WorldWideScience

Sample records for level 1b2 ellipsoid

  1. Assessment of intake and nutritional status of vitamin b1, b2, and b6 in men and women with different physical activity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malara, M; Hübner-Wozniak, E; Lewandowska, I

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the nutritional status of vitamin B1, B2, and B6 in respect to dietary intake of these vitamins and activity coefficients of the erythrocyte enzymes transketolase, glutathione reductase, and aspartic aminotransferase in young men and women with different physical activity levels. The participants of this study were 20 women and 20 men with high physical activity (groups HAW and HAM, respectively), and 20 women and 20 men with low physical activity (groups LAW and LAM, respectively). The intake of vitamins B1, B2, B6, proteins, and calorie content of the diet was based on the average of the 4-day dietary recalls. To assess nutritional status of vitamin B1, B2, and B6, the activity coefficients (α) of erythrocyte transketolase (ETK), erythrocyte glutathione reductase (EGR), and erythrocyte aspartic aminotransferase (EAST) were estimated in blood hemolysates. The intake of the studied vitamins in the diet was statistically significantly lower in the female groups compared with the respective male groups. Deficiency of vitamin B6 in the diet was present more often in women than in men (in terms of the recommended dietary allowances [RDA]). Values of the activity coefficient αETK indicated that none of the groups in this study suffered the risk of vitamin B1 deficiency. The value of the activity coefficient αEGR indicated that the groups of women and men with low physical activity were more prone to vitamin B2 deficiency compared with the high physical activity groups. The risk of vitamin B6 deficiency (αEAST) in both male groups was higher than in both female groups. The obtained results do not allow for unequivocal determination of the impact of sex and the level of physical activity on intake and nutritional status of vitamin B1, B2, and B6. Independently of sex and the level of physical activity, the women and men consumed insufficient quantities of vitamins B1 and B6, although this was not always related to

  2. Tissue-specific alternative splicing and expression of ATP1B2 gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After heat-stress, the expression levels of the different transcripts were lower in different tissues; however, the expression of the ATP1B2-complete transcript increased in heart and lung tissues. The results of this research provide some useful information for further studies into the function of the bovine ATP1B2 gene.

  3. Atomic level simulations of interaction between edge dislocations and irradiation induced ellipsoidal voids in alpha-iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Bida [Department of Mechanics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Huang, Minsheng, E-mail: mshuang@hust.edu.cn [Department of Mechanics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory of Engineering Structural Analysis and Safety Assessment, Luoyu Road 1037, Wuhan 430074 (China); Li, Zhenhuan [Department of Mechanics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory of Engineering Structural Analysis and Safety Assessment, Luoyu Road 1037, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2017-04-15

    High concentrations of vacancies tend to be formed inside the metal materials under irradiation, and then accumulate and cluster together gradually to promote the formation of nanovoids. Generally, these voids act as obstacles for dislocation glide and thereby change/degrade the mechanical behavior of irradiated materials. In this work, the interaction between ellipsoidal nanovoids with edge dislocations in alpha-iron has been studied by atomic simulations. The results illuminate that the ellipsoidal void’s semi-major axis on the slip plane and parallel to the dislocation line is the dominant factor controlling the obstacle strength of ellipsoidal nanovoids. Two other semi-major axes, which are perpendicular to the glide plane and parallel to the Burgers vector, respectively, can also influence the critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) for dislocation shearing the ellipsoidal void. The intrinsic atomic mechanisms controlling above phenomena, such as nanovoid-geometry spatial constraint and nanovoid-surface curvature on dislocation evolution, have been discussed carefully. The classical continuum model has been amended to describe the dislocation-ellipsoidal nanovoid interaction base on current results. In addition, the influence of temperature on the CRSS of ellipsoidal nanovoids has also been investigated.

  4. Tissue-specific alternative splicing and expression of ATP1B2 gene

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user6

    2012-05-15

    May 15, 2012 ... retention; these isoforms were found in liver, kidney, muscle and breast tissues. ... lower levels than the complete ATP1B2 gene transcript in all the ... temperature. ... growth, differentiation, and disease (Zhou et al., 2002;.

  5. Triaxial Ellipsoidal Quantum Billiards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waalkens, Holger; Wiersig, Jan; Dullin, Holger R.

    1999-01-01

    The classical mechanics, exact quantum mechanics and semiclassical quantum mechanics of the billiard in the triaxial ellipsoid are investigated. The system is separable in ellipsoidal coordinates. A smooth description of the motion is given in terms of a geodesic flow on a solid torus, which is a

  6. Ellipsoidal basis for isotropic oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallies, W.; Lukac, I.; Pogosyan, G.S.; Sisakyan, A.N.

    1994-01-01

    The solutions of the Schroedinger equation are derived for the isotropic oscillator potential in the ellipsoidal coordinate system. The explicit expression is obtained for the ellipsoidal integrals of motion through the components of the orbital moment and Demkov's tensor. The explicit form of the ellipsoidal basis is given for the lowest quantum numbers. 10 refs.; 1 tab. (author)

  7. INPRO phase 1B (2nd part) joint study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Bum; Kim, Young In; Hahn, Do Hee (and others)

    2006-08-15

    In this project, the Korean innovative nuclear energy system(INS) concept was assessed to be contributory to IAEA's INPRO Joint Study on CNFC-FR. The Korean INS concept was defined as an integrated system consisting of a sodium-cooled, metal fueled fast reactor KALIMER and a PWR(including CANDU)-KALIMER coupled closed nuclear fuel cycle for the Joint Study. From the results of the national scenario study performed based o the Korean INS concept, it has veen confirmed that the deployment of KALIMER from 2030 until 2100 could reduce the amount of domestic spent fuel from PWRs and CANDUs with no further increase in PWR spent fuel thereafter. And the amount of minor actinides disposed as high level would be decreased to zero with complete replacement of PWRs with KALIMERs. Based on the results of the national scenario study, a preliminary assessment of the Korean INS concept has been performed using the INPRO methodology and user's manuals. During the INS assessment, items requiring either improvement or complement have been detected in order to dedicate to INPRO's effort to improve the methodology. The INPRO methodology generally lack a consistency in a level of depth and quantity of evaluation criteria and parameters for six areas within the INPRO framework. It needs to complement application methods and guidances applicable to various technology levels as well as illustrations of assessment tools. In addition, it needs to develop quantification and aggregation of evaluated results, application of weighting factor methods, and a synthetic manual for integrated assessment procedure and methodology.

  8. INPRO phase 1B (2nd part) joint study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Bum; Kim, Young In; Hahn, Do Hee

    2006-08-01

    In this project, the Korean innovative nuclear energy system(INS) concept was assessed to be contributory to IAEA's INPRO Joint Study on CNFC-FR. The Korean INS concept was defined as an integrated system consisting of a sodium-cooled, metal fueled fast reactor KALIMER and a PWR(including CANDU)-KALIMER coupled closed nuclear fuel cycle for the Joint Study. From the results of the national scenario study performed based o the Korean INS concept, it has veen confirmed that the deployment of KALIMER from 2030 until 2100 could reduce the amount of domestic spent fuel from PWRs and CANDUs with no further increase in PWR spent fuel thereafter. And the amount of minor actinides disposed as high level would be decreased to zero with complete replacement of PWRs with KALIMERs. Based on the results of the national scenario study, a preliminary assessment of the Korean INS concept has been performed using the INPRO methodology and user's manuals. During the INS assessment, items requiring either improvement or complement have been detected in order to dedicate to INPRO's effort to improve the methodology. The INPRO methodology generally lack a consistency in a level of depth and quantity of evaluation criteria and parameters for six areas within the INPRO framework. It needs to complement application methods and guidances applicable to various technology levels as well as illustrations of assessment tools. In addition, it needs to develop quantification and aggregation of evaluated results, application of weighting factor methods, and a synthetic manual for integrated assessment procedure and methodology

  9. Application for coordinate transformation between Gaus - Kruger projection: Bessel ellipsoid and UTM projection: WGS84 ellipsoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Gojković

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The physical surface of the earth has irregular shape which is not mathematically defined, therefore the shape of the Earth is approximated with mathematically defined surfaces such as ellipsoid and sphere. The developing of a global positioning systems, thus and modern navigation systems, as effect produce large amounts of data which contain the problem of homogeneity. This problem could be exceed if all the data are store in the same coordinate system. Hence the need for data transformation from local coordinate systems to the global coordinate systems. Global level implies WGS84 ellipsoid and UTM projection while national coordinate system of Republic Serbia is Gauss-Kruger with Bessel ellipsoid. This coordinate system of Republic Serbia on a global level has a local character. Applying appropriate mathematical models and functions it is possible to transform coordinates from one system to another and vice versa. The paper describes coordinate transformations from Gauss-Kruger coordinate system ellipsoid Bessel to UTM projection WGS84 ellipsoid and vice versa, and also an application which provides transformation of its kind that is made using open source environment. Name of the application is TRANS7_GK_UTM_GK and it can be found and used on the web page of the faculty for Mining and Geology under the link http://gk2utm.rgf.bg.ac.rs with a user guide.

  10. Post-Newtonian reference ellipsoid for relativistic geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeikin, Sergei; Han, Wenbiao; Mazurova, Elena

    2016-02-01

    We apply general relativity to construct the post-Newtonian background manifold that serves as a reference spacetime in relativistic geodesy for conducting a relativistic calculation of the geoid's undulation and the deflection of the plumb line from the vertical. We chose an axisymmetric ellipsoidal body made up of a perfect homogeneous fluid uniformly rotating around a fixed axis, as a source generating the reference geometry of the background manifold through Einstein's equations. We then reformulate and extend hydrodynamic calculations of rotating fluids done by a number of previous researchers for astrophysical applications to the realm of relativistic geodesy to set up algebraic equations defining the shape of the post-Newtonian reference ellipsoid. To complete this task, we explicitly perform all integrals characterizing gravitational field potentials inside the fluid body and represent them in terms of the elementary functions depending on the eccentricity of the ellipsoid. We fully explore the coordinate (gauge) freedom of the equations describing the post-Newtonian ellipsoid and demonstrate that the fractional deviation of the post-Newtonian level surface from the Maclaurin ellipsoid can be made much smaller than the previously anticipated estimate based on the astrophysical application of the coordinate gauge advocated by Bardeen and Chandrasekhar. We also derive the gauge-invariant relations of the post-Newtonian mass and the constant angular velocity of the rotating fluid with the parameters characterizing the shape of the post-Newtonian ellipsoid including its eccentricity, a semiminor axis, and a semimajor axis. We formulate the post-Newtonian theorems of Pizzetti and Clairaut that are used in geodesy to connect the geometric parameters of the reference ellipsoid to the physically measurable force of gravity at the pole and equator of the ellipsoid. Finally, we expand the post-Newtonian geodetic equations describing the post-Newtonian ellipsoid to

  11. Shape matters: The case for Ellipsoids and Ellipsoidal Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tillack, Andreas F. [ORNL; Robinson, Bruce H. [University of Washington, Seattle

    2017-11-01

    We describe the shape potentials used for the van der Waals interactions between soft-ellipsoids used to coarse-grain molecular moieties in our Metropolis Monte-Carlo simulation software. The morphologies resulting from different expressions for these van der Waals interaction potentials are discussed for the case of a prolate spheroid system with a strong dipole at the ellipsoid center. We also show that the calculation of ellipsoids is, at worst, only about fivefold more expensive computationally when compared to a simple Lennard- Jones sphere. Finally, as an application of the ellipsoidal shape we parametrize water from the original SPC water model and observe – just through the difference in shape alone – a significant improvement of the O-O radial distribution function when compared to experimental data.

  12. Aspirin Hydrolysis in Plasma Is a Variable Function of Butyrylcholinesterase and Platelet-activating Factor Acetylhydrolase 1b2 (PAFAH1b2)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Gang; Marathe, Gopal K.; Hartiala, Jaana; Hazen, Stanley L.; Allayee, Hooman; Tang, W. H. Wilson; McIntyre, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Aspirin is rapidly hydrolyzed within erythrocytes by a heterodimer of PAFAH1b2/PAFAH1b3 but also in plasma by an unidentified activity. Hydrolysis in both compartments was variable, with a 12-fold variation in plasma among 2226 Cleveland Clinic GeneBank patients. Platelet inhibition by aspirin was suppressed in plasma that rapidly hydrolyzed aspirin. Plasma aspirin hydrolysis was significantly higher in patients with coronary artery disease compared with control subjects (16.5 ± 4.4 versus 15.1 ± 3.7 nmol/ml/min; p = 3.4 × 10−8). A genome-wide association study of 2054 GeneBank subjects identified a single locus immediately adjacent to the BCHE (butyrylcholinesterase) gene associated with plasma aspirin hydrolytic activity (lead SNP, rs6445035; p = 9.1 × 10−17). However, its penetrance was low, and plasma from an individual with an inactivating mutation in BCHE still effectively hydrolyzed aspirin. A second aspirin hydrolase was identified in plasma, the purification of which showed it to be homomeric PAFAH1b2. This is distinct from the erythrocyte PAFAH1b2/PAFAH1b3 heterodimer. Inhibitors showed that both butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and PAFAH1b2 contribute to aspirin hydrolysis in plasma, with variation primarily reflecting non-genetic variation of BChE activity. Therefore, aspirin is hydrolyzed in plasma by two enzymes, BChE and a new extracellular form of platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, PAFAH1b2. Hydrolytic effectiveness varies widely primarily from non-genetic variation of BChE activity that affects aspirin bioavailability in blood and the ability of aspirin to inhibit platelet aggregation. PMID:23508960

  13. Aspirin hydrolysis in plasma is a variable function of butyrylcholinesterase and platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase 1b2 (PAFAH1b2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Gang; Marathe, Gopal K; Hartiala, Jaana; Hazen, Stanley L; Allayee, Hooman; Tang, W H Wilson; McIntyre, Thomas M

    2013-04-26

    Aspirin is rapidly hydrolyzed within erythrocytes by a heterodimer of PAFAH1b2/PAFAH1b3 but also in plasma by an unidentified activity. Hydrolysis in both compartments was variable, with a 12-fold variation in plasma among 2226 Cleveland Clinic GeneBank patients. Platelet inhibition by aspirin was suppressed in plasma that rapidly hydrolyzed aspirin. Plasma aspirin hydrolysis was significantly higher in patients with coronary artery disease compared with control subjects (16.5 ± 4.4 versus 15.1 ± 3.7 nmol/ml/min; p = 3.4 × 10(-8)). A genome-wide association study of 2054 GeneBank subjects identified a single locus immediately adjacent to the BCHE (butyrylcholinesterase) gene associated with plasma aspirin hydrolytic activity (lead SNP, rs6445035; p = 9.1 × 10(-17)). However, its penetrance was low, and plasma from an individual with an inactivating mutation in BCHE still effectively hydrolyzed aspirin. A second aspirin hydrolase was identified in plasma, the purification of which showed it to be homomeric PAFAH1b2. This is distinct from the erythrocyte PAFAH1b2/PAFAH1b3 heterodimer. Inhibitors showed that both butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and PAFAH1b2 contribute to aspirin hydrolysis in plasma, with variation primarily reflecting non-genetic variation of BChE activity. Therefore, aspirin is hydrolyzed in plasma by two enzymes, BChE and a new extracellular form of platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, PAFAH1b2. Hydrolytic effectiveness varies widely primarily from non-genetic variation of BChE activity that affects aspirin bioavailability in blood and the ability of aspirin to inhibit platelet aggregation.

  14. Magnetostatics of anisotropic superconducting ellipsoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saif, A.G.

    1987-09-01

    The magnetization and the magnetic field distribution inside (outside) an anisotropic type II superconducting ellipsoid, with filamentary structure, is formulated. We have shown that the magnetic field in this case is different from that of the general anisotropic one. The nucleations of the flux lines for specimens with large demagnetization factors are theoretically studied. We have shown that the nucleations of the flux lines, for specimens with large demagnetization factor, appears at a field larger than that of ellipsoidal shape. (author). 15 refs

  15. Stability of congruent Darwin ellipsoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassoul, M.

    1975-01-01

    The problem of synchronous oscillations of congruent Darwin ellipsoids is reconsidered. Contrary to results obtained by Chandrasekhar, it is shown that along a Darwin sequence the configurations remain stable with respect to ellipsoidal disturbances until they become too closely spaced. The precise limit which separates stable from unstable systems is found. Apart from some minor differences the Darwin sequence is the exact analog of the Roche sequence

  16. Attractive ellipsoids in robust control

    CERN Document Server

    Poznyak, Alexander; Azhmyakov, Vadim

    2014-01-01

    This monograph introduces a newly developed robust-control design technique for a wide class of continuous-time dynamical systems called the “attractive ellipsoid method.” Along with a coherent introduction to the proposed control design and related topics, the monograph studies nonlinear affine control systems in the presence of uncertainty and presents a constructive and easily implementable control strategy that guarantees certain stability properties. The authors discuss linear-style feedback control synthesis in the context of the above-mentioned systems. The development and physical implementation of high-performance robust-feedback controllers that work in the absence of complete information is addressed, with numerous examples to illustrate how to apply the attractive ellipsoid method to mechanical and electromechanical systems. While theorems are proved systematically, the emphasis is on understanding and applying the theory to real-world situations. Attractive Ellipsoids in Robust Control will a...

  17. Ellipsoid analysis of calvarial shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Petra A; Becker, Devra; Govier, Daniel P; Krantz, Steven G; Kane, Alex

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a novel quantitative method of describing calvarial shape by using ellipsoid geometry. The pilot application of Ellipsoid Analysis was to compare calvarial form among individuals with untreated unilateral coronal synostosis, metopic synostosis, and sagittal synostosis and normal subjects. The frontal, parietal, and occipital bones of 10 preoperative patients for each of the four study groups were bilaterally segmented into six regions using three-dimensional skull reconstructions generated by ANALYZE imaging software from high-resolution computed tomography scans. Points along each segment were extracted and manipulated using a MATLAB-based program. The points were fit to the least-squares nearest ellipsoid. Relationships between the six resultant right and left frontal, parietal, and occipital ellipsoidal centroids (FR, FL, PR, PL, OR, and OL, respectively) were tested for association with a synostotic group. Results from the pilot study showed meaningful differences between length ratio, angular, and centroid distance relationships among synostotic groups. The most substantial difference was exhibited in the centroid distance PL-PR between patients with sagittal synostosis and metopic synostosis. The measures most commonly significant were centroid distances FL-PR and FL-PL and the angle OR-FR-PR. Derived centroid relationships were reproducible. Ellipsoid Analysis may offer a more refined approach to quantitative analysis of cranial shape. Symmetric and asymmetric forms can be compared directly. Relevant shape information between traditional landmarks is characterized. These techniques may have wider applicability in quantifying craniofacial morphology with increase in both specificity and general applicability over current methods.

  18. The safety analysis of realization of the stabilization of beams B1/B2 supports project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleshin, A.M.; Batij, V.G.; Glukhen'kij, V.N.; Kozoriz, V.I.; Klyuchnikov, A.A.; Kochnev, N.A.; Pavlovskij, L.I.; Rubezhanskij, Yu.I.; Sidorenko, N.V.; Stoyanov, A.I.; Shcherbin, V.N.

    2000-01-01

    The results of the analysis of radiation safety executed at preparing for realization of the stabilization of beams B1/B2 support are given. The comparison of results of the preliminary analysis of safety with the data received during realization of works is carried out

  19. Intersection of a Sure Ellipsoid and a Random Ellipsoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun K. Gupta

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} An Expression for the expected value of the intersection of a sure sphere and a random sphere has been derived by Laurent (1974. In the present paper we derive the expression for the expected intersection volume of a sure ellipsoid and a random ellipsoid

  20. Ellipsoidal fuzzy learning for smart car platoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Julie A.; Kosko, Bart

    1993-12-01

    A neural-fuzzy system combined supervised and unsupervised learning to find and tune the fuzzy-rules. An additive fuzzy system approximates a function by covering its graph with fuzzy rules. A fuzzy rule patch can take the form of an ellipsoid in the input-output space. Unsupervised competitive learning found the statistics of data clusters. The covariance matrix of each synaptic quantization vector defined on ellipsoid centered at the centroid of the data cluster. Tightly clustered data gave smaller ellipsoids or more certain rules. Sparse data gave larger ellipsoids or less certain rules. Supervised learning tuned the ellipsoids to improve the approximation. The supervised neural system used gradient descent to find the ellipsoidal fuzzy patches. It locally minimized the mean-squared error of the fuzzy approximation. Hybrid ellipsoidal learning estimated the control surface for a smart car controller.

  1. In vitro study of vitamins B1, B2 and B6 adsorption on zeolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basić Zorica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Zeolites are the hydratised alumosilicates of alcali and earthalcali cations, which have a long three-dimensional crystal structure. Preparations on the basis of zeolites are used for adsorption of organic and nonorganic toxic substances and they, also, find more and more use in veterinary and human medicine and pharmacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibilities of zeolite to adsorb vitamins B1, B2 and B6 in acid and neutral solutions, as well as the characteristics of the process (saturability, reversibility and competitivness. Methods. The specific and sensitive HPLC method with fluorescent detector was used for determination of vitamins B1, B2 and B6. Analyte separation and detection were carried out by applying the reverse-phase method on column C18. An in vitro experiment was done by testing the influence of pH value (2 and 7, concentration of vitamin solution (1, 2 and 5 mg/L, the lenght of contact with zeolite (10-180 min and cation competitiveness on the exchange capacity, which is achieved by media and zeolite contact, as well as a possible vitamins desorption through changing pH value of the solution at 37°C. Jon competitiveness was examined by adding commercial feed mixture (grower with a defined content of the examined vitamines in zeolite solutions the pH = 2 and pH = 7. Results. Vitamins B1, B2 and B6 were stable in both pH=2 and pH = 7 solutions at 37°C, in the defined time intervals. In acid solution concentrations of vitamins significantly declined in the first 10 min, with no significant decline in further 30 min for all the three concentrations testch. In neutral solution, after the addition of 1% zeolite, decrease in vitamins concentrations was slightly lower than in acid solution, but also significant in the first 10 min of the contact with zeolite. It was found that zeolite, which adsorbed vitamins in acid solution, transferred in the neutral one released a significant quantity of adsorbed

  2. In vitro study of vitamins B1, B2 and B6 adsorption on zeolite

    OpenAIRE

    Basić Zorica; Kilibarda Vesna; Dobrić Silva; Resanović Radmila

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aim. Zeolites are the hydratised alumosilicates of alcali and earthalcali cations, which have a long three-dimensional crystal structure. Preparations on the basis of zeolites are used for adsorption of organic and nonorganic toxic substances and they, also, find more and more use in veterinary and human medicine and pharmacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibilities of zeolite to adsorb vitamins B1, B2 and B6 in acid and neutral solutions, as well as the chara...

  3. Ellipsoids and matrix-valued valuations

    OpenAIRE

    Ludwig, Monika

    2003-01-01

    We obtain a classification of Borel measurable, GL(n) covariant, symmetric-matrix-valued valuations on the space of n-dimensional convex polytopes. The only ones turn out to be the moment matrix corresponding to the classical Legendre ellipsoid and the matrix corresponding to the ellipsoid recently discovered by E. Lutwak, D. Yang, and G. Zhang.

  4. Quantum Monodromy in Prolate Ellipsoidal Billiards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waalkens, Holger; Dullin, Holger R.

    2002-01-01

    This is the third in a series of three papers on quantum billiards with elliptic and ellipsoidal boundaries. In the present paper we show that the integrable billiard inside a prolate ellipsoid has an isolated singular point in its bifurcation diagram and, therefore, exhibits classical and quantum

  5. Indentation of Ellipsoidal and Cylindrical Elastic Shells

    KAUST Repository

    Vella, Dominic; Ajdari, Amin; Vaziri, Ashkan; Boudaoud, Arezki

    2012-01-01

    Thin shells are found in nature at scales ranging from viruses to hens' eggs; the stiffness of such shells is essential for their function. We present the results of numerical simulations and theoretical analyses for the indentation of ellipsoidal

  6. Ellipsoidal prediction regions for multivariate uncertainty characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestaneh, Faranak; Pinson, Pierre; Azizipanah-Abarghooee, Rasoul

    2018-01-01

    , for classes of decision-making problems based on robust, interval chance-constrained optimization, necessary inputs take the form of multivariate prediction regions rather than scenarios. The current literature is at very primitive stage of characterizing multivariate prediction regions to be employed...... in these classes of optimization problems. To address this issue, we introduce a new class of multivariate forecasts which form as multivariate ellipsoids for non-Gaussian variables. We propose a data-driven systematic framework to readily generate and evaluate ellipsoidal prediction regions, with predefined...... probability guarantees and minimum conservativeness. A skill score is proposed for quantitative assessment of the quality of prediction ellipsoids. A set of experiments is used to illustrate the discrimination ability of the proposed scoring rule for potential misspecification of ellipsoidal prediction regions...

  7. Reference Ellipsoid and Geoid in Chronometric Geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeikin, Sergei M.

    2016-02-01

    Chronometric geodesy applies general relativity to study the problem of the shape of celestial bodies including the earth, and their gravitational field. The present paper discusses the relativistic problem of construction of a background geometric manifold that is used for describing a reference ellipsoid, geoid, the normal gravity field of the earth and for calculating geoid's undulation (height). We choose the perfect fluid with an ellipsoidal mass distribution uniformly rotating around a fixed axis as a source of matter generating the geometry of the background manifold through the Einstein equations. We formulate the post-Newtonian hydrodynamic equations of the rotating fluid to find out the set of algebraic equations defining the equipotential surface of the gravity field. In order to solve these equations we explicitly perform all integrals characterizing the interior gravitational potentials in terms of elementary functions depending on the parameters defining the shape of the body and the mass distribution. We employ the coordinate freedom of the equations to choose these parameters to make the shape of the rotating fluid configuration to be an ellipsoid of rotation. We derive expressions of the post-Newtonian mass and angular momentum of the rotating fluid as functions of the rotational velocity and the parameters of the ellipsoid including its bare density, eccentricity and semi-major axes. We formulate the post-Newtonian Pizzetti and Clairaut theorems that are used in geodesy to connect the parameters of the reference ellipsoid to the polar and equatorial values of force of gravity. We expand the post-Newtonian geodetic equations characterizing the reference ellipsoid into the Taylor series with respect to the eccentricity of the ellipsoid, and discuss the small-eccentricity approximation. Finally, we introduce the concept of relativistic geoid and its undulation with respect to the reference ellipsoid, and discuss how to calculate it in chronometric

  8. Ellipsoidal bag model for heavy quark system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi Pinzhen; Fudan Univ., Shanghai

    1991-01-01

    The ellipsoidal bag model is used to describe heavy quark systems such as Qanti Q, Qanti Qg and Q 2 anti Q 2 . Instead of two step model, these states are described by an uniform picture. The potential derived from the ellipsoidal bag for Qanti Q is almost equivalent to the Cornell potential. For a Q 2 anti Q 2 system with large quark pair separation, an improvement of 70 MeV is obtained comparing with the spherical bag. (orig.)

  9. Reference ellipsoid and geoid in chronometric geodesy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei M Kopeikin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronometric geodesy applies general relativity to study the problem of the shape of celestial bodies including the earth, and their gravitational field. The present paper discusses the relativistic problem of construction of a background geometric manifold that is used for describing a reference ellipsoid, geoid, the normal gravity field of the earth and for calculating geoid's undulation (height. We choose the perfect fluid with an ellipsoidal mass distribution uniformly rotating around a fixed axis as a source of matter generating the geometry of the background manifold through the Einstein equations. We formulate the post-Newtonian hydrodynamic equations of the rotating fluid to find out the set of algebraic equations defining the equipotential surface of the gravity field. In order to solve these equations we explicitly perform all integrals characterizing the interior gravitational potentials in terms of elementary functions depending on the parameters defining the shape of the body and the mass distribution. We employ the coordinate freedom of the equations to choose these parameters to make the shape of the rotating fluid configuration to be an ellipsoid of rotation. We derive expressions of the post-Newtonian mass and angular momentum of the rotating fluid as functions of the rotational velocity and the parameters of the ellipsoid including its bare density, eccentricity and semi-major axes. We formulate the post-Newtonian Pizzetti and Clairaut theorems that are used in geodesy to connect the parameters of the reference ellipsoid to the polar and equatorial values of force of gravity. We expand the post-Newtonian geodetic equations characterizing the reference ellipsoid into the Taylor series with respect to the eccentricity of the ellipsoid, and discuss the small-eccentricity approximation. Finally, we introduce the concept of relativistic geoid and its undulation with respect to the reference ellipsoid, and discuss how to calculate it

  10. Reference Ellipsoid and Geoid in Chronometric Geodesy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopeikin, Sergei M., E-mail: kopeikins@missouri.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Department of Physical Geodesy and Remote Sensing, Siberian State University of Geosystems and Technologies, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-25

    Chronometric geodesy applies general relativity to study the problem of the shape of celestial bodies including the earth, and their gravitational field. The present paper discusses the relativistic problem of construction of a background geometric manifold that is used for describing a reference ellipsoid, geoid, the normal gravity field of the earth and for calculating geoid's undulation (height). We choose the perfect fluid with an ellipsoidal mass distribution uniformly rotating around a fixed axis as a source of matter generating the geometry of the background manifold through the Einstein equations. We formulate the post-Newtonian hydrodynamic equations of the rotating fluid to find out the set of algebraic equations defining the equipotential surface of the gravity field. In order to solve these equations we explicitly perform all integrals characterizing the interior gravitational potentials in terms of elementary functions depending on the parameters defining the shape of the body and the mass distribution. We employ the coordinate freedom of the equations to choose these parameters to make the shape of the rotating fluid configuration to be an ellipsoid of rotation. We derive expressions of the post-Newtonian mass and angular momentum of the rotating fluid as functions of the rotational velocity and the parameters of the ellipsoid including its bare density, eccentricity and semi-major axes. We formulate the post-Newtonian Pizzetti and Clairaut theorems that are used in geodesy to connect the parameters of the reference ellipsoid to the polar and equatorial values of force of gravity. We expand the post-Newtonian geodetic equations characterizing the reference ellipsoid into the Taylor series with respect to the eccentricity of the ellipsoid, and discuss the small-eccentricity approximation. Finally, we introduce the concept of relativistic geoid and its undulation with respect to the reference ellipsoid, and discuss how to calculate it in

  11. En-face imaging of the ellipsoid zone in the retina from optical coherence tomography B-scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, T.; Larkin, S.; Downing, M.; Csaky, K.

    2015-03-01

    It is generally believed that photoreceptor integrity is related to the ellipsoid zone appearance in optical coherence tomography (OCT) B-scans. Algorithms and software were developed for viewing and analyzing the ellipsoid zone. The software performs the following: (a), automated ellipsoid zone isolation in the B-scans, (b), en-face view of the ellipsoid-zone reflectance, (c), alignment and overlay of (b) onto reflectance images of the retina, and (d), alignment and overlay of (c) with microperimetry sensitivity points. Dataset groups were compared from normal and dry age related macular degeneration (DAMD) subjects. Scalar measurements for correlation against condition included the mean and standard deviation of the ellipsoid zone's reflectance. The imageprocessing techniques for automatically finding the ellipsoid zone are based upon a calculation of optical flow which tracks the edges of laminated structures across an image. Statistical significance was shown in T-tests of these measurements with the population pools separated as normal and DAMD subjects. A display of en-face ellipsoid-zone reflectance shows a clear and recognizable difference between any of the normal and DAMD subjects in that they show generally uniform and nonuniform reflectance, respectively, over the region near the macula. Regions surrounding points of low microperimetry (μP) sensitivity have nonregular and lower levels of ellipsoid-zone reflectance nearby. These findings support the idea that the photoreceptor integrity could be affecting both the ellipsoid-zone reflectance and the sensitivity measurements.

  12. Third EU MAT intercomparison on methods for the determination of vitamins B-1, B-2 and B-6 in food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, H. van den; Schaik, F. van; Finglas, P.M.; Froidmont-Görtz, I. de

    1996-01-01

    An intercomparison study on the determination of vitamin B-1, B-2 and B-6 was performed as part of the EU MAT project involving 16 laboratories. Each laboratory was requested to analyse three different food samples (lyophilized pig's liver, mixed vegetables and wholemeal flour, respectively) using

  13. B-2 Extremely High Frequency SATCOM and Computer Increment 1 (B-2 EHF Inc 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Confidence Level Confidence Level of cost estimate for current APB: 55% This APB reflects cost and funding data based on the B-2 EHF Increment I SCP...This cost estimate was quantified at the Mean (~55%) confidence level . Total Quantity Quantity SAR Baseline Production Estimate Current APB...Production Estimate Econ Qty Sch Eng Est Oth Spt Total 33.624 -0.350 1.381 0.375 0.000 -6.075 0.000 -0.620 -5.289 28.335 Current SAR Baseline to Current

  14. Dimension of the Earth's general ellipsoid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burša, Milan; Kenyon, S.; Kouba, J.; Raděj, K.; Šíma, Zdislav; Vatrt, V.; Vojtíšková, M.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 1 (2002), s. 31-41 ISSN 0167-9295 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : Earth's dimensions * Earth's ellipsoid * fundamental constants Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 1.364, year: 2002

  15. On computing ellipsoidal harmonics using Jekeli's renormalization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sebera, Josef; Bouman, J.; Bosch, W.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 9 (2012), s. 713-726 ISSN 0949-7714 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : Earth's gravitational field * spherical and ellipsoidal harmonics * hypergeometric function Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.808, year: 2012

  16. An ellipsoidal calculus based on propagation and fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, L; Sabater, A; Thomas, F

    2002-01-01

    Presents an ellipsoidal calculus based solely on two basic operations: propagation and fusion. Propagation refers to the problem of obtaining an ellipsoid that must satisfy an affine relation with another ellipsoid, and fusion to that of computing the ellipsoid that tightly bounds the intersection of two given ellipsoids. These two operations supersede the Minkowski sum and difference, affine transformation and intersection tight bounding of ellipsoids on which other ellipsoidal calculi are based. Actually, a Minkowski operation can be seen as a fusion followed by a propagation and an affine transformation as a particular case of propagation. Moreover, the presented formulation is numerically stable in the sense that it is immune to degeneracies of the involved ellipsoids and/or affine relations. Examples arising when manipulating uncertain geometric information in the context of the spatial interpretation of line drawings are extensively used as a testbed for the presented calculus.

  17. Theory of coherent transition radiation generated by ellipsoidal electron bunches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Root, op 't W.P.E.M.; Smorenburg, P.W.; Oudheusden, van T.; Wiel, van der M.J.; Luiten, O.J.

    2007-01-01

    We present the theory of coherent transition radiation (CTR) generated by ellipsoidal electron bunches. We calculate analytical expressions for the electric field spectrum, the power spectrum, and the temporal electric field of CTR, generated by cylindrically symmetric ellipsoidal electron bunches

  18. ADH1B*2 allele is protective against alcoholism but not chronic liver disease in the Hungarian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Reka; Pocsai, Zsuzsa; Fiatal, Szilvia; Szeles, Gyorgy; Kardos, Laszlo; Petrovski, Beata; McKee, Martin; Adany, Roza

    2010-05-01

    Standardized death rates from chronic liver diseases (CLDs) in Hungary are much higher than the European Union average. Carrying the alcohol dehydrogenase 1B 48His allele (rs1229984 or ADH1B*2) could decrease the risk of alcoholism, but with persistent drinking may confer a greater risk of CLDs. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of this polymorphism in the Hungarian population and its association with alcohol consumption and with CLDs. A total of 278 cases with diagnosed CLDs and 752 controls without any alterations in liver function, all males aged 45-64, were screened for ADH1B Arg48His polymorphism. ADH1B*2 allele frequencies in controls and cases were 8.31% and 4.50%, respectively (chi(2) = 9.2; P = 0.01). Carrying the ADH1B*2 allele was associated with significantly lower odds ratio (OR) for drinking frequency (OR = 0.63; P = 0.003), the number of positive answers on CAGE (Cut-down, Annoyed, Guilt, Eye-opener) assessment (OR = 0.58; P = 0.005) and a positive CAGE status (OR = 0.55; P = 0.007). There was a significant association between ADH1B*2 and CLDs (OR = 0.50; P = 0.003), but it disappeared after adjusting for CAGE status and scores (OR = 0.67 P = 0.134; OR = 0.67 P = 0.148, respectively) and weakened after adjusting for drinking frequency (OR = 0.61; P = 0.045). Among heavy drinkers the presence of ADH1B*2 did not increase the risk of cirrhosis but there was a significant interaction between genotype and CAGE status (P = 0.003, P = 0.042), with ADH1B*2 conferring reduced risk of CLDs in CAGE negatives. In Hungarians, the ADH1B 48His allele reduces the risk of alcoholism, but not the risk of chronic liver disease among heavy drinkers.

  19. Ellipsoids (v1.0): 3-D magnetic modelling of ellipsoidal bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Diego; Oliveira, Vanderlei C., Jr.

    2017-09-01

    A considerable amount of literature has been published on the magnetic modelling of uniformly magnetized ellipsoids since the second half of the nineteenth century. Ellipsoids have flexibility to represent a wide range of geometrical forms, are the only known bodies which can be uniformly magnetized in the presence of a uniform inducing field and are the only finite bodies for which the self-demagnetization can be treated analytically. This property makes ellipsoids particularly useful for modelling compact orebodies having high susceptibility. In this case, neglecting the self-demagnetization may strongly mislead the interpretation of these bodies by using magnetic methods. A number of previous studies consider that the self-demagnetization can be neglected for the case in which the geological body has an isotropic susceptibility lower than or equal to 0.1 SI. This limiting value, however, seems to be determined empirically and there has been no discussion about how this value was determined. In addition, the geoscientific community lacks an easy-to-use tool to simulate the magnetic field produced by uniformly magnetized ellipsoids. Here, we present an integrated review of the magnetic modelling of arbitrarily oriented triaxial, prolate and oblate ellipsoids. Our review includes ellipsoids with both induced and remanent magnetization, as well as with isotropic or anisotropic susceptibility. We also discuss the ambiguity between confocal ellipsoids with the same magnetic moment and propose a way of determining the isotropic susceptibility above which the self-demagnetization must be taken into consideration. Tests with synthetic data validate our approach. Finally, we provide a set of routines to model the magnetic field produced by ellipsoids. The routines are written in Python language as part of the Fatiando a Terra, which is an open-source library for modelling and inversion in geophysics.

  20. Ellipsoids (v1.0: 3-D magnetic modelling of ellipsoidal bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Takahashi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A considerable amount of literature has been published on the magnetic modelling of uniformly magnetized ellipsoids since the second half of the nineteenth century. Ellipsoids have flexibility to represent a wide range of geometrical forms, are the only known bodies which can be uniformly magnetized in the presence of a uniform inducing field and are the only finite bodies for which the self-demagnetization can be treated analytically. This property makes ellipsoids particularly useful for modelling compact orebodies having high susceptibility. In this case, neglecting the self-demagnetization may strongly mislead the interpretation of these bodies by using magnetic methods. A number of previous studies consider that the self-demagnetization can be neglected for the case in which the geological body has an isotropic susceptibility lower than or equal to 0.1 SI. This limiting value, however, seems to be determined empirically and there has been no discussion about how this value was determined. In addition, the geoscientific community lacks an easy-to-use tool to simulate the magnetic field produced by uniformly magnetized ellipsoids. Here, we present an integrated review of the magnetic modelling of arbitrarily oriented triaxial, prolate and oblate ellipsoids. Our review includes ellipsoids with both induced and remanent magnetization, as well as with isotropic or anisotropic susceptibility. We also discuss the ambiguity between confocal ellipsoids with the same magnetic moment and propose a way of determining the isotropic susceptibility above which the self-demagnetization must be taken into consideration. Tests with synthetic data validate our approach. Finally, we provide a set of routines to model the magnetic field produced by ellipsoids. The routines are written in Python language as part of the Fatiando a Terra, which is an open-source library for modelling and inversion in geophysics.

  1. Collisionless analogs of Riemann S ellipsoids with halo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramyan, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    A spheroidal halo ensures equilibrium of the collisionless analogs of the Riemann S ellipsoids with oscillations of the particles along the direction of their rotation. Sequences of collisionless triaxial ellipsoids begin and end with dynamically stable members of collisionless embedded spheroids. Both liquid and collisionless Riemann S ellipsoids with weak halo have properties that resemble those of bars of SB galaxies

  2. Ellipsoidal prediction regions for multivariate uncertainty characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestaneh, Faranak; Pinson, Pierre; Azizipanah-Abarghooee, Rasoul

    2018-01-01

    While substantial advances are observed in probabilistic forecasting for power system operation and electricity market applications, most approaches are still developed in a univariate framework. This prevents from informing about the interdependence structure among locations, lead times and vari......While substantial advances are observed in probabilistic forecasting for power system operation and electricity market applications, most approaches are still developed in a univariate framework. This prevents from informing about the interdependence structure among locations, lead times...... probability guarantees and minimum conservativeness. A skill score is proposed for quantitative assessment of the quality of prediction ellipsoids. A set of experiments is used to illustrate the discrimination ability of the proposed scoring rule for potential misspecification of ellipsoidal prediction regions...

  3. Elastic buckling of ellipsoids of revolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solal, Roger; Hoffmann, Alain; Roche, Roland.

    1976-02-01

    The CEASEMT system of calculation by finite elements is used to determine critical internal pressures on a flattened ellipsoid of revolution. This case resembles that of an ellipsoidal head of a thin pressure vessel fitted onto a flexible colla. The calculations are performed assuming the geometry perfect, the deformations slight and the behaviour of the material perfectly elastic. The results obtained are presented favourably by plotting a reduced pressure p* against the geometry. A good definition of p* would be: p*=pπ 2 E/1-μ 2 .e 2 b 2 /a 4 (p* critical pressure, E Young's modulus, μ Poisson's coefficient, e thickness, a half large axis, b half small axis). When a/b is above 2 the p value remains close to 1. For lower a/b values the p value rises considerably with a/b [fr

  4. Circulation of a triaxial, charged ellipsoidal droplet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graber, J.L.; Rosensteel, G.

    2002-01-01

    The Kelvin circulation, which is the Casimir invariant of the general collective motion gcm(3) Lie algebra, is determined for a rapidly rotating triaxial nucleus in the classical domain. The potential energy is approximated by the sum of Coulomb repulsion and attractive surface energy terms, and the kinetic energy is adopted from the Riemann ellipsoidal model. An accurate approximation valid for both small and large deformations is reported for the potential energy. The Riemann ellipsoid theory allows for collective rotation in the continuum from rigid body motion to irrotational flow; the rigidity parametrizes this kinematical continuum. Analytic formulas are derived for the circulation, angular momentum, and energy as functions of the axis lengths, fissility, and rigidity. In particular, the bifurcation point to Jacobi triaxial shapes from noncollective oblate spheroids is given by a simple analytic formula. For a given fissility, the bifurcation point depends sensitive- ly on the rigidity. The Kelvin circulation remains approximately constant for triaxial ellipsoids as the angular momentum increases. This implies that gcm(3) is an approximate partial dynamical symmetry for rapidly rotating triaxial nuclei

  5. Supply with the vitamins B1, B2 and B6 in carcinomas before and after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, U.; Wulff, K.; Schmidt, W.

    1983-01-01

    In 108 breast cancer, 63 cervix carcinoma, 35 corpus carcinoma and 15 ovarial cancer patients the erythrocyte transketolase, gluthathione reductase and aspartate aminotransferase activity were determined as parameters for the supply with vitamin B 1 , B 2 and B 6 before and after radiotherapy. The effects of thiamine pyrophosphate determined in cancer patients were normal but the effects of flavin adenine dinucleotide and pyridoxal-5-phosphate were significantly increased compared to the controls. These results revealed radiation-induced disorders in the B 2 metabolism and tumor-induced disorders in the B 6 metabolism. Both disorders can be avoided by treatment with vitamin B complex. (author)

  6. Libration-driven flows in ellipsoidal shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemasquerier, D.; Grannan, A. M.; Vidal, J.; Cébron, D.; Favier, B.; Le Bars, M.; Aurnou, J. M.

    2017-09-01

    Planets and satellites can undergo physical librations, which consist of forced periodic variations in their rotation rate induced by gravitational interactions with nearby bodies. This mechanical forcing may drive turbulence in interior fluid layers such as subsurface oceans and metallic liquid cores through a libration-driven elliptical instability (LDEI) that refers to the resonance of two inertial modes with the libration-induced base flow. LDEI has been studied in the case of a full ellipsoid. Here we address for the first time the question of the persistence of LDEI in the more geophysically relevant ellipsoidal shell geometries. In the experimental setup, an ellipsoidal container with spherical inner cores of different sizes is filled with water. Direct side view flow visualizations are made in the librating frame using Kalliroscope particles. A Fourier analysis of the light intensity fluctuations extracted from recorded movies shows that the presence of an inner core leads to spatial heterogeneities but does not prevent LDEI. Particle image velocimetry and direct numerical simulations are performed on selected cases to confirm our results. Additionally, our survey at a fixed forcing frequency and variable rotation period (i.e., variable Ekman number, E) shows that the libration amplitude at the instability threshold varies as ˜E0.65. This scaling is explained by a competition between surface and bulk dissipation. When extrapolating to planetary interior conditions, this leads to the E1/2 scaling commonly considered. We argue that Enceladus' subsurface ocean and the core of the exoplanet 55 CnC e should both be unstable to LDEI.

  7. User defined function for transformation of ellipsoidal coordinates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganić Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The topographic plane of the Earth has irregular shape, and for the purpose of mathematical defining, it is to be approximated by rotational ellipsoid. As local geodetic datum, rotational ellipsoids of various sizes are used in the world. More widely usage of the GPS while performing surveying tasks has resulted in the need to define global geodetic datum in order to obtain the best approximation the entire Earth. For this purpose, geocentric rotational ellipsoid WGS84 was defined and the results of the GPS measurements are shown in relation to it. By applying the appropriate equations, the ellipsoidal coordinates are being transformed from WGS84 into the coordinates on the local rotational ellipsoid, i.e. on the view plane. The paper shows User Defined Function created for Excel, by which the coordinates in the territory of Belgrade are being transformed from WGS84 of rotational ellipsoid into the Gauss-Krüger projection plane.

  8. Probability distribution of distance in a uniform ellipsoid: Theory and applications to physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parry, Michelle; Fischbach, Ephraim

    2000-01-01

    A number of authors have previously found the probability P n (r) that two points uniformly distributed in an n-dimensional sphere are separated by a distance r. This result greatly facilitates the calculation of self-energies of spherically symmetric matter distributions interacting by means of an arbitrary radially symmetric two-body potential. We present here the analogous results for P 2 (r;ε) and P 3 (r;ε) which respectively describe an ellipse and an ellipsoid whose major and minor axes are 2a and 2b. It is shown that for ε=(1-b 2 /a 2 ) 1/2 ≤1, P 2 (r;ε) and P 3 (r;ε) can be obtained as an expansion in powers of ε, and our results are valid through order ε 4 . As an application of these results we calculate the Coulomb energy of an ellipsoidal nucleus, and compare our result to an earlier result quoted in the literature. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  9. Internal ellipsoidal estimates of reachable set of impulsive control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matviychuk, Oksana G. [Institute of Mathematics and Mechanics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 16 S. Kovalevskaya str., Ekaterinburg, 620990, Russia and Ural Federal University, 19 Mira str., Ekaterinburg, 620002 (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-18

    A problem of estimating reachable sets of linear impulsive control system with uncertainty in initial data is considered. The impulsive controls in the dynamical system belong to the intersection of a special cone with a generalized ellipsoid both taken in the space of functions of bounded variation. Assume that an ellipsoidal state constraints are imposed. The algorithms for constructing internal ellipsoidal estimates of reachable sets for such control systems and numerical simulation results are given.

  10. Discrete ellipsoidal statistical BGK model and Burnett equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Dong; Xu, Ai-Guo; Zhang, Guang-Cai; Chen, Zhi-Hua; Wang, Pei

    2018-06-01

    A new discrete Boltzmann model, the discrete ellipsoidal statistical Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (ESBGK) model, is proposed to simulate nonequilibrium compressible flows. Compared with the original discrete BGK model, the discrete ES-BGK has a flexible Prandtl number. For the discrete ES-BGK model in the Burnett level, two kinds of discrete velocity model are introduced and the relations between nonequilibrium quantities and the viscous stress and heat flux in the Burnett level are established. The model is verified via four benchmark tests. In addition, a new idea is introduced to recover the actual distribution function through the macroscopic quantities and their space derivatives. The recovery scheme works not only for discrete Boltzmann simulation but also for hydrodynamic ones, for example, those based on the Navier-Stokes or the Burnett equations.

  11. Evaluation of synergistic antimicrobial effect of vitamins (A, B1, B2, B6, B12, C, D, E and K) with antibiotics against resistant bacterial strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Shakeel; Ashraf, M Adnan; Sajid, M; Shahzad, Aqeel; Rafique, Azhar; Mahmood, M Shahid

    2018-02-02

    Multiple drug resistant super bugs of Acinetobacter baumannii and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are becoming challenge for healthcare professionals. In this study, vitamins were evaluated for synergistic activity with the antibiotics. Synergistic effect between antibiotic and stock solutions of vitamins is evaluated by using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion assay. Distilled water and propylene glycol were used as solvent for water soluble vitamins and fat-soluble vitamins respectively. The final concentration of 10mg/ml of each water-soluble vitamin B1 (Thiamine), B2 (Riboflavin), B6 (Pyridoxine) B12 (Methylcobalamin), C (Ascorbic acid) and 0.1mg/ml of each fat soluble vitamin A (retinol), D (cholecalciferol) E (αTocopherol) K (Menadione) were used with the antibiotics. The results depicted that vitamin K and E have better synergistic activity with piperacillin-tazobactam, imipenem and doripenem antibiotics against A. baumannii. While vitamin B1, B2 and B12 showed remarkable synergistic activity with linezolid against MRSA. Vitamin B1 was further tested to have better synergism with antibiotics oxacillin, tetracycline, rifampicin and linezolid against MRSA. The fat-soluble vitamins E and K were good in synergism against Gram negative A. baumannii while water soluble vitamins as B1, B2 and B12 were effective against MRSA but not against A. baumannii. This synergistic action of vitamins with the antibiotics can be used as a tool to treat multiple drug resistant super bugs with further evaluation at molecular level. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Indentation of Ellipsoidal and Cylindrical Elastic Shells

    KAUST Repository

    Vella, Dominic

    2012-10-01

    Thin shells are found in nature at scales ranging from viruses to hens\\' eggs; the stiffness of such shells is essential for their function. We present the results of numerical simulations and theoretical analyses for the indentation of ellipsoidal and cylindrical elastic shells, considering both pressurized and unpressurized shells. We provide a theoretical foundation for the experimental findings of Lazarus etal. [following paper, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 144301 (2012)PRLTAO0031-9007] and for previous work inferring the turgor pressure of bacteria from measurements of their indentation stiffness; we also identify a new regime at large indentation. We show that the indentation stiffness of convex shells is dominated by either the mean or Gaussian curvature of the shell depending on the pressurization and indentation depth. Our results reveal how geometry rules the rigidity of shells. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  13. Bu-2470, a new peptide antibiotic complex. II. Structure determination of Bu-2470 A, B1, B2a and B2b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, K; Yonemoto, T; Konishi, M; Matsumoto, K; Miyaki, T; Kawaguchi, H

    1983-06-01

    The structures of Bu-2470 A, B1, B2a, and B2b have been determined. Bu-2470 A is a simple octapeptide having no fatty acid moiety, while Bu-2470 B1, B2a and B2b are octapeptides that have been acylated with a beta-hydroxy C11 or C10 fatty acid. The octapeptide structure of Bu-2470 components was found identical with that of octapeptin C1, hence generic names of octapeptin C0, C2, C3 and C4 are proposed for Bu-2470 A, B1, B2a and B2b, respectively.

  14. Simultaneous high performance liquid chromatographic analysis of vitamins B1, B2 and B6 in royal jelly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Presoto Ana Elisa F

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Royal jelly is used as a food supplement, popularly known as rich in B vitamins. The present work has two objectives: firstly, to apply simultaneous quantitative determination by High Performance Liquid Chromatography of thiamin (vitamin B1, riboflavin (vitamin B2 and pyridoxine (vitamin B6 and secondly to compare the obtained data with the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI values. The values obtained showed no thiamin, a range from 20 to 171 ng g-1 of riboflavin and from 408 to 2 188 ng g-1 of pyridoxine in royal jelly. According to the Food and Nutrition Board (2000, the DRI of these vitamins varies from 0.2-1.4 mg for thiamin; 0.3-1.6 mg for riboflavin and 0.1-2.0 mg for pyridoxine, depending on age and sex. According to these recommendations, royal jelly is not a good source of vitamins B1, B2 or B6 as these vitamins appear only on order of ng g-1. The proposed method can be used in routine analysis for royal jelly, having the advantage of being simple, fast and reliable.

  15. Application of covariance clouds for estimating the anisotropy ellipsoid eigenvectors, with case study in uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamali Esfahlan, D.; Madani, H.; Tahmaseb Nazemi, M. T.; Mahdavi, F.; Ghaderi, M. R.; Najafi, M.

    2010-01-01

    Various methods of Kriging and nonlinear geostatistical methods considered as acceptable methods for resource and reserve estimations have characters such as the least estimation variance in their nature, and accurate results in the acceptable confidence levels range could be achieved if the required parameters for the estimation are determined accurately. If the determined parameters don't have the sufficient accuracy, 3-D geostatistical estimations will not be reliable any more, and by this, all the quantitative parameters of the mineral deposit (e.g. grade-tonnage variations) will be misinterpreted. One of the most significant parameters for 3-D geostatistical estimation is the anisotropy ellipsoid. The anisotropy ellipsoid is important for geostatistical estimations because it determines the samples in different directions required for accomplishing the estimation. The aim of this paper is to illustrate a more simple and time preserving analytical method that can apply geophysical or geochemical analysis data from the core-length of boreholes for modeling the anisotropy ellipsoid. By this method which is based on the distribution of covariance clouds in a 3-D sampling space of a deposit, quantities, ratios, azimuth and plunge of the major-axis, semi-major axis and the minor-axis determine the ore-grade continuity within the deposit and finally the anisotropy ellipsoid of the deposit will be constructed. A case study of an uranium deposit is also analytically discussed for illustrating the application of this method.

  16. URINARY EXCRETION OF WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINS (C, B1, B2, AND B6 IN HEALTHY CHILDREN OF PRESCHOOL AND SCHOOL AGE: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana G. Makarova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Children of preschool and school age are at risk of developing vitamin deficiency. Screening of the vitamin provision of children remains an urgent problem of pediatrics. Objective. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of low excretion of watersoluble vitamins among healthy preschool and school-age children.Methods. The study was conducted in March-April 2017. We determined the urinary excretion (fasting morning portion collected during 30–120 min after night-time urination of metabolites of vitamins C, B1, B2, and B6 in healthy children. Riboflavin (vitamin B2 metabolite was determined spectrophotometrically by titration with a riboflavin-binding apoprotein; 4-pyridoxyl acid (vitamin B6 metabolite and thiamine (vitamin B1 metabolite — by fluorescent method, ascorbic acid (vitamin C metabolite — by visual titration with Tillman’s reagent. The excretion considered to be low (equivalent to vitamin deficiency when thiamine excretion was < 7, 10, 11, and 12 μg/h and riboflavin < 6, 9, 10, and 13 μg/h in children aged 3–5, 6–8, 9–11, and above 12 years, respectively; 4-pyridoxylic acid — < 40, 60, and 70 μg/h in children aged 3–5, 6–8, and ≥ 9 years, ascorbic acid — < 0.2 and 0.4 mg/h in children aged 3–11 and ≥ 12 years, respectively.Results. Metabolites were excreted in 39 children (20 girls, 14 of them aged 4–6 years and 25 children aged 7–14 years. A low level of ascorbic acid excretion was found in 13 (33% children, of thiamine — in 24 (62%, of riboflavin — in 16 (41%, of 4-pyridoxyl acid — in 26 (67%. Low excretion of at least one vitamin metabolite was detected in 30 (77% children, of 3 or more metabolites simultaneously — in 15 (39%.Conclusion. A low level of urinary excretion of metabolites of at least one water-soluble vitamin (C, B1, B2, and B≥ occurs in most preschool and schoolage children.

  17. Simultaneous determination of fumonisins B1, B2 and B3 contaminants in maize by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Yiping; Zhang Yu; Han Shiyun; Han Zheng; Wu Yongning

    2011-01-01

    The present work developed an analytical method for simultaneous determination of fumonisins B 1 , B 2 and B 3 residues in maize by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) under the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, and especially focused on the optimization of extraction, clean-up, UHPLC separation and MS/MS parameters. The method involves addition of fumonisins isotope internal standards, extraction with a mixture of acetonitrile and water and clean-up with solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges before UHPLC-MS/MS analysis. A single-laboratory method validation was conducted by testing three different spiking levels for repeatability and recovery according to International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) guidelines. The LOQ of FB 1 , FB 2 and FB 3 were 1.50, 1.65 and 0.4 μg kg -1 , respectively, which were lower than the criteria of EU, USA and other countries regarding minimum residue limits of fumonisins in foods including baby foods and feedstuffs. Recoveries of three fumonisins ranged from 80.9% to 97.0% with RSD values of 2.4-11.1%.The advantages of this method include simple pretreatment, rapid determination and high sensitivity, and it fulfills the requirements for food analysis with respect to minimum residue limits of fumonisins in various countries.

  18. Incidência de fumonisina B1, aflatoxinas B1, B2, G1 e G2, ocratoxina A e zearalenona em produtos de milho Occurrence of fumonisin B1, aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2, ochratoxin A and zearalenone in corn products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Mie Kawashima

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Levantamentos de ocorrência de micotoxinas em alimentos foram realizados nas últimas duas décadas nas regiões Sudeste e Sul do Brasil. Levantamentos em alimentos comercializados em outras regiões têm-se limitado a aflatoxinas em amendoim e castanhas do Brasil. O presente trabalho pesquisou a presença de fumonisina B1, aflatoxinas B1, B2, G1 e G2, ocratoxina A e zearalenona em 74 amostras de produtos a base de milho adquiridas no comércio da cidade de Recife, PE, durante o período de 1999 a 2001. Fumonisina B1 foi determinada por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência com detecção por fluorescência e as demais toxinas foram determinadas por cromatografia em camada delgada. Fumonisina B1 foi encontrada em 94,6% das amostras em concentrações variando de 20 a 8600 µg/kg. Apenas 5 amostras continham aflatoxina B1 e o teor máximo encontrado foi 20 µg/kg. Duas amostras ultrapassaram o limite de 20 µg/kg para a somatória das aflatoxinas B1, B2, G1 e G2 (farinha de milho pré-cozida com 21,5 µg/kg e quirera (xerém com 23,3 µg/kg. As aflatoxinas G1 e G2, ocratoxina A e zearalenona não foram detectadas em nenhuma das amostras. Todas as amostras contaminadas com aflatoxinas também apresentaram fumonisina B1.Research concerning the presence of mycotoxin in food has been conducted in the Southwest and South regions of Brazil over the last two decades. Research in other regions has been limited to aflatoxin in peanuts and Brazil nuts. The aim of this work is to study the presence of fumonisin B1, aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2, ochratoxin A and zearalenone in 74 samples of corn products acquired in shops and food markets in the city of Recife (PE from 1999 to 2001. Fumonisin B1 was determined by high performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence was detected. The other toxins were determined by thin layer chromatography. Fumonisin B1 was found in 94.6% of the samples in levels from 20 to 8600 µg/kg. Only 5 samples contained

  19. Needlelike motion of prolate ellipsoids in the sea of spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasanthi, R.; Ravichandran, S.; Bagchi, Biman

    2001-05-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of translational motion of isolated prolate ellipsoids in the sea of spheres have been carried out for several different values of the aspect ratio (κ), obtained by changing either the length or the diameter of the ellipsoids, at several different solvent densities. The interaction among the spheres is given by the Lennard-Jones pair potential while that between spheres and ellipsoids is given by a modified Gay-Berne potential. Both the mean-square displacements of the center of mass of the ellipsoids and their orientational time correlation function have been calculated. It is found that at short to intermediate times, the motion of ellipsoids is anisotropic and primarily needlelike—the molecules prefer to move parallel to their long axis. The ratio of these two diffusion constants (D∥ and D⊥) approaches κ, suggesting a decoupling of D∥ from the length of the ellipsoid. The diffusion becomes isotropic in the long time with the total diffusion coefficient given by D∥+2D⊥. The crossover from the anisotropic to the isotropic diffusion is surprisingly sharp and clear in most cases.

  20. [Determination of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, G2 in armeniacae semen amarum by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Run-Sheng; Xu, Hui; Wang, Wen-Li; Zhan, Ruo-Ting; Chen, Wei-Wen

    2013-10-01

    A simple, rapid and cost-effective high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/ MS) method was established for simultaneous determination of aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) in Armeniacae Semen Amarum and the application was performance in 11 samples collected from different markets, medical stores and hospitals. The sample was extracted with 84% acetonitrile/water and 250 microL extraction was directly injected into a LC-MS/MS system without further purification procedure after being redissolved with methanol. The LC separation was performed on a C18 column with a linear gradient elution program of 4 mmol x L(-1) NH4 Ac-0.1% formic acid solution and menthol as the mobile phase. Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) was used for selective determination of the four aflatoxins on a triple quadruple mass spectrometer, which was operated in positive ionization modes. All the four aflatoxins showed a good linear relationship with r > 0.999 0, the average recoveries were between 87.88% and 102.9% and the matrix effect was ranged from 90.71% to 99.30% in low, intermediate and high levels. Furthermore, the higher recovery was obtained by the method reported in this study, comparing to the cleanup procedure with the Mycosep 226 purification column. Eleven samples collected were detected and the contamination levels of the AFB1 were between 1.590-2.340 microg x kg(-1) and the AF (B1 + B2 + G1 + G2) was ranged from 2.340 to 3.340 microg x kg(-1). In summary, the developed method was suitable to detect and screen AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2 in Armeniacae Semen Amarum.

  1. Ellipsoidal terrain correction based on multi-cylindrical equal-area map projection of the reference ellipsoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardalan, A. A.; Safari, A.

    2004-09-01

    An operational algorithm for computation of terrain correction (or local gravity field modeling) based on application of closed-form solution of the Newton integral in terms of Cartesian coordinates in multi-cylindrical equal-area map projection of the reference ellipsoid is presented. Multi-cylindrical equal-area map projection of the reference ellipsoid has been derived and is described in detail for the first time. Ellipsoidal mass elements with various sizes on the surface of the reference ellipsoid are selected and the gravitational potential and vector of gravitational intensity (i.e. gravitational acceleration) of the mass elements are computed via numerical solution of the Newton integral in terms of geodetic coordinates {λ,ϕ,h}. Four base- edge points of the ellipsoidal mass elements are transformed into a multi-cylindrical equal-area map projection surface to build Cartesian mass elements by associating the height of the corresponding ellipsoidal mass elements to the transformed area elements. Using the closed-form solution of the Newton integral in terms of Cartesian coordinates, the gravitational potential and vector of gravitational intensity of the transformed Cartesian mass elements are computed and compared with those of the numerical solution of the Newton integral for the ellipsoidal mass elements in terms of geodetic coordinates. Numerical tests indicate that the difference between the two computations, i.e. numerical solution of the Newton integral for ellipsoidal mass elements in terms of geodetic coordinates and closed-form solution of the Newton integral in terms of Cartesian coordinates, in a multi-cylindrical equal-area map projection, is less than 1.6×10-8 m2/s2 for a mass element with a cross section area of 10×10 m and a height of 10,000 m. For a mass element with a cross section area of 1×1 km and a height of 10,000 m the difference is less than 1.5×10-4m2/s2. Since 1.5× 10-4 m2/s2 is equivalent to 1.5×10-5m in the vertical

  2. Optimization of chromatographic conditions for determination of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 by using liquid chromatography-mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadhaningtyas, Dillani Putri; Aryana, Nurhani; Aristiawan, Yosi; Styarini, Dyah

    2017-11-01

    The optimization of instrument condition and chromatographic separation for analysis of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 using liquid chromatography tandem with mass spectrometer detector was conducted in the aim to provide more accurate and reliable analysis results. The aflatoxin known to be serious threat for human health as it is classified as the carcinogenic compounds. The aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 were selected due to its extensive contamination in various agricultural commodities. The best chromatographic separation was obtained using C-18 column with gradient elution of solvent 5 mM ammonium acetate and 0.1% formic acid in methanol at 7 minutes runtime analysis. The linearity of the detector showed satisfied results as the coefficient determination found to be 0.9994, 0.9996, 0.9998 and 0.9987 for aflatoxin B1, G1, B2, and G2 respectively in the range concentration from 1 to 20 ng/g. The quantifier ion selected for the aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 was m/z 285.1, 259, 243 and 313 respectively. The instrument precision at these quantifier ions also showed satisfied result with %RSD was around 3.4 to 6.8%. The optimized method present in this study can be used for further sample analysis.

  3. Tumor growth pattern and thymidine phosphorylase expression are related with the risk of hematogenous metastasis in patients with Astler Coller B1/B2 colorectal carcinoma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halteren, H.K. van; Peters, H.F.M.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Coebergh, J.W.W.; Roumen, R.M.H.; Worp, E. van der; Wagener, D.J.T.; Vreugdenhil, G.R.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy appears to be limited for patients with Astler Coller B1/B2 colorectal carcinoma but may be better in a subgroup of patients with a high recurrence risk. In the current case-control analysis, the authors evaluated whether patients with a high risk of

  4. Work package 1B.2 under the European Commission: Integrated wind turbine design (UPWIND): Specification of long-term load measurement technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt Paulsen, U.; Cutululis, N.; Soerensen, Poul

    2007-02-15

    The present report is the 12 month intermediate report of the UPWIND WP1B2 transmission and conversion. It describes the developed measurement technique for long-term load measurement technique, presents the hardware details, type of sensors and location, data storage and data analysis technique to verify design load assumptions. (au)

  5. X-ray microfocusing with off-axis ellipsoidal mirror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yumoto, Hirokatsu, E-mail: yumoto@spring8.or.jp; Koyama, Takahisa [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute/SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Matsuyama, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Kazuto [Department of Precision Science and Technology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kohmura, Yoshiki; Ishikawa, Tetsuya [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Ohashi, Haruhiko [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute/SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

    2016-07-27

    High-precision ellipsoidal mirrors for two-dimensionally focusing X-rays to nanometer sizes have not been realized because of technical problems in their fabrication processes. The objective of the present study is to develop fabrication techniques for ellipsoidal focusing mirrors in the hard-X-ray region. We design an off-axis ellipsoidal mirror for use under total reflection conditions up to the X-ray energy of 8 keV. We fabricate an ellipsoidal mirror with a surface roughness of 0.3 nm RMS (root-mean-square) and a surface figure error height of 3.0 nm RMS by utilizing a surface profiler and surface finishing method developed by us. The focusing properties of the mirror are evaluated at the BL29XUL beamline in SPring-8. A focusing beam size of 270 nm × 360 nm FWHM (full width at half maximum) at an X-ray energy of 7 keV is observed with the use of the knife-edge scanning method. We expect to apply the developed fabrication techniques to construct ellipsoidal nanofocusing mirrors.

  6. The Hubble IR cutoff in holographic ellipsoidal cosmologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldo, Mauricio [Universidad del Bio-Bio, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Concepcion (Chile); Cruz, Norman [Grupo de Cosmologia y Gravitacion-UBB, Concepcion (Chile)

    2018-01-15

    It is well known that for spatially flat FRW cosmologies, the holographic dark energy disfavors the Hubble parameter as a candidate for the IR cutoff. For overcoming this problem, we explore the use of this cutoff in holographic ellipsoidal cosmological models, and derive the general ellipsoidal metric induced by a such holographic energy density. Despite the drawbacks that this cutoff presents in homogeneous and isotropic universes, based on this general metric, we developed a suitable ellipsoidal holographic cosmological model, filled with a dark matter and a dark energy components. At late time stages, the cosmic evolution is dominated by a holographic anisotropic dark energy with barotropic equations of state. The cosmologies expand in all directions in accelerated manner. Since the ellipsoidal cosmologies given here are not asymptotically FRW, the deviation from homogeneity and isotropy of the universe on large cosmological scales remains constant during all cosmic evolution. This feature allows the studied holographic ellipsoidal cosmologies to be ruled by an equation of state ω = p/ρ, whose range belongs to quintessence or even phantom matter. (orig.)

  7. Effective ellipsoidal models for wavefield extrapolation in tilted orthorhombic media

    KAUST Repository

    Waheed, Umair Bin

    2016-04-22

    Wavefield computations using the ellipsoidally anisotropic extrapolation operator offer significant cost reduction compared to that for the orthorhombic case, especially when the symmetry planes are tilted and/or rotated. However, ellipsoidal anisotropy does not provide accurate wavefield representation or imaging for media of orthorhombic symmetry. Therefore, we propose the use of ‘effective ellipsoidally anisotropic’ models that correctly capture the kinematic behaviour of wavefields for tilted orthorhombic (TOR) media. We compute effective velocities for the ellipsoidally anisotropic medium using kinematic high-frequency representation of the TOR wavefield, obtained by solving the TOR eikonal equation. The effective model allows us to use the cheaper ellipsoidally anisotropic wave extrapolation operators. Although the effective models are obtained by kinematic matching using high-frequency asymptotic, the resulting wavefield contains most of the critical wavefield components, including frequency dependency and caustics, if present, with reasonable accuracy. The proposed methodology offers a much better cost versus accuracy trade-off for wavefield computations in TOR media, particularly for media of low to moderate anisotropic strength. Furthermore, the computed wavefield solution is free from shear-wave artefacts as opposed to the conventional finite-difference based TOR wave extrapolation scheme. We demonstrate applicability and usefulness of our formulation through numerical tests on synthetic TOR models. © 2016 Institute of Geophysics of the ASCR, v.v.i

  8. Transverse mixing of ellipsoidal particles in a rotating drum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Siyuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotating drums are widely used in industry for mixing, milling, coating and drying processes. In the past decades, mixing of granular materials in rotating drums has been extensively investigated, but most of the studies are based on spherical particles. Particle shape has an influence on the flow behaviour and thus mixing behaviour, though the shape effect has as-yet received limited study. In this work, discrete element method (DEM is employed to study the transverse mixing of ellipsoidal particles in a rotating drum. The effects of aspect ratio and rotating speed on mixing quality and mixing rate are investigated. The results show that mixing index increases exponentially with time for both spheres and ellipsoids. Particles with various aspect ratios are able to reach well-mixed states after sufficient revolutions in the rolling or cascading regime. Ellipsoids show higher mixing rate when rotational speed is set between 25 and 40 rpm. The relationship between mixing rate and aspect ratio of ellipsoids is established, demonstrating that, particles with aspect ratios of 0.5 and 2.0 achieve the highest mixing rates. Increasing rotating speed from 15 rpm to 40 rpm does not necessarily increase the mixing speed of spheres, while monotonous increase is observed for ellipsoids.

  9. Ellipsoidal all-dielectric Fano resonant core-shell metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reena, Reena; Kalra, Yogita; Kumar, Ajeet

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, ellipsoidal core (Si) and shell (SiO2) metamaterial has been proposed for highly directional properties. At the wavelength of magnetic resonance, Fano dip occurs in the backward scattering cross section and forward scattering enhancement takes place at the same wavelength so that there is an increment in the directivity. Effect on the directivity by changing the length of ellipsoidal nanoparticle along semi-axes has been analyzed. Two Fano resonances have been observed by decreasing the length of the nanoparticle along the semi-axis having electric polarization, where first and second Fano resonances are attributed to the dipole and quadrupole moments, respectively. These Fano resonant wavelengths in ellipsoidal nanoparticle exhibit higher directivity than the Kerker's type scattering or forward scattering shown by symmetrical structures like sphere. So, this core-shell metamaterial can act as an efficient directional nanoantenna.

  10. Dislocation pile-ups, slip-bands, ellipsoids, and cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Lawrence M.

    2005-01-01

    The classic theories of dislocation pile-ups, initiated by Eshelby, Frank and Nabarro, and by Leibfried, can be greatly simplified if it is recognised that the dislocations in the pile-up will experience uniform stress if they are lodged in an ellipsoidal interface. Elementary algebra then produces the familiar results from continuum theory. It seems possible that the ellipsoid construction may represent physical reality if it is taken to represent a three-dimensional slip-band. If so, there are concentrated forces spreading the band perpendicular to the slip band as well as parallel to it. Such ellipsoids also represent Mode II and Mode III cracks, and give a method for dealing with the more complicated Mode I cracks

  11. Microscopic analysis of Hopper flow with ellipsoidal particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sida; Zhou, Zongyan; Zou, Ruiping; Pinson, David; Yu, Aibing

    2013-06-01

    Hoppers are widely used in process industries. With such widespread application, difficulties in achieving desired operational behaviors have led to extensive experimental and mathematical studies in the past decades. Particularly, the discrete element method has become one of the most important simulation tools for design and analysis. So far, most studies are on spherical particles for computational convenience. In this work, ellipsoidal particles are used as they can represent a large variation of particle shapes. Hopper flow with ellipsoidal particles is presented highlighting the effect of particle shape on the microscopic properties.

  12. Interactions Among Indicators of B1, B2, B6 and Vitamin C Status in University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Avila, AV; Liuzzi, JP; Cioccia, AM; Hevia, P

    2003-01-01

    SUMMARY: In 209 young university students (109 males and 80 females) with body mass index within the normal range, the activation coefficient of the erythrocyte transketolase (ETKAC) glutathione reductase (EGRAC) and aspartate amino transferase (EASTAC) as well as the circulating levels of vitamin C were determined. Using the usual cutoff points for ETKAC and serum vitamin C and higher than usual cutoff points for EASTAC and EGRAC 99, 95, 92, and 87% of the study subjects exhibited activation...

  13. Computing the maximum volume inscribed ellipsoid of a polytopic projection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhen, Jianzhe; den Hertog, Dick

    We introduce a novel scheme based on a blending of Fourier-Motzkin elimination (FME) and adjustable robust optimization techniques to compute the maximum volume inscribed ellipsoid (MVE) in a polytopic projection. It is well-known that deriving an explicit description of a projected polytope is

  14. Computing the Maximum Volume Inscribed Ellipsoid of a Polytopic Projection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhen, J.; den Hertog, D.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a novel scheme based on a blending of Fourier-Motzkin elimination (FME) and adjustable robust optimization techniques to compute the maximum volume inscribed ellipsoid (MVE) in a polytopic projection. It is well-known that deriving an explicit description of a projected polytope is

  15. Ramification of Datum and Ellipsoidal Parameters on Post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... also post processed using Ghana War Office datum and ellipsoidal parameters. The results for the two ... rely on the datum (Kotzev, 2013). It is equally ..... Microsoft Excel spreadsheet (MS excel) was used for analysis of the ...

  16. Absorbed fractions for alpha particles in ellipsoidal volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amato, Ernesto; Baldari, Sergio; Italiano, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Internal dosimetry of alpha particles is gaining attention due to the increasing applications in cancer treatment and also for the assessment of environmental contamination from radionuclides. We developed a Monte Carlo simulation in GEANT4 in order to calculate the absorbed fractions for monoenergetic alpha particles in the energy interval between 0.1 and 10 MeV, uniformly distributed in ellipsoids made of soft tissue. For each volume, we simulated a spherical shape, three oblate and three prolate ellipsoids, and one scalene shape. For each energy and for every geometrical configuration, an analytical relationship between the absorbed fraction and a ‘generalized radius’ was found; and the dependence of the fit parameters on the alpha energy is discussed and fitted by parametric functions. With the proposed formulation, the absorbed fraction for alpha particles in the energy range explored can be calculated for volumes and for ellipsoidal shapes of practical interest. This method can be applied to the evaluation of absorbed fraction from alpha-emitting radionuclides. The contribution to the deposited energy coming from electron and photon emissions can be accounted for exploiting the specific formulations previously introduced. As an example of application, the dosimetry of 213 Bi and its decay chain in ellipsoids is reported. (paper)

  17. Classical studies of the ellipsoidal shapes for dynamical deformation theories of the nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remaud, B.

    1978-01-01

    The shape-dependent functions of the Liquid Drop and the Droplet Models are analytically calculated for an ellipsoid. Using the ellipsoidal symmetries, these functions (including the curvature function) are written in terms of three basic expressions. The nuclear deformation energy can be calculated in a simple way for axially symmetric and asymmetric ellipsoidal nuclei whatever the magnitude of the deformation is

  18. Simulation and application of micro X-ray fluorescence based on an ellipsoidal capillary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Li, Yude; Wang, Xingyi; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Lin, Xiaoyan

    2017-06-01

    A micro X-ray fluorescence setup was presented, based on an ellipsoidal capillary and a traditional laboratorial X-ray source. Using Ray-tracing principle, we have simulated the transmission path of X-ray beam in the ellipsoidal capillary and designed the optimal parameters of the ellipsoidal capillary for the micro X-ray fluorescence setup. We demonstrate that ellipsoidal capillary is well suited as condenser for the micro X-ray fluorescence based on traditional laboratorial X-ray source. Furthermore, we obtain the 2D mapping image of the leaf blade sample by using the ellipsoidal capillary we designed.

  19. Effects of dipole magnet inhomogeneities on the beam ellipsoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoupas, N.; Colman, J.; Levine, M.; McKenzie-Wilson, R.; Ward, T.; Grand, P.

    1986-01-01

    The RAYTRACE computer code has been modified to accept magnetic fields measured in the median plane of a dipole magnet. This modification allows one to study the effects of a non-ideal dipole magnet on the beam ellipsoid (as defined by the TRANSPORT code manual). The effects on the beam ellipsoid are due to: field inhomogeneities in the interior region of the dipole, and discrepancies from design conditions of the magnetic field values in the fringe field region. The results of the RAYTRACE code calculations based on experimentally measured fields will be compared with the results derived using both an ideal (no inhomogeneities) dipole with SCOFF boundaries and an ideal dipole with perfect (according to design) fringe fields

  20. Hybrid ellipsoidal fuzzy systems in forecasting regional electricity loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pai, Ping-Feng [Department of Information Management, National Chi Nan University, 1 University Road, Puli, Nantou 545, Taiwan (China)

    2006-09-15

    Because of the privatization of electricity in many countries, load forecasting has become one of the most crucial issues in the planning and operations of electric utilities. In addition, accurate regional load forecasting can provide the transmission and distribution operators with more information. The hybrid ellipsoidal fuzzy system was originally designed to solve control and pattern recognition problems. The main objective of this investigation is to develop a hybrid ellipsoidal fuzzy system for time series forecasting (HEFST) and apply the proposed model to forecast regional electricity loads in Taiwan. Additionally, a scaled conjugate gradient learning method is employed in the supervised learning phase of the HEFST model. Subsequently, numerical data taken from the existing literature is used to demonstrate the forecasting performance of the HEFST model. Simulation results reveal that the proposed model has better forecasting performance than the artificial neural network model and the regression model. Thus, the HEFST model is a valid and promising alternative for forecasting regional electricity loads. (author)

  1. Uncertainties, confidence ellipsoids and security polytopes in LSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabe, Michael

    1992-05-01

    For a given error model, the uncertainties of and the couplings between parameters estimated by a least-squares adjustment (LSA) are formalized. The error model is restricted to normally distributed random errors and to systematic errors that remain constant during measurement, but whose magnitudes and signs are unknown. An outline of the associated, new formalism for estimating measurement uncertainties is sketched as regards its function as a measure of the consistency between theory and experiment. The couplings due to random errors lead to ellipsoids stemming from singular linear mappings of Hotelling's ellipsoids. Those introduced by systematic errors create convex polytopes, so-called security polytopes, which are singular linear mappings of hyperblocks caused by a ldworst-case treatment” of systematic errors.

  2. Electroencephalography in ellipsoidal geometry with fourth-order harmonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcocer-Sosa, M; Gutierrez, D

    2016-08-01

    We present a solution to the electroencephalographs (EEG) forward problem of computing the scalp electric potentials for the case when the head's geometry is modeled using a four-shell ellipsoidal geometry and the brain sources with an equivalent current dipole (ECD). The proposed solution includes terms up to the fourth-order ellipsoidal harmonics and we compare this new approximation against those that only considered up to second- and third-order harmonics. Our comparisons use as reference a solution in which a tessellated volume approximates the head and the forward problem is solved through the boundary element method (BEM). We also assess the solution to the inverse problem of estimating the magnitude of an ECD through different harmonic approximations. Our results show that the fourth-order solution provides a better estimate of the ECD in comparison to lesser order ones.

  3. Exposure assessment to fumonisins B1, B2 and B3 through consumption of gluten-free foodstuffs intended for people affected by celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Francesco; Fasano, Evelina; Scognamiglio, Gelsomina; Nardone, Antonio; Triassi, Maria; Cirillo, Teresa

    2016-11-01

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species and affecting maize crops. Some analogues of fumonisins are known for their toxic and possible carcinogenic effects on humans and animals. Because of their occurrence in corn-based food, diet is the main source of exposure to these mycotoxins, especially among people affected by celiac disease. Hence, the purpose of this paper was to evaluate the amount of fumonisins B1, B2 and B3 in maize-based products and to assess the exposure of people affected by celiac disease to fumonisins. The sample consisted of 154 gluten-free products analyzed according to method UNI EN 14352:2005. Results showed a heterogeneous contamination by fumoninisin B1, B2 and B3, although below limits of Commission Regulation No 1126/2007 and consistent with other European literature data. Exposure to fumonisins was evaluated for different age groups. In some cases exposure to fumonisins could not be ignored since the total intake could exceed EFSA Provisional Maximum Tolerable Intake up to 150%. Therefore, in the light of an overall contamination by fumonisins the total dietary exposure could be underrated not only in people affected by celiac disease, but also in non-celiac population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. ALEGRA-MHD Simulations for Magnetization of an Ellipsoidal Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The findings in this report are not to be construed as an official Department of the Army position unless so designated by other authorized...diffusion has saturated. The simplicity of the interior solution lends itself well to verification of computational electromagnetic simulations...via computation with ALEGRA. The computed solution in the interior core of the ellipsoid converges to the exact solution at first order, as expected

  5. Simulation and application of micro X-ray fluorescence based on an ellipsoidal capillary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jing; Li, Yude; Wang, Xingyi; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Lin, Xiaoyan, E-mail: yangjing_928@126.com

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • A micro X-ray fluorescence setup based on an ellipsoidal capillary was presented. • The optimal parameters of ellipsoidal capillary were designed. • The 2D mapping image of biological sample was obtained. - Abstract: A micro X-ray fluorescence setup was presented, based on an ellipsoidal capillary and a traditional laboratorial X-ray source. Using Ray-tracing principle, we have simulated the transmission path of X-ray beam in the ellipsoidal capillary and designed the optimal parameters of the ellipsoidal capillary for the micro X-ray fluorescence setup. We demonstrate that ellipsoidal capillary is well suited as condenser for the micro X-ray fluorescence based on traditional laboratorial X-ray source. Furthermore, we obtain the 2D mapping image of the leaf blade sample by using the ellipsoidal capillary we designed.

  6. Dynamic cluster generation for a fuzzy classifier with ellipsoidal regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, S

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a fuzzy classifier with ellipsoidal regions that dynamically generates clusters. First, for the data belonging to a class we define a fuzzy rule with an ellipsoidal region. Namely, using the training data for each class, we calculate the center and the covariance matrix of the ellipsoidal region for the class. Then we tune the fuzzy rules, i.e., the slopes of the membership functions, successively until there is no improvement in the recognition rate of the training data. Then if the number of the data belonging to a class that are misclassified into another class exceeds a prescribed number, we define a new cluster to which those data belong and the associated fuzzy rule. Then we tune the newly defined fuzzy rules in the similar way as stated above, fixing the already obtained fuzzy rules. We iterate generation of clusters and tuning of the newly generated fuzzy rules until the number of the data belonging to a class that are misclassified into another class does not exceed the prescribed number. We evaluate our method using thyroid data, Japanese Hiragana data of vehicle license plates, and blood cell data. By dynamic cluster generation, the generalization ability of the classifier is improved and the recognition rate of the fuzzy classifier for the test data is the best among the neural network classifiers and other fuzzy classifiers if there are no discrete input variables.

  7. Expression of FlHMA3, a P1B2-ATPase from Festulolium loliaceum, correlates with response to cadmium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiang; Meng, Lin; Humphreys, Mike W; Scullion, John; Mur, Luis A J

    2017-03-01

    Heavy metal ATPase 3 (HMA3), a P 1B2 -ATPase, is a key tonoplast transporter involved in mediating the vacuolar sequestration of cadmium (Cd) to detoxify the intake of this element by plants. HMA3 expression in response to Cd stress has not been previously examined in the grass hybrid species Festulolium loliaceum (Huds.) P. Fourn. In this study, FlHMA3 isolated from F. loliaceum was found to comprise 833 amino acid residues with 77% homology to the rice OsHMA3. Transient expression of FlHMA3 fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein in Arabidopsis protoplasts suggested its localization to vacuolar membranes. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis of F. loliaceum revealed that FlHMA3 is expressed predominantly within roots and up-regulated by excess Cd. Over the 168 h treatment, Cd content of F. loliaceum roots was significantly higher than that of shoots, regardless of external CdCl 2 concentrations. A significant positive correlation was found between FlHMA3 expression and Cd accumulation in roots of F. loliaceum seedlings subjected to 10-100 mg L -1 CdCl 2 for 168 h or, in a separate experiment, to 25 or 100 mg L -1 CdCl 2 for the same duration. These findings provide evidence that FlHMA3 encodes a vacuolar P 1B2 -ATPase that may play an important role in Cd 2+ sequestration into root cell vacuoles, thereby limiting the entry of Cd 2+ into the cytoplasm and reducing Cd 2+ toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Libration-Driven Elliptical Instability Experiments in Ellipsoidal Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grannan, A. M.; Lemasquerier, D. G.; Favier, B.; Cebron, D.; Le Bars, M.; Aurnou, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    Planets and satellites can be subjected to physical libration, which consists in forced periodic variations in their rotation rate induced by gravitational interactions with nearby bodies. These librations may mechanically drive turbulence in interior liquid layers such as subsurface oceans and metallic liquid cores. One possible driving-process is called the Libration-Driven Elliptical Instability (LDEI) and refers to the resonance of two inertial modes with the libration induced base flow. LDEI has been experimentally and numerically studied in the case of a full ellipsoid (e.g. Cébron et al. [2012c], Grannan et al. [2014] and Favier et al. [2015]). In this study, we address the question of the persistence of the LDEI in the theoretically complex case of an ellipsoidal shell which is more geophysically relevant to model planetary liquid layers. We use an ellipsoidal acrylic container filled with water and add spherical inner cores of different sizes. We perform direct side-view visualizations of the flow in the librating frame using Kalliroscope particles. A Fourier analysis of the light intensity extracted from the recorded movies shows that LDEI persists in a shell geometry for a libration frequency which is 4 and 2.4 time the rotation rate, and allows an identification of the mode coupling. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is performed in vertical and horizontal planes on a selected case to confirm our light intensity results. Additionaly, our survey at a fixed forcing-frequency and variable Ekman number (E) allows a comparison with a local stability analysis, and shows that the libration amplitude at the threshold of the instability varies as ≈[E0.63, E0.72]. When extrapolating to planetary interiors conditions, such a scaling leads to an easier excitation of the elliptical instability than the E0.5 scaling commonly considered.

  9. New solutions of the generalized ellipsoidal wave equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Exton

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Certain aspects and a contribution to the theory of new forms of solutions of an algebraic form of the generalized ellipsoidal wave equation are deduced by considering the Laplace transform of a soluble system of linear differential equations. An ensuing system of non-linear algebraic equations is shown to be consistent and is numerically implemented by means of the computer algebra package MAPLE V. The main results are presented as series of hypergeometric type of there and four variables which readily lend themselves to numerical handling although this does not indicate all of the detailedanalytic properties of the solutions under consideration.

  10. Ellipsoidal reflector for measuring oto-acoustic emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epp, Bastian; Pulkki, Ville; Heiskanen, Vesa

    2014-01-01

    A truncated prolate ellipsoidal reflector having the ear canal of a listener at one focal point and large- diaphragm low-noise microphone at the other focal point is proposed for free-field recordings of oto-acoustic emissions. A prototype reflector consisting of three pieces is presented, which...... enables measuring the response of the system with different truncations. The response of the system is measured with a miniature loud- speaker, and proof-of-concept measurements of oto-acoustic emissions are presented. The effect of truncation and other physical parameters to the performance of the system...

  11. The design and test of ellipsoidal glass capillaries as condensers for X-ray microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Jinping; Li Wenjie; Chen Jie; Liu Gang; Xiong Ying; Liu Longhua; Huang Xinlong; Tian Yangchao

    2008-01-01

    A high resolution X-ray microscope endstation was constructed on a wiggler beamline at the National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). Parameters of the ellipsoidal glass capillaries as condensers were calculated and designed based on the illumination requests in the X-ray microscope system. Performance of the ellipsoidal glass capillaries was tested. The results indicate that the beam size agrees with the designed parameters and focus efficiencies of the ellipsoidal glass capillary condensers are better than 85%. (authors)

  12. Analytical calculation of the solid angle subtended by an arbitrarily positioned ellipsoid to a point source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heitz, Eric

    2017-01-01

    We present a geometric method for computing an ellipse that subtends the same solid-angle domain as an arbitrarily positioned ellipsoid. With this method we can extend existing analytical solid-angle calculations of ellipses to ellipsoids. Our idea consists of applying a linear transformation on the ellipsoid such that it is transformed into a sphere from which a disk that covers the same solid-angle domain can be computed. We demonstrate that by applying the inverse linear transformation on this disk we obtain an ellipse that subtends the same solid-angle domain as the ellipsoid. We provide a MATLAB implementation of our algorithm and we validate it numerically.

  13. Analytical calculation of the solid angle subtended by an arbitrarily positioned ellipsoid to a point source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heitz, Eric, E-mail: eheitz.research@gmail.com

    2017-04-21

    We present a geometric method for computing an ellipse that subtends the same solid-angle domain as an arbitrarily positioned ellipsoid. With this method we can extend existing analytical solid-angle calculations of ellipses to ellipsoids. Our idea consists of applying a linear transformation on the ellipsoid such that it is transformed into a sphere from which a disk that covers the same solid-angle domain can be computed. We demonstrate that by applying the inverse linear transformation on this disk we obtain an ellipse that subtends the same solid-angle domain as the ellipsoid. We provide a MATLAB implementation of our algorithm and we validate it numerically.

  14. Animal experiments and clinical studies on the role of the vitamins B1, B2, and B6 in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, W.; Wulff, K.; Grimm, U.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of ionizing radiation on erythrocytic transketolase, glutathion reductase, and aspartate-aminotransferase activities with and without addition of coenzymes were studied in 152 Wistar rats, six beagles, and 225 carcinoma patients, as a measure for vitamin B 1 , B 2 , and B 6 supplies. Examinations of 108 patients with mammary carcinoma and 117 patients with cervical, corpus, and ovarian carcinomas were undertaken prior to, during, and after termination of radiotherapy. Two check-up series were run, the first without vitamin B complex therapy, and the second with three daily applications of one dragee each, beginning on the first day of irradiation. The TPP effects recorded indicated no impairment of vitamin B 1 supply. FAD and PLP effects, on the other hand, were significantly increased, which suggested B 2 and B 6 deficits. Vitamin B 2 metabolism was causally impaired by radiation, while the disordes in vitamin B 6 metabolism were attributed to tumour-related causes. The results obtained revealed that both types of disorders can be avoided by prophylactic vitamin B complex treatment. (author)

  15. Work Package 1B.2 under the European Commission, Integrated Wind Turbine Design (UPWIND): Verification of long-term load measurement technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt Paulsen, U.

    2011-02-15

    The present report is the final effort of tasks carried out under UPWIND WP1B2 transmission and conversion, which describes: 1) results and recommendations developed in the course of developing the long-term load measurement technique. 2) the hardware details, type of sensors and location, data storage and. 3) data analysis technique to verify design load assumptions. The work is carried out under Contract no 019945 (SES6) 'UPWIND' within the European Commission The interaction between the mechanical and electrical generator subsystems is described rudimentarily, based primarily on HAWC2 simulations below stall of the mechanical system with simple generator and gearbox systems. The electrical system simulations were not carried out as intended in DOW[2], but indications of the conditions for establishing the interaction have been described by measurements and by argument, that this might have an effect as indicated. The hypothesis stating, that the power signal can be utilized as a basic signal for extended analysis of mechanical as well as electrical power signal with static and dynamic features, has been demonstrated on performance and dynamic bandwidth capability. It is however from present analysis obvious that improved signal conditions could be achieved with other mechanical joint solutions than with the present torque signal as measured with the cardan joint. For the reasons mentioned, the comparison with a signal showing the mechanical properties could be improved, with a likely gain on the accuracy as a result. (Author)

  16. Validação de métodos cromatográficos por clae para análise das vitaminas B1, B2, B6 e niacina naturalmente presentes em farinha de cereais Validation of hplc methods for analysis of vitamins B1, B2, B6 and niacin naturally present in cereal flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elisa Ferreira Presoto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex B vitamins are present in some cereal foods and the ingestion of enriched products contributes to the recommended dietary intake of these micronutrients. To adapt the label of some products, it is necessary to develop and validate the analytical methods. These methods must be reliable and with enough sensitivity to analyze complex B vitamins naturally present in food at low concentration. The purpose of this work is to evaluate, with validated methods, the content of vitamins B1, B2, B6 and niacin in five cereal flours used in food industry (oat, rice, barley, corn and wheat.

  17. "Send & Hold" Clinical Decision Support Rules improvement to reduce unnecessary testing of vitamins A, E, K, B1, B2, B3, B6 and C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Borja, Enrique; Corchon-Peyrallo, Africa; Barba-Serrano, Esther; Villalba Martínez, Celia; Carratala Calvo, Arturo

    2018-02-03

    We assessed the impact of several "send & hold" clinical decision support rules (CDSRs) within the electronical request system for vitamins A, E, K, B1, B2, B3, B6 and C for all outpatients at a large health department. When ordered through electronical request, providers (except for all our primary care physicians who worked as a non-intervention control group) were always asked to answer several compulsory questions regarding main indication, symptomatology, suspected diagnosis, vitamin active treatments, etc., for each vitamin test using a drop-down list format. After samples arrival, tests were later put on hold internally by our laboratory information system (LIS) until review for their appropriateness was made by two staff pathologists according to the provided answers and LIS records (i.e. "send & hold"). The number of tests for each analyte was compared between the 10-month period before and after CDSRs implementation in both groups. After implementation, vitamins test volumes decreased by 40% for vitamin A, 29% for vitamin E, 42% for vitamin K, 37% for vitamin B1, 85% for vitamin B2, 68% for vitamin B3, 65% for vitamin B6 and 59% for vitamin C (all p values 0.03 or lower except for vitamin B3), whereas in control group, the majority increased or remained stable. In patients with rejected vitamins, no new requests and/or adverse clinical outcome comments due to this fact were identified. "Send & hold" CDSRs are a promising informatics tool that can support in utilization management and enhance the pathologist's leadership role as tests specialist.

  18. Anisotropic hypersonic phonon propagation in films of aligned ellipsoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltramo, Peter J; Schneider, Dirk; Fytas, George; Furst, Eric M

    2014-11-14

    A material with anisotropic elastic mechanical properties and a direction-dependent hypersonic band gap is fabricated using ac electric field-directed convective self-assembly of colloidal ellipsoids. The frequency of the gap, which is detected in the direction perpendicular to particle alignment and entirely absent parallel to alignment, and the effective sound velocities can be tuned by the particle aspect ratio. We hypothesize that the band gap originates from the primary eigenmode peak, the m-splitted (s,1,2) mode, of the particle resonating with the effective medium. These results reveal the potential for powerful control of the hypersonic phononic band diagram by combining anisotropic particles and self-assembly.

  19. Entropies from Coarse-graining: Convex Polytopes vs. Ellipsoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Kalogeropoulos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We examine the Boltzmann/Gibbs/Shannon SBGS and the non-additive Havrda-Charvát/Daróczy/Cressie-Read/Tsallis Sq and the Kaniadakis κ-entropy Sκ from the viewpoint of coarse-graining, symplectic capacities and convexity. We argue that the functional form of such entropies can be ascribed to a discordance in phase-space coarse-graining between two generally different approaches: the Euclidean/Riemannian metric one that reflects independence and picks cubes as the fundamental cells in coarse-graining and the symplectic/canonical one that picks spheres/ellipsoids for this role. Our discussion is motivated by and confined to the behaviour of Hamiltonian systems of many degrees of freedom. We see that Dvoretzky’s theorem provides asymptotic estimates for the minimal dimension beyond which these two approaches are close to each other. We state and speculate about the role that dualities may play in this viewpoint.

  20. Degenerate Quadtree Latitude/Longitude Grid Based on WGS-84 Ellipsoidal Facet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HU Bailin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available For the needs of digital earth development and solving many global problems, a new discrete global grid system-DQLLG (degenerate quadtree latitude/longitude grid was put forward, which was based on WGS-84 ellipsoidal facet. The hierarchical subdivision method, characteristics and grid column/row coordinate system were detailed. The Latitude/Longitude coordinate, area and side length of multi-resolution meshes on different subdivision levels were calculated. Then the changes of mesh areas and side lengths were analyzed and compared that with spherical DQLLG. The research indicates that the DQLLG had many excellent features:uniformity, hierarchy, consistency of direction, extensive data compatibility and so on. It has certain practicality for Global GIS in the future.

  1. Ibrutinib as initial therapy for elderly patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma: an open-label, multicentre, phase 1b/2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Susan; Furman, Richard R; Coutre, Steven E; Sharman, Jeff P; Burger, Jan A; Blum, Kristie A; Grant, Barbara; Richards, Donald A; Coleman, Morton; Wierda, William G; Jones, Jeffrey A; Zhao, Weiqiang; Heerema, Nyla A; Johnson, Amy J; Izumi, Raquel; Hamdy, Ahmed; Chang, Betty Y; Graef, Thorsten; Clow, Fong; Buggy, Joseph J; James, Danelle F; Byrd, John C

    2014-01-01

    Chemoimmunotherapy has led to improved numbers of patients achieving disease response, and longer overall survival in young patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia; however, its application in elderly patients has been restricted by substantial myelosuppression and infection. We aimed to assess safety and activity of ibrutinib, an orally administered covalent inhibitor of Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK), in treatment-naive patients aged 65 years and older with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. In our open-label phase 1b/2 trial, we enrolled previously untreated patients at clinical sites in the USA. Eligible patients were aged at least 65 years, and had symptomatic chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma requiring therapy. Patients received 28 day cycles of once-daily ibrutinib 420 mg or ibrutinib 840 mg. The 840 mg dose was discontinued after enrolment had begun because comparable activity of the doses has been shown. The primary endpoint was the safety of the dose-fixed regimen in terms of frequency and severity of adverse events for all patients who received treatment. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01105247. Between May 20, 2010, and Dec 18, 2012, we enrolled 29 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and two patients with small lymphocytic lymphoma. Median age was 71 years (range 65-84), and 23 (74%) patients were at least 70 years old. Toxicity was mainly of mild-to-moderate severity (grade 1-2). 21 (68%) patients had diarrhoea (grade 1 in 14 [45%] patients, grade 2 in three [10%] patients, and grade 3 in four [13%] patients). 15 (48%) patients developed nausea (grade 1 in 12 [39%] patients and grade 2 in three [10%] patients). Ten (32%) patients developed fatigue (grade 1 in five [16%] patients, grade 2 in four [13%] patients, and grade 3 in one [3%] patient). Three (10%) patients developed grade 3 infections, although no grade 4 or 5 infections occurred. One patient developed grade 3 neutropenia, and one

  2. Entropy production of a Brownian ellipsoid in the overdamped limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Raffaele; Eichhorn, Ralf; Aurell, Erik

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the translational and rotational motion of an ellipsoidal Brownian particle from the viewpoint of stochastic thermodynamics. The particle's Brownian motion is driven by external forces and torques and takes place in an heterogeneous thermal environment where friction coefficients and (local) temperature depend on space and time. Our analysis of the particle's stochastic thermodynamics is based on the entropy production associated with single particle trajectories. It is motivated by the recent discovery that the overdamped limit of vanishing inertia effects (as compared to viscous fricion) produces a so-called "anomalous" contribution to the entropy production, which has no counterpart in the overdamped approximation, when inertia effects are simply discarded. Here we show that rotational Brownian motion in the overdamped limit generates an additional contribution to the "anomalous" entropy. We calculate its specific form by performing a systematic singular perturbation analysis for the generating function of the entropy production. As a side result, we also obtain the (well-known) equations of motion in the overdamped limit. We furthermore investigate the effects of particle shape and give explicit expressions of the "anomalous entropy" for prolate and oblate spheroids and for near-spherical Brownian particles.

  3. Quantifying the Rate of Ellipsoid Zone Loss in Stargardt Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Cindy X; Light, Jacob G; Handa, James T

    2018-02-01

    To determine a reliable method of using the ellipsoid zone (EZ) on optical coherence tomography (OCT) to track disease progression in Stardgardt disease (STGD). Retrospective reliability study. STGD patients with genetically confirmed ABCA4 gene mutations seen at the Wilmer Eye Institute with follow-up visits separated by at least 12 months were identified. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) macula volume scans centered at the fovea and fundus autofluorescence (FAF) images were obtained. The area of EZ loss was calculated from the SD-OCT and the area of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) loss from the FAF. Scans were reanalyzed by the primary grader to assess intragrader reliability, and reanalyzed by a second grader to assess intergrader reliability. Sixteen STGD patients (total of 31 eyes) were followed for a mean of 2 years (range 1-4.7 years). The mean rate of EZ loss, 0.31 ± 0.31 mm 2 /year, was similar to the average rate of RPE loss, 0.33 ± 0.38 mm 2 /year. The average area of EZ loss at the initial examination, 4.18 ± 1.91 mm 2 , was larger than the initial area of RPE loss, 2.25 ± 1.66 mm 2 (P disease progression in STGD. This could be used as a sensitive anatomic outcome measure in clinical trials related to STGD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Electromagnetic characteristics of systems of prolate and oblate ellipsoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Pouyan; Amiri-Hezaveh, Amirhossein; Ostoja-Starzewski, Martin; Jin, Jian-Ming

    2017-11-01

    The present study suggests a novel model for simulating electromagnetic characteristics of spheroidal nanofillers. The electromagnetic interference shielding efficiency of prolate and oblate ellipsoids in the X-band frequency range is studied. Different multilayered nanocomposite configurations incorporating carbon nanotubes, graphene nanoplatelets, and carbon blacks are fabricated and tested. The best performance for a specific thickness is observed for the multilayered composite with a gradual increase in the thickness and electrical conductivity of layers. The simulation results based on the proposed model are shown to be in good agreement with the experimental data. The effect of filler alignment on shielding efficiency is also studied by using the nematic order parameter. The ability of a nanocomposite to shield the incident power is found to decrease by increasing alignment especially for high volume fractions of prolate fillers. The interaction of the electromagnetic wave and the fillers is mainly affected by the polarization of the electric field; when the electric field is perpendicular to the equatorial axis of a spheroid, the interaction is significantly reduced and results in a lower shielding efficiency. Apart from the filler alignment, size polydispersity is found to have a significant effect on reflected and transmitted powers. It is demonstrated that the nanofillers with a higher aspect ratio mainly contribute to the shielding performance. The results are of interest in both shielding structures and microwave absorbing materials.

  5. Equilibrium and dynamics of uniform density ellipsoidal non-neutral plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubin, D.H.E.

    1993-01-01

    When a single-species plasma is confined in a harmonic Penning trap at cryogenic temperature, the thermal equilibrium is approximately a uniform density spheroid (ellipsoid of revolution). Normal modes corresponding to quadrupole excitations of this plasma have recently been measured. In this paper, nonlinear equations of motion are derived for these quadrupole oscillations. For large amplitudes, the oscillations deform a spheroidal plasma into a triaxial ellipsoid with time-dependent shape and orientation. The integrals of the motion are found and the cylindrically symmetric finite-amplitude oscillations of a spheroid are studied. An analysis of all possible ellipsoidal equilibria is also carried out. New equilibria are discovered which correspond to finite-amplitude versions of the noncylindrically symmetric linear quadrupole oscillations. The equilibria are shown to fall into two classes in which the ellipsoids are either tilted or aligned with respect to the magnetic field. Some of these equilibria have densities well above the Brillouin limit

  6. Gravitational potential of perturbed ellipsoidal inhomogeneous configurations with the account of the 'fifth' force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masyukov, V.V.; Tsvetkov, V.P.

    1990-01-01

    The analytical representations of the gravitational potential of perturbed inhomogeneous ellipsoidal configurations with the account of the 'fifth' force are obtained in the form of the series in the parameter of perturbation. 11 refs

  7. Longitudinal phase-space manipulation of ellipsoidal electron bunches in realistic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. van der Geer

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the recent publication of a practical recipe to create “pancake” electron bunches which evolve into uniformly filled ellipsoids, a number of papers have addressed both an alternative method to create such ellipsoids as well as their behavior in realistic fields. So far, the focus has been on the possibilities to preserve the initial “thermal” transverse emittance. This paper addresses the linear longitudinal phase space of ellipsoidal bunches. It is shown that ellipsoidal bunches allow ballistic compression at subrelativistic energies, without the detrimental effects of nonlinear space-charge forces. This in turn eliminates the need for the large correlated energy spread normally required for longitudinal compression of relativistic particle beams, while simultaneously avoiding all problems related to magnetic compression. Furthermore, the linear space-charge forces of ellipsoidal bunches can be used to reduce the remaining energy spread even further, by carefully choosing the beam transverse size, in a process that is essentially the time-reversed process of the creation of an ellipsoid at the cathode. The feasibility of compression of ellipsoidal bunches is illustrated with a relatively simple setup, consisting of a half-cell S-band photogun and a two-cell booster compressor. Detailed GPT simulations in realistic fields predict that 100 pC ellipsoidal bunches can be ballistically compressed to 100 fs, at a transverse emittance of 0.7   μm, with a final energy of 3.7 MeV and an energy spread of only 50 keV.

  8. Self-consistent Analysis of Three-dimensional Uniformly Charged Ellipsoid with Zero Emittance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batygin, Yuri K.

    2001-01-01

    A self-consistent treatment of a three-dimensional ellipsoid with negligible emittance in time-dependent external field is performed. Envelope equations describing the evolution of an ellipsoid boundary are discussed. For a complete model it is required that the initial particle momenta be a linear function of the coordinates. Numerical example and verification of the problem by a 3-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations are given

  9. A new Ellipsoidal Gravimetric-Satellite Altimetry Boundary Value Problem; Case study: High Resolution Geoid of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardalan, A.; Safari, A.; Grafarend, E.

    2003-04-01

    A new ellipsoidal gravimetric-satellite altimetry boundary value problem has been developed and successfully tested. This boundary value problem has been constructed for gravity observables of the type (i) gravity potential (ii) gravity intensity (iii) deflection of vertical and (iv) satellite altimetry data. The developed boundary value problem is enjoying the ellipsoidal nature and as such can take advantage of high precision GPS observations in the set-up of the problem. The highlights of the solution are as follows: begin{itemize} Application of ellipsoidal harmonic expansion up to degree/order and ellipsoidal centrifugal field for the reduction of global gravity and isostasy effects from the gravity observable at the surface of the Earth. Application of ellipsoidal Newton integral on the equal area map projection surface for the reduction of residual mass effects within a radius of 55 km around the computational point. Ellipsoidal harmonic downward continuation of the residual observables from the surface of the earth down to the surface of reference ellipsoid using the ellipsoidal height of the observation points derived from GPS. Restore of the removed effects at the application points on the surface of reference ellipsoid. Conversion of the satellite altimetry derived heights of the water bodies into potential. Combination of the downward continued gravity information with the potential equivalent of the satellite altimetry derived heights of the water bodies. Application of ellipsoidal Bruns formula for converting the potential values on the surface of the reference ellipsoid into the geoidal heights (i.e. ellipsoidal heights of the geoid) with respect to the reference ellipsoid. Computation of the high-resolution geoid of Iran has successfully tested this new methodology!

  10. Parameters of the CGCS 2000 Ellipsoid and Comparisons with GRS 80 and WGS 84

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHENG Pengfei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the definition of China Geodetic Coordinate System 2000(CGCS 2000 and defined constants of the ellipsoid adopted by CGCS 2000,the other geometrical and physical parameters of this ellipsoid are derived and compared with that from GRS 80 and WGS 84,respectively.Meanwhile the coordinates and normal gravity on the CGCS 2000 ellipsoid are compared with that on WGS 84 and GRS 80.The difference between the normal gravity on CGCS 2000 ellipsoid and that on GRS 80 is about -143.54×10-8 m/s2,while it is 0.02×10-8 m/s2 compared to WGS 84.The longitudes of a point on these three ellipsoids are the same,but the maximum difference of latitude between CGCS 2000 and GRS 80 is 8.26×10-11 arc seconds,which is about 2.5×10-6 mm,and the maximum difference of latitude between CGCS 2000 and WGS 84 is 3.6×10-6 arc seconds,which is about 0.11 mm.

  11. CdMoO{sub 4} micro-ellipsoids: controllable synthesis, growth mechanism, and photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Ke; Gao, Tianyu [College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Hubei, Wuhan (China); Liu, Hui; Chen, Hao, E-mail: hchenhao@mail.hzau.edu.cn [College of Science, Huazhong Agricultural University, Hubei, Wuhan (China); Wang, Qi, E-mail: hchenhao@mail.hzau.edu.cn [School of Environment Sciences and Engineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Zhejiang, Hangzhou (China)

    2017-01-15

    CdMoO{sub 4} micro-ellipsoids were synthesized by a simple hydrothermal route with the assistance of nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 and characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The effects of hydrothermal pH, temperature, and time on the morphology and photocatalytic activity of CdMoO{sub 4} were investigated. With an initial hydrothermal pH of 5.00, CdMoO{sub 4} micro-ellipsoids were obtained at 180 °C for 24 h and found to possess the highest photocatalytic activity - 89% Rhodamine B can be degraded for 30 minutes presented in the 0.4 g/L CdMoO{sub 4} suspension. The formation mechanism of the CdMoO{sub 4} micro-ellipsoids was initiated by the formation of small nanoparticles and bulk structures afterwards, which was followed by the growth of micro-ellipsoids. Experiment results showed that the evolution of the micro-ellipsoids was an Ostwald ripening process. (author)

  12. Revisiting the Low-Frequency Dipolar Perturbation by an Impenetrable Ellipsoid in a Conductive Surrounding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panayiotis Vafeas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution deals with the scattering by a metallic ellipsoidal target, embedded in a homogeneous conductive medium, which is stimulated when a 3D time-harmonic magnetic dipole is operating at the low-frequency realm. The incident, the scattered, and the total three-dimensional electromagnetic fields, which satisfy Maxwell’s equations, yield low-frequency expansions in terms of positive integral powers of the complex-valued wave number of the exterior medium. We preserve the static Rayleigh approximation and the first three dynamic terms, while the additional terms of minor contribution are neglected. The Maxwell-type problem is transformed into intertwined potential-type boundary value problems with impenetrable boundary conditions, whereas the environment of a genuine ellipsoidal coordinate system provides the necessary setting for tackling such problems in anisotropic space. The fields are represented via nonaxisymmetric infinite series expansions in terms of harmonic eigenfunctions, affiliated with the ellipsoidal system, obtaining analytical closed-form solutions in a compact fashion. Until nowadays, such problems were attacked by using the very few ellipsoidal harmonics exhibiting an analytical form. In the present article, we address this issue by incorporating the full series expansion of the potentials and utilizing the entire subspace of ellipsoidal harmonic eigenfunctions.

  13. Radial velocity curves of ellipsoidal red giant binaries in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie, J. D.; Wood, P. R.

    2014-01-01

    Ellipsoidal red giant binaries are close binary systems where an unseen, relatively close companion distorts the red giant, leading to light variations as the red giant moves around its orbit. These binaries are likely to be the immediate evolutionary precursors of close binary planetary nebula and post-asymptotic giant branch and post-red giant branch stars. Due to the MACHO and OGLE photometric monitoring projects, the light variability nature of these ellipsoidal variables has been well studied. However, due to the lack of radial velocity curves, the nature of their masses, separations, and other orbital details has so far remained largely unknown. In order to improve this situation, we have carried out spectral monitoring observations of a large sample of 80 ellipsoidal variables in the Large Magellanic Cloud and we have derived radial velocity curves. At least 12 radial velocity points with good quality were obtained for most of the ellipsoidal variables. The radial velocity data are provided with this paper. Combining the photometric and radial velocity data, we present some statistical results related to the binary properties of these ellipsoidal variables.

  14. [Effect of vitamins B1, B2, B6, folic acid and vitamin C on the motor activity of chicken's intestines in chronic experiments and in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagórna-Stasiak, B; Wawrzeńska, M

    1987-01-01

    The studies were carried out on 33 chickens of the broiler breed in chronic experiments and in vitro. In the chronic experiments the motility of the jejunum under the influence of vitamins of group B and vitamine C was recorded in 8 chickens. The vitamins were used at concentrations from 10 mg/l to 2.5 x 10(3) mg/l. In the experiments in vitro, the motility of the isolated segment of the jejunum was recorded by the method of Magnus. In this part of experiments the chickens were divided into 3 groups, of which group I (15 chickens) were fed with DKA finischer mixture, group II (5 hens) received, besides the mixture, per os 200 mg of vitamin C for 2 weeks, group III (5 hens) received the mixture and for 2 weeks intraperitoneally 200 mg of vitamin C. The effect of vitamins of group B in vitro was determined in chickens of group I, whereas that of vitamin C in chickens of group I, II and III. At the same time the level of vitamin C in the wall of the jejunum was determined by the method of Roe-Kuenther. It was shown that vitamin B2 and folic acid caused stimulation of intestine motility in the chickens, while vitamin B1, B6 and C decreased the motoric activity. Increased level of vitamin C in the intestinal wall resulted in increased intestine sensitivity. Chicken intestines sensitivity to vitamins was 10 times stronger to vitamins than that of the intestines of rabbits.

  15. Minimization of stress concentration factor in cylindrical pressure vessels with ellipsoidal heads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnucki, K.; Szyc, W.; Lewinski, J.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents the problem of stress concentration in a cylindrical pressure vessel with ellipsoidal heads subject to internal pressure. At the line, where the ellipsoidal head is adjacent to the circular cylindrical shell, a shear force and bending moment occur, disturbing the membrane stress state in the vessel. The degree of stress concentration depends on the ratio of thicknesses of both the adjacent parts of the shells and on the relative convexity of the ellipsoidal head, with the range for radius-to-thickness ratio between 75 and 125. The stress concentration was analytically described and, afterwards, the effect of these values on the stress concentration ratio was numerically examined. Results of the analysis are shown on charts

  16. The microwave properties of composites including lightweight core–shell ellipsoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Liming; Xu, Yonggang; Dai, Fei; Liao, Yi; Zhang, Deyuan

    2016-01-01

    In order to study the microwave properties of suspensions including lightweight core–shell ellipsoids, the calculation formula was obtained by substituting an equivalent ellipsoid for the original core–shell ellipsoid. Simulations for Fe-coated diatomite/paraffin suspensions were performed. Results reveal that the calculated results fitted the measured results very well when the inclusion concentration was no more than 15 vol%, but there was an obvious deviation when the inclusion concentration reached 24 vol%. By comparisons, the formula for less diluted suspensions was more suitable for calculating the electromagnetic parameter of suspensions especially when the ratio was smaller between the electromagnetic parameter of the inclusion and that of the host medium. - Highlights: • The microwave properties of suspensions with core-shell inclusions were studied. • Less diluted suspensions were considered. • Flaky Fe-coated diatomite/paraffin suspensions were studied. • The microwave properties could be simulated successfully.

  17. Plug and Play Robust Distributed Control with Ellipsoidal Parametric Uncertainty System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Wang-jian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a continuous linear time invariant system with ellipsoidal parametric uncertainty structured into subsystems. Since the design of a local controller uses only information on a subsystem and its neighbours, we combine the plug and play idea and robust distributed control to propose one distributed control strategy for linear system with ellipsoidal parametric uncertainty. Firstly for linear system with ellipsoidal parametric uncertainty, a necessary and sufficient condition for robust state feedback control is proposed by means of linear matrix inequality. If this necessary and sufficient condition is satisfied, this robust state feedback gain matrix can be easily derived to guarantee robust stability and prescribed closed loop performance. Secondly the plug and play idea is introduced in the design process. Finally by one example of aircraft flutter model parameter identification, the efficiency of the proposed control strategy can be easily realized.

  18. The microwave properties of composites including lightweight core–shell ellipsoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Liming, E-mail: lming_y@163.com [Science and Technology on Electromagnetic Scattering Laboratory, Shanghai 200438 (China); Xu, Yonggang; Dai, Fei; Liao, Yi [Science and Technology on Electromagnetic Scattering Laboratory, Shanghai 200438 (China); Zhang, Deyuan [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2016-12-01

    In order to study the microwave properties of suspensions including lightweight core–shell ellipsoids, the calculation formula was obtained by substituting an equivalent ellipsoid for the original core–shell ellipsoid. Simulations for Fe-coated diatomite/paraffin suspensions were performed. Results reveal that the calculated results fitted the measured results very well when the inclusion concentration was no more than 15 vol%, but there was an obvious deviation when the inclusion concentration reached 24 vol%. By comparisons, the formula for less diluted suspensions was more suitable for calculating the electromagnetic parameter of suspensions especially when the ratio was smaller between the electromagnetic parameter of the inclusion and that of the host medium. - Highlights: • The microwave properties of suspensions with core-shell inclusions were studied. • Less diluted suspensions were considered. • Flaky Fe-coated diatomite/paraffin suspensions were studied. • The microwave properties could be simulated successfully.

  19. The Discovery of Ellipsoidal Variations in the Kepler Light Curve of HAT-P-7

    OpenAIRE

    Welsh, William F.; Orosz, Jerome A.; Seager, Sara; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Jenkins, Jon; Rowe, Jason F.; Koch, David; Borucki, William J.

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of the early Kepler observations of the previously discovered transiting planet HAT-P-7b. The light curve shows the transit of the star, the occultation of the planet, and the orbit phase-dependent light from the planet. In addition, phase-dependent light from the star is present, known as "ellipsoidal variations". The very nearby planet (only 4 stellar radii away) gravitationally distorts the star and results in a flux modulation twice per orbit. The ellipsoidal variat...

  20. The structural and thermodynamical properties of binary ellipsoidal fluid mixture Gay-Berne interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moradi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available  In this paper, a uniform classical fluid mixture comprising ellipsoidal molecules is studied. This mixture is composed of two types of ellipsoidal molecules interacting through the Gay-Berne potential with different sizes at temperature T. For this system, the Ornstein-Zernike equation using the Percus-Yevick closure relation is solved. Then the direct correlation function, pair correlation function and the pressure of the fluid at temperature T are calculated. The obtained results are in agreement with the previous theories and the results of molecular dynamic computer simulation.

  1. Bäcklund transformations for the Jacobi system on an ellipsoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiganov, A. V.

    2017-09-01

    We consider analogues of auto- and hetero-Bäcklund transformations for the Jacobi system on a threeaxis ellipsoid. Using the results in a Weierstrass paper, where the change of times reduces integrating the equations of motion to inverting the Abel mapping, we construct the differential Abel equations and auto-Bäcklund transformations preserving the Poisson bracket with respect to which the equations of motion written in the Weierstrass form are Hamiltonian. Transforming this bracket to the canonical form, we can construct a new integrable system on the ellipsoid with a Hamiltonian of the natural form and with a fourth-degree integral of motion in momenta.

  2. Radiative transfer theory for active remote sensing of a layer of small ellipsoidal scatterers. [of vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, L.; Kubacsi, M. C.; Kong, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    The radiative transfer theory is applied within the Rayleigh approximation to calculate the backscattering cross section of a layer of randomly positioned and oriented small ellipsoids. The orientation of the ellipsoids is characterized by a probability density function of the Eulerian angles of rotation. The radiative transfer equations are solved by an iterative approach to first order in albedo. In the half space limit the results are identical to those obtained via the approach of Foldy's and distorted Born approximation. Numerical results of the theory are illustrated using parameters encountered in active remote sensing of vegetation layers. A distinctive characteristic is the strong depolarization shown by vertically aligned leaves.

  3. Unusual CoS2 ellipsoids with anisotropic tube-like cavities and their application in supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Wu, Hao Bin; Lou, Xiong Wen

    2012-07-14

    Unusual CoS(2) ellipsoids with anisotropic tube-like cavities have been synthesized from the simultaneous thermal decomposition and sulfidation of a preformed cobalt carbonate precursor. The as-prepared CoS(2) ellipsoids show interesting supercapacitive properties with high capacitance and good cycling performance.

  4. Terrain Correction on the moving equal area cylindrical map projection of the surface of a reference ellipsoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardalan, A.; Safari, A.; Grafarend, E.

    2003-04-01

    An operational algorithm for computing the ellipsoidal terrain correction based on application of closed form solution of the Newton integral in terms of Cartesian coordinates in the cylindrical equal area map projected surface of a reference ellipsoid has been developed. As the first step the mapping of the points on the surface of a reference ellipsoid onto the cylindrical equal area map projection of a cylinder tangent to a point on the surface of reference ellipsoid closely studied and the map projection formulas are computed. Ellipsoidal mass elements with various sizes on the surface of the reference ellipsoid is considered and the gravitational potential and the vector of gravitational intensity of these mass elements has been computed via the solution of Newton integral in terms of ellipsoidal coordinates. The geographical cross section areas of the selected ellipsoidal mass elements are transferred into cylindrical equal area map projection and based on the transformed area elements Cartesian mass elements with the same height as that of the ellipsoidal mass elements are constructed. Using the close form solution of the Newton integral in terms of Cartesian coordinates the potential of the Cartesian mass elements are computed and compared with the same results based on the application of the ellipsoidal Newton integral over the ellipsoidal mass elements. The results of the numerical computations show that difference between computed gravitational potential of the ellipsoidal mass elements and Cartesian mass element in the cylindrical equal area map projection is of the order of 1.6 × 10-8m^2/s^2 for a mass element with the cross section size of 10 km × 10 km and the height of 1000 m. For a 1 km × 1 km mass element with the same height, this difference is less than 1.5 × 10-4 m^2}/s^2. The results of the numerical computations indicate that a new method for computing the terrain correction based on the closed form solution of the Newton integral in

  5. Simple and Multi-collision of an Ellipsoid with Planar Surfaces. Part I: Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae–Doru Stănescu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the problem of simultaneous collisions between an ellipsoid and some planar surfaces. The approach is one based on the theory of screws and uses the notion of inertance. The authors consider that the coefficients of restitution are different for each planar surface and they obtain the velocities after the collision. An example concludes the theory.

  6. Optical alignment and confinement of an ellipsoidal nanorod in optical tweezers: a theoretical study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trojek, Jan; Chvátal, Lukáš; Zemánek, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 7 (2012), s. 1224-1236 ISSN 1084-7529 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/0348; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : ellipsoidal nanorod * optical tweezers * Rayleigh approximation Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.665, year: 2012

  7. A DEEP CUT ELLIPSOID ALGORITHM FOR CONVEX-PROGRAMMING - THEORY AND APPLICATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FRENK, JBG; GROMICHO, J; ZHANG, S

    1994-01-01

    This paper proposes a deep cut version of the ellipsoid algorithm for solving a general class of continuous convex programming problems. In each step the algorithm does not require more computational effort to construct these deep cuts than its corresponding central cut version. Rules that prevent

  8. The hard ellipsoid-of-revolution fluid II. The y-expansion equation of state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, B.M.; Frenkel, D.

    1985-01-01

    The γ-expansion as introduced by Barboy and Gelbart is applied to a system of hard ellipsoids-of-revolution. The expansion is truncated after the third order term yielding an approximate theory requiring the second- and third-virial coefficients as inputs. As the third virial coefficient is not

  9. Plastic deformation and contact area of an elastic-plastic contact of ellipsoid bodies after unloading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamari, Jamari; Schipper, Dirk J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents theoretical and experimental results of the residual or plastic deformation and the plastic contact area of an elastic–plastic contact of ellipsoid bodies after unloading. There are three regime responses of the deformation and contact area: elastic, elastic–plastic and fully

  10. Orientational dynamics of a triaxial ellipsoid in simple shear flow: Influence of inertia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosén, Tomas; Kotsubo, Yusuke; Aidun, Cyrus K; Do-Quang, Minh; Lundell, Fredrik

    2017-07-01

    The motion of a single ellipsoidal particle in simple shear flow can provide valuable insights toward understanding suspension flows with nonspherical particles. Previously, extensive studies have been performed on the ellipsoidal particle with rotational symmetry, a so-called spheroid. The nearly prolate ellipsoid (one major and two minor axes of almost equal size) is known to perform quasiperiodic or even chaotic orbits in the absence of inertia. With small particle inertia, the particle is also known to drift toward this irregular motion. However, it is not previously understood what effects from fluid inertia could be, which is of highest importance for particles close to neutral buoyancy. Here, we find that fluid inertia is acting strongly to suppress the chaotic motion and only very weak fluid inertia is sufficient to stabilize a rotation around the middle axis. The mechanism responsible for this transition is believed to be centrifugal forces acting on fluid, which is dragged along with the rotational motion of the particle. With moderate fluid inertia, it is found that nearly prolate triaxial particles behave similarly to the perfectly spheroidal particles. Finally, we also are able to provide predictions about the stable rotational states for the general triaxial ellipsoid in simple shear with weak inertia.

  11. Pancreatic mucinous cystic neoplasm size using CT volumetry, spherical and ellipsoid formulas: validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalian, Hamid; Seyal, Adeel Rahim; Rezai, Pedram; Töre, Hüseyin Gürkan; Miller, Frank H; Bentrem, David J; Yaghmai, Vahid

    2014-01-10

    The accuracy for determining pancreatic cyst volume with commonly used spherical and ellipsoid methods is unknown. The role of CT volumetry in volumetric assessment of pancreatic cysts needs to be explored. To compare volumes of the pancreatic cysts by CT volumetry, spherical and ellipsoid methods and determine their accuracy by correlating with actual volume as determined by EUS-guided aspiration. Setting This is a retrospective analysis performed at a tertiary care center. Patients Seventy-eight pathologically proven pancreatic cysts evaluated with CT and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) were included. Design The volume of fourteen cysts that had been fully aspirated by EUS was compared to CT volumetry and the routinely used methods (ellipsoid and spherical volume). Two independent observers measured all cysts using commercially available software to evaluate inter-observer reproducibility for CT volumetry. The volume of pancreatic cysts as determined by various methods was compared using repeated measures analysis of variance. Bland-Altman plot and intraclass correlation coefficient were used to determine mean difference and correlation between observers and methods. The error was calculated as the percentage of the difference between the CT estimated volumes and the aspirated volume divided by the aspirated one. CT volumetry was comparable to aspirated volume (P=0.396) with very high intraclass correlation (r=0.891, Pvolumetry. There was excellent inter-observer correlation in volumetry of the entire cohort (r=0.997, Pvolumetry is accurate and reproducible. Ellipsoid and spherical volume overestimate the true volume of pancreatic cysts.

  12. Acoustic wave focusing in an ellipsoidal reflector for extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lottati, Itzhak; Eidelman, Shmuel

    1993-07-01

    Simulations of acoustic wave focusing in an ellipsoidal reflector for extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) are presented. The simulations are done on a structured/unstructured grid with a modified Tait equation of state for water. The Euler equations are solved by applying a second-order Godunov method. The computed results compare very well with the experimental results.

  13. Application of the ellipsoid modeling of the average shape of nanosized crystallites in powder diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katerinopoulou, Anna; Balic Zunic, Tonci; Lundegaard, Lars Fahl

    2012-01-01

    Anisotropic broadening correction in X-ray powder diffraction by an ellipsoidal formula is applied on samples with nanosized crystals. Two cases of minerals with largely anisotropic crystallite shapes are presented. The properly applied formalism not only improves the fitting of the theoretical...

  14. A Deep Cut Ellipsoid Algorithm for convex Programming: theory and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenk, J.B.G.; Gromicho Dos Santos, J.A.; Zhang, S.

    1994-01-01

    This paper proposes a deep cut version of the ellipsoid algorithm for solving a general class of continuous convex programming problems. In each step the algorithm does not require more computational effort to construct these deep cuts than its corresponding central cut version. Rules that prevent

  15. A deep cut ellipsoid algorithm for convex programming : Theory and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B.G. Frenk (Hans); J.A.S. Gromicho (Joaquim); S. Zhang (Shuzhong)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThis paper proposes a deep cut version of the ellipsoid algorithm for solving a general class of continuous convex programming problems. In each step the algorithm does not require more computational effort to construct these deep cuts than its corresponding central cut version. Rules

  16. Simulation of enhanced deposition due to magnetic field alignment of ellipsoidal particles in a lung bifurcation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, R C; Roshchenko, A; Minev, P; Finlay, W H

    2013-02-01

    Aerosolized chemotherapy has been recognized as a potential treatment for lung cancer. The challenge of providing sufficient therapeutic effects without reaching dose-limiting toxicity levels hinders the development of aerosolized chemotherapy. This could be mitigated by increasing drug-delivery efficiency with a noninvasive drug-targeting delivery method. The purpose of this study is to use direct numerical simulations to study the resulting local enhancement of deposition due to magnetic field alignment of high aspect ratio particles. High aspect ratio particles were approximated by a rigid ellipsoid with a minor diameter of 0.5 μm and fluid particle density ratio of 1,000. Particle trajectories were calculated by solving the coupled fluid particle equations using an in-house micro-macro grid finite element algorithm based on a previously developed fictitious domain approach. Particle trajectories were simulated in a morphologically realistic geometry modeling a symmetrical terminal bronchiole bifurcation. Flow conditions were steady inspiratory air flow due to typical breathing at 18 L/min. Deposition efficiency was estimated for two different cases: [1] particles aligned with the streamlines and [2] particles with fixed angular orientation simulating the magnetic field alignment of our previous in vitro study. The local enhancement factor defined as the ratio between deposition efficiency of Case [1] and Case [2] was found to be 1.43 and 3.46 for particles with an aspect ratio of 6 and 20, respectively. Results indicate that externally forcing local alignment of high aspect ratio particles can increase local deposition considerably.

  17. Osteocyte Lacunae are Lenticular/Ellipsoid Spaces or Spiral/Helical Tubules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijit Kanti Guha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: According to the current concept of bone structure, the osteocyte lacunae are lenticular or ellipsoid spaces occupied by osteocytes. These osteocytes are thought to communicate with each other through a tubular system made up of Canaliculi. The rest of the structures i.e., Haversian canal, and Volkmann’s canal are also tubular in shape. Considering this existing concept of bone microstructure described by various authors, it is highly unlikely that the lacunae alone would be lenticular/ellipsoid structure. In the present study author wanted to know that amongst the all tubular spaces, what is the reason that only the osteocyte lacunae are lenticular or ellipsoid structure? Also to investigate whether these lenticular spaces are really lenticular/ellipsoid or they are cut sections of tubes, which are lying helically or spirally. It is well known from various previous studies that Haversian canal, Volkmann’s canal and Canaliculi are tubular shaped structures and how it is possible that lenticular/ellipsoid structure can present amongst them. So we thought that, it may be possible that these lenticular spaces are not actually lenticular but this lenticular shape is due to the cut sections of any type of tubule in various possible planes (i.e., transverse, longitudinal and various degrees of oblique plane. Aim: The present study was carried out to reinvestigate the shape of the osteocyte lacunae amongst the tubular system (i.e., Haversian canal, Volkmann’s canal and Canaliculi of compact bone. Materials and Methods: The study is carried out by preparing thin sections of adult bones (ground glass preparation and visualizing them under binocular light microscope and scanelectron microscope after following proper procedure. Results: We observed that the lacunae are actually spirally/helically placed tubules with several branching. These branching are considered as canaliculi. These branching are of various diameters and they

  18. Infectious genotype 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 3a, 5a, 6a and 7a hepatitis C virus lacking the hypervariable region 1 (HVR1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    .sub.1389c,A1590G (6a/2a) constructs for the deletion of Hypervariable Region 1 (HVR1) to construct viable, JFH 1 (genotype 2a) based, genomes. The present inventors serially passaged the viruses in cell culture obtaining relatively high HCV RNA titers and infectivity titers. Sequence analysis...... of the viruses identified mutations adapting H77/JFH 1.sub.T27OOC,A4O8OT,.DELTA.HVR1 (1a/2a), J8/JFH .sub.1.DELTA.HVR1 (2b/2a), S52/JFH 1.sub.T2718G,T716OC,.DELTA.HVR1 (3a/2a) and J4/JFH 1.sub.T2996C,A4827T,.DELTA.HVR1 (1b/2a) to the HVR1 deletion....

  19. New ab initio adiabatic potential energy surfaces and bound state calculations for the singlet ground X˜ 1A1 and excited C˜ 1B2(21A') states of SO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kłos, Jacek; Alexander, Millard H.; Kumar, Praveen; Poirier, Bill; Jiang, Bin; Guo, Hua

    2016-05-01

    We report new and more accurate adiabatic potential energy surfaces (PESs) for the ground X˜ 1A1 and electronically excited C˜ 1B2(21A') states of the SO2 molecule. Ab initio points are calculated using the explicitly correlated internally contracted multi-reference configuration interaction (icMRCI-F12) method. A second less accurate PES for the ground X ˜ state is also calculated using an explicitly correlated single-reference coupled-cluster method with single, double, and non-iterative triple excitations [CCSD(T)-F12]. With these new three-dimensional PESs, we determine energies of the vibrational bound states and compare these values to existing literature data and experiment.

  20. Spreading Dynamics of an Ellipsoidal Drop Impacting on a Heated Substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Sungchan [Korea Nat’l. Univ. of Transportation, Chungju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Unlike spherical drop impact, ellipsoidal drop impact can control the bouncing height on a heated surface by significantly altering impact behavior. To scrutinize the effect of the aspect ratio (AR) of the drop on the bounce suppression, in this study, non-axisymmetric spreading behaviors are observed from two side views and characterized based on the spreading width of the drop for horizontal principal axes. In addition, the maximum spreading width is investigated for various ARs. The results show that as the AR increases, the maximum spreading width of the minor axis increases, whereas that of the major axis shows no significant variation. In the regime of high AR and high impact velocity, liquid fragmentations by three parts are observed during bouncing. These fragmentations are discussed in this work. The hydrodynamic features of ellipsoidal drop impact will help understand bouncing control on non-wetting surfaces for several applications, such as self-cleaning and spray cooling.

  1. New fabrication method for an ellipsoidal neutron focusing mirror with a metal substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiang; Takeda, Shin; Morita, Shin-ya; Hino, Masahiro; Oda, Tatsuro; Kato, Jun-ichi; Yamagata, Yutaka; Furusaka, Michihiro

    2014-10-06

    We propose an ellipsoidal neutron focusing mirror using a metal substrate made with electroless nickel-phosphorus (NiP) plated material for the first time. Electroless NiP has great advantages for realizing an ellipsoidal neutron mirror because of its amorphous structure, good machinability and relatively large critical angle of total reflection for neutrons. We manufactured the mirror by combining ultrahigh precision cutting and fine polishing to generate high form accuracy and low surface roughness. The form accuracy of the mirror was estimated to be 5.3 μm P-V and 0.8 μm P-V for the minor-axis and major-axis direction respectively, while the surface roughness was reduced to 0.2 nm rms. The effect of form error on focusing spot size was evaluated by using a laser beam and the focusing performance of the mirror was verified by neutron experiments.

  2. Quark self-energy in an ellipsoidally anisotropic quark-gluon plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmaei, Babak S.; Nopoush, Mohammad; Strickland, Michael

    2016-12-01

    We calculate the quark self-energy in a quark-gluon plasma that possesses an ellipsoidal momentum-space anisotropy in the local rest frame. By introducing additional transverse-momentum anisotropy parameters into the parton distribution functions, we generalize previous results which were obtained for the case of a spheroidal anisotropy. Our results demonstrate that the presence of anisotropies in the transverse directions affects the real and imaginary parts of quark self-energy and, consequently, the self-energy depends on both the polar and azimuthal angles in the local rest frame of the matter. Our results for the quark self-energy set the stage for the calculation of the effects of ellipsoidal momentum-space anisotropy on quark-gluon plasma photon spectra and collective flow.

  3. Measuring stone volume - three-dimensional software reconstruction or an ellipsoid algebra formula?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, William; Johnston, Richard; Shaida, Nadeem; Winterbottom, Andrew; Wiseman, Oliver

    2014-04-01

    To determine the optimal method for assessing stone volume, and thus stone burden, by comparing the accuracy of scalene, oblate, and prolate ellipsoid volume equations with three-dimensional (3D)-reconstructed stone volume. Kidney stone volume may be helpful in predicting treatment outcome for renal stones. While the precise measurement of stone volume by 3D reconstruction can be accomplished using modern computer tomography (CT) scanning software, this technique is not available in all hospitals or with routine acute colic scanning protocols. Therefore, maximum diameters as measured by either X-ray or CT are used in the calculation of stone volume based on a scalene ellipsoid formula, as recommended by the European Association of Urology. In all, 100 stones with both X-ray and CT (1-2-mm slices) were reviewed. Complete and partial staghorn stones were excluded. Stone volume was calculated using software designed to measure tissue density of a certain range within a specified region of interest. Correlation coefficients among all measured outcomes were compared. Stone volumes were analysed to determine the average 'shape' of the stones. The maximum stone diameter on X-ray was 3-25 mm and on CT was 3-36 mm, with a reasonable correlation (r = 0.77). Smaller stones (15 mm towards scalene ellipsoids. There was no difference in stone shape by location within the kidney. As the average shape of renal stones changes with diameter, no single equation for estimating stone volume can be recommended. As the maximum diameter increases, calculated stone volume becomes less accurate, suggesting that larger stones have more asymmetric shapes. We recommend that research looking at stone clearance rates should use 3D-reconstructed stone volumes when available, followed by prolate, oblate, or scalene ellipsoid formulas depending on the maximum stone diameter. © 2013 The Authors. BJU International © 2013 BJU International.

  4. ORTEP-III: Oak Ridge Thermal Ellipsoid Plot Program for crystal structure illustrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, M.N.; Johnson, C.K.

    1996-07-01

    This report describes a computer program for drawing crystal structure illustrations. Ball-and-stick type illustrations of a quality suitable for publication are produced with either spheres or thermal-motion probability ellipsoids on the atomic sites. The program can also produce stereoscopic pairs of illustrations which aid in the visualization of complex packing arrangements of atoms and thermal motion patterns. Interatomic distances, bond angles, and principal axes of thermal motion are also calculated to aid the structural study.

  5. INFLUENCE OF LASER BEAM PROFILE ON LIGHT SCATTERING BY HUMAN SKIN DURING PHOTOMETRY BY ELLIPSOIDAL REFLECTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Bezuglyi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The correct accounting of laser emitter parameters for improvement of diagnostic authenticity of methods of optical biomedical diagnostic is important problem for applied biophotonic tasks. The purpose of the current research is estimation of influence of energy distribution profile in transversal section of laser beam on light scattering by human skin layers at photometry by ellipsoidal reflectors.Biomedical photometer with ellipsoidal reflectors for investigation of biological tissue specimens in transmitted and reflected light uses laser probing radiation with infinitely thin, Gauss-type and uniform cross-section profile. Distribution of beams with denoted profiles, which consist of 20 million photons with wavelength 632.8 nm, was modeled by using of Monte-Carlo simulation in human skin layers (corneous layer, epidermis, derma and adipose tissue of various anatomic thickness and with ellipsoidal reflectors with focal parameter equal to 16.875 mm and eccentricity of 0.66.The modeling results represent that illuminance distribution in zones of photometric imaging is significantly influenced by the laser beam cross-section profile for various thickness of corneous layer and epidermis in transmitted and reflected light, and also derma in reflected light. Illuminance distribution for adipose tissue in reflected and transmitted light, and also derma in transmitted light, practically do not depend of laser beam profile for anatomic thicknesses, which are appropriate for human skin on various sections of body.There are represented results of modified Monte-Carlo simulation method for biomedical photometer with ellipsoidal reflectors during biometry of human skin layers. For highly scattered corneous layer and epidermis the illumination of middle and external rings of photometric images changes depending from the laser beam profile for more than 50 % in transmitted and 30 % in reflected light. For weakly scattering skin layers (derma and adipose layer

  6. Aging linear viscoelasticity of matrix-inclusion composite materials featuring ellipsoidal inclusions

    OpenAIRE

    LAVERGNE, Francis; SAB, Karam; SANAHUJA, Julien; BORNERT, Michel; TOULEMONDE, Charles

    2016-01-01

    A multi-scale homogenization scheme is proposed to estimate the time-dependent strains of fiber-reinforced concrete. This material is modeled as an aging linear viscoelastic composite material featuring ellipsoidal inclusions embedded in a viscoelastic cementitious matrix characterized by a time-dependent Poisson's ratio. To this end, the homogenization scheme proposed in Lavergne et al. [1] is adapted to the case of a time-dependent Poisson's ratio and it is successfully validated on a non-a...

  7. Experimental study of the moment of inertia of a cone-angular variation and inertia ellipsoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pintao, Carlos A F; Souza de Filho, Moacir P; Usida, Wesley F; Xavier, Jose A

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, an experimental set-up which differs from the traditional ones is established in order to determine the moment of inertia of a right circular cone. Its angular variation and inertia ellipsoid are determined by means of an experimental study. In addition, a system that allows for the evaluation of the angular acceleration and torque through electric current or frequency measurement is utilized

  8. Manufacturing method for hard x-ray focusing mirrors with ellipsoidal surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yumoto, Hirokatsu; Koyama, Takahisa; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Kazuto

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to establishing the manufacturing method for hard x-ray nano-focusing mirrors with ellipsoidal surface. Ellipsoidal mirror optics, which can produce point focus with a mirror, has a noticeable feature of a high focusing efficiency, although an ultra-precise surface figure with an accuracy of a few nanometers is required for nano-focusing mirrors. Here, we examined the effectiveness of the manufacturing process for ellipsoidal mirrors, which is consisted of a precision grinding process, a removal process of surface roughness, and a computer-controlled shape correction. The precision processing machine for both a removal of surface roughness and a shape correction was developed. This validated the utility of removing surface roughness with a spatial wavelength of 40 μm, which is the tool mark of the grinding process. The developed process achieved the improvement of surface roughness from 1.6 nm to 0.1 nm (RMS), and the figure correction with a high accuracy of < 10 nm and a spatial resolution of < 2 mm. (author)

  9. Measurement of self-shaped ellipsoidal bunches from a photoinjector with postacceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan O’Shea

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent work has shown the possibility of generating self-shaped ellipsoidal beams with properties commensurate with the requirements of future light sources such as free-electron lasers and inverse Compton sources. In this so-termed “blowout” regime, short laser bunches are transformed via photoemission into short electron bunches which then self-consistently evolve into nearly uniform-density ellipsoids under space-charge forces. We report here on the first blowout studies conducted in collaboration between the UCLA Particle Beam Physics Lab and the Photo Injector Test Facility, Zeuthen (PITZ. The measurements conducted at the PITZ photoinjector facility examine the evolution of 750 pC, 2.7 ps FWHM electron bunches born in an L-band photoinjector and subsequently accelerated through a nine-cell L-band booster for a resulting energy of 12 MeV. These measurements represent the first observations of self-shaped ellipsoid evolution under postinjector acceleration, a key step in demonstrating the utility of such self-shaped beams at higher energy, where the advantages in both transverse and longitudinal and transverse phase space may be exploited in creating very high brightness beams.

  10. The TMS-1 corneal topography measurement applied to calibrated ellipsoidal convex surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douthwaite, W A; Matilla, M T

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to assess the accuracy of the TMS-1 videokeratoscope (Computed Anatomy Inc.) by using convex ellipsoidal surfaces. The ellipsoids were calibrated using Form Talysurf analysis, which allowed for subsequent calculation of the vertex radius and p value. The videokeratoscope was used to examine the same ellipsoids. The data provided by the instrument software were used to plot a graph of r2 verses y2, where r is the measured radius at y, the distance from the corneal point being measured to the optical axis of the instrument. The intercept on the ordinate of this graph gives the vertex radius, and the slope give the p value. The results arising from the Talysurf and the TMS-1 techniques were compared. The TMS-1 videokeratoscope gave readings for the vertex radius that were generally higher than those of the Talysurf analysis. The vertex radius was up to 0.09 mm greater. The p value results were similar by the two methods for p values of approximately 0.8; however, the TMS-1 results were higher, and the discrepancy increased as the p value approached that of a paraboloid. Although the videokeratoscope may be useful in comparative studies of the cornea, there must be some doubt about the absolute values displayed as the surface becomes increasingly aspheric.

  11. Error Ellipsoid Analysis for the Diameter Measurement of Cylindroid Components Using a Laser Radar Measurement System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengchun Du

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of three-dimensional (3D data in the industrial measurement field is becoming increasingly popular because of the rapid development of laser scanning techniques based on the time-of-flight principle. However, the accuracy and uncertainty of these types of measurement methods are seldom investigated. In this study, a mathematical uncertainty evaluation model for the diameter measurement of standard cylindroid components has been proposed and applied to a 3D laser radar measurement system (LRMS. First, a single-point error ellipsoid analysis for the LRMS was established. An error ellipsoid model and algorithm for diameter measurement of cylindroid components was then proposed based on the single-point error ellipsoid. Finally, four experiments were conducted using the LRMS to measure the diameter of a standard cylinder in the laboratory. The experimental results of the uncertainty evaluation consistently matched well with the predictions. The proposed uncertainty evaluation model for cylindrical diameters can provide a reliable method for actual measurements and support further accuracy improvement of the LRMS.

  12. Local fields and effective conductivity tensor of ellipsoidal particle composite with anisotropic constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushch, Volodymyr I.; Sevostianov, Igor; Giraud, Albert

    2017-11-01

    An accurate semi-analytical solution of the conductivity problem for a composite with anisotropic matrix and arbitrarily oriented anisotropic ellipsoidal inhomogeneities has been obtained. The developed approach combines the superposition principle with the multipole expansion of perturbation fields of inhomogeneities in terms of ellipsoidal harmonics and reduces the boundary value problem to an infinite system of linear algebraic equations for the induced multipole moments of inhomogeneities. A complete full-field solution is obtained for the multi-particle models comprising inhomogeneities of diverse shape, size, orientation and properties which enables an adequate account for the microstructure parameters. The solution is valid for the general-type anisotropy of constituents and arbitrary orientation of the orthotropy axes. The effective conductivity tensor of the particulate composite with anisotropic constituents is evaluated in the framework of the generalized Maxwell homogenization scheme. Application of the developed method to composites with imperfect ellipsoidal interfaces is straightforward. Their incorporation yields probably the most general model of a composite that may be considered in the framework of analytical approach.

  13. Numerical design of in-line X-ray phase-contrast imaging based on ellipsoidal single-bounce monocapillary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Weiyuan; Liu, Zhiguo; Sun, Tianxi; Peng, Song; Ma, Yongzhong; Ding, Xunliang

    2014-01-01

    A new device using an ellipsoidal single-bounce monocapillary X-ray optics was numerically designed to realize in-line X-ray phase-contrast imaging by using conventional laboratory X-ray source with a large spot. Numerical simulation results validated the effectiveness of the proposed device and approach. The ellipsoidal single-bounce monocapillary X-ray optics had potential applications in the in-line phase contrast imaging with polychromatic X-rays

  14. Numerical design of in-line X-ray phase-contrast imaging based on ellipsoidal single-bounce monocapillary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Weiyuan; Liu, Zhiguo [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Sun, Tianxi, E-mail: stx@bnu.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Peng, Song [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Ma, Yongzhong [Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Beijing, Beijing 100013 (China); Ding, Xunliang [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2014-05-11

    A new device using an ellipsoidal single-bounce monocapillary X-ray optics was numerically designed to realize in-line X-ray phase-contrast imaging by using conventional laboratory X-ray source with a large spot. Numerical simulation results validated the effectiveness of the proposed device and approach. The ellipsoidal single-bounce monocapillary X-ray optics had potential applications in the in-line phase contrast imaging with polychromatic X-rays.

  15. Optical levitation and long-working-distance trapping: From spherical up to high aspect ratio ellipsoidal particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihiretie, Besira; Loudet, Jean-Christophe; Pouligny, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Radiation pressure forces from a moderately focused vertical laser beam are used to levitate transparent particles, a few micrometers in size. Having recalled basic results about levitation of spheres, and applications to long-working distance trapping, we turn to ellipsoid-shaped particles. Experiments are carried out with polystyrene particles, inside a glass chamber filled with water. The particles are lifted up to contact with the chamber top surface. We examine particle equilibrium in such conditions and show that the system “bifurcates” between static on-axis equilibrium with short ellipsoids, to sustained oscillations with longer ones. A similar Hopf bifurcation is found using a simple ray-optics model of the laser-ellipsoid interaction, providing a qualitative account of the observed oscillations. -- Highlights: ► We study optical levitation of non-spherical micrometer-sized particles. ► Short ellipsoids get trapped on laser beam axis, similarly to spheres. ► Long ellipsoids oscillate, through coupled translation and tilt motions. ► We propose a simple ray-optics model of light interaction with an ellipsoid. ► From computed radiation pressure forces, we explain the observed oscillations

  16. Validation of a screening method for the simultaneous identification of fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins (A, E, B1, B2 and B6) in an aqueous micellar medium of hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Ruiz, V; Vera, S; San Andrés, M P

    2005-04-01

    Simultaneous determination of the fat-soluble vitamins A and E and the water-soluble vitamins B1, B2 and B6 has been carried using a screening method from fluorescence contour graphs. These graphs show different colour zones in relation to the fluorescence intensity measured for the pair of excitation/emission wavelengths. The identification of the corresponding excitation/emission wavelength zones allows the detection of different vitamins in an aqueous medium regardless of the fat or water solubility of each vitamin, owing to the presence of a surfactant which forms micelles in water at the used concentration (over the critical micelle concentration). The micelles dissolve very water insoluble compounds, such as fat-soluble vitamins, inside the aggregates. This approach avoids the use of organic solvents in determining these vitamins and offers the possibility of analysing fat- and water-soluble vitamins simultaneously. The method has been validated in terms of detection limit, cut-off limit, sensitivity, number of false positives, number of false negatives and uncertainty range. The detection limit is about microg L(-1). The screening method was applied to different samples such as pharmaceuticals, juices and isotonic drinks.

  17. The combined geodetic network adjusted on the reference ellipsoid – a comparison of three functional models for GNSS observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadaj Roman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The adjustment problem of the so-called combined (hybrid, integrated network created with GNSS vectors and terrestrial observations has been the subject of many theoretical and applied works. The network adjustment in various mathematical spaces was considered: in the Cartesian geocentric system on a reference ellipsoid and on a mapping plane. For practical reasons, it often takes a geodetic coordinate system associated with the reference ellipsoid. In this case, the Cartesian GNSS vectors are converted, for example, into geodesic parameters (azimuth and length on the ellipsoid, but the simple form of converted pseudo-observations are the direct differences of the geodetic coordinates. Unfortunately, such an approach may be essentially distorted by a systematic error resulting from the position error of the GNSS vector, before its projection on the ellipsoid surface. In this paper, an analysis of the impact of this error on the determined measures of geometric ellipsoid elements, including the differences of geodetic coordinates or geodesic parameters is presented. Assuming that the adjustment of a combined network on the ellipsoid shows that the optimal functional approach in relation to the satellite observation, is to create the observational equations directly for the original GNSS Cartesian vector components, writing them directly as a function of the geodetic coordinates (in numerical applications, we use the linearized forms of observational equations with explicitly specified coefficients. While retaining the original character of the Cartesian vector, one avoids any systematic errors that may occur in the conversion of the original GNSS vectors to ellipsoid elements, for example the vector of the geodesic parameters. The problem is theoretically developed and numerically tested. An example of the adjustment of a subnet loaded from the database of reference stations of the ASG-EUPOS system was considered for the preferred functional

  18. THE TILT OF THE HALO VELOCITY ELLIPSOID AND THE SHAPE OF THE MILKY WAY HALO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Martin C.; Wyn Evans, N.; An, Jin H.

    2009-01-01

    A sample of ∼1800 halo subdwarf stars with radial velocities and proper motions is assembled from Bramich et al.'s light-motion catalog of 2008. This is based on the repeated multiband Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometric measurements in Stripe 82. Our sample of halo subdwarfs is extracted via a reduced proper motion diagram and distances are obtained using photometric parallaxes, thus giving full phase-space information. The tilt of the velocity ellipsoid with respect to the spherical polar coordinate system is computed and found to be consistent with zero for two of the three tilt angles, and very small for the third. We prove that if the inner halo is in a steady state and the triaxial velocity ellipsoid is everywhere aligned in spherical polar coordinates, then the potential must be spherically symmetric. The detectable, but very mild, misalignment with spherical polars is consistent with the perturbative effects of the Galactic disk on a spherical dark halo. Banana orbits are generated at the 1:1 resonance (in horizontal and vertical frequencies) by the disk. They populate Galactic potentials at the typical radii of our subdwarf sample, along with the much more dominant short-axis tubes. However, on geometric grounds alone, the tilt cannot vanish for the banana orbits and this leads to a slight, but detectable, misalignment. We argue that the tilt of the stellar halo velocity ellipsoid therefore provides a hitherto largely neglected but important line of argument that the Milky Way's dark halo, which dominates the potential, must be nearly spherical.

  19. Novel design for centrifugal counter-current chromatography: VI. Ellipsoid column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Dongyu; Yang, Yi; Xin, Xuelei; Aisa, Haji Akber; Ito, Yoichiro

    2015-01-01

    A novel ellipsoid column was designed for centrifugal counter-current chromatography. Performance of the ellipsoid column with a capacity of 3.4 mL was examined with three different solvent systems composed of 1-butanol-acetic acid-water (4:1:5, v/v) (BAW), hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-0.1 M HCl (1:1:1:1, v/v) (HEMH), and 12.5% (w/w) PEG1000 and 12.5% (w/w) dibasic potassium phosphate in water (PEG-DPP) each with suitable test samples. In dipeptide separation with BAW system, both stationary phase retention (Sf) and peak resolution (Rs) of the ellipsoid column were much higher at 0° column angle (column axis parallel to the centrifugal force) than at 90° column angle (column axis perpendicular to the centrifugal force), where elution with the lower phase at a low flow rate produced the best separation yielding Rs at 2.02 with 27.8% Sf at a flow rate of 0.07 ml/min. In the DNP-amino acid separation with HEMW system, the best results were obtained at a flow rate of 0.05 ml/min with 31.6% Sf yielding high Rs values at 2.16 between DNP-DL-glu and DNP-β-ala peaks and 1.81 between DNP-β-ala and DNP-L-ala peaks. In protein separation with PEG-DPP system, lysozyme and myolobin were resolved at Rs of 1.08 at a flow rate of 0.03 ml/min with 38.9% Sf. Most of those Rs values exceed those obtained from the figure-8 column under similar experimental conditions previously reported.

  20. Self-consistent imbedding and the ellipsoidal model model for porous rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korringa, J.; Brown, R.J.S.; Thompson, D.D.; Runge, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    Equations are obtained for the effective elastic moduli for a model of an isotropic, heterogeneous, porous medium. The mathematical model used for computation is abstract in that it is not simply a rigorous computation for a composite medium of some idealized geometry, although the computation contains individual steps which are just that. Both the solid part and pore space are represented by ellipsoidal or spherical 'grains' or 'pores' of various sizes and shapes. The strain of each grain, caused by external forces applied to the medium, is calculated in a self-consistent imbedding (SCI) approximation, which replaces the true surrounding of any given grain or pore by an isotropic medium defined by the effective moduli to be computed. The ellipsoidal nature of the shapes allows us to use Eshelby's theoretical treatment of a single ellipsoidal inclusion in an infiinte homogeneous medium. Results are compared with the literature, and discrepancies are found with all published accounts of this problem. Deviations from the work of Wu, of Walsh, and of O'Connell and Budiansky are attributed to a substitution made by these authors which though an identity for the exact quantities involved, is only approximate in the SCI calculation. This reduces the validity of the equations to first-order effects only. Differences with the results of Kuster and Toksoez are attributed to the fact that the computation of these authors is not self-consistent in the sense used here. A result seems to be the stiffening of the medium as if the pores are held apart. For spherical grains and pores, their calculated moduli are those given by the Hashin-Shtrikman upper bounds. Our calculation reproduces, in the case of spheres, an early result of Budiansky. An additional feature of our work is that the algebra is simpler than in earlier work. We also incorporate into the theory the possibility that fluid-filled pores are interconnected

  1. Towards high resolution polarisation analysis using double polarisation and ellipsoidal analysers

    CERN Document Server

    Martin-Y-Marero, D

    2002-01-01

    Classical polarisation analysis methods lack the combination of high resolution and high count rate necessary to cope with the demand of modern condensed-matter experiments. In this work, we present a method to achieve high resolution polarisation analysis based on a double polarisation system. Coupling this method with an ellipsoidal wavelength analyser, a high count rate can be achieved whilst delivering a resolution of around 10 mu eV. This method is ideally suited to pulsed sources, although it can be adapted to continuous sources as well. (orig.)

  2. Three-dimensional nonstationary dynamics of a charged bunches-ellipsoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budanov, Yu.A.

    2000-01-01

    The work is aimed at studying the changes in the beam dynamics at the beginning of acceleration, when the zero longitudinal emittance is transformed into the final longitudinal phase volume. This process is studied on the bunch-ellipsoid self-consistent model with the charge uniform distribution. The results obtained present the evaluation of the parameters, whereby the longitudinal dynamics in the bunch significantly changes, namely, the particles bunch with increase in the spatial charge transfers into a new state with doubled frequency of the longitudinal oscillations [ru

  3. Shape matters: Near-field fluid mechanics dominate the collective motions of ellipsoidal squirmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyoya, K; Matsunaga, D; Imai, Y; Omori, T; Ishikawa, T

    2015-12-01

    Microswimmers show a variety of collective motions. Despite extensive study, questions remain regarding the role of near-field fluid mechanics in collective motion. In this paper, we describe precisely the Stokes flow around hydrodynamically interacting ellipsoidal squirmers in a monolayer suspension. The results showed that various collective motions, such as ordering, aggregation, and whirls, are dominated by the swimming mode and the aspect ratio. The collective motions are mainly induced by near-field fluid mechanics, despite Stokes flow propagation over a long range. These results emphasize the importance of particle shape in collective motion.

  4. OR TEP-II: a FORTRAN Thermal-Ellipsoid Plot Program for crystal structure illustrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.K.

    1976-03-01

    A computer program is described for drawing crystal structure illustrations using a mechanical plotter. Ball-and-stick type illustrations of a quality suitable for publication are produced with either spheres or thermal-motion probability ellipsoids on the atomic sites. The program can produce stereoscopic pairs of illustrations which aid in the visualization of complex packing arrangements of atoms and thermal motion patterns. Interatomic distances, bond angles, and principal axes of thermal motion are also calculated to aid the structural study. The most recent version of the program, OR TEP-II, has a hidden-line-elimination feature to omit those portions of atoms or bonds behind other atoms or bonds

  5. Ellipsoidal diffraction grating as output coupler for quasi-optical gyrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogge, J.P.; Cao, H.; Tran, T.M.; Tran, M.Q.; Paris, P.J.; Kasparek, W.

    1991-01-01

    The use of a diffraction grating arranged in the -1 Littrow mount as an output coupler for a quasi-optical Fabry-Perot resonator at microwave frequencies (100 GHz) was suggested in 1990. A planar grating with curvilinear grooves (in order to match the Littrow condition everywhere on the surface for a given Gaussian beam) gives a power coupling efficiency of 85% which is limited by the depolarization but gave approximately the same global efficiency because of distortion. We report low power tests on an improvement of the second scheme, based on curved grooves on an ellipsoidal surface, which gives a global efficiency of 94%. (author) 3 figs., 3 refs

  6. OR TEP-II: a FORTRAN Thermal-Ellipsoid Plot Program for crystal structure illustrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.K.

    1976-03-01

    A computer program is described for drawing crystal structure illustrations using a mechanical plotter. Ball-and-stick type illustrations of a quality suitable for publication are produced with either spheres or thermal-motion probability ellipsoids on the atomic sites. The program can produce stereoscopic pairs of illustrations which aid in the visualization of complex packing arrangements of atoms and thermal motion patterns. Interatomic distances, bond angles, and principal axes of thermal motion are also calculated to aid the structural study. The most recent version of the program, OR TEP-II, has a hidden-line-elimination feature to omit those portions of atoms or bonds behind other atoms or bonds.

  7. Computational science and re-discovery: open-source implementation of ellipsoidal harmonics for problems in potential theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardhan, Jaydeep P; Knepley, Matthew G

    2012-01-01

    We present two open-source (BSD) implementations of ellipsoidal harmonic expansions for solving problems of potential theory using separation of variables. Ellipsoidal harmonics are used surprisingly infrequently, considering their substantial value for problems ranging in scale from molecules to the entire solar system. In this paper, we suggest two possible reasons for the paucity relative to spherical harmonics. The first is essentially historical—ellipsoidal harmonics developed during the late 19th century and early 20th, when it was found that only the lowest-order harmonics are expressible in closed form. Each higher-order term requires the solution of an eigenvalue problem, and tedious manual computation seems to have discouraged applications and theoretical studies. The second explanation is practical: even with modern computers and accurate eigenvalue algorithms, expansions in ellipsoidal harmonics are significantly more challenging to compute than those in Cartesian or spherical coordinates. The present implementations reduce the 'barrier to entry' by providing an easy and free way for the community to begin using ellipsoidal harmonics in actual research. We demonstrate our implementation using the specific and physiologically crucial problem of how charged proteins interact with their environment, and ask: what other analytical tools await re-discovery in an era of inexpensive computation?

  8. Equidistant map projections of a triaxial ellipsoid with the use of reduced coordinates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pędzich Paweł

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new method of constructing equidistant map projections of a triaxial ellipsoid as a function of reduced coordinates. Equations for x and y coordinates are expressed with the use of the normal elliptic integral of the second kind and Jacobian elliptic functions. This solution allows to use common known and widely described in literature methods of solving such integrals and functions. The main advantage of this method is the fact that the calculations of x and y coordinates are practically based on a single algorithm that is required to solve the elliptic integral of the second kind. Equations are provided for three types of map projections: cylindrical, azimuthal and pseudocylindrical. These types of projections are often used in planetary cartography for presentation of entire and polar regions of extraterrestrial objects. The paper also contains equations for the calculation of the length of a meridian and a parallel of a triaxial ellipsoid in reduced coordinates. Moreover, graticules of three coordinates systems (planetographic, planetocentric and reduced in developed map projections are presented. The basic properties of developed map projections are also described. The obtained map projections may be applied in planetary cartography in order to create maps of extraterrestrial objects.

  9. Exact reconstruction formula for the spherical mean Radon transform on ellipsoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haltmeier, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Many modern imaging and remote sensing applications require reconstructing a function from spherical averages (mean values). Examples include photoacoustic tomography, ultrasound imaging or SONAR. Several formulas of the back-projection type for recovering a function in n spatial dimensions from mean values over spheres centered on a sphere have been derived by D Finch, S K Patch and Rakesh (2004 SIAM J. Math. Anal. 35 1213–1240) for odd spatial dimension and by D Finch, M Haltmeier and Rakesh (2007 SIAM J. Appl. Math. 68 392–412) for even spatial dimension. In this paper we generalize some of these formulas to the case where the centers of integration lie on the boundary of an arbitrary ellipsoid. For the special cases n = 2 and n = 3 our results have recently been established by Y Salman (2014 J. Math. Anal. Appl. 420 612–20). For the higher dimensional case n>3 we establish proof techniques extending the ones in the above references. Back-projection type inversion formulas for recovering a function from spherical means with centers on an ellipsoid have first been derived by F Natterer (2012 Inverse Problems Imaging 6 315–20) for n = 3 and by V Palamodov (2012 Inverse Problems 28 065014) for arbitrary dimension. The results of Natterer have later been generalized to arbitrary dimension by M Haltmeier (2014 SIAM J. Math. Anal. 46 214–32). Note that these formulas are different from the ones derived in the present paper. (paper)

  10. An efficient wave extrapolation method for tilted orthorhombic media using effective ellipsoidal models

    KAUST Repository

    Waheed, Umair bin; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-01-01

    The wavefield extrapolation operator for ellipsoidally anisotropic (EA) media offers significant cost reduction compared to that for the orthorhombic case, especially when the symmetry planes are tilted and/or rotated. However, ellipsoidal anisotropy does not provide accurate focusing for media of orthorhombic anisotropy. Therefore, we develop effective EA models that correctly capture the kinematic behavior of the wavefield for tilted orthorhombic (TOR) media. Specifically, we compute effective source-dependent velocities for the EA model using kinematic high-frequency representation of the TOR wavefield. The effective model allows us to use the cheaper EA wavefield extrapolation operator to obtain approximate wavefield solutions for a TOR model. Despite the fact that the effective EA models are obtained by kinematic matching using high-frequency asymptotic, the resulting wavefield contains most of the critical wavefield components, including the frequency dependency and caustics, if present, with reasonable accuracy. The methodology developed here offers a much better cost versus accuracy tradeoff for wavefield computations in TOR media, particularly for media of low to moderate complexity. We demonstrate applicability of the proposed approach on a layered TOR model.

  11. Numerical and Experimental Investigation on Electromagnetic Attenuation by Semi-Ellipsoidal Shaped Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xiang; Tang Chunmei; Chen Jianping; Chen Yudong; Zeng Xiaojun; Zhang Yachun

    2015-01-01

    Some reports presented that the radar cross section (RCS) from the radar antenna of military airplanes can be reduced by using a low-temperature plasma screen. This paper gives a numerical and experimental analysis of this RCS-reduction method. The shape of the plasma screen was designed as a semi-ellipsoid in order to make full use of the space in the radar dome. In simulations, we discussed the scattering of the electromagnetic (EM) wave by a perfect electric conductor (PEC) covered with this plasma screen using the finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) method. The variations of their return loss as a function of wave frequency, plasma density profile, and collision frequency were presented. In the experiments, a semi-ellipsoidal shaped plasma screen was produced. Electromagnetic attenuation of 1.5 GHz EM wave was measured for a radio frequency (RF) power of 5 kW at an argon pressure of 200-1150 Pa. A good agreement is found between simulated and experimental results. It can be confirmed that the plasma screen is useful in applications for stealth of radar antenna. (paper)

  12. All-optical temporal fractional order differentiator using an in-fiber ellipsoidal air-microcavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lihong; Sun, Shuqian; Li, Ming; Zhu, Ninghua

    2017-12-01

    An all-optical temporal fractional order differentiator with ultrabroad bandwidth (~1.6 THz) and extremely simple fabrication is proposed and experimentally demonstrated based on an in-fiber ellipsoidal air-microcavity. The ellipsoidal air-microcavity is fabricated by splicing a single mode fiber (SMF) and a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) together using a simple arc-discharging technology. By changing the arc-discharging times, the propagation loss can be adjusted and then the differentiation order is tuned. A nearly Gaussian-like optical pulse with 3 dB bandwidth of 8 nm is launched into the differentiator and a 0.65 order differentiation of the input pulse is achieved with a processing error of 2.55%. Project supported by the the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61522509, 61377002, 61535012), the National High-Tech Research & Development Program of China (No. SS2015AA011002), and the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (No. 4152052). Ming Li was supported in part by the Thousand Young Talent Program.

  13. Production of quasi ellipsoidal laser pulses for next generation high brightness photoinjectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rublack, T., E-mail: Tino.Rublack@desy.de [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Good, J.; Khojoyan, M.; Krasilnikov, M.; Stephan, F. [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Hartl, I.; Schreiber, S. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Andrianov, A.; Gacheva, E.; Khazanov, E.; Mironov, S.; Potemkin, A.; Zelenogorskii, V.V. [IAP/RAS, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Syresin, E. [JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-01

    The use of high brightness electron beams in Free Electron Laser (FEL) applications is of increasing importance. One of the most promising methods to generate such beams is the usage of shaped photocathode laser pulses. It has already demonstrated that temporal and transverse flat-top laser pulses can produce very low emittance beams [1]. Nevertheless, based on beam simulations further improvements can be achieved using quasi-ellipsoidal laser pulses, e.g. 30% reduction in transverse projected emittance at 1 nC bunch charge. In a collaboration between DESY, the Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Science (IAP RAS) in Nizhny Novgorod and the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna such a laser system capable of producing trains of laser pulses with a quasi-ellipsoidal distribution, has been developed. The prototype of the system was installed at the Photo Injector Test facility at DESY in Zeuthen (PITZ) and is currently in the commissioning phase. In the following, the laser system will be introduced, the procedure of pulse shaping will be described and the last experimental results will be shown.

  14. Photoreceptor inner segment ellipsoid band integrity on spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saxena S

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sandeep Saxena,1 Khushboo Srivastav,1 Chui M Cheung,2 Joanne YW Ng,3 Timothy YY Lai3 1Retina Service, Department of Ophthalmology, King George’s Medical University Lucknow, India; 2Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore; 3Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong Abstract: Spectral domain optical coherence tomography cross-sectional imaging of the macula has conventionally been resolved into four bands. However, some doubts were raised regarding authentication of the existence of these bands. Recently, a number of studies have suggested that the second band appeared to originate from the inner segment ellipsoids of the foveal cone photoreceptors, and therefore the previously called inner segment-outer segment junction is now referred to as inner segment ellipsoidband. Photoreceptor dysfunction may be a significant predictor of visual acuity in a spectrum of surgical and medical retinal diseases. This review aims to provide an overview and summarizes the role of the photoreceptor inner segment ellipsoid band in the management and prognostication of various vitreoretinal diseases. Keywords: spectral domain optical coherence tomography, inner segment-outer segment junction, external limiting membrane, macular hole, diabetic macular edema, age relate macular degeneration

  15. An efficient wave extrapolation method for tilted orthorhombic media using effective ellipsoidal models

    KAUST Repository

    Waheed, Umair bin

    2014-08-01

    The wavefield extrapolation operator for ellipsoidally anisotropic (EA) media offers significant cost reduction compared to that for the orthorhombic case, especially when the symmetry planes are tilted and/or rotated. However, ellipsoidal anisotropy does not provide accurate focusing for media of orthorhombic anisotropy. Therefore, we develop effective EA models that correctly capture the kinematic behavior of the wavefield for tilted orthorhombic (TOR) media. Specifically, we compute effective source-dependent velocities for the EA model using kinematic high-frequency representation of the TOR wavefield. The effective model allows us to use the cheaper EA wavefield extrapolation operator to obtain approximate wavefield solutions for a TOR model. Despite the fact that the effective EA models are obtained by kinematic matching using high-frequency asymptotic, the resulting wavefield contains most of the critical wavefield components, including the frequency dependency and caustics, if present, with reasonable accuracy. The methodology developed here offers a much better cost versus accuracy tradeoff for wavefield computations in TOR media, particularly for media of low to moderate complexity. We demonstrate applicability of the proposed approach on a layered TOR model.

  16. Design stresses in probabilistic form for ellipsoidal and toroidal pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.O.

    1979-01-01

    Design has customarily been based on applied loading, geometry, and handbook values for strength to give a deterministic solution. The engineering profession, however, has become increasingly concerned with the adequacy of design calculations. This concern indicates a need for critical evaluation of designs based on arbitrary multipliers, such as factors of safety or worst-case treatment. Ellipsoids are frequently used for end closure of cylindrical pressure shells. Toroids of elliptic or circular cross-section, are widely used, e.g., for connecting two parallel legs in a U-shape. This paper gives equations for means and standard deviations of stresses developed in ellipsoids and toroids with internal pressure. Inherent are: (1) design variables are generally characterized by spectra of values (assumed to be normally distributed), rather than by unique values, and (2) a small, but finite, probability of failure must be recognized in any design. By coupling stresses due to applied loading as calculated by the given equations with strength available in a material, reliability (or the alternative probability of failure) can be calculated. Conversely, for a given reliability the appropriate size can be determined. (orig.)

  17. Robe's Restricted Problem of 2 + 2 Bodies with a Roche Ellipsoid - Triaxial System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Rajiv; Kaur, Bhavneet; Yadav, Sushil

    2018-03-01

    This paper investigates the motion of two infinitesimal masses on the location and stability of the equilibrium points in Robe's restricted problem of 2 + 2 bodies with the bigger primary a Roche ellipsoid and the smaller a triaxial body. We suppose the bigger primary of mass m 1 to be filled with a homogeneous incompressible fluid of density ρ 1. The third and the fourth bodies (of mass m 3 and m 4 respectively) are small solid spheres of density ρ 3 and ρ 4 respectively inside the ellipsoid, with the assumption that the mass and the radius of the third and the fourth body are infinitesimal. We assume that m 2 is describing a circle around m 1. The masses m 3 and m 4 mutually attract each other, do not influence the motion of m 1 and m 2 but are influenced by them. We have taken into consideration all the three components of the pressure field in deriving the expression for the buoyancy force viz (i) due to the own gravitational field of the fluid (ii) that originating in the attraction of m 2 (iii) that arising from the centrifugal force. In this paper, equilibrium solutions of m 3 and m 4 and their linear stability are analyzed.

  18. Non-steady homogeneous deformations: Computational techniques using Lie theory, and application to ellipsoidal markers in naturally deformed rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Joshua R.; Titus, Sarah J.; Horsman, Eric

    2013-11-01

    The dynamic theory of deformable ellipsoidal inclusions in slow viscous flows was worked out by J.D. Eshelby in the 1950s, and further developed and applied by various authors. We describe three approaches to computing Eshelby's ellipsoid dynamics and other homogeneous deformations. The most sophisticated of our methods uses differential-geometric techniques on Lie groups. This Lie group method is faster and more precise than earlier methods, and perfectly preserves certain geometric properties of the ellipsoids, including volume. We apply our method to the analysis of naturally deformed clasts from the Gem Lake shear zone in the Sierra Nevada mountains of California, USA. This application demonstrates how, given three-dimensional strain data, we can solve simultaneously for best-fit bulk kinematics of the shear zone, as well as relative viscosities of clasts and matrix rocks.

  19. The structure of nematic model of liquid crystal with cylindrical and ellipsoidal molecules confined in between walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moradi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available   The density functional theory analogue of Percus Yevick (PY and Hyper-Netted chain (HNC has been used to write the grand potential of a liquid with cylindrical and ellipsoidal molecules. The integral equations for the density can be obtained by minimizing the grand potential with respect to the density. Some kinds of liquid crystals, can have the cylindrical or ellipsoidal rigid molecules. In this study we have calculated the density profile of this kind of liquids confined between hard walls and we compared the results. As it is seen from the graphs of the density profiles the molecules can be arranged as layers with respect to the walls.

  20. A new approach of recognition of ellipsoidal micro- and nanoparticles on AFM images and determination of their sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmadeev, Albert A; Kh Salakhov, Myakzyum

    2016-01-01

    In this work we develop an approach of automatic recognition of ellipsoidal particles on the atomic force microscopy (AFM) image and determination of their size, which is based on image segmentation and the surface approximation by ellipsoids. In addition to the comparative simplicity and rapidity of processing, this method allows us to determine the size of particles, the surface of which is not completely visible on the image. The proposed method showed good results on simulated images including noisy ones. Using this algorithm the size distributions of silica particles on experimental AFM images have been determined. (paper)

  1. Experimental tests on buckling of ellipsoidal vessel heads subjected to internal pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, R.L.; Alix, M.

    1980-05-01

    Tests were performed on 17 ellipsoidal vessel heads of three different materials and different geometries. The results include the following: 1) Accurate definition of the geometry and particularly a direct measurement of the thickness along the meridian. 2) The properties of the material of each head, obtained from test specimens cut from the head itself after the test. 3) The recording of deflection/pressure curves with indication of the pressure at which buckling occurred. These results can be used for validation and qualification of methods for calculating the buckling load when plasticity occurs before buckling. It was possible to develop an empirical equation representing the experimental results obtained with satisfactory accuracy. This equation may be useful in pressure vessel design

  2. Design of an ellipsoidal mirror for freewave characterization of materials at microwave frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, M; Muñoz, J; Molina-Cuberos, G J; Margineda, J; García-Collado, Á J

    2016-01-01

    Free-wave characterization of the electromagnetic properties of materials at microwave frequencies requires that scattering at the edges of the samples and/or holder be minimized. Here, an ellipsoidal mirror is designed and characterized in order to decrease the size of the beam, thereby avoiding the scattering problems, even when relatively small samples are used. In the experimental configuration, both the emitting antenna and sample are located at the mirror focuses. Since both the emitted and reflected (focused) beams are Gaussian in nature, we make use of Gaussian beam theory to carry out the design. The mirror parameters are optimized by numerical simulations (COMSOL Multiphysics ® ) and then experimentally tested. An experimental setup is presented for dielectric, magnetic and chiral measurement in the 4.5–18 GHz band. (paper)

  3. Effects of tidal distortion on binary-star velocity curves and ellipsoidal variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.E.; Sofia, S.

    1976-01-01

    Radial velocity curves for the more massive components of binaries with extreme mass ratios can show a large distortion due to tides, as first recognized by Sterne. Binaries in which the effect is large should be rare because nearly all such binaries would be in the rapid phase of mass transfer. However, the optical counterparts of some X-ray binaries may show the effect, which would then serve as a new means of extracting considerable information from the observations. The essential parts of the computational procedure are given. Light curves for ellipsoidal variables with extreme mass ratios were also computed, and were found to be less sinusoidal than those with normal mass ratios

  4. Space-charge calculation for bunched beams with 3-D ellipsoidal symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnett, R.W.; Wangler, T.P.

    1991-01-01

    A method for calculating 3-D space-charge forces has been developed that is suitable for bunched beams of either ions or relativistic electrons. The method is based on the analytic relations between charge-density and electric fields for a distribution with 3-D ellipsoidal symmetry in real space. At each step we use a Fourier-series representation for the smooth particle-density function obtained from the distribution of the macroparticles being tracked through the elements of the system. The resulting smooth electric fields reduce the problem of noise from artificial collisions, associated with small numbers of interacting macroparticles. Example calculations will be shown for comparison with other methods. 4 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  5. Ellipsoidal and parabolic glass capillaries as condensers for x-ray microscopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Xianghui; Duewer, Fred; Feser, Michael; Huang, Carson; Lyon, Alan; Tkachuk, Andrei; Yun Wenbing

    2008-01-01

    Single-bounce ellipsoidal and paraboloidal glass capillary focusing optics have been fabricated for use as condenser lenses for both synchrotron and tabletop x-ray microscopes in the x-ray energy range of 2.5-18 keV. The condenser numerical apertures (NAs) of these devices are designed to match the NA of x-ray zone plate objectives, which gives them a great advantage over zone plate condensers in laboratory microscopes. The fabricated condensers have slope errors as low as 20 μrad rms. These capillaries provide a uniform hollow-cone illumination with almost full focusing efficiency, which is much higher than what is available with zone plate condensers. Sub-50 nm resolution at 8 keV x-ray energy was achieved by utilizing this high-efficiency condenser in a laboratory microscope based on a rotating anode generator

  6. PID Based on Attractive Ellipsoid Method for Dynamic Uncertain and External Disturbances Rejection in Mechanical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Patricio Ordaz Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a stability analysis for LNDS (Lagrangian nonlinear dynamical systems with dynamic uncertain using a PID controller with external disturbances rejection based on attractive ellipsoid methods, since the PID-CT (proportional integral derivative computed torque compensator has been used for the nonlinear trajectory tracking of an LNDS, when there are external perturbations and system uncertainties. The global system convergence of the trivial solution has not been proved. In this sense, we propose an approach to find the gains of the nonlinear PID-CT controller to guarantee the boundedness of the trivial solution by means of the concept of the UUB (uniform-ultimately bounded stability. In order to show the effectiveness of the methodology proposed, we applied it in a real 2-DoF robot system.

  7. Geometrical optimization of an ellipsoidal plasma mirror toward tight focusing of ultra-intense laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kon, A; Nakatsutsumi, M; Chen, Z L; Kodama, R; Buffechoux, S; Fuchs, J; Jin, Z

    2010-01-01

    We developed for the first time, very compact ( 3 ) extremely low f-number (f/number = 0.4) confocal ellipsoid focusing systems. Direct measurement of the laser focal spot using a low-energy laser beam indicates 1/5 reduction of the spot size compared to standard focusing (using a f/2.7 optics). Such mirror is thus able to achieve significant enhancement of the focused laser intensity without modifying the laser system itself. The mirror is then used under plasma mirror regime which enables us to compactify the size, to liberate us from the anxiety of protecting the optics from target debris after shots, and to enhance the temporal contrast. In this paper, we focus our attention to designing and optimizing the geometry of such innovative plasma optics.

  8. Revisiting the stellar velocity ellipsoid-Hubble-type relation: observations versus simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, F.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Martig, M.; Martínez-Valpuesta, I.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; van de Ven, G.; Leaman, R.; Lyubenova, M.

    2018-04-01

    The stellar velocity ellipsoid (SVE) in galaxies can provide important information on the processes that participate in the dynamical heating of their disc components (e.g. giant molecular clouds, mergers, spiral density waves, and bars). Earlier findings suggested a strong relation between the shape of the disc SVE and Hubble type, with later-type galaxies displaying more anisotropic ellipsoids and early types being more isotropic. In this paper, we revisit the strength of this relation using an exhaustive compilation of observational results from the literature on this issue. We find no clear correlation between the shape of the disc SVE and morphological type, and show that galaxies with the same Hubble type display a wide range of vertical-to-radial velocity dispersion ratios. The points are distributed around a mean value and scatter of σz/σR = 0.7 ± 0.2. With the aid of numerical simulations, we argue that different mechanisms might influence the shape of the SVE in the same manner and that the same process (e.g. mergers) does not have the same impact in all the galaxies. The complexity of the observational picture is confirmed by these simulations, which suggest that the vertical-to-radial axis ratio of the SVE is not a good indicator of the main source of disc heating. Our analysis of those simulations also indicates that the observed shape of the disc SVE may be affected by several processes simultaneously and that the signatures of some of them (e.g. mergers) fade over time.

  9. Effect of surface slope errors of the ellipsoidal mirror on the resolution of the PGM beamline at Indus-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, M.R.; Mukund, R.; Sahni, V.C.

    1999-01-01

    The influence of geometrical shape errors and surface errors on the characteristics and performance of grazing incidence optics used in the design of beamlines at synchrotron radiation facilities is considered. The methodology adopted for the simulation of slope errors is described and results presented for the ellipsoidal focussing mirror used in the design of PGM beamline at Indus-1. (author)

  10. Shape Evolution Synthesis of Monodisperse Spherical, Ellipsoidal, and Elongated Hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) Nanoparticles Using Ascorbic Acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, W.F.; Yu, Y.T.; Wang, M.X.; Liu, F.; Koopal, L.K.

    2014-01-01

    Spherical, ellipsoidal, and elongated hematite particles have been obtained via a simple chemical precipitation reaction of FeCl3 and NaOH in the presence of ascorbic acid,(AA). The effects of pH, molar ratio of AA/Fe(III), and time on the formation and shape of the hematite particles were

  11. A UNIFIED FRAMEWORK FOR THE ORBITAL STRUCTURE OF BARS AND TRIAXIAL ELLIPSOIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valluri, Monica; Abbott, Caleb [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Shen, Juntai [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Debattista, Victor P., E-mail: mvalluri@umich.edu, E-mail: calebga@umich.edu, E-mail: jshen@shao.ac.cn, E-mail: vpdebattista@uclan.ac.uk [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, PR1 2HE (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-20

    We examine a large random sample of orbits in two self-consistent simulations of N-body bars. Orbits in these bars are classified both visually and with a new automated orbit classification method based on frequency analysis. The well-known prograde x1 orbit family originates from the same parent orbit as the box orbits in stationary and rotating triaxial ellipsoids. However, only a small fraction of bar orbits (∼4%) have predominately prograde motion like their periodic parent orbit. Most bar orbits arising from the x1 orbit have little net angular momentum in the bar frame, making them equivalent to box orbits in rotating triaxial potentials. In these simulations a small fraction of bar orbits (∼7%) are long-axis tubes that behave exactly like those in triaxial ellipsoids: they are tipped about the intermediate axis owing to the Coriolis force, with the sense of tipping determined by the sign of their angular momentum about the long axis. No orbits parented by prograde periodic x2 orbits are found in the pure bar model, but a tiny population (∼2%) of short-axis tube orbits parented by retrograde x4 orbits are found. When a central point mass representing a supermassive black hole (SMBH) is grown adiabatically at the center of the bar, those orbits that lie in the immediate vicinity of the SMBH are transformed into precessing Keplerian orbits that belong to the same major families (short-axis tubes, long-axis tubes and boxes) occupying the bar at larger radii. During the growth of an SMBH, the inflow of mass and outward transport of angular momentum transform some x1 and long-axis tube orbits into prograde short-axis tubes. This study has important implications for future attempts to constrain the masses of SMBHs in barred galaxies using orbit-based methods like the Schwarzschild orbit superposition scheme and for understanding the observed features in barred galaxies.

  12. Two clusters of GABAergic ellipsoid body neurons modulate olfactory labile memory in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiping; Li, Xiaoting; Guo, Jing; Li, Yan; Guo, Aike

    2013-03-20

    In Drosophila, aversive olfactory memory is believed to be stored in a prominent brain structure, the mushroom body (MB), and two pairs of MB intrinsic neurons, the dorsal paired medial (DPM) and the anterior paired lateral (APL) neurons, are found to regulate the consolidation of middle-term memory (MTM). Here we report that another prominent brain structure, the ellipsoid body (EB), is also involved in the modulation of olfactory MTM. Activating EB R2/R4m neurons does not affect the learning index, but specifically eliminates anesthesia-sensitive memory (ASM), the labile component of olfactory MTM. We further demonstrate that approximately two-thirds of these EB neurons are GABAergic and are responsible for the suppression of ASM. Using GRASP (GFP reconstitution across synaptic partners), we reveal potential synaptic connections between the EB and MB in regions covering both the presynaptic and postsynaptic sites of EB neurons, suggesting the presence of bidirectional connections between these two important brain structures. These findings suggest the existence of direct connections between the MB and EB, and provide new insights into the neural circuit basis for olfactory labile memory in Drosophila.

  13. Correlation of Macular Focal Electroretinogram with Ellipsoid Zone Extension in Stargardt Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Abed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stargardt disease (STGD1 is the most common cause of inherited juvenile macular degeneration. This disease is characterized by a progressive accumulation of lipofuscin in the outer retina and subsequent loss of photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between cone photoreceptor function and structure in STGD1. Macular function was assessed by visual acuity measurement and focal electroretinogram (FERG recording while spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT imaging was performed to evaluate the integrity of photoreceptors. FERG amplitude was significantly reduced in patients with Stargardt disease (p<0.0001. The amplitude of FERG showed a negative relationship with interruption of ellipsoid zone (EZ (R2=0.54, p<0.0001 and a positive correlation with average macular thickness (AMT. Conversely, visual acuity was only weakly correlated with central macular thickness (CMT (R2=0.12, p=0.04. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that FERG amplitude is a reliable indicator of macular cone function while visual acuity reflects the activity of the foveal region. A precise assessment of macular cone function by FERG recording may be useful to monitor the progression of STGD1 and to select the optimal candidates to include in future clinical trials to treat this disease.

  14. Detection of Methanol with Fast Response by Monodispersed Indium Tungsten Oxide Ellipsoidal Nanospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong; Kou, Xueying; Xie, Ning; Guo, Lanlan; Sun, Yanfeng; Chuai, Xiaohong; Ma, Jian; Sun, Peng; Wang, Yue; Lu, Geyu

    2017-05-26

    Indium tungsten oxide ellipsoidal nanospheres were prepared with different In/W ratios by using a simple hydrothermal method without any surfactant for the first time. Sensors based on different In/W ratios samples were fabricated, and one of the samples exhibited better response to methanol compared with others. High content of defective oxygen (Ov) and proper output proportion of In to W might be the main reasons for the better gas sensing properties. The length of the nanosphere was about 150-200 nm, and the width was about 100 nm. Various techniques were applied to investigate the nanospheres. Sensing characteristics toward methanol were investigated. Significantly, the sensor exhibited ultrafast response to methanol. The response time to 400 ppm methanol was no more than 2 s and the recovery time was 9 s at 312 °C. Most importantly, the humidity almost had no effect on the response of the sensor fabricated here, which is hard to achieve in gas-sensing applications.

  15. Micro-macro-discrepancies in nonlinear microrheology: I. Quantifying mechanisms in a suspension of Brownian ellipsoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePuit, Ryan J; Squires, Todd M

    2012-01-01

    Active and nonlinear microrheology experiments involve a colloidal probe that is forced to move within a material, with the goal of recovering the nonlinear rheological response properties of the material. Various mechanisms cause discrepancies between the nonlinear rheology measured microrheologically and macroscopically, including direct probe-bath collisions, the Lagrangian unsteadiness experienced by the material elements, and the spatially inhomogeneous and rheologically mixed strain field set up around the probe. Here, we perform computational nonlinear microrheology experiments, in which a colloidal probe translates through a dilute suspension of Brownian ellipsoids, whose results we compare against analogous computational experiments on the macroscopic shear rheology of the same model material. The quantitative impact of each of the mechanisms for micro-macro-discrepancy can thus be computed directly, with additional computational experiments performed where the processes in question are ‘turned off’. We show that all three discrepancy mechanisms impact the microrheological measurement quantitatively, and that none can be neglected. This motivates a search for microrheological probes whose geometry or forcing is optimized to minimize these impacts, which we present in a companion article.

  16. Behaviors of ellipsoidal micro-particles within a two-beam optical levitator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkov, T.; Yang, M.; Ren, K.F.; Pouligny, B.; Loudet, J.-C.

    2017-01-01

    The two-beam levitator (TBL) is a standard optical setup made of a couple of counter-propagating beams. Note worthily, TBLs allow the manipulation and trapping of particles at long working distances. While much experience has been accumulated in the trapping of single spherical particles in TBLs, the behaviors of asymmetrical particles turn out to be more complex, and even surprising. Here, we report observations with prolate ellipsoidal polystyrene particles, with varying aspect ratio and ratio of the two beam powers. Generalizing the earlier work by Mihiretie et al. in single beam geometries [JQSRT 126, 61 (2013)], we observe that particles may be either static, or permanently oscillating, and that the two-beam geometry produces new particle responses: some of them are static, but non-symmetrical, while others correspond to new types of oscillations. A two-dimensional model based on ray-optics qualitatively accounts for these configurations and for the “primary” oscillations of the particles. Furthermore, levitation powers measured in the experiments are in fair agreement with those computed from GLMT (Generalized Lorentz Mie Theory), MLFMA (Multilevel Fast Multipole Algorithm) and approximate ray-optics methods. - Highlights: • Spheroids in two-laser beam geometry may stabilize in asymmetric configurations. • Particles undergo different types of oscillations, in polar and azimuthal angles. • Polar angle oscillations and asymmetric equilibriums are predicted by ray-optics. • The basic levitation force decreases with particle aspect ratio. • Experiments, simple ray optics and MLFMA calculations show similar tendencies.

  17. Probabilistic homogenization of random composite with ellipsoidal particle reinforcement by the iterative stochastic finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokołowski, Damian; Kamiński, Marcin

    2018-01-01

    This study proposes a framework for determination of basic probabilistic characteristics of the orthotropic homogenized elastic properties of the periodic composite reinforced with ellipsoidal particles and a high stiffness contrast between the reinforcement and the matrix. Homogenization problem, solved by the Iterative Stochastic Finite Element Method (ISFEM) is implemented according to the stochastic perturbation, Monte Carlo simulation and semi-analytical techniques with the use of cubic Representative Volume Element (RVE) of this composite containing single particle. The given input Gaussian random variable is Young modulus of the matrix, while 3D homogenization scheme is based on numerical determination of the strain energy of the RVE under uniform unit stretches carried out in the FEM system ABAQUS. The entire series of several deterministic solutions with varying Young modulus of the matrix serves for the Weighted Least Squares Method (WLSM) recovery of polynomial response functions finally used in stochastic Taylor expansions inherent for the ISFEM. A numerical example consists of the High Density Polyurethane (HDPU) reinforced with the Carbon Black particle. It is numerically investigated (1) if the resulting homogenized characteristics are also Gaussian and (2) how the uncertainty in matrix Young modulus affects the effective stiffness tensor components and their PDF (Probability Density Function).

  18. Lattice ellipsoidal statistical BGK model for thermal non-equilibrium flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jianping; Zhang, Yonghao; Hadjiconstantinou, Nicolas G.; Radtke, Gregg A.; Shan, Xiaowen

    2013-03-01

    A thermal lattice Boltzmann model is constructed on the basis of the ellipsoidal statistical Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (ES-BGK) collision operator via the Hermite moment representation. The resulting lattice ES-BGK model uses a single distribution function and features an adjustable Prandtl number. Numerical simulations show that using a moderate discrete velocity set, this model can accurately recover steady and transient solutions of the ES-BGK equation in the slip-flow and early transition regimes in the small Mach number limit that is typical of microscale problems of practical interest. In the transition regime in particular, comparisons with numerical solutions of the ES-BGK model, direct Monte Carlo and low-variance deviational Monte Carlo simulations show good accuracy for values of the Knudsen number up to approximately 0.5. On the other hand, highly non-equilibrium phenomena characterized by high Mach numbers, such as viscous heating and force-driven Poiseuille flow for large values of the driving force, are more difficult to capture quantitatively in the transition regime using discretizations chosen with computational efficiency in mind such as the one used here, although improved accuracy is observed as the number of discrete velocities is increased.

  19. Numerical solutions of ideal quantum gas dynamical flows governed by semiclassical ellipsoidal-statistical distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jaw-Yen; Yan, Chih-Yuan; Diaz, Manuel; Huang, Juan-Chen; Li, Zhihui; Zhang, Hanxin

    2014-01-08

    The ideal quantum gas dynamics as manifested by the semiclassical ellipsoidal-statistical (ES) equilibrium distribution derived in Wu et al. (Wu et al . 2012 Proc. R. Soc. A 468 , 1799-1823 (doi:10.1098/rspa.2011.0673)) is numerically studied for particles of three statistics. This anisotropic ES equilibrium distribution was derived using the maximum entropy principle and conserves the mass, momentum and energy, but differs from the standard Fermi-Dirac or Bose-Einstein distribution. The present numerical method combines the discrete velocity (or momentum) ordinate method in momentum space and the high-resolution shock-capturing method in physical space. A decoding procedure to obtain the necessary parameters for determining the ES distribution is also devised. Computations of two-dimensional Riemann problems are presented, and various contours of the quantities unique to this ES model are illustrated. The main flow features, such as shock waves, expansion waves and slip lines and their complex nonlinear interactions, are depicted and found to be consistent with existing calculations for a classical gas.

  20. Numerical simulation of performance of heavy ion inertial confinement fusion target with ellipsoidal chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basin, A.A.; Vatulin, V.V.; Vakhlamova, L.L.; Vinokurov, P.A.; Dement'ev, Yu.A.; Eliseev, G.M.; Ermolovich, V.F.; Morenko, L.Z.; Morenko, A.I.; Remizov, G.N.; Romanov, Yu.A.; Ryabikina, N.A.; Skrypnik, S.I.; Skidan, G.I.; Tikhomirov, B.P.; Shagaliev, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    To solve the design problem of an inertial thermonuclear fusion facility requires the united efforts of scientists in various countries. In the field of heavy ion fusion a collaboration between scientists in Germany and Russia is under successful development. VNIIEF possesses advanced software for numerical simulation of the processes in thermonuclear target operation. This paper describes a target design suggested and being studied by scientists of Frankfurt University and GSI which is based on 2D non-stationary calculation of the X-ray energy transport and capsule compression. The target consists of a spherical capsule with DT fuel and an ellipsoidal chamber containment. The ion beam energy is released in two fixed converters located on the chamber axis symmetricall with respect to the capsule. The X-ray field is formed on the capsule surface with a set of special shields. The basic aim of our research is to estimate the effect of gas dynamic expansion of the chamber walls, shields and capsule on the target operation. To increase the reliability of the obtained results and the assessment of probable errors in predicting radiation field parameters and the capsule state, the calculations were accomplished in a kinetic arrangement with various techniques. (orig.)

  1. Numerical solutions of the semiclassical Boltzmann ellipsoidal-statistical kinetic model equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jaw-Yen; Yan, Chin-Yuan; Huang, Juan-Chen; Li, Zhihui

    2014-01-01

    Computations of rarefied gas dynamical flows governed by the semiclassical Boltzmann ellipsoidal-statistical (ES) kinetic model equation using an accurate numerical method are presented. The semiclassical ES model was derived through the maximum entropy principle and conserves not only the mass, momentum and energy, but also contains additional higher order moments that differ from the standard quantum distributions. A different decoding procedure to obtain the necessary parameters for determining the ES distribution is also devised. The numerical method in phase space combines the discrete-ordinate method in momentum space and the high-resolution shock capturing method in physical space. Numerical solutions of two-dimensional Riemann problems for two configurations covering various degrees of rarefaction are presented and various contours of the quantities unique to this new model are illustrated. When the relaxation time becomes very small, the main flow features a display similar to that of ideal quantum gas dynamics, and the present solutions are found to be consistent with existing calculations for classical gas. The effect of a parameter that permits an adjustable Prandtl number in the flow is also studied. PMID:25104904

  2. Numerical solutions of ideal quantum gas dynamical flows governed by semiclassical ellipsoidal-statistical distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jaw-Yen; Yan, Chih-Yuan; Diaz, Manuel; Huang, Juan-Chen; Li, Zhihui; Zhang, Hanxin

    2014-01-01

    The ideal quantum gas dynamics as manifested by the semiclassical ellipsoidal-statistical (ES) equilibrium distribution derived in Wu et al. (Wu et al. 2012 Proc. R. Soc. A 468, 1799–1823 (doi:10.1098/rspa.2011.0673)) is numerically studied for particles of three statistics. This anisotropic ES equilibrium distribution was derived using the maximum entropy principle and conserves the mass, momentum and energy, but differs from the standard Fermi–Dirac or Bose–Einstein distribution. The present numerical method combines the discrete velocity (or momentum) ordinate method in momentum space and the high-resolution shock-capturing method in physical space. A decoding procedure to obtain the necessary parameters for determining the ES distribution is also devised. Computations of two-dimensional Riemann problems are presented, and various contours of the quantities unique to this ES model are illustrated. The main flow features, such as shock waves, expansion waves and slip lines and their complex nonlinear interactions, are depicted and found to be consistent with existing calculations for a classical gas. PMID:24399919

  3. The velocity ellipsoid in the Galactic disc using Gaia DR1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguiano, Borja; Majewski, Steven R.; Freeman, Kenneth C.; Mitschang, Arik W.; Smith, Martin C.

    2018-02-01

    The stellar velocity ellipsoid of the solar neighbour (d Standard of Rest in Galactic rotation to be V⊙ = 13.9 ± 3.4 km s-1. A relation is found between the vertex deviation and the chemical abundances for the thin disc, ranging from -5 to +40° as iron abundance increases. For the thick disc we find a vertex deviation of luv ˜- 15°. The tilt angle (luw) in the U-W plane for the thin disc groups ranges from -10 to +15°, but there is no evident relation between luw and the mean abundances. However, we find a weak relation for luw as a function of iron abundances and α-elements for most of the groups in the thick disc, where the tilt angle decreases from -5 to -20° when [Fe/H] decreases and [α/Fe] increases. The velocity anisotropy parameter is independent of the chemical group abundances and its value is nearly constant for both discs (β ˜ 0.5), suggesting that the combined disc is dynamically relaxed.

  4. Gaze3DFix: Detecting 3D fixations with an ellipsoidal bounding volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Sascha; Schubert, Rebekka S; Vogt, Stefan; Velichkovsky, Boris M; Pannasch, Sebastian

    2017-10-26

    Nowadays, the use of eyetracking to determine 2-D gaze positions is common practice, and several approaches to the detection of 2-D fixations exist, but ready-to-use algorithms to determine eye movements in three dimensions are still missing. Here we present a dispersion-based algorithm with an ellipsoidal bounding volume that estimates 3D fixations. Therefore, 3D gaze points are obtained using a vector-based approach and are further processed with our algorithm. To evaluate the accuracy of our method, we performed experimental studies with real and virtual stimuli. We obtained good congruence between stimulus position and both the 3D gaze points and the 3D fixation locations within the tested range of 200-600 mm. The mean deviation of the 3D fixations from the stimulus positions was 17 mm for the real as well as for the virtual stimuli, with larger variances at increasing stimulus distances. The described algorithms are implemented in two dynamic linked libraries (Gaze3D.dll and Fixation3D.dll), and we provide a graphical user interface (Gaze3DFixGUI.exe) that is designed for importing 2-D binocular eyetracking data and calculating both 3D gaze points and 3D fixations using the libraries. The Gaze3DFix toolkit, including both libraries and the graphical user interface, is available as open-source software at https://github.com/applied-cognition-research/Gaze3DFix .

  5. Generalization of Eshelby close-quote s Formula for a Single Ellipsoidal Elastic Inclusion to Poroelasticity and Thermoelasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, J.G.

    1997-01-01

    Eshelby close-quote s formula gives the response of a single ellipsoidal elastic inclusion in an elastic whole space to a uniform strain imposed at infinity. Using a linear combination of results from two simple thought experiments, we show how this formula may be generalized to both poroelasticity and thermoelasticity. The resulting new formulas are important for applications to analysis of poroelastic and thermoelastic composites, including but not restricted to rocks. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  6. Outer Retinal Changes Including the Ellipsoid Zone Band in Usher Syndrome 1B due to MYO7A Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumaroka, Alexander; Matsui, Rodrigo; Cideciyan, Artur V; McGuigan, David B; Sheplock, Rebecca; Schwartz, Sharon B; Jacobson, Samuel G

    2016-07-01

    To study transition zones from normal to abnormal retina in Usher syndrome IB (USH1B) caused by myosin 7A (MYO7A) mutations. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) scattering layers in outer retina were segmented in patients (n = 16, ages 2-42; eight patients had serial data, average interval 4.5 years) to quantify outer nuclear layer (ONL) and outer segments (OS) as well as the locus of EZ (ellipsoid zone) edge and its extent from the fovea. Static perimetry was measured under dark-adapted (DA) and light-adapted (LA) conditions. Ellipsoid zone edge in USH1B-MYO7A could be located up to 23° from the fovea. Ellipsoid zone extent constricted at a rate of 0.51°/year with slower rates at smaller eccentricities. A well-defined EZ line could be associated with normal or abnormal ONL and/or OS thickness; detectable ONL extended well beyond EZ edge. At the EZ edge, the local slope of LA sensitivity loss was 2.6 (±1.7) dB/deg for central transition zones. At greater eccentricities, the local slope of cone sensitivity loss was shallower (1.1 ± 0.4 dB/deg for LA) than that of rod sensitivity loss (2.8 ± 1.2 dB/deg for DA). In USH1B-MYO7A, constriction rate of EZ extent depends on the initial eccentricity of the transition. Ellipsoid zone edges in the macula correspond to large local changes in cone vision, but extramacular EZ edges show more pronounced losses on rod-based vision tests. It is advisable to use not only the EZ line but also other structural and functional parameters for estimating natural history of disease and possible therapeutic effects in future clinical trials of USH1B-MYO7A.

  7. Optimal grasp planning for a dexterous robotic hand using the volume of a generalized force ellipsoid during accepted flattening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Jia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A grasp planning method based on the volume and flattening of a generalized force ellipsoid is proposed to improve the grasping ability of a dexterous robotic hand. First, according to the general solution of joint torques for a dexterous robotic hand, a grasping indicator for the dexterous hand—the maximum volume of a generalized external force ellipsoid and the minimum volume of a generalized contact internal force ellipsoid during accepted flattening—is proposed. Second, an optimal grasp planning method based on a task is established using the grasping indicator as an objective function. Finally, a simulation analysis and grasping experiment are performed. Results show that when the grasping experiment is conducted with the grasping configuration and positions of contact points optimized using the proposed grasping indicator, the root-mean-square values of the joint torques and contact internal forces of the dexterous hand are at a minimum. The effectiveness of the proposed grasping planning method is thus demonstrated.

  8. A 3D DLM/FD method for simulating the motion of spheres and ellipsoids under creeping flow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tsorng-Whay; Guo, Aixia; Chiu, Shang-Huan; Glowinski, Roland

    2018-01-01

    We present in this article a novel distributed Lagrange multiplier/fictitious domain (DLM/FD) method for simulating fluid-particle interaction in three-dimensional (3D) Stokes flow. The methodology is validated by comparing the numerical results for a neutrally buoyant particle, of either spherical or prolate shape, with the associated Jeffrey's solutions for a simple shear flow. The results concerning two balls, interacting under creeping flow conditions in a bounded shear flow, are consistent with those available in the literature. We will discuss also the interactions of two balls in a bounded shear flow, when these balls are very close initially. For a prolate ellipsoid rotating in a shear flow under the sole effect of the particle inertia, shear plane tumbling is stable, while log-rolling is unstable. For two prolate ellipsoids interacting in a bounded shear flow, the results are similar to those for two balls if the major axes are initially orthogonal to the shear plane (a result not at all surprising considering that the intersections of the ellipsoids with the shear pane are circular).

  9. The equilibrium of rubble-pile satellites: The Darwin and Roche ellipsoids for gravitationally held granular aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ishan

    2009-04-01

    Many new small moons of the giant planets have been discovered recently. In parallel, satellites of several asteroids, e.g., Ida, have been found. Strikingly, a majority of these new-found planetary moons are estimated to have very low densities, which, along with their hypothesized accretionary origins, suggests a rubble internal structure. This, coupled to the fact that many asteroids are also thought to be particle aggregates held together principally by self-gravity, motivates the present investigation into the possible ellipsoidal shapes that a rubble-pile satellite may achieve as it orbits an aspherical primary. Conversely, knowledge of the shape will constrain the granular aggregate's orbit—the closer it gets to a primary, both primary's tidal effect and the satellite's spin are greater. We will assume that the primary body is sufficiently massive so as not to be influenced by the satellite. However, we will incorporate the primary's possible ellipsoidal shape, e.g., flattening at its poles in the case of a planet, and the proloidal shape of asteroids. In this, the present investigation is an extension of the first classical Darwin problem to granular aggregates. General equations defining an ellipsoidal rubble pile's equilibrium about an ellipsoidal primary are developed. They are then utilized to scrutinize the possible granular nature of small inner moons of the giant planets. It is found that most satellites satisfy constraints necessary to exist as equilibrated granular aggregates. Objects like Naiad, Metis and Adrastea appear to violate these limits, but in doing so, provide clues to their internal density and/or structure. We also recover the Roche limit for a granular satellite of a spherical primary, and employ it to study the martian satellites, Phobos and Deimos, as well as to make contact with earlier work of Davidsson [Davidsson, B., 2001. Icarus 149, 375-383]. The satellite's interior will be modeled as a rigid-plastic, cohesion-less material

  10. Fabrication of an 8:1 ellipsoidal mirror for a synchrotron x-ray microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.W.; Takacs, P.Z.; Hastings, J.B.; Casstevens, J.M.; Pionke, C.D.

    1987-01-01

    The fabrication of an 8:1 demagnifying ellipsoidal mirror to be used for an x-ray microprobe at the National Synchrotron Light Source X-26 beam port is described. The design aim was to produce a mirror that could be used over the photon energy range from about 3 to 17 keV. The 300-mm long mirror was required to operate at a grazing angle of 5 mr. The semimajor axis was 4500 mm and the semiminor axis 14.142 mm. Surface roughness of 1 nm or less and slope errors of 1 arc second parallel to the long axis and 200 arc seconds parallel to the short direction were specified. Production of the first electroless nickel-coated aluminum mirror using a diamond-turning technique has been completed. The mirror meets the 1 arc sec surface figure specification except for areas near the ends of the mirror. The reasons for these deviations arise from subtle details of the diamond-turning process which have not been fully incorporated in to the computer program that controls the diamond-turning machines. Further work in computer correction of repeatable errors of the diamond-turning machine can eliminate the waviness at the ends of the mirror. The diamond-turned mirror surface was not fully polished under this effort and therefore does not meet the roughness specification; however, surface smoothness of a fully polished cylindrical mirror manufactured using the same techniques does not meet the specification. It can be concluded that it is now technically feasible to meet the required specifications for the mirror and that the x-ray microprobe based on its use can be achieved

  11. KIC 7599132: an ellipsoidal variable in a close SB1 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanzaro, G.; Frasca, A.; Giarrusso, M.; Ripepi, V.; Leone, F.; Tognelli, E.; Munari, M.; Scuderi, S.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we present a spectroscopic and photometric analysis of the suspected ellipsoidal variable star KIC 7599132. New spectroscopic observations have been obtained with Catania Astrophysical Observatory Spectropolarimeter (CAOS). From the fit of Hα and Hβ we determined the effective temperature and gravity of the primary component, Teff = 10200 ± 150 K and log g = 4.1 ± 0.1, while from a number of metal lines we derive the rotational velocity, vesin i = 60 ± 2 km s-1. We found almost solar abundances with the exception of silicon (0.50 dex) overabundance. A Bayesian analysis, based on the comparison between observational data and theoretical predictions of PROSECCO evolutionary models, allows us to estimate the mass and the age of the primary. We obtained M1 = 2.4 ± 0.2 M⊙ and τs = 3.8 _{-0.7}^{+0.9} Myr. A new model for the system was obtained combining Kepler photometric time-series (Q0-Q17) and our radial velocities by using the code PHOEBE. As a result, the system appears to be a detached binary system with a mass ratio q = 0.30 ± 0.01, a semi-major axis a = 7.3 ± 0.1 R⊙ and an inclination angle i = 35° ± 2°. This modelling allowed us to derive: M2 = 0.7 ± 0.1 M⊙, R1 = 3.0 ± 0.2 R⊙ and R2 = 1.5 ± 0.2 R⊙. Numerical simulations show that if the secondary star had been hotter than 4000 K we would have observed its spectral features in our spectra.

  12. Off-diagonal deformations of Kerr metrics and black ellipsoids in heterotic supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vacaru, Sergiu I. [Quantum Gravity Research, Topanga, CA (United States); University ' ' Al. I. Cuza' ' , Project IDEI, Iasi (Romania); Irwin, Klee [Quantum Gravity Research, Topanga, CA (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Geometric methods for constructing exact solutions of equations of motion with first order α{sup '} corrections to the heterotic supergravity action implying a nontrivial Yang-Mills sector and six-dimensional, 6-d, almost-Kaehler internal spaces are studied. In 10-d spacetimes, general parametrizations for generic off-diagonal metrics, nonlinear and linear connections, and matter sources, when the equations of motion decouple in very general forms are considered. This allows us to construct a variety of exact solutions when the coefficients of fundamental geometric/physical objects depend on all higher-dimensional spacetime coordinates via corresponding classes of generating and integration functions, generalized effective sources and integration constants. Such generalized solutions are determined by generic off-diagonal metrics and nonlinear and/or linear connections; in particular, as configurations which are warped/compactified to lower dimensions and for Levi-Civita connections. The corresponding metrics can have (non-) Killing and/or Lie algebra symmetries and/or describe (1+2)-d and/or (1+3)-d domain wall configurations, with possible warping nearly almost-Kaehler manifolds, with gravitational and gauge instantons for nonlinear vacuum configurations and effective polarizations of cosmological and interaction constants encoding string gravity effects. A series of examples of exact solutions describing generic off-diagonal supergravity modifications to black hole/ellipsoid and solitonic configurations are provided and analyzed. We prove that it is possible to reproduce the Kerr and other type black solutions in general relativity (with certain types of string corrections) in the 4-d case and to generalize the solutions to non-vacuum configurations in (super-) gravity/string theories. (orig.)

  13. Off-diagonal deformations of Kerr metrics and black ellipsoids in heterotic supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacaru, Sergiu I.; Irwin, Klee

    2017-01-01

    Geometric methods for constructing exact solutions of equations of motion with first order α ' corrections to the heterotic supergravity action implying a nontrivial Yang-Mills sector and six-dimensional, 6-d, almost-Kaehler internal spaces are studied. In 10-d spacetimes, general parametrizations for generic off-diagonal metrics, nonlinear and linear connections, and matter sources, when the equations of motion decouple in very general forms are considered. This allows us to construct a variety of exact solutions when the coefficients of fundamental geometric/physical objects depend on all higher-dimensional spacetime coordinates via corresponding classes of generating and integration functions, generalized effective sources and integration constants. Such generalized solutions are determined by generic off-diagonal metrics and nonlinear and/or linear connections; in particular, as configurations which are warped/compactified to lower dimensions and for Levi-Civita connections. The corresponding metrics can have (non-) Killing and/or Lie algebra symmetries and/or describe (1+2)-d and/or (1+3)-d domain wall configurations, with possible warping nearly almost-Kaehler manifolds, with gravitational and gauge instantons for nonlinear vacuum configurations and effective polarizations of cosmological and interaction constants encoding string gravity effects. A series of examples of exact solutions describing generic off-diagonal supergravity modifications to black hole/ellipsoid and solitonic configurations are provided and analyzed. We prove that it is possible to reproduce the Kerr and other type black solutions in general relativity (with certain types of string corrections) in the 4-d case and to generalize the solutions to non-vacuum configurations in (super-) gravity/string theories. (orig.)

  14. KIC 7599132: an ellipsoidal variable in a close SB1 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanzaro, G.; Frasca, A.; Giarrusso, M.; Ripepi, V.; Leone, F.; Tognelli, E.; Munari, M.; Scuderi, S.

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we present a spectroscopic and photometric analysis of the suspected ellipsoidal variable star KIC 7599132. New spectroscopic observations have been obtained with Catania Astrophysical Observatory Spectropolarimeter. From the fit of Hα and Hβ, we determined the effective temperature and gravity of the primary component, Teff = 10200 ± 150 K and log g = 4.1 ± 0.1, while from a number of metal lines, we derive the rotational velocity, v esin i = 60 ± 2 km s-1. We found almost solar abundances with the exception of silicon (0.50 dex) overabundance. A Bayesian analysis, based on the comparison between observational data and theoretical predictions of PROSECCO evolutionary models, allows us to estimate the mass and the age of the primary. We obtained M1 = 2.4 ± 0.2 M⊙ and τs = 3.8 _{-0.7}^{+0.9} Myr. A new model for the system was obtained combining Kepler photometric time series (Q0-Q17) and our radial velocities by using the code PHOEBE. As a result, the system appears to be a detached binary system with a mass ratio q = 0.30 ± 0.01, a semimajor axis a = 7.3 ± 0.1 R⊙ and an inclination angle i = 35° ± 2°. This modelling allowed us to derive: M2 = 0.7 ± 0.1 M⊙, R1 = 3.0 ± 0.2 R⊙, and R2 = 1.5 ± 0.2 R⊙. Numerical simulations show that if the secondary star had been hotter than 4000 K, we would have observed its spectral features in our spectra.

  15. ISP-27 OECD/NEA/CSNI International Standard Problem n.27. Bethsy experiment 9.1 B. 2. cold leg break without HPSI and with delayed ultimate procedure. Comparison report. Volume 1 + 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    This report is the final comparison report for ISP-27, a blind problem which is based on the BETHSY test 9.1b performed in december 1989 at the Nuclear Research Center in Grenoble (France). The BETHSY integral test facility is a scaled down model of a 3 loop 900 e MW FRAMATOME PWR; the overall scaling factor applied to every volume, mass flowrate and power level is close to 1/100, while elevations are 1/1 in order to preserve the gravitational heads. The cold leg break is combined with the High Pressure Injection System (HPIS) failure. In that case, the state oriented approach requires operators to start an Ultimate Procedure, which consists in fully opening the Steam Generator (SG) atmospheric dumps as soon as they are informed of the unavailability of the HPIS. The presently studied scenario assumes a delayed application of this procedure, which is started only when the core outlet temperature rises significantly higher than the saturation temperature. The BETHSY Test 9.1b addresses, besides typical problems relevant to Small Break Loss Of Coolant Accidents (SBLOCA) such as critical 2-phase flow, loop seal clearing, heat-transfer during boil-off or accumulator injection, specific aspects related to the fast depressurization (primary to secondary and structural heat transfer), uncovered core behavior when intense condensation takes place in the SG, and primary side refilling by the Low Pressure Injection System (LPIS)

  16. Probing the electronic properties of ternary A n M3n-1B2n (n = 1: A = Ca, Sr; M = Rh, Ir and n = 3: A = Ca, Sr; M = Rh) phases: observation of superconductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeya, Hiroyuki; ElMassalami, Mohammed; Terrazos, Luis A; Rapp, Raul E; Capaz, Rodrigo B; Fujii, Hiroki; Takano, Yoshihiko; Doerr, Mathias; Granovsky, Sergey A

    2013-06-01

    We follow the evolution of the electronic properties of the titled homologous series when n as well as the atomic type of A and M are varied where for n = 1, A = Ca, Sr and M = Rh, Ir while for n = 3, A = Ca, Sr and M = Rh. The crystal structure of n = 1 members is known to be CaRh 2 B 2 -type ( Fddd ), while that of n = 3 is Ca 3 Rh 8 B 6 -type ( Fmmm ); the latter can be visualized as a stacking of structural fragments from AM 3 B 2 ( P 6/ mmm ) and AM 2 B 2 . The metallic properties of the n = 1 and 3 members are distinctly different: on the one hand, the n = 1 members are characterized by a linear coefficient of the electronic specific heat γ ≈ 3 mJ mol -1 K -2 , a Debye temperature θ D ≈ 300 K, a normal conductivity down to 2 K and a relatively strong linear magnetoresistivity for fields up to 150 kOe. The n = 3 family, on the other hand, exhibits γ ≈ 18 mJ mol -1 K -2 , θ D ≈ 330 K, a weak linear magnetoresistivity and an onset of superconductivity (for Ca 3 Rh 8 B 6 , T c = 4.0 K and H c2 = 14.5 kOe, while for Sr 3 Rh 8 B 6 , T c = 3.4 K and H c2 ≈ 4.0 kOe). These remarkable differences are consistent with the findings of the electronic band structures and density of state (DOS) calculations. In particular, satisfactory agreement between the measured and calculated γ was obtained. Furthermore, the Fermi level, E F , of Ca 3 Rh 8 B 6 lies at almost the top of a pronounced local DOS peak, while that of CaRh 2 B 2 lies at a local valley: this is the main reason behind the differences between the, e.g., superconducting properties. Finally, although all atoms contribute to the DOS at E F , the contribution of the Rh atoms is the strongest.

  17. Probing the electronic properties of ternary AnM3n−1B2n (n = 1: A = Ca, Sr; M = Rh, Ir and n = 3: A = Ca, Sr; M = Rh phases: observation of superconductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Takeya, Mohammed ElMassalami, Luis A Terrazos, Raul E Rapp, Rodrigo B Capaz, Hiroki Fujii, Yoshihiko Takano, Mathias Doerr and Sergey A Granovsky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We follow the evolution of the electronic properties of the titled homologous series when n as well as the atomic type of A and M are varied where for n = 1, A = Ca, Sr and M = Rh, Ir while for n = 3, A = Ca, Sr and M = Rh. The crystal structure of n = 1 members is known to be CaRh2B2-type (Fddd, while that of n = 3 is Ca3Rh8B6-type (Fmmm; the latter can be visualized as a stacking of structural fragments from AM3B2 (P6/mmm and AM2B2. The metallic properties of the n = 1 and 3 members are distinctly different: on the one hand, the n = 1 members are characterized by a linear coefficient of the electronic specific heat γ ≈ 3 mJ mol−1 K−2, a Debye temperature θD ≈ 300 K, a normal conductivity down to 2 K and a relatively strong linear magnetoresistivity for fields up to 150 kOe. The n = 3 family, on the other hand, exhibits γ ≈ 18 mJ mol−1 K−2, θD ≈ 330 K, a weak linear magnetoresistivity and an onset of superconductivity (for Ca3Rh8B6, Tc = 4.0 K and Hc2 = 14.5 kOe, while for Sr3Rh8 B6, Tc = 3.4 K and Hc2 ≈ 4.0 kOe. These remarkable differences are consistent with the findings of the electronic band structures and density of state (DOS calculations. In particular, satisfactory agreement between the measured and calculated γ was obtained. Furthermore, the Fermi level, EF, of Ca3Rh8B6 lies at almost the top of a pronounced local DOS peak, while that of CaRh2B2 lies at a local valley: this is the main reason behind the differences between the, e.g., superconducting properties. Finally, although all atoms contribute to the DOS at EF, the contribution of the Rh atoms is the strongest.

  18. Probing the electronic properties of ternary AnM3n−1B2n (n = 1: A = Ca, Sr; M = Rh, Ir and n = 3: A = Ca, Sr; M = Rh) phases: observation of superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeya, Hiroyuki; ElMassalami, Mohammed; Terrazos, Luis A; Rapp, Raul E; Capaz, Rodrigo B; Fujii, Hiroki; Takano, Yoshihiko; Doerr, Mathias; Granovsky, Sergey A

    2013-01-01

    We follow the evolution of the electronic properties of the titled homologous series when n as well as the atomic type of A and M are varied where for n = 1, A = Ca, Sr and M = Rh, Ir while for n = 3, A = Ca, Sr and M = Rh. The crystal structure of n = 1 members is known to be CaRh2B2-type (Fddd), while that of n = 3 is Ca3Rh8B6-type (Fmmm); the latter can be visualized as a stacking of structural fragments from AM3B2 (P6/mmm) and AM2B2. The metallic properties of the n = 1 and 3 members are distinctly different: on the one hand, the n = 1 members are characterized by a linear coefficient of the electronic specific heat γ ≈ 3 mJ mol−1 K−2, a Debye temperature θD ≈ 300 K, a normal conductivity down to 2 K and a relatively strong linear magnetoresistivity for fields up to 150 kOe. The n = 3 family, on the other hand, exhibits γ ≈ 18 mJ mol−1 K−2, θD ≈ 330 K, a weak linear magnetoresistivity and an onset of superconductivity (for Ca3Rh8B6, Tc = 4.0 K and Hc2 = 14.5 kOe, while for Sr3Rh8 B6, Tc = 3.4 K and Hc2 ≈ 4.0 kOe). These remarkable differences are consistent with the findings of the electronic band structures and density of state (DOS) calculations. In particular, satisfactory agreement between the measured and calculated γ was obtained. Furthermore, the Fermi level, EF, of Ca3Rh8B6 lies at almost the top of a pronounced local DOS peak, while that of CaRh2B2 lies at a local valley: this is the main reason behind the differences between the, e.g., superconducting properties. Finally, although all atoms contribute to the DOS at EF, the contribution of the Rh atoms is the strongest. PMID:27877576

  19. In silico Interrogation of Insect Central Complex Suggests Computational Roles for the Ellipsoid Body in Spatial Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo G. Fiore

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The central complex in the insect brain is a composite of midline neuropils involved in processing sensory cues and mediating behavioral outputs to orchestrate spatial navigation. Despite recent advances, however, the neural mechanisms underlying sensory integration and motor action selections have remained largely elusive. In particular, it is not yet understood how the central complex exploits sensory inputs to realize motor functions associated with spatial navigation. Here we report an in silico interrogation of central complex-mediated spatial navigation with a special emphasis on the ellipsoid body. Based on known connectivity and function, we developed a computational model to test how the local connectome of the central complex can mediate sensorimotor integration to guide different forms of behavioral outputs. Our simulations show integration of multiple sensory sources can be effectively performed in the ellipsoid body. This processed information is used to trigger continuous sequences of action selections resulting in self-motion, obstacle avoidance and the navigation of simulated environments of varying complexity. The motor responses to perceived sensory stimuli can be stored in the neural structure of the central complex to simulate navigation relying on a collective of guidance cues, akin to sensory-driven innate or habitual behaviors. By comparing behaviors under different conditions of accessible sources of input information, we show the simulated insect computes visual inputs and body posture to estimate its position in space. Finally, we tested whether the local connectome of the central complex might also allow the flexibility required to recall an intentional behavioral sequence, among different courses of actions. Our simulations suggest that the central complex can encode combined representations of motor and spatial information to pursue a goal and thus successfully guide orientation behavior. Together, the observed

  20. Trophic transfer potential of aluminium oxide nanoparticles using representative primary producer (Chlorella ellipsoides) and a primary consumer (Ceriodaphnia dubia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakrashi, Sunandan; Dalai, Swayamprava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan; Mukherjee, Amitava, E-mail: amit.mookerjea@gmail.com

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Trophic transfer of alumina nanoparticles using Chlorella ellipsoides and Ceriodaphnia dubia. • Subtle alterations in the feeding behaviour of the daphnids. • Disruption the energy flow through the food chain. • Transmission electron microscopy validated the disrupted feeding behaviour. - Abstract: The transfer of nanoparticles through the food chain can lead to bioaccumulation and biomagnification resulting in a long term negative impact on the ecosystem functions. The primary objective of this study was evaluation of aluminium oxide nanoparticles transfer from primary producers to primary consumers. A simple set up consisting of a primary producer (Chlorella ellipsoides) and a primary consumer (Ceriodaphnia dubia) was used. Here, C. ellipsoides were exposed to the varying concentrations of the nanoparticles ranging from 20 to 120 μg/mL (196 to 1176 μM) for 48 h and the infested algal cells were used as the feed to C. dubia. The bioaccumulation of the nanoparticles into the daphnids was noted and the biomagnification factors were computed. The exposure was noted to cause subtle alterations in the feeding behaviour of the daphnids. This might have long term consequences in the energy flow through the food chain. The reproductive behaviour of the daphnids remained unaffected upon exposure to nanoparticle infested algal feed. Distinct observations at ultra-structural scale using transmission electron microscopy provided visual evidences for the disrupted feeding behaviour upon exposure to nanoparticle treated algae. Internalization of nanoparticle like inclusion bodies in the intracellular space of algae was also detected. The findings were further substantiated by a detailed analysis of hydrodynamic stability, bioavailability and dissolution of ions from the nanoparticles over the exposure period. Altogether, the study brings out the first of its kind of observation of trophic transfer potential/behaviour of aluminium oxide nanoparticles and

  1. Trophic transfer potential of aluminium oxide nanoparticles using representative primary producer (Chlorella ellipsoides) and a primary consumer (Ceriodaphnia dubia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakrashi, Sunandan; Dalai, Swayamprava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Trophic transfer of alumina nanoparticles using Chlorella ellipsoides and Ceriodaphnia dubia. • Subtle alterations in the feeding behaviour of the daphnids. • Disruption the energy flow through the food chain. • Transmission electron microscopy validated the disrupted feeding behaviour. - Abstract: The transfer of nanoparticles through the food chain can lead to bioaccumulation and biomagnification resulting in a long term negative impact on the ecosystem functions. The primary objective of this study was evaluation of aluminium oxide nanoparticles transfer from primary producers to primary consumers. A simple set up consisting of a primary producer (Chlorella ellipsoides) and a primary consumer (Ceriodaphnia dubia) was used. Here, C. ellipsoides were exposed to the varying concentrations of the nanoparticles ranging from 20 to 120 μg/mL (196 to 1176 μM) for 48 h and the infested algal cells were used as the feed to C. dubia. The bioaccumulation of the nanoparticles into the daphnids was noted and the biomagnification factors were computed. The exposure was noted to cause subtle alterations in the feeding behaviour of the daphnids. This might have long term consequences in the energy flow through the food chain. The reproductive behaviour of the daphnids remained unaffected upon exposure to nanoparticle infested algal feed. Distinct observations at ultra-structural scale using transmission electron microscopy provided visual evidences for the disrupted feeding behaviour upon exposure to nanoparticle treated algae. Internalization of nanoparticle like inclusion bodies in the intracellular space of algae was also detected. The findings were further substantiated by a detailed analysis of hydrodynamic stability, bioavailability and dissolution of ions from the nanoparticles over the exposure period. Altogether, the study brings out the first of its kind of observation of trophic transfer potential/behaviour of aluminium oxide nanoparticles and

  2. In silico Interrogation of Insect Central Complex Suggests Computational Roles for the Ellipsoid Body in Spatial Navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Vincenzo G; Kottler, Benjamin; Gu, Xiaosi; Hirth, Frank

    2017-01-01

    The central complex in the insect brain is a composite of midline neuropils involved in processing sensory cues and mediating behavioral outputs to orchestrate spatial navigation. Despite recent advances, however, the neural mechanisms underlying sensory integration and motor action selections have remained largely elusive. In particular, it is not yet understood how the central complex exploits sensory inputs to realize motor functions associated with spatial navigation. Here we report an in silico interrogation of central complex-mediated spatial navigation with a special emphasis on the ellipsoid body. Based on known connectivity and function, we developed a computational model to test how the local connectome of the central complex can mediate sensorimotor integration to guide different forms of behavioral outputs. Our simulations show integration of multiple sensory sources can be effectively performed in the ellipsoid body. This processed information is used to trigger continuous sequences of action selections resulting in self-motion, obstacle avoidance and the navigation of simulated environments of varying complexity. The motor responses to perceived sensory stimuli can be stored in the neural structure of the central complex to simulate navigation relying on a collective of guidance cues, akin to sensory-driven innate or habitual behaviors. By comparing behaviors under different conditions of accessible sources of input information, we show the simulated insect computes visual inputs and body posture to estimate its position in space. Finally, we tested whether the local connectome of the central complex might also allow the flexibility required to recall an intentional behavioral sequence, among different courses of actions. Our simulations suggest that the central complex can encode combined representations of motor and spatial information to pursue a goal and thus successfully guide orientation behavior. Together, the observed computational features

  3. A MIT-Based Nonlinear Adaptive Set-Membership Filter for the Ellipsoidal Estimation of Mobile Robots' States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalei Song

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The adaptive extended set-membership filter (AESMF for nonlinear ellipsoidal estimation suffers a mismatch between real process noise and its set boundaries, which may result in unstable estimation. In this paper, a MIT method-based adaptive set-membership filter, for the optimization of the set boundaries of process noise, is developed and applied to the nonlinear joint estimation of both time-varying states and parameters. As a result of using the proposed MIT-AESMF, the estimation effectiveness and boundary accuracy of traditional AESMF are substantially improved. Simulation results have shown the efficiency and robustness of the proposed method.

  4. An elementary treatise on Fourier's series and spherical, cylindrical, and ellipsoidal harmonics, with applications to problems in mathematical

    CERN Document Server

    Byerly, William Elwood

    2003-01-01

    Originally published over a century ago, this work remains among the most useful and practical expositions of Fourier's series, and spherical, cylindrical, and ellipsoidal harmonics. The subsequent growth of science into a diverse range of specialties has enhanced the value of this classic, whose thorough, basic treatment presents material that is assumed in many other studies but seldom available in such concise form. The development of functions, series, and their differential equations receives detailed explanations, and throughout the text, theory is applied to practical problems, with the

  5. A propos cahier d'exercices : B1-B2

    CERN Document Server

    Andant, Christine

    2005-01-01

    Les enseignants de français langue étrangère disposeront grâce aux dossiers thématiques d'" A propos " d'un abondant matériel pédagogique, souple, diversifié et stimulant pour la préparation et l'animation de leurs cours au niveau intermédiaire et avancé. Ils y trouveront de surcroît de très nombreuses indications pédagogiques pour aborder et exploiter les documents sélectionnés ainsi que des suggestions pour construire des séquences pédagogiques. La méthode " A propos " se compose de : - un manuel de l'élève pour les activités de classe avec la transcription des documents sonores ; - un coffret de 2 cd contenant plus de 50 documents sonores originaux ; - un cahier d'exercices pour le travail individuel de l'étudiant ; - un guide pédagogique proposant de très nombreux documents et activités complémentaires pour le professeur, avec le corrigé des exercices.

  6. An exact solution for orbit view-periods from a station on a tri-axial ellipsoidal planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, C. C. H.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the concise exact solution for predicting view-periods to be observed from a masked or unmasked tracking station on a tri-axial ellipsoidal surface. The new exact approach expresses the azimuth and elevation angles of a spacecraft in terms of the station-centered geodetic topocentric coordinates in an elegantly concise manner. A simple and efficient algorithm is developed to avoid costly repetitive computations in searching for neighborhoods near the rise and set times of each satellite orbit for each station. Only one search for each orbit is necessary for each station. Sample results indicate that the use of an assumed spherical earth instead of an 'actual' tri-axial ellipsoidal earth could introduce an error up to a few minutes in a view-period prediction for circular orbits of low or medium altitude. For an elliptical orbit of high eccentricity and long period, the maximum error could be even larger. The analytic treatment and the efficient algorithm are designed for geocentric orbits, but they should be applicable to interplanetary trajectories by an appropriate coordinates transformation at each view-period calculation. This analysis can be accomplished only by not using the classical orbital elements.

  7. An exact solution for orbit view-periods from a station on a tri-axial ellipsoidal planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, C. C. H.

    1986-08-01

    This paper presents the concise exact solution for predicting view-periods to be observed from a masked or unmasked tracking station on a tri-axial ellipsoidal surface. The new exact approach expresses the azimuth and elevation angles of a spacecraft in terms of the station-centered geodetic topocentric coordinates in an elegantly concise manner. A simple and efficient algorithm is developed to avoid costly repetitive computations in searching for neighborhoods near the rise and set times of each satellite orbit for each station. Only one search for each orbit is necessary for each station. Sample results indicate that the use of an assumed spherical earth instead of an 'actual' tri-axial ellipsoidal earth could introduce an error up to a few minutes in a view-period prediction for circular orbits of low or medium altitude. For an elliptical orbit of high eccentricity and long period, the maximum error could be even larger. The analytic treatment and the efficient algorithm are designed for geocentric orbits, but they should be applicable to interplanetary trajectories by an appropriate coordinates transformation at each view-period calculation. This analysis can be accomplished only by not using the classical orbital elements.

  8. Is the Ellipsoid Formula the New Standard for 3-Tesla MRI Prostate Volume Calculation without Endorectal Coil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Matthias; Günzel, Karsten; Miller, Kurt; Hamm, Bernd; Cash, Hannes; Asbach, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Prostate volume in multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) is of clinical importance. For 3-Tesla mpMRI without endorectal coil, there is no distinctive standard for volume calculation. We tested the accuracy of the ellipsoid formula with planimetric volume measurements as reference and investigated the correlation of gland volume and cancer detection rate on MRI/ultrasound (MRI/US) fusion-guided biopsy. One hundred forty-three patients with findings on 3-Tesla mpMRI suspicious of cancer and subsequent MRI/US fusion-guided targeted biopsy and additional systematic biopsy were analyzed. T2-weighted images were used for measuring the prostate diameters and for planimetric volume measurement by a segmentation software. Planimetric and calculated prostate volumes were compared with clinical data. The median prostate volume was 48.1 ml (interquartile range (IQR) 36.9-62.1 ml). Volume calculated by the ellipsoid formula showed a strong concordance with planimetric volume, with a tendency to underestimate prostate volume (median volume 43.1 ml (IQR 31.2-58.8 ml); r = 0.903, p Tesla mpMRI without endorectal coil. It allows a fast, valid volume calculation in prostate MRI datasets. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Wavefront error measurement of the concave ellipsoidal mirrors of the METIS coronagraph on ESA Solar Orbiter mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandri, P.

    2017-12-01

    The paper describes the alignment technique developed for the wavefront error measurement of ellipsoidal mirrors presenting a central hole. The achievement of a good alignment with a classic setup at the finite conjugates when mirrors are uncoated cannot be based on the identification and materialization at naked eye of the retro-reflected spot by the mirror under test as the intensity of the retro-reflected spot results to be ≈1E-3 of the intensity of the injected laser beam of the interferometer. We present the technique developed for the achievement of an accurate alignment in the setup at the finite conjugate even in condition of low intensity based on the use of an autocollimator adjustable in focus position and a small polished flat surface on the rear side of the mirror. The technique for the alignment has successfully been used for the optical test of the concave ellipsoidal mirrors of the METIS coronagraph of the ESA Solar Orbiter mission. The presented method results to be advantageous in terms of precision and of time saving also when the mirrors are reflective coated and integrated into their mechanical hardware.

  10. Necessity of using heterogeneous ellipsoidal Earth model with terrain to calculate co-seismic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Huihong; Zhang, Bei; Zhang, Huai; Huang, Luyuan; Qu, Wulin; Shi, Yaolin

    2016-04-01

    -seismic displacement and strain are no longer symmetric with different latitudes in plane model while always theoretically symmetrical in spherical model. 2) The errors of co-seismic strain will be increased when using corresponding formulas in plane coordinate. When we set the strike-slip fault along the equator, the maximum relative error can reach to several tens of thousand times in high latitude while 30 times near the fault. 3) The style of strain changes are eight petals while the errors are four petals, and apparent distortion at high latitudes. Furthermore, the influence of the earth's ellipticity and heterogeneity and terrain were calculated respectively. Especially the effect of terrain, which induced huge differences, should not be overlooked during the co-seismic calculations. Finally, taking all those affecting factors into account, we calculated the co-seismic effect of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake and its adjacent area and faults using the heterogeneous ellipsoidal Earth model with terrain.

  11. Study by the Prandtl-Glauert method of compressibility effects and critical Mach number for ellipsoids of various aspect ratios and thickness ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Robert V; Gardner, Clifford S

    1947-01-01

    By using the Prandtl-Glauert method that is valid for three-dimensional flow problems, the value of the maximum incremental velocity for compressible flow about thin ellipsoids at zero angle of attack is calculated as a function of the Mach number for various aspect ratios and thickness ratios. The critical Mach numbers of the various ellipsoids are also determined. The results indicate an increase in critical Mach number with decrease in aspect ratio which is large enough to explain experimental results on low-aspect-ratio wings at zero lift.

  12. An oblate ellipsoidal approach to update a high-resolution geopotential model over the oceans: Study case of EGM2008 and DTU10

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sebera, Josef; Bezděk, Aleš; Kostelecký, J.; Pešek, I.; Shum, C.K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 1 (2016), s. 2-18 ISSN 0273-1177 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH13071 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : Earth's gravitational field * oblate ellipsoidal harmonics * harmonic analysis Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.401, year: 2016

  13. A Stepwise "Micellization-Crystallization" Route to Oblate Ellipsoidal, Cylindrical, and Bilayer Micelles with Polyethylene Cores in Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Ligeng; Lodge, Timothy P; Hillmyer, Marc A [UMM

    2012-11-26

    Micellar polymorphism from block copolymers has been well documented, but most attention has focused on noncrystalline hydrophobic systems. We have investigated the micellization in water of model diblock copolymers with semicrystalline polyethylene (PE) as the core-forming component. Poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide)–polyethylene (AE) diblock copolymers were synthesized by a combination of anionic and RAFT polymerizations. The bulk nanostructures were probed by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and AE diblock copolymers were found to be moderately segregated at 140 °C. Dispersions of AE amphiphiles in water were prepared by direct dissolution at 120 °C (i.e., above the melting transition of PE) followed by cooling to 25 °C. By manipulating the composition of AE diblock copolymers, discrete structures with oblate ellipsoidal, cylindrical, and bilayer morphologies were produced, as evidenced in cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). The self-assembled aggregates were also studied by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and dilute solution rheology. The semicrystalline nature of the nanostructures was further revealed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). A stepwise “micellization–crystallization” process was proposed as the micelle formation mechanism, as supported by the existence of similar nanostructures at 120 °C using SANS. This strategy holds promise for a general protocol toward the production of giant wormlike micelles and vesicles with semicrystalline polymeric cores.

  14. Forward calculation of gravity and its gradient using polyhedral representation of density interfaces: an application of spherical or ellipsoidal topographic gravity effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Chen, Chao

    2018-02-01

    A density interface modeling method using polyhedral representation is proposed to construct 3-D models of spherical or ellipsoidal interfaces such as the terrain surface of the Earth and applied to forward calculating gravity effect of topography and bathymetry for regional or global applications. The method utilizes triangular facets to fit undulation of the target interface. The model maintains almost equal accuracy and resolution at different locations of the globe. Meanwhile, the exterior gravitational field of the model, including its gravity and gravity gradients, is obtained simultaneously using analytic solutions. Additionally, considering the effect of distant relief, an adaptive computation process is introduced to reduce the computational burden. Then features and errors of the method are analyzed. Subsequently, the method is applied to an area for the ellipsoidal Bouguer shell correction as an example and the result is compared to existing methods, which shows our method provides high accuracy and great computational efficiency. Suggestions for further developments and conclusions are drawn at last.

  15. Formation and acceleration of uniformly filled ellipsoidal electron bunches obtained via space-charge-driven expansion from a cesium-telluride photocathode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Piot

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the experimental generation, acceleration, and characterization of a uniformly filled electron bunch obtained via space-charge-driven expansion (often referred to as “blow-out regime” in an L-band (1.3-GHz radiofrequency photoinjector. The beam is photoemitted from a cesium-telluride semiconductor photocathode using a short (<200  fs ultraviolet laser pulse. The produced electron bunches are characterized with conventional diagnostics and the signatures of their ellipsoidal character are observed. We especially demonstrate the production of ellipsoidal bunches with charges up to ∼0.5  nC corresponding to a ∼20-fold increase compared to previous experiments with metallic photocathodes.

  16. THE EVIL-MC MODEL FOR ELLIPSOIDAL VARIATIONS OF PLANET-HOSTING STARS AND APPLICATIONS TO THE HAT-P-7 SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Brian K. [Carnegie Institution for Science, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Lewis, Nikole K.; Showman, Adam P. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Kuiper Space Sciences Building, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Barnes, Jason W. [Department of Physics, University of Idaho, Engineering-Physics Building, Moscow, ID 83844 (United States); Deming, L. Drake [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Fortney, Jonathan J., E-mail: bjackson@dtm.ciw.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2012-06-01

    We present a new model for Ellipsoidal Variations Induced by a Low-Mass Companion, the EVIL-MC model. We employ several approximations appropriate for planetary systems to substantially increase the computational efficiency of our model relative to more general ellipsoidal variation models and improve upon the accuracy of simpler models. This new approach gives us a unique ability to rapidly and accurately determine planetary system parameters. We use the EVIL-MC model to analyze Kepler Quarter 0-2 (Q0-2) observations of the HAT-P-7 system, an F-type star orbited by a {approx} Jupiter-mass companion. Our analysis corroborates previous estimates of the planet-star mass ratio q = (1.10 {+-} 0.06) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3}, and we have revised the planet's dayside brightness temperature to 2680{sup +10}{sub -20} K. We also find a large difference between the day- and nightside planetary flux, with little nightside emission. Preliminary dynamical+radiative modeling of the atmosphere indicates that this result is qualitatively consistent with high altitude absorption of stellar heating. Similar analyses of Kepler and CoRoT photometry of other planets using EVIL-MC will play a key role in providing constraints on the properties of many extrasolar systems, especially given the limited resources for follow-up and characterization of these systems. However, as we highlight, there are important degeneracies between the contributions from ellipsoidal variations and planetary emission and reflection. Consequently, for many of the hottest and brightest Kepler and CoRoT planets, accurate estimates of the planetary emission and reflection, diagnostic of atmospheric heat budgets, will require accurate modeling of the photometric contribution from the stellar ellipsoidal variation.

  17. Infrared photometry of cataclysmic variables. II - Evidence for ellipsoidal variations in CW MoN, X Leo, IP Peg, and AF CaM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szkody, P.; Mateo, M.

    1986-08-01

    Broadband H or K light curves of the dwarf novae CM Mon, X Leo, IP Peg, and AF Cam reveal variations that can be attributed to ellipsoidal modulation of the secondaries in these systems. The present data imply orbital periods of 4.23 + or - 0.01 hr for CW Mon and 5.0 + or - 0.1 hr for X Leo. The high-amplitude ellipsoidal modulation of the secondary of CW Mon implies a large orbital inclination. The interpretation of the low-amplitude variability seen in X Leo is complicated by details in its light curve and a recent determination of its orbital period by Shafter and Harkness (1986) which differs significantly from the period inferred from the present observations. The light variations of the eclipsing system IP Peg are interpreted as showing a 0.2 mag ellipsoidal variation from the secondary superposed on a deep eclipse of the IR light of the white dwarf and hotspot. AF Cam shows marginal evidence for a low-amplitude variation implying a very short orbital period of 76 min. IR colors of SS Aur, AH Eri, and IR Gem as well as the above four objects are used to place limits on the properties of the secondaries and the distances to these systems.

  18. Ionic-liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with magnetic solid-phase extraction for the determination of aflatoxins B1 , B2 , G1 , and G2 in animal feeds by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiao; Zhu, Yan; Jiao, Yang; Ning, Jinyan; Yang, Yaling

    2016-10-01

    A novel two-step extraction technique combining ionic-liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with magnetic solid-phase extraction was developed for the preconcentration and separation of aflatoxins in animal feedstuffs before high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection. In this work, ionic liquid 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate was used as the extractant in dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, and hydrophobic pelargonic acid modified Fe 3 O 4 magnetic nanoparticles as an efficient adsorbent were applied to retrieve the aflatoxins-containing ionic liquid. Notably, the target of magnetic nanoparticles was the ionic liquid rather than the aflatoxins. Because of the rapid mass transfer associated with the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and magnetic solid phase steps, fast extraction could be achieved. The main parameters affecting the extraction recoveries of aflatoxins were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, vortexing at 2500 rpm for 1 min in the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and magnetic solid-phase extraction and then desorption by sonication for 2 min with acetonitrile as eluent. The recoveries were 90.3-103.7% with relative standard deviations of 3.2-6.4%. Good linearity was observed with correlation coefficients ranged from 0.9986 to 0.9995. The detection limits were 0.632, 0.087, 0.422 and 0.146 ng/mL for aflatoxins B 1 , B2, G1, and G2, respectively. The results were also compared with the pretreatment method carried out by conventional immunoaffinity columns. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Dose dependence of tensoresistance for the symmetrical orientation of the deformation axis relatively to all isoenergetic ellipsoids in γ-irradiated (60Co n-Si crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.P. Gaidar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The dose dependence of tensoresistance X /0, which was measured at the symmetrical orientation of the deformation axis (compression relatively to all isoenergetic ellipsoids both in the initial and in -irradiated samples, was investigated in n-Si crystals. It has been shown that changing the irradiation doses is accompanied by not only quantitative but also qualitative changes in the functional dependence X /0 = f (Х. Features of tensoresistance in n-Si irradiated samples were found depending on three crystallographic directions, along which the samples were cut out and the mechanical stress Х was applied.

  20. The Downward Continuation to the Earth’s Surface of Truncated Spherical and Ellipsoidal Harmonic Series of the Gravity and Height Anomalies,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    triangle OBQ, we obtain r c =COtI ose + sine (411) Hence with (4.10) e 2 sinecose (412)tan ip = (__o__2)_ 1 - e 2sin2 0 Pythagoras ’ theorem then easily...coordinate system. Strictly, this theorem tinds no application in our physical world since it guarantees convergence only outside the sphere enclosing...Junq, 1956, p.54 3 ; Moritz, 1980, p.52) is found, using the above theorem , to be f =E, the focal distance of the ellipsoid, shoving also that the

  1. Decomposition characteristics of humic-like matters with the hollow ellipsoid structure sludge inoculated from decayed soil in mature landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Lan, Sijie; Niu, Dongjie; Zhao, Youcai

    2016-01-01

    The organics in mature leachate are mainly humic-like matters, which account for over 80% weight of the total organics. In this work, the microorganisms in decayed soil were found to be capable of decomposing the humic-like matters evidently using an anaerobic-aerobic/anoxic bioprocess in two sequencing bio-reactors. The 3D excitation-emission matrix and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) were applied to characterize the variation of dissolved organic matters in mature leachate while sludge morphology was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The intensities of fluorescence peaks A and C of leachate effluents were 71.66% and 48.75% lower than those of influents, respectively, which indicated the extraordinary degradation ability of microorganisms inoculated from the decayed soil. Meanwhile a kind of distinctive hollow ellipsoid structure sludge organized by tiny soil particles was observed, which might favour the humic-like matters' decomposition and has never been reported before as we know. The formation mechanisms of hollow ellipsoid structure sludge will need further study.

  2. Detection of Aspergillus spp . and determination of the levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2) are hepatotoxic metabolites produced by Aspergillus flavus on a number of agricultural commodities. Their levels were studied in rice samples imported to Iran through a southern port in Bushehr. Aflatoxins analysis was performed by solvent extraction, immunoaffinity clean-up and ...

  3. A pulsation analysis of K2 observations of the subdwarf B star PG 1142-037 during Campaign 1: A subsynchronously rotating ellipsoidal variable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reed, M. D.; Baran, A. S.; Østensen, R. H.

    2016-01-01

    We report a new subdwarf B pulsator, PG 1142-037, discovered during the first full-length campaign of K2, the two-gyro mission of the Kepler space telescope. 14 periodicities have been detected between 0.9 and 2.5 hr with amplitudes below 0.35 parts-per-thousand. We have been able to associate all...... of the pulsations with low-degree, ℓ ≤ 2 modes. Follow-up spectroscopy of PG 1142 has revealed it to be in a binary with a period of 0.54 d. Phase-folding the K2 photometry reveals a two-component variation including both Doppler boosting and ellipsoidal deformation. Perhaps the most surprising and interesting...

  4. Absorbed dose calculation from beta and gamma rays of 131I in ellipsoidal thyroid and other organs of neck with MCNPX code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mirzaie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The 131I radioisotope is used for diagnosis and treatment of hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer. In optimized Iodine therapy, a specific dose must be reached to the thyroid gland with minimum radiation to the cervical spine, cervical vertebrae, neck tissue, subcutaneous fat and skin. Dose measurement inside the alive organ is difficult therefore the aim of this research was dose calculation in the organs by MCNPX code. Materials and Methods: First of all, the input file for MCNPX code has been prepared to calculate F6 and F8 tallies for ellipsoidal thyroid lobes with long axes is tow times of short axes which the 131I is distributed uniformly inside the lobes. Then the code has been run for F6 and F8 tallies for variation of lobe volume from 1 to 25 milliliters. From the output file of tally F6, the gamma absorbed dose in ellipsoidal thyroid, spinal neck, neck bone, neck tissue, subcutaneous fat layer and skin for the volume lobe variation from 1 ml to 25 ml have been derived and the graphs are drew. As well as, form the output of F8 tally the absorbed energy of beta in thyroid and soft tissue of neck is obtained and listed in the table and then absorbed dose of bate has been calculated. Results: The results of this research show that for constant activity in thyroid, the absorbed dose of gamma decreases about 88.3% in thyroid, 6.9% at soft tissue, 19.3% in adipose layer and 17.4% in skin, but it increases 32.1% in spinal of neck and 32.3% in neck bone when the lobe volume varied from 1 to 25 milliliters. For the same situation, the beta absorbed dose decreases 95.9% in thyroid and 64.2% in soft tissue. Conclusion: For the constant activity in thyroid by increasing the thyroid volume, absorbed dose of gamma in thyroid and soft tissue of neck, adipose layer under the skin and skin of neck decreased, but it increased at spinal of neck and neck bone. Also, by increasing of the lobe volume in constant activity, the beta absorbed dose

  5. The triaxial ellipsoid size, density, and rotational pole of asteroid (16) Psyche from Keck and Gemini AO observations 2004-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Jack D.; Merline, William J.; Carry, Benoit; Conrad, Al; Reddy, Vishnu; Tamblyn, Peter; Chapman, Clark R.; Enke, Brian L.; Pater, Imke de; Kleer, Katherine de; Christou, Julian; Dumas, Christophe

    2018-05-01

    We analyze a comprehensive set of our adaptive optics (AO) images taken at the 10 m W. M. Keck telescope and the 8 m Gemini telescope to derive values for the size, shape, and rotational pole of asteroid (16) Psyche. Our fit of a large number of AO images, spanning 14 years and covering a range of viewing geometries, allows a well-constrained model that yields small uncertainties in all measured and derived parameters, including triaxial ellipsoid dimensions, rotational pole, volume, and density. We find a best fit set of triaxial ellipsoid diameters of (a,b,c) = (274 ± 9, 231 ± 7, 176 ± 7) km, with an average diameter of 223 ± 7 km. Continuing the literature review of Carry (2012), we find a new mass for Psyche of 2.43 ± 0.35 × 1019 kg that, with the volume from our size, leads to a density estimate 4.16 ± 0.64 g/cm3. The largest contribution to the uncertainty in the density, however, still comes from the uncertainty in the mass, not our volume. Psyche's M classification, combined with its high radar albedo, suggests at least a surface metallic composition. If Psyche is composed of pure nickel-iron, the density we derive implies a macro-porosity of 47%, suggesting that it may be an exposed, disrupted, and reassembled core of a Vesta-like planetesimal. The rotational pole position (critical for planning spacecraft mission operations) that we find is consistent with others, but with a reduced uncertainty: [RA;Dec]=[32°;+5°] or Ecliptic [λ; δ]=[32∘ ; -8∘ ] with an uncertainty radius of 3°. Our results provide independent measurements of fundamental parameters for this M-type asteroid, and demonstrate that the parameters are well determined by all techniques, including setting the prime meridian over the longest principal axis. The 5.00 year orbital period of Psyche produces only four distinct opposition geometries, suggesting that observations before the arrival of Psyche Mission in 2030 should perhaps emphasize observations away from opposition

  6. Stark shift and photoionization cross section of on-center and off-center donor impurity in a core/shell ellipsoidal quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, L.; Yan, Z. W.

    2018-04-01

    Within the framework of the effective-mass approximation and by using a variational method, the Stark shift of on-center and off-center donor impurity binding energies and photoionization cross section under a z-direction electric field in a prolate (oblate) core/shell ellipsoidal quantum dot has been studied. We have calculated the Stark shift as a function of the core and shell sizes and shapes, electric field, and impurity position. We also discuss the photoionization cross section as a function of photon energy with different core and shell sizes and shapes, electric field strengths, and impurity positions. The results show that the Stark shift depends strongly on the impurity position, it could be positive or negative. The core and shell sizes and shapes also have a pronounce influence on the Stark shift, and the Stark shift changes with them is non-monotonic, especially when the impurity is located at the -z-axis, the situation will become complicated. In addition, the core and shell sizes and shapes, impurity position, and electric field also have an important influence on the photoionization cross section. In particular, the photoionization cross section will vanish when the impurity is located at center of spherical core with spherical or prolate shell case at zero field.

  7. Quasi-minimal active disturbance rejection control of MIMO perturbed linear systems based on differential neural networks and the attractive ellipsoid method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Iván; Mera-Hernández, Manuel; Chairez, Isaac

    2017-11-01

    This study addresses the problem of designing an output-based controller to stabilize multi-input multi-output (MIMO) systems in the presence of parametric disturbances as well as uncertainties in the state model and output noise measurements. The controller design includes a linear state transformation which separates uncertainties matched to the control input and the unmatched ones. A differential neural network (DNN) observer produces a nonlinear approximation of the matched perturbation and the unknown states simultaneously in the transformed coordinates. This study proposes the use of the Attractive Ellipsoid Method (AEM) to optimize the gains of the controller and the gain observer in the DNN structure. As a consequence, the obtained control input minimizes the convergence zone for the estimation error. Moreover, the control design uses the estimated disturbance provided by the DNN to obtain a better performance in the stabilization task in comparison with a quasi-minimal output feedback controller based on a Luenberger observer and a sliding mode controller. Numerical results pointed out the advantages obtained by the nonlinear control based on the DNN observer. The first example deals with the stabilization of an academic linear MIMO perturbed system and the second example stabilizes the trajectories of a DC-motor into a predefined operation point. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A four-functional composite-hierarchical anatase TiO2 microsphere consisting of nanoparticles, nanowires and submicron ellipsoidal spheres for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Niu; Chen, Feitai; Sun, Panpan; Sun, Xiaohua; Sebo, Bobby; Zhao, Xingzhong

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: In this paper, we prepare a composite-hierarchical microsphere (HMS) which is composed of two kinds of HMSs: one flower-like microsphere (FMS, ∼1.5 μm, containing nanoparticles and nanowires) and plentiful mesoporous submicron ellipsoidal spheres (ESs, ∼200 nm, assembled with nanoparticles) which are embedded evenly in the FMS. For comparing, pure FMS and ES are prepared, respectively. It is found that the composite-HMS possesses (a) the highest BET surface area, (b) the highest light scattering ability, (c) the fastest electron transport and the longest electron life time, and (d) light trapping ability enabled by multiple light reflection and scattering between ESs and nanowires inside each FMS*ESs particle. The energy conversion efficiency of 7.91% of the DSSC based on FMS*ESs is higher than devices based on ES and FMS (7.22% and 7.24%, respectively), which also benefits from the structural advantages of the composite-HMS compared with non-composite HMSs

  9. Structural analysis of retinal photoreceptor ellipsoid zone and postreceptor retinal layer associated with visual acuity in patients with retinitis pigmentosa by ganglion cell analysis combined with OCT imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guodong; Li, Hui; Liu, Xiaoqiang; Xu, Ding; Wang, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to examine changes in photoreceptor ellipsoid zone (EZ) and postreceptor retinal layer in retinitis pigmentosa (RP) patients by ganglion cell analysis (GCA) combined with optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging to evaluate the structure–function relationships between retinal layer changes and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA). Sixty-eight eyes of 35 patients with RP and 65 eyes of 35 normal controls were analyzed in the study. The average length of EZ was 911.1 ± 208.8 μm in RP patients, which was shortened with the progression of the disease on the OCT images. The average ganglion cell–inner plexiform layer thickness (GCIPLT) was 54.7 ± 18.9 μm in RP patients, while in normal controls it was 85.6 ± 6.8 μm. The GCIPLT in all quarters became significantly thinner along with outer retinal thinning. There was a significantly positive correlation between BCVA and EZ (r = −0.7622, P retinal layer changes from a new perspective in RP patients, which suggests that EZ and GCIPLT obtained by GCA combined with OCT imaging are the direct and valid indicators to diagnosis and predict the pathological process of RP. PMID:28033301

  10. Bioaccumulation and physiological effects of copepods sp. (Eucyclop sp.) fed Chlorella ellipsoides exposed to titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles and lead (Pb2+).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matouke, Moise M; Mustapha, Moshood

    2018-05-01

    The demand for manufactured products and the derivatives of nanomaterials and non essential metals continue to increase, and as a consequence their presence in fisheries and aquaculture has therefore become a major concern for the risks to which our environment is exposed. The bioaccumulation profile of binary compounds (Titanium dioxide nanoparticles and lead) and their effects on the feeding behaviour of copepods were assessed in a simplified food chain including, the freshwater alga Chlorella ellipsoides and the cyclopoids copepods sp. Our results indicated that Pb and TiO 2 NPs individually and mixed can be transferred from alga to copepods via dietary pathway. The highest bioconcentration factor (748.5) was recorded for Pb in the combined compounds (Pb15 + Ti16.5) μg L -1 and the highest BCF (5.57) recorded for TiO 2 NPs was found in TiO 2 NPs (16.5) alone. Ingestion and filtration rate decreased significantly (p  0.05) in both single and binary treatments. The results demonstrate that the co-exposure of TiO 2 NPs and Pb inhibit the ingestion and filtration of microalgae by cyclopoid copepods sp. and also induce increase of carbohydrate, lipid; GPx, GR and CAT due to stress. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Ellipsoid clustering machine: a front line to aid in disease diagnosis - DOI: 10.3395/reciis.v1i2.Sup.101en

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Costa Carvalho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a new machine learning strategy to address the disease diagnosis classification problem that comprises an unknown number of disease classes. This is exemplified by a software called Ellipsoid Clustering Machine (ECM that identifies conserved regions in mass spectrometry proteomic profiles obtained from control subjects and uses these to estimate classification boundaries based on sample variance. The software can also be used for visual inspection of data reproducibility. ECM was evaluated using mass spectrometry protein profiles obtained from serum of Hodgkin’s disease patients (HD and control subjects. According to the leave-one-out cross validation, ECM completely separated both groups based only on the information derived from four selected mass spectral peaks. Classification details and a 3D graphical model showing the separation between the control subject cluster and HD patients is also presented. The software is available on the project website together with online interactive models of the dataset and an animation demonstrating the method.

  12. The effect of pressure and quadrupolar interactions on the nematic-isotropic transition properties: Numerical results for a system of prolate ellipsoids including second and fourth rank orientational order parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, K.

    1992-10-01

    The theory of isotropic-nematic transition described in earlier papers is applied to investigate the influence of quadrupolar interactions and pressure on the stability, ordering and thermodynamic transition properties retaining second and fourth rank orientational order parameters in the calculation for a system of hard ellipsoids of revolution characterized by its length-to-width ratio (x 0 = 2a/2b). Results are in accordance with experimental observations. (author). 9 refs, 1 tab

  13. Segmentasi Citra menggunakan Support Vector Machine (SVM dan Ellipsoid Region Search Strategy (ERSS Arimoto Entropy berdasarkan Ciri Warna dan Tekstur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukman Hakim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Segmentasi citra merupakan suatu metode penting dalam pengolahan citra digital yang bertujuan membagi citra menjadi beberapa region yang homogen berdasarkan kriteria kemiripan tertentu. Salah satu syarat utama yang harus dimiliki suatu metode segmentasi citra yaitu menghasilkan citra boundary yang optimal.Untuk memenuhi syarat tersebut suatu metode segmentasi membutuhkan suatu klasifikasi piksel citra yang dapat memisahkan piksel secara linier dan non-linear. Pada penelitian ini, penulis mengusulkan metode segmentasi citra menggunakan SVM dan entropi Arimoto berbasis ERSS sehingga tahan terhadap derau dan mempunyai kompleksitas yang rendah untuk menghasilkan citra boundary yang optimal. Pertama, ekstraksi ciri warna dengan local homogeneity dan ciri tekstur dengan menggunakan Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM yang menghasilkan beberapa fitur. Kedua, pelabelan dengan Arimoto berbasis ERSS yang digunakan sebagai kelas dalam klasifikasi. Ketiga, hasil ekstraksi fitur dan training kemudian diklasifikasi berdasarkan label dengan SVM yang telah di-training. Dari percobaan yang dilakukan menunjukkan hasil segmentasi kurang optimal dengan akurasi 69 %. Reduksi fitur perlu dilakukan untuk menghasilkan citra yang tersegmentasi dengan baik. Kata kunci: segmentasi citra, support vector machine, ERSS Arimoto Entropy, ekstraksi ciri. Abstract Image segmentation is an important tool in image processing that divides an image into homogeneous regions based on certain similarity criteria, which ideally should be meaning-full for a certain purpose. Optimal boundary is one of the main criteria that an image segmentation method should has. A classification method that can partitions pixel linearly or non-linearly is needed by an image segmentation method. We propose a color image segmentation using Support Vector Machine (SVM classification and ERSS Arimoto entropy thresholding to get optimal boundary of segmented image that noise-free and low complexity

  14. The mechanics of unrest at Long Valley caldera, California: 1. Modeling the geometry of the source using GPS, leveling and two-color EDM data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Maurizio; Segall, P.; Murray, J.; Cervelli, Peter; Langbein, J.

    2003-01-01

    We surveyed 44 existing leveling monuments in Long Valley caldera in July 1999, using dual frequency global positioning system (GPS) receivers. We have been able to tie GPS and leveling to a common reference frame in the Long Valley area and computed the vertical deformation by differencing GPS-based and leveled orthometric heights. The resurgent dome uplifted 74??7 cm from 1975 to 1999. To define the inflation source, we invert two-color EDM and uplift data from the 1985-1999 unrest period using spherical or ellipsoidal sources. We find that the ellipsoidal source satisfies both the vertical and horizontal deformation data, whereas the spherical point source cannot. According to our analysis of the 1985-1999 data, the main source of deformation is a prolate ellipsoid located beneath the resurgent dome at a depth of 5.9 km (95% bounds of 4.9-7.5 km). This body is vertically elongated, has an aspect ratio of 0.475 (95% bounds are 0.25-0.65) and a volume change of 0.086 km3 (95% bounds are 0.06-0.13 km3). Failure to account for the ellipsoidal nature of the source biases the estimated source depth by 2.1 km (35%), and the source volume by 0.038 km3 (44%). ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Asteroid (16) Psyche: Triaxial Ellipsoid Dimensions and Rotational Pole from Keck II NIRC2 AO Images and Keck I OSIRIS Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Jack D.; Conrad, Al; Reddy, Vishnu; de Kleer, Katherine R.; Adamkovics, Mate; de Pater, Imke; Merline, William J.; Tamblyn, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) images of asteroid (16) Psyche obtained at 4 epochs with the NIRC2 camera at the 10m W. M. Keck Observatory (Keck II) on UT 2015 December 25 lead to triaxial ellipsoid diameters of 279±4 x 230±2 x 195±14 km, and a rotational pole at RA=29° and Dec=-2°. Adding 6 more epochs obtained nearly simultaneously with the OSIRIS system at Keck I, as well as two more epochs from Keck II in 2009, yields diameters of 273±2 x 232±2 x 165±3 km, and a pole at RA=37° and Dec=+1°. (Errors are formal fit parameter uncertainties; an additional 4% uncertainty is possible from systematic biases.) The differing perspectives between 2015 (sub-Earth latitude Θ=-50°) and 2009 (Θ=-6°) improves primarily the c dimension and the location of the rotational pole, but illustrates how well images from even a single night can determine the size, shape, and pole of an asteroid. The 2015 observations were obtained as part of a campaign to study Psyche with many techniques over a few months, including radar from Arecibo and images from Magellan.These handful of images show the same rugged outline as the radius vector model available on the DAMIT website, constructed from many lightcurves and scaled by previous Keck AO images. In fact Psyche has rotated some 125,350 times between the first lightcurve in 1955 and our 2015 AO images, exactly 60 years apart to the day. Since the asteroid has such a high obliquity, these lightcurves have scanned well into both northern and southern hemispheres. The difference between the pole derived from our images and the radius vector model pole is only 7°, and the mean diameters of Psyche are 219 and 211 km, respectively.

  16. NMR solution structures and MD-simulation of procyanidin B1, B2, and C1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procyanidins are polyphenols associated with a variety of benefits to the health of both plants and animals. Procyanidins provide increased defense against microbes, act as strong antioxidants, and may decrease the incidence of cancer. Key to understanding how procyanidins function requires understa...

  17. 10522 ASSESSMENT OF AFLATOXINS B1, B2, G1 AND G2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-04-13

    Apr 13, 2013 ... occurs when high concentrations of aflatoxins are consumed. Symptoms of acute aflatoxicosis include vomiting, weight loss, abdominal pain, jaundice, liver damage and ..... Pitt JI Application of the food safety objective concept to the problem of aflatoxins in peanuts. Mitt. Lebensm. Hyg, 2004; 95: 52-58. 19.

  18. Emericella astellata, a new producer of aflatoxin B-1, B-2 and sterigmatocystin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, R.A.; Smedsgaard, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    To report on aflatoxin B-1 and B-2 production from a species of Emericella. Methods and Results: Aflatoxins and sterigmatocystin were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detection and confirmed by HPLC with mass spectrometry detection. Among 30 known species...... of Emericella only one species produced aflatoxin. Strains originating from the same geographical source material had different patterns of aflatoxin and sterigmatocystin production on different media, indicating that epigenetic factors may be involved in the regulation of aflatoxin production. However, two...

  19. A propos livre de l'élève : B1-B2

    CERN Document Server

    Andant, Christine

    2005-01-01

    Les enseignants de Français langue étrangère disposeront grâce aux dossiers thématiques d'" A propos " d'un abondant matériel pédagogique, souple, diversifié et stimulant pour la préparation et l'animation de leurs cours au niveau intermédiaire. Ils y trouveront de surcroît de très nombreuses exploiter les documents sélectionnés ainsi que des suggestions pour construire des séquences pédagogiques

  20. B1-B2 phase transition mechanism and pathway of PbS under pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleke, Adebayo A.; Yao, Yansun

    2018-03-01

    Experimental studies at finite Pressure-Temperature (P-T) conditions and a theoretical study at 0 K of the phase transition in lead sulphide (PbS) have been inconclusive. Many studies that have been done to understand structural transformation in PbS can broadly be classified into two main ideological streams—one with Pnma and another with Cmcm orthorhombic intermediate phase. To foster better understanding of this phenomenon, we present the result of the first-principles study of phase transition in PbS at finite temperature. We employed the particle swarm-intelligence optimization algorithm for the 0 K structure search and first-principles metadynamics simulations to study the phase transition pathway of PbS from the ambient pressure, 0 K Fm-3m structure to the high-pressure Pm-3m phase under experimentally achievable P-T conditions. Significantly, our calculation shows that both streams are achievable under specific P-T conditions. We further uncover new tetragonal and monoclinic structures of PbS with space group P21/c and I41/amd, respectively. We propose the P21/c and I41/amd as a precursor phase to the Pnma and Cmcm phases, respectively. We investigated the stability of the new structures and found them to be dynamically stable at their stability pressure range. Electronic structure calculations reveal that both P21/c and I41/amd phases are semiconducting with direct and indirect bandgap energies of 0.69(5) eV and 0.97(3) eV, respectively. In general, both P21/c and I41/amd phases were found to be energetically competitive with their respective orthorhombic successors.

  1. Determining the frequencies of B1, B2, B3 and E alleles of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ada

    2016-06-04

    Jun 4, 2016 ... bp of intronic regions with a total similarity with the corresponding ... (1.93%) than in milks of the 'strong' group (2.05%) in Norwegian dairy .... employed was: ..... protein, fat, TS, SNF, casein and lactose percentage were found by .... CSN1S1 locus by PCR-RFLP and AS-PCR in a Neapolitan goat population.

  2. Tissue-specific alternative splicing and expression of ATP1B2 gene

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user6

    2012-05-15

    May 15, 2012 ... The Na+-K+-ATPase is an essential transport enzyme expressed in all animal tissues, where it generates ion gradients to maintain membrane potential and drive the transport of other solutes. It also balances metabolism and body temperature. In this study, the characterization of three novel bovine ...

  3. The magnetic field of the B1/B2V star σ Lup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrichs, H.F.; Kolenberg, K.; Plaggenborg, B.; Marsden, S.C.; Waite, I.A.; Wade, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    The ultraviolet stellar wind lines of the photometrically periodic variable early B-type star σ Lupi were found to behave very similarly to what has been observed in known magnetic B stars, although no periodicity could be determined. AAT spectropolarimetric measurements with SEMPOL were obtained.

  4. First Numerical Simulations of Turbulent Dynamos Driven by Libration, Precession and Tides in Triaxial Ellipsoids - An Alternative Route for Planetary Magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bars, M.; Kanuganti, S. R.; Favier, B.

    2017-12-01

    Most of the time, planetary dynamos are - tacitly or not - associated with thermo-solutal convection. The convective dynamo model has indeed proven successful to explain the current Earth's magnetic field. However, its results are sometimes difficult to reconcile with observational data and its validity can be questioned for several celestial bodies. For instance, the small size of the Moon and Ganymede makes it difficult to maintain a sufficient temperature gradient to sustain convection and to explain their past and present magnetic fields, respectively. The same caveat applies to the growing number of planetesimals shown to have generated magnetic fields in their early history. Finally, the energy budget of the early Earth is difficult to reconcile with a convective dynamo before the onset of inner core growth. Significant effort has thus been put into finding new routes for planetary dynamo. In particular, the rotational dynamics of planets, moons and small bodies, where their average spinning motion is periodically perturbed by the small mechanical forcings of libration, precession and/or tides, is now widely accepted as an efficient source of core turbulence. The underlying mechanism relies on a parametric instability where the inertial waves of the rotating fluid core are resonantly excited by the small forcing, leading to exponential growth and bulk filling intense motions, pumping their energy from the orbital dynamics. Dynamos driven by mechanical forcing have been suggested for the Moon, Mars, Io, the early Earth, etc. However, the real dynamo capacity of the corresponding flows has up-to-now been studied only in very limited cases, with simplified spherical/spheroidal geometries and/or overly viscous fluids. We will present here the first numerical simulations of dynamos driven by libration, precession and tides, in the triaxial ellipsoidal geometry and in the turbulent regime relevant for planetary cores. We will describe the numerical techniques

  5. Quasi-min-max Fuzzy MPC of UTSG Water Level Based on Off-Line Invariant Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangjie; Jiang, Di; Lee, Kwang Y.

    2015-10-01

    In a nuclear power plant, the water level of the U-tube steam generator (UTSG) must be maintained within a safe range. Traditional control methods encounter difficulties due to the complexity, strong nonlinearity and “swell and shrink” effects, especially at low power levels. A properly designed robust model predictive control can well solve this problem. In this paper, a quasi-min-max fuzzy model predictive controller is developed for controlling the constrained UTSG system. While the online computational burden could be quite large for the real-time control, a bank of ellipsoid invariant sets together with the corresponding feedback control laws are obtained by off-line solving linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Based on the UTSG states, the online optimization is simplified as a constrained optimization problem with a bisection search for the corresponding ellipsoid invariant set. Simulation results are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed controller.

  6. Development and Evaluation of a Semi-automated Segmentation Tool and a Modified Ellipsoid Formula for Volumetric Analysis of the Kidney in Non-contrast T2-Weighted MR Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seuss, Hannes; Janka, Rolf; Prümmer, Marcus; Cavallaro, Alexander; Hammon, Rebecca; Theis, Ragnar; Sandmair, Martin; Amann, Kerstin; Bäuerle, Tobias; Uder, Michael; Hammon, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    Volumetric analysis of the kidney parenchyma provides additional information for the detection and monitoring of various renal diseases. Therefore the purposes of the study were to develop and evaluate a semi-automated segmentation tool and a modified ellipsoid formula for volumetric analysis of the kidney in non-contrast T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR)-images. Three readers performed semi-automated segmentation of the total kidney volume (TKV) in axial, non-contrast-enhanced T2-weighted MR-images of 24 healthy volunteers (48 kidneys) twice. A semi-automated threshold-based segmentation tool was developed to segment the kidney parenchyma. Furthermore, the three readers measured renal dimensions (length, width, depth) and applied different formulas to calculate the TKV. Manual segmentation served as a reference volume. Volumes of the different methods were compared and time required was recorded. There was no significant difference between the semi-automatically and manually segmented TKV (p = 0.31). The difference in mean volumes was 0.3 ml (95% confidence interval (CI), -10.1 to 10.7 ml). Semi-automated segmentation was significantly faster than manual segmentation, with a mean difference = 188 s (220 vs. 408 s); p T2-weighted MR data delivers accurate and reproducible results and was significantly faster than manual segmentation. Applying a modified ellipsoid formula quickly provides an accurate kidney volume.

  7. A comparison and evaluation between ICESat/GLAS altimetry and mean sea level in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naksen, Didsaphan; Yang, Dong Kai

    2015-10-01

    Surface elevation is one of the importance information for GIS. Usually surface elevation can acquired from many sources such as satellite imageries, aerial photograph, SAR data or LiDAR by photogrammetry, remote sensing methodology. However the most trust information describe the actual surface elevation is Leveling from terrestrial survey. Leveling is giving the highest accuracy but in the other hand is also long period process spending a lot of budget and resources, moreover the LiDAR technology is new era to measure surface elevation. ICESat/GLAS is spaceborne LiDAR platform, a scientific satellite lunched by NASA in 2003. The study area was located at the middle part of Thailand between 12. ° - 14° North and 98° -100° East Latitude and Longitude. The main idea is to compare and evaluate about elevation between ICESat/GLAS Altimetry and mean sea level of Thailand. Data are collected from various sources, including the ICESat/GLAS altimetry data product from NASA, mean sea level from Royal Thai Survey Department (RTSD). For methodology, is to transform ICESat GLA14 from TOPX/Poseidon-Jason ellipsoid to WGS84 ellipsoid. In addition, ICESat/GLAS altimetry that extracted form centroid of laser footprint and mean sea level were compared and evaluated by 1st Layer National Vertical Reference Network. The result is shown that generally the range of elevation between ICESat/GLAS and mean sea level is wildly from 0. 8 to 25 meters in study area.

  8. Line focus by the ellipsoidal and hyperbolic mirrors, and the fabrication of the new type`s heated air engine. 1; Daenmenkyo to sokyokumenkyo ni yoru line focus to shingata netsu kuki engine no shisaku. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shishido, K; Kazimierski, Z; Shoji, T [Tohoku Gakuin University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Sugiura, M [Tohoku Gakuin Tsutsujigaoka High School, Sendai (Japan); Kobayashi, Y [Tokyo Special Glass Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    Line focusing by ellipsoidal and hyperbolic mirrors was devised for solar heat collection, and the new prototype heated air engine is under fabrication based on such focusing. Ellipse is a locus of the point at which the distance from the 2nd focus is equal to that from the circle with the 1st focus as a center and the major axis as a radius. Hyperbola can be also figured under similar geometric conditions. The link mechanism possible to machine quadratic surfaces based on the above principle has been developed. High-precision quadratic surface mirrors can be fabricated by the link mechanism for convergent solar heat power generation, achieving line focusing of light. The new prototype heated air engine is also proposed which is composed of the heating part by line focusing, cylinder, piston and cooling column. This engine is featured by simple function, light weight, compact body, high efficiency and safety, and is under fabrication. Although conventional converging mirrors use all the mirror surface, the new line focusing uses only the upper part of the mirror, and the lower part is turned over for protection of the mirror from strong wind. 9 figs.

  9. Processing AIRS Scientific Data Through Level 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, Stephanie; Oliphant, Robert; Manning, Evan

    2010-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infra-Red Sounder (AIRS) Science Processing System (SPS) is a collection of computer programs, known as product generation executives (PGEs). The AIRS SPS PGEs are used for processing measurements received from the AIRS suite of infrared and microwave instruments orbiting the Earth onboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft. Early stages of the AIRS SPS development were described in a prior NASA Tech Briefs article: Initial Processing of Infrared Spectral Data (NPO-35243), Vol. 28, No. 11 (November 2004), page 39. In summary: Starting from Level 0 (representing raw AIRS data), the AIRS SPS PGEs and the data products they produce are identified by alphanumeric labels (1A, 1B, 2, and 3) representing successive stages or levels of processing. The previous NASA Tech Briefs article described processing through Level 2, the output of which comprises geo-located atmospheric data products such as temperature and humidity profiles among others. The AIRS Level 3 PGE samples selected information from the Level 2 standard products to produce a single global gridded product. One Level 3 product is generated for each day s collection of Level 2 data. In addition, daily Level 3 products are aggregated into two multiday products: an eight-day (half the orbital repeat cycle) product and monthly (calendar month) product.

  10. THE THIRD MAN ARGUMENT(PARM.132A1-B2-A ‘PURELY’ METAPHYSICAL EXERCISE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Nabielek

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available All commentators of the ‘Parmenides’ agree that the Third Man argument, 132a-b2, raises a difficulty for Plato’s theory of forms. Many commentators, following Vlastos, hold that the argument’s infinite regress is vicious for epistemic reasons. Rickless contends that the infinite regress is vicious for exclusively metaphysical reasons. This essay intends to show that Rickless’ interpretation is inadequate, as well as to vindicate Vlastos’ interpretation.

  11. SKI - ASAR - B1/B2 As operated Safety Analysis Report. Recurring safety review 1995 Barsebaeck 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    According to Swedish law, the reactor owner is responsible for performing a safety review and writing a so called ASAR-report. The Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) examines this report, and reports the findings to the government (the so called SKI-ASAR-report). Each Swedish reactor should pass through three full ASAR reviews during its lifetime, similar to the licensing inspection before start-up of the reactor. The second series ASAR was delivered by the Barsebaeck utility to SKI in September 1995, and forms the basis for the SKI analysis in the present report

  12. HPLC analysis of water-soluble vitamins (B1, B2, B3, B5, B6) in in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... B6 (pyridoxine HCl) were higher in in vitro germinated seedlings. Thus, vitamin production was age and culture conditions dependent, which is discussed in detail. The study revealed that the germinated chickpea grains can be used for human consumption with value addition of vitamin B-group in the diet of vegetarians.

  13. Certification of B-group vitamins (b1, b2, b6, and b12) in four food reference materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ollilainen, V.; Finglas, P.M.; Berg, H. van den; Froidmont-Görtz, I. de

    2001-01-01

    In 1989, the Community Bureau of Reference started a research program to improve the quality of vitamin analysis in food. To achieve this task, vitamin methodology was evaluated and tested by interlaboratory studies and the preparation of certified reference materials, which will be used for quality

  14. Level-set simulations of buoyancy-driven motion of single and multiple bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balcázar, Néstor; Lehmkuhl, Oriol; Jofre, Lluís; Oliva, Assensi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A conservative level-set method is validated and verified. • An extensive study of buoyancy-driven motion of single bubbles is performed. • The interactions of two spherical and ellipsoidal bubbles is studied. • The interaction of multiple bubbles is simulated in a vertical channel. - Abstract: This paper presents a numerical study of buoyancy-driven motion of single and multiple bubbles by means of the conservative level-set method. First, an extensive study of the hydrodynamics of single bubbles rising in a quiescent liquid is performed, including its shape, terminal velocity, drag coefficients and wake patterns. These results are validated against experimental and numerical data well established in the scientific literature. Then, a further study on the interaction of two spherical and ellipsoidal bubbles is performed for different orientation angles. Finally, the interaction of multiple bubbles is explored in a periodic vertical channel. The results show that the conservative level-set approach can be used for accurate modelling of bubble dynamics. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the present method is numerically stable for a wide range of Morton and Reynolds numbers.

  15. Improvement of Aerosol Optical Depth Retrieval from MODIS Spectral Reflectance over the Global Ocean Using New Aerosol Models Archived from AERONET Inversion Data and Tri-axial Ellipsoidal Dust Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Kim, J.; Yang, P.; Hsu, N. C.

    2012-01-01

    New over-ocean aerosol models are developed by integrating the inversion data from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sun/sky radiometers with a database for the optical properties of tri-axial ellipsoid particles. The new aerosol models allow more accurate retrieval of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) in the case of high AOD (AOD greater than 0.3). The aerosol models are categorized by using the fine-mode fraction (FMF) at 550 nm and the singlescattering albedo (SSA) at 440 nm from the AERONET inversion data to include a variety of aerosol types found around the globe. For each aerosol model, the changes in the aerosol optical properties (AOPs) as functions of AOD are considered to better represent aerosol characteristics. Comparisons of AODs between AERONET and MODIS for the period from 2003 to 2010 show that the use of the new aerosol models enhances the AOD accuracy with a Pearson coefficient of 0.93 and a regression slope of 0.99 compared to 0.92 and 0.85 calculated using the MODIS Collection 5 data. Moreover, the percentage of data within an expected error of +/-(0.03 + 0.05xAOD) is increased from 62 percent to 64 percent for overall data and from 39 percent to 51 percent for AOD greater than 0.3. Errors in the retrieved AOD are further characterized with respect to the Angstrom exponent (AE), scattering angle, SSA, and air mass factor (AMF). Due to more realistic AOPs assumptions, the new algorithm generally reduces systematic errors in the retrieved AODs compared with the current operational algorithm. In particular, the underestimation of fine-dominated AOD and the scattering angle dependence of dust-dominated AOD are significantly mitigated as results of the new algorithm's improved treatment of aerosol size distribution and dust particle nonsphericity.

  16. Improvement of aerosol optical depth retrieval from MODIS spectral reflectance over the global ocean using new aerosol models archived from AERONET inversion data and tri-axial ellipsoidal dust database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lee

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available New over-ocean aerosol models are developed by integrating the inversion data from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET sun/sky radiometers with a database for the optical properties of tri-axial ellipsoid particles. The new aerosol models allow more accurate retrieval of aerosol optical depth (AOD from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS in the case of high AOD (AOD > 0.3. The aerosol models are categorized by using the fine-mode fraction (FMF at 550 nm and the single-scattering albedo (SSA at 440 nm from the AERONET inversion data to include a variety of aerosol types found around the globe. For each aerosol model, the changes in the aerosol optical properties (AOPs as functions of AOD are considered to better represent aerosol characteristics. Comparisons of AODs between AERONET and MODIS for the period from 2003 to 2010 show that the use of the new aerosol models enhances the AOD accuracy with a Pearson coefficient of 0.93 and a regression slope of 0.99 compared to 0.92 and 0.85 calculated using the MODIS Collection 5 data. Moreover, the percentage of data within an expected error of ± (0.03 + 0.05 × AOD is increased from 62% to 64% for overall data and from 39% to 5% for AOD > 0.3. Errors in the retrieved AOD are further characterized with respect to the Ångström exponent (AE, scattering angle (Θ, SSA, and air mass factor (AMF. Due to more realistic AOPs assumptions, the new algorithm generally reduces systematic errors in the retrieved AODs compared with the current operational algorithm. In particular, the underestimation of fine-dominated AOD and the scattering angle dependence of dust-dominated AOD are significantly mitigated as results of the new algorithm's improved treatment of aerosol size distribution and dust particle nonsphericity.

  17. Determination of multiple mycotoxins levels in poultry feeds from Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abia, Wilfred Angie; Simo, Grace Nella; Warth, Benedikt; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf; Tchana, Angele; Moundipa, Paul Fewou

    2013-02-01

    For the first time in Cameroon, this paper reports on multiple mycotoxins occurrences in poultry feeds. Twenty feed samples collected from different poultry farms were analyzed for 320 fungal metabolites by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Results showed feeds contamination by 68 metabolites including 18 mycotoxins/metabolites currently regulated in the European Union such as fumonisins B1 (FB1), B2, and B3; deoxynevalenol (DON); and beta-zearalenol recovered in all samples. FB1 reported highest FB mean level of 468 (range 16-1930) microg kg(-1). Levels of DON and ZEN were mostly concentrated in feeds from western-highlands conversely for FBs and aflatoxins concentrations in Yaounde. Aflatoxin B1 mean level of 40 microg kg(-1) exceeded the worldwide permitted limit for aflatoxins in feed and generally inversely proportional to weight gain in chicken.

  18. Partial discharges in ellipsoidal and spheroidal voids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crichton, George C; Karlsson, P. W.; Pedersen, Aage

    1989-01-01

    Transients associated with partial discharges in voids can be described in terms of the charges induced on the terminal electrodes of the system. The relationship between the induced charge and the properties which are usually measured is discussed. The method is illustrated by applying it to a s......Transients associated with partial discharges in voids can be described in terms of the charges induced on the terminal electrodes of the system. The relationship between the induced charge and the properties which are usually measured is discussed. The method is illustrated by applying...

  19. State fusion with unknown correlation: ellipsoidal intersection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijs, J.; Lazar, M.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den

    2010-01-01

    Some crucial challenges of estimation over sensor networks are reaching consensus on the estimates of different systems in the network and separating the mutual information of two estimates from their exclusive information. Current fusion methods of two estimates tend to bypass the mutual

  20. State fusion with unknown correlation : ellipsoidal intersection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijs, J.; Lazar, M.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Some crucial challenges of estimation over sensor networks are reaching consensus on the estimates of different systems in the network and separating the mutual information of two estimates from their exclusive information. Current fusion methods of two estimates tend to bypass the mutual

  1. Potential distribution of a nonuniformly charged ellipsoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiwamoto, Y.; Aoki, J.; Soga, Y.

    2004-01-01

    A convenient formula is obtained for fast calculation of the three-dimensional potential distribution associated with a spatially varying charge-density distribution by reconstructing it as a superposed set of nested spheroidal shells. It is useful for experimental analyses of near-equilibrium states of non-neutral plasmas and for quick evaluation of the gravity field associated with stellar mass distributions

  2. Alcohol Dehydrogenase-1B (rs1229984) and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-2 (rs671) Genotypes Are Strong Determinants of the Serum Triglyceride and Cholesterol Levels of Japanese Alcoholic Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Akira; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Matsui, Toshifumi; Mizukami, Takeshi; Kimura, Mitsuru; Matsushita, Sachio; Higuchi, Susumu; Maruyama, Katsuya

    2015-01-01

    Elevated serum triglyceride (TG) and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are common in drinkers. The fast-metabolizing alcohol dehydrogenase-1B encoded by the ADH1B*2 allele (vs. ADH1B*1/*1 genotype) and inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 encoded by the ALDH2*2 allele (vs. ALDH2*1/*1 genotype) modify ethanol metabolism and are prevalent (≈90% and ≈40%, respectively) in East Asians. We attempted to evaluate the associations between the ADH1B and ALDH2 genotypes and lipid levels in alcoholics. The population consisted of 1806 Japanese alcoholic men (≥40 years) who had undergone ADH1B and ALDH2 genotyping and whose serum TG, total cholesterol, and HDL-C levels in the fasting state had been measured within 3 days after admission. High serum levels of TG (≥150 mg/dl), HDL-C (>80 mg/dl), and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C calculated by the Friedewald formula ≥140 mg/dl) were observed in 24.3%, 16.8%, and 15.6%, respectively, of the subjects. Diabetes, cirrhosis, smoking, and body mass index (BMI) affected the serum lipid levels. Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of the ADH1B*2 allele and the active ALDH2*1/*1 genotype increased the odds ratio (OR; 95% confidence interval) for a high TG level (2.22 [1.67-2.94] and 1.39 [0.99-1.96], respectively), and decreased the OR for a high HDL-C level (0.37 [0.28-0.49] and 0.51 [0.37-0.69], respectively). The presence of the ADH1B*2 allele decreased the OR for a high LDL-C level (0.60 [0.45-0.80]). The ADH1B*2 plus ALDH2*1/*1 combination yielded the highest ORs for high TG levels and lowest OR for a high HDL-C level. The genotype effects were more prominent in relation to the higher levels of TG (≥220 mg/dl) and HDL-C (≥100 mg/dl). The fast-metabolizing ADH1B and active ALDH2, and especially a combination of the two were strongly associated with higher serum TG levels and lower serum HDL-C levels of alcoholics. The fast-metabolizing ADH1B was associated with lower serum LDL

  3. Alcohol Dehydrogenase-1B (rs1229984 and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-2 (rs671 Genotypes Are Strong Determinants of the Serum Triglyceride and Cholesterol Levels of Japanese Alcoholic Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Yokoyama

    Full Text Available Elevated serum triglyceride (TG and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C levels are common in drinkers. The fast-metabolizing alcohol dehydrogenase-1B encoded by the ADH1B*2 allele (vs. ADH1B*1/*1 genotype and inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 encoded by the ALDH2*2 allele (vs. ALDH2*1/*1 genotype modify ethanol metabolism and are prevalent (≈90% and ≈40%, respectively in East Asians. We attempted to evaluate the associations between the ADH1B and ALDH2 genotypes and lipid levels in alcoholics.The population consisted of 1806 Japanese alcoholic men (≥40 years who had undergone ADH1B and ALDH2 genotyping and whose serum TG, total cholesterol, and HDL-C levels in the fasting state had been measured within 3 days after admission.High serum levels of TG (≥150 mg/dl, HDL-C (>80 mg/dl, and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C calculated by the Friedewald formula ≥140 mg/dl were observed in 24.3%, 16.8%, and 15.6%, respectively, of the subjects. Diabetes, cirrhosis, smoking, and body mass index (BMI affected the serum lipid levels. Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of the ADH1B*2 allele and the active ALDH2*1/*1 genotype increased the odds ratio (OR; 95% confidence interval for a high TG level (2.22 [1.67-2.94] and 1.39 [0.99-1.96], respectively, and decreased the OR for a high HDL-C level (0.37 [0.28-0.49] and 0.51 [0.37-0.69], respectively. The presence of the ADH1B*2 allele decreased the OR for a high LDL-C level (0.60 [0.45-0.80]. The ADH1B*2 plus ALDH2*1/*1 combination yielded the highest ORs for high TG levels and lowest OR for a high HDL-C level. The genotype effects were more prominent in relation to the higher levels of TG (≥220 mg/dl and HDL-C (≥100 mg/dl.The fast-metabolizing ADH1B and active ALDH2, and especially a combination of the two were strongly associated with higher serum TG levels and lower serum HDL-C levels of alcoholics. The fast-metabolizing ADH1B was associated with lower serum LDL

  4. Lathe leveler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovelady, III, Michael W.J.

    2018-03-06

    A lathe leveler for centering a cutting tool in relation to a cylindrical work piece includes a first leveling arm having a first contact point disposed adjacent a distal end of the first leveling arm, a second leveling arm having a second contact point disposed adjacent a distal end of the second leveling arm, a leveling gage, and a leveling plate having a cutting tool receiving surface positioned parallel to a horizontal axis of the leveling gage and on a same plane as a midpoint of the first contact point and the second contact point. The leveling arms and leveling plate are dimensioned and configured such that the cutting tool receiving surface is centered in relation to the work piece when the first and second contact points are in contact with one of the inner surface and outer surface of the cylindrical work piece and the leveling gage is centered.

  5. Cortisol level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enable JavaScript. The cortisol blood test measures the level of cortisol in the blood. Cortisol is a ... in the morning. This is important, because cortisol level varies throughout the day. You may be asked ...

  6. Triglyceride level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003493.htm Triglyceride level To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The triglyceride level is a blood test to measure the amount ...

  7. Validation of Mean Absolute Sea Level of the North Atlantic obtained from Drifter, Altimetry and Wind Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximenko, Nikolai A.

    2003-01-01

    Mean absolute sea level reflects the deviation of the Ocean surface from geoid due to the ocean currents and is an important characteristic of the dynamical state of the ocean. Values of its spatial variations (order of 1 m) are generally much smaller than deviations of the geoid shape from ellipsoid (order of 100 m) that makes the derivation of the absolute mean sea level a difficult task for gravity and satellite altimetry observations. Technique used by Niiler et al. for computation of the absolute mean sea level in the Kuroshio Extension was then developed into more general method and applied by Niiler et al. (2003b) to the global Ocean. The method is based on the consideration of balance of horizontal momentum.

  8. Level 1 - level 2 interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boneham, P.

    2003-01-01

    The Plant Damage States (PDS) are the starting point for the level 2 analysis. A PDS is group of core damage sequences that are expected to have similar severe accident progressions. In this paper an overview of Level 1/Level 2 interface, example PDS parameters, example PDS definitions using codes and example Bridge Tree are presented. PDS frequency calculation (identification of sequences for each PDS in level 1,split some CD sequences which have different level 2 progressions), code calculations providing support for grouping decisions and timings as well as PDS frequencies and definitions input to level 2 are also discussed

  9. Level densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatyuk, A.V.

    1998-01-01

    For any applications of the statistical theory of nuclear reactions it is very important to obtain the parameters of the level density description from the reliable experimental data. The cumulative numbers of low-lying levels and the average spacings between neutron resonances are usually used as such data. The level density parameters fitted to such data are compiled in the RIPL Starter File for the tree models most frequently used in practical calculations: i) For the Gilber-Cameron model the parameters of the Beijing group, based on a rather recent compilations of the neutron resonance and low-lying level densities and included into the beijing-gc.dat file, are chosen as recommended. As alternative versions the parameters provided by other groups are given into the files: jaeri-gc.dat, bombay-gc.dat, obninsk-gc.dat. Additionally the iljinov-gc.dat, and mengoni-gc.dat files include sets of the level density parameters that take into account the damping of shell effects at high energies. ii) For the backed-shifted Fermi gas model the beijing-bs.dat file is selected as the recommended one. Alternative parameters of the Obninsk group are given in the obninsk-bs.dat file and those of Bombay in bombay-bs.dat. iii) For the generalized superfluid model the Obninsk group parameters included into the obninsk-bcs.dat file are chosen as recommended ones and the beijing-bcs.dat file is included as an alternative set of parameters. iv) For the microscopic approach to the level densities the files are: obninsk-micro.for -FORTRAN 77 source for the microscopical statistical level density code developed in Obninsk by Ignatyuk and coworkers, moller-levels.gz - Moeller single-particle level and ground state deformation data base, moller-levels.for -retrieval code for Moeller single-particle level scheme. (author)

  10. Scanning microscopy of magnetic domains using the Fe 3p core level transverse magneto-optical Kerr effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, J.; Rozhko, I.; Voss, J.; Hillebrecht, F. U.; Kisker, E.; Wedemeier, V.

    1999-04-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of the vacuum ultraviolet analog to visible-light magneto-optical imaging of magnetic structures using the resonantly enhanced transverse magneto-optical Kerr effect at core level thresholds with incident p-polarized radiation. The advantages are element specificity and a variable information depth. We used the scanning x-ray microscope at HASYLAB capable of obtaining about 1 μm resolution by means of its focusing ellipsoidal ring mirror. The p-polarized component of the reflected light was selected using multilayer reflection at an additional plane mirror downstream to the sample. Micrographs of the optical reflectivity were taken in the vicinity of the Fe 3p core level threshold at 53.7 and 56.5 eV photon energy where the magneto-optical effect is of opposite sign. Magnetic domains are visible in the difference of both recorded images.

  11. 75 FR 63050 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Model AS350B, BA, B1, B2, B3, D, AS355E...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... point of the yaw channel ball-type control sheath stop, of a Model AS355N helicopter fitted with the... the non-modified cross- member may cause it to crack. A crack can reduce the yaw control travel. This... discovered in the area of the center cross-member at station X 2325, at the attachment point of the yaw...

  12. 76 FR 70046 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Model AS350B, B1, B2, B3, BA, C, D, and D1; and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... are intended to prevent separation of the bearing ball from its outer race, rubbing of the body of the... movement. This action may be performed by an owner/operator (pilot) holding at least a private pilot... 4. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or negative, on a substantial number of...

  13. Investigation of Non-Covalent Interactions of Aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, G2, and M1 with Serum Albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklós Poór

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins are widely spread mycotoxins produced mainly by Aspergillus species. Consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated foods and drinks causes serious health risks for people worldwide. It is well-known that the reactive epoxide metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 forms covalent adducts with serum albumin. However, non-covalent interactions of aflatoxins with human serum albumin (HSA are poorly characterized. Thus, in this study the complex formation of aflatoxins was examined with HSA applying spectroscopic and molecular modelling studies. Our results demonstrate that aflatoxins form stable complexes with HSA as reflected by binding constants between 2.1 × 104 and 4.5 × 104 dm3/mol. A binding free energy value of −26.90 kJ mol−1 suggests a spontaneous binding process between AFB1 and HSA at room-temperature, while the positive entropy change of 55.1 JK−1 mol−1 indicates a partial decomposition of the solvation shells of the interacting molecules. Modeling studies and investigations with site markers suggest that Sudlow’s Site I of subdomain IIA is the high affinity binding site of aflatoxins on HSA. Interaction of AFB1 with bovine, porcine, and rat serum albumins was also investigated. Similar stabilities of the examined AFB1-albumin complexes were observed suggesting the low species differences of the albumin-binding of aflatoxins.

  14. Correlations between critical current density, jc, critical temperature, Tc, and structural quality of Y1B2Cu3O7-x thin superconducting films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrzanowski, J.; Xing, W.B.; Atlan, D.

    1994-01-01

    Correlations between critical current density (j c ) critical temperature (T c ) and the density of edge dislocations and nonuniform strain have been observed in YBCO thin films deposited by pulsed laser ablation on (001) LaAlO 3 single crystals. Distinct maxima in j c as a function of the linewidths of the (00 ell) Bragg reflections and as a function of the mosaic spread have been found in the epitaxial films. These maxima in j c indicate that the magnetic flux lines, in films of structural quality approaching that of single crystals, are insufficiently pinned which results in a decreased critical current density. T c increased monotonically with improving crystalline quality and approached a value characteristic of a pure single crystal. A strong correlation between j c and the density of edge dislocations N D was found. At the maximum of the critical current density the density of edge dislocations was estimated to be N D ∼1-2 x 10 9 /cm 2

  15. 20 CFR Appendix B to Part 718 - Standards for Administration and Interpretation of Pulmonary Function Tests. Tables B1, B2, B3...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT... the entire maximum inspiration and the entire maximum forced expiration. The instrument shall, in... unacceptable when the patient: (A) Has not reached full inspiration preceding the forced expiration; or (B) Has...

  16. [Biological contamination by micromycetes in dried Boletus edulis: research of aflatoxin B1, B2 G1, G2 and ochratoxin A].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorini, C; Rossetti, F; Palazzoni, S; Comodo, N; Bonaccorsi, G

    2008-01-01

    Aim of this survey is to identify those filamentous fungi which parasite Boletus edulis and its group and check the potential presence of secondary metabolites, specifically aflatoxin B1, total aflatoxins and ochratoxin A, in order to assess the risk to consumers' health. Forty samples of dried Boletus edulis, collected by two food industries which distribute the product in many Italian regions, have been analysed. The sampling plan has been conducted from November 2005 to March 2006, collecting 50 g from each commercial category of dried Boletus edulis available in the factory at the time of sampling. All the samples have been tested by visual macroscopic and stereoscopic assays; for some samples--those referred to commercial category presumably at higher risk--we have performed cultural assays as well, typization of isolated micromycetes, extraction and quantification of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A. Mycotoxin detection has been made by HPLC, using the UNI EN 14123 and UNI EN 14132 standard methods, respectively applied to aflatoxins determination in peanuts, pistachios, figs and paprika and to ochratoxin A in barley and coffee. Non pathogenic micromycetes, common in food products, have been frequently observed in cultural assays, while Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger have been found in some samples. However the concentration of aflatoxins was always under the quantification limit. The survey confirm that, if the cold chain is kept throughout the process and the distribution, Boletus edulis and analogue mycetes are not a favourable substratum for the growth and the development of moulds.

  17. A comparison of the retention of vitamins B1, B2 and B6, and cooking yield in pork loin with conventional and enhanced meal-service systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Anne Dahl; Kall, M.; Hansen, K.

    2002-01-01

    processing included warm-holding, conventional cook-chill, modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and sous vide. Compared to retention in the freshly cooked samples, vitamin B-2 retention remained unaffected, irrespective of the meal-service system used and storage period. As regards vitamin B-1 and vitamin B-6......, retentions declined significantly, by 14% and 21% respectively during 3 h of warm-holding, and by 11% and 19% respectively after 1 day of storage and subsequent reheating (cook-chill, MAP and sous vide). Vitamin B-1 retention declined by an extra 4% during storage for 14 days (sous vide) (not significant...

  18. 75 FR 80293 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Model AS 350 B, BA, B1, B2, B3, and D, and Model...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... Management Facility between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. The AD docket..., inclusive. P/N SC5084....... S/N 30, 84, 104, 186, 438, 575, or 695. P/N SC5084-1..... S/N 1462 through 1481, inclusive. Tail rotor servo-control...... P/N SC5072....... S/N 222M, 306M, or 309. [[Page 80294

  19. Ethnomathematics: The use of multiple linier regression Y = b 1 X 1 + b 2 X 2 + e in traditional house construction Saka Roras in Songan Village

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmayasa, J. B.; Wahyudin; Mulyana, T.

    2018-01-01

    Ethnomathematics may be the connecting bridge between culture and technology and arts. Therefore, the exploration of mathematics values that intersects with cultural anthropology should be significantly conducted. One case containing such issue is the construction of Traditional House of Saka Roras in Bali. Thus, this research aimed to explore the mathematic concept adopted in the construction of such traditional Bale (house) located in Songan Village, Kintamani, Bali. Specifically, this research also aimed to investigate the selection of linear regression coefficient for the saka (pillar) in the Bale. This research applied Embedded Mix-Method Design. Meanwhile, the data collection was conducted by interview, observation and measurement of pillars of 32 Bale Saka Roras. The result of this research revealed that the connection between the width and height of pillars was stated in the formula Y = 26,3 + 18,2X, where X acted as stimulus variable. The coefficient value amounted to 18.2 showed that most preceding architects in Songan Village were more likely to use 19 as the coefficient towards the pillar width than the other coefficients such as 17, 20 and 21 as mentioned in book/palm-leaf manuscript entitled Kosala-Kosali. The last but not least, the researchers also figured out that the pillar width depended on the length of the house-owner candidate’s index finger.

  20. Alcohol Dehydrogenase-1B (rs1229984) and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-2 (rs671) Genotypes and Alcoholic Ketosis Are Associated with the Serum Uric Acid Level in Japanese Alcoholic Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Akira; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Mizukami, Takeshi; Matsui, Toshifumi; Kimura, Mitsuru; Matsushita, Sachio; Higuchi, Susumu; Maruyama, Katsuya

    2016-05-01

    To identify determinants of hyperuricemia in alcoholics. The serum uric acid (UA) levels of 1759 Japanese alcoholic men (≥40 years) were measured on their first visit or within 3 days after admission; ADH1B and ALDH2 genotyping on blood DNA samples were performed. Dipstick urinalyses for ketonuria and serum UA measurements were simultaneously performed for 621 men on their first visit. Serum UA levels of >416 μmol/l (7.0 mg/dl) and ≥535 μmol/l (9.0 mg/dl) were observed in 30.4 and 7.8% of the subjects, respectively. Ketonuria was positive in 35.9% of the subjects, and a multivariate analysis revealed that the ketosis level was positively associated with the UA level. The presence of the ADH1B*2 allele and the ALDH2*1/*1 genotype increased the odds ratio (OR; 95% confidence interval) among subjects with a high UA level of >416 μmol/l (vs. ≤416 μmol/l; 2.04 [1.58-2.65] and 1.48 [1.09-2.01], respectively) and those with a high UA level of ≥535 μmol/l (vs. ≤416 μmol/l; 2.29 [1.42-3.71] and 3.03 [1.51-6.08], respectively). The ADH1B*2 plus ALDH2*1/*1 combination yielded the highest ORs (2.86 [1.61-5.10] and 6.21 [1.49-25.88] for a UA level of >416 μmol/l and ≥535 μmol/l, respectively), compared with the ADH1B*1/*1 plus ALDH2*1/*2 combination. The presence of diabetes and the consumption of Japanese sake rather than beer were negatively associated with the UA levels. The faster metabolism of ethanol and acetaldehyde by the ADH1B*2 allele and ALDH2*1/*1 genotype and higher ketosis levels were associated with higher UA levels in alcoholics, while diabetes and the consumption of sake were negative determinants. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  1. A Conditioned Visual Orientation Requires the Ellipsoid Body in "Drosophila"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chao; Du, Yifei; Yuan, Deliang; Li, Meixia; Gong, Haiyun; Gong, Zhefeng; Liu, Li

    2015-01-01

    Orientation, the spatial organization of animal behavior, is an essential faculty of animals. Bacteria and lower animals such as insects exhibit taxis, innate orientation behavior, directly toward or away from a directional cue. Organisms can also orient themselves at a specific angle relative to the cues. In this study, using…

  2. replacing orthometric heights with ellipsoidal heights in engineering

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Each system has advantages and disadvantages with regard to ease of computation, accuracy requirement, data ... for engineering and construction projects such as route surveying ..... The following recommendations are given based on this work: (1) GNSS ... Thompson Learning Inc., Pacific Grove, USA.. 832pp. 2003.

  3. Localization of periodic orbits of polynomial systems by ellipsoidal estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starkov, Konstantin E.; Krishchenko, Alexander P.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we study the localization problem of periodic orbits of multidimensional continuous-time systems in the global setting. Our results are based on the solution of the conditional extremum problem and using sign-definite quadratic and quartic forms. As examples, the Rikitake system and the Lamb's equations for a three-mode operating cavity in a laser are considered

  4. Localization of periodic orbits of polynomial systems by ellipsoidal estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starkov, Konstantin E. [CITEDI-IPN, Avenue del Parque 1310, Mesa de Otay, Tijuana, BC (Mexico)]. E-mail: konst@citedi.mx; Krishchenko, Alexander P. [Bauman Moscow State Technical University, 2nd Baumanskaya Street, 5, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: apkri@999.ru

    2005-02-01

    In this paper we study the localization problem of periodic orbits of multidimensional continuous-time systems in the global setting. Our results are based on the solution of the conditional extremum problem and using sign-definite quadratic and quartic forms. As examples, the Rikitake system and the Lamb's equations for a three-mode operating cavity in a laser are considered.

  5. Ellipsoidal universe can solve the cosmic microwave background quadrupole problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanelli, L; Cea, P; Tedesco, L

    2006-09-29

    The recent 3 yr Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data have confirmed the anomaly concerning the low quadrupole amplitude compared to the best-fit Lambda-cold dark matter prediction. We show that by allowing the large-scale spatial geometry of our universe to be plane symmetric with eccentricity at decoupling or order 10(-2), the quadrupole amplitude can be drastically reduced without affecting higher multipoles of the angular power spectrum of the temperature anisotropy.

  6. A new transiently chaotic flow with ellipsoid equilibria

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SHIRIN PANAHI

    2018-02-08

    Feb 8, 2018 ... cially available amplifiers, integrated circuits, or FPGAs. [56–58]. It is noted that ... which are implemented with the operational amplifier. TL084, as well as twelve .... [56] G Kaddoum and F Gagnon, IEEE Trans. Circuits-II 59,.

  7. A new transiently chaotic flow with ellipsoid equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Shirin; Aram, Zainab; Jafari, Sajad; Pham, Viet-Thanh; Volos, Christos; Rajagopal, Karthikeyan

    2018-03-01

    In this article, a simple autonomous transiently chaotic flow with cubic nonlinearities is proposed. This system represents some unusual features such as having a surface of equilibria. We shall describe some dynamical properties and behaviours of this system in terms of eigenvalue structures, bifurcation diagrams, time series, and phase portraits. Various behaviours of this system such as periodic and transiently chaotic dynamics can be shown by setting special parameters in proper values. Our system belongs to a newly introduced category of transiently chaotic systems: systems with hidden attractors. Transiently chaotic behaviour of our proposed system has been implemented and tested by the OrCAD-PSpise software. We have found a proper qualitative similarity between circuit and simulation results.

  8. Contextualization of Holocene beach ridge systems for relative sea-level reconstruction using the SRTM elevation model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Lasse; Raniolo, Luís Ariél; Alberdi, Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    for the WGS84 ellipsoid. On a beach ridge plain at Caleta de los Loros, Río Negro, Argentina, we observed a good correlation of GPS-RTK (GPS-Real Time Kinematic) measurements (estimated vertical accuracy:

  9. Using GPS and leveling data in local precise geoid determination and case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol, B.; Çelik, R. N.; Erol, S.

    2003-04-01

    As an important result of developments in high technology, satellite based positioning system has become to use in geodesy and surveying professions. These developments made the measurement works more accurate, more practical and more economic. Today, one of the most recent used satellite based positioning system is GPS (Global Positioning System) and it serves to a very wide range of geodetic applications from monitoring earth crustal deformations till building the basis for a GIS (Geographical Information Systems). The most efficient way to utilize GPS measurement system for mentioned aims is having a reliable geodetic infrastructure in working area. Geodetic infrastructure is a extraterrestrial and time system and involved 4D geodetic reference networks. The forth element of mentioned geodetic reference system is time because having an accurate and reliable geodetic infrastructure is needed to up-date according to physical realities of the region. By the help of a well designed geodetic infrastructure accurate and reliable coordinates of a point can be generated economically every time in a global and up-to-date system. Geoid is one of the important parts of a geodetic infrastructure. As it is well known, geoid is the equipotential surface of the Earth's gravity field which best fits, in a least squares sense, global mean sea level and it is reference for physical height systems like orthometric and normal heights. In the most of the applications, vertical position of a point is expressed with orthometric or normal height. Orthometric or normal height is a physical concept and gives vertical position of a point uniquely. On the other hand, vertical position of a point is derived in a geometrical system according to GPS measurements. GPS datum is WGS84 and in this system, an ellipsoidal height of a point is calculated according to WGS84 ellipsoid. So, it is an necessity to transform the ellipsoidal heights to orthometric heights and this procedure is managed with

  10. Sea level change

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Church, J.A.; Clark, P.U.; Cazenave, A.; Gregory, J.M.; Jevrejeva, S.; Levermann, A.; Merrifield, M.A.; Milne, G.A.; Nerem, R.S.; Nunn, P.D.; Payne, A.J.; Pfeffer, W.T.; Stammer, D.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    This chapter considers changes in global mean sea level, regional sea level, sea level extremes, and waves. Confidence in projections of global mean sea level rise has increased since the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) because of the improved...

  11. Survey on Urinary Levels of Aflatoxins in Professionally Exposed Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvio Ferri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Feed mill workers may handle or process maize contaminated with aflatoxins (AFs. This condition may lead to an unacceptable intake of toxins deriving from occupational exposure. This study assessed the serological and urinary levels of AFs in workers exposed to potentially contaminated dusts in two mills. From March to April 2014, blood and urine samples were collected, on Monday and Friday morning of the same working week from 29 exposed workers and 30 non-exposed controls. AFs (M1, G2, G1, B1, B2 and aflatoxicol (AFOH A were analyzed. Each subject filled in a questionnaire to evaluate potential food-borne exposures to mycotoxins. AFs contamination in environmental dust was measured in both plants. No serum sample was found to be positive. Seventy four percent of urine samples (73.7% revealed AFM1 presence. AFM1 mean concentration was 0.035 and 0.027 ng/mL in exposed and non-exposed workers, respectively (p = 0.432; the concentration was slightly higher in Friday’s than in Monday’s samples, in exposed workers, 0.040 versus (vs. 0.031 and non-exposed controls (0.030 vs. 0.024, p = 0.437. Environmental AFs contamination ranged from 7.2 to 125.4 µg/kg. The findings of this study reveal the presence of higher AFs concentration in exposed workers than in non-exposed controls, although these differences are to be considered consistent with random fluctuations.

  12. Guidance levels, achievable doses and expectation levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Lianbo; Meng, Bing

    2002-01-01

    The National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) published their guidance levels and reference doses for typical X-ray examination and nuclear medicine in their documents in 1993, 1994 and 1996 respectively. From then on, the concept of guidance levels or reference doses have been applied to different examinations in the field of radiology and proved to be effective for reduction of patient doses. But the guidance levels or reference doses are likely to have some shortcomings and can do little to make further reduction of patient dose in the radiology departments where patient dose are already below them. For this reason, the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) proposed a concept named achievable doses which are based on the mean dose observed for a selected sample of radiology departments. This paper will review and discuss the concept of guidance levels and achievable doses, and propose a new concept referred to as Expectation Levels that will encourage the radiology departments where patient dose are already below the guidance levels to keep patient dose as low as reasonably achievable. Some examples of the expectation levels based on the data published by a few countries are also illustrated in this paper

  13. INTERACTIVE EFFECT OF CAGE DENSITY AND DIETARY BLACK CUMIN LEVEL ON PRODUCTIVE EFFICIENCY IN BROILER CHICKENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Mahfudz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present research was aimed to evaluate an interactive effect of cage density and level ofdietary black cumin (BC on productive efficiency of broiler chickens. A total of 270 broiler chickens(initial body weight of 163.12 ± 8.10g were allocated into a completely randomized design with a 3 x 3factorial pattern. The first factor was the cage density (bird/m2 namely, D1 = 8; D2 = 10, and D3 = 12.The second factor was BC level (%, namely, B1 = 1; B2 = 2, and B3 = 3. Feed consumption, bodyweight gain (BWG, feed conversion ratio (FCR, protein digestibility, and income over feed cost(IOFC were the parameters measured. Data were subjected to ANOVA and continued to Duncan test.No interaction between cage density and black cumin on all parameters was observed. Feedconsumption and FCR were increased, but BWG was lowered significantly (P<0.05 due to the cagedensities of 10 and 12 birds/m2 on weeks 2 and 3. Protein digestibility was significantly increased byfeeding 2 and 3% BC. IOFC decreased significantly (P<0.05 when cage densities were 10 and 12birds/m2. In conclusion, the improvement of productive efficiency of broiler chicken reared at the cagedensity of 12 birds /m2 can be sufficiently achieved by feeding 1% black cumin.

  14. Accurate measurement of mitochondrial DNA deletion level and copy number differences in human skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Grady

    Full Text Available Accurate and reliable quantification of the abundance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA molecules, both wild-type and those harbouring pathogenic mutations, is important not only for understanding the progression of mtDNA disease but also for evaluating novel therapeutic approaches. A clear understanding of the sensitivity of mtDNA measurement assays under different experimental conditions is therefore critical, however it is routinely lacking for most published mtDNA quantification assays. Here, we comprehensively assess the variability of two quantitative Taqman real-time PCR assays, a widely-applied MT-ND1/MT-ND4 multiplex mtDNA deletion assay and a recently developed MT-ND1/B2M singleplex mtDNA copy number assay, across a range of DNA concentrations and mtDNA deletion/copy number levels. Uniquely, we provide a specific guide detailing necessary numbers of sample and real-time PCR plate replicates for accurately and consistently determining a given difference in mtDNA deletion levels and copy number in homogenate skeletal muscle DNA.

  15. Readability versus Leveling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Edward

    2002-01-01

    Shows some similarities and differences between readability formulas and leveling procedures and reports some current large-scale uses of readability formulas. Presents a dictionary definition of readability and leveling, and a history and background of readability and leveling. Discusses what goes into determining readability and leveling scores.…

  16. Data analysis at Level-1 Trigger level

    CERN Document Server

    Wittmann, Johannes; Aradi, Gregor; Bergauer, Herbert; Jeitler, Manfred; Wulz, Claudia; Apanasevich, Leonard; Winer, Brian; Puigh, Darren Michael

    2017-01-01

    With ever increasing luminosity at the LHC, optimum online data selection is getting more and more important. While in the case of some experiments (LHCb and ALICE) this task is being completely transferred to computer farms, the others - ATLAS and CMS - will not be able to do this in the medium-term future for technological, detector-related reasons. Therefore, these experiments pursue the complementary approach of migrating more and more of the offline and High-Level Trigger intelligence into the trigger electronics. This paper illustrates how the Level-1 Trigger of the CMS experiment and in particular its concluding stage, the Global Trigger, take up this challenge.

  17. Low magnesium level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low magnesium level is a condition in which the amount of magnesium in the blood is lower than normal. The medical ... that convert or use energy ( metabolism ). When the level of magnesium in the body drops below normal, ...

  18. Beyond level planarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelini, P.; Da Lozzo, G.; Di Battista, G.; Frati, F.; Patrignani, M.; Rutter, I.; Hu, Y.; Nöllenburg, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we settle the computational complexity of two open problems related to the extension of the notion of level planarity to surfaces different from the plane. Namely, we show that the problems of testing the existence of a level embedding of a level graph on the surface of the rolling

  19. Liquid metal level measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hale, J.C.; Leyland, K.S.

    1982-01-01

    A liquid metal level indicator is described which can be used to measure, in a stainless steel tank, the level of a nuclear reactor coolant such as sodium. The instrument, which is based on the eddy current induction effect, gives readings over substantially the full depth of the tank and indicates the sense of change of level. (U.K.)

  20. Precision contact level gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krejci, M.; Pilat, M.; Stulik, P.

    1977-01-01

    Equipment was developed measuring the heavy water level in the TR-0 reactor core within an accuracy of several hundredths of a millimeter in a range of around 3.5 m and at a temperature of up to 90 degC. The equipment uses a vibrating needle contact as a high sensitivity level gauge and a servomechanical system with a motion screw carrying the gauge for monitoring and measuring the level in the desired range. The advantage of the unique level gauge consists in that that the transducer converts the measured level position to an electric signal, ie., pulse width, with high sensitivity and without hysteresis. (Kr)

  1. High-level verification

    CERN Document Server

    Lerner, Sorin; Kundu, Sudipta

    2011-01-01

    Given the growing size and heterogeneity of Systems on Chip (SOC), the design process from initial specification to chip fabrication has become increasingly complex. This growing complexity provides incentive for designers to use high-level languages such as C, SystemC, and SystemVerilog for system-level design. While a major goal of these high-level languages is to enable verification at a higher level of abstraction, allowing early exploration of system-level designs, the focus so far for validation purposes has been on traditional testing techniques such as random testing and scenario-based

  2. Multi-Level Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanta Nicoleta BODEA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Is an original paper, which contains a hierarchical model with three levels, for determining the linearized non-homogeneous and homogeneous credibility premiums at company level, at sector level and at contract level, founded on the relevant covariance relations between the risk premium, the observations and the weighted averages. We give a rather explicit description of the input data for the multi- level hierarchical model used, only to show that in practical situations, there will always be enough data to apply credibility theory to a real insurance portfolio.

  3. Sea level report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, M.L.

    1979-01-01

    Study of Cenozoic Era sea levels shows a continual lowering of sea level through the Tertiary Period. This overall drop in sea level accompanied the Pleistocene Epoch glacio-eustatic fluctuations. The considerable change of Pleistocene Epoch sea level is most directly attributable to the glacio-eustatic factor, with a time span of 10 5 years and an amplitude or range of approximately 200 m. The lowering of sea level since the end of the Cretaceous Period is attributed to subsidence and mid-ocean ridges. The maximum rate for sea level change is 4 cm/y. At present, mean sea level is rising at about 3 to 4 mm/y. Glacio-eustacy and tectono-eustacy are the parameters for predicting sea level changes in the next 1 my. Glacio-eustatic sea level changes may be projected on the basis of the Milankovitch Theory. Predictions about tectono-eustatic sea level changes, however, involve predictions about future tectonic activity and are therefore somewhat difficult to make. Coastal erosion and sedimentation are affected by changes in sea level. Erosion rates for soft sediments may be as much as 50 m/y. The maximum sedimentation accumulation rate is 20 m/100 y

  4. System level ESD protection

    CERN Document Server

    Vashchenko, Vladislav

    2014-01-01

    This book addresses key aspects of analog integrated circuits and systems design related to system level electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection.  It is an invaluable reference for anyone developing systems-on-chip (SoC) and systems-on-package (SoP), integrated with system-level ESD protection. The book focuses on both the design of semiconductor integrated circuit (IC) components with embedded, on-chip system level protection and IC-system co-design. The readers will be enabled to bring the system level ESD protection solutions to the level of integrated circuits, thereby reducing or completely eliminating the need for additional, discrete components on the printed circuit board (PCB) and meeting system-level ESD requirements. The authors take a systematic approach, based on IC-system ESD protection co-design. A detailed description of the available IC-level ESD testing methods is provided, together with a discussion of the correlation between IC-level and system-level ESD testing methods. The IC-level ESD...

  5. Effect of radiation dose level on accuracy and precision of manual size measurements in chest tomosynthesis evaluated using simulated pulmonary nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederman, Christina; Allansdotter Johnsson, Aase; Vikgren, Jenny; Rossi Norrlund, Rauni; Molnar, David; Svalkvist, Angelica; Maansson, Lars Gunnar; Baath, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the dependency of the accuracy and precision of nodule diameter measurements on the radiation dose level in chest tomosynthesis. Artificial ellipsoid-shaped nodules with known dimensions were inserted in clinical chest tomosynthesis images. Noise was added to the images in order to simulate radiation dose levels corresponding to effective doses for a standard-sized patient of 0.06 and 0.04 mSv. These levels were compared with the original dose level, corresponding to an effective dose of 0.12 mSv for a standard-sized patient. Four thoracic radiologists measured the longest diameter of the nodules. The study was restricted to nodules located in high-dose areas of the tomosynthesis projection radiographs. A significant decrease of the measurement accuracy and intra-observer variability was seen for the lowest dose level for a subset of the observers. No significant effect of dose level on the interobserver variability was found. The number of non-measurable small nodules (≤5 mm) was higher for the two lowest dose levels compared with the original dose level. In conclusion, for pulmonary nodules at positions in the lung corresponding to locations in high-dose areas of the projection radiographs, using a radiation dose level resulting in an effective dose of 0.06 mSv to a standard-sized patient may be possible in chest tomosynthesis without affecting the accuracy and precision of nodule diameter measurements to any large extent. However, an increasing number of non-measurable small nodules (≤5 mm) with decreasing radiation dose may raise some concerns regarding an applied general dose reduction for chest tomosynthesis examinations in the clinical praxis. (authors)

  6. Gamma spectrometry; level schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blachot, J.; Bocquet, J.P.; Monnand, E.; Schussler, F.

    1977-01-01

    The research presented dealt with: a new beta emitter, isomer of 131 Sn; the 136 I levels fed through the radioactive decay of 136 Te (20.9s); the A=145 chain (β decay of Ba, La and Ce, and level schemes for 145 La, 145 Ce, 145 Pr); the A=47 chain (La and Ce, β decay, and the level schemes of 147 Ce and 147 Pr) [fr

  7. Nuclear Level Densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimes, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    Recent research in the area of nuclear level densities is reviewed. The current interest in nuclear astrophysics and in structure of nuclei off of the line of stability has led to the development of radioactive beam facilities with larger machines currently being planned. Nuclear level densities for the systems used to produce the radioactive beams influence substantially the production rates of these beams. The modification of level-density parameters near the drip lines would also affect nucleosynthesis rates and abundances

  8. Group-level variations in motor representation areas of thenar and anterior tibial muscles: Navigated Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niskanen, Eini; Julkunen, Petro; Säisänen, Laura; Vanninen, Ritva; Karjalainen, Pasi; Könönen, Mervi

    2010-08-01

    Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be used to stimulate functional cortical areas at precise anatomical location to induce measurable responses. The stimulation has commonly been focused on anatomically predefined motor areas: TMS of that area elicits a measurable muscle response, the motor evoked potential. In clinical pathologies, however, the well-known homunculus somatotopy theory may not be straightforward, and the representation area of the muscle is not fixed. Traditionally, the anatomical locations of TMS stimulations have not been reported at the group level in standard space. This study describes a methodology for group-level analysis by investigating the normal representation areas of thenar and anterior tibial muscle in the primary motor cortex. The optimal representation area for these muscles was mapped in 59 healthy right-handed subjects using navigated TMS. The coordinates of the optimal stimulation sites were then normalized into standard space to determine the representation areas of these muscles at the group-level in healthy subjects. Furthermore, 95% confidence interval ellipsoids were fitted into the optimal stimulation site clusters to define the variation between subjects in optimal stimulation sites. The variation was found to be highest in the anteroposterior direction along the superior margin of the precentral gyrus. These results provide important normative information for clinical studies assessing changes in the functional cortical areas because of plasticity of the brain. Furthermore, it is proposed that the presented methodology to study TMS locations at the group level on standard space will be a suitable tool for research purposes in population studies. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Levels of safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povyakalo, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    When speaking about danger of catastrophe, it is the first level of danger. Its absence is the first level of safety. When speaking about danger of danger of catastrophe, it is the second level of danger. Its absence is the second level of safety. The paper proposes the way to formalize these ideas and use formal models to construct the states-and-event scale for a given object. The proposed approach can be applied to objects of different nature. The states-and-events scale may be used for transformation of initial objectives state-and-transitions graph to reduce bad classes of states

  10. Tiltmeter leveling mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Steven L.; Boro, Carl O.; Farris, Alvis

    2002-01-01

    A tiltmeter device having a pair of orthogonally disposed tilt sensors that are levelable within an inner housing containing the sensors. An outer housing can be rotated to level at least one of the sensor pair while the inner housing can be rotated to level the other sensor of the pair. The sensors are typically rotated up to about plus or minus 100 degrees. The device is effective for measuring tilts in a wide range of angles of inclination of wells and can be employed to level a platform containing a third sensor.

  11. Standard Industry Fare Level

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Standard Industry Fare Level was establish after airline deregulation to serve as the standard against which a statutory zone of operating expense reasonableness was...

  12. PEP liquid level system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauritzen, T.; Sah, R.C.

    1981-03-01

    A liquid level system has been installed in the accelerator housing of the PEP storage ring. This instrument spans the entire 2.2 km circumference of the PEP project, and over one hundred readouts provide reference elevations which are used for the accurate alignment of accelerator components. The liquid level has proven to be extremely precise (+-0.10 mm) and quick to use, and it has contributed to the accurate alignment of PEP before beam turn-on. Since the liquid level readouts are rigidly attached to the accelerator housing, the liquid level has been a convenient means to monitor the settling of the accelerator housing

  13. Reference handbook: Level detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide Rocky Flats personnel with the information necessary to understand level measurement and detection. Upon completion of this handbook you should be able to do the following: List three reasons for measuring level. Describe the basic operating principles of the sight glass. Demonstrate proper techniques for reading a sight glass. Describe the basic operating principles of a float level detector. Describe the basic operating principles of a bubbler level indicating system. Explain the differences between a wet and dry reference leg indicating system, and describe how each functions. This handbook is designed for use by experienced Rocky Flats operators to reinforce and improve their current knowledge level, and by entry-level operators to ensure that they possess a minimum level of fundamental knowledge. Level Detectors is applicable to many job classifications and can be used as a reference for classroom work or for self-study. Although this reference handbook is by no means all-encompassing, you will gain enough information about this subject area to assist you in contributing to the safe operation of Rocky Flats Plant

  14. Authentication Assurance Levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Cash, James R.; Devaney, David M.; Geelhood, Bruce D.; Hansen, Randy R.; Melton, Ronald B.; Pitts, W. Karl

    2002-01-01

    This Common Criteria approach has been applied to create a definition of Authentication Assurance Levels that can quantify the level of assurance reached for a system subject to a set of authentication procedures. The arms-control authentication application of the Common Criteria expands on more typical information security evaluations in that it must contend with information barriers and preclude sophisticated intentional subversion attempts.

  15. Raised IL-6 Levels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Cardiovascular Associated Complications in HIV. Positive Zambians before ... compare plasma levels of IL-6 in HIV positive and. HIV negative .... cancer. Results from this study showed that IL-6 levels in. HIV positive ART naive individuals were significantly higher than in the HIV positive individuals on ART. Our findings ...

  16. Low level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, P.R.H.; Wilson, M.A.

    1983-11-01

    Factors in selecting a site for low-level radioactive waste disposal are discussed. South Australia has used a former tailings dam in a remote, arid location as a llw repository. There are also low-level waste disposal procedures at the Olympic Dam copper/uranium project

  17. Definition of Virtual Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Bruce W.

    1979-01-01

    Presents an examination of graphical displays of solutions to time-dependent Schrodinger equation modeling a laser-excited three-level atom. It suggests that an energy level may be regarded as virtual when it is detuned from resonance by more than two Rabi frequencies. (Author/HM)

  18. Levels of Literary Meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Søren Harnow

    2017-01-01

    I argue that intentionalist theories of meaning and interpretation, like those of Hirsch and Juhl, have been insufficiently attentive to the different levels of authorial intention that are operative in literary works. By countenancing intentions on different levels – ranging from simple semantic...

  19. Arctic Sea Level Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Peter Limkilde

    Reconstruction of historical Arctic sea level is very difficult due to the limited coverage and quality of tide gauge and altimetry data in the area. This thesis addresses many of these issues, and discusses strategies to help achieve a stable and plausible reconstruction of Arctic sea level from...... 1950 to today.The primary record of historical sea level, on the order of several decades to a few centuries, is tide gauges. Tide gauge records from around the world are collected in the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) database, and includes data along the Arctic coasts. A reasonable...... amount of data is available along the Norwegian and Russian coasts since 1950, and most published research on Arctic sea level extends cautiously from these areas. Very little tide gauge data is available elsewhere in the Arctic, and records of a length of several decades,as generally recommended for sea...

  20. Contemporary Arctic Sea Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazenave, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    During recent decades, the Arctic region has warmed at a rate about twice the rest of the globe. Sea ice melting is increasing and the Greenland ice sheet is losing mass at an accelerated rate. Arctic warming, decrease in the sea ice cover and fresh water input to the Arctic ocean may eventually impact the Arctic sea level. In this presentation, we review our current knowledge of contemporary Arctic sea level changes. Until the beginning of the 1990s, Arctic sea level variations were essentially deduced from tide gauges located along the Russian and Norwegian coastlines. Since then, high inclination satellite altimetry missions have allowed measuring sea level over a large portion of the Arctic Ocean (up to 80 degree north). Measuring sea level in the Arctic by satellite altimetry is challenging because the presence of sea ice cover limits the full capacity of this technique. However adapted processing of raw altimetric measurements significantly increases the number of valid data, hence the data coverage, from which regional sea level variations can be extracted. Over the altimetry era, positive trend patterns are observed over the Beaufort Gyre and along the east coast of Greenland, while negative trends are reported along the Siberian shelf. On average over the Arctic region covered by satellite altimetry, the rate of sea level rise since 1992 is slightly less than the global mea sea level rate (of about 3 mm per year). On the other hand, the interannual variability is quite significant. Space gravimetry data from the GRACE mission and ocean reanalyses provide information on the mass and steric contributions to sea level, hence on the sea level budget. Budget studies show that regional sea level trends over the Beaufort Gyre and along the eastern coast of Greenland, are essentially due to salinity changes. However, in terms of regional average, the net steric component contributes little to the observed sea level trend. The sea level budget in the Arctic

  1. Nuclear level density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso Junior, J.L.

    1982-10-01

    Experimental data show that the number of nuclear states increases rapidly with increasing excitation energy. The properties of highly excited nuclei are important for many nuclear reactions, mainly those that go via processes of the compound nucleus type. In this case, it is sufficient to know the statistical properties of the nuclear levels. First of them is the function of nuclear levels density. Several theoretical models which describe the level density are presented. The statistical mechanics and a quantum mechanics formalisms as well as semi-empirical results are analysed and discussed. (Author) [pt

  2. Measuring Your Fitness Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... online calculator. If you'd rather do the math yourself, divide your weight in pounds by your ... Human Services recommends one of the following activity levels for adult fitness and health benefits: 150 minutes ...

  3. Three Levels of Semiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a second-order semiotic framework for ontological levels, which is based on the structure of semiosis in a more fundamental way than other existing approaches to semiotic levels. Building on the key semiotic concept of representation, three levels are posited: (1) non- or proto......-semiotic processes, without representation, such as physical or causal processes, (2) semiotic processes, with representation, such as the processes of life and cognition, and (3) second-order semiotic processes, with representation of representation, such as self-conscious and self-reflexive communicative processes....... This semiotic framework for ontological levels is compared with recent discussions of different ontological kinds of kinds such as indifferent and interactive kinds. This leads to the distinction between not two, but three kinds of kinds: indifferent, adaptive and reflexive kinds, of which the last two hitherto...

  4. Water Level Station History

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Images contain station history information for 175 stations in the National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON). The NWLON is a network of long-term,...

  5. Projecting future sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayan, Daniel R.; Bromirski, Peter; Hayhoe, Katharine; Tyree, Mary; Dettinger, Mike; Flick, Reinhard

    2006-01-01

    California’s coastal observations and global model projections indicate that California’s open coast and estuaries will experience increasing sea levels over the next century. Sea level rise has affected much of the coast of California, including the Southern California coast, the Central California open coast, and the San Francisco Bay and upper estuary. These trends, quantified from a small set of California tide gages, have ranged from 10–20 centimeters (cm) (3.9–7.9 inches) per century, quite similar to that estimated for global mean sea level. So far, there is little evidence that the rate of rise has accelerated, and the rate of rise at California tide gages has actually flattened since 1980, but projections suggest substantial sea level rise may occur over the next century. Climate change simulations project a substantial rate of global sea level rise over the next century due to thermal expansion as the oceans warm and runoff from melting land-based snow and ice accelerates. Sea level rise projected from the models increases with the amount of warming. Relative to sea levels in 2000, by the 2070–2099 period, sea level rise projections range from 11–54 cm (4.3–21 in) for simulations following the lower (B1) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenario, from 14–61 cm (5.5–24 in) for the middle-upper (A2) emission scenario, and from 17–72 cm (6.7–28 in) for the highest (A1fi) scenario. In addition to relatively steady secular trends, sea levels along the California coast undergo shorter period variability above or below predicted tide levels and changes associated with long-term trends. These variations are caused by weather events and by seasonal to decadal climate fluctuations over the Pacific Ocean that in turn affect the Pacific coast. Highest coastal sea levels have occurred when winter storms and Pacific climate disturbances, such as El Niño, have coincided with high astronomical tides. This study considers a range of projected future

  6. High potassium level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... level is very high, or if you have danger signs, such as changes in an ECG . Emergency ... Seifter JL. Potassium disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  7. Technology Readiness Level Guidebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This guidebook provides the necessary information for conducting a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) Assessment. TRL Assessments are a tool for determining the maturity of technologies and identifying next steps in the research process. This guidebook...

  8. Low potassium level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treat and prevent low level of potassium. These foods include: Avocados Baked potato Bananas Bran Carrots Cooked lean beef Milk Oranges Peanut butter Peas and beans Salmon Seaweed Spinach Tomatoes Wheat germ

  9. Low level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthoux, A.

    1985-01-01

    Final disposal of low level wastes has been carried out for 15 years on the shallow land disposal of the Manche in the north west of France. Final participant in the nuclear energy cycle, ANDRA has set up a new waste management system from the production center (organization of the waste collection) to the disposal site including the setting up of a transport network, the development of assessment, additional conditioning, interim storage, the management of the disposal center, records of the location and characteristics of the disposed wastes, site selection surveys for future disposals and a public information Department. 80 000 waste packages representing a volume of 20 000 m 3 are thus managed and disposed of each year on the shallow land disposal. The disposal of low level wastes is carried out according to their category and activity level: - in tumuli for very low level wastes, - in monoliths, a concrete structure, of the packaging does not provide enough protection against radioactivity [fr

  10. Lead levels - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood lead levels ... is used to screen people at risk for lead poisoning. This may include industrial workers and children ... also used to measure how well treatment for lead poisoning is working. Lead is common in the ...

  11. Lake Level Reconstructions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past lake levels, mostly related to changes in moisture balance (evaporation-precipitation). Parameter keywords describe what was measured in this data...

  12. Liquid level controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangus, J.D.; Redding, A.H.

    1975-01-01

    A system for maintaining two distinct sodium levels within the shell of a heat exchanger having a plurality of J-shaped modular tube bundles each enclosed in a separate shell which extends from a common base portion. A lower liquid level is maintained in the base portion and an upper liquid level is maintained in the shell enwrapping the long stem of the J-shaped tube bundles by utilizing standpipes with a notch at the lower end which decreases in open area the distance from the end of the stand pipe increases and a supply of inert gas fed at a constant rate to produce liquid levels, which will remain generally constant as the flow of liquid through the vessel varies

  13. Fission level densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslov, V.M.

    1998-01-01

    Fission level densities (or fissioning nucleus level densities at fission saddle deformations) are required for statistical model calculations of actinide fission cross sections. Back-shifted Fermi-Gas Model, Constant Temperature Model and Generalized Superfluid Model (GSM) are widely used for the description of level densities at stable deformations. These models provide approximately identical level density description at excitations close to the neutron binding energy. It is at low excitation energies that they are discrepant, while this energy region is crucial for fission cross section calculations. A drawback of back-shifted Fermi gas model and traditional constant temperature model approaches is that it is difficult to include in a consistent way pair correlations, collective effects and shell effects. Pair, shell and collective properties of nucleus do not reduce just to the renormalization of level density parameter a, but influence the energy dependence of level densities. These effects turn out to be important because they seem to depend upon deformation of either equilibrium or saddle-point. These effects are easily introduced within GSM approach. Fission barriers are another key ingredients involved in the fission cross section calculations. Fission level density and barrier parameters are strongly interdependent. This is the reason for including fission barrier parameters along with the fission level densities in the Starter File. The recommended file is maslov.dat - fission barrier parameters. Recent version of actinide fission barrier data obtained in Obninsk (obninsk.dat) should only be considered as a guide for selection of initial parameters. These data are included in the Starter File, together with the fission barrier parameters recommended by CNDC (beijing.dat), for completeness. (author)

  14. Changing Sea Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, David

    2004-04-01

    Flooding of coastal communities is one of the major causes of environmental disasters world-wide. This textbook explains how sea levels are affected by astronomical tides, weather effects, ocean circulation and climate trends. Based on courses taught by the author in the U.K. and the U.S., it is aimed at undergraduate students at all levels, with non-basic mathematics being confined to Appendices and a website http://publishing.cambridge.org/resources/0521532183/.

  15. Float level indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grishchuk, M.Kh.; Laptev, A.G.; Pashkov, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    Specially developed level indicator is suggested with differential to-transformer converter of the float motion, operating in line with a movable electronic block, intended for indicating the level of the dissociating nitrogen tetroxide liquid phase. On the basis of the indicator elements the device is realized to measure the time of calibrated volume fillino. in by liquid nitrogen tetroxide in steady state operation of the experimental bench-marks [ru

  16. Contemporary sea level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazenave, Anny; Llovel, William

    2010-01-01

    Measuring sea level change and understanding its causes has considerably improved in the recent years, essentially because new in situ and remote sensing observations have become available. Here we report on most recent results on contemporary sea level rise. We first present sea level observations from tide gauges over the twentieth century and from satellite altimetry since the early 1990s. We next discuss the most recent progress made in quantifying the processes causing sea level change on timescales ranging from years to decades, i.e., thermal expansion of the oceans, land ice mass loss, and land water-storage change. We show that for the 1993-2007 time span, the sum of climate-related contributions (2.85 +/- 0.35 mm year(-1)) is only slightly less than altimetry-based sea level rise (3.3 +/- 0.4 mm year(-1)): approximately 30% of the observed rate of rise is due to ocean thermal expansion and approximately 55% results from land ice melt. Recent acceleration in glacier melting and ice mass loss from the ice sheets increases the latter contribution up to 80% for the past five years. We also review the main causes of regional variability in sea level trends: The dominant contribution results from nonuniform changes in ocean thermal expansion.

  17. Water level indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murase, Michio; Araki, Hidefumi.

    1996-01-01

    A difference of pressure between a standard pressure conduit in communication with a gas phase of a reactor pressure vessel and a water level pressure conduit in communication with a liquid phase of the pressure vessel is detected by a pressure difference gage. A communication pipe and a standard level vessel are disposed between the pressure vessel and the standard pressure conduit, and a standard liquid surface on the side of the standard pressure conduit is formed in the standard level vessel. A gas releaser is disposed to the gas phase portion of the standard level vessel. The gas releaser equipment is constituted by a porous material, a permeation membrane and a gas exhaustion hole. The gas phase of the standard level vessel is divided by a partition plate into a first gas phase being in contact with a connection portion with the communication pipe and a second gas phase in contact with the gas releaser. A gas flow channel hole and a condensate descending hole are disposed to the partition plate. Since incondensible gases accumulated to the standard level vessel are effectively exhausted, the incondensible gases are prevented from being dissolved into liquid. (I.N.)

  18. CELL DAMAGE, ANTIOXIDANT STATUS, AND CORTISOL LEVELS RELATED TO NUTRITION IN SKI MOUNTAINEERING DURING A TWO-DAY RACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Diaz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to measure the effect of nutrition on cell damage, antioxidant enzymes, and cortisol during a two-day ski mountaineering competition. Twenty-one male skiers participated in the study. Creatine kinase (CK, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, ?-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, alkaline phosphatase (AP, cortisol and C-reactive protein (CRP, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and reductase activities (GR and C-reactive protein (CRP levels, total antioxidant status, and cortisol levels were measured in serum the day before and immediately after the race. Their diet was also analysed during the competition. Enzymes and cortisol levels significantly increased after the competition. CK and LDH and cortisol levels were negatively correlated to total energy, protein, and fat intake. Intake of vitamin A, B1, B2, B6 and niacin was negatively correlated to LDH and AP. A negative correlation was also found between CK activity and Na, Fe, and Zn intake. Cortisol levels were negatively correlated to the intake of vitamins C, B1 and B2, and niacin. A positive correlation was found between serum GPx and intake of energy, carbohydrates, proteins, A and B vitamins, and folic acid. Skiers with the lowest nutrient intake during the competition were the ones who showed greater cell damage and lower antioxidant enzyme activity and cortisol levels, which may impair performance and also cause injuries and accidents. Particularly, skiers should have high intakes of total energy, macronutrients, vitamins A and B, Na, Zn, and Fe in order to decrease the deleterious effect of strenuous exercise

  19. Transmutations across hierarchical levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, R.V.

    1977-01-01

    The development of large-scale ecological models depends implicitly on a concept known as hierarchy theory which views biological systems in a series of hierarchical levels (i.e., organism, population, trophic level, ecosystem). The theory states that an explanation of a biological phenomenon is provided when it is shown to be the consequence of the activities of the system's components, which are themselves systems in the next lower level of the hierarchy. Thus, the behavior of a population is explained by the behavior of the organisms in the population. The initial step in any modeling project is, therefore, to identify the system components and the interactions between them. A series of examples of transmutations in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems are presented to show how and why changes occur. The types of changes are summarized and possible implications of transmutation for hierarchy theory, for the modeler, and for the ecological theoretician are discussed

  20. Optimal Levels of Embeddedness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristina Vaarst

    Co-location of industry professionals often leads to development of collaboration networks, and multiple studies have emphasized the benefits of embedded collaboration. Due to higher levels of trust, embedded collaboration reduces transaction costs and facilitates ready knowledge exchanged. Other...... on regional level data on co-location of knowledge workers, workplaces, and cultural amenities. Two papers build on individual level data from the Danish film industry. The first paper analyses why the importance of co-location differs between groups of knowledge workers and aim to explain centralization...... in localized collaboration networks is so essential, it affects location choices. The second paper challenges the proposition of embeddedness as an absolute term through an analysis of costs and benefits of embeddedness in an industry network. The results show that the association between embeddedness...

  1. Caribbean Sea Level Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Crespo Jones, H.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past 500 years almost 100 tsunamis have been observed in the Caribbean and Western Atlantic, with at least 3510 people having lost their lives to this hazard since 1842. Furthermore, with the dramatic increase in population and infrastructure along the Caribbean coasts, today, millions of coastal residents, workers and visitors are vulnerable to tsunamis. The UNESCO IOC Intergovernmental Coordination Group for Tsunamis and other Coastal Hazards for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS) was established in 2005 to coordinate and advance the regional tsunami warning system. The CARIBE EWS focuses on four areas/working groups: (1) Monitoring and Warning, (2) Hazard and Risk Assessment, (3) Communication and (4) Education, Preparedness and Readiness. The sea level monitoring component is under Working Group 1. Although in the current system, it's the seismic data and information that generate the initial tsunami bulletins, it is the data from deep ocean buoys (DARTS) and the coastal sea level gauges that are critical for the actual detection and forecasting of tsunamis impact. Despite multiple efforts and investments in the installation of sea level stations in the region, in 2004 there were only a handful of sea level stations operational in the region (Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands, Bermuda, Bahamas). Over the past 5 years there has been a steady increase in the number of stations operating in the Caribbean region. As of mid 2012 there were 7 DARTS and 37 coastal gauges with additional ones being installed or funded. In order to reach the goal of 100 operational coastal sea level stations in the Caribbean, the CARIBE EWS recognizes also the importance of maintaining the current stations. For this, a trained workforce in the region for the installation, operation and data analysis and quality control is considered to be critical. Since 2008, three training courses have been offered to the sea level station operators and data analysts. Other

  2. Seismic Level 2 PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirksen, Gerben; Pellissetti, Manuel; Duncan-Whiteman, Paul

    2014-01-01

    For most external events, the calculation of the core damage frequency (CDF) in Level 1 PSA is sufficient to be able to show that the contribution of the event to the plant risk is negligible. However, it is not sufficient to compare the CDF due to the external event to the total plant CDF; instead the Level 1 PSA result for the event should be compared to the large early release frequency (LERF), or alternatively arguments should be given why the CDF from the external event will not contribute mostly to LERF. For seismic events in particular, it can often not be easily excluded that sequences leading to core damage would not also result in LERF. Since the confinement function is one of the most essential functions for Level 2 PSA, special care must be taken of the containment penetrations. For example systems with containment penetrations that are normally closed during operation or are designed to withstand more than the maximum containment pressure are normally screened out in the Level 2 PSA for the containment isolation function, however the possibility of LOCA in such systems due to an earthquake may nevertheless lead to containment bypass. Additionally, the functionality of passive features may be compromised in case of a beyond design earthquake. In the present paper, we present crucial ingredients of a methodology for a Level 2 seismic PSA. This methodology consists of the following steps: Extension of the seismic equipment list (SEL) to include Level 2 PSA relevant systems (e.g. containment isolation system, features for core melt stabilization, hydrogen mitigation systems), Determination of the systems within the existing SEL with increased demands in case of severe accidents, Determination of essential components for which a dedicated fragility analysis needs to be performed. (author)

  3. Street level society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinum, Christine; Nissen, Morten

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to reflect on research findings from different empirical studies of social work with young drug users and socially excluded young people in Copenhagen. In the paper we account for historical changes in social policy and interventions into young people's drug taking in Copenhagen......, and partly from the decentralizing and specializing efforts characteristic of the Danish welfare state and its institutions. We discuss a general turn towards street level interventions to address the problems of social exclusion, as well as different attempts to create what we term street level heterotopias...

  4. Level width broadening effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jingshang

    2003-01-01

    In file-6 for double-differential cross sections, the level width broadening effect should be taken into account properly due to Heisenberg' uncertainty. Besides level width broadening effect, the energy resolution in the measurements is also needed in fitting measurement procedure. In general, the traditional normal Gaussian expansion is employed. However, to do so in this way the energy balance could not be held. For this reason, the deformed Gaussian expansion functions with exponential form for both the single energy point and continuous spectrum are introduced, with which the normalization and energy balance conditions could be held exactly in the analytical form. (author)

  5. Dietary intake of the water-soluble vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12 and C in 10 countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, A; Halkjaer, J; van Gils, C H; Buijsse, B; Verhagen, H; Jenab, M; Boutron-Ruault, M C; Ericson, U; Ocké, M C; Peeters, P H M; Touvier, M; Niravong, M; Waaseth, M; Skeie, G; Khaw, K T; Travis, R; Ferrari, P; Sanchez, M J; Agudo, A; Overvad, K; Linseisen, J; Weikert, C; Sacerdote, C; Evangelista, A; Zylis, D; Tsiotas, K; Manjer, J; van Guelpen, B; Riboli, E; Slimani, N; Bingham, S

    2009-11-01

    To describe the intake of vitamins thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), B6 (pyridoxine), B12 (cobalamine) and C (ascorbic acid) and their food sources among 27 centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 persons aged between 35 and 74 years were administered a standardized 24-h dietary recall using a computerized interview software programme (EPIC-SOFT). Intakes of the four B vitamins and vitamin C were estimated using the standardized EPIC Nutrient Database (ENDB). Mean intakes were adjusted for age and weighted by season and day of recall. Intake of B vitamins did not vary considerably between centres, except in the UK health-conscious cohort, in which substantially higher intakes of thiamine and lower intakes of vitamin B12 were reported compared with other centres. Overall, meat was the most important contributor to the B vitamins in all centres except in the UK health-conscious group. Vitamin C showed a clear geographical gradient, with higher intakes in the southern centres as compared with the northern ones; this was more pronounced in men than in women. Vegetables and fruits were major contributors to vitamin C in all centres, but juices and potatoes were also important sources in the northern centres. This study showed no major differences across centres in the mean intakes of B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, B6, B12), whereas a tendency towards a north-south gradient was observed for vitamin C.

  6. Middle Level Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Richard M., Jr.; Young, Katherine A.; Sliger, Bruce; Kafi, Patricia; Singer, Alan; Lamme, Linda Leonard

    1998-01-01

    Presents five brief articles related to middle-level learning. The articles are, "Using Children's Diaries to Teach the Oregon Trail"; "Living the Geography of Joseph and Temperance Brown"; "The ABCs of Small Grant Acquisition for Social Studies"; "Isomo Loruko: The Yoruba Naming Ceremony"; and "Child…

  7. New level of structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, O.W.

    1985-01-01

    In the standard model of matter, ther are five stages of compositeness- molecules, atoms, nuclei, nucleons, and quarks and leptons-but we are beginning to see regularities at the fifth layer that may point to a deeper, sixth level of structure

  8. Reliability and code level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasperski, M.; Geurts, C.P.W.

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes the work of the IAWE Working Group WBG - Reliability and Code Level, one of the International Codification Working Groups set up at ICWE10 in Copenhagen. The following topics are covered: sources of uncertainties in the design wind load, appropriate design target values for the

  9. Organotin levels in seafood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belfroid, A.C.; Purperhart, M.; Ariese, F.

    2000-01-01

    Tolerable average residue levels (TARL) for tributylin (TBT) in seafood products were calculated based on the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of TBT and the seafood consumption of the average consumer in various countries. Data from the literature show that these TARLs in seafood are exceeded in one or

  10. 55Co level properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodin, G.; Nilsson, L.; Erlandsson, B.; Lyttkens, J.

    1975-01-01

    The decay pf low-lying levels in 55 Co has been studied by means of the 54 Fe(d,nγ) 55 Co reaction. Neutron energies were determined by time-of-flight techniques using a pulsed incident beam and a large liquid scintillator. Gamma rays in coincidence with neutrons were detected by a Ge(Li)spectrometer, Three levels at 4720.8+-0.6, 4747.1+-0.6 and 5172.4+-0.6 keV were strongly populated. The 4720 and 5172 keV levels have earlier been identified as the isobaric analogues of the 55 Fe ground state and first excited state. On the basis of a comparison of the present results with previous particle-transfer reaction studies it is suggested that the ground state analogue is split into the 4720 and 4747 keV levels. A study of excitation functions of 54 Fe(d,n)transitions at incident deuteron energies between 5.0 and 6.0 MeV show that the spectroscopic strengths obtained from (d,n) experiments in this mass region at these energies depend strongly on the incident energy. (Auth.)

  11. Implementing Modular A Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holding, Gordon

    This document, which is designed for curriculum managers at British further education (FE) colleges, presents basic information on the implementation and perceived benefits of the General Certificate of Education (GCE) modular A (Advanced) levels. The information was synthesized from a survey of 12 FE colleges that introduced the modular A levels…

  12. Levels of valence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera eShuman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The distinction between the positive and the negative is fundamental in our emotional life. In appraisal theories, in particular in the component process model of emotion (Scherer, 1984, 2010, qualitatively different types of valence are proposed based on appraisals of (unpleasantness, goal obstructiveness/conduciveness, low or high power, self- (incongruence, and moral badness/goodness. This multifaceted conceptualization of valence is highly compatible with the frequent observation of mixed feelings in real life. However, it seems to contradict the one-dimensional conceptualization of valence often encountered in psychological theories, and the notion of valence as a common currency used to explain choice behavior. Here, we propose a framework to integrate the seemingly disparate conceptualizations of multifaceted valence and one-dimensional valence by suggesting that valence should be conceived at different levels, micro and macro. Micro-valences correspond to qualitatively different types of evaluations, potentially resulting in mixed feelings, whereas one-dimensional macro-valence corresponds to an integrative common currency to compare alternatives for choices. We propose that conceptualizing levels of valence may focus research attention on the mechanisms that relate valence at one level (micro to valence at another level (macro, leading to new hypotheses and addressing various concerns that have been raised about the valence concept, such as the valence-emotion relation.

  13. Levels of Valence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuman, Vera; Sander, David; Scherer, Klaus R.

    2013-01-01

    The distinction between the positive and the negative is fundamental in our emotional life. In appraisal theories, in particular in the component process model of emotion (Scherer, 1984, 2010), qualitatively different types of valence are proposed based on appraisals of (un)pleasantness, goal obstructiveness/conduciveness, low or high power, self-(in)congruence, and moral badness/goodness. This multifaceted conceptualization of valence is highly compatible with the frequent observation of mixed feelings in real life. However, it seems to contradict the one-dimensional conceptualization of valence often encountered in psychological theories, and the notion of valence as a common currency used to explain choice behavior. Here, we propose a framework to integrate the seemingly disparate conceptualizations of multifaceted valence and one-dimensional valence by suggesting that valence should be conceived at different levels, micro and macro. Micro-valences correspond to qualitatively different types of evaluations, potentially resulting in mixed feelings, whereas one-dimensional macro-valence corresponds to an integrative “common currency” to compare alternatives for choices. We propose that conceptualizing levels of valence may focus research attention on the mechanisms that relate valence at one level (micro) to valence at another level (macro), leading to new hypotheses, and addressing various concerns that have been raised about the valence concept, such as the valence-emotion relation. PMID:23717292

  14. Higher-level Innovization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandaru, Sunith; Tutum, Cem Celal; Deb, Kalyanmoy

    2011-01-01

    we introduce the higher-level innovization task through an application of a manufacturing process simulation for the Friction Stir Welding (FSW) process where commonalities among two different Pareto-optimal fronts are analyzed. Multiple design rules are simultaneously deciphered from each front...

  15. Guideline level-3 PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roelofsen, P.M.; Van der Steen, J.

    1993-09-01

    For several applications of radioactive materials calculations must be executed to determine the radiation risk for the population. A guideline for the risk calculation method of two main sources: nuclear power plants, and other intended and unintended activities with radioactive materials, is given. The standards, recommendations and regulations in this report concern mainly the analysis of the radiological (external) consequences of nuclear power plant accidents, classified as level-3 PSA (Probabilistic Safety Analysis). Level-3 PSA falls within the scales 5-7 of the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES). The standards, etc., focus on the risks for groups of people and the so-called maximum individual risk. In chapter two the standards and regulations are formulated for each part of level-3 PSA: the source term spectrum, atmospheric distribution and deposition, exposure to radiation doses and calculation of radiation doses, dose-response relationships, measures to reduce the effect of radiation doses, design basis accidents, and finally uncertainty analysis. In chapter four, modelled descriptions are given of the standards and regulations, which could or should be used in a calculation program in case of level-3 PSA. In chapter three the practical execution of a probabilistic consequences analysis, the collection of input data and the presentation of the results are dealt with. 2 figs., 14 tabs., 64 refs

  16. General Algorithm (High level)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. General Algorithm (High level). Iteratively. Use Tightness Property to remove points of P1,..,Pi. Use random sampling to get a Random Sample (of enough points) from the next largest cluster, Pi+1. Use the Random Sampling Procedure to approximate ci+1 using the ...

  17. Liquid level detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, A.P.; Pendleton, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    A device is described for locating the level of the liquid metal in a sodium cooled nuclear reactor by using a movable probe equipped to signal a phase change with null on arrival at the interface between two conductively differing media. (U.K.)

  18. Low-level effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine, R.T.; Chaput, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Risk assignments can be made to given practices involving exposure to radiation, because sufficient data are available for the effects of high-dose, low-LET radiation and because sufficient exists in the methods of extrapolation to low doses and low dose rates. The confidence in the extrapolations is based on the fact that the risk is not expected to be overestimated, using the assumptions made (as opposed to the possibility that the extrapolations represent an accurate estimate of the risk). These risk estimates have been applied to the selection of permissible exposure levels, to show that various amounts of radiation involve no greater risk to the worker than the risk expected in another industry that is generally considered safe. The setting of standards for protection from exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation is made by expert committees at the national and international levels who weigh social factors as well as scientific factors. Data on low-level effects may be applied when assigning a ''probability of causation'' to a certain exposure of radiation. This has become a prominent method for arriving at an equitable award for damages caused by such exposure. The generation of these tables requires as many (if not more) social and political considerations as does the setting up of protection criteria. It is impossible to extract a purely scientific conclusion solely from the protection standards and other legal decisions. Sufficient information exists on low-LET radiation that safety standards for exposure can be rationally (if not scientifically) agreed upon

  19. Low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.

    1982-05-01

    It is known that the normal incidence of cancer in human populations is increased by exposure to moderately high doses of ionizing radiation. At background radiation levels or at radiation levels which are 100 times greater, the potential health risks are considered to be directly proportional to the total accumulated dose of radiation. Some of the uncertainties associated with this assumption and with the accepted risk estimates have been critically reviewed in this document. The general scientific consensus at present suggests that the accepted risk estimates may exaggerate the actual risk of low levels of sparsely ionizing radiations (beta-, gamma- or X-rays) somewhat but are unlikely to overestimate the actual risks of densely ionizing radiations (fast neutrons, alpha-particles). At the maximum permissible levels of exposure for radiation workers in nuclear power stations, the potential health hazards in terms of life expectancy would be comparable to those encountered in transportation and public utilities or in the construction industry. At the average radiation exposures received by these workers in practice, the potential health hazards are similar to those associated with safe categories of industries. Uranium mining remains a relativly hazardous occupation. In terms of absolute numbers, the genetic hazards, which are less well established, are thought to be smaller than the carcinogenic hazards of radiation when only the first generation is considered but to be of the same order of magnitude as the carcinogenic hazards when the total number of induced genetic disorders is summed over all generations

  20. Levels of Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, Keith

    Democracy in western countries now depends on literacy at every level: censuses by which governments can plan for the future; elections which are the cornerstone of democratic choice; local meetings which have agendas and minutes--the whole apparatus of social living is organized and recorded through literacy. This paper is concerned with how…

  1. Identification of platform levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2005-01-01

    reduction, ability to launch a wider product portfolio without increasing resources and reduction of complexity within the whole company. To support the multiple product development process, platform based product development has in many companies such as Philips, VW, Ford etc. proven to be a very effective...... product development in one step and therefore the objective of this paper is to identify levels of platform based product development. The structure of this paper is as follows. First the applied terminology for platforms will be briefly explained and then characteristics between single and multi product...... development will be examined. Based on the identification of the above characteristics five platform levels are described. The research presented in this paper is a result of MSc, Ph.D projects at the Technical University of Denmark and consultancy projects within the organisation of Institute of Product...

  2. Tree-level formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandhuber, Andreas; Spence, Bill; Travaglini, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    We review two novel techniques used to calculate tree-level scattering amplitudes efficiently: MHV diagrams, and on-shell recursion relations. For the MHV diagrams, we consider applications to tree-level amplitudes and focus in particular on the N=4 supersymmetric formulation. We also briefly describe the derivation of loop amplitudes using MHV diagrams. For the recursion relations, after presenting their general proof, we discuss several applications to massless theories with and without supersymmetry, to theories with massive particles, and to graviton amplitudes in general relativity. This article is an invited review for a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to 'Scattering amplitudes in gauge theories'. (review)

  3. High level nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Perez, B.

    1987-01-01

    The transformations involved in the nuclear fuels during the burn-up at the power nuclear reactors for burn-up levels of 33.000 MWd/th are considered. Graphs and data on the radioactivity variation with the cooling time and heat power of the irradiated fuel are presented. Likewise, the cycle of the fuel in light water reactors is presented and the alternatives for the nuclear waste management are discussed. A brief description of the management of the spent fuel as a high level nuclear waste is shown, explaining the reprocessing and giving data about the fission products and their radioactivities, which must be considered on the vitrification processes. On the final storage of the nuclear waste into depth geological burials, both alternatives are coincident. The countries supporting the reprocessing are indicated and the Spanish programm defined in the Plan Energetico Nacional (PEN) is shortly reviewed. (author) 8 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Acceptable noise level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Steen Østergaard; Nielsen, Lars Holme; Lantz, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    The acceptable noise level (ANL) is used to quantify the amount of background noise that subjects can accept while listening to speech, and is suggested for prediction of individual hearing-aid use. The aim of this study was to assess the repeatability of the ANL measured in normal-hearing subjects...... using running Danish and non-semantic speech materials as stimuli and modulated speech-spectrum and multi-talker babble noises as competing stimuli....

  5. Service Level Status

    CERN Multimedia

    Lopienski, S

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays, IT departments provide, and people use, computing services of an increasingly heterogeneous nature. There is thus a growing need for a status display that groups these different services and reports status and availability in a uniform way. The Service Level Status (SLS) system addresses these needs by providing a web-based display that dynamically shows availability, basic information and statistics about various IT services, as well as the dependencies between them.

  6. Liquid Level Sensing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, Valentin (Inventor); Wiley, John T. (Inventor); Duffell, Amanda G. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A liquid level sensing system includes waveguides disposed in a liquid and distributed along a path with a gap between adjacent waveguides. A source introduces electromagnetic energy into the waveguides at a first end of the path. A portion of the electromagnetic energy exits the waveguides at a second end of the path. A detector measures the portion of the electromagnetic energy exiting the second end of the path.

  7. Level up Book Club

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaGarde, Jennifer; Winner, Matthew C.

    2012-01-01

    Like all great ideas, Level Up Book Club grew out of a genuine need, the spontaneous firing of a few brain sparks, and the kind of luck that comes from being "in the right place at the right time." By mid-June 2011 the authors were already "bona fide" wonder twins--two educators who, although they'd never met, had stumbled upon each other through…

  8. Current level detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerns, C.R.

    1977-01-01

    A device is provided for detecting the current level of a dc signal. It includes an even harmonic modulator to which a reference ac signal is applied. The unknown dc signal acts on the reference ac signal so that the output of the modulator includes an even harmonic whose amplitude is proportional to the unknown dc current. The device may be used to provide overcurrent protection for proportional wire chambers

  9. Acceptable noise level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Steen Østergaard; Nielsen, Lars Holme; Lantz, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    The acceptable noise level (ANL) is used to quantify the amount of background noise that subjects can accept while listening to speech, and is suggested for prediction of individual hearing-aid use. The aim of this study was to assess the repeatability of the ANL measured in normal-hearing subjec...... using running Danish and non-semantic speech materials as stimuli and modulated speech-spectrum and multi-talker babble noises as competing stimuli....

  10. Multi-level spondylolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersh, David S; Kim, Yong H; Razi, Afshin

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of isthmic spondylolysis is approximately 3% to 6% in the general population. Spondylolytic defects involving multiple vertebral levels, on the other hand, are extremely rare. Only a handful of reports have examined the outcomes of surgical treatment of multi-level spondylolysis. Here, we present one case of bilateral pars defects at L3, L4, and L5. The patient, a 46-year-old female, presented with lower back pain radiating into the left lower extremity. Radiographs and CT scans of the lumbar spine revealed bilateral pars defects at L3-L5. The patient underwent lumbar discectomy and interbody fusion of L4-S1 as well as direct repair of the pars defect at L3. There were no postoperative complications, and by seven months the patient had improved clinically. While previous reports describe the use of either direct repair or fusion in the treatment of spondylolysis, we are unaware of reports describing the use of both techniques at adjacent levels.

  11. ENRAF gauge reference level calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, J.H., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-06

    This document describes the method for calculating reference levels for Enraf Series 854 Level Detectors as installed in the tank farms. The reference level calculation for each installed level gauge is contained herein.

  12. Insignificant levels of dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.A.M.; McLean, A.S.

    1977-01-01

    The procedures recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for making decisions concerning controllable sources of radiation exposure of the public include 'justification' and 'optimisation'. The tool recommended by the ICRP for reaching these decisions is collective dose or dose commitment supplemented by consideration of doses to individuals. In both these considerations the practical problem arises of whether very small doses to large numbers of people should contribute to the final decision-making process. It may be that at levels of dose which are small increments on natural background, the relationship between dose and effect is linear even though the slope may be close to zero. If so, collective dose is a meaningful concept and the calculation of total detriment for the purpose of justification could legitimately include all doses. In the calculation of collective doses for the purpose of optimisation, which involves decisions on how much money or resource should be allocated to dose reduction, it is necessary to appraise radiation detriment realistically. At low levels of dose to the individual such as those small by comparison with variations in natural background within the UK, the risk to the individual is such that his well-being will not be significantly changed by the presence or absence of the radiation dose. These small doses, which are well below the point at which an individual attaches significance, should not carry a societal significance. Societal acceptance of risk is analysed with a view to assessing a level of possible risk, and hence dose, below which resources should not in general be diverted to secure further reduction. A formulation for collective dose commitment is proposed incorporating a cut-off to exclude insignificant doses. The implications of this formulation in practical situations are discussed

  13. ALICE High Level Trigger

    CERN Multimedia

    Alt, T

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger (HLT) is a computing farm designed and build for the real-time, online processing of the raw data produced by the ALICE detectors. Events are fully reconstructed from the raw data, analyzed and compressed. The analysis summary together with the compressed data and a trigger decision is sent to the DAQ. In addition the reconstruction of the events allows for on-line monitoring of physical observables and this information is provided to the Data Quality Monitor (DQM). The HLT can process event rates of up to 2 kHz for proton-proton and 200 Hz for Pb-Pb central collisions.

  14. Global physical activity levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallal, Pedro C; Andersen, Lars Bo; Bull, Fiona C

    2012-01-01

    To implement effective non-communicable disease prevention programmes, policy makers need data for physical activity levels and trends. In this report, we describe physical activity levels worldwide with data for adults (15 years or older) from 122 countries and for adolescents (13-15-years......-income countries. The proportion of 13-15-year-olds doing fewer than 60 min of physical activity of moderate to vigorous intensity per day is 80·3% (80·1-80·5); boys are more active than are girls. Continued improvement in monitoring of physical activity would help to guide development of policies and programmes......-old) from 105 countries. Worldwide, 31·1% (95% CI 30·9-31·2) of adults are physically inactive, with proportions ranging from 17·0% (16·8-17·2) in southeast Asia to about 43% in the Americas and the eastern Mediterranean. Inactivity rises with age, is higher in women than in men, and is increased in high...

  15. Water level detection pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshikawa, Yukinobu; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Niizato, Masaru; Takagi, Masahiro

    1998-01-01

    In the present invention, water levels of a feedwater heater and a drain tank in a nuclear power plant are detected at high accuracy. Detection pipeline headers connected to the upper and lower portions of a feedwater heater or a drain tank are connected with each other. The connection line is branched at appropriate two positions and an upper detection pipeline and a lower detection pipeline are connected thereto, and a gauge entrance valve is disposed to each of the detection pipelines. A diaphragm of a pressure difference generator is connected to a flange formed to the end portion. When detecting the change of water level in the feedwater heater or the drain tank as a change of pressure difference, gauge entrance valves on the exit side of the upper and lower detection pipelines are connected by a connection pipe. The gauge entrance valve is closed, a tube is connected to the lower detection pipe to inject water to the diaphragm of the pressure difference generator passing through the connection pipe thereby enabling to calibrate the pressure difference generator. The accuracy of the calibration of instruments is improved and workability thereof upon flange maintenance is also improved. (I.S.)

  16. LHC Report: Level best

    CERN Multimedia

    Mike Lamont for the LHC team

    2012-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is special: there is a limit to the number of the events the detector can handle per bunch crossing. Consequently the maximum luminosity provided in 2012 has been around 4 x1032 cm-2s-1 (compared to the maximum of 7.7 x1033 cm-2s-1 seen by ATLAS and CMS). Nonetheless LHCb still wants to integrate as much luminosity as possible.    To meet LHCb's requirements a luminosity leveling technique is used. A machine setup is chosen that would give a peak luminosity well above the required maximum if the beams are collided head-on at LHCb's interaction point. This peak luminosity is then reduced to the required maximum by moving the two beams transversely apart at the interaction point. As the beam current goes down during a fill, the beams can be moved together in small increments to keep the collision rate constant throughout the fill. In practice, when the LHC goes into collisions in LHCb, the initial luminosity is safely below LHCb's demanded le...

  17. Monitoring Your Blood Sugar Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and NutritionHealth Insurance: Understanding What It CoversHigh Homocysteine Level: How It Affects Your Blood VesselsUnderstanding Your Medical ... Health Resources Healthcare Management Monitoring Your Blood Sugar Level Monitoring Your Blood Sugar Level Share Print What ...

  18. Fasting and nonfasting lipid levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Anne; Freiberg, Jacob J; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2008-01-01

    Lipid profiles are usually measured after fasting. We tested the hypotheses that these levels change only minimally in response to normal food intake and that nonfasting levels predict cardiovascular events.......Lipid profiles are usually measured after fasting. We tested the hypotheses that these levels change only minimally in response to normal food intake and that nonfasting levels predict cardiovascular events....

  19. Science Curriculum Guide, Level 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newark School District, DE.

    The fourth of four levels in a K-12 science curriculum is outlined. In Level 4 (grades 9-12), science areas include earth science, biology, chemistry, and physics. Six major themes provide the basis for study in all levels (K-12). These are: Change, Continuity, Diversity, Interaction, Limitation, and Organization. In Level 4, all six themes are…

  20. Emotion-driven level generation

    OpenAIRE

    Togelius, Julian; Yannakakis, Georgios N.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter examines the relationship between emotions and level generation. Grounded in the experience-driven procedural content generation framework we focus on levels and introduce a taxonomy of approaches for emotion-driven level generation. We then review four characteristic level generators of our earlier work that exemplify each one of the approaches introduced. We conclude the chapter with our vision on the future of emotion-driven level generation.

  1. Quantitative analysis of commensal Escherichia coli populations reveals host-specific enterotypes at the intra-species level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smati, Mounira; Clermont, Olivier; Bleibtreu, Alexandre; Fourreau, Frédéric; David, Anthony; Daubié, Anne-Sophie; Hignard, Cécile; Loison, Odile; Picard, Bertrand; Denamur, Erick

    2015-08-01

    The primary habitat of the Escherichia coli species is the gut of warm-blooded vertebrates. The E. coli species is structured into four main phylogenetic groups A, B1, B2, and D. We estimated the relative proportions of these phylogroups in the feces of 137 wild and domesticated animals with various diets living in the Ile de France (Paris) region by real-time PCR. We distinguished three main clusters characterized by a particular abundance of two or more phylogroups within the E. coli animal commensal populations, which we called "enterocolitypes" by analogy with the enterotypes defined in the human gut microbiota at the genus level. These enterocolitypes were characterized by a dominant (>50%) B2, B1, or A phylogroup and were associated with different host species, diets, and habitats: wild and herbivorous species (wild rabbits and deer), domesticated herbivorous species (domesticated rabbits, horses, sheep, and cows), and omnivorous species (boar, pigs, and chickens), respectively. By analyzing retrospectively the data obtained using the same approach from 98 healthy humans living in Ile de France (Smati et al. 2013, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 79, 5005-5012), we identified a specific human enterocolitype characterized by the dominant and/or exclusive (>90%) presence of phylogroup B2. We then compared B2 strains isolated from animals and humans, and revealed that human and animal strains differ regarding O-type and B2 subgroup. Moreover, two genes, sfa/foc and clbQ, were associated with the exclusive character of strains, observed only in humans. In conclusion, a complex network of interactions exists at several levels (genus and intra-species) within the intestinal microbiota. © 2015 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Efeitos de diferentes níveis das vitaminas tiamina, riboflavina e piridoxina sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte Effects of different levels of thiamine, riboflavin and pyridoxine on broiler performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Pozzobon de Souza

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido para analisar os efeitos de níveis altos e baixos das vitaminas tiamina (B1, riboflavina (B2 e piridoxina (B6 sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte. Um total de 576 pintos de corte de um dia, foram distribuídos em desenho experimental trifatorial (2³, inteiramente casualizado onde dois níveis (alto e baixo de cada vitamina foram testados: vitamina B1 (A=3 mg/kg; B=2 mg/kg, vitamina B2 (A=6 mg/kg; B=4 mg/kg e vitamina B6 (A=4,5 mg/kg; B=3 mg/kg. Deste modo, dezoito aves por tratamento (8, em quatro repetições, foram distribuídas em boxes sobre piso e receberam dietas isonutritivas, variando somente em relação às vitaminas estudadas. Os dados foram submetidos a análise de variância e teste de Tukey. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas (P>0,05 entre os tratamentos para todos os parâmetros estudados. Portanto, os resultados deste trabalho sugerem que os níveis das vitaminas B1, B2 e B6, para frangos de corte, podem ser reduzidos em até 66% dos níveis atualmente utilizados, sem prejuízo na performance dos mesmos.An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effècts of high and low levels of vitamins thiamine (B1 ribofiavin (B2 andpyridoxin (B3 on the performance of boilers. A total of 576 day old broiler chicks of both sexes was distributed in a trifactorial (23 completely randomized experimental desing, where two levels (high and low} of each vitamin were tested: vitamin B1 (A=3 mg/kg; B=2 mg/kg; vitamin B2 (A=6 mg/kg; B=4 mg/kg and vitamin B6 (A=4,5 mg/kg; B=3 mg/kg. Therefore, eighteenth birds in each treatment (8, in four replications, were distributed in floor pens andreceived isonutritious diets, varying only in respect to the vitamins studied. Data were submitted to the analysis of variance and Tukey test. No significant differences (P>0.05 among treatments were observed for all parameters studied. Then, the results from this work suggest that the levels of vitamins B1, B2 and B6, for

  3. Level density of 57Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, V.; Boukharouba, N.; Brient, C.E.; Grimes, S.M.; Pedroni, R.S.

    1994-01-01

    Levels in 57 Co have been studied in the region of resolved levels (E 57 Fe(p,n) 57 Co neutron spectrum with resolution ΔE∼5 keV. Seventeen previously unknown levels are located. Level density parameters in the continuum region are deduced from thick target measurements of the same reaction and additional level density information is deduced from Ericson fluctuation studies of the reaction 56 Fe(p,n) 56 Co. A set of level density parameters is found which describes the level density of 57 Co at energies up to 14 MeV. Efforts to obtain level density information from the 56 Fe(d,n) 57 Co reaction were unsuccessful, but estimates of the fraction of the deuteron absorption cross section corresponding to compound nucleus formation are obtained

  4. Reactor water level control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiramatsu, Yohei.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the rapid response of the waterlevel control converting a reactor water level signal into a non-linear type, when the water level is near to a set value, to stabilize the water level reducting correlatively the reactor water level variation signal to stabilize greatly from the set value, and increasing the variation signal. Constitution: A main vapor flow quality transmitter detects the vapor flow generated in a reactor and introduced into a turbine. A feed water flow transmitter detects the quantity of a feed water flow from the turbine to the reactor, this detected value is sent to an addition operating apparatus. On the other hand, the power signal of the reactor water level transmitter is sent to the addition operating apparatus through a non-linear water level signal converter. The addition operation apparatus generates a signal for requesting the feed water flow quantity from both signals. Upon this occasion, the reactor water level signal converter makes small the reactor water level variation when the reactor level is close the set value, and when the water level deviates greatly from the set value, the reactor water level variation is made large thereby to improve the rapid response of the reactor coater level control. (Yoshino, Y.)

  5. Specified assurance level sampling procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willner, O.

    1980-11-01

    In the nuclear industry design specifications for certain quality characteristics require that the final product be inspected by a sampling plan which can demonstrate product conformance to stated assurance levels. The Specified Assurance Level (SAL) Sampling Procedure has been developed to permit the direct selection of attribute sampling plans which can meet commonly used assurance levels. The SAL procedure contains sampling plans which yield the minimum sample size at stated assurance levels. The SAL procedure also provides sampling plans with acceptance numbers ranging from 0 to 10, thus, making available to the user a wide choice of plans all designed to comply with a stated assurance level

  6. Digital Levelling in Subterranean Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Jiřikovský

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available For precision levelling works are now more often used digital levels and code-scale staffs. Advantages in (and problems with their application to the regular line-levelling are well known and described. However, when using the digital levelling for measurements in specific local geodetic networks, monitoring networks and inside of buildings and underground spaces, new problems appear with the signalisation of the observed points, readability of the code (non-uniform illumination, temperature changes etc. The article informs about the application of two types of digital levels (Sokkia SDL-2, Trimble Zeiss DiNi 12T in the experimental subterranean levelling network for the basement settlement monitoring of a ten-floor building; the solution of marking of the points, field calibration and the system calibration of digital levels.

  7. Liquid level measurement in high level nuclear waste slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, G.E.; Heckendorn, F.M.; Postles, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    Accurate liquid level measurement has been a difficult problem to solve for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The nuclear waste sludge tends to plug or degrade most commercially available liquid-level measurement sensors. A liquid-level measurement system that meets demanding accuracy requirements for the DWPF has been developed. The system uses a pneumatic 1:1 pressure repeater as a sensor and a computerized error correction system. 2 figs

  8. 'Level-level correlation and absorption in nuclear reactions'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, M.S.

    Level-level correlation (LLC) in nuclear reactions is discussed in general and it is shown that in the presence of LLC, N sub(μ) = Σ/g μa/ 2 > divided by gamma μ T tilde, where T tilde is the average absorption in the eigen channels [pt

  9. Comments About a Chameleon Theory: Level I/Level II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, John; Stankov, Lazar

    1982-01-01

    Jensen's ideas about two levels of intellectual abilities are criticized as being oversimplified. More than two levels of intellectual abilities and relationships between variables reflecting more than racial and socioeconomic status (SES) differences are suggested, arguing that Jensen's statements about race and SES differences are not properly…

  10. Low-level waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, G.B.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of the current situation in the United States and a look to the future of low-level waste management are presented. Current problems and challenges are discussed, such as: the need of additional disposal sites in the future; risks and costs involved in transport of low-level wastes; reduction of low-level waste volume through smelting, incineration, and storage for wastes containing nuclides with short half lives; development of a national policy for the management of low-level waste, and its implementation through a sensible system of regulations. Establishing a success with low-level waste management should provide the momentum and public confidence needed to continue on and to resolve the technical and politically more difficult low-level waste problems

  11. Culture at the Country Level

    OpenAIRE

    Maseland, R.K.J.; Hoorn, A.A.J. van; Herk, H. van; Torelli, C.J.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter introduces and critically discusses the idea of measuring the culture of countries and cross-national differences therein. We start by elaborating the theoretical foundations for studying culture at the country level. We highlight the use of countries or nations as a unit of analysis and pay special attention to the way in which a group-level construct such as culture has implications at lower levels of analysis, affecting the values and beliefs of individuals. After briefly trac...

  12. Nucleonic level control in industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eapen, A.C.; Rao, S.S.; Nair, R.S.

    1979-01-01

    The paper elicits the particular advantages of nucleonic level control methods in certain applications. The technique used is described briefly. Normal radioactive sources used and their selection for any application based on their characteristic emissions is explained. Level controller developed by the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, is described including details regarding electronic circuitry and the radiation detector used. Its application in zinc powder plant to measure powder level in a hopper is described. Some of the typical applications of gamma-ray level controllers are mentioned. (auth.)

  13. On 165Ho level scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardisson, Claire; Ardisson, Gerard.

    1976-01-01

    A 165 Ho level scheme was constructed which led to the interpretation of sixty γ rays belonging to the decay of 165 Dy. A new 702.9keV level was identified to be the 5/2 - member of the 1/2 ) 7541{ Nilsson orbit. )] [fr

  14. Background noise levels in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Gjestland, Truls

    2008-01-01

    - This report gives a brief overview of typical background noise levels in Europe, and suggests a procedure for the prediction of background noise levels based on population density. A proposal for the production of background noise maps for Europe is included.

  15. Sea Level Rise Data Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quach, N.; Huang, T.; Boening, C.; Gill, K. M.

    2016-12-01

    Research related to sea level rise crosses multiple disciplines from sea ice to land hydrology. The NASA Sea Level Change Portal (SLCP) is a one-stop source for current sea level change information and data, including interactive tools for accessing and viewing regional data, a virtual dashboard of sea level indicators, and ongoing updates through a suite of editorial products that include content articles, graphics, videos, and animations. The architecture behind the SLCP makes it possible to integrate web content and data relevant to sea level change that are archived across various data centers as well as new data generated by sea level change principal investigators. The Extensible Data Gateway Environment (EDGE) is incorporated into the SLCP architecture to provide a unified platform for web content and science data discovery. EDGE is a data integration platform designed to facilitate high-performance geospatial data discovery and access with the ability to support multi-metadata standard specifications. EDGE has the capability to retrieve data from one or more sources and package the resulting sets into a single response to the requestor. With this unified endpoint, the Data Analysis Tool that is available on the SLCP can retrieve dataset and granule level metadata as well as perform geospatial search on the data. This talk focuses on the architecture that makes it possible to seamlessly integrate and enable discovery of disparate data relevant to sea level rise.

  16. Sea level and climate variations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.

    1985-01-01

    Review paper, ESA Symposium on Application of Satellite Data to Climate Modelling. Alpbach (Austria) Sea level is an essential component of the climate system, on which many human activities in the coastal zone depend. Climate variations leading to changes in relative sea level are

  17. Enhanced Waste Tank Level Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M.R.

    1999-06-24

    'With the increased sensitivity of waste-level measurements in the H-Area Tanks and with periods of isolation, when no mass transfer occurred for certain tanks, waste-level changes have been recorded with are unexplained.'

  18. Evaluations of average level spacings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liou, H.I.

    1980-01-01

    The average level spacing for highly excited nuclei is a key parameter in cross section formulas based on statistical nuclear models, and also plays an important role in determining many physics quantities. Various methods to evaluate average level spacings are reviewed. Because of the finite experimental resolution, to detect a complete sequence of levels without mixing other parities is extremely difficult, if not totally impossible. Most methods derive the average level spacings by applying a fit, with different degrees of generality, to the truncated Porter-Thomas distribution for reduced neutron widths. A method that tests both distributions of level widths and positions is discussed extensivey with an example of 168 Er data. 19 figures, 2 tables

  19. Noise levels in Damascus city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Oudat, M.; Maslmani, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Outdoor noise levels were measured at 22 sites in Damascus city. Sound level meter model NC-10 with a 20-140 dBA selectable range was used in the current investigation. At each site noise data were collected from 7 to 21 o'clock. The results showed that the noise levels were higher than WHO (World Health Organization) standard by 5-24.7 dB, 10-16 dB, 10-11 dB and 12-17 dB in residential, commercial, Commercial-industrial, and Heavy traffic streets respectively. Indoor and outdoor noise levels in some hospitals were higher than WHO standard by 15-28 dB and 19-23 dB respectively. The study showed that the authorities administration must take necessary procedures to reduce the noise levels in residential regions and in the regions surrounding the hospitals. (author)

  20. The CDF level-3 trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devlin, T.

    1993-01-01

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) has been operating at the Tevatron and collecting data on proton-antiproton interactions with collision rates above 250,000 Hz. Three levels of filtering select events for data logging at a rate of about 4 Hz. The Level 3 trigger provides most of the capabilities of the offline production programs for event reconstruction and physics analysis. The type of physics triggers, application of cuts, and combinations of logical requirements for event selection are controlled at run time by a trigger table using a syntax fully integrated with the Level 1 and Level 2 hardware triggers. The level 3 software operates in 48 RISC/UNIX processors (over 1000 mips) served by four 20-MByte/sec data buses for input, output and control. The system architecture, debugging, code validation, error reporting, analysis capabilities and performance will be described

  1. Relationships between the school-level and classroom-level ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    education; school-level environment; science education; South Africa. Introduction .... instrument to the primary school students (N = 1,077) of 31 distance-education primary school teachers ..... Centre for Curriculum, Transfer and Technology.

  2. Thermomagnetic force acting on an ellipsoidal body immersed into a nonuniformly heated magnetic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naletova, V.A.; Kvitantsev, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    A prolate spheroidal body immersed into a nonuniformly heated magnetic liquid in an applied magnetic field has been considered. The expressions for the pressure and velocity of the liquid, temperature and magnetic field have been obtained. The formula for a thermomagnetic force acting on the body has been calculated. It has been shown that the body shape needs to be taken into account when we study the thermomagnetic diffusion of the prolate bodies

  3. Dependence of the velocity ellipsoid for nearby stars upon metallicity and spectral type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchkov, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    For nearby dwarf stars the ratios of the dispersions in the velocity components along the axes of a rectangular galactic coordinate system depend on spectral type and chemical composition (metal abundance). Relationships are established which could provide clues to such problems as whether the component populations of the Galaxy are relaxing to a steady state and how stars come to be formed with differing mass at different times

  4. Spherical and ellipsoidal cavities in European sandstones: a product of sinking carbonate dissolution front

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamovič, Jiří; Mikuláš, Radek; Navrátil, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 59, Supplement 1 (2015), s. 123-149 ISSN 0372-8854 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130806; GA ČR GA13-28040S Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : symmetrical cavities * solutional landforms * cavernous weathering * tafoni * sandstone * concretions * carbonate dissolution front Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.103, year: 2015

  5. Rotation of mercury: theoretical analysis of the dynamics of a rigid ellipsoidal planet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laslett, L J; Sessler, A M

    1966-03-18

    The second-order nonlinear differential equation for the rotation of Mercury implies locked-in motion when the period is within the range where e is the eccentricity and T is the period of Mercury's orbit, the time t is measured from perihelion, and lambda is a measure of the planet's disiortion. For values near 2T/3, the instantaneous period oscillates about 2T/3 with period (21lambdae/2)T.

  6. Correlation of Macular Focal Electroretinogram with Ellipsoid Zone Extension in Stargardt Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abed, Edoardo; Placidi, Giorgio; Calandriello, Luigi; Piccardi, Marco; Campagna, Francesca; Bertelli, Matteo; Minnella, Angelo Maria; Savastano, Maria Cristina; Falsini, Benedetto

    2017-01-01

    Stargardt disease (STGD1) is the most common cause of inherited juvenile macular degeneration. This disease is characterized by a progressive accumulation of lipofuscin in the outer retina and subsequent loss of photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between cone photoreceptor function and structure in STGD1. Macular function was assessed by visual acuity measurement and focal electroretinogram (FERG) recording while spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) imaging was performed to evaluate the integrity of photoreceptors. FERG amplitude was significantly reduced in patients with Stargardt disease ( p clinical trials to treat this disease.

  7. Correlation of Macular Focal Electroretinogram with Ellipsoid Zone Extension in Stargardt Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Abed, Edoardo; Placidi, Giorgio; Calandriello, Luigi; Piccardi, Marco; Campagna, Francesca; Bertelli, Matteo; Minnella, Angelo Maria; Savastano, Maria Cristina; Falsini, Benedetto

    2017-01-01

    Stargardt disease (STGD1) is the most common cause of inherited juvenile macular degeneration. This disease is characterized by a progressive accumulation of lipofuscin in the outer retina and subsequent loss of photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between cone photoreceptor function and structure in STGD1. Macular function was assessed by visual acuity measurement and focal electroretinogram (FERG) recording while spectral doma...

  8. Analysis of Methods for Ellipsoidal Height Estimation – The Case of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2016-12-02

    Dec 2, 2016 ... parameter similarity transformation model of Bursa-Wolf. The performance of each of ..... indices are capable of quantifying the size of the error produced by the ..... Certificate in Disaster Risk Management and Environ-mental ...

  9. Characteristic analysis of a traveling wave ultrasonic motor using an ellipsoidal static contact model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jung Pil; Rho, Jong Seok; Yi, Kyung Pyo; Jung, Hyun Kyo; Seo, Jung Moo

    2009-01-01

    A characteristic analysis of an ultrasonic motor (USM) at the design stage has thus far been impossible. Therefore, a characteristic analysis method is suggested on the basis of a proposed model describing the complex nonlinear contact condition between the rotor and stator. The proposed contact model and analysis method can guide theoretical research on the minimization of the main disadvantages of the USM, which mainly result from the contact mechanism. The validity and usefulness of the suggested analysis method is verified by experimental data from a prototyped USM

  10. Correlation of Macular Focal Electroretinogram with Ellipsoid Zone Extension in Stargardt Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placidi, Giorgio; Calandriello, Luigi; Piccardi, Marco; Campagna, Francesca; Minnella, Angelo Maria; Savastano, Maria Cristina; Falsini, Benedetto

    2017-01-01

    Stargardt disease (STGD1) is the most common cause of inherited juvenile macular degeneration. This disease is characterized by a progressive accumulation of lipofuscin in the outer retina and subsequent loss of photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between cone photoreceptor function and structure in STGD1. Macular function was assessed by visual acuity measurement and focal electroretinogram (FERG) recording while spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) imaging was performed to evaluate the integrity of photoreceptors. FERG amplitude was significantly reduced in patients with Stargardt disease (p clinical trials to treat this disease. PMID:28912967

  11. Restoration of optimal ellipsoid left ventricular geometry: lessons learnt from in silico surgical modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhyapak, Srilakshmi M; Menon, Prahlad G; Rao Parachuri, V

    2014-02-01

    Several issues that are inherent in the surgical techniques of surgical ventricular restoration (SVR) need specialized devices or techniques to overcome them, which may not always result in optimal outcomes. We used a non-invasive novel in silico modelling technique to study left ventricular (LV) morphology and function before and after SVR. The cardiac magnetic resonance imaging derived actual pre- and postoperative endocardial morphology and function was compared with the in silico analysis of the same. Cardiac magnetic resonance steady state free precession (SSFP) cine images were employed to segment endocardial surface contours over the cardiac cycle. Using the principle of Hausdorff distance to examine phase-to-phase regional endocardial displacement, dyskinetic/akinetic areas were identified at the instant of peak basal contraction velocity. Using a three-dimensional (3D) surface clipping tool, the maximally scarred, dyskinetic or akinetic LV antero-apical areas were virtually resected and a new apex was created. A virtual rectangular patch was created upon the clipped surface LV model by 3D Delaunay triangulation. Presurgical endocardial mechanical function quantified from cine cardiac magnetic resonance, using a technique of spherical harmonics (SPHARM) surface parameterization, was applied onto the virtually clipped and patched LV surface model. Finally, the in silico model of post-SVR LV shape was analysed for quantification of regional left ventricular volumes (RLVVs) and function. This was tested in 2 patients with post-myocardial infarction antero-apical LV aneuryms. Left ventricular mechanical dysynchrony was evaluated by RLVV analysis of pre-SVR, in silico post-SVR and actual post-SVR LV endocardial surface data. Following exclusion of the scarred areas, the virtual resected LV model demonstrated significantly lesser areas of akinesia. The decreases in regional LV volumes in the in silico modelling were significant and comparable with the actual decreases following SVR. Both the regional end diastolic volume (EDV) and end systolic volume (ESV) at the apex decreased significantly corresponding to greater reductions in apical volumes by the technique of rectangular patch plasty (apical EDV 2.1607 ± 0.20577 to 0.4774 ± 0.1775 ml, P = 0.007; apical ESV 1.9708 ± 0.36451 to 0.442 ± 0.047 ml, P = 0.013). This pilot study was done using novel in silico techniques for virtual surgical modelling, which helped in accurate estimation and planning of optimal LV restoration by SVR.

  12. A theoretical derivation of the transients related to partial discharges in ellipsoidal voids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crichton, George C; Karlsson, A.; Pedersen, Aage

    1988-01-01

    be drawn about the effects of the gas within the void as well as the size, shape, and location of voids. The method is illustrated by applying it to a spheroidal void in a simple disk-type gas-insulated-substation (GIS) spacer. It is found that the nonattaching gas generates an induced charge...

  13. Ellipsoidal capillary as condenser for the BESSY full-field x-ray microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guttmann, P; Heim, S; Schneider, G; Zeng, X; Feser, M; Yun, W

    2009-01-01

    The BESSY x-ray microscopy group has developed a new full-field x-ray microscope which employs an advanced x-ray optical concept. Traditionally, zone plate based condensers are used in x-ray microscopes providing an energy resolution of only E/ΔE ≤ 500. In addition, this conventional monochromator concept requires a pinhole close to the sample restricting the available space for tomography applications. In our new BESSY microscope, a standard monochromator beam line provides a high energy resolution of up to 10,000 which permits NEXAFS studies. An elliptically shaped mono-capillary is used to form the hollow cone illumination necessary for sample illumination and to match the aperture of the objective. Calculations regarding the performance and accuracies needed are presented and characterizations of capillaries especially made for the BESSY soft x-ray microscope are shown. For the first time, we demonstrate that glass capillaries are well suited as condensers in the soft x-ray energy domain. Their focusing efficiency was measured to be 80% which is about an order of magnitude higher than the diffraction efficiency of zone plate based condensers.

  14. Scanning cross-correlator for monitoring uniform 3D ellipsoidal laser beams

    CERN Document Server

    Zelenogorskii, V V; Gacheva, E I; Gelikonov, G V; Krasilnikov, M; Mart'yanov, M A; Mironov, S Yu; Potemkin, A K; Syresin, E M; Stephan, F; Khazanov, E A

    2014-01-01

    The specific features of experimental implementation of a cross-correlator with a scan rate above 1600 cm s(-1) and a spatial delay amplitude of more than 15 mm are considered. The possibility of measuring the width of femtosecond pulses propagating in a train 300 mu s in duration with a repetition rate of 1 MHz is demonstrated. A time resolution of 300 fs for the maximum time window of 50 ps is attained.The cross-correlator is aimed at testing 3D pulses of a laser driver of an electron photo-injector.

  15. PD-related stresses in the bulk dielectric for ellipsoidal voids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Aage; Crichton, George C; McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1994-01-01

    In a previous study, the existence of a field enhancement in the solid dielectric in the vicinity of void undergoing PD activity was established. That study was undertaken with reference to a spherical void. In this paper, a more general investigation of this phenomenon of field enhancement...

  16. Concept study of an automatic ellipsoidal mirror furnace facility, prephase A. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapelmann, J.

    1982-11-01

    A 1500C (max) mirror for materials science experiments and for growing 40 mm crystals under microgravity in an add-on payload for a retrievable carrier is proposed. Parts of the Spacelab mirror furnaces which can be used are identified. Design solutions for modifications due to experimental requirements or to the automatic operation mode are developed. The complete new parts of the facility, such as the sample storage and exchange mechanism (SSEM) were investigated, and design solutions are presented. A design featuring two monoellipsoidal mirror furnaces with the SSEM situated in between, and no active control, is favored.

  17. Experimental tests on buckling of ellipsoidal vessel heads under internal pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alix, Michel; Roche, Roland.

    1979-01-01

    Seventeen heads made out of metal sheets -by cold working- were tested. Three different metals were used - carbon steel, austenitic steel, and aluminium alloy. Nominal dimensions were: diameter D 500 mm height H 50 and 100 mm thickness to diameter ratio t/D in the range 0.001-0.005. The heads had a good axisymmetric shape, but that the thickness was varying along the ellipse. Material characteristic of each head was given by a tensile test (strain-stress curve). The obtained results are mainly the pressure deflexion recordings, strain measurements and visual observations of the geometrical changes. For thin heads, buckling is a very fast event and the first folding occurs sudently, with a strong perturbation on the pressure-deflexion curve. For the thickest heads, circular waves are slowly forming. In all of these tests, yielding occured before buckling and it was possible to increase the pressure beyond the first buckling pressure without failure. The experimental results agree very well (+-5% except one head) with the empirical formula Psub(c)=70000.(sigma y+sigma u/2)(t/D)sup(5/3)((D/H) 2 -8)sup(-2/3). The following notations being used: Psub(c): critical buckling pressure; sigma y: yield strength; sigma u: ultimate stress (same unit); t: knuckle thickness; D: mean diameter; H: height (same unit) [fr

  18. The Barbados Sea Level Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, R. G.; Mortlock, R. A.; Abdul, N. A.; Wright, J. D.; Cao, L.; Mey, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    Additional offshore drill cores, nearly 100 new radiometric dates, and more than 1000 kilometers of Multibeam mapping greatly enhance the Barbados Sea Level record. Extensive Multibeam mapping around the entire island covers approximately 2650 km2 of the sea bottom and now integrates the offshore reef topography and Barbados Sea Level Record with the unparalleled onshore core collection, digital elevation maps, and Pleistocene sea level record spanning the past one million years. The reef crest coral, Acropora palmata, remains the stalwart indicator of sea level for many reasons that are validated by our redundant sea level records and redundant dating via Th/U and Pa/U analyses. Microanalysis and densitometry studies better explain why Acropora palmata is so well preserved in the Pleistocene reef records and therefore why it is the species of choice for sea level reconstructions and radiometric dating. New drill cores into reefs that formed during Marine Isotope Stage 3 lead us to a model of diagenesis that allows us to better prospect for unaltered coral samples in older reefs that may be suitable for Th/U dating. Equally important, our diagenesis model reinforces our rigorous sample quality criteria in a more quantitative manner. The Barbados Sea Level record has a sampling resolution of better than 100 years throughout much of the last deglaciation showing unprecedented detail in redundant drill cores. The Melt Water Pulses (MWP1A and MWP1B) are well resolved and the intervening interval that includes the Younger Dryas reveals sea level changes in new detail that are consistent with the terrestrial records of ice margins (see Abdul et al., this section). More than 100 paired Th/U and radiocarbon ages place the Barbados Sea Level Record unambiguously on the radiocarbon time scale for direct comparisons with the terrestrial records of ice margin changes.

  19. Optimum Safety Levels for Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2005-01-01

    Optimum design safety levels for rock and cube armoured rubble mound breakwaters without superstructure are investigated by numerical simulations on the basis of minimization of the total costs over the service life of the structure, taking into account typical uncertainties related to wave...... statistics and structure response. The study comprises the influence of interest rate, service lifetime, downtime costs and damage accumulation. Design limit states and safety classes for breakwaters are discussed. The results indicate that optimum safety levels are somewhat higher than the safety levels...

  20. Farmers as Employers. Numeracy. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batman, Kangan; Tully, Chris

    This publication contains the three numeracy units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in the area of farmers as employers: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her numeracy skills needed to deal with employment of agriculture…

  1. Farm Management and Leadership. Numeracy. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batman, Kangan; Gadd, Nick; Lucas, Michele

    This publication contains the three numeracy units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in farm management and leadership: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her numeracy skills needed to deal with farm management. SMAT materials can…

  2. Occupational Health and Safety. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batman, Kangan; Gadd, Nick; Lucas, Michele

    This publication contains the three communication skills units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in the area of occupational health and safety: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her written and spoken communication skills needed…

  3. Occupational Health and Safety. Numeracy. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batman, Kangan; Tully, Chris

    This publication contains the three numeracy units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in the area of occupational health and safety: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her numeracy skills needed to deal with occupational safety and…

  4. Farmers as Employers. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batman, Kangan; Gadd, Nick; Lucas, Michele

    This publication contains the three communication skills units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in the area of farmers as employers: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her written and spoken communication and numeracy skills…

  5. Agricultural Production. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batman, Kangan; Gadd, Nick; Lucas, Michele

    This publication contains the three communication skills units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in agricultural production: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her written and spoken communication skills needed to deal with…

  6. Agricultural Production. Numeracy. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batman, Kangan; Tully, Chris

    This publication contains the three numeracy units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in agricultural production: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her numeracy skills needed to deal with agricultural production. SMAT materials…

  7. Farm Management and Leadership. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batman, Kangan; Gadd, Nick; Lucas, Michele

    This publication contains the three communication skills units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in farm management and leadership: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner with the reading, writing, and spoken communication skills needed to deal with…

  8. Acceptance criteria for deposition of low-level and intermediate-level radiation levels radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-09-01

    This norm establishes the criteria for acceptance low and intermediate radiation level for safe deposition in repositories, for assuring the protection of workers, population and environment against the hazardous effects of the ionizing radiations. The criteria of this norm applies to the low and intermediate radiation levels

  9. Race-ethnic differences in the association of genetic loci with HbA1c levels and mortality in U.S. adults: the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsby, Jonna L; Porneala, Bianca C; Vassy, Jason L; Yang, Quanhe; Florez, José C; Dupuis, Josée; Liu, Tiebin; Yesupriya, Ajay; Chang, Man-Huei; Ned, Renee M; Dowling, Nicole F; Khoury, Muin J; Meigs, James B

    2012-04-27

    Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels diagnose diabetes, predict mortality and are associated with ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in white individuals. Genetic associations in other race groups are not known. We tested the hypotheses that there is race-ethnic variation in 1) HbA1c-associated risk allele frequencies (RAFs) for SNPs near SPTA1, HFE, ANK1, HK1, ATP11A, FN3K, TMPRSS6, G6PC2, GCK, MTNR1B; 2) association of SNPs with HbA1c and 3) association of SNPs with mortality. We studied 3,041 non-diabetic individuals in the NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) III. We stratified the analysis by race/ethnicity (NHW: non-Hispanic white; NHB: non-Hispanic black; MA: Mexican American) to calculate RAF, calculated a genotype score by adding risk SNPs, and tested associations with SNPs and the genotype score using an additive genetic model, with type 1 error = 0.05. RAFs varied widely and at six loci race-ethnic differences in RAF were significant (p differed by race-ethnicity (NHW: 10.4, NHB: 11.0, MA: 10.7, p race-ethnic heterogeneity. The combined impact of common HbA1c-associated variants on HbA1c levels varied by race-ethnicity, but did not influence mortality.

  10. Y-chromosomal diversity in Haiti and Jamaica: contrasting levels of sex-biased gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, Tanya M; Wright, Marisil R; Hernandez, Michelle; Perez, Omar A; Ramirez, Evelyn C; Martinez, Emanuel; Herrera, Rene J

    2012-08-01

    Although previous studies have characterized the genetic structure of populations from Haiti and Jamaica using classical and autosomal STR polymorphisms, the patrilineal influences that are present in these countries have yet to be explored. To address this lacuna, the current study aims to investigate, for the first time, the potential impact of different ancestral sources, unique colonial histories, and distinct family structures on the paternal profile of both groups. According to previous reports examining populations from the Americas, island-specific demographic histories can greatly impact population structure, including various patterns of sex-biased gene flow. Also, given the contrasting autosomal profiles provided in our earlier study (Simms et al.: Am J Phys Anthropol 142 (2010) 49-66), we hypothesize that the degree and directionality of gene flow from Europeans, Africans, Amerindians, and East Asians are dissimilar in the two countries. To test this premise, 177 high-resolution Y-chromosome binary markers and 17 Y-STR loci were typed in Haiti (n = 123) and Jamaica (n = 159) and subsequently utilized for phylogenetic comparisons to available reference collections encompassing Africa, Europe, Asia (East and South), and the New World. Our results reveal that both studied populations exhibit a predominantly South-Saharan paternal component, with haplogroups A1b-V152, A3-M32, B2-M182, E1a-M33, E1b1a-M2, E2b-M98, and R1b2-V88 comprising 77.2% and 66.7% of the Haitian and Jamaican paternal gene pools, respectively. Yet, European derived chromosomes (i.e., haplogroups G2a*-P15, I-M258, R1b1b-M269, and T-M184) were detected at commensurate levels in Haiti (20.3%) and Jamaica (18.9%), whereas Y-haplogroups indicative of Chinese [O-M175 (3.8%)] and Indian [H-M69 (0.6%) and L-M20 (0.6%)] ancestry were restricted to Jamaica. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Level best : drilling seasonal load leveling business case : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    Drilling and seismic costs in Western Canada are as much as 35 per cent higher during winter months. Favourable commodity pricing has prompted aggressive expansion of drilling programs in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB), and capacity is becoming a significant issue. Many operators are turning to load leveling in order to secure rigs and crew availability. However, many operators still adhere to the traditional view that drilling of oil and gas wells is best accomplished during the winter. The purpose of the project discussed in this paper was to develop and present a business case for greater seasonal load leveling in the WCSB and spreading it more evenly throughout the year. Using calendar year quarters, publicly available data for a 5 year period from 2000-2004 for drilling activity, safety, weather, and environmental restrictions were examined. A list of candidate fields with high levels of activity and a good representation of well depths was selected. Well cost and rig data from 14 different companies was used. A variety of industry participants, drilling contractors, load leveling technology suppliers and provincial agencies were consulted to supplement well cost analyses. The financial impacts of load leveling were examined. Benefits included lower well costs; advanced production; avoided rig construction; reduced incident rates; and reduced turnover. While the focus of the business case for load leveling was based on hard cost data, many indirect benefits were identified, including First Nations sustainability and greater job security and comfort for workers. Various policies and incentives that encouraged load leveling in British Columbia and Alberta were reviewed. 57 figs

  12. Atomic-level computer simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, J.B.; Rockett, Angus; Kieffer, John; Xu Wei; Nomura, Miki; Kilian, K.A.; Richards, D.F.; Ramprasad, R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper provides a broad overview of the methods of atomic-level computer simulation. It discusses methods of modelling atomic bonding, and computer simulation methods such as energy minimization, molecular dynamics, Monte Carlo, and lattice Monte Carlo. ((orig.))

  13. High-level-waste immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    Analysis of risks, environmental effects, process feasibility, and costs for disposal of immobilized high-level wastes in geologic repositories indicates that the disposal system safety has a low sensitivity to the choice of the waste disposal form

  14. MOVES regional level sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The MOVES Regional Level Sensitivity Analysis was conducted to increase understanding of the operations of the MOVES Model in regional emissions analysis and to highlight the following: : the relative sensitivity of selected MOVES Model input paramet...

  15. Association in Level 2 Fusion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kokar, Mieczyslaw M; Matheus, Christopher J; Letkowski, Jerzy A; Baclawski, Kenneth; Kogut, Paul

    2004-01-01

    ... system, this cannot be said about the number of possible relations, which can grow exponentially. To alleviate the problems of computational complexity in Level 2 processing, the authors of this paper have suggested the use of ontologies...

  16. Processing TES Level-2 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poosti, Sassaneh; Akopyan, Sirvard; Sakurai, Regina; Yun, Hyejung; Saha, Pranjit; Strickland, Irina; Croft, Kevin; Smith, Weldon; Hoffman, Rodney; Koffend, John; hide

    2006-01-01

    TES Level 2 Subsystem is a set of computer programs that performs functions complementary to those of the program summarized in the immediately preceding article. TES Level-2 data pertain to retrieved species (or temperature) profiles, and errors thereof. Geolocation, quality, and other data (e.g., surface characteristics for nadir observations) are also included. The subsystem processes gridded meteorological information and extracts parameters that can be interpolated to the appropriate latitude, longitude, and pressure level based on the date and time. Radiances are simulated using the aforementioned meteorological information for initial guesses, and spectroscopic-parameter tables are generated. At each step of the retrieval, a nonlinear-least-squares- solving routine is run over multiple iterations, retrieving a subset of atmospheric constituents, and error analysis is performed. Scientific TES Level-2 data products are written in a format known as Hierarchical Data Format Earth Observing System 5 (HDF-EOS 5) for public distribution.

  17. Intermediate Levels of Visual Processing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nakayama, Ken

    1998-01-01

    ...) surface representation, here we have shown that there is an intermediate level of visual processing, between the analysis of the image and higher order representations related to specific objects; (2...

  18. Nuclear systems of level measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara, A.J.; Cabrera, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    In the industry there are processes in which is necessary to maintain the products level controlled which are handled for their transformation. The majority of such processes and by the operation conditions, they do not admit measure systems of level of invasive type then the application of nuclear techniques for level measurement results a big aid in these cases, since all the system installation is situated beyond frontiers of vessels that contain the product for measuring. In the Department of Nuclear Technology Applications of Mexican Petroleum Institute was developed a level measurement system by gamma rays transmission which operates in the Low Density Polyethylene plant of Petrochemical Complex Escolin at Poza Rica, Veracruz, Mexico. (Author)

  19. Levels of radioactivity in Qatar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Thani, A.A.; Abdul-Majid, S.; Mohammed, K.

    1995-01-01

    The levels of natural and man-made radioactivity in soil and seabed were measured in Qatar to assess radiation exposure levels and to evaluate any radioactive contamination that may have reached the country from fallout or due to the Chernobyl accident radioactivity release. Qatar peninsula is located on the Arabian Gulf, 4500 km from Chernobyl, and has an area of ∼11,600 km 2 and a population of ∼600,000

  20. Level structure in 123Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luukko, A.; Hattula, J.; Helppi, H.; Knuuttila, O.

    1980-09-01

    The level structure of 123 Xe has been studied with 122 Te( 3 He,2n) and 123 Te( 3 He,3n) reactions using in-beam γ-ray spectroscopic methods. Band-like level structures based on the unique-parity hsub(11/2) neutron state and different low-j states are observed. The isomeric state proposed earlier is established at 185.4 keV with a half-life of 5.6+-0.3 μs, and a new spin assignment of 7/2 - is proposed for this level. A triaxial-rotor-model calculation has been performed to interprete the negative-parity level system. Because of the 7/2 - state, we do not obtain a consistent description of the negative-parity states with the triaxial rotor model, unlike the heavier odd-A Xe nuclei. On the other hand, the positive-parity level structures are interpreted in terms of the core-quasiparticle model supposing a vibrational core. This indicates different core shapes for the positive- and negative-parity level systems. (author)

  1. Intermittent sea-level acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivieri, M.; Spada, G.

    2013-10-01

    Using instrumental observations from the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL), we provide a new assessment of the global sea-level acceleration for the last ~ 2 centuries (1820-2010). Our results, obtained by a stack of tide gauge time series, confirm the existence of a global sea-level acceleration (GSLA) and, coherently with independent assessments so far, they point to a value close to 0.01 mm/yr2. However, differently from previous studies, we discuss how change points or abrupt inflections in individual sea-level time series have contributed to the GSLA. Our analysis, based on methods borrowed from econometrics, suggests the existence of two distinct driving mechanisms for the GSLA, both involving a minority of tide gauges globally. The first effectively implies a gradual increase in the rate of sea-level rise at individual tide gauges, while the second is manifest through a sequence of catastrophic variations of the sea-level trend. These occurred intermittently since the end of the 19th century and became more frequent during the last four decades.

  2. Serum gonadotropins levels in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertogh, R. De; Vankrieken, L.; Wolter, R.; Vliet, G. Van

    1989-01-01

    The complex changes in serum LH and FSH levels from infancy to adulthood are diversely evaluated by radioimmunoassays or bioassays. The relative lack of sensitivity and specificity of radioimmunoassay, using polyclonal antibodies, could possibly be overcome by new immunoradiometric assays, using specific antibodies to LH and FSH. Significant differences were indeed observed between radioimmunoassays and immunoradiometric assays. During the prepubertal period, LH levels, measured by the immunoradiometric assays, were below the sensitivity of the method in the majority of the samples. LH levels were, however, well detectable when measured with radioimmunoassay, showing the heterogeneity of circulating LH structures. At the onset of puberty, LH levels increased at least 3 to 4 times in both sexes, when measured with immunoradiometric assays, whereas their increase was only 20 to 60% with the radioimmunoassays. FSH levels remained well detectable in the prepubertal period whether measured by immunoradiometric or radioimmunoassays. At pubertal onset, FSH increase in both sexes was more important in the immunoradiometric assays. The results obtained with immunoradiometric assays give a better insight into the quantitative and qualitative function of the gonadotropes during childhood. The almost complete absence of LH during the prepubertal period and the steep increase at the onset of puberty better reflects the reported data obtained with bioassays. The persistance of significant levels of FSH in the prepubertal ages, and the lesser increase at the onset of puberty, when compared with LH, illustrates that the individual regulation of LH and FSH secretion vary over time and is influenced by developmental factors. (author)

  3. Reactor water level control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utagawa, Kazuyuki.

    1993-01-01

    A device of the present invention can effectively control fluctuation of a reactor water level upon power change by reactor core flow rate control operation. That is, (1) a feedback control section calculates a feedwater flow rate control amount based on a deviation between a set value of a reactor water level and a reactor water level signal. (2) a feed forward control section forecasts steam flow rate change based on a reactor core flow rate signal or a signal determining the reactor core flow rate, to calculate a feedwater flow rate control amount which off sets the steam flow rate change. Then, the sum of the output signal from the process (1) and the output signal from the process (2) is determined as a final feedwater flow rate control signal. With such procedures, it is possible to forecast the steam flow rate change accompanying the reactor core flow rate control operation, thereby enabling to conduct preceding feedwater flow rate control operation which off sets the reactor water level fluctuation based on the steam flow rate change. Further, a reactor water level deviated from the forecast can be controlled by feedback control. Accordingly, reactor water level fluctuation upon power exchange due to the reactor core flow rate control operation can rapidly be suppressed. (I.S.)

  4. Low-level toxicity of chemicals: No acceptable levels?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce P Lanphear

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 3 decades, in a series of studies on some of the most extensively studied toxic chemicals and pollutants, scientists have found that the amount of toxic chemical linked with the development of a disease or death-which is central to determining "safe" or "hazardous" levels-is proportionately greater at the lowest dose or levels of exposure. These results, which are contrary to the way the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA and other regulatory agencies assess the risk of chemicals, indicate that we have underestimated the impact of toxic chemicals on death and disease. If widely disseminated chemicals and pollutants-like radon, lead, airborne particles, asbestos, tobacco, and benzene-do not exhibit a threshold and are proportionately more toxic at the lowest levels of exposure, we will need to achieve near-zero exposures to protect public health.

  5. Promoting system-level learning from project-level lessons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, Amos A. de; Runhaar, Hens A.C.; Runhaar, Piety R.; Kolhoff, Arend J.; Driessen, Peter P.J.

    2012-01-01

    A growing number of low and middle income nations (LMCs) have adopted some sort of system for environmental impact assessment (EIA). However, generally many of these EIA systems are characterised by a low performance in terms of timely information dissemination, monitoring and enforcement after licencing. Donor actors (such as the World Bank) have attempted to contribute to a higher performance of EIA systems in LMCs by intervening at two levels: the project level (e.g. by providing scoping advice or EIS quality review) and the system level (e.g. by advising on EIA legislation or by capacity building). The aims of these interventions are environmental protection in concrete cases and enforcing the institutionalisation of environmental protection, respectively. Learning by actors involved is an important condition for realising these aims. A relatively underexplored form of learning concerns learning at EIA system-level via project level donor interventions. This ‘indirect’ learning potentially results in system changes that better fit the specific context(s) and hence contribute to higher performances. Our exploratory research in Ghana and the Maldives shows that thus far, ‘indirect’ learning only occurs incidentally and that donors play a modest role in promoting it. Barriers to indirect learning are related to the institutional context rather than to individual characteristics. Moreover, ‘indirect’ learning seems to flourish best in large projects where donors achieved a position of influence that they can use to evoke reflection upon system malfunctions. In order to enhance learning at all levels donors should thereby present the outcomes of the intervention elaborately (i.e. discuss the outcomes with a large audience), include practical suggestions about post-EIS activities such as monitoring procedures and enforcement options and stimulate the use of their advisory reports to generate organisational memory and ensure a better information

  6. Promoting system-level learning from project-level lessons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jong, Amos A. de, E-mail: amosdejong@gmail.com [Innovation Management, Utrecht (Netherlands); Runhaar, Hens A.C., E-mail: h.a.c.runhaar@uu.nl [Section of Environmental Governance, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Runhaar, Piety R., E-mail: piety.runhaar@wur.nl [Organisational Psychology and Human Resource Development, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands); Kolhoff, Arend J., E-mail: Akolhoff@eia.nl [The Netherlands Commission for Environmental Assessment, Utrecht (Netherlands); Driessen, Peter P.J., E-mail: p.driessen@geo.uu.nl [Department of Innovation and Environment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-02-15

    A growing number of low and middle income nations (LMCs) have adopted some sort of system for environmental impact assessment (EIA). However, generally many of these EIA systems are characterised by a low performance in terms of timely information dissemination, monitoring and enforcement after licencing. Donor actors (such as the World Bank) have attempted to contribute to a higher performance of EIA systems in LMCs by intervening at two levels: the project level (e.g. by providing scoping advice or EIS quality review) and the system level (e.g. by advising on EIA legislation or by capacity building). The aims of these interventions are environmental protection in concrete cases and enforcing the institutionalisation of environmental protection, respectively. Learning by actors involved is an important condition for realising these aims. A relatively underexplored form of learning concerns learning at EIA system-level via project level donor interventions. This 'indirect' learning potentially results in system changes that better fit the specific context(s) and hence contribute to higher performances. Our exploratory research in Ghana and the Maldives shows that thus far, 'indirect' learning only occurs incidentally and that donors play a modest role in promoting it. Barriers to indirect learning are related to the institutional context rather than to individual characteristics. Moreover, 'indirect' learning seems to flourish best in large projects where donors achieved a position of influence that they can use to evoke reflection upon system malfunctions. In order to enhance learning at all levels donors should thereby present the outcomes of the intervention elaborately (i.e. discuss the outcomes with a large audience), include practical suggestions about post-EIS activities such as monitoring procedures and enforcement options and stimulate the use of their advisory reports to generate organisational memory and ensure a better

  7. State level operations and interaction with facility level systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellinger, J.

    1989-01-01

    The role of the State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Materials at the State level, particularly the role of the National Authority, in ensuring that both national and international safeguards objectives are met is discussed. The legislative basis for the National Authority is examined. The activities of Australia's National Authority - the Australian Safeguards Office - are described

  8. Level densities in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckerman, M.

    1978-01-01

    In the independent-particle model nucleons move independently in a central potential. There is a well-defined set of single- particle orbitals, each nucleon occupies one of these orbitals subject to Fermi statistics, and the total energy of the nucleus is equal to the sum of the energies of the individual nucleons. The basic question is the range of validity of this Fermi gas description and, in particular, the roles of the residual interactions and collective modes. A detailed examination of experimental level densities in light-mass system is given to provide some insight into these questions. Level densities over the first 10 MeV or so in excitation energy as deduced from neutron and proton resonances data and from spectra of low-lying bound levels are discussed. To exhibit some of the salient features of these data comparisons to independent-particle (shell) model calculations are presented. Shell structure is predicted to manifest itself through discontinuities in the single-particle level density at the Fermi energy and through variatons in the occupancy of the valence orbitals. These predictions are examined through combinatorial calculations performed with the Grover [Phys. Rev., 157, 832(1967), 185 1303(1969)] odometer method. Before the discussion of the experimenta results, statistical mechanical level densities for spherical nuclei are reviewed. After consideration of deformed nuclei, the conclusions resulting from this work are drawn. 7 figures, 3 tables

  9. Space elevator systems level analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laubscher, B. E. (Bryan E.)

    2004-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in space access. It involves new, untried technologies in most of its subsystems. Thus the successful construction of the SE requires a significant amount of development, This in turn implies a high level of risk for the SE. This paper will present a systems level analysis of the SE by subdividing its components into their subsystems to determine their level of technological maturity. such a high-risk endeavor is to follow a disciplined approach to the challenges. A systems level analysis informs this process and is the guide to where resources should be applied in the development processes. It is an efficient path that, if followed, minimizes the overall risk of the system's development. systems level analysis is that the overall system is divided naturally into its subsystems, and those subsystems are further subdivided as appropriate for the analysis. By dealing with the complex system in layers, the parameter space of decisions is kept manageable. Moreover, A rational way to manage One key aspect of a resources are not expended capriciously; rather, resources are put toward the biggest challenges and most promising solutions. This overall graded approach is a proven road to success. The analysis includes topics such as nanotube technology, deployment scenario, power beaming technology, ground-based hardware and operations, ribbon maintenance and repair and climber technology.

  10. Nuclear level mixing resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coussement, R.; Put, P.; Scheveneels, G.; Hardeman, F.

    1985-01-01

    The existent methods for measuring quadrupole interactions are not suited to nuclei with lifetimes in the micro-seconds to minutes region. AD/NQR, a possible candidate in this lifetime gap, has not yet succeeded in overcoming its predicted difficulties. A new resonant method, recently developed and based on the principles of level mixing (cfr atomic spectroscopy) covers this less accessible lifetime range. Many other kinds of resonances can be described according to the level mixing formalism. The particular example of NMR as a level mixing resonance (LMR) is discussed. The underlying theory of LMR and its important consequences, leading to some interesting features of the method, is briefly formulated. Two successfully performed measurements demonstrate the feasibility and the predicted characteristics of this new promising method. (orig.)

  11. Low-level Radioactivity Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churtgen, C.

    2007-01-01

    The low-level radioactivity measurements service performs measurements of alpha or beta emitters on various types of low-radioactivity samples (biological and environmental) from internal and external clients. to maintain and develop techniques concerning the measurement of low-level radioactivity of alpha and beta emitting radionuclides in environmental or biological samples; to measure these samples by means of low-background counters (liquid scintillators, proportional counters, ZnS counters and alpha-spectrometers); to support and advise the nuclear and non-nuclear industry on problems of radioactive contamination or low level radioactivity measurements; to maintain the quality assurance system according to the ISO17025 standard for which we obtained the Beltest accreditation in 1998; to assess the internal dose from occupational intakes of radionuclides for workers of the nuclear industry;

  12. High Level Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The proceedings of the second annual international conference on High Level Radioactive Waste Management, held on April 28--May 3, 1991, Las Vegas, Nevada, provides information on the current technical issue related to international high level radioactive waste management activities and how they relate to society as a whole. Besides discussing such technical topics as the best form of the waste, the integrity of storage containers, design and construction of a repository, the broader social aspects of these issues are explored in papers on such subjects as conformance to regulations, transportation safety, and public education. By providing this wider perspective of high level radioactive waste management, it becomes apparent that the various disciplines involved in this field are interrelated and that they should work to integrate their waste management activities. Individual records are processed separately for the data bases

  13. High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    various journals and collections. As a result, much of this knowledge is not readily available to people who may be interested in using high-level nets. Within the Petri net community this problem has been discussed many times, and as an outcome this book has been compiled. The book contains reprints...... of some of the most important papers on the application and theory of high-level Petri nets. In this way it makes the relevant literature more available. It is our hope that the book will be a useful source of information and that, e.g., it can be used in the organization of Petri net courses. To make......High-level Petri nets are now widely used in both theoretical analysis and practical modelling of concurrent systems. The main reason for the success of this class of net models is that they make it possible to obtain much more succinct and manageable descriptions than can be obtained by means...

  14. Low-level Radioactivity Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtgen, C.

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of the research performed in the area of low-level radioactivity measurements are (1) to maintain and develop techniques for the measurement of low-level environmental and biological samples, (2) to measure these samples by means of low-background counters (liquid scintillators, proportional counters, ZnS counters, alpha spectrometry), (3) to support and advise the nuclear and non-nuclear industry on problems of radioactive contamination and low-level radioactivity measurements; (4) to maintain and improve the quality assurance system according to the ISO17025 standard; and (5) to assess the internal dose from occupational intakes of radionuclides of workers of the nuclear industry. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2001 are reported

  15. Integrated at the neighbourhood level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putri, Prathiwi Widyatmi

    2017-01-01

    Cities in the Global South are generally vast due to urban sprawl. They are characterised by a varying level of density, and enclaves of informal settlements. Within this context, this article addresses the limits of large-scale and centralised water systems. It seeks to understand, qualitatively......-spatial characteristics of local communities can be accommodated. Smaller-scale development intervention also means stimulating creativity in planning and policy-making processes to address water-infrastructure needs at local levels and opens possibilities for integrating water-infrastructures with public space....... Such a decentralised approach matters to improve the overall socio-spatial quality of a neighbourhood, however it requires, in parallel, new institutional mechanisms to provide a coherent water and environmental management system at the urban level. This article argues for a synergy of two axes: the water sector...

  16. Low-level Radioactivity Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtgen, C.

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of the research performed in the area of low-level radioactivity measurements are (1) to maintain and develop techniques for the measurement of low-level environmental and biological samples, (2) to measure these samples by means of low-background counters (liquid scintillators, proportional counters, ZnS counters, alpha spectrometry), (3) to support and advice the nuclear and non-nuclear industry in matters concerning radioactive contamination and/or low-level radioactivity measurements; (4) to maintain the quality assurance system according to the EN45001/ISO17025 standard; and (5) to assess the internal dose from occupational intakes of radionuclides of workers of the nuclear industry. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2000 are reported

  17. Modeling Multi-Level Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Iordache, Octavian

    2011-01-01

    This book is devoted to modeling of multi-level complex systems, a challenging domain for engineers, researchers and entrepreneurs, confronted with the transition from learning and adaptability to evolvability and autonomy for technologies, devices and problem solving methods. Chapter 1 introduces the multi-scale and multi-level systems and highlights their presence in different domains of science and technology. Methodologies as, random systems, non-Archimedean analysis, category theory and specific techniques as model categorification and integrative closure, are presented in chapter 2. Chapters 3 and 4 describe polystochastic models, PSM, and their developments. Categorical formulation of integrative closure offers the general PSM framework which serves as a flexible guideline for a large variety of multi-level modeling problems. Focusing on chemical engineering, pharmaceutical and environmental case studies, the chapters 5 to 8 analyze mixing, turbulent dispersion and entropy production for multi-scale sy...

  18. Deafness and motor abilities level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Zwierzchowska

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The audition injury hinders some motor motions and the organised coordination at the higher level and may be a cause of disturbances and disorder in some motor abilities adoption. It was assumed that deafness including its aetiology and injury mechanism may significantly influence the motor development of human being. The study aimed in checking if the deafness, as a result of various unfavourable factors, determines the motor development of children and youngsters. Consequently the dependency between qualitative features i.e.: signed motor level and aetiology, audition injury mechanism and the deafness degree was examined. The mechanism and aetiology of hearing correlated with the motor abilities displayed statistically significant dependencies in few motor trials only. Revealed correlations regarded mostly the coordination trials excluding the flexibility one. Statistically significant dependencies between the audition diminution and the motor abilities level were not found.

  19. Is sea-level rising?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    correction in the estimation of trends obtained for tide gauge records. The altimeter data permits to prepare spatial maps of sea-level rise trends. We present a map prepared for the Indian Ocean (Figure 4) north of 10oS , which shows a fairly uniform... drawn information from research papers published by the author and report of the IPCC AR5 WG1 Chapter 13: Sea Level Changes, in which the author has served as a ‘Lead Author’. Figure1 is prepared using data from the University of Colorado. Nerem, R...

  20. Levels of Outsourcing and Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Skov; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the evolution of offshoring and outsourcing over time and highlight strategic considerations underpinning this process in companies. On the basis of four case studies of Danish and German industrial companies, this paper develops a holistic framework...... conceptualizing various levels of outsourcing and offshoring as well as factors driving the transition between these levels. The framework adds to better understanding of the process and challenges the linear nature of it and suggests that ‘backsourcing’ and repatriation of activities should receive more...

  1. Colloids related to low level and intermediate level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsay, J.D.F.; Russell, P.J.; Avery, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive research investigation has been undertaken to improve the understanding of the potential role of colloids in the context of disposal and storage of low level and intermediate level waste immobilized in cement. Several topics have been investigated which include: (a) the study of the formation and characteristics of colloids in cement leachates; (b) the effects of the near-field aqueous chemistry on the characteristics of colloids in repository environments; (c) colloid sorption behaviour; (d) interactions of near-field materials with leachates; (e) characteristics of near-field materials in EC repository simulation tests; and (f) colloid migration behaviour. These experimental investigations should provide data and a basis for the development of transport models and leaching mechanisms, and thus relate directly to the part of the Task 3 programme concerned with migration and retention of radionuclides in the near field. 114 Figs.; 39 Tabs.; 12 Refs

  2. High-Level Radioactive Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Howard C.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a method to calculate the amount of high-level radioactive waste by taking into consideration the following factors: the fission process that yields the waste, identification of the waste, the energy required to run a 1-GWe plant for one year, and the uranium mass required to produce that energy. Briefly discusses waste disposal and…

  3. Beyond macrocognition : The transaction level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, J.M.C.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to respond to a number of developments in the past 15 years in the areas of NDM and macrocognition. In my view, these developments necessitate the definition of a new systems level, extending and modifying Newell’s (1990) "bands of cognition". I will argue that what has

  4. Cultural Understanding: Spanish Level 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Reid

    The teacher's attention is focused on selected elements of Spanish culture which may be taught integrally with instructional materials found in the first-year Spanish texts "Entender y Hablar", "La Familia Fernandez", and "A-LM Spanish, Level One". Items are cross-referenced for 42 cultural concepts ranging from nicknames to streets, roads, and…

  5. Level Design as Model Transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dormans, Joris

    2011-01-01

    This paper frames the process of designing a level in a game as a series of model transformations. The transformations correspond to the application of particular design principles, such as the use of locks and keys to transform a linear mission into a branching space. It shows that by using rewrite

  6. Biocards and Level of Abstraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Keshwani, Sonal; Chakrabarti, Amaresh

    2015-01-01

    Biocards are formal descriptions of biological phenomena and their underlying functional principles. They are used in bioinspired design to document search results and to communicate the findings for use in the further design process. The present study explored the effect of abstraction level used...

  7. Time orientation and construal level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van Jannette; Handgraaf, Michel J.J.; Antonides, Gerrit

    2017-01-01

    Eating and exercising behaviour are both characterized by immediate and future consequences. Consequently, consideration of these consequences (i.e. time orientation) predicts eating and exercising behaviour. We investigate whether construal level acts as an underlying mechanism of these

  8. Engineering at the Elementary Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrew, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Can engineering technology be taught at the elementary level? Designing and building trebuchets, catapults, solar cars, and mousetrap vehicles in a west central Florida elementary class was considered very unusual in recent years. After a review of current research on failing schools and poor curriculum, the author wondered what her school could…

  9. Energy levels of 56Mn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Assche, P. H. M.; Baader, H. A.; Koch, H. R.

    1971-01-01

    The low-energy spectrum of the 55Mn(n,γ)56 Mn reaction has been studied with a γ-diffraction spectrometer. These data allowed the construction of a level scheme for 56Mn with two previously unobserved doublets. High-energy γ-transitions to the low-energy states have been measured for different...

  10. Transportable type neutron level indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatskevich, M.V.; Kalinin, O.V.; Moskovkin, V.N.; Molchanov, A.V.; Bobkov, A.D.; Rabotnov, Yu.A.

    1979-01-01

    Some peculiarities of designing level neutron converters (LNC) for portable indicators or level neutron relays are considered. The effect of the LNC geometry and other factors on measurement errors has been studied. Calibration results of the LNC with a neutron reflector and without it are presented. It is shown that the problem of level monitoring with the help of portable indicators can be solved practically for any volume, provided two LNC modifications with reflectors are available: the NPU-G modification with horizontal location of a counter for large volumes and the NPU-V with vertical location of a counter for lesser volumes. A possibility of perfecting LNC performances by shielding the counter with thermal neutron absorbers has been studied. The design of the NPU-V modification for the NIUP-2 level indicator is described. It is intended for tubes and cylinders 30-100 mm in diameter. Measurements carried out on different steel and aluminium vessels with a diameter ranging from 300 to 100 mm and a wall thickness of up to 16 mm with the help of the NPU-V and NPU-G modifications proved the efficiency of the LNC to control a variety of products (kerosine, gasoline, oils, acids, alkalis) [ru

  11. Visualizing attitudes towards service levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.Y. Lam (Kar Yin); M. van de Velden (Michel); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractTo assess the attitudes with respect to the quality of banks’ service levels, we use survey data amongst more than 250 Chief Financial Officers (CFOs) of a range of Netherlands-based companies. These companies range from small to very large (including multinationals as Philips and Shell)

  12. Selfishness Level of Strategic Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apt, K.R.; Schäfer, G.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a new measure of the discrepancy in strategic games between the social welfare in a Nash equilibrium and in a social optimum, that we call selfishness level. It is the smallest fraction of the social welfare that needs to be offered to each player to achieve that a social optimum is

  13. Logical Entity Level Sentiment Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Niklas Christoffer; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    We present a formal logical approach using a combinatory categorial grammar for entity level sentiment analysis that utilizes machine learning techniques for efficient syntactical tagging and performs a deep structural analysis of the syntactical properties of texts in order to yield precise resu...

  14. RPython high-level synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieszewski, Radoslaw; Linczuk, Maciej

    2016-09-01

    The development of FPGA technology and the increasing complexity of applications in recent decades have forced compilers to move to higher abstraction levels. Compilers interprets an algorithmic description of a desired behavior written in High-Level Languages (HLLs) and translate it to Hardware Description Languages (HDLs). This paper presents a RPython based High-Level synthesis (HLS) compiler. The compiler get the configuration parameters and map RPython program to VHDL. Then, VHDL code can be used to program FPGA chips. In comparison of other technologies usage, FPGAs have the potential to achieve far greater performance than software as a result of omitting the fetch-decode-execute operations of General Purpose Processors (GPUs), and introduce more parallel computation. This can be exploited by utilizing many resources at the same time. Creating parallel algorithms computed with FPGAs in pure HDL is difficult and time consuming. Implementation time can be greatly reduced with High-Level Synthesis compiler. This article describes design methodologies and tools, implementation and first results of created VHDL backend for RPython compiler.

  15. Middle Level Learning Number 47

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapham, Steven S.; Hanes, Peter; Turner, Thomas N.; Clabough, Jeremiah C.; Cole, William

    2013-01-01

    This issue's "Middle Level Learning" section presents two articles. The first is "Harriet Tubman: Emancipate Yourself!" (by Steven S. Lapham and Peter Hanes). "Argo," which won the 2012 Oscar for best picture, was about a daring escape of six U.S. diplomats from Iran during the 1979 hostage crisis. Now imagine the…

  16. Legitimizing differentiated flood protection levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, Hartmann; Spit, Tejo

    2016-01-01

    The European flood risk management plan is a new instrument introduced by the Floods Directive. It introduces a spatial turn and a scenario approach in flood risk management, ultimately leading to differentiated flood protection levels on a catchment basis. This challenges the traditional sources of

  17. Reduction of parathyoid hormone levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    A method of acutely reducing the plasma level of PTH of a patient having an elevated PTH comprising the administration of a pharmaceutical composition comprising a GLP-2, or a variant, an analogue, or derivative of GLP-2 having the ability to bind and activate a GLP-2 receptor such as GLP-2 1-34...

  18. High-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grissom, M.C.

    1982-10-01

    This bibliography contains 812 citations on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from January 1981 through July 1982. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number

  19. Very low level radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, K.H.; Linsley, G.; Elert, M.

    1993-01-01

    Man's environment contains naturally occurring radionuclides and doses from exposures to these radionuclides mostly cannot be avoided. Consequently, almost everything may be considered as very low level radioactive material. In practical terms, management and the selection of different routes for low level material is confined to material which was subject to industrial processing or which is under a system of radiological control. Natural radionuclides with concentrations reaching reporting or notification levels will be discussed below; nevertheless, the main body of this paper will be devoted to material, mainly of artificial origin, which is in the system involving notification, registration and licensing of practices and sources. It includes material managed in the nuclear sector and sources containing artificially produced radionuclides used in hospitals, and in industry. Radioactive materials emit ionising radiations which are harmful to man and his environment. National and international regulations provide the frame for the system of radiation protection. Nevertheless, concentrations, quantities or types of radionuclide may be such, that the material presents a very low hazard, and may therefore be removed from regulatory control, as it would be a waste of time and effort to continue supervision. These materials are said to be exempted from regulatory control. Material exempted in a particular country is no longer distinguishable from ''ordinary'' material and may be moved from country to country. Unfortunately, criteria for exempting radioactive materials differ strongly between countries and free trade. Therefore there is a necessity for an international approach to be developed for exemption levels

  20. FINANCIAL CRISIS FROM THE MACROECONOMIC LEVEL TO THE MICROECONOMIC LEVEL

    OpenAIRE

    SANDA GHEORGHE GABRIEL; ENEA CONSTANTA

    2014-01-01

    The current economic and financial crisis, beyond the problems it generates both at micro and macro level, should determine an adaptation of the mechanisms, institutions and monetary / financial policies to the real economy we are facing. The issue of financial crises is extremely complex, including a series of quantitative and qualitative factors, financial, economic, social, ethical, technological and human, which can intervene and influence the financial operations in a...