools. Firstly, corporate policies are the deliberate control of issues pertaining to language and communication developed at the managerial level of a firm. Secondly, corporate measures are the planned activities the firm’s leadership...... may deploy in order to address the language needs of the organisation. Finally, front-line practices refer to the use of informal, emergent language management tools available to staff members. The language management tools taxonomy provides a framework for operationalising the management of language...

  4. The subcortical role of language processing. High level linguistic features such as ambiguity-resolution and the human brain; an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketteler, Daniel; Kastrau, Frank; Vohn, Rene; Huber, Walter

    2008-02-15

    In the present study, we were interested in the neurofunctional representations of ambiguity processing by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twelve right-handed, healthy adults aged between 21 and 29 years (6 male, 6 female) underwent an ambiguity resolution task with 4 different conditions (dominant vs. non-dominant; dominant vs. distractor; non-dominant vs. distractor; distractor vs. distractor). After subtraction of the corresponding control task (distractor vs. distractor) we found significant activation especially in the thalamus and some parts of the basal ganglia (caudate nucleus, putamen). Our findings implicate a participation of the thalamus and other basal ganglia circuits in high level linguistic functions and match with theoretical considerations on this highly controversial topic. Subcortical neural circuits probably become activated when the language processing system cannot rely entirely on automatic mechanisms but has to recruit controlled processes as well. Furthermore, we found broad activation in the inferior parietal lobule, the prefrontal gyrus, pre-SMA and SMA and the cingulate cortex. This might reflect a strategic semantic search mechanism which probably can be illustrated with connectionist models of language processing. According to this, we hypothesize a neuroregulatory role for the thalamus and basal ganglia in regulating and monitoring the release of preformulated language segments for motor programming and semantic verification. According to our findings there is strong evidence, that especially the thalamus, the caudate nucleus, the cingulate cortex, the inferior parietal lobule and the prefrontal cortex are responsible for an accurate ambiguity resolution in the human brain.

  5. Language Training: French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. This course is designed for people with a good level of s...

  6. Language Training: French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. This course is designed for people with a good level...

  7. Which Methodology Works Better? English Language Teachers' Awareness of the Innovative Language Learning Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated whether English language teachers were aware of the innovative language learning methodologies in language learning, how they made use of these methodologies and the learners' reactions to them. The descriptive survey method was employed to disclose the frequencies and percentages of 175 English language teachers'…

  8. Effects of Epilepsy on Language Functions: Scoping Review and Data Mining Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Manaswita; Murray, Laura; Miller, Wendy; Groves, Doyle

    2018-03-01

    This study involved a scoping review to identify possible gaps in the empirical description of language functioning in epilepsy in adults. With access to social network data, data mining was used to determine if individuals with epilepsy are expressing language-related concerns. For the scoping review, scientific databases were explored to identify pertinent articles. Findings regarding the nature of epilepsy etiologies, patient characteristics, tested language modalities, and language measures were compiled. Data mining focused on social network databases to obtain a set of relevant language-related posts. The search yielded 66 articles. Epilepsy etiologies except temporal lobe epilepsy and older adults were underrepresented. Most studies utilized aphasia tests and primarily assessed single-word productions; few studies included healthy control groups. Data mining revealed several posts regarding epilepsy-related language problems, including word retrieval, reading, writing, verbal memory difficulties, and negative effects of epilepsy treatment on language. Our findings underscore the need for future specification of the integrity of language in epilepsy, particularly with respect to discourse and high-level language abilities. Increased awareness of epilepsy-related language issues and understanding the patients' perspectives about their language concerns will allow researchers and speech-language pathologists to utilize appropriate assessments and improve quality of care.

  9. South Korea: Language Policy and Planning in the Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jae Jung

    2012-01-01

    This monograph discusses South Korea's language situation in a language policy and planning context. This monograph consists of four parts. Part 1 presents a genetic, typological and sociolinguistic description of South Korea's national language, and an overview of minority languages, including English as well as other languages, recently…

  10. Local languages as the languages of internationalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haberland, Hartmut

    2011-01-01

    . An ongoing research project tries to find out why this is the case. A preliminary result seems to be that it is not the academic motivation that starts the learning process of the local language, but once the students have stated to learn Danish, some of them also follow study courses in Danish, especially...... on offering programs rather in English than the local language. At Copenhagen Business School, 56.4% of the students at MA level followed courses in English in 2009. Many students come to Denmark from abroad, follow the English language programs offered, but are motivated to learn Danish, the local language...

  11. Language and status: On the limits of language planning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post-1994 language planning: the rise of a new policy discourse. 'Language .... was post-1945 'nation building' (Fishman 1968:54) and the emergence of new nationalist movements ..... professional scholars in Africa played in the production of "'inventory' descriptions of ... appropriate conceptualization of its subject matter.

  12. LANGUAGE TRAINING

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch FRENCH TRAINING General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. This course is designed for people wi...

  13. LANGUAGE TRAINING

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch FRENCH TRAINING General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. This course is designed for peop...

  14. A Pattern Language for Designing Application-Level Communication Protocols and the Improvement of Computer Science Education through Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Lascano, Jorge Edison

    2017-01-01

    Networking protocols have been developed throughout time following layered architectures such as the Open Systems Interconnection model and the Internet model. These protocols are grouped in the Internet protocol suite. Most developers do not deal with low-level protocols, instead they design application-level protocols on top of the low-level protocol. Although each application-level protocol is different, there is commonality among them and developers can apply lessons learned from one prot...

  15. Descriptive data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Cheryl Bagley

    2009-01-01

    This 13th article of the Basics of Research series is first in a short series on statistical analysis. These articles will discuss creating your statistical analysis plan, levels of measurement, descriptive statistics, probability theory, inferential statistics, and general considerations for interpretation of the results of a statistical analysis.

  16. The language of football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Niels Nygaard; Skrubbeltrang, Lotte Stausgaard

    2014-01-01

    levels (Schein, 2004) in which each player and his actions can be considered an artefact - a concrete symbol in motion embedded in espoused values and basic assumptions. Therefore, the actions of each dialect are strongly connected to the underlying understanding of football. By document and video......The language of football: A cultural analysis of selected World Cup nations. This essay describes how actions on the football field relate to the nations’ different cultural understanding of football and how these actions become spoken dialects within a language of football. Saussure reasoned...... language to have two components: a language system and language users (Danesi, 2003). Consequently, football can be characterized as a language containing a system with specific rules of the game and users with actual choices and actions within the game. All football players can be considered language...

  17. Structured multi-stream command language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glad, A.S.

    1982-12-01

    A multi-stream command language was implemented to provide the sequential and decision-making operations necessary to run the neutral-beam ion sources connected to the Doublet III tokamak fusion device. A multi-stream command language was implemented in Pascal on a Classic 7870 running under MAX IV. The purpose of this paper is threefold. First, to provide a brief description of the programs comprising the command language including the operating system interaction. Second, to give a description of the language syntax and commands necessary to develop a procedure stream. Third, to provide a description of the normal operating procedures for executing either the sequential or interactive streams

  18. Vocabulary and Writing in a First and Second Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Dorte; Haastrup, Kirsten; Henriksen, Birgit

    Book description: Vocabulary and Writing in a First and Second Language is based on a large-scale empirical study. The innovative feature of the research was that the same students were asked to do the same tasks in both languages while reporting their thinking as they went along. Furthermore , t......-depth approach useful in understanding the processes of both first and second language performance......Book description: Vocabulary and Writing in a First and Second Language is based on a large-scale empirical study. The innovative feature of the research was that the same students were asked to do the same tasks in both languages while reporting their thinking as they went along. Furthermore...... the relationship between the skills and describe the level of development for individual learners within the three areas. In all cases, statistical and qualitative analyses are offered, the latter being based on the learners' own 'think-aloud' reports. Both researchers and teachers of language will find this in...

  19. A Read-Aloud Storybook Selection System for Prereaders at the Preschool Language Level: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Amy Louise; van Kleeck, Anne; Beaton, Derek; Horne, Erin; MacKenzie, Heather; Abdi, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Many well-accepted systems for determining difficulty level exist for books children read independently, but few are available for determining the wide range of difficulty levels of storybooks read aloud to preschoolers. Also, the available tools list book characteristics only on the basis of parents' or authors' opinions. We created an…

  20. A Polio Immunization Pamphlet with Increased Appeal and Simplified Language Does Not Improve Comprehension to an Acceptable Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Terry C.; Fredrickson, Doren D.; Arnold, Connie; Murphy, Peggy W.; Herbst, Melissa; Bocchini, Joseph A.

    1998-01-01

    Two polio-vaccine pamphlets written on a sixth-grade level were compared for readability, comprehension, and preference among a broad range of parents. The easy-to-read version was widely preferred, and comprehension was significantly higher. However, the use of instructional graphics was required to achieve an acceptable level of comprehension.…

  1. Language Planning and Planned Languages: How Can Planned Languages Inform Language Planning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humphrey Tonkin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The field of language planning (LP has largely ignored planned languages. Of classic descriptions of LP processes, only Tauli (preceded by Wüster suggests that planned languages (what Wüster calls Plansprache might bear on LP theory and practice. If LP aims "to modify the linguistic behaviour of some community for some reason," as Kaplan and Baldauf put it, creating a language de novo is little different. Language policy and planning are increasingly seen as more local and less official, and occasionally more international and cosmopolitan. Zamenhof's work on Esperanto provides extensive material, little studied, documenting the formation of the language and linking it particularly to issues of supranational LP. Defining LP decision-making, Kaplan & Baldauf begin with context and target population. Zamenhof's Esperanto came shortly before Ben-Yehuda's revived Hebrew. His target community was (mostly the world's educated elite; Ben-Yehuda's was worldwide Jewry. Both planners were driven not by linguistic interest but by sociopolitical ideology rooted in reaction to anti-Semitism and imbued with the idea of progress. Their territories had no boundaries, but were not imaginary. Function mattered as much as form (Haugen's terms, status as much as corpus. For Zamenhof, status planning involved emphasis on Esperanto's ownership by its community - a collective planning process embracing all speakers (cf. Hebrew. Corpus planning included a standardized European semantics, lexical selectivity based not simply on standardization but on representation, and the development of written, and literary, style. Esperanto was successful as linguistic system and community language, less as generally accepted lingua franca. Its terminology development and language cultivation offers a model for language revival, but Zamenhof's somewhat limited analysis of language economy left him unprepared to deal with language as power.

  2. Impact Of Using Joint Productive Activity Approach On Second Language Learners’ Performance In Reading Comprehension At The Basic Education Level In Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HANNA ONYI YUSUF

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the impact of using joint productive activity on the performance of second language learners in reading comprehension at the basic education level in Nigeria. A sample of forty (40 Junior Secondary II students from Kaduna North and South were used for the study. The study was quasi experimental. Government Junior Secondary School Doka was used as the experimental group while Government Junior Secondary School Makera was used as the control group. Both groups were assessed after six weeks of teaching using two reading comprehension tests. T-test was used to test the hypothesis raised in the study. The findings revealed significant differences in the performance of students taught reading comprehension using joint productive activity. Based on the findings teachers are encouraged to use joint productive activities in teaching reading comprehension. This is a positive deviation from the traditional practice in Nigeria where a teacher is regarded as the sole custodian of knowledge and students are empty tabula rasa who should be passive during class teaching. Teachers need to exploit this new approach by designing teaching comprehension activities that will require second language learners’ collaboration and active participation in accomplishing tasks jointly in class with the teacher.

  3. The third Afrikaans language movement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-01-02

    Jan 2, 2010 ... public language, becoming far less used in state administration, education, the econ- omy, politics and .... development of school syllabii and school textbooks, the determination of what con- ..... languages at the national level.

  4. The Impact of Expanding Advanced Level Secondary School Students' Awareness and Use of Metacognitive Learning Strategies on Confidence and Proficiency in Foreign Language Speaking Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Karen; Fisher, Linda

    2018-01-01

    In an increasingly multilingual world, the question of how to improve foreign language speaking skills of pupils in British schools is of paramount importance to language teachers and policy-makers today. This paper examines how an explicit focus on metacognitive strategy use within secondary school foreign language lessons impacts pupils'…

  5. The Comparative Effect of Online Self-Correction, Peer- correction, and Teacher Correction in Descriptive Writing Tasks on Intermediate EFL Learners’ Grammar Knowledge The Prospect of Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Aghajani

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available 60 participants of the study were selected based on their scores on the Nelson proficiency test and divided into three Telegram groups comprising a peer-correction, a self-correction and a teacher-correction group, each with 20 students. The pretest was administered to measure the subjects' grammar knowledge. Subsequently, three Telegram groups each with 21 members (20 students + 1 teacher were formed. Then during a course of nearly one academic term the grammatical notions were taught by the teacher. The members were required to write on the prompt in about 50 to 70 words and post it on the group. Then, their writings were corrected through self-correction, peer-correction and teacher-correction under the feedback provided by the researcher. The study used a pretest-posttest design to compare the learners’ progress after the application of three different types of treatment. One-Way between-groups ANOVA was run to test whether there was any statistically significant difference in grammar knowledge in descriptive writing of intermediate EFL learners’ who receive mobile-assisted self-correction, peer-correction and teacher-correction. The researcher also used Post-Hoc Tests to determine the exact difference between correction methods. Online self-correction, peer-correction and teacher-correction were the independent variables and grammar knowledge was the dependent variable. Examining the result of the study prove that significance level between self-correction and teacher-correction was the strongest (sig. = 0.000 but the significance level was a little less strong between peer-correction and teacher-correction whereas no significance was observed between self-correction and peer-correction.

  6. Predictors of second language acquisition in Latino children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Clellen, Vera; Simon-Cereijido, Gabriela; Sweet, Monica

    2012-02-01

    This study evaluated the extent to which the language of intervention, the child's development in Spanish, and the effects of English vocabulary, use, proficiency, and exposure predict differences in the rates of acquisition of English in Latino children with specific language impairment (SLI). In this randomized controlled trial, 188 Latino preschoolers with SLI participated in a small-group academic enrichment program for 12 weeks and were followed up 3 and 5 months later. Children were randomly assigned to either a bilingual or an English-only program. Predictors of English growth included measures of Spanish language skills and English vocabulary, use, proficiency, and exposure. Performance on English outcomes (i.e., picture description and narrative sample) was assessed over time. A series of longitudinal models were tested via multilevel modeling with baseline and posttreatment measures nested within child. Children demonstrated growth on the English outcomes over time. The language of intervention, Spanish skills, English vocabulary, and English use significantly predicted differences in rates of growth across children for specific measures of English development. This study underscores the role of the child's first language skills, the child's level of English vocabulary development, and level of English use for predicting differences in English acquisition in Latino preschoolers with SLI. These factors should be carefully considered in making clinical decisions.

  7. A Constructivist Approach to Game-Based Language Learning: Student Perceptions in a Beginner-Level EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, James; deHaan, Jonathan William

    2018-01-01

    This article provides information on an action research project in a low-level EFL setting in Japan. The project aims were to (1) foster spoken communication skills and (2) help students engage with their own learning. The project investigated the applicability of board games as a mediating tool for authentic communication as part of a wider TBLT…

  8. The Relationship between Readability Level of Mississippi's Middle Schools' Websites and Seventh Grade Language Arts MCT2 Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, Anna Marlene Graves

    2011-01-01

    Today's educators face the unprecedented challenge of increasing achievement for all students. One response has been to increase and improve parent involvement and school-to-home communication through the use of school websites. The quantitative section of this study analyzed the readability grade level of the website as it relates to state test…

  9. Language training

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    If one of your New Year’s resolutions is to learn a language, there is no excuse any more.    You can attend one of our English or French courses and you can practise the language with a tandem partner!   General & Professional French courses The next General & Professional French course will start on 26 January. These collective courses aim to bring participants who have at least level A1 to higher levels (up to C2). Each level consists of a combination of face-to-face sessions (40 hours) with personal work (20 hours) following a specially designed programme. A final progress test takes place at the end of the term. Please note that it is mandatory to take the placement test. Please sign up here. French courses for beginners The aim of this course is to give some basic skills to beginners in order to communicate in simple everyday situations in both social and professional life. These courses can start at any time during the year, as soon as a group of beg...

  10. Language Planning at the International Level. Report of the Annual Conference of the Center for Research and Documentation on World Language Problems (3rd, New York, New York, December 14, 1984).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkin, Humphrey, Ed.; Johnson-Weiner, Karen, Ed.

    The proceedings of the conference include the opening address (Francoise Cestac) and these papers: "False Friendship in International Language Planning" (Joseph L. Malone); "Guidelines for Terminology Standardization at the United Nations" (Marie-Josee Jastrab); "Language Policy at the Agence de Cooperation Culturelle et…

  11. Dynamical Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Huimin

    The following sections are included: * Definition of Dynamical Languages * Distinct Excluded Blocks * Definition and Properties * L and L″ in Chomsky Hierarchy * A Natural Equivalence Relation * Symbolic Flows * Symbolic Flows and Dynamical Languages * Subshifts of Finite Type * Sofic Systems * Graphs and Dynamical Languages * Graphs and Shannon-Graphs * Transitive Languages * Topological Entropy

  12. The Sizing and Optimization Language, (SOL): Computer language for design problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Stephen H.; Scotti, Stephen J.

    1988-01-01

    The Sizing and Optimization Language, (SOL), a new high level, special purpose computer language was developed to expedite application of numerical optimization to design problems and to make the process less error prone. SOL utilizes the ADS optimization software and provides a clear, concise syntax for describing an optimization problem, the OPTIMIZE description, which closely parallels the mathematical description of the problem. SOL offers language statements which can be used to model a design mathematically, with subroutines or code logic, and with existing FORTRAN routines. In addition, SOL provides error checking and clear output of the optimization results. Because of these language features, SOL is best suited to model and optimize a design concept when the model consits of mathematical expressions written in SOL. For such cases, SOL's unique syntax and error checking can be fully utilized. SOL is presently available for DEC VAX/VMS systems. A SOL package is available which includes the SOL compiler, runtime library routines, and a SOL reference manual.

  13. The application of language-game theory to the analysis of science learning: Developing an interpretive classroom-level learning framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadibasir, Mohammad

    In this study an interpretive learning framework that aims to measure learning on the classroom level is introduced. In order to develop and evaluate the value of the framework, a theoretical/empirical study is designed. The researcher attempted to illustrate how the proposed framework provides insights on the problem of classroom-level learning. The framework is developed by construction of connections between the current literature on science learning and Wittgenstein's language-game theory. In this framework learning is defined as change of classroom language-game or discourse. In the proposed framework, learning is measured by analysis of classroom discourse. The empirical explanation power of the framework is evaluated by applying the framework in the analysis of learning in a fifth-grade science classroom. The researcher attempted to analyze how students' colloquial discourse changed to a discourse that bears more resemblance to science discourse. The results of the empirical part of the investigation are presented in three parts: first, the gap between what students did and what they were supposed to do was reported. The gap showed that students during the classroom inquiry wanted to do simple comparisons by direct observation, while they were supposed to do tool-assisted observation and procedural manipulation for a complete comparison. Second, it was illustrated that the first attempt to connect the colloquial to science discourse was done by what was immediately intelligible for students and then the teacher negotiated with students in order to help them to connect the old to the new language-game more purposefully. The researcher suggested that these two events in the science classroom are critical in discourse change. Third, it was illustrated that through the academic year, the way that students did the act of comparison was improved and by the end of the year more accurate causal inferences were observable in classroom communication. At the end of the

  14. Speaking one more language in early life has only minor effects on cognition in Taiwanese with low education level: the Taishan Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Chien; Liu, Yen-Ying; Yip, Ping-Keung; Meguro, Mitsue; Meguro, Kenichi

    2017-07-01

    Increasing evidence shows that bilingualism or multilingualism may have beneficial effects on preventing dementia. We performed a cross-sectional, community-based study in Taiwan. Some elders (older than 70 years) in Taiwan can speak Japanese because of the formal Japanese education they received before World War II, when Taiwan was under Japanese rule. After the war, Mandarin Chinese was adopted as the official language of Taiwan. We assessed whether constantly using three languages had an effect on dementia prevalence and cognitive function. We defined multilingualism as the ability to fluently speak Taiwanese (T), Japanese (J), and Mandarin Chinese (C) in daily life. We evaluated the Mini-Mental State Examination and AD8 questionnaire results of 514 community-dwelling people older than 70 years in Taishan, Taiwan. Seventy-three of the subjects (14.2%) were multilingual (T, J, C) and 441 (85.8%) were bilingual (T, C). No difference was noted in dementia prevalence between multilingual (6.8%) and bilingual (7.4%) populations, but multilinguals were older than bilinguals (mean age: 79.9 vs 77.3 years). Multilinguals had higher Mini-Mental State Examination scores than bilinguals (mean: 24.6 vs. 22.7). However, after the subjects were stratified into low and high education level groups, the Mini-Mental State Examination difference was found to be significant in only the low education level group. Dementia prevalence did not significantly differ between the multilingual (T, J, C) and bilingual (T, C) groups. However, given that the average age of the multilingual group was approximately 2 years older than that of the bilingual group, there may have been minor effects in the multilingual group. © 2017 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  15. Communicative Competence of the Fourth Year Students: Basis for Proposed English Language Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Vu Van

    2017-01-01

    This study on level of communicative competence covering linguistic/grammatical and discourse has aimed at constructing a proposed English language program for 5 key universities in Vietnam. The descriptive method utilized was scientifically employed with comparative techniques and correlational analysis. The researcher treated the surveyed data…

  16. Unified form language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alnæs, Martin S.; Logg, Anders; Ølgaard, Kristian Breum

    2014-01-01

    We present the Unied Form Language (UFL), which is a domain-specic language for representing weak formulations of partial dierential equations with a view to numerical approximation. Features of UFL include support for variational forms and functionals, automatic dierentiation of forms and expres...... libraries to generate concrete low-level implementations. Some application examples are presented and libraries that support UFL are highlighted....

  17. Language Learners' Acculturation Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafieyan, Vahid; Orang, Maryam; Bijami, Maryam; Nejad, Maryam Sharafi; Eng, Lin Siew

    2014-01-01

    Learning a language involves knowledge of both linguistic competence and cultural competence. Optimal development of linguistic competence and cultural competence, however, requires a high level of acculturation attitude toward the target language culture. To this end, the present study explored the acculturation attitudes of 70 Iranian…

  18. Domain Specific Language Support for Exascale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadayappan, Ponnuswamy [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2017-02-24

    Domain-Specific Languages (DSLs) offer an attractive path to Exascale software since they provide expressive power through appropriate abstractions and enable domain-specific optimizations. But the advantages of a DSL compete with the difficulties of implementing a DSL, even for a narrowly defined domain. The DTEC project addresses how a variety of DSLs can be easily implemented to leverage existing compiler analysis and transformation capabilities within the ROSE open source compiler as part of a research program focusing on Exascale challenges. The OSU contributions to the DTEC project are in the area of code generation from high-level DSL descriptions, as well as verification of the automatically-generated code.

  19. Foreign Language Training in the United States Peace Corps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulakow, Allan

    This document reports on the foreign language training offered in the Peace Corps. Following a brief introductory statement, a list of languages taught by the Peace Corps in the years 1961-67 is provided, as well as a brief description of Peace Corps language training methods. Guidelines for language coordinators are outlined, and the approach to…

  20. Sources, Developments and Directions of Task-Based Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bygate, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an outline of the origins, the current shape and the potential directions of task-based language teaching (TBLT) as an approach to language pedagogy. It first offers a brief description of TBLT and considers its origins within language teaching methodology and second language acquisition. It then summarises the current position…

  1. Object Language and the Language Subject: On the Mediating Role of Applied Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widdowson, Henry G.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the extent to which linguistic descriptions can adequately account for their reality for learners and provide a reference point for the design of language courses. Special concern is focused on second language learners as a particular kind of language user. (Author/VWL)

  2. Modelling language

    CERN Document Server

    Cardey, Sylviane

    2013-01-01

    In response to the need for reliable results from natural language processing, this book presents an original way of decomposing a language(s) in a microscopic manner by means of intra/inter‑language norms and divergences, going progressively from languages as systems to the linguistic, mathematical and computational models, which being based on a constructive approach are inherently traceable. Languages are described with their elements aggregating or repelling each other to form viable interrelated micro‑systems. The abstract model, which contrary to the current state of the art works in int

  3. Language Training: French course for beginners

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. A French course for beginners (level 0) will take place from 12 July to 27 August. Timetable: not yet fixed Duration: 54 hours / 2 hours a day Price: CHF 702 Please enrol as soon as possible through the Web: http://cern.ch/Training FORMATION EN LANGUES LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 language.training@cern.ch

  4. Language Training: French course for beginners

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. A French course for beginners (level 0) will take place from 12 July to 27 August. Timetable: not yet fixed Duration: 54 hours / 2 hours a day Price: 702 SF Please enrol as soon as possible through the Web: http://cern.ch/Training FORMATION EN LANGUES LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 language.training@cern.ch

  5. RSYST: short description of the modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruehle, R.

    Since 1969, the modular system RSYST has been used for reactor and shielding calculations. A data base managed by a central program, data blocks containing structure descriptions, and hierarchical linking of data blocks enable flexible management of all data. Module sequences are formulated using a user command language. The language features logical branches, variables and arithmetic expressions. Sections of the user language may be stored in the data base and activated at any time. Presently, an interactive version of the system is developed. It supports basic operations and interactive input checking on a front end computer

  6. A lexicographic approach to language policy and recommendations for future dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven; Gouws, Rufus H.

    2008-01-01

    Language policy prevails at different levels and its formulation typically results in a prescriptive presentation of data. In their dictionaries, lexicographers have to respond to the deci­sions of language policy makers. In this regard dictionaries can adhere to a strict prescriptive policy...... by including only the prescribed forms. Dictionaries can also give a descriptive account of lan­guage use without making any recommendations or claims of correctness. Thirdly, dictionaries can be proscriptive by recommending certain forms, even if such a recommendation goes against the prescribed forms....... This article offers an overview of different levels of language policy and the prin­ciples of prescription, description and proscription. Examples are given to illustrate certain lexico­graphic applications of prescription. It is emphasised that access to relevant data is important to dictionary users...

  7. Cerebral laterality for language is related to adult salivary testosterone levels but not digit ratio (2D:4D) in men: A functional transcranial Doppler ultrasound study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadatou-Pastou, Marietta; Martin, Maryanne

    2017-03-01

    The adequacy of three competing theories of hormonal effects on cerebral laterality are compared using functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD). Thirty-three adult males participated in the study (21 left-handers). Cerebral lateralization was measured by fTCD using an extensively validated word generation task. Adult salivary testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) concentrations were measured by luminescence immunoassay and prenatal T exposure was indirectly estimated by the somatic marker of 2nd to 4th digit length ratio (2D:4D). A significant quadratic relationship between degree of cerebral laterality for language and adult T concentrations was observed, with enhanced T levels for strong left hemisphere dominance and strong right hemisphere dominance. No systematic effects on laterality were found for cortisol or 2D:4D. Findings suggest that higher levels of T are associated with a relatively attenuated degree of interhemispheric sharing of linguistic information, providing support for the callosal and the sexual differentiation hypotheses rather than the Geschwind, Behan and Galaburda (GBG) hypothesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Next Generation Systems Languages

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrisett, Greg

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this work is to explore techniques for making today's software, which is largely written in type-unsafe, low-level languages such as C, as reliable and trustworthy as code written in type...

  9. Effect of fat level on the perception of five flavor chemicals in ice cream with or without fat mimetics by using a descriptive test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, B K; Grün, I U

    2007-10-01

    Fat mimetics are commonly used in the manufacture of low-fat and fat-free ice creams. However, the use of fat mimetics affects flavor and texture characteristics of ice cream, which results in decreased overall acceptability by consumers. The initial objective of this study was to investigate the release behavior of 5 strawberry flavor compounds in ice creams with Simplesse((R)), Litesse((R)), and Litesse((R))/Simplesse((R)) mixes using descriptive analysis. Fat mimetics and flavor formulation significantly influenced the perception of Furaneoltrade mark (cooked sugar flavor), alpha-ionone (violet flavor), and gamma-undecalactone (peach flavor), but there was no interaction between ice cream type and flavor formulation for the 3 flavors. Furaneol and ethyl-3-methyl-3-phenylglycidate (candy flavor) were perceived more strongly in full-fat ice cream, while cis-3-hexen-1-ol (grassy flavor), alpha-ionone, and gamma-undecalactone were perceived more strongly in low-fat ice cream. Ice creams with Simplesse and full-fat ice cream had similar sensory characteristics, while ice creams with Litesse were similar to low-fat ice creams in flavor characteristics, and ice creams with Litesse/Simplesse mixes were closer in flavor profile to low-fat ice cream but had similar texture properties to those of full-fat ice cream. Simplesse was found to be a better fat mimetic for duplicating the flavor profiles and mouthfeel of full-fat ice cream.

  10. Sociolinguistic Typology and Sign Languages

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Schembri; Jordan Fenlon; Kearsy Cormier; Trevor Johnston

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines the possible relationship between proposed social determinants of morphological ‘complexity’ and how this contributes to linguistic diversity, specifically via the typological nature of the sign languages of deaf communities. We sketch how the notion of morphological complexity, as defined by Trudgill (2011), applies to sign languages. Using these criteria, sign languages appear to be languages with low to moderate levels of morphological complexity. This may partly reflec...

  11. Unsupervised Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Marcken, Carl

    1996-11-01

    This thesis presents a computational theory of unsupervised language acquisition, precisely defining procedures for learning language from ordinary spoken or written utterances, with no explicit help from a teacher. The theory is based heavily on concepts borrowed from machine learning and statistical estimation. In particular, learning takes place by fitting a stochastic, generative model of language to the evidence. Much of the thesis is devoted to explaining conditions that must hold for this general learning strategy to arrive at linguistically desirable grammars. The thesis introduces a variety of technical innovations, among them a common representation for evidence and grammars, and a learning strategy that separates the ``content'' of linguistic parameters from their representation. Algorithms based on it suffer from few of the search problems that have plagued other computational approaches to language acquisition. The theory has been tested on problems of learning vocabularies and grammars from unsegmented text and continuous speech, and mappings between sound and representations of meaning. It performs extremely well on various objective criteria, acquiring knowledge that causes it to assign almost exactly the same structure to utterances as humans do. This work has application to data compression, language modeling, speech recognition, machine translation, information retrieval, and other tasks that rely on either structural or stochastic descriptions of language.

  12. Quantum Computers and Quantum Computer Languages: Quantum Assembly Language and Quantum C Language

    OpenAIRE

    Blaha, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    We show a representation of Quantum Computers defines Quantum Turing Machines with associated Quantum Grammars. We then create examples of Quantum Grammars. Lastly we develop an algebraic approach to high level Quantum Languages using Quantum Assembly language and Quantum C language as examples.

  13. Modelling SDL, Modelling Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Piefel

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Today's software systems are too complex to implement them and model them using only one language. As a result, modern software engineering uses different languages for different levels of abstraction and different system aspects. Thus to handle an increasing number of related or integrated languages is the most challenging task in the development of tools. We use object oriented metamodelling to describe languages. Object orientation allows us to derive abstract reusable concept definitions (concept classes from existing languages. This language definition technique concentrates on semantic abstractions rather than syntactical peculiarities. We present a set of common concept classes that describe structure, behaviour, and data aspects of high-level modelling languages. Our models contain syntax modelling using the OMG MOF as well as static semantic constraints written in OMG OCL. We derive metamodels for subsets of SDL and UML from these common concepts, and we show for parts of these languages that they can be modelled and related to each other through the same abstract concepts.

  14. Description of the U.S. Geological Survey's water-quality sampling and water-level monitoring program at the Hallam Nuclear Facility, August through September 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    A water-quality and water-level program between the US Department of Energy (USDOE) and the US Geological Survey (USGS) was re-established in August 1997 to (1) collect one set of water-quality samples from 17 of the 19 USDOE monitor wells, and (2) make five water-level measurements during a 2-month period from the 19 USDOE monitor wells at the Hallam Nuclear Facility, Hallam, Nebraska. Data from these wells are presented

  15. Language Training

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    Permanence A "permanence" for language Training has been set up. If anyone has a question or requires information on any aspect of English or French training please come to our office 5 4-016 at the following times. Lucette Fournier - French courses Monday 13.30 - 15.30 Tuesday\t10.30 - 12.30 Tessa Osborne - English courses Wednesday\t12.00 - 14.00 Thursday\t11.00 - 13.00   New courses Specific English and French courses - Exam preparation/ We are now offering specific courses in English and French leading to a recognised external examination (e.g. Cambridge, DELF, DALF). If you are interested in following one of these courses and have at least an upper intermediate level of English or French, please enrol through the following link:  English courses French courses Or contact: Tessa Osborne 72957 (English courses) Lucette Fournier 73483 (French courses) Language Training Nathalie Dumeaux Tel. 78144 nathalie.dumeaux@cern.ch

  16. Language Training

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    PermanenceA "permanence" for language Training has been set up. If anyone has a question or requires information on any aspect of English or French training please come to our office 5 4-016 at the following times. Lucette Fournier French courses Monday 13.30 - 15.30 Tuesday\t10.30 - 12.30 Tessa Osborne English courses Wednesday\t12.00 - 14.00 Thursday\t11.00 - 13.00 New courses Specific English and French courses - Exam preparation/ We are now offering specific courses in English and French leading to a recognised external examination (e.g. Cambridge, DELF and BULATS). If you are interested in following one of these courses and have at least an upper intermediate level of English or French, please enrol through the following link: http://English courses http://French courses Or contact: Tessa Osborne 72957 (English courses) Lucette Fournier 73483 (French courses) Language Training Nathalie Dumeaux Tel. 78144 mailto:nathalie.dumeaux@cern.ch

  17. Underspecification-Based Grammatical Feedback Generation Tailored to the Learner's Current Acquisition Level in an e-Learning System for German as Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbusch, Karin; Cameran, Christel-Joy; Härtel, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    We present a new feedback strategy implemented in a natural language generation-based e-learning system for German as a second language (L2). Although the system recognizes a large proportion of the grammar errors in learner-produced written sentences, its automatically generated feedback only addresses errors against rules that are relevant at…

  18. Principals' Perceptions for Finnish- and Swedish-Language Schools in Finland: An Analysis of School-Level Indices from Programme for International Student Assessment 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harju-Luukkainen, Heidi; Vettenranta, Jouni; Kanervio, Pekka; Pulkkinen, Seppo

    2014-01-01

    The Finnish educational system is known for its equality. However, in many key areas in national and international assessments, Swedish-language schools in Finland have lagged behind their Finnish-language counterparts. So far there is little research into the underlying reasons for this discrepancy. In this article, in order to illuminate the…

  19. Endangered Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Ken; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Endangered languages, or languages on the verge of becoming extinct, are discussed in relation to the larger process of loss of cultural and intellectual diversity. This article summarizes essays presented at the 1991 Linguistic Society of America symposium, "Endangered Languages and Their Preservation." (11 references) (LB)

  20. Using a task-based approach to teaching and learning Chinese as a Foreign Language in a university beginner's level class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruan, Youjin; Duan, Xiaoju; Wang, Li

    2015-01-01

    to learning Chinese as a foreign language. Chinese culture elements were also integrated into the tasks and the learning process. By analysing seven items of a post-course survey, this paper investigates the learners’ opinions toward the task-based language teaching and learning method, as well as the methods......The task-based method is regarded as an effective approach for promoting interaction and collaboration in language learning. In a beginner Chinese language course offered as an elective at Aalborg University, Denmark, a selection of tasks was designed and used to attract the students’ interests...... used in integrating culture with the language learning in this course. The results indicated that course participants were generally positive about their learning experiences and processes during the course. They appreciated not only the task-based method, but also the ways in which culture...