WorldWideScience

Sample records for level audio alignment

  1. Decision-level fusion for audio-visual laughter detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuderink, B.; Poel, M.; Truong, K.; Poppe, R.; Pantic, M.

    2008-01-01

    Laughter is a highly variable signal, which can be caused by a spectrum of emotions. This makes the automatic detection of laughter a challenging, but interesting task. We perform automatic laughter detection using audio-visual data from the AMI Meeting Corpus. Audio-visual laughter detection is

  2. Decision-Level Fusion for Audio-Visual Laughter Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuderink, B.; Poel, Mannes; Truong, Khiet Phuong; Poppe, Ronald Walter; Pantic, Maja; Popescu-Belis, Andrei; Stiefelhagen, Rainer

    Laughter is a highly variable signal, which can be caused by a spectrum of emotions. This makes the automatic detection of laugh- ter a challenging, but interesting task. We perform automatic laughter detection using audio-visual data from the AMI Meeting Corpus. Audio- visual laughter detection is

  3. Quasiparticle Level Alignment for Photocatalytic Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migani, Annapaoala; Mowbray, Duncan J; Zhao, Jin; Petek, Hrvoje; Rubio, Angel

    2014-05-13

    Electronic level alignment at the interface between an adsorbed molecular layer and a semiconducting substrate determines the activity and efficiency of many photocatalytic materials. Standard density functional theory (DFT)-based methods have proven unable to provide a quantitative description of this level alignment. This requires a proper treatment of the anisotropic screening, necessitating the use of quasiparticle (QP) techniques. However, the computational complexity of QP algorithms has meant a quantitative description of interfacial levels has remained elusive. We provide a systematic study of a prototypical interface, bare and methanol-covered rutile TiO2(110) surfaces, to determine the type of many-body theory required to obtain an accurate description of the level alignment. This is accomplished via a direct comparison with metastable impact electron spectroscopy (MIES), ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), and two-photon photoemission (2PP) spectroscopy. We consider GGA DFT, hybrid DFT, and G0W0, scQPGW1, scQPGW0, and scQPGW QP calculations. Our results demonstrate that G0W0, or our recently introduced scQPGW1 approach, are required to obtain the correct alignment of both the highest occupied and lowest unoccupied interfacial molecular levels (HOMO/LUMO). These calculations set a new standard in the interpretation of electronic structure probe experiments of complex organic molecule/semiconductor interfaces.

  4. System-Level Optimization of a DAC for Hearing-Aid Audio Class D Output Stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pracný, Peter; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger; Bruun, Erik

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with system-level optimization of a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) for hearing-aid audio Class D output stage. We discuss the ΣΔ modulator system-level design parameters – the order, the oversampling ratio (OSR) and the number of bits in the quantizer. We show that combining...... by comparing two ΣΔ modulator designs. The proposed optimization has impact on the whole hearing-aid audio back-end system including less hardware in the interpolation filter and half the switching rate in the digital-pulse-width-modulation (DPWM) block and Class D output stage...... a reduction of the OSR with an increase of the order results in considerable power savings while the audio quality is kept. For further savings in the ΣΔ modulator, overdesign and subsequent coarse coefficient quantization are used. A figure of merit (FOM) is introduced to confirm this optimization approach...

  5. Exploration of a digital audio processing platform using a compositional system level performance estimation framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranberg-Hansen, Anders Sejer; Madsen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the application of a compositional simulation based system-level performance estimation framework on a non-trivial industrial case study. The case study is provided by the Danish company Bang & Olufsen ICEpower a/s and focuses on the exploration of a digital mobile audio...... processing platform. A short overview of the compositional performance estimation framework used is given followed by a presentation of how it is used for performance estimation using an iterative refinement process towards the final implementation. Finally, an evaluation in terms of accuracy and speed...

  6. System Level Power Optimization of Digital Audio Back End for Hearing Aids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pracny, Peter; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger; Bruun, Erik

    2017-01-01

    This work deals with power optimization of the audio processing back end for hearing aids - the interpolation filter (IF), the sigma-delta (SD modulator and the Class D power amplifier (PA) as a whole. Specifications are derived and insight into the tradeoffs involved is used to optimize...... the interpolation filter and the SD modulator on the system level so that the switching frequency of the Class D PA - the main power consumer in the back end - is minimized. A figure-of-merit (FOM) which allows judging the power consumption of the digital part of the back end early in the design process is used...

  7. Audio Papers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh; Samson, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    With this special issue of Seismograf we are happy to present a new format of articles: Audio Papers. Audio papers resemble the regular essay or the academic text in that they deal with a certain topic of interest, but presented in the form of an audio production. The audio paper is an extension...

  8. Energy level alignment at Co/AlOx/pentacene interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popinciuc, M.; Jonkman, H. T.; van Wees, B. J.

    2007-01-01

    X-ray and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (XPS and UPS) experiments were performed in order to study the energy level alignment and electronic structure at Co/AlOx/pentacene interfaces as a function of the aluminum oxide (AlOx) tunnel barrier thickness and the oxidation state of Co. XPS was

  9. Energy level alignment symmetry at Co/pentacene/Co interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popinciuc, M.; Jonkman, H. T.; van Wees, B. J.

    2006-01-01

    We have employed x-ray and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopies (XPS and UPS) to study the energy level alignment and electronic structure at the Co/pentacene/Co interfaces. In the case of pentacene deposition on Co we found an interfacial dipole of about 1.05 eV and a hole injection barrier of

  10. Balancing Audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther-Hansen, Mads

    2016-01-01

    is not thoroughly understood. In this paper I treat balance as a metaphor that we use to reason about several different actions in music production, such as adjusting levels, editing the frequency spectrum or the spatiality of the recording. This study is based on an exploration of a linguistic corpus of sound......This paper explores the concept of balance in music production and examines the role of conceptual metaphors in reasoning about audio editing. Balance may be the most central concept in record production, however, the way we cognitively understand and respond meaningfully to a mix requiring balance...

  11. Energy level alignment in Au/pentacene/PTCDA trilayer stacks

    OpenAIRE

    Sehati, P.; Braun, S.; Fahlman, M.

    2013-01-01

    Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy is used to investigate the energy level alignment and molecular orientation at the interfaces in Au/pentacene/PTCDA trilayer stacks. We deduced a standing orientation for pentacene grown on Au while we conclude a flat lying geometry for PTCDA grown onto pentacene. We propose that the rough surface of polycrystalline Au induces the standing geometry in pentacene. It is further shown that in situ deposition of PTCDA on pentacene can influence the orientati...

  12. ∑∆ Modulator System-Level Considerations for Hearing-Aid Audio Class-D Output Stage Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pracný, Peter; Bruun, Erik

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with a system-level design of a digital sigma-delta (∑∆) modulator for hearing-aid audio Class D output stage application. The aim of this paper is to provide a thorough discussion on various possibilities and tradeoffs of ∑∆ modulator system-level design parameter combinations...... - order, oversampling ratio (OSR) and number of bits in the quantizer - including their impact on interpolation filter design as well. The system is kept in digital domain up to the input of the Class D power stage including the digital pulse width modulation (DPWM) block. Notes on the impact of the DPWM...

  13. Audio Twister

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Daniel; Moreno Garcia, Rodrigo; Monastiridis, Stefanos

    2015-01-01

    Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Rodrigo Moreno Garcia, Stefanos Monastiridis. Audio Twister. Installation. P-Hack Copenhagen 2015, Copenhagen, DK, Apr 24, 2015.......Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Rodrigo Moreno Garcia, Stefanos Monastiridis. Audio Twister. Installation. P-Hack Copenhagen 2015, Copenhagen, DK, Apr 24, 2015....

  14. Energy level alignment at interfaces in organic photovoltaic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opitz, Andreas; Frisch, Johannes; Schlesinger, Raphael; Wilke, Andreas; Koch, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Energy level alignment is crucial for organic solar cell efficiency. ► Photoelectron spectroscopy can reliably determine energy levels of organic material interfaces. ► Care must be taken to avoid even subtle sample damage. -- Abstract: The alignment of energy levels at interfaces in organic photovoltaic devices is crucial for their energy conversion efficiency. Photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) is a well-established and widely used technique for determining the electronic structure of materials; at the same time PES measurements of conjugated organic materials often pose significant challenges, such as obtaining sufficiently defined sample structures and radiation-induced damage of the organic layers. Here we report how these challenges can be tackled to unravel the energy levels at interfaces in organic photovoltaic devices, i.e., electrode/organic and organic/organic interfaces. The electronic structure across entire photovoltaic multilayer devices can thus be reconciled. Finally, general considerations for correlating the electronic structure and the photovoltaic performance of devices will be discussed

  15. The audio expert everything you need to know about audio

    CERN Document Server

    Winer, Ethan

    2012-01-01

    The Audio Expert is a comprehensive reference that covers all aspects of audio, with many practical, as well as theoretical, explanations. Providing in-depth descriptions of how audio really works, using common sense plain-English explanations and mechanical analogies with minimal math, the book is written for people who want to understand audio at the deepest, most technical level, without needing an engineering degree. It's presented in an easy-to-read, conversational tone, and includes more than 400 figures and photos augmenting the text.The Audio Expert takes th

  16. Modeling Audio Fingerprints : Structure, Distortion, Capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doets, P.J.O.

    2010-01-01

    An audio fingerprint is a compact low-level representation of a multimedia signal. An audio fingerprint can be used to identify audio files or fragments in a reliable way. The use of audio fingerprints for identification consists of two phases. In the enrollment phase known content is fingerprinted,

  17. Comparison of level discrimination, increment detection, and comodulation masking release in the audio- and envelope-frequency domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelson, Paul C.; Ewert, Stephan; Carney, Laurel H.

    2007-01-01

    In general, the temporal structure of stimuli must be considered to account for certain observations made in detection and masking experiments in the audio-frequency domain. Two such phenomena are (1) a heightened sensitivity to amplitude increments with a temporal fringe compared to gated level......-frequency domain. Pure-tone carrier amplitude-modulation (AM) depth-discrimination thresholds were found to be similar using both traditional gated stimuli and using a temporally modulated fringe for a fixed standard depth (ms=0.25) and a range of AM frequencies (4-64 Hz). In a second experiment, masked sinusoidal...... AM detection thresholds were compared in conditions with and without slow and regular fluctuations imposed on the instantaneous masker AM depth. Release from masking was obtained only for very slow masker fluctuations (less than 2 Hz). A physiologically motivated model that effectively acts...

  18. Comprehension and Motivation Levels in Conjunction with the Use of eBooks with Audio: A Quasi-Experimental Study of Post-Secondary Remedial Reading Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Kimberly W.

    2014-01-01

    This quasi-experimental pretest, posttest nonequivalent control group study investigated the comprehension scores and motivation levels of post-secondary remedial reading students in a two-year technical college in Northwest Georgia using an eBook, an eBook with audio, and a print book. After reading a module on Purpose and Tone in the three book…

  19. Role of intrinsic molecular dipole in energy level alignment at organic interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindell, L.; Cakir, Deniz; Brocks, G.; Fahlman, M.; Braun, S.

    2013-01-01

    The energy level alignment in metal-organic and organic-organic junctions of the widely used materials tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3) and 1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (NTCDA) is investigated. The measured alignment schemes for single and bilayer films of Alq3 and NTCDA

  20. Audio Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquef, Paulo A. A.

    The first reproducible recording of human voice was made in 1877 on a tinfoil cylinder phonograph devised by Thomas A. Edison. Since then, much effort has been expended to find better ways to record and reproduce sounds. By the mid-1920s, the first electrical recordings appeared and gradually took over purely acoustic recordings. The development of electronic computers, in conjunction with the ability to record data onto magnetic or optical media, culminated in the standardization of compact disc format in 1980. Nowadays, digital technology is applied to several audio applications, not only to improve the quality of modern and old recording/reproduction techniques, but also to trade off sound quality for less storage space and less taxing transmission capacity requirements.

  1. Editing Audio with Audacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon Walsh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available For those interested in audio, basic sound editing skills go a long way. Being able to handle and manipulate the materials can help you take control of your object of study: you can zoom in and extract particular moments to analyze, process the audio, and upload the materials to a server to compliment a blog post on the topic. On a more practical level, these skills could also allow you to record and package recordings of yourself or others for distribution. That guest lecture taking place in your department? Record it and edit it yourself! Doing so is a lightweight way to distribute resources among various institutions, and it also helps make the materials more accessible for readers and listeners with a wide variety of learning needs. In this lesson you will learn how to use Audacity to load, record, edit, mix, and export audio files. Sound editing platforms are often expensive and offer extensive capabilities that can be overwhelming to the first-time user, but Audacity is a free and open source alternative that offers powerful capabilities for sound editing with a low barrier for entry. For this lesson we will work with two audio files: a recording of Bach’s Goldberg Variations available from MusOpen and another recording of your own voice that will be made in the course of the lesson. This tutorial uses Audacity 2.1.2, released January 2016.

  2. Sub-cell turning to accomplish micron-level alignment of precision assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumler, James J.; Buss, Christian

    2017-08-01

    Higher performance expectations for complex optical systems demand tighter alignment requirements for lens assembly alignment. In order to meet diffraction limited imaging performance over wide spectral bands across the UV and visible wavebands, new manufacturing approaches and tools must be developed if the optical systems will be produced consistently in volume production. This is especially applicable in the field of precision microscope objectives for life science, semiconductor inspection and laser material processing systems. We observe a rising need for the improvement in the optical imaging performance of objective lenses. The key challenge lies in the micron-level decentration and tilt of each lens element. One solution for the production of high quality lens systems is sub-cell assembly with alignment turning. This process relies on an automatic alignment chuck to align the optical axis of a mounted lens to the spindle axis of the machine. Subsequently, the mount is cut with diamond tools on a lathe with respect to the optical axis of the mount. Software controlled integrated measurement technology ensures highest precision. In addition to traditional production processes, further dimensions can be controlled in a very precise manner, e.g. the air gaps between the lenses. Using alignment turning simplifies further alignment steps and reduces the risk of errors. This paper describes new challenges in microscope objective design and manufacturing, and addresses difficulties with standard production processes. A new measurement and alignment technique is described, and strengths and limitations are outlined.

  3. Energy level alignment at hybridized organic-metal interfaces from a GW projection approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yifeng; Tamblyn, Isaac; Quek, Su Ying

    Energy level alignments at organic-metal interfaces are of profound importance in numerous (opto)electronic applications. Standard density functional theory (DFT) calculations generally give incorrect energy level alignments and missing long-range polarization effects. Previous efforts to address this problem using the many-electron GW method have focused on physisorbed systems where hybridization effects are insignificant. Here, we use state-of-the-art GW methods to predict the level alignment at the amine-Au interface, where molecular levels do hybridize with metallic states. This non-trivial hybridization implies that DFT result is a poor approximation to the quasiparticle states. However, we find that the self-energy operator is approximately diagonal in the molecular basis, allowing us to use a projection approach to predict the level alignments. Our results indicate that the metallic substrate reduces the HOMO-LUMO gap by 3.5 4.0 eV, depending on the molecular coverage/presence of Au adatoms. Our GW results are further compared with those of a simple image charge model that describes the level alignment in physisorbed systems. Syq and YC acknowledge Grant NRF-NRFF2013-07 and the medium-sized centre program from the National Research Foundation, Singapore.

  4. Synergistic Instance-Level Subspace Alignment for Fine-Grained Sketch-Based Image Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Pang, Kaiyue; Song, Yi-Zhe; Hospedales, Timothy M; Xiang, Tao; Zhang, Honggang

    2017-08-25

    We study the problem of fine-grained sketch-based image retrieval. By performing instance-level (rather than category-level) retrieval, it embodies a timely and practical application, particularly with the ubiquitous availability of touchscreens. Three factors contribute to the challenging nature of the problem: (i) free-hand sketches are inherently abstract and iconic, making visual comparisons with photos difficult, (ii) sketches and photos are in two different visual domains, i.e. black and white lines vs. color pixels, and (iii) fine-grained distinctions are especially challenging when executed across domain and abstraction-level. To address these challenges, we propose to bridge the image-sketch gap both at the high-level via parts and attributes, as well as at the low-level, via introducing a new domain alignment method. More specifically, (i) we contribute a dataset with 304 photos and 912 sketches, where each sketch and image is annotated with its semantic parts and associated part-level attributes. With the help of this dataset, we investigate (ii) how strongly-supervised deformable part-based models can be learned that subsequently enable automatic detection of part-level attributes, and provide pose-aligned sketch-image comparisons. To reduce the sketch-image gap when comparing low-level features, we also (iii) propose a novel method for instance-level domain-alignment, that exploits both subspace and instance-level cues to better align the domains. Finally (iv) these are combined in a matching framework integrating aligned low-level features, mid-level geometric structure and high-level semantic attributes. Extensive experiments conducted on our new dataset demonstrate effectiveness of the proposed method.

  5. Intelligent audio analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Schuller, Björn W

    2013-01-01

    This book provides the reader with the knowledge necessary for comprehension of the field of Intelligent Audio Analysis. It firstly introduces standard methods and discusses the typical Intelligent Audio Analysis chain going from audio data to audio features to audio recognition.  Further, an introduction to audio source separation, and enhancement and robustness are given. After the introductory parts, the book shows several applications for the three types of audio: speech, music, and general sound. Each task is shortly introduced, followed by a description of the specific data and methods applied, experiments and results, and a conclusion for this specific task. The books provides benchmark results and standardized test-beds for a broader range of audio analysis tasks. The main focus thereby lies on the parallel advancement of realism in audio analysis, as too often today’s results are overly optimistic owing to idealized testing conditions, and it serves to stimulate synergies arising from transfer of ...

  6. Fermi level alignment in molecular nanojunctions and its relation to charge transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadler, Robert; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    2006-01-01

    The alignment of the Fermi level of a metal electrode within the gap of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of a molecule is a key quantity in molecular electronics, which can vary the electron transparency of a single-molecule junction...... by orders of magnitude. We present a quantitative analysis of the relation between this level alignment (which can be estimated from charging free molecules) and charge transfer for bipyridine and biphenyl dithiolate (BPDT) molecules attached to gold leads based on density functional theory calculations...... end of the gap in the transmission function for bipyridine and at its lower end for BPDT....

  7. Energy-level alignment at interfaces between manganese phthalocyanine and C60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Waas

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We have used photoelectron spectroscopy to determine the energy-level alignment at organic heterojunctions made of manganese phthalocyanine (MnPc and the fullerene C60. We show that this energy-level alignment depends upon the preparation sequence, which is explained by different molecular orientations. Moreover, our results demonstrate that MnPc/C60 interfaces are hardly suited for application in organic photovoltaic devices, since the energy difference of the two lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (LUMOs is rather small.

  8. Semantic Context Detection Using Audio Event Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Wen-Huang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Semantic-level content analysis is a crucial issue in achieving efficient content retrieval and management. We propose a hierarchical approach that models audio events over a time series in order to accomplish semantic context detection. Two levels of modeling, audio event and semantic context modeling, are devised to bridge the gap between physical audio features and semantic concepts. In this work, hidden Markov models (HMMs are used to model four representative audio events, that is, gunshot, explosion, engine, and car braking, in action movies. At the semantic context level, generative (ergodic hidden Markov model and discriminative (support vector machine (SVM approaches are investigated to fuse the characteristics and correlations among audio events, which provide cues for detecting gunplay and car-chasing scenes. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches and provide a preliminary framework for information mining by using audio characteristics.

  9. Audio Conferencing Enhancements

    OpenAIRE

    VESTERINEN, LEENA

    2006-01-01

    Audio conferencing allows multiple people in distant locations to interact in a single voice call. Whilst it can be very useful service it also has several key disadvantages. This thesis study investigated the options for improving the user experience of the mobile teleconferencing applications. In particular, the use of 3D, spatial audio and visualinteractive functionality was investigated as the means of improving the intelligibility and audio perception during the audio...

  10. Effect of Internal Heteroatoms on Level Alignment at Metal/Molecular Monolayer/Si Interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alon, Hadas; Garrick, Rachel; Pujari, Sidharam P.; Toledano, Tal; Sinai, Ofer; Kedem, Nir; Bendikov, Tatyana; Baio, Joe E.; Weidner, Tobias; Zuilhof, Han; Cahen, David; Kronik, Leeor; Sukenik, Chaim N.; Vilan, Ayelet

    2018-01-01

    Molecular monolayers at metal/semiconductor heterointerfaces affect electronic energy level alignment at the interface by modifying the interface's electrical dipole. On a free surface, the molecular dipole is usually manipulated by means of substitution at its external end. However, at an interface

  11. Smartphone audio port data collection cookbook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Forinash

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The audio port of a smartphone is designed to send and receive audio but can be harnessed for portable, economical, and accurate data collection from a variety of sources. While smartphones have internal sensors to measure a number of physical phenomena such as acceleration, magnetism and illumination levels, measurement of other phenomena such as voltage, external temperature, or accurate timing of moving objects are excluded. The audio port cannot be only employed to sense external phenomena. It has the additional advantage of timing precision; because audio is recorded or played at a controlled rate separated from other smartphone activities, timings based on audio can be highly accurate. The following outlines unpublished details of the audio port technical elements for data collection, a general data collection recipe and an example timing application for Android devices.

  12. Back to basics audio

    CERN Document Server

    Nathan, Julian

    1998-01-01

    Back to Basics Audio is a thorough, yet approachable handbook on audio electronics theory and equipment. The first part of the book discusses electrical and audio principles. Those principles form a basis for understanding the operation of equipment and systems, covered in the second section. Finally, the author addresses planning and installation of a home audio system.Julian Nathan joined the audio service and manufacturing industry in 1954 and moved into motion picture engineering and production in 1960. He installed and operated recording theaters in Sydney, Austra

  13. Base-By-Base: single nucleotide-level analysis of whole viral genome alignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Ryan; Smith, Alex J; Roper, Rachel L; Tcherepanov, Vasily; Upton, Chris

    2004-07-14

    With ever increasing numbers of closely related virus genomes being sequenced, it has become desirable to be able to compare two genomes at a level more detailed than gene content because two strains of an organism may share the same set of predicted genes but still differ in their pathogenicity profiles. For example, detailed comparison of multiple isolates of the smallpox virus genome (each approximately 200 kb, with 200 genes) is not feasible without new bioinformatics tools. A software package, Base-By-Base, has been developed that provides visualization tools to enable researchers to 1) rapidly identify and correct alignment errors in large, multiple genome alignments; and 2) generate tabular and graphical output of differences between the genomes at the nucleotide level. Base-By-Base uses detailed annotation information about the aligned genomes and can list each predicted gene with nucleotide differences, display whether variations occur within promoter regions or coding regions and whether these changes result in amino acid substitutions. Base-By-Base can connect to our mySQL database (Virus Orthologous Clusters; VOCs) to retrieve detailed annotation information about the aligned genomes or use information from text files. Base-By-Base enables users to quickly and easily compare large viral genomes; it highlights small differences that may be responsible for important phenotypic differences such as virulence. It is available via the Internet using Java Web Start and runs on Macintosh, PC and Linux operating systems with the Java 1.4 virtual machine.

  14. Energy level alignment at the methylammonium lead iodide/copper phthalocyanine interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Chen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The energy level alignment at the CH3NH3PbI3/copper phthalocyanine (CuPc interface is investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS. XPS reveal a 0.3 eV downward band bending in the CuPc film. UPS validate this finding and further reveal negligible interfacial dipole formation – verifying the viability of vacuum level alignment. The highest occupied molecular orbital of CuPc is found to be closer to the Fermi level than the valance band maximum of CH3NH3PbI3, facilitating hole transfer from CH3NH3PbI3 to CuPc. However, subsequent hole extraction from CuPc may be impeded by the downward band bending in the CuPc layer.

  15. Energy Level Alignment at Aqueous GaN and ZnO Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybertsen, Mark S.; Kharche, Neerav; Muckerman, James T.

    2014-03-01

    Electronic energy level alignment at semiconductor-electrolyte interfaces is fundamental to electrochemical activity. Motivated in particular by the search for new materials that can be more efficient for photocatalysis, we develop a first principles method to calculate this alignment at aqueous interfaces and demonstrate it for the specific case of non-polar GaN and ZnO interfaces with water. In the first step, density functional theory (DFT) based molecular dynamics is used to sample the physical interface structure and to evaluate the electrostatic potential step at the interface. In the second step, the GW approach is used to evaluate the reference electronic energy level separately in the bulk semiconductor (valence band edge energy) and in bulk water (the 1b1 energy level), relative to the internal electrostatic energy reference. Use of the GW approach naturally corrects for errors inherent in the use of Kohn-Sham energy eigenvalues to approximate the electronic excitation energies in each material. With this predicted interface alignment, specific redox levels in water, with potentials known relative to the 1b1 level, can then be compared to the semiconductor band edge positions. Our results will be discussed in the context of experiments in which photoexcited GaN and ZnO drive the hydrogen evolution reaction. Research carried out at Brookhaven National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886 with the U.S. Department of Energy.

  16. Wafer-Level Patterned and Aligned Polymer Nanowire/Micro- and Nanotube Arrays on any Substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Morber, Jenny Ruth

    2009-05-25

    A study was conducted to fabricate wafer-level patterned and aligned polymer nanowire (PNW), micro- and nanotube arrays (PNT), which were created by exposing the polymer material to plasma etching. The approach for producing wafer-level aligned PNWs involved a one-step inductively coupled plasma (ICP) reactive ion etching process. The polymer nanowire array was fabricated in an ICP reactive ion milling chamber with a pressure of 10mTorr. Argon (Ar), O 2, and CF4 gases were released into the chamber as etchants at flow rates of 15 sccm, 10 sccm, and 40 sccm. Inert gasses, such as Ar-form positive ions were incorporated to serve as a physical component to assist in the material degradation process. One power source (400 W) was used to generate dense plasma from the input gases, while another power source applied a voltage of approximately 600V to accelerate the plasma toward the substrate.

  17. Substrate dependence of energy level alignment at the donor-acceptor interface in organic photovoltaic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Y.C.; Liu, Z.T.; Tang, J.X.; Lee, C.S.; Lee, S.T.

    2009-01-01

    The interface energy level alignment between copper phthalocyanine (CuPC) and fullerene (C60), the widely studied donor-acceptor pair in organic photovoltaics (OPVs), on indium-tin oxide (ITO) and Mg substrate was investigated. The CuPC/C60 interface formed on ITO shows a nearly common vacuum level, but a dipole and band bending exist, resulting in a 0.8 eV band offset at the same interface on Mg. This observation indicates that the energy difference between the highest occupied molecular orbital of CuPC and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of C60, which dictates the open circuit voltage of the CuPC/C60 OPV, can be tuned by the work function of the substrate. Furthermore, the substrate effect on the energy alignment at the donor/acceptor interface can satisfactorily explain that a device with an anode of a smaller work function can provide a higher open circuit voltage.

  18. Categorizing Video Game Audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerberg, Andreas Rytter; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    they can use audio in video games. The conclusion of this study is that the current models' view of the diegetic spaces, used to categorize video game audio, is not t to categorize all sounds. This can however possibly be changed though a rethinking of how the player interprets audio.......This paper dives into the subject of video game audio and how it can be categorized in order to deliver a message to a player in the most precise way. A new categorization, with a new take on the diegetic spaces, can be used a tool of inspiration for sound- and game-designers to rethink how...

  19. Organic semiconductor density of states controls the energy level alignment at electrode interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehzelt, Martin; Koch, Norbert; Heimel, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Minimizing charge carrier injection barriers and extraction losses at interfaces between organic semiconductors and metallic electrodes is critical for optimizing the performance of organic (opto-) electronic devices. Here, we implement a detailed electrostatic model, capable of reproducing the alignment between the electrode Fermi energy and the transport states in the organic semiconductor both qualitatively and quantitatively. Covering the full phenomenological range of interfacial energy level alignment regimes within a single, consistent framework and continuously connecting the limiting cases described by previously proposed models allows us to resolve conflicting views in the literature. Our results highlight the density of states in the organic semiconductor as a key factor. Its shape and, in particular, the energy distribution of electronic states tailing into the fundamental gap is found to determine both the minimum value of practically achievable injection barriers as well as their spatial profile, ranging from abrupt interface dipoles to extended band-bending regions. PMID:24938867

  20. Base-By-Base: Single nucleotide-level analysis of whole viral genome alignments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tcherepanov Vasily

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With ever increasing numbers of closely related virus genomes being sequenced, it has become desirable to be able to compare two genomes at a level more detailed than gene content because two strains of an organism may share the same set of predicted genes but still differ in their pathogenicity profiles. For example, detailed comparison of multiple isolates of the smallpox virus genome (each approximately 200 kb, with 200 genes is not feasible without new bioinformatics tools. Results A software package, Base-By-Base, has been developed that provides visualization tools to enable researchers to 1 rapidly identify and correct alignment errors in large, multiple genome alignments; and 2 generate tabular and graphical output of differences between the genomes at the nucleotide level. Base-By-Base uses detailed annotation information about the aligned genomes and can list each predicted gene with nucleotide differences, display whether variations occur within promoter regions or coding regions and whether these changes result in amino acid substitutions. Base-By-Base can connect to our mySQL database (Virus Orthologous Clusters; VOCs to retrieve detailed annotation information about the aligned genomes or use information from text files. Conclusion Base-By-Base enables users to quickly and easily compare large viral genomes; it highlights small differences that may be responsible for important phenotypic differences such as virulence. It is available via the Internet using Java Web Start and runs on Macintosh, PC and Linux operating systems with the Java 1.4 virtual machine.

  1. Sagittal alignment and complications following lumbar 3-column osteotomy: does the level of resection matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Emmanuelle; Liabaud, Barthelemy; Henry, Jensen K; Ames, Christopher P; Kebaish, Khaled; Mundis, Gregory M; Hostin, Richard; Gupta, Munish C; Boachie-Adjei, Oheneba; Smith, Justin S; Hart, Robert A; Obeid, Ibrahim; Diebo, Bassel G; Schwab, Frank J; Lafage, Virginie

    2017-11-01

    OBJECTIVE Three-column osteotomy (3CO) is a demanding technique that is performed to correct sagittal spinal malalignment. However, the impact of the 3CO level on pelvic or truncal sagittal correction remains unclear. In this study, the authors assessed the impact of 3CO level and postoperative apex of lumbar lordosis on sagittal alignment correction, complications, and revisions. METHODS In this retrospective study of a multicenter spinal deformity database, radiographic data were analyzed at baseline and at 1- and 2-year follow-up to quantify spinopelvic alignment, apex of lordosis, and resection angle. The impact of 3CO level and apex level of lumbar lordosis on the sagittal correction was assessed. Logistic regression analyses were performed, controlling for cofounders, to investigate the effects of 3CO level and apex level on intraoperative and postoperative complications as well as on the need for subsequent revision surgery. RESULTS A total of 468 patients were included (mean age 60.8 years, mean body mass index 28.1 kg/m 2 ); 70% of patients were female. The average 3CO resection angle was 25.1° and did not significantly differ with regard to 3CO level. There were no significant correlations between the 3CO level and amount of sagittal vertical axis or pelvic tilt correction. The postoperative apex level significantly correlated with greater correction of pelvic tilt (2° per more caudal level, R = -0.2, p = 0.006). Lower-level 3CO significantly correlated with revisions for pseudarthrosis (OR = 3.88, p = 0.001) and postoperative motor deficits (OR = 2.02, p = 0.026). CONCLUSIONS In this study, a more caudal lumbar 3CO level did not lead to greater sagittal vertical axis correction. The postoperative apex of lumbar lordosis significantly impacted pelvic tilt. 3CO levels that were more caudal were associated with more postoperative motor deficits and revisions.

  2. Roundtable Audio Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Bigum

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available RoundTable on Technology, Teaching and Tools. This is a roundtable audio interview conducted by James Farmer, founder of Edublogs, with Anne Bartlett-Bragg (University of Technology Sydney and Chris Bigum (Deakin University. Skype was used to make and record the audio conference and the resulting sound file was edited by Andrew McLauchlan.

  3. Musical Audio Synthesis Using Autoencoding Neural Nets

    OpenAIRE

    Sarroff, Andy; Casey, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    With an optimal network topology and tuning of hyperpa-\\ud rameters, artificial neural networks (ANNs) may be trained\\ud to learn a mapping from low level audio features to one\\ud or more higher-level representations. Such artificial neu-\\ud ral networks are commonly used in classification and re-\\ud gression settings to perform arbitrary tasks. In this work\\ud we suggest repurposing autoencoding neural networks as\\ud musical audio synthesizers. We offer an interactive musi-\\ud cal audio synt...

  4. Transparent Conducting Oxides for Photovoltaics: Manipulation of Fermi Level, Work Function and Energy Band Alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana E. Proffit

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Doping limits, band gaps, work functions and energy band alignments of undoped and donor-doped transparent conducting oxides Zn0, In2O3, and SnO2 as accessed by X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS/UPS are summarized and compared. The presented collection provides an extensive data set of technologically relevant electronic properties of photovoltaic transparent electrode materials and illustrates how these relate to the underlying defect chemistry, the dependence of surface dipoles on crystallographic orientation and/or surface termination, and Fermi level pinning.

  5. The energy level alignment at the CH_3NH_3PbI_3/pentacene interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Gengwu; Zhao, Bin; Song, Fei; Zheng, Guanhaojie; Zhang, Xiaonan; Shen, Kongchao; Yang, Yingguo; Chen, Shi; Gao, Xingyu

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The Energy Level Alignment at the CH_3NH_3PbI_3/Pentacene Interface was resolved experimentally. • The downward band bending and the dipole found at the pentacene side would favorably drive holes away from the interface into pentacene. • A ∼0.7 eV offset between pentacene HOMO and CH_3NH_3PbI_3 VBM would be in favor of hole transfer whereas a ∼1.35 eV offset between pentacene LUMO and CH_3NH_3PbI_3 CBM should efficiently block the unwanted electron transfer from perovskite to pentacene. • Pentacene could be a viable hole transfer material candidate on perovskite to be explored in perovskite devices. - Abstract: Pentacene thin film on CH_3NH_3PbI_3 was studied by in-situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy to determine their interfacial energy level alignment. A 0.2 eV downward band bending together with a 0.1 eV interfacial dipole was found at the pentacene side, whereas there was no band bending found at the CH_3NH_3PbI_3 side. The offset between CH_3NH_3PbI_3 Valance Band Maximum (VBM) and pentacene Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO) and that between CH_3NH_3PbI_3 Conduction Band Minimum (CBM) and pentacene Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital (LUMO) was determined to be 0.7 and 1.35 eV, respectively. The band alignment at this interface is favor of efficient hole transfer, which suggests pentacene as a viable HTL candidate to be explored in perovskite solar cells.

  6. Structure Learning in Audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Andreas Brinch

    By having information about the setting a user is in, a computer is able to make decisions proactively to facilitate tasks for the user. Two approaches are taken in this thesis to achieve more information about an audio environment. One approach is that of classifying audio, and a new approach...... investigated. A fast and computationally simple approach that compares recordings and classifies if they are from the same audio environment have been developed, and shows very high accuracy and the ability to synchronize recordings in the case of recording devices which are not connected. A more general model...

  7. Photoemission spectroscopy study on interfacial energy level alignments in tandem organic light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou, Qing-Dong; Li, Chi; Li, Yan-Qing, E-mail: yqli@suda.edu.cn; Tang, Jian-Xin, E-mail: jxtang@suda.edu.cn

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • The interface energetics of tandem OLEDs is overviewed. • Energy level alignment in CGLs is addressed via photoemission spectroscopy. • The n-type doping effect with cesium compounds is discussed. • Hole injection barrier is dependent on oxygen vacancies in transition metal oxides. • Device lifetime of tandem OLEDs is sensitive to interfacial stability of CGLs. - Abstract: Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) using a tandem structure offer a highly attractive option for the applications of next-generation flat panel displays and solid-state lighting due to the extremely high brightness and efficiency along with the long operational lifetime. In general, reliable information about interface energetics of the charge generation layers (CGLs), which plays the central role in charge generation and carrier injection into the stacked emission units, is highly desirable and advantageous for interface engineering and the performance optimization of tandem OLEDs. In this review, our recent studies on tandem OLEDs are overviewed, especially from interface energetics perspective via photoemission spectroscopy. The electronic structures of various transition metal oxide (TMO)-based CGLs and their role in charge generation process are reviewed, addressing the n-type doping impact of organic layers in CGLs, thermal annealing-induced oxygen vacancy in TMOs, and the interfacial stability of CGLs on the device operational lifetime. The resulting energy level alignments are summarized in correspondence with tandem OLED performance.

  8. Energy level alignment at C{sub 60}/DTDCTB/PEDOT:PSS interfaces in organic photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jisu; Jung, Kwanwook; Jeong, Junkyeong; Hyun, Gyeongho [Institute of Physics and Applied Physics, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyunbok, E-mail: hyunbok@kangwon.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon-si, Gangwon-do 24341 (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Yeonjin, E-mail: yeonjin@yonsei.ac.kr [Institute of Physics and Applied Physics, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • The interfacial energy level alignment of C{sub 60}/DTDCTB/PEDOT:PSS was determined via in situ UPS and IPES measurements. • A large photovoltaic gap of 1.30 eV was evaluated between the DTDCTB donor and C{sub 60} acceptor. • A low hole extraction barrier of 0.42 eV from DTDCTB to PEDOT:PSS was evaluated. • The excellent electronic properties of DTDCTB with a narrow band gap were the source of its high OPV power conversion efficiencies. - Abstract: The electronic structure of a narrow band gap small molecule ditolylaminothienyl–benzothiadiazole–dicyanovinylene (DTDCTB), possessing a donor-acceptor-acceptor configuration, was investigated with regard to its application as an efficient donor material in organic photovoltaics (OPVs). The interfacial orbital alignment of C{sub 60}/DTDCTB/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) was determined using in situ ultraviolet photoelectron and inverse photoelectron spectroscopic methods. The ionization energy and electron affinity values of DTDCTB were measured to be 5.27 eV and 3.65 eV, respectively, and thus a very small transport gap of 1.62 eV was evaluated. Large band bending of DTDCTB on PEDOT:PSS was observed, resulting in a low hole extraction barrier. Additionally, the photovoltaic gap between the highest occupied molecular orbital level of the DTDCTB donor and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital level of the C{sub 60} acceptor was estimated to be 1.30 eV, which is known to be the theoretical maximum open-circuit voltage in OPVs employing the C{sub 60}/DTDCTB active layer. The unique electronic structures of DTDCTB contributed toward the recently reported excellent power conversion efficiencies of OPVs containing a DTDCTB donor material.

  9. Charge separation at nanoscale interfaces: energy-level alignment including two-quasiparticle interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huashan; Lin, Zhibin; Lusk, Mark T; Wu, Zhigang

    2014-10-21

    The universal and fundamental criteria for charge separation at interfaces involving nanoscale materials are investigated. In addition to the single-quasiparticle excitation, all the two-quasiparticle effects including exciton binding, Coulomb stabilization, and exciton transfer are considered, which play critical roles on nanoscale interfaces for optoelectronic applications. We propose a scheme allowing adding these two-quasiparticle interactions on top of the single-quasiparticle energy level alignment for determining and illuminating charge separation at nanoscale interfaces. Employing the many-body perturbation theory based on Green's functions, we quantitatively demonstrate that neglecting or simplifying these crucial two-quasiparticle interactions using less accurate methods is likely to predict qualitatively incorrect charge separation behaviors at nanoscale interfaces where quantum confinement dominates.

  10. Web Audio/Video Streaming Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guruvadoo, Eranna K.

    2003-01-01

    In order to promote NASA-wide educational outreach program to educate and inform the public of space exploration, NASA, at Kennedy Space Center, is seeking efficient ways to add more contents to the web by streaming audio/video files. This project proposes a high level overview of a framework for the creation, management, and scheduling of audio/video assets over the web. To support short-term goals, the prototype of a web-based tool is designed and demonstrated to automate the process of streaming audio/video files. The tool provides web-enabled users interfaces to manage video assets, create publishable schedules of video assets for streaming, and schedule the streaming events. These operations are performed on user-defined and system-derived metadata of audio/video assets stored in a relational database while the assets reside on separate repository. The prototype tool is designed using ColdFusion 5.0.

  11. First-principles calculation of electronic energy level alignment at electrochemical interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azar, Yavar T.; Payami, Mahmoud, E-mail: mpayami@aeoi.org.ir

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • Using DFT calculation, level shifts of TiO{sub 2} and ZnO at the interfaces with MeCN and DMF are determined. • Level shifts are obtained using potential difference between the surfaces of asymmetric slabs. • Solvent molecules give an up-shift to the levels that varies with coverage. • MD simulations show that at room temperatures the surface is not fully covered by the solvent molecules. - Abstract: Energy level alignment at solid–solvent interfaces is an important step in determining the properties of electrochemical systems. The positions of conduction and valence band edges of a semiconductor are affected by its environment. In this study, using first-principles DFT calculation, we have determined the level shifts of the semiconductors TiO{sub 2} and ZnO at the interfaces with MeCN and DMF solvent molecules. The level shifts of semiconductor are obtained using the potential difference between the clean and exposed surfaces of asymmetric slabs. In this work, neglecting the effects of present ions in the electrolyte solution, we have shown that the solvent molecules give rise to an up-shift for the levels, and the amount of this shift varies with coverage. It is also shown that the shapes of density of states do not change sensibly near the gap. Molecular dynamics simulations of the interface have shown that at room temperatures the semiconductor surface is not fully covered by the solvent molecules, and one must use intermediate values in an static calculations.

  12. Electronic Energy Levels and Band Alignment for Aqueous Phenol and Phenolate from First Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opalka, Daniel; Pham, Tuan Anh; Sprik, Michiel; Galli, Giulia

    2015-07-30

    Electronic energy levels in phenol and phenolate solutions have been computed using density functional theory and many-body perturbation theory. The valence and conduction bands of the solvent and the ionization energies of the solutes have been aligned with respect to the vacuum level based on the concept of a computational standard hydrogen electrode. We have found significant quantitative differences between the generalized-gradient approximation, calculations with the HSE hybrid functional, and many-body perturbation theory in the G0W0 approximation. For phenol, two ionization energies below the photoionization threshold of bulk water have been assigned in the spectrum of Kohn-Sham eigenvalues of the solution. Deprotonation to phenolate was found to lift a third occupied energy level above the valence band maximum of the solvent which is characterized by an electronic lone pair at the hydroxyl group. The second and third ionization energies of phenolate were found to be very similar and explain the intensity pattern observed in recent experiments using liquid-microjet photoemission spectroscopy.

  13. Perceptual Audio Hashing Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin Anarım

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Perceptual hash functions provide a tool for fast and reliable identification of content. We present new audio hash functions based on summarization of the time-frequency spectral characteristics of an audio document. The proposed hash functions are based on the periodicity series of the fundamental frequency and on singular-value description of the cepstral frequencies. They are found, on one hand, to perform very satisfactorily in identification and verification tests, and on the other hand, to be very resilient to a large variety of attacks. Moreover, we address the issue of security of hashes and propose a keying technique, and thereby a key-dependent hash function.

  14. DAFX Digital Audio Effects

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    The rapid development in various fields of Digital Audio Effects, or DAFX, has led to new algorithms and this second edition of the popular book, DAFX: Digital Audio Effects has been updated throughout to reflect progress in the field. It maintains a unique approach to DAFX with a lecture-style introduction into the basics of effect processing. Each effect description begins with the presentation of the physical and acoustical phenomena, an explanation of the signal processing techniques to achieve the effect, followed by a discussion of musical applications and the control of effect parameter

  15. Magnet-assisted device-level alignment for the fabrication of membrane-sandwiched polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, J-C; Liao, W-H; Tung, Y-C

    2012-01-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device is one of the most essential techniques that advance microfluidics research in recent decades. PDMS is broadly exploited to construct microfluidic devices due to its unique and advantageous material properties. To realize more functionalities, PDMS microfluidic devices with multi-layer architectures, especially those with sandwiched membranes, have been developed for various applications. However, existing alignment methods for device fabrication are mainly based on manual observations, which are time consuming, inaccurate and inconsistent. This paper develops a magnet-assisted alignment method to enhance device-level alignment accuracy and precision without complicated fabrication processes. In the developed alignment method, magnets are embedded into PDMS layers at the corners of the device. The paired magnets are arranged in symmetric positions at each PDMS layer, and the magnetic attraction force automatically pulls the PDMS layers into the aligned position during assembly. This paper also applies the method to construct a practical microfluidic device, a tunable chaotic micromixer. The results demonstrate the successful operation of the device without failure, which suggests the accurate alignment and reliable bonding achieved by the method. Consequently, the fabrication method developed in this paper is promising to be exploited to construct various membrane-sandwiched PDMS microfluidic devices with more integrated functionalities to advance microfluidics research. (paper)

  16. Portable Audio Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    2014-01-01

    attention to the specific genre; a grasping of the complex relationship between site and time, the actual and the virtual; and getting aquatint with the specific site’s soundscape by approaching it both intuitively and systematically. These steps will finally lead to an audio production that not only...

  17. Audio Feedback -- Better Feedback?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelkel, Susanne; Mello, Luciane V.

    2014-01-01

    National Student Survey (NSS) results show that many students are dissatisfied with the amount and quality of feedback they get for their work. This study reports on two case studies in which we tried to address these issues by introducing audio feedback to one undergraduate (UG) and one postgraduate (PG) class, respectively. In case study one…

  18. Audio wiring guide how to wire the most popular audio and video connectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hechtman, John

    2012-01-01

    Whether you're a pro or an amateur, a musician or into multimedia, you can't afford to guess about audio wiring. The Audio Wiring Guide is a comprehensive, easy-to-use guide that explains exactly what you need to know. No matter the size of your wiring project or installation, this handy tool provides you with the essential information you need and the techniques to use it. Using The Audio Wiring Guide is like having an expert at your side. By following the clear, step-by-step directions, you can do professional-level work at a fraction of the cost.

  19. Multiple frequency audio signal communication as a mechanism for neurophysiology and video data synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topper, Nicholas C; Burke, Sara N; Maurer, Andrew Porter

    2014-12-30

    Current methods for aligning neurophysiology and video data are either prepackaged, requiring the additional purchase of a software suite, or use a blinking LED with a stationary pulse-width and frequency. These methods lack significant user interface for adaptation, are expensive, or risk a misalignment of the two data streams. A cost-effective means to obtain high-precision alignment of behavioral and neurophysiological data is obtained by generating an audio-pulse embedded with two domains of information, a low-frequency binary-counting signal and a high, randomly changing frequency. This enabled the derivation of temporal information while maintaining enough entropy in the system for algorithmic alignment. The sample to frame index constructed using the audio input correlation method described in this paper enables video and data acquisition to be aligned at a sub-frame level of precision. Traditionally, a synchrony pulse is recorded on-screen via a flashing diode. The higher sampling rate of the audio input of the camcorder enables the timing of an event to be detected with greater precision. While on-line analysis and synchronization using specialized equipment may be the ideal situation in some cases, the method presented in the current paper presents a viable, low cost alternative, and gives the flexibility to interface with custom off-line analysis tools. Moreover, the ease of constructing and implements this set-up presented in the current paper makes it applicable to a wide variety of applications that require video recording. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Constrained-DFT method for accurate energy-level alignment of metal/molecule interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Souza, A. M.

    2013-10-07

    We present a computational scheme for extracting the energy-level alignment of a metal/molecule interface, based on constrained density functional theory and local exchange and correlation functionals. The method, applied here to benzene on Li(100), allows us to evaluate charge-transfer energies, as well as the spatial distribution of the image charge induced on the metal surface. We systematically study the energies for charge transfer from the molecule to the substrate as function of the molecule-substrate distance, and investigate the effects arising from image-charge confinement and local charge neutrality violation. For benzene on Li(100) we find that the image-charge plane is located at about 1.8 Å above the Li surface, and that our calculated charge-transfer energies compare perfectly with those obtained with a classical electrostatic model having the image plane located at the same position. The methodology outlined here can be applied to study any metal/organic interface in the weak coupling limit at the computational cost of a total energy calculation. Most importantly, as the scheme is based on total energies and not on correcting the Kohn-Sham quasiparticle spectrum, accurate results can be obtained with local/semilocal exchange and correlation functionals. This enables a systematic approach to convergence.

  1. Hole-Transfer Dependence on Blend Morphology and Energy Level Alignment in Polymer: ITIC Photovoltaic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastham, Nicholas D; Logsdon, Jenna L; Manley, Eric F; Aldrich, Thomas J; Leonardi, Matthew J; Wang, Gang; Powers-Riggs, Natalia E; Young, Ryan M; Chen, Lin X; Wasielewski, Michael R; Melkonyan, Ferdinand S; Chang, Robert P H; Marks, Tobin J

    2018-01-01

    Bulk-heterojunction organic photovoltaic materials containing nonfullerene acceptors (NFAs) have seen remarkable advances in the past year, finally surpassing fullerenes in performance. Indeed, acceptors based on indacenodithiophene (IDT) have become synonymous with high power conversion efficiencies (PCEs). Nevertheless, NFAs have yet to achieve fill factors (FFs) comparable to those of the highest-performing fullerene-based materials. To address this seeming anomaly, this study examines a high efficiency IDT-based acceptor, ITIC, paired with three donor polymers known to achieve high FFs with fullerenes, PTPD3T, PBTI3T, and PBTSA3T. Excellent PCEs up to 8.43% are achieved from PTPD3T:ITIC blends, reflecting good charge transport, optimal morphology, and efficient ITIC to PTPD3T hole-transfer, as observed by femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. Hole-transfer is observed from ITIC to PBTI3T and PBTSA3T, but less efficiently, reflecting measurably inferior morphology and nonoptimal energy level alignment, resulting in PCEs of 5.34% and 4.65%, respectively. This work demonstrates the importance of proper morphology and kinetics of ITIC → donor polymer hole-transfer in boosting the performance of polymer:ITIC photovoltaic bulk heterojunction blends. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Energy level alignment and electron transport through metal/organic contacts. From interfaces to molecular electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abad, Enrique

    2013-07-01

    A new calculational approach to describing metal/organic interfaces. A valuable step towards a better understanding of molecular electronics. Nominated as an outstanding contribution by the Autonomous University of Madrid. In recent years, ever more electronic devices have started to exploit the advantages of organic semiconductors. The work reported in this thesis focuses on analyzing theoretically the energy level alignment of different metal/organic interfaces, necessary to tailor devices with good performance. Traditional methods based on density functional theory (DFT), are not appropriate for analyzing them because they underestimate the organic energy gap and fail to correctly describe the van der Waals forces. Since the size of these systems prohibits the use of more accurate methods, corrections to those DFT drawbacks are desirable. In this work a combination of a standard DFT calculation with the inclusion of the charging energy (U) of the molecule, calculated from first principles, is presented. Regarding the dispersion forces, incorrect long range interaction is substituted by a van der Waals potential. With these corrections, the C60, benzene, pentacene, TTF and TCNQ/Au(111) interfaces are analyzed, both for single molecules and for a monolayer. The results validate the induced density of interface states model.

  3. Constrained-DFT method for accurate energy-level alignment of metal/molecule interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Souza, A. M.; Rungger, I.; Pemmaraju, C. D.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Sanvito, S.

    2013-01-01

    We present a computational scheme for extracting the energy-level alignment of a metal/molecule interface, based on constrained density functional theory and local exchange and correlation functionals. The method, applied here to benzene on Li(100), allows us to evaluate charge-transfer energies, as well as the spatial distribution of the image charge induced on the metal surface. We systematically study the energies for charge transfer from the molecule to the substrate as function of the molecule-substrate distance, and investigate the effects arising from image-charge confinement and local charge neutrality violation. For benzene on Li(100) we find that the image-charge plane is located at about 1.8 Å above the Li surface, and that our calculated charge-transfer energies compare perfectly with those obtained with a classical electrostatic model having the image plane located at the same position. The methodology outlined here can be applied to study any metal/organic interface in the weak coupling limit at the computational cost of a total energy calculation. Most importantly, as the scheme is based on total energies and not on correcting the Kohn-Sham quasiparticle spectrum, accurate results can be obtained with local/semilocal exchange and correlation functionals. This enables a systematic approach to convergence.

  4. Quasiparticle interfacial level alignment of highly hybridized frontier levels: H2O on TiO2(110).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migani, Annapaola; Mowbray, Duncan J; Zhao, Jin; Petek, Hrvoje

    2015-01-13

    Knowledge of the frontier levels' alignment prior to photoirradiation is necessary to achieve a complete quantitative description of H2O photocatalysis on TiO2(110). Although H2O on rutile TiO2(110) has been thoroughly studied both experimentally and theoretically, a quantitative value for the energy of the highest H2O occupied levels is still lacking. For experiment, this is due to the H2O levels being obscured by hybridization with TiO2(110) levels in the difference spectra obtained via ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS). For theory, this is due to inherent difficulties in properly describing many-body effects at the H2O-TiO2(110) interface. Using the projected density of states (DOS) from state-of-the-art quasiparticle (QP) G0W0, we disentangle the adsorbate and surface contributions to the complex UPS spectra of H2O on TiO2(110). We perform this separation as a function of H2O coverage and dissociation on stoichiometric and reduced surfaces. Due to hybridization with the TiO2(110) surface, the H2O 3a1 and 1b1 levels are broadened into several peaks between 5 and 1 eV below the TiO2(110) valence band maximum (VBM). These peaks have both intermolecular and interfacial bonding and antibonding character. We find the highest occupied levels of H2O adsorbed intact and dissociated on stoichiometric TiO2(110) are 1.1 and 0.9 eV below the VBM. We also find a similar energy of 1.1 eV for the highest occupied levels of H2O when adsorbed dissociatively on a bridging O vacancy of the reduced surface. In both cases, these energies are significantly higher (by 0.6 to 2.6 eV) than those estimated from UPS difference spectra, which are inconclusive in this energy region. Finally, we apply self-consistent QPGW (scQPGW1) to obtain the ionization potential of the H2O-TiO2(110) interface.

  5. Wavelet-based audio embedding and audio/video compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendenhall, Michael J.; Claypoole, Roger L., Jr.

    2001-12-01

    Watermarking, traditionally used for copyright protection, is used in a new and exciting way. An efficient wavelet-based watermarking technique embeds audio information into a video signal. Several effective compression techniques are applied to compress the resulting audio/video signal in an embedded fashion. This wavelet-based compression algorithm incorporates bit-plane coding, index coding, and Huffman coding. To demonstrate the potential of this audio embedding and audio/video compression algorithm, we embed an audio signal into a video signal and then compress. Results show that overall compression rates of 15:1 can be achieved. The video signal is reconstructed with a median PSNR of nearly 33 dB. Finally, the audio signal is extracted from the compressed audio/video signal without error.

  6. Theoretical study of alignment and orientation of n = 2 levels in Li++He collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courbin, C.; Sidis, V.

    1986-01-01

    The determination of alignment and orientation parameters from differential cross section measurements involving the photon-particle coincidence technique prompts theory to investigate a wide variety of electronic transitions both at small and large distances of approach between the collision partners. A theoretical model is presented with a view to explaining alignment and orientation phenomena related to Li + +He*(2 1 P) excitation and Li*(2 2 P)+He + charge exchange excitation in the prototype Li + +He collision. The corresponding discussion is illustrated using a recent ab initio study by the authors [fr

  7. Frequency Hopping Method for Audio Watermarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Anastasijević

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the degradation of audio content for a perceptible removable watermark. Two different approaches to embedding the watermark in the spectral domain were investigated. The frequencies for watermark embedding are chosen according to a pseudorandom sequence making the methods robust. Consequentially, the lower quality audio can be used for promotional purposes. For a fee, the watermark can be removed with a secret watermarking key. Objective and subjective testing was conducted in order to measure degradation level for the watermarked music samples and to examine residual distortion for different parameters of the watermarking algorithm and different music genres.

  8. Improving audio chord transcription by exploiting harmonic and metric knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, W.B.; Rodrigues Magalhães, J.P.; Wiering, F.

    2012-01-01

    We present a new system for chord transcription from polyphonic musical audio that uses domain-specific knowledge about tonal harmony and metrical position to improve chord transcription performance. Low-level pulse and spectral features are extracted from an audio source using the Vamp plugin

  9. On the Use of Memory Models in Audio Features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl Kristoffer

    2011-01-01

    Audio feature estimation is potentially improved by including higher- level models. One such model is the Short Term Memory (STM) model. A new paradigm of audio feature estimation is obtained by adding the influence of notes in the STM. These notes are identified when the perceptual spectral flux...

  10. Four-quadrant flyback converter for direct audio power amplification

    OpenAIRE

    Ljusev, Petar; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a bidirectional, four-quadrant flyback converter for use in direct audio power amplification. When compared to the standard Class-D switching audio power amplifier with a separate power supply, the proposed four-quadrant flyback converter provides simple solution with better efficiency, higher level of integration and lower component count.

  11. Multi Carrier Modulation Audio Power Amplifier with Programmable Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Theis; Andersen, Toke Meyer; Knott, Arnold

    2009-01-01

    While switch-mode audio power amplifiers allow compact implementations and high output power levels due to their high power efficiency, they are very well known for creating electromagnetic interference (EMI) with other electronic equipment. To lower the EMI of switch-mode (class D) audio power a...

  12. Exploring the Alignment of the Intended and Implemented Curriculum through Teachers' Interpretation: A Case Study of A-Level Biology Practical Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaeton, Mukaro Joe; Stears, Michèle

    2017-01-01

    The research reported on here is part of a larger study exploring the alignment of the intended, implemented and attained curriculum with regard to practical work in the Zimbabwean A-level Biology curriculum. In this paper we focus on the alignment between the intended and implemented A-Level Biology curriculum through the lens of teachers'…

  13. Internal alignment and external viability of innovation ecosystems : a multi-level perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walrave, B.; Talmar, M.; Podoynitsyna, K.S.; Romme, A.G.L.; Verbong, G.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Path-breaking innovations are increasingly developed and commercialized by networks of co-creating actors, so-called innovation ecosystems. Previous work in this area has demonstrated that, to create and appropriate value, ecosystem actors should align their activities. The effort of a focal venture

  14. Modelling energy level alignment at organic interfaces and density functional theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores, F.; Ortega, J.; Vazquez, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    A review of our theoretical understanding of the band alignment at organic interfaces is presented with particular emphasis on the metal/organic (MO) case. The unified IDIS (induced density of interface states) and the ICT (integer charge transfer) models are reviewed and shown to describe qualit...

  15. Aligned assessment in support of high-level learning: A critical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article describes a specific formative assessment task in an ODL learning context and touches on issues of self-regulated learning and appropriation of student writing. Biggs' theory of constructive alignment, which underpins the assignment, requires an evaluation of the degree to which students construct meaning from ...

  16. Small signal audio design

    CERN Document Server

    Self, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Learn to use inexpensive and readily available parts to obtain state-of-the-art performance in all the vital parameters of noise, distortion, crosstalk and so on. With ample coverage of preamplifiers and mixers and a new chapter on headphone amplifiers, this practical handbook provides an extensive repertoire of circuits that can be put together to make almost any type of audio system.A resource packed full of valuable information, with virtually every page revealing nuggets of specialized knowledge not found elsewhere. Essential points of theory that bear on practical performance are lucidly

  17. Efficient Audio Power Amplification - Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2005-01-01

    For more than a decade efficient audio power amplification has evolved and today switch-mode audio power amplification in various forms are the state-of-the-art. The technical steps that lead to this evolution are described and in addition many of the challenges still to be faced and where...

  18. Efficient audio power amplification - challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Michael A.E.

    2005-07-01

    For more than a decade efficient audio power amplification has evolved and today switch-mode audio power amplification in various forms are the state-of-the-art. The technical steps that lead to this evolution are described and in addition many of the challenges still to be faced and where extensive research and development are needed is covered. (au)

  19. THE INFLUENCE OF INTERACTIVE MULTIMEDIA AUDIO TELLING MACHINE (IMATE USE AND STUDENTS’ SELF REGU-LATED LEARNING LEVEL ON ENGLISH LANGUAGE GREET-INGS APPLICATION SKILLS (PENGARUH PENGGUNAAN INTERACTIVE MULTIMEDIA AU-DIO TELLING MACHINE (iMATE DAN TINGKAT SELF REGU-LATED LEARNING SISWA TERHADAP KEMAMPUAN MENERAP-KAN GREETINGS BAHASA INGGRIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ridwan Sutisna

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. New trends of technology and also the higher needs of English proficiency have encouraged the quality improvent of English instructions. The aim of this research is to deter-mine the effect of Interactive Multimedia Audio Telling Machine (iMATE and self regulated learning level in English language greetings application skill of vocational school students. iMATE is an Interactive instructional media used in this research. While student’s self regulated learning is divided into high and low level. This research used experimental design. This re-search was held at SMK Pasundan 3 Bandung. Findings of this research were; (1 Generally students achieved better result when using iMATE. (2 There was an interaction between use of instructional media and students’ self regulated learning level. (3 Students with high self regu-lated learning achieved much better when using iMATE. (4 Students with low self regulated learning had a better result when not using iMATE. This Findings lead to the conclusion that students’ self regulated learning level may affect the succes of instructional media use, especially in teaching English language skills. Abstrak. Perkembangan teknologi dan kebutuhan akan kemampuan Bahasa Inggris yang lebih tinggi mendorong kualitas pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris juga mengalami perkem-bangan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh dari penggunaan Interactive Multimedia Audio Telling Machine (iMATE dan tingkat self regulated learning terhadap ke-mampuan menerapkan greetings Bahasa Inggris siswa SMK. iMATE adalah multimedia inter-aktif pembelajaran yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini. Siswa sebagai subjek penelitian dibagi kedalam dua kelompok yaitu yang memiliki tingkat self regulated learning yang tinggi dan ren-dah. Penelitian yang dilaksanakan di SMK Pasundan 3 Bandung ini menggunakan desain ek-sperimen. Temuan dari penelitian ini adalah (1 Secara umum siswa memperoleh hasil yang lebih baik dengan

  20. Energy level alignment and molecular conformation at rubrene/Ag interfaces: Impact of contact contaminations on the interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Sumona, E-mail: sumona.net.09@gmail.com [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Wang, C.-H. [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Mukherjee, M. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India)

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • Impact of contact contaminations on the energy level alignment and molecular conformation at rubrene/Ag interfaces. • Adventitious contamination layer was acted as a spacer layer between Ag substrate surface and rubrene molecular layer. • Hole injection barrier height and interface dipole at rubrene/Ag interfaces depend on the cleanliness of Ag substrate. • Molecular conformation as well as orientation controlled by the cleanliness of Ag surface. • Resulted different surface morphology of rubrene thin films on unclean and clean Ag substrate. - Abstract: This paper addresses the impact of electrode contaminations on the interfacial energy level alignment, the molecular conformation, orientation and surface morphology deposited organic film at organic semiconductor/noble metal interfaces by varying of film thickness from sub-monolayer to multilayer, which currently draws significant attention with regard to its application in organic electronics. The UHV clean Ag and unclean Ag were employed as substrate whereas rubrene was used as an organic semiconducting material. The photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and UPS) was engaged to investigate the evolution of interfacial energetics; polarization dependent near edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) was employed to understand the molecular conformation as well as orientation whereas atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to investigate the surface morphologies of the films. The adventitious contamination layer was acted as a spacer layer between clean Ag substrate surface and rubrene molecular layer. As a consequence, hole injection barrier height, interface dipole as well as molecular-conformation, molecular-orientation and surface morphology of rubrene thin films were found to depend on the cleanliness of Ag substrate. The results have important inferences about the understanding of the impact of substrate contamination on the energy level alignment, the molecular conformation

  1. Graphitized silicon carbide microbeams: wafer-level, self-aligned graphene on silicon wafers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunning, Benjamin V; Ahmed, Mohsin; Mishra, Neeraj; Kermany, Atieh Ranjbar; Iacopi, Francesca; Wood, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Currently proven methods that are used to obtain devices with high-quality graphene on silicon wafers involve the transfer of graphene flakes from a growth substrate, resulting in fundamental limitations for large-scale device fabrication. Moreover, the complex three-dimensional structures of interest for microelectromechanical and nanoelectromechanical systems are hardly compatible with such transfer processes. Here, we introduce a methodology for obtaining thousands of microbeams, made of graphitized silicon carbide on silicon, through a site-selective and wafer-scale approach. A Ni-Cu alloy catalyst mediates a self-aligned graphitization on prepatterned SiC microstructures at a temperature that is compatible with silicon technologies. The graphene nanocoating leads to a dramatically enhanced electrical conductivity, which elevates this approach to an ideal method for the replacement of conductive metal films in silicon carbide-based MEMS and NEMS devices. (paper)

  2. Energy level alignment and sub-bandgap charge generation in polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Sai-Wing; Chen, Song; So, Franky

    2013-05-07

    Using charge modulated electroabsorption spectroscopy (CMEAS), for the first time, the energy level alignment of a polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cell is directly measured. The charge-transfer excitons generated by the sub-bandgap optical pumping are coupled with the modulating electric field and introduce subtle changes in optical absorption in the sub-bandgap region. This minimum required energy for sub-bandgap charge genreation is defined as the effective bandgap. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Improving the Sound Pressure Level of Two-Dimensional Audio Actuators by Coating Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes on Piezoelectric Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Keehong

    2015-10-01

    As devices for amplifying or transforming electronic signals into audible signals through electromechanical operations, acoustic actuators in the form of loudspeakers are usually solid structures in three dimensional space. Recently there has been increasing demand for mobile electronic devices, such as mobile phones, to become smaller, thinner, and lighter. In contrast to a three dimensional audio system with magnets, we have invented a new type of flexible two dimensional device by utilizing the reverse piezoelectric effect in certain piezoelectric materials. Crystalline piezoelectric materials show electromechanical interaction between the mechanical state and the electrically-charged state. The piezoelectric effect is a reversible process in that materials exhibiting the direct piezoelectric effect (the internal generation of electrical charge resulting from an applied mechanical force) also exhibit the reverse piezoelectric effect (the internal generation of a mechanical strain resulting from an applied electrical field). We have adopted the plasma surface treatment in order to put coating materials on the surface of piezoelectric film. We compared two kinds of coating material, indium tin oxide and single-walled carbon nanotube, and found that single-walled carbon nanotube shows better performance. The results showed improvement of output power in a wider range of operating frequency; for the surface resistance of 0.5 kΩ/square, the single-walled CNT shows the range of operating frequency to be 0.75-17.5 kHz, but ITO shows 2.5-13.4 kHz. For the surface resistance of 1 kΩ/square, single-walled CNT shows the range of operating frequency to be 0.81-17 kHz, but ITO shows it cannot generate audible sound.

  4. A centralized audio presentation manager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, A.L. III; Blattner, M.M.

    1994-05-16

    The centralized audio presentation manager addresses the problems which occur when multiple programs running simultaneously attempt to use the audio output of a computer system. Time dependence of sound means that certain auditory messages must be scheduled simultaneously, which can lead to perceptual problems due to psychoacoustic phenomena. Furthermore, the combination of speech and nonspeech audio is examined; each presents its own problems of perceptibility in an acoustic environment composed of multiple auditory streams. The centralized audio presentation manager receives abstract parameterized message requests from the currently running programs, and attempts to create and present a sonic representation in the most perceptible manner through the use of a theoretically and empirically designed rule set.

  5. Instrumental Landing Using Audio Indication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlak, E. A.; Nabatchikov, A. M.; Korsun, O. N.

    2018-02-01

    The paper proposes an audio indication method for presenting to a pilot the information regarding the relative positions of an aircraft in the tasks of precision piloting. The implementation of the method is presented, the use of such parameters of audio signal as loudness, frequency and modulation are discussed. To confirm the operability of the audio indication channel the experiments using modern aircraft simulation facility were carried out. The simulated performed the instrument landing using the proposed audio method to indicate the aircraft deviations in relation to the slide path. The results proved compatible with the simulated instrumental landings using the traditional glidescope pointers. It inspires to develop the method in order to solve other precision piloting tasks.

  6. ENERGY STAR Certified Audio Video

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Audio Video Equipment that are effective as of...

  7. WLAN Technologies for Audio Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas-Alexander Tatlas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Audio delivery and reproduction for home or professional applications may greatly benefit from the adoption of digital wireless local area network (WLAN technologies. The most challenging aspect of such integration relates the synchronized and robust real-time streaming of multiple audio channels to multipoint receivers, for example, wireless active speakers. Here, it is shown that current WLAN solutions are susceptible to transmission errors. A detailed study of the IEEE802.11e protocol (currently under ratification is also presented and all relevant distortions are assessed via an analytical and experimental methodology. A novel synchronization scheme is also introduced, allowing optimized playback for multiple receivers. The perceptual audio performance is assessed for both stereo and 5-channel applications based on either PCM or compressed audio signals.

  8. Realtime Audio with Garbage Collection

    OpenAIRE

    Matheussen, Kjetil Svalastog

    2010-01-01

    Two non-moving concurrent garbage collectors tailored for realtime audio processing are described. Both collectors work on copies of the heap to avoid cache misses and audio-disruptive synchronizations. Both collectors are targeted at multiprocessor personal computers. The first garbage collector works in uncooperative environments, and can replace Hans Boehm's conservative garbage collector for C and C++. The collector does not access the virtual memory system. Neither doe...

  9. Audio localization for mobile robots

    OpenAIRE

    de Guillebon, Thibaut; Grau Saldes, Antoni; Bolea Monte, Yolanda

    2009-01-01

    The department of the University for which I worked is developing a project based on the interaction with robots in the environment. My work was to define an audio system for the robot. This audio system that I have to realize consists on a mobile head which is able to follow the sound in its environment. This subject was treated as a research problem, with the liberty to find and develop different solutions and make them evolve in the chosen way.

  10. Tourism research and audio methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Trandberg

    2016-01-01

    Audio methods enriches sensuous tourism ethnographies. • The note suggests five research avenues for future auditory scholarship. • Sensuous tourism research has neglected the role of sounds in embodied tourism experiences.......• Audio methods enriches sensuous tourism ethnographies. • The note suggests five research avenues for future auditory scholarship. • Sensuous tourism research has neglected the role of sounds in embodied tourism experiences....

  11. Introduction to audio analysis a MATLAB approach

    CERN Document Server

    Giannakopoulos, Theodoros

    2014-01-01

    Introduction to Audio Analysis serves as a standalone introduction to audio analysis, providing theoretical background to many state-of-the-art techniques. It covers the essential theory necessary to develop audio engineering applications, but also uses programming techniques, notably MATLAB®, to take a more applied approach to the topic. Basic theory and reproducible experiments are combined to demonstrate theoretical concepts from a practical point of view and provide a solid foundation in the field of audio analysis. Audio feature extraction, audio classification, audio segmentation, au

  12. Levels of Motivation and Readiness for Treatment Aligned With Criminal Justice Referral and Coercion Among Substance Users in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew; Hayhurst, Karen Petra; Millar, Tim

    2017-11-01

    Motivation and readiness for substance misuse treatment predict treatment retention and successful treatment outcomes but may be lower among substance users coerced into treatment. We tested for differences associated with legal involvement and with client perceptions of coercion among individuals entering drug misuse treatment in England. Data collection involved 342 treatment agencies. Measures of motivation and readiness for treatment were taken from the Circumstances, Motivation, and Readiness (CMR) scale. Referral source was ordered to represent level of legal involvement and conditions. Perceived coercion was defined by a CMR item. Linear regression models, adjusting for client complexity, tested for differences in motivation and readiness by these measures. Levels of motivation and readiness did not differ according to level of legal conditions (coefficient = -0.38, 95% CI [-1.65, 0.88]). Motivation was inversely associated with perceived coercion (coefficient = -0.28, 95% CI [-0.05, -0.50], p = .014). At the point of treatment entry, criminal justice referral and aligned conditions have no impact on levels of motivation to achieve positive treatment outcomes. Concerns around lower levels of motivation are better focused on those who perceive themselves as coerced rather than on those whose referral carries a level of legal condition.

  13. Class D audio amplifiers for high voltage capacitive transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis

    of high volume, weight, and cost. High efficient class D amplifiers are now widely available offering power densities, that their linear counterparts can not match. Unlike the technology of audio amplifiers, the loudspeaker is still based on the traditional electrodynamic transducer invented by C.W. Rice......Audio reproduction systems contains two key components, the amplifier and the loudspeaker. In the last 20 – 30 years the technology of audio amplifiers have performed a fundamental shift of paradigm. Class D audio amplifiers have replaced the linear amplifiers, suffering from the well-known issues...... with the low level of acoustical output power and complex amplifier requirements, have limited the commercial success of the technology. Horn or compression drivers are typically favoured, when high acoustic output power is required, this is however at the expense of significant distortion combined...

  14. Location audio simplified capturing your audio and your audience

    CERN Document Server

    Miles, Dean

    2014-01-01

    From the basics of using camera, handheld, lavalier, and shotgun microphones to camera calibration and mixer set-ups, Location Audio Simplified unlocks the secrets to clean and clear broadcast quality audio no matter what challenges you face. Author Dean Miles applies his twenty-plus years of experience as a professional location operator to teach the skills, techniques, tips, and secrets needed to produce high-quality production sound on location. Humorous and thoroughly practical, the book covers a wide array of topics, such as:* location selection* field mixing* boo

  15. A Joint Audio-Visual Approach to Audio Localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2015-01-01

    Localization of audio sources is an important research problem, e.g., to facilitate noise reduction. In the recent years, the problem has been tackled using distributed microphone arrays (DMA). A common approach is to apply direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation on each array (denoted as nodes), a...... time-of-flight cameras. Moreover, we propose an optimal method for weighting such DOA and range information for audio localization. Our experiments on both synthetic and real data show that there is a clear, potential advantage of using the joint audiovisual localization framework....

  16. Do intraoperative radiographs predict final lumbar sagittal alignment following single-level transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Khalid M I; Eranki, Aditya P; Paquette, Scott; Boyd, Michael; Street, John; Kwon, Brian K; Fisher, Charles G; Dvorak, Marcel F

    2018-05-01

    OBJECTIVE The study aimed to determine if the intraoperative segmental lordosis (as calculated on a cross-table lateral radiograph following a single-level transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion [TLIF] for degenerative spondylolisthesis/low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis) is maintained at discharge and at 6 months postsurgery. METHODS The authors reviewed images and medical records of patients ≥ 16 years of age with a diagnosis of an isolated single-level, low-grade spondylolisthesis (degenerative or isthmic) with symptomatic spinal stenosis treated between January 2008 and April 2014. Age, sex, surgical level, surgical approach, and facetectomy (unilateral vs bilateral) were recorded. Upright standardized preoperative, early, and 6-month postoperative radiographs, as well as intraoperative lateral radiographs, were analyzed for the pelvic incidence, segmental lumbar lordosis (SLL) at the TILF level, and total LL (TLL). In addition, the anteroposterior position of the cage in the disc space was documented. Data are presented as the mean ± SD; a p value level using a bullet-shaped cage. A bilateral facetectomy was performed in 17 patients (20.2%), and 89.3% of procedures were done at the L4-5 and L5-S1 segments. SLL significantly improved intraoperatively from 15.8° ± 7.5° to 20.9° ± 7.7°, but the correction was lost after ambulation. Compared with preoperative values, at 6 months the change in SLL was modest at 1.8° ± 6.7° (p = 0.025), whereas TLL increased by 4.3° ± 9.6° (p level of surgery, and use of a bilateral facetectomy did not significantly affect postoperative LL. CONCLUSIONS Following a single-level TLIF procedure using a bullet-shaped cage, the intraoperative improvement in SLL is largely lost after ambulation. The improvement in TLL over time is probably due to the decompression part of the procedure. The approach, level of surgery, bilateral facetectomy, and position of the cage do not seem to have a significant effect on LL achieved

  17. Energy-level alignment at metal-organic and organic-organic interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, Sjoerd; Jonkman, H.T.

    2003-01-01

    This article reports on the electronic structure at interfaces found in organic semiconductor devices. The studied organic materials are C-60 and poly (para-phenylenevinylene) (PPV)-like oligomers, and the metals are polycrystalline Au and Ag. To measure the energy levels at these interfaces,

  18. Aligning High School and College Instruction: Preparing Students for Success in College Level Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Across the United States, students are entering college with a need for improvement in basic mathematics and communication skills. In 2008, the Florida Legislature passed Senate Bill 1908 which changed the expectations for the senior year of high school for many students. Students who score within certain levels on the mandatory high school…

  19. Detecting Source Code Plagiarism on .NET Programming Languages using Low-level Representation and Adaptive Local Alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Karnalim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though there are various source code plagiarism detection approaches, only a few works which are focused on low-level representation for deducting similarity. Most of them are only focused on lexical token sequence extracted from source code. In our point of view, low-level representation is more beneficial than lexical token since its form is more compact than the source code itself. It only considers semantic-preserving instructions and ignores many source code delimiter tokens. This paper proposes a source code plagiarism detection which rely on low-level representation. For a case study, we focus our work on .NET programming languages with Common Intermediate Language as its low-level representation. In addition, we also incorporate Adaptive Local Alignment for detecting similarity. According to Lim et al, this algorithm outperforms code similarity state-of-the-art algorithm (i.e. Greedy String Tiling in term of effectiveness. According to our evaluation which involves various plagiarism attacks, our approach is more effective and efficient when compared with standard lexical-token approach.

  20. Self-aligned blocking integration demonstration for critical sub-30nm pitch Mx level patterning with EUV self-aligned double patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raley, Angélique; Lee, Joe; Smith, Jeffrey T.; Sun, Xinghua; Farrell, Richard A.; Shearer, Jeffrey; Xu, Yongan; Ko, Akiteru; Metz, Andrew W.; Biolsi, Peter; Devilliers, Anton; Arnold, John; Felix, Nelson

    2018-04-01

    We report a sub-30nm pitch self-aligned double patterning (SADP) integration scheme with EUV lithography coupled with self-aligned block technology (SAB) targeting the back end of line (BEOL) metal line patterning applications for logic nodes beyond 5nm. The integration demonstration is a validation of the scalability of a previously reported flow, which used 193nm immersion SADP targeting a 40nm pitch with the same material sets (Si3N4 mandrel, SiO2 spacer, Spin on carbon, spin on glass). The multi-color integration approach is successfully demonstrated and provides a valuable method to address overlay concerns and more generally edge placement error (EPE) as a whole for advanced process nodes. Unbiased LER/LWR analysis comparison between EUV SADP and 193nm immersion SADP shows that both integrations follow the same trend throughout the process steps. While EUV SADP shows increased LER after mandrel pull, metal hardmask open and dielectric etch compared to 193nm immersion SADP, the final process performance is matched in terms of LWR (1.08nm 3 sigma unbiased) and is only 6% higher than 193nm immersion SADP for average unbiased LER. Using EUV SADP enables almost doubling the line density while keeping most of the remaining processes and films unchanged, and provides a compelling alternative to other multipatterning integrations, which present their own sets of challenges.

  1. Energy level alignment and quantum conductance of functionalized metal-molecule junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Chengjun; Strange, Mikkel; Markussen, Troels

    2013-01-01

    We study the effect of functional groups (CH3*4, OCH3, CH3, Cl, CN, F*4) on the electronic transport properties of 1,4-benzenediamine molecular junctions using the non-equilibrium Green function method. Exchange and correlation effects are included at various levels of theory, namely density...... functional theory (DFT), energy level-corrected DFT (DFT+Σ), Hartree-Fock and the many-body GW approximation. All methods reproduce the expected trends for the energy of the frontier orbitals according to the electron donating or withdrawing character of the substituent group. However, only the GW method...... predicts the correct ordering of the conductance amongst the molecules. The absolute GW (DFT) conductance is within a factor of two (three) of the experimental values. Correcting the DFT orbital energies by a simple physically motivated scissors operator, Σ, can bring the DFT conductances close...

  2. Audio power amplifier design handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Self, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    This book is essential for audio power amplifier designers and engineers for one simple reason...it enables you as a professional to develop reliable, high-performance circuits. The Author Douglas Self covers the major issues of distortion and linearity, power supplies, overload, DC-protection and reactive loading. He also tackles unusual forms of compensation and distortion produced by capacitors and fuses. This completely updated fifth edition includes four NEW chapters including one on The XD Principle, invented by the author, and used by Cambridge Audio. Cro

  3. Advances in audio source seperation and multisource audio content retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Emmanuel

    2012-06-01

    Audio source separation aims to extract the signals of individual sound sources from a given recording. In this paper, we review three recent advances which improve the robustness of source separation in real-world challenging scenarios and enable its use for multisource content retrieval tasks, such as automatic speech recognition (ASR) or acoustic event detection (AED) in noisy environments. We present a Flexible Audio Source Separation Toolkit (FASST) and discuss its advantages compared to earlier approaches such as independent component analysis (ICA) and sparse component analysis (SCA). We explain how cues as diverse as harmonicity, spectral envelope, temporal fine structure or spatial location can be jointly exploited by this toolkit. We subsequently present the uncertainty decoding (UD) framework for the integration of audio source separation and audio content retrieval. We show how the uncertainty about the separated source signals can be accurately estimated and propagated to the features. Finally, we explain how this uncertainty can be efficiently exploited by a classifier, both at the training and the decoding stage. We illustrate the resulting performance improvements in terms of speech separation quality and speaker recognition accuracy.

  4. Thermal and Alignment Analysis of the Instrument-Level ATLAS Thermal Vacuum Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Heather

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the thermal analysis and test design performed in preparation for the ATLAS thermal vacuum test. NASA's Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) will be flown as the sole instrument aboard the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2). It will be used to take measurements of topography and ice thickness for Arctic and Antarctic regions, providing crucial data used to predict future changes in worldwide sea levels. Due to the precise measurements ATLAS is taking, the laser altimeter has very tight pointing requirements. Therefore, the instrument is very sensitive to temperature-induced thermal distortions. For this reason, it is necessary to perform a Structural, Thermal, Optical Performance (STOP) analysis not only for flight, but also to ensure performance requirements can be operationally met during instrument-level thermal vacuum testing. This paper describes the thermal model created for the chamber setup, which was used to generate inputs for the environmental STOP analysis. This paper also presents the results of the STOP analysis, which indicate that the test predictions adequately replicate the thermal distortions predicted for flight. This is a new application of an existing process, as STOP analyses are generally performed to predict flight behavior only. Another novel aspect of this test is that it presents the opportunity to verify pointing results of a STOP model, which is not generally done. It is possible in this case, however, because the actual pointing will be measured using flight hardware during thermal vacuum testing and can be compared to STOP predictions.

  5. Energy-level alignment in organic dye-sensitized TiO2 from GW calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umari, P; Giacomazzi, L; De Angelis, F; Pastore, M; Baroni, Stefano

    2013-07-07

    The electronic energy levels of some representative isolated and oxide-supported organic dyes, relevant for photovoltaic applications, are investigated using many-body perturbation theory within the GW approximation. We consider a set of all-organic dyes (denominated L0, L2, L3, and L4) featuring the same donor and anchor groups and differing for the linker moieties. We first calculate the energy levels of the isolated molecules, thus allowing us to address the effects of the different linker groups, and resulting in good agreement with photo-electron spectroscopic and electrochemical data. We then consider the L0 dye adsorbed on the (101) surface of anatase-TiO2. We find a density of occupied states in agreement with experimental photo-electron data. The HOMO-LUMO energy gap of the L0 dye is found to be reduced by ~1 eV upon adsorption. Our results validate the reliability of GW calculations for photovoltaic applications and point to their potential as a powerful tool for the screening and rational design of new components of electrochemical solar cells.

  6. Promoting smoke-free homes: a novel behavioral intervention using real-time audio-visual feedback on airborne particle levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil E Klepeis

    Full Text Available Interventions are needed to protect the health of children who live with smokers. We pilot-tested a real-time intervention for promoting behavior change in homes that reduces second hand tobacco smoke (SHS levels. The intervention uses a monitor and feedback system to provide immediate auditory and visual signals triggered at defined thresholds of fine particle concentration. Dynamic graphs of real-time particle levels are also shown on a computer screen. We experimentally evaluated the system, field-tested it in homes with smokers, and conducted focus groups to obtain general opinions. Laboratory tests of the monitor demonstrated SHS sensitivity, stability, precision equivalent to at least 1 µg/m(3, and low noise. A linear relationship (R(2 = 0.98 was observed between the monitor and average SHS mass concentrations up to 150 µg/m(3. Focus groups and interviews with intervention participants showed in-home use to be acceptable and feasible. The intervention was evaluated in 3 homes with combined baseline and intervention periods lasting 9 to 15 full days. Two families modified their behavior by opening windows or doors, smoking outdoors, or smoking less. We observed evidence of lower SHS levels in these homes. The remaining household voiced reluctance to changing their smoking activity and did not exhibit lower SHS levels in main smoking areas or clear behavior change; however, family members expressed receptivity to smoking outdoors. This study established the feasibility of the real-time intervention, laying the groundwork for controlled trials with larger sample sizes. Visual and auditory cues may prompt family members to take immediate action to reduce SHS levels. Dynamic graphs of SHS levels may help families make decisions about specific mitigation approaches.

  7. Aligned energy-level design for decreasing operation voltage of tandem white organic light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chih-Hao, E-mail: chc@saturn.yzu.edu.tw [Department of Photonics Engineering, Yuan Ze University, Chung-Li 32003, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wu, Zih-Jyun; Liang, Yi-Hu; Chang, Yu-Shuo; Chiu, Chuan-Hao; Tai, Cheng-Wei [Department of Photonics Engineering, Yuan Ze University, Chung-Li 32003, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chang, Hsin-Hua, E-mail: hhua3@mail.vnu.edu.tw [Department of Electro-Optical Engineering, Vanung University, Chung-Li 32061, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-12-02

    In general, organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) need to operate at higher current density levels to ensure an ample light flux. However, stressed operation will result in poor performance and limited device lifetime. Recently, a tandem structure has been proposed as a pivotal technique to meet the stringent lighting requirements for OLED commercialization, with a research focus on decreasing the concomitant higher operation voltage. Driving two connected emission units (EMUs) in a tandem structure often requires more than twice the driving voltage for a single EMU. This study investigates bipolar host materials and their effective employment in fabricating tandem white phosphorescent OLEDs (PhOLEDs). In addition, the design of a mechanism to align the energy level between the hole transport layer/emitting layer is shown to effectively mitigate operational voltages. In sharp contrast to devices using a unipolar host material, we demonstrate that the turn-on voltage of blue PhOLEDs could be decreased from 3.8 V to 2.7 V through utilizing a bipolar host. Furthermore, applying the proposed techniques to tandem white PhOLEDs produces a luminance of 10{sup 3} cd/m{sup 2} by a 10.1 V driving voltage. - Highlights: • The matched energy level between the hole transport/emitting layer lowers voltages. • Multiple conduction dopants were used to investigate charge generation layer. • Two-color emitters were used to quantify the charge generation strength.

  8. Aligned energy-level design for decreasing operation voltage of tandem white organic light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Chih-Hao; Wu, Zih-Jyun; Liang, Yi-Hu; Chang, Yu-Shuo; Chiu, Chuan-Hao; Tai, Cheng-Wei; Chang, Hsin-Hua

    2013-01-01

    In general, organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) need to operate at higher current density levels to ensure an ample light flux. However, stressed operation will result in poor performance and limited device lifetime. Recently, a tandem structure has been proposed as a pivotal technique to meet the stringent lighting requirements for OLED commercialization, with a research focus on decreasing the concomitant higher operation voltage. Driving two connected emission units (EMUs) in a tandem structure often requires more than twice the driving voltage for a single EMU. This study investigates bipolar host materials and their effective employment in fabricating tandem white phosphorescent OLEDs (PhOLEDs). In addition, the design of a mechanism to align the energy level between the hole transport layer/emitting layer is shown to effectively mitigate operational voltages. In sharp contrast to devices using a unipolar host material, we demonstrate that the turn-on voltage of blue PhOLEDs could be decreased from 3.8 V to 2.7 V through utilizing a bipolar host. Furthermore, applying the proposed techniques to tandem white PhOLEDs produces a luminance of 10 3 cd/m 2 by a 10.1 V driving voltage. - Highlights: • The matched energy level between the hole transport/emitting layer lowers voltages. • Multiple conduction dopants were used to investigate charge generation layer. • Two-color emitters were used to quantify the charge generation strength

  9. Reduced lung dose and improved inspiration level reproducibility in visually guided DIBH compared to audio coached EIG radiotherapy for breast cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær, Sidsel Marie Skov; Aznar, Marianne Camille; Pedersen, Anders Navrsted

    2013-01-01

    Patients with left-sided breast cancer with lymph node involvement have routinely been treated with enhanced inspiration gating (EIG) for a decade at our institution. In a transition from EIG to deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) we compared the two techniques with focus on target coverage, dose...... to organs at risk and reproducibility of the inspiration level (IL)....

  10. Engaging Students with Audio Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Students express widespread dissatisfaction with academic feedback. Teaching staff perceive a frequent lack of student engagement with written feedback, much of which goes uncollected or unread. Published evidence shows that audio feedback is highly acceptable to students but is underused. This paper explores methods to produce and deliver audio…

  11. Haptic and Audio Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Haptic and Audio Interaction Design, HAID 2010 held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in September 2010. The 21 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected for inclusion in the book. The papers are or...

  12. Radioactive Decay: Audio Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struthers, Allan

    2009-01-01

    Many phenomena generate interesting audible time series. This data can be collected and processed using audio software. The free software package "Audacity" is used to demonstrate the process by recording, processing, and extracting click times from an inexpensive radiation detector. The high quality of the data is demonstrated with a simple…

  13. Digital Augmented Reality Audio Headset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi Rämö

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Augmented reality audio (ARA combines virtual sound sources with the real sonic environment of the user. An ARA system can be realized with a headset containing binaural microphones. Ideally, the ARA headset should be acoustically transparent, that is, it should not cause audible modification to the surrounding sound. A practical implementation of an ARA mixer requires a low-latency headphone reproduction system with additional equalization to compensate for the attenuation and the modified ear canal resonances caused by the headphones. This paper proposes digital IIR filters to realize the required equalization and evaluates a real-time prototype ARA system. Measurements show that the throughput latency of the digital prototype ARA system can be less than 1.4 ms, which is sufficiently small in practice. When the direct and processed sounds are combined in the ear, a comb filtering effect is brought about and appears as notches in the frequency response. The comb filter effect in speech and music signals was studied in a listening test and it was found to be inaudible when the attenuation is 20 dB. Insert ARA headphones have a sufficient attenuation at frequencies above about 1 kHz. The proposed digital ARA system enables several immersive audio applications, such as a virtual audio tourist guide and audio teleconferencing.

  14. Control rod housing alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, R.C.; Deaver, G.A.; Punches, J.R.; Singleton, G.E.; Erbes, J.G.; Offer, H.P.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a process for measuring the vertical alignment between a hole in a core plate and the top of a corresponding control rod drive housing within a boiling water reactor. It comprises: providing an alignment apparatus. The alignment apparatus including a lower end for fitting to the top of the control rod drive housing; an upper end for fitting to the aperture in the core plate, and a leveling means attached to the alignment apparatus to read out the difference in angularity with respect to gravity, and alignment pin registering means for registering to the alignment pin on the core plate; lowering the alignment device on a depending support through a lattice position in the top guide through the hole in the core plate down into registered contact with the top of the control rod drive housing; registering the upper end to the sides of the hole in the core plate; registering the alignment pin registering means to an alignment pin on the core plate to impart to the alignment device the required angularity; and reading out the angle of the control rod drive housing with respect to the hole in the core plate through the leveling devices whereby the angularity of the top of the control rod drive housing with respect to the hole in the core plate can be determined

  15. How the charge-neutrality level of interface states controls energy level alignment in cathode contacts of organic bulk-heterojunction solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Antonio; Marchesi, Luís F; Boix, Pablo P; Ruiz-Raga, Sonia; Ripolles-Sanchis, Teresa; Garcia-Belmonte, Germà; Bisquert, Juan

    2012-04-24

    Electronic equilibration at the metal-organic interface, leading to equalization of the Fermi levels, is a key process in organic optoelectronic devices. How the energy levels are set across the interface determines carrier extraction at the contact and also limits the achievable open-circuit voltage under illumination. Here, we report an extensive investigation of the cathode energy equilibration of organic bulk-heterojunction solar cells. We show that the potential to balance the mismatch between the cathode metal and the organic layer Fermi levels is divided into two contributions: spatially extended band bending in the organic bulk and voltage drop at the interface dipole layer caused by a net charge transfer. We scan the operation of the cathode under a varied set of conditions, using metals of different work functions in the range of ∼2 eV, different fullerene acceptors, and several cathode interlayers. The measurements allow us to locate the charge-neutrality level within the interface density of sates and calculate the corresponding dipole layer strength. The dipole layer withstands a large part of the total Fermi level mismatch when the polymer:fullerene blend ratio approaches ∼1:1, producing the practical alignment between the metal Fermi level and the charge-neutrality level. Origin of the interface states is linked with fullerene reduced molecules covering the metal contact. The dipole contribution, and consequently the band bending, is highly sensitive to the nature and amount of fullerene molecules forming the interface density of states. Our analysis provides a detailed picture of the evolution of the potentials in the bulk and the interface of the solar cell when forward voltage is applied or when photogeneration takes place.

  16. Bit rates in audio source coding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    1992-01-01

    The goal is to introduce and solve the audio coding optimization problem. Psychoacoustic results such as masking and excitation pattern models are combined with results from rate distortion theory to formulate the audio coding optimization problem. The solution of the audio optimization problem is a

  17. Audio Frequency Analysis in Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Horacio Munguía

    2016-01-01

    A new experiment using mobile phones is proposed in which its audio frequency response is analyzed using the audio port for inputting external signal and getting a measurable output. This experiment shows how the limited audio bandwidth used in mobile telephony is the main cause of the poor speech quality in this service. A brief discussion is…

  18. Robust audio-visual speech recognition under noisy audio-video conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Darryl; Seymour, Rowan; Pass, Adrian; Ming, Ji

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents the maximum weighted stream posterior (MWSP) model as a robust and efficient stream integration method for audio-visual speech recognition in environments, where the audio or video streams may be subjected to unknown and time-varying corruption. A significant advantage of MWSP is that it does not require any specific measurements of the signal in either stream to calculate appropriate stream weights during recognition, and as such it is modality-independent. This also means that MWSP complements and can be used alongside many of the other approaches that have been proposed in the literature for this problem. For evaluation we used the large XM2VTS database for speaker-independent audio-visual speech recognition. The extensive tests include both clean and corrupted utterances with corruption added in either/both the video and audio streams using a variety of types (e.g., MPEG-4 video compression) and levels of noise. The experiments show that this approach gives excellent performance in comparison to another well-known dynamic stream weighting approach and also compared to any fixed-weighted integration approach in both clean conditions or when noise is added to either stream. Furthermore, our experiments show that the MWSP approach dynamically selects suitable integration weights on a frame-by-frame basis according to the level of noise in the streams and also according to the naturally fluctuating relative reliability of the modalities even in clean conditions. The MWSP approach is shown to maintain robust recognition performance in all tested conditions, while requiring no prior knowledge about the type or level of noise.

  19. Impact of MoO3 interlayer on the energy level alignment of pentacene-C60 heterostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ye; Mao, Hongying; Meng, Qing; Zhu, Daoben

    2016-02-28

    Using in situ ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, the electronic structure evolutions at the interface between pentacene and fullerene (C60), a classical organic donor-acceptor heterostructure in organic electronic devices, on indium-tin oxide (ITO) and MoO3 modified ITO substrates have been investigated. The insertion of a thin layer MoO3 has a significant impact on the interfacial energy level alignment of pentacene-C60 heterostructure. For the deposition of C60 on pentacene, the energy difference between the highest occupied molecular orbital of donor and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of acceptor (HOMO(D)-LUMO(A)) offset of C60/pentacene heterostructure increased from 0.86 eV to 1.54 eV after the insertion of a thin layer MoO3 on ITO. In the inverted heterostructrure where pentacene was deposited on C60, the HOMO(D)-LUMO(A) offset of pentacene/C60 heterostructure increased from 1.32 to 2.20 eV after MoO3 modification on ITO. The significant difference of HOMO(D)-LUMO(A) offset shows the feasibility to optimize organic electronic device performance through interfacial engineering approaches, such as the insertion of a thin layer high work function MoO3 films.

  20. Effects of toe-in and toe-in with wider step width on level walking knee biomechanics in varus, valgus, and neutral knee alignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Hunter J; Shen, Guangping; Cates, Harold E; Zhang, Songning

    2017-12-01

    Increased peak external knee adduction moments exist for individuals with knee osteoarthritis and varus knee alignments, compared to healthy and neutrally aligned counterparts. Walking with increased toe-in or increased step width have been individually utilized to successfully reduce 1st and 2nd peak knee adduction moments, respectfully, but have not previously been combined or tested among all alignment groups. The purpose of this study was to compare toe-in only and toe-in with wider step width gait modifications in individuals with neutral, valgus, and varus alignments. Thirty-eight healthy participants with confirmed varus, neutral, or valgus frontal-plane knee alignment through anteroposterior radiographs, performed level walking in normal, toe-in, and toe-in with wider step width gaits. A 3×3 (group×intervention) mixed model repeated measures ANOVA compared alignment groups and gait interventions (pstep width compared to normal gait. The 2nd peak adduction moment was increased in toe-in compared to normal and toe-in with wider step width. The adduction impulse was also reduced in toe-in and toe-in with wider step width compared to normal gait. Peak knee flexion and external rotation moments were increased in toe-in and toe-in with wider step width compared to normal gait. Although the toe-in with wider step width gait seems to be a viable option to reduce peak adduction moments for varus alignments, sagittal, and transverse knee loadings should be monitored when implementing this gait modification strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Audio-Visual Speaker Diarization Based on Spatiotemporal Bayesian Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebru, Israel D; Ba, Sileye; Li, Xiaofei; Horaud, Radu

    2018-05-01

    Speaker diarization consists of assigning speech signals to people engaged in a dialogue. An audio-visual spatiotemporal diarization model is proposed. The model is well suited for challenging scenarios that consist of several participants engaged in multi-party interaction while they move around and turn their heads towards the other participants rather than facing the cameras and the microphones. Multiple-person visual tracking is combined with multiple speech-source localization in order to tackle the speech-to-person association problem. The latter is solved within a novel audio-visual fusion method on the following grounds: binaural spectral features are first extracted from a microphone pair, then a supervised audio-visual alignment technique maps these features onto an image, and finally a semi-supervised clustering method assigns binaural spectral features to visible persons. The main advantage of this method over previous work is that it processes in a principled way speech signals uttered simultaneously by multiple persons. The diarization itself is cast into a latent-variable temporal graphical model that infers speaker identities and speech turns, based on the output of an audio-visual association process, executed at each time slice, and on the dynamics of the diarization variable itself. The proposed formulation yields an efficient exact inference procedure. A novel dataset, that contains audio-visual training data as well as a number of scenarios involving several participants engaged in formal and informal dialogue, is introduced. The proposed method is thoroughly tested and benchmarked with respect to several state-of-the art diarization algorithms.

  2. Probing the Energy Level Alignment and the Correlation with Open-Circuit Voltage in Solution-Processed Polymeric Bulk Heterojunction Photovoltaic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qing-Dan; Li, Ho-Wa; Cheng, Yuanhang; Guan, Zhiqiang; Liu, Taili; Ng, Tsz-Wai; Lee, Chun-Sing; Tsang, Sai-Wing

    2016-03-23

    Energy level alignment at the organic donor and acceptor interface is a key to determine the photovoltaic performance in organic solar cells, but direct probing of such energy alignment is still challenging especially for solution-processed bulk heterojunction (BHJ) thin films. Here we report a systematic investigation on probing the energy level alignment with different approaches in five commonly used polymer:[6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) BHJ systems. We find that by tuning the weight ratio of polymer to PCBM the electronic features from both polymer and PCBM can be obtained by photoemission spectroscopy. Using this approach, we find that some of the BHJ blends simply follow vacuum level alignment, but others show strong energy level shifting as a result of Fermi level pinning. Independently, by measuring the temperature-dependent open-circuit voltage (VOC), we find that the effective energy gap (Eeff), the energy difference between the highest occupied molecular orbital of the polymer donor (EHOMO-D) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of the PCBM acceptor (ELUMO-A), obtained by photoemission spectroscopy in all polymer:PCBM blends has an excellent agreement with the extrapolated VOC at 0 K. Consequently, the photovoltage loss of various organic BHJ photovoltaic devices at room temperature is in a range of 0.3-0.6 V. It is believed that the demonstrated direct measurement approach of the energy level alignment in solution-processed organic BHJ will bring deeper insight into the origin of the VOC and the corresponding photovoltage loss mechanism in organic photovoltaic cells.

  3. Relaxation of helium levels excited by heavy ion impact: III.- Orientation by anisotropic relaxation of excited atoms in previously aligned states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamoun, E.; Lombardi, M.; Carre, M.; Gaillard, M.L.

    1977-01-01

    In the last paper of this series devoted to relaxation phenomena in a low pressure cell of helium excited by an accelerated ion beam, experimental evidence is given for a new mechanism of transfer between alignment and orientation through anisotropic relaxation of initially aligned excited states. The theory predicting this effect is briefly outlined and then description is given of the exact experimental conditions to detect the circularly polarized component of the light emitted by the target excited in the 4 1 D level of He I by Na + impact [fr

  4. Evaluation of the lower incisor inclination during alignment and leveling using superelastic NiTi archwires: a laboratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Baratieri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this laboratory study is to evaluate the influence of the shape and the length limitation of superelastic nickel-titanium (NiTi archwires on lower incisors inclination during alignment and leveling. METHODS: Metal teeth mounted on a typodont articulator device were used to simulate a malocclusion of the mandibular arch (-3.5 mm model discrepancy. Three different shapes (Standard, Accuform and Ideal of superelastic NiTi archwires (Sentalloy, GAC, USA were tested. Specimens were divided in two groups: Group I, with no limitation of the archwire length; and Group II, with distal limitation. Each group had thirty specimens divided into three subgroups differentiated by the archwire shape. All groups used round wires with diameters of 0.014-in, 0.016-in, 0.018-in and 0.020-in. The recording of all intervals was accomplished using standardized digital photographs with orthogonal norm in relation to median sagittal plane. The buccolingual inclination of the incisor was registered using photographs and software CorelDraw. RESULTS: The results were obtained using ANOVA and Tukey's test at a significant level of 5%. The inclination of the lower incisor increased in both groups and subgroups. The shape of the archwire had statistically significant influence only in Group I - Standard (11.76º, Ideal (5.88º and Accuform (1.93º. Analyzing the influence of the length limitation, despite the mean incisor tipping in Group II (3.91º had been smaller than Group I (6.52º, no statistically significant difference was found, except for Standard, 3.89º with limitation and 11.76º without limitation. The greatest incisor tipping occurred with the 0.014-in archwires.

  5. The role of automated speech and audio analysis in semantic multimedia annotation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Ordelman, Roeland J.F.; van Hessen, Adrianus J.

    This paper overviews the various ways in which automatic speech and audio analysis can be deployed to enhance the semantic annotation of multimedia content, and as a consequence to improve the effectiveness of conceptual access tools. A number of techniques will be presented, including the alignment

  6. Efficiency Optimization in Class-D Audio Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamauchi, Akira; Knott, Arnold; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new power efficiency optimization routine for designing Class-D audio amplifiers. The proposed optimization procedure finds design parameters for the power stage and the output filter, and the optimum switching frequency such that the weighted power losses are minimized under...... the given constraints. The optimization routine is applied to minimize the power losses in a 130 W class-D audio amplifier based on consumer behavior investigations, where the amplifier operates at idle and low power levels most of the time. Experimental results demonstrate that the optimization method can...... lead to around 30 % of efficiency improvement at 1.3 W output power without significant effects on both audio performance and the efficiency at high power levels....

  7. A Method to Detect AAC Audio Forgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzhong Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Advanced Audio Coding (AAC, a standardized lossy compression scheme for digital audio, which was designed to be the successor of the MP3 format, generally achieves better sound quality than MP3 at similar bit rates. While AAC is also the default or standard audio format for many devices and AAC audio files may be presented as important digital evidences, the authentication of the audio files is highly needed but relatively missing. In this paper, we propose a scheme to expose tampered AAC audio streams that are encoded at the same encoding bit-rate. Specifically, we design a shift-recompression based method to retrieve the differential features between the re-encoded audio stream at each shifting and original audio stream, learning classifier is employed to recognize different patterns of differential features of the doctored forgery files and original (untouched audio files. Experimental results show that our approach is very promising and effective to detect the forgery of the same encoding bit-rate on AAC audio streams. Our study also shows that shift recompression-based differential analysis is very effective for detection of the MP3 forgery at the same bit rate.

  8. Four-quadrant flyback converter for direct audio power amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljusev, P.; Andersen, Michael A.E.

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents a bidirectional, four-quadrant yback converter for use in direct audio power amplication. When compared to the standard Class-D switching-mode audio power amplier with separate power supply, the proposed four-quadrant flyback converter provides simple and compact solution with high efciency, higher level of integration, lower component count, less board space and eventually lower cost. Both peak and average current-mode control for use with 4Q flyback power converters are described and compared. Integrated magnetics is presented which simplies the construction of the auxiliary power supplies for control biasing and isolated gate drives. The feasibility of the approach is proven on audio power amplier prototype for subwoofer applications. (au)

  9. Audio-Visual Speech Recognition Using MPEG-4 Compliant Visual Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar S. Aleksic

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe an audio-visual automatic continuous speech recognition system, which significantly improves speech recognition performance over a wide range of acoustic noise levels, as well as under clean audio conditions. The system utilizes facial animation parameters (FAPs supported by the MPEG-4 standard for the visual representation of speech. We also describe a robust and automatic algorithm we have developed to extract FAPs from visual data, which does not require hand labeling or extensive training procedures. The principal component analysis (PCA was performed on the FAPs in order to decrease the dimensionality of the visual feature vectors, and the derived projection weights were used as visual features in the audio-visual automatic speech recognition (ASR experiments. Both single-stream and multistream hidden Markov models (HMMs were used to model the ASR system, integrate audio and visual information, and perform a relatively large vocabulary (approximately 1000 words speech recognition experiments. The experiments performed use clean audio data and audio data corrupted by stationary white Gaussian noise at various SNRs. The proposed system reduces the word error rate (WER by 20% to 23% relatively to audio-only speech recognition WERs, at various SNRs (0–30 dB with additive white Gaussian noise, and by 19% relatively to audio-only speech recognition WER under clean audio conditions.

  10. Self-oscillating modulators for direct energy conversion audio power amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljusev, Petar; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2005-01-01

    Direct energy conversion audio power amplifier represents total integration of switching-mode power supply and Class D audio power amplifier into one compact stage, achieving high efficiency, high level of integration, low component count and eventually low cost. This paper presents how self-oscillating...

  11. Changes of the Prefrontal EEG (Electroencephalogram) Activities According to the Repetition of Audio-Visual Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Jin; Chang, Nam-Kee

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the changes of neuronal response according to a four time repetition of audio-visual learning. Obtains EEG data from the prefrontal (Fp1, Fp2) lobe from 20 subjects at the 8th grade level. Concludes that the habituation of neuronal response shows up in repetitive audio-visual learning and brain hemisphericity can be changed by…

  12. AKTIVITAS SEKUNDER AUDIO UNTUK MENJAGA KEWASPADAAN PENGEMUDI MOBIL INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftikar Zahedi Sutalaksana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Tingkat kecelakaan lalu lintas yang melibatkan mobil di Indonesia semakin mengkhawatirkan. Tingginya peran faktor manusia sebagai penyebab utama kejadian kecelakaan patut diperhatikan. Penurunan kewaspadaan saat mengemudi akibat kantuk atau kelelahan merupakan salah satu kondisi yang mendorong terjadinya kecelakaan. Tulisan ini memaparkan aplikasi audio response test sebagai aktivitas sekunder dalam mengemudikan mobil. Response test yang dimaksud merupakan seperangkat aplikasi pada dashboard mobil yang menuntut respon pengemudi setiap stimulus suara bekerja. Audio response test ini diusulkan sebagai pemantau tingkat kewaspadaan pengemudi selama berkendara. Kewaspadaan pengemudi merupakan kondisi selama berkendara yang terjaga, awas, dan mampu memproses semua stimulus dengan baik. Hasil studi ini menghasilkan suatu bentuk audio response test yang terintegrasi dengan sistem berkendara di dalam mobil. Sumber bunyi diperdengarkan dengan intensitas konstan antara 80-85 dB. Bunyi akan berhenti jika pengemudi memberikan respon atas stimulus suara tersebut. Response test ini dirancang untuk mampu memantau tingkat kewaspadaan pengemudi selama berkendara. Penerapannya diharapkan mampu membantu menekan tingkat kecelakaan lalu lintas di Indonesia. Kata kunci: mengemudi, aktivitas sekunder, audio, kewaspadaan, response test   Abstract   The level of traffic accidents involving cars in Indonesia increasingly alarming. The high role of the human factor as the main cause of accident noteworthy. Decreased alertness while driving due to sleepiness or fatigue is one of the conditions that led to the accident. This paper describes an audio application response test as a secondary activity of driving a car. Response test is a set of applications on the dashboard of a car that demands a response driver each stimulus voice work. Audio response was proposed as test monitors the driver's level of alertness while driving. Vigilance driver was driving conditions during

  13. Effect of cranial cruciate ligament deficiency, tibial plateau leveling osteotomy, and tibial tuberosity advancement on contact mechanics and alignment of the stifle in flexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Stanley E; Pozzi, Antonio; Banks, Scott A; Conrad, Bryan P; Lewis, Daniel D

    2010-04-01

    To assess contact mechanics and 3-dimensional (3-D) joint alignment in cranial cruciate ligament (CCL)-deficient stifles before and after tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) and tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA) with the stifle in 90 degrees of flexion. In vitro biomechanical study. Cadaveric pelvic limb pairs (n=8) from dogs weighing 28-35 kg. Contralateral limbs were assigned to receive TPLO or TTA. Digital pressure sensors were used to measure femorotibial contact area, peak and mean contact pressure, and peak pressure location with the limb under a load of 30% body weight and stifle flexion angle of 90 degrees . 3-D poses were obtained using a Microscribe digitizer. Specimens were tested under normal, CCL deficient, and treatment conditions. Significant disturbances in alignment were not observed after CCL transection, although medial contact area was 10% smaller than normal (P=.003). There were no significant differences in contact mechanics or alignment between normal and TTA conditions; TPLO induced 6 degrees varus angulation (PCranial tibial subluxation is nominal in CCL-deficient stifles loaded in flexion. Stifle alignment and contact mechanics are not altered by TTA, whereas TPLO causes mild varus and a subsequent increase in medial compartment loading. Cranial tibial subluxation of CCL-deficient stifles may not occur during postures that load the stifle in flexion. The significance of minor changes in loading patterns after TPLO is unknown.

  14. Subband coding of digital audio signals without loss of quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Breeuwer, Marcel; van de Waal, Robbert

    1989-01-01

    A subband coding system for high quality digital audio signals is described. To achieve low bit rates at a high quality level, it exploits the simultaneous masking effect of the human ear. It is shown how this effect can be used in an adaptive bit-allocation scheme. The proposed approach has been

  15. Multi Carrier Modulator for Switch-Mode Audio Power Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Arnold; Pfaffinger, Gerhard; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2008-01-01

    While switch-mode audio power amplifiers allow compact implementations and high output power levels due to their high power efficiency, they are very well known for creating electromagnetic interference (EMI) with other electronic equipment, in particular radio receivers. Lowering the EMI of swit...

  16. Presence and the utility of audio spatialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bormann, Karsten

    2005-01-01

    The primary concern of this paper is whether the utility of audio spatialization, as opposed to the fidelity of audio spatialization, impacts presence. An experiment is reported that investigates the presence-performance relationship by decoupling spatial audio fidelity (realism) from task...... performance by varying the spatial fidelity of the audio independently of its relevance to performance on the search task that subjects were to perform. This was achieved by having conditions in which subjects searched for a music-playing radio (an active sound source) and having conditions in which...... supplied only nonattenuated audio was detrimental to performance. Even so, this group of subjects consistently had the largest increase in presence scores over the baseline experiment. Further, the Witmer and Singer (1998) presence questionnaire was more sensitive to whether the audio source was active...

  17. Modified BTC Algorithm for Audio Signal Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TOMIC, S.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes modification of a well-known image coding algorithm, named Block Truncation Coding (BTC and its application in audio signal coding. BTC algorithm was originally designed for black and white image coding. Since black and white images and audio signals have different statistical characteristics, the application of this image coding algorithm to audio signal presents a novelty and a challenge. Several implementation modifications are described in this paper, while the original idea of the algorithm is preserved. The main modifications are performed in the area of signal quantization, by designing more adequate quantizers for audio signal processing. The result is a novel audio coding algorithm, whose performance is presented and analyzed in this research. The performance analysis indicates that this novel algorithm can be successfully applied in audio signal coding.

  18. Digital audio watermarking fundamentals, techniques and challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Xiang, Yong; Yan, Bin

    2017-01-01

    This book offers comprehensive coverage on the most important aspects of audio watermarking, from classic techniques to the latest advances, from commonly investigated topics to emerging research subdomains, and from the research and development achievements to date, to current limitations, challenges, and future directions. It also addresses key topics such as reversible audio watermarking, audio watermarking with encryption, and imperceptibility control methods. The book sets itself apart from the existing literature in three main ways. Firstly, it not only reviews classical categories of audio watermarking techniques, but also provides detailed descriptions, analysis and experimental results of the latest work in each category. Secondly, it highlights the emerging research topic of reversible audio watermarking, including recent research trends, unique features, and the potentials of this subdomain. Lastly, the joint consideration of audio watermarking and encryption is also reviewed. With the help of this...

  19. pyAudioAnalysis: An Open-Source Python Library for Audio Signal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakopoulos, Theodoros

    2015-01-01

    Audio information plays a rather important role in the increasing digital content that is available today, resulting in a need for methodologies that automatically analyze such content: audio event recognition for home automations and surveillance systems, speech recognition, music information retrieval, multimodal analysis (e.g. audio-visual analysis of online videos for content-based recommendation), etc. This paper presents pyAudioAnalysis, an open-source Python library that provides a wide range of audio analysis procedures including: feature extraction, classification of audio signals, supervised and unsupervised segmentation and content visualization. pyAudioAnalysis is licensed under the Apache License and is available at GitHub (https://github.com/tyiannak/pyAudioAnalysis/). Here we present the theoretical background behind the wide range of the implemented methodologies, along with evaluation metrics for some of the methods. pyAudioAnalysis has been already used in several audio analysis research applications: smart-home functionalities through audio event detection, speech emotion recognition, depression classification based on audio-visual features, music segmentation, multimodal content-based movie recommendation and health applications (e.g. monitoring eating habits). The feedback provided from all these particular audio applications has led to practical enhancement of the library.

  20. Making the Switch to Digital Audio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Gwin Mitchell

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the authors describe the process of converting from analog to digital audio data. They address the step-by-step decisions that they made in selecting hardware and software for recording and converting digital audio, issues of system integration, and cost considerations. The authors present a brief description of how digital audio is being used in their current research project and how it has enhanced the “quality” of their qualitative research.

  1. New audio applications of beryllium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, M.

    1977-01-01

    The major applications of beryllium metal in the field of audio appliances are for the vibrating cones for the two types of speakers 'TWITTER' for high range sound and 'SQUAWKER' for mid range sound, and also for beryllium cantilever tube assembled in stereo cartridge. These new applications are based on the characteristic property of beryllium having high ratio of modulus of elasticity to specific gravity. The production of these audio parts is described, and the audio response is shown. (author)

  2. Audio Arduino - an ALSA (Advanced Linux Sound Architecture) audio driver for FTDI-based Arduinos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Smilen; Serafin, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    be considered to be a system, that encompasses design decisions on both hardware and software levels - that also demand a certain understanding of the architecture of the target PC operating system. This project outlines how an Arduino Duemillanove board (containing a USB interface chip, manufactured by Future...... Technology Devices International Ltd [FTDI] company) can be demonstrated to behave as a full-duplex, mono, 8-bit 44.1 kHz soundcard, through an implementation of: a PC audio driver for ALSA (Advanced Linux Sound Architecture); a matching program for the Arduino's ATmega microcontroller - and nothing more...

  3. AlignMe—a membrane protein sequence alignment web server

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Marcus; Staritzbichler, René; Khafizov, Kamil; Forrest, Lucy R.

    2014-01-01

    We present a web server for pair-wise alignment of membrane protein sequences, using the program AlignMe. The server makes available two operational modes of AlignMe: (i) sequence to sequence alignment, taking two sequences in fasta format as input, combining information about each sequence from multiple sources and producing a pair-wise alignment (PW mode); and (ii) alignment of two multiple sequence alignments to create family-averaged hydropathy profile alignments (HP mode). For the PW sequence alignment mode, four different optimized parameter sets are provided, each suited to pairs of sequences with a specific similarity level. These settings utilize different types of inputs: (position-specific) substitution matrices, secondary structure predictions and transmembrane propensities from transmembrane predictions or hydrophobicity scales. In the second (HP) mode, each input multiple sequence alignment is converted into a hydrophobicity profile averaged over the provided set of sequence homologs; the two profiles are then aligned. The HP mode enables qualitative comparison of transmembrane topologies (and therefore potentially of 3D folds) of two membrane proteins, which can be useful if the proteins have low sequence similarity. In summary, the AlignMe web server provides user-friendly access to a set of tools for analysis and comparison of membrane protein sequences. Access is available at http://www.bioinfo.mpg.de/AlignMe PMID:24753425

  4. Distortion Estimation in Compressed Music Using Only Audio Fingerprints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doets, P.J.O.; Lagendijk, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    An audio fingerprint is a compact yet very robust representation of the perceptually relevant parts of an audio signal. It can be used for content-based audio identification, even when the audio is severely distorted. Audio compression changes the fingerprint slightly. We show that these small

  5. Audio Recording of Children with Dyslalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Gheorghe Pentiuc

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present our researches regarding automat parsing of audio recordings. These recordings are obtained from children with dyslalia and are necessary for an accurate identification of speech problems. We develop a software application that helps parsing audio, real time, recordings.

  6. Audio Recording of Children with Dyslalia

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Gheorghe Pentiuc; Maria D. Schipor; Ovidiu A. Schipor

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present our researches regarding automat parsing of audio recordings. These recordings are obtained from children with dyslalia and are necessary for an accurate identification of speech problems. We develop a software application that helps parsing audio, real time, recordings.

  7. A listening test system for automotive audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Flemming; Geoff, Martin; Minnaar, Pauli

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a system for simulating automotive audio through headphones for the purposes of conducting listening experiments in the laboratory. The system is based on binaural technology and consists of a component for reproducing the sound of the audio system itself and a component...

  8. Fusion for Audio-Visual Laughter Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuderink, B.

    2007-01-01

    Laughter is a highly variable signal, and can express a spectrum of emotions. This makes the automatic detection of laughter a challenging but interesting task. We perform automatic laughter detection using audio-visual data from the AMI Meeting Corpus. Audio-visual laughter detection is performed

  9. Audio-Visual Classification of Sports Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Rikke; Abou-Zleikha, Mohamed; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2015-01-01

    In this work we propose a method for classification of sports types from combined audio and visual features ex- tracted from thermal video. From audio Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) are extracted, and PCA are applied to reduce the feature space to 10 dimensions. From the visual modali...

  10. Detecting double compression of audio signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui; Shi, Yun Q.; Huang, Jiwu

    2010-01-01

    MP3 is the most popular audio format nowadays in our daily life, for example music downloaded from the Internet and file saved in the digital recorder are often in MP3 format. However, low bitrate MP3s are often transcoded to high bitrate since high bitrate ones are of high commercial value. Also audio recording in digital recorder can be doctored easily by pervasive audio editing software. This paper presents two methods for the detection of double MP3 compression. The methods are essential for finding out fake-quality MP3 and audio forensics. The proposed methods use support vector machine classifiers with feature vectors formed by the distributions of the first digits of the quantized MDCT (modified discrete cosine transform) coefficients. Extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods. To the best of our knowledge, this piece of work is the first one to detect double compression of audio signal.

  11. Feature Fusion Based Audio-Visual Speaker Identification Using Hidden Markov Model under Different Lighting Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rabiul Islam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to propose a feature fusion based Audio-Visual Speaker Identification (AVSI system with varied conditions of illumination environments. Among the different fusion strategies, feature level fusion has been used for the proposed AVSI system where Hidden Markov Model (HMM is used for learning and classification. Since the feature set contains richer information about the raw biometric data than any other levels, integration at feature level is expected to provide better authentication results. In this paper, both Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCCs and Linear Prediction Cepstral Coefficients (LPCCs are combined to get the audio feature vectors and Active Shape Model (ASM based appearance and shape facial features are concatenated to take the visual feature vectors. These combined audio and visual features are used for the feature-fusion. To reduce the dimension of the audio and visual feature vectors, Principal Component Analysis (PCA method is used. The VALID audio-visual database is used to measure the performance of the proposed system where four different illumination levels of lighting conditions are considered. Experimental results focus on the significance of the proposed audio-visual speaker identification system with various combinations of audio and visual features.

  12. Oxygen effects on the interfacial electronic structure of titanyl phthalocyanine film: p-Type doping, band bending and Fermi level alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, Toshio; Kanai, Kaname; Ouchi, Yukio; Willis, Martin R.; Seki, Kazuhiko

    2006-01-01

    The effect of oxygen doping on titanyl phthalocyanine (TiOPc) film was investigated by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). The electronic structure of the interface formed between TiOPc films deposited on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) was clearly different between the films prepared in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) and under O 2 atmosphere (1.3 x 10 -2 Pa). The film deposited in UHV showed downward band bending characteristic of n-type semiconductor, possibly due to residual impurities working as unintentional n-type dopants. On the other hand, the film deposited under O 2 atmosphere showed upward band bending characteristic of p-type semiconductor. Such trends, including the conversion from n- to p-type, are in excellent correspondence with reported field effect transistor characteristics of TiOPc, and clearly demonstrates that bulk TiOPc film was p-doped with oxygen. In order to examine the Fermi level alignment between TiOPc film and the substrate, the energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of TiOPc relative to the Fermi level of the conductive substrate was determined for various substrates. The alignment between the Fermi level of conductive substrate and Fermi level of TiOPc film at fixed energy in the bandgap was not observed for the TiOPc film prepared in UHV, possibly because of insufficient charge density in the TiOPc film. This situation was drastically changed when the TiOPc film exposed to O 2 , and clear alignment of the Fermi level fixed at 0.6 eV above the HOMO with the Fermi level of the conducting substrate was observed, probably by p-type doping effect of oxygen. These are the first direct and quantitative information about bulk oxygen doping from the viewpoint of the electronic structure. These results suggest that similar band bending with Fermi level alignment may be also achieved for other organic semiconductors under practical device conditions, and also call for caution at the comparison of experimental

  13. Digital signal processor for silicon audio playback devices; Silicon audio saisei kikiyo digital signal processor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The digital audio signal processor (DSP) TC9446F series has been developed silicon audio playback devices with a memory medium of, e.g., flash memory, DVD players, and AV devices, e.g., TV sets. It corresponds to AAC (advanced audio coding) (2ch) and MP3 (MPEG1 Layer3), as the audio compressing techniques being used for transmitting music through an internet. It also corresponds to compressed types, e.g., Dolby Digital, DTS (digital theater system) and MPEG2 audio, being adopted for, e.g., DVDs. It can carry a built-in audio signal processing program, e.g., Dolby ProLogic, equalizer, sound field controlling, and 3D sound. TC9446XB has been lined up anew. It adopts an FBGA (fine pitch ball grid array) package for portable audio devices. (translated by NEDO)

  14. Voice over: Audio-visual congruency and content recall in the gallery setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairhurst, Merle T; Scott, Minnie; Deroy, Ophelia

    2017-01-01

    Experimental research has shown that pairs of stimuli which are congruent and assumed to 'go together' are recalled more effectively than an item presented in isolation. Will this multisensory memory benefit occur when stimuli are richer and longer, in an ecological setting? In the present study, we focused on an everyday situation of audio-visual learning and manipulated the relationship between audio guide tracks and viewed portraits in the galleries of the Tate Britain. By varying the gender and narrative style of the voice-over, we examined how the perceived congruency and assumed unity of the audio guide track with painted portraits affected subsequent recall. We show that tracks perceived as best matching the viewed portraits led to greater recall of both sensory and linguistic content. We provide the first evidence that manipulating crossmodal congruence and unity assumptions can effectively impact memory in a multisensory ecological setting, even in the absence of precise temporal alignment between sensory cues.

  15. Beyond Alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyond Alignment: Applying Systems Thinking to Architecting Enterprises is a comprehensive reader about how enterprises can apply systems thinking in their enterprise architecture practice, for business transformation and for strategic execution. The book's contributors find that systems thinking...

  16. High-Fidelity Piezoelectric Audio Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Stanley E.; Fox, Robert L.; Bryant, Robert G.

    2003-01-01

    ModalMax is a very innovative means of harnessing the vibration of a piezoelectric actuator to produce an energy efficient low-profile device with high-bandwidth high-fidelity audio response. The piezoelectric audio device outperforms many commercially available speakers made using speaker cones. The piezoelectric device weighs substantially less (4 g) than the speaker cones which use magnets (10 g). ModalMax devices have extreme fabrication simplicity. The entire audio device is fabricated by lamination. The simplicity of the design lends itself to lower cost. The piezoelectric audio device can be used without its acoustic chambers and thereby resulting in a very low thickness of 0.023 in. (0.58 mm). The piezoelectric audio device can be completely encapsulated, which makes it very attractive for use in wet environments. Encapsulation does not significantly alter the audio response. Its small size (see Figure 1) is applicable to many consumer electronic products, such as pagers, portable radios, headphones, laptop computers, computer monitors, toys, and electronic games. The audio device can also be used in automobile or aircraft sound systems.

  17. Implementing Audio-CASI on Windows’ Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Philip C.; Turner, Charles F.

    2011-01-01

    Audio computer-assisted self interviewing (Audio-CASI) technologies have recently been shown to provide important and sometimes dramatic improvements in the quality of survey measurements. This is particularly true for measurements requiring respondents to divulge highly sensitive information such as their sexual, drug use, or other sensitive behaviors. However, DOS-based Audio-CASI systems that were designed and adopted in the early 1990s have important limitations. Most salient is the poor control they provide for manipulating the video presentation of survey questions. This article reports our experiences adapting Audio-CASI to Microsoft Windows 3.1 and Windows 95 platforms. Overall, our Windows-based system provided the desired control over video presentation and afforded other advantages including compatibility with a much wider array of audio devices than our DOS-based Audio-CASI technologies. These advantages came at the cost of increased system requirements --including the need for both more RAM and larger hard disks. While these costs will be an issue for organizations converting large inventories of PCS to Windows Audio-CASI today, this will not be a serious constraint for organizations and individuals with small inventories of machines to upgrade or those purchasing new machines today. PMID:22081743

  18. The energy level alignment at the CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3}/pentacene interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Gengwu [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201204 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhao, Bin; Song, Fei [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201204 (China); Zheng, Guanhaojie; Zhang, Xiaonan [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201204 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100049 (China); Shen, Kongchao [Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Yang, Yingguo [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201204 (China); Chen, Shi, E-mail: ChenShi@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 21 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Gao, Xingyu, E-mail: gaoxingyu@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201204 (China)

    2017-01-30

    Highlights: • The Energy Level Alignment at the CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3}/Pentacene Interface was resolved experimentally. • The downward band bending and the dipole found at the pentacene side would favorably drive holes away from the interface into pentacene. • A ∼0.7 eV offset between pentacene HOMO and CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} VBM would be in favor of hole transfer whereas a ∼1.35 eV offset between pentacene LUMO and CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} CBM should efficiently block the unwanted electron transfer from perovskite to pentacene. • Pentacene could be a viable hole transfer material candidate on perovskite to be explored in perovskite devices. - Abstract: Pentacene thin film on CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} was studied by in-situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy to determine their interfacial energy level alignment. A 0.2 eV downward band bending together with a 0.1 eV interfacial dipole was found at the pentacene side, whereas there was no band bending found at the CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} side. The offset between CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} Valance Band Maximum (VBM) and pentacene Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO) and that between CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} Conduction Band Minimum (CBM) and pentacene Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital (LUMO) was determined to be 0.7 and 1.35 eV, respectively. The band alignment at this interface is favor of efficient hole transfer, which suggests pentacene as a viable HTL candidate to be explored in perovskite solar cells.

  19. Direct-conversion switching-mode audio power amplifier with active capacitive voltage clamp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljusev, P.; Andersen, Michael A.E.

    2005-07-01

    This paper discusses the advantages and problems when implementing direct energy conversion switching-mode audio power amplifiers. It is shown that the total integration of the power supply and Class D audio power amplifier into one compact direct converter can simplify design, increase efficiency and integration level, reduce product volume and lower its cost. As an example, the principle of operation and the measurements made on a direct-conversion switching-mode audio power amplifier with active capacitive voltage clamp are presented. (au)

  20. Self-oscillating modulators for direct energy conversion audio power amplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljusev, P.; Andersen, Michael A.E.

    2005-07-01

    Direct energy conversion audio power amplifier represents total integration of switching-mode power supply and Class D audio power amplifier into one compact stage, achieving high efficiency, high level of integration, low component count and eventually low cost. This paper presents how self-oscillating modulators can be used with the direct switching-mode audio power amplifier to improve its performance by providing fast hysteretic control with high power supply rejection ratio, open-loop stability and high bandwidth. Its operation is thoroughly analyzed and simulated waveforms of a prototype amplifier are presented. (au)

  1. Design And Construction Of 300W Audio Power Amplifier For Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shune Lei Aung

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper describes the design and construction of 300W audio power amplifier for classroom. In the construction of this amplifier microphone preamplifier tone preamplifier equalizer line amplifier output power amplifier and sound level indicator are included. The output power amplifier is designed as O.C.L system and constructed by using Class B among many types of amplifier classes. There are two types in O.C.L system quasi system and complementary system. Between them the complementary system is used in the construction of 300W audio power amplifier. The Multisim software is utilized for the construction of audio power amplifier.

  2. Parametric time-frequency domain spatial audio

    CERN Document Server

    Delikaris-Manias, Symeon; Politis, Archontis

    2018-01-01

    This book provides readers with the principles and best practices in spatial audio signal processing. It describes how sound fields and their perceptual attributes are captured and analyzed within the time-frequency domain, how essential representation parameters are coded, and how such signals are efficiently reproduced for practical applications. The book is split into four parts starting with an overview of the fundamentals. It then goes on to explain the reproduction of spatial sound before offering an examination of signal-dependent spatial filtering. The book finishes with coverage of both current and future applications and the direction that spatial audio research is heading in. Parametric Time-frequency Domain Spatial Audio focuses on applications in entertainment audio, including music, home cinema, and gaming--covering the capturing and reproduction of spatial sound as well as its generation, transduction, representation, transmission, and perception. This book will teach readers the tools needed...

  3. Design of an audio advertisement dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yutao; Liu, Jihong; Zhang, Qi; Geng, Yuting

    2015-12-01

    Since more and more advertisements swarm into radios, it is necessary to establish an audio advertising dataset which could be used to analyze and classify the advertisement. A method of how to establish a complete audio advertising dataset is presented in this paper. The dataset is divided into four different kinds of advertisements. Each advertisement's sample is given in *.wav file format, and annotated with a txt file which contains its file name, sampling frequency, channel number, broadcasting time and its class. The classifying rationality of the advertisements in this dataset is proved by clustering the different advertisements based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The experimental results show that this audio advertisement dataset offers a reliable set of samples for correlative audio advertisement experimental studies.

  4. Augmenting Environmental Interaction in Audio Feedback Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seunghun Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Audio feedback is defined as a positive feedback of acoustic signals where an audio input and output form a loop, and may be utilized artistically. This article presents new context-based controls over audio feedback, leading to the generation of desired sonic behaviors by enriching the influence of existing acoustic information such as room response and ambient noise. This ecological approach to audio feedback emphasizes mutual sonic interaction between signal processing and the acoustic environment. Mappings from analyses of the received signal to signal-processing parameters are designed to emphasize this specificity as an aesthetic goal. Our feedback system presents four types of mappings: approximate analyses of room reverberation to tempo-scale characteristics, ambient noise to amplitude and two different approximations of resonances to timbre. These mappings are validated computationally and evaluated experimentally in different acoustic conditions.

  5. CERN automatic audio-conference service

    CERN Multimedia

    Sierra Moral, R

    2009-01-01

    Scientists from all over the world need to collaborate with CERN on a daily basis. They must be able to communicate effectively on their joint projects at any time; as a result telephone conferences have become indispensable and widely used. Managed by 6 operators, CERN already has more than 20000 hours and 5700 audio-conferences per year. However, the traditional telephone based audio-conference system needed to be modernized in three ways. Firstly, to provide the participants with more autonomy in the organization of their conferences; secondly, to eliminate the constraints of manual intervention by operators; and thirdly, to integrate the audio-conferences into a collaborative working framework. The large number, and hence cost, of the conferences prohibited externalization and so the CERN telecommunications team drew up a specification to implement a new system. It was decided to use a new commercial collaborative audio-conference solution based on the SIP protocol. The system was tested as the first Euro...

  6. Virtual Microphones for Multichannel Audio Resynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Mouchtaris

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Multichannel audio offers significant advantages for music reproduction, including the ability to provide better localization and envelopment, as well as reduced imaging distortion. On the other hand, multichannel audio is a demanding media type in terms of transmission requirements. Often, bandwidth limitations prohibit transmission of multiple audio channels. In such cases, an alternative is to transmit only one or two reference channels and recreate the rest of the channels at the receiving end. Here, we propose a system capable of synthesizing the required signals from a smaller set of signals recorded in a particular venue. These synthesized “virtual” microphone signals can be used to produce multichannel recordings that accurately capture the acoustics of that venue. Applications of the proposed system include transmission of multichannel audio over the current Internet infrastructure and, as an extension of the methods proposed here, remastering existing monophonic and stereophonic recordings for multichannel rendering.

  7. CERN automatic audio-conference service

    CERN Document Server

    Sierra Moral, R

    2010-01-01

    Scientists from all over the world need to collaborate with CERN on a daily basis. They must be able to communicate effectively on their joint projects at any time; as a result telephone conferences have become indispensable and widely used. Managed by 6 operators, CERN already has more than 20000 hours and 5700 audio-conferences per year. However, the traditional telephone based audio-conference system needed to be modernized in three ways. Firstly, to provide the participants with more autonomy in the organization of their conferences; secondly, to eliminate the constraints of manual intervention by operators; and thirdly, to integrate the audio-conferences into a collaborative working framework. The large number, and hence cost, of the conferences prohibited externalization and so the CERN telecommunications team drew up a specification to implement a new system. It was decided to use a new commercial collaborative audio-conference solution based on the SIP protocol. The system was tested as the first Euro...

  8. EVALUASI KEPUASAN PENGGUNA TERHADAP APLIKASI AUDIO BOOKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raditya Maulana Anuraga

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Listeno is the first application audio books in Indonesia so that the users can get the book in audio form like listen to music, Listeno have problems in a feature request Listeno offline mode that have not been released, a security problem mp3 files that must be considered, and the target Listeno not yet reached 100,000 active users. This research has the objective to evaluate user satisfaction to Audio Books with research method approach, Nielsen. The analysis in this study using Importance Performance Analysis (IPA is combined with the index of User Satisfaction (IKP based on the indicators used are: Benefit (Usefulness, Utility (Utility, Usability (Usability, easy to understand (Learnability, Efficient (efficiency , Easy to remember (Memorability, Error (Error, and satisfaction (satisfaction. The results showed Applications User Satisfaction Audio books are quite satisfied with the results of the calculation IKP 69.58%..

  9. Spatial audio reproduction with primary ambient extraction

    CERN Document Server

    He, JianJun

    2017-01-01

    This book first introduces the background of spatial audio reproduction, with different types of audio content and for different types of playback systems. A literature study on the classical and emerging Primary Ambient Extraction (PAE) techniques is presented. The emerging techniques aim to improve the extraction performance and also enhance the robustness of PAE approaches in dealing with more complex signals encountered in practice. The in-depth theoretical study helps readers to understand the rationales behind these approaches. Extensive objective and subjective experiments validate the feasibility of applying PAE in spatial audio reproduction systems. These experimental results, together with some representative audio examples and MATLAB codes of the key algorithms, illustrate clearly the differences among various approaches and also help readers gain insights on selecting different approaches for different applications.

  10. Audio production principles practical studio applications

    CERN Document Server

    Elmosnino, Stephane

    2018-01-01

    A new and fully practical guide to all of the key topics in audio production, this book covers the entire workflow from pre-production, to recording all kinds of instruments, to mixing theories and tools, and finally to mastering.

  11. Adaptive DCTNet for Audio Signal Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Xian, Yin; Pu, Yunchen; Gan, Zhe; Lu, Liang; Thompson, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate DCTNet for audio signal classification. Its output feature is related to Cohen's class of time-frequency distributions. We introduce the use of adaptive DCTNet (A-DCTNet) for audio signals feature extraction. The A-DCTNet applies the idea of constant-Q transform, with its center frequencies of filterbanks geometrically spaced. The A-DCTNet is adaptive to different acoustic scales, and it can better capture low frequency acoustic information that is sensitive to h...

  12. Huffman coding in advanced audio coding standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzuchalski, Grzegorz

    2012-05-01

    This article presents several hardware architectures of Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) Huffman noiseless encoder, its optimisations and working implementation. Much attention has been paid to optimise the demand of hardware resources especially memory size. The aim of design was to get as short binary stream as possible in this standard. The Huffman encoder with whole audio-video system has been implemented in FPGA devices.

  13. Audio Technology and Mobile Human Computer Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chamberlain, Alan; Bødker, Mads; Hazzard, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Audio-based mobile technology is opening up a range of new interactive possibilities. This paper brings some of those possibilities to light by offering a range of perspectives based in this area. It is not only the technical systems that are developing, but novel approaches to the design...... and understanding of audio-based mobile systems are evolving to offer new perspectives on interaction and design and support such systems to be applied in areas, such as the humanities....

  14. Analysis of musical expression in audio signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Simon

    2003-01-01

    In western art music, composers communicate their work to performers via a standard notation which specificies the musical pitches and relative timings of notes. This notation may also include some higher level information such as variations in the dynamics, tempo and timing. Famous performers are characterised by their expressive interpretation, the ability to convey structural and emotive information within the given framework. The majority of work on audio content analysis focusses on retrieving score-level information; this paper reports on the extraction of parameters describing the performance, a task which requires a much higher degree of accuracy. Two systems are presented: BeatRoot, an off-line beat tracking system which finds the times of musical beats and tracks changes in tempo throughout a performance, and the Performance Worm, a system which provides a real-time visualisation of the two most important expressive dimensions, tempo and dynamics. Both of these systems are being used to process data for a large-scale study of musical expression in classical and romantic piano performance, which uses artificial intelligence (machine learning) techniques to discover fundamental patterns or principles governing expressive performance.

  15. Orientation-dependent energy level alignment and film growth of 2,7-diocty[1]benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) on HOPG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyu, Lu; Niu, Dongmei; Xie, Haipeng; Cao, Ningtong; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Yuhe; Liu, Peng; Gao, Yongli

    2016-01-01

    Combining ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray diffraction measurements, we performed a systematic investigation on the correlation of energy level alignment, film growth, and molecular orientation of 2,7-diocty[1]benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. The molecules lie down in the first layer and then stand up from the second layer. The ionization potential shows a sharp decrease from the lying down region to the standing up region. When C8-BTBT molecules start standing up, unconventional energy level band-bending-like shifts are observed as the film thickness increases. These shifts are ascribed to gradual decreasing of the molecular tilt angle about the substrate normal with the increasing film thickness

  16. Orientation-dependent energy level alignment and film growth of 2,7-diocty[1]benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) on HOPG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Lu; Niu, Dongmei; Xie, Haipeng; Cao, Ningtong; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Yuhe; Liu, Peng; Gao, Yongli

    2016-01-01

    Combining ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray diffraction measurements, we performed a systematic investigation on the correlation of energy level alignment, film growth, and molecular orientation of 2,7-diocty[1]benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. The molecules lie down in the first layer and then stand up from the second layer. The ionization potential shows a sharp decrease from the lying down region to the standing up region. When C8-BTBT molecules start standing up, unconventional energy level band-bending-like shifts are observed as the film thickness increases. These shifts are ascribed to gradual decreasing of the molecular tilt angle about the substrate normal with the increasing film thickness.

  17. Orientation-dependent energy level alignment and film growth of 2,7-diocty[1]benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) on HOPG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyu, Lu; Niu, Dongmei, E-mail: mayee@csu.edu.cnmailto; Xie, Haipeng; Cao, Ningtong; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Yuhe; Liu, Peng [Institute of Super-Microstructure and Ultrafast Process in Advanced Materials, School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, No. 605 Lushan South Road, Changsha, Hunan 410012 (China); Hunan Key Laboratory for Super-Microstructure and Ultrafast Process, School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410012 (China); Gao, Yongli [Institute of Super-Microstructure and Ultrafast Process in Advanced Materials, School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, No. 605 Lushan South Road, Changsha, Hunan 410012 (China); Hunan Key Laboratory for Super-Microstructure and Ultrafast Process, School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410012 (China); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States)

    2016-01-21

    Combining ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray diffraction measurements, we performed a systematic investigation on the correlation of energy level alignment, film growth, and molecular orientation of 2,7-diocty[1]benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. The molecules lie down in the first layer and then stand up from the second layer. The ionization potential shows a sharp decrease from the lying down region to the standing up region. When C8-BTBT molecules start standing up, unconventional energy level band-bending-like shifts are observed as the film thickness increases. These shifts are ascribed to gradual decreasing of the molecular tilt angle about the substrate normal with the increasing film thickness.

  18. Computationally Efficient Clustering of Audio-Visual Meeting Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Hayley; Friedland, Gerald; Yeo, Chuohao

    This chapter presents novel computationally efficient algorithms to extract semantically meaningful acoustic and visual events related to each of the participants in a group discussion using the example of business meeting recordings. The recording setup involves relatively few audio-visual sensors, comprising a limited number of cameras and microphones. We first demonstrate computationally efficient algorithms that can identify who spoke and when, a problem in speech processing known as speaker diarization. We also extract visual activity features efficiently from MPEG4 video by taking advantage of the processing that was already done for video compression. Then, we present a method of associating the audio-visual data together so that the content of each participant can be managed individually. The methods presented in this article can be used as a principal component that enables many higher-level semantic analysis tasks needed in search, retrieval, and navigation.

  19. Approaches to building single-stage AC/AC conversion switch-mode audio power amplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljusev, P.; Andersen, Michael A.E.

    2005-07-01

    This paper discusses the possible topologies and promising approaches towards direct single-phase AC-AC conversion of the mains voltage for audio applications. When compared to standard Class-D switching audio power amplifiers with a separate power supply, it is expected that direct conversion will provide better efficiency and higher level of integration, leading to lower component count, volume and cost, but at the expense of a minor performance deterioration. (au)

  20. Automatic summarization of soccer highlights using audio-visual descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raventós, A; Quijada, R; Torres, Luis; Tarrés, Francesc

    2015-01-01

    Automatic summarization generation of sports video content has been object of great interest for many years. Although semantic descriptions techniques have been proposed, many of the approaches still rely on low-level video descriptors that render quite limited results due to the complexity of the problem and to the low capability of the descriptors to represent semantic content. In this paper, a new approach for automatic highlights summarization generation of soccer videos using audio-visual descriptors is presented. The approach is based on the segmentation of the video sequence into shots that will be further analyzed to determine its relevance and interest. Of special interest in the approach is the use of the audio information that provides additional robustness to the overall performance of the summarization system. For every video shot a set of low and mid level audio-visual descriptors are computed and lately adequately combined in order to obtain different relevance measures based on empirical knowledge rules. The final summary is generated by selecting those shots with highest interest according to the specifications of the user and the results of relevance measures. A variety of results are presented with real soccer video sequences that prove the validity of the approach.

  1. Introduction of audio gating to further reduce organ motion in breathing synchronized radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, H. Dale; Wang Lili

    2002-01-01

    With breathing synchronized radiotherapy (BSRT), a voltage signal derived from an organ displacement detector is usually displayed on the vertical axis whereas the elapsed time is shown on the horizontal axis. The voltage gate window is set on the breathing voltage signal. Whenever the breathing signal falls between the two gate levels, a gate pulse is produced to enable the treatment machine. In this paper a new gating mechanism, audio (or time-sequence) gating, is introduced and is integrated into the existing voltage gating system. The audio gating takes advantage of the repetitive nature of the breathing signal when repetitive audio instruction is given to the patient. The audio gating is aimed at removing the regions of sharp rises and falls in the breathing signal that cannot be removed by the voltage gating. When the breathing signal falls between voltage gate levels as well as between audio-gate levels, the voltage- and audio-gated radiotherapy (ART) system will generate an AND gate pulse. When this gate pulse is received by a linear accelerator, the linear accelerator becomes 'enabled' for beam delivery and will deliver the beam when all other interlocks are removed. This paper describes a new gating mechanism and a method of recording beam-on signal, both of which are, configured into a laptop computer. The paper also presents evidence of some clinical advantages achieved with the ART system

  2. Could Audio-Described Films Benefit from Audio Introductions? An Audience Response Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Fresco, Pablo; Fryer, Louise

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Time constraints limit the quantity and type of information conveyed in audio description (AD) for films, in particular the cinematic aspects. Inspired by introductory notes for theatre AD, this study developed audio introductions (AIs) for "Slumdog Millionaire" and "Man on Wire." Each AI comprised 10 minutes of…

  3. Audio stream classification for multimedia database search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artese, M.; Bianco, S.; Gagliardi, I.; Gasparini, F.

    2013-03-01

    Search and retrieval of huge archives of Multimedia data is a challenging task. A classification step is often used to reduce the number of entries on which to perform the subsequent search. In particular, when new entries of the database are continuously added, a fast classification based on simple threshold evaluation is desirable. In this work we present a CART-based (Classification And Regression Tree [1]) classification framework for audio streams belonging to multimedia databases. The database considered is the Archive of Ethnography and Social History (AESS) [2], which is mainly composed of popular songs and other audio records describing the popular traditions handed down generation by generation, such as traditional fairs, and customs. The peculiarities of this database are that it is continuously updated; the audio recordings are acquired in unconstrained environment; and for the non-expert human user is difficult to create the ground truth labels. In our experiments, half of all the available audio files have been randomly extracted and used as training set. The remaining ones have been used as test set. The classifier has been trained to distinguish among three different classes: speech, music, and song. All the audio files in the dataset have been previously manually labeled into the three classes above defined by domain experts.

  4. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    Gervasio Gomez

    2012-01-01

      The new alignment for the DT chambers has been successfully used in physics analysis starting with the 52X Global Tag. The remaining main areas of development over the next few months will be preparing a new track-based CSC alignment and producing realistic APEs (alignment position errors) and MC misalignment scenarios to match the latest muon alignment constants. Work on these items has been delayed from the intended timeline, mostly due to a large involvement of the muon alignment man-power in physics analyses over the first half of this year. As CMS keeps probing higher and higher energies, special attention must be paid to the reconstruction of very-high-energy muons. Recent muon POG reports from mid-June show a φ-dependence in curvature bias in Monte Carlo samples. This bias is observed already at the tracker level, where it is constant with muon pT, while it grows with pT as muon chamber information is added to the tracks. Similar studies show a much smaller effect in data, at le...

  5. Self-aligned 0-level sealing of MEMS devices by a two layer thin film reflow process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusu, C.R.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Gunn, R.; Witvrouw, A.

    2003-01-01

    Many micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) require a vacuum or controlled atmosphere encapsulation in order to ensure either a good performance or an acceptable lifetime of operation. Two approaches for wafer-scale zero-level packaging exist. The most popular approach is based on wafer bonding.

  6. Self-aligned 0-level sealing of MEMS devices by a two layer thin film reflow process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusu, C.R.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Gunn, R.; Witvrouw, A.

    2004-01-01

    Many micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) require a vacuum or controlled atmosphere encapsulation in order to ensure either a good performance or an acceptable lifetime of operation. Two approaches for waferscale zero-level packaging exist. The most popular approach is based on wafer bonding.

  7. Modified DCTNet for audio signals classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Yin; Pu, Yunchen; Gan, Zhe; Lu, Liang; Thompson, Andrew

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate DCTNet for audio signal classification. Its output feature is related to Cohen's class of time-frequency distributions. We introduce the use of adaptive DCTNet (A-DCTNet) for audio signals feature extraction. The A-DCTNet applies the idea of constant-Q transform, with its center frequencies of filterbanks geometrically spaced. The A-DCTNet is adaptive to different acoustic scales, and it can better capture low frequency acoustic information that is sensitive to human audio perception than features such as Mel-frequency spectral coefficients (MFSC). We use features extracted by the A-DCTNet as input for classifiers. Experimental results show that the A-DCTNet and Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN) achieve state-of-the-art performance in bird song classification rate, and improve artist identification accuracy in music data. They demonstrate A-DCTNet's applicability to signal processing problems.

  8. Fall Detection Using Smartphone Audio Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheffena, Michael

    2016-07-01

    An automated fall detection system based on smartphone audio features is developed. The spectrogram, mel frequency cepstral coefficents (MFCCs), linear predictive coding (LPC), and matching pursuit (MP) features of different fall and no-fall sound events are extracted from experimental data. Based on the extracted audio features, four different machine learning classifiers: k-nearest neighbor classifier (k-NN), support vector machine (SVM), least squares method (LSM), and artificial neural network (ANN) are investigated for distinguishing between fall and no-fall events. For each audio feature, the performance of each classifier in terms of sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and computational complexity is evaluated. The best performance is achieved using spectrogram features with ANN classifier with sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy all above 98%. The classifier also has acceptable computational requirement for training and testing. The system is applicable in home environments where the phone is placed in the vicinity of the user.

  9. Audio Description as a Pedagogical Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Kleege

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Audio description is the process of translating visual information into words for people who are blind or have low vision. Typically such description has focused on films, museum exhibitions, images and video on the internet, and live theater. Because it allows people with visual impairments to experience a variety of cultural and educational texts that would otherwise be inaccessible, audio description is a mandated aspect of disability inclusion, although it remains markedly underdeveloped and underutilized in our classrooms and in society in general. Along with increasing awareness of disability, audio description pushes students to practice close reading of visual material, deepen their analysis, and engage in critical discussions around the methodology, standards and values, language, and role of interpretation in a variety of academic disciplines. We outline a few pedagogical interventions that can be customized to different contexts to develop students' writing and critical thinking skills through guided description of visual material.

  10. Near-field Localization of Audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2014-01-01

    Localization of audio sources using microphone arrays has been an important research problem for more than two decades. Many traditional methods for solving the problem are based on a two-stage procedure: first, information about the audio source, such as time differences-of-arrival (TDOAs......) and gain ratios-of-arrival (GROAs) between microphones is estimated, and, second, this knowledge is used to localize the audio source. These methods often have a low computational complexity, but this comes at the cost of a limited estimation accuracy. Therefore, we propose a new localization approach......, where the desired signal is modeled using TDOAs and GROAs, which are determined by the source location. This facilitates the derivation of one-stage, maximum likelihood methods under a white Gaussian noise assumption that is applicable in both near- and far-field scenarios. Simulations show...

  11. Audio Networking in the Music Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glebs Kuzmics

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper surveys the rôle of computer networking technologies in the music industry. A comparison of their relevant technologies, their defining advantages and disadvantages; analyses and discussion of the situation in the market of network enabled audio products followed by a discussion of different devices are presented. The idea of replacing a proprietary solution with open-source and freeware software programs has been chosen as the fundamental concept of this research. The technologies covered include: native IEEE AVnu Alliance Audio Video Bridging (AVB, CobraNet®, Audinate Dante™ and Harman BLU Link.

  12. Nonlinear dynamic macromodeling techniques for audio systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogrodzki, Jan; Bieńkowski, Piotr

    2015-09-01

    This paper develops a modelling method and a models identification technique for the nonlinear dynamic audio systems. Identification is performed by means of a behavioral approach based on a polynomial approximation. This approach makes use of Discrete Fourier Transform and Harmonic Balance Method. A model of an audio system is first created and identified and then it is simulated in real time using an algorithm of low computational complexity. The algorithm consists in real time emulation of the system response rather than in simulation of the system itself. The proposed software is written in Python language using object oriented programming techniques. The code is optimized for a multithreads environment.

  13. Personalized Audio Systems - a Bayesian Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Brehm; Jensen, Bjørn Sand; Hansen, Toke Jansen

    2013-01-01

    Modern audio systems are typically equipped with several user-adjustable parameters unfamiliar to most users listening to the system. To obtain the best possible setting, the user is forced into multi-parameter optimization with respect to the users's own objective and preference. To address this......, the present paper presents a general inter-active framework for personalization of such audio systems. The framework builds on Bayesian Gaussian process regression in which a model of the users's objective function is updated sequentially. The parameter setting to be evaluated in a given trial is selected...

  14. Investigation of level energies and B(E2) values for rotation-aligned bands in Hg isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertin, D.; Tischler, R.; Kleinrahm, A.; Kroth, R.; Huebel, H.; Guenther, C.

    1978-01-01

    High spin states in 191 192 193 195 197 199 Hg were investigated by observing γ-rays and conversion electrons in the compound reactions 192 194 198 Pt(α,xn) and 192 Pt ( 3 He,4n). In 197 Hg the decoupled band built on the 13/2 + state and the semi-decoupled negative-parity band are observed up to Isup(π)=41/2 + and 33/2 - , respectively. A careful investigation of 199 Hg revealed no new high spin states above the previously known levels with Isup(π)=25/2 + and 31/2 - . Half-lives were determined for the 10 + , 7 - , 8 - and 16 - states in 192 Hg, the 33/2 states in 191 193 Hg and the 25/2 - states in 191 193 195 197 Hg. The systematics of the level energies and B(E2) values for the positive parity ground and 13/2 + bands and the negative-parity semi-decoupled bands in 190-200 Hg is discussed. (Auth.)

  15. Energy-level alignment and open-circuit voltage at graphene/polymer interfaces: theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noori, Keian; Konios, Dimitrios; Stylianakis, Minas M.; Kymakis, Emmanuel; Giustino, Feliciano

    2016-03-01

    Functionalized graphene promises to become a key component of novel solar cell architectures, owing to its versatile ability to act either as transparent conductor, electron acceptor, or buffer layer. In spite of this promise, the solar energy conversion efficiency of graphene-based devices falls short of the performance of competing solution-processable photovoltaic technologies. Here we address the question of the maximum achievable open-circuit voltage of all-organic graphene: polymer solar cells using a combined theoretical/experimental approach, going from the atomic scale level to the device level. Our calculations on very large atomistic models of the graphene/polymer interface indicate that the ideal open-circuit voltage approaches one volt, and that epoxide functional groups can have a dramatic effect on the photovoltage. Our predictions are confirmed by direct measurements on complete devices where we control the concentration of functional groups via chemical reduction. Our findings indicate that the selective removal of epoxide groups and the use of ultradisperse polymers are key to achieving graphene solar cells with improved energy conversion efficiency.

  16. Mobile video-to-audio transducer and motion detection for sensory substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime eAmbard

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Visuo-auditory sensory substitution systems are augmented reality devices that translate a video stream into an audio stream in order to help the blind in daily tasks requiring visuo-spatial information. In this work, we present both a new mobile device and a transcoding method specifically designed to sonify moving objects. Frame differencing is used to extract spatial features from the video stream and two-dimensional spatial information is converted into audio cues using pitch, interaural time difference and interaural level difference. Using numerical methods, we attempt to reconstruct visuo-spatial information based on audio signals generated from various video stimuli. We show that despite a contrasted visual background and a highly lossy encoding method, the information in the audio signal is sufficient to allow object localization, object trajectory evaluation, object approach detection, and spatial separation of multiple objects. We also show that this type of audio signal can be interpreted by human users by asking ten subjects to discriminate trajectories based on generated audio signals.

  17. A Novel Robust Audio Watermarking Algorithm by Modifying the Average Amplitude in Transform Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuling Wu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the robustness and imperceptibility in practical application, a novel audio watermarking algorithm with strong robustness is proposed by exploring the multi-resolution characteristic of discrete wavelet transform (DWT and the energy compaction capability of discrete cosine transform (DCT. The human auditory system is insensitive to the minor changes in the frequency components of the audio signal, so the watermarks can be embedded by slightly modifying the frequency components of the audio signal. The audio fragments segmented from the cover audio signal are decomposed by DWT to obtain several groups of wavelet coefficients with different frequency bands, and then the fourth level detail coefficient is selected to be divided into the former packet and the latter packet, which are executed for DCT to get two sets of transform domain coefficients (TDC respectively. Finally, the average amplitudes of the two sets of TDC are modified to embed the binary image watermark according to the special embedding rule. The watermark extraction is blind without the carrier audio signal. Experimental results confirm that the proposed algorithm has good imperceptibility, large payload capacity and strong robustness when resisting against various attacks such as MP3 compression, low-pass filtering, re-sampling, re-quantization, amplitude scaling, echo addition and noise corruption.

  18. Direct characterization of the energy level alignments and molecular components in an organic hetero-junction by integrated photoemission spectroscopy and reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Dong-Jin; Shin, Weon-Ho; Bulliard, Xavier; Park, Jong Hwan; Kim, Seyun; Chung, Jae Gwan; Kim, Yongsu; Heo, Sung; Kim, Seong Heon

    2016-08-26

    A novel, direct method for the characterization of the energy level alignments at bulk-heterojunction (BHJ)/electrode interfaces on the basis of electronic spectroscopy measurements is proposed. The home-made in situ photoemission system is used to perform x-ray/ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (XPS/UPS), reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS) and inverse photoemission spectroscopy of organic-semiconductors (OSCs) deposited onto a Au substrate. Through this analysis system, we are able to obtain the electronic structures of a boron subphthalocyanine chloride:fullerene (SubPC:C60) BHJ and those of the separate OSC/electrode structures (SubPC/Au and C60/Au). Morphology and chemical composition analyses confirm that the original SubPC and C60 electronic structures remain unchanged in the electrodes prepared. Using this technique, we ascertain that the position and area of the nearest peak to the Fermi energy (EF = 0 eV) in the UPS (REELS) spectra of SubPC:C60 BHJ provide information on the highest occupied molecular orbital level (optical band gap) and combination ratio of the materials, respectively. Thus, extracting the adjusted spectrum from the corresponding SubPC:C60 BHJ UPS (REELS) spectrum reveals its electronic structure, equivalent to that of the C60 materials. This novel analytical approach allows complete energy-level determination for each combination ratio by separating its electronic structure information from the BHJ spectrum.

  19. Enhancing national data to align with policy objectives: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smoking prevalence at finer geographic levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Alyson; Lovett, Ray; Roe, Yvette; Richardson, Alice

    2017-06-05

    Objectives The aim of the study was to assess the utility of national Aboriginal survey data in a regional geospatial analysis of daily smoking prevalence for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians and discuss the appropriateness of this analysis for policy and program impact assessment. Methods Data from the last two Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) national surveys of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Survey 2014-15 (n=7022 adults) and the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey 2012-13 (n=10896 adults), were used to map the prevalence of smoking by Indigenous regions. Results Daily smoking prevalence in 2014-15 at Indigenous regions ranges from 27.1% (95%CI 18.9-35.3) in the Toowoomba region in Queensland to 68.0% (95%CI 58.1-77.9) in the Katherine region in the Northern Territory. The confidence intervals are wide and there is no significant difference in daily smoking prevalence between the two time periods for any region. Conclusion There are significant limitations with analysing national survey data at finer geographical scales. Given the national program for Indigenous tobacco control is a regional model, evaluation requires finer geographical analysis of smoking prevalence to inform public health progress, policy and program effects. Options to improve the data currently collected include increasing national survey sample sizes, implementing a smoking status question in census surveys, investing in current cohort studies focused on this population or implementing localised surveys. What is known about the topic? The last geospatial analysis of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smoking prevalence was undertaken in 1997. Current national survey data have not been analysed geospatially. What does this paper add? This paper provides new insights into the use of national survey data for understanding regional patterns and prevalence levels of smoking

  20. Nonspeech audio in user interfaces for TV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van de Richard; Eggen, J.H.; Rypkema, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    This study explores the end-user benefits of using nonspeech audio in television user interfaces. A prototype of an Electronic Programme Guide (EPG) served as a carrier for the research. One of the features of this EPG is the possibility to search for TV programmes in a category-based way. The EPG

  1. CERN automatic audio-conference service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierra Moral, Rodrigo

    2010-01-01

    Scientists from all over the world need to collaborate with CERN on a daily basis. They must be able to communicate effectively on their joint projects at any time; as a result telephone conferences have become indispensable and widely used. Managed by 6 operators, CERN already has more than 20000 hours and 5700 audio-conferences per year. However, the traditional telephone based audio-conference system needed to be modernized in three ways. Firstly, to provide the participants with more autonomy in the organization of their conferences; secondly, to eliminate the constraints of manual intervention by operators; and thirdly, to integrate the audio-conferences into a collaborative working framework. The large number, and hence cost, of the conferences prohibited externalization and so the CERN telecommunications team drew up a specification to implement a new system. It was decided to use a new commercial collaborative audio-conference solution based on the SIP protocol. The system was tested as the first European pilot and several improvements (such as billing, security, redundancy...) were implemented based on CERN's recommendations. The new automatic conference system has been operational since the second half of 2006. It is very popular for the users and has doubled the number of conferences in the past two years.

  2. CERN automatic audio-conference service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Moral, Rodrigo, E-mail: Rodrigo.Sierra@cern.c [CERN, IT Department 1211 Geneva-23 (Switzerland)

    2010-04-01

    Scientists from all over the world need to collaborate with CERN on a daily basis. They must be able to communicate effectively on their joint projects at any time; as a result telephone conferences have become indispensable and widely used. Managed by 6 operators, CERN already has more than 20000 hours and 5700 audio-conferences per year. However, the traditional telephone based audio-conference system needed to be modernized in three ways. Firstly, to provide the participants with more autonomy in the organization of their conferences; secondly, to eliminate the constraints of manual intervention by operators; and thirdly, to integrate the audio-conferences into a collaborative working framework. The large number, and hence cost, of the conferences prohibited externalization and so the CERN telecommunications team drew up a specification to implement a new system. It was decided to use a new commercial collaborative audio-conference solution based on the SIP protocol. The system was tested as the first European pilot and several improvements (such as billing, security, redundancy...) were implemented based on CERN's recommendations. The new automatic conference system has been operational since the second half of 2006. It is very popular for the users and has doubled the number of conferences in the past two years.

  3. CERN automatic audio-conference service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra Moral, Rodrigo

    2010-04-01

    Scientists from all over the world need to collaborate with CERN on a daily basis. They must be able to communicate effectively on their joint projects at any time; as a result telephone conferences have become indispensable and widely used. Managed by 6 operators, CERN already has more than 20000 hours and 5700 audio-conferences per year. However, the traditional telephone based audio-conference system needed to be modernized in three ways. Firstly, to provide the participants with more autonomy in the organization of their conferences; secondly, to eliminate the constraints of manual intervention by operators; and thirdly, to integrate the audio-conferences into a collaborative working framework. The large number, and hence cost, of the conferences prohibited externalization and so the CERN telecommunications team drew up a specification to implement a new system. It was decided to use a new commercial collaborative audio-conference solution based on the SIP protocol. The system was tested as the first European pilot and several improvements (such as billing, security, redundancy...) were implemented based on CERN's recommendations. The new automatic conference system has been operational since the second half of 2006. It is very popular for the users and has doubled the number of conferences in the past two years.

  4. Audio Journal in an ELT Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neşe Aysin Siyli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available It is widely acknowledged that one of the most serious problems students of English as a foreign language face is their deprivation of practicing the language outside the classroom. Generally, the classroom is the sole environment where they can practice English, which by its nature does not provide rich setting to help students develop their competence by putting the language into practice. Motivated by this need, this descriptive study investigated the impact of audio dialog journals on students’ speaking skills. It also aimed to gain insights into students’ and teacher’s opinions on keeping audio dialog journals outside the class. The data of the study developed from student and teacher audio dialog journals, student written feedbacks, interviews held with the students, and teacher observations. The descriptive analysis of the data revealed that audio dialog journals served a number of functions ranging from cognitive to linguistic, from pedagogical to psychological, and social. The findings and pedagogical implications of the study are discussed in detail.

  5. Spatial audio quality perception (part 2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conetta, R.; Brookes, T.; Rumsey, F.

    2015-01-01

    location, envelopment, coverage angle, ensemble width, and spaciousness. They can also impact timbre, and changes to timbre can then influence spatial perception. Previously obtained data was used to build a regression model of perceived spatial audio quality in terms of spatial and timbral metrics...

  6. Study of audio speakers containing ferrofluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosensweig, R E [34 Gloucester Road, Summit, NJ 07901 (United States); Hirota, Y; Tsuda, S [Ferrotec, 1-4-14 Kyobashi, chuo-Ku, Tokyo 104-0031 (Japan); Raj, K [Ferrotec, 33 Constitution Drive, Bedford, NH 03110 (United States)

    2008-05-21

    This work validates a method for increasing the radial restoring force on the voice coil in audio speakers containing ferrofluid. In addition, a study is made of factors influencing splash loss of the ferrofluid due to shock. Ferrohydrodynamic analysis is employed throughout to model behavior, and predictions are compared to experimental data.

  7. An ESL Audio-Script Writing Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Carla

    2012-01-01

    The roles of dialogue, collaborative writing, and authentic communication have been explored as effective strategies in second language writing classrooms. In this article, the stages of an innovative, multi-skill writing method, which embeds students' personal voices into the writing process, are explored. A 10-step ESL Audio Script Writing Model…

  8. Audible Aliasing Distortion in Digital Audio Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schimmel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with aliasing distortion in digital audio signal synthesis of classic periodic waveforms with infinite Fourier series, for electronic musical instruments. When these waveforms are generated in the digital domain then the aliasing appears due to its unlimited bandwidth. There are several techniques for the synthesis of these signals that have been designed to avoid or reduce the aliasing distortion. However, these techniques have high computing demands. One can say that today's computers have enough computing power to use these methods. However, we have to realize that today’s computer-aided music production requires tens of multi-timbre voices generated simultaneously by software synthesizers and the most of the computing power must be reserved for hard-disc recording subsystem and real-time audio processing of many audio channels with a lot of audio effects. Trivially generated classic analog synthesizer waveforms are therefore still effective for sound synthesis. We cannot avoid the aliasing distortion but spectral components produced by the aliasing can be masked with harmonic components and thus made inaudible if sufficient oversampling ratio is used. This paper deals with the assessment of audible aliasing distortion with the help of a psychoacoustic model of simultaneous masking and compares the computing demands of trivial generation using oversampling with those of other methods.

  9. All About Audio Equalization: Solutions and Frontiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesa Välimäki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Audio equalization is a vast and active research area. The extent of research means that one often cannot identify the preferred technique for a particular problem. This review paper bridges those gaps, systemically providing a deep understanding of the problems and approaches in audio equalization, their relative merits and applications. Digital signal processing techniques for modifying the spectral balance in audio signals and applications of these techniques are reviewed, ranging from classic equalizers to emerging designs based on new advances in signal processing and machine learning. Emphasis is placed on putting the range of approaches within a common mathematical and conceptual framework. The application areas discussed herein are diverse, and include well-defined, solvable problems of filter design subject to constraints, as well as newly emerging challenges that touch on problems in semantics, perception and human computer interaction. Case studies are given in order to illustrate key concepts and how they are applied in practice. We also recommend preferred signal processing approaches for important audio equalization problems. Finally, we discuss current challenges and the uncharted frontiers in this field. The source code for methods discussed in this paper is made available at https://code.soundsoftware.ac.uk/projects/allaboutaudioeq.

  10. Agency Video, Audio and Imagery Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Rodney

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation was to inform the ISS International Partners of the new NASA Agency Video, Audio and Imagery Library (AVAIL) website. AVAIL is a new resource for the public to search for and download NASA-related imagery, and is not intended to replace the current process by which the International Partners receive their Space Station imagery products.

  11. Extracting meaning from audio signals - a machine learning approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    2007-01-01

    * Machine learning framework for sound search * Genre classification * Music and audio separation * Wind noise suppression......* Machine learning framework for sound search * Genre classification * Music and audio separation * Wind noise suppression...

  12. Integration of top-down and bottom-up information for audio organization and retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjørn Sand

    The increasing availability of digital audio and music calls for methods and systems to analyse and organize these digital objects. This thesis investigates three elements related to such systems focusing on the ability to represent and elicit the user's view on the multimedia object and the system...... output. The aim is to provide organization and processing, which aligns with the understanding and needs of the users. Audio and music is often characterized by the large amount of heterogenous information. The rst aspect investigated is the integration of such multi-variate and multi-modal information...... (indirect scaling). Inference is performed by analytical and simulation based methods, including the Laplace approximation and expectation propagation. In order to minimize the cost of the often expensive and lengthly experimentation, sequential experiment design or active learning is supported. The setup...

  13. Consequence of audio visual collection in school libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Kuri, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    The collection of Audio-Visual in library plays important role in teaching and learning. The importance of audio visual (AV) technology in education should not be underestimated. If audio-visual collection in library is carefully planned and designed, it can provide a rich learning environment. In this article, an author discussed the consequences of Audio-Visual collection in libraries especially for students of school library

  14. Design and Implementation of a Video-Zoom Driven Digital Audio-Zoom System for Portable Digital Imaging Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Nam In; Kim, Seon Man; Kim, Hong Kook; Kim, Ji Woon; Kim, Myeong Bo; Yun, Su Won

    In this paper, we propose a video-zoom driven audio-zoom algorithm in order to provide audio zooming effects in accordance with the degree of video-zoom. The proposed algorithm is designed based on a super-directive beamformer operating with a 4-channel microphone system, in conjunction with a soft masking process that considers the phase differences between microphones. Thus, the audio-zoom processed signal is obtained by multiplying an audio gain derived from a video-zoom level by the masked signal. After all, a real-time audio-zoom system is implemented on an ARM-CORETEX-A8 having a clock speed of 600 MHz after different levels of optimization are performed such as algorithmic level, C-code, and memory optimizations. To evaluate the complexity of the proposed real-time audio-zoom system, test data whose length is 21.3 seconds long is sampled at 48 kHz. As a result, it is shown from the experiments that the processing time for the proposed audio-zoom system occupies 14.6% or less of the ARM clock cycles. It is also shown from the experimental results performed in a semi-anechoic chamber that the signal with the front direction can be amplified by approximately 10 dB compared to the other directions.

  15. 47 CFR 10.520 - Common audio attention signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Common audio attention signal. 10.520 Section... Equipment Requirements § 10.520 Common audio attention signal. A Participating CMS Provider and equipment manufacturers may only market devices for public use under part 10 that include an audio attention signal that...

  16. Debugging of Class-D Audio Power Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crone, Lasse; Pedersen, Jeppe Arnsdorf; Mønster, Jakob Døllner

    2012-01-01

    Determining and optimizing the performance of a Class-D audio power amplier can be very dicult without knowledge of the use of audio performance measuring equipment and of how the various noise and distortion sources in uence the audio performance. This paper gives an introduction on how to measure...

  17. Fusion of audio and visual cues for laughter detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petridis, Stavros; Pantic, Maja

    Past research on automatic laughter detection has focused mainly on audio-based detection. Here we present an audio- visual approach to distinguishing laughter from speech and we show that integrating the information from audio and video channels leads to improved performance over single-modal

  18. Hierarchical structure for audio-video based semantic classification of sports video sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolekar, M. H.; Sengupta, S.

    2005-07-01

    A hierarchical structure for sports event classification based on audio and video content analysis is proposed in this paper. Compared to the event classifications in other games, those of cricket are very challenging and yet unexplored. We have successfully solved cricket video classification problem using a six level hierarchical structure. The first level performs event detection based on audio energy and Zero Crossing Rate (ZCR) of short-time audio signal. In the subsequent levels, we classify the events based on video features using a Hidden Markov Model implemented through Dynamic Programming (HMM-DP) using color or motion as a likelihood function. For some of the game-specific decisions, a rule-based classification is also performed. Our proposed hierarchical structure can easily be applied to any other sports. Our results are very promising and we have moved a step forward towards addressing semantic classification problems in general.

  19. Keeping in Touch With the Visual System: Spatial Alignment and Multisensory Integration of Visual-Somatosensory Inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannette Rose Mahoney

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Correlated sensory inputs coursing along the individual sensory processing hierarchies arrive at multisensory convergence zones in cortex where inputs are processed in an integrative manner. The exact hierarchical level of multisensory convergence zones and the timing of their inputs are still under debate, although increasingly, evidence points to multisensory integration at very early sensory processing levels. The objective of the current study was to determine, both psychophysically and electrophysiologically, whether differential visual-somatosensory integration patterns exist for stimuli presented to the same versus opposite hemifields. Using high-density electrical mapping and complementary psychophysical data, we examined multisensory integrative processing for combinations of visual and somatosensory inputs presented to both left and right spatial locations. We assessed how early during sensory processing visual-somatosensory (VS interactions were seen in the event-related potential and whether spatial alignment of the visual and somatosensory elements resulted in differential integration effects. Reaction times to all VS pairings were significantly faster than those to the unisensory conditions, regardless of spatial alignment, pointing to engagement of integrative multisensory processing in all conditions. In support, electrophysiological results revealed significant differences between multisensory simultaneous VS and summed V+S responses, regardless of the spatial alignment of the constituent inputs. Nonetheless, multisensory effects were earlier in the aligned conditions, and were found to be particularly robust in the case of right-sided inputs (beginning at just 55ms. In contrast to previous work on audio-visual and audio-somatosensory inputs, the current work suggests a degree of spatial specificity to the earliest detectable multisensory integrative effects in response to visual-somatosensory pairings.

  20. Comparative evaluation of audio and audio - tactile methods to improve oral hygiene status of visually impaired school children

    OpenAIRE

    R Krishnakumar; Swarna Swathi Silla; Sugumaran K Durai; Mohan Govindarajan; Syed Shaheed Ahamed; Logeshwari Mathivanan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Visually impaired children are unable to maintain good oral hygiene, as their tactile abilities are often underdeveloped owing to their visual disturbances. Conventional brushing techniques are often poorly comprehended by these children and hence, it was decided to evaluate the effectiveness of audio and audio-tactile methods in improving the oral hygiene of these children. Objective: To evaluate and compare the effectiveness of audio and audio-tactile methods in improving oral h...

  1. Electronic structure evolution and energy level alignment at C60/4,4'-cyclohexylidenebis[N,N-bis(4-methylphenyl) benzenamine]/MoOx/indium tin oxide interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoliang; Yi, Shijuan; Wang, Chenggong; Wang, Congcong; Gao, Yongli

    2014-04-01

    The electronic structure evolution and energy level alignment have been investigated at interfaces comprising fullerene (C60)/4,4'-cyclohexylidenebis[N,N-bis(4-methylphenyl) benzenamine] (TAPC)/ molybdenum oxide (MoOx)/ indium tin oxide with ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy and inverse photoemission spectroscopy. With deposition of TAPC upon MoOx, a dipole of 1.58 eV was formed at the TAPC/MoOx interface due to electron transfer from TAPC to MoOx. The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) onset of TAPC was pinned closed to the Fermi level, leading to a p-doped region and thus increasing the carrier concentration at the very interface. The downward band bending and the resulting built-in field in TAPC were favorable for the hole transfer toward the TAPC/MoOx interface. The rigid downward shift of energy levels of TAPC indicated no significant interface chemistry at the interface. With subsequent deposition of C60 on TAPC, a dipole of 0.27 eV was observed at the C60/TAPC heterojunction due to the electron transfer from TAPC to C60. This led to a drop of the HOMO of TAPC near the C60/TAPC interface, and hence further enhanced the band bending in TAPC. The band bending behavior was also observed in C60, similarly creating a built-in field in C60 film and improving the electron transfer away from the C60/TAPC interface. It can be deduced from the interface analysis that a promising maximum open circuit voltage of 1.5 eV is achievable in C60/TAPC-based organic photovoltaic cells.

  2. Differential pulse adsorptive stripping voltammetric determination of nanomolar levels of atorvastatin calcium in pharmaceutical and biological samples using a vertically aligned carbon nanotube/graphene oxide electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tiago Almeida; Zanin, Hudson; Vicentini, Fernando Campanhã; Corat, Evaldo José; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando

    2014-06-07

    A novel vertically aligned carbon nanotube/graphene oxide (VACNT-GO) electrode is proposed, and its ability to determine atorvastatin calcium (ATOR) in pharmaceutical and biological samples by differential pulse adsorptive stripping voltammetry (DPAdSV) is evaluated. VACNT films were prepared on a Ti substrate by a microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition method and then treated with oxygen plasma to produce the VACNT-GO electrode. The oxygen plasma treatment exfoliates the carbon nanotube tips exposing graphene foils and inserting oxygen functional groups, these effects improved the VACNT wettability (super-hydrophobic) which is crucial for its electrochemical application. The electrochemical behaviour of ATOR on the VACNT-GO electrode was studied by cyclic voltammetry, which showed that it underwent an irreversible oxidation process at a potential of +1.08 V in pHcond 2.0 (0.2 mol L(-1) buffer phosphate solution). By applying DPAdSV under optimized experimental conditions the analytical curve was found to be linear in the ATOR concentration range of 90 to 3.81 × 10(3) nmol L(-1) with a limit of detection of 9.4 nmol L(-1). The proposed DPAdSV method was successfully applied in the determination of ATOR in pharmaceutical and biological samples, and the results were in close agreement with those obtained by a comparative spectrophotometric method at a confidence level of 95%.

  3. Alignment of the dye's molecular levels with the TiO2 band edges in dye-sensitized solar cells: a DFT-TDDFT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Angelis, Filippo; Fantacci, Simona; Selloni, Annabella

    2008-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of the lineup of the LUMO of Ru(II)-polypyridyl (N3 and N719) molecular dyes with the conduction band edge of a TiO 2 anatase nanoparticle. We use density functional theory (DFT) and the Car-Parrinello scheme for efficient optimization of the dye-nanoparticle systems, followed by hybrid B3LYP functional calculations of the electronic structure and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) determination of the lowest vertical excitation energies. The electronic structure and TDDFT calculations are performed in water solution, using a continuum model. Various approximate procedures to compute the excited state oxidation potential of dye sensitizers are discussed. Our calculations show that the level alignment for the interacting nanoparticle-sensitizer system is very similar, within about 0.1 eV, to that for the separated TiO 2 and dye. The excellent agreement of our results with available experimental data indicates that the approach of this work could be used as an efficient predictive tool to help the optimization of dye-sensitized solar cells.

  4. Interfacial Energy-Level Alignment for High-Performance All-Inorganic Perovskite CsPbBr3 Quantum Dot-Based Inverted Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Alagesan; Pan, Zhenghui; Zhang, Zhenbo; Ahmad, Imtiaz; Chen, Jing; Liu, Meinan; Cheng, Shuang; Xu, Yijun; Wu, Jun; Lei, Wei; Khan, Qasim; Zhang, Yuegang

    2018-04-18

    All-inorganic perovskite light-emitting diode (PeLED) has a high stability in ambient atmosphere, but it is a big challenge to achieve high performance of the device. Basically, device design, control of energy-level alignment, and reducing the energy barrier between adjacent layers in the architecture of PeLED are important factors to achieve high efficiency. In this study, we report a CsPbBr 3 -based PeLED with an inverted architecture using lithium-doped TiO 2 nanoparticles as the electron transport layer (ETL). The optimal lithium doping balances the charge carrier injection between the hole transport layer and ETL, leading to superior device performance. The device exhibits a current efficiency of 3 cd A -1 , a luminance efficiency of 2210 cd m -2 , and a low turn-on voltage of 2.3 V. The turn-on voltage is one of the lowest values among reported CsPbBr 3 -based PeLEDs. A 7-fold increase in device efficiencies has been obtained for lithium-doped TiO 2 compared to that for undoped TiO 2 -based devices.

  5. Aligning for Innovation - Alignment Strategy to Drive Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Hurel; Teltschik, David; Bussey, Horace, Jr.; Moy, James

    2010-01-01

    With the sudden need for innovation that will help the country achieve its long-term space exploration objectives, the question of whether NASA is aligned effectively to drive the innovation that it so desperately needs to take space exploration to the next level should be entertained. Authors such as Robert Kaplan and David North have noted that companies that use a formal system for implementing strategy consistently outperform their peers. They have outlined a six-stage management systems model for implementing strategy, which includes the aligning of the organization towards its objectives. This involves the alignment of the organization from the top down. This presentation will explore the impacts of existing U.S. industrial policy on technological innovation; assess the current NASA organizational alignment and its impacts on driving technological innovation; and finally suggest an alternative approach that may drive the innovation needed to take the world to the next level of space exploration, with NASA truly leading the way.

  6. Audio feature extraction using probability distribution function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaib, A.; Wan, Khairunizam; Aziz, Azri A.; Hazry, D.; Razlan, Zuradzman M.; Shahriman A., B.

    2015-05-01

    Voice recognition has been one of the popular applications in robotic field. It is also known to be recently used for biometric and multimedia information retrieval system. This technology is attained from successive research on audio feature extraction analysis. Probability Distribution Function (PDF) is a statistical method which is usually used as one of the processes in complex feature extraction methods such as GMM and PCA. In this paper, a new method for audio feature extraction is proposed which is by using only PDF as a feature extraction method itself for speech analysis purpose. Certain pre-processing techniques are performed in prior to the proposed feature extraction method. Subsequently, the PDF result values for each frame of sampled voice signals obtained from certain numbers of individuals are plotted. From the experimental results obtained, it can be seen visually from the plotted data that each individuals' voice has comparable PDF values and shapes.

  7. New musical organology : the audio-games

    OpenAIRE

    Zénouda , Hervé

    2012-01-01

    International audience; This article aims to shed light on a new and emerging creative field: " Audio Games, " a crossroad between video games and computer music. Today, a plethora of tiny applications, which propose entertaining audiovisual experiences with a preponderant sound dimension, are available for game consoles, computers, and mobile phones. These experiences represent a new universe where the gameplay of video games is applied to musical composition, hence creating new links betwee...

  8. Audio Networking in the Music Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Glebs Kuzmics; Maaruf Ali

    2018-01-01

    This paper surveys the rôle of computer networking technologies in the music industry. A comparison of their relevant technologies, their defining advantages and disadvantages; analyses and discussion of the situation in the market of network enabled audio products followed by a discussion of different devices are presented. The idea of replacing a proprietary solution with open-source and freeware software programs has been chosen as the fundamental concept of this research. The technologies...

  9. Digitisation of the CERN Audio Archives

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Since the creation of CERN in 1954 until mid 1980s, the audiovisual service has recorded hundreds of hours of moments of life at CERN on audio tapes. These moments range from inaugurations of new facilities to VIP speeches and general interest cultural seminars The preservation process started in June 2005 On these pictures, we see Waltraud Hug working on an open-reel tape.

  10. Securing Digital Audio using Complex Quadratic Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryadi, MT; Satria Gunawan, Tjandra; Satria, Yudi

    2018-03-01

    In This digital era, exchanging data are common and easy to do, therefore it is vulnerable to be attacked and manipulated from unauthorized parties. One data type that is vulnerable to attack is digital audio. So, we need data securing method that is not vulnerable and fast. One of the methods that match all of those criteria is securing the data using chaos function. Chaos function that is used in this research is complex quadratic map (CQM). There are some parameter value that causing the key stream that is generated by CQM function to pass all 15 NIST test, this means that the key stream that is generated using this CQM is proven to be random. In addition, samples of encrypted digital sound when tested using goodness of fit test are proven to be uniform, so securing digital audio using this method is not vulnerable to frequency analysis attack. The key space is very huge about 8.1×l031 possible keys and the key sensitivity is very small about 10-10, therefore this method is also not vulnerable against brute-force attack. And finally, the processing speed for both encryption and decryption process on average about 450 times faster that its digital audio duration.

  11. Detection Of Alterations In Audio Files Using Spectrograph Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anandha Krishnan G

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The corresponding study was carried out to detect changes in audio file using spectrograph. An audio file format is a file format for storing digital audio data on a computer system. A sound spectrograph is a laboratory instrument that displays a graphical representation of the strengths of the various component frequencies of a sound as time passes. The objectives of the study were to find the changes in spectrograph of audio after altering them to compare altering changes with spectrograph of original files and to check for similarity and difference in mp3 and wav. Five different alterations were carried out on each audio file to analyze the differences between the original and the altered file. For altering the audio file MP3 or WAV by cutcopy the file was opened in Audacity. A different audio was then pasted to the audio file. This new file was analyzed to view the differences. By adjusting the necessary parameters the noise was reduced. The differences between the new file and the original file were analyzed. By adjusting the parameters from the dialog box the necessary changes were made. The edited audio file was opened in the software named spek where after analyzing a graph is obtained of that particular file which is saved for further analysis. The original audio graph received was combined with the edited audio file graph to see the alterations.

  12. AudioMUD: a multiuser virtual environment for blind people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Jaime; Hassler, Tiago

    2007-03-01

    A number of virtual environments have been developed during the last years. Among them there are some applications for blind people based on different type of audio, from simple sounds to 3-D audio. In this study, we pursued a different approach. We designed AudioMUD by using spoken text to describe the environment, navigation, and interaction. We have also introduced some collaborative features into the interaction between blind users. The core of a multiuser MUD game is a networked textual virtual environment. We developed AudioMUD by adding some collaborative features to the basic idea of a MUD and placed a simulated virtual environment inside the human body. This paper presents the design and usability evaluation of AudioMUD. Blind learners were motivated when interacted with AudioMUD and helped to improve the interaction through audio and interface design elements.

  13. RevTrans: multiple alignment of coding DNA from aligned amino acid sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wernersson, Rasmus; Pedersen, Anders Gorm

    2003-01-01

    The simple fact that proteins are built from 20 amino acids while DNA only contains four different bases, means that the 'signal-to-noise ratio' in protein sequence alignments is much better than in alignments of DNA. Besides this information-theoretical advantage, protein alignments also benefit...... proteins. It is therefore preferable to align coding DNA at the amino acid level and it is for this purpose we have constructed the program RevTrans. RevTrans constructs a multiple DNA alignment by: (i) translating the DNA; (ii) aligning the resulting peptide sequences; and (iii) building a multiple DNA...

  14. Car audio using DSP for active sound control. DSP ni yoru active seigyo wo mochiita audio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, K.; Asano, S.; Furukawa, N. (Mitsubishi Motor Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-06-01

    In the automobile cabin, there are some unique problems which spoil the quality of sound reproduction from audio equipment, such as the narrow space and/or the background noise. The audio signal processing by using DSP (digital signal processor) makes enable a solution to these problems. A car audio with a high amenity has been successfully made by the active sound control using DSP. The DSP consists of an adder, coefficient multiplier, delay unit, and connections. For the actual processing by DSP, are used functions, such as sound field correction, response and processing of noises during driving, surround reproduction, graphic equalizer processing, etc. High effectiveness of the method was confirmed through the actual driving evaluation test. The present paper describes the actual method of sound control technology using DSP. Especially, the dynamic processing of the noise during driving is discussed in detail. 1 ref., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Elicitation of attributes for the evaluation of audio-on audio-interference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francombe, Jon; Mason, R.; Dewhirst, M.

    2014-01-01

    procedure was used to reduce these phrases into a comprehensive set of attributes. Groups of experienced and inexperienced listeners determined nine and eight attributes, respectively. These attribute sets were combined by the listeners to produce a final set of 12 attributes: masking, calming, distraction......An experiment to determine the perceptual attributes of the experience of listening to a target audio program in the presence of an audio interferer was performed. The first stage was a free elicitation task in which a total of 572 phrases were produced. In the second stage, a consensus vocabulary...

  16. AudioPairBank: Towards A Large-Scale Tag-Pair-Based Audio Content Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sager, Sebastian; Elizalde, Benjamin; Borth, Damian; Schulze, Christian; Raj, Bhiksha; Lane, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Recently, sound recognition has been used to identify sounds, such as car and river. However, sounds have nuances that may be better described by adjective-noun pairs such as slow car, and verb-noun pairs such as flying insects, which are under explored. Therefore, in this work we investigate the relation between audio content and both adjective-noun pairs and verb-noun pairs. Due to the lack of datasets with these kinds of annotations, we collected and processed the AudioPairBank corpus cons...

  17. [Intermodal timing cues for audio-visual speech recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Masahiro; Kumashiro, Masaharu

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the limitations of lip-reading advantages for Japanese young adults by desynchronizing visual and auditory information in speech. In the experiment, audio-visual speech stimuli were presented under the six test conditions: audio-alone, and audio-visually with either 0, 60, 120, 240 or 480 ms of audio delay. The stimuli were the video recordings of a face of a female Japanese speaking long and short Japanese sentences. The intelligibility of the audio-visual stimuli was measured as a function of audio delays in sixteen untrained young subjects. Speech intelligibility under the audio-delay condition of less than 120 ms was significantly better than that under the audio-alone condition. On the other hand, the delay of 120 ms corresponded to the mean mora duration measured for the audio stimuli. The results implied that audio delays of up to 120 ms would not disrupt lip-reading advantage, because visual and auditory information in speech seemed to be integrated on a syllabic time scale. Potential applications of this research include noisy workplace in which a worker must extract relevant speech from all the other competing noises.

  18. Audio-tactile integration and the influence of musical training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Kuchenbuch

    Full Text Available Perception of our environment is a multisensory experience; information from different sensory systems like the auditory, visual and tactile is constantly integrated. Complex tasks that require high temporal and spatial precision of multisensory integration put strong demands on the underlying networks but it is largely unknown how task experience shapes multisensory processing. Long-term musical training is an excellent model for brain plasticity because it shapes the human brain at functional and structural levels, affecting a network of brain areas. In the present study we used magnetoencephalography (MEG to investigate how audio-tactile perception is integrated in the human brain and if musicians show enhancement of the corresponding activation compared to non-musicians. Using a paradigm that allowed the investigation of combined and separate auditory and tactile processing, we found a multisensory incongruency response, generated in frontal, cingulate and cerebellar regions, an auditory mismatch response generated mainly in the auditory cortex and a tactile mismatch response generated in frontal and cerebellar regions. The influence of musical training was seen in the audio-tactile as well as in the auditory condition, indicating enhanced higher-order processing in musicians, while the sources of the tactile MMN were not influenced by long-term musical training. Consistent with the predictive coding model, more basic, bottom-up sensory processing was relatively stable and less affected by expertise, whereas areas for top-down models of multisensory expectancies were modulated by training.

  19. A compact electroencephalogram recording device with integrated audio stimulation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paukkunen, Antti K. O.; Kurttio, Anttu A.; Leminen, Miika M.; Sepponen, Raimo E.

    2010-06-01

    A compact (96×128×32 mm3, 374 g), battery-powered, eight-channel electroencephalogram recording device with an integrated audio stimulation system and a wireless interface is presented. The recording device is capable of producing high-quality data, while the operating time is also reasonable for evoked potential studies. The effective measurement resolution is about 4 nV at 200 Hz sample rate, typical noise level is below 0.7 μVrms at 0.16-70 Hz, and the estimated operating time is 1.5 h. An embedded audio decoder circuit reads and plays wave sound files stored on a memory card. The activities are controlled by an 8 bit main control unit which allows accurate timing of the stimuli. The interstimulus interval jitter measured is less than 1 ms. Wireless communication is made through bluetooth and the data recorded are transmitted to an external personal computer (PC) interface in real time. The PC interface is implemented with LABVIEW® and in addition to data acquisition it also allows online signal processing, data storage, and control of measurement activities such as contact impedance measurement, for example. The practical application of the device is demonstrated in mismatch negativity experiment with three test subjects.

  20. Audio-tactile integration and the influence of musical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchenbuch, Anja; Paraskevopoulos, Evangelos; Herholz, Sibylle C; Pantev, Christo

    2014-01-01

    Perception of our environment is a multisensory experience; information from different sensory systems like the auditory, visual and tactile is constantly integrated. Complex tasks that require high temporal and spatial precision of multisensory integration put strong demands on the underlying networks but it is largely unknown how task experience shapes multisensory processing. Long-term musical training is an excellent model for brain plasticity because it shapes the human brain at functional and structural levels, affecting a network of brain areas. In the present study we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate how audio-tactile perception is integrated in the human brain and if musicians show enhancement of the corresponding activation compared to non-musicians. Using a paradigm that allowed the investigation of combined and separate auditory and tactile processing, we found a multisensory incongruency response, generated in frontal, cingulate and cerebellar regions, an auditory mismatch response generated mainly in the auditory cortex and a tactile mismatch response generated in frontal and cerebellar regions. The influence of musical training was seen in the audio-tactile as well as in the auditory condition, indicating enhanced higher-order processing in musicians, while the sources of the tactile MMN were not influenced by long-term musical training. Consistent with the predictive coding model, more basic, bottom-up sensory processing was relatively stable and less affected by expertise, whereas areas for top-down models of multisensory expectancies were modulated by training.

  1. Predicting the Overall Spatial Quality of Automotive Audio Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koya, Daisuke

    The spatial quality of automotive audio systems is often compromised due to their unideal listening environments. Automotive audio systems need to be developed quickly due to industry demands. A suitable perceptual model could evaluate the spatial quality of automotive audio systems with similar reliability to formal listening tests but take less time. Such a model is developed in this research project by adapting an existing model of spatial quality for automotive audio use. The requirements for the adaptation were investigated in a literature review. A perceptual model called QESTRAL was reviewed, which predicts the overall spatial quality of domestic multichannel audio systems. It was determined that automotive audio systems are likely to be impaired in terms of the spatial attributes that were not considered in developing the QESTRAL model, but metrics are available that might predict these attributes. To establish whether the QESTRAL model in its current form can accurately predict the overall spatial quality of automotive audio systems, MUSHRA listening tests using headphone auralisation with head tracking were conducted to collect results to be compared against predictions by the model. Based on guideline criteria, the model in its current form could not accurately predict the overall spatial quality of automotive audio systems. To improve prediction performance, the QESTRAL model was recalibrated and modified using existing metrics of the model, those that were proposed from the literature review, and newly developed metrics. The most important metrics for predicting the overall spatial quality of automotive audio systems included those that were interaural cross-correlation (IACC) based, relate to localisation of the frontal audio scene, and account for the perceived scene width in front of the listener. Modifying the model for automotive audio systems did not invalidate its use for domestic audio systems. The resulting model predicts the overall spatial

  2. Origin and higher-level diversification of acariform mites - evidence from nuclear ribosomal genes, extensive taxon sampling, and secondary structure alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepato, A R; Klimov, P B

    2015-09-02

    traditionally regarded as the sister-group to Bdelloidea (Eupodina), but our analyses show their close relationships to Parasitengona. Non-trivial relationships recovered by our analyses with high support (i.e., basal arrangement of endeostigmatid lineages, the position of marine mites, polyphyly of Eupodina) had been proposed by previous underappreciated morphological studies. Thus, we update currently the accepted taxonomic classification to reflect these results: the superfamily Halacaroidea Murray, 1877 is moved from the infraorder Eupodina Krantz, 1978 to Anystina van der Hammen, 1972; and the subfamily Erythracarinae Oudemans, 1936 (formerly in Anystidae Oudemans, 1902) is elevated to family rank, Erythracaridae stat. ressur., leaving Anystidae only with the nominal subfamily. Our study also shows that a clade comprising early derivative Endeostigmata (Alycidae, Nanorchestidae, Nematalycidae, and maybe Alicorhagiidae) should be treated as a taxon with the same rank as Sarcoptiformes and Trombidiformes, and the scope of the superfamily Bdelloidea should be changed. Before turning those findings into nomenclatural changes, however, we consider that our study calls for (i) finding shared apomorphies of the early derivative Endeostigmata clade and the clade including the remaining Acariformes; (ii) a well-supported hypothesis for Alicorhagiidae placement; (iii) sampling the families Proterorhagiidae, Proteonematalycidae and Grandjeanicidae not yet included in molecular analyses; (iv) undertake a denser sampling of clades traditionally placed in Eupodina, Anystina (Trombidiformes) and Palaeosomata (Sarcoptiformes), since consensus networks and Internode certainty (IC) and IC All (ICA) indices indicate high levels of conflict in these tree regions. Our study shows that regions of ambiguous alignment may provide useful phylogenetic signal when secondary structure information is used to guide the alignment procedure and provides an R implementation to the Bayesian Relative Rates

  3. Aligning the unalignable: bacteriophage whole genome alignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérard, Sèverine; Chateau, Annie; Pompidor, Nicolas; Guertin, Paul; Bergeron, Anne; Swenson, Krister M

    2016-01-13

    In recent years, many studies focused on the description and comparison of large sets of related bacteriophage genomes. Due to the peculiar mosaic structure of these genomes, few informative approaches for comparing whole genomes exist: dot plots diagrams give a mostly qualitative assessment of the similarity/dissimilarity between two or more genomes, and clustering techniques are used to classify genomes. Multiple alignments are conspicuously absent from this scene. Indeed, whole genome aligners interpret lack of similarity between sequences as an indication of rearrangements, insertions, or losses. This behavior makes them ill-prepared to align bacteriophage genomes, where even closely related strains can accomplish the same biological function with highly dissimilar sequences. In this paper, we propose a multiple alignment strategy that exploits functional collinearity shared by related strains of bacteriophages, and uses partial orders to capture mosaicism of sets of genomes. As classical alignments do, the computed alignments can be used to predict that genes have the same biological function, even in the absence of detectable similarity. The Alpha aligner implements these ideas in visual interactive displays, and is used to compute several examples of alignments of Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium bacteriophages, involving up to 29 genomes. Using these datasets, we prove that Alpha alignments are at least as good as those computed by standard aligners. Comparison with the progressive Mauve aligner - which implements a partial order strategy, but whose alignments are linearized - shows a greatly improved interactive graphic display, while avoiding misalignments. Multiple alignments of whole bacteriophage genomes work, and will become an important conceptual and visual tool in comparative genomics of sets of related strains. A python implementation of Alpha, along with installation instructions for Ubuntu and OSX, is available on bitbucket (https://bitbucket.org/thekswenson/alpha).

  4. Recombination Suppression in PbS Quantum Dot Heterojunction Solar Cells by Energy-Level Alignment in the Quantum Dot Active Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chao; Zhang, Yaohong; Liu, Feng; Nakazawa, Naoki; Huang, Qingxun; Hayase, Shuzi; Ogomi, Yuhei; Toyoda, Taro; Wang, Ruixiang; Shen, Qing

    2017-09-22

    Using spatial energy-level gradient engineering with quantum dots (QDs) of different sizes to increase the generated carrier collection at the junction of a QD heterojunction solar cell (QDHSC) is a hopeful route for improving the energy-conversion efficiency. However, the results of current related research have shown that a variable band-gap structure in a QDHSC will create an appreciable increase, not in the illumination current density, but rather in the fill factor. In addition, there are a lack of studies on the mechanism of the effect of these graded structures on the photovoltaic performance of QDHSCs. This study presents the development of air atmosphere solution-processed TiO 2 /PbS QDs/Au QDHSCs by engineering the energy-level alignment (ELA) of the active layer via the use of a sorted order of differently sized QD layers (four QD sizes). In comparison to the ungraded device (without the ELA), the optimized graded architecture (containing the ELA) solar cells exhibited a great increase (21.4%) in short-circuit current density (J sc ). As a result, a J sc value greater than 30 mA/cm 2 has been realized in planar, thinner absorption layer (∼300 nm) PbS QDHSCs, and the open-circuit voltage (V oc ) and power-conversion efficiency (PCE) were also improved. Through characterization by the light intensity dependences of the J sc and V oc and transient photovoltage decay, we find that (i) the ELA structure, serving as an electron-blocking layer, reduces the interfacial recombination at the PbS/anode interface, and (ii) the ELA structure can drive more carriers toward the desirable collection electrode, and the additional carriers can fill the trap states, reducing the trap-assisted recombination in the PbS QDHSCs. This work has clearly elucidated the mechanism of the recombination suppression in the graded QDHSCs and demonstrated the effects of ELA structure on the improvement of J sc . The charge recombination mechanisms characterized in this work would be

  5. Audio frequency in vivo optical coherence elastography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adie, Steven G.; Kennedy, Brendan F.; Armstrong, Julian J.; Alexandrov, Sergey A.; Sampson, David D.

    2009-05-01

    We present a new approach to optical coherence elastography (OCE), which probes the local elastic properties of tissue by using optical coherence tomography to measure the effect of an applied stimulus in the audio frequency range. We describe the approach, based on analysis of the Bessel frequency spectrum of the interferometric signal detected from scatterers undergoing periodic motion in response to an applied stimulus. We present quantitative results of sub-micron excitation at 820 Hz in a layered phantom and the first such measurements in human skin in vivo.

  6. Audio frequency in vivo optical coherence elastography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adie, Steven G; Kennedy, Brendan F; Armstrong, Julian J; Alexandrov, Sergey A; Sampson, David D

    2009-01-01

    We present a new approach to optical coherence elastography (OCE), which probes the local elastic properties of tissue by using optical coherence tomography to measure the effect of an applied stimulus in the audio frequency range. We describe the approach, based on analysis of the Bessel frequency spectrum of the interferometric signal detected from scatterers undergoing periodic motion in response to an applied stimulus. We present quantitative results of sub-micron excitation at 820 Hz in a layered phantom and the first such measurements in human skin in vivo.

  7. Predistortion of a Bidirectional Cuk Audio Amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Thomas Hagen; Nielsen, Dennis; Knott, Arnold

    2014-01-01

    Some non-linear amplifier topologies are capable of providing a larger voltage gain than one from a DC source, which could make them suitable for various applications. However, the non-linearities introduce a significant amount of harmonic distortion (THD). Some of this distortion could be reduced...... using predistortion. This paper suggests linearizing a nonlinear bidirectional Cuk audio amplifier using an analog predistortion approach. A prototype power stage was built and results show that a voltage gain of up to 9 dB and reduction in THD from 6% down to 3% was obtainable using this approach....

  8. Mixing audio concepts, practices and tools

    CERN Document Server

    Izhaki, Roey

    2013-01-01

    Your mix can make or break a record, and mixing is an essential catalyst for a record deal. Professional engineers with exceptional mixing skills can earn vast amounts of money and find that they are in demand by the biggest acts. To develop such skills, you need to master both the art and science of mixing. The new edition of this bestselling book offers all you need to know and put into practice in order to improve your mixes. Covering the entire process --from fundamental concepts to advanced techniques -- and offering a multitude of audio samples, tips and tricks, this boo

  9. Calibration of an audio frequency noise generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond, Joseph M.

    1966-01-01

    a noise bandwidth Bn = π/2 × (3dB bandwidth). To apply this method to low audio frequencies, the noise bandwidth of the low Q parallel resonant circuit has been found, including the effects of both series and parallel damping. The method has been used to calibrate a General Radio 1390-B noise generator...... it is used for measurement purposes. The spectral density of a noise source may be found by measuring its rms output over a known noise bandwidth. Such a bandwidth may be provided by a passive filter using accurately known elements. For example, the parallel resonant circuit with purely parallel damping has...

  10. Non Audio-Video gesture recognition system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craciunescu, Razvan; Mihovska, Albena Dimitrova; Kyriazakos, Sofoklis

    2016-01-01

    Gesture recognition is a topic in computer science and language technology with the goal of interpreting human gestures via mathematical algorithms. Gestures can originate from any bodily motion or state but commonly originate from the face or hand. Current research focus includes on the emotion...... recognition from the face and hand gesture recognition. Gesture recognition enables humans to communicate with the machine and interact naturally without any mechanical devices. This paper investigates the possibility to use non-audio/video sensors in order to design a low-cost gesture recognition device...

  11. Use of Effective Audio in E-learning Courseware

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, Kisor

    2015-01-01

    E-Learning uses electronic media, information & communication technologies to provide education to the masses. E-learning deliver hypertext, text, audio, images, animation and videos using desktop standalone computer, local area network based intranet and internet based contents. While producing an e-learning content or course-ware, a major decision making factor is whether to use audio for the benefit of the end users. Generally, three types of audio can be used in e-learning: narration, mus...

  12. Investigating the impact of audio instruction and audio-visual biofeedback for lung cancer radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Rohini

    Lung cancer accounts for 13% of all cancers in the Unites States and is the leading cause of deaths among both men and women. The five-year survival for lung cancer patients is approximately 15%.(ACS facts & figures) Respiratory motion decreases accuracy of thoracic radiotherapy during imaging and delivery. To account for respiration, generally margins are added during radiation treatment planning, which may cause a substantial dose delivery to normal tissues and increase the normal tissue toxicity. To alleviate the above-mentioned effects of respiratory motion, several motion management techniques are available which can reduce the doses to normal tissues, thereby reducing treatment toxicity and allowing dose escalation to the tumor. This may increase the survival probability of patients who have lung cancer and are receiving radiation therapy. However the accuracy of these motion management techniques are inhibited by respiration irregularity. The rationale of this thesis was to study the improvement in regularity of respiratory motion by breathing coaching for lung cancer patients using audio instructions and audio-visual biofeedback. A total of 331 patient respiratory motion traces, each four minutes in length, were collected from 24 lung cancer patients enrolled in an IRB-approved breathing-training protocol. It was determined that audio-visual biofeedback significantly improved the regularity of respiratory motion compared to free breathing and audio instruction, thus improving the accuracy of respiratory gated radiotherapy. It was also observed that duty cycles below 30% showed insignificant reduction in residual motion while above 50% there was a sharp increase in residual motion. The reproducibility of exhale based gating was higher than that of inhale base gating. Modeling the respiratory cycles it was found that cosine and cosine 4 models had the best correlation with individual respiratory cycles. The overall respiratory motion probability distribution

  13. Weaving together peer assessment, audios and medical vignettes in teaching medical terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Lateef M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The current study aims at exploring the possibility of aligning peer assessment, audiovisuals, and medical case-report extracts (vignettes) in medical terminology teaching. In addition, the study wishes to highlight the effectiveness of audio materials and medical history vignettes in preventing medical students' comprehension, listening, writing, and pronunciation errors. The study also aims at reflecting the medical students' attitudes towards the teaching and learning process. Methods The study involved 161 medical students who received an intensive medical terminology course through audio and medical history extracts. Peer assessment and formative assessment platforms were applied through fake quizzes in a pre- and post-test manner. An 18-item survey was distributed amongst students to investigate their attitudes and feedback towards the teaching and learning process. Quantitative and qualitative data were analysed using the SPSS software. Results The students did better in the posttests than on the pretests for both the quizzes of audios and medical vignettes showing a t-test of -12.09 and -13.60 respectively. Moreover, out of the 133 students, 120 students (90.22%) responded to the survey questions. The students gave positive attitudes towards the application of audios and vignettes in the teaching and learning of medical terminology and towards the learning process. Conclusions The current study revealed that the teaching and learning of medical terminology have more room for the application of advanced technologies, effective assessment platforms, and active learning strategies in higher education. It also highlights that students are capable of carrying more responsibilities of assessment, feedback, and e-learning. PMID:26637986

  14. Cortical Integration of Audio-Visual Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Wyk, Brent C.; Ramsay, Gordon J.; Hudac, Caitlin M.; Jones, Warren; Lin, David; Klin, Ami; Lee, Su Mei; Pelphrey, Kevin A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the neural basis of audio-visual processing in speech and non-speech stimuli. Physically identical auditory stimuli (speech and sinusoidal tones) and visual stimuli (animated circles and ellipses) were used in this fMRI experiment. Relative to unimodal stimuli, each of the multimodal conjunctions showed increased activation in largely non-overlapping areas. The conjunction of Ellipse and Speech, which most resembles naturalistic audiovisual speech, showed higher activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus, fusiform gyri, left posterior superior temporal sulcus, and lateral occipital cortex. The conjunction of Circle and Tone, an arbitrary audio-visual pairing with no speech association, activated middle temporal gyri and lateral occipital cortex. The conjunction of Circle and Speech showed activation in lateral occipital cortex, and the conjunction of Ellipse and Tone did not show increased activation relative to unimodal stimuli. Further analysis revealed that middle temporal regions, although identified as multimodal only in the Circle-Tone condition, were more strongly active to Ellipse-Speech or Circle-Speech, but regions that were identified as multimodal for Ellipse-Speech were always strongest for Ellipse-Speech. Our results suggest that combinations of auditory and visual stimuli may together be processed by different cortical networks, depending on the extent to which speech or non-speech percepts are evoked. PMID:20709442

  15. Semantic Labeling of Nonspeech Audio Clips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojuan Ma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human communication about entities and events is primarily linguistic in nature. While visual representations of information are shown to be highly effective as well, relatively little is known about the communicative power of auditory nonlinguistic representations. We created a collection of short nonlinguistic auditory clips encoding familiar human activities, objects, animals, natural phenomena, machinery, and social scenes. We presented these sounds to a broad spectrum of anonymous human workers using Amazon Mechanical Turk and collected verbal sound labels. We analyzed the human labels in terms of their lexical and semantic properties to ascertain that the audio clips do evoke the information suggested by their pre-defined captions. We then measured the agreement with the semantically compatible labels for each sound clip. Finally, we examined which kinds of entities and events, when captured by nonlinguistic acoustic clips, appear to be well-suited to elicit information for communication, and which ones are less discriminable. Our work is set against the broader goal of creating resources that facilitate communication for people with some types of language loss. Furthermore, our data should prove useful for future research in machine analysis/synthesis of audio, such as computational auditory scene analysis, and annotating/querying large collections of sound effects.

  16. Newnes audio and Hi-Fi engineer's pocket book

    CERN Document Server

    Capel, Vivian

    2013-01-01

    Newnes Audio and Hi-Fi Engineer's Pocket Book, Second Edition provides concise discussion of several audio topics. The book is comprised of 10 chapters that cover different audio equipment. The coverage of the text includes microphones, gramophones, compact discs, and tape recorders. The book also covers high-quality radio, amplifiers, and loudspeakers. The book then reviews the concepts of sound and acoustics, and presents some facts and formulas relevant to audio. The text will be useful to sound engineers and other professionals whose work involves sound systems.

  17. Audio scene segmentation for video with generic content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Feng; Goela, Naveen; Divakaran, Ajay; Abdel-Mottaleb, Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a content-adaptive audio texture based method to segment video into audio scenes. The audio scene is modeled as a semantically consistent chunk of audio data. Our algorithm is based on "semantic audio texture analysis." At first, we train GMM models for basic audio classes such as speech, music, etc. Then we define the semantic audio texture based on those classes. We study and present two types of scene changes, those corresponding to an overall audio texture change and those corresponding to a special "transition marker" used by the content creator, such as a short stretch of music in a sitcom or silence in dramatic content. Unlike prior work using genre specific heuristics, such as some methods presented for detecting commercials, we adaptively find out if such special transition markers are being used and if so, which of the base classes are being used as markers without any prior knowledge about the content. Our experimental results show that our proposed audio scene segmentation works well across a wide variety of broadcast content genres.

  18. Role of energy level alignment in solar cells sensitized with a metal-free organic dye: A combined experimental and theoretical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oprea, Corneliu I.; Lungu, Jeanina; Georgescu, Adrian; Moscalu, Florin; Oprea, Camelia; Girtu, Mihai A. [Department of Physics, Ovidius University of Constanta (Romania); Dumbrava, Anca [Department of Chemistry, Ovidius University of Constanta (Romania); Enache, Irina [Department of Chemistry, Ovidius University of Constanta (Romania); Department of Mathematics and Sciences, Constanta Maritime University (Romania)

    2011-10-15

    We report results of combined experimental and theoretical studies of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) using 5-(4-sulfophenylazo)salicylic acid disodium salt, known as Mordant Yellow 10 (MY-10), as TiO{sub 2} sensitizer. We focus on a single dye but vary the solvent and the pH of the solution as well as the photoelectrode preparation conditions to determine the conditions for best photovoltaic conversion efficiency. We found experimentally that the efficiency, measured under standard air mass 1.5 global (AM 1.5G) conditions, was higher in solutions of ethanol than of water, but still small (up to 0.174%), although the fill factor (FF) was large (up to 0.73). Of the dyes in ethanol, MY-10 in alkaline solution showed the best matching of the solar spectrum but displayed the lowest efficiency. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations provided the optimized geometry, electronic structure, and electronic spectrum of the dye in fully protonated as well as partially and totally deprotonated forms, in solution. The calculated optical spectra are consistent with the experimental data, with strong absorption in the visible range only for the alkaline dye solution. The low device efficiency is very likely related to the weak optical absorption in the visible range. The much higher photovoltaic conversion efficiency of the DSSCs fabricated using acid or roughly neutral pH solutions, corresponding to the protonated and partially deprotonated forms of MY-10, respectively, is likely caused by the better alignment of the ground state of the dye with the redox level of the electrolyte. The decrease with pH of the dye solution of the short-circuit current was linked to a weaker charge injection from the excited state of the dye to the conduction band of the oxide, which is correlated with the shifting of the excited state of the dye deeper into the CB edge of the semiconductor. The variation of the open-circuit voltage with the pH of the solution was linked to the adjustment

  19. The art of editing RNA structural alignments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ebbe Sloth

    2014-01-01

    Manual editing of RNA structural alignments may be considered more art than science, since it still requires an expert biologist to take multiple levels of information into account and be slightly creative when constructing high-quality alignments. Even though the task is rather tedious, it is re......Manual editing of RNA structural alignments may be considered more art than science, since it still requires an expert biologist to take multiple levels of information into account and be slightly creative when constructing high-quality alignments. Even though the task is rather tedious...

  20. Effects of Temporal Congruity Between Auditory and Visual Stimuli Using Rapid Audio-Visual Serial Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Xingwei; Tang, Jiabei; Liu, Shuang; He, Feng; Qi, Hongzhi; Wan, Baikun; Ming, Dong

    2016-10-01

    Combining visual and auditory stimuli in event-related potential (ERP)-based spellers gained more attention in recent years. Few of these studies notice the difference of ERP components and system efficiency caused by the shifting of visual and auditory onset. Here, we aim to study the effect of temporal congruity of auditory and visual stimuli onset on bimodal brain-computer interface (BCI) speller. We designed five visual and auditory combined paradigms with different visual-to-auditory delays (-33 to +100 ms). Eleven participants attended in this study. ERPs were acquired and aligned according to visual and auditory stimuli onset, respectively. ERPs of Fz, Cz, and PO7 channels were studied through the statistical analysis of different conditions both from visual-aligned ERPs and audio-aligned ERPs. Based on the visual-aligned ERPs, classification accuracy was also analyzed to seek the effects of visual-to-auditory delays. The latencies of ERP components depended mainly on the visual stimuli onset. Auditory stimuli onsets influenced mainly on early component accuracies, whereas visual stimuli onset determined later component accuracies. The latter, however, played a dominate role in overall classification. This study is important for further studies to achieve better explanations and ultimately determine the way to optimize the bimodal BCI application.

  1. Deep learning, audio adversaries, and music content analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kereliuk, Corey Mose; Sturm, Bob L.; Larsen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    We present the concept of adversarial audio in the context of deep neural networks (DNNs) for music content analysis. An adversary is an algorithm that makes minor perturbations to an input that cause major repercussions to the system response. In particular, we design an adversary for a DNN...... that takes as input short-time spectral magnitudes of recorded music and outputs a high-level music descriptor. We demonstrate how this adversary can make the DNN behave in any way with only extremely minor changes to the music recording signal. We show that the adversary cannot be neutralised by a simple...... filtering of the input. Finally, we discuss adversaries in the broader context of the evaluation of music content analysis systems....

  2. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G.Gomez.

    Since June of 2009, the muon alignment group has focused on providing new alignment constants and on finalizing the hardware alignment reconstruction. Alignment constants for DTs and CSCs were provided for CRAFT09 data reprocessing. For DT chambers, the track-based alignment was repeated using CRAFT09 cosmic ray muons and validated using segment extrapolation and split cosmic tools. One difference with respect to the previous alignment is that only five degrees of freedom were aligned, leaving the rotation around the local x-axis to be better determined by the hardware system. Similarly, DT chambers poorly aligned by tracks (due to limited statistics) were aligned by a combination of photogrammetry and hardware-based alignment. For the CSC chambers, the hardware system provided alignment in global z and rotations about local x. Entire muon endcap rings were further corrected in the transverse plane (global x and y) by the track-based alignment. Single chamber track-based alignment suffers from poor statistic...

  3. Visualising the environmental appearance of audio products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stilma, M. [Univ. of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands); Stevels, A. [Delft Univ. of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)]|[Philips Consumer Electronics, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Christiaans, H.; Kandachar, P. [Delft Univ. of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    2004-07-01

    Can environmental friendliness be communicated by the design style and appearance of products? (such as form, colour, style or material)? Consumers are interested in buying environmental products and design styles might be used as communicative tools. However, current 'green' products show something else. Environmental aspects are chiefly promoted by marketing programs based on technical items like the use of materials, hazardous substances, energy consumption, etc. By a qualitative and exploratory research the environmental design styles according to consumers' opinions were analysed with larger audio products as case study. Visible distinctive differences can be identified between the most and the least environmental rated products. A 'Green flagship', which claims to be environmentally orientated, wasn't recognised as such by consumers. And women and men perceive environmental friendliness in another way. From this research can be concluded that more attention is needed to visualise the good technical environmental performance of products. (orig.)

  4. Time-Scale Invariant Audio Data Embedding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Mohamed F

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel algorithm for high-quality data embedding in audio. The algorithm is based on changing the relative length of the middle segment between two successive maximum and minimum peaks to embed data. Spline interpolation is used to change the lengths. To ensure smooth monotonic behavior between peaks, a hybrid orthogonal and nonorthogonal wavelet decomposition is used prior to data embedding. The possible data embedding rates are between 20 and 30 bps. However, for practical purposes, we use repetition codes, and the effective embedding data rate is around 5 bps. The algorithm is invariant after time-scale modification, time shift, and time cropping. It gives high-quality output and is robust to mp3 compression.

  5. Audio visual information materials for risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunji, Ikuko; Tabata, Rimiko; Ohuchi, Naomi

    2005-07-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC), Tokai Works set up the Risk Communication Study Team in January, 2001 to promote mutual understanding between the local residents and JNC. The Team has studied risk communication from various viewpoints and developed new methods of public relations which are useful for the local residents' risk perception toward nuclear issues. We aim to develop more effective risk communication which promotes a better mutual understanding of the local residents, by providing the risk information of the nuclear fuel facilities such a Reprocessing Plant and other research and development facilities. We explain the development process of audio visual information materials which describe our actual activities and devices for the risk management in nuclear fuel facilities, and our discussion through the effectiveness measurement. (author)

  6. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Gomez and J. Pivarski

    2011-01-01

    Alignment efforts in the first few months of 2011 have shifted away from providing alignment constants (now a well established procedure) and focussed on some critical remaining issues. The single most important task left was to understand the systematic differences observed between the track-based (TB) and hardware-based (HW) barrel alignments: a systematic difference in r-φ and in z, which grew as a function of z, and which amounted to ~4-5 mm differences going from one end of the barrel to the other. This difference is now understood to be caused by the tracker alignment. The systematic differences disappear when the track-based barrel alignment is performed using the new “twist-free” tracker alignment. This removes the largest remaining source of systematic uncertainty. Since the barrel alignment is based on hardware, it does not suffer from the tracker twist. However, untwisting the tracker causes endcap disks (which are aligned ...

  7. Tune in the Net with RealAudio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Larry

    1997-01-01

    Describes how to connect to the RealAudio Web site to download a player that provides sound from Web pages to the computer through streaming technology. Explains hardware and software requirements and provides addresses for other RealAudio Web sites are provided, including weather information and current news. (LRW)

  8. Four-quadrant flyback converter for direct audio power amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljusev, Petar; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a bidirectional, four-quadrant flyback converter for use in direct audio power amplification. When compared to the standard Class-D switching audio power amplifier with a separate power supply, the proposed four-quadrant flyback converter provides simple solution with better...

  9. Unsupervised topic modelling on South African parliament audio data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kleynhans, N

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Using a speech recognition system to convert spoken audio to text can enable the structuring of large collections of spoken audio data. A convenient means to summarise or cluster spoken data is to identify the topic under discussion. There are many...

  10. The Effect of Audio and Animation in Multimedia Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroghlanian, Carol; Klein, James D.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of audio, animation, and spatial ability in a multimedia computer program for high school biology. Participants completed a multimedia program that presented content by way of text or audio with lean text. In addition, several instructional sequences were presented either with static illustrations or animations.…

  11. The Use of Audio and Animation in Computer Based Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroghlanian, Carol; Klein, James D.

    This study investigated the effects of audio, animation, and spatial ability in a computer-based instructional program for biology. The program presented instructional material via test or audio with lean text and included eight instructional sequences presented either via static illustrations or animations. High school students enrolled in a…

  12. Let Their Voices Be Heard! Building a Multicultural Audio Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Judith Cook

    1992-01-01

    Discusses building a multicultural audio collection for a library. Gives some guidelines about selecting materials that really represent different cultures. Audio materials that are considered fall roughly into the categories of children's stories, didactic materials, oral histories, poetry and folktales, and music. The goal is an authentic…

  13. Efficiency in audio processing : filter banks and transcoding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Jun Wei

    2007-01-01

    Audio transcoding is the conversion of digital audio from one compressed form A to another compressed form B, where A and B have different compression properties, such as a different bit-rate, sampling frequency or compression method. This is typically achieved by decoding A to an intermediate

  14. Parametric Audio Based Decoder and Music Synthesizer for Mobile Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomen, A.W.J.; Szczerba, M.Z.; Therssen, D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews parametric audio coders and discusses novel technologies introduced in a low-complexity, low-power consumption audiodecoder and music synthesizer platform developed by the authors. Thedecoder uses parametric coding scheme based on the MPEG-4 Parametric Audio standard. In order to

  15. Classifying laughter and speech using audio-visual feature prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petridis, Stavros; Asghar, Ali; Pantic, Maja

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a system that discriminates laughter from speech by modelling the relationship between audio and visual features is presented. The underlying assumption is that this relationship is different between speech and laughter. Neural networks are trained which learn the audio-to-visual and

  16. Haptic and Audio-visual Stimuli: Enhancing Experiences and Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Dijk, Esko O.; Lemmens, Paul M.C.; Luitjens, S.B.

    2010-01-01

    The intention of the symposium on Haptic and Audio-visual stimuli at the EuroHaptics 2010 conference is to deepen the understanding of the effect of combined Haptic and Audio-visual stimuli. The knowledge gained will be used to enhance experiences and interactions in daily life. To this end, a

  17. Automated Speech and Audio Analysis for Semantic Access to Multimedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, F.M.G. de; Ordelman, R.; Huijbregts, M.

    2006-01-01

    The deployment and integration of audio processing tools can enhance the semantic annotation of multimedia content, and as a consequence, improve the effectiveness of conceptual access tools. This paper overviews the various ways in which automatic speech and audio analysis can contribute to

  18. Automated speech and audio analysis for semantic access to multimedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Ordelman, Roeland J.F.; Huijbregts, M.A.H.; Avrithis, Y.; Kompatsiaris, Y.; Staab, S.; O' Connor, N.E.

    2006-01-01

    The deployment and integration of audio processing tools can enhance the semantic annotation of multimedia content, and as a consequence, improve the effectiveness of conceptual access tools. This paper overviews the various ways in which automatic speech and audio analysis can contribute to

  19. Multilevel inverter based class D audio amplifier for capacitive transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    The reduced semiconductor voltage stress makes the multilevel inverters especially interesting, when driving capacitive transducers for audio applications. A ± 300 V flying capacitor class D audio amplifier driving a 100 nF load in the midrange region of 0.1-3.5 kHz with Total Harmonic Distortion...

  20. Voice activity detection using audio-visual information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petsatodis, Theodore; Pnevmatikakis, Aristodemos; Boukis, Christos

    2009-01-01

    An audio-visual voice activity detector that uses sensors positioned distantly from the speaker is presented. Its constituting unimodal detectors are based on the modeling of the temporal variation of audio and visual features using Hidden Markov Models; their outcomes are fused using a post...

  1. Audio Teleconferencing: Low Cost Technology for External Studies Networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Bill

    1987-01-01

    This discussion of the benefits of audio teleconferencing for distance education programs and for business and government applications focuses on the recent experience of Canadian educational users. Four successful operating models and their costs are reviewed, and it is concluded that audio teleconferencing is cost efficient and educationally…

  2. Content Discovery from Composite Audio : An unsupervised approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, L.

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, we developed and assessed a novel robust and unsupervised framework for semantic inference from composite audio signals. We focused on the problem of detecting audio scenes and grouping them into meaningful clusters. Our approach addressed all major steps in a general process of

  3. Removable Watermarking Sebagai Pengendalian Terhadap Cyber Crime Pada Audio Digital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyhani Lian Putri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan teknologi informasi yang pesat menuntut penggunanya untuk lebih berhati-hati seiring semakin meningkatnya cyber crime.Banyak pihak telah mengembangkan berbagai teknik perlindungan data digital, salah satunya adalah watermarking. Teknologi watermarking berfungsi untuk memberikan identitas, melindungi, atau menandai data digital, baik audio, citra, ataupun video, yang mereka miliki. Akan tetapi, teknik tersebut masih dapat diretas oleh oknum-oknum yang tidak bertanggung jawab.Pada penelitian ini, proses watermarking diterapkan pada audio digital dengan menyisipkan watermark yang terdengar jelas oleh indera pendengaran manusia (perceptible pada audio host.Hal ini bertujuan agar data audio dapat terlindungi dan apabila ada pihak lain yang ingin mendapatkan data audio tersebut harus memiliki “kunci” untuk menghilangkan watermark. Proses removable watermarking ini dilakukan pada data watermark yang sudah diketahui metode penyisipannya, agar watermark dapat dihilangkan sehingga kualitas audio menjadi lebih baik. Dengan menggunakan metode ini diperoleh kinerja audio watermarking pada nilai distorsi tertinggi dengan rata-rata nilai SNR sebesar7,834 dB dan rata-rata nilai ODG sebesar -3,77.Kualitas audio meningkat setelah watermark dihilangkan, di mana rata-rata SNR menjadi sebesar 24,986 dB dan rata-rata ODG menjadi sebesar -1,064 serta nilai MOS sebesar 4,40.

  4. Selected Audio-Visual Materials for Consumer Education. [New Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, William L.

    Ninety-two films, filmstrips, multi-media kits, slides, and audio cassettes, produced between 1964 and 1974, are listed in this selective annotated bibliography on consumer education. The major portion of the bibliography is devoted to films and filmstrips. The main topics of the audio-visual materials include purchasing, advertising, money…

  5. Noise-Canceling Helmet Audio System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Marc A.; Culotta, Anthony J.

    2007-01-01

    A prototype helmet audio system has been developed to improve voice communication for the wearer in a noisy environment. The system was originally intended to be used in a space suit, wherein noise generated by airflow of the spacesuit life-support system can make it difficult for remote listeners to understand the astronaut s speech and can interfere with the astronaut s attempt to issue vocal commands to a voice-controlled robot. The system could be adapted to terrestrial use in helmets of protective suits that are typically worn in noisy settings: examples include biohazard, fire, rescue, and diving suits. The system (see figure) includes an array of microphones and small loudspeakers mounted at fixed positions in a helmet, amplifiers and signal-routing circuitry, and a commercial digital signal processor (DSP). Notwithstanding the fixed positions of the microphones and loudspeakers, the system can accommodate itself to any normal motion of the wearer s head within the helmet. The system operates in conjunction with a radio transceiver. An audio signal arriving via the transceiver intended to be heard by the wearer is adjusted in volume and otherwise conditioned and sent to the loudspeakers. The wearer s speech is collected by the microphones, the outputs of which are logically combined (phased) so as to form a microphone- array directional sensitivity pattern that discriminates in favor of sounds coming from vicinity of the wearer s mouth and against sounds coming from elsewhere. In the DSP, digitized samples of the microphone outputs are processed to filter out airflow noise and to eliminate feedback from the loudspeakers to the microphones. The resulting conditioned version of the wearer s speech signal is sent to the transceiver.

  6. AUDIO CRYPTANALYSIS- AN APPLICATION OF SYMMETRIC KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY AND AUDIO STEGANOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Paira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the recent trend of network and technology, “Cryptography” and “Steganography” have emerged out as the essential elements of providing network security. Although Cryptography plays a major role in the fabrication and modification of the secret message into an encrypted version yet it has certain drawbacks. Steganography is the art that meets one of the basic limitations of Cryptography. In this paper, a new algorithm has been proposed based on both Symmetric Key Cryptography and Audio Steganography. The combination of a randomly generated Symmetric Key along with LSB technique of Audio Steganography sends a secret message unrecognizable through an insecure medium. The Stego File generated is almost lossless giving a 100 percent recovery of the original message. This paper also presents a detailed experimental analysis of the algorithm with a brief comparison with other existing algorithms and a future scope. The experimental verification and security issues are promising.

  7. High-Order Sparse Linear Predictors for Audio Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacobello, Daniele; van Waterschoot, Toon; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2010-01-01

    Linear prediction has generally failed to make a breakthrough in audio processing, as it has done in speech processing. This is mostly due to its poor modeling performance, since an audio signal is usually an ensemble of different sources. Nevertheless, linear prediction comes with a whole set...... of interesting features that make the idea of using it in audio processing not far fetched, e.g., the strong ability of modeling the spectral peaks that play a dominant role in perception. In this paper, we provide some preliminary conjectures and experiments on the use of high-order sparse linear predictors...... in audio processing. These predictors, successfully implemented in modeling the short-term and long-term redundancies present in speech signals, will be used to model tonal audio signals, both monophonic and polyphonic. We will show how the sparse predictors are able to model efficiently the different...

  8. Audio Mining with emphasis on Music Genre Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Anders

    2004-01-01

    Audio is an important part of our daily life, basically it increases our impression of the world around us whether this is communication, music, danger detection etc. Currently the field of Audio Mining, which here includes areas of music genre, music recognition / retrieval, playlist generation...... the world the problem of detecting environments from the input audio is researched as to increase the life quality of hearing-impaired. Basically there is a lot of work within the field of audio mining. The presentation will mainly focus on music genre classification where we have a fixed amount of genres...... to choose from. Basically every audio mining system is more or less consisting of the same stages as for the music genre setting. My research so far has mainly focussed on finding relevant features for music genre classification living at different timescales using early and late information fusion. It has...

  9. Perceived Audio Quality Analysis in Digital Audio Broadcasting Plus System Based on PEAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ulovec

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Broadcasters need to decide on bitrates of the services in the multiplex transmitted via Digital Audio Broadcasting Plus system. The bitrate should be set as low as possible for maximal number of services, but with high quality, not lower than in conventional analog systems. In this paper, the objective method Perceptual Evaluation of Audio Quality is used to analyze the perceived audio quality for appropriate codecs --- MP2 and AAC offering three profiles. The main aim is to determine dependencies on the type of signal --- music and speech, the number of channels --- stereo and mono, and the bitrate. Results indicate that only MP2 codec and AAC Low Complexity profile reach imperceptible quality loss. The MP2 codec needs higher bitrate than AAC Low Complexity profile for the same quality. For the both versions of AAC High-Efficiency profiles, the limit bitrates are determined above which less complex profiles outperform the more complex ones and higher bitrates above these limits are not worth using. It is shown that stereo music has worse quality than stereo speech generally, whereas for mono, the dependencies vary upon the codec/profile. Furthermore, numbers of services satisfying various quality criteria are presented.

  10. Audio-visual biofeedback for respiratory-gated radiotherapy: Impact of audio instruction and audio-visual biofeedback on respiratory-gated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Rohini; Chung, Theodore D.; Vedam, Sastry S.; Ramakrishnan, Viswanathan; Mohan, Radhe; Weiss, Elisabeth; Keall, Paul J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Respiratory gating is a commercially available technology for reducing the deleterious effects of motion during imaging and treatment. The efficacy of gating is dependent on the reproducibility within and between respiratory cycles during imaging and treatment. The aim of this study was to determine whether audio-visual biofeedback can improve respiratory reproducibility by decreasing residual motion and therefore increasing the accuracy of gated radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: A total of 331 respiratory traces were collected from 24 lung cancer patients. The protocol consisted of five breathing training sessions spaced about a week apart. Within each session the patients initially breathed without any instruction (free breathing), with audio instructions and with audio-visual biofeedback. Residual motion was quantified by the standard deviation of the respiratory signal within the gating window. Results: Audio-visual biofeedback significantly reduced residual motion compared with free breathing and audio instruction. Displacement-based gating has lower residual motion than phase-based gating. Little reduction in residual motion was found for duty cycles less than 30%; for duty cycles above 50% there was a sharp increase in residual motion. Conclusions: The efficiency and reproducibility of gating can be improved by: incorporating audio-visual biofeedback, using a 30-50% duty cycle, gating during exhalation, and using displacement-based gating

  11. Horatio Audio-Describes Shakespeare's "Hamlet": Blind and Low-Vision Theatre-Goers Evaluate an Unconventional Audio Description Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, J. P.; Acevedo, B.; Fels, D. I.

    2010-01-01

    Audio description (AD) has been introduced as one solution for providing people who are blind or have low vision with access to live theatre, film and television content. However, there is little research to inform the process, user preferences and presentation style. We present a study of a single live audio-described performance of Hart House…

  12. Subjective and Objective Assessment of Perceived Audio Quality of Current Digital Audio Broadcasting Systems and Web-Casting Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pocta, P.; Beerends, J.G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of different audio codecs typically deployed in current digital audio broadcasting (DAB) systems and web-casting applications, which represent a main source of quality impairment in these systems and applications, on the quality perceived by the end user. Both

  13. LAMI: A gesturally controlled three-dimensional stage Leap (Motion-based) Audio Mixing Interface

    OpenAIRE

    Wakefield, Jonathan P.; Dewey, Christopher; Gale, William

    2017-01-01

    Interface designers are increasingly exploring alternative approaches to user input/control. LAMI is a Leap (Motion-based) AMI which takes user’s hand gestures and maps these to a three-dimensional stage displayed on a computer monitor. Audio channels are visualised as spheres whose Y coordinate is spectral centroid and X and Z coordinates are controlled by hand position and represent pan and level respectively. Auxiliary send levels are controlled via wrist rotation and vertical hand positio...

  14. Enhancing Teaching through Constructive Alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, John

    1996-01-01

    An approach to college-level instructional design that incorporates the principles of constructivism, termed "constructive alignment," is described. The process is then illustrated with reference to a professional development unit in educational psychology for teachers, but the model is viewed as generalizable to most units or programs in higher…

  15. Towards a strategic alignment of public health and primary care practices at local levels - the case of severe and enduring mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banarsee, Ricky; Kelly, Cornelius; El-Osta, Austen; Thomas, Paul; Brophy, Chris

    2018-03-01

    The rapidly increasing number of people who have long-term conditions requires a system of coordinated support for self-care throughout the NHS. A system to support self-care needs to be aligned to systems that support shared-care and community development, making it easier for the multidisciplinary teams who provide care to also help patients and populations to help themselves. Public health practitioners need to work closely with clinicians to achieve this. The best place to coordinate this partnership is a community-based coordinating hub, or local health community - a geographic area of about 50,000 population where different contributions to self-care can be aligned. A shared vision for both health and disease management is needed to ensure consistent messaging by all. A three tier system of shared care can help to combine vertical and horizontal integration. This paper uses severe and enduring mental illness as an exemplar to anticipate the design of such a system.

  16. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G.Gomez

    2010-01-01

    The main developments in muon alignment since March 2010 have been the production, approval and deployment of alignment constants for the ICHEP data reprocessing. In the barrel, a new geometry, combining information from both hardware and track-based alignment systems, has been developed for the first time. The hardware alignment provides an initial DT geometry, which is then anchored as a rigid solid, using the link alignment system, to a reference frame common to the tracker. The “GlobalPositionRecords” for both the Tracker and Muon systems are being used for the first time, and the initial tracker-muon relative positioning, based on the link alignment, yields good results within the photogrammetry uncertainties of the Tracker and alignment ring positions. For the first time, the optical and track-based alignments show good agreement between them; the optical alignment being refined by the track-based alignment. The resulting geometry is the most complete to date, aligning all 250 DTs, ...

  17. Fast global sequence alignment technique

    KAUST Repository

    Bonny, Mohamed Talal; Salama, Khaled N.

    2011-01-01

    fast alignment algorithm, called 'Alignment By Scanning' (ABS), to provide an approximate alignment of two DNA sequences. We compare our algorithm with the wellknown sequence alignment algorithms, the 'GAP' (which is heuristic) and the 'Needleman

  18. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    Z. Szillasi and G. Gomez.

    2013-01-01

    When CMS is opened up, major components of the Link and Barrel Alignment systems will be removed. This operation, besides allowing for maintenance of the detector underneath, is needed for making interventions that will reinforce the alignment measurements and make the operation of the alignment system more reliable. For that purpose and also for their general maintenance and recalibration, the alignment components will be transferred to the Alignment Lab situated in the ISR area. For the track-based alignment, attention is focused on the determination of systematic uncertainties, which have become dominant, since now there is a large statistics of muon tracks. This will allow for an improved Monte Carlo misalignment scenario and updated alignment position errors, crucial for high-momentum muon analysis such as Z′ searches.

  19. Laser shaft alignment measurement model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Chang-tao; Chen, Changzheng; Hou, Xiang-lin; Zhang, Guoyu

    2007-12-01

    Laser beam's track which is on photosensitive surface of the a receiver will be closed curve, when driving shaft and the driven shaft rotate with same angular velocity and rotation direction. The coordinate of arbitrary point which is on the curve is decided by the relative position of two shafts. Basing on the viewpoint, a mathematic model of laser alignment is set up. By using a data acquisition system and a data processing model of laser alignment meter with single laser beam and a detector, and basing on the installation parameter of computer, the state parameter between two shafts can be obtained by more complicated calculation and correction. The correcting data of the four under chassis of the adjusted apparatus moving on the level and the vertical plane can be calculated. This will instruct us to move the apparatus to align the shafts.

  20. Aligning Audio Samples from the South African Parliament with Hansard Transcriptions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kleynhans, N

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available sessions, which in general are publicly available and are most often manually transcribed. In this investigation we present an automatic harvesting procedure which makes use of the “islands of certainty” principle to segment long utterances into more...

  1. Optimized Audio Classification and Segmentation Algorithm by Using Ensemble Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadia Zahid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Audio segmentation is a basis for multimedia content analysis which is the most important and widely used application nowadays. An optimized audio classification and segmentation algorithm is presented in this paper that segments a superimposed audio stream on the basis of its content into four main audio types: pure-speech, music, environment sound, and silence. An algorithm is proposed that preserves important audio content and reduces the misclassification rate without using large amount of training data, which handles noise and is suitable for use for real-time applications. Noise in an audio stream is segmented out as environment sound. A hybrid classification approach is used, bagged support vector machines (SVMs with artificial neural networks (ANNs. Audio stream is classified, firstly, into speech and nonspeech segment by using bagged support vector machines; nonspeech segment is further classified into music and environment sound by using artificial neural networks and lastly, speech segment is classified into silence and pure-speech segments on the basis of rule-based classifier. Minimum data is used for training classifier; ensemble methods are used for minimizing misclassification rate and approximately 98% accurate segments are obtained. A fast and efficient algorithm is designed that can be used with real-time multimedia applications.

  2. Music Genre Classification Using MIDI and Audio Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataltepe, Zehra; Yaslan, Yusuf; Sonmez, Abdullah

    2007-12-01

    We report our findings on using MIDI files and audio features from MIDI, separately and combined together, for MIDI music genre classification. We use McKay and Fujinaga's 3-root and 9-leaf genre data set. In order to compute distances between MIDI pieces, we use normalized compression distance (NCD). NCD uses the compressed length of a string as an approximation to its Kolmogorov complexity and has previously been used for music genre and composer clustering. We convert the MIDI pieces to audio and then use the audio features to train different classifiers. MIDI and audio from MIDI classifiers alone achieve much smaller accuracies than those reported by McKay and Fujinaga who used not NCD but a number of domain-based MIDI features for their classification. Combining MIDI and audio from MIDI classifiers improves accuracy and gets closer to, but still worse, accuracies than McKay and Fujinaga's. The best root genre accuracies achieved using MIDI, audio, and combination of them are 0.75, 0.86, and 0.93, respectively, compared to 0.98 of McKay and Fujinaga. Successful classifier combination requires diversity of the base classifiers. We achieve diversity through using certain number of seconds of the MIDI file, different sample rates and sizes for the audio file, and different classification algorithms.

  3. Music Genre Classification Using MIDI and Audio Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Sonmez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We report our findings on using MIDI files and audio features from MIDI, separately and combined together, for MIDI music genre classification. We use McKay and Fujinaga's 3-root and 9-leaf genre data set. In order to compute distances between MIDI pieces, we use normalized compression distance (NCD. NCD uses the compressed length of a string as an approximation to its Kolmogorov complexity and has previously been used for music genre and composer clustering. We convert the MIDI pieces to audio and then use the audio features to train different classifiers. MIDI and audio from MIDI classifiers alone achieve much smaller accuracies than those reported by McKay and Fujinaga who used not NCD but a number of domain-based MIDI features for their classification. Combining MIDI and audio from MIDI classifiers improves accuracy and gets closer to, but still worse, accuracies than McKay and Fujinaga's. The best root genre accuracies achieved using MIDI, audio, and combination of them are 0.75, 0.86, and 0.93, respectively, compared to 0.98 of McKay and Fujinaga. Successful classifier combination requires diversity of the base classifiers. We achieve diversity through using certain number of seconds of the MIDI file, different sample rates and sizes for the audio file, and different classification algorithms.

  4. Portable audio electronics for impedance-based measurements in microfluidics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Paul; Sinton, David

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of audio electronics-based signals to perform on-chip electrochemical measurements. Cell phones and portable music players are examples of consumer electronics that are easily operated and are ubiquitous worldwide. Audio output (play) and input (record) signals are voltage based and contain frequency and amplitude information. A cell phone, laptop soundcard and two compact audio players are compared with respect to frequency response; the laptop soundcard provides the most uniform frequency response, while the cell phone performance is found to be insufficient. The audio signals in the common portable music players and laptop soundcard operate in the range of 20 Hz to 20 kHz and are found to be applicable, as voltage input and output signals, to impedance-based electrochemical measurements in microfluidic systems. Validated impedance-based measurements of concentration (0.1–50 mM), flow rate (2–120 µL min −1 ) and particle detection (32 µm diameter) are demonstrated. The prevailing, lossless, wave audio file format is found to be suitable for data transmission to and from external sources, such as a centralized lab, and the cost of all hardware (in addition to audio devices) is ∼10 USD. The utility demonstrated here, in combination with the ubiquitous nature of portable audio electronics, presents new opportunities for impedance-based measurements in portable microfluidic systems. (technical note)

  5. Some Alignment Considerations for the Next Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruland, R

    2004-01-01

    Next Linear Collider type accelerators require a new level of alignment quality. The relative alignment of these machines is to be maintained in an error envelope dimensioned in micrometers and for certain parts in nanometers. In the nanometer domain our terra firma cannot be considered monolithic but compares closer to jelly. Since conventional optical alignment methods cannot deal with the dynamics and cannot approach the level of accuracy, special alignment and monitoring techniques must be pursued

  6. Musical examination to bridge audio data and sheet music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xunyu; Cross, Timothy J.; Xiao, Liangliang; Hei, Xiali

    2015-03-01

    The digitalization of audio is commonly implemented for the purpose of convenient storage and transmission of music and songs in today's digital age. Analyzing digital audio for an insightful look at a specific musical characteristic, however, can be quite challenging for various types of applications. Many existing musical analysis techniques can examine a particular piece of audio data. For example, the frequency of digital sound can be easily read and identified at a specific section in an audio file. Based on this information, we could determine the musical note being played at that instant, but what if you want to see a list of all the notes played in a song? While most existing methods help to provide information about a single piece of the audio data at a time, few of them can analyze the available audio file on a larger scale. The research conducted in this work considers how to further utilize the examination of audio data by storing more information from the original audio file. In practice, we develop a novel musical analysis system Musicians Aid to process musical representation and examination of audio data. Musicians Aid solves the previous problem by storing and analyzing the audio information as it reads it rather than tossing it aside. The system can provide professional musicians with an insightful look at the music they created and advance their understanding of their work. Amateur musicians could also benefit from using it solely for the purpose of obtaining feedback about a song they were attempting to play. By comparing our system's interpretation of traditional sheet music with their own playing, a musician could ensure what they played was correct. More specifically, the system could show them exactly where they went wrong and how to adjust their mistakes. In addition, the application could be extended over the Internet to allow users to play music with one another and then review the audio data they produced. This would be particularly

  7. Current-Driven Switch-Mode Audio Power Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Arnold; Buhl, Niels Christian; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2012-01-01

    The conversion of electrical energy into sound waves by electromechanical transducers is proportional to the current through the coil of the transducer. However virtually all audio power amplifiers provide a controlled voltage through the interface to the transducer. This paper is presenting...... a switch-mode audio power amplifier not only providing controlled current but also being supplied by current. This results in an output filter size reduction by a factor of 6. The implemented prototype shows decent audio performance with THD + N below 0.1 %....

  8. DOA Estimation of Audio Sources in Reverberant Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Heusdens, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Reverberation is well-known to have a detrimental impact on many localization methods for audio sources. We address this problem by imposing a model for the early reflections as well as a model for the audio source itself. Using these models, we propose two iterative localization methods...... that estimate the direction-of-arrival (DOA) of both the direct path of the audio source and the early reflections. In these methods, the contribution of the early reflections is essentially subtracted from the signal observations before localization of the direct path component, which may reduce the estimation...

  9. Dynamically-Loaded Hardware Libraries (HLL) Technology for Audio Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esposito, A.; Lomuscio, A.; Nunzio, L. Di

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we apply hardware acceleration to embedded systems running audio applications. We present a new framework, Dynamically-Loaded Hardware Libraries or HLL, to dynamically load hardware libraries on reconfigurable platforms (FPGAs). Provided a library of application-specific processors......, we load on-the-fly the specific processor in the FPGA, and we transfer the execution from the CPU to the FPGA-based accelerator. The proposed architecture provides excellent flexibility with respect to the different audio applications implemented, high quality audio, and an energy efficient solution....

  10. Can audio recording improve patients' recall of outpatient consultations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolderslund, Maiken; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Axboe, Mette

    Introduction In order to give patients possibility to listen to their consultation again, we have designed a system which gives the patients access to digital audio recordings of their consultations. An Interactive Voice Response platform enables the audio recording and gives the patients access...... and those who have not (control).The audio recordings and the interviews are coded according to six themes: Test results, Treatment, Risks, Future tests, Advice and Plan. Afterwards the extent of patients recall is assessed by comparing the accuracy of the patient’s statements (interview...

  11. A review of lossless audio compression standards and algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muin, Fathiah Abdul; Gunawan, Teddy Surya; Kartiwi, Mira; Elsheikh, Elsheikh M. A.

    2017-09-01

    Over the years, lossless audio compression has gained popularity as researchers and businesses has become more aware of the need for better quality and higher storage demand. This paper will analyse various lossless audio coding algorithm and standards that are used and available in the market focusing on Linear Predictive Coding (LPC) specifically due to its popularity and robustness in audio compression, nevertheless other prediction methods are compared to verify this. Advanced representation of LPC such as LSP decomposition techniques are also discussed within this paper.

  12. Alignment performance monitoring for ASML systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Woong-Jae; Temchenko, Vlad; Hauck, Tarja; Schmidt, Sebastian

    2006-03-01

    In today's semiconductor industry downscaling of the IC design puts a stringent requirement on pattern overlay control. Tighter overlay requirements lead to exceedingly higher rework rates, meaning additional costs to manufacturing. Better alignment control became a target of engineering efforts to decrease rework rate for high-end technologies. Overlay performance is influenced by known parameters such as "Shift, Scaling, Rotation, etc", and unknown parameters defined as "Process Induced Variation", which are difficult to control by means of a process automation system. In reality, this process-induced variation leads to a strong wafer to wafer, or lot to lot variation, which are not easy to detect in the mass-production environment which uses sampling overlay measurements for only several wafers in a lot. An engineering task of finding and correcting a root cause for Process Induced Variations of overlay performance will be greatly simplified if the unknown parameters could be tracked for each wafer. This paper introduces an alignment performance monitoring method based on analysis of automatically generated "AWE" files for ASML scanner systems. Because "AWE" files include alignment results for each aligned wafer, it is possible to use them for monitoring, controlling and correcting the causes of "process induced" overlay performance without requiring extra measurement time. Since "AWE" files include alignment information for different alignment marks, it is also possible to select and optimize the best alignment recipe for each alignment strategy. Several case studies provided in our paper will demonstrate how AWE file analysis can be used to assist engineer in interpreting pattern alignment data. Since implementing our alignment data monitoring method, we were able to achieve significant improvement of alignment and overlay performance without additional overlay measurement time. We also noticed that the rework rate coming from alignment went down and

  13. Robustness evaluation of transactional audio watermarking systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Christian; Steinebach, Martin; Siebenhaar, Frank; Pickel, Joerg

    2003-06-01

    Distribution via Internet is of increasing importance. Easy access, transmission and consumption of digitally represented music is very attractive to the consumer but led also directly to an increasing problem of illegal copying. To cope with this problem watermarking is a promising concept since it provides a useful mechanism to track illicit copies by persistently attaching property rights information to the material. Especially for online music distribution the use of so-called transaction watermarking, also denoted with the term bitstream watermarking, is beneficial since it offers the opportunity to embed watermarks directly into perceptually encoded material without the need of full decompression/compression. Besides the concept of bitstream watermarking, former publications presented the complexity, the audio quality and the detection performance. These results are now extended by an assessment of the robustness of such schemes. The detection performance before and after applying selected attacks is presented for MPEG-1/2 Layer 3 (MP3) and MPEG-2/4 AAC bitstream watermarking, contrasted to the performance of PCM spread spectrum watermarking.

  14. Comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of audio and audiovisual distraction aids in the management of anxious pediatric dental patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajwinder Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare audio and audiovisual distraction aids in management of anxious pediatric dental patients of different age groups and to study children′s response to sequential dental visits with the use of distraction aids. Study Design: This study was conducted on two age groups, that is, 4-6 years and 6-8 years with 30 patients in each age group on their first dental visit. The children of both the age groups were divided into 3 subgroups, the control group, audio distraction group, audiovisual distraction group with 10 patients in each subgroup. Each child in all the subgroups had gone through three dental visits. Child anxiety level at each visit was assessed by using a combination of anxiety measuring parameters. The data collected was tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Tukey honest significant difference post-hoc test at 0.05% level of significance revealed audiovisual group showed statistically highly significant difference from audio and control group, whereas audio group showed the statistically significant difference from the control group. Conclusion: Audiovisual distraction was found to be a more effective mode of distraction in the management of anxious children in both the age groups when compared to audio distraction. In both the age groups, a significant effect of the visit type was also observed.

  15. Comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of audio and audiovisual distraction aids in the management of anxious pediatric dental patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Rajwinder; Jindal, Ritu; Dua, Rohini; Mahajan, Sandeep; Sethi, Kunal; Garg, Sunny

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare audio and audiovisual distraction aids in management of anxious pediatric dental patients of different age groups and to study children's response to sequential dental visits with the use of distraction aids. This study was conducted on two age groups, that is, 4-6 years and 6-8 years with 30 patients in each age group on their first dental visit. The children of both the age groups were divided into 3 subgroups, the control group, audio distraction group, audiovisual distraction group with 10 patients in each subgroup. Each child in all the subgroups had gone through three dental visits. Child anxiety level at each visit was assessed by using a combination of anxiety measuring parameters. The data collected was tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis. Tukey honest significant difference post-hoc test at 0.05% level of significance revealed audiovisual group showed statistically highly significant difference from audio and control group, whereas audio group showed the statistically significant difference from the control group. Audiovisual distraction was found to be a more effective mode of distraction in the management of anxious children in both the age groups when compared to audio distraction. In both the age groups, a significant effect of the visit type was also observed.

  16. Advances in audio watermarking based on singular value decomposition

    CERN Document Server

    Dhar, Pranab Kumar

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces audio watermarking methods for copyright protection, which has drawn extensive attention for securing digital data from unauthorized copying. The book is divided into two parts. First, an audio watermarking method in discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and discrete cosine transform (DCT) domains using singular value decomposition (SVD) and quantization is introduced. This method is robust against various attacks and provides good imperceptible watermarked sounds. Then, an audio watermarking method in fast Fourier transform (FFT) domain using SVD and Cartesian-polar transformation (CPT) is presented. This method has high imperceptibility and high data payload and it provides good robustness against various attacks. These techniques allow media owners to protect copyright and to show authenticity and ownership of their material in a variety of applications.   ·         Features new methods of audio watermarking for copyright protection and ownership protection ·         Outl...

  17. Aurally Aided Visual Search Performance Comparing Virtual Audio Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Camilla Horne; Lauritsen, David Skødt; Larsen, Jacob Junker

    2014-01-01

    Due to increased computational power, reproducing binaural hearing in real-time applications, through usage of head-related transfer functions (HRTFs), is now possible. This paper addresses the differences in aurally-aided visual search performance between a HRTF enhanced audio system (3D) and an...... with white dots. The results indicate that 3D audio yields faster search latencies than panning audio, especially with larger amounts of distractors. The applications of this research could fit virtual environments such as video games or virtual simulations.......Due to increased computational power, reproducing binaural hearing in real-time applications, through usage of head-related transfer functions (HRTFs), is now possible. This paper addresses the differences in aurally-aided visual search performance between a HRTF enhanced audio system (3D...

  18. Aurally Aided Visual Search Performance Comparing Virtual Audio Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Camilla Horne; Lauritsen, David Skødt; Larsen, Jacob Junker

    2014-01-01

    Due to increased computational power reproducing binaural hearing in real-time applications, through usage of head-related transfer functions (HRTFs), is now possible. This paper addresses the differences in aurally-aided visual search performance between an HRTF enhanced audio system (3D) and an...... with white dots. The results indicate that 3D audio yields faster search latencies than panning audio, especially with larger amounts of distractors. The applications of this research could fit virtual environments such as video games or virtual simulations.......Due to increased computational power reproducing binaural hearing in real-time applications, through usage of head-related transfer functions (HRTFs), is now possible. This paper addresses the differences in aurally-aided visual search performance between an HRTF enhanced audio system (3D...

  19. Perancangan Sistem Audio Mobil Berbasiskan Sistem Pakar dan Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djunaidi Santoso

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Designing car audio that fits user’s needs is a fun activity. However, the design often consumes more time and costly since it should be consulted to the experts several times. For easy access to information in designing a car audio system as well as error prevention, an car audio system based on expert system and web is designed for those who do not have sufficient time and expense to consult directly to experts. This system consists of tutorial modules designed using the HyperText Preprocessor (PHP and MySQL as database. This car audio system design is evaluated uses black box testing method which focuses on the functional needs of the application. Tests are performed by providing inputs and produce outputs corresponding to the function of each module. The test results prove the correspondence between input and output, which means that the program meet the initial goals of the design. 

  20. Proper Use of Audio-Visual Aids: Essential for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejardin, Conrad

    1989-01-01

    Criticizes educators as the worst users of audio-visual aids and among the worst public speakers. Offers guidelines for the proper use of an overhead projector and the development of transparencies. (DMM)

  1. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G.Gomez

    2010-01-01

    Most of the work in muon alignment since December 2009 has focused on the geometry reconstruction from the optical systems and improvements in the internal alignment of the DT chambers. The barrel optical alignment system has progressively evolved from reconstruction of single active planes to super-planes (December 09) to a new, full barrel reconstruction. Initial validation studies comparing this full barrel alignment at 0T with photogrammetry provide promising results. In addition, the method has been applied to CRAFT09 data, and the resulting alignment at 3.8T yields residuals from tracks (extrapolated from the tracker) which look smooth, suggesting a good internal barrel alignment with a small overall offset with respect to the tracker. This is a significant improvement, which should allow the optical system to provide a start-up alignment for 2010. The end-cap optical alignment has made considerable progress in the analysis of transfer line data. The next set of alignment constants for CSCs will there...

  2. Tidal alignment of galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazek, Jonathan; Vlah, Zvonimir; Seljak, Uroš

    2015-08-01

    We develop an analytic model for galaxy intrinsic alignments (IA) based on the theory of tidal alignment. We calculate all relevant nonlinear corrections at one-loop order, including effects from nonlinear density evolution, galaxy biasing, and source density weighting. Contributions from density weighting are found to be particularly important and lead to bias dependence of the IA amplitude, even on large scales. This effect may be responsible for much of the luminosity dependence in IA observations. The increase in IA amplitude for more highly biased galaxies reflects their locations in regions with large tidal fields. We also consider the impact of smoothing the tidal field on halo scales. We compare the performance of this consistent nonlinear model in describing the observed alignment of luminous red galaxies with the linear model as well as the frequently used "nonlinear alignment model," finding a significant improvement on small and intermediate scales. We also show that the cross-correlation between density and IA (the "GI" term) can be effectively separated into source alignment and source clustering, and we accurately model the observed alignment down to the one-halo regime using the tidal field from the fully nonlinear halo-matter cross correlation. Inside the one-halo regime, the average alignment of galaxies with density tracers no longer follows the tidal alignment prediction, likely reflecting nonlinear processes that must be considered when modeling IA on these scales. Finally, we discuss tidal alignment in the context of cosmic shear measurements.

  3. Energy Use of Home Audio Products in the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, K.B.; Meier, A.K.

    1999-12-01

    We conducted a bottom-up analysis using stock and usage estimates from secondary sources, and our own power measurements. We measured power levels of the most common audio products in their most commonly used operating modes. We found that the combined energy consumption of standby, idle, and play modes of clock radios, portable stereos, compact stereos, and component stereos was 20 TWh/yr, representing about 1.8% of the 1998 national residential electricity consumption.

  4. Ferrite bead effect on Class-D amplifier audio quality

    OpenAIRE

    Haddad , Kevin El; Mrad , Roberto; Morel , Florent; Pillonnet , Gael; Vollaire , Christian; Nagari , Angelo

    2014-01-01

    International audience; This paper studies the effect of ferrite beads on the audio quality of Class-D audio amplifiers. This latter is a switch-ing circuit which creates high frequency harmonics. Generally, a filter is used at the amplifier output for the sake of electro-magnetic compatibility (EMC). So often, in integrated solutions, this filter contains ferrite beads which are magnetic components and present nonlinear behavior. Time domain measurements and their equivalence in frequency do...

  5. Precision Scaling of Neural Networks for Efficient Audio Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, Jong Hwan; Fromm, Josh; Philipose, Matthai; Tashev, Ivan; Zarar, Shuayb

    2017-01-01

    While deep neural networks have shown powerful performance in many audio applications, their large computation and memory demand has been a challenge for real-time processing. In this paper, we study the impact of scaling the precision of neural networks on the performance of two common audio processing tasks, namely, voice-activity detection and single-channel speech enhancement. We determine the optimal pair of weight/neuron bit precision by exploring its impact on both the performance and ...

  6. Design guidelines for audio presentation of graphs and tables

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, L.M.; Brewster, S.A.; Ramloll, S.A.; Burton, R.; Riedel, B.

    2003-01-01

    Audio can be used to make visualisations accessible to blind and visually impaired people. The MultiVis Project has carried out research into suitable methods for presenting graphs and tables to blind people through the use of both speech and non-speech audio. This paper presents guidelines extracted from this research. These guidelines will enable designers to implement visualisation systems for blind and visually impaired users, and will provide a framework for researchers wishing to invest...

  7. El Digital Audio Tape Recorder. Contra autores y creadores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ono

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La llamada "DAT" (abreviatura por "digital audio tape recorder" / grabadora digital de audio ha recibido cobertura durante mucho tiempo en los medios masivos de Japón y otros países, como un producto acústico electrónico nuevo y controversial de la industria japonesa de artefactos electrónicos. ¿Qué ha pasado con el objeto de esta controversia?

  8. IELTS speaking instruction through audio/voice conferencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Ghaemi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The currentstudyaimsatinvestigatingtheimpactofAudio/Voiceconferencing,asanewapproachtoteaching speaking, on the speakingperformanceand/orspeakingband score ofIELTScandidates.Experimentalgroupsubjectsparticipated in an audio conferencing classwhile those of the control group enjoyed attending in a traditional IELTS Speakingclass. At the endofthestudy,allsubjectsparticipatedinanIELTSExaminationheldonNovemberfourthin Tehran,Iran.To compare thegroupmeansforthestudy,anindependentt-testanalysiswasemployed.Thedifferencebetween experimental and control groupwasconsideredtobestatisticallysignificant(P<0.01.Thatisthecandidates in experimental group have outperformed the ones in control group in IELTS Speaking test scores.

  9. Digital signal processing methods and algorithms for audio conferencing systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lindström, Fredric

    2007-01-01

    Today, we are interconnected almost all over the planet. Large multinational companies operate worldwide, but also an increasing number of small and medium sized companies do business overseas. As people travel to meet and do businesses, the already exposed earth is subject to even more strain. Audio conferencing is an attractive alternative to travel, which is becoming more and more appreciated. Audio conferences can of course not replace all types of meetings, but can help companies to cut ...

  10. Audio-visual assistance in co-creating transition knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezel, Bernd; Broschkowski, Ephraim; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2013-04-01

    Earth system and climate impact research results point to the tremendous ecologic, economic and societal implications of climate change. Specifically people will have to adopt lifestyles that are very different from those they currently strive for in order to mitigate severe changes of our known environment. It will most likely not suffice to transfer the scientific findings into international agreements and appropriate legislation. A transition is rather reliant on pioneers that define new role models, on change agents that mainstream the concept of sufficiency and on narratives that make different futures appealing. In order for the research community to be able to provide sustainable transition pathways that are viable, an integration of the physical constraints and the societal dynamics is needed. Hence the necessary transition knowledge is to be co-created by social and natural science and society. To this end, the Climate Media Factory - in itself a massively transdisciplinary venture - strives to provide an audio-visual connection between the different scientific cultures and a bi-directional link to stake holders and society. Since methodology, particular language and knowledge level of the involved is not the same, we develop new entertaining formats on the basis of a "complexity on demand" approach. They present scientific information in an integrated and entertaining way with different levels of detail that provide entry points to users with different requirements. Two examples shall illustrate the advantages and restrictions of the approach.

  11. Video equipment of tele dosimetry and audio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojeda R, M.A.; Padilla C, I.

    2007-01-01

    To develop a work in an area with high radiation, it requires of a detailed knowledge of the surroundings work, a communication and effective vision, a near dosimetric control. In a work where the spaces variables and reduced accesses exist, noise that hinders the communication, defendant operative condition, radiation field and taking of decision, it is necessary to have tools that allow a total control of the environment to make opportune and effective decisions, there where the task is developed. Under this elementary concept, it was developed in the Laguna Verde Central a project that it allowed a mechanism, interactive of control in spaces complex; to see, to hear, to speak, to measure. This concept takes to the creation of an equipped system with closed circuit of television, wireless communication systems, tele dosimetry wireless systems, VHS and DVD recording equipment, uninterrupted energy units. The system requires of an electric power socket, and the installation of two cables by CCTV camera. The system is mobilized by a person. He puts on in operation in 5 minutes using a verification list. The concept was developed in the project denominated VETA-1, (Video Equipment of Tele dosimetry and Audio). It is objective of this work to present before the society the development of the VETA-1 tool that conclude in their first prototype in May of the present year. The VETA-1 project arises by a necessity of optimizing dose, it is an ALARA tool, with a countless applications, like it was proven in the 12 recharge stop of the Unit 1. The VETA-1 project integrate a recording system, with the primary end of analyzing in the place where the task is developed the details for an effective and opportune decision, but the resulting information is of utility for the personnel's training and the planning of future works. The VETA-1 system is an ALARA tool of quick response control. (Author)

  12. Automated processing of massive audio/video content using FFmpeg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kia Siang Hock

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Audio and video content forms an integral, important and expanding part of the digital collections in libraries and archives world-wide. While these memory institutions are familiar and well-versed in the management of more conventional materials such as books, periodicals, ephemera and images, the handling of audio (e.g., oral history recordings and video content (e.g., audio-visual recordings, broadcast content requires additional toolkits. In particular, a robust and comprehensive tool that provides a programmable interface is indispensable when dealing with tens of thousands of hours of audio and video content. FFmpeg is comprehensive and well-established open source software that is capable of the full-range of audio/video processing tasks (such as encode, decode, transcode, mux, demux, stream and filter. It is also capable of handling a wide-range of audio and video formats, a unique challenge in memory institutions. It comes with a command line interface, as well as a set of developer libraries that can be incorporated into applications.

  13. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Gomez

    Since December, the muon alignment community has focused on analyzing the data recorded so far in order to produce new DT and CSC Alignment Records for the second reprocessing of CRAFT data. Two independent algorithms were developed which align the DT chambers using global tracks, thus providing, for the first time, a relative alignment of the barrel with respect to the tracker. These results are an important ingredient for the second CRAFT reprocessing and allow, for example, a more detailed study of any possible mis-modelling of the magnetic field in the muon spectrometer. Both algorithms are constructed in such a way that the resulting alignment constants are not affected, to first order, by any such mis-modelling. The CSC chambers have not yet been included in this global track-based alignment due to a lack of statistics, since only a few cosmics go through the tracker and the CSCs. A strategy exists to align the CSCs using the barrel as a reference until collision tracks become available. Aligning the ...

  14. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G.Gomez

    2011-01-01

    The Muon Alignment work now focuses on producing a new track-based alignment with higher track statistics, making systematic studies between the results of the hardware and track-based alignment methods and aligning the barrel using standalone muon tracks. Currently, the muon track reconstruction software uses a hardware-based alignment in the barrel (DT) and a track-based alignment in the endcaps (CSC). An important task is to assess the muon momentum resolution that can be achieved using the current muon alignment, especially for highly energetic muons. For this purpose, cosmic ray muons are used, since the rate of high-energy muons from collisions is very low and the event statistics are still limited. Cosmics have the advantage of higher statistics in the pT region above 100 GeV/c, but they have the disadvantage of having a mostly vertical topology, resulting in a very few global endcap muons. Only the barrel alignment has therefore been tested so far. Cosmic muons traversing CMS from top to bottom are s...

  15. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    Gervasio Gomez

    The main progress of the muon alignment group since March has been in the refinement of both the track-based alignment for the DTs and the hardware-based alignment for the CSCs. For DT track-based alignment, there has been significant improvement in the internal alignment of the superlayers inside the DTs. In particular, the distance between superlayers is now corrected, eliminating the residual dependence on track impact angles, and good agreement is found between survey and track-based corrections. The new internal geometry has been approved to be included in the forthcoming reprocessing of CRAFT samples. The alignment of DTs with respect to the tracker using global tracks has also improved significantly, since the algorithms use the latest B-field mapping, better run selection criteria, optimized momentum cuts, and an alignment is now obtained for all six degrees of freedom (three spatial coordinates and three rotations) of the aligned DTs. This work is ongoing and at a stage where we are trying to unders...

  16. A new prosthetic alignment device to read and record prosthesis alignment data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirouzi, Gholamhossein; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan; Ali, Sadeeq; Davoodi Makinejad, Majid

    2017-12-01

    Prosthetic alignment is an essential process to rehabilitate patients with amputations. This study presents, for the first time, an invented device to read and record prosthesis alignment data. The digital device consists of seven main parts: the trigger, internal shaft, shell, sensor adjustment button, digital display, sliding shell, and tip. The alignment data were read and recorded by the user or a computer to replicate prosthesis adjustment for future use or examine the sequence of changes in alignment and its effect on the posture of the patient. Alignment data were recorded at the anterior/posterior and medial/lateral positions for five patients. Results show the high level of confidence to record alignment data and replicate adjustments. Therefore, the device helps patients readjust their prosthesis by themselves, or prosthetists to perform adjustment for patients and analyze the effects of malalignment.

  17. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Gomez

    2011-01-01

    A new set of muon alignment constants was approved in August. The relative position between muon chambers is essentially unchanged, indicating good detector stability. The main changes concern the global positioning of the barrel and of the endcap rings to match the new Tracker geometry. Detailed studies of the differences between track-based and optical alignment of DTs have proven to be a valuable tool for constraining Tracker alignment weak modes, and this information is now being used as part of the alignment procedure. In addition to the “split-cosmic” analysis used to investigate the muon momentum resolution at high momentum, a new procedure based on reconstructing the invariant mass of di-muons from boosted Zs is under development. Both procedures show an improvement in the momentum precision of Global Muons with respect to Tracker-only Muons. Recent developments in track-based alignment include a better treatment of the tails of residual distributions and accounting for correla...

  18. AUTOMATIC SEGMENTATION OF BROADCAST AUDIO SIGNALS USING AUTO ASSOCIATIVE NEURAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Dhanalakshmi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe automatic segmentation methods for audio broadcast data. Today, digital audio applications are part of our everyday lives. Since there are more and more digital audio databases in place these days, the importance of effective management for audio databases have become prominent. Broadcast audio data is recorded from the Television which comprises of various categories of audio signals. Efficient algorithms for segmenting the audio broadcast data into predefined categories are proposed. Audio features namely Linear prediction coefficients (LPC, Linear prediction cepstral coefficients, and Mel frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC are extracted to characterize the audio data. Auto Associative Neural Networks are used to segment the audio data into predefined categories using the extracted features. Experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithms can produce satisfactory results.

  19. Combining Video, Audio and Lexical Indicators of Affect in Spontaneous Conversation via Particle Filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savran, Arman; Cao, Houwei; Shah, Miraj; Nenkova, Ani; Verma, Ragini

    2012-01-01

    We present experiments on fusing facial video, audio and lexical indicators for affect estimation during dyadic conversations. We use temporal statistics of texture descriptors extracted from facial video, a combination of various acoustic features, and lexical features to create regression based affect estimators for each modality. The single modality regressors are then combined using particle filtering, by treating these independent regression outputs as measurements of the affect states in a Bayesian filtering framework, where previous observations provide prediction about the current state by means of learned affect dynamics. Tested on the Audio-visual Emotion Recognition Challenge dataset, our single modality estimators achieve substantially higher scores than the official baseline method for every dimension of affect. Our filtering-based multi-modality fusion achieves correlation performance of 0.344 (baseline: 0.136) and 0.280 (baseline: 0.096) for the fully continuous and word level sub challenges, respectively.

  20. Hierarchical vs non-hierarchical audio indexation and classification for video genres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammak, Nouha; BenAyed, Yassine

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, Support Vector Machines (SVMs) are used for segmenting and indexing video genres based on only audio features extracted at block level, which has a prominent asset by capturing local temporal information. The main contribution of our study is to show the wide effect on the classification accuracies while using an hierarchical categorization structure based on Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) audio descriptor. In fact, the classification consists in three common video genres: sports videos, music clips and news scenes. The sub-classification may divide each genre into several multi-speaker and multi-dialect sub-genres. The validation of this approach was carried out on over 360 minutes of video span yielding a classification accuracy of over 99%.

  1. The implementation of Project-Based Learning in courses Audio Video to Improve Employability Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistiyo, Edy; Kustono, Djoko; Purnomo; Sutaji, Eddy

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a project-based learning (PjBL) in subjects with Audio Video the Study Programme Electro Engineering Universitas Negeri Surabaya which consists of two ways namely the design of the prototype audio-video and assessment activities project-based learning tailored to the skills of the 21st century in the form of employability skills. The purpose of learning innovation is applying the lab work obtained in the theory classes. The PjBL aims to motivate students, centering on the problems of teaching in accordance with the world of work. Measures of learning include; determine the fundamental questions, designs, develop a schedule, monitor the learners and progress, test the results, evaluate the experience, project assessment, and product assessment. The results of research conducted showed the level of mastery of the ability to design tasks (of 78.6%), technical planning (39,3%), creativity (42,9%), innovative (46,4%), problem solving skills (the 57.1%), skill to communicate (75%), oral expression (75%), searching and understanding information (to 64.3%), collaborative work skills (71,4%), and classroom conduct (of 78.6%). In conclusion, instructors have to do the reflection and make improvements in some of the aspects that have a level of mastery of the skills less than 60% both on the application of project-based learning courses, audio video.

  2. A Content-Adaptive Analysis and Representation Framework for Audio Event Discovery from "Unscripted" Multimedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Regunathan; Divakaran, Ajay; Xiong, Ziyou; Otsuka, Isao

    2006-12-01

    We propose a content-adaptive analysis and representation framework to discover events using audio features from "unscripted" multimedia such as sports and surveillance for summarization. The proposed analysis framework performs an inlier/outlier-based temporal segmentation of the content. It is motivated by the observation that "interesting" events in unscripted multimedia occur sparsely in a background of usual or "uninteresting" events. We treat the sequence of low/mid-level features extracted from the audio as a time series and identify subsequences that are outliers. The outlier detection is based on eigenvector analysis of the affinity matrix constructed from statistical models estimated from the subsequences of the time series. We define the confidence measure on each of the detected outliers as the probability that it is an outlier. Then, we establish a relationship between the parameters of the proposed framework and the confidence measure. Furthermore, we use the confidence measure to rank the detected outliers in terms of their departures from the background process. Our experimental results with sequences of low- and mid-level audio features extracted from sports video show that "highlight" events can be extracted effectively as outliers from a background process using the proposed framework. We proceed to show the effectiveness of the proposed framework in bringing out suspicious events from surveillance videos without any a priori knowledge. We show that such temporal segmentation into background and outliers, along with the ranking based on the departure from the background, can be used to generate content summaries of any desired length. Finally, we also show that the proposed framework can be used to systematically select "key audio classes" that are indicative of events of interest in the chosen domain.

  3. Effects of a Theory-Based Audio HIV/AIDS Intervention for Illiterate Rural Females in Amhara, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogale, Gebeyehu W.; Boer, Henk; Seydel, Erwin R.

    2011-01-01

    In Ethiopia the level of illiteracy in rural areas is very high. In this study, we investigated the effects of an audio HIV/AIDS prevention intervention targeted at rural illiterate females. In the intervention we used social-oriented presentation formats, such as discussion between similar females and role-play. In a pretest and posttest…

  4. Belt Aligning Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurchenko Vadim

    2017-01-01

    parts of the conveyor, the sides of the belt wear intensively. This results in reducing the life of the belt. The reasons for this phenomenon are well investigated, but the difficulty lies in the fact that they all act simultaneously. The belt misalignment prevention can be carried out in two ways: by minimizing the effect of causes and by aligning the belt. The construction of aligning devices and errors encountered in practice are considered in this paper. Self-aligning roller supports rotational in plan view are recommended as a means of combating the belt misalignment.

  5. Hybrid vehicle motor alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Michael Benjamin

    2001-07-03

    A rotor of an electric motor for a motor vehicle is aligned to an axis of rotation for a crankshaft of an internal combustion engine having an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. A locator is provided on the crankshaft, a piloting tool is located radially by the first locator to the crankshaft. A stator of the electric motor is aligned to a second locator provided on the piloting tool. The stator is secured to the engine block. The rotor is aligned to the crankshaft and secured thereto.

  6. Precision alignment device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, N.E.

    1988-03-10

    Apparatus for providing automatic alignment of beam devices having an associated structure for directing, collimating, focusing, reflecting, or otherwise modifying the main beam. A reference laser is attached to the structure enclosing the main beam producing apparatus and produces a reference beam substantially parallel to the main beam. Detector modules containing optical switching devices and optical detectors are positioned in the path of the reference beam and are effective to produce an electrical output indicative of the alignment of the main beam. This electrical output drives servomotor operated adjustment screws to adjust the position of elements of the structure associated with the main beam to maintain alignment of the main beam. 5 figs.

  7. Alignment for CSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shoujin; Man Kaidi; Guo Yizhen; Cai Guozhu; Guo Yuhui

    2002-01-01

    Cooled Storage Ring of Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL-CSR) belongs to China great scientific project in China. The alignment for it is very difficult because of very large area and very high accuracy. For the special case in HIRFL-CSR, some new methods and new instruments are used, including the construction of survey control network, the usage of laser tracker, and CSR alignment database system with applications developed to store and analyze data. The author describes the whole procedure of CSR alignment

  8. Methods in ALFA Alignment

    CERN Document Server

    Melendez, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    This note presents two model-independent methods for use in the alignment of the ALFA forward detectors. Using a Monte Carlo simulated LHC run at \\beta = 90m and \\sqrt{s} = 7 TeV, the Kinematic Peak alignment method is utilized to reconstruct the Mandelstam momentum transfer variable t for single-diractive protons. The Hot Spot method uses fluctuations in the hitmap density to pinpoint particular regions in the detector that could signal a misalignment. Another method uses an error function fit to find the detector edge. With this information, the vertical alignment can be determined.

  9. The Fungible Audio-Visual Mapping and its Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Sa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article draws a perceptual approach to audio-visual mapping. Clearly perceivable cause and effect relationships can be problematic if one desires the audience to experience the music. Indeed perception would bias those sonic qualities that fit previous concepts of causation, subordinating other sonic qualities, which may form the relations between the sounds themselves. The question is, how can an audio-visual mapping produce a sense of causation, and simultaneously confound the actual cause-effect relationships. We call this a fungible audio-visual mapping. Our aim here is to glean its constitution and aspect. We will report a study, which draws upon methods from experimental psychology to inform audio-visual instrument design and composition. The participants are shown several audio-visual mapping prototypes, after which we pose quantitative and qualitative questions regarding their sense of causation, and their sense of understanding the cause-effect relationships. The study shows that a fungible mapping requires both synchronized and seemingly non-related components – sufficient complexity to be confusing. As the specific cause-effect concepts remain inconclusive, the sense of causation embraces the whole. 

  10. Imagination and Modern Audio Visual Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Đurković

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Through three episodes Archetype of modern fairy tales, the mysterious world of fantasy and reality,tell as a serious story about archetypes, symbols, knowledge of good and evil. Rts editor: Natasa Neskovic Written and directed by: Suncica Jergovic Editing: Ana Djurkovic How to illuminate concept of phantasy and affective factors in our imagination a priori something so imaginary, by their genetic provenance, such as a movie scene, or digital picture and sound. You can not always avoid the association to a valid phrase of arnhajm’s truth: mass age -massage: the medium is the message. In elementary and tersely definition of „the shot“ from Plaževsky film language there is term for „le cadre“, however these are selected bits of reality, immanent frame that contains the individual act of images divided of the continent’s view of reality, handling the specific code of semantic value, when its’s imaginative, of course, by aesthetic categories and evaluations. In this type of positive simulacrum, it can not be better segment for the current thinking about the limits of imagination and truth in contemporary media, and contemporary global environment, than the original audio-visual forms through whose prism we search throught a fairy tale in a same time myth and imagination as well as exploring its overall impact on the personality. Everything can be a fairy tale, even false, amoral platitudes politicized by political lobbies in a contemporary existing power sistems, but this is no fairy tale authenticity in it, or creative act, nor humanity and artificial and historical entity of a man that is always present in the ethical effort of a true artist. So, we are investigating the conditions of creative images, modalities of audiovisual media in film language,and it is the archetype of the fairy tale, which, with its psychodynamics still exists and which is removed when the modern man is tired of lies and simulations during his global

  11. Towards Structural Analysis of Audio Recordings in the Presence of Musical Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Meinard

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available One major goal of structural analysis of an audio recording is to automatically extract the repetitive structure or, more generally, the musical form of the underlying piece of music. Recent approaches to this problem work well for music, where the repetitions largely agree with respect to instrumentation and tempo, as is typically the case for popular music. For other classes of music such as Western classical music, however, musically similar audio segments may exhibit significant variations in parameters such as dynamics, timbre, execution of note groups, modulation, articulation, and tempo progression. In this paper, we propose a robust and efficient algorithm for audio structure analysis, which allows to identify musically similar segments even in the presence of large variations in these parameters. To account for such variations, our main idea is to incorporate invariance at various levels simultaneously: we design a new type of statistical features to absorb microvariations, introduce an enhanced local distance measure to account for local variations, and describe a new strategy for structure extraction that can cope with the global variations. Our experimental results with classical and popular music show that our algorithm performs successfully even in the presence of significant musical variations.

  12. On Modeling Affect in Audio with Non-Linear Symbolic Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Mouawad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of semantic information from complex signals is a task concerned with connecting humans’ perceptions and/or intentions with the signals content. In the case of audio signals, complex perceptions are appraised in a listener’s mind, that trigger affective responses that may be relevant for well-being and survival. In this paper we are interested in the broader question of relations between uncertainty in data as measured using various information criteria and emotions, and we propose a novel method that combines nonlinear dynamics analysis with a method of adaptive time series symbolization that finds the meaningful audio structure in terms of symbolized recurrence properties. In a first phase we obtain symbolic recurrence quantification measures from symbolic recurrence plots, without the need to reconstruct the phase space with embedding. Then we estimate symbolic dynamical invariants from symbolized time series, after embedding. The invariants are: correlation dimension, correlation entropy and Lyapunov exponent. Through their application for the logistic map, we show that our measures are in agreement with known methods from literature. We further show that one symbolic recurrence measure, namely the symbolic Shannon entropy, correlates positively with the positive Lyapunov exponents. Finally we evaluate the performance of our measures in emotion recognition through the implementation of classification tasks for different types of audio signals, and show that in some cases, they perform better than state-of-the-art methods that rely on low-level acoustic features.

  13. A Perceptual Model for Sinusoidal Audio Coding Based on Spectral Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Søren Holdt

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychoacoustical models have been used extensively within audio coding applications over the past decades. Recently, parametric coding techniques have been applied to general audio and this has created the need for a psychoacoustical model that is specifically suited for sinusoidal modelling of audio signals. In this paper, we present a new perceptual model that predicts masked thresholds for sinusoidal distortions. The model relies on signal detection theory and incorporates more recent insights about spectral and temporal integration in auditory masking. As a consequence, the model is able to predict the distortion detectability. In fact, the distortion detectability defines a (perceptually relevant norm on the underlying signal space which is beneficial for optimisation algorithms such as rate-distortion optimisation or linear predictive coding. We evaluate the merits of the model by combining it with a sinusoidal extraction method and compare the results with those obtained with the ISO MPEG-1 Layer I-II recommended model. Listening tests show a clear preference for the new model. More specifically, the model presented here leads to a reduction of more than 20% in terms of number of sinusoids needed to represent signals at a given quality level.

  14. Impact of audio-visual storytelling in simulation learning experiences of undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Sandra; Parker, Christina N; Fox, Amanda

    2017-09-01

    Use of high fidelity simulation has become increasingly popular in nursing education to the extent that it is now an integral component of most nursing programs. Anecdotal evidence suggests that students have difficulty engaging with simulation manikins due to their unrealistic appearance. Introduction of the manikin as a 'real patient' with the use of an audio-visual narrative may engage students in the simulated learning experience and impact on their learning. A paucity of literature currently exists on the use of audio-visual narratives to enhance simulated learning experiences. This study aimed to determine if viewing an audio-visual narrative during a simulation pre-brief altered undergraduate nursing student perceptions of the learning experience. A quasi-experimental post-test design was utilised. A convenience sample of final year baccalaureate nursing students at a large metropolitan university. Participants completed a modified version of the Student Satisfaction with Simulation Experiences survey. This 12-item questionnaire contained questions relating to the ability to transfer skills learned in simulation to the real clinical world, the realism of the simulation and the overall value of the learning experience. Descriptive statistics were used to summarise demographic information. Two tailed, independent group t-tests were used to determine statistical differences within the categories. Findings indicated that students reported high levels of value, realism and transferability in relation to the viewing of an audio-visual narrative. Statistically significant results (t=2.38, psimulation to clinical practice. The subgroups of age and gender although not significant indicated some interesting results. High satisfaction with simulation was indicated by all students in relation to value and realism. There was a significant finding in relation to transferability on knowledge and this is vital to quality educational outcomes. Copyright © 2017. Published by

  15. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G.Gomez

    Since September, the muon alignment system shifted from a mode of hardware installation and commissioning to operation and data taking. All three optical subsystems (Barrel, Endcap and Link alignment) have recorded data before, during and after CRAFT, at different magnetic fields and during ramps of the magnet. This first data taking experience has several interesting goals: •    study detector deformations and movements under the influence of the huge magnetic forces; •    study the stability of detector structures and of the alignment system over long periods, •    study geometry reproducibility at equal fields (specially at 0T and 3.8T); •    reconstruct B=0T geometry and compare to nominal/survey geometries; •    reconstruct B=3.8T geometry and provide DT and CSC alignment records for CMSSW. However, the main goal is to recons...

  16. Alignment of CEBAF cryomodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, W.J.; Bisognano, J.J.; Fischer, J.

    1993-06-01

    CEBAF, the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, when completed, will house a 4 GeV recirculating accelerator. Each of the accelerator's two linacs contains 160 superconducting radio frequency (SRF) 1497 MHz niobium cavities in 20 cryomodules. Alignments of the cavities within the cryomodule with respect to beam axis is critical to achieving the optimum accelerator performance. This paper discusses the rationale for the current specification on cavity mechanical alignment: 2 mrad (rms) applied to the 0.5 m active length cavities. We describe the tooling that was developed to achieve the tolerance at the time of cavity pair assembly, to preserve and integrate alignment during cryomodule assembly, and to translate alignment to appropriate installation in the beam line

  17. Biaxial magnetic grain alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staines, M.; Genoud, J.-Y.; Mawdsley, A.; Manojlovic, V.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: We describe a dynamic magnetic grain alignment technique which can be used to produce YBCO thick films with a high degree of biaxial texture. The technique is, however, generally applicable to preparing ceramics or composite materials from granular materials with orthorhombic or lower crystal symmetry and is therefore not restricted to superconducting applications. Because magnetic alignment is a bulk effect, textured substrates are not required, unlike epitaxial coated tape processes such as RABiTS. We have used the technique to produce thick films of Y-247 on untextured silver substrates. After processing to Y-123 the films show a clear enhancement of critical current density relative to identically prepared untextured or uniaxially textured samples. We describe procedures for preparing materials using magnetic biaxial grain alignment with the emphasis on alignment in epoxy, which can give extremely high texture. X-ray rocking curves with FWHM of as little as 1-2 degrees have been measured

  18. One Message, Many Voices: Mobile Audio Counselling in Health Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimmer, Christoph; Mbvundula, Francis

    2018-01-01

    Health workers' use of counselling information on their mobile phones for health education is a central but little understood phenomenon in numerous mobile health (mHealth) projects in Sub-Saharan Africa. Drawing on empirical data from an interpretive case study in the setting of the Millennium Villages Project in rural Malawi, this research investigates the ways in which community health workers (CHWs) perceive that audio-counselling messages support their health education practice. Three main themes emerged from the analysis: phone-aided audio counselling (1) legitimises the CHWs' use of mobile phones during household visits; (2) helps CHWs to deliver a comprehensive counselling message; (3) supports CHWs in persuading communities to change their health practices. The findings show the complexity and interplay of the multi-faceted, sociocultural, political, and socioemotional meanings associated with audio-counselling use. Practical implications and the demand for further research are discussed.

  19. Sistema de adquisición y procesamiento de audio

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Segurado, Rubén

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo de este proyecto es el diseño y la implementación de una plataforma para un sistema de procesamiento de audio. El sistema recibirá una señal de audio analógica desde una fuente de audio, permitirá realizar un tratamiento digital de dicha señal y generará una señal procesada que se enviará a unos altavoces externos. Para la realización del sistema de procesamiento se empleará: - Un dispositivo FPGA de Lattice, modelo MachX02-7000-HE, en la cual estarán todas la...

  20. Music Identification System Using MPEG-7 Audio Signature Descriptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Shingchern D.; Chen, Wei-Hwa; Chen, Woei-Kae

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a multiresolution system based on MPEG-7 audio signature descriptors for music identification. Such an identification system may be used to detect illegally copied music circulated over the Internet. In the proposed system, low-resolution descriptors are used to search likely candidates, and then full-resolution descriptors are used to identify the unknown (query) audio. With this arrangement, the proposed system achieves both high speed and high accuracy. To deal with the problem that a piece of query audio may not be inside the system's database, we suggest two different methods to find the decision threshold. Simulation results show that the proposed method II can achieve an accuracy of 99.4% for query inputs both inside and outside the database. Overall, it is highly possible to use the proposed system for copyright control. PMID:23533359

  1. Music Identification System Using MPEG-7 Audio Signature Descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingchern D. You

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a multiresolution system based on MPEG-7 audio signature descriptors for music identification. Such an identification system may be used to detect illegally copied music circulated over the Internet. In the proposed system, low-resolution descriptors are used to search likely candidates, and then full-resolution descriptors are used to identify the unknown (query audio. With this arrangement, the proposed system achieves both high speed and high accuracy. To deal with the problem that a piece of query audio may not be inside the system’s database, we suggest two different methods to find the decision threshold. Simulation results show that the proposed method II can achieve an accuracy of 99.4% for query inputs both inside and outside the database. Overall, it is highly possible to use the proposed system for copyright control.

  2. Technical Evaluation Report 31: Internet Audio Products (3/ 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Rudolph

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Two contrasting additions to the online audio market are reviewed: iVocalize, a browser-based audio-conferencing software, and Skype, a PC-to-PC Internet telephone tool. These products are selected for review on the basis of their success in gaining rapid popular attention and usage during 2003-04. The iVocalize review emphasizes the product’s role in the development of a series of successful online audio communities – notably several serving visually impaired users. The Skype review stresses the ease with which the product may be used for simultaneous PC-to-PC communication among up to five users. Editor’s Note: This paper serves as an introduction to reports about online community building, and reviews of online products for disabled persons, in the next ten reports in this series. JPB, Series Ed.

  3. Audio effects on haptics perception during drilling simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yair Valbuena

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Virtual reality has provided immersion and interactions through computer generated environments attempting to reproduce real life experiences through sensorial stimuli. Realism can be achieved through multimodal interactions which can enhance the user’s presence within the computer generated world. The most notorious advances in virtual reality can be seen in computer graphics visuals, where photorealism is the norm thriving to overcome the uncanny valley. Other advances have followed related to sound, haptics, and in a lesser manner smell and taste feedback. Currently, virtual reality systems (multimodal immersion and interactions through visual-haptic-sound are being massively used in entertainment (e.g., cinema, video games, art, and in non-entertainment scenarios (e.g., social inclusion, educational, training, therapy, and tourism. Moreover, the cost reduction of virtual reality technologies has resulted in the availability at a consumer-level of various haptic, headsets, and motion tracking devices. Current consumer-level devices offer low-fidelity experiences due to the properties of the sensors, displays, and other electro-mechanical devices, that may not be suitable for high-precision or realistic experiences requiring dexterity. However, research has been conducted on how toovercome or compensate the lack of high fidelity to provide an engaging user experience using storytelling, multimodal interactions and gaming elements. Our work focuses on analyzing the possible effects of auditory perception on haptic feedback within a drilling scenario. Drilling involves multimodal interactions and it is a task with multiple applications in medicine, crafting, and construction. We compare two drilling scenarios were two groups of participants had to drill through wood while listening to contextual and non-contextual audios. We gathered their perception using a survey after the task completion. From the results, we believe that sound does

  4. Pairwise Sequence Alignment Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-05-20

    Vector extensions, such as SSE, have been part of the x86 CPU since the 1990s, with applications in graphics, signal processing, and scientific applications. Although many algorithms and applications can naturally benefit from automatic vectorization techniques, there are still many that are difficult to vectorize due to their dependence on irregular data structures, dense branch operations, or data dependencies. Sequence alignment, one of the most widely used operations in bioinformatics workflows, has a computational footprint that features complex data dependencies. The trend of widening vector registers adversely affects the state-of-the-art sequence alignment algorithm based on striped data layouts. Therefore, a novel SIMD implementation of a parallel scan-based sequence alignment algorithm that can better exploit wider SIMD units was implemented as part of the Parallel Sequence Alignment Library (parasail). Parasail features: Reference implementations of all known vectorized sequence alignment approaches. Implementations of Smith Waterman (SW), semi-global (SG), and Needleman Wunsch (NW) sequence alignment algorithms. Implementations across all modern CPU instruction sets including AVX2 and KNC. Language interfaces for C/C++ and Python.

  5. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    S. Szillasi

    2013-01-01

    The CMS detector has been gradually opened and whenever a wheel became exposed the first operation was the removal of the MABs, the sensor structures of the Hardware Barrel Alignment System. By the last days of June all 36 MABs have arrived at the Alignment Lab at the ISR where, as part of the Alignment Upgrade Project, they are refurbished with new Survey target holders. Their electronic checkout is on the way and finally they will be recalibrated. During LS1 the alignment system will be upgraded in order to allow more precise reconstruction of the MB4 chambers in Sector 10 and Sector 4. This requires new sensor components, so called MiniMABs (pictured below), that have already been assembled and calibrated. Image 6: Calibrated MiniMABs are ready for installation For the track-based alignment, the systematic uncertainties of the algorithm are under scrutiny: this study will enable the production of an improved Monte Carlo misalignment scenario and to update alignment position errors eventually, crucial...

  6. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Gomez

    2012-01-01

      A new muon alignment has been produced for 2012 A+B data reconstruction. It uses the latest Tracker alignment and single-muon data samples to align both DTs and CSCs. Physics validation has been performed and shows a modest improvement in stand-alone muon momentum resolution in the barrel, where the alignment is essentially unchanged from the previous version. The reference-target track-based algorithm using only collision muons is employed for the first time to align the CSCs, and a substantial improvement in resolution is observed in the endcap and overlap regions for stand-alone muons. This new alignment is undergoing the approval process and is expected to be deployed as part of a new global tag in the beginning of December. The pT dependence of the φ-bias in curvature observed in Monte Carlo was traced to a relative vertical misalignment between the Tracker and barrel muon systems. Moving the barrel as a whole to match the Tracker cures this pT dependence, leaving only the &phi...

  7. Business-IT Alignment in Trade Facilitation: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaba, Godfried; Rusu, Lazar; El-Mekawy, Mohamed

    In the information age, no organization can thrive without harnessing the power of IT. The effective deployment of IT to achieve business goals and gain competitive advantage requires the alignment of business and IT strategies of organizations. Using the Strategic Alignment Maturity model, this paper evaluates strategic alignment maturity of Customs Excise Preventive service, a frontline public organization charged with trade facilitation in Ghana. Strategic alignment maturity is at level 3; which implies the existence of an established process to leverage IT for efficiency and effectiveness. Efforts are required to strengthen alignment and fully harness the potential of IT to facilitate trade in Ghana.

  8. Class-D audio amplifiers with negative feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Stephen M.; Candy, B. H.

    2006-01-01

    There are many different designs for audio amplifiers. Class-D, or switching, amplifiers generate their output signal in the form of a high-frequency square wave of variable duty cycle (ratio of on time to off time). The square-wave nature of the output allows a particularly efficient output stage, with minimal losses. The output is ultimately filtered to remove components of the spectrum above the audio range. Mathematical models are derived here for a variety of related class-D amplifier de...

  9. A second-order class-D audio amplifier

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Stephen M.; Tan, M.T.; Yu, J.

    2011-01-01

    Class-D audio amplifiers are particularly efficient, and this efficiency has led to their ubiquity in a wide range of modern electronic appliances. Their output takes the form of a high-frequency square wave whose duty cycle (ratio of on-time to off-time) is modulated at low frequency according to the audio signal. A mathematical model is developed here for a second-order class-D amplifier design (i.e., containing one second-order integrator) with negative feedback. We derive exact expression...

  10. Design of a WAV audio player based on K20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The designed player uses the Freescale Company’s MK20DX128VLH7 as the core control ship, and its hardware platform is equipped with VS1003 audio decoder, OLED display interface, USB interface and SD card slot. The player uses the open source embedded real-time operating system μC/OS-II, Freescale USB Stack V4.1.1 and FATFS, and a graphical user interface is developed to improve the user experience based on CGUI. In general, the designed WAV audio player has a strong applicability and a good practical value.

  11. Cambridge English First 2 audio CDs : authentic examination papers

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Four authentic Cambridge English Language Assessment examination papers for the Cambridge English: First (FCE) exam. These examination papers for the Cambridge English: First (FCE) exam provide the most authentic exam preparation available, allowing candidates to familiarise themselves with the content and format of the exam and to practise useful exam techniques. The Audio CDs contain the recorded material to allow thorough preparation for the Listening paper and are designed to be used with the Student's Book. A Student's Book with or without answers and a Student's Book with answers and downloadable Audio are available separately. These tests are also available as Cambridge English: First Tests 5-8 on Testbank.org.uk

  12. Audio engineering 101 a beginner's guide to music production

    CERN Document Server

    Dittmar, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Audio Engineering 101 is a real world guide for starting out in the recording industry. If you have the dream, the ideas, the music and the creativity but don't know where to start, then this book is for you!Filled with practical advice on how to navigate the recording world, from an author with first-hand, real-life experience, Audio Engineering 101 will help you succeed in the exciting, but tough and confusing, music industry. Covering all you need to know about the recording process, from the characteristics of sound to a guide to microphones to analog versus digital

  13. Animation, audio, and spatial ability: Optimizing multimedia for scientific explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroghlanian, Carol May

    This study investigated the effects of audio, animation and spatial ability in a computer based instructional program for biology. The program presented instructional material via text or audio with lean text and included eight instructional sequences presented either via static illustrations or animations. High school students enrolled in a biology course were blocked by spatial ability and randomly assigned to one of four treatments (Text-Static Illustration Audio-Static Illustration, Text-Animation, Audio-Animation). The study examined the effects of instructional mode (Text vs. Audio), illustration mode (Static Illustration vs. Animation) and spatial ability (Low vs. High) on practice and posttest achievement, attitude and time. Results for practice achievement indicated that high spatial ability participants achieved more than low spatial ability participants. Similar results for posttest achievement and spatial ability were not found. Participants in the Static Illustration treatments achieved the same as participants in the Animation treatments on both the practice and posttest. Likewise, participants in the Text treatments achieved the same as participants in the Audio treatments on both the practice and posttest. In terms of attitude, participants responded favorably to the computer based instructional program. They found the program interesting, felt the static illustrations or animations made the explanations easier to understand and concentrated on learning the material. Furthermore, participants in the Animation treatments felt the information was easier to understand than participants in the Static Illustration treatments. However, no difference for any attitude item was found for participants in the Text as compared to those in the Audio treatments. Significant differences were found by Spatial Ability for three attitude items concerning concentration and interest. In all three items, the low spatial ability participants responded more positively

  14. Minimizing Crosstalk in Self Oscillating Switch Mode Audio Power Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Arnold; Ploug, Rasmus Overgaard

    2012-01-01

    a method to minimize this phenomenon by improving the integrity of the various power distribution systems of the amplifier. The method is then applied to an amplifier built for this investigation. The results show that the crosstalk is suppressed with 30 dB, but is not entirely eliminated......The varying switching frequencies of self oscillating switch mode audio amplifiers have been known to cause interchannel intermodulation disturbances in multi channel configurations. This crosstalk phenomenon has a negative impact on the audio performance. The goal of this paper is to present...

  15. Can audio recording of outpatient consultations improve patient outcome?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolderslund, Maiken; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Axboe, Mette

    different departments: Orthopedics, Urology, Internal Medicine and Pediatrics. A total of 5,460 patients will be included from the outpatient clinics. All patients randomized to an intervention group are offered audio recording of their consultation. An Interactive Voice Response platform enables an audio....... The intervention will be evaluated using a questionnaire measuring different aspect of patients recall and understanding of the information given, patients need for additional information subsequent to the consultation and their overall satisfaction with the consultation. Results The study will be conducted from...

  16. A conceptual framework for audio-visual museum media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkedahl Lysholm Nielsen, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    In today's history museums, the past is communicated through many other means than original artefacts. This interdisciplinary and theoretical article suggests a new approach to studying the use of audio-visual media, such as film, video and related media types, in a museum context. The centre...... and museum studies, existing case studies, and real life observations, the suggested framework instead stress particular characteristics of contextual use of audio-visual media in history museums, such as authenticity, virtuality, interativity, social context and spatial attributes of the communication...

  17. The Single- and Multichannel Audio Recordings Database (SMARD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2014-01-01

    A new single- and multichannel audio recordings database (SMARD) is presented in this paper. The database contains recordings from a box-shaped listening room for various loudspeaker and array types. The recordings were made for 48 different configurations of three different loudspeakers and four...... different microphone arrays. In each configuration, 20 different audio segments were played and recorded ranging from simple artificial sounds to polyphonic music. SMARD can be used for testing algorithms developed for numerous application, and we give examples of source localisation results....

  18. The Dynamics and Neural Correlates of Audio-Visual Integration Capacity as Determined by Temporal Unpredictability, Proactive Interference, and SOA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M P Wilbiks

    Full Text Available Over 5 experiments, we challenge the idea that the capacity of audio-visual integration need be fixed at 1 item. We observe that the conditions under which audio-visual integration is most likely to exceed 1 occur when stimulus change operates at a slow rather than fast rate of presentation and when the task is of intermediate difficulty such as when low levels of proactive interference (3 rather than 8 interfering visual presentations are combined with the temporal unpredictability of the critical frame (Experiment 2, or, high levels of proactive interference are combined with the temporal predictability of the critical frame (Experiment 4. Neural data suggest that capacity might also be determined by the quality of perceptual information entering working memory. Experiment 5 supported the proposition that audio-visual integration was at play during the previous experiments. The data are consistent with the dynamic nature usually associated with cross-modal binding, and while audio-visual integration capacity likely cannot exceed uni-modal capacity estimates, performance may be better than being able to associate only one visual stimulus with one auditory stimulus.

  19. The Dynamics and Neural Correlates of Audio-Visual Integration Capacity as Determined by Temporal Unpredictability, Proactive Interference, and SOA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbiks, Jonathan M P; Dyson, Benjamin J

    2016-01-01

    Over 5 experiments, we challenge the idea that the capacity of audio-visual integration need be fixed at 1 item. We observe that the conditions under which audio-visual integration is most likely to exceed 1 occur when stimulus change operates at a slow rather than fast rate of presentation and when the task is of intermediate difficulty such as when low levels of proactive interference (3 rather than 8 interfering visual presentations) are combined with the temporal unpredictability of the critical frame (Experiment 2), or, high levels of proactive interference are combined with the temporal predictability of the critical frame (Experiment 4). Neural data suggest that capacity might also be determined by the quality of perceptual information entering working memory. Experiment 5 supported the proposition that audio-visual integration was at play during the previous experiments. The data are consistent with the dynamic nature usually associated with cross-modal binding, and while audio-visual integration capacity likely cannot exceed uni-modal capacity estimates, performance may be better than being able to associate only one visual stimulus with one auditory stimulus.

  20. DNAAlignEditor: DNA alignment editor tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guill Katherine E

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With advances in DNA re-sequencing methods and Next-Generation parallel sequencing approaches, there has been a large increase in genomic efforts to define and analyze the sequence variability present among individuals within a species. For very polymorphic species such as maize, this has lead to a need for intuitive, user-friendly software that aids the biologist, often with naïve programming capability, in tracking, editing, displaying, and exporting multiple individual sequence alignments. To fill this need we have developed a novel DNA alignment editor. Results We have generated a nucleotide sequence alignment editor (DNAAlignEditor that provides an intuitive, user-friendly interface for manual editing of multiple sequence alignments with functions for input, editing, and output of sequence alignments. The color-coding of nucleotide identity and the display of associated quality score aids in the manual alignment editing process. DNAAlignEditor works as a client/server tool having two main components: a relational database that collects the processed alignments and a user interface connected to database through universal data access connectivity drivers. DNAAlignEditor can be used either as a stand-alone application or as a network application with multiple users concurrently connected. Conclusion We anticipate that this software will be of general interest to biologists and population genetics in editing DNA sequence alignments and analyzing natural sequence variation regardless of species, and will be particularly useful for manual alignment editing of sequences in species with high levels of polymorphism.

  1. Effect of archwire cross-section changes on force levels during complex tooth alignment with conventional and self-ligating brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montasser, Mona A; Keilig, Ludger; El-Bialy, Tarek; Reimann, Susanne; Jäger, Andreas; Bourauel, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Our objective was to investigate the effect of archwire cross-section increases on the levels of force applied to teeth during complex malalignment correction with various archwire-bracket combinations using an experimental biomechanical setup. The study comprised 3 types of orthodontic brackets: (1) conventional ligating brackets (Victory Series [3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif] and Mini-Taurus [Rocky Mountain Orthodontics, Denver, Colo]), (2) self-ligating brackets (SmartClip, a passive self-ligating bracket [3M Unitek]; and Time3 [Rocky Mountain Orthodontics, Denver, Colo] and SPEED [Strite Industries, Cambridge, Ontario, Canada], both active self-ligating brackets), and (3) a conventional low-friction bracket (Synergy [Rocky Mountain Orthodontics]). All brackets had a nominal 0.022-in slot size. The brackets were combined with 0.014-in and 0.016-in titanium memory wires, Therma-Ti archwires (American Orthodontics, Sheboygan, Wis). The archwires were tied to the conventional brackets with both stainless steel ligatures of size 0.010-in and elastomeric rings. A malocclusion of the maxillary central incisor displaced 2 mm gingivally (x-axis) and 2 mm labially (z-axis) was simulated. The forces recorded when using the 0.014-in archwires ranged from 1.7 ± 0.1 to 5.0 ± 0.3 N in the x-axis direction, and from 1.2 ± 0.1 to 5.5 ± 0.3 N in the z-axis direction. When we used the 0.016-in archwires, the forces ranged from 2.6 ± 0.1 to 6.0 ± 0.3 N in the x-axis direction, and from 2.0 ± 0.2 to 6.0 ± 0.4 N in the z-axis direction. Overall, the increases ranged from 16.0% to 120.0% in the x-axis and from 10.4% to 130.0% in the z-axis directions. Increasing the cross section of the wire increased the force level invariably with all brackets. Wires of size 0.014 in produced relatively high force levels, and the force level increased with 0.016-in wires. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Gomez

    2010-01-01

    For the last three months, the Muon Alignment group has focussed on providing a new, improved set of alignment constants for the end-of-year data reprocessing. These constants were delivered on time and approved by the CMS physics validation team on November 17. The new alignment incorporates several improvements over the previous one from March for nearly all sub-systems. Motivated by the loss of information from a hardware failure in May (an entire MAB was lost), the optical barrel alignment has moved from a modular, super-plane reconstruction, to a full, single loop calculation of the entire geometry for all DTs in stations 1, 2 and 3. This makes better use of the system redundancy, mitigating the effect of the information loss. Station 4 is factorised and added afterwards to make the system smaller (and therefore faster to run), and also because the MAB calibration at the MB4 zone is less precise. This new alignment procedure was tested at 0 T against photogrammetry resulting in precisions of the order...

  3. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Dallavalle

    2013-01-01

    A new Muon misalignment scenario for 2011 (7 TeV) Monte Carlo re-processing was re-leased. The scenario is based on running of standard track-based reference-target algorithm (exactly as in data) using single-muon simulated sample (with the transverse-momentum spectrum matching data). It used statistics similar to what was used for alignment with 2011 data, starting from an initially misaligned Muon geometry from uncertainties of hardware measurements and using the latest Tracker misalignment geometry. Validation of the scenario (with muons from Z decay and high-pT simulated muons) shows that it describes data well. The study of systematic uncertainties (dominant by now due to huge amount of data collected by CMS and used for muon alignment) is finalised. Realistic alignment position errors are being obtained from the estimated uncertainties and are expected to improve the muon reconstruction performance. Concerning the Hardware Alignment System, the upgrade of the Barrel Alignment is in progress. By now, d...

  4. Probabilistic biological network alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todor, Andrei; Dobra, Alin; Kahveci, Tamer

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between molecules are probabilistic events. An interaction may or may not happen with some probability, depending on a variety of factors such as the size, abundance, or proximity of the interacting molecules. In this paper, we consider the problem of aligning two biological networks. Unlike existing methods, we allow one of the two networks to contain probabilistic interactions. Allowing interaction probabilities makes the alignment more biologically relevant at the expense of explosive growth in the number of alternative topologies that may arise from different subsets of interactions that take place. We develop a novel method that efficiently and precisely characterizes this massive search space. We represent the topological similarity between pairs of aligned molecules (i.e., proteins) with the help of random variables and compute their expected values. We validate our method showing that, without sacrificing the running time performance, it can produce novel alignments. Our results also demonstrate that our method identifies biologically meaningful mappings under a comprehensive set of criteria used in the literature as well as the statistical coherence measure that we developed to analyze the statistical significance of the similarity of the functions of the aligned protein pairs.

  5. Evaluation of an Audio Cassette Tape Lecture Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Jerome W.

    1975-01-01

    An audio-cassette continuing education course (Selected Topics in Pharmacology) from Extension Services in Pharmacy at the University of Wisconsin was offered to a selected test market of pharmacists and evaluated using a pre-, post-test design. Results showed significant increase in cognitive knowledge and strong approval of students. (JT)

  6. Audio-visual materials usage preference among agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was found that respondents preferred radio, television, poster, advert, photographs, specimen, bulletin, magazine, cinema, videotape, chalkboard, and bulletin board as audio-visual materials for extension work. These are the materials that can easily be manipulated and utilized for extension work. Nigerian Journal of ...

  7. Streaming Audio and Video: New Challenges and Opportunities for Museums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadaccini, Jim

    Streaming audio and video present new challenges and opportunities for museums. Streaming media is easier to author and deliver to Internet audiences than ever before; digital video editing is commonplace now that the tools--computers, digital video cameras, and hard drives--are so affordable; the cost of serving video files across the Internet…

  8. A Power Efficient Audio Amplifier Combining Switching and Linear Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, Ronan A.R.; van Tuijl, Adrianus Johannes Maria

    1998-01-01

    Integrated Class D audio amplifiers are very power efficient, but require an external filter which prevents further integration. Also due to this filter, large feedback factors are hard to realise, so that the load influences the distortion- and transfer characteristics. The amplifier presented in

  9. Turkish Music Genre Classification using Audio and Lyrics Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Önder ÇOBAN

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Music Information Retrieval (MIR has become a popular research area in recent years. In this context, researchers have developed music information systems to find solutions for such major problems as automatic playlist creation, hit song detection, and music genre or mood classification. Meta-data information, lyrics, or melodic content of music are used as feature resource in previous works. However, lyrics do not often used in MIR systems and the number of works in this field is not enough especially for Turkish. In this paper, firstly, we have extended our previously created Turkish MIR (TMIR dataset, which comprises of Turkish lyrics, by including the audio file of each song. Secondly, we have investigated the effect of using audio and textual features together or separately on automatic Music Genre Classification (MGC. We have extracted textual features from lyrics using different feature extraction models such as word2vec and traditional Bag of Words. We have conducted our experiments on Support Vector Machine (SVM algorithm and analysed the impact of feature selection and different feature groups on MGC. We have considered lyrics based MGC as a text classification task and also investigated the effect of term weighting method. Experimental results show that textual features can also be effective as well as audio features for Turkish MGC, especially when a supervised term weighting method is employed. We have achieved the highest success rate as 99,12\\% by using both audio and textual features together.

  10. Improved Techniques for Automatic Chord Recognition from Music Audio Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Taemin

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the development of techniques that facilitate the effective implementation of capable automatic chord transcription from music audio signals. Since chord transcriptions can capture many important aspects of music, they are useful for a wide variety of music applications and also useful for people who learn and perform…

  11. Haptic and Visual feedback in 3D Audio Mixing Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelineck, Steven; Overholt, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation and informal evaluation of a user interface that explores haptic feedback for 3D audio mixing. The implementation compares different approaches using either the LEAP Motion for mid-air hand gesture control, or the Novint Falcon for active haptic feed- back...

  12. Audio-Visual Aid in Teaching "Fatty Liver"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Sambit; Kamath, Ullas; Rao, Guruprasad; Prakash, Jay; Mishra, Snigdha

    2016-01-01

    Use of audio visual tools to aid in medical education is ever on a rise. Our study intends to find the efficacy of a video prepared on "fatty liver," a topic that is often a challenge for pre-clinical teachers, in enhancing cognitive processing and ultimately learning. We prepared a video presentation of 11:36 min, incorporating various…

  13. Studies on a Spatialized Audio Interface for Sonar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    addition of spatialized audio to visual displays for sonar is much akin to the development of talking movies in the early days of cinema and can be...than using the brute-force approach. PCA is one among several techniques that share similarities with the computational architecture of a

  14. The Role of Audio Media in the Lives of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Peter G.; Lindlof, Thomas R.

    Mass communication researchers have largely ignored the role of audio media and popular music in the lives of children, yet the available evidence shows that children do listen. Extant studies yield a consistent developmental portrait of childrens' listening frequency, but there is a notable lack of programatic research over the past decade, one…

  15. The relationship between basic audio quality and overall listening experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeffler, Michael; Herre, Jürgen

    2016-09-01

    Basic audio quality (BAQ) is a well-known perceptual attribute, which is rated in various listening test methods to measure the performance of audio systems. Unfortunately, when it comes to purchasing audio systems, BAQ might not have a significant influence on the customers' buying decisions since other factors, like brand loyalty, might be more important. In contrast to BAQ, overall listening experience (OLE) is an affective attribute which incorporates all aspects that are important to an individual assessor, including his or her preference for music genre and audio quality. In this work, the relationship between BAQ and OLE is investigated in more detail. To this end, an experiment was carried out, in which participants rated the BAQ and the OLE of music excerpts with different timbral and spatial degradations. In a between-group-design procedure, participants were assigned into two groups, in each of which a different set of stimuli was rated. The results indicate that rating of both attributes, BAQ and OLE, leads to similar rankings, even if a different set of stimuli is rated. In contrast to the BAQ ratings, which were more influenced by timbral than spatial degradations, the OLE ratings were almost equally influenced by timbral and spatial degradations.

  16. Market potential for interactive audio-visual media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leurdijk, A.; Limonard, S.

    2005-01-01

    NM2 (New Media for a New Millennium) develops tools for interactive, personalised and non-linear audio-visual content that will be tested in seven pilot productions. This paper looks at the market potential for these productions from a technological, a business and a users' perspective. It shows

  17. Towards a universal representation for audio information retrieval and analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjørn Sand; Troelsgaard, Rasmus; Larsen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental and general representation of audio and music which integrates multi-modal data sources is important for both application and basic research purposes. In this paper we address this challenge by proposing a multi-modal version of the Latent Dirichlet Allocation model which provides a...

  18. Computationally efficient clustering of audio-visual meeting data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hung, H.; Friedland, G.; Yeo, C.; Shao, L.; Shan, C.; Luo, J.; Etoh, M.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter presents novel computationally efficient algorithms to extract semantically meaningful acoustic and visual events related to each of the participants in a group discussion using the example of business meeting recordings. The recording setup involves relatively few audio-visual sensors,

  19. Audio Quality Assurance : An Application of Cross Correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurik, Bolette Ammitzbøll; Nielsen, Jesper Asbjørn Sindahl

    2012-01-01

    We describe algorithms for automated quality assurance on content of audio files in context of preservation actions and access. The algorithms use cross correlation to compare the sound waves. They are used to do overlap analysis in an access scenario, where preserved radio broadcasts are used in...

  20. Real-time Loudspeaker Distance Estimation with Stereo Audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Gaubitch, Nikolay; Heusdens, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge on how a number of loudspeakers are positioned relative to a listening position can be used to enhance the listening experience. Usually, these loudspeaker positions are estimated using calibration signals, either audible or psycho-acoustically hidden inside the desired audio signal...

  1. Audio-Visual Perception System for a Humanoid Robotic Head

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Viciana-Abad

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the main issues within the field of social robotics is to endow robots with the ability to direct attention to people with whom they are interacting. Different approaches follow bio-inspired mechanisms, merging audio and visual cues to localize a person using multiple sensors. However, most of these fusion mechanisms have been used in fixed systems, such as those used in video-conference rooms, and thus, they may incur difficulties when constrained to the sensors with which a robot can be equipped. Besides, within the scope of interactive autonomous robots, there is a lack in terms of evaluating the benefits of audio-visual attention mechanisms, compared to only audio or visual approaches, in real scenarios. Most of the tests conducted have been within controlled environments, at short distances and/or with off-line performance measurements. With the goal of demonstrating the benefit of fusing sensory information with a Bayes inference for interactive robotics, this paper presents a system for localizing a person by processing visual and audio data. Moreover, the performance of this system is evaluated and compared via considering the technical limitations of unimodal systems. The experiments show the promise of the proposed approach for the proactive detection and tracking of speakers in a human-robot interactive framework.

  2. Photoresist thin-film effects on alignment process capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Gary E.; Flack, Warren W.

    1993-08-01

    Two photoresists were selected for alignment characterization based on their dissimilar coating properties and observed differences on alignment capability. The materials are Dynachem OFPR-800 and Shipley System 8. Both photoresists were examined on two challenging alignment levels in a submicron CMOS process, a nitride level and a planarized second level metal. An Ultratech Stepper model 1500 which features a darkfield alignment system with a broadband green light for alignment signal detection was used for this project. Initially, statistically designed linear screening experiments were performed to examine six process factors for each photoresist: viscosity, spin acceleration, spin speed, spin time, softbake time, and softbake temperature. Using the results derived from the screening experiments, a more thorough examination of the statistically significant process factors was performed. A full quadratic experimental design was conducted to examine viscosity, spin speed, and spin time coating properties on alignment. This included a characterization of both intra and inter wafer alignment control and alignment process capability. Insight to the different alignment behavior is analyzed in terms of photoresist material properties and the physical nature of the alignment detection system.

  3. Aligning Responsible Business Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weller, Angeli E.

    2017-01-01

    This article offers an in-depth case study of a global high tech manufacturer that aligned its ethics and compliance, corporate social responsibility, and sustainability practices. Few large companies organize their responsible business practices this way, despite conceptual relevance and calls t...... and managers interested in understanding how responsible business practices may be collectively organized.......This article offers an in-depth case study of a global high tech manufacturer that aligned its ethics and compliance, corporate social responsibility, and sustainability practices. Few large companies organize their responsible business practices this way, despite conceptual relevance and calls...... to manage them comprehensively. A communities of practice theoretical lens suggests that intentional effort would be needed to bridge meaning between the relevant managers and practices in order to achieve alignment. The findings call attention to the important role played by employees who broker...

  4. FMIT alignment cart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, R.C.; Dauelsberg, L.B.; Clark, D.C.; Grieggs, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility alignment cart must perform several functions. It must serve as a fixture to receive the drift-tube girder assembly when it is removed from the linac tank. It must transport the girder assembly from the linac vault to the area where alignment or disassembly is to take place. It must serve as a disassembly fixture to hold the girder while individual drift tubes are removed for repair. It must align the drift tube bores in a straight line parallel to the girder, using an optical system. These functions must be performed without violating any clearances found within the building. The bore tubes of the drift tubes will be irradiated, and shielding will be included in the system for easier maintenance

  5. Alignment of whole genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcher, A L; Kasif, S; Fleischmann, R D; Peterson, J; White, O; Salzberg, S L

    1999-01-01

    A new system for aligning whole genome sequences is described. Using an efficient data structure called a suffix tree, the system is able to rapidly align sequences containing millions of nucleotides. Its use is demonstrated on two strains of Mycoplasma tuberculosis, on two less similar species of Mycoplasma bacteria and on two syntenic sequences from human chromosome 12 and mouse chromosome 6. In each case it found an alignment of the input sequences, using between 30 s and 2 min of computation time. From the system output, information on single nucleotide changes, translocations and homologous genes can easily be extracted. Use of the algorithm should facilitate analysis of syntenic chromosomal regions, strain-to-strain comparisons, evolutionary comparisons and genomic duplications. PMID:10325427

  6. Overview of the 2015 Workshop on Speech, Language and Audio in Multimedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gravier, Guillaume; Jones, Gareth J.F.; Larson, Martha; Ordelman, Roeland J.F.

    2015-01-01

    The Workshop on Speech, Language and Audio in Multimedia (SLAM) positions itself at at the crossroad of multiple scientific fields - music and audio processing, speech processing, natural language processing and multimedia - to discuss and stimulate research results, projects, datasets and

  7. Simulation of beamline alignment operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annese, C; Miller, M G.

    1999-01-01

    The CORBA-based Simulator was a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project that applied simulation techniques to explore critical questions about distributed control systems. The simulator project used a three-prong approach that studied object-oriented distribution tools, computer network modeling, and simulation of key control system scenarios. The National Ignition Facility's (NIF) optical alignment system was modeled to study control system operations. The alignment of NIF's 192 beamlines is a large complex operation involving more than 100 computer systems and 8000 mechanized devices. The alignment process is defined by a detailed set of procedures; however, many of the steps are deterministic. The alignment steps for a poorly aligned component are similar to that of a nearly aligned component; however, additional operations/iterations are required to complete the process. Thus, the same alignment operations will require variable amounts of time to perform depending on the current alignment condition as well as other factors. Simulation of the alignment process is necessary to understand beamline alignment time requirements and how shared resources such as the Output Sensor and Target Alignment Sensor effect alignment efficiency. The simulation has provided alignment time estimates and other results based on documented alignment procedures and alignment experience gained in the laboratory. Computer communication time, mechanical hardware actuation times, image processing algorithm execution times, etc. have been experimentally determined and incorporated into the model. Previous analysis of alignment operations utilized average implementation times for all alignment operations. Resource sharing becomes rather simple to model when only average values are used. The time required to actually implement the many individual alignment operations will be quite dynamic. The simulation model estimates the time to complete an operation using

  8. Experimental image alignment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, A. L.; Kowel, S. T.; Kornreich, P. G.

    1980-01-01

    A microcomputer-based instrument for image alignment with respect to a reference image is described which uses the DEFT sensor (Direct Electronic Fourier Transform) for image sensing and preprocessing. The instrument alignment algorithm which uses the two-dimensional Fourier transform as input is also described. It generates signals used to steer the stage carrying the test image into the correct orientation. This algorithm has computational advantages over algorithms which use image intensity data as input and is suitable for a microcomputer-based instrument since the two-dimensional Fourier transform is provided by the DEFT sensor.

  9. Energy level alignment at the Si(1 1 1)/RCA–SiO2/copper(II) phthalocyanine ultra-thin film interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krzywiecki, Maciej; Grządziel, Lucyna

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The interface formation studies between CuPc and Si by photoemission methods. • Charge rearrangement detected at the inorganic/organic interface. • Existence of disordered/polarization layer at the initial stages of CuPc deposition. • Examined structures applicable for organic transistors development. - Abstract: The photoemission experimental techniques (i.e. ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy—UPS and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy—XPS) were used to investigate the charge–rearrangement–related phenomena occuring at organic–inorganic semiconductor interface. Examined samples were copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) ultra-thin (up to 16 nm) layers deposited onto oxidized silicon Si(1 1 1) of n- and p-type of conductivity. The 1.3-nm-thick silicon oxide was prepared by means of RCA wet cleaning procedure. The analysis of the photoemission data (mainly UPS) suggested the existance of the polarization layer within first 3 nm of CuPc layer thickness. Basing on the UPS and XPS results the energy level diagrams of examined structures have been constructed. In present paper it is suggested that the existance of the polarization layer could be assigned to the disordered adsorption and continous molecular reorientation of the CuPc molecules during the interface formation process. In the terms of the lack of the charge transfer via substrate/organic overlayer interface and disordered adsorption the fluctuations of CuPc electronic parameters were detected. Moreover the ionization energy and the work function parameters of final CuPc layer were affected. The values were more consistent with those obtained for much thicker (over 500 nm) CuPc layers. Performed studies showed that contrary to CuPc layers deposited on native substrates (where the charge transfer via tunnelable oxide – determined as dipole effect – has been detected), the thicker RCA-prepared oxide seems to be non-tunnelable hence the possibility for Si(1 1 1

  10. Transcript of Audio Narrative Portion of: Scandinavian Heritage. A Set of Five Audio-Visual Film Strip/Cassette Presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gerald D.; Olson, David B.

    The document presents the transcript of the audio narrative portion of approximately 100 interviews with first and second generation Scandinavian immigrants to the United States. The document is intended for use by secondary school classroom teachers as they develop and implement educational programs related to the Scandinavian heritage in…

  11. Deutsch Durch Audio-Visuelle Methode: An Audio-Lingual-Oral Approach to the Teaching of German.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson Public Schools, ND. Instructional Media Center.

    This teaching guide, designed to accompany Chilton's "Deutsch Durch Audio-Visuelle Methode" for German 1 and 2 in a three-year secondary school program, focuses major attention on the operational plan of the program and a student orientation unit. A section on teaching a unit discusses four phases: (1) presentation, (2) explanation, (3)…

  12. Automatic Organisation and Quality Analysis of User-Generated Content with Audio Fingerprinting

    OpenAIRE

    Cavaco, Sofia; Magalhaes, Joao; Mordido, Gonçalo

    2018-01-01

    The increase of the quantity of user-generated content experienced in social media has boosted the importance of analysing and organising the content by its quality. Here, we propose a method that uses audio fingerprinting to organise and infer the quality of user-generated audio content. The proposed method detects the overlapping segments between different audio clips to organise and cluster the data according to events, and to infer the audio quality of the samples. A test setup with conce...

  13. Audio-Visual Temporal Recalibration Can be Constrained by Content Cues Regardless of Spatial Overlap

    OpenAIRE

    Roseboom, Warrick; Kawabe, Takahiro; Nishida, Shin?Ya

    2013-01-01

    It has now been well established that the point of subjective synchrony for audio and visual events can be shifted following exposure to asynchronous audio-visual presentations, an effect often referred to as temporal recalibration. Recently it was further demonstrated that it is possible to concurrently maintain two such recalibrated, and opposing, estimates of audio-visual temporal synchrony. However, it remains unclear precisely what defines a given audio-visual pair such that it is possib...

  14. Documentary management of the sport audio-visual information in the generalist televisions

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Caldera Serrano; Felipe Alonso

    2007-01-01

    The management of the sport audio-visual documentation of the Information Systems of the state, zonal and local chains is analyzed within the framework. For it it is made makes a route by the documentary chain that makes the sport audio-visual information with the purpose of being analyzing each one of the parameters, showing therefore a series of recommendations and norms for the preparation of the sport audio-visual registry. Evidently the audio-visual sport documentation difference i...

  15. Novel Designs for the Audio Mixing Interface Based on Data Visualisation First Principles

    OpenAIRE

    Dewey, Christopher; Wakefield, Jonathan P.

    2016-01-01

    Given the shortcomings of current audio mixing interfaces (AMIs) this study focuses on the development of alternative AMIs based on data visualisation first principles. The elementary perceptual tasks defined by Cleveland informed the design process. Two design ideas were considered for pan: using the elementary perceptual tasks ‘scale’ to display pan on either a single or multiple horizontal lines. Four design ideas were considered for level:\\ud using ‘length’, ‘area’, ‘saturation’ or ‘scala...

  16. Design of low power and low area passive sigma delta modulators for audio applications

    CERN Document Server

    Fouto, David

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the study, design, modulation, optimization and implementation of low power, passive DT-ΣΔMs for use in audio applications. The high gain and bandwidth amplifier normally used for integration in ΣΔ modulation, is replaced by passive, switched-capacitor branches working under the Ultra Incomplete Settling (UIS) condition, leading to a reduction of the consumed power. The authors describe a design process that uses high level models and an optimization process based in genetic algorithms to achieve the desired performance.

  17. Parametric Packet-Layer Model for Evaluation Audio Quality in Multimedia Streaming Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egi, Noritsugu; Hayashi, Takanori; Takahashi, Akira

    We propose a parametric packet-layer model for monitoring audio quality in multimedia streaming services such as Internet protocol television (IPTV). This model estimates audio quality of experience (QoE) on the basis of quality degradation due to coding and packet loss of an audio sequence. The input parameters of this model are audio bit rate, sampling rate, frame length, packet-loss frequency, and average burst length. Audio bit rate, packet-loss frequency, and average burst length are calculated from header information in received IP packets. For sampling rate, frame length, and audio codec type, the values or the names used in monitored services are input into this model directly. We performed a subjective listening test to examine the relationships between these input parameters and perceived audio quality. The codec used in this test was the Advanced Audio Codec-Low Complexity (AAC-LC), which is one of the international standards for audio coding. On the basis of the test results, we developed an audio quality evaluation model. The verification results indicate that audio quality estimated by the proposed model has a high correlation with perceived audio quality.

  18. Audio-Tutorial Instruction: A Strategy For Teaching Introductory College Geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenner, Peter; Andrews, Ted F.

    The rationale of audio-tutorial instruction is discussed, and the history and development of the audio-tutorial botany program at Purdue University is described. Audio-tutorial programs in geology at eleven colleges and one school are described, illustrating several ways in which programs have been developed and integrated into courses. Programs…

  19. Interactive 3D audio: Enhancing awareness of details in immersive soundscapes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard; Schwartz, Stephen; Larsen, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Spatial audio and the possibility of interacting with the audio environment is thought to increase listeners' attention to details in a soundscape. This work examines if interactive 3D audio enhances listeners' ability to recall details in a soundscape. Nine different soundscapes were constructed...

  20. Effects of Hearing Protection Device Attenuation on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Audio Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    UAV ) Audio Signatures by Melissa Bezandry, Adrienne Raglin, and John Noble Approved for public release; distribution...Research Laboratory Effects of Hearing Protection Device Attenuation on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle ( UAV ) Audio Signatures by Melissa Bezandry...Aerial Vehicle ( UAV ) Audio Signatures 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Melissa Bezandry

  1. Responding Effectively to Composition Students: Comparing Student Perceptions of Written and Audio Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbro, J.; Iluzada, C.; Clark, D. E.

    2013-01-01

    The authors compared student perceptions of audio and written feedback in order to assess what types of students may benefit from receiving audio feedback on their essays rather than written feedback. Many instructors previously have reported the advantages they see in audio feedback, but little quantitative research has been done on how the…

  2. Extraction, Mapping, and Evaluation of Expressive Acoustic Features for Adaptive Digital Audio Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holfelt, Jonas; Csapo, Gergely; Andersson, Nikolaj Schwab

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a real-time adaptive digital audio effect with an emphasis on using expressive audio features that control effect param- eters. Research in adaptive digital audio effects is cov- ered along with studies about expressivity and important...

  3. Aligning Mental Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kano Glückstad, Fumiko

    2013-01-01

    This work introduces a framework that implements asymmetric communication theory proposed by Sperber and Wilson [1]. The framework applies a generalization model known as the Bayesian model of generalization (BMG) [2] for aligning knowledge possessed by two communicating parties. The work focuses...

  4. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Gomez and Y. Pakhotin

    2012-01-01

      A new track-based alignment for the DT chambers is ready for deployment: an offline tag has already been produced which will become part of the 52X Global Tag. This alignment was validated within the muon alignment group both at low and high momentum using a W/Z skim sample. It shows an improved mass resolution for pairs of stand-alone muons, improved curvature resolution at high momentum, and improved DT segment extrapolation residuals. The validation workflow for high-momentum muons used to depend solely on the “split cosmics” method, looking at the curvature difference between muon tracks reconstructed in the upper or lower half of CMS. The validation has now been extended to include energetic muons decaying from heavily boosted Zs: the di-muon invariant mass for global and stand-alone muons is reconstructed, and the invariant mass resolution is compared for different alignments. The main areas of development over the next few months will be preparing a new track-based C...

  5. Community Alignment ANADP

    OpenAIRE

    Halbert, Martin; Bicarregui, Juan; Anglada, Lluis; Duranti, Luciana

    2014-01-01

    Aligning National Approaches to Digital Preservation: An Action Assembly Biblioteca de Catalunya (National Library of Catalonia) November 18-20, 2013, Barcelona, Spain Auburn University Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR) Digital Curation Centre (DCC) Digital Preservation Network (DPN) Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) University of North Texas Virginia Tech Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR) Innovative Inte...

  6. Discriminative Shape Alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, M.; de Bruijne, M.

    2009-01-01

    , not taking into account that eventually the shapes are to be assigned to two or more different classes. This work introduces a discriminative variation to well-known Procrustes alignment and demonstrates its benefit over this classical method in shape classification tasks. The focus is on two...

  7. Resource Alignment ANADP

    OpenAIRE

    Grindley, Neil; Cramer, Tom; Schrimpf, Sabine; Wilson, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Aligning National Approaches to Digital Preservation: An Action Assembly Biblioteca de Catalunya (National Library of Catalonia) November 18-20, 2013, Barcelona, Spain Auburn University Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR) Digital Curation Centre (DCC) Digital Preservation Network (DPN) Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) University of North Texas Virginia Tech Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR) Innovative Inte...

  8. Capacity Alignment ANADP

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Joy; Whitehead, Martha; Molloy, Laura; Molinaro, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Aligning National Approaches to Digital Preservation: An Action Assembly Biblioteca de Catalunya (National Library of Catalonia) November 18-20, 2013, Barcelona, Spain Auburn University Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR) Digital Curation Centre (DCC) Digital Preservation Network (DPN) Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) University of North Texas Virginia Tech Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR) Innovative Inte...

  9. ABS: Sequence alignment by scanning

    KAUST Repository

    Bonny, Mohamed Talal

    2011-08-01

    Sequence alignment is an essential tool in almost any computational biology research. It processes large database sequences and considered to be high consumers of computation time. Heuristic algorithms are used to get approximate but fast results. We introduce fast alignment algorithm, called Alignment By Scanning (ABS), to provide an approximate alignment of two DNA sequences. We compare our algorithm with the well-known alignment algorithms, the FASTA (which is heuristic) and the \\'Needleman-Wunsch\\' (which is optimal). The proposed algorithm achieves up to 76% enhancement in alignment score when it is compared with the FASTA Algorithm. The evaluations are conducted using different lengths of DNA sequences. © 2011 IEEE.

  10. ABS: Sequence alignment by scanning

    KAUST Repository

    Bonny, Mohamed Talal; Salama, Khaled N.

    2011-01-01

    Sequence alignment is an essential tool in almost any computational biology research. It processes large database sequences and considered to be high consumers of computation time. Heuristic algorithms are used to get approximate but fast results. We introduce fast alignment algorithm, called Alignment By Scanning (ABS), to provide an approximate alignment of two DNA sequences. We compare our algorithm with the well-known alignment algorithms, the FASTA (which is heuristic) and the 'Needleman-Wunsch' (which is optimal). The proposed algorithm achieves up to 76% enhancement in alignment score when it is compared with the FASTA Algorithm. The evaluations are conducted using different lengths of DNA sequences. © 2011 IEEE.

  11. Fast global sequence alignment technique

    KAUST Repository

    Bonny, Mohamed Talal

    2011-11-01

    Bioinformatics database is growing exponentially in size. Processing these large amount of data may take hours of time even if super computers are used. One of the most important processing tool in Bioinformatics is sequence alignment. We introduce fast alignment algorithm, called \\'Alignment By Scanning\\' (ABS), to provide an approximate alignment of two DNA sequences. We compare our algorithm with the wellknown sequence alignment algorithms, the \\'GAP\\' (which is heuristic) and the \\'Needleman-Wunsch\\' (which is optimal). The proposed algorithm achieves up to 51% enhancement in alignment score when it is compared with the GAP Algorithm. The evaluations are conducted using different lengths of DNA sequences. © 2011 IEEE.

  12. CAB-Align: A Flexible Protein Structure Alignment Method Based on the Residue-Residue Contact Area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genki Terashi

    Full Text Available Proteins are flexible, and this flexibility has an essential functional role. Flexibility can be observed in loop regions, rearrangements between secondary structure elements, and conformational changes between entire domains. However, most protein structure alignment methods treat protein structures as rigid bodies. Thus, these methods fail to identify the equivalences of residue pairs in regions with flexibility. In this study, we considered that the evolutionary relationship between proteins corresponds directly to the residue-residue physical contacts rather than the three-dimensional (3D coordinates of proteins. Thus, we developed a new protein structure alignment method, contact area-based alignment (CAB-align, which uses the residue-residue contact area to identify regions of similarity. The main purpose of CAB-align is to identify homologous relationships at the residue level between related protein structures. The CAB-align procedure comprises two main steps: First, a rigid-body alignment method based on local and global 3D structure superposition is employed to generate a sufficient number of initial alignments. Then, iterative dynamic programming is executed to find the optimal alignment. We evaluated the performance and advantages of CAB-align based on four main points: (1 agreement with the gold standard alignment, (2 alignment quality based on an evolutionary relationship without 3D coordinate superposition, (3 consistency of the multiple alignments, and (4 classification agreement with the gold standard classification. Comparisons of CAB-align with other state-of-the-art protein structure alignment methods (TM-align, FATCAT, and DaliLite using our benchmark dataset showed that CAB-align performed robustly in obtaining high-quality alignments and generating consistent multiple alignments with high coverage and accuracy rates, and it performed extremely well when discriminating between homologous and nonhomologous pairs of proteins

  13. CAB-Align: A Flexible Protein Structure Alignment Method Based on the Residue-Residue Contact Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terashi, Genki; Takeda-Shitaka, Mayuko

    2015-01-01

    Proteins are flexible, and this flexibility has an essential functional role. Flexibility can be observed in loop regions, rearrangements between secondary structure elements, and conformational changes between entire domains. However, most protein structure alignment methods treat protein structures as rigid bodies. Thus, these methods fail to identify the equivalences of residue pairs in regions with flexibility. In this study, we considered that the evolutionary relationship between proteins corresponds directly to the residue-residue physical contacts rather than the three-dimensional (3D) coordinates of proteins. Thus, we developed a new protein structure alignment method, contact area-based alignment (CAB-align), which uses the residue-residue contact area to identify regions of similarity. The main purpose of CAB-align is to identify homologous relationships at the residue level between related protein structures. The CAB-align procedure comprises two main steps: First, a rigid-body alignment method based on local and global 3D structure superposition is employed to generate a sufficient number of initial alignments. Then, iterative dynamic programming is executed to find the optimal alignment. We evaluated the performance and advantages of CAB-align based on four main points: (1) agreement with the gold standard alignment, (2) alignment quality based on an evolutionary relationship without 3D coordinate superposition, (3) consistency of the multiple alignments, and (4) classification agreement with the gold standard classification. Comparisons of CAB-align with other state-of-the-art protein structure alignment methods (TM-align, FATCAT, and DaliLite) using our benchmark dataset showed that CAB-align performed robustly in obtaining high-quality alignments and generating consistent multiple alignments with high coverage and accuracy rates, and it performed extremely well when discriminating between homologous and nonhomologous pairs of proteins in both

  14. Formatt: Correcting protein multiple structural alignments by incorporating sequence alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniels Noah M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quality of multiple protein structure alignments are usually computed and assessed based on geometric functions of the coordinates of the backbone atoms from the protein chains. These purely geometric methods do not utilize directly protein sequence similarity, and in fact, determining the proper way to incorporate sequence similarity measures into the construction and assessment of protein multiple structure alignments has proved surprisingly difficult. Results We present Formatt, a multiple structure alignment based on the Matt purely geometric multiple structure alignment program, that also takes into account sequence similarity when constructing alignments. We show that Formatt outperforms Matt and other popular structure alignment programs on the popular HOMSTRAD benchmark. For the SABMark twilight zone benchmark set that captures more remote homology, Formatt and Matt outperform other programs; depending on choice of embedded sequence aligner, Formatt produces either better sequence and structural alignments with a smaller core size than Matt, or similarly sized alignments with better sequence similarity, for a small cost in average RMSD. Conclusions Considering sequence information as well as purely geometric information seems to improve quality of multiple structure alignments, though defining what constitutes the best alignment when sequence and structural measures would suggest different alignments remains a difficult open question.

  15. Audio computer-assisted self interview compared to traditional interview in an HIV-related behavioral survey in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Linh Cu; Vu, Lan T H

    2012-10-01

    group, versus 11.4% in the face-to-face group and 11.1% in the self-administered paper questionnaire group. The pattern was consistent for both male and female respondents and in both urban and rural settings. Men in the audio computer-assisted self-interview group also reported higher levels of high-risk sexual behavior--such as sex with sex workers and a higher average number of sexual partners--than did women in the same group. Importantly, item refusal rates on sensitive topics tended to be lower with audio computer-assisted self interview than with the other two methods. Combined with existing data from other countries and previous studies in Vietnam, these findings suggest that researchers should consider using audio computer-assisted self interview for future studies of sensitive and stigmatized topics, especially for men.

  16. Underdetermined Blind Audio Source Separation Using Modal Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdeldjalil Aïssa-El-Bey

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces new algorithms for the blind separation of audio sources using modal decomposition. Indeed, audio signals and, in particular, musical signals can be well approximated by a sum of damped sinusoidal (modal components. Based on this representation, we propose a two-step approach consisting of a signal analysis (extraction of the modal components followed by a signal synthesis (grouping of the components belonging to the same source using vector clustering. For the signal analysis, two existing algorithms are considered and compared: namely the EMD (empirical mode decomposition algorithm and a parametric estimation algorithm using ESPRIT technique. A major advantage of the proposed method resides in its validity for both instantaneous and convolutive mixtures and its ability to separate more sources than sensors. Simulation results are given to compare and assess the performance of the proposed algorithms.

  17. Underdetermined Blind Audio Source Separation Using Modal Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aïssa-El-Bey Abdeldjalil

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces new algorithms for the blind separation of audio sources using modal decomposition. Indeed, audio signals and, in particular, musical signals can be well approximated by a sum of damped sinusoidal (modal components. Based on this representation, we propose a two-step approach consisting of a signal analysis (extraction of the modal components followed by a signal synthesis (grouping of the components belonging to the same source using vector clustering. For the signal analysis, two existing algorithms are considered and compared: namely the EMD (empirical mode decomposition algorithm and a parametric estimation algorithm using ESPRIT technique. A major advantage of the proposed method resides in its validity for both instantaneous and convolutive mixtures and its ability to separate more sources than sensors. Simulation results are given to compare and assess the performance of the proposed algorithms.

  18. “Wrapping” X3DOM around Web Audio API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Stamoulias

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial sound has a conceptual role in the Web3D environments, due to highly realism scenes that can provide. Lately the efforts are concentrated on the extension of the X3D/ X3DOM through spatial sound attributes. This paper presents a novel method for the introduction of spatial sound components in the X3DOM framework, based on X3D specification and Web Audio API. The proposed method incorporates the introduction of enhanced sound nodes for X3DOM which are derived by the implementation of the X3D standard components, enriched with accessional features of Web Audio API. Moreover, several examples-scenarios developed for the evaluation of our approach. The implemented examples established the achievability of new registered nodes in X3DOM, for spatial sound characteristics in Web3D virtual worlds.

  19. Audio teleconferencing: creative use of a forgotten innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Carey; Marlow, Annette

    2012-06-01

    As part of a regional School of Nursing and Midwifery's commitment to addressing recruitment and retention issues, approximately 90% of second year undergraduate student nurses undertake clinical placements at: multipurpose centres; regional or district hospitals; aged care; or community centres based in rural and remote regions within the State. The remaining 10% undertake professional experience placement in urban areas only. This placement of a large cohort of students, in low numbers in a variety of clinical settings, initiated the need to provide consistent support to both students and staff at these facilities. Subsequently the development of an audio teleconferencing model of clinical facilitation to guide student teaching and learning and to provide support to registered nurse preceptors in clinical practice was developed. This paper draws on Weimer's 'Personal Accounts of Change' approach to describe, discuss and evaluate the modifications that have occurred since the inception of this audio teleconferencing model (Weimer, 2006).

  20. Audio Visual Media Components in Educational Game for Elementary Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meilani Hartono

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to review and implement interactive audio visual media used in an educational game to improve elementary students’ interest in learning mathematics. The game was developed for desktop platform. The art of the game was set as 2D cartoon art with animation and audio in order to make students more interest. There were four mini games developed based on the researches on mathematics study. Development method used was Multimedia Development Life Cycle (MDLC that consists of requirement, design, development, testing, and implementation phase. Data collection methods used are questionnaire, literature study, and interview. The conclusion is elementary students interest with educational game that has fun and active (moving objects, with fast tempo of music, and carefree color like blue. This educational game is hoped to be an alternative teaching tool combined with conventional teaching method.

  1. An introduction to audio content analysis applications in signal processing and music informatics

    CERN Document Server

    Lerch, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    "With the proliferation of digital audio distribution over digital media, audio content analysis is fast becoming a requirement for designers of intelligent signal-adaptive audio processing systems. Written by a well-known expert in the field, this book provides quick access to different analysis algorithms and allows comparison between different approaches to the same task, making it useful for newcomers to audio signal processing and industry experts alike. A review of relevant fundamentals in audio signal processing, psychoacoustics, and music theory, as well as downloadable MATLAB files are also included"--

  2. Audio Linguistic Disorders in Autistic Children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashry, K. M., E-mail: kmashry@hotmail.com [Health Research Department, National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology. Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2012-07-01

    Objective: To explore auditory function abnormalities and language disorder in autistic children. Twelve children with criteria of infantile autism were tested using Pure Tone Audiometry (PTA), Immitancemetry, Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emission Test (TEOAE), Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR), Standardized Arabic Test of Early Language Development (for both receptive and expressive language). For comparison twlive normal children were chosen as control group. Statistically significant increase in hearing threshold level for the autistic children at low frequency region 250, 500 and 1000 Hz, significant reduction of the amplitude of TEOAE test and significant increase in wave I and V latency and I-V inter-peak latency at both RR 21.2 and 51.2 msec when compared to the control group. A positive correlation was found in this study between the changes in ABR latency and the severity of verbal disability. These resuts leed to the conclusion that Auditory dysfunction in autistic children can be verified through the presence of cochlear involvement and a delay in the brain stem transmission time in those patients. Disturbed verbal communication can be due to dysfunction in the auditory processing mechanisms.

  3. Audio Linguistic Disorders in Autistic Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashry, K. M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore auditory function abnormalities and language disorder in autistic children. Twelve children with criteria of infantile autism were tested using Pure Tone Audiometry (PTA), Immitancemetry, Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emission Test (TEOAE), Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR), Standardized Arabic Test of Early Language Development (for both receptive and expressive language). For comparison twlive normal children were chosen as control group. Statistically significant increase in hearing threshold level for the autistic children at low frequency region 250, 500 and 1000 Hz, significant reduction of the amplitude of TEOAE test and significant increase in wave I and V latency and I-V inter-peak latency at both RR 21.2 and 51.2 msec when compared to the control group. A positive correlation was found in this study between the changes in ABR latency and the severity of verbal disability. These resuts leed to the conclusion that Auditory dysfunction in autistic children can be verified through the presence of cochlear involvement and a delay in the brain stem transmission time in those patients. Disturbed verbal communication can be due to dysfunction in the auditory processing mechanisms

  4. Active Learning for Automatic Audio Processing of Unwritten Languages (ALAPUL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2016-0074 ACTIVE LEARNING FOR AUTOMATIC AUDIO PROCESSING OF UNWRITTEN LANGUAGES (ALAPUL) Dimitra Vergyri Andreas Kathol Wen Wang...FA8650-15-C-9101 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) *Dimitra Vergyri; Andreas Kathol; Wen Wang; Chris Bartels; Julian VanHout...feature transform through deep auto-encoders for better phone recognition performance. We target iterative learning to improve the system through

  5. Amplitude Modulated Sinusoidal Signal Decomposition for Audio Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M. G.; Jacobson, A.; Andersen, S. V.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a decomposition for sinusoidal coding of audio, based on an amplitude modulation of sinusoids via a linear combination of arbitrary basis vectors. The proposed method, which incorporates a perceptual distortion measure, is based on a relaxation of a nonlinear least......-squares minimization. Rate-distortion curves and listening tests show that, compared to a constant-amplitude sinusoidal coder, the proposed decomposition offers perceptually significant improvements in critical transient signals....

  6. Pitch range variations improve cognitive processing of audio messages

    OpenAIRE

    Rodero Antón, Emma; Potter, Rob F.; Prieto Vives, Pilar, 1965-

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the effect of different speaker intonation strategies in audio messages on attention, autonomic arousal, and memory. An experiment was conducted in which participants listened to 16 radio commercials produced to vary in pitch range across sentences. Dependent variables were self-reported effectiveness and adequacy, psychophysiological arousal and attention, immediate word recall and recognition of information. Results showed that messages conveyed with pitch variations ach...

  7. Virtual environment display for a 3D audio room simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, William L.; Foster, Scott

    1992-06-01

    Recent developments in virtual 3D audio and synthetic aural environments have produced a complex acoustical room simulation. The acoustical simulation models a room with walls, ceiling, and floor of selected sound reflecting/absorbing characteristics and unlimited independent localizable sound sources. This non-visual acoustic simulation, implemented with 4 audio ConvolvotronsTM by Crystal River Engineering and coupled to the listener with a Poihemus IsotrakTM, tracking the listener's head position and orientation, and stereo headphones returning binaural sound, is quite compelling to most listeners with eyes closed. This immersive effect should be reinforced when properly integrated into a full, multi-sensory virtual environment presentation. This paper discusses the design of an interactive, visual virtual environment, complementing the acoustic model and specified to: 1) allow the listener to freely move about the space, a room of manipulable size, shape, and audio character, while interactively relocating the sound sources; 2) reinforce the listener's feeling of telepresence into the acoustical environment with visual and proprioceptive sensations; 3) enhance the audio with the graphic and interactive components, rather than overwhelm or reduce it; and 4) serve as a research testbed and technology transfer demonstration. The hardware/software design of two demonstration systems, one installed and one portable, are discussed through the development of four iterative configurations. The installed system implements a head-coupled, wide-angle, stereo-optic tracker/viewer and multi-computer simulation control. The portable demonstration system implements a head-mounted wide-angle, stereo-optic display, separate head and pointer electro-magnetic position trackers, a heterogeneous parallel graphics processing system, and object oriented C++ program code.

  8. Parameter and state estimation using audio and video signals

    OpenAIRE

    Evestedt, Magnus

    2005-01-01

    The complexity of industrial systems and the mathematical models to describe them increases. In many cases point sensors are no longer sufficient to provide controllers and monitoring instruments with the information necessary for operation. The need for other types of information, such as audio and video, has grown. Suitable applications range in a broad spectrum from microelectromechanical systems and bio-medical engineering to papermaking and steel production. This thesis is divided into f...

  9. Modular Sensor Environment : Audio Visual Industry Monitoring Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Guillot, Calvin

    2017-01-01

    This work was made for Electro Waves Oy. The company specializes in Audio-visual services and interactive systems. The purpose of this work is to design and implement a modular sensor environment for the company, which will be used for developing automated systems. This thesis begins with an introduction to sensor systems and their different topologies. It is followed by an introduction to the technologies used in this project. The system is divided in three parts. The client, tha...

  10. Audio-Biofeedback training for posture and balance in Patients with Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zijlstra Wiebren

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD suffer from dysrhythmic and disturbed gait, impaired balance, and decreased postural responses. These alterations lead to falls, especially as the disease progresses. Based on the observation that postural control improved in patients with vestibular dysfunction after audio-biofeedback training, we tested the feasibility and effects of this training modality in patients with PD. Methods Seven patients with PD were included in a pilot study comprised of a six weeks intervention program. The training was individualized to each patient's needs and was delivered using an audio-biofeedback (ABF system with headphones. The training was focused on improving posture, sit-to-stand abilities, and dynamic balance in various positions. Non-parametric statistics were used to evaluate training effects. Results The ABF system was well accepted by all participants with no adverse events reported. Patients declared high satisfaction with the training. A significant improvement of balance, as assessed by the Berg Balance Scale, was observed (improvement of 3% p = 0.032, and a trend in the Timed up and go test (improvement of 11%; p = 0.07 was also seen. In addition, the training appeared to have a positive influence on psychosocial aspects of the disease as assessed by the Parkinson's disease quality of life questionnaire (PDQ-39 and the level of depression as assessed by the Geriatric Depression Scale. Conclusions This is, to our knowledge, the first report demonstrating that audio-biofeedback training for patients with PD is feasible and is associated with improvements of balance and several psychosocial aspects.

  11. Comparison of Linear Prediction Models for Audio Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available While linear prediction (LP has become immensely popular in speech modeling, it does not seem to provide a good approach for modeling audio signals. This is somewhat surprising, since a tonal signal consisting of a number of sinusoids can be perfectly predicted based on an (all-pole LP model with a model order that is twice the number of sinusoids. We provide an explanation why this result cannot simply be extrapolated to LP of audio signals. If noise is taken into account in the tonal signal model, a low-order all-pole model appears to be only appropriate when the tonal components are uniformly distributed in the Nyquist interval. Based on this observation, different alternatives to the conventional LP model can be suggested. Either the model should be changed to a pole-zero, a high-order all-pole, or a pitch prediction model, or the conventional LP model should be preceded by an appropriate frequency transform, such as a frequency warping or downsampling. By comparing these alternative LP models to the conventional LP model in terms of frequency estimation accuracy, residual spectral flatness, and perceptual frequency resolution, we obtain several new and promising approaches to LP-based audio modeling.

  12. audio-ultrasonic waves by argon gas discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragheb, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    in the present work, wave emission formed by audio-ultrasonic plasma is investigated. the evidence of the magnetic and electric fields presence is performed by experimental technique. comparison between experimental field measurements and several plasma wave methods reveals the plasma audio-ultrasonic radiations mode. this plasma is a symmetrically driven capacitive discharge, consisting of three interactive regions: the electrodes, the sheaths, and the positive column regions . the discharge voltage is up to 900 volts, the discharge current flowing through the plasma attains a value of 360 mA .the frequency of the discharge voltage covers the audio and the ultrasonic range up to 100 khz. the effective plasma working distance has increased to attain the total length of the tube of 40 cm. a non-disturbing method using an external coil is used to measure the electric discharge field in a plane perpendicular to that of the plasma axe tube. this method proves the existence of a current flowing in a direction perpendicular to the plasma axe tube. a system of minute coils sensors proved the existence of two fields in two perpendicular directions . comparison between different observed fields reveals the existence of propagating electromagnetic waves due to the alternating current flowing through the skin plasma tube. the field intensity distribution along the tube draws the discharge current behavior between the two plasma electrodes that can be used to predict the range of the plasma discharge current.

  13. Reducing beam shaper alignment complexity: diagnostic techniques for alignment and tuning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizotte, Todd E.

    2011-10-01

    Safe and efficient optical alignment is a critical requirement for industrial laser systems used in a high volume manufacturing environment. Of specific interest is the development of techniques to align beam shaping optics within a beam line; having the ability to instantly verify by a qualitative means that each element is in its proper position as the beam shaper module is being aligned. There is a need to reduce these types of alignment techniques down to a level where even a newbie to optical alignment will be able to complete the task. Couple this alignment need with the fact that most laser system manufacturers ship their products worldwide and the introduction of a new set of variables including cultural and language barriers, makes this a top priority for manufacturers. Tools and methodologies for alignment of complex optical systems need to be able to cross these barriers to ensure the highest degree of up time and reduce the cost of maintenance on the production floor. Customers worldwide, who purchase production laser equipment, understand that the majority of costs to a manufacturing facility is spent on system maintenance and is typically the largest single controllable expenditure in a production plant. This desire to reduce costs is driving the trend these days towards predictive and proactive, not reactive maintenance of laser based optical beam delivery systems [10]. With proper diagnostic tools, laser system developers can develop proactive approaches to reduce system down time, safe guard operational performance and reduce premature or catastrophic optics failures. Obviously analytical data will provide quantifiable performance standards which are more precise than qualitative standards, but each have a role in determining overall optical system performance [10]. This paper will discuss the use of film and fluorescent mirror devices as diagnostic tools for beam shaper module alignment off line or in-situ. The paper will also provide an overview

  14. Alignment of concerns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tariq Osman; Bansler, Jørgen P.; Kensing, Finn

    E-health promises to enable and support active patient participation in chronic care. However, these fairly recent innovations are complicated matters and emphasize significant challenges, such as patients’ and clinicians’ different ways of conceptualizing disease and illness. Informed by insight...... from medical phenomenology and our own empirical work in telemonitoring and medical care of heart patients, we propose a design rationale for e-health systems conceptualized as the ‘alignment of concerns’....

  15. Alignment at the ESRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D.; Levet, N.; Gatta, G.

    1999-01-01

    The ESRF Survey and Alignment group is responsible for the installation, control and periodic realignment of the accelerators and experiments which produce high quality x-rays used by scientists from Europe and around the world. Alignment tolerances are typically less than one millimetre and often in the order of several micrometers. The group is composed of one engineer, five highly trained survey technicians, one electronic and one computer technician. This team is fortified during peak periods by technicians from an external survey company. First an overview and comparative study of the main large-scale survey instrumentation and methods used by the group is made. Secondly a discussion of long term deformation on the ESRF site is presented. This is followed by presentation of the methods used in the realignment of the various machines. Two important aspects of our work, beamline and front-end alignment, and the so-called machine exotic devices are briefly discussed. Finally, the ESRF calibration bench is presented. (authors)

  16. Seeking the perfect alignment

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The first full-scale tests of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer are about to begin in Prévessin. The set-up includes several layers of Monitored Drift Tubes Chambers (MDTs) and will allow tests of the performance of the detectors and of their highly accurate alignment system.   Monitored Drift Chambers in Building 887 in Prévessin, where they are just about to be tested. Muon chambers are keeping the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer team quite busy this summer. Now that most people go on holiday, the beam and alignment tests for these chambers are just starting. These chambers will measure with high accuracy the momentum of high-energy muons, and this implies very demanding requirements for their alignment. The MDT chambers consist of drift tubes, which are gas-filled metal tubes, 3 cm in diameter, with wires running down their axes. With high voltage between the wire and the tube wall, the ionisation due to traversing muons is detected as electrical pulses. With careful timing of the pulses, the position of the muon t...

  17. Alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    Lacuesta, V; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    ATLAS is a multipurpose experiment that records the LHC collisions. To reconstruct trajectories of charged particles produced in these collisions, ATLAS tracking system is equipped with silicon planar sensors and drift‐tube based detectors. They constitute the ATLAS Inner Detector. In order to achieve its scientific goals, the alignment of the ATLAS tracking system requires the determine accurately its almost 36000 degrees of freedom. Thus the demanded precision for the alignment of the silicon sensors is below 10 micrometers. This implies to use a large sample of high momentum and isolated charge particle tracks. The high level trigger selects those tracks online. Then the raw data with the hits information of the triggered tracks is stored in a calibration stream. Tracks from cosmic trigger during empty LHC bunches are also used as input for the alignment. The implementation of the track based alignment within the ATLAS software framework unifies different alignment approaches and allows the alignment of ...

  18. Image Alignment for Multiple Camera High Dynamic Range Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Brian S; Childs, Elisabeth C

    2012-01-09

    This paper investigates the problem of image alignment for multiple camera high dynamic range (HDR) imaging. HDR imaging combines information from images taken with different exposure settings. Combining information from multiple cameras requires an alignment process that is robust to the intensity differences in the images. HDR applications that use a limited number of component images require an alignment technique that is robust to large exposure differences. We evaluate the suitability for HDR alignment of three exposure-robust techniques. We conclude that image alignment based on matching feature descriptors extracted from radiant power images from calibrated cameras yields the most accurate and robust solution. We demonstrate the use of this alignment technique in a high dynamic range video microscope that enables live specimen imaging with a greater level of detail than can be captured with a single camera.

  19. Laser alignment of rotating equipment at PNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berndt, R.H.

    1994-05-01

    Lateral vibration in direct-drive equipment is usually caused by misalignment. Over the years, because of the need to improve on techniques and ways of working more efficiently, various types of alignment methods have evolved. In the beginning, craftsmen used a straight-edge scale across the coupling with a feeler gauge measuring the misalignment error. This is still preferred today for aligning small couplings. The industry has since decided that alignment of large direct-drive equipment needed a more accurate type of instrumentation. Rim and face is another of the first alignment methods and is used on all sizes of equipment. A disadvantage of the rim and face method is that in most cases the coupling has to be disassembled. This can cause alignment problems when the coupling is reassembled. Also, the rim and face method is not fast enough to work satisfactorily on alignment of thermally hot equipment. Another concern is that the coupling has to be manufactured accurately for correct rim and face readings. Reverse dial alignment is an improvement over the rim and face method, and depending on the operator's experience, this method can be very accurate. A good training program along with field experience will bring the operator to a proper level of proficiency for a successful program. A hand-held computer with reverse dial calculations in memory is a must for job efficiency. An advantage over the rim and face method is that the coupling is not disassembled and remains locked together. Reverse dial instrumentation measures from both shaft center lines, rather than the coupling surface so the machining of the coupling during manufacture is not a major concern

  20. Formal usability evaluation of audio track widget graphical representation for two-dimensional stage audio mixing interface

    OpenAIRE

    Dewey, Christopher; Wakefield, Jonathan P.

    2017-01-01

    The two-dimensional stage paradigm (2DSP) has been suggested as an alternative audio mixing interface (AMI). This study seeks to refine the 2DSP by formally evaluating graphical track visualisation styles. Track visualisations considered were text only, circles containing text, individually coloured circles containing text, circles colour coded by instrument type with text, icons with text superimposed, circles with RMS related dynamic opacity and a traditional AMI. The usability evaluation f...

  1. Aligning Technology Education Teaching with Brain Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsioloudis, Petros

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study was designed to determine if there is a level of alignment between technology education curriculum and theories of intellectual development. The researcher compared Epstein's Brain Growth Theory and Piaget's Status of Intellectual Development with technology education curriculum from Australia, England, and the United…

  2. Security Policy Alignment: A Formal Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Wolter; Dimkov, T.; Pavlovic, Dusko

    2013-01-01

    Security policy alignment concerns the matching of security policies specified at different levels in socio-technical systems, and delegated to different agents, technical and human. For example, the policy that sales data should not leave an organization is refined into policies on door locks,

  3. A value-based maturity model for IT alignment in networked businesses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santana Tapia, R.G.

    Business-IT alignment can be achieved at various levels of maturity. Supposing that an organization has tried to achieve business-IT alignment, a question to face is: how is that organization going to know the level of maturity of its alignment situation in order to plan future ways of action? That

  4. Symmetries for SM Alignment in multi-Higgs Doublet Models

    CERN Document Server

    Pilaftsis, Apostolos

    2016-01-01

    We derive the complete set of maximal symmetries for Standard Model (SM) alignment that may occur in the tree-level scalar potential of multi-Higgs Doublet Models, with $n > 2$ Higgs doublets. Our results generalize the symmetries of SM alignment, without decoupling of large mass scales or fine-tuning, previously obtained in the context of two-Higgs Doublet Models.

  5. Automated alignment of a 10-kJ laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    The complex task of aligning helios, the 10-kilojoule carbon-dioxide laser, built for fusion research at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, requires computer control of steering mirrors and error sensors. The control system is a three-level minicomputer and microprocessor hierarchy which automatically aligns each of the 40 beam-line sections

  6. Analysis, Synthesis, and Classification of Nonlinear Systems Using Synchronized Swept-Sine Method for Audio Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novak Antonin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method of identification, based on an input synchronized exponential swept-sine signal, is used to analyze and synthesize nonlinear audio systems like overdrive pedals for guitar. Two different pedals are studied; the first one exhibiting a strong influence of the input signal level on its input/output law and the second one exhibiting a weak influence of this input signal level. The Synchronized Swept Sine method leads to a Generalized Polynomial Hammerstein model equivalent to the pedals under test. The behaviors of both pedals are illustrated through model-based resynthesized signals. Moreover, it is also shown that this method leads to a criterion allowing the classification of the nonlinear systems under test, according to the influence of the input signal levels on their input/output law.

  7. A prospective, randomised, controlled study examining binaural beat audio and pre-operative anxiety in patients undergoing general anaesthesia for day case surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, R; Hildreth, A J; Laws, D

    2005-09-01

    Pre-operative anxiety is common and often significant. Ambulatory surgery challenges our pre-operative goal of an anxiety-free patient by requiring people to be 'street ready' within a brief period of time after surgery. Recently, it has been demonstrated that music can be used successfully to relieve patient anxiety before operations, and that audio embedded with tones that create binaural beats within the brain of the listener decreases subjective levels of anxiety in patients with chronic anxiety states. We measured anxiety with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory questionnaire and compared binaural beat audio (Binaural Group) with an identical soundtrack but without these added tones (Audio Group) and with a third group who received no specific intervention (No Intervention Group). Mean [95% confidence intervals] decreases in anxiety scores were 26.3%[19-33%] in the Binaural Group (p = 0.001 vs. Audio Group, p Binaural beat audio has the potential to decrease acute pre-operative anxiety significantly.

  8. The CMS Muon System Alignment

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez Ruiz-Del-Arbol, P

    2009-01-01

    The alignment of the muon system of CMS is performed using different techniques: photogrammetry measurements, optical alignment and alignment with tracks. For track-based alignment, several methods are employed, ranging from a hit and impact point (HIP) algorithm and a procedure exploiting chamber overlaps to a global fit method based on the Millepede approach. For start-up alignment as long as available integrated luminosity is still significantly limiting the size of the muon sample from collisions, cosmic muon and beam halo signatures play a very strong role. During the last commissioning runs in 2008 the first aligned geometries have been produced and validated with data. The CMS offline computing infrastructure has been used in order to perform improved reconstructions. We present the computational aspects related to the calculation of alignment constants at the CERN Analysis Facility (CAF), the production and population of databases and the validation and performance in the official reconstruction. Also...

  9. Clear aligners in orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, T

    2017-03-01

    Since the introduction of the Tooth Positioner (TP Orthodontics) in 1944, removable appliances analogous to clear aligners have been employed for mild to moderate orthodontic tooth movements. Clear aligner therapy has been a part of orthodontic practice for decades, but has, particularly since the introduction of Invisalign appliances (Align Technology) in 1998, become an increasingly common addition to the orthodontic armamentarium. An internet search reveals at least 27 different clear aligner products currently on offer for orthodontic treatment. The present paper will highlight the increasing popularity of clear aligner appliances, as well as the clinical scope and the limitations of aligner therapy in general. Further, the paper will outline the differences between the various types of clear aligner products currently available. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  10. Tracker Alignment Performance Plots after Commissioning

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    During the LHC shutdown in Winter 2016/17, the CMS pixel detector, the inner component of the CMS Tracker, was replaced by the Phase-1 upgrade detector. Among others improvements, the new pixel detector consists of four instead of three layers in the central barrel region (BPIX) and three instead of two disks in the endcap regions (FPIX). In this report, performance plots of pixel detector alignment results are presented, which were obtained with both cosmic-ray and pp collision data acquired at the beginning of the 2017 LHC operation. Alignment constants have been derived for each data-taking period to the level of single module positions in both the pixel and the strip detectors. The complete understanding of the alignment and biases was derived by using two algorithms, Millepede-II and HipPy. The results confirm each other.

  11. Business-IT alignment and service oriented architecture: a proposal of a service-oriented strategic alignment model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuenca, L.; Boza, A.; Ortiz, A.; Trienekens, J.J.M.; Hammoudi, S.; Cordeiro, J.; Maciaszek, L

    2014-01-01

    Since its inception, SOA has been postulated as the solution to the problems of alignment between business and IT. However, these problems still remain, especially at external level where the business strategy should be aligned with the IT strategy. Based on the Henderson and Venkatraman’s strategic

  12. Business-IT Alignment Maturity: The Correlation of Performance Indicators and Alignment Maturity within the Commercial Airline Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Timothy K.

    2010-01-01

    During the period from 1978 to 2009, more than 200 commercial airlines were forced to merge, cease operations, or file for bankruptcy protection. The purpose of this quantitative study is to evaluate the global commercial airline industry from an IT-business alignment perspective and correlate the alignment maturity level of each airline with…

  13. Alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector using $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV data

    CERN Document Server

    Brendlinger, K; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    We will present the status and performance of the ATLAS Inner Detector alignment system using the 2010 LHC run at 7 TeV. The alignment is performed combining isolated high pT collision tracks with cosmic ray tracks triggered during the empty LHC bunches. The alignment of the silicon subsystems had been performed at the module level, while the straw-tube tracker has been aligned at the channel level.

  14. Audio-visual temporal recalibration can be constrained by content cues regardless of spatial overlap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warrick eRoseboom

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available It has now been well established that the point of subjective synchrony for audio and visual events can be shifted following exposure to asynchronous audio-visual presentations, an effect often referred to as temporal recalibration. Recently it was further demonstrated that it is possible to concurrently maintain two such recalibrated, and opposing, estimates of audio-visual temporal synchrony. However, it remains unclear precisely what defines a given audio-visual pair such that it is possible to maintain a temporal relationship distinct from other pairs. It has been suggested that spatial separation of the different audio-visual pairs is necessary to achieve multiple distinct audio-visual synchrony estimates. Here we investigated if this was necessarily true. Specifically, we examined whether it is possible to obtain two distinct temporal recalibrations for stimuli that differed only in featural content. Using both complex (audio visual speech; Experiment 1 and simple stimuli (high and low pitch audio matched with either vertically or horizontally oriented Gabors; Experiment 2 we found concurrent, and opposite, recalibrations despite there being no spatial difference in presentation location at any point throughout the experiment. This result supports the notion that the content of an audio-visual pair can be used to constrain distinct audio-visual synchrony estimates regardless of spatial overlap.

  15. Spectacular Attractions: Museums, Audio-Visuals and the Ghosts of Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandelli Elisa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, moving images have become a common feature not only in art museums, but also in a wide range of institutions devoted to the conservation and transmission of memory. This paper focuses on the role of audio-visuals in the exhibition design of history and memory museums, arguing that they are privileged means to achieve the spectacular effects and the visitors’ emotional and “experiential” engagement that constitute the main objective of contemporary museums. I will discuss this topic through the concept of “cinematic attraction,” claiming that when embedded in displays, films and moving images often produce spectacular mises en scène with immersive effects, creating wonder and astonishment, and involving visitors on an emotional, visceral and physical level. Moreover, I will consider the diffusion of audio-visual witnesses of real or imaginary historical characters, presented in Phantasmagoria-like displays that simulate ghostly and uncanny apparitions, creating an ambiguous and often problematic coexistence of truth and illusion, subjectivity and objectivity, facts and imagination.

  16. A comparison between audio and audiovisual distraction techniques in managing anxious pediatric dental patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain is not the sole reason for fear of dentistry. Anxiety or the fear of unknown during dental treatment is a major factor and it has been the major concern for dentists for a long time. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the two distraction techniques, viz, audio distraction and audiovisual distraction, in management of anxious pediatric dental patients. Sixty children aged between 4-8 years were divided into three groups. Each child had four dental visits - screening visit, prophylaxis visit, cavity preparation and restoration visit, and extraction visit. Child′s anxiety level in each visit was assessed using a combination of four measures: Venham′s picture test, Venham′s rating of clinical anxiety, pulse rate, and oxygen saturation. The values obtained were tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis. It was concluded that audiovisual distraction technique was more effective in managing anxious pediatric dental patient as compared to audio distraction technique.

  17. Simulator study of the effect of visual-motion time delays on pilot tracking performance with an audio side task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D. R.; Miller, G. K., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of time delay was determined in the visual and motion cues in a flight simulator on pilot performance in tracking a target aircraft that was oscillating sinusoidally in altitude only. An audio side task was used to assure the subject was fully occupied at all times. The results indicate that, within the test grid employed, about the same acceptable time delay (250 msec) was obtained for a single aircraft (fighter type) by each of two subjects for both fixed-base and motion-base conditions. Acceptable time delay is defined as the largest amount of delay that can be inserted simultaneously into the visual and motion cues before performance degradation occurs. A statistical analysis of the data was made to establish this value of time delay. Audio side task provided quantitative data that documented the subject's work level.

  18. Investigation of Energy Consumption and Sound Quality for Class-D Audio Amplifiers using Tracking Power Supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamauchi, Akira; Schneider, Henrik; Knott, Arnold

    2015-01-01

    power supply tracking and its influence on power losses, audio performance and environmental impact for a 130 W class-D amplifier prototype as well as a commercialized class-D amplifier. Both modeled and experimental results verify that a large improvement of efficiency can be achieved. The total...... harmonic is found to be unaffected by stepless power supply tracking due the high supply rejection ratio of the used amplifiers under test.......The main advantage of Class-D audio amplifiers is high efficiency which is often stated to be more than 90 % but at idle or low power levels the efficiency is much lower. The waste energy is an environmental concern, a concern in mobile applications where long battery operation is required...

  19. Pareto optimal pairwise sequence alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRonne, Kevin W; Karypis, George

    2013-01-01

    Sequence alignment using evolutionary profiles is a commonly employed tool when investigating a protein. Many profile-profile scoring functions have been developed for use in such alignments, but there has not yet been a comprehensive study of Pareto optimal pairwise alignments for combining multiple such functions. We show that the problem of generating Pareto optimal pairwise alignments has an optimal substructure property, and develop an efficient algorithm for generating Pareto optimal frontiers of pairwise alignments. All possible sets of two, three, and four profile scoring functions are used from a pool of 11 functions and applied to 588 pairs of proteins in the ce_ref data set. The performance of the best objective combinations on ce_ref is also evaluated on an independent set of 913 protein pairs extracted from the BAliBASE RV11 data set. Our dynamic-programming-based heuristic approach produces approximated Pareto optimal frontiers of pairwise alignments that contain comparable alignments to those on the exact frontier, but on average in less than 1/58th the time in the case of four objectives. Our results show that the Pareto frontiers contain alignments whose quality is better than the alignments obtained by single objectives. However, the task of identifying a single high-quality alignment among those in the Pareto frontier remains challenging.

  20. APPLICATION OF CONTROLLED SOURCE AUDIO MAGNETOTELLURIC (CSAMT AT GEOTHERMAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susilawati S.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available CSAMT or Controlled Source Audio-Magnetotelluric is one of the Geophysics methods to determine the resistivity of rock under earth surface. CSAMT method utilizes artificial stream and injected into the ground, the frequency of artificial sources ranging from 0.1 Hz to 10 kHz, CSAMT data source effect correction is inverted. From the inversion results showed that there is a layer having resistivity values ranged between 2.5 Ω.m – 15 Ω.m, which is interpreted that the layer is clay.

  1. A listening test system for automotive audio - listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choisel, Sylvain; Hegarty, Patrick; Christensen, Flemming

    2007-01-01

    A series of experiments was conducted in order to validate an experimental procedure to perform listening tests on car audio systems in a simulation of the car environment in a laboratory, using binaural synthesis with head-tracking. Seven experts and 40 non-expert listeners rated a range...... of stimuli for 15 sound-quality attributes developed by the experts. This paper presents a comparison between the attribute ratings from the two groups of participants. Overall preference of the non-experts was also measured using direct ratings as well as indirect scaling based on paired comparisons...

  2. Digital audio recordings improve the outcomes of patient consultations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolderslund, Maiken; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Holst, René

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects on patients' outcome of the consultations when provided with: a Digital Audio Recording (DAR) of the consultation and a Question Prompt List (QPL). METHODS: This is a three-armed randomised controlled cluster trial. One group of patients received standard care......, while the other two groups received either the QPL in combination with a recording of their consultation or only the recording. Patients from four outpatient clinics participated: Paediatric, Orthopaedic, Internal Medicine, and Urology. The effects were evaluated by patient-administered questionnaires...

  3. Audio-haptic interaction in simulated walking experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serafin, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    and interchangeable use of the haptic and auditory modality in floor interfaces, and for the synergy of perception and action in capturing and guiding human walking. We describe the technology developed in the context of this project, together with some experiments performed to evaluate the role of auditory......In this paper an overview of the work conducted on audio-haptic physically based simulation and evaluation of walking is provided. This work has been performed in the context of the Natural Interactive Walking (NIW) project, whose goal is to investigate possibilities for the integrated...... and haptic feedback in walking tasks....

  4. An assessment of individualized technical ear training for audio production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungyoung

    2015-07-01

    An individualized technical ear training method is compared to a non-individualized method. The efficacy of the individualized method is assessed using a standardized test conducted before and after the training period. Participants who received individualized training improved better than the control group on the test. Results indicate the importance of individualized training for acquisition of spectrum-identification and spectrum-matching skills. Individualized training, therefore, should be implemented by default into technical ear training programs used in audio production industry and education.

  5. Sinusoidal Analysis-Synthesis of Audio Using Perceptual Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Ted; Spanias, Andreas

    2003-12-01

    This paper presents a new method for the selection of sinusoidal components for use in compact representations of narrowband audio. The method consists of ranking and selecting the most perceptually relevant sinusoids. The idea behind the method is to maximize the matching between the auditory excitation pattern associated with the original signal and the corresponding auditory excitation pattern associated with the modeled signal that is being represented by a small set of sinusoidal parameters. The proposed component-selection methodology is shown to outperform the maximum signal-to-mask ratio selection strategy in terms of subjective quality.

  6. Digital video and audio broadcasting technology a practical engineering guide

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Digital Video and Audio Broadcasting Technology - A Practical Engineering Guide' deals with all the most important digital television, sound radio and multimedia standards such as MPEG, DVB, DVD, DAB, ATSC, T-DMB, DMB-T, DRM and ISDB-T. The book provides an in-depth look at these subjects in terms of practical experience. In addition it contains chapters on the basics of technologies such as analog television, digital modulation, COFDM or mathematical transformations between time and frequency domains. The attention in the respective field under discussion is focussed on aspects of measuring t

  7. Synthesis of audio spectra using a diffraction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, V; Eswaran, C

    2006-12-01

    It is shown that the intensity variations of an audio signal in the frequency domain can be obtained by using a mathematical function containing a series of weighted complex Bessel functions. With proper choice of values for two parameters, this function can transform an input spectrum of discrete frequencies of unit intensity into the known spectra of different musical instruments. Specific examples of musical instruments are considered for evaluating the performance of this method. It is found that this function yields musical spectra with a good degree of accuracy.

  8. The complete guide to high-end audio

    CERN Document Server

    Harley, Robert

    2015-01-01

    An updated edition of what many consider the "bible of high-end audio"   In this newly revised and updated fifth edition, Robert Harley, editor in chief of the Absolute Sound magazine, tells you everything you need to know about buying and enjoying high-quality hi-fi. With this book, discover how to get the best sound for your money, how to identify the weak links in your system and upgrade where it will do the most good, how to set up and tweak your system for maximum performance, and how to become a more perceptive and appreciative listener. Just a few of the secrets you will learn cover hi

  9. [Voix d'Or, an audio tool to revive memories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunschweig, Lina

    2010-01-01

    Voix d'Or is an audio tool designed to awaken the affective memory of elderly people and particularly those suffering from Alzheimer's disease. Every month it offers new radio programmes to initiate or facilitate leisure and entertainment activities, memory workshops or provide the basis of quiet moments. The tool has a double objective: to procure well-being, boost the individual's self-esteem and recognise his/her history and to facilitate exchange and communication between the residents and the staff of a care home.

  10. Amplificador de audio en clase A para auriculares

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Ruiz, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    El presente proyecto muestra el desarrollo, la simulación y la implantación de un amplificador de audio de altas prestaciones, empleando para ello transistores discretos y amplificadores operacionales sobre una PCB diseñada previamente con un programa software. La aplicación de este amplificador será como amplificador de potencia para auriculares de alta impedancia. El circuito empleará una técnica de realimentación directa sobre los auriculares conectados a 4 hilos. El amplificador incorpora...

  11. Tools for signal compression applications to speech and audio coding

    CERN Document Server

    Moreau, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    This book presents tools and algorithms required to compress/uncompress signals such as speech and music. These algorithms are largely used in mobile phones, DVD players, HDTV sets, etc. In a first rather theoretical part, this book presents the standard tools used in compression systems: scalar and vector quantization, predictive quantization, transform quantization, entropy coding. In particular we show the consistency between these different tools. The second part explains how these tools are used in the latest speech and audio coders. The third part gives Matlab programs simulating t

  12. Using Audio-Derived Affective Offset to Enhance TV Recommendation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shepstone, Sven Ewan; Tan, Zheng-Hua; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2014-01-01

    . First a user's mood profile is determined using 12-class audio-based emotion classifications . An initial TV content item is then displayed to the user based on the extracted mood profile. The user has the option to either accept the recommendation, or to critique the item once or several times......, by navigating the emotion space to request an alternative match. The final match is then compared to the initial match, in terms of the difference in the items' affective parameterization . This offset is then utilized in future recommendation sessions. The system was evaluated by eliciting three different...

  13. All about alignment

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The ALICE absorbers, iron wall and superstructure have been installed with great precision. The ALICE front absorber, positioned in the centre of the detector, has been installed and aligned. Weighing more than 400 tonnes, the ALICE absorbers and the surrounding support structures have been installed and aligned with a precision of 1-2 mm, hardly an easy task but a very important one. The ALICE absorbers are made of three parts: the front absorber, a 35-tonne cone-shaped structure, and two small-angle absorbers, long straight cylinder sections weighing 18 and 40 tonnes. The three pieces lined up have a total length of about 17 m. In addition to these, ALICE technicians have installed a 300-tonne iron filter wall made of blocks that fit together like large Lego pieces and a surrounding metal support structure to hold the tracking and trigger chambers. The absorbers house the vacuum chamber and are also the reference surface for the positioning of the tracking and trigger chambers. For this reason, the ab...

  14. MP3 audio-editing software for the department of radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Qingfen; Sun Canhui; Li Ziping; Meng Quanfei; Jiang Li

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the MP3 audio-editing software in the daily work in the department of radiology. Methods: The audio content of daily consultation seminar, held in the department of radiology every morning, was recorded and converted into MP3 audio format by a computer integrated recording device. The audio data were edited, archived, and eventually saved in the computer memory storage media, which was experimentally replayed and applied in the research or teaching. Results: MP3 audio-editing was a simple process and convenient for saving and searching the data. The record could be easily replayed. Conclusion: MP3 audio-editing perfectly records and saves the contents of consultation seminar, and has replaced the conventional hand writing notes. It is a valuable tool in both research and teaching in the department. (authors)

  15. WebGL and web audio software lightweight components for multimedia education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xin; Yuksel, Kivanc; Skarbek, Władysław

    2017-08-01

    The paper presents the results of our recent work on development of contemporary computing platform DC2 for multimedia education usingWebGL andWeb Audio { the W3C standards. Using literate programming paradigm the WEBSA educational tools were developed. It offers for a user (student), the access to expandable collection of WEBGL Shaders and web Audio scripts. The unique feature of DC2 is the option of literate programming, offered for both, the author and the reader in order to improve interactivity to lightweightWebGL andWeb Audio components. For instance users can define: source audio nodes including synthetic sources, destination audio nodes, and nodes for audio processing such as: sound wave shaping, spectral band filtering, convolution based modification, etc. In case of WebGL beside of classic graphics effects based on mesh and fractal definitions, the novel image processing analysis by shaders is offered like nonlinear filtering, histogram of gradients, and Bayesian classifiers.

  16. R3D Align web server for global nucleotide to nucleotide alignments of RNA 3D structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahrig, Ryan R; Petrov, Anton I; Leontis, Neocles B; Zirbel, Craig L

    2013-07-01

    The R3D Align web server provides online access to 'RNA 3D Align' (R3D Align), a method for producing accurate nucleotide-level structural alignments of RNA 3D structures. The web server provides a streamlined and intuitive interface, input data validation and output that is more extensive and easier to read and interpret than related servers. The R3D Align web server offers a unique Gallery of Featured Alignments, providing immediate access to pre-computed alignments of large RNA 3D structures, including all ribosomal RNAs, as well as guidance on effective use of the server and interpretation of the output. By accessing the non-redundant lists of RNA 3D structures provided by the Bowling Green State University RNA group, R3D Align connects users to structure files in the same equivalence class and the best-modeled representative structure from each group. The R3D Align web server is freely accessible at http://rna.bgsu.edu/r3dalign/.

  17. Nova laser alignment control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Arsdall, P.J.; Holloway, F.W.; McGuigan, D.L.; Shelton, R.T.

    1984-01-01

    Alignment of the Nova laser requires control of hundreds of optical components in the ten beam paths. Extensive application of computer technology makes daily alignment practical. The control system is designed in a manner which provides both centralized and local manual operator controls integrated with automatic closed loop alignment. Menudriven operator consoles using high resolution color graphics displays overlaid with transport touch panels allow laser personnel to interact efficiently with the computer system. Automatic alignment is accomplished by using image analysis techniques to determine beam references points from video images acquired along the laser chain. A major goal of the design is to contribute substantially to rapid experimental turnaround and consistent alignment results. This paper describes the computer-based control structure and the software methods developed for aligning this large laser system

  18. Direct-conversion switching-mode audio power amplifier with active capacitive voltage clamp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljusev, Petar; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the advantages and problems when implementing direct energy conversion switching-mode audio power amplifiers. It is shown that the total integration of the power supply and Class D audio power amplifier into one compact direct converter can simplify the design, increase...... efficiency, reduce the product volume and lower its cost. As an example, the principle of operation and the measurements made on a direct-conversion switching-mode audio power amplifier with active capacitive voltage clamp are presented....

  19. GraphAlignment: Bayesian pairwise alignment of biological networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolář Michal

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With increased experimental availability and accuracy of bio-molecular networks, tools for their comparative and evolutionary analysis are needed. A key component for such studies is the alignment of networks. Results We introduce the Bioconductor package GraphAlignment for pairwise alignment of bio-molecular networks. The alignment incorporates information both from network vertices and network edges and is based on an explicit evolutionary model, allowing inference of all scoring parameters directly from empirical data. We compare the performance of our algorithm to an alternative algorithm, Græmlin 2.0. On simulated data, GraphAlignment outperforms Græmlin 2.0 in several benchmarks except for computational complexity. When there is little or no noise in the data, GraphAlignment is slower than Græmlin 2.0. It is faster than Græmlin 2.0 when processing noisy data containing spurious vertex associations. Its typical case complexity grows approximately as O(N2.6. On empirical bacterial protein-protein interaction networks (PIN and gene co-expression networks, GraphAlignment outperforms Græmlin 2.0 with respect to coverage and specificity, albeit by a small margin. On large eukaryotic PIN, Græmlin 2.0 outperforms GraphAlignment. Conclusions The GraphAlignment algorithm is robust to spurious vertex associations, correctly resolves paralogs, and shows very good performance in identification of homologous vertices defined by high vertex and/or interaction similarity. The simplicity and generality of GraphAlignment edge scoring makes the algorithm an appropriate choice for global alignment of networks.

  20. Mask alignment system for semiconductor processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Aaron P.; Carlson, Charles T.; Weaver, William T.; Grant, Christopher N.

    2017-02-14

    A mask alignment system for providing precise and repeatable alignment between ion implantation masks and workpieces. The system includes a mask frame having a plurality of ion implantation masks loosely connected thereto. The mask frame is provided with a plurality of frame alignment cavities, and each mask is provided with a plurality of mask alignment cavities. The system further includes a platen for holding workpieces. The platen may be provided with a plurality of mask alignment pins and frame alignment pins configured to engage the mask alignment cavities and frame alignment cavities, respectively. The mask frame can be lowered onto the platen, with the frame alignment cavities moving into registration with the frame alignment pins to provide rough alignment between the masks and workpieces. The mask alignment cavities are then moved into registration with the mask alignment pins, thereby shifting each individual mask into precise alignment with a respective workpiece.