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Sample records for leukemia a comparative study

  1. Comparable Efficacy of Idelalisib Plus Rituximab and Ibrutinib in Relapsed/refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: A Retrospective Case Matched Study of the Polish Adult Leukemia Group (PALG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puła, Bartosz; Budziszewska, Bożena Katarzyna; Rybka, Justyna; Gil, Lidia; Subocz, Edyta; Długosz-Danecka, Monika; Zawirska, Daria; Waszczuk-Gajda, Anna; Iskierka-Jażdżewska, Elżbieta; Kopacz, Agnieszka; Szymczyk, Agnieszka; Czyż, Jarosław; Lech-Marańda, Ewa; Warzocha, Krzysztof; Jamroziak, Krzysztof

    2018-05-01

    There is limited amount of data available on the comparative efficacy of ibrutinib and idelalisib, the B-cell receptor inhibitors (BCRi) newly approved for relapsed/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (r/r CLL/SLL) treatment. The aim of our study was to analyze and compare the outcomes of real-world r/r CLL/SLL patients treated with these two BCRi in outside clinical trials. A comparative case matched 1:2 analysis was performed on idelalisib combined with rituximab and ibrutinib efficacy in 102 patients with r/r CLL/SLL from two observational studies of the Polish Adult Leukemia Group (PALG). Both therapies produced similar overall response rates (idelalisib plus rituximab 76.4% and ibrutinib 72.1%). Median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in both groups were not reached. Furthermore, no significant difference was observed between both BCRi regimens in regard to PFS (HR=0.75, 95% CI=0.30-1.86, p=0.55) and OS (HR=0.65, 95%CI=0.26-1.68, p=0.39). In summary, the results of this retrospective analysis suggest that idelalisib combined with rituximab and ibrutinib therapies have comparable activity in r/r CLL/SLL in daily clinical practice. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  2. Pattern of occurrence of leukemia at a teaching hospital in eastern region of Nepal - a six year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshrestha, R; Sah, S P

    2009-01-01

    Pattern of leukemia is known to vary widely throughout the world. The characterization of distribution patterns of different subtypes of leukemia in Nepal needs further study. We wanted to study the leukemia pattern in our institute. A retrospective study of 196 cases of leukemia, diagnosed at BPKIHS, between January 1997 to December 2002 was done. We analyzed the pattern of leukemia at BPKIHS by morphological subtype, gender, age at diagnosis, time period of diagnosis (seasonality), and geographic distribution. Morphological sub typing showed that 121 cases were of acute leukemia and 75 of chronic leukemia. Chronic myeloid leukemia constituted the single largest group comprising 35.2 % of all cases, followed by acute myeloid leukemia (28.57 %) and acute lymphoid leukemia (19.9 %). Maximum numbers of cases were from the lowlands while least number of cases were from the mountain districts. Results were compared with literature from Nepal and other countries. This is the second series of leukemia from Nepal. The data published in this study reflects the leukemia pattern in the eastern region of Nepal. The pattern and distribution of AML, CML, ALL was similar to that in the developed western countries while the lesser frequency of CLL was similar to that in Southeast Asian region.

  3. Supportive care for children with acute leukemia - Report of a survey on supportive care by the Dutch Childhood Leukemia Study Group. Part I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, A; Van Leeuwen, EF; Gerritsen, EJA; Roord, JJ; De vries-Hospers, HG

    1998-01-01

    The Dutch Childhood Leukemia Study Group celebrated its 20th anniversary by conducting a nationwide survey on supportive care for children with leukemia. Pediatricians were asked about daily practice and current perceptions with regard to supportive care. The results are discussed and compared to

  4. A review of epidemiologic studies of childhood leukemia in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    This overview of Canadian studies of the epidemiology of childhood leukemia included a historical review of early studies, a summary of recent work done in Ontario, and a description of other Canadian research. The paper is published as an extended summary only. In Ontario, a study was being done to determine whether the occurrence of childhood leukemia was associated with the exposure of fathers to ionizing radiation. A major theme of current Canadian research is the effect of other environmental agents, such as electromagnetic fields

  5. Health-related quality of life in lower-risk MDS patients compared with age- and sex-matched reference populations: a European LeukemiaNet study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauder, Reinhard; Yu, Ge; Koinig, Karin A; Bagguley, Tim; Fenaux, Pierre; Symeonidis, Argiris; Sanz, Guillermo; Cermak, Jaroslav; Mittelman, Moshe; Hellström-Lindberg, Eva; Langemeijer, Saskia; Holm, Mette Skov; Mądry, Krzysztof; Malcovati, Luca; Tatic, Aurelia; Germing, Ulrich; Savic, Aleksandar; van Marrewijk, Corine; Guerci-Bresler, Agnès; Luño, Elisa; Droste, Jackie; Efficace, Fabio; Smith, Alex; Bowen, David; de Witte, Theo

    2018-03-06

    In myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), health-related quality of life (HRQoL) represents a relevant patient-reported outcome, which is essential in individualized therapy planning. Prospective data on HRQoL in lower-risk MDS remain rare. We assessed HRQOL by EQ-5D questionnaire at initial diagnosis in 1690 consecutive IPSS-Low/Int-1 MDS patients from the European LeukemiaNet Registry. Impairments were compared with age- and sex-matched EuroQol Group norms. A significant proportion of MDS patients reported moderate/severe problems in the dimensions pain/discomfort (49.5%), mobility (41.0%), anxiety/depression (37.9%), and usual activities (36.1%). Limitations in mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort, and EQ-VAS were significantly more frequent in the old, in females, and in those with high co-morbidity burden, low haemoglobin levels, or red blood cells transfusion need (p MDS patients (p MDS-related restrictions in the dimension mobility were most prominent in males, and in older people (p MDS experience a pronounced reduction in HRQoL and a clustering of restrictions in distinct dimensions of HRQoL as compared with reference populations.

  6. Leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Kusumi, Shizuyo

    1992-01-01

    Leukemia is the first malignant disease found among A-bomb survivors. Leukemia registration has greatly contributed to epidemiological and hematological studies on A-bomb radiation-related leukemia and other hematopoietic diseases, consisting of community population and the RERF Life Span Study (LSS) sample (approximately 120,000 persons containing A-bomb survivors). Using the fixed LSS cohort, the prevalence rate of leukemia reached the peak during the years 1950-1954, and thereafter, it has been gradually decreased. However, risk patterns for leukemia are still unsolved: has leukemia risk increased in recent years?; are serial changes in leukemia risk influenced by age at the time of exposure (ATE)?; is there variation between Hiroshima and Nagasaki?; and others. To solve these questions, leukemia data are now under analysis using the revised DS86. Relative risk for leukemia, especially chronic myelogenous leukemia and acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), is found to be linearly increased with increasing bone marrow doses. Serial patterns of both excess risk and excess relative risk have revealed that leukemia risk is high at 5-10 years after A-bombing in younger A-bomb survivors ATE. The influence of age ATE on serial changes is noticeable in ALL. Another factor involved in the prevalence of leukemia is background (spontaneously developed leukemia), which is the recent interest because young A-bomb survivors ATE reach the cancer-prone age. (N.K.)

  7. Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia and Indicators of Early Immune Stimulation: A Childhood Leukemia International Consortium Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudant, Jérémie; Lightfoot, Tracy; Urayama, Kevin Y.; Petridou, Eleni; Dockerty, John D.; Magnani, Corrado; Milne, Elizabeth; Spector, Logan G.; Ashton, Lesley J.; Dessypris, Nikolaos; Kang, Alice Y.; Miller, Margaret; Rondelli, Roberto; Simpson, Jill; Stiakaki, Eftichia; Orsi, Laurent; Roman, Eve; Metayer, Catherine; Infante-Rivard, Claire; Clavel, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    The associations between childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and several proxies of early stimulation of the immune system, that is, day-care center attendance, birth order, maternally reported common infections in infancy, and breastfeeding, were investigated by using data from 11 case-control studies participating in the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium (enrollment period: 1980–2010). The sample included 7,399 ALL cases and 11,181 controls aged 2–14 years. The data were collected by questionnaires administered to the parents. Pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, study, maternal education, and maternal age. Day-care center attendance in the first year of life was associated with a reduced risk of ALL (odds ratio = 0.77, 95% confidence interval: 0.71, 0.84), with a marked inverse trend with earlier age at start (P < 0.0001). An inverse association was also observed with breastfeeding duration of 6 months or more (odds ratio = 0.86, 95% confidence interval: 0.79, 0.94). No significant relationship with a history of common infections in infancy was observed even though the odds ratio was less than 1 for more than 3 infections. The findings of this large pooled analysis reinforce the hypothesis that day-care center attendance in infancy and prolonged breastfeeding are associated with a decreased risk of ALL. PMID:25731888

  8. Pattern of Occurrence of Leukemia at a Teaching Hospital in Eastern Region of Nepal - A Six Year Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ritu Kulshrestha; SP Sah

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Pattern of leukemia is known to vary widely throughout the world. The characterization of distribution patterns of different subtypes of leukemia in Nepal needs further study. We wanted to study the leukemia pattern in our institute. METHODS: A retrospective study of 196 cases of leukemia, diagnosed at BPKIHS, between January 1997 to December 2002 was done. We analyzed the pattern of leukemia at BPKIHS by morphological subtype, gender, age at diagnosis, time period of d...

  9. Screening for copy-number alterations and loss of heterozygosity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia--a comparative study of four differently designed, high resolution microarray platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, R.; Staaf, J.; Jansson, M.

    2008-01-01

    Screening for gene copy-number alterations (CNAs) has improved by applying genome-wide microarrays, where SNP arrays also allow analysis of loss of heterozygozity (LOH). We here analyzed 10 chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) samples using four different high-resolution platforms: BAC arrays (32K)...

  10. A scanning electron microscopic study of 34 cases of acute granulocytic, myelomonocytic, monoblastic and histiocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polliack, A; McKenzie, S; Gee, T; Lampen, N; de Harven, E; Clarkson, B D

    1975-09-01

    This report describes the surface architecture of leukemic cells, as seen by scanning electron microscopy in 34 patients with acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia. Six patients with myeloblastic, 4 with promyelocytic, 10 with myelomonocytic, 8 with monocytic, 4 with histiocytic and 2 with undifferentiated leukemia were studied. Under the scanning electron microscope most leukemia histiocytes and monocytes appeared similar and were characterized by the presence of large, well developed broad-based ruffled membranes or prominent raised ridge-like profiles, resembling ithis respect normal monocytes. Most cells from patients with acute promyelocytic or myeloblastic leukemia exhibited narrower ridge-like profiles whereas some showed ruffles or microvilli. Patients with myelomonocytic leukemia showed mixed populations of cells with ridge-like profiles and ruffled membranes whereas cells from two patients with undifferentiated leukemia had smooth surfaces, similar to those encountered in cells from patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. It appears that nonlymphoblastic and lymphoblastic leukemia cells (particularly histiocytes and monocytes) can frequently be distinquished on the basis of their surface architecture. The surface features of leukemic histiocytes and monocytes are similar, suggesting that they may belong to the same cell series. The monocytes seem to have characteristic surface features recognizable with the scanning electron microscope and differ from most cells from patients with acute granulocytic leukemia. Although overlap of surface features and misidentification can occur, scanning electron microscopy is a useful adjunct to other modes of microscopy in the study and diagnosis of acute leukemia.

  11. Marrow transplantation for leukemia following fractionated total body irradiation. A comparative trial of methotrexate and cyclosporine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irle, C.; Deeg, H.J.; Buckner, C.D.; Swedish Hospital Medical Center, Seattle, WA; Veterans Administration Hospital, Seattle, WA; Washington Univ., Seattle

    1985-01-01

    Fifty-six patients, 30-47 yr of age, with leukemia in relapse received allogeneic marrow transplants from HLA-identical siblings. All patients were treated with cyclophosphamide (120 mg/kg) and 7 daily fractions of 2.25 Gy of total body irradiation (TBI) for seven consecutive days. Nine patients (16%) are currently alive, free of disease, 324-845 days from transplantation. Actuarial relapse and survival rates at 2 yr were 56% and 9.5% respectively. These data were not remarkably different from those in previous studies using 10 Gy of TBI administered as a single dose. Thirty patients were randomized to receive methotrexate (MTX) and 26 to receive cyclosporine (CSP) as postgrafting prophylaxis for acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Probability of developing significant acute GVHD by day 100 post-transplant was 71% for patients in the MTX group and 45% for patients in the CSP group (p<0.05). Probability of relapse was 37% for patients in the MTX group and 70% for patients in the CSP group (p<0.05). Transplant-related deaths were more frequent in the MTX group and leukemic deaths more frequent in the CSP group although this may have been related to an uneven distribution of high-risk patients. Long term disease-free survival was comparable. (author)

  12. Study Gaps Relevant to Use of Complementary Medicine in Patients With Leukemia: A Review Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Context A review of the literature of recent decades has shown that few studies have been conducted on the effects of various types of complementary medicine on patients with leukemia. Therefore, the present study aimed to find research gaps in the use of different types of complementary medicine in patients with leukemia to be applied in future studies. Evidence Acquisition The present study was a review-type design based on a review of the literature on different types of complementary medicine in patients with leukemia, up to 2015. The search was conducted through electronic databases and search engines. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 8 studies which had been conducted on the use of complementary medicine in patients with leukemia were selected for the identification of gaps. Results The overall results showed that few studies have been conducted on the use of exercise, massage therapy, music therapy, acupressure, and healing touch in patients with leukemia, and these subjects are potential research areas for many different studies. However, no studies have been carried out on the effects of acupuncture, relaxation, and yoga on these patients. Conclusions The results of this review showed that the number of studies on the use of complementary medicine in leukemia patients is very limited (especially in Iran, and it can be the subject of numerous studies in the future.

  13. Comparative study on skin dose measurement using MOSFET and TLD for pediatric patients with acute lymphatic leukemia.

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    Al-Mohammed, Huda I; Mahyoub, Fareed H; Moftah, Belal A

    2010-07-01

    The object of this study was to compare the difference of skin dose measured in patients with acute lymphatic leukemia (ALL) treated with total body irradiation (TBI) using metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (mobile MOSFET dose verification system (TN-RD-70-W) and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD-100 chips, Harshaw/ Bicron, OH, USA). Because TLD has been the most-commonly used technique in the skin dose measurement of TBI, the aim of the present study is to prove the benefit of using the mobile MOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor) dosimeter, for entrance dose measurements during the total body irradiation (TBI) over thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). The measurements involved 10 pediatric patients ages between 3 and 14 years. Thermoluminescent dosimeters and MOSFET dosimetry were performed at 9 different anatomic sites on each patient. The present results show there is a variation between skin dose measured with MOSFET and TLD in all patients, and for every anatomic site selected, there is no significant difference in the dose delivered using MOSFET as compared to the prescribed dose. However, there is a significant difference for every anatomic site using TLD compared with either the prescribed dose or MOSFET. The results indicate that the dosimeter measurements using the MOSFET gave precise measurements of prescribed dose. However, TLD measurement showed significant increased skin dose of cGy as compared to either prescribed dose or MOSFET group. MOSFET dosimeters provide superior dose accuracy for skin dose measurement in TBI as compared with TLD.

  14. Erythrocyte survival studies in a rat myelogenous leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derelanko, M.J.; Meagher, R.C.; Lobue, J.; Khouri, J.A.; Gordon, A.S.

    1982-01-01

    To determine the extent intrinsic erythrocyte defects and/or extrinsic factors were involved in anemia of rats bearing Shay chloroleukemia (SCL), survival of 3 H-DFP labeled erythrocytes was studied in leukemic and nonleukemic hosts. Red blood cells labeled before induction of leukemia, were rapidly lost from the peripheral circulation of SCL rats in terminal stages of disease. However, labeled erythrocytes from terminal SCL animals displayed normal lifespans when transfused into nonleukemic controls. Thus the anemia of this leukemia probably resulted from extrinsic factors associated with the leukemic process. Hemorrhage appeared to be primarily responsible for the anemia of this disease

  15. Treatment results in children with myeloid leukemia of Down syndrome in Saudi Arabia: A multicenter SAPHOS leukemia group study.

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    Jastaniah, Wasil; Alsultan, Abdulrahman; Al Daama, Saad; Ballourah, Walid; Bayoumy, Mohammad; Al-Anzi, Faisal; Al Shareef, Omar; Abrar, Mohammed Burhan; Al Sudairy, Reem; Al Ghemlas, Ibrahim

    2017-07-01

    Despite the high incidence of Down syndrome (DS) in Arab countires, the incidence and outcomes of myeloid leukemia of DS (ML-DS) have not been studied. We evaluated 206 pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients diagnosed between 2005 and 2012 and identified 31 (15%) ML-DS. The incidence of ML-DS was 48 per 100,000 compared to 0.6 per 100,000 for AML in non-DS children. Thus, patients with DS had 80-fold increased risk of ML-DS compared to AML in non-DS children. The median age at diagnosis was 1.8 years, male/female ratio was 1.2, majority (84%) of patients had FAB-M7 subtype, and the cytogenetic abnormalities were normal karyotype (constitutional trisomy 21) in 48%, additional trisomy in 23%, and other aberrations in 29%. Complete remission, cumulative incidences of relapse (CIR), toxic-death, and 5-year event-free survival (EFS) rates were 96.8%, 19.4%, 13.1%, and 67.7±8.4%; respectively. In the present study, multivariate analysis revealed favorable outcome (5-year EFS 86.7±8.8%) for patients with normal karyotype. The incidence and clinical characteristics of ML-DS in Saudi patients were comparable to other reports. However, there is a need to optimize risk stratification and treatment intensity to reduce CIR and toxic death rates to further improve outcomes of patients with ML-DS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Leukemia and brain tumors in Norwegian railway workers, a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynes, T; Jynge, H; Vistnes, A I

    1994-04-01

    In an attempt to assess whether exposure to electromagnetic fields on Norwegian railways induces brain tumors or leukemia, the authors conducted a nested case-control study of railway workers based on incident cases from the Cancer Registry of Norway in a cohort of 13,030 male Norwegian railway workers who had worked on either electric or non-electric railways. The cohort comprised railway line, outdoor station, and electricity workers. The case series comprised 39 men with brain tumors and 52 men with leukemia (follow-up, 1958-1990). Each case was matched on age with four or five controls selected from the same cohort. The exposure of each study subject to electric and magnetic fields was evaluated from cumulative exposure measures based on present measurements and historical data. Limited information on potential confounders such as creosote, solvents, and herbicides was also collected; information on whether the subject had smoked was obtained by interviews with the subjects or work colleagues. The case-control analysis showed that men employed on electric railways, compared with non-electric ones, had an odds ratio for leukemia of 0.70 (adjusted for smoking) and an odds ratio for brain tumor of 0.87. No significant trend was shown for exposure to either magnetic or electric fields. These results do not support an association between exposure to 16 2/3-Hertz electric or magnetic fields and the risk for leukemia or brain tumors.

  17. Maternal supplementation with folic acid and other vitamins and risk of leukemia in offspring: a Childhood Leukemia International Consortium study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metayer, Catherine; Milne, Elizabeth; Dockerty, John D; Clavel, Jacqueline; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S; Wesseling, Catharina; Spector, Logan G; Schüz, Joachim; Petridou, Eleni; Ezzat, Sameera; Armstrong, Bruce K; Rudant, Jérémie; Koifman, Sergio; Kaatsch, Peter; Moschovi, Maria; Rashed, Wafaa M; Selvin, Steve; McCauley, Kathryn; Hung, Rayjean J; Kang, Alice Y; Infante-Rivard, Claire

    2014-11-01

    Maternal prenatal supplementation with folic acid and other vitamins has been inconsistently associated with a reduced risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Little is known regarding the association with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a rarer subtype. We obtained original data on prenatal use of folic acid and vitamins from 12 case-control studies participating in the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium (enrollment period: 1980-2012), including 6,963 cases of ALL, 585 cases of AML, and 11,635 controls. Logistic regression was used to estimate pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusted for child's age, sex, ethnicity, parental education, and study center. Maternal supplements taken any time before conception or during pregnancy were associated with a reduced risk of childhood ALL; odds ratios were 0.85 (95% CI = 0.78-0.92) for vitamin use and 0.80 (0.71-0.89) for folic acid use. The reduced risk was more pronounced in children whose parents' education was below the highest category. The analyses for AML led to somewhat unstable estimates; ORs were 0.92 (0.75-1.14) and 0.68 (0.48-0.96) for prenatal vitamins and folic acid, respectively. There was no strong evidence that risks of either types of leukemia varied by period of supplementation (preconception, pregnancy, or trimester). Our results, based on the largest number of childhood leukemia cases to date, suggest that maternal prenatal use of vitamins and folic acid reduces the risk of both ALL and AML and that the observed association with ALL varied by parental education, a surrogate for lifestyle and sociodemographic characteristics.

  18. Case-control study of leukemia at a naval nuclear shipyard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, F.B.; Waxweiler, R.A.; Beaumont, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    A matched case-control study was conducted of 53 leukemia deaths and of 212 controls within a previously studied cohort of 24,545 on-shore workers employed between January 1, 1952 and August 15, 1977 at the Portsmouth (New Hampshire) Naval Shipyard. The study sought to ascertain a priori whether there was an association between leukemia deaths and occupational exposure to either ionizing radiation or organic solvents. To obtain information on individual exposures, radiation dose histories and detailed work histories by job and shop were evaluated for each subject. No statistically significant associations were found either between ionizing radiation or presumed solvent exposure and myelogenous or lymphatic leukemia. However, when specific job categories and shops were examined without benefit of a priori hypotheses, two occupations, electrician and welder, were found to be associated with leukemia. For electricians, the Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio (ORMH) was significantly elevated for all leukemias (ORMH = 3.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.29-6.98), particularly for lymphatic leukemia (ORMH = 6.00, 95% CI = 1.47-24.45). For welders, the odds ratio was not significantly elevated for all leukemias (ORMH = 2.25, 95% CI = 0.92-5.53), but was significantly elevated for myeloid leukemia (ORMH = 3.83, 95% CI = 1.28-11.46). These findings persisted when potential confounders were adjusted by means of a conditional logistic regression model

  19. Management of infection during chemotherapy for acute leukemia in Japan: a nationwide questionnaire-based survey by the Japan Adult Leukemia Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Shun-Ichi; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Kato, Hideaki; Hiramoto, Nobuhiro; Hosono, Naoko; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Shigeno, Kazuyuki; Hatsumi, Naoko; Minamiguchi, Hitoshi; Miyatake, Junichi; Handa, Hiroshi; Akiyama, Nobu; Kanda, Yoshinobu; Yoshida, Minoru; Kiyoi, Hitoshi; Miyazaki, Yasushi; Naoe, Tomoki

    2017-11-01

    We performed a nationwide questionnaire-based survey to evaluate the current clinical practices of infectious complications during chemotherapy for acute leukemia in Japan. We e-mailed a questionnaire to member institutions of the Japan Adult Leukemia Study Group in September, 2013. The questionnaire consisted of 50 multiple-choice questions covering therapeutic environment, antimicrobial prophylaxis, screening test during neutropenia, empirical therapy for febrile neutropenia, and the use of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor. The results were compared to those of previous surveys conducted in 2001 and 2007, and also to the recommendations described in the guidelines. Usable responses were received from 141 out of 222 (63.5%) institutions. Chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia was performed in protective environment in 90% of the institutions, which increased compared to previous survey (76%). Fluoroquinolones and fluconazole were the most commonly used antimicrobial agents for antibacterial and antifungal prophylaxis, followed by sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim and itraconazole, respectively. In empirical therapy for febrile neutropenia, monotherapy with β-lactum antibiotics was the first-line therapy in most of the institutions. While empirical antifungal therapy was adopted for persistent fever in more than half of the institutions, preemptive/presumptive therapy was also used in approximately 40% of the institutions. Most of the clinicians were reluctant to use granulocyte-colony stimulating factor routinely in chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia. This study clarified the current clinical practices of infectious complications during chemotherapy for acute leukemia and would provide important information for the development of a suitable guideline in Japan.

  20. A study of sibling leukemia in the second generations of A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Nobuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Although the sibling leukemia (SL) is very rare, it is known in 4 families living in Osaka and Hiroshima, of which mothers are A-bomb survivors (2 exposed in Hiroshima/2 in Nagasaki). This study was performed on the 8 cases of SL to examine factors concerned with SL morbidity by comparison with SL in families unrelated to A-bomb exposure. Subjects were 4 cases of SL in Osaka, 4 cases in Hiroshima, and comparative 28 cases of age <20 y in 13 families (1930-1974) in a textbook published in 1979. The SL cases from mothers exposed at ages of 10-20 y were 5 males/3 females, and died at ages of 6-17 y (av. 11 y) due to acute, myeloid/monocytic leukemia. Three mothers' exposures were due to entrance in the City just/1 or 10 days after explosion and 2 mothers had lived in the black rain regions of either Hiroshima or Nagasaki. Comparisons were made on sex, type of L, age at death, parents' exposure, family composition, complication, and parents' consanguineous marriage. Findings of SL specific in the second generations of A-bomb survivors were from exposed mothers, and were mostly myeloid (monocyte) type leukemia, suggesting the effect of exposure. These facts may suggest that oocytes/ovula are of high sensitivity to internal exposure or low dose exposure. (T.T.)

  1. Occupation and leukemia: a population-based case-control study in Iowa and Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, A; Zheng, T; Linos, A; Stewart, P A; Zhang, Y W; Cantor, K P

    2001-07-01

    Studies have suggested that risk of leukemia may be associated with occupational or industrial exposures and risk may vary by the histological type of the disease. A population-based case-control study was conducted in Iowa and Minnesota to evaluate the association between various occupations, industries, and occupational exposures and leukemia risk. A total of 513 cases and 1,087 controls was included in the study. A lifetime occupational history and other risk factor information were collected through in-person interviews, and a job-exposure matrix was used to assess possible risks associated with specific exposures. A significantly increased risk of leukemia was observed among agricultural service industries and among nursing and healthcare workers. Janitors, cleaners, and light truck drivers also experienced increased risk. Those employed in plumbing, heating and air conditioning industries, and sales of nondurable goods (such as paints and varnishes) had an increased risk. Printers, painters, and workers in the food and metal industries had a nonsignificantly increased risk of leukemia. Analyses by specific exposures and histology of leukemia showed that risk of leukemia associated with occupational or industrial exposures may vary by histological type of the disease. An increased risk of leukemia among workers employed in agricultural industries, nursing and healthcare workers, and in a few occupations with possible exposure to solvents is consistent with earlier studies. Associations of risk with occupations not observed previously deserve further assessment. Published 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Comparable survival using a CMV-matched or a mismatched donor for CMV+ patients undergoing T-replete haplo-HSCT with PT-Cy for acute leukemia: a study of behalf of the infectious diseases and acute leukemia working parties of the EBMT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaro, Simone; Crocchiolo, Roberto; Tridello, Gloria; Knelange, Nina; Van Lint, Maria Teresa; Koc, Yener; Ciceri, Fabio; Gülbas, Zafer; Tischer, Johanna; Afanasyev, Boris; Bruno, Benedetto; Castagna, Luca; Blaise, Didier; Mohty, Mohamad; Irrera, Giuseppe; Diez-Martin, J L; Pierelli, Luca; Pioltelli, Pietro; Arat, Mutlu; Delia, Mario; Fagioli, Franca; Ehninger, Gerhard; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Carella, Angelo Michele; Ozdogu, Hakan; Mikulska, Malgorzata; Ljungman, Per; Nagler, Arnon; Styczynski, Jan

    2018-04-01

    The role of donor CMV serostatus in the setting of non T-cell depleted haplo-HSCT with post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PT-Cy) has not been specifically addressed so far. Here we analyzed the impact of the donor CMV serological status on the outcome of 983 CMV seropositive (CMV+), acute leukemia patients receiving a first, non T-cell depleted haplo-HSCT registered in the EBMT database. The 1-year NRM was 21.3% (95% CI: 18.4-24.8) and 18.8% (95% CI: 13.8-25.5) in the CMV D+/R+ and D-/R+ pairs, respectively (p = 0.40). Similarly, 1-year OS was 55.1% (95% CI: 50.1-58.0) and 55.7% (95% CI: 48.0-62.8) in the same groups (p = 0.50). The other main outcomes were comparable. No difference in NRM nor OS was observed after stratification for the intensity of conditioning and multivariate anaysis confirmed the lack of significant association with NRM or OS. In conclusion, the choice of a CMV-seronegative donor did not impair early survival of CMV-seropositive patients with acute leukemia after a first, non T-cell depleted haploidentical HSCT and PT-Cy among this series of 983 consecutive patients. Future research may focus on the assessment of the hierarchy of all the donor variables.

  3. Childhood leukemia mortality and farming exposure in South Korea: A national population-based birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Eun Shil; Hwang, Seung-sik; Lee, Won Jin

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between leukemia mortality and exposure to farming among children in South Korea. A retrospective cohort study of South Korean children was conducted using data collected by the national birth register between 1995 and 2006; these data were then individually linked to death data. A cohort of 6,479,406 children was followed from birth until either their death or until December 31, 2006. For surrogate measures of pesticide exposure, we used residence at birth, paternal occupation, and month of conception from the birth certificate. Farming and pesticide exposure indexes by county were calculated using information derived from the 2000 agricultural census. Poisson regression analyses were used to calculate rate ratios (RRs) of childhood leukemia deaths according to indices of exposure to agricultural pesticides after adjustment for potential confounders. In total 585 leukemia deaths were observed during the study period. Childhood leukemia mortality was significantly elevated in children born in rural areas (RR=1.43, 95%CI 1.09-1.86) compared to those in metropolises, and in counties with both the highest farming index (RR=1.33, 95%CI 1.04-1.69) and pesticide exposure index (RR=1.30, 95%CI 1.02-1.66) compared to those in the reference group. However, exposure-response associations were significant only in relation to the farming index. When the analyses were limited to rural areas, the risk of death from leukemia among boys conceived between spring and fall increased over those conceived in winter. Our results show an increase in mortality from childhood leukemia in rural areas; however, further studies are warranted to investigate the environmental factors contributing to the excess mortality from childhood leukemia in rural areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Complementary and Alternative Medicine in the Pediatrics with Leukemia: A Narrative Review Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Miladinia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundFor using of complementary and alternative medicine methods (CAM in the leukemia pediatrics than other types of cancer, we have two great challenges; first challenge is their safety and risks and second challenge is study gaps in this field. Regarding to these challenges, this study is a narrative review of some CAM methods in the leukemia pediatrics from the perspective of their safety, risks and study gaps.Materials and MethodsIn this narrative review study searched both international electronic databases including ISI Web of science, PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ISC, Embase, Scopus, Google Scholar and also, Iranian electronic databases including Magiran, Medlib and SID. Also, searches were performed separately in the specialized journals in the field of leukemia pediatrics and complementary and alternative medicine research.ResultsMusic therapy, gentle yoga movements, gentle massage types are quite safe for leukemia pediatrics. But, use of heavy yoga movements, massages with deep pressure, acupressure and acupuncture can be dangerous for leukemia pediatrics (risks of bleeding and or infection. Also, this study showed that, the number of investigations about the use of CAM in the leukemia pediatrics is very limited; especially in the field of yoga and acupuncture.ConclusionThe results of this study can be a basis both for chose of safe CAM method in these children and a basis for future studies on the basis of identified study gaps in this review study.

  5. Altered brain function in new onset childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia before chemotherapy: A resting-state fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhanqi; Zou, Dongfang; Mai, Huirong; Yuan, Xiuli; Wang, Lihong; Li, Yue; Liao, Jianxiang; Liu, Liwei; Liu, Guosheng; Zeng, Hongwu; Wen, Feiqiu

    2017-10-01

    Cognitive impairments had been reported in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, what caused the impairments needed to be demonstrated, chemotherapy-related or the disease itself. The primary aim of this exploratory investigation was to determine if there were changes in brain function of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia before chemotherapy. In this study, we advanced a measure named regional homogeneity to evaluate the resting-state brain activities, intelligence quotient test was performed at same time. Using regional homogeneity, we first investigated the resting state brain function in patients with new onset childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia before chemotherapy, healthy children as control. The decreased ReHo values were mainly founded in the default mode network and left frontal lobe, bilateral inferior parietal lobule, bilateral temporal lobe, bilateral occipital lobe, precentral gyrus, bilateral cerebellum in the newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients compared with the healthy control. While in contrast, increased ReHo values were mainly shown in the right frontal lobe (language area), superior frontal gyrus-R, middle frontal gyrus-R and inferior parietal lobule-R for acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients group. There were no significant differences for intelligence quotient measurements between the acute lymphoblastic leukemia patient group and the healthy control in performance intelligence quotient, verbal intelligence quotient, total intelligence quotient. The altered brain functions are associated with cognitive change and language, it is suggested that there may be cognition impairment before the chemotherapy. Regional homogeneity by functional magnetic resonance image is a sensitive way for early detection on brain damage in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Non-radiation risk factors for leukemia: A case-control study among chornobyl cleanup workers in Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudzenko, N; Hatch, M; Bazyka, D; Dyagil, I; Reiss, R F; Brenner, A; Chumak, V; Babkina, N; Zablotska, L B; Mabuchi, K

    2015-10-01

    Occupational and environmental exposure to chemicals such as benzene has been linked to increased risk of leukemia. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption have also been found to affect leukemia risk. Previous analyses in a large cohort of Chornobyl clean-up workers in Ukraine found significant radiation-related increased risk for all leukemia types. We investigated the potential for additional effects of occupational and lifestyle factors on leukemia risk in this radiation-exposed cohort. In a case-control study of chronic lymphocytic and other leukemias among Chornobyl cleanup workers, we collected data on a range of non-radiation exposures. We evaluated these and other potential risk factors in analyses adjusting for estimated bone marrow radiation dose. We calculated Odds Ratios and 95% Confidence Intervals in relation to lifestyle factors and occupational hazards. After adjusting for radiation, we found no clear association of leukemia risk with smoking or alcohol but identified a two-fold elevated risk for non-CLL leukemia with occupational exposure to petroleum (OR=2.28; 95% Confidence Interval 1.13, 6.79). Risks were particularly high for myeloid leukemias. No associations with risk factors other than radiation were found for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. These data - the first from a working population in Ukraine - add to evidence from several previous reports of excess leukemia morbidity in groups exposed environmentally or occupationally to petroleum or its products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Lentinan: hematopoietic, immunological, and efficacy studies in a syngeneic model of acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Emmet; Skavland, Jørn; Mujic, Maja; Bruserud, Øystein; Gjertsen, Bjørn Tore

    2010-01-01

    Lentinan, a beta-glucan nutritional supplement isolated from the shitake mushroom (Lentula edodes), is a biological response modifier with immunostimulatory properties. Concomitantly, the role of beta-glucans as chemoimmunotherapeutic in a number of solid cancers has been widely documented. We investigated the effects of nutritional grade lentinan upon BN rats and in a preclinical syngeneic model of acute myeloid leukemia. BN rats supplemented daily with lentinan exhibited weight gains, increased white blood cells, monocytes, and circulating cytotoxic T-cells; and had a reduction in anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4, IL-10, and additionally IL-6. Lentinan treatment of BN rats with BNML leukemia resulted in improved cage-side health and reduced cachexia in the terminal stage of this aggressive disease. Combination of lentinan with standards of care in acute myeloid leukemia, idarubicin, and cytarabine increased average survival compared with monotherapy and reduced cachexia. These results indicate that nutritional supplementation of cancer patients with lentinan should be further investigated.

  8. Experimental studies of leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoro, Kenjiro

    1977-01-01

    Mouse leukemia, especially the relationship between that and endogenous type-C RNA virus (murine leukemia virus, MLV), was generally discussed centering around the recent findings and reports. Correlation of carcinogenesis due to x-rays and carcinogens with the occurrence of MLV, the relationship of total body fractionated x-ray irradiation and successive acellular transmission by the neonatal inoculation with MLV, and the relationship between N-nitrosobutylurea or N-nitrosoethylurea and MLV were discussed. The relationship between the occurrence of MLV and thymus or spleen was also discussed. Biotic differences in mice and rats, the relationship between MLV the organotropism of MLV and provocation of leukemia, the directivity of MLV to thymus and the etiologic correlation of rat leukemia or mouse leukemia with MLV were mentioned. (Ichikawa, K.)

  9. Reinduction therapy for adult acute leukemia with adriamycin, vincristine, and prednisone: a Southwest Oncology Group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, L; Shaw, M T; Raab, S O

    1979-08-01

    In an attempt to improve remissions and survivals in previously treated patients with adult acute leukemia, we gave Adriamycin, vincristine, and prednisone for induction therapy, followed by 6-mercaptopurine and methotrexate for maintenance therapy to patients attaining complete remission (CR). The study group consisted of 18 patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML), ten with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and one with acute undifferentiated leukemia. Only one patient had previously received Adriamycin. Overall, there were ten CRs and two partial remissions. The five CRs and one partial remission in patients with AML occurred among those with one prior induction attempt; none of the eight AML patients with more than one prior induction attempt responded. The actuarial median duration of CR was 15 weeks and was similar for AML and acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients. Responders had a longer median survival (30 weeks) than nonresponders (9 weeks). Thus, although a reasonable number of responses in previously treated patients were obtained with this program, improvements in maintenance therapy are clearly needed.

  10. Non-radiation risk factors for leukemia: A case-control study among chornobyl cleanup workers in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudzenko, N.; Hatch, M.; Bazyka, D.; Dyagil, I.; Reiss, R.F.; Brenner, A.; Chumak, V.; Babkina, N.; Zablotska, L.B.; Mabuchi, K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Occupational and environmental exposure to chemicals such as benzene has been linked to increased risk of leukemia. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption have also been found to affect leukemia risk. Previous analyses in a large cohort of Chornobyl clean-up workers in Ukraine found significant radiation-related increased risk for all leukemia types. We investigated the potential for additional effects of occupational and lifestyle factors on leukemia risk in this radiation-exposed cohort. Methods: In a case-control study of chronic lymphocytic and other leukemias among Chornobyl cleanup workers, we collected data on a range of non-radiation exposures. We evaluated these and other potential risk factors in analyses adjusting for estimated bone marrow radiation dose. We calculated Odds Ratios and 95% Confidence Intervals in relation to lifestyle factors and occupational hazards. Results: After adjusting for radiation, we found no clear association of leukemia risk with smoking or alcohol but identified a two-fold elevated risk for non-CLL leukemia with occupational exposure to petroleum (OR=2.28; 95% Confidence Interval 1.13, 6.79). Risks were particularly high for myeloid leukemias. No associations with risk factors other than radiation were found for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Conclusions: These data – the first from a working population in Ukraine – add to evidence from several previous reports of excess leukemia morbidity in groups exposed environmentally or occupationally to petroleum or its products. - Highlights: • A unique population – a cohort of 110,645 Chernobyl clean-up workers from Ukraine. • Followed 1986–2006 for leukemia, interviewed about non-radiation risk factors. • Petroleum exposure increased risk for non-CLL leukemias, particularly CML. • No risk factor other than radiation was found for CLL.

  11. Non-radiation risk factors for leukemia: A case-control study among chornobyl cleanup workers in Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudzenko, N., E-mail: gudznat@gmail.com [National Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Kyiv (Ukraine); Hatch, M., E-mail: hatchm@mail.nih.gov [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD (United States); Bazyka, D., E-mail: Bazyka@yahoo.com [National Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Kyiv (Ukraine); Dyagil, I., E-mail: leuk@ukr.net [National Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Kyiv (Ukraine); Reiss, R.F., E-mail: rfr1@columbia.edu [Department of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Brenner, A., E-mail: brennera@mail.nih.gov [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD (United States); Chumak, V., E-mail: Chumak.vadim@gmail.com [National Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Kyiv (Ukraine); Babkina, N., E-mail: natalie.babkina@gmail.com [National Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Kyiv (Ukraine); Zablotska, L.B., E-mail: lydia.zablotska@ucsf.edu [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Mabuchi, K., E-mail: mabuchik@mail.nih.gov [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Background: Occupational and environmental exposure to chemicals such as benzene has been linked to increased risk of leukemia. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption have also been found to affect leukemia risk. Previous analyses in a large cohort of Chornobyl clean-up workers in Ukraine found significant radiation-related increased risk for all leukemia types. We investigated the potential for additional effects of occupational and lifestyle factors on leukemia risk in this radiation-exposed cohort. Methods: In a case-control study of chronic lymphocytic and other leukemias among Chornobyl cleanup workers, we collected data on a range of non-radiation exposures. We evaluated these and other potential risk factors in analyses adjusting for estimated bone marrow radiation dose. We calculated Odds Ratios and 95% Confidence Intervals in relation to lifestyle factors and occupational hazards. Results: After adjusting for radiation, we found no clear association of leukemia risk with smoking or alcohol but identified a two-fold elevated risk for non-CLL leukemia with occupational exposure to petroleum (OR=2.28; 95% Confidence Interval 1.13, 6.79). Risks were particularly high for myeloid leukemias. No associations with risk factors other than radiation were found for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Conclusions: These data – the first from a working population in Ukraine – add to evidence from several previous reports of excess leukemia morbidity in groups exposed environmentally or occupationally to petroleum or its products. - Highlights: • A unique population – a cohort of 110,645 Chernobyl clean-up workers from Ukraine. • Followed 1986–2006 for leukemia, interviewed about non-radiation risk factors. • Petroleum exposure increased risk for non-CLL leukemias, particularly CML. • No risk factor other than radiation was found for CLL.

  12. A study of sensitivity and specificity of CD64 expression in acute myeloid leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Haijie; Gao Xiaoning; Chen Weihua; Li Meng; Sun Jingfen; Han Xiaopin; Yu Li

    2008-01-01

    To study the sensitivity and specificity of CD64 in immunotyping of acute myeloid leukemia(AML). The bone marrow cells from 132 patients with AML were labelled with a series of antigens and were analyzed by flow cytometry. CD64 has high sensitivity in patients with acute myelomonocytic leukemia (M4) 96.4% and acute monocytic leukemia (MS) (96.4% and 100%, respectively). The expressions of CD64 was very low on patients with other kinds of AML(M0, M1, M2, M3, M6, M7). The specificity of CD64 in patients with M4 and M5 was 56.5%. The results suggest that the CD64 is helpful in the differential diagnosis of M4 and M5 in AML patients. (authors)

  13. Red blood cell transfusion triggers in acute leukemia: a randomized pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeZern, Amy E; Williams, Katherine; Zahurak, Marianna; Hand, Wesley; Stephens, R Scott; King, Karen E; Frank, Steven M; Ness, Paul M

    2016-07-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion thresholds have yet to be examined in large randomized trials in hematologic malignancies. This pilot study in acute leukemia uses a restrictive compared to a liberal transfusion strategy. A randomized (2:1) study was conducted of restrictive (LOW) hemoglobin (Hb) trigger (7 g/dL) compared to higher (HIGH) Hb trigger (8 g/dL). The primary outcome was feasibility of conducting a larger trial. The four requirements for success required that more than 50% of the eligible patients could be consented, more than 75% of the patients randomized to the LOW arm tolerated the transfusion trigger, fewer than 15% of patients crossed over from the LOW arm to the HIGH arm, and no indication for the need to pause the study for safety concerns. Secondary outcomes included fatigue, bleeding, and RBCs and platelets transfused. Ninety patients were consented and randomly assigned to LOW to HIGH. The four criteria for the primary objective of feasibility were met. When the number of units transfused was compared, adjusting for baseline Hb, the LOW arm was transfused on average 8.0 (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.9-9.1) units/patient while the HIGH arm received 11.7 (95% CI, 10.1-13.2) units (p = 0.0003). There was no significant difference in bleeding events or neutropenic fevers between study arms. This study establishes feasibility for trial of Hb thresholds in leukemia through demonstration of success in all primary outcome metrics and a favorable safety profile. This population requires further study to evaluate the equivalence of liberal and restrictive transfusion thresholds in this unique clinical setting. © 2016 AABB.

  14. Chronic myeloid leukemia and interferon-alpha : a study of complete cytogenetic responders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonifazi, F; de Vivo, A; Rosti, G; Guilhot, F; Guilhot, J; Trabacchi, E; Hehlmann, R; Hochhaus, A; Shepherd, PCA; Steegmann, JL; Kluin-Nelemans, HC; Thaler, J; Simonsson, B; Louwagie, A; Reiffers, J; Mahon, FX; Montefusco, E; Alimena, G; Hasford, J; Richards, S; Saglio, G; Testoni, N; Martinelli, G; Tura, S; Baccarani, M

    2001-01-01

    Achieving a complete cytogenetic response (CCgR) is a major target in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CIVIL) with interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha), but CCgRs are rare. The mean CCgR rate is 13%, in a range of 5% to 33%. A collaborative study of 9 European Union countries has led to the

  15. Educational Implications of the Subtle Late Effects of Childhood Leukemia Medical Treatment: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavach, John F.; Hart, Juliet E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a four-year longitudinal case study of a nine-year-old student when he was diagnosed with leukemia. Cognitive, neuropsychological, and affective functioning both pre and post chemotherapy treatment were assessed. Full neuropsychological evaluation revealed difficulties with processing speed, concentration, and organization…

  16. Disparities in pediatric leukemia early survival in Argentina: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilda Garibotti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify disparities-using recursive partitioning (RP-in early survival for children with leukemias treated in Argentina, and to depict the main characteristics of the most vulnerable groups. METHODS: This secondary data analysis evaluated 12-month survival (12-ms in 3 987 children diagnosed between 2000 and 2008 with lymphoid leukemia (LL and myeloid leukemia (ML and registered in Argentina's population-based oncopediatric registry. Prognostic groups based on age at diagnosis, gender, socioeconomic index of the province of residence, and migration to a different province to receive health care were identified using the RP method. RESULTS: Overall 12-ms for LL and ML cases was 83.7% and 59.9% respectively. RP detected major gaps in 12-ms. Among 1-10-year-old LL patients from poorer provinces, 12-ms for those who did and did not migrate was 87.0% and 78.2% respectively. Survival of ML patients < 2 years old from provinces with a low/medium socioeconomic index was 38.9% compared to 62.1% for those in the same age group from richer provinces. For 2-14-year-old ML patients living in poor provinces, patient migration was associated with a 30% increase in 12-ms. CONCLUSIONS: Major disparities in leukemia survival among Argentine children were found. Patient migration and socioeconomic index of residence province were associated with survival. The RP method was instrumental in identifying and characterizing vulnerable groups.

  17. Exposure to magnetic fields and survival after diagnosis of childhood leukemia: a German cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Anne Louise; Weihkopf, Thomas; Kaatsch, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Inspired by a recent U.S. study showing poorer survival among children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) exposed to magnetic fields above 0.3 microT, we examine this relationship in a German cohort of childhood leukemia cases derived from previous population-based case-control studies...... for prognostic risk group, the hazard for exposures above 0.2 microT increases to HR, 3.0 (95% CI, 0.9-9.8). In conclusion, this study is generally consistent with the previous finding; however, we report the excess risk at field levels lower than those in the U.S. study. In all, the evidence is still based...

  18. Bone mineral density in children with acute leukemia and its associated factors in Iran: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordbar, Mohammad Reza; Haghpanah, Sezaneh; Dabbaghmanesh, Mohammad Hossein; Omrani, Gholamhossein Ranjbar; Saki, Forough

    2016-12-01

    Acute leukemia is the most common malignancy in children. We showed that low bone mass is prevalent among children with leukemia, especially in femur. Serum calcium, exercise, chemotherapy protocol, and radiotherapy are the main contributing factors. We suggest that early diagnosis and treatment of this problem could improve bone health in them. Acute leukemia is the most common malignancy in children and has been reported to be associated with low bone mass. Due to lack of sufficient data about the bone mineral density of children with leukemia in the Middle East, and inconsistencies between possible associated factors contributing to decreasing bone density in these children, we aimed to conduct a case-control study in Iran. This case-control study was conducted on 60 children with acute leukemia and 60 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Anthropometric data, sun exposure, puberty, physical activity, and mineral biochemical parameters were assessed. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Data analysis was done by SPSS software v. 21. Serum calcium was higher in the control group (P = 0.012) while serum phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase, and serum 25(OH)D 3 were higher in children with leukemia with P values of 0.04, 0.002, and 0.036, respectively. Sun exposure and physical activity were more in healthy controls (P values children with leukemia, especially in the femoral neck. Serum calcium, physical activity, chemotherapy protocol, and radiotherapy are the main contributing factors.

  19. Premature chromosome condensation studies in human leukemia. I. Pretreatment characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hittelman, W N; Broussard, L C; McCredie, K

    1979-11-01

    The phenomenon of premature chromosome condensation (PCC) was used to compare the bone marrow proliferation characteristics of 163 patients with various forms of leukemia prior to the initiation of new therapy. The proliferative potential index (PPI, or fraction of G1 cells in late G1 phase) and the fraction of cells in S phase was determined and compared to the type of disease and the bone marrow blast infiltrate for each patient. Previously untreated patients with acute leukemia exhibited an average PPI value three times that of normal bone marrow (37.5% for acute myeloblastic leukemia [AML], acute monomyeloblastic leukemia [AMML], or acute promyelocytic leukemia [APML] and 42% for acute lymphocytic leukemia [ALL] or acute undifferentiated leukemia [AUL]). Untreated chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) patients showed intermediate PPI values (25.2%), whereas CML patients with controlled disease exhibited nearly normal PPI values (14.6%). On the other hand, blastic-phase CML patients exhibited PPI values closer to that observed in patients with acute leukemia (35.4%). Seven patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) exhibited even higher PPI values. No correlations were observed between PPI values, fraction of cells in S phase, and marrow blast infiltrate. For untreated acute disease patients, PPI values were prognostic for response only at low and high PPI values. These results suggest that the PCC-determined proliferative potential is a biologic reflection of the degree of malignancy within the bone marrow.

  20. Characteristic patterns of relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic SCT for adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma: a comparative study of recurrent lesions after transplantation and chemotherapy by the Nagasaki Transplant Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itonaga, H; Sawayama, Y; Taguchi, J; Honda, S; Taniguchi, H; Makiyama, J; Matsuo, E; Sato, S; Ando, K; Imanishi, D; Imaizumi, Y; Yoshida, S; Hata, T; Moriuchi, Y; Fukushima, T; Miyazaki, Y

    2015-04-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic SCT (allo-SCT) is a promising therapy that may provide long-term durable remission for adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL) patients; however, the incidence of relapse associated with ATL remains high. To determine the clinical features of these patients at relapse, we retrospectively analyzed tumor lesions in 30 or 49 patients who relapsed following allo-SCT or chemotherapy (CHT), respectively, at three institutions in Nagasaki prefecture between 1997 and 2011. A multivariate analysis revealed that the development of abnormal lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of patients at relapse was less frequent after allo-SCT than after CHT (PSCT (P=0.014). Lesions were more frequently observed in the central nervous systems of patients who relapsed with new lesions only (P=0.005). Thus, the clinical manifestation of relapsed ATL was slightly complex, especially in post-transplant patients. Our results emphasized the need to develop adoptive modalities for early and accurate diagnoses of relapsed ATL.

  1. Acute unclassified leukemia: A clinicopathologic study with diagnostic implications of electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youness, E; Trujillo, J M; Ahearn, M J; McCredie, K B; Cork, A

    1980-01-01

    By rigid cytological and cytochemical criteria, the diagnosis of acute and undifferentiated leukemia was established in 22 patients. According to defined criteria, the leukemic cells could not be classified by conventional light microscopic techniques employed in the study of hematopoietic tissue. Cytochemical studies including peroxidase, periodic acid schiff (PAS) and nonspecific esterase (alpha napthyl butyrate-reacting esterase) stains were done on fresh bone marrow samples, and the percentage of positive leukemia cells for each of these stains was determined on 200 cells. In this series of leukemias, cytochemistry at the light microscope level did not contribute to further classification. Subsequent electron microscopic examination of bone marrow samples from these patients confirmed the immaturity and nuclear/cytoplasmic asynchrony of the leukemic cells. Several in vivo neoplastic markers, such as nuclear blebs, increased nuclear bodies, and cytoplasmic fibrillar bundles could be demonstrated in these cells. Fourteen cases from this series exhibited peroxidase-positive developmental granule formation at the ultrastructural level and were reclassified as acute granulocyte leukemia (AGL). One case was reclassified as lymphoma (poor differentiated type), one case was diagnosed as acute monocytic leukemia (AmonoL), and six cases remained in the undifferentiated category (AUL). Clinical and laboratory features, response to treatment, and survival data were evaluated for these patients. This study demonstrated that electron microscopy is useful in the cytological diagnosis of human leukemia.

  2. Child leukemia and magnetic fields in Japan: a study on the child leukemia and residential exposure to power-frequency magnetic fields in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souques, M.

    2006-01-01

    A new study on the relationship between the exposure to magnetic fields 50/60 hz and the leukemia risk for child, realised in Japan, has just been published. The results show an increase of the risk for the exposure over to .4 μ T, but the interval of confidence shows that this study has a lack of power for the statistical analysis. Finally, this study cannot claims to bring contribution to the scientific debate about the low frequency magnetic fields. (N.C.)

  3. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia in Calgary, Alberta, Canada: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Christine Shysh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence rate of acute myeloid leukemia (AML was determined in the Calgary Metropolitan Area, a major Canadian city. Methods Data from all patients diagnosed with AML between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2015 were retrieved from a single, centralized cancer cytogenetics laboratory for bone marrow samples, the sole diagnostic facility of its kind in Southern Alberta. Results The calculated incidence rate was 2.79 cases per 100,000 person-years with a median age of 60, slightly lower than previously published data. The age-standardized incidence rate for Canada was 3.46 cases per 100,000 person-years. The higher value is reflective of Calgary’s younger population compared to the rest of Canada. Higher male incidence and greatest incidence occurring at approximately the age of 85 is similar to data from other developed countries. The lower incidence rates and median age of diagnosis, in comparison with that of other high-income nations, may be due to differences in the proportion of aging citizens in the population. Conclusion This is the first published incidence rate of acute myeloid leukemia (AML in Canada across all age groups.

  4. CSF drug levels for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated by 5 g/m2 methotrexate. A study from the EORTC Children's Leukemia Cooperative Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milano, G; Thyss, A; Serre Debeauvais, F; Laureys, G; Benoit, Y; Deville, A; Dutour, C; Robert, A; Otten, J; Behar, C

    1990-04-01

    A multicenter EORTC study was conducted in children with acute lymphocytic leukemia to determine whether 5 g/m2 of methotrexate (MTX) (24 h i.v. infusion, four cycles) is an appropriate dosage for obtaining CSF drug concentrations approaching the critical cytotoxic level of 10(-6) M. A total of 193 cycles were analyzed for 58 patients. At the end of the 24 h infusion, the mean MTX serum level was 65.27 +/- 33.11 microM; the mean CSF MTX level was 1.47 +/- 1.1 microM; no significant difference in CSF MTX levels was observed between patients with (n = 20) and those without i.v. Ara-C (n = 38). The mean CSF MTX/serum MTX ratio was 0.029 +/- 0.027. CSF drug concentrations greater than or equal to 10(-6) M were achieved in 81% of the courses. The highest level was 8.4 X 10(-6) M. Only 5% of patients failed to achieve this drug concentration in at least one cycle. No significant correlation was observed between blood and CSF MTX levels. Mean CSF MTX levels were comparable from one cycle to another.

  5. Risk of leukemia among survivors of testicular cancer: a population-based study of 42,722 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, R.; Gilbert, E.; Lynch, C.F.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to quantify excess absolute risk (EAR) and excess relative risk (ERR) of secondary leukemia among a large population-based group of testicular cancer survivors. METHODS: We identified 42,722 1-year survivors of testicular cancer within 14 population-based cancer...... registries in Europe and North America (1943-2002). Poisson regression analysis was used to model EAR (per 100,000 person-years [PY]) and ERR of secondary leukemia. Cumulative risks were calculated using a competing risk model. RESULTS: Secondary leukemia developed in 89 patients (EAR = 10.8 per 100,000 PY......, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.6-14.6; ERR = 1.6, 95%CI = 1.0-2.2). Statistically significantly elevated risks were observed for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (EAR = 7.2, 95%CI = 4.7-10.2) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (EAR = 1.3, 95%CI = 0.4-2.8). In multivariate analyses, AML risk was higher...

  6. Long-term survival in acute leukemia in Japan. A study of 304 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, K; Suzuki, H; Yamada, K; Kato, Y; Watanabe, E; Morishima, Y; Takeyama, H; Kobayashi, M

    1980-04-15

    In a national survey of five-year survivors with acute leukemia, 233 of 304 cases were children under 14 years of age and 71 were adults. There were 107 myeloblastic, 10 promyelocytic, 142 lymphocytic, and 37 undifferentiated leukemias, Forty-five cases at age 3 represented the peak. These long-term survivors have shown a yearly increase in number. In 1972, the number of childhood ALL cases reached 38 with no great changes in ANLL cases. With respect to prognosis among long-term survivors, it seemed that neither type of leukemia nor age at diagnosis were factors influencing the future survival. CNS relapse occurring before the third year was an unfavorable complication for a prognosis beyond five years. Only 8 patients died of leukemia among 155 patients who reached five years in their initial complete remission; 49 of 90 patients who had relapse within five years after diagnosis died of leukemia. From these findings, it seems very important to follow patients for five years in their initial complete remission.

  7. Doxorubicin and ifosfamide combination chemotherapy in previously treated acute leukemia in adults: a Southwest Oncology Group pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, D H; Bickers, J N; Vial, R H; Hussein, K; Bottomley, R; Hewlett, J S; Wilson, H E; Stuckey, W J

    1980-01-01

    The Southwest Oncology Group did a limited institutional pilot study of the combination of doxorubicin and ifosfamide in the treatment of previously treated adult patients with acute leukemia. Thirty-four patients received one or two courses of the combination. All patients had received prior chemotherapy and 32 had received prior anthracycline chemotherapy. Three patients died before their responses could be fully evaluated. Fourteen patients achieved complete remission (41%) and one patient achieved partial remission. The complete remission rate was 27% for patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia (myelomonoblastic leukemia, monoblastic leukemia, and erythroleukemia) and 89% for patients with acute lymphocytic and undifferentiated leukemia (ALL). Toxic effects included severe hematologic reactions in 33 of 34 patients, hematuria in six patients, altered sensorium in one patient, and congestive heart failure in one patient. The safety of the combination was established and toxic side effects of this therapy were tolerable. The 89% complete remission rate for previously treated patients with ALL suggests that the combination of doxorubicin and ifosfamide may be particularly effective in ALL.

  8. Adherence to treatment with imatinib in chronic myeloid leukemia: a study of the first decade of responses obtained at a Brazilian hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Roosevelt Campos dos Reis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetive: The aim of this study was to identify the reasons for failure in adherence to imatinib mesylate treatment in chronic myeloid leukemia. Methods: A retrospective review was performed of 100 non-electronic records of patients with Ph+ chronic myeloid leukemia treated with imatinib mesylate. The study period was from January 2001 to January2011. Data were analyzed by Chi-Square and Correspondence analysis using the Statistical Analysis System software package. Results: At the beginning of treatment 41% of patients were in advanced stages of the disease. The unavailability of the drug (44.8% and myelotoxicity (25.7% were the most frequent reasons for interruption. The adherence rate was 95% induced complete cytogenetic response, major cytogenetic response and major molecular response. Conclusion: The population of this study obtained lower-than-expected therapeutic responses compared to other studies.

  9. Sequential Oral Hydroxyurea and Intravenous Cytosine Arabinoside in Refractory Childhood Acute Leukemia: A Pediatric Oncology Group Phase I Study

    OpenAIRE

    Dubowy, Ronald; Graham, Michael; Hakami, Nasrollah; Kletzel, Morris; Mahoney, Donald; Newman, Edward; Ravindranath, Yaddanapudi; Camitta, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    At concentrations >0.1 mM, Hydroxyurea (HU) enhances the accumulation of cytosine arabinoside (ara-C) in leukemia cells in vitro. This study of children with refractory acute leukemia was designed to take advantage of this biochemical modulation. A fixed dose of HU and an escalating dose of ara-C were used. Oral HU, 1200 mg/m2 was followed 2 hours later by ara-C, 250-3100 mg/m2 intravenously in 15 minutes. The combination was given on days 1,2,3 and 8,9,10. Thirty-three children (26 ALL, 7 AN...

  10. Sex work: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Bill; Benoit, Cecilia; Jansson, Mikael

    2014-10-01

    Explanations of adult involvement in sex work typically adopt one of two approaches. One perspective highlights a variety of negative experiences in childhood and adolescence, including physical and sexual abuse, family instability, poverty, associations with "pimps" and other exploiters, homelessness, and drug use. An alternative account recognizes that some of these factors may be involved, but underscores the contribution of more immediate circumstances, such as current economic needs, human capital, and employment opportunities. Prior research offers a limited assessment of these contrasting claims: most studies have focused exclusively on people working in the sex industry and they have not assessed the independent effects of life course variables central to these two perspectives. We add to this literature with an analysis that drew on insights from life course and life-span development theories and considered the contributions of factors from childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Our comparative approach examined predictors of employment in sex work relative to two other low-income service or care work occupations: food and beverage serving and barbering and hairstyling. Using data from a study of almost 600 workers from two cities, one in Canada and the other in the United States, we found that both immediate circumstances and negative experiences from early life are related to current sex work involvement: childhood poverty, abuse, and family instability were independently associated with adult sex work, as were limited education and employment experience, adult drug use, and marital status.

  11. Effects of total body irradiation-based conditioning allogenic sem cell transplantation for pediatric acute leukemia: A single-institution study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Moo; Choi, Eun Kyung; Kim, Jong Hoon

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of total body irradiation (TBI), as a conditioning regimen prior to allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT), in pediatric acute leukemia patients. From January 2001 to December 2011, 28 patients, aged less than 18 years, were treated with TBI-based conditioning for allo-SCT in our institution. Of the 28 patients, 21 patients were diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, 75%) and 7 were diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML, 25%). TBI was completed 4 days or 1 day before stem cell infusion. Patients underwent radiation therapy with bilateral parallel opposing fields and 6-MV X-rays. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate survival outcomes. The 2-year event-free survival and overall survival rates were 66% and 56%, respectively (71.4% and 60.0% in AML patients vs. 64.3% and 52.4% in ALL patients, respectively). Treatment related mortality rate were 25%. Acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease was a major complication; other complications included endocrine dysfunction and pulmonary complications. Common complications from TBI were nausea (89%) and cataracts (7.1%). The efficacy and toxicity data in this study of TBI-based conditioning to pediatric acute leukemia patients were comparable with previous studies. However, clinicians need to focus on the acute and chronic complications related to allo-SCT.

  12. Effects of total body irradiation-based conditioning allogenic sem cell transplantation for pediatric acute leukemia: A single-institution study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Moo; Choi, Eun Kyung; Kim, Jong Hoon [Dept.of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2014-09-15

    To evaluate the effects of total body irradiation (TBI), as a conditioning regimen prior to allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT), in pediatric acute leukemia patients. From January 2001 to December 2011, 28 patients, aged less than 18 years, were treated with TBI-based conditioning for allo-SCT in our institution. Of the 28 patients, 21 patients were diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, 75%) and 7 were diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML, 25%). TBI was completed 4 days or 1 day before stem cell infusion. Patients underwent radiation therapy with bilateral parallel opposing fields and 6-MV X-rays. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate survival outcomes. The 2-year event-free survival and overall survival rates were 66% and 56%, respectively (71.4% and 60.0% in AML patients vs. 64.3% and 52.4% in ALL patients, respectively). Treatment related mortality rate were 25%. Acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease was a major complication; other complications included endocrine dysfunction and pulmonary complications. Common complications from TBI were nausea (89%) and cataracts (7.1%). The efficacy and toxicity data in this study of TBI-based conditioning to pediatric acute leukemia patients were comparable with previous studies. However, clinicians need to focus on the acute and chronic complications related to allo-SCT.

  13. Commentary on "Childhood Leukemia Survivors and Their Return to School: A Literature Review, Case Study, and Recommendations"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Lori A.

    2011-01-01

    This is a commentary on the article, "Childhood Leukemia Survivors and Their Return to School: A Literature Review, Case Study, and Recommendations" by D. Scott Hermann, Jill R. Thurber, Kenneth Miles, and Gloria Gilbert in this issue (2011). This article addresses issues related to the compatibility of the suggested practices with contemporary…

  14. Paracetamol suppositories: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, S; Kenny, D; Ward, O C; Sabra, K

    1989-01-01

    Paracetamol suppositories in two different bases were given to children who had fever after operations. Plasma concentrations and the effect on temperature were compared. There was a significant correlation between peak plasma concentrations and maximum drop in temperature. A lipophilic base produced better results than a hydrophilic base. PMID:2817936

  15. Paracetamol suppositories: a comparative study.

    OpenAIRE

    Cullen, S; Kenny, D; Ward, O C; Sabra, K

    1989-01-01

    Paracetamol suppositories in two different bases were given to children who had fever after operations. Plasma concentrations and the effect on temperature were compared. There was a significant correlation between peak plasma concentrations and maximum drop in temperature. A lipophilic base produced better results than a hydrophilic base.

  16. A study on subsequent neurologic complications in children with acute leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Naoaki; Shimazaki, Haruyo; Hoshi, Yasutaka; Akatsuka, Jun-ichi

    1989-01-01

    Twenty-seven children with acute leukemia were studied in order to detect the subsequent neurologic complications due to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Twenty-four patients with ALL received central nervous system prophylaxis including cranial irradiation. The methods of evaluation consisted of electroencephalogram (EEG), computed tomography of the head (CT scan), soft neurological sign, intelligence quotient (IQ) and Bender Gestalt test. The patients with relapse showed severe abnormalities in various kinds of examinations. Younger children at diagnosis were associated with a higher abnormality rate of soft neurological signs and Bender Gestalt test. Factors which were found to be closely associated with a lower IQ score included younger children at diagnosis and longer duration of remission time. These results indicate the need for caution for the dosage of cranial irradiation for younger patients in CNS prophylaxis, and improvement of a lower IQ score in long-term survivors requires further investigation as to the appropriate intellectual environment for their development after remission. (author)

  17. Trisomy 8 in Pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia. A NOPHO-AML Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Anne Cathrine Lund; Sandahl, Julie Damgaard; Kjeldsen, Eigil

    2016-01-01

    Trisomy 8 (+8) is a common cytogenetic aberration in acute myeloid leukemia (AML); however, the impact of +8 in pediatric AML is largely unknown. We retrospectively investigated 609 patients from the NOPHO-AML database to determine the clinical and cytogenetic characteristics of +8 in pediatric AML...

  18. Childhood Leukemia Survivors and Their Return to School: A Literature Review, Case Study, and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, D. Scott; Thurber, Jill R.; Miles, Kenneth; Gilbert, Gloria

    2011-01-01

    Leukemias (blood cell cancers) and central nervous system tumors are the most frequently occurring types of cancer in children. Mortality rates from all childhood cancers have decreased over the past 2 decades. As a result, many childhood cancer survivors are now returning to their schools after having been successfully treated. Although most of…

  19. Pattern of Occurrence of Leukemia at a Teaching Hospital in Eastern Region of Nepal - A Six Year Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Kulshrestha

    2009-01-01

    The data published in this study reflects the leukemia pattern in the eastern region of Nepal. The pattern and distribution of AML, CML, ALL was similar to that in the developed western countries while the lesser frequency of CLL was similar to that in Southeast Asian region Key Words:leukemia, pattern, eastern Nepal, seasonality.

  20. [A clinical study of chronic disseminated candidiasis in patients with acute leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bing; Guo, Xu-Tao; Wei, Yong-Qiang; Meng, Fan-Yi; Liu, Qi-Fa; Zhou, Shu-Yun

    2008-06-01

    To deepen the understanding of chronic disseminated candidiasis (CDC) in patients with acute leukemia (AL). CDC was investigated in 119 AL patients who received induction chemotherapy from August 2004 to May 2005. Clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, imaging modalities, diagnosis and treatment were investigated retrospectively. Three patients (2.5%) were identified to be suffering from CDC. All the three patients had an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) nodular patchy shadows in lungs. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple abnormal signal in liver, spleen and kidneys in one of the patients. Two patients had positive bleed fungal cultures and histologic examination in one of the patients were positive for Candida tropicalis. Two patients received amphotericin B therapy empirically, but it was replaced by amphotericin B colloid dispersion (ABCD) later in one and combined with voriconazole in another because of unresponsiveness to the drug. One patient took a favorable turn after receiving ABCD therapy for 45 d, which was replaced by voriconazole because of the emergence of fever after discontinuation of ABCD. All the three patients received further chemotherapy smoothly after the diagnosis of CDC. The diagnosis of CDC remains difficult. Fungal blood cultures and histologic examination have been considered in many studies as the golden standard for the diagnosis of CDC. Amphotericin B is the cornerstone of treatment in patients with CDC and lipid formulations of amphotericin B can be used in CDC patients who are intolerant of or refractory to conventional amphotericin B. Voriconazole has a favorable response for refractory/relapse patients and could be used for second line treatment. The development of CDC in patients with acute leukemia does not preclude further chemotherapy.

  1. Childhood leukemia in relation to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields emitted from television and radio broadcast transmitters. Results of a case-control study; Leukaemien im Kindesalter und elektromagnetische Felder in der Umgebung von Rundfunkstationen. Ergebnisse einer Fall-Kontroll-Studie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmiedel, Sven [Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen (Denmark). Inst. of Cancer Epidemiology; Universitaetsmedizin Mainz Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Medizinische Biometrie, Epidemiologie und Informatik (IMBEI); Merzenich, Hiltrud; Bennack, Sabrina; Blettner, Maria [Universitaetsmedizin Mainz Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Medizinische Biometrie, Epidemiologie und Informatik (IMBEI); Brueggemeyer, Hauke [Niedersaechsischer Landesbetrieb fuer Wasserwirtschaft, Kuesten- und Naturschutz, Hildesheim (Germany). AB35 - Strahlenschutz in Niedersachsen; Philipp, Johannes [Suedwestrundfunk, Stuttgart (Germany). Abt. Frequenz- und Versorgungsplanung; Schuetz, Joachim [Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen (Denmark). Inst. of Cancer Epidemiology

    2009-07-01

    The causes of childhood leukemia are poorly understood. Radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) emitted from broadcast stations are possible risk factors. A case-control study was conducted in West Germany on RF-EMF and childhood leukemia. The study region consisted of municipalities near 24 radio and television transmitters. Cases (aged 0-14 years, diagnosis 1984-2003) were registered at the German childhood cancer registry. Three age-, gender- and transmitter areamatched controls per case were drawn randomly from population registries. The analysis included 1,959 cases and 5,848 controls. The RF-EMF exposure was calculated with a field strength prediction program. In the statistical analysis conditional logistic regression was used. Considering total RF-EMF, the odds ratio for leukemia was 0.86 (95% confidence interval 0.67-1.11) comparing upper ({>=}95%) and lower (<90%) quantile for the RF-EMF distribution. No association between RF-EMF exposure and leukemia was observed for the time periods before and after the introduction of mobile telecommunication. There was no increased risk among children living in the 2 km vicinity of the transmitters. The study provides no evidence for an association between RF-EMF and childhood leukemia. (orig.)

  2. Decreased expression of endogenous feline leukemia virus in cat lymphomas: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krunic, Milica; Ertl, Reinhard; Hagen, Benedikt; Sedlazeck, Fritz J; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; von Haeseler, Arndt; Klein, Dieter

    2015-04-10

    Cats infected with exogenous feline leukemia virus (exFeLV) have a higher chance of lymphoma development than uninfected cats. Furthermore, an increased exFeLV transcription has been detected in lymphomas compared to non-malignant tissues. The possible mechanisms of lymphoma development by exFeLV are insertional mutagenesis or persistent stimulation of host immune cells by viral antigens, bringing them at risk for malignant transformation. Vaccination of cats against exFeLV has in recent years decreased the overall infection rate in most countries. Nevertheless, an increasing number of lymphomas have been diagnosed among exFeLV-negative cats. Endogenous feline leukemia virus (enFeLV) is another retrovirus for which transcription has been observed in cat lymphomas. EnFeLV provirus elements are present in the germline of various cat species and share a high sequence similarity with exFeLV but, due to mutations, are incapable of producing infectious viral particles. However, recombination between exFeLV and enFeLV could produce infectious particles. We examined the FeLV expression in cats that have developed malignant lymphomas and discussed the possible mechanisms that could have induced malignant transformation. For expression analysis we used next-generation RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) and for validation reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). First, we showed that there was no expression of exFeLV in all samples, which eliminates the possibility of recombination between exFeLV and enFeLV. Next, we analyzed the difference in expression of three enFeLV genes between control and lymphoma samples. Our analysis showed an average of 3.40-fold decreased viral expression for the three genes in lymphoma compared to control samples. The results were confirmed by RT-qPCR. There is a decreased expression of enFeLV genes in lymphomas versus control samples, which contradicts previous observations for the exFeLV. Our results suggest that a persistent stimulation of host

  3. Prognostic factors in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a ten year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oloomi yazdi Z.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL is the most common cancer in the pediatric population. With modern treatments, the chance of the complete recovery is nearly 100%. The most important prognostic factors are appropriate treatment protocol and determination of patient risk factors based on clinical, morphological, immunological and cytological characteristics. In this study we reviewed frequency of these factors, like as age, gender, the primary white blood cell number, sub- group on the base of FAB classification, immunophenotype and the clinical progress. Methods: In this retrospective study, we reviewed 877 pediatric patients with the diagnosis of ALL between the years of 1994 and 2004. In these patients the age, gender, primary WBC count, sub-group based on the FAB classification, immunophenotype and the clinical progress in 177 patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia at Imam Khomeini Hospital between the years of 1994 to 2004 were determined. Results: Of these patients, 1.6% was younger than one year, 24.8% more than ten years old and 73.6% were between the ages of one and ten years; 63.8% were male. WBC counts were above 50,000/ul in 28.8% of the patients. FAB classifications included L1 in 80.2%, L2 in 17.5% and L3 in 2.3% of the patients. Immunophenotypes included pre-B cell in 63.8%, early pre-B cell in 23.1%, T cell in 12.3% and mature B cell in 0.8% of the patients. Marker CD10+ was detected in 88.1% of the B cell cases. In this study group, 74% of the patients recovered, 16.3% died and 16.5% relapsed.Conclusions: The prevalence of FAB-L1 and pre-B cell cases in this study is greater than a previous study, while the prevalence of FAB-L2 and early pre-B cell cases is less than that of the previous study.

  4. Indices of language outcome 11 years after intrathecal chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a sibling case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Fiona M; Su, I-Fan; Murdoch, Bruce E

    2012-03-01

    Studies are emerging that suggest that major language indices do not differentiate children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with risk-adapted intrathecal chemotherapy (ITC) from control children matched on age, gender, and educational level. No study to date has controlled for cognitive environment, an important variable influencing language achievement and outcome. This case-control study applies the deconfounding principle by using a sibling as a control to investigate language outcomes in a male child 11 years after administration of ITC for ALL at the age of 2 years 3 months. A comprehensive behavioral language test battery failed to differentiate the siblings on current language performance when descriptively compared, but neurophysiological assessment revealed that the ITC-treated child required more time and elicited a smaller N400 component compared to his sibling during picture-word matching. The findings suggest that in the absence of pretreatment performance indices, comparison with sibling achievement may supplement what is known on posttreatment language skill development drawn from comparative studies using children matched on age, sex, and educational level drawn from the community. The study's findings offer pilot data of language outcomes following ITC beyond the early stage of survivorship. The benefits and limitations of using siblings in research where the cognitive environment is known to make an important contribution to skill development are discussed.

  5. Leukemia among participants in military maneuvers at a nuclear bomb test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, G.G.; Kelley, D.B.; Heath, C.W.

    1980-01-01

    To test the possibility of a casual relationship between leukemia and exposure to nuclear radiation, the frequency of leukemia in personnel observing the detonation of a nuclear device called ''Smoky'' during August 1957 was determined. Of some 3224 men who witnessed the detonation, nine cases of leukemia were observed. They included four cases of acute myelocytic leukemia, three of chronic myelocytic leukemia, one of hairy cell lymphocyctic leukemia, and one of acute lymphocytic luekemia. These findings represent a significant increase over the expected leukemia incidence of 3.5 cases. Mean film-badge gamma radiation dose for the study group was 466.2 mrem

  6. A comparative study of festivals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    are decreasing, and potential sponsorship is more selective. To illustrate, a few ..... Paléo sees itself as a global village and pays attention to .... a dedicated ground for the festival, which offers a lot of freedom to ... illustrated in Figure 1. It builds ...

  7. Raman spectroscopy for the assessment of acute myeloid leukemia: a proof of concept study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanna, R.; Tresoldi, C.; Ronchi, P.; Lenferink, A. T. M.; Morasso, C.; Mehn, D.; Bedoni, M.; Terstappen, L. W. M. M.; Ciceri, F.; Otto, C.; Gramatica, F.

    2014-03-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a proliferative neoplasm, that if not properly treated can rapidly cause a fatal outcome. The diagnosis of AML is challenging and the first diagnostic step is the count of the percentage of blasts (immature cells) in bone marrow and blood sample, and their morphological characterization. This evaluation is still performed manually with a bright field light microscope. Here we report results of a study applying Raman spectroscopy for analysis of samples from two patients affected by two AML subtypes characterized by a different maturation stage in the neutrophilic lineage. Ten representative cells per sample were selected and analyzed with high-resolution confocal Raman microscopy by scanning 64x64 (4096) points in a confocal layer through the volume of the whole cell. The average spectrum of each cell was then used to obtain a highly reproducible mean fingerprint of the two different AML subtypes. We demonstrate that Raman spectroscopy efficiently distinguishes these different AML subtypes. The molecular interpretation of the substantial differences between the subtypes is related to granulocytic enzymes (e.g. myeloperoxidase and cytochrome b558), in agreement with different stages of maturation of the two considered AML subtypes . These results are promising for the development of a new, objective, automated and label-free Raman based methods for the diagnosis and first assessment of AML.

  8. Cosmetic Regulations: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhag, Jyoti; Dureja, Harish

    2015-01-01

    The regulatory framework, compliance requirement, efficacy, safety, and marketing of cosmetic products are considered the most important factors for growth of the cosmetic industry. There are different regulatory bodies across the globe that have their own insights for regulation; moreover, governments such as the United States, European Union, and Japan follow a stringent regulatory framework, whereas cosmetics are not so much strictly regulated in countries such as India, Brazil, and China. The alignment of a regulatory framework will play a significant role in the removal of barriers to trade, growth of market at an international level, innovation in the development and presentation of new products, and most importantly safety and efficacy of the marketed products. The present contribution gives insight into the important cosmetic regulations in areas of premarket approval, ingredient control, and labeling and warnings, with a special focus on the cosmetic regulatory environments in the United States, European Union, Japan, and India. Most importantly, the authors highlight the dark side of cosmetics associated with allergic reactions and even skin cancer. The importance of cosmetic regulations has been highlighted by dint of which the society can be healthier, accomplished by more stringent and harmonized regulations.

  9. Biofuel: A Comparative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    encouraging the use of renewable energy. Congress defines renewable energy as energy coming from biomass, geothermal , wind, solar, and hydropower...day, and non-OECD countries, led by China , experienced a surge in use of 1.2 million barrels per day (BP, 2012). Figure 6 illustrates the world oil...America is driven by the monies from petroleum sales (CFR, 2006). Countries such as China constrain the United States’ ability to form partnerships to

  10. Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. White blood cells help your body fight infection. Your blood cells form in your bone marrow. In leukemia, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. ...

  11. Comparison of matched sibling donors versus unrelated donors in allogeneic stem cell transplantation for primary refractory acute myeloid leukemia: a study on behalf of the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the EBMT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eolia Brissot

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary refractory acute myeloid leukemia (PRF-AML is associated with a dismal prognosis. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (HSCT in active disease is an alternative therapeutic strategy. The increased availability of unrelated donors together with the significant reduction in transplant-related mortality in recent years have opened the possibility for transplantation to a larger number of patients with PRF-AML. Moreover, transplant from unrelated donors may be associated with stronger graft-mediated anti-leukemic effect in comparison to transplantations from HLA-matched sibling donor, which may be of importance in the setting of PRF-AML. Methods The current study aimed to address the issue of HSCT for PRF-AML and to compare the outcomes of HSCT from matched sibling donors (n = 660 versus unrelated donors (n = 381, for patients with PRF-AML between 2000 and 2013. The Kaplan-Meier estimator, the cumulative incidence function, and Cox proportional hazards regression models were used where appropriate. Results HSCT provide patients with PRF-AML a 2-year leukemia-free survival and overall survival of about 25 and 30%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, two predictive factors, cytogenetics and time from diagnosis to transplant, were associated with lower leukemia-free survival, whereas Karnofsky performance status at transplant ≥90% was associated with better leukemia-free survival (LFS. Concerning relapse incidence, cytogenetics and time from diagnosis to transplant were associated with increased relapse. Reduced intensity conditioning regimen was the only factor associated with lower non-relapse mortality. Conclusions HSCT was able to rescue about one quarter of the patients with PRF-AML. The donor type did not have any impact on PRF patients’ outcomes. In contrast, time to transplant was a major prognostic factor for LFS. For patients with PRF-AML who do not have a matched sibling donor, HSCT from an

  12. A review of the epidemiological studies of childhood leukemia around nuclear facilities in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draper, G.J.

    1992-01-01

    There have been a number of reports of an increased incidence of cancer around nuclear installations in Britain, and three of these (viz. at Sellafield, Dounreay and Aldermaston/Burghfield) have been the subject of detailed investigation. Although each of these investigations has produced statistically significant evidence of an increase, there is no coherent and consistent relationship between the results for the three sites, and no hypothesis that will explain them all. In particular, it should be noted that there are very large differences in the magnitudes of the environmental discharges at these sites. The results that have been studied in most detail are those relating to the vicinity of the Sellafield reprocessing plant; the excess of cases appears to be explained bu an association between high preconception doses of radiation among some of the workers, and subsequent leukemia or non-Hodgkin lymphoma in their offspring. However, this result would not have been predicted on the basis of current estimates of the genetic effects of radiation. Finally, it should be emphasized that the number of cases involved is very small. 20 refs., 7 tabs

  13. Mother and child characteristics at birth and early age leukemia: a case-cohort population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Rejane de Souza; Silva, Neimar de Paula; Santos, Marceli de Oliveira; Oliveira, Julio Fernando Pinto; Thuler, Luiz Claudio Santos; de Camargo, Beatriz; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S

    The population-based cancer registries (PBCR) and the Information System on Live Births in Brazil (Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos [SINASC]) have information that enables the test for risk factors associated with leukemia at an early age. The aim of this study was to identify maternal and birth characteristics associated with early-age acute leukemia (EAL) in Brazil. A case-cohort study was performed using secondary dataset information of PBCR and SINASC. The risk association variables were grouped into (i) characteristics of the child at birth and (ii) characteristics of maternal exposure during pregnancy. The case-control ratio was 1:4. Linkage was performed using R software; odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated by logistic regression models. EAL was associated with maternal occupational exposure to chemicals (agricultural, chemical, and petrochemical industry; adjOR: 2.18, 95% CI: 1.16-4.10) and with birth defects (adjOR: 3.62, 95% CI: 1.19-11.00). The results of this study, with the identification of EAL risk factors in population-based case-cohort study, strengthen the knowledge and improve databases, contributing to investigations on risk factors associated with childhood leukemia worldwide. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Mother and child characteristics at birth and early age leukemia: a case-cohort population-based study,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane de Souza Reis

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The population-based cancer registries (PBCR and the Information System on Live Births in Brazil (Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos [SINASC] have information that enables the test for risk factors associated with leukemia at an early age. The aim of this study was to identify maternal and birth characteristics associated with early-age acute leukemia (EAL in Brazil. Methods: A case-cohort study was performed using secondary dataset information of PBCR and SINASC. The risk association variables were grouped into (i characteristics of the child at birth and (ii characteristics of maternal exposure during pregnancy. The case-control ratio was 1:4. Linkage was performed using R software; odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated by logistic regression models. Results: EAL was associated with maternal occupational exposure to chemicals (agricultural, chemical, and petrochemical industry; adjOR: 2.18, 95% CI: 1.16-4.10 and with birth defects (adjOR: 3.62, 95% CI: 1.19-11.00. Conclusions: The results of this study, with the identification of EAL risk factors in population-based case-cohort study, strengthen the knowledge and improve databases, contributing to investigations on risk factors associated with childhood leukemia worldwide.

  15. PDGFRα promoter polymorphisms and expression patterns influence risk of development of imatinib-induced thrombocytopenia in chronic myeloid leukemia: A study from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guru, Sameer Ahmad; Mir, Rashid; Bhat, Musadiq; Najar, Imtiyaz; Zuberi, Mariyam; Sumi, Mamta; Masroor, Mirza; Gupta, Naresh; Saxena, Alpana

    2017-10-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor receptor has been implicated in many malignant and non-malignant diseases. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α is a tyrosine kinase and a side target for imatinib, a revolutionary drug for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia that has dramatically improved the survival of chronic myeloid leukemia patients. Given the importance of platelet-derived growth factor receptor in platelet development and its inhibition by imatinib, it was intriguing to analyze the role of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α in relation to imatinib treatment in the development of imatinib-induced thrombocytopenia in chronic myeloid leukemia patients. We hypothesized that two known functional polymorphisms, +68GA insertion/deletion and -909C/A, in the promoter region of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α gene may affect the susceptibility of chronic myeloid leukemia patients receiving imatinib treatment to the development of thrombocytopenia. A case-control study was conducted among a cohort of chronic myeloid leukemia patients admitted to the Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi, India. A set of 100 patients of chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase and 100 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were studied. After initiation of imatinib treatment, the hematological response of chronic myeloid leukemia patients was monitored regularly for 2 years, in which the development of thrombocytopenia was the primary end point. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α promoter polymorphisms +68GA ins/del and -909C/A were studied by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α messenger RNA expression was evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The messenger RNA expression results were expressed as 2 -Δct ± standard deviation. The distribution of +68GA ins/del promoter polymorphism genotypes differed significantly between the thrombocytopenic and non-thrombocytopenic chronic

  16. Treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia with interleukin-2: a phase II study in 21 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vey, N; Blaise, D; Lafage, M; Olive, D; Viens, P; Baume, D; Camerlo, J; Stoppa, A M; Gabus, R; Brandely, M; Hercend, T; Maraninchi, D

    1999-03-01

    We designed a phase II study to assess the activity of recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Study population included 11 patients in the chronic phase of CML (6 in hematologic remission and 5 with active disease), 6 patients in the accelerated phase, and 4 in blastic phase of CML. Patients received three 5-day cycles administrated every other week. rIL-2 was given as intravenous bolus infusions of 8 x 10(6) IU/m2 three times a day during cycle 1 and twice a day during cycles 2 and 3. Response to rIL-2 was assessed on day 45. No hematologic response was achieved in the patients with evaluable disease. One patient in hematologic remission with rIL-2 achieved a major response (from 72% to 9% Ph+ metaphases), and two patients had some degree of reduction of Ph+ metaphases. Responses were short-lived (< 6 months), but two of these three patients achieved a new cytogenetic response with interferon given post-rIL-2. A significant immune activation was achieved with rIL-2 including a marked increase in CD3+/CD25+ cells, CD56+ cells, and in natural killer/lymphokine activated killer cell cytotoxic activity. These results confirm preclinical studies, which showed that IL-2 has antileukemic activity in CML. However, the responses observed were short lived and restricted to a subgroup of patients with low disease burden. This invites further studies testing its impact in situations of minimal disease or in combination with other cytokines.

  17. Respiratory syncytial virus infection in infants with acute leukemia: a retrospective survey of the Japanese Pediatric Leukemia/Lymphoma Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, Michiki; Miyamura, Takako; Koh, Katsuyoshi; Taga, Takashi; Tawa, Akio; Hasegawa, Daisuke; Kajihara, Ryosuke; Adachi, Souichi; Ishii, Eiichi; Tomizawa, Daisuke

    2015-12-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) can cause life-threatening complications of lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in young children with malignancies, but reports remain limited. We performed a retrospective nationwide survey to clarify the current status of RSV disease among infants with hematological malignancies. Clinical course, treatment, and outcome of patients with hematological malignancies who suffered from RSV infections at the age of acute leukemia were identified as having experienced RSV disease. The primary diseases were acute myeloid leukemia (n = 8) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 4). RSV infection occurred pre- or during induction therapy (n = 8) and during consolidation therapy (n = 4). Eight patients developed LRTI, four of whom had severe pneumonia or acute respiratory distress syndrome; these four patients died despite receiving intensive care. In our survey, the prognosis of RSV disease in pediatric hematological malignancies was poor, and progression of LRTI in particular was associated with high mortality. In the absence of RSV-specific therapy, effective prevention and treatment strategies for severe RSV disease must be investigated.

  18. Utility of a multiplex reverse transcriptasepolymerase chain reaction assay (HemaVision in the evaluation of genetic abnormalities in Korean children with acute leukemia: a single institution study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Jin kim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available &lt;b&gt;Purpose:&lt;/b&gt; In children with acute leukemia, bone marrow genetic abnormalities (GA have prognostic significance, and may be the basis for minimal residual disease monitoring. Since April 2007, we have used a multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction tool (HemaVision to detect of GA. &lt;b&gt;Methods:&lt;/b&gt; In this study, we reviewed the results of HemaVision screening in 270 children with acute leukemia, newly diagnosed at The Catholic University of Korea from April 2007 to December 2011, and compared the results with those of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, and G-band karyotyping. &lt;b&gt;Results:&lt;/b&gt; Among the 270 children (153 males, 117 females, 187 acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 74 acute myeloid leukemia patients were identified. Overall, GA was detected in 230 patients (85.2%. HemaVision, FISH, and G-band karyotyping identified GA in 125 (46.3%, 126 (46.7%, and 215 patients (79.6%, respectively. TEL-AML1 (20.9%, 39/187 and AML1-ETO (27%, 20/74 were the most common GA in ALL and AML, respectively. Overall sensitivity of HemaVision was 98.4%, with false-negative results in 2 instances: 1 each for TEL-AML1 and MLL-AF4 . An aggregate of diseasesspecific FISH showed 100% sensitivity in detection of GA covered by HemaVision for actual probes utilized. G-band karyotype revealed GA other than those covered by HemaVison screening in 133 patients (49.3%. Except for hyperdiplody and hypodiploidy, recurrent GA as defined by the World Health Organizationthat were not screened by HemaVision, were absent in the karyotype. &lt;b&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/b&gt; HemaVision, supported by an aggregate of FISH tests for important translocations, may allow for accurate diagnosis of GA in Korean children with acute leukemia.

  19. Comparison of imatinib 400 mg and 800 mg daily in the front-line treatment of high-risk, Philadelphia-positive chronic myeloid leukemia: a European LeukemiaNet Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baccarani, Michele; Rosti, Gianantonio; Castagnetti, Fausto

    2009-01-01

    Imatinib mesylate (IM), 400 mg daily, is the standard treatment of Philadelphia-positive (Ph(+)) chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Preclinical data and results of single-arm studies raised the suggestion that better results could be achieved with a higher dose. To investigate whether the systematic...

  20. Metronomic therapy with oral 6-mercaptopurine in elderly acute myeloid leukemia: A prospective pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhil Kapoor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML in elderly patients differs biologically from that in younger patients and is known to have unfavorable chromosomal rearrangements, higher resistance, and lower tolerance to chemotherapy. In such circumstances, instead of giving full-blown chemotherapy, palliative metronomic chemotherapy (MCT could be a treatment option. Patients and Methods: We performed a prospective pilot study of old AML patients (age >60 years not amenable to curative treatment. Thirty-two patients were enrolled into the study and were treated with daily oral 6-mercaptopurine 75 mg/m 2 . The following inclusion criteria were used: age >60 years, nonpromyelocytic AML, the absence of uncontrolled comorbidities, and patient not amenable to curative treatment. Overall survival (OS was calculated using Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analysis were used to calculate the hazards ratio of significant factors. Results: The median age of the patients was 69 years (range: 61-86 years with male: female ratio of 2.5:1. About 59.4% of patients had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 while rest had the status of 3. The median OS was 6 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.4-7.6. Males had median OS of 7 months (95% CI: 5.4-8.6 versus females with OS of 3 months (95% CI: 1.5-4.4; P = 0.008. There was no survival difference on the basis of baseline hemoglobin or French-American-British class. There were no Grade 4 toxicities and no episode of febrile neutropenia. Conclusions: MCT with oral 6-mercaptopurine is an attractive treatment option in elderly AML patients who are not amenable to curative therapy with minimal toxicities.

  1. Leukemia risk as a consequence of Mayak PA operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsova, I.S.; Koshurnikova, N. A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is the epidemiological risk assessment of leukemia incidence and mortality in population of Ozyorsk, the closest town to Mayak Production Association as well as in Mayak workers during 1948-2000. Standardized rates of leukemia incidence and mortality in the whole population of Ozyorsk were proved to be significantly higher in comparison with national rates. Relative risk values decrease 10-30% in occupationally non-exposed population ( the rest of the population) compared with estimations on the whole population, however, remaining to be more than one. Standardized incidence rate (SIR) in males was: 1, 33 (95% CI: 1,00-1,75), in females: 1,17 (95% CI: 0,90-1,49), Standardized mortality rate (SMR) in males was 1,34 (95%CI:1,01-1,74), in females 1,24 (95% CI:0,97-1,56). Given more accurate diagnostics in the city compared with national one, there are no grounds to connect the increase in leukemia incidence and mortality in the rest of the population with radiation factor also because now there is no information on dose effect due to living in the vicinity of Mayak Production Association. Standardized leukemia mortality ratio in Mayak workers was 1,91 (95% CI: 1,48-2,43) in males and 2,07 (95% CI:1,31-3,10) in females. Regardless of the better quality of fit in linear-quadratic model, the preference in the analysis is given to linear dependence which allows to avoid underestimation of risk at doses of most interest for radiation protection. The doses were lagged for 2 years. Thus, using linear model with 2-year lag excess relative risk per 1 Gy of external g-exposure was 1.8 (95% CI:0.8-3,6). The study of risk dependence to time since exposure demonstrated that the highest risk of leukemia mortality falls on the period of 2-5 years after exposure (excess relative risk of leukemia mortality in this, period was 11,1 compared to the period of 0-2 years). Excess relative risk for the period of 5-10 years is 7,6, i. e. 1,5 times lower than in the

  2. Study on specificity of leukemia among the second generation of A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Nobuhiko

    2012-01-01

    The title specificity was studied and discussed for the leukemia (L) of 5 cases of the second generation who had lived in Osaka (Report 1977) in comparison with published statistic data of the second generation's 15 L cases in a life-span investigation (2003) and of 5,098 L cases in a nationwide report (2003). The A-bomb survivors were exposed in either Hiroshima or Nagasaki. The Osaka cases (4/5 boys) were morbid during 1958-1975, had acute L (myeloid L 3 cases, and unidentified type L 2) and died at ages of 10-19 y. Their parents were exposed to A-bomb directly (2 cases) or due to entrance in the city (3), and 1 father, 3 mothers and 1 couple of parents were exposed. Parent(s) in the life-span investigation were classified in high dose exposure (within 2 km distance from the city) and zero exposure (2.5 km afar from the city and other) groups. Their second generation (13/20 boys) were morbid during 1952-1969 at average age of 9.7 y (high dose group) and 8.3-7.2 y (zero group), and had acute myeloid L (8 cases), acute lymphocytic L (5) and other L. Exposure was to their 12 mothers, 4 fathers and 4 both parents. The nationwide statistics showed L of <18 years old pediatric patients (1986-2000) involving 56.7% boys, of morbid age peak of 3-4 y and of acute lymphocytic L in 68.8%. As above, it seemed that, in the second generation, their mothers were mostly exposed relative to fathers, the morbid sex ratio was higher in boys, morbid age was higher than general, and acute myeloid L was more frequent than general. L of the second generation thus seemed to be somehow specific, particularly in the higher age of morbidity and frequency of acute myeloid L. (T.T.)

  3. Understanding Health Care Costs in a Wisconsin Acute Leukemia Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Steinert

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We investigated factors driving health care costs of patients with a diagnosis of acute myeloid and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Methods: Standard costs identified in insurance claims data obtained from the Wisconsin Health Information Organization were used in a sample of 837 acute leukemia patients from April 2009 to June 2011. The Andersen behavioral model of health care utilization guided selection of patient and community factors expected to influence health care costs. A generalized linear model fitting gamma-distributed data with log-link technique was used to analyze cost. Results: Type of treatment received and disease severity represented significant cost drivers, and patients receiving at least some of their treatment from academic medical centers experienced higher costs. Inpatient care and pharmacy costs of patients who received treatment from providers located in areas of higher poverty experienced lower costs, raising questions of potential treatment and medical practice disparities between provider locations. Directions of study findings were not consistent between different types of services received and underscore the complexity of investigating health care cost. Conclusions: While prevalence of acute leukemia in the United States is low compared to other diseases, its extreme high cost of treatment is not well understood and potentially influences treatment decisions. Acute leukemia health care costs may not follow expected patterns; further exploration of the relationship between cost and the treatment decision, and potential treatment disparities between providers in different socioeconomic locations, is needed.

  4. A prospective study on drug monitoring of PEGasparaginase and Erwinia asparaginase and asparaginase antibodies in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tong, Wing H.; Pieters, Rob; Kaspers, Gertjan J. L.; te Loo, D. Maroeska W. M.; Bierings, Marc B.; van den Bos, Cor; Kollen, Wouter J. W.; Hop, Wim C. J.; Lanvers-Kaminsky, Claudia; Relling, Mary V.; Tissing, Wim J. E.; van der Sluis, Inge M.

    2014-01-01

    This study prospectively analyzed the efficacy of very prolonged courses of pegylated Escherichia coli asparaginase (PEGasparaginase) and Erwinia asparaginase in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients. Patients received 15 PEGasparaginase infusions (2500 IU/m(2) every 2 weeks) in

  5. A prospective study on drug monitoring of PEGasparaginase and Erwinia asparaginase and asparaginase antibodies in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H. Tong (Wing); R. Pieters (Rob); G.J. Kaspers (Gertjan); D.M.W.M. Te Loo (D. Maroeska W.); M. Bierings (Marc); C. van den Bos (Cor); W.J.W. Kollen (Wouter); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); C. Lanvers-Kaminsky (Claudia); M.V. Relling (Mary); W.J.E. Tissing (Wim); I.M. van der Sluis (Inge)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThis study prospectively analyzed the efficacy of very prolonged courses of pegylated Escherichia coli asparaginase (PEGasparaginase) and Erwinia asparaginase in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients. Patients received 15 PEGasparaginase infusions (2500 IU/m2 every 2

  6. Physics studies in Europe; a comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenstrup, S; dalle Rose, LFD; Jones, WG; Tugulea, L; van Steenwijk, FJ

    What are the differences and similarities between physics studies at different universities across Europe (here the definition of Europe is broad)? How much does a student have to work to obtain a degree in physics? Questions like those prompted EUPEN (European Physics Education Network) to make a

  7. An early thymic precursor phenotype predicts outcome exclusively in HOXA-overexpressing adult T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a Group for Research in Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Jonathan; Marchand, Tony; Touzart, Aurore; Cieslak, Agata; Trinquand, Amélie; Sutton, Laurent; Radford-Weiss, Isabelle; Lhermitte, Ludovic; Spicuglia, Salvatore; Dombret, Hervé; Macintyre, Elizabeth; Ifrah, Norbert; Hamel, Jean-François; Asnafi, Vahid

    2016-06-01

    Gene expression studies have consistently identified a HOXA-overexpressing cluster of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias, but it is unclear whether these constitute a homogeneous clinical entity, and the biological consequences of HOXA overexpression have not been systematically examined. We characterized the biology and outcome of 55 HOXA-positive cases among 209 patients with adult T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia uniformly treated during the Group for Research on Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (GRAALL)-2003 and -2005 studies. HOXA-positive patients had markedly higher rates of an early thymic precursor-like immunophenotype (40.8% versus 14.5%, P=0.0004), chemoresistance (59.3% versus 40.8%, P=0.026) and positivity for minimal residual disease (48.5% versus 23.5%, P=0.01) than the HOXA-negative group. These differences were due to particularly high frequencies of chemoresistant early thymic precursor-like acute lymphoblastic leukemia in HOXA-positive cases harboring fusion oncoproteins that transactivate HOXA Strikingly, the presence of an early thymic precursor-like immunophenotype was associated with marked outcome differences within the HOXA-positive group (5-year overall survival 31.2% in HOXA-positive early thymic precursor versus 66.7% in HOXA-positive non-early thymic precursor, P=0.03), but not in HOXA-negative cases (5-year overall survival 74.2% in HOXA-negative early thymic precursor versus 57.2% in HOXA-negative non-early thymic precursor, P=0.44). Multivariate analysis further revealed that HOXA positivity independently affected event-free survival (P=0.053) and relapse risk (P=0.039) of chemoresistant T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. These results show that the underlying mechanism of HOXA deregulation dictates the clinico-biological phenotype, and that the negative prognosis of early thymic precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia is exclusive to HOXA-positive patients, suggesting that early treatment intensification is currently

  8. Association of energy intake and expenditure with obesity: A cross-sectional study of 150 pediatric patients following treatment for leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Richa; Batra, Atul; Dhawan, Deepa; Bakhshi, Sameer

    2017-02-01

    Increased obesity in leukemia survivors has been attributed to chemotherapy and radiation. Data on total energy intake (TEI) and total energy expenditure (TEE) are lacking in obese childhood leukemia patients after completion of therapy from India. We conducted a cross-sectional study in pediatric acute leukemia patients after completion of therapy wherein energy intake was assessed by 24-hour recall method. TEE was calculated using Harris-Benedict equation, by assessing the physical activity level using Physical Activity Questionnaire for children and basal metabolic rate by World Health Organization equation. Indian Academy of Pediatrics 2015 guidelines for BMI were used for defining overweight and obesity. Nutritional status was assessed in 150 leukemia patients after completion of therapy. Twenty-five percent of leukemia patients after completion of therapy were overweight and obese versus 11% of healthy controls (p = 0.042). The mean ratio of TEI/required energy intake (REI), TEE/required energy expenditure (REE), and (TEI:REI)/(TEE:REE) were significantly higher in overweight and obese group versus nonobese survivors (p obesity. Obesity in leukemia patients after completion of therapy is associated with increased energy intake, causing imbalance between energy intake and TEE in these patients.

  9. Leukemia in atomic bomb survivors. 1. General observations. Leukemia in survivors of atomic bombing. Cytologic and biochemical studies on the granulocytes in early leukemia among atomic bomb survivors. Leukemogenic effects of ionizing radiation on atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, R D; Moloney, W C; Yamawaki, Tokuso; Kastenbaum, M A

    1959-01-01

    This document contains 4 separate reports on leukemia in survivals of the atomic explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In the first report, observations on seventy-five established cases of leukemia occurring in people exposed to atomic bomb radiation are presented. These data indicate a great increase in the incidence of leukemia among atomic bomb survivors due to a single massive exposure to ionizing radiation. The leukemogenic effects of radiation are manifested equally in both sexes and at all age levels represented in this series. The striking preponderance of chronic myelogenous leukemia compared to chronic lymphatic leukemia has been noted in exposed individuals but it is pointed out that chronic lymphatic leukemia is comparatively rare among the Japanese. Cases of leukemia are still appearing in atomic bomb survivors. However, since 1950 there has been a steady decline in the number of cases. The second report consists of a review of all cases of leukemia referred to the ABCC from 1948 to April 1952, a total of 75 cases. In the third report, hematological and biochemical findings in separated leukocytes of four cases of preclinical myelogenous leukemia developing in atomic bomb survivors are described. The incidence of leukemia among survivors in Hiroshima is the topic of the fourth report. 38 references, 8 figures, 10 tables.

  10. Leukemia Mediated Endothelial Cell Activation Modulates Leukemia Cell Susceptibility to Chemotherapy through a Positive Feedback Loop Mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Pezeshkian

    Full Text Available In acute myeloid leukemia (AML, the chances of achieving disease-free survival are low. Studies have demonstrated a supportive role of endothelial cells (ECs in normal hematopoiesis. Here we show that similar intercellular relationships exist in leukemia. We demonstrate that leukemia cells themselves initiate these interactions by directly modulating the behavior of resting ECs through the induction of EC activation. In this inflammatory state, activated ECs induce the adhesion of a sub-set of leukemia cells through the cell adhesion molecule E-selectin. These adherent leukemia cells are sequestered in a quiescent state and are unaffected by chemotherapy. The ability of adherent cells to later detach and again become proliferative following exposure to chemotherapy suggests a role of this process in relapse. Interestingly, differing leukemia subtypes modulate this process to varying degrees, which may explain the varied response of AML patients to chemotherapy and relapse rates. Finally, because leukemia cells themselves induce EC activation, we postulate a positive-feedback loop in leukemia that exists to support the growth and relapse of the disease. Together, the data defines a new mechanism describing how ECs and leukemia cells interact during leukemogenesis, which could be used to develop novel treatments for those with AML.

  11. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation benefits for patients ≥ 60 years with acute myeloid leukemia and FLT3 internal tandem duplication: a study from the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poiré, Xavier; Labopin, Myriam; Polge, Emmanuelle; Passweg, Jakob; Craddock, Charles; Blaise, Didier; Cornelissen, Jan J; Volin, Liisa; Russell, Nigel H; Socié, Gérard; Michallet, Mauricette; Fegueux, Nathalie; Chevallier, Patrice; Brecht, Arne; Hunault-Berger, Mathilde; Mohty, Mohamad; Esteve, Jordi; Nagler, Arnon

    2018-02-01

    Intermediate-risk cytogenetic acute myeloid leukemia with an internal tandem duplication of FLT3 ( FLT3 -ITD) is associated with a high risk of relapse, and is now a standard indication for allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Nevertheless, most studies supporting this strategy have been performed in young patients. To address the benefit of allogeneic transplantation in the elderly, we made a selection from the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry of de novo intermediate-risk cytogenetic acute myeloid leukemia harboring FLT3 -ITD in patients aged 60 or over and transplanted from a related or unrelated donor between January 2000 and December 2015. Two hundred and ninety-one patients were identified. Most patients received a reduced-intensity conditioning (82%), while donors consisted of an unrelated donor in 161 (55%) patients. Two hundred and twelve patients received their transplantation in first remission, 37 in second remission and 42 in a more advanced stage of the disease. The 2-year leukemia-free survival rate was 56% in patients in first remission, 22% in those in second remission and 10% in patients with active disease, respectively ( P <0.005). Non-relapse mortality for the entire cohort was 20%. In multivariate analysis, disease status at transplantation was the most powerful predictor of worse leukemia-free survival, graft- versus -host disease and relapse-free survival, and overall survival. In this elderly population, age was not associated with outcome. Based on the current results, allogeneic transplantation translates into a favorable outcome in fit patients ≥ 60 with FLT3 -ITD acute myeloid leukemia in first remission, similarly to current treatment recommendations for younger patients. Copyright© 2018 Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  12. Clinical Significance of Serum Ferritin at Diagnosis in Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A YACHT Multicenter Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Takayoshi; Andou, Taiki; Tanaka, Masatsugu; Ito, Satomi; Miyazaki, Takuya; Ishii, Yoshimi; Ogusa, Eriko; Koharazawa, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Motohashi, Kenji; Aoki, Jun; Nakajima, Yuki; Matsumoto, Kenji; Hagihara, Maki; Hashimoto, Chizuko; Taguchi, Jun; Fujimaki, Katsumichi; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Fujisawa, Shin; Kanamori, Heiwa; Nakajima, Hideaki

    2018-06-01

    A multicenter retrospective analysis was performed to evaluate the clinical significance of serum ferritin at diagnosis in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The study cohort included 305 patients who were newly diagnosed with AML from 2000 to 2015 and received standard induction chemotherapy. Transplantation was performed in 168 patients. The median ferritin value was 512 ng/mL (range, 8-9475 ng/mL). Ferritin correlated with lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein, white blood cell count, and blast count, and elevation of ferritin was associated with poor performance status. The median follow-up period was 58 months (range, 4-187 months) among survivors. The high ferritin group (≥ 400 ng/mL) demonstrated inferior event-free survival (EFS) at the 5-year interval (30% vs. 40%; P = .033) compared to the low ferritin group. Multivariate analysis in the high-risk karyotype revealed that high ferritin levels predicted worse EFS (hazard ratio = 2.07; 95% confidence interval, 1.28-3.33; P = .003). Elevated ferritin at diagnosis may indicate tumor burden in patients with AML and predict worse EFS in the high-risk group. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Chemotherapy for Initial Induction Failures in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: a Children’s Oncology Group Study (POG 8764)

    OpenAIRE

    Joyce, Michael; Pollock, Brad H.; Devidas, Meenakshi; Buchanan, George; Camitta, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) who fail to enter remission have a poor prognosis. In a previous study, 9 of 14 children with induction failure entered remission after teniposide (VM26) plus cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C). We attempted to confirm these results. Twenty children received teniposide (200 mg/m2/day IV) for 3 days and cytosine arabinoside (100 mg/m2/day continuous IV infusion) for 7 days. There were 3 complete and 3 partial responses. Two additional patients achieved ...

  14. Clinical characteristics and genetic analysis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: a Japanese retrospective study by the Kyushu-Yamaguchi Children's Cancer Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritake, Hiroshi; Kamimura, Sachiyo; Nunoi, Hiroyuki; Nakayama, Hideki; Suminoe, Aiko; Inada, Hiroko; Inagaki, Jiro; Yanai, Fumio; Okamoto, Yasuhiro; Shinkoda, Yuichi; Shimomura, Maiko; Itonaga, Nobuyoshi; Hotta, Noriko; Hidaka, Yasufumi; Ohara, Osamu; Yanagimachi, Masakatsu; Nakajima, Noriko; Okamura, Jun; Kawano, Yoshifumi

    2014-07-01

    This present study sought to analyze acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) registered in Kyushu-Yamaguchi Children's Cancer Study Group studies conducted between 1996 and 2007. Four of 357 patients, including two of 318 patients with B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) and two of 39 of those with T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), were identified. HLH was observed more frequently in the T-ALL patients than in the BCP-ALL patients (P = 0.061). The mean age of 13.0 years at the diagnosis of leukemia in the HLH + ALL group was significantly higher than the 6.05 years observed in the remaining ALL groups (P = 0.001). A female predisposition was noted, as all four patients were female (P = 0.043). In two of four patients, the leukemic cells exhibited deletions on the long arm of chromosome 6 (P = 0.003). Three patients suffered from HLH during maintenance therapy. Parvovirus B19 infection and cytomegalovirus reactivation were identified as causes of HLH in one and two patients, respectively. All four patients are currently in complete remission, although one developed relapse of leukemia after receiving maintenance therapy. Based on the genetic analyses, non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in UNC13D, syntaxin 11, and STXBP2 were identified in all patients. Clinicians should therefore be aware of the risk of HLH during maintenance therapy, especially in older T-ALL patients with SNPs in familial HLH causative genes.

  15. Acridone derivative 8a induces oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis in CCRF-CEM leukemia cells: application of metabolomics in mechanistic studies of antitumor agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yini Wang

    Full Text Available A new acridone derivative, 2-aminoacetamido-10-(3, 5-dimethoxy-benzyl-9(10H-acridone hydrochloride (named 8a synthesized in our lab shows potent antitumor activity, but the mechanism of action remains unclear. Herein, we report the use of an UPLC/Q-TOF MS metabolomic approach to study the effects of three compounds with structures optimized step-by-step, 9(10H-acridone (A, 10-(3,5-dimethoxybenzyl-9(10H-acridone (I, and 8a, on CCRF-CEM leukemia cells and to shed new light on the probable antitumor mechanism of 8a. Acquired data were processed by principal component analysis (PCA and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA to identify potential biomarkers. Comparing 8a-treated CCRF-CEM leukemia cells with vehicle control (DMSO, 23 distinct metabolites involved in five metabolic pathways were identified. Metabolites from glutathione (GSH and glycerophospholipid metabolism were investigated in detail, and results showed that GSH level and the reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG ratio were significantly decreased in 8a-treated cells, while L-cysteinyl-glycine (L-Cys-Gly and glutamate were greatly increased. In glycerophospholipid metabolism, cell membrane components phosphatidylcholines (PCs were decreased in 8a-treated cells, while the oxidative products lysophosphatidylcholines (LPCs were significantly increased. We further found that in 8a-treated cells, the reactive oxygen species (ROS and lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA were notably increased, accompanied with decrease of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, release of cytochrome C and activation of caspase-3. Taken together our results suggest that the acridone derivative 8a induces oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis in CCRF-CEM leukemia cells. The UPLC/Q-TOF MS based metabolomic approach provides novel insights into the mechanistic studies of antitumor drugs from a point distinct from traditional biological investigations.

  16. Acute nonlymphocytic leukemia in a glue sniffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caligiuri, M A; Early, A P; Marinello, M J; Preisler, H D

    1985-09-01

    A 17-year-old white male with a past history of chronic inhalational abuse of plastic glue was referred to our institution for sore throat, cervical adenopathy, and an abnormal peripheral blood smear. A diagnosis of acute myelomonocytic leukemia was made and abnormalities in cytogenetic studies were demonstrated. Specific inquiry regarding this form of drug exposure should be pursued when searching for possible etiologies of malignant disease.

  17. 'Real-life' study of imatinib therapy in chronic phase-chronic myeloid leukemia: A novel retrospective observational longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merante, Serena; Ferretti, Virginia; Elena, Chiara; Calvello, Celeste; Rocca, Barbara; Zappatore, Rita; Cavigliano, Paola; Orlandi, Ester

    2017-01-01

    Imatinib is a cornerstone of treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia. It remains unclear whether transient treatment discontinuation or dose changes affect outcome and this approach has not yet been approved for use outside clinical trials. We conducted a retrospective single-institution observational study to evaluate factors affecting response in 'real-life' clinical practice in 138 chronic myeloid leukemia patients in chronic phase treated with imatinib. We used a novel longitudinal data analytical model, with a generalized estimating equation model, to study BCR-ABL variation according to continuous standard dose, change in dose or discontinuation; BCR-ABL transcript levels were recorded. Treatment history was subdivided into time periods for which treatment was given at constant dosage (total 483 time periods). Molecular and cytogenetic complete response was observed after 154 (32%) and 358 (74%) time periods, respectively. After adjusting for length of time period, no association between dose and cytogenetic complete response rate was observed. There was a significantly lower molecular complete response rate after time periods at a high imatinib dosage. This statistical approach can identify individual patient variation in longitudinal data collected over time and suggests that changes in dose or discontinuation of therapy could be considered in patients with appropriate biological characteristics.

  18. Cured meat, vegetables, and bean-curd foods in relation to childhood acute leukemia risk: a population based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen-Yu; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Pan, Pi-Chen; Ho, Chi-Kung; Su, Li; Xu, Xin; Li, Yi; Christiani, David C

    2009-01-13

    Consumption of cured/smoked meat and fish leads to the formation of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds in the acidic stomach. This study investigated whether consumed cured/smoked meat and fish, the major dietary resource for exposure to nitrites and nitrosamines, is associated with childhood acute leukemia. A population-based case-control study of Han Chinese between 2 and 20 years old was conducted in southern Taiwan. 145 acute leukemia cases and 370 age- and sex-matched controls were recruited between 1997 and 2005. Dietary data were obtained from a questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression models were used in data analyses. Consumption of cured/smoked meat and fish more than once a week was associated with an increased risk of acute leukemia (OR = 1.74; 95% CI: 1.15-2.64). Conversely, higher intake of vegetables (OR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.37-0.83) and bean-curd (OR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.34-0.89) was associated with a reduced risk. No statistically significant association was observed between leukemia risk and the consumption of pickled vegetables, fruits, and tea. Dietary exposure to cured/smoked meat and fish may be associated with leukemia risk through their contents of nitrites and nitrosamines among children and adolescents, and intake of vegetables and soy-bean curd may be protective.

  19. T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia associated with complex karyotype and SET-NUP214 rearrangement: a case study and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Guk; Park, Tae Sung; Cho, Sun Young; Lim, Gayoung; Park, Gwang Jin; Oh, Seung Hwan; Cho, Eun Hae; Chong, So Young; Huh, Ji Young

    2011-01-01

    SET-NUP214 rearrangements have been rarely reported in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), acute undifferentiated leukemia, and acute myeloid leukemia, and most documented cases have been associated with normal karyotypes in conventional cytogenetic analyses. Here, we describe a novel case of T-ALL associated with a mediastinal mass and a SET-NUP214 rearrangement, which was masked by a complex karyotype at the time of initial diagnosis. Using multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis, we detected a cryptic SET-NUP214 rearrangement in our patient. As only 11 cases (including the present study) of T-ALL with SET-NUP214 rearrangement have been reported, the clinical features and treatment outcomes have not been fully determined. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the incidence of SET-NUP214 rearrangement in T-ALL patients and the treatment responses as well as prognosis of these patients.

  20. Diagnosis of large granular lymphocytic leukemia in a patient previously treated for acute myeloblastic leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Sinem Civriz Bozdag; Sinem Namdaroglu; Omur Kayikci; Gülsah Kaygusuz; Itir Demiriz; Murat Cinarsoy; Emre Tekgunduz; Fevzi Altuntas

    2013-01-01

    Large granular lymphocytic (LGL) leukemia is a lymphoproliferative disease characterized by the clonal expansion of cytotoxic T or natural killer cells. We report on a patient diagnosed with T-cell LGL leukemia two years after the achievement of hematologic remission for acute myeloblastic leukemia.

  1. Avascular necrosis of the femoral head in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a 4- to 9-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madadi, Firooz; Shamsian, Bibi Shahin; Alavi, Samin; Madadi, Firoozeh; Eajazi, Alireza; Aslani, Afshin

    2011-10-05

    Avascular necrosis of the femoral head is usually seen in children aged 1.5 to 10 years, reaching a peak incidence between the ages of 4 and 9. Avascular necrosis of the femoral head is a known complication of corticosteroid therapy in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. There are few reports in the literature regarding the natural history of this condition, and there is no consensus on its management. This study examined the natural history of avascular necrosis of the femoral head in children with leukemia. From 1993 to 2006, a total of 865 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia were admitted to the hematology-oncology ward of a children's hospital. The diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia was established by bone marrow aspiration. Based on clinical and radiographic findings, avascular necrosis of the femoral head was found in 7 patients; these patients underwent follow-up for 4 to 9 years. Avascular necrosis of the femoral head was clinically symptomatic in all of the children, and they had advanced radiographic collapse of the femoral head. However, the head of the femur was not at risk in any patient based on clinical and radiographic findings. Patients received supportive treatment such as abduction brace and physiotherapy. After 4 to 9 years of follow-up, clinical and radiographic results were satisfactory. Provided that the head of the femur is not at risk, avascular necrosis of the femoral head in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia may be successfully managed with nonoperative care. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Reclassification of leukemia among A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki using French-American-British (FAB) classification for acute leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Tatsuki; Tomonaga, Masao; Bennett, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The concordance rate for diagnoses of atomic bomb-related cases of leukemia in Nagasaki was determined using the French-American-British (FAB) classification for acute leukemias and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Two Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) hematologists and one of the members (JMB) of the FAB cooperative group reviewed independently the peripheral blood and/or bone marrow smears from 193 people with leukemia or a related disorder. There was 85 % agreement in the identification of types and subtypes of acute leukemia. There was almost complete agreement for the diagnoses of non-FAB disorders (chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and others) resulting in overall concordance of 88.2 %. The present study suggest that the previously established leukemia types for about a quarter of the cases of acute leukemia and related disorders except CML should be changed. Considerable numbers of cases of ATL and MDS were involved in this series. The frequency of the former disease was not high in the high-dose irradiated group, but that of the latter was considerably high. All subtypes of AML except M3 and M6 were present in the high-dose group. The striking difference in CML incidence between Nagasaki and Hiroshima may continue to be a problem in relation to biological response to radiation exposure. (author)

  3. Reclassification of leukemia among A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki using French-American-British (FAB) classification for acute leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuo, Tatsuki; Tomonaga, Masao; Bennett, J.M. and others

    1988-06-01

    The concordance rate for diagnoses of atomic bomb-related cases of leukemia in Nagasaki was determined using the French-American-British (FAB) classification for acute leukemias and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Two Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) hematologists and one of the members (JMB) of the FAB cooperative group reviewed independently the peripheral blood and/or bone marrow smears from 193 people with leukemia or a related disorder. There was 85 % agreement in the identification of types and subtypes of acute leukemia. There was almost complete agreement for the diagnoses of non-FAB disorders (chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and others) resulting in overall concordance of 88.2 %. The present study suggest that the previously established leukemia types for about a quarter of the cases of acute leukemia and related disorders except CML should be changed. Considerable numbers of cases of ATL and MDS were involved in this series. The frequency of the former disease was not high in the high-dose irradiated group, but that of the latter was considerably high. All subtypes of AML except M3 and M6 were present in the high-dose group. The striking difference in CML incidence between Nagasaki and Hiroshima may continue to be a problem in relation to biological response to radiation exposure.

  4. A comparative study of map use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouvin, Niels Olof; Brodersen, Ann Christina; Bødker, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    We present a study comparing the handling of three kinds of maps, each on a physical device: a paper map, a tablet-PC based map, and a cellular phone based one. Six groups of users were asked to locate eight landmarks, looking out a window, and using a particular map. We have begun analyzing video...

  5. A comparative analysis of molecular genetic and conventional cytogenetic detection of diagnostically important translocations in more than 400 cases of acute leukemia, highlighting the frequency of false-negative conventional cytogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Rebecca L; Naghashpour, Mojdeh; Watt, Christopher D; Morrissette, Jennifer J D; Bagg, Adam

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we correlated the results of concurrent molecular and cytogenetic detection of entity-defining translocations in adults with acute leukemia to determine the frequency of cryptic translocations missed by conventional cytogenetics (CC) and of recurrent, prognostically relevant translocations not detectable by multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (MRP). During a 5.5-year period, 442 diagnostic acute leukemia specimens were submitted for MRP-based detection of 7 common recurrent translocations: t(8;21), t(15;17), inv(16), t(9;22), t(12;21), t(4;11), and t(1;19), with a detection rate of 15.2% (67/442). CC was performed in 330 (74.7%) of 442 cases. In 7 of these 330 cases, CC missed the translocation detected by MRP. In 50 additional cases, CC revealed 1 of the MRP-detectable translocations (all were also MRP positive), yielding a false-negative rate of 12% (7/57) for the CC assay. The remaining 140 of 190 cases with clonal cytogenetic changes harbored abnormalities that were not targeted by the MRP assay, including 8 that define specific acute myeloid leukemia entities. This study revealed the frequent occurrence of false-negative, entity-defining CC analysis and highlighted the complementary nature of MRP and CC approaches in detecting genetic abnormalities in acute leukemia.

  6. Hyper-CVAD Compared With BFM-like Chemotherapy for the Treatment of Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. A Retrospective Single-Center Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Cheikh, Jean; El Dika, Imane; Massoud, Radwan; Charafeddine, Maya; Mahfouz, Rami; Kharfan-Dabaja, Mohamed A; Bazarbachi, Ali

    2017-03-01

    Several induction regimens have been developed for treatment of adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). However, only a few prospective randomized trials have directly compared these regimens. In this report, we retrospectively evaluated the outcome of 62 adult ALL patients treated with either hyper-CVAD (hyper fractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone; n = 38) or a BFM (Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster)-like regimen (n = 24) between November 2000 and January 2016 at the American university of Beirut Medical Center in Lebanon. The feasibility of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) for those patients was also evaluated. The median follow-up time was 29 (range, 1-129) months. Fifteen (39%) and 10 (42%) patients underwent allo-SCT in the hyper-CVAD and BFM-like group, respectively. At the time of the last follow-up, 28 patients (74%) were in complete remission in the hyper-CVAD group versus 18 patients (75%) in the BFM-like group. Of those, 20 patients (53%) versus 11 patients (46%) were minimal residual disease-negative at the last follow-up, respectively. The 3-year overall survival rate (71.9% vs. 76.9%; P = .808) and 3-year disease-free survival (54.7% vs. 76.4%; P = .435) were similar in hyper-CVAD group compared with the BFM-like group, respectively. Both chemotherapies were relatively well tolerated. Overall, despite the older age and a greater number of patients with high-risk category (including Philadelphia chromosome-positive) in the hyper-CVAD group, this did not translate into a difference in survival outcome between the 2 groups. The hyper-CVAD regimen appears to be feasible for adult patients with ALL in terms of tolerability and efficacy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [In vivo study on influence of a discrete nano-hydroxyapatite on leukemia P388 tissue in BALB/C mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ge; Huang, Jian-ming; Aoki, Hideki; Li, Yan; Zhang, Rong; Deng, Bi-fang

    2007-09-01

    To study the influence of a discrete nano-hydroxyapatite crystal (nano-HAp) on lymphatic leukemia P388 behavior by in vivo techniques. A nano-HAp was prepared by a neutralization reaction of 0.1 mol calcium hydroxide suspension and 0.06 mol phosphoric acid solutions at room temperature over pH7. The various doses of the nano-HAp only and the nano-HAp mixture with cyclophosphamide (CY) were injected into mice inoculated with solid tumor lymphatic leukemia P388 and dispersed into PRMI 1640 media harvested the leukemia P388 cells. Sixty P388 BALB/C mice were randomly grouped; 36 of them were used as nano-HAp treated groups and 24 mice as the control groups. The leukemia growth in the mice was examined morphologically, histopathologically and under a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The nano-HAp was identified as a hydroxyapatite by an X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The morphology and sizes were observed under a TEM. The tissue growth inhibition ratio (weight%) of solid lymphatic leukemia P388 bearing mice treated with nano-HAp at doses 35 mg/kg, 53 mg/kg and nano-HAp (53 mg/kg) combined with CY (35 mg/kg) in 3 consecutive days via intraperitineal injections were 14.95%, 32.67% and 60.45% respectively. Apoptosis of P388 cell cocultured with nano-HAp was confirmed by TEM. The tissue growth restriction of solid tumor lymphatic leukemia P388 was greater after an injection of nano-HAp only or nano-HAp mixed with CY than that obtained after injection with physiological saline solution as a control (P < 0.01), and the tissue growth restriction of solid tumor after an injection of nano-HAp combined with CY was greater than that obtained after nano-HAp or CY injection only (P < 0.01).

  8. A Comparative Study on Error Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Chun

    2015-01-01

    Title: A Comparative Study on Error Analysis Subtitle: - Belgian (L1) and Danish (L1) learners’ use of Chinese (L2) comparative sentences in written production Xiaoli Wu, Chun Zhang Abstract: Making errors is an inevitable and necessary part of learning. The collection, classification and analysis...... the occurrence of errors either in linguistic or pedagogical terms. The purpose of the current study is to demonstrate the theoretical and practical relevance of error analysis approach in CFL by investigating two cases - (1) Belgian (L1) learners’ use of Chinese (L2) comparative sentences in written production...... of errors in the written and spoken production of L2 learners has a long tradition in L2 pedagogy. Yet, in teaching and learning Chinese as a foreign language (CFL), only handful studies have been made either to define the ‘error’ in a pedagogically insightful way or to empirically investigate...

  9. Wilms’ Tumor 1 Gene Mutations Independently Predict Poor Outcome in Adults With Cytogenetically Normal Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A Cancer and Leukemia Group B Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschka, Peter; Marcucci, Guido; Ruppert, Amy S.; Whitman, Susan P.; Mrózek, Krzysztof; Maharry, Kati; Langer, Christian; Baldus, Claudia D.; Zhao, Weiqiang; Powell, Bayard L.; Baer, Maria R.; Carroll, Andrew J.; Caligiuri, Michael A.; Kolitz, Jonathan E.; Larson, Richard A.; Bloomfield, Clara D.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the prognostic impact of Wilms’ tumor 1 (WT1) gene mutations in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML). Patients and Methods We studied 196 adults younger than 60 years with newly diagnosed primary CN-AML, who were treated similarly on Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) protocols 9621 and 19808, for WT1 mutations in exons 7 and 9. The patients also were assessed for the presence of FLT3 internal tandem duplications (FLT3-ITD), FLT3 tyrosine kinase domain mutations (FLT3-TKD), MLL partial tandem duplications (MLL-PTD), NPM1 and CEBPA mutations, and for the expression levels of ERG and BAALC. Results Twenty-one patients (10.7%) harbored WT1 mutations. Complete remission rates were not significantly different between patients with WT1 mutations and those with unmutated WT1 (P = .36; 76% v 84%). Patients with WT1 mutations had worse disease-free survival (DFS; P < .001; 3-year rates, 13% v 50%) and overall survival (OS; P < .001; 3-year rates, 10% v 56%) than patients with unmutated WT1. In multivariable analyses, WT1 mutations independently predicted worse DFS (P = .009; hazard ratio [HR] = 2.7) when controlling for CEBPA mutational status, ERG expression level, and FLT3-ITD/NPM1 molecular-risk group (ie, FLT3-ITDnegative/NPM1mutated as low risk v FLT3-ITDpositive and/or NPM1wild-type as high risk). WT1 mutations also independently predicted worse OS (P < .001; HR = 3.2) when controlling for CEBPA mutational status, FLT3-ITD/NPM1 molecular-risk group, and white blood cell count. Conclusion We report the first evidence that WT1 mutations independently predict extremely poor outcome in intensively treated, younger patients with CN-AML. Future trials should include testing for WT1 mutations as part of molecularly based risk assessment and risk-adapted treatment stratification of patients with CN-AML. PMID:18559874

  10. Clinical relevance of IDH1/2 mutant allele burden during follow-up in acute myeloid leukemia. A study by the French ALFA group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferret, Yann; Boissel, Nicolas; Helevaut, Nathalie; Madic, Jordan; Nibourel, Olivier; Marceau-Renaut, Alice; Bucci, Maxime; Geffroy, Sandrine; Celli-Lebras, Karine; Castaigne, Sylvie; Thomas, Xavier; Terré, Christine; Dombret, Hervé; Preudhomme, Claude; Renneville, Aline

    2018-01-01

    Assessment of minimal residual disease has emerged as a powerful prognostic factor in acute myeloid leukemia. In this study, we investigated the potential of IDH1/2 mutations as targets for minimal residual disease assessment in acute myeloid leukemia, since these mutations collectively occur in 15–20% of cases of acute myeloid leukemia and now represent druggable targets. We employed droplet digital polymerase chain reaction assays to quantify IDH1R132, IDH2R140, and IDH2R172 mutations on genomic DNA in 322 samples from 103 adult patients with primary IDH1/2 mutant acute myeloid leukemia and enrolled on Acute Leukemia French Association (ALFA) - 0701 or -0702 clinical trials. The median IDH1/2 mutant allele fraction in bone marrow samples was 42.3% (range, 8.2 – 49.9%) at diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia, and below the detection limit of 0.2% (range, <0.2 – 39.3%) in complete remission after induction therapy. In univariate analysis, the presence of a normal karyotype, a NPM1 mutation, and an IDH1/2 mutant allele fraction <0.2% in bone marrow after induction therapy were statistically significant predictors of longer disease-free survival. In multivariate analysis, these three variables remained significantly predictive of disease-free survival. In 7/103 (7%) patients, IDH1/2 mutations persisted at high levels in complete remission, consistent with the presence of an IDH1/2 mutation in pre-leukemic hematopoietic stem cells. Five out of these seven patients subsequently relapsed or progressed toward myelodysplastic syndrome, suggesting that patients carrying the IDH1/2 mutation in a pre-leukemic clone may be at high risk of hematologic evolution. PMID:29472349

  11. A comparative study of microbiological and physicochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study of microbiological and physicochemical characteristics of water distributed from two water treatment plants in Rwanda. ... Thus, as recommendation to WASAC authority, there is a need for improvement in the water management strategy for better water quality especially along the distribution network.

  12. Concept Elicitation Within Patient-Powered Research Networks: A Feasibility Study in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarrier, Kelly P; Bull, Scott; Fleming, Sarah; Simacek, Kristina; Wicks, Paul; Cella, David; Pierson, Renee

    2016-01-01

    To explore the feasibility of using social media-based patient networks to gather qualitative data on patient-reported outcome (PRO) concepts relevant to chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Between August and November 2013, US-residing members of the PatientsLikeMe online CLL patient community completed open-ended web-based surveys designed to elicit descriptions of CLL symptoms, impacts, and treatment-related perceptions. Qualitative telephone follow-up interviews were conducted with a subsample of respondents. Survey responses and interview transcripts were coded for qualitative analysis using Atlas.ti. Fifty survey responses were included in the analyses. Participants were age 60.5 ± 6.9 years, 54% female, and 96% white. When surveyed, 20% were receiving current treatment, 16% were in remission, and 64% were treatment-naïve. Among respondents, 369 descriptions of CLL symptoms were coded. Fatigue-related symptoms were expressed most frequently, with 54% reporting "fatigue," "tiredness," or both in their responses. These concepts were followed by night sweats (38%), swollen lymph nodes (32%), and frequent infections (28%). Among impacts of CLL, worry and fear (66% of respondents), depressed feelings (52%), and work limitations (50%) were noted most frequently. Survey results identified constitutional symptoms of CLL included in existing PRO instruments and the literature. Although the findings suggest that qualitative data obtained through social media applications can be potentially useful in supporting concept identification for newly developed PRO instruments, they also indicate that online approaches alone may not be sufficient to achieve efficient and exhaustive concept elicitation. Further research is needed to identify whether the results can support content validity in the same way as established qualitative research methods. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Mother and child characteristics at birth and early age leukemia: a case-cohort population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane de Souza Reis

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The population-based cancer registries (PBCR and the Information System on Live Births in Brazil (Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos [SINASC] have information that enables the test for risk factors associated with leukemia at an early age. The aim of this study was to identify maternal and birth characteristics associated with early-age acute leukemia (EAL in Brazil. Methods: A case-cohort study was performed using secondary dataset information of PBCR and SINASC. The risk association variables were grouped into (i characteristics of the child at birth and (ii characteristics of maternal exposure during pregnancy. The case–control ratio was 1:4. Linkage was performed using R software; odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated by logistic regression models. Results: EAL was associated with maternal occupational exposure to chemicals (agricultural, chemical, and petrochemical industry; adjOR: 2.18, 95% CI: 1.16–4.10 and with birth defects (adjOR: 3.62, 95% CI: 1.19–11.00. Conclusions: The results of this study, with the identification of EAL risk factors in population-based case-cohort study, strengthen the knowledge and improve databases, contributing to investigations on risk factors associated with childhood leukemia worldwide. Resumo: Objetivos: Os registros de câncer de base populacional (RCBP e o Sistema Nacional de Nascidos Vivos (SINASC possuem informações que possibilitam testar hipóteses sobre fatores de riscos associados às leucemias. O objetivo principal deste projeto é identificar quais as características ao nascimento das crianças que estariam associadas ao risco de desenvolver Leucemia Aguda (LA na primeira infância. Métodos: Foram utilizadas informações de 12 RCBP e do Sistema de Informação de Nascidos Vivos das mesmas localidades. Foram elegíveis 272 casos e 1.088 controles no período de 1996 a 2010. As associações de riscos de LA foram agrupadas em, (i caracter

  14. Neuropsychological effects of irradiation and chemotherapy treatments upon children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a case study of monozygotic twins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, M.T.; Souheaver, G.T.; Berry, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    Numerous attempts have been made to determine the effects of irradiation and chemotherapy upon cognitive functioning when used for treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). While many studies have demonstrated a deleterious effect, others have found no significant changes in neuropsychological functioning. The uncertainty regarding the cognitive effects of these treatments is exemplified via a presentation of monozygotic twins who were evaluated via neuropsychological tests. The children received similar induction-consolidation therapy which included intrathecal methotrexate and cranial irradiation. Neuropsychological tests yielded almost identical I.Q. patterns, however, subtle differences were noted between the children when abstract reasoning abilities, achievement tests scores, motor speed, grip strength, performance on complex tasks requiring haptic sensitivity, and fingertip sensitivity were observed. This discussion also summarizes the previous findings related to cognitive function after chemotherapy and radiation therapy and some of the confounding factors which have been noted

  15. A comparative study of two shovel designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degani, A; Asfour, S S; Waly, S M; Koshy, J G

    1993-10-01

    In the present study a modified shovel design with two perpendicular shafts is presented. This modified, two-shaft shovel was compared with a regular shovel. The modified shovel was evaluated and tested in a controlled laboratory environment using surface electromyography recorded from the lumbar paraspinal muscles. The new shovel design was also tested in a field study using ratings of perceived exertion. The results indicate that there was a significant reduction in EMG values of the lumbar paraspinal muscles and a consistent reduction in perceived exertion ratings while the modified shovel was being used for removing dirt in digging trenches up to 90 cm in depth.

  16. IL-7 Receptor Mutations and Steroid Resistance in Pediatric T cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Genome Sequencing Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Li (Yan); J.G.C.A.M. Buijs-Gladdines (Jessica); K. Canté-Barrett (Kirsten); A. Stubbs (Andrew); E.M. Vroegindeweij (Eric); W.K. Smits; R. van Marion (Ronald); W.N.M. Dinjens (Winand); M.A. Horstmann (Martin); R. Kuiper (Ruud); R.C. Buijsman; G.J.R. Zaman; P.J. van der Spek (Peter); R. Pieters (Rob); J.P.P. Meijerink (Jules)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common childhood cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in children. T cell ALL (T-ALL) represents about 15% of pediatric ALL cases and is considered a high-risk disease. T-ALL is often associated with

  17. Robust canonical correlations: A comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Branco, JA; Croux, Christophe; Filzmoser, P; Oliveira, MR

    2005-01-01

    Several approaches for robust canonical correlation analysis will be presented and discussed. A first method is based on the definition of canonical correlation analysis as looking for linear combinations of two sets of variables having maximal (robust) correlation. A second method is based on alternating robust regressions. These methods axe discussed in detail and compared with the more traditional approach to robust canonical correlation via covariance matrix estimates. A simulation study ...

  18. Environmental Comparative Risk Assessment: A Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Health and environmental impacts associated with energy production and industrial activities as well as food production and agricultural activities have had great concern in the last decades. Early activities emerged in late 80s of the last century through an Inter- Agency project (lAEA, UNDY, WHO, ... ) on the comparative risk assessment from energy systems and industrial complexes. A work-shop on Risk Assessment and Management in large industrial areas was held in Alexandria Egypt on 20-33 Det 1993, sponsored by IAEA. Several conferences, experts work groups and workshops were held there of Recent trends in determining risks are: 1. Use of probabilistic risk assessment approach to identify hazardous activities and accident scenario. 2. development of data base on failure probabilities and appropriate physical models. 3. Development of related directives and regulations and criteria Comparative risk assessment case study as a tool for comparing risk is emphasized Criteria of exposure to human and ecological risks are addressed

  19. Comparative analysis of radiation- and virus-induced leukemias in BALB/c mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newcomb, E.W.; Binari, R.; Fleissner, E.

    1985-01-01

    Endogenous murine leukemia virus (MuLV) proviral copies were analyzed in thymomas induced in normal BALB/c (Fv-1b) and in Fv-1n congenic mice by X-irradiation. Both strains of mice developed leukemia with similar kinetics, indicating that N-tropism of endogenous MuLV was not a rate-limiting factor in development of disease. Southern blot analysis, using a probe specific for ecotropic virus and for ecotropic-specific sequences retained in pathogenic, env-recombinant viruses, showed that the majority of radiation leukemias lacked newly acquired, clonally integrated, proviruses. This was in contrast to virus-induced leukemias, which routinely exhibited several new proviral integration sites. When an internal proviral DNA restriction fragment was monitored, some radiation leukemias showed evidence of nonclonal infection, accounting for more frequent isolation of infectious virus from such leukemias. Differences in expression of T-cell surface antigens were found in X-ray-induced and virus-induced leukemias. All radiation leukemias were TL positive, whereas virus-induced leukemias were primarily negative for TL. Some differences were also found in Lyt-1 and Lyt-2 expression. The data as a whole suggest that, in the majority of cases, radiation leukemogenesis is not initiated by a viral route--that is, the sort of viral mechanism for which exogenous infection by known pathogenic MuLV is the paradigm

  20. A comparative study of Averrhoabilimbi extraction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulhaimi, H. I.; Rosli, I. R.; Kasim, K. F.; Akmal, H. Muhammad; Nuradibah, M. A.; Sam, S. T.

    2017-09-01

    In recent year, bioactive compound in plant has become a limelight in the food and pharmaceutical market, leading to research interest to implement effective technologies for extracting bioactive substance. Therefore, this study is focusing on extraction of Averrhoabilimbi by different extraction technique namely, maceration and ultrasound-assisted extraction. Fewplant partsof Averrhoabilimbiweretaken as extraction samples which are fruits, leaves and twig. Different solvents such as methanol, ethanol and distilled water were utilized in the process. Fruit extractsresult in highest extraction yield compared to other plant parts. Ethanol and distilled water have significant role compared to methanol in all parts and both extraction technique. The result also shows that ultrasound-assisted extraction gave comparable result with maceration. Besides, the shorter period on extraction process gives useful in term of implementation to industries.

  1. Secondary Solid Organ Neoplasm in Patients with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Nationwide Population-Based Study in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Jen Teng

    Full Text Available Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL is more common in children than in adults. Secondary neoplasms (SNs in childhood ALL have been widely reported. However, only one study has demonstrated SNs in adult ALL. Because of the poorer survival of adult ALL, the incidence might be underestimated.To evaluate the incidence and risk factors of secondary solid organ neoplasms among adult and child ALL patients.Newly diagnosed ALL patients between 1997 and 2011 were recruited from the Taiwan National Health Insurance database. Those who had antecedent or combined malignancies were excluded. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs were analyzed to compare the risk of our cohort to general population in the same age, sex and calendar year. Risk factors for SN development were analyzed by Cox proportional hazards models. Effects of treatments were treated as time-dependent variables.The 15-year cumulative incidence of SN was 1.9% and 8.4% in 1,381 child and 2,154 adult ALL patients, respectively. The SIR was significantly increased in child ALL (SIR 6.06, but not in adult ALL (SIR 1.16. The SIRs of follow-up periods were 5.14, 2.24, .87 and .71 at ≥ 10 years, 5-10 years, 1-5 years and 0-1, respectively. Overall, 15 SNs developed, and CNS tumors (SIR 11.56 were the most common type. Multivariate analysis showed that age ≥ 20 years (hazard ratio [HR] 5.04, end-stage renal disease (HR 18.98 and cranial irradiation (HR 8.12 were independent risk factors for cancer development.When compared with the general population, child ALL shows a increased risk of developing SNs. CNS tumors are the most common type, and cranial irradiation is an independent risk factor. With longer follow-up, the risk of SNs increases. Hence, physicians need to pay more attention on the risk of developing SNs in long-term ALL survivors with risk factors.

  2. Allogeneic Transplantation In Chronic Myeloid Leukemia And The Effect Of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors On Survival, A Quasi-Experimental Study

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    Mehmet Özen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs have changed the indications for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of TKIs on allo-HSCT in CML. Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, we compared patient, disease, and transplantation characteristics as well as allo-HSCT outcomes between the pre-TKI era (before 2002 and the post-TKI era (2002 and later in patients with CML. A total of 193 allo- HSCTs were performed between 1989 and 2012. Results: Patients in the post-TKI era had more advanced disease (>chronic phase 1 at the time of transplant and more frequently received reduced-intensity conditioning compared to patients in the pre-TKI era. Relapse/progression occurred more frequently in the year ≥2002 group than in the year <2002 group (48% vs. 32% at 5 years, p=0.01; however, overall survival (OS was similar in these two groups (5-year survival was 50.8% vs. 59.5%, respectively; p=0.3. TKIs (with donor lymphocyte infusions or alone for treatment of relapse after allo-HSCT were available in the post-TKI era and were associated with improved OS. While the rates of hematologic remission at 3 months after allo-HSCT were similar between TKI eras, patients having remission had better disease-free survival (DFS [relative risk (RR: 0.15, confidence interval (CI 95%: 0.09-0.24, p<0.001] and OS (RR: 0.14, CI 95%: 0.09-0.23, p<0.001. Male allo-HSCT recipients had worse DFS (RR: 1.7, CI 95%: 1.2-2.5, p=0.007 and OS (RR: 1.7, CI 95%: 1.1-2.6, p=0.02 than females. Conclusion: TKIs are an effective option for the treatment of relapse after allo-HSCT in CML. Hematologic remission after allo-HSCT is also an important factor for survival in CML patients.

  3. Acute myeloid leukemia associated with t(10;17)(p13-15;q12-21) and phagocytic activity by leukemic blasts: a clinical study and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seung Hwan; Park, Tae Sung; Cho, Sun Young; Kim, Min Jin; Huh, Jungwon; Kim, Bomi; Song, Sae Am; Lee, Ja Young; Jun, Kyung Ran; Shin, Jeong Hwan; Kim, Hye Ran; Lee, Jeong Nyeo

    2010-10-01

    Translocation (10;17)(p13-15;q12-21) in acute leukemia is rarely reported in the literature. Here, we present both a novel t(10;17) case study and a review of relevant literature on t(10;17) in acute leukemia (10 cases). In summary, we came to the following preliminary conclusions: t(10;17) is associated with poorly differentiated acute leukemia subtype [90%; eight cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML M0, M1) and one case of acute undifferentiated leukemia], phagocytic activity by blasts occurs (30%), and the survival time was short in three of the seven t(10;17) cases for whom follow-up data were available (median, 8 months). More clinical studies concerning the prognosis, treatment response, and survival of patients with t(10;17) are necessary. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Radioinduced leukemia. An introduction to the study of experimental leukemia in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudon, P.P.

    1974-01-01

    This thesis attempts to gain insight into any mechanisms involved in the onset of irradiation-induced leukemia in mice, then to show up the presence of a virus in the same animals. Concerning the mechanisms of radio-induced leukemias the pathogenic factors according to Kaplan are analysed: role of the thymus and cell mutation theory; lymphoid leukemias of extra-thymic origin; leukemogenesis co-factor; inhibiting action of the bone narrow. Evidence of the virus in mice was obtained by the use of electron microscopy, by inoculation. The contribution of experimental leukemia research is analysed, especially as it affects the therapeutic aspect. It is shown that in spite of setbacks in the most recent research on man, therapeutic trials on animals should be viewed from the angle of imminent human applications [fr

  5. Early mortality in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a developing country: the role of malnutrition at diagnosis. A multicenter cohort MIGICCL study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Trejo, Jorge Alfonso; Núñez-Enríquez, Juan Carlos; Fajardo-Gutiérrez, Arturo; Medina-Sansón, Aurora; Flores-Lujano, Janet; Jiménez-Hernández, Elva; Amador-Sanchez, Raquel; Peñaloza-Gonzalez, José Gabriel; Alvarez-Rodriguez, Francisco Javier; Bolea-Murga, Victoria; Espinosa-Elizondo, Rosa Martha; de Diego Flores-Chapa, José; Pérez-Saldivar, Maria Luisa; Rodriguez-Zepeda, María Del Carmen; Dorantes-Acosta, Elisa María; Núñez-Villegas, Nora Nancy; Velazquez-Aviña, Martha Margarita; Torres-Nava, José Refugio; Reyes-Zepeda, Nancy Carolina; González-Bonilla, César Raúl; Flores-Villegas, Luz Victoria; Rangel-López, Angélica; Rivera-Luna, Roberto; Paredes-Aguilera, Rogelio; Cárdenas-Cardós, Rocío; Martínez-Avalos, Armando; Gil-Hernández, Ana Elena; Duarte-Rodríguez, David Aldebarán; Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel

    2017-04-01

    The role of malnutrition at diagnosis as a predictor of early mortality in Mexican leukemia children remains controversial. The objective of present study was to investigate whether malnutrition was a predictor of early mortality during the first year of treatment in Mexican acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) children through the first population-based study. A total of 794 newly diagnosed ALL pediatric patients from public hospitals of Mexico City were enrolled. A multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model was constructed and adjusted by patient's age at diagnosis, gender, hospital of treatment, and socioeconomic status. Early mortality was high (12.1%) and malnutrition by different indicators was not associated with mortality at induction phase and at 6th month; a high risk of dying (RR = 2.08; 95% CI: 1.08-4.01) was observed in the group of malnourished children with a high-risk ALL.

  6. Linear pneumatic motors – a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deaconescu Tudor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparative study of the performance of single-acting cylinders, diaphragm cylinders and pneumatic muscles, and offers users information that allows the selection of an optimum technical solution. Such a study was necessary, in view of the numerous papers on pneumatic muscle applications found in literature, that assert the superiority of pneumatic muscles over other pneumatic linear motors in relation to quantities like dimensions, mass, developed force or energy-to-mass ratios, however without offering concrete data.

  7. [Report of a case of megakaryoblastic leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, J A; Timóteo, T; Elisário, L

    1990-01-01

    We diagnosed a 20 year old young girl, with clinical and laboratorial evidence of pancytopenia, an acute megakaryoblastic leukemia. The difficulty in arriving at this conclusion was only surpassed with the help of monoclonal antibodies. With the presentation of this case we approach the problematics in obtaining the diagnostic of the megakaryoblastic leukemia. This is fundamental, owing to the possibilities of morphological presentation under undifferentiated blasts or of the type M1 or L2 (FAB).

  8. Outcome of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children with down syndrome-Polish pediatric leukemia and lymphoma study group report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawitkowska, Joanna; Odój, Teresa; Drabko, Katarzyna; Zaucha-Prażmo, Agnieszka; Rudnicka, Julia; Romiszewski, Michał; Matysiak, Michał; Kwiecińska, Kinga; Ćwiklińska, Magdalena; Balwierz, Walentyna; Owoc-Lempach, Joanna; Derwich, Katarzyna; Wachowiak, Jacek; Niedźwiecki, Maciej; Adamkiewicz-Drożyńska, Elżbieta; Trelińska, Joanna; Młynarski, Wojciech; Kołtan, Andrzej; Wysocki, Mariusz; Tomaszewska, Renata; Szczepański, Tomasz; Płonowski, Marcin; Krawczuk-Rybak, Maryna; Ociepa, Tomasz; Urasiński, Tomasz; Mizia-Malarz, Agnieszka; Sobol-Milejska, Grażyna; Karolczyk, Grażyna; Kowalczyk, Jerzy

    2017-05-01

    Children with Down syndrome (DS) have a 20-fold increased risk of developing leukemia compared with the general population. The aim of the study was to analyze the outcome of patients diagnosed with Down syndrome and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in Poland between the years 2003 and 2010. A total of 1848 children were diagnosed with ALL (810 females and 1038 males). Of those, 41 (2.2%) had DS. The children were classified into three risk groups: a standard-risk group-14 patients, an intermediate-risk group-24, a high-risk group-3. All patients were treated according to ALLIC 2002 protocol. The median observation time of all patients was 6.1 years, and in patients with DS 5.3 years. Five-year overall survival (OS) was the same in all patients (86% vs 86%, long-rank test, p = .9). The relapse-free survival (RFS) was calculated as 73% in patients with DS and 81% in patients without DS during a median observation time (long-rank test, p = .3). No statistically significant differences were found in the incidence of nonrelapse mortality between those two groups of patients (p = .72). The study was based on children with ALL and Down syndrome who were treated with an identical therapy schedule as ALL patients without DS, according to risk group. This fact can increase the value of the presented results.

  9. EFQPSK Versus CERN: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Deva K.; Horan, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    This report presents a comparative study on Enhanced Feher's Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (EFQPSK) and Constrained Envelope Root Nyquist (CERN) techniques. These two techniques have been developed in recent times to provide high spectral and power efficiencies under nonlinear amplifier environment. The purpose of this study is to gain insights into these techniques and to help system planners and designers with an appropriate set of guidelines for using these techniques. The comparative study presented in this report relies on effective simulation models and procedures. Therefore, a significant part of this report is devoted to understanding the mathematical and simulation models of the techniques and their set-up procedures. In particular, mathematical models of EFQPSK and CERN, effects of the sampling rate in discrete time signal representation, and modeling of nonlinear amplifiers and predistorters have been considered in detail. The results of this study show that both EFQPSK and CERN signals provide spectrally efficient communications compared to filtered conventional linear modulation techniques when a nonlinear power amplifier is used. However, there are important differences. The spectral efficiency of CERN signals, with a small amount of input backoff, is significantly better than that of EFQPSK signals if the nonlinear amplifier is an ideal clipper. However, to achieve such spectral efficiencies with a practical nonlinear amplifier, CERN processing requires a predistorter which effectively translates the amplifier's characteristics close to those of an ideal clipper. Thus, the spectral performance of CERN signals strongly depends on the predistorter. EFQPSK signals, on the other hand, do not need such predistorters since their spectra are almost unaffected by the nonlinear amplifier, Ibis report discusses several receiver structures for EFQPSK signals. It is observed that optimal receiver structures can be realized for both coded and uncoded EFQPSK

  10. A comparative study of teenage pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahavarkar, S H; Madhu, C K; Mule, V D

    2008-08-01

    Teenage pregnancy is a global problem and is considered a high-risk group, in spite of conflicting evidence. Our objective was to compare obstetric outcomes of pregnancy in teenagers and older women. This was a retrospective study of case records of pregnancies from August 2000 to July 2001. Girls aged pregnancy outcomes in older women (19-35 years) in the same hospital. The study took place in the Government General Hospital, Sangli, India, a teaching hospital in rural India, with an annual delivery rate of over 3,500. A total of 386 teenage pregnancies were compared with pregnancies in 3,326 older women. Socioeconomic data, age, number of pregnancies, antenatal care and complications, mode of delivery, and neonatal outcomes were considered. The incidence of teenage pregnancy in the study was 10%. A significant proportion of teenage pregnant mothers were in their first pregnancies. The teenage mothers were nearly three times more at risk of developing anaemia (OR = 2.83, 95% CI = 2.2-3.7, p Teenage mothers were twice as likely to develop hypertensive problems in pregnancy (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.5-3.2, p teenage pregnancies are still a common occurrence in rural India in spite of various legislations and government programmes and teenage pregnancy is a risk factor for poor obstetric outcome in rural India. Cultural practices, poor socioeconomic conditions, low literacy rate and lack of awareness of the risks are some of the main contributory factors. Early booking, good care during pregnancy and delivery and proper utilisation of contraceptive services can prevent the incidence and complications in this high-risk group.

  11. Laproscopic versus open appendectomy: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirazi, B.; Naureen Ali, N.; Shamim, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare the results of open with laparoscopic appendectomy in terms of postoperative pain, rate of wound infection and hospital stay. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted in Department of Surgery, Ziauddin University Hospital, Karachi, over a period of six months. Patients undergoing surgery for acute appendicitis were randomly assigned into one of the two groups (A or B) after obtaining written and informed consent. In Group-A patients underwent open appendectomy and in Group B laparoscopic appendectomy was performed. Post operatively pain chart and wound infection was recorded and, at the time of discharge, number of days in hospital was calculated. Result: Sixty patients (38 male, 22 female), with clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis based on Alvarado score of six and above, were included in the study. They were randomized into 2 groups of A and B with 30 patients in each group. Group-A comprised open appendectomy procedure and Group-B comprised laparoscopic appendectomy. Mean comparison of postoperative pain by visual analogue scale, was significantly low in Group B, compared with Group A, on day 0, 1 and 2. Number of days in Hospital was 4.1 +- 0.8 days in Group A and 1.5 +- 0.06 days in Group B. None of the patients in Group B, while 8 (26.67%) patients in-Group A, developed postoperative wound infection at 1 week follow up. Conclusion: Laparoscopic appendectomy is safe and effective. Wound infection and postoperative pain is significantly lower after this mode of surgery. (author)

  12. Scatterometry or imaging overlay: a comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Simon C. C.; Pai, Yuan Chi; Chen, Charlie; Yu, Chun Chi; Hsing, Henry; Wu, Hsing-Chien; Kuo, Kelly T. L.; Amir, Nuriel

    2015-03-01

    Most fabrication facilities today use imaging overlay measurement methods, as it has been the industry's reliable workhorse for decades. In the last few years, third-generation Scatterometry Overlay (SCOL™) or Diffraction Based Overlay (DBO-1) technology was developed, along another DBO technology (DBO-2). This development led to the question of where the DBO technology should be implemented for overlay measurements. Scatterometry has been adopted for high volume production in only few cases, always with imaging as a backup, but scatterometry overlay is considered by many as the technology of the future. In this paper we compare imaging overlay and DBO technologies by means of measurements and simulations. We outline issues and sensitivities for both technologies, providing guidelines for the best implementation of each. For several of the presented cases, data from two different DBO technologies are compared as well, the first with Pupil data access (DBO-1) and the other without pupil data access (DBO-2). Key indicators of overlay measurement quality include: layer coverage, accuracy, TMU, process robustness and robustness to process changes. Measurement data from real cases across the industry are compared and the conclusions are also backed by simulations. Accuracy is benchmarked with reference OVL, and self-consistency, showing good results for Imaging and DBO-1 technology. Process sensitivity and metrology robustness are mostly simulated with MTD (Metrology Target Designer) comparing the same process variations for both technologies. The experimental data presented in this study was done on ten advanced node layers and three production node layers, for all phases of the IC fabrication process (FEOL, MEOL and BEOL). The metrology tool used for most of the study is KLA-Tencor's Archer 500LCM system (scatterometry-based and imaging-based measurement technologies on the same tool) another type of tool is used for DBO-2 measurements. Finally, we conclude that

  13. Connect MDS/AML: design of the myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia disease registry, a prospective observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensma, David P; Abedi, Medrdad; Bejar, Rafael; Cogle, Christopher R; Foucar, Kathryn; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; George, Tracy I; Grinblatt, David; Komrokji, Rami; Ma, Xiaomei; Maciejewski, Jaroslaw; Pollyea, Daniel A; Savona, Michael R; Scott, Bart; Sekeres, Mikkael A; Thompson, Michael A; Swern, Arlene S; Nifenecker, Melissa; Sugrue, Mary M; Erba, Harry

    2016-08-19

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are myeloid neoplasms in which outgrowth of neoplastic clones disrupts normal hematopoiesis. Some patients with unexplained persistent cytopenias may not meet minimal diagnostic criteria for MDS but an alternate diagnosis is not apparent; the term idiopathic cytopenia of undetermined significance (ICUS) has been used to describe this state. MDS and AML occur primarily in older patients who are often treated outside the clinical trial setting. Consequently, our understanding of the patterns of diagnostic evaluation, management, and outcomes of these patients is limited. Furthermore, there are few natural history studies of ICUS. To better understand how patients who have MDS, ICUS, or AML are managed in the routine clinical setting, the Connect MDS/AML Disease Registry, a multicenter, prospective, observational cohort study of patients newly diagnosed with these conditions has been initiated. The Connect MDS/AML Disease Registry will capture diagnosis, risk assessment, treatment, and outcomes data for approximately 1500 newly diagnosed patients from approximately 150 community and academic sites in the United States in 4 cohorts: (1) lower-risk MDS (International Prognostic Scoring System [IPSS] low and intermediate-1 risk), with and without del(5q); (2) higher-risk MDS (IPSS intermediate-2 and high risk); (3) ICUS; and (4) AML in patients aged ≥ 55 years (excluding acute promyelocytic leukemia). Diagnosis will be confirmed by central review. Baseline patient characteristics, diagnostic patterns, treatment patterns, clinical outcomes, health economics outcomes, and patient-reported health-related quality of life will be entered into an electronic data capture system at enrollment and quarterly for 8 years. A tissue substudy to explore the relationship between karyotypes, molecular markers, and clinical outcomes will be conducted, and is optional for patients. The Connect MDS/AML Disease

  14. Family characteristics as risk factors for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a population-based case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Feller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To date, few risk factors for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL have been confirmed and the scientific literature is full of controversial "evidence." We examined if family characteristics, particularly maternal and paternal age and number of older siblings, were risk factors for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this population-based nationwide matched case-control study, patients 0-14 years of age with ALL diagnosed 1991-2006 and registered in the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry were linked with their census records of 1990 and 2000. Eight controls per case were selected from the census. The association between family characteristics and ALL was analyzed by conditional logistic regressions. We found that increasing maternal age was associated with incidence of ALL in the offspring (OR per 5-year increase in maternal age 1.18, 95% CI 1.05-1.31; p = 0.004, remaining stable (trend OR 1.14, 95% CI 0.99-1.31; p = 0.060 after adjustment for other risk factors. The association with paternal age was weaker (OR per 5-year increase 1.14, 95% CI 1.01-1.28, p = 0.032 and disappeared after adjustments. Number of older siblings was not associated with risk of ALL in the overall group of children aged 0-14 years at diagnosis. However, we found a negative trend between number of older siblings and ALL diagnosed at age 0-4 years (OR per sibling 0.85, 95% CI 0.68-1.06; p = 0.141 and a positive trend for ALL diagnosed at age 5-9 (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.05-1.72; p = 0.019, with some evidence for an effect modification (p-value for interaction  = 0.040. CONCLUSIONS: As in other studies, increasing maternal, but not paternal age was associated with risk of ALL. We found only a weak association with the number of older siblings, suggesting a delay in disease manifestation rather than a decrease in incidence.

  15. A prospective registration study to determine feasibility of hematopoietic SCT in adults with acute leukemia: planning, expectations and reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labopin, M; Gorin, N-C; Polge, E; Socié, G; Gurman, G; Gluckman, E; Jindra, P; Poiré, X; Schäfer-Eckart, K; Ruutu, T; Milone, G; Arcese, W; Mohty, M; Rocha, V

    2014-03-01

    For adults with acute leukemia, it is important to know whether the therapeutic schemes initially planned were actually implemented. The European Group for Blood and Marrow transplantation Acute Leukemia Working Party prospectively followed 695 consecutive patients who were registered at the time of HLA typing. Of 304 patients with an available matched sibling donor (MSD), SCT was planned in 264, chemotherapy in 33 and autografting in 7. For the rest, an unrelated donor (UD) search was initiated in 198. Among these, 117 were transplanted, 114 received chemotherapy and 77 underwent autografting. Probabilities of receiving a planned treatment were 60 and 65% at 1 and 2 years, respectively. Patients scheduled to receive MSD SCT had an 82% probability, whereas those scheduled to undergo UD SCT had a 57% probability, of receiving their transplant at 1 year. The only factor associated with a lower probability of MSD SCT in first remission was delayed HLA typing (HR=0.82; P=0.03). One year after enrollment, 40% of patients did not follow their initial treatment plan. Because OS was 50% only at 3 years and only 57% of the patients without a MSD underwent SCT, this suggests room for improvement in outcomes for adults with acute leukemia.

  16. A comparative study of bike lane injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Jung Hee; Park, Jeong Ho; Park, Kyu Nam; Choi, Seung Pill

    2012-02-01

    Because of the increased number of bicycle riders and governmental promotions, a recent increase in the construction of bicycle lanes has occurred. We aimed to characterize injuries specific to bicycle lane accidents by comparing them with injuries that occurred on regular roadways. On the basis of our findings, we provide suggestions on proper preventive strategies. We performed a retrospective study on 408 cases obtained between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2010. Of these cases, 387 met the criterion that the location of the injury could be confirmed by telephone or via review of the patient's chart. Data regarding age, gender, Injury Severity Score, time of the accident, location of the accident, and other characteristics were collected. Data were analyzed using SPSS 12.0K. Of the 387 cases, 204 (52.7%) patients were injured in bicycle lanes and 183 (47.3%) were injured on regular roadways. Comparing cases of bicycle lane injuries and non-bicycle lane injuries, there were no differences in age, day of the week, season, or the time at which the accident occurred. Bicycle helmets were used more frequently in bicycle lane injuries (33.2% vs. 13.7%; p cases, falls (42.6%) and collisions with other vehicles (39.3%) were the most common causes of injury. Although the severity of injuries was slightly lower in bicycle lane cases, it was not significantly lower than non-bicycle lane cases. Although people are increasingly using bicycle lanes for safety, this study shows that they are not definitively safer. Therefore, improvements in the policies related to implementing bicycle lane safety are needed, for example, by enforcing the use of protective gear or preventing the use of bicycle lanes by pedestrians. More safety education programs are also needed. III.

  17. Markedly improved outcomes and acceptable toxicity in adolescents and young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia following treatment with a pediatric protocol: a phase II study by the Japan Adult Leukemia Study Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, F; Sakura, T; Yujiri, T; Kondo, E; Fujimaki, K; Sasaki, O; Miyatake, J; Handa, H; Ueda, Y; Aoyama, Y; Takada, S; Tanaka, Y; Usui, N; Miyawaki, S; Suenobu, S; Horibe, K; Kiyoi, H; Ohnishi, K; Miyazaki, Y; Ohtake, S; Kobayashi, Y; Matsuo, K; Naoe, T

    2014-01-01

    The superiority of the pediatric protocol for adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has already been demonstrated, however, its efficacy in young adults remains unclear. The ALL202-U protocol was conducted to examine the efficacy and feasibility of a pediatric protocol in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with BCR–ABL-negative ALL. Patients aged 15–24 years (n=139) were treated with the same protocol used for pediatric B-ALL. The primary objective of this study was to assess the disease-free survival (DFS) rate and its secondary aims were to assess toxicity, the complete remission (CR) rate and the overall survival (OS) rate. The CR rate was 94%. The 5-year DFS and OS rates were 67% (95% confidence interval (CI) 58–75%) and 73% (95% CI 64–80%), respectively. Severe adverse events were observed at a frequency that was similar to or lower than that in children treated with the same protocol. Only insufficient maintenance therapy significantly worsened the DFS (hazard ratio 5.60, P<0.001). These results indicate that this protocol may be a feasible and highly effective treatment for AYA with BCR–ABL-negative ALL

  18. Specific receptors for phorbol diesters on freshly isolated human myeloid and lymphoid leukemia cells: comparable binding characteristics despite different cellular responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, B J; Moore, J O; Weinberg, J B

    1984-02-01

    Freshly isolated human leukemia cells have been shown in the past to display varying in vitro responses to phorbol diesters, depending on their cell type. Specific receptors for the phorbol diesters have been demonstrated on numerous different cells. This study was designed to characterize the receptors for phorbol diesters on leukemia cells freshly isolated from patients with different kinds of leukemia and to determine if differences in binding characteristics for tritium-labeled phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (3H-PDBu) accounted for the different cellular responses elicited in vitro by phorbol diesters. Cells from 26 patients with different kinds of leukemia were studied. PDBu or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) caused cells from patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML), acute promyelocytic (APML), acute myelomonocytic (AMML), acute monocytic (AMoL), acute erythroleukemia (AEL), chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) in blast crisis (myeloid), acute undifferentiated leukemia (AUL), and hairy cell leukemia (HCL) (n = 15) to adhere to plastic and spread. However, they caused no adherence or spreading and only slight aggregation of cells from patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), or CML-blast crisis (lymphoid) (n = 11). All leukemia cells studied, irrespective of cellular type, displayed specific receptors for 3H-PDBu. The time courses for binding by all leukemia types were similar, with peak binding at 5-10 min at 37 degrees C and 120 min at 4 degrees C. The binding affinities were similar for patients with ALL (96 +/- 32 nM, n = 4), CLL (126 +/- 32 nM, n = 6), and acute nonlymphoid leukemia (73 +/- 14 nM, n = 11). Likewise, the numbers of specific binding sites/cell were comparable for the patients with ALL (6.2 +/- 1.3 X 10(5) sites/cell, n = 4), CLL (5.0 +/- 2.0 X 10(5) sites/cell, n = 6), and acute nonlymphoid leukemia (4.4 +/- 1.9 X 10(5) sites/cell, n = 11). Thus, the differing responses to phorbol diesters of

  19. The reliability of cytoplasmic CD3 and CD22 antigen expression in the immunodiagnosis of acute leukemia: a study of 500 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janossy, G; Coustan-Smith, E; Campana, D

    1989-03-01

    Current views about the origin of acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) emphasize the importance of maturation arrest at a precursor cell level. Recently, the CD22 antigen has been identified in the cytoplasm of normal bone marrow-borne immature B lineage cells, while the CD3 antigen (epsilon chain) has been detected within normal immature thymic blasts. In the first part our study performed on 100 cases of known acute leukemias, the expression of such cytoplasmic molecules, referred to as cCD22 and cCD3, was analyzed together with their appearance in the leukemic cells' membrane (mCD22 and mCD3). The presence of cCD22 in B-lineage ALL and that of cCD3 in T-ALL has indeed fully confirmed the diagnosis reached by other markers, and mCD22 and mCD3 were expressed on only a few cases of B- and T-lineage ALL, also revealing a degree of developmental asynchrony within leukemic blasts. In the subsequent analysis both cCD22 and cCD3 have been included in a standard panel of diagnostic reagents applied on 500 consecutive cases of acute leukemia. Here the aim was to analyze both the diagnostic precision of individual markers and the heterogeneity of various leukemic types in terms of the expression of membrane and intracellular antigens and their cytochemical features (Sudan Black B and esterases). It has been found that cCD22 and cCD3 are exquisitely specific for B-precursor ALL (TdT+, CD19+) and T-ALL (TdT+, CD7+), respectively, while both markers are absent in acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) and acute myelomonocytic and monocytic leukemia (AMML/AMoL). These observations contrast the findings which demonstrate that 31% of cases among nonlymphoid acute leukemia (including AML and AMML) express CD7 and/or TdT. The study of myeloid antigens detected by CD13, CD33, and CD14 is also informative and complementary, both in diagnosing and subdividing the AML and AMML/AMoL groups. The peculiar main observation of this study is that only with the combined use of these markers in a

  20. A Comparative Study of Human Saposins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Garrido-Arandia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Saposins are small proteins implicated in trafficking and loading of lipids onto Cluster of Differentiation 1 (CD1 receptor proteins that in turn present lipid antigens to T cells and a variety of T-cell receptors, thus playing a crucial role in innate and adaptive immune responses in humans. Despite their low sequence identity, the four types of human saposins share a similar folding pattern consisting of four helices linked by three conserved disulfide bridges. However, their lipid-binding abilities as well as their activities in extracting, transporting and loading onto CD1 molecules a variety of sphingo- and phospholipids in biological membranes display two striking characteristics: a strong pH-dependence and a structural change between a compact, closed conformation and an open conformation. In this work, we present a comparative computational study of structural, electrostatic, and dynamic features of human saposins based upon their available experimental structures. By means of structural alignments, surface analyses, calculation of pH-dependent protonation states, Poisson-Boltzmann electrostatic potentials, and molecular dynamics simulations at three pH values representative of biological media where saposins fulfill their function, our results shed light into their intrinsic features. The similarities and differences in this class of proteins depend on tiny variations of local structural details that allow saposins to be key players in triggering responses in the human immune system.

  1. AMERICAN EDUCATION SYSTEM: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    BAS, Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to introduce the Education System of the United States of America (USA) and to compare it with the Turkish Education System. The Education System of the United States of America was held from different factors (e.g., education structure, curriculum and instruction, principal selection, educational supervision, special education ,teacher education, finance for education, international examinations, vs.) and these factors were explained under headlines in the study...

  2. Leukemia cutis in three children: clinical and immunohistochemical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, M; Furukawa, S

    1996-01-01

    We report 3 children with leukemia cutis observed at the initial diagnosis of systemic leukemia. Leukemia subtypes in the three children were congenital monocytic, acute undifferentiated, and acute monocytic, respectively. The patients were girls age 10 days, 14 years, and 11 months, respectively, at diagnosis. We describe the clinical features of the cases and the results of immunohistochemical studies on paraffin-embedded skin biopsy specimens. The skin lesions were tumors and areas of reddish purple erythema in the first child, pigmented erythema in the second, and bright red erythema in the first child, pigmented erythema in the second, and bright red erythema in the third. In the first two patients skin lesion biopsy specimens had dense leukemic infiltrates in the dermis with reactive T lymphocytes scattered among them. In the third patient, the infiltrating cells were almost all reactive T lymphocytes, with a few leukemic cells. A relationship between the leukemic-reactive cell ratio and the prognosis was suggested; dense leukemic cell infiltrates may be associated with a poor prognosis.

  3. A comparative study of various advanced fusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momota, H.; Tomita, Y.; Nomura, Y.

    1983-01-01

    For the purpose of comparing the merits and demerits of various advanced fuel cycles, parametric studies of operation conditions are examined. The effects of nuclear elastic collisions and synchrotron radiation are taken into account. It is found that the high-#betta# Catalyzed DD fuel cycle with the transmutation of fusion-produced tritium into helium-3 is most feasible from the point of view of neutron production and tritium handling. The D-D fuel cycles seem to be less attractive compared to the Catalyzed DD. The p- 11 B and p- 6 Li fusion plasmas hardly attain the plasma Q value relevant to reactors. (author)

  4. Pubertal development and fertility in survivors of childhood acute myeloid leukemia treated with chemotherapy only: a NOPHO-AML study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molgaard-Hansen, Lene; Skou, Anne-Sofie; Juul, Anders; Glosli, Heidi; Jahnukainen, Kirsi; Jarfelt, Marianne; Jónmundsson, Guðmundur K; Malmros, Johan; Nysom, Karsten; Hasle, Henrik

    2013-12-01

    More than 60% of children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) become long-term survivors. Most are cured using chemotherapy without hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We report on pubertal development and compare self-reported parenthood among AML survivors and their siblings. We included 137 children treated for AML according to the Nordic Society of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology (NOPHO)-AML-84, -88, and -93 trials, who were alive by June 2007. Patients with relapse or treated with HSCT were excluded. AML survivors participated in a physical and biochemical examination (n = 102) and completed a questionnaire (n = 101). One of their siblings completed an identical questionnaire (n = 84). At a median follow-up of 11 years (range 5-25) after diagnosis of AML the survivors (median age 16 years, range 5-36) were either prepubertal or had entered puberty normally. Serum levels of FSH, LH, testosterone, estradiol, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), inhibin A and B, and testicular volumes were within normal ranges. Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels were decreased in 5 of 40 postpubertal females. Mean reported age at menarche was 13.1 (range 11-17) years. Among survivors 15 years of age or older 31% of females reported pregnancies and 9% of males reported pregnancies in their partners, rates comparable with the frequency reported by their siblings. Most AML survivors treated with chemotherapy had normal pubertal development and fertility, however, AMH levels were decreased in 13% of postpubertal females. Longer follow-up is necessary to evaluate possible risk of premature ovarian failure. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. A typical presentation of acute myeloid leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udayakumar N

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A young man who presented with fever, altered sensorium and sudden onset tachypnea, is described. Arterial blood gas analysis, revealed the presence of severe high anion gap metabolic acidosis, with compensatory respiratory alkalosis and normal oxygen saturation. A detailed neurological, nephrological, biochemical and hematological evaluation, revealed the presence of Acute myeloid leukemia, with lactic acidosis and hyponatremia. There are very few reports of presentation of leukemia as lactic acidosis. This case report highlights the need for emergency room physicians, to consider the possibility of lactic acidosis, as one of the causes of high anion gap acidosis and to meticulously investigate the cause of lactic acidosis. We describe a rare clinical instance of lactic acidosis as the presenting manifestation of Acute myeloid leukemia.

  6. A pilot study of daunorubicin-augmented hyper-CVAD induction chemotherapy for adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Yong; Park, Ji Hyun; Yoon, So Young; Cho, Yo-Han; Lee, Mark Hong

    2018-02-01

    Induction of complete remission (CR) is imperative for long-term survival in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients regardless of transplantation eligibility. Hyper-CVAD chemotherapy is a widely-used frontline remission induction regimen for these patients. We conducted a pilot trial of frontline remission induction using daunorubicin-augmented hyper-CVAD regimen (hyper-CVDD) in adult ALL patients (n = 15). The CR rate after this modified regimen was 100% (n = 15). Twelve patients were able to proceed to allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation, two patients died before transplantation due to infection, and the remaining one who was ineligible for transplant due to her age received an additional five courses of consolidation chemotherapy. Overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) of the study patients was 61.0 and 47.5% at 3 years. OS and relapse-free survival of transplanted patients was 66.8 and 55.0% at 3 years. This pilot trial demonstrates the favorable efficacy of the hyper-CVDD chemotherapy as a frontline remission induction regimen. Further clinical trials using this regimen are warranted.

  7. Assays for mammalian tyrosinase: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jara, J.R.; Solano, F.; Lozano, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    This work describes a comparative study of the tyrosinase activity determined using three methods which are the most extensively employed; two radiometric assays using L-tyrosine as substrate (tyrosine hydroxylase and melanin formation activities) and one spectrophotometric assay using L-dopa (dopa oxidase activity). The three methods were simultaneously employed to measure the activities of the soluble, melanosomal, and microsomal tyrosinase isozymes from Harding-Passey mouse melanoma through their purification processes. The aim of this study was to find any correlation among the tyrosinase activities measured by the three different assays and to determine whether that correlation varied with the isozyme and its degree of purification. The results show that mammalian tyrosinase has a greater turnover number for L-dopa than for L-tyrosine. Thus, enzyme activity, expressed as mumol of substrate transformed per min, is higher in assays using L-dopa as substrate than those using L-tyrosine. Moreover, the percentage of hydroxylated L-tyrosine that is converted into melanin is low and is affected by several factors, apparently decreasing the tyrosinase activity measured by the melanin formation assay. Bearing these considerations in mind, average interassay factors are proposed. Their values are 10 to transform melanin formation into tyrosine hydroxylase activity, 100 to transform tyrosine hydroxylase into dopa oxidase activity, and 1,000 to transform melanin formation into dopa oxidase activity. Variations in these values due to the presence in the tyrosinase preparations of either inhibitors or regulatory factors in melanogenesis independent of tyrosinase are also discussed

  8. HFE gene mutation and iron overload in Egyptian pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia survivors: a single-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Rashedi, Farida H; El-Hawy, Mahmoud A; El-Hefnawy, Sally M; Mohammed, Mona M

    2017-08-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis gene (HFE) mutations have a role in iron overload in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) survivors. We aimed to evaluate the genotype frequency and allelic distribution of the two HFE gene mutations (C282Y and H63D) in a sample of Egyptian pediatric ALL survivors and to detect the impact of these two mutations on their iron profile. This study was performed on 35 ALL survivors during their follow-up visits to the Hematology and Oncology Unit, Pediatric Department, Menoufia University Hospitals. Thirty-five healthy children of matched age and sex were chosen as controls. After completing treatment course, ALL survivors were screened for the prevalence of these two mutations by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Serum ferritin levels were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique (ELISA). C282Y mutation cannot be detected in any of the 35 survivors or the 35 controls. The H63D heterozygous state (CG) was detected in 28.6% of the survivors group and in 20% of controls, while the H63D homozygous (GG) state was detected in 17.1% of survivors. No compound heterozygosity (C282Y/H63D) was detected at both groups with high G allele frequency (31.4%) in survivors more than controls (10%). There were significant higher levels of iron parameters in homozygote survivors than heterozygotes and the controls. H63D mutation aggravates the iron overload status in pediatric ALL survivors.

  9. Calcaneal fracture classification: a comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, Tim; van Lieshout, Esther M. M.; Ginai, Abida Z.; Mulder, Paul G. H.; Heetveld, Martin J.; Patka, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Comparing different types of calcaneal fractures, associated treatment options, and outcome data is currently hampered by the lack of consensus regarding fracture classification. A systematic search for articles dealing with calcaneal fracture was performed, and the prevalence of use of each

  10. Molecular biomarkers for the study of childhood leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Martyn T.; McHale, Cliona M.; Wiemels, Joseph L.; Zhang, Luoping; Wiencke, John K.; Zheng, Shichun; Gunn, Laura; Skibola, Christine F.; Ma, Xiaomei; Buffler, Patricia A.

    2005-01-01

    Various specific chromosome rearrangements, including t(8;21), t(15;17), and inv(16), are found in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and in childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), t(12;21) and t(1;19) are common. We sequenced the translocation breakpoints of 56 patients with childhood ALL or AML harboring t(12;21), t(8;21), t(15;17), inv(16), and t(1;19), and demonstrated, with the notable exception of t(1;19), that these rearrangements are commonly detected in the neonatal blood spots (Guthrie cards) of the cases. These findings show that most childhood leukemias begin before birth and that maternal and perinatal exposures such as chemical and infectious agents are likely to be critical. Indeed, we have reported that exposure to indoor pesticides during pregnancy and the first year of life raises leukemia risk, but that later exposures do not. We have also examined aberrant gene methylation in different cytogenetic subgroups and have found striking differences between them, suggesting that epigenetic events are also important in the development of some forms of childhood leukemia. Further, at least two studies now show that the inactivating NAD(P)H:quinone acceptor oxidoreductase (NQO1) C609T polymorphism is positively associated with leukemias arising in the first 1-2 years of life and polymorphisms in the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene have been associated with adult and childhood ALL. Thus, low folate intake and compounds that are detoxified by NQO1 may be important in elevating leukemia risk in children. Finally, we are exploring the use of proteomics to subclassify leukemia, because cytogenetic analysis is costly and time-consuming. Several proteins have been identified that may serve as useful biomarkers for rapidly identifying different forms of childhood leukemia

  11. Studies on the distribution of hematopoietic bone marrow by bone marrow scintigraphy, 2. The bone marrow distribution in leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimori, K [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1976-04-01

    Distribution of the leukemic marrow was investigated in 42 cases by bone marrow scintigraphy using sup(99m)Tc sulfur colloid in association with clinical findings and ferrokinetics studies in order to clarify hematopoietic function in leukemia. 17 of chronic myelogenous leukemia, 3 of lymphatic leukemia, 2 of monocytic leukemia, 7 of atypical leukemia and one of erythroleukemia. 12 acute myelogenous leukemia were classified into 3 types A, B and C. Type A showed the distribution similar to those obtained with normal controls. Ferrokinetics studies, however, indicated complete absence of erythropoiesis. Type B showed complete lack of sup(99m)Tc activity in usual marrow sites, although ferrokinetics data showed normal erythropoeitic function. Type C showed abnormal concentration of sup(99m)Tc sulfur colloid in the tibiae. 17 chronic myelogenous leukemia showed reduced sup(99m)Tc activity in usual marrow sites and remarkable expanded marrow extending into distal femurs, proximal and distal tibiae and bones of feet. 2 acute lymphotic leukemia patients showed complete absence of sup(99m)Tc activity. The one chronic type showed almost normal distribution. Monocytic leukemia showed decreased marrow distribution in the sternum and vertebrae. Of 6 atypical leukemias one showed almost normal distribution. The others, including a case with hypoplastic luekemia, demonstrated marrow extension similar to that observed in chronic myelogenous leukemia or monocytic leukemia. Erythroleukemia showed increased concentrations of sup(99m)Tc activity in the usual marrow sites and marked marrow expansion throughout all long bones. These results suggest that there is a discrepancy between bone marrow distribution and hematopoietic function in the cases of acute myelogenous leukemia.

  12. A radiolabeled antibody targeting CD123+ leukemia stem cells – initial radioimmunotherapy studies in NOD/SCID mice engrafted with primary human AML

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey V. Leyton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Radioimmunotherapy (RIT with anti-CD123 monoclonal antibody CSL360 modified with nuclear translocation sequence (NLS peptides and labeled with the Auger electron-emitter, 111In (111In-NLS-CSL360 was studied in the prevalent NOD/SCID mouse AML engraftment assay. Significant decreases in CD123+ leukemic cells and impairment of leukemic stem cell self-renewal were achieved with high doses of RIT. However, NOD/SCID mice were very radiosensitive to these doses. At low non-toxic treatment doses, 111In-NLS-CSL360 demonstrated a trend towards improved survival associated with decreased spleen/body weight ratio, an indicator of leukemia burden, and almost complete eradication of leukemia from the bone marrow in some mice.

  13. A new interpretation of the relationship between radiation and risk of leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz-Niggli, H.

    1990-01-01

    The article refers to the report, which appeared in England on the increasing occurence of leukemia in youths in the surroundings of nuclear facilities, where their fathers were working. The problem of leukemia clusters is discussed, as well as epidemiological examinations and the exposure of the youths' fathers to radiation, as well as occuring cases of leukemia with survivors of Hiroshima. New studies are encouraged and especially a comparison with groups of people working with mutagenic chemicals

  14. Novel mutations of the nucleophosmin (NPM-1) gene in Egyptian patients with acute myeloid leukemia: A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neemat Kassem, N.; Abel Hamid, A.; Tarek Attia, T.; Mahmoud, S.; Moemen, E.; Baathallah, Sh.; Safwat, E.; Khalaf, M.; Shaker, O.

    2011-01-01

    Mutations of the nucleophosmin (NPM-1) gene have been reported in 50-60% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients with normal karyotype. This work was designed to study the prevalence and nature of NPM1 gene mutations in a group of Egyptian patients with AML to get an idea about the profile of NPM1 gene mutations in our society. In 45 previously untreated patients with de novo AML, peripheral blood and/or bone marrow samples from all patients were subjected to microscopic morphologic examination, cytochemical analysis, immuno phenotyping and karyotyping. Patients with normal cytogenetic results were selected for molecular analysis of NPM1 exon 12 by PCR amplification followed by DNA sequencing of the amplified product. Twenty-one patients (46.7%) had abnormal karyotype: six cases with ;(15;17), five cases with (8;21), five cases had trisomy 8, two cases carrying inv(3) and three cases had monosomy 7. The remaining 24 patients (53.3%) had normal karyotype. These patients were then subjected to molecular analysis. Out of these 24 patients with normal karyotype, mutant NPM-1 was detected in 11 patients (45.8%) by DNA sequencing; 2 cases showed type A mutation, 2 cases were harboring [ins 1015-4019 (CACG)], with point mutation [1006C→G], while the remaining 7 cases showed heterozygous deletion of nt A [del 1178 (A)]. Conclusion: Two novel NPM1 gene mutations were detected among our study population of AML patients identified as: the insertion CACG associated with point mutation, deletion of one base, or associated with point mutation. NPM1 gene mutations may become a new tool for monitoring minimal residual disease in AML with normal karyotype. Whether these previously unreported NPM-1 mutations will confer the same better outcome as previously reported mutations is currently unknown and warrants a larger study.

  15. A new Leukemia Prognostic Scoring System for refractory/relapsed adult acute myelogeneous leukaemia patients: a GOELAMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevallier, P; Labopin, M; Turlure, P; Prebet, T; Pigneux, A; Hunault, M; Filanovsky, K; Cornillet-Lefebvre, P; Luquet, I; Lode, L; Richebourg, S; Blanchet, O; Gachard, N; Vey, N; Ifrah, N; Milpied, N; Harousseau, J-L; Bene, M-C; Mohty, M; Delaunay, J

    2011-06-01

    A simplified prognostic score is presented based on the multivariate analysis of 138 refractory/relapsed acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) patients (median age 55 years, range: 19-70) receiving a combination of intensive chemotherapy+Gemtuzumab as salvage regimen. Overall, 2-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were 29±4% and 36±4%, respectively. Disease status (relapse Leukemia Prognostic Scoring System was then validated on an independent cohort of 111 refractory/relapsed AML patients. This new simplified prognostic score, using three clinical and biological parameters routinely applied, allow to discriminate around two third of the patients who should benefit from a salvage intensive regimen in the setting of refractory/relapsed AML patients. The other one third of the patients should receive investigational therapy.

  16. Therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome: a clinical and morphologic study of 65 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michels, S.D.; McKenna, R.W.; Arthur, D.C.; Brunning, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    This study consists of 65 patients (pts) who developed a myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) (39 pts) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (26 pts) following chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy; the interval from the onset of therapy to bone marrow abnormality ranged from 11 to 192 months (median, 58). Thirty-three patients had been previously treated for lymphoproliferative diseases, 29 for carcinoma, and three for a nonneoplastic disorder. Approximately 30% of the cases presenting in the MDS phase evolved to AML in one to 12 months (median, 3.5). The AML in 49% of the cases was not readily classified according to French-American-British (FAB) criteria; the primary difficulty in classification related to the involvement of multiple cell lines. Among the cases that could be classified, all FAB types were represented except for M1; M2 was the most frequent type. Clonal chromosome abnormalities were found in marrow specimens from 22 of 24 (92%) patients studied with G banding; 11 had abnormalities of chromosomes 5 and/or 7. The median survival for all patients was four months with no significant difference between those treated and not treated with antileukemic therapy. The median survival was three months for the patients presenting with AML, six months for the patients with AML following an MDS, and four months for the patients with an MDS that did not evolve to AML. The findings in the present study suggest that there are three stages of therapy-related panmyelosis: (1) pancytopenia with associated myelodysplastic changes, (2) a frank MDS, and (3) overt AML. Many patients will present in the stage of overt AML that differs from de novo AML primarily by the high incidence of trilineage involvement, difficulty in classification, frequent cytogenetic abnormalities, and poor response to antileukemic therapy

  17. Do stress responses promote leukemia progression? An animal study suggesting a role for epinephrine and prostaglandin-E2 through reduced NK activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Inbar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In leukemia patients, stress and anxiety were suggested to predict poorer prognosis. Oncological patients experience ample physiological and psychological stress, potentially leading to increased secretion of stress factors, including epinephrine, corticosteroids, and prostaglandins. Here we tested whether environmental stress and these stress factors impact survival of leukemia-challenged rats, and studied mediating mechanisms. F344 rats were administered with a miniscule dose of 60 CRNK-16 leukemia cells, and were subjected to intermittent forced swim stress or to administration of physiologically relevant doses of epinephrine, prostaglandin-E(2 or corticosterone. Stress and each stress factor, and/or their combinations, doubled mortality rates when acutely applied simultaneously with, or two or six days after tumor challenge. Acute administration of the β-adrenergic blocker nadolol diminished the effects of environmental stress, without affecting baseline survival rates. Prolonged β-adrenergic blockade or COX inhibition (using etodolac also increased baseline survival rates, possibly by blocking tumor-related or normal levels of catecholamines and prostaglandins. Searching for mediating mechanisms, we found that each of the stress factors transiently suppressed NK activity against CRNK-16 and YAC-1 lines on a per NK basis. In contrast, the direct effects of stress factors on CRNK-16 proliferation, vitality, and VEGF secretion could not explain or even contradicted the in vivo survival findings. Overall, it seems that environmental stress, epinephrine, and prostaglandins promote leukemia progression in rats, potentially through suppressing cell mediated immunity. Thus, patients with hematological malignancies, which often exhibit diminished NK activity, may benefit from extended β-blockade and COX inhibition.

  18. Outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia in second complete remission: a single institution study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Jung Lee

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The survival rate for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL has improved significantly. However, overall prognosis for the 20 to 25% of patients who relapse is poor, and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT offers the best chance for cure. In this study, we identified significant prognostic variables by analyzing the outcomes of allogeneic HSCT in ALL patients in second complete remission (CR. Methods : Fifty-three ALL patients (42 men, 79% who received HSCT in second CR from August 1991 to February 2009 were included (26 sibling donor HSCTs, 49%; 42 bone marrow transplantations, 79%. Study endpoints included cumulative incidence of acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD, relapse, 1-year transplant-related mortality (TRM, disease-free survival (DFS, and overall survival (OS. Results : Cumulative incidences of acute GVHD (grade 2 or above and chronic GVHD were 45.3% and 28.5%, respectively. The estimated 5-year DFS and OS for the cohort was 45.2¡?#?.8%; and 48.3¡?#?%,; respectively. Only donor type, i.e., sibling versus unrelated, showed significant correlation with DFS in multivariate analysis (P=0.010. The rates of relapse and 1 year TRM were 28.9¡?#?.4%; and 26.4¡?#?.1%;, respectively, and unrelated donor HSCT (P=0.002 and HLA mismatch (P =0.022 were significantly correlated with increased TRM in univariate analysis. Conclusion : In this single institution study spanning more than 17 years, sibling donor HSCT was the only factor predicting a favorable result in multivariate analysis, possibly due to increased TRM resulting from unrelated donor HSCT.

  19. Macroglobulinemia in a child with acute leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cejka, J.; Bollinger, R.O.; Schuit, H.R.E.; Lusher, J.M.; Chang, C.H.; Zuelzer, W.W.

    1974-01-01

    A 12-yr-old boy with acute leukemia was found to have paraproteinemia and Bence-Jones proteinuria. The paraprotein was characterized as immunoglobulin M, type κ and the Bence Jones protein as free κ-chains. Increased amounts of β2-microglobulin were found in the patient’s serum and urine. Electron

  20. Personal history and quality of life in chronic myeloid leukemia patients: a cross-sectional study using narrative medicine and quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breccia, Massimo; Graffigna, Guendalina; Galimberti, Sara; Iurlo, Alessandra; Pungolino, Ester; Pizzuti, Michele; Maggi, Alessandro; Falzetti, Franca; Capalbo, Silvana Franca; Intermesoli, Tamara; Maffioli, Margherita; Elena, Chiara; Melosi, Alessandro; Simonetti, Federico; Capochiani, Enrico; Seta, Roberta Della; Pacilli, Matteo; Luppi, Mario; Di Renzo, Nicola; Mastrullo, Lucia; Trabacchi, Elena; Vallisa, Daniele; Rapezzi, Davide; Orlandi, Ester Maria; Gambacorti-Passerini, Carlo; Efficace, Fabio; Alimena, Giuliana

    2016-11-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) drastically changed the outcome of patients diagnosed with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Several reports indicated the advantage of continue long-term adherence associated with positive outcome. Therefore, it is important to better understand from the patient's standpoint the experience of living with the disease and the related treatment. In this study, quantitative analysis and narrative medicine were combined to get insights on this issue in a population of 257 patients with CML in chronic phase treated with TKIs (43 % men, with a median age of 58 years, 27 % aged 31-50 years), followed for a median time of 5 years. Sixty-one percent of patients enrolled were treated in first line, whereas 37 % were treated in second line. The results showed more positive perceptions and acceptance in males compared to females, without impact of disease on relationships. Level of positive acceptance was more evident in elderly compared to younger patients, with a close connection with median time from diagnosis. Overall, female patients reported negative perceptions and an impact of disease on family daily living. The majority of patients understood the importance of continue adherence to treatment, with 27 % resulting less adherent (60 % for forgetfulness), even if well informed and supported by his/her physician. Narrative medicine, in association to quantitative analysis, can help physicians to understand needs of their patients in order to improve communication.

  1. Toucan and hornbill beaks: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Yasuaki; Bodde, Sara G; Meyers, Marc A

    2010-02-01

    The structure and mechanical behavior of Toco Toucan (Ramphastos toco) and Wreathed Hornbill (Rhyticeros undulatus) beaks were compared. The beak of both species is a sandwich-structured composite, having an exterior, or rhamphotheca, consisting of multiple layers of keratin scales and a core composed of a fibrous network of bony closed-cell foam. The rhamphotheca is an arrangement of approximately 50microm diameter, overlapping, keratin tiles. The hornbill rhamphotheca exhibits a surface morphology on the ridged casque that is distinguishable from that observed on the bill proper. Intermediate filaments in the keratin matrix were observed by transmission electron microscopy. The Young's modulus measurements of toucan rhamphotheca indicate isotropy in longitudinal and transverse directions, whereas those of hornbill rhamphotheca may suggest anisotropy. The compressive response of beak foam is governed by brittle crushing behavior. The crushing strength of hornbill foam is six times higher than that of toucan foam. Micro- and nanoindentation hardness values were measured for rhamphotheca and foam trabeculae of toucan and hornbill specimens. The sandwich design of beaks was analyzed using the Karam-Gibson and Dawson-Gibson models. The presence of a cellular core increases the bending resistance (Brazier moment) by a factor of 3-6 while decreasing the compressive strength by only 50%.

  2. Earthquake correlations and networks: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Mohan, T. R.; Revathi, P. G.

    2011-04-01

    We quantify the correlation between earthquakes and use the same to extract causally connected earthquake pairs. Our correlation metric is a variation on the one introduced by Baiesi and Paczuski [M. Baiesi and M. Paczuski, Phys. Rev. E EULEEJ1539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.69.06610669, 066106 (2004)]. A network of earthquakes is then constructed from the time-ordered catalog and with links between the more correlated ones. A list of recurrences to each of the earthquakes is identified employing correlation thresholds to demarcate the most meaningful ones in each cluster. Data pertaining to three different seismic regions (viz., California, Japan, and the Himalayas) are comparatively analyzed using such a network model. The distribution of recurrence lengths and recurrence times are two of the key features analyzed to draw conclusions about the universal aspects of such a network model. We find that the unimodal feature of recurrence length distribution, which helps to associate typical rupture lengths with different magnitude earthquakes, is robust across the different seismic regions. The out-degree of the networks shows a hub structure rooted on the large magnitude earthquakes. In-degree distribution is seen to be dependent on the density of events in the neighborhood. Power laws, with two regimes having different exponents, are obtained with recurrence time distribution. The first regime confirms the Omori law for aftershocks while the second regime, with a faster falloff for the larger recurrence times, establishes that pure spatial recurrences also follow a power-law distribution. The crossover to the second power-law regime can be taken to be signaling the end of the aftershock regime in an objective fashion.

  3. Earthquake correlations and networks: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna Mohan, T. R.; Revathi, P. G.

    2011-01-01

    We quantify the correlation between earthquakes and use the same to extract causally connected earthquake pairs. Our correlation metric is a variation on the one introduced by Baiesi and Paczuski [M. Baiesi and M. Paczuski, Phys. Rev. E 69, 066106 (2004)]. A network of earthquakes is then constructed from the time-ordered catalog and with links between the more correlated ones. A list of recurrences to each of the earthquakes is identified employing correlation thresholds to demarcate the most meaningful ones in each cluster. Data pertaining to three different seismic regions (viz., California, Japan, and the Himalayas) are comparatively analyzed using such a network model. The distribution of recurrence lengths and recurrence times are two of the key features analyzed to draw conclusions about the universal aspects of such a network model. We find that the unimodal feature of recurrence length distribution, which helps to associate typical rupture lengths with different magnitude earthquakes, is robust across the different seismic regions. The out-degree of the networks shows a hub structure rooted on the large magnitude earthquakes. In-degree distribution is seen to be dependent on the density of events in the neighborhood. Power laws, with two regimes having different exponents, are obtained with recurrence time distribution. The first regime confirms the Omori law for aftershocks while the second regime, with a faster falloff for the larger recurrence times, establishes that pure spatial recurrences also follow a power-law distribution. The crossover to the second power-law regime can be taken to be signaling the end of the aftershock regime in an objective fashion.

  4. Child Labor in Africa: A Comparative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canagarajah, Sudharshan; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the determinants of child labor in Africa as inferred from recent empirical studies. The empirical analysis is based upon five country studies undertaken in three different African countries, namely Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, and Zambia. Some support is found for the popular belief...... of poverty as a determinant of child labor, however other determinants are of similar importance. Among school costs, transportation costs have the greatest effect on child labor and school attendance, whereas the hypothesis of imperfect capital markets and that of household composition generally find some...

  5. Child Labor in Africa: A Comparative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Canagarajah, Sudharshan

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyzes the determinants of child labor in Africa as inferred from recent empirical studies. The empirical analysis is based upon five country studies undertaken in three different African countries, namely Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, and Zambia. Some support is found for the popular belief...... of poverty as a determinant of child labor, however other determinants are of similar importance. Among school costs, transportation costs have the greatest effect on child labor and school attendance, whereas the hypothesis of imperfect capital markets and that of household composition generally find some...

  6. Prevalence and predictors of anxiety and depression after completion of chemotherapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: A prospective longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunin-Batson, Alicia S.; Lu, Xiaomin; Balsamo, Lyn; Graber, Kelsey; Devidas, Meenakshi; Hunger, Stephen P.; Carroll, William L.; Winick, Naomi J.; Mattano, Leonard A.; Maloney, Kelly W.; Kadan-Lottick, Nina S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The months immediately following completion of treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are often regarded as a stressful time for children and families. In this prospective, longitudinal study, the prevalence and predictors of anxiety and depressive symptoms after completion of treatment were examined. Methods Participants included 160 children (ages 2-9 years) with standard-risk ALL enrolled on Children's Oncology Group protocol AALL0331. Parents completed standardized rating scales of children's emotional-behavioral functioning, and measures of coping and family functioning at ∼1, 6, and 12 months after diagnosis, and again 3 months following completion of chemotherapy. Results Three months off-therapy, 24% of survivors had at-risk/clinically elevated anxiety scores and 28% had elevated depression scores, significantly higher than the expected 15% in the general population (p=0.028 and 0.001, respectively). Patients with elevated anxiety one-month post-diagnosis were at greater risk for off–therapy anxiety (OR=4.1; 95% CI, 1.31-12.73, p=0.022), and those with elevated depressive symptoms 6-months post-diagnosis were at greater risk for off-therapy depression (OR=7.88, 95% CI, 2.61-23.81, p=0.0002). In adjusted longitudinal analyses, unhealthy family functioning (p=0.008), and less reliance on social support coping (p=0.009) were associated with risk for emotional distress. Children from Spanish-speaking families (p=0.05) were also at greater risk for distress. Conclusions A significant proportion of children experience emotional distress during and after therapy for ALL. These data provide a compelling rationale for targeted early screening, and psychosocial interventions to support family functioning and coping skills. PMID:27028090

  7. Conjunctivitis in the newborn- A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Wadhwani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Conjunctivitis of the newborn is defined as hyperemia and eye discharge in the neonates and is a common infection occurring in the neonates in the first month of life. In the United States, the incidence of neonatal conjunctivitis ranges from 1-2%, in India, the prevalence is 0.5-33% and varies in the world from 0.9-21% depending on the socioeconomic status. Aim: To study the organisms causing conjunctivitis of the newborn and to correlate the etiology with the mode of delivery. Design: Single center, prospective, observational study. Materials and Methods: A total of 300 mothers and their newborns, born over a period of one year, were included in the study. Of these 200 newborns were delivered through vaginal route (Group A and 100 (Group B delivered by lower segment caesarean section (LSCS. At the time of labour, high vaginal swabs were taken from the mothers. Two conjunctival swabs each from both eyes of the newborn were collected at birth and transported to Microbiology department in a candle jar immediately. Results: Eight babies in Group A, developed conjunctivitis at birth. None of the babies in Group B developed conjunctivitis, this difference was statistically highly significant (P<0.000. The organisms found in the conjunctiva of the newborns in Group A were Coagulase negative Staphylococcus, α hemolytic Streptococcus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas spps. However, the commonest organism leading to conjunctivitis in the newborn in this study was Coagulase negative Staphylococcus. It was observed that the mothers of 5 out of 8 babies (60% developing conjunctivitis gave history of midwife interference and premature rupture of membranes so the presence of risk factors contribute to the occurrence of conjunctivitis in the newborn. Conclusions: It is inferred that the mode of delivery and the presence of risk factors is responsible for conjunctivitis in the newborn.

  8. Experimental studies on the elimination of minimal residual leukemia in vivo by alternate half body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Jianxin

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a new way for leukemia patients to tolerate an ablative chemoradiotherapy without BMT. Previous studies had demonstrated that only a few leukemia cells remained in the body during remission phase following chemotherapy and did not migrate to distant organs via the circulation until they had given rise to 3 ∼ 4 x 10 5 new cells. The period required for such growth was about 20 days. However, hematopoietic stem cells migrate earlier than do leukemia cells. Therefore, alternate half body irradiation (HBI) within this period would kill the residual leukemia cells, but hematopoietic stem cells would migrate from shielded marrow to irradiated marrow and reconstruct hematopoiesis

  9. Acute myeloid leukemia and background radiation in an expanded case-referent study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flodin, U.; Fredriksson, M.; Persson, B.; Axelson, O.

    1990-01-01

    A case-referent study that investigated possible associations between environmental and occupational exposures and acute myeloid leukemia was performed on 86 cases and 172 referents, all of whom were living. Exposure information was obtained through a questionnaire mailed to each subject. An association was found between time spent in concrete buildings at home and work and leukemia morbidity. In addition, extensive x-ray examinations that occurred more than 5 y prior to diagnosis were more common among cases than referents

  10. Agoraphobia and Panic Disorder: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Kart

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study we aim to get more information about agoraphobia (AG which is an independent diagnosis in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5 and to evaluate overlaps or differences between agoraphobia and panic disorder (PD upon sociodemographic features and comorbidity with considering relation of these two disorders. Material and Method: Sociodemographic Data Form was given and Structural Clinical Interview for DSM Axis I Disorders (SCID-I was applied to 33 patients diagnosed as AG and 34 patients diagnosed as PD with AG (PDA.Results: AG group consisted of 21 females (63.1%, 12 males (36%, totally 33 patients and PDA group consisted of 23 females (67.6%, 11 males (32.4%, totally 34 patients. Mean age of onset was 32.4±10.2 in PDA group and 31.1±12.1 in AG group. According to sociodemographic features, violence in family and smoking rates were significantly higher in PDA group than AG group. Major Depressive Disorder (MDD as a comorbidity was higher in PDA group. Discussion: In this study, we tried to identify the overlaps and differences of PDA and AG. For a better recognition of AG, further studies are needed.

  11. A comparative study of fingerprint thinning algorithms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khanyile, NP

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available are compared in terms of the quality of the skeletons they produce (i.e. connectivity and spurious branches) as well as the time complexity associated with each algorithm. Results show that faster algorithms have difficulty preserving connectivity. Zhang...

  12. Counseling in Costa Rica: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Crystal

    2013-01-01

    With one of the world's most comprehensive universal healthcare systems, medical tourism in Costa Rica has increased significantly over the past few decades. American tourists save up to 80% of comparative costs for procedures, from heart surgery to root canal treatment. Although many Costa Rican healthcare professionals receive training in North…

  13. The Teaching of Anthropology: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Jacques

    1984-01-01

    College-level anthropology teaching in various countries, including Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Portugal, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and Yugoslavia, is compared. Terminology is examined and historical background is provided. Also discussed are educational crises, the organization of teaching, and teaching methods. (RM)

  14. Selective host range restriction of goat cells for recombinant murine leukemia virus and feline leukemia virus type A.

    OpenAIRE

    Fischinger, P J; Thiel, H J; Blevins, C S; Dunlop, N M

    1981-01-01

    We isolated a strain of normal goat fibroblasts which was uniquely selective in that it allowed the replication of xenotropic murine leukemia virus but not polytropic recombinant murine leukemia virus. In addition, feline leukemia virus type A replication was severely diminished in these goat cells, whereas feline leukemia virus type B and feline endogenous RD114-CCC viruses replicated efficiently. No other known cells exhibit this pattern of virus growth restriction. These goat cells allow t...

  15. Studies on N5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocystein methyltransferase in normal and leukemia leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peytremann, R; Thorndike, J; Beck, W S

    1975-11-01

    A cobalamin-dependent N5-methyltetra-hydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase (methyl-transferase) was demonstrated in unfractioned extracts of human normal and leukemia leukocytes. Activity was substantially reduced in the absence of an added cobalamin derivative. Presumably, this residual activity reflects the endogeneous level of holoenzyme. Enzyme activity was notably higher in lymphoid cells than in myeloid cells. Thus, mean specific activities (+/-SD) were: chronic lymphocytic leukemia lymphocytes, 2.15+/-1.16; normal lymphocytes, 0.91+/-0.59; normal mature granulocytes, 0.15+/-0.10; chronic myelocytic leukemia granulocytes, barely detectable activity. Properties of leukocytes enzymes resembled those of methyltransferases previously studied in bacteria and other animal cells. Granulocytes and chronic myelocytic leukemia cells contain a factor or factors that inhibits Escherichia coli enzyme. The data suggest that the prominence of this cobalamin-dependent enzyme in lymphocytes and other mononuclear cell types may be related to their potential for cell division.

  16. A comparison between allogeneic stem cell transplantation from unmanipulated haploidentical and unrelated donors in acute leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Piemontese

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the absence of a HLA-matched related or matched unrelated donor, allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT from mismatched unrelated donors or haploidentical donors are potential alternatives for patients with acute leukemia with an indication to allo-SCT. The objective of this study was to compare the outcome of allo-SCT from T cell-replete haploidentical (Haplo versus matched (MUD 10/10 or mismatched unrelated donor at a single HLA-locus (MMUD 9/10 for patients with acute leukemia in remission. Methods Two hundred sixty-five adult patients with de novo acute leukemia in first or second remission that received a Haplo-SCT between January 2007 and December 2013 were compared with 2490 patients receiving a MUD 10/10 and 813 receiving a MMUD 9/10. Propensity score weighted analysis was conducted in order to control for disease risk imbalances between the groups. Results The weighted 3-year non-relapse mortality and relapse incidence were 29 and 30% for Haplo, 21 and 29% for MUD 10/10, and 29 and 25% for MMUD 9/10, respectively. The weighted 3-year leukemia-free survival (LFS and overall survival (OS were 41 and 46% for Haplo, 50 and 56% for MUD 10/10, and 46 and 48% for MMUD 9/10, respectively. Using weighted Cox model, both LFS and OS were significantly higher in transplants from MUD 10/10 compared from those in Haplo but not different between transplants from MMUD 9/10 and Haplo. The type of donor was not significantly associated with neither acute nor chronic graft-versus-host disease. Conclusions Patients with acute leukemia in remission have better outcomes if transplanted from a MUD 10/10. We did not find any significant difference in outcome between transplants from MMUD 9/10 and Haplo, suggesting that both can be equally used in the absence of a 10/10 MUD. Key point 1 Better outcomes using fully (10/10 matched unrelated donor for allo-SCT in acute leukemia in remission. Key point 2 Similar outcomes after allo

  17. Array comparative genomic hybridization and cytogenetic analysis in pediatric acute leukemias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, A.J.; Yanofsky, R.; Vallente, R.; Bal, S.; Schroedter, I.; Liang, L.; Mai, S.

    2011-01-01

    Most patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia (all) are reported to have acquired chromosomal abnormalities in their leukemic bone marrow cells. Many established chromosome rearrangements have been described, and their associations with specific clinical, biologic, and prognostic features are well defined. However, approximately 30% of pediatric and 50% of adult patients with all do not have cytogenetic abnormalities of clinical significance. Despite significant improvements in outcome for pediatric all, therapy fails in approximately 25% of patients, and these failures often occur unpredictably in patients with a favorable prognosis and “good” cytogenetics at diagnosis. It is well known that karyotype analysis in hematologic malignancies, although genome-wide, is limited because of altered cell kinetics (mitotic rate), a propensity of leukemic blasts to undergo apoptosis in culture, overgrowth by normal cells, and chromosomes of poor quality in the abnormal clone. Array comparative genomic hybridization (acgh—“microarray”) has a greatly increased genomic resolution over classical cytogenetics. Cytogenetic microarray, which uses genomic dna, is a powerful tool in the analysis of unbalanced chromosome rearrangements, such as copy number gains and losses, and it is the method of choice when the mitotic index is low and the quality of metaphases is suboptimal. The copy number profile obtained by microarray is often called a “molecular karyotype.” In the present study, microarray was applied to 9 retrospective cases of pediatric all either with initial high-risk features or with at least 1 relapse. The conventional karyotype was compared to the “molecular karyotype” to assess abnormalities as interpreted by classical cytogenetics. Not only were previously undetected chromosome losses and gains identified by microarray, but several karyotypes interpreted by classical cytogenetics were shown to be discordant with the microarray results. The

  18. Oral methotrexate/6-mercaptopurine may be superior to a multidrug LSA2L2 Maintenance therapy for higher risk childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: results from the NOPHO ALL-92 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Heyman, Mats; Kristinsson, Jon

    2009-01-01

    The importance of maintenance therapy for higher risk childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is uncertain. Between 1992 and 2001 the Nordic Society for Pediatric Haematology/Oncology compared in a nonrandomized study conventional oral methotrexate (MTX)/6-mercaptopurine (6MP) maintenance...... therapy (P=0.04) were both related to an increased risk of an event (overall P value of the Cox model: 0.003), whereas neither sex, age at diagnosis, administration of central nervous system irradiation, nor presence of a day 15 bone marrow with > or =25% versus

  19. Identification of an MLC suppressor cell population in acute leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, C.F.; Broxmeyer, H.E.; Hansen, J.; Pollack, M.; Dupont, B.

    1978-01-01

    The MLC data from the 20 nonsuppressing patients and the 10 suppressing leukemia patients were analyzed with regard to HLA-A, -B, and -C antigens in the leukemia patients and compared with the presence or absence of suppression. These results demonstrate a significant increase (p < 0.02, Mann-Whitney U test) of HLA antigens Al, A3, and A11 in the leukemia suppressor group. Seven of the 10 leukemia patients showing suppression were A1, A3, or A11, while only 4 of the 20 nonsuppressing leukemia patients carried any of these three HLA-A antigens. The studies demonstrate that a nonspecific suppression of MLC responses is observed in 33% of the patients with acute leukemia

  20. Advertisement Analysis: A Comparative Critical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaal, Noureldin Mohamed; Sase, Amal Saleh

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at analyzing two advertisements, and investigating how advertisers use discourse and semiotics to make people and customers buy into their ideas, beliefs, or simply their products. The two advertisements analyzed are beauty products which have been selected from internet magazines. The methodology adopted in this study is…

  1. A Comparative Comment on the Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Christian Christrup; Ley, Thomas; Jensen, Niels Rosendal

    2012-01-01

    Denne konklusion sammenfatter hovedtrækkene af de gennemførte case studies i WorkAble-projektet. Vigtige pointer er, at unge på tværs af de forskellige case studies har vanskeligt ved at blive hørt og taget alvorligt. I stedet spises de af med "realistisk vejledning" eller dårlige uddannelses- og...

  2. A Comparative Study in Communication Texts & Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Mohsenian Rad

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The present article is to study the characteristics and general nature of audience and is described it as "Audience phantasm" in developing countries. It firstly notes that there will be consequences such as audience distancing themselves from local and official media if policy makers and media officials' imaginations of audiences become far from related bare facts have happened in the era of global media and the nature of audiences. Knowing and analyzing the image of audiences presented in new communication theories. Accordingly, as the abovementioned authorities’ viewpoint of audiences exposed to media messages keeps distance from the true nature of media activities, media‐message receivers and their current position in the booming market of media, as termed by Mohsenyan Rad as “Message Bazaar”, there will possibly be disastrous social, cultural, political, and even economic consequences with regard to media uses.Then the history and definitions of “audience”, "uses & gratifications theory" and the concept of "Audience Phantasm" is described. After that, based on those and the increased options as well as the right of selecting of today-audience in the situation of message bazaar, as a result the characteristics of them are explained.

  3. Nonlinear analysis of RED - a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Kai; Wang Xiaofan; Xi Yugeng

    2004-01-01

    Random Early Detection (RED) is an active queue management (AQM) mechanism for routers on the Internet. In this paper, performance of RED and Adaptive RED are compared from the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamics. In particular, we reveal the relationship between the performance of the network and its nonlinear dynamical behavior. We measure the maximal Lyapunov exponent and Hurst parameter of the average queue length of RED and Adaptive RED, as well as the throughput and packet loss rate of the aggregate traffic on the bottleneck link. Our simulation scenarios include FTP flows and Web flows, one-way and two-way traffic. In most situations, Adaptive RED has smaller maximal Lyapunov exponents, lower Hurst parameters, higher throughput and lower packet loss rate than that of RED. This confirms that Adaptive RED has better performance than RED

  4. Nonlinear analysis of RED - a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Kai; Wang Xiaofan E-mail: xfwang@sjtu.edu.cn; Xi Yugeng

    2004-09-01

    Random Early Detection (RED) is an active queue management (AQM) mechanism for routers on the Internet. In this paper, performance of RED and Adaptive RED are compared from the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamics. In particular, we reveal the relationship between the performance of the network and its nonlinear dynamical behavior. We measure the maximal Lyapunov exponent and Hurst parameter of the average queue length of RED and Adaptive RED, as well as the throughput and packet loss rate of the aggregate traffic on the bottleneck link. Our simulation scenarios include FTP flows and Web flows, one-way and two-way traffic. In most situations, Adaptive RED has smaller maximal Lyapunov exponents, lower Hurst parameters, higher throughput and lower packet loss rate than that of RED. This confirms that Adaptive RED has better performance than RED.

  5. Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... myeloproliferative neoplasms, leukemia , and other conditions . Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia Key Points Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia is a disease ... chance of recovery) and treatment options. Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia is a disease in which too many myelocytes ...

  6. Atypical Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... myeloproliferative neoplasms, leukemia , and other conditions . Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia Key Points Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia is a disease ... chance of recovery) and treatment options. Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia is a disease in which too many myelocytes ...

  7. Metacognition and Group Differences: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, metacognition refers to performing visual analysis and discrimination of real life events and situations in naïve psychology, naïve physics, and naïve biology domains. It is used, along with measuring reaction time, to examine differences in the ability of four groups of students to select appropriate pictures that correspond with…

  8. Children's Friendship Development: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, SeonYeong; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Fowler, Susan A.

    2011-01-01

    Establishing friendships is an important developmental goal of early childhood, but little research has addressed ways in which parents support the friendship development of their young children with disabilities. The purpose of this survey study was to explore the support strategies that parents use to facilitate their children's friendships.…

  9. Osteonecrosis in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a magnetic resonance imaging study after treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojala, A.; Lanning, F.; Paakko, E.; Lanning, B. [Oulu Univ. (Finland)

    1998-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out the prevalence of osteonecrosis in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in complete bone marrow remission at the end of the treatment. Finally, the study suggests that the intensification phase of the treatment protocols with intensive dexamethasone medication might be responsible for the development of osteonecrosis. (N.C.)

  10. Osteonecrosis in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a magnetic resonance imaging study after treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojala, A.; Lanning, F.; Paakko, E.; Lanning, B.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out the prevalence of osteonecrosis in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in complete bone marrow remission at the end of the treatment. Finally, the study suggests that the intensification phase of the treatment protocols with intensive dexamethasone medication might be responsible for the development of osteonecrosis. (N.C.)

  11. Outcomes of haploidentical stem cell transplantation for chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a retrospective study on behalf of the chronic malignancies working party of the EBMT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gorkom, Gwendolyn; van Gelder, Michel; Eikema, Dirk-Jan; Blok, Henric-Jan; van Lint, M T; Koc, Yener; Ciceri, Fabio; Beelen, Dietrich; Chevallier, Patrice; Selleslag, Dominik; Blaise, Didier; Foá, Roberto; Corradini, Paolo; Castagna, Luca; Moreno, Carol; Solano, Carlos; Müller, Lutz Peter; Tischer, Johanna; Hilgendorf, Inken; Hallek, Michael; Bittenbring, Jörg; Theobald, Matthias; Schetelig, Johannes; Kröger, Nicolaus

    2018-03-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) may result in long-term disease control in high-risk chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Recently, haploidentical HCT is gaining interest because of better outcomes with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCY). We analyzed patients with CLL who received an allogeneic HCT with a haploidentical donor and whose data were available in the EBMT registry. In total 117 patients (74% males) were included; 38% received PTCY as GVHD prophylaxis. For the whole study cohort OS at 2 and 5 yrs was 48 and 38%, respectively. PFS at 2 and 5 yrs was 38 and 31%, respectively. Cumulative incidence (CI) of NRM in the whole group at 2 and 5 years were 40 and 44%, respectively. CI of relapse at 2 and 5 yrs were 22 and 26%, respectively. All outcomes were not statistically different in patients who received PTCY compared to other types of GVHD prophylaxis. In conclusion, results of haploidentical HCT in CLL seem almost identical to those with HLA-matched donors. Thereby, haploidentical HCT is an appropriate alternative in high risk CLL patients with a transplant indication but no available HLA-matched donor. Despite the use of PTCY, the CI of relapse seems not higher than observed after HLA-matched HCT.

  12. A comparative study of various decalcification techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathibha Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Study of fibrilar, cellular and sub cellular structures of mineralized tissues is only possible after the removal of the calcium apatite of these tissues by the process of demineralization. Aims: The present study aims to evaluate six commonly used demineralizing agents to identify the best decalcifying agent. Materials and Methods: The present study included six different decalcifying solutions: 10% formal nitric acid, 8% formal nitric acid, 10% formic acid, 8% formic acid, Perenyi′s fluid and Ethylene Di-Amine Tetra Acetic Acid. eight samples of posterior mandible of rat were decalcified in each of the decalcifying solutions and subjected to chemical end-point test. Ehrlich′s Hematoxylin stain was used. Statistical Analysis Used: One way ANOVA was used for multiple group comparisons and Chi-square test was used for analyzing categorical data. P value of 0.05/less was set for statistical significance. Results: Samples treated with EDTA showed the best overall histological impression and the tissue integrity were well preserved. Formal nitric of both the percentages 10 and 8% gave fairly good cellular detail and were rapid in their action. Conclusion: The final impression led to the proposition that EDTA was indeed the best decalcifying agent available. However, with time constraint, the use of formal nitric acid is advocated.

  13. Undifferentiated granulocytic sarcoma: a case with epidural onset preceding acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, A; De Paoli, A; Fava, S; Luoni, M; Sironi, M; Tocci, A; Assi, A; Cassi, E

    1995-01-01

    This study reports a case of granulocytic sarcoma that developed in the epidural zone 25 days before clinical evidence of an acute promyelocytic leukemia. The case presented the diagnostic difficulties that are common to all aleukemic granulocytic sarcomas. Moreover, it highlights the very rare association between granulocytic sarcoma and acute promyelocytic leukemia, which is far from being explained.

  14. A Comparative Study of RCS Computation Codes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tong, Chia T; Wah, Ang T; Hwee, Lim K; Philip, Ou S; Heng, Yar K; Rowse, David; Amos, Matthew; Keen, Alan; Pegg, Neil; Thain, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    .... The first test object is a (fictitious) generic missile. It provides a test problem for benchmarking the performance of CEM codes on geometries containing real world deficiencies, such as thin bodies and sharp corners...

  15. Acute erythroblastic leukemia presenting as acute undifferentiated leukemia: a report of two cases with ultrastructural features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiffers, J; Bernard, P; Larrue, J; Dachary, D; David, B; Boisseau, M; Broustet, A

    1985-01-01

    This report describes two elderly patients with acute leukemia in which blast cells were undifferentiated with conventional light microscopy (L.M.) and cytochemistry. Blast cells were identified as belonging to the erythroblastic line by their ultrastructural features: glycogen deposits, lipidic vacuoles, cytoplasmic ferritin molecules and rhopheocytotic invagination. Moreover, blast cells were surrounding a central macrophage. Thus, these two patients had acute erythroblastic leukemia which differs from erythroleukemia (M6 of FAB classification) in which blast cells present myeloblastic characteristics.

  16. Economic valuation of biodiversity: A comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, P.; Vindigni, G.; Nunes, P.A.L.D.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, an intensive debate on the economic valuation of biodiversity has entered the environmental-economics literature. The present paper seeks to offer first a critical review of key concepts that are essential for a proper understanding of such evaluation issues. Particular attention is

  17. Patient experiences of acute myeloid leukemia: A qualitative study about diagnosis, illness understanding, and treatment decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Thomas W; Fish, Laura J; Bloom, Catherine T; El-Jawahri, Areej; Davis, Debra M; Locke, Susan C; Steinhauser, Karen E; Pollak, Kathryn I

    2017-12-01

    Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) face a unique, difficult situation characterized by sudden changes in health, complex information, and pressure to make quick treatment decisions amid sizeable tradeoffs. Yet, little is known about patients' experiences with AML. We used qualitative methods to learn about their experiences with diagnosis and treatment decision-making to identify areas for improvement. We recruited hospitalized patients with AML to participate in semi-structured qualitative interviews about their experiences being diagnosed with AML, receiving information, and making a treatment decision. Interviews were conducted during their hospitalization for induction chemotherapy. We analyzed data by using a constant comparison approach. Thirty-two patients completed an interview. Four main themes emerged: (a) shock and suddenness, (b) difficulty processing information, (c) poor communication, and (d) uncertainty. Patients frequently described their diagnosis as shocking. They also felt that the amount of information was too great and too difficult to process, which negatively impacted their understanding. Patients frequently described a lack of emotional support from clinicians and described uncertainty about their prognosis, the number and nature of available treatments, and what to expect from treatment. Acute myeloid leukemia poses a sudden, emotionally challenging, information-laden situation, where little time is available to make important decisions. This results in difficulty processing information and is sometimes complicated by a lack of emotive communication from clinicians. Results indicate a need for targeted interventions to improve AML patients' understanding of illness and treatment options and to address their traumatic experiences around diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Facial Action Units Recognition: A Comparative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popa, M.C.; Rothkrantz, L.J.M.; Wiggers, P.; Braspenning, R.A.C.; Shan, C.

    2011-01-01

    Many approaches to facial expression recognition focus on assessing the six basic emotions (anger, disgust, happiness, fear, sadness, and surprise). Real-life situations proved to produce many more subtle facial expressions. A reliable way of analyzing the facial behavior is the Facial Action Coding

  19. A Comparative Study of Pycnodysostosis, Cleidocranial Dysostosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-05-18

    May 18, 1974 ... the development of the teeth in both pycnodysostosis and acro-osteolysis. Furthermore, a review of the literature shows bone- within-bone appearance in cleidocranial dysostosis and osteopetrosis, defective clavicles in cleidocranial dysos- tosis and pycnodysostosis and erosion of the distal phalanges of ...

  20. A longitudinal study of growth and growth hormone secretion in children during treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marky, I.; Mellander, L.; Lannering, B.; Albertsson-Wikland, K.

    1991-01-01

    Diminished growth rate during treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is of the multifactorial etiology. Effects on GH secretion have been shown after discontinuation of treatment including prophylactic CNS irradiation. Seventeen children treated for ALL with three different CNS preventive schedules were followed longitudinally with repeated estimations of the spontaneous GH secretion during a 24-month period. No difference was found in GH secretion during this time between patients who had received no radiotherapy and those who had received 18 or 24 Gy as CNS prophylaxis. During dexamethasone treatment the GH secretion was completely suppressed, which can be a mediator for the diminished growth rate during the first 2 years of ALL treatment. We conclude that there is no clinical reason to perform GH analysis within the first 24 months of treatment for ALL

  1. Online arbitration: a comparative law study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Fernando Córdoba Marentes

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo, consistente en un estudio de derecho comparado del arbitraje en línea, se desarrolla a partir del cuestionamiento sobre la validez jurídica de los pactos, procedimientos y laudos arbitrales realizados por medios electrónicos. Con el propósito de obtener soluciones a esos interrogantes, se adelant ó, en esta primera etapa, una investigación sobre los requisitos formales exigidos en los arbitrajes tanto internacionales como locales, tal como se encuentran establecidos en diferentes jurisdicciones, así como su relaci ón con el “equivalente funcional” consignado en la correspondiente ley local sobre comercio electrónico. (El “equivalente funcional” es un criterio que intenta precisar las funciones que cumplen determinados requisitos formales [escrito, firma, original, entre otros], para establecer de qué forma pueden ser cumplidas de manera electrónica, y así otorgarle el mismo valor jurídico a tales instrumentos electrónicos. Los resultados de esa investigación se plasmaron en un cuadro comparativo que incluyó las legislaciones de Colombia, Alemania, Estados Unidos, Australia, Hong Kong y Reino Unido. Estas jurisdicciones fueron escogidas según su importancia internacional, tanto política como comercial, y de manera tal que pudieran representar los diferentes sistemas legales que existen en el mundo. Adicionalmente, como se detectara la necesidad de respaldar la investigaci ón con material bibliográfico complementario, en la segunda parte de esta primera etapa, fueron incluidas reseñas de artículos de revistas especializadas, con referencias significativas a los subtemas objeto de investigación. Las reseñas mencionadas fueron clasificadas atendiendo la relevancia de la información contenida en cada una de ellas y su relaci ón con los problemas analizados. Como resultado de la primera etapa de esta investigación profesoral, se concluyó que es posible realizar arbitrajes electrónicos o en línea en las

  2. Factors influencing life satisfaction in acute myeloid leukemia survivors following allogeneic stem cell transplantation: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amler, Susanne; Sauerland, Maria Cristina; Deiters, Christian; Büchner, Thomas; Schumacher, Andrea

    2015-02-27

    Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) is the preferred option of postremission therapy for high-risk patients suffering from acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Therefore, monitoring life satisfaction (LS) of long-term survivors following alloSCT is becoming increasingly important for oncologists. The aim of the study was to evaluate individual survivor priority of various general and health-related domains of life and their satisfaction with these domains. Furthermore, we investigated the impact of general and health-related LS on resilience, anxiety, depression and quality of life in AML survivors following alloSCT. Forty-one AML survivors (median age at time of assessment = 49.0 years) who had undergone alloSCT (median time since transplantation = 3.1 years) were enrolled in the study. Psychosocial parameters were assessed using the following instruments: FLZ(M) (Questions on Life Satisfaction), EORTC QLQ-C30, HADS (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) and the RS-25 (Resilience Scale-25 items). Correlation analyses were computed to reveal the associations between the different questionnaires. Independence from help or care, well-regulated living conditions and financial security contributed positively to LS, whereas being off work due to health-reasons and dissatisfaction with physical aspects were negatively associated to the subjective feelings of overall satisfaction. Moreover, a high quality of life was strongly positively correlated with LS (Spearman's rho general LS: 0.643 and health-related LS: 0.726, both p < 0.001). A high degree of resilience was also strongly positively correlated with better LS (general LS: 0.700, health-related LS: 0.675, both p < 0.001). Symptoms of anxiety and depression were associated with an impaired general LS (anxiety: -0.674, depression: -0.698, both p < 0.001). Our results indicate that LS should be considered an important key contributor to the survivors' well-being following alloSCT. Thus

  3. Targeting interleukin-11 receptor in leukemia and lymphoma: A functional ligand-directed study and hematopathology analysis of patient-derived specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, Katja; Jaalouk, Diana E.; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos; Bover, Laura; Sun, Yan; Kuniyasu, Akihiko; Driessen, Wouter H. P.; Cardó-Vila, Marina; Rietz, Cecilia; Zurita, Amado J.; O’Brien, Susan; Kantarjian, Hagop M.; Cortes, Jorge E.; Calin, George A.; Koivunen, Erkki; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The interleukin-11 receptor (IL-11R) is an established molecular target in primary tumors of bone, such as osteosarcoma, and in secondary bone metastases from solid tumors such as prostate cancer. However, its potential role in management of hematopoietic malignancies has not yet been determined. Here we evaluated the IL-11R as a candidate therapeutic target in human leukemia and lymphoma. Experimental Design and Results First, we show that the IL-11R protein is expressed in a variety of human leukemia- and lymphoma derived cell lines and in a large panel of bone marrow samples from leukemia and lymphoma patients, while expression is absent from non-malignant control bone marrow. Moreover, a targeted peptidomimetic prototype (termed BMTP-11) specifically bound to leukemia and lymphoma cell membranes, induced ligand-receptor internalization mediated by the IL-11R, and resulted in a specific dose-dependent cell death induction in these cells. Finally, a pilot drug lead-optimization program yielded a new myristoylated BMTP-11 analog with an apparent improved anti-leukemia cell profile. Conclusion These results indicate (i) that the IL-11R is a suitable cell surface target for ligand-directed applications in human leukemia and lymphoma and (ii) that BMTP-11 and its derivatives have translational potential against this group of malignant diseases. PMID:25779950

  4. Metallic nanoparticles in dielectrics: A comparative study

    KAUST Repository

    Agambayev, Agamyrat; Farhat, Mohamed; Bagci, Hakan; Salama, Khaled N.

    2017-01-01

    The Maxwell-Garnett method is used to predict the effective dielectric constant and the tangent loss of various composites consisting of a PVDF-TrFE-CFE-matrix and metallic microsphere fillers made of Cu, Ni, W, Zn, or Fe. Simulation results demonstrate that for small filler fraction values and at low frequencies, the electrical properties of the resulting composite do not depend on the conductivity of the filler. These findings show that composites fabricated using cheaper metal nanoparticle fillers are as effective as those fabricated using expensive ones.

  5. Metallic nanoparticles in dielectrics: A comparative study

    KAUST Repository

    Agambayev, Agamyrat

    2017-10-25

    The Maxwell-Garnett method is used to predict the effective dielectric constant and the tangent loss of various composites consisting of a PVDF-TrFE-CFE-matrix and metallic microsphere fillers made of Cu, Ni, W, Zn, or Fe. Simulation results demonstrate that for small filler fraction values and at low frequencies, the electrical properties of the resulting composite do not depend on the conductivity of the filler. These findings show that composites fabricated using cheaper metal nanoparticle fillers are as effective as those fabricated using expensive ones.

  6. Patterns of care and outcomes in adolescent and young adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffly, Lori; Alvarez, Elysia; Lichtensztajn, Daphne; Abrahão, Renata; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Keegan, Theresa

    2018-04-24

    Adolescents and young adults (AYAs, 15-39 years) with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) represent a heterogeneous population who receive care in pediatric or adult cancer settings. Using the California Cancer Registry, we describe AYA ALL patterns of care and outcomes over the past decade. Sociodemographics, treatment location, and front-line therapies administered to AYAs diagnosed with ALL between 2004 and 2014 were obtained. Cox regression models evaluated associations between ALL setting and regimen and overall survival (OS) and leukemia-specific survival (LSS) for the entire cohort, younger AYA (<25 years), and AYAs treated in the adult cancer setting only. Of 1473 cases, 67.7% were treated in an adult setting; of these, 24.8% received a pediatric ALL regimen and 40.7% were treated at a National Cancer Institute (NCI)-designated center. In multivariable analyses, front-line treatment in a pediatric (vs adult) setting (OS HR = 0.53, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37-0.76; LSS HR = 0.51, 95% CI, 0.35-0.74) and at an NCI/Children's Oncology Group (COG) center (OS HR = 0.80, 95% CI, 0.66-0.96; LSS HR = 0.80, 95% CI, 0.65-0.97) were associated with significantly superior survival. Results were similar when analyses were limited to younger AYAs. Outcomes for AYAs treated in an adult setting did not differ following front-line pediatric or adult ALL regimens. Our population-level findings demonstrate that two-thirds of AYAs with newly diagnosed ALL are treated in an adult cancer setting, with the majority receiving care in community settings. Given the potential survival benefits, front-line treatment of AYA ALL at pediatric and/or NCI/COG-designated cancer centers should be considered. © 2018 by The American Society of Hematology.

  7. A study of KIT activating mutations in acute myeloid leukemia M0 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Syed Rizwan Hussain

    2012-03-04

    Mar 4, 2012 ... TBE buffer (Tris–Borate EDTA). The gel tank was placed in a cold room at 4 °C and run for 12 h at 150 V. DNA on the gel was stained after electrophoresis with silver stain. Electrophore- sis mobility shift in single-stranded or double stranded DNA product from patients was detected by comparison with DNA.

  8. The chemotherapeutic potential of glycol alkyl ethers: structure-activity studies of nine compounds in a Fischer-rat leukemia transplant model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieter, M P; Jameson, C W; Maronpot, R R; Langenbach, R; Braun, A G

    1990-01-01

    Structure-activity studies with nine glycol alkyl ethers were conducted with a cellular leukemia transplant model in male Fischer rats. This in vivo assay measures the effects of chemical treatment on neoplastic progression in transplant recipients. Chemicals were given ad libitum in the drinking water simultaneously with the transplants and continued throughout the study. In all, 20 million leukemic cells were injected s.c. into syngeneic rats, which after 60 days resulted in a 10-fold increase in relative spleen weights, a 100-fold increase in white blood cell counts, and a 50% reduction in red blood cell (RBC) indices and platelet counts. At this interval, ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (2-ME) given at a dose of 2.5 mg/ml in the drinking water completely eliminated all clinical, morphological, and histopathological evidence of leukemia, whereas the same dose of ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (2-EE) reduced these responses by about 50%. Seven of the glycol ethers were ineffective as anti-leukemic agents, including ethylene glycol, the monopropyl, monobutyl, and monophenyl ethylene glycol ethers, diethylene glycol, and the monomethyl and monoethyl diethylene glycol ethers. 2-ME more than doubled the latency period of leukemia expression and extended survival for at least 210 days. A minimal effective dose for a 50% reduction in the leukemic responses was 0.25 mg/ml 2-ME in the drinking water (15 mg/kg body weight), whereas a 10-fold higher dose of 2-EE was required for equivalent antileukemic activity. In addition, the in vitro exposure of a leukemic spleen mononuclear cell culture to 2-ME caused a dose- and time-dependent reduction in the number of leukemia cells after a single exposure to 1-100 microM concentrations, whereas the 2-ME metabolite, 2-methoxyacetic acid, was only half as effective. The two glycol alkyl ethers with demonstrable anti-leukemic activity, 2-ME and 2-EE, also exhibited a favorable efficacy-to-toxicity ratio and should be considered for

  9. Smoking and subsequent risk of leukemia in Japan: The Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugai, Tomotaka; Matsuo, Keitaro; Sawada, Norie; Iwasaki, Motoki; Yamaji, Taiki; Shimazu, Taichi; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Inoue, Manami; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2017-07-01

    Cigarette smoking has been reported to be associated with an increased risk of leukemia. Most epidemiological evidence on the association between cigarette smoking and leukemia risk is from studies conducted in Western populations, however, and evidence from Asian populations is scarce. We conducted a large-scale population-based cohort study of 96,992 Japanese subjects (46,493 men and 50,499 women; age 40-69 years at baseline) with an average 18.3 years of follow-up, during which we identified 90 cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), 19 of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and 28 of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using a Cox regression model adjusted for potential confounders. When we adjusted for age, sex, and study area, our findings showed no significant association or increasing dose-response relationship between risk of AML and cigarette smoking overall. However, after further adjustment for body mass index and occupation, current smokers with more than 30 pack-years of cigarette smoking had a significantly increased risk of AML compared to never smokers among men (HR 2.21; 95% CI, 1.01-4.83). This increased risk was not clear among women. Our results suggest that cigarette smoking increases the risk of AML in Japanese men. The associations of smoking with AML among women, and with CML and ALL among men and women, should be assessed in future studies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Smoking and subsequent risk of leukemia in Japan: The Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomotaka Ugai

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cigarette smoking has been reported to be associated with an increased risk of leukemia. Most epidemiological evidence on the association between cigarette smoking and leukemia risk is from studies conducted in Western populations, however, and evidence from Asian populations is scarce. Methods: We conducted a large-scale population-based cohort study of 96,992 Japanese subjects (46,493 men and 50,499 women; age 40–69 years at baseline with an average 18.3 years of follow-up, during which we identified 90 cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML, 19 of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, and 28 of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML. Hazard ratios (HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were estimated using a Cox regression model adjusted for potential confounders. Results: When we adjusted for age, sex, and study area, our findings showed no significant association or increasing dose–response relationship between risk of AML and cigarette smoking overall. However, after further adjustment for body mass index and occupation, current smokers with more than 30 pack-years of cigarette smoking had a significantly increased risk of AML compared to never smokers among men (HR 2.21; 95% CI, 1.01–4.83. This increased risk was not clear among women. Conclusions: Our results suggest that cigarette smoking increases the risk of AML in Japanese men. The associations of smoking with AML among women, and with CML and ALL among men and women, should be assessed in future studies.

  11. Inotuzumab ozogamicin in adults with relapsed or refractory CD22-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a phase 1/2 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAngelo, Daniel J; Stock, Wendy; Stein, Anthony S; Shustov, Andrei; Liedtke, Michaela; Schiffer, Charles A; Vandendries, Erik; Liau, Katherine; Ananthakrishnan, Revathi; Boni, Joseph; Laird, A Douglas; Fostvedt, Luke; Kantarjian, Hagop M; Advani, Anjali S

    2017-06-27

    This study evaluated the safety, antitumor activity, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of inotuzumab ozogamicin (InO) for CD22-positive relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In phase 1, patients received InO 1.2 (n = 3), 1.6 (n = 12), or 1.8 (n = 9) mg/m 2 per cycle on days 1, 8, and 15 over a 28-day cycle (≤6 cycles). The recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D) was confirmed (expansion cohort; n = 13); safety and activity of InO were assessed in patients receiving the RP2D in phase 2 (n = 35) and in all treated patients (n = 72). The RP2D was 1.8 mg/m 2 per cycle (0.8 mg/m 2 on day 1; 0.5 mg/m 2 on days 8 and 15), with reduction to 1.6 mg/m 2 per cycle after complete remission (CR) or CR with incomplete marrow recovery (CRi). Treatment-related toxicities were primarily cytopenias. Four patients experienced treatment-related venoocclusive disease/sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (VOD/SOS; 1 fatal). Two VOD/SOS events occurred during treatment without intervening transplant; of 24 patients proceeding to poststudy transplant, 2 experienced VOD/SOS after transplant. Forty-nine (68%) patients had CR/CRi, with 41 (84%) achieving minimal residual disease (MRD) negativity. Median progression-free survival was 3.9 (95% confidence interval, 2.9-5.4) months; median overall survival was 7.4 (5.7-9.2) months for all treated patients, with median 23.7 (range, 6.8-29.8) months of follow-up for all treated patients alive at data cutoff. Achievement of MRD negativity was associated with higher InO exposure. InO was well tolerated and demonstrated high single-agent activity and MRD-negativity rates. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01363297.

  12. Childhood leukemia near nuclear plants in the United Kingdom: The evolution of a systematic approach to studying rare disease in small geographic areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beral, V.

    1990-01-01

    A cluster of childhood leukemia in a village near a nuclear plant in northern England prompted further studies of cancer in the vicinity of other nuclear plants in the United Kingdom. These studies demonstrated that the risk of childhood leukemia was increased near certain other nuclear plants. Although the reasons for the increase are still unclear, the scientific debate stimulated by these findings has clarified some of the special methodological problems encountered when studying rare diseases in small areas. Firstly, unless a specific hypothesis is defined in advance, the relevance of a single geographic cluster of disease can rarely be interpreted. Even when a prior hypothesis exists, the small number of cases which generally occur in a small area make the findings highly sensitive to reporting, diagnostic, or classification errors. The statistical power of such investigations is also usually low and only marked increases in risk can be detected. Furthermore, conventional statistical tests may be inappropriate if the underlying spatial distribution of the disease is not random; and little is known about the background distribution of disease in small areas. Investigations of specific hypotheses about defined sources of environmental contamination, especially if they can be replicated, are more likely to result in conclusive findings that are in-depth studies of individual clusters

  13. Fatal Candidemia in a Patient with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-16

    Profoosionaf 7 ,0 Fatal Candidemia in a Patient with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Brittany Lenz, MD, Arturo Dominguez, MD, Adnan Mir, MD, PhD Objectives...with pre-B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia was admitted for presumed septic shock secondary to an unknown infectious etiology. The patient was...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Fatal Candidcn1ia in a Patient \\\\ith Acute Lympboblastic Leukemia Brittany Lenz. MD. Arturo Dominguez.. MD. Adnan J’vlir. MD, PhD

  14. Treatments for chronic myeloid leukemia: a qualitative systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Roxanne Ferdinand,1 Stephen A Mitchell,2 Sarah Batson,2 Indra Tumur11Pfizer, Tadworth, UK; 2Abacus International, Bicester, UKBackground: Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML is a myeloproliferative disorder of blood stem cells. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI imatinib was the first targeted therapy licensed for patients with chronic-phase CML, and its introduction was associated with substantial improvements in response and survival compared with previous therapies. Clinical trial data are now available for the second-generation TKIs (nilotinib, dasatinib, and bosutinib in the first-, second-, and third-line settings. A qualitative systematic review was conducted to qualitatively compare the clinical effectiveness, safety, and effect on quality of life of TKIs for the management of chronic-, accelerated-, or blast-phase CML patients.Methods: Included studies were identified through a search of electronic databases in September 2011, relevant conference proceedings and the grey literature.Results: In the first-line setting, the long-term efficacy (up to 8 years of imatinib has been confirmed in a single randomized controlled trial (International Randomized Study of Interferon [IRIS]. All second-generation TKIs reported lower rates of transformation, and comparable or superior complete cytogenetic response (CCyR, major molecular response (MMR, and complete molecular response rates compared with imatinib by 2-year follow-up. Each of the second-generation TKIs was associated with a distinct adverse-event profile. Bosutinib was the only second-generation TKI to report quality-of-life data (no significant difference compared with imatinib treatment. Data in the second- and third-line setting confirmed the efficacy of the second-generation TKIs in either imatinib-resistant or -intolerant patients, as measured by CCyR and MMR rates.Conclusion: Data from first-line randomized controlled trials reporting up to 2-year follow-up indicate superior response

  15. Chloroma of the testis in a patient with a history of acute myeloid leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Sanei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chloroma, or granulocytic sarcoma, is a rare extramedullary solid hematologic cancer, found concomitant with acute myeloid leukemia. It is infrequently associated with other myeloproliferative disorders or chronic myelogenous leukemia. Chloroma of the testis after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation is particularly sparsely represented in the literature. It is suggested that an appropriate panel of marker studies be performed along with clinical correlation and circumspection to avoid misleading conclusions. We report an interesting case of a 32-year-old male with a clinical history of acute myelogenous leukemia, postallogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation that was found to have chloroma of the right testis.

  16. Chloroma of the testis in a patient with a history of acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanei, Mohammad Hossein; Shariati, Matin

    2017-01-01

    Chloroma, or granulocytic sarcoma, is a rare extramedullary solid hematologic cancer, found concomitant with acute myeloid leukemia. It is infrequently associated with other myeloproliferative disorders or chronic myelogenous leukemia. Chloroma of the testis after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation is particularly sparsely represented in the literature. It is suggested that an appropriate panel of marker studies be performed along with clinical correlation and circumspection to avoid misleading conclusions. We report an interesting case of a 32-year-old male with a clinical history of acute myelogenous leukemia, postallogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation that was found to have chloroma of the right testis.

  17. Heterogeneity of acute myeloblastic leukemia without maturation: an ultrastructural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamoto, K; Date, M; Taniguchi, H; Nagano, T; Kishimoto, Y; Kimura, T; Fukuhara, S

    1995-01-01

    We demonstrated by ultrastructural examination that the leukemic blasts of 13 patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) without maturation (M1 in the French-American-British classification) showed heterogeneous features. In 7 patients, the leukemic blasts had a high level of light microscopic myeloperoxidase positivity (> 50%). Ultrastructurally, the cells were myeloblast-promyelocytes with 100% myeloperoxidase positivity, and these 7 patients appeared to have typical AML. In contrast, the remaining 6 patients had leukemic blasts with a low myeloperoxidase positivity (undifferentiated blasts. The former group had a better prognosis than the latter, indicating that ultrastructural analysis of M1 leukemia may help predict the response to therapy.

  18. T-cell-depleted haploidentical stem cell transplantation results improve with time in adults with acute leukemia: A study from the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sestili, Simona; Labopin, Myriam; Ruggeri, Annalisa; Velardi, Andrea; Ciceri, Fabio; Maertens, Johan; Kanz, Lothar; Aversa, Franco; Lewalle, Philippe; Bunjes, Donald; Mohty, Mohamad; Nagler, Arnon

    2018-05-15

    T-cell-depleted, haploidentical transplantations (haplos) are commonly offered to patients who have high-risk, acute leukemia in the absence of a human leukocyte antigen (HLA) full-matched donor. To determine the effect of transplantation period, the authors divided 308 adults with de novo, acute leukemia who underwent T-cell-depleted haplo from 2005 to 2015 into 2 groups, according the year in which they underwent transplantation (2005-2011 [n = 191] and 2012-2015 [n = 117]). The median age was 41 years in patients who underwent transplantation before 2012 and 46 years in those who underwent transplantation after 2012 (P = .04). Most patients had acute myeloid leukemia (75% vs 69%; P = .26) and were in first complete remission (CR1) (55% vs 64%; P = .12) at the time of transplantation. The cumulative incidence of grade 2, 3, and 4 acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) and chronic GvHD were not different between the 2 groups (acute GvHD: 20% vs 22% cumulative incidence in patients who underwent haplo before and after 2012, respectively [P = .67]; chronic GvHD: 19% vs 11% cumulative incidence, respectively; P = .12]. The 2-year relapse incidence was 20%, the nonrelapse mortality (NRM) rate was 48%, and no difference was observed over time (21% vs 19% [P = .72] and 54% vs 38% [P = .11] for patients who underwent haplo before and after 2012, respectively). The main cause of NRM was infection. Haplo after 2012 (hazard ratio [HR], 0.57; P = .01), younger age (HR, 0.82; P = .02), and receipt of a reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimen (HR, 0.53; P = .01) were independently associated with lower NRM. The 2-year overall survival rate was 36% and improved after 2012 (29% vs 47% before 2012; P = .02); and it was higher for patients who underwent transplantation in CR1 (41% vs 29%; P = .01). In multivariate analysis, haplo after 2012 (HR, 0.54; P = .003) and receipt of a RIC regimen (HR, 0.54; P = .005) were independently associated with better overall survival

  19. Pilot study of erlotinib in patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayar, Hamid; Czader, Magdalena; Amin, Chirag; Cangany, Mary; Konig, Heiko; Cripe, Larry D

    2015-02-01

    We conducted a pilot study to investigate clinical efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). A total of 11 patients with de novo AML were treated, including 2 with relapsed and/or refractory disease and 9 older patients with previously untreated AML. Patients with high baseline leukocyte count were excluded. Erlotinib was given orally at 150 mg per day continuously in 28-day cycles. The treatment was tolerated well, and no toxicities were observed. An initial reduction in circulating blasts, followed by disease progression, was observed in 2 patients. Nine other patients did not demonstrate any response in blood or bone marrow. Baseline and post-cycle 1 flow-cytometry were performed on bone marrow blasts to investigate signs of differentiation. No immunophenotypic changes suggestive of differentiation were observed. This pilot study did not demonstrate response to standard doses of erlotinib in patients with AML. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparative pharmacogenetic analysis of risk polymorphisms in Caucasian and Vietnamese children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: prediction of therapeutic outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Phuong Thu Vu; Ambroise, Jérôme; Dekairelle, Anne-France; Durant, Jean-François; Butoescu, Valentina; Chi, Vu Luan Dang; Huynh, Nghia; Nguyen, Tan Binh; Robert, Annie; Vermylen, Christiane; Gala, Jean-Luc

    2015-03-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common of all paediatric cancers. Aside from predisposing to ALL, polymorphisms could also be associated with poor outcome. Indeed, genetic variations involved in drug metabolism could, at least partially, be responsible for heterogeneous responses to standardized leukemia treatments, hence requiring more personalized therapy. The aims of this study were to (a) to determine the prevalence of seven common genetic polymorphisms including those that affect the folate and/or thiopurine metabolic pathways, i.e. cyclin D1 (CCND1-G870A), γ-glutamyl hydrolase (GGH-C452T), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR-C677T and MTHFR-A1298C), thymidylate synthase promoter (TYMS-TSER), thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT*3A and TPMT*3C) and inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase (ITPA-C94A), in Caucasian (n = 94, age Vietnamese (n = 141, age Vietnamese (P < 0.001 and P = 0.02, respectively). Compared with children with a low MGRS (≤ 3), those with a high MGRS (≥ 4) were 2.06 (95% CI = 1.01, 4.22; P = 0.04) times more likely to relapse. Adding MGRS into a multivariate Cox regression model with race/ethnicity and four clinical variables improved the predictive accuracy of the model (AUC from 0.682 to 0.709 at 24 months). Including MGRS into a clinical model improved the predictive accuracy of short and medium term prognosis, hence confirming the association between well determined pharmacogenotypes and outcome of paediatric ALL. Whether variants on other genes associated with folate metabolism can substantially improve the predictive value of current MGRS is not known but deserves further evaluation. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  1. Targeting IL11 Receptor in Leukemia and Lymphoma: A Functional Ligand-Directed Study and Hematopathology Analysis of Patient-Derived Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, Katja; Jaalouk, Diana E; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos; Bover, Laura; Sun, Yan; Kuniyasu, Akihiko; Driessen, Wouter H P; Cardó-Vila, Marina; Rietz, Cecilia; Zurita, Amado J; O'Brien, Susan; Kantarjian, Hagop M; Cortes, Jorge E; Calin, George A; Koivunen, Erkki; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata

    2015-07-01

    The IL11 receptor (IL11R) is an established molecular target in primary tumors of bone, such as osteosarcoma, and in secondary bone metastases from solid tumors, such as prostate cancer. However, its potential role in management of hematopoietic malignancies has not yet been determined. Here, we evaluated the IL11R as a candidate therapeutic target in human leukemia and lymphoma. First, we show that the IL11R protein is expressed in a variety of human leukemia- and lymphoma-derived cell lines and in a large panel of bone marrow samples from leukemia and lymphoma patients, whereas expression is absent from nonmalignant control bone marrow. Moreover, a targeted peptidomimetic prototype (termed BMTP-11), specifically bound to leukemia and lymphoma cell membranes, induced ligand-receptor internalization mediated by the IL11R, and resulted in a specific dose-dependent cell death induction in these cells. Finally, a pilot drug lead-optimization program yielded a new myristoylated BMTP-11 analogue with an apparent improved antileukemia cell profile. These results indicate (i) that the IL11R is a suitable cell surface target for ligand-directed applications in human leukemia and lymphoma and (ii) that BMTP-11 and its derivatives have translational potential against this group of malignant diseases. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Study on subsequent neurologic complications in children with acute leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Naoaki; Shimazaki, Haruyo; Hoshi, Yasutaka; Akatsuka, Jun-ichi (Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1989-06-01

    Twenty-seven children with acute leukemia were studied in order to detect the subsequent neurologic complications due to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Twenty-four patients with ALL received central nervous system prophylaxis including cranial irradiation. The methods of evaluation consisted of electroencephalogram (EEG), computed tomography of the head (CT scan), soft neurological sign, intelligence quotient (IQ) and Bender Gestalt test. The patients with relapse showed severe abnormalities in various kinds of examinations. Younger children at diagnosis were associated with a higher abnormality rate of soft neurological signs and Bender Gestalt test. Factors which were found to be closely associated with a lower IQ score included younger children at diagnosis and longer duration of remission time. These results indicate the need for caution for the dosage of cranial irradiation for younger patients in CNS prophylaxis, and improvement of a lower IQ score in long-term survivors requires further investigation as to the appropriate intellectual environment for their development after remission. (author).

  3. Digitalization of a non-irradiated acute myeloid leukemia model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rudong; Cheng, Hui; Cheng, Tao; Liu, Lei

    2016-08-26

    Computer-aided, interdisciplinary researches for biomedicine have valuable prospects, as digitalization of experimental subjects provide opportunities for saving the economic costs of researches, as well as promoting the acquisition of knowledge. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is intensively studied over long periods of time. Till nowaday, most of the studies primarily focus on the leukemic cells rather than how normal hematopoietic cells are affected by the leukemic environment. Accordingly, the conventional animal models for AML are mostly myeloablated as leukemia can be induced with short latency and complete penetrance. Meanwhile, most previous computational models focus on modeling the leukemic cells but not the multi-tissue leukemic body resided by both leukemic and normal blood cells. Recently, a non-irradiated AML mouse model has been established; therefore, normal hematopoietic cells can be investigated during leukemia development. Experiments based on the non-irradiated animal model have monitored the kinetics of leukemic and (intact) hematopoietic cells in multiple tissues simultaneously; and thus a systematic computational model for the multi-tissue hematopoiesis under leukemia has become possible. In the present work, we adopted the modeling methods in previous works, but aimed to model the tri-tissue (peripheral blood, spleen and bone marrow) dynamics of hematopoiesis under leukemia. The cell kinetics generated from the non-irradiated experimental model were used as the reference data for modeling. All mathematical formulas were systematically enumerated, and model parameters were estimated via numerical optimization. Multiple validations by additional experimental data were then conducted for the established computational model. In the results, we illustrated that the important fact of functional depression of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSC/HPC) in leukemic bone marrow (BM), which must require additional experiments to be established, could

  4. Comparison of risk factors for seropositivity to feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus among cats: a case-case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhetri, Bimal K; Berke, Olaf; Pearl, David L; Bienzle, Dorothee

    2015-02-10

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) are reported to have similar risk factors and similar recommendations apply to manage infected cats. However, some contrasting evidence exists in the literature with regard to commonly reported risk factors. In this study, we investigated whether the known risk factors for FIV and FeLV infections have a stronger effect for either infection. This retrospective study included samples from 696 cats seropositive for FIV and 593 cats seropositive for FeLV from the United States and Canada. Data were collected during two cross sectional studies, where cats were tested using IDEXX FIV/FeLV ELISA kits. To compare the effect of known risk factors for FIV infection compared to FeLV, using a case-case study design, random intercept logistic regression models were fit including cats' age, sex, neuter status, outdoor exposure, health status and type of testing facility as independent variables. A random intercept for testing facility was included to account for clustering expected in testing practices at the individual clinics and shelters. In the multivariable random intercept model, the odds of FIV compared to FeLV positive ELISA results were greater for adults (OR = 2.09, CI: 1.50-2.92), intact males (OR = 3.14, CI: 1.85-3.76), neutered males (OR = 2.68, CI: 1.44- 3.14), cats with outdoor access (OR = 2.58, CI: 1.85-3.76) and lower for cats with clinical illness (OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.52-0.90). The variance components obtained from the model indicated clustering at the testing facility level. Risk factors that have a greater effect on FIV seropositivity include adulthood, being male (neutered or not) and having access to outdoors, while clinical illness was a stronger predictor for FeLV seropositivity. Further studies are warranted to assess the implications of these results for the management and control of these infections.

  5. Association of body mass index and survival in pediatric leukemia: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgel, Etan; Genkinger, Jeanine M; Aggarwal, Divya; Sung, Lillian; Nieder, Michael; Ladas, Elena J

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is a worldwide epidemic in children and adolescents. Adult cohort studies have reported an association between higher body mass index (BMI) and increased leukemia-related mortality; whether a similar effect exists in childhood leukemia remains controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine whether a higher BMI at diagnosis of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is associated with worse event-free survival (EFS), overall survival (OS), and cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR). We searched 4 electronic databases from inception through March 2015 without language restriction and included studies in pediatric ALL or AML (0-21 y of age) reporting BMI as a predictor of survival or relapse. Higher BMI, defined as obese (≥95%) or overweight/obese (≥85%), was compared with lower BMI [nonoverweight/obese (children with a higher BMI (RR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.20, 1.51) than in those at a lower BMI. A higher BMI was associated with significantly increased mortality (RR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.58) and a statistically nonsignificant trend toward greater risk of relapse (RR: 1.17; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.38) compared with a lower BMI. In AML, a higher BMI was significantly associated with poorer EFS and OS (RR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.16, 1.60 and RR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.32, 1.86, respectively) than was a lower BMI. Higher BMI at diagnosis is associated with poorer survival in children with pediatric ALL or AML. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Acute myeloblastic leukemia with minimal myeloid differentiation (FAB AML-M0): a study of eleven cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sempere, A; Jarque, I; Guinot, M; Palau, J; García, R; Sanz, G F; Gomis, F; Pérez-Sirvent, M L; Senent, L; Sanz, M A

    1993-12-01

    The main clinical, morphological, cytochemical, immunological features and therapy results of eleven patients diagnosed as acute myeloblastic leukemia M0 (AML-M0) are reported here. There were no clinical characteristics, abnormalities on physical examination or initial laboratory parameters that distinguished these eleven patients. Bone marrow aspirates were hypocellular in four patients. The leukemic cells were undifferentiated by light microscopy and myeloperoxidase (MPO) and/or Sudan Black B (SBB) stains were negative in all cases. Myeloid differentiation antigens were present on the leukemic cells of all eleven patients, whereas B and T cell markers were clearly negative except for CD4 and CD7 antigens. Whatever the treatment employed survival was very short. Eight of the eleven patients were treated and two achieved complete remission (CR) but only one of them is alive in continuous CR. Our results like those previously reported, suggest that AML-M0 patients have a very poor prognosis with standard induction therapies and should perhaps be considered for experimental therapeutic approaches.

  7. Electron microscopic study of spontaneous and experimentally induced leukemia in IRC mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraki, S.; Ranadive, K.J.; Dmochowski, L.

    1974-01-01

    Spontaneous, serially transplanted, and experimentally induced leukemias of ICRC mice were studied by electron microscopy in an attempt to detect the presence of virus particles, if any, and to observe the influence of chemical and hormonal treatment on the presence of these virus particles. The first series of experiments included spontaneous, serially transplanted, and radiation-induced leukemia. The paucity of type C virus particles was quite conspicuous in spontaneous leukemia. Serially transplanted and radiation-accelerated leukemic lesions showed the presence of some type C and intracisternal type A particles. Found in two of these leukemic lesions (thymus and lymphosarcoma), in addition to type C virus particles, were budding and some mature type B virus particles, and numerous intracytoplasmic type A particles. ''Viropexis'' of type B virus particles has been observed in the lymphosarcoma and in a leukemic thymus gland. The second series of experiments included leukemia induced in ovariectomized ICRC mice with 20-methylcholanthrene (MCA), pituitary transplants, and ovarian hormones (estradiol and estradiol-progesterone). In ovariectomized ICRC mice, leukemic lesions induced by MCA or pituitary transplants, or by MCA and pituitary transplants, showed type C virus particles and, in most cases, intracisternal type A particles. In leukemia induced in ovariectomized ICRC mice by MCA and estradiol, numerous intracytoplasmic type A particles were observed but no type C virus particles

  8. Imatinib mesylate in chronic myelogenous leukemia: a Congolese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Major cytogenetic response was noticed in 87.18%. After a median follow up of 12 months, chronic myeloid leukemia had not progressed to the accelerated or blastic phase in an estimated 91.8% of patients and 86.6% were alive. Conclusion: Imatinib is effective in newly chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia patient ...

  9. Phase 1 study of INNO-406, a dual Abl/Lyn kinase inhibitor, in Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemias after imatinib resistance or intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantarjian, Hagop; le Coutre, Phillipp; Cortes, Jorge; Pinilla-Ibarz, Javier; Nagler, Arnon; Hochhaus, Andreas; Kimura, Shinya; Ottmann, Oliver

    2010-06-01

    : INNO-406, a dual v-abl Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog (Abl)/v-yes-1 Yamaguchi sarcoma viral-related oncogene homolog (Lyn) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), has demonstrated specific Lyn kinase inhibitory activity with no or limited activity against other sarcoma (Src) family member kinases. Several breakpoint cluster region (Bcr)-Abl kinase domain mutations are sensitive to INNO-406 in vitro, including mutations that involve a phenylalanine-to-leucine or phenylalanine-to-valine substitution at codon 317 (F317L and F317V, respectively). In the current study, the authors evaluated the use of INNO-406 in patients with Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) or acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) after imatinib resistance or intolerance. : A dose-escalation study was conducted at a starting dose of oral INNO-406 30 mg once daily. Cohorts of at least 3 patients were treated at each dose level until the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was reached. Twice-daily dosing also was evaluated. Therapy was allowed to continue for a maximum of 24 months. : INNO-406 was administered to 56 patients with imatinib resistance (n = 40) or intolerance (n = 16). Other previous treatments included nilotinib (n = 20 patients), dasatinib (n = 26 patients), and dasatinib/nilotinib (n = 9 patients). Common mutations at the time of study entry included a tyrosine-to-histidine substitution at codon 253 (Y253H) (n = 6 patients), a glycine-to-glutamic acid substitution at codon 250 (G250E) (n = 4 patients), a threonine-to-isoleucine substitution at codon 315 (T315I) (n = 4 patients), and F317L (n = 3 patients). Of 31 patients with CML in chronic phase who received INNO-406, the major cytogenetic response rate was 19%. No responses were observed in patients who had CML in accelerated phase, CML in blastic phase, or Ph-positive ALL. The dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) at an INNO-406 dose of 480 mg twice daily were liver function abnormalities and

  10. Congenital leukemoid reaction followed by fatal leukemia. A case with Down's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, H P; Menaka, H; Lim, K H; Yong, H S

    1980-10-01

    A serial clinical, hematologic, and cytogenetic study was done on a baby with Down's syndrome in whom a myeloid leukemoid reaction developed at birth that spontaneously regressed within a month only to relapse two years later to an acute undifferentiated stem cell leukemia. He died 1 1/2 months after onset. The unresolved controversy of the diagnosis of the congenital leukemia-like state is discussed. The importance of following up such patients with apparent remission of their congenital leukemia-like disorder is emphasized.

  11. Mitoxantrone, etoposide and cytarabine following epigenetic priming with decitabine in adults with relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia or other high-grade myeloid neoplasms: a phase 1/2 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, A B; Othus, M; Huebner, E M; Buckley, S A; Pogosova-Agadjanyan, E L; Orlowski, K F; Scott, B L; Becker, P S; Hendrie, P C; Chen, T L; Percival, M-E M; Estey, E H; Stirewalt, D L; Walter, R B

    2017-12-01

    DNA methyltransferase inhibitors sensitize leukemia cells to chemotherapeutics. We therefore conducted a phase 1/2 study of mitoxantrone, etoposide and cytarabine following 'priming' with 5-10 days of decitabine (dec/MEC) in 52 adults (median age 55 (range: 19-72) years) with relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or other high-grade myeloid neoplasms. During dose escalation in cohorts of 6-12 patients, all dose levels were well tolerated. As response rates appeared similar with 7 and 10 days of decitabine, a 7-day course was defined as the recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D). Among 46 patients treated at/above the RP2D, 10 (22%) achieved a complete remission (CR), 8 without measurable residual disease; five additional patients achieved CR with incomplete platelet recovery, for an overall response rate of 33%. Seven patients (15%) died within 28 days of treatment initiation. Infection/neutropenic fever, nausea and mucositis were the most common adverse events. While the CR rate compared favorably to a matched historic control population (observed/expected CR ratio=1.77), CR rate and survival were similar to two contemporary salvage regimens used at our institution (G-CLAC (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF); clofarabine; cytarabine) and G-CLAM (G-CSF; cladribine; cytarabine; mitoxantrone)). Thus, while meeting the prespecified efficacy goal, we found no evidence that dec/MEC is substantially better than other cytarabine-based regimens currently used for relapsed/refractory AML.

  12. Evaluating enzootic bovine leukemia virus infection by means of molecular probe compared with the results of serological tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichert, M.; Grundbock, J.; Rulka, J.; Kozaczynska, B.; Stec, J.

    1994-01-01

    The present studies were aimed at determining the relation between the finding obtained by means of serological tests and the specific molecular probe. Serological tests were performed according to the methods recommended by the Polish Ministry of Agriculture; ELISA was run with ''Bioveta'' and ''Rhone Merieux'' kits and the AGID test was performed with EBL antigen made in our laboratory. The molecular probe was prepared from the previously cloned provirus DNA of EBL virus. The EBL provirus was detected in 28 samples taken from 44 randomly selected cows in three herds on which a leukemia eradication programme was in process. Three sera out of 28 positive reacting animals were negative in AGID test and only one serum in ELISA. The results indicate that the use of a specific molecular probe has some advantages in the diagnosis of latent virus infections. Besides, it can be applied in the studies on the pathogenesis of enzootic bovine leukemia. (author). 13 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  13. Surface topography of hairy cell leukemia cells compared to other leukemias as seen by scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polliack, Aaron; Tadmor, Tamar

    2011-06-01

    This short review deals with the ultrastructural surface architecture of hairy cell leukemia (HCL) compared to other leukemic cells, as seen by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The development of improved techniques for preparing blood cells for SEM in the 1970s readily enabled these features to be visualized more accurately. This review returns us to the earlier history of SEM, when the surface topography of normal and neoplastic cells was visualized and reported for the first time, in an era before the emergence and use of monoclonal antibodies and flow cytometry, now used routinely to define cells by their immunophenotype. Surface microvilli are characteristic for normal and leukemic lymphoid cells, myelo-monocytic cells lack microvilli and show surface ruffles, while leukemic plasma and myeloma cells and megakaryocytes display large surface blebs. HCL cell surfaces are complex and typically 'hybrid' in nature, displaying both lymphoid and monocytic features with florid ruffles of varying sizes interspersed with clumps of short microvilli cytoplasm. The surface features of other leukemic cells and photomicrographs of immuno-SEM labeling of cells employing antibodies and colloidal gold, reported more than 20 years ago, are shown.

  14. Increased health care utilization by survivors of childhood lymphoblastic leukemia is confined to those treated with cranial or total body irradiation: a case cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmqvist, Anna Sällfors; Moëll, Christian; Hjorth, Lars; Lindgren, Anna; Garwicz, Stanislaw; Wiebe, Thomas; Øra, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have an increased morbidity measured in terms of health care utilization. However, earlier studies have several potentially important limitations. To overcome some of these, we investigated hospital contact rates, and predictors thereof, among 5-year survivors of ALL in a population-based setting, and compared them to a control cohort regarding outcome measures from a comprehensive nation-wide health register. All individuals diagnosed with ALL before the age of 18 in Southern Sweden during 1970–1999 and alive January 2007 (n = 213; male = 107) were identified through the Swedish Cancer Register. Each subject was matched to fifty controls, identified in the Swedish Population Register. All study subjects were linked to the National Hospital Register and detailed information was obtained on all hospital contacts (hospital admissions and outpatients visits) starting five years after cancer diagnosis, and the corresponding date for the controls, until 2009. The median follow-up among the 5-year survivors of ALL was 16 years (range 5–33), accruing a total of 3,527 person-years. Of the 213 5-year survivors, 105 (49.3%) had at least one hospital contact compared to 3,634 (34.1%) of the controls (p < 0.001). Survivors had more hospital contacts (3 [1–6] vs. 2 [1–4] contacts, p < 0.001) and more total days in hospital (6 [2–18] vs. 3 [1–7] days, p < 0.001) than the controls during the study period. Logistic regression analysis showed that survivors treated with cranial irradiation and/or total body irradiation (45% and 7%, respectively) had an increased risk of at least one hospital contact (OR 2.3, 95%CI; 1.5–3.6 and OR 11.0, 95%CI; 3.2–50.7, respectively), while there was no significant difference between the non-irradiated survivors and controls. We show that irradiated survivors of childhood ALL have an increased morbidity measured in terms of hospital

  15. Methotrexate/6-mercaptopurine maintenance therapy influences the risk of a second malignant neoplasm after childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: results from the NOPHO ALL-92 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Al-Modhwahi, Ibrahim; Andersen, Mette Klarskov

    2009-01-01

    Among 1614 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treated with the Nordic Society for Paediatric Haematology and Oncology (NOPHO) ALL-92 protocol, 20 patients developed a second malignant neoplasm (SMN) with a cumulative risk of 1.6% at 12 years from the diagnosis of ALL. Nine of the 16...... acute myeloid leukemias or myelodysplastic syndromes had monosomy 7 (n = 7) or 7q deletions (n = 2). In Cox multivariate analysis, longer duration of oral 6-mercaptopurine (6MP)/methotrexate (MTX) maintenance therapy (P = .02; longest for standard-risk patients) and presence of high hyperdiploidy (P...

  16. CD19 negative precursor B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL)-Immunophenotypic challenges in diagnosis and monitoring: A study of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodke, Kiran; Bibi, Asma; Rabade, Nikhil; Patkar, Nikhil; Subramanian, P G; Kadam, Pratibha Aamre; Badrinath, Y; Ghogale, Sitaram; Gujral, Sumeet; Tembhare, Prashant

    2017-07-01

    CD19 is a B-cell specific marker, expressed on all stages of B-lymphocytes including plasma cells. It is widely used in the flow cytometric immunophenotyping (FCI) of B-cell and plasma cell malignancies. The analysis approach of FCI for the diagnosis and monitoring of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) is totally based on the CD19-based primary gating strategy and it would be challenging to study B-ALL without CD19 expression. Since CD19 negative B-ALL are extremely rare, we report three cases of B-ALL with negative expression of CD19 and discussed its implication in the diagnosis, residual disease monitoring and future targeted therapy. Peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM) samples from three cases suspicious of acute leukemia were studied for morphology, cytochemistry, immunophenotyping and cytogenetics. FCI was performed using a comprehensive six to eight-color multiparametric assay. The cytogenetic studies for standard recurrent genetic translocations were performed by FISH & Karyotyping. The three cases studied were diagnosed as B-ALL based on the expression of CD10, CD20, CD22, CD34, and CD79a by leukemic blasts. CD19 was studied using two different clones (i.e. J3-119 & HIB-19) and found to be severely down regulated in all three cases. There were no significant differentiating features in morphology. Cytogenetic studies were negative for recurrent translocations. We report three cases of extremely rare CD19 negative B-ALL. Lack of awareness of negative CD19 expression in B-ALL can leads to incorrect immunophenotypic diagnosis and monitoring of B-ALL, especially in laboratories using limited markers. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  17. Flow Cytometric DNA index, G-band Karyotyping, and Comparative Genomic Hybridization in Detection of High Hyperdiploidy in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ulrikka; Larsen, Jacob; Kristensen, Tim D

    2006-01-01

    High hyperdiploid acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children is related to a good outcome. Because these patients may be stratified to a low-intensity treatment, we have investigated the sensitivity of flow cytometry (FCM), G-band karyotyping (GBK), and high-resolution comparative genomic hybridiza......High hyperdiploid acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children is related to a good outcome. Because these patients may be stratified to a low-intensity treatment, we have investigated the sensitivity of flow cytometry (FCM), G-band karyotyping (GBK), and high-resolution comparative genomic...

  18. Phase I Study of INNO-406, a Dual Abl/Lyn Kinase Inhibitor, in Philadelphia Chromosome-Positive Leukemias Post-Imatinib Resistance or Intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantarjian, H.; le Coutre, P.; Cortes, J.; Pinilla-Ibarz, J.; Nagler, A.; Hochhaus, A.; Kimura, S.; Ottmann, O.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND INNO-406, an oral dual Abl/Lyn tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), demonstrates specific Lyn kinase activity with no or limited activity against other Src-family member kinases. Several Bcr-Abl kinase domain mutations are sensitive to INNO-406 in vitro, including the F317L and F317V mutations. In this study, we evaluated INNO-406 in Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome–positive chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) or acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) post-imatinib resistance or intolerance. METHODS A dose escalation study was conducted with a starting dose of 30mg administered orally once daily. Cohorts of at least 3 patients were treated at each dose level until the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was reached. Twice-daily (BID) dosing was also evaluated. Therapy was allowed for a maximum of 24 months. RESULTS INNO-406 was administered to 56 patients with imatinib resistance (n=40) or intolerance (n=16). Other previous treatments included nilotinib (n=20), dasatinib (n=26), and dasatinib/nilotinib (n=9). Common mutations upon study entry included Y253H (n=6), G250E (n=4), T315I (n=4) and F317L (n=3). Among 31 patients with CML in chronic phase treated with INNO-406, the major cytogenetic response rate was 19%. In this study, no responses were seen in patients with CML-AP, CML-BP, or Ph-positive ALL. Dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) at INNO-406 480mg BID were liver function abnormalities and thrombocytopenia. CONCLUSIONS INNO-406 showed anti-CML efficacy in this heavily pretreated study population. Based on the classical determinations of both DLT and MTD, the recommended phase 2 dose of INNO-406 is 240mg orally BID. Lower doses of INNO-406 may be equally effective and should be explored. PMID:20310049

  19. Characterization of children with FLT3-ITD acute myeloid leukemia: a report from the AIEOP AML-2002 study group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manara, E; Basso, G; Zampini, M; Buldini, B; Tregnago, C; Rondelli, R; Masetti, R; Bisio, V; Frison, M; Polato, K; Cazzaniga, G; Menna, G; Fagioli, F; Merli, P; Biondi, A; Pession, A; Locatelli, F; Pigazzi, M

    2017-01-01

    Recurrent molecular markers have been routinely used in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) for risk assessment at diagnosis, whereas their post-induction monitoring still represents a debated issue. We evaluated the prognostic value and biological impact of minimal residual disease (MRD) and of the allelic ratio (AR) of FLT3-internal-tandem duplication (ITD) in childhood AML. We retrospectively screened 494 children with de novo AML for FLT3-ITD mutation, identifying 54 harboring the mutation; 51% of them presented high ITD-AR at diagnosis and had worse event-free survival (EFS, 19.2 versus 63.5% for low ITD-AR, <0.05). Forty-one percent of children with high levels of MRD after the 1st induction course, measured by a patient-specific real-time-PCR, had worse EFS (22.2 versus 59.4% in low-MRD patients, P<0.05). Next, we correlated these parameters with gene expression, showing that patients with high ITD-AR or persistent MRD had characteristic expression profiles with deregulated genes involved in methylation and acetylation. Moreover, patients with high CyclinA1 expression presented an unfavorable EFS (20.3 versus 51.2% in low CyclinA1 group, P<0.01). Our results suggest that ITD-AR levels and molecular MRD should be considered in planning clinical management of FLT3-ITD patients. Different transcriptional activation of epigenetic and oncogenic profiles may explain variability in outcome among these patients, for whom novel therapeutic approaches are desirable.

  20. IL-7 Receptor Mutations and Steroid Resistance in Pediatric T cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Genome Sequencing Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlei Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL is the most common childhood cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in children. T cell ALL (T-ALL represents about 15% of pediatric ALL cases and is considered a high-risk disease. T-ALL is often associated with resistance to treatment, including steroids, which are currently the cornerstone for treating ALL; moreover, initial steroid response strongly predicts survival and cure. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying steroid resistance in T-ALL patients are poorly understood. In this study, we combined various genomic datasets in order to identify candidate genetic mechanisms underlying steroid resistance in children undergoing T-ALL treatment.We performed whole genome sequencing on paired pre-treatment (diagnostic and post-treatment (remission samples from 13 patients, and targeted exome sequencing of pre-treatment samples from 69 additional T-ALL patients. We then integrated mutation data with copy number data for 151 mutated genes, and this integrated dataset was tested for associations of mutations with clinical outcomes and in vitro drug response. Our analysis revealed that mutations in JAK1 and KRAS, two genes encoding components of the interleukin 7 receptor (IL7R signaling pathway, were associated with steroid resistance and poor outcome. We then sequenced JAK1, KRAS, and other genes in this pathway, including IL7R, JAK3, NF1, NRAS, and AKT, in these 69 T-ALL patients and a further 77 T-ALL patients. We identified mutations in 32% (47/146 of patients, the majority of whom had a specific T-ALL subtype (early thymic progenitor ALL or TLX. Based on the outcomes of these patients and their prednisolone responsiveness measured in vitro, we then confirmed that these mutations were associated with both steroid resistance and poor outcome. To explore how these mutations in IL7R signaling pathway genes cause steroid resistance and subsequent poor outcome, we expressed wild

  1. IL-7 Receptor Mutations and Steroid Resistance in Pediatric T cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Genome Sequencing Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Andrew P.; Vroegindeweij, Eric M.; Smits, Willem K.; van Marion, Ronald; Dinjens, Winand N. M.; Horstmann, Martin; Kuiper, Roland P.; Zaman, Guido J. R.; van der Spek, Peter J.; Pieters, Rob; Meijerink, Jules P. P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common childhood cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in children. T cell ALL (T-ALL) represents about 15% of pediatric ALL cases and is considered a high-risk disease. T-ALL is often associated with resistance to treatment, including steroids, which are currently the cornerstone for treating ALL; moreover, initial steroid response strongly predicts survival and cure. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying steroid resistance in T-ALL patients are poorly understood. In this study, we combined various genomic datasets in order to identify candidate genetic mechanisms underlying steroid resistance in children undergoing T-ALL treatment. Methods and Findings We performed whole genome sequencing on paired pre-treatment (diagnostic) and post-treatment (remission) samples from 13 patients, and targeted exome sequencing of pre-treatment samples from 69 additional T-ALL patients. We then integrated mutation data with copy number data for 151 mutated genes, and this integrated dataset was tested for associations of mutations with clinical outcomes and in vitro drug response. Our analysis revealed that mutations in JAK1 and KRAS, two genes encoding components of the interleukin 7 receptor (IL7R) signaling pathway, were associated with steroid resistance and poor outcome. We then sequenced JAK1, KRAS, and other genes in this pathway, including IL7R, JAK3, NF1, NRAS, and AKT, in these 69 T-ALL patients and a further 77 T-ALL patients. We identified mutations in 32% (47/146) of patients, the majority of whom had a specific T-ALL subtype (early thymic progenitor ALL or TLX). Based on the outcomes of these patients and their prednisolone responsiveness measured in vitro, we then confirmed that these mutations were associated with both steroid resistance and poor outcome. To explore how these mutations in IL7R signaling pathway genes cause steroid resistance and subsequent poor outcome, we

  2. Father's occupational exposure to carcinogenic agents and childhood acute leukemia: a new method to assess exposure (a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez-Rivera Maria

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical research has not been able to establish whether a father's occupational exposures are associated with the development of acute leukemia (AL in their offspring. The studies conducted have weaknesses that have generated a misclassification of such exposure. Occupations and exposures to substances associated with childhood cancer are not very frequently encountered in the general population; thus, the reported risks are both inconsistent and inaccurate. In this study, to assess exposure we used a new method, an exposure index, which took into consideration the industrial branch, specific position, use of protective equipment, substances at work, degree of contact with such substances, and time of exposure. This index allowed us to obtain a grade, which permitted the identification of individuals according to their level of exposure to known or potentially carcinogenic agents that are not necessarily specifically identified as risk factors for leukemia. The aim of this study was to determine the association between a father's occupational exposure to carcinogenic agents and the presence of AL in their offspring. Methods From 1999 to 2000, a case-control study was performed with 193 children who reside in Mexico City and had been diagnosed with AL. The initial sample-size calculation was 150 children per group, assessed with an expected odds ratio (OR of three and a minimum exposure frequency of 15.8%. These children were matched by age, sex, and institution with 193 pediatric surgical patients at secondary-care hospitals. A questionnaire was used to determine each child's background and the characteristics of the father's occupation(s. In order to determine the level of exposure to carcinogenic agents, a previously validated exposure index (occupational exposure index, OEI was used. The consistency and validity of the index were assessed by a questionnaire comparison, the sensory recognition of the work area, and an

  3. A comparative study assessing a new tool for occluding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0.630, p=0.068 and p=0.047, respectively) (Table 2). A comparative study assessing a new tool for occluding parenchymal blood flow during liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma. S Zhou, X-J Xue, R-R Li, D-F Chen, W-Y Chen, G-X Liu, ...

  4. Epidemiologic study on survival of chronic myeloid leukemia and Ph(+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients with BCR-ABL T315I mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolini, Franck E; Mauro, Michael J; Martinelli, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    The BCR-ABL T315I mutation represents a major mechanism of resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). The objectives of this retrospective observational study were to estimate overall and progression-free survival for chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic-phase (CP), accelerated-phase (AP......), or blastic-phase (BP) and Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph)(+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients with T315I mutation. Medical records of 222 patients from 9 countries were reviewed; data were analyzed using log-rank tests and Cox proportional hazard models. Median age at T315I mutation...

  5. A cationic amphiphilic peptide ABP-CM4 exhibits selective cytotoxicity against leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu Qing; Min, Cui; Sang, Ming; Han, Yang Yang; Ma, Xiao; Xue, Xiao Qing; Zhang, Shuang Quan

    2010-08-01

    Some cationic antibacterial peptides exhibit a broad spectrum of cytotoxic activity against cancer cells, which could provide a new class of anticancer drugs. In the present study, the anticancer activity of ABP-CM4, an antibacterial peptide from Bombyx mori, against leukemic cell lines THP-1, K562 and U937 was evaluated, and the cytotoxicity compared with the effects on non-cancerous mammalian cells, including peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), HEK-293 and erythrocytes. ABP-CM4 reduced the number of viable cells of the leukemic cell lines after exposure for 24h. The reduction was concentration dependent, and the IC50 values ranged from 14 to 18 microM. Conversely, ABP-CM4, even at 120 microM, exhibited no cytotoxicity toward HEK-293 or PBMCs, indicating that there was no significant effect on these two types of non-cancer cells. ABP-CM4 at a concentration of 200 microM had no hemolytic activity on mammalian erythrocytes. Together, these results suggested a selective cytotoxicity in leukemia cells. Flow cytometry demonstrated that the binding activity of ABP-CM4 to leukemia cells was much higher than that to HEK-293 or PBMCs, and there was almost no binding to erythrocytes. FITC-labeled ABP-CM4 molecules were examined under a confocal microscope and found to be concentrated at the surface of leukemia cells and changes of the cell membrane were determined by a cell permeability assay, which led us to the conclusion that ABP-CM4 could act at the cell membrane for its anticancer activity on leukemia cells. Collectively, our results indicated that ABP-CM4 has the potential for development as a novel antileukemic agent. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Efficacy of bendamustine and rituximab as first salvage treatment in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and indirect comparison with ibrutinib: a GIMEMA, ERIC and UK CLL FORUM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuneo, Antonio; Follows, George; Rigolin, Gian Matteo; Piciocchi, Alfonso; Tedeschi, Alessandra; Trentin, Livio; Medina Perez, Angeles; Coscia, Marta; Laurenti, Luca; Musuraca, Gerardo; Farina, Lucia; Rivas Delgado, Alfredo; Orlandi, Ester Maria; Galieni, Piero; Mauro, Francesca Romana; Visco, Carlo; Amendola, Angela; Billio, Atto; Marasca, Roberto; Chiarenza, Annalisa; Meneghini, Vittorio; Ilariucci, Fiorella; Marchetti, Monia; Molica, Stefano; Re, Francesca; Gaidano, Gianluca; Gonzalez, Marcos; Forconi, Francesco; Ciolli, Stefania; Cortelezzi, Agostino; Montillo, Marco; Smolej, Lukas; Schuh, Anna; Eyre, Toby A; Kennedy, Ben; Bowles, Kris M; Vignetti, Marco; de la Serna, Javier; Moreno, Carol; Foà, Robin; Ghia, Paolo

    2018-04-19

    We performed an observational study on the efficacy of bendamustine and rituximab as first salvage regimen in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. In an intention-to-treat analysis including 237 patients, the median progression free survival was 25 months. The presence of del(17p), unmutated IGHV and advanced stage were associated with a shorter progression free survival at multivariate analysis. The median time-to-next treatment was 31.3 months. Front-line treatment with a chemoimmunotherapy regimen was the only predictive factor for a shorter time to next treatment at multivariate analysis. The median overall survival was 74.5 months. Advanced Binet stage (i.e. III-IV or C) and resistant disease were the only parameters significantly associated with a shorter OS. Grade 3-5 infections were recorded in 6.3% of patients. A matched-adjusted indirect comparison with ibrutinib given second-line within named patient programs in the United Kingdom and in Italy was carried out with overall survival as objective endpoint. When restricting the analysis to patients with intact 17p who had received chemoimmunotherapy in first line, the overall survival did not differ between patients treated with ibrutinib (63% alive at 36 months) and patients treated with BR (74.4% alive at 36 months). BR is an efficacious first salvage regimen in chronic lymphocytic leukemia in a real-life population, including the elderly and unfit patients. BR and ibrutinib may be equally effective in terms of overall survival when used as first salvage treatment in patients without 17p deletion. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02491398. Copyright © 2018, Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  7. Congenital Leukemia in Down's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, W.; Khan, F.; Muzaffar, M.; Khan, U. A.; Rehman, M. U.; Khan, M. A.; Bari, A.

    2006-01-01

    Congenital Leukemia is a condition and often associated with fatal outcome/sup 1/. Most of the neonatal cases reported have acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia, in contrast to the predominance of acute lymphoblastic leukemia found in later childhood. congenital leukemia is occasionally associated with number of congenital anomalies and with chromosomal disorders such as Down's syndrome. Subtle cytogenetic abnormalities may occur more commonly in the affected infants and their parents, when studied with newer cytogenetic techniques/sup 2/. Inherent unstable hematopoieses resulting from chromosomal aberration in children with Downs's syndrome can present with transient myeloproliferative disorder, mimicking leukemia which undergoes spontaneous recovery/sup 3/. Only few cases of congenital leukemia with Downs syndrome, presented as congenital leukemia. (author)

  8. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies discovers multiple loci for chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berndt, Sonja I; Camp, Nicola J; Skibola, Christine F; Vijai, Joseph; Wang, Zhaoming; Gu, Jian; Nieters, Alexandra; Kelly, Rachel S; Smedby, Karin E; Monnereau, Alain; Cozen, Wendy; Cox, Angela; Wang, Sophia S; Lan, Qing; Teras, Lauren R; Machado, Moara; Yeager, Meredith; Brooks-Wilson, Angela R; Hartge, Patricia; Purdue, Mark P; Birmann, Brenda M; Vajdic, Claire M; Cocco, Pierluigi; Zhang, Yawei; Giles, Graham G; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Lawrence, Charles; Montalvan, Rebecca; Burdett, Laurie; Hutchinson, Amy; Ye, Yuanqing; Call, Timothy G; Shanafelt, Tait D; Novak, Anne J; Kay, Neil E; Liebow, Mark; Cunningham, Julie M; Allmer, Cristine; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Adami, Hans-Olov; Melbye, Mads; Glimelius, Bengt; Chang, Ellen T; Glenn, Martha; Curtin, Karen; Cannon-Albright, Lisa A; Diver, W Ryan; Link, Brian K; Weiner, George J; Conde, Lucia; Bracci, Paige M; Riby, Jacques; Arnett, Donna K; Zhi, Degui; Leach, Justin M; Holly, Elizabeth A; Jackson, Rebecca D; Tinker, Lesley F; Benavente, Yolanda; Sala, Núria; Casabonne, Delphine; Becker, Nikolaus; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Foretova, Lenka; Maynadie, Marc; McKay, James; Staines, Anthony; Chaffee, Kari G; Achenbach, Sara J; Vachon, Celine M; Goldin, Lynn R; Strom, Sara S; Leis, Jose F; Weinberg, J Brice; Caporaso, Neil E; Norman, Aaron D; De Roos, Anneclaire J; Morton, Lindsay M; Severson, Richard K; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo; Kaaks, Rudolph; Masala, Giovanna; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Vermeulen, Roel C H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620; Travis, Ruth C; Southey, Melissa C; Milne, Roger L; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie; Clavel, Jacqueline; Zheng, Tongzhang; Holford, Theodore R; Villano, Danylo J; Maria, Ann; Spinelli, John J; Gascoyne, Randy D; Connors, Joseph M; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Giovannucci, Edward; Kraft, Peter; Kricker, Anne; Turner, Jenny; Ennas, Maria Grazia; Ferri, Giovanni M; Miligi, Lucia; Liang, Liming; Ma, Baoshan; Huang, Jinyan; Crouch, Simon; Park, Ju-Hyun; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; North, Kari E; Snowden, John A; Wright, Josh; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Offit, Kenneth; Wu, Xifeng; de Sanjose, Silvia; Cerhan, James R; Chanock, Stephen J; Rothman, Nathaniel; Slager, Susan L

    2016-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a common lymphoid malignancy with strong heritability. To further understand the genetic susceptibility for CLL and identify common loci associated with risk, we conducted a meta-analysis of four genome-wide association studies (GWAS) composed of 3,100 cases and

  9. A distinct epigenetic signature at targets of a leukemia protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Spek Peter

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human myelogenous leukemia characterized by either the non random t(8; 21(q22; q22 or t(16; 21(q24; q22 chromosome translocations differ for both their biological and clinical features. Some of these features could be consequent to differential epigenetic transcriptional deregulation at AML1 targets imposed by AML1-MTG8 and AML1-MTG16, the fusion proteins deriving from the two translocations. Preliminary findings showing that these fusion proteins lead to transcriptional downregulation of AML1 targets, marked by repressive chromatin changes, would support this hypothesis. Here we show that combining conventional global gene expression arrays with the power of bioinformatic genomic survey of AML1-consensus sequences is an effective strategy to identify AML1 targets whose transcription is epigenetically downregulated by the leukemia-associated AML1-MTG16 protein. Results We interrogated mouse gene expression microarrays with probes generated either from 32D cells infected with a retroviral vector carrying AML1-MTG16 and unable of granulocyte differentiation and proliferation in response to the granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF, or from 32D cells infected with the cognate empty vector. From the analysis of differential gene expression alone (using as criteria a p value 3, we were unable to conclude which of the 37 genes downregulated by AML1-MTG16 were, or not, direct AML1 targets. However, when we applied a bioinformatic approach to search for AML1-consensus sequences in the 10 Kb around the gene transcription start sites, we closed on 17 potential direct AML1 targets. By focusing on the most significantly downregulated genes, we found that both the AML1-consensus and the transcription start site chromatin regions were significantly marked by aberrant repressive histone tail changes. Further, the promoter of one of these genes, containing a CpG island, was aberrantly methylated. Conclusion This study shows that a

  10. Construction of a new anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor and the anti-leukemia function study of the transduced T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Na; Tao, Zhongfei; Li, Saisai; Xing, Haiyan; Tang, Kejing; Tian, Zheng; Rao, Qing; Wang, Min; Wang, Jianxiang

    2016-01-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) transduced T cells have been used to efficiently kill the target tumor cells depending on the single chain variable fragment (scFv) against the specific tumor associated antigen. Here we show the high specific cytotoxicity of the CAR-T cells with very low effector to target cell (E:T) ratio owing to the CD19-scFv, which was constructed in our laboratory and proved to be highly effective in our previous study. Four plasmids containing three generation of CAR were constructed by cloning the CD19-CAR fragment into the lentiviral vector pCDH. CD3 positive T cells were successfully transduced and the CAR protein expression was confirmed by flow cytometry and Western blot. When cocultured with CD19 positive leukemia cell line Nalm-6 cells, CAR-T cells showed specific cytotoxicity: the percentage of target cells decreased to 0 in 24 hours; IL-2, IFN-γ and TNF-α produced in cocultured supernatants increased obviously; and the cytotoxicity reached more than 80%, still remarkable even when the E:T ratio was as low as 1:4. Dynamic change of cell interaction between CAR-T and leukemia cells was visually tracked by using living cells workstation for the first time. A NOD/SCID B-ALL murine model was established using Nalm-6 cells inoculation with a morbidity rate of 100%, and the survival time was prolonged statistically with CAR-T cell treatment. These data demonstrate that the CAR-T cells we prepared could be a promising treatment strategy for CD19 positive tumor diseases. PMID:26840021

  11. How Australian and Indonesian Universities Treat Plagiarism: a Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cahyono, Bambang Yudi

    2005-01-01

    This article is a part of a larger study comparing various aspects of policies on plagiarism in two university contexts. It compares policies on plagiarism in universities in Australia and Indonesia. The results of this comparative study showed that Australian and Indonesian universities treat plagiarism differently. Australian universities treat plagiarism explicitly in their university policies. In Australian universities, plagiarism is defined clearly and forms of plagiarism are explained ...

  12. The BEST study - a prospective study to compare business class ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. As many as 10% of airline passengers travelling without prophylaxis for long distances may develop a venous thrombosis. There is, however, no evidence that economy class travellers are at increased risk of thrombosis. Objectives. A suitably powered prospective study, based on the incidence of deep-vein ...

  13. De novo acute leukemia with a sole 5q-: morphological, immunological, and clinical correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchayne, E; Dastugue, N; Kuhlein, E; Huguet, F; Pris, J

    1993-11-01

    The 5 q deletion is frequently found in myelodysplastic syndromes and acute non lymphoid leukemia, but this anomaly is usually found in secondary diseases and associated with many other chromosomal aberrations. This report describes four cases of "de novo" acute leukemia with a sole 5q- anomaly. They had no cytological, genetic or clinical characteristics of secondary disorders. It is important to note that of the four patients studied, three had proliferation of immature blast cells. One case was classified as a MO AML and two as "undifferentiated" acute leukemia. Furthermore, these four cases of acute leukemia showed a deletion of the same portion of the long arm of chromosome 5: q22q33. On the same part of this chromosome many hematopoietic growth factor genes have been located, like IL3 and GM-CSF which have early undifferentiated hematopoietic stem cells as a their target.

  14. Chromosomal study for prognostic grouping in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junaid, A.; Rao, P.N.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the frequency of various cytogenetic aberrations in newly diagnosed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients, and their detection rate by cytogenetic and fluorescent In situ hybridization (FISH) technique separately. Analysis was made on 100 diagnosed chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients. Cytogenetics and FISH technique were performed on blood or bone marrow samples. Nineteen out of 100 cases (19%) showed karyotype abnormalities; whereas 55 showed abnormalities using the CLL - specific FISH probes. The most frequent abnormality detected by standard cytogenetics was trisomy 12. The most common abnormality detected by FISH was a deletion of 13q14 (40 out of 55 cases; 72% of the abnormal). For prognostic grouping of CLL patients, FISH must always be requested which may even replace standard karyotyping. These chromosomal markers help in choosing the therapeutic options. (author)

  15. A study for proposal of use of regulatory T cells as a prognostic marker and establishing an optimal threshold level for their expression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Alakananda; Mahapatra, Manoranjan; Saxena, Renu

    2015-06-01

    Although regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been extensively studied in chronic lymphocytic leukemia, there is no uniform guideline or consensus regarding their use as a prognostic marker. This study describes the methodology used to develop an optimal threshold level for Tregs in these patients. Treg levels were assessed in the peripheral blood of 130 patients and 150 controls. Treg frequencies were linked to established prognostic markers as well as overall survival and time to first treatment. The cut-offs for Treg positivity were assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. A cut-off of 5.7% for Treg cell percentage and of 35 cells/μL for absolute Treg cell count were determined as optimal in patients with CLL along with a median Treg percentage of 15.5% used to separate patients with low- and high-risk disease. The experiments presented here will possibly aid in the use of Treg frequencies as a potential prognostic marker in CLL.

  16. Estimating outcomes and cost effectiveness using a single-arm clinical trial: ofatumumab for double-refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Hatswell, Anthony J.; Thompson, Gwilym J.; Maroudas, Penny A.; Sofrygin, Oleg; Delea, Thomas E.

    2017-01-01

    Background Ofatumumab (Arzerra?, Novartis) is a treatment for chronic lymphocytic leukemia refractory to fludarabine and alemtuzumab [double refractory (DR-CLL)]. Ofatumumab was licensed on the basis of an uncontrolled Phase II study, Hx-CD20-406, in which patients receiving ofatumumab survived for a median of 13.9?months. However, the lack of an internal control arm presents an obstacle for the estimation of comparative effectiveness. Methods The objective of the study was to present a metho...

  17. Biologico-clinical significance of DNMT3A variants expression in acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Na; Fu, Wei; Zhao, Chen; Li, Bixin; Yan, Xiaojing; Li, Yan

    2017-12-09

    DNA methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A) catalyzes de novo DNA methylation and plays important roles in the pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia. However, the expression status of DNMT3A variants in acute myeloid leukemia remains obscure. This study aimed to assess the expression levels of alternative splicing of DNMT3A variants and explore their roles in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). DNMT3A variants gene expression were assessed, measuring their effects on cell proliferation. In addition, the expression of DNMT3A variants were evaluated in acute myeloid leukemia patients. Four DNMT3A variants were identified, with DNMT3A1 and DNMT3A2V found to be dominant in acute myeloid leukemia cell lines. Moreover, DNMT3A2V overexpression delayed cell proliferation; while, DNMT3A2V R882H mutation promoted cell proliferation. Further, DNMT3A1 and DNMT3A2V were detected in newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients and controls with non-malignant hematological disease, with DNMT3A2V significantly up-regulated in AML patients. The main transcript switched from DNMT3A1 to DNMT3A2V in some patients, especially the low risk group based on the NCCN 2016 guidelines. These findings suggest that DNMT3A1 and DNMT3A2V are the main variants in acute myeloid leukemia with different clinical association, and might play important roles in the pathophysiology of acute myeloid leukemia. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Atomic bomb and leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichimaru, M; Tomonaga, M; Amenomori, T; Matsuo, T [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1991-12-01

    Characteristic features of the leukemia among atomic bomb survivors were studied. Dose estimates of atomic bomb radiation were based on T65D, but the new dosimetry system DS86 was used for some analyses. The ratio of a single leukemia type to all leukemias was highest for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in Hiroshima, and the occurrence of CML was thought to be most characteristic to atomic bomb radiation induced leukemia. The threshold of CML occurrence in Hiroshima is likely to be between 0.5{approx}0.09 Gy. However, the threshold of acute leukemia appears to be nearly 1 Gy. In the distribution of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) subtypes by French-American-British classification, there was no M3 case in 1 Gy or more group, although several atypical AML cases of survivors were observed. Although aplastic anemia has not increased as a late effect of the atomic bomb radiation exposure, many atypical leukemia or other myeloproliferative diseases who had been diagnosed as aplastic anemia or its related diseases have been experienced among atomic bomb survivors. Chromosome study was conducted using colony forming cells induced by hemopoietic stem cells of peripheral blood of proximal survivors. Same chromosome aberrations were observed in colony forming cells and peripheral T-cells in several atomic bomb survivors. (author).

  19. Atomic bomb and leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimaru, M.; Tomonaga, M.; Amenomori, T.; Matsuo, T.

    1991-01-01

    Characteristic features of the leukemia among atomic bomb survivors were studied. Dose estimates of atomic bomb radiation were based on T65D, but the new dosimetry system DS86 was used for some analyses. The ratio of a single leukemia type to all leukemias was highest for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in Hiroshima, and the occurrence of CML was thought to be most characteristic to atomic bomb radiation induced leukemia. The threshold of CML occurrence in Hiroshima is likely to be between 0.5∼0.09 Gy. However, the threshold of acute leukemia appears to be nearly 1 Gy. In the distribution of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) subtypes by French-American-British classification, there was no M3 case in 1 Gy or more group, although several atypical AML cases of survivors were observed. Although aplastic anemia has not increased as a late effect of the atomic bomb radiation exposure, many atypical leukemia or other myeloproliferative diseases who had been diagnosed as aplastic anemia or its related diseases have been experienced among atomic bomb survivors. Chromosome study was conducted using colony forming cells induced by hemopoietic stem cells of peripheral blood of proximal survivors. Same chromosome aberrations were observed in colony forming cells and peripheral T-cells in several atomic bomb survivors. (author)

  20. Study of ultrasonic imagine of spleen in patients with leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Hui; Zhou Chunyan; Jiang Ju; Luo Liying; Huang Yanhong

    2011-01-01

    To investigate spleen ultrasonic imagine in patients with leukemia and to provide basis information for preventing and treat disease,the spleens imaging of 158 patients with leukemia were detected by B mode ultrasonicgraphy and the data of clinical medical examination were analyzed.The results showed that the spleens' ultrasonic imagine of patients with leukemia were not related to the degree of anemia.The ultrasonic imagines of spleen in patients with chronic leukemia were different to the other kinds of leukemia.The ultrasonic imagine of spleens in leukemia patients are related to types and development of leukemia.The B-ultrasound screening should be used to help clinical diagnosis and treatment of patients with leukemia. (authors)

  1. In Vivo RNA Interference Screening Identifies a Leukemia-Specific Dependence on Integrin Beta 3 Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Peter G.; Al-Shahrour, Fatima; Hartwell, Kimberly A.; Chu, Lisa P.; Järås, Marcus; Puram, Rishi V.; Puissant, Alexandre; Callahan, Kevin P.; Ashton, John; McConkey, Marie E.; Poveromo, Luke P.; Cowley, Glenn S.; Kharas, Michael G.; Labelle, Myriam; Shterental, Sebastian; Fujisaki, Joji; Silberstein, Lev; Alexe, Gabriela; Al-Hajj, Muhammad A.; Shelton, Christopher A.; Armstrong, Scott A.; Root, David E.; Scadden, David T.; Hynes, Richard O.; Mukherjee, Siddhartha; Stegmaier, Kimberly; Jordan, Craig T.; Ebert, Benjamin L.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY We used an in vivo short hairpin RNA (shRNA) screening approach to identify genes that are essential for MLL-AF9 acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We found that Integrin Beta 3 (Itgb3) is essential for murine leukemia cells in vivo, and for human leukemia cells in xenotransplantation studies. In leukemia cells, Itgb3 knockdown impaired homing, downregulated LSC transcriptional programs, and induced differentiation via the intracellular kinase, Syk. In contrast, loss of Itgb3 in normal HSPCs did not affect engraftment, reconstitution, or differentiation. Finally, we confirmed that Itgb3 is dispensable for normal hematopoiesis and required for leukemogenesis using an Itgb3 knockout mouse model. Our results establish the significance of the Itgb3 signaling pathway as a potential therapeutic target in AML. PMID:23770013

  2. Leukemia among participants in military maneuvers at a nuclear bomb test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, G.G.; Kelley, D.B.; Heath, C.W. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Preliminary studies indicate that nine cases of leukemia have occurred among 3224 men who participated in military maneuvers during the 1957 nuclear test explosion Smoky. This represents a significant increase over the expected incidence of 3.5 cases. They included four cases of acute myelocytic leukemia, three of chronic myelocytic leukemia, and one each of hairy cell and acute lymphocytic leukemia. At time of diagnosis, patient ages ranged from 21 to 60 years (mean, 41.8 years) and the interval from time of nuclear test to diagnosis from two to 19 years (mean, 14.2 years). Film-badge records, which are available for eight of the nine men, indicated gamma radiation exposure levels ranging from 0 to 2977 mrem (mean, 1033 mrem). Mean film-badge gamma dose for the entire Smoky cohort was 466.2 mrem

  3. The epidemiological studies of leukemia around nuclear installations for children and young adults: synthesis of the critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    An epidemiological study published at the end of 2007 described an increased risk of leukemia among children less than five years leaving at less than 5 kilometers from German nuclear power plants. The objective of this report was to make a synthesis and a critical analysis of the results relative to the risk of leukemia among the children and young adults of less than twenty five years leaving near these nuclear installations. (N.C.)

  4. Vitamins C and K3: A Powerful Redox System for Sensitizing Leukemia Lymphocytes to Everolimus and Barasertib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Donika; Zhelev, Zhivko; Lazarova, Dessislava; Getsov, Plamen; Bakalova, Rumiana; Aoki, Ichio

    2018-03-01

    Recent studies provided convincing evidence for the anticancer activity of combined application of vitamin C and pro-vitamin K3 (menadione). The molecular pathways underlying this process are still not well established. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of the combination of vitamin C plus pro-vitamin K3 on the redox status of leukemia and normal lymphocytes, as well as their sensitizing effect for a variety of anticancer drugs. Cytotoxicity of the substances was analyzed by trypan blue staining and automated counting of live and dead cells. Apoptosis was analyzed by fluorescein isothiocyanate-annexin V test. Oxidative stress was evaluated by the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and protein-carbonyl products. Combined administration of 300 μM vitamin C plus 3 μM pro-vitamin K3 reduced the viability of leukemia lymphocytes by ~20%, but did not influence the viability of normal lymphocytes. All combinations of anticancer drug plus vitamins C and K3 were characterized by synergistic cytotoxicity towards Jurkat cells, compared to cells treated with drug alone for 24 h. In the case of barasertib and everolimus, this synergistic cytotoxicity increased within 72 hours. It was accompanied by strong induction of apoptosis, but a reduction of level of hydroperoxides and moderately increased protein-carbonyl products in leukemia cells. Leukemia lymphocytes were more sensitive to combined administration of anticancer drug (everolimus or barasertib) plus vitamins C and K3, compared to normal lymphocytes. The combination of vitamin C plus K3 seems to be a powerful redox system that could specifically influence redox homeostasis of leukemia cells and sensitize them to conventional chemotherapy. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  5. Distinction of leukemia patients' and healthy persons' serum using FTIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Daping; Liu, Xingcun; Li, Weizu; Wang, Yuchan; Chen, Xianliang; Wang, Xin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, FTIR spectroscopy was applied to compare the serum from leukemia patients with the serum from healthy persons. IR spectra of leukemia patients' serum were similar with IR spectra of healthy persons' serum, and they were all made up of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids, etc. In order to identify leukemia patients' serum and healthy persons' serum, the H1075/H1542, H1045/H1467, H2959/H2931 ratios were measured. The H2959/H2931 ratio had the highest significant difference among these ratios and might be a useful factor for identifying leukemia patients' serum and healthy persons' serum. Furthermore, from curve fitting, the RNA/DNA (A1115/A1028) ratios were observed to be lower in leukemia patients' serum than those in healthy persons' serum. The results indicated FTIR spectroscopic study of serum might be a useful tool in the field of leukemia research and diagnosis.

  6. Multifocal Aeromonas Osteomyelitis in a Child with Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Doganis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila is a Gram negative organism causing both intestinal and extraintestinal disease. The case of a 14-year-old girl with underlying immunodeficiency and leukemia who developed systemic A. hydrophila infection is described in this report. While in deep bone marrow aplasia she developed fever, severe pain in the lower extremities, and swelling of the left femur. Blood culture showed Escherichia coli and A. hydrophila whereas pus culture from the soft tissue swelling showed the presence of A. hydrophila. Imaging studies showed diffuse osteolytic lesions. Patient received 5 months of intravenous and oral antibiotics and she improved clinically whereas the radiology findings persisted.

  7. Massive periosteal reaction a presenting feature of acute megakaryocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Takahiro; Ito, Yasuhiko; Maeda, Miho; Fukunaga, Yoshitaka

    2007-12-01

    Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AML M7) is a biologically heterogeneous form of acute myeloid leukemia accounting for 14.6% of cases. In many instances in the past, AML M7 has been classified as undifferentiated leukemia, myelodysplasia, myelofibrosis or some other disease because of its complex clinical presentation or the difficulty of obtaining and interpreting bone marrow samples. However, with currently available morphological, cytochemical, cytogenetic and immunophenotypic methods, AML M7 can now be reliably diagnosed. Although the radiographic spectrum of bony changes in leukemia have been well characterized, skeletal X-ray abnormalities in the setting of AML M7 in pediatric patients have been described in few reports that were associated with bone marrow fibrosis. Here we report on a 14-month-old girl who presented with a massive periosteal reaction of the extremities and clavicles associated with myelofibrosis, a presenting feature of AML M7. The bone changes were very unusual in this case.

  8. Ref-1/APE1 as a Transcriptional Regulator and Novel Therapeutic Target in Pediatric T-cell Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jixin; Fishel, Melissa L; Reed, April M; McAdams, Erin; Czader, Magdalena B; Cardoso, Angelo A; Kelley, Mark R

    2017-07-01

    The increasing characterization of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has led to the identification of multiple molecular targets but has yet to translate into more effective targeted therapies, particularly for high-risk, relapsed T-cell ALL. Searching for master regulators controlling multiple signaling pathways in T-ALL, we investigated the multifunctional protein redox factor-1 (Ref-1/APE1), which acts as a signaling "node" by exerting redox regulatory control of transcription factors important in leukemia. Leukemia patients' transcriptome databases showed increased expression in T-ALL of Ref-1 and other genes of the Ref-1/SET interactome. Validation studies demonstrated that Ref-1 is expressed in high-risk leukemia T cells, including in patient biopsies. Ref-1 redox function is active in leukemia T cells, regulating the Ref-1 target NF-κB, and inhibited by the redox-selective Ref-1 inhibitor E3330. Ref-1 expression is not regulated by Notch signaling, but is upregulated by glucocorticoid treatment. E3330 disrupted Ref-1 redox activity in functional studies and resulted in marked inhibition of leukemia cell viability, including T-ALL lines representing different genotypes and risk groups. Potent leukemia cell inhibition was seen in primary cells from ALL patients, relapsed and glucocorticoid-resistant T-ALL cells, and cells from a murine model of Notch-induced leukemia. Ref-1 redox inhibition triggered leukemia cell apoptosis and downregulation of survival genes regulated by Ref-1 targets. For the first time, this work identifies Ref-1 as a novel molecular effector in T-ALL and demonstrates that Ref-1 redox inhibition results in potent inhibition of leukemia T cells, including relapsed T-ALL. These data also support E3330 as a specific Ref-1 small-molecule inhibitor for leukemia. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(7); 1401-11. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. A study of the distribution of B-cell lymphoma/leukemia-2 in odontogenic cyst and tumors: Histochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khushboo Phull

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: High expression of bcl-2 in KCOT supports the general agreement that some features of KCOT are those of a neoplasia. The bcl-2 expression in connective tissue cells suggests that these cells may also be important as epithelial cells in the biological behavior odontogenic keratocyst.

  10. A comparative study of child marriage and parenthood in Ethiopia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A comparative study of child marriage and parenthood in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Zambia ... By taking an approach that emphasizes life course poverty and gender ... Goal #5, Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls.

  11. Mobile Learning vs. Traditional Classroom Lessons: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furió, D.; Juan, M.-C.; Seguí, I.; Vivó, R.

    2015-01-01

    Different methods can be used for learning, and they can be compared in several aspects, especially those related to learning outcomes. In this paper, we present a study in order to compare the learning effectiveness and satisfaction of children using an iPhone game for learning the water cycle vs. the traditional classroom lesson. The iPhone game…

  12. A complementary role of multiparameter flow cytometry and high-throughput sequencing for minimal residual disease detection in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: an European Research Initiative on CLL study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rawstron, A C

    2016-04-01

    In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) the level of minimal residual disease (MRD) after therapy is an independent predictor of outcome. Given the increasing number of new agents being explored for CLL therapy, using MRD as a surrogate could greatly reduce the time necessary to assess their efficacy. In this European Research Initiative on CLL (ERIC) project we have identified and validated a flow-cytometric approach to reliably quantitate CLL cells to the level of 0.0010% (10(-5)). The assay comprises a core panel of six markers (i.e. CD19, CD20, CD5, CD43, CD79b and CD81) with a component specification independent of instrument and reagents, which can be locally re-validated using normal peripheral blood. This method is directly comparable to previous ERIC-designed assays and also provides a backbone for investigation of new markers. A parallel analysis of high-throughput sequencing using the ClonoSEQ assay showed good concordance with flow cytometry results at the 0.010% (10(-4)) level, the MRD threshold defined in the 2008 International Workshop on CLL guidelines, but it also provides good linearity to a detection limit of 1 in a million (10(-6)). The combination of both technologies would permit a highly sensitive approach to MRD detection while providing a reproducible and broadly accessible method to quantify residual disease and optimize treatment in CLL.

  13. Leu-9 (CD 7) positivity in acute leukemias: a marker of T-cell lineage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ezra, J; Winberg, C D; Wu, A; Rappaport, H

    1987-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody Leu-9 (CD 7) has been reported to be a sensitive and specific marker for T-cell lineage in leukemic processes, since it is positive in patients whose leukemic cells fail to express other T-cell antigens. To test whether Leu-9 is indeed specific for T-cell leukemias, we examined in detail 10 cases of acute leukemia in which reactions were positive for Leu-9 and negative for other T-cell-associated markers including T-11, Leu-1, T-3, and E-rosettes. Morphologically and cytochemically, 2 of these 10 leukemias were classified as lymphoblastic, 4 as myeloblastic, 2 as monoblastic, 1 as megakaryoblastic, and 1 as undifferentiated. The case of acute megakaryoblastic leukemia is the first reported case to be Leu-9 positive. None of the 10 were TdT positive. Of six cases (two monoblastic, one lymphoblastic, one myeloblastic, one megakaryoblastic, and one undifferentiated) in which we evaluated for DNA gene rearrangements, only one, a peroxidase-positive leukemia, showed a novel band on study of the T-cell-receptor beta-chain gene. We therefore conclude that Leu-9 is not a specific marker to T-cell lineage and that, in the absence of other supporting data, Leu-9 positivity should not be used as the sole basis of classifying an acute leukemia as being T-cell derived.

  14. 32P and acute leukemia: development of leukemia in a patient with hemoglobin Yakima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagby, G.C. Jr.; Richert-Boe, K.; Koler, R.D.

    1978-01-01

    In 1954 a then 31-yr-old male was found to have erythrocytosis. Over the ensuing decade he received 72 mCi 32 P. In 1964 his daughters were found to have erythrocytosis. Further investigation led to the discovery of hemoglobin Yakima, a variant with high oxygen affinity. He received no further therapy and was well until 1975, when he developed the preleukemic syndrome. Within 12 mo he developed acute nonlymphocytic leukemia accompanied by fetal erythropoiesis. Because the initial discovery of this type of hemoglobinopathy came 27 yr after the introduction of 32 P for use in the treatment of polycythemia vera, and because there are now known to be more than 39 different high-oxygen-affinity hemoglobins, we anticipate that more patients such as ours have been exposed to 32 P. The exposed population should be closely followed, since this will likely permit assessment of the risk of 32 P-induced leukemia in a nonneoplastic condition

  15. Peripheral T-lymphocytes express WNT7A and its restoration in leukemia-derived lymphoblasts inhibits cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochoa-Hernández, Alejandra B; Bravo-Cuellar, Alejandro; Jave-Suarez, Luis F; Barros-Núñez, Patricio; Aguilar-Lemarroy, Adriana; Ramos-Solano, Moisés; Meza-Canales, Ivan D; García-Castro, Beatriz; Rosales-Reynoso, Mónica A; Rosales-Aviña, Judith A; Barrera-Chairez, Esperanza; Ortíz-Lazareno, Pablo C; Hernández-Flores, Georgina

    2012-01-01

    WNT7a, a member of the Wnt ligand family implicated in several developmental processes, has also been reported to be dysregulated in some types of tumors; however, its function and implication in oncogenesis is poorly understood. Moreover, the expression of this gene and the role that it plays in the biology of blood cells remains unclear. In addition to determining the expression of the WNT7A gene in blood cells, in leukemia-derived cell lines, and in samples of patients with leukemia, the aim of this study was to seek the effect of this gene in proliferation. We analyzed peripheral blood mononuclear cells, sorted CD3 and CD19 cells, four leukemia-derived cell lines, and blood samples from 14 patients with Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and 19 clinically healthy subjects. Reverse transcription followed by quantitative Real-time Polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis were performed to determine relative WNT7A expression. Restoration of WNT7a was done employing a lentiviral system and by using a recombinant human protein. Cell proliferation was measured by addition of WST-1 to cell cultures. WNT7a is mainly produced by CD3 T-lymphocytes, its expression decreases upon activation, and it is severely reduced in leukemia-derived cell lines, as well as in the blood samples of patients with ALL when compared with healthy controls (p ≤0.001). By restoring WNT7A expression in leukemia-derived cells, we were able to demonstrate that WNT7a inhibits cell growth. A similar effect was observed when a recombinant human WNT7a protein was used. Interestingly, restoration of WNT7A expression in Jurkat cells did not activate the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway. To our knowledge, this is the first report evidencing quantitatively decreased WNT7A levels in leukemia-derived cells and that WNT7A restoration in T-lymphocytes inhibits cell proliferation. In addition, our results also support the possible function of WNT7A as a tumor suppressor gene as well as a therapeutic

  16. Population-based case-control study of childhood leukemia in Shanghai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, X.O.; Gao, Y.T.; Brinton, L.A.; Linet, M.S.; Tu, J.T.; Zheng, W.; Fraumeni, J.F. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A population-based case-control interview study of 309 childhood leukemia cases and 618 healthy population control children was conducted in urban Shanghai, China. Like some studies in other countries, excess risks for both acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) were associated with intrauterine and paternal preconception diagnostic x-ray exposure, and with maternal employment in the chemical and agricultural industries during pregnancy. ANLL was linked to maternal occupational exposure to benzene during pregnancy, whereas both ALL and ANLL were significantly associated with maternal exposure to gasoline and the patient's prior use of chloramphenicol. New findings, previously unsuspected, included an association of ANLL with younger maternal age at menarche (odds ratio [OR] = 4.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.3-13.9); a protective effect for long-term (greater than 1 year) use of cod liver oil containing vitamins A and D for both ALL (OR = 0.4; 95% CI = 0.2-0.9) and ANLL (OR = 0.3; 95% CI = 0.1-1.0); and excess risks of ANLL among children whose mothers were employed in metal refining and processing (OR = 4.6; 95% CI = 1.3-17.2) and of ALL associated with maternal occupational exposure to pesticides (OR = 3.5; 95% CI = 1.1-11.2). No relationships were found with late maternal age, certain congenital disorders, or familial occurrence, which have been related to childhood leukemia in other studies. In contrast with other reports, an excess of leukemia, primarily ANLL, occurred among second or later-born rather than firstborn children

  17. Leukemia incidence in the atomic bomb survivor Life Span Study, 1950 - 87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, D.L.; Mabuchi, K.; Kusumi, S.; Izumi, S.

    1992-01-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) is currently preparing a series of reports on cancer incidence in the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort of atomic bomb survivors for the period from 1950 to 1987. One of these reports will present analyses of the data on the risk of hematopoietic cancers including leukemia, malignant lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. These analyses add an additional 11 years of follow-up to the previous comprehensive analysis of the LSS leukemia data. In this presentation, these data are presented and the methods being used modeling the leukemia risks are outlined. An analysis of the leukemia data pooled over subtypes will be used to illustrate these methods. It is shown that the data suggest a non-linear, concave upward dose response and that the temporal pattern of the radiation-induced excess absolute risks (EARs) depends on age-at-exposure and sex. There is no evidence of city differences in the EAR in this pooled analysis. The results suggest that the EARs for the youngest survivors were initially much higher and have declined more rapidly than those for older survivors. The same general pattern is seen both sexes, but the initial peak incidence is somewhat lower and the rate of decline less rapid for women than for men. (author)

  18. A comparative study of chromosome morphology among some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-02-15

    Feb 15, 2010 ... genetic source of wheat, some cytogenetic analysis reported (Chennaveeraiah, 1960; Badaeva et al., 1998,. 2001) and indicated that all A. crassa chromosomes can be identified by their morphology and C-banding patterns. Cytogenetical studies have been carried out on A. crassa but a comparative study ...

  19. A methodological frame for assessing benzene induced leukemia risk mitigation due to policy measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakitsios, Spyros P.; Sarigiannis, Dimosthenis A.; Gotti, Alberto; Kassomenos, Pavlos A.; Pilidis, Georgios A.

    2013-01-01

    The study relies on the development of a methodology for assessing the determinants that comprise the overall leukemia risk due to benzene exposure and how these are affected by outdoor and indoor air quality regulation. An integrated modeling environment was constructed comprising traffic emissions, dispersion models, human exposure models and a coupled internal dose/biology-based dose–response risk assessment model, in order to assess the benzene imposed leukemia risk, as much as the impact of traffic fleet renewal and smoking banning to these levels. Regarding traffic fleet renewal, several “what if” scenarios were tested. The detailed full-chain methodology was applied in a South-Eastern European urban setting in Greece and a limited version of the methodology in Helsinki. Non-smoking population runs an average risk equal to 4.1 · 10 −5 compared to 23.4 · 10 −5 for smokers. The estimated lifetime risk for the examined occupational groups was higher than the one estimated for the general public by 10–20%. Active smoking constitutes a dominant parameter for benzene-attributable leukemia risk, much stronger than any related activity, occupational or not. From the assessment of mitigation policies it was found that the associated leukemia risk in the optimum traffic fleet scenario could be reduced by up to 85% for non-smokers and up to 8% for smokers. On the contrary, smoking banning provided smaller gains for (7% for non-smokers, 1% for smokers), while for Helsinki, smoking policies were found to be more efficient than traffic fleet renewal. The methodology proposed above provides a general framework for assessing aggregated exposure and the consequent leukemia risk from benzene (incorporating mechanistic data), capturing exposure and internal dosimetry dynamics, translating changes in exposure determinants to actual changes in population risk, providing a valuable tool for risk management evaluation and consequently to policy support. - Highlights

  20. A methodological frame for assessing benzene induced leukemia risk mitigation due to policy measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karakitsios, Spyros P. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Chemical Engineering, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Sarigiannis, Dimosthenis A., E-mail: denis@eng.auth.gr [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Chemical Engineering, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Centre for Research and Technology Hellas (CE.R.T.H.), 57001, Thessaloniki (Greece); Gotti, Alberto [Centre for Research and Technology Hellas (CE.R.T.H.), 57001, Thessaloniki (Greece); Kassomenos, Pavlos A. [University of Ioannina, Department of Physics, Laboratory of Meteorology, GR-45110 Ioannina (Greece); Pilidis, Georgios A. [University of Ioannina, Department of Biological Appl. and Technologies, GR-45110 Ioannina (Greece)

    2013-01-15

    The study relies on the development of a methodology for assessing the determinants that comprise the overall leukemia risk due to benzene exposure and how these are affected by outdoor and indoor air quality regulation. An integrated modeling environment was constructed comprising traffic emissions, dispersion models, human exposure models and a coupled internal dose/biology-based dose–response risk assessment model, in order to assess the benzene imposed leukemia risk, as much as the impact of traffic fleet renewal and smoking banning to these levels. Regarding traffic fleet renewal, several “what if” scenarios were tested. The detailed full-chain methodology was applied in a South-Eastern European urban setting in Greece and a limited version of the methodology in Helsinki. Non-smoking population runs an average risk equal to 4.1 · 10{sup −5} compared to 23.4 · 10{sup −5} for smokers. The estimated lifetime risk for the examined occupational groups was higher than the one estimated for the general public by 10–20%. Active smoking constitutes a dominant parameter for benzene-attributable leukemia risk, much stronger than any related activity, occupational or not. From the assessment of mitigation policies it was found that the associated leukemia risk in the optimum traffic fleet scenario could be reduced by up to 85% for non-smokers and up to 8% for smokers. On the contrary, smoking banning provided smaller gains for (7% for non-smokers, 1% for smokers), while for Helsinki, smoking policies were found to be more efficient than traffic fleet renewal. The methodology proposed above provides a general framework for assessing aggregated exposure and the consequent leukemia risk from benzene (incorporating mechanistic data), capturing exposure and internal dosimetry dynamics, translating changes in exposure determinants to actual changes in population risk, providing a valuable tool for risk management evaluation and consequently to policy support

  1. Studies of Wilms’ Tumor (WT1 Gene Expression in Adult Acute Leukemias in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che Kang Lim

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomarkers provide certain values for diagnosis, monitor treatment effi cacy, or for the development of novel therapeutic approach for particular diseases. Thus, the identifi cation of specifi c of biomarkers for specifi c medical problems, including malignant diseases may be valuable in medical practice. In the study, we have used the Wilms’ tumor gene (WT1 as a biomarker to evaluate its expression in local adult patients with newly diagnosed acute leukemia, including both acute myeloid and lymphoid leukemias (AML and ALL.Aim: To investigate WT1 gene expression in adult patients with acute leukemia at diagnosis.Methods: Eighteen patients with acute leukemia diagnosed at Singapore General Hospital, Singapore, between September, 2004 and July, 2005 were included in this study. There were fifteen AML and three ALL cases aged from 18 to 71 years old. Total RNA and DNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. Expression of WT1 was detected by nested reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (Nested RT-PCR. K562, and 3T3 cells were used as positive- and negative-controls. The results were revalidated using real-time PCR. HLA-A genotyping was performed using sequence specific oligonucleotide polymorphism (SSOP analysis.Results: WT1 gene was exclusively expressed in all eighteen, including three ALL and fi fteen AML, patients. In contrast with WT1 gene, the HLA-A genotyping was remarkably heterogeneous in these patients.Conclusions: WT1 gene expression was observed in local patients with acute leukemia at diagnosis. It may be used as a potential molecular marker for diagnosis, clinical progression of the diseases or monitoring the response to treatment, as well as a target for the development of novel therapeutic approaches.

  2. Use of recombinant granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor during and after remission induction chemotherapy in patients aged 61 years and older with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) : Final report of AML-11, a phase III randomized study of the Leukemia Cooperative Group of European Organisation for the Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC-LCG) and the Dutch Belgian Hemato-Oncology Cooperative Group (HOVON)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lowenberg, B; Suciu, S; Archimbaud, E; Ossenkoppele, G; Verhoef, GEG; Vellenga, E; Wijermans, P; Berneman, Z; Dekker, AW; Stryckmans, P; Jehn, U; Muus, P; Sonneveld, P; Dardenne, M; Zittoun, R

    1997-01-01

    We conducted a prospective randomized multicenter clinical trial comparing the effects of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) as an adjunct to intensive chemotherapy in patients of 61 years and older with untreated newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Patients were

  3. Cigarette smoking and the risk of adult leukemia: results from the Three Mile Island cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohui; Talbott, Evelyn O; Zborowski, Jeanne V; Rager, Judith R

    2007-01-01

    Smoking is an unconfirmed risk factor for the development of leukemia. The authors examined the potential link using data from the Three Mile Island cohort for the period 1979-1995. Eligible for analysis were 24,539 individuals aged 14 years or older who were followed up over 16 years from the Three Mile Island cohort. The authors identified all incident leukemia cases through the Pennsylvania Department of Health Cancer Registry. They used the Cox proportional hazards model to evaluate the relationships and observed 42 incident leukemia cases, including 15 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cases, in the cohort. After controlling for other confounding factors, the authors found current smoking to be associated with an increased risk of adult AML (relative risk = 3.47; 95% confidence interval = 1.002-11.99). The authors also observed a marginally significant linear trend of risk of AML associated with the number of years smoked (p = .06). The results from this study suggested that cigarette smoking was associated with an increased risk of adult AML. Further investigation is required to confirm these findings.

  4. Clinical Presentations of Acute Leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahab, F.; Raziq, F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To document the clinical presentation and epidemiology of various types of acute leukemia with their respective referral source at a tertiary level centre in Peshawar. Study Design: An observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pathology, Hayatabad Medical Complex (HMC), Peshawar, from January 2011 to May 2012. Methodology: A total of 618 bone marrow biopsy reports were reviewed. All biopsy reports labeled as acute leukemia were reviewed for age, gender, address, referring unit, diagnosis on bone marrow examination, presenting complaints, duration of illness and findings of clinical examination. Results: Ninety-two patients were diagnosed as suffering from acute leukemias (15%). ALL was most prevalent (46%), followed by AML (38%) and undifferentiated acute leukemia (16%). Males were affected more compared to females (60% vs. 40%). ALL and AML were predominant in pediatric (64%) and adults (77%) patients respectively. Patients from Afghanistan accounted for 33% of all cases followed by Peshawar (14%). Fever (77%), pallor (33%) and bleeding disorders (23%) were the main presenting complaints. Enlargement of liver, spleen and lymph nodes together was associated with ALL compared with AML (p = 0.004). Conclusion: ALL-L1 and AML-M4 were the most common sub-types. Fever, pallor and bleeding disorders were the main presenting complaints. Enlargement of liver, spleen and lymph nodes was more frequently associated with ALL compared to AML. (author)

  5. Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism: a comparative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiren Karathia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Model organisms are used for research because they provide a framework on which to develop and optimize methods that facilitate and standardize analysis. Such organisms should be representative of the living beings for which they are to serve as proxy. However, in practice, a model organism is often selected ad hoc, and without considering its representativeness, because a systematic and rational method to include this consideration in the selection process is still lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this work we propose such a method and apply it in a pilot study of strengths and limitations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism. The method relies on the functional classification of proteins into different biological pathways and processes and on full proteome comparisons between the putative model organism and other organisms for which we would like to extrapolate results. Here we compare S. cerevisiae to 704 other organisms from various phyla. For each organism, our results identify the pathways and processes for which S. cerevisiae is predicted to be a good model to extrapolate from. We find that animals in general and Homo sapiens in particular are some of the non-fungal organisms for which S. cerevisiae is likely to be a good model in which to study a significant fraction of common biological processes. We validate our approach by correctly predicting which organisms are phenotypically more distant from S. cerevisiae with respect to several different biological processes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The method we propose could be used to choose appropriate substitute model organisms for the study of biological processes in other species that are harder to study. For example, one could identify appropriate models to study either pathologies in humans or specific biological processes in species with a long development time, such as plants.

  6. Information Technology Diffusion: A Comparative Case Study of Intranet Adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Zolla, George A., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    This exploratory study identifies factors that influence the adoption and diffusion of intranet technology. A comparative case study of bipolar organizations is used to identify crucial implementation factors and create an innovation adoption model. A strategic approach for the adoption and diffusion of intranet technology is then presented.

  7. Anonymity communication VPN and Tor: a comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadhani, E.

    2018-03-01

    VPN and Tor is a technology based on anonymity communication. These two technologies have their advantage and disadvantage. The objective of this paper is to find the difference between VPN and Tor technologies by comparing their security of communication on the public network based on the CIA triad concept. The comparative study in this paper is based on the survey method. At last, the result of this paper is a recommendation on when to use a VPN and Tor to secure communication

  8. The Histone Methyltransferase Inhibitor A-366 Uncovers a Role for G9a/GLP in the Epigenetics of Leukemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William N Pappano

    Full Text Available Histone methyltransferases are epigenetic regulators that modify key lysine and arginine residues on histones and are believed to play an important role in cancer development and maintenance. These epigenetic modifications are potentially reversible and as a result this class of enzymes has drawn great interest as potential therapeutic targets of small molecule inhibitors. Previous studies have suggested that the histone lysine methyltransferase G9a (EHMT2 is required to perpetuate malignant phenotypes through multiple mechanisms in a variety of cancer types. To further elucidate the enzymatic role of G9a in cancer, we describe herein the biological activities of a novel peptide-competitive histone methyltransferase inhibitor, A-366, that selectively inhibits G9a and the closely related GLP (EHMT1, but not other histone methyltransferases. A-366 has significantly less cytotoxic effects on the growth of tumor cell lines compared to other known G9a/GLP small molecule inhibitors despite equivalent cellular activity on methylation of H3K9me2. Additionally, the selectivity profile of A-366 has aided in the discovery of a potentially important role for G9a/GLP in maintenance of leukemia. Treatment of various leukemia cell lines in vitro resulted in marked differentiation and morphological changes of these tumor cell lines. Furthermore, treatment of a flank xenograft leukemia model with A-366 resulted in growth inhibition in vivo consistent with the profile of H3K9me2 reduction observed. In summary, A-366 is a novel and highly selective inhibitor of G9a/GLP that has enabled the discovery of a role for G9a/GLP enzymatic activity in the growth and differentiation status of leukemia cells.

  9. Comparative analysis of fluorescence in situ hybridizationand real time polymerase chain reaction in diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, J.; Khan, S.A.; Rauf, S.E.; Ayyub, M.; Ali, N.

    2017-01-01

    To compare the sensitivity and specificity of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in the diagnosis of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML). Study Design: A cross-sectional, analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Haematology Department, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from January 2012 to February 2014. Methodology:A total number of 87 patients of CML were studied. The diagnosis was made on the basis of clinical history, peripheral blood and bone marrow aspiration. These patients were tested for the presence of BCR-ABL1 fusion gene by RT-PCR and FISH. About 5 ml of venous blood was collected, half was taken in heparin for FISH and half in ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) for CBC and PCR. For FISH, cells were cultured for 24 hours in RPMI 1640 medium and evaluated using BX51 fluorescence microscope for dual fusion signal of yellow colour. Samples having 20 or more interphases positive for dual fusion signals were taken as positive. For PCR, RNA extraction was done by Tri-Reagent LS (MRC, USA) and cDNA was synthesized using reverse transcriptase and gene specific primer. RT-PCR was done on ABI-7500. The positive samples were identified when fluorescence exceeded threshold limit. Results of RT-PCR and FISH were compared. Results: Out of the 87 patients, 85 (97.7%) were PCR positive and 2 (2.3%) were PCR negative, whereas in FISH 83 (95.4%) were positive and 4 (4.5%) were negative. Sensitivity and specificity of FISH was 97.6% and 100%, respectively. Conclusion: FISH is a reliable supplementary method to PCR for detection of BCR-ABL1 fusion gene in the diagnosis of CML. (author)

  10. Cytogenetic and clinicobiological features of acute leukemia with stem cell phenotype: study of nine cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuneo, A; Ferrant, A; Michaux, J L; Bosly, A; Chatelain, B; Stul, M; Dal Cin, P; Dierlamm, J; Cassiman, J J; Hossfeld, D K; Castoldi, G; Van den Berghe, H

    1996-11-01

    Morphologic, immunologic, cytogenetic, and clinical features were studied in 9 cases of acute undifferentiated leukemia (AUL). These patients were unclassifiable by FAB criteria, they were CD34+ and did not express myeloid- or lymphoid-associated antigens (CD13, CD33, CD14, CD15, CD61, CD19, CD10, CD22, CD7, CD2, CD5, CD3). Clonal abnormalities were seen in 8 of 9 cases. Del(5q) as the sole anomaly was observed in 3 cases; +13 was the primary change in 3 cases, and isolated trisomy 12 was found in 1 patient. A complex karyotype with trisomy 12q, in association with del 17p and trisomy 21q was detected in 1 case. One patient with 5q- relapsed with refractory anemia with excess of blasts; the presence of dysgranulopoiesis and a few blasts with possible monocytoid morphology in the remaining 2 patients point to a "myeloid nature" of these leukemias. Analysis of cytologic features in our 3 patients with +13, in combination with previously reported cases, suggests the occurrence of immature stem cell involvement with limited differentiation potential, possibly more along the myeloid than the lymphoid lineage. The significance of trisomy 12q in this subset of leukemia remains elusive; some clues of minimal differentiation towards the myeloid lineage in our cases are provided by positivity for the CD117 (c-kit) antigen and by relapse with acute myeloid leukemia without maturation (M1) in one patient. We conclude that, with presently available diagnostic techniques, AUL is a rare subset of leukemia, in which cytogenetic changes are confined to a few chromosomes, with prevalent involvement of 5q and of chromosomes 13 and 12. Chromosome findings may be of value in clinical practice, especially in those cases with "myeloid-oriented" karyotype.

  11. Chromosomal minimal critical regions in therapy-related leukemia appear different from those of de novo leukemia by high-resolution aCGH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Itzhar

    Full Text Available Therapy-related acute leukemia (t-AML, is a severe complication of cytotoxic therapy used for primary cancer treatment. The outcome of these patients is poor, compared to people who develop de novo acute leukemia (p-AML. Cytogenetic abnormalities in t-AML are similar to those found in p-AML but present more frequent unfavorable karyotypes depending on the inducting agent. Losses of chromosome 5 or 7 are observed after alkylating agents while balanced translocations are found after topoisomerase II inhibitors. This study compared t-AML to p-AML using high resolution array CGH in order to find copy number abnormalities (CNA at a higher resolution than conventional cytogenetics. More CNAs were observed in 30 t-AML than in 36 p-AML: 104 CNAs were observed with 63 losses and 41 gains (mean number 3.46 per case in t-AML, while in p-AML, 69 CNAs were observed with 32 losses and 37 gains (mean number of 1.9 per case. In primary leukemia with a previously "normal" karyotype, 18% exhibited a previously undetected CNA, whereas in the (few t-AML with a normal karyotype, the rate was 50%. Several minimal critical regions (MCRs were found in t-AML and p-AML. No common MCRs were found in the two groups. In t-AML a 40 kb deleted MCR pointed to RUNX1 on 21q22, a gene coding for a transcription factor implicated in frequent rearrangements in leukemia and in familial thrombocytopenia. In de novo AML, a 1 Mb MCR harboring ERG and ETS2 was observed from patients with complex aCGH profiles. High resolution cytogenomics obtained by aCGH and similar techniques already published allowed us to characterize numerous non random chromosome abnormalities. This work supports the hypothesis that they can be classified into several categories: abnormalities common to all AML; those more frequently found in t-AML and those specifically found in p-AML.

  12. A Comparative Study of Learning Organisation Practices of Indian Businesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sonali; Neelam, Netra; Behl, Abhishek; Acharya, Sabyasachi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In this study we compared the learning organisation practices of Indian Businesses across sectors. Methodology: The study is based on a sample of 406 managers of banking, information technology and information technology enabled services (IT/ITES), manufacturing, hotel & hospitality and hospital and healthcare sectors. Learning…

  13. A Prospective Comparative Study of the Bacterial Flora of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A qualitative comparative study of the bacterial flora of the vagina and cervix of 90 non-pregnant women of childbearing age (18-35 years) in Calabar was undertaken. The study revealed that both aerobic and microaerophilic organisms as well as the strictly anaerobic bacteria constituted the microflora of the lower genital of ...

  14. A Comparative Study of Students' Achievement in Botany and Zoology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamir, P.

    1974-01-01

    A comparative study of student achievement in botany and zoology based on data of 10 studies conducted in 20 countries. Up to age 14, students achieve better in zoology; after age 14, students achieve better in botany. Based on the findings, recommendations are suggested regarding curriculum planning, laboratory work and the need for specific…

  15. A Comparative Study of Spreadsheet Applications on Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veera V. S. M. Chintapalli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in mobile screen sizes and feature enhancement for mobile applications have increased the number of users accessing spreadsheets on mobile devices. This paper reports a comparative usability study on four popular mobile spreadsheet applications: OfficeSuite Viewer 6, Documents To Go, ThinkFree Online, and Google Drive. We compare them against three categories of usability criteria: visibility; navigation, scrolling, and feedback; and interaction, satisfaction, simplicity, and convenience. Measures for each criterion were derived in a survey. Questionnaires were designed to address the measures based on the comparative criteria provided in the analysis.

  16. A comparative study on different BMI category and physical fitness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study on different BMI category and physical fitness health related component of sedentary male youth in Terengganu. V Eswaramoorthi, M.R. Abdullah, H Juahir, A.B.H.M. Maliki, R.M. Musa, N.A. Kosni, N Alias, N.B. Raj, S.M.M. Rasid, A Adnan ...

  17. Survival Rate and Associated Factors of Childhood Leukemia in Iran: A Systematic Review and Meta Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Veisani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Context Resent reviews have shown that about 18% of all child cancers are leukemia. Track of the survival rate can help researchers improve quality of life of patients through improving screening or discovery of better treatments. Objectives This review aimed at estimating the 5-year survival rates and associated factors of childhood leukemia in Iran. Data Sources We carried out a systematic review through search of relevant studies published in English (PubMed, Scopus, Google scholar, and ISI and Persian databases (Magiran, Medlib, SID, and Iran Medex. Study Selection The study included all epidemiologic studies that estimated survival rate in children with leukemia in Iran during years 2002 to 2015, and a standardized manner was used for extraction of information. Data Extraction The entire text or summary of all searched articles was extracted and then, related articles were selected, and irrelevant ones were excluded. Fixed and random effects models were calculated by the STATA using standard meta-analysis methods. Heterogeneity was assessed by I² statistics. Results The overall 5-year survival rate in patients with childhood leukemia in Iran was 0.65 (95% CI, 0.62 to 0.67, 10 studies, in the acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL subtype was 71.0% (95% CI: 68.0 to 74.0, and in the acute myeloid leukemia (AML subtype was 46.0%. Results of the meta analysis showed significant poor survival with relapse (heart rate (HR 1.59, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.27 to 1.98 and white blood count (WBC counts ≥ 50,000 (HR 2.92, 95% CI 1.23 to 4.60. Conclusions The results showed that 5-year survival rates in patients with AML were lower than patients with ALL. The results of this meta analysis strongly support the need for future research, action, and guidance for clinicians to improve health-related quality of life and outcomes for children with leukemia.

  18. Leukemia in the proximity of a German boiling water nuclear reactor: Evidence of population exposure by chromosome studies and environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dannheim, B.; Heimers, A.; Oberheitmann, B.; Schmitz-Feuerhake, I.; Schroeder, H.; Ziggel, H.

    1997-01-01

    The detection of an exceptional elevation of leukemia in children appearing 5 years after the start-up of the nuclear power plant Kruemmel in 1983, accompanied by a significant increase of leukemia cases in adults gave rise for investigations of radiation exposures of the population living near to the plant. The rate of dicentric chromosomes in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 7 parents of leukemia children and 14 other inhabitants in the proximity of the plant was significantly elevated and showed ongoing exposures over the years of operation. This finding gives rise to the hypothesis that chronic leakages by the reactor had occurred. This assumption is supported by the identification of artificial radioactivity in air, rain water, soil, and vegetation registered by the regular environmental monitoring programme of the nuclear power plant. Calculations of the corresponding source terms show that the originating emissions must have been well above authorized annual limits. The bone marrow dose is supposed to be originated mainly by incorporating of bone-seeking β- and α-emitters. (author)

  19. [Acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a genomic perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Morales, Silvia; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo; Ramírez-Bello, Julián

    In parallel to the human genome sequencing project, several technological platforms have been developed that let us gain insight into the genome structure of human entities, as well as evaluate their usefulness in the clinical approach of the patient. Thus, in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the most common pediatric malignancy, genomic tools promise to be useful to detect patients at high risk of relapse, either at diagnosis or during treatment (minimal residual disease), and they also increase the possibility to identify cases at risk of adverse reactions to chemotherapy. Therefore, the physician could offer patient-tailored therapeutic schemes. A clear example of the useful genomic tools is the identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the thiopurine methyl transferase (TPMT) gene, where the presence of two null alleles (homozygous or compound heterozygous) indicates the need to reduce the dose of mercaptopurine by up to 90% to avoid toxic effects which could lead to the death of the patient. In this review, we provide an overview of the genomic perspective of ALL, describing some strategies that contribute to the identification of biomarkers with potential clinical application. Copyright © 2017 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  20. A phase 1/2 study of rigosertib in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and MDS progressed to acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navada, Shyamala C; Fruchtman, Steven M; Odchimar-Reissig, Rosalie; Demakos, Erin P; Petrone, Michael E; Zbyszewski, Patrick S; Holland, James F; Silverman, Lewis R

    2018-01-01

    This Phase 1/2, dose-escalating study of rigosertib enrolled 22 patients with higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) (n=9) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML; n=13) who had relapsed or were refractory to standard therapy and for whom no second-line therapies were approved. Patients received 3- to 7-day continuous intravenous infusions of rigosertib, an inhibitor of Ras-effector pathways that interacts with the Ras-binding domains, common to several signaling proteins including Raf and PI3 kinase. Rigosertib was administered at doses of 650-1700mg/m 2 /day in 14-day cycles. Initial dose escalation followed a Fibonacci scheme, followed by recommended phase 2 dose confirmation in an expanded cohort. Rigosertib was well tolerated for up to 23 cycles, with no treatment-related deaths and 18% of patients with related serious adverse events (AEs). Common AEs were fatigue, diarrhea, pyrexia, dyspnea, insomnia, and anemia. Rigosertib exhibited biologic activity, with reduction or stabilization of bone marrow blasts and improved peripheral blood counts in a subset of patients. Ten of 19 evaluable patients (53%) demonstrated bone marrow/peripheral blood responses (n=4 MDS, n=1 AML) or stable disease (n=3 MDS, n=2 AML). Median survival was 15.7 and 2.0 months for responders and non-responders, respectively. Additional studies of rigosertib are ongoing in higher-risk MDS (NCT00854646). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Epidemiology of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia at two referral centers in Tehran, Iran: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nateghian, A; Robinson, J L; Arjmandi, K; Vosough, P; Karimi, A; Behzad, A; Navidnia, M

    2011-05-01

    Risk factors for colonization with vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) vary by population and locale. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for VRE colonization in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in Tehran. Stools were collected from children with ALL at the Ali Asghar Children's Hospital and the Mahak Pediatric Oncology Center between March 2007 and October 2008. Demographic features and potential risk factors for VRE colonization, including duration of ALL, presence of severe neutropenia in the preceding month, receipt of antibiotics in the preceding 3 months, concurrent medical problems, days of hospitalization, and the need for intensive care since the time of diagnosis of ALL, were recorded. VRE was identified from stools in 33 of 130 children with ALL (25%). No clear risk factors were identified for VRE colonization in the current study, but there was a trend towards an increased prevalence in children admitted to the intensive care unit since their ALL diagnosis (p=0.07). The VanA genotype was found in 28 of the 33 stools (85%), with all other enterococci being VanB. The prevalence of VRE colonization in children with ALL in Tehran is high. Modifiable risk factors have not been identified. The implementation of routine surveillance for colonization and an increased emphasis on adherence to standard infection control precautions may prevent spread. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Homeless Adolescents' Perceptions of Positive Development: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nott, Brooke Dolenc; Vuchinich, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Background: While some recent research has addressed homeless youth from a strengths-based approach, comparative studies of homeless and non-homeless youth from a strengths perspective are few; research that includes youth's views on positive youth development are also limited. Objective: Addressing these gaps and using an inductive approach,…

  3. A Comparative Study on the Influence of Formal (School) Career ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Comparative Study on the Influence of Formal (School) Career Guidance and Non-Formal (Parents) Career Guidance on Secondary School Students' ... These participants were purposively selected from a population of four research sites in Harare; (Ministry of education, Ministry of health, Business office and industry).

  4. A comparative study of the flow enhancing properties of bentonite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study of granule flow enhancing property of bentonite, magnesium stearate, talc and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was undertaken. Bentonite was processed into fine powder. A 10 %w/w of starch granules was prepared and separated into different sizes (˂180, 180-500, 500-710 and 710-850 μm).

  5. Accessing powerful knowledge: a comparative study of two first year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a case study of two first year sociology courses run at an elite South African university in order to speak to student perspectives on the sociology curriculum. The paper provides a comparative analysis of the academic experiences of extended degree (ED) students registered on two first year courses, ...

  6. 2′-deoxy-5,6-dihydro-5-azacytidine—a less toxic alternative of 2′-deoxy-5-azacytidine: A comparative study of hypomethylating potential

    OpenAIRE

    Matoušová, Marika; Votruba, Ivan; Otmar, Miroslav; Tloušťová, Eva; Günterová, Jana; Mertlíková-Kaiserová, Helena

    2011-01-01

    Restoration of transcriptionally silenced genes by means of methyltransferases inhibitors plays a crucial role in the current therapy of myelodysplastic syndromes and certain types of leukemias. A comparative study of hypomethylating activities of a series of 5-azacytidine nucleosides: 5-azacytidine (AC), 2′-deoxy-5-azacytidine (DAC) and its α-anomer (α-DAC), 5,6-dihydro-5-azacytidine (DHAC), 2′-deoxy-5,6-dihydro-5-azacytidine (DHDAC, KP-1212) and its α-anomer (α-DHDAC), and of a 2-pyrimidone...

  7. Chromosomal differences between acute nonlymphocytic leukemia in patients with prior solid tumors and prior hematologic malignancies. A study of 14 cases with prior breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamuris, Z.; Dumont, J.; Dutrillaux, B.; Aurias, A.

    1989-01-01

    A cytogenetic study of 14 patients with secondary acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (S-ANLL) with prior treatment for breast cancer is reported. The chromosomes recurrently involved in numerical or structural anomalies are chromosomes 7, 5, 17, and 11, in decreasing order of frequency. The distribution of the anomalies detected in this sample of patients is similar to that observed in published cases with prior breast or other solid tumors, though anomalies of chromosome 11 were not pointed out, but it significantly differs from that of the S-ANLL with prior hematologic malignancies. This difference is principally due to a higher involvement of chromosome 7 in patients with prior hematologic malignancies and of chromosomes 11 and 17 in patients with prior solid tumors. A genetic determinism involving abnormal recessive alleles located on chromosomes 5, 7, 11, and 17 uncovered by deletions of the normal homologs may be a cause of S-ANLL. The difference between patients with prior hematologic malignancies or solid tumors may be explained by different constitutional mutations of recessive genes in the two groups of patients

  8. Employment in French young adult survivors of childhood leukemia: an LEA study (for Leucemies de l'Enfant et de l'Adolescent-childhood and adolescent leukemia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbis, Julie; Reggio, Céline; Michel, Gérard; Chastagner, Pascal; Bertrand, Yves; Kanold, Justyna; Sirvent, Nicolas; Plantaz, Dominique; Baruchel, André; Tabone, Marie-Dominique; Garnier, Floriane; Lehucher-Michel, Marie-Pascale; Auquier, Pascal

    2016-12-01

    Our principal aim was to assess the occupational outcomes of French survivors of childhood leukemia, compared to national population. The secondary objective was to identify determinants linked with employment stability after childhood leukemia. All survivors aged 15 and over enrolled in the French LEA Cohort (Childhood and Adolescent Leukemia) were included. Occupational data were self-reported. The occupational distributions expected in the cohort for each age range were established based on the distribution in France as reference, and comparisons between observed and expected distributions were performed. Logistic regression model was used to explore determinants of stability of survivors' employment. The questionnaire was completed by 845 eligible survivors (response rate 87.8 %), with a mean age of 22.3 ± 5.4 years and a mean follow-up duration of 14.3 ± 6.3 years. Among the 361 survivors currently in the labor market, 36 (10.0 %) were seeking a job, which is significantly lower than expected (19.3 %) compared to French population. Conversely, among those currently employed, the number of survivors in unstable employment (43.9 %) was significantly higher than expected (33.5 %). Younger age and higher number of late effects were risk factors for unstable employment. While the employment rate of the young French adult population of childhood leukemia survivors seems rather positive, access to a steady job appears to be compromised for some survivors. A strategy to better identify particular subgroups of survivors at greatest risk for difficulties in their professional achievement will help ensure the development of specific intervention strategies and support procedures.

  9. Ex-vivo sensitivity profiling to guide clinical decision making in acute myeloid leukemia: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swords, Ronan T; Azzam, Diana; Al-Ali, Hassan; Lohse, Ines; Volmar, Claude-Henry; Watts, Justin M; Perez, Aymee; Rodriguez, Ana; Vargas, Fernando; Elias, Roy; Vega, Francisco; Zelent, Arthur; Brothers, Shaun P; Abbasi, Taher; Trent, Jonathan; Rangwala, Shaukat; Deutsch, Yehuda; Conneally, Eibhlin; Drusbosky, Leylah; Cogle, Christopher R; Wahlestedt, Claes

    2018-01-01

    A precision medicine approach is appealing for use in AML due to ease of access to tumor samples and the significant variability in the patients' response to treatment. Attempts to establish a precision medicine platform for AML, however, have been unsuccessful, at least in part due to the use of small compound panels and having relatively slow turn over rates, which restricts the scope of treatment and delays its onset. For this pilot study, we evaluated a cohort of 12 patients with refractory AML using an ex vivo drug sensitivity testing (DST) platform. Purified AML blasts were screened with a panel of 215 FDA-approved compounds and treatment response was evaluated after 72h of exposure. Drug sensitivity scoring was reported to the treating physician, and patients were then treated with either DST- or non-DST guided therapy. We observed survival benefit of DST-guided therapy as compared to the survival of patients treated according to physician recommendation. Three out of four DST-treated patients displayed treatment response, while all of the non-DST-guided patients progressed during treatment. DST rapidly and effectively provides personalized treatment recommendations for patients with refractory AML. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. How Australian and Indonesian Universities Treat Plagiarism: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Yudi Cahyono

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is a part of a larger study comparing various aspects of policies on plagiarism in two university contexts. It compares policies on plagiarism in universities in Australia and Indonesia. The results of this comparative study showed that Australian and Indonesian universities treat plagiarism differently. Australian universities treat plagiarism explicitly in their university policies. In Australian universities, plagiarism is defined clearly and forms of plagiarism are explained thoroughly, policies on plagiarism are informed to all university academic members, and there are mechanisms to manage cases related to plagiarism. In contrast, not all Indonesian universities treat plagiarism directly. Some universities depend on religious morality and academic ethics in dealing with plagiarism. Accordingly, this article recommends the explicit treatment of plagiarism in Indonesian universities.

  11. Ultrasound and MR Findings of Aleukemic Leukemia Cutis in a Patient with Complete Remission of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Sung; Jee, Won Hee; Kim, Sun Ki; Lee, So Yeon; Lim, Gye Yeon; Park, Gyeong Sin; Lee, Seok

    2010-01-01

    Aleukemic leukemia cutis is an extremely rare condition characterized by the infiltration of leukemic cells in skin without blasts in the peripheral blood. Leukemia cutis is considered a grave prognostic sign, thus early diagnosis is important. Leukemia cutis usually occurs in patients with myeloid leukemia. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no report regarding the radiological findings of aleukemic leukemia cutis, which is probably due to the presence of the skin changes in most patients. We report the ultrasound and MR findings of aleukemic leukemia cutis, even without the skin manifestation in patients with a history of complete remission of the acute lymphoblastic leukemia following an allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation

  12. Ultrasound and MR Findings of Aleukemic Leukemia Cutis in a Patient with Complete Remission of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Sung; Jee, Won Hee; Kim, Sun Ki; Lee, So Yeon; Lim, Gye Yeon; Park, Gyeong Sin; Lee, Seok [Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    Aleukemic leukemia cutis is an extremely rare condition characterized by the infiltration of leukemic cells in skin without blasts in the peripheral blood. Leukemia cutis is considered a grave prognostic sign, thus early diagnosis is important. Leukemia cutis usually occurs in patients with myeloid leukemia. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no report regarding the radiological findings of aleukemic leukemia cutis, which is probably due to the presence of the skin changes in most patients. We report the ultrasound and MR findings of aleukemic leukemia cutis, even without the skin manifestation in patients with a history of complete remission of the acute lymphoblastic leukemia following an allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation

  13. A comparative study on the aphrodisiac activity of food plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Any substance that increases erectile function, sexual performance and enjoyment is considered an aphrodisiac. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of food plants Mondia whitei, Chenopodium album, Cucurbita pepo and Sclerocarya birrea extracts at a fixed dose of 200mg/kg body weight on ...

  14. A Comparative Study of Igala and Igbo Culture and Communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Comparative Study of Igala and Igbo Culture and Communication Systems in Ata Igala ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... I adopted particpant observation as an instrument of ethnographic design of fact finding, ... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  15. Africa and Ethnic Conflict Management: A Comparative Study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relying on the comparative study of Nigeria and South Africa, it is the contention in this paper that ethnic conflict which has been at the heart of African countries development problem is a product of skewed economy, authoritarian governance and religious bigotry. There is no gainsaying the fact that African countries in ...

  16. a comparative study on different bmi category and physical fitness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-08-08

    Aug 8, 2017 ... International License. Libraries Resour. A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON DIFF. FITNESS HEALTH RELATED COMP. V. Eswaramoorthi. 2,3. , M. R. Abdullah. Kosni. 2. , N. Alias. 1. East Coast Environmental Research Ins. Badak Campus, Kuala Teren. 2. Faculty of Applied Social Science,. Kuala Terengganu 2.

  17. Research Governance and the Role of Evaluation: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molas-Gallart, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Through a comparative study of the United Kingdom and Spain, this article addresses the effect of different research governance structures on the functioning and uses of research evaluation. It distinguishes three main evaluation uses: distributive, improvement, and controlling. Research evaluation in the United Kingdom plays important…

  18. Scandinavian Approaches to Gender Equality in Academia: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Mathias Wullum

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates how Denmark, Norway, and Sweden approach issues of gender equality in research differently. Based on a comparative document analysis of gender equality activities in six Scandinavian universities, together with an examination of the legislative and political frameworks surrounding these activities, the article provides new…

  19. Pedestrian Path Prediction with Recursive Bayesian Filters: A Comparative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, N.; Gavrila, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    In the context of intelligent vehicles, we perform a comparative study on recursive Bayesian filters for pedestrian path prediction at short time horizons (< 2s). We consider Extended Kalman Filters (EKF) based on single dynamical models and Interacting Multiple Models (IMM) combining several such

  20. MRI Compatibility of Robot Actuation Techniques – A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Gregory S.; Krieger, Axel; Iordachita, Iulian; Csoma, Csaba; Whitcomb, Louis L.; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports an experimental evaluation of the following three different MRI-compatible actuators: a Shinsei ultrasonic motor, a Nanomotion ultrasonic motor and a pneumatic cylinder actuator. We report the results of a study comparing the effect of these actuators on the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of MRI images under a variety of experimental conditions. Evaluation was performed with the controller inside and outside the scanner room and with both 1.5T and 3T MRI scanners. Pneumatic cy...

  1. The impact of Agent Orange exposure on prognosis and management in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a National Veteran Affairs Tumor Registry Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mescher, Craig; Gilbertson, David; Randall, Nicole M; Tarchand, Gobind; Tomaska, Julie; Baumann Kreuziger, Lisa; Morrison, Vicki A

    2018-06-01

    Exposure to Agent Orange (AO) has been associated with the development of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We performed a retrospective study of 2052 Vietnam veterans identified in the National VA Tumor Registry to assess the impact of AO exposure on CLL prognosis, treatment and survival. Prognostic factors did not differ based on exposure. Veterans exposed to AO were diagnosed younger (63.2 vs. 70.5 years, p < .0001) and had longer overall survival (median not reached vs. 91 months, p < .001). This prolonged survival was in the subgroups of patients aged 60-69 years (p< .0001) and those with 11q deletion (p < .0001). Those exposed to AO were more likely to be treated with fludarabine, chlorambucil and rituximab (38 vs. 21%, p < .001) and bendamustine plus rituximab (25 vs. 18%, p = 0.039) as first line therapy. Exposure to AO was not associated with either poor prognostic factors or shortened overall survival in our large veteran population with CLL.

  2. Maxillary sinusitis - a comparative study of different imaging diagnosis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueb, Marcelo Miguel; Borges, Fabiano de Almeida; Pulcinelli, Emilte; Souza, Wandir Ferreira; Borges, Luiz Marcondes

    1999-01-01

    We conducted prospective study comparing different methods (plain X-rays, computed tomography and ultrasonography mode-A) for the initial diagnosis of maxillary sinusitis. Twenty patients (40 maxillary sinuses) with a clinical history suggestive of sinusitis included in this study. The results were classified as abnormal or normal, using computed tomography as gold standard. The sensitivity for ultrasonography and plain X-rays was 84.6% and 69.2%, respectively. The specificity of both methods was 92.6%. This study suggests that ultrasonography can be used as a good follow-up method for patients with maxillary. sinusitis. (author)

  3. Cryptochrome-1 expression: a new prognostic marker in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewintre, Eloisa Jantus; Martín, Cristina Reinoso; Ballesteros, Carlos García; Montaner, David; Rivera, Rosa Farrás; Mayans, José Ramón; García-Conde, Javier

    2009-02-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is an adult-onset leukemia with a heterogeneous clinical behavior. When chronic lymphocytic leukemia cases were divided on the basis of IgV(H) mutational status, widely differing clinical courses were revealed. Since IgV(H) sequencing is difficult to perform in a routine diagnostic laboratory, finding a surrogate for IgV(H) mutational status seems an important priority. In the present study, we proposed the use of Cryptochrome-1 as a new prognostic marker in early-stage chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Seventy patients (Binet stage A, without treatment) were included in the study. We correlated Cryptochrome-1 mRNA with well established prognostic markers such as IgV(H) mutations, ZAP70, LPL or CD38 expression and chromosomal abnormalities. High Cryptochrome-1 expression correlated with IgV(H) unmutated samples. In addition, Cryptochrome-1 was a valuable predictor of disease progression in early-stage chronic lymphocytic leukemia, therefore it can be introduced in clinical practice with the advantage of a simplified method of quantification.

  4. Analysis of Leukemia incidence (1997-2007) in vicinity area of a nuclear installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Rong; Sun Quanfu; Liu Fen; Zhang Xu; Xing Ru; Xu Xinmei; Li Xiaoliang; Su Xu

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the leukemia incidence among residents in the vicinity area of a nuclear installation. Methods: The data were collected by the retrospective survey. Diagnosis is based on the medical records in all the relevant hospitals. The study area was those residential areas within 10 km of radium surrounding the installation. All residents who had lived in the study area for six months and over were recruited into the study group. Results: The survey ascertained 643 newly diagnosed leukemia cases in the study area during 1997 to 2007. The crude rate was 2.51/100000, and its standardized rate to national population structure was 2.53/100000. The incidence rate in the study area was slightly lower than that in the whole city. No increase trend was detected during the period. Conclusions: No significant difference of the leukemia incidence rate was found between the vicinity area of the nuclear installation and the whole city. (authors)

  5. Therapeutic activity of two xanthones in a xenograft murine model of human chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berthou Christian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously reported that allanxanthone C and macluraxanthone, two xanthones purified from Guttiferae trees, display in vitro antiproliferative and proapoptotic activities in leukemic cells from chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL and leukemia B cell lines. Results Here, we investigated the in vivo therapeutic effects of the two xanthones in a xenograft murine model of human CLL, developed by engrafting CD5-transfected chronic leukemia B cells into SCID mice. Treatment of the animals with five daily injections of either allanxanthone C or macluraxanthone resulted in a significant prolongation of their survival as compared to control animals injected with the solvent alone (p = 0.0006 and p = 0.0141, respectively. The same treatment of mice which were not xenografted induced no mortality. Conclusion These data show for the first time the in vivo antileukemic activities of two plant-derived xanthones, and confirm their potential interest for CLL therapy.

  6. Progress in the leukemias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galton, D.A.G.; Spiers, A.S.D.

    1971-01-01

    Recent work on the epidemiology of leukemia is reviewed in relation to factors of possible etiologic importance. There is still much geographic variation in the accuracy of diagnosis, the reliability of death certification, and the provision of national registries for classifying leukemia according to cytologic type. This variation and the low incidence of all types of leukemia make difficult the recognition of potentially significant distributions or trends that might suggest the operation of environmental leukemogens and their interaction with genetically determined susceptibility. Exposure to ionizing radiation remains the only predisposing factor beyond doubt for acute and chronic granulocytic leukemia, but its exact role remains obscure. There is no evidence that radiation plays a part in the etiology of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. In the population of survivors of the Hiroshima atomic bomb explosion of 1945, the incidence of leukemia (mainly CGL), though declining in the second 10-year period, was still higher than that of Japan as a whole. The suggestion that the exposure of women to radiation could increase the likelihood of leukemia in their still unconceived children was examined by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission in a prospective study of 17,700 children, and no increase in the incidence of leukemia was found in the children of parents who had been heavily exposed to radiation before conception. In the 1960's a decline in the United States mortality rates for leukemia among the white population was recorded. This decline was most marked in children below age 5, and it was suggested that the decline could have resulted from a drop in the use of diagnostic radiology in pregnant women following the reports in 1956 of the Medical Research Council and the National Academy of Sciences on the biologic hazards of radiation. A similar decline in mortality was reported from Norway. (464 references) (U.S.)

  7. Leukemia after therapy with alkylating agents for childhood cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucker, M.A.; Meadows, A.T.; Boice, J.D. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The risk of leukemia was evaluated in 9,170 2-or-more-year survivors of childhood cancer in the 13 institutions of the Late Effects Study Group. Secondary leukemia occurred in 22 nonreferred individuals compared to 1.52 expected, based on general population rates [relative risk (RR) = 14; 95% confidence interval (CI), 9-22]. The influence of therapy for the first cancer on subsequent leukemia risk was determined by a case-control study conducted on 25 cases and 90 matched controls. Treatment with alkylating agents was associated with a significantly elevated risk of leukemia (RR = 4.8; 95% CI, 1.2-18.9). A strong dose-response relationship was also observed between leukemia risk and total dose of alkylating agents, estimated by an alkylator score. The RR of leukemia reached 23 in the highest dose category. Radiation therapy, however, did not increase risk. Although doxorubicin was also identified as a possible risk factor, the excess risk of leukemia following treatment for childhood cancer appears almost entirely due to alkylating agents

  8. Tensile strength of biological fibrin sealants: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacaze, Laurence; Le Dem, Nicolas; Bubenheim, Michael; Tsilividis, Basile; Mezghani, Julien; Schwartz, Lilian; Francois, Arnaud; Ertaud, Jean Yves; Bagot d'Arc, Maurice; Scotté, Michel

    2012-08-01

    Fibrin sealants are commonly used in liver surgery, although their effectiveness in routine clinical practice remains controversial. Individual sealant characteristics are based on hemostatic effects and adhesion properties that can be experimentally measured using the 'rat skin test' or the 'pig skin test'. This study used a more relevant and realistic experimental canine model to compare the differences in the adhesive properties of four fibrin sealants in hepatectomy: Tisseel/Tissucol, Tachosil, Quixil, and Beriplast. A partial hepatectomy was performed in beagle dogs under general anesthesia to obtain liver cross-sections. Fibrin sealants were allocated to dog livers using a Youden square design. The tensile strength measurement was performed using a traction system to measure the rupture stress point of a small wooden cylinder bonded to the liver cross-section. Significantly greater adhesion properties were observed with Tisseel/Tissucol compared with Quixil or Beriplast (P = 0.002 and 0.001, respectively). Similarly, Tachosil demonstrated significantly greater adhesive properties compared with Beriplast (P = 0.009) or Quixil (P = 0.014). No significant differences were observed between Tisseel/Tissucol and Tachosil or between Beriplast and Quixil. The results of this comparative study demonstrate that different fibrin sealants exhibit different adhesive properties. Tisseel/Tissucol and Tachosil provided greatest adhesion to liver cross-section in our canine model of hepatectomy. These results may enable the optimal choice of fibrin sealants for this procedure in clinical practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Challenges in Doctoral Research Project Management: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuven Katz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents quantitative results of a comparative study evaluating the management skills of doctoral candidates working toward a PhD and additional information related to their lifestyles. We conducted a survey among enrolled doctoral candidates at five universities in Israel and three technological universities in Western Europe. 1013 Israeli candidates and 457 Western European candidates replied to our survey. In our analysis, we compared the answers of Israeli Science and Engineering candidates to those of Social Sciences and Humanities candidates; in addition, we compared the answers of Israeli Science and Engineering students to their Western European peers. Our analysis focused on finding significant patterns by comparing these groups of students. In order to identify such patterns, we analyzed each question using the Pearson chi-square test. The current study’s main finding is that the majority of candidates, regardless of their chosen academic field or the region where they study, have no training or expertise in managing a doctoral research project. Based on these findings, we suggest that all doctoral candidates be taught basic research-project management. We believe that such training will provide them with a powerful tool for better managing their research as they advance towards successful completion of their doctorate.

  10. Taking a Bad Turn: Compromised DNA Damage Response in Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Nilles

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Genomic integrity is of outmost importance for the survival at the cellular and the organismal level and key to human health. To ensure the integrity of their DNA, cells have evolved maintenance programs collectively known as the DNA damage response. Particularly challenging for genome integrity are DNA double-strand breaks (DSB and defects in their repair are often associated with human disease, including leukemia. Defective DSB repair may not only be disease-causing, but further contribute to poor treatment outcome and poor prognosis in leukemia. Here, we review current insight into altered DSB repair mechanisms identified in leukemia. While DSB repair is somewhat compromised in all leukemic subtypes, certain key players of DSB repair are particularly targeted: DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK and Ku70/80 in the non-homologous end-joining pathway, as well as Rad51 and breast cancer 1/2 (BRCA1/2, key players in homologous recombination. Defects in leukemia-related DSB repair may not only arise from dysfunctional repair components, but also indirectly from mutations in key regulators of gene expression and/or chromatin structure, such as p53, the Kirsten ras oncogene (K-RAS, and isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1/2. A detailed understanding of the basis for defective DNA damage response (DDR mechanisms for each leukemia subtype may allow to further develop new treatment methods to improve treatment outcome and prognosis for patients.

  11. A comparative study of ICU patient diaries vs. hospital charts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egerod, Ingrid; Christensen, Doris

    2010-01-01

    Intensive care survivors often suffer from memory disorders, and some go on to develop anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress. Since the 1980s nurses have written diaries for intensive care patients to help them understand their illness and come to terms with their experiences after...... discharge. The central question we posed in this study was: Why do nurses write diaries in addition to conventional charting in the medical record? To answer this question, we compared intensive care diaries and hospital charts using textual analysis and narrative theory. The aims of our study were...... to compare patient diaries and hospital charts to explore (a) what each documentation instrument has to offer patients in their quest to make sense of their illness, and (b) why it is worthwhile for nurses to sustain the practice of writing diaries. The study findings show that the diary is coherent...

  12. Recognition of Faces in Unconstrained Environments: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ruiz-del-Solar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to carry out a comparative study of face recognition methods that are suitable to work in unconstrained environments. The analyzed methods are selected by considering their performance in former comparative studies, in addition to be real-time, to require just one image per person, and to be fully online. In the study two local-matching methods, histograms of LBP features and Gabor Jet descriptors, one holistic method, generalized PCA, and two image-matching methods, SIFT-based and ERCF-based, are analyzed. The methods are compared using the FERET, LFW, UCHFaceHRI, and FRGC databases, which allows evaluating them in real-world conditions that include variations in scale, pose, lighting, focus, resolution, facial expression, accessories, makeup, occlusions, background and photographic quality. Main conclusions of this study are: there is a large dependence of the methods on the amount of face and background information that is included in the face's images, and the performance of all methods decreases largely with outdoor-illumination. The analyzed methods are robust to inaccurate alignment, face occlusions, and variations in expressions, to a large degree. LBP-based methods are an excellent election if we need real-time operation as well as high recognition rates.

  13. A comparative study of flurbiprofen and piroxicam in osteoarthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misra N

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available In this single-blind, multiple-dose study the efficacy and tolerability of flurbiprofen was compared with that of piroxicam in 60 adult patients suffering from osteoarthritis of the knee. The patients were randomly allocated to receive either flurbiprofen 100 mg twice daily or piroxicam 20 mg once daily for a period of four weeks. Clinical assessments w.r.t. pain, tenderness, stiffness, swelling and general activity of patient were carried out prior to initiation of trial therapy and thereafter at weekly intervals for four weeks. The findings were graded. Though significant improvements as compared to baseline data occurred in both the treatment groups, flurbiprofen was found to be superior to piroxicam in improving pain on movement and at rest (p < 0.05. The incidence of side effects was less in the group receiving flurbiprofen (6% compared to 47% observed with piroxicam.

  14. A simulation study comparing aberration detection algorithms for syndromic surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Painter Ian

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The usefulness of syndromic surveillance for early outbreak detection depends in part on effective statistical aberration detection. However, few published studies have compared different detection algorithms on identical data. In the largest simulation study conducted to date, we compared the performance of six aberration detection algorithms on simulated outbreaks superimposed on authentic syndromic surveillance data. Methods We compared three control-chart-based statistics, two exponential weighted moving averages, and a generalized linear model. We simulated 310 unique outbreak signals, and added these to actual daily counts of four syndromes monitored by Public Health – Seattle and King County's syndromic surveillance system. We compared the sensitivity of the six algorithms at detecting these simulated outbreaks at a fixed alert rate of 0.01. Results Stratified by baseline or by outbreak distribution, duration, or size, the generalized linear model was more sensitive than the other algorithms and detected 54% (95% CI = 52%–56% of the simulated epidemics when run at an alert rate of 0.01. However, all of the algorithms had poor sensitivity, particularly for outbreaks that did not begin with a surge of cases. Conclusion When tested on county-level data aggregated across age groups, these algorithms often did not perform well in detecting signals other than large, rapid increases in case counts relative to baseline levels.

  15. A Phase I Study of CPI-613 in Combination with High-Dose Cytarabine and Mitoxantrone for Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardee, Timothy S; Anderson, Rebecca G; Pladna, Kristin M; Isom, Scott; Ghiraldeli, Lais P; Miller, Lance D; Chou, Jeff W; Jin, Guangxu; Zhang, Wei; Ellis, Leslie R; Berenzon, Dmitriy; Howard, Dianna S; Hurd, David D; Manuel, Megan; Dralle, Sarah; Lyerly, Susan; Powell, Bayard L

    2018-05-01

    Purpose: CPI-613, a lipoate analogue that inhibits pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and α-ketogluterate dehydrogenase (KGDH), has activity in patients with myeloid malignancies. This study explored the role of mitochondrial metabolism in chemotherapy response and determined the MTD, efficacy, and safety of CPI-613 combined with high-dose cytarabine and mitoxantrone in patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia. Experimental Design: The role of mitochondrial response to chemotherapy was assessed in cell lines and animal models. A phase I study of CPI-613 plus cytarabine and mitoxantrone was conducted in patients with relapsed or refractory AML. Results: Exposure to chemotherapy induced mitochondrial oxygen consumption that depended on PDH. CPI-613 sensitized AML cells to chemotherapy indicating that mitochondrial metabolism is a source of resistance. Loss of p53 did not alter response to CPI-613. The phase I study enrolled 67 patients and 62 were evaluable for response. The overall response rate was 50% (26CR+5CRi/62). Median survival was 6.7 months. In patients over 60 years old, the CR/CRi rate was 47% (15/32) with a median survival of 6.9 months. The response rate for patients with poor-risk cytogenetics also was encouraging with 46% (11/24 patients) achieving a CR or CRi. RNA sequencing analysis of a subset of baseline bone marrow samples revealed a gene expression signature consistent with the presence of B cells in the pretreatment marrow of responders. Conclusions: The addition of CPI-613 to chemotherapy is a promising approach in older patients and those with poor-risk cytogenetics. Clin Cancer Res; 24(9); 2060-73. ©2018 AACR . ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Targeting neuropilin-1 in human leukemia and lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, Katja; Jaalouk, Diana E; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos E; Zurita, Amado J; Kuniyasu, Akihiko; Eckhardt, Bedrich L; Marini, Frank C; Lichtiger, Benjamin; O'Brien, Susan; Kantarjian, Hagop M; Cortes, Jorge E; Koivunen, Erkki; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata

    2011-01-20

    Targeted drug delivery offers an opportunity for the development of safer and more effective therapies for the treatment of cancer. In this study, we sought to identify short, cell-internalizing peptide ligands that could serve as directive agents for specific drug delivery in hematologic malignancies. By screening of human leukemia cells with a combinatorial phage display peptide library, we isolated a peptide motif, sequence Phe-Phe/Tyr-Any-Leu-Arg-Ser (F(F)/(Y)XLRS), which bound to different leukemia cell lines and to patient-derived bone marrow samples. The motif was internalized through a receptor-mediated pathway, and we next identified the corresponding receptor as the transmembrane glycoprotein neuropilin-1 (NRP-1). Moreover, we observed a potent anti-leukemia cell effect when the targeting motif was synthesized in tandem to the pro-apoptotic sequence (D)(KLAKLAK)₂. Finally, our results confirmed increased expression of NRP-1 in representative human leukemia and lymphoma cell lines and in a panel of bone marrow specimens obtained from patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia or acute myelogenous leukemia compared with normal bone marrow. These results indicate that NRP-1 could potentially be used as a target for ligand-directed therapy in human leukemias and lymphomas and that the prototype CGFYWLRSC-GG-(D)(KLAKLAK)₂ is a promising drug candidate in this setting.

  17. Flow cytometric chemosensitivity assay using JC‑1, a sensor of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, in acute leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokosuka, Tomoko; Goto, Hiroaki; Fujii, Hisaki; Naruto, Takuya; Takeuchi, Masanobu; Tanoshima, Reo; Kato, Hiromi; Yanagimachi, Masakatsu; Kajiwara, Ryosuke; Yokota, Shumpei

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of the study is to establish a simple and relatively inexpensive flow cytometric chemosensitivity assay (FCCA) for leukemia to distinguish leukemic blasts from normal leukocytes in clinical samples. We first examined whether the FCCA with the mitochondrial membrane depolarization sensor, 5, 50, 6, 60-tetrachloro-1, 10, 3, 30 tetraethyl benzimidazolo carbocyanine iodide (JC-1), could detect drug-induced apoptosis as the conventional FCCA by annexin V/7-AAD detection did and whether it was applicable in the clinical samples. Second, we compared the results of the FCCA for prednisolone (PSL) with clinical PSL response in 18 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients to evaluate the reliability of the JC-1 FCCA. Finally, we performed the JC-1 FCCA for bortezomib (Bor) in 25 ALL or 11 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) samples as the example of the clinical application of the FCCA. In ALL cells, the results of the JC-1 FCCA for nine anticancer drugs were well correlated with those of the conventional FCCA using anti-annexin V antibody (P < 0.001). In the clinical samples from 18 children with ALL, the results of the JC-1 FCCA for PSL were significantly correlated with the clinical PSL response (P = 0.005). In ALL samples, the sensitivity for Bor was found to be significantly correlated with the sensitivity for PSL (P = 0.005). In AML samples, the Bor sensitivity was strongly correlated with the cytarabine sensitivity (P = 0.0003). This study showed the reliability of a relatively simple and the FCCA using JC-1, and the possibility for the further clinical application.

  18. A comparative study of fuel management in PWR reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barroso, D.E.G.; Nair, R.P.K.; Vellozo, S.O.

    1981-01-01

    A study about fuel management in PWR reactors, where not only the conventional uranium cycle is considered, but also the thorium cycle as an alternative is presented. The final results are presented in terms of U 3 O 8 demand and SWU and the approximate costs of the principal stages of the fuel cycle, comparing with the stardand cycle without recycling. (E.G.) [pt

  19. Quality of Sibling Relationship and Substance Misuse: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasia Tsamparli; Elvisa Frrokaj

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to examine the quality of sibling relationship in families with a sibling with substance misuse (SSU) and compare the relationship to families with a sibling with no use (SNU). Thirty-six (36) families participated in the study (17 with SSU and 19 with SNU; N = 144). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 40 siblings (20 SNU and 20 SSU; 18-31 years old) in order to qualitatively investigate the characteristics of the sibling relationship. The siblings w...

  20. Pediatric acute myeloid leukemia with t(8;16)(p11;p13), a distinct clinical and biological entity: A collaborative study by the International-Berlin- Frankfurt-Münster AML-study group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. Coenen (Eva); C.M. Zwaan (Christian Michel); D. Reinhardt (Dirk); C.J. Harrison (Christine); O.A. Haas (Oskar); V. de Haas (Valerie); V. Mihál (Vladimir); B. de Moerloose (Barbara); M. Jeison (Marta); J.E. Rubnitz (Jeffrey); D. Tomizawa (Daisuke); D. Johnston (Donna); T.A. Alonzo (Todd); H. Hasle (Henrik); A. Auvrignon (Anne); M.N. Dworzak (Michael); A. Pession (Andrea); V.H.J. van der Velden (Vincent); J. Swansbury (John); K.-F. Wong (Kit-Fai); N. Terui (Nobuhiko); S. Savasan (Sureyya); M. Winstanley (Mark); G. Vaitkeviciene (Goda); M. Zimmermann (Martin); R. Pieters (Rob); M.M. van den Heuvel-Eibrink (Marry)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML), cytogenetic abnormalities are strong indicators of prognosis. Some recurrent cytogenetic abnormalities, such as t(8;16)(p11;p13), are so rare that collaborative studies are required to define their prognostic impact. We collected the clinical

  1. A prospective, randomized multicenter study comparing APD and CAPD treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro, S; Bjorner, J B; Tofte-Jensen, P

    2000-01-01

    , dialysis-related complications, dialysis-related expenses. RESULTS: The quality-of-life studies showed that significantly more time for work, family, and social activities was available to patients on APD compared to those on CAPD (p ...) treatment with respect to quality of life and clinical outcomes in relation to therapy costs. DESIGN: A prospective, randomized multicenter study. SETTING: Three Danish CAPD units. PATIENTS: Thirty-four adequately dialyzed patients with high or high-average peritoneal transport characteristics were included...... were assessed at baseline and after 6 months by the self-administered short-form SF-36 generic health survey questionnaire supplemented with disease- and treatment-specific questions. Therapy costs were compared by evaluating dialysis-related expenses. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Quality-of-life parameters...

  2. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation for adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who had central nervous system involvement: a study from the Adult ALL Working Group of the Japan Society for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigematsu, Akio; Kako, Shinichi; Mitsuhashi, Kenjiro; Iwato, Koji; Uchida, Naoyuki; Kanda, Yoshinobu; Fukuda, Takahiro; Sawa, Masashi; Senoo, Yasushi; Ogawa, Hiroyasu; Miyamura, Koichi; Takada, Satoru; Nagamura-Inoue, Tokiko; Morishima, Yasuo; Ichinohe, Tatsuo; Atsuta, Yoshiko; Mizuta, Shuichi; Tanaka, Junji

    2017-06-01

    The prognosis for adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients with central nervous system (CNS) involvement (CNS+) who received allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) remains unclear. We retrospectively compared the outcomes of allo-SCT for patients with CNS involvement and for patients without CNS involvement (CNS-) using a database in Japan. The eligibility criteria for this study were as follows: diagnosis of ALL, aged more than 16 years, allo-SCT between 2005 and 2012, and first SCT. Data for 2582 patients including 136 CNS+ patients and 2446 CNS- patients were used for analyses. As compared with CNS- patients, CNS+ patients were younger, had worse disease status at SCT and had poorer performance status (PS) at SCT (P < 0.01). Incidence of relapse was higher in CNS+ patients (P = 0.02), and incidence of CNS relapse was also higher (P < 0.01). The probability of 3-year overall survival (OS) was better in CNS- patients (P < 0.01) by univariate analysis. However, in patients who received SCT in CR, there was no difference in the probability of OS between CNS+ and CNS- patients (P = 0.38) and CNS involvement did not have an unfavorable effect on OS by multivariate analysis. CNS+ patients who achieved CR showed OS comparable to that of CNS- patients.

  3. PML-RARA-targeted DNA vaccine induces protective immunity in a mouse model of leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padua, Rose Ann; Larghero, Jerome; Robin, Marie; le Pogam, Carol; Schlageter, Marie-Helene; Muszlak, Sacha; Fric, Jan; West, Robert; Rousselot, Philippe; Phan, Thi Hai; Mudde, Liesbeth; Teisserenc, Helene; Carpentier, Antoine F; Kogan, Scott; Degos, Laurent; Pla, Marika; Bishop, J Michael; Stevenson, Freda; Charron, Dominique; Chomienne, Christine

    2003-11-01

    Despite improved molecular characterization of malignancies and development of targeted therapies, acute leukemia is not curable and few patients survive more than 10 years after diagnosis. Recently, combinations of different therapeutic strategies (based on mechanisms of apoptosis, differentiation and cytotoxicity) have significantly increased survival. To further improve outcome, we studied the potential efficacy of boosting the patient's immune response using specific immunotherapy. In an animal model of acute promyelocytic leukemia, we developed a DNA-based vaccine by fusing the human promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic acid receptor-alpha (PML-RARA) oncogene to tetanus fragment C (FrC) sequences. We show for the first time that a DNA vaccine specifically targeted to an oncoprotein can have a pronounced effect on survival, both alone and when combined with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). The survival advantage is concomitant with time-dependent antibody production and an increase in interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). We also show that ATRA therapy on its own triggers an immune response in this model. When DNA vaccination and conventional ATRA therapy are combined, they induce protective immune responses against leukemia progression in mice and may provide a new approach to improve clinical outcome in human leukemia.

  4. Comparing distance education and conventional education: observations from a comparative study of post-registration nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Duffy

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This retrospective study presents a comparison of assessment results achieved by distancelearning students and classroom-based students undertaking the same module in a degree course. The purpose of the comparison is to provide some objective measurement of the quality of distance education in relation to conventional classroom-based education. The authors have selected three groups of students, who have all undertaken the same module in the B. Sc Health Studies degree programme offered by the University of Paisley. One group (in Paisley undertook their studies by means of conventional classroom-based education, the second (in Hong Kong by supported distance learning with face-to-face contact in the form of tutorials, and the third (in a geographically dispersed group in the United Kingdom and other countries by supported distance learning with no face-to-face contact. The results obtained by these three groups of students were analysed. Because of the differences in the size of the groups, the Kruskal- Wallis 1- Way Anova test was applied to validate the face value findings. The authors include findings from the literature comparing distance education with conventional education and from cross-cultural studies to present their data in context. Analysis of the assessment results showed that students from all three groups were successful in their studies, but the students studying by distance learning obtained significantly higher end-of-module results than their classroom-based colleagues. This latter finding reflects the conclusion that other investigators have reached In their discussion the authors identify educational, cultural and personal factors that may help to explain their findings. A limitation in the study is that it concerns only one module in the degree programme. The research now moves on to comparing students who have undertaken the whole degree programme by the means described

  5. Achalasia in the elderly patient: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana B. Schechter

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Achalasia is a primary esophageal motor disorder secondary to the degeneration of ganglion cells of the inhibitory intramural myenteric plexus. It affects both sexes similarly and has two peaks of incidence, one in the 3rd to 4th decades of life and the other after 60 years of age. The effect of age on esophageal motility of patients with achalasia is not well known. Studies have shown that healthy older people, when compared to the young, have: a a lower number of ganglion cells in the intramural myenteric plexus; b a reduced normal relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter; and c a reduced esophageal peristalsis. Thus, as both age and achalasia can produce comparable degenerative changes in the intramural myenteric plexus, it is possible that advanced age could be an important factor in enhancing the clinical and manometric abnormalities commonly found in patients with achalasia. OBJECTIVES: To compare the clinical, radiological and manometric findings in young as compared to elderly (>60 years old achalasia patients. METHODS: A retrospective study of a group of patients with untreated achalasia separated into young and elderly patients. Demographic, clinical, serology for Chagas' disease, radiological and manometric data were compared between these groups. The level of significance was P<0.05. RESULTS: The study included 105 patients, 52 young (25 M/27 F, mean age 40 years old and 53 elderly (21 M/32 F, mean age 70 years old. The elderly group had a higher prevalence of Chagas' disease (P = 0.004 and a lower pressure of the lower esophageal sphincter [26.4 mm Hg vs 31.9 mm Hg] P = 0.001, a difference that persisted when analyzed only elderly and young patients with idiopathic achalasia. Younger patients had a higher prevalence of heartburn (P = 0.001 and chest pain (P = 0.012 than the elderly. CONCLUSION: Elderly patients with achalasia had a lower esophageal sphincter pressure than the young, even when we excluded patients with

  6. Lineage Switching in Acute Leukemias: A Consequence of Stem Cell Plasticity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Dorantes-Acosta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute leukemias are the most common cancer in childhood and characterized by the uncontrolled production of hematopoietic precursor cells of the lymphoid or myeloid series within the bone marrow. Even when a relatively high efficiency of therapeutic agents has increased the overall survival rates in the last years, factors such as cell lineage switching and the rise of mixed lineages at relapses often change the prognosis of the illness. During lineage switching, conversions from lymphoblastic leukemia to myeloid leukemia, or vice versa, are recorded. The central mechanisms involved in these phenomena remain undefined, but recent studies suggest that lineage commitment of plastic hematopoietic progenitors may be multidirectional and reversible upon specific signals provided by both intrinsic and environmental cues. In this paper, we focus on the current knowledge about cell heterogeneity and the lineage switch resulting from leukemic cells plasticity. A number of hypothetical mechanisms that may inspire changes in cell fate decisions are highlighted. Understanding the plasticity of leukemia initiating cells might be fundamental to unravel the pathogenesis of lineage switch in acute leukemias and will illuminate the importance of a flexible hematopoietic development.

  7. The leukemias: Epidemiologic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linet, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    Particularly geared to physicians and cancer researchers, this study of the epidemiology and etiology of leukemia analyzes the four major leukemia subtypes in terms of genetic and familial determinant factors and examines the incidence, distribution and frequency of reported leukemia clusters. Linet discusses the connection between other types of malignancies, their treatments, and the subsequent development of leukemia and evaluates the impact on leukemia onset of such environmental factors as radiation therapy, drugs, and occupational hazards

  8. Politeness in Brazil and Spain: a comparative case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Huelva Unterbäumen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present some results of a comparative study between the politeness strategies that two Spanish and two Brazilian professors would use, both in Portuguese and Spanish, in twelve hypothetical situations presented on a social behavior questionnaire. This work is based on a previous study published by Piatti (2003 in Argentina, where the author observed some pragmatic differences between a group of students of Spanish as a foreign language and a group of native speakers of the language. With her hypotheses as a starting point, the scope was moved to a small group of people with high communicative competence in both languages, in order to give a different insight on of the pragmatic differences that exist between Brazilians and the Spanish. Based on the findings, we have tried to establish some intercultural differences among the politeness strategies used in Brazil and in Spain.

  9. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ROLE OF CORTICAL MASTOIDECTOMY IN MYRINGOPLASTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Kawatra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Chronic suppurative otitis media is an inflammatory process of mucoperiosteal lining of middle ear space and mastoid. Effect of mastoidectomy on patients without evidence of active infectious disease remains highly debated and unproven. In this study the role of cortical mastoidectomy in myringoplasty in patients of CSOM in dry as well as wet ears was evaluated. OBJECTIVE : To evaluate the efficacy and role of cortical mastoidectomy in patients with CSOM (safe type in dry as well as wet ears. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective randomized. METHODS : Data was collected from the patients undergoing myringoplasty with or without cortical mastoidectomy. Study was carried out on a total of 80 patients undergoing the surgery. Study period was 18 months with 6 months of follow up. Outcome was evaluated in terms of graft rejection, lateralization and change in AB gap. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The statistical analysis was done using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences Version 15.0 statistical Analysis Software. RESULT S : overall success rate was 77.5%. It was higher in dry ear (87.5% as compared to wet ear (67.5% and this difference was significant statistically. On evaluating odds of failure for wet ear, it was observed that group 1 had higher odds of failure for wet ear as compared to that of group 2. CONCLUSION : In both myringoplasty alone or with cortical mastoidectomy, failure rates were higher in wet as compared to dry ears, however odds of failure in wet cases were much higher in myringoplasty alone group as compared to myringoplasty with cortic al mastoidectomy

  10. An exploratory phase 2 study of investigational Aurora A kinase inhibitor alisertib (MLN8237 in acute myelogenous leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart L. Goldberg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alisertib (MLN8237 is an investigational, oral, selective, Aurora A kinase (AAK inhibitor. In this phase 2 trial, 57 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML or high-grade myelodysplastic syndrome received alisertib 50 mg BID for 7 days in 21-day cycles. Responses in 6/35 AML patients (17% response rate with an additional 49% stable disease, 34% transfusion independence included 1 complete response lasting >1 year. No responses were observed in MDS patients. Adverse events >30% included diarrhea, fatigue, nausea, febrile neutropenia, and stomatitis. Results suggest modest activity in AML, supporting further research to better understand how AAK inhibition may induce leukemic cell senescence.

  11. Bilateral Breast Reduction Without Opioid Analgesics: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, Fereydoun Don; Cheng, Justin; Stephan, Brad; Castel, Nikki; Kim, Leslie; Murariu, Daniel; Parsa, Alan A

    2017-09-01

    Breast reduction has traditionally been performed under general anesthesia with adjunct opioid use. However, opioids are associated with a wide variety of adverse effects, including nausea, vomiting, constipation, postoperative sedation, dizziness, and addiction. This study compares bilateral breast reduction using a multimodal opioid-free pain management regimen vs traditional general anesthesia with adjunct opioids. A total of 83 female patients were enrolled in this study. Group 1 includes a retrospective series of 39 patients that underwent breast reduction via general anesthesia with adjunct opioid use. This series was compared to 2 prospective groups of patients who did not receive opioids either preoperatively or intraoperatively. In group 2, twenty-six patients underwent surgery under intravenous sedation and local anesthesia. In group 3, eighteen patients underwent surgery with general anesthesia. All patients in groups 2 and 3 received preoperative gabapentin and celecoxib along with infiltration of local anesthetics during the operation and prior to discharge to the Post-Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU). Primary outcome measures included the duration of surgery, time from end of operation to discharge home, postoperative opioid and antiemetic use, and unplanned postoperative hospitalizations. When compared to group 1, groups 2 and 3 experienced a shorter time from end of operation to discharge home (P opioid use (P opioid-free bilateral breast reduction either under local or general anesthesia as an outpatient. This method resulted in significantly less morbidity, use of opioids postoperatively, as well as unplanned hospital admissions compared to "traditional" breast reduction under general anesthesia with the use of opioids. 3. © 2017 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com

  12. A Comparative Study of Actuator Configurations for Satellite Attitude Control

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    Raymond Kristiansen

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a controllability study of different actuator configurations consisting of magnetic torquers, reaction wheels and a gravity boom is presented. The theoretical analysis is performed with use of controllability gramians, and simulation results with the different configurations are presented and compared regarding settling time and power consumption to substantiate the theoretical analysis. A reference model is also introduced to show how the power consumption can he lowered to the same magnitude as when magnetic torquers are used, without degrading the satellite response significantly.

  13. A comparative study of three different gene expression analysis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Jae Young; Han, Hyung Soo; Lee, Seon Duk; Lee, Hanna; Lee, Dong Eun; Ahn, Jae Yun; Ryoo, Hyun Wook; Seo, Kang Suk; Kim, Jong Kun

    2017-12-04

    TNF-α regulates immune cells and acts as an endogenous pyrogen. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is one of the most commonly used methods for gene expression analysis. Among the alternatives to PCR, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) shows good potential in terms of specificity and sensitivity. However, few studies have compared RT-PCR and LAMP for human gene expression analysis. Therefore, in the present study, we compared one-step RT-PCR, two-step RT-LAMP and one-step RT-LAMP for human gene expression analysis. We compared three gene expression analysis methods using the human TNF-α gene as a biomarker from peripheral blood cells. Total RNA from the three selected febrile patients were subjected to the three different methods of gene expression analysis. In the comparison of three gene expression analysis methods, the detection limit of both one-step RT-PCR and one-step RT-LAMP were the same, while that of two-step RT-LAMP was inferior. One-step RT-LAMP takes less time, and the experimental result is easy to determine. One-step RT-LAMP is a potentially useful and complementary tool that is fast and reasonably sensitive. In addition, one-step RT-LAMP could be useful in environments lacking specialized equipment or expertise.

  14. Innovation Policies: A comparative study Between Brazil and France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Dias Coelho Jones

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to present a comparison between the main actions promoted to encourage innovation by France, as well as the current stage of research and development initiatives (R&D, in relation to Brazil. Is a qualitative study that the procedures for its development ranks as literature and documents. The data collection technique was documentary and had as a data source primary and secondary documents, coming from public archives and statistical sources. For the survey of brazilian data for the development of this study, it was used as informational basis the fifth edition of the Innovation Research (PINTEC 2011. The data from France raised through the use of OECD year Report 2014 " Reviews of Innovation Policy France in 2014."  For the presentation of the study results comparative charts and tables were used. As the present study results can be highlighted, among others: France is a country with a long scientific tradition and technique, and plays a significant role in the world in this area. On the other hand, Brazil has one of the lowest proportions of R&D and export of high technology to GDP. The completion of this study brought an important diagnosis: there is a wide and interesting research topic that is still little explored by Brazilian researchers.

  15. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children with leukemia: a single institution experience with respect to donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Hee Jo; Kook, Hoon; Han, Dong Kyun; Hwang, Tai Ju

    2011-12-01

    Aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of transplantation by donor source and to help select the best alternative donor in children with leukemia. Donor sources included matched related donor (MRD, n = 35), allele-matched unrelated donor (M-UD, n = 10) or -mismatched (MM)-UD (n = 13) or unrelated umbilical cord blood (UCB, n = 11). UCB group had a significantly higher incidence of grade II-IV acute graft versus host disease (MRD, 11.8%; M-UD, 30.0%; MM-UD, 15.4%, UCB, 54.4%, P = 0.004) but there was no difference in incidence of chronic graft versus host disease between 4 groups. The 5-yr leukemia-free survival (LFS) was 76.7%, 60.0%, 69.2%, and 45.5%, respectively (P = 0.128). MRD group showed higher LFS rate than UCB group (P = 0.022). However, LFS of M-UD and MM-UD together (65.2%) was not different from that of MRD group (76.7%, P = 0.325), or from that of UCB (45.5%, P = 0.190). The relapse incidence at 5 yr was 17.1%, 20.0%, 15.4%, and 0%, respectively (P = 0.460). The 100-day treatment-related mortality was 2.9%, 20.0%, 7.7%, and 36.4%, respectively (P = 0.011). Despite the limitations of small number of patients, unrelated donor transplants including even allele-mismatched ones, seem to be as effective in children with leukemia lacking suitable relative donors. Also, UCB transplant may serve as another possible option in urgent transplants.

  16. Oral health of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadalagere Lakshmana Girish Babu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Leukemia is a malignancy of the bone marrow and blood. It is the most common childhood cancer in India. Advances in the treatment regimens have greatly increased the chances of survival. Both the disease and its treatment change the oral environment. In some cases, oral manifestations are the presenting feature of the disease and it will be the dentist′s responsibility to identify the underlying disorder and guide the diagnosis of the patient. Hence, the aim of present article is to review the literature concerning the oral health of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL.

  17. Structural brain alteration in survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia with chemotherapy treatment: A voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Liwei; Su, Lianzi; Xu, Jiajia; Xiang, Li; Wang, Longsheng; Zhai, Zhimin; Zheng, Suisheng

    2017-03-01

    To assess structural brain changes in survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with chemotherapy treatment by combining voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). 28 ALL patients (mean age: 40.71±8.58years, years since diagnosis: 7-38) and 20 age-matched control subjects (mean age: 42.95±6.39years) selected in this study with 3D T1 and diffusion tensor imaging acquired on a 3.0T Siemens MRI scanner. The ALL group had a history of chemotherapy treatment and off-therapy at least for 3years was enrolled. VBM and TBSS analysis were performed to detect regional grey matter (GM) volume changes and white matter (WM) alternation measured by fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD). VBM revealed decreased GM volume in ALL patients in lingual gyrus, left occipital middle gyrus, left temporal middle gyrus, left postcentral gyrus, left parietal inferior gyrus, left precentral gyrus, left frontal superior gyrus and increased GM volume in right caudate and frontal lobe. WM integrity changes measured by TBSS which showed decreased FA and AD in several WM regions, and increased MD and RD in ALL patients with chemotherapy treatment. Our results indicate that ALL patients had smaller GM volume and WM integrity changes in several regions. The current study may shed further light on the potential brain effects of chemotherapy treatment in ALL patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The acute monocytic leukemias: multidisciplinary studies in 45 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straus, D J; Mertelsmann, R; Koziner, B; McKenzie, S; de Harven, E; Arlin, Z A; Kempin, S; Broxmeyer, H; Moore, M A; Menendez-Botet, C J; Gee, T S; Clarkson, B D

    1980-11-01

    The clinical and laboratory features of 37 patients with variants of acute monocytic leukemia are described. Three of these 37 patients who had extensive extramedullary leukemic tissue infiltration are examples of true histiocytic "lymphomas." Three additional patients with undifferentiated leukemias, one patient with refractory anemia with excess of blasts, one patient with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, one patient with B-lymphocyte diffuse "histiocytic" lymphoma and one patient with "null" cell, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-positive lymphoblastic lymphoma had bone marrow cells with monocytic features. Another patient had dual populations of lymphoid and monocytoid leukemic cells. The true monocytic leukemias, acute monocytic leukemia (AMOL) and acute myelomonocytic leukemia (AMMOL), are closely related to acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) morphologically and by their response to chemotherapy. like AML, the leukemic cells from the AMMOL and AMOL patients form leukemic clusters in semisolid media. Cytochemical staining of leukemic cells for nonspecific esterases, presence of Fc receptor on the cell surface, phagocytic ability, low TdT activity, presence of surface "ruffles" and "ridges" on scanning EM, elevations of serum lysozyme, and clinical manifestations of leukemic tissue infiltration are features which accompanied monocytic differentiation in these cases.

  19. A Comparative Study on Emerging Electric Vehicle Technology Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, Jonathan [Sentech, Inc.; Khowailed, Gannate [Sentech, Inc.; Blackburn, Julia [Sentech, Inc.; Sikes, Karen [Sentech, Inc.

    2011-03-01

    Numerous organizations have published reports in recent years that investigate the ever changing world of electric vehicle (EV) technologies and their potential effects on society. Specifically, projections have been made on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with these vehicles and how they compare to conventional vehicles or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Similar projections have been made on the volumes of oil that these vehicles can displace by consuming large amounts of grid electricity instead of petroleum-based fuels. Finally, the projected rate that these new vehicle fleets will enter the market varies significantly among organizations. New ideas, technologies, and possibilities are introduced often, and projected values are likely to be refined as industry announcements continue to be made. As a result, over time, a multitude of projections for GHG emissions, oil displacement, and market penetration associated with various EV technologies has resulted in a wide range of possible future outcomes. This leaves the reader with two key questions: (1) Why does such a collective range in projected values exist in these reports? (2) What assumptions have the greatest impact on the outcomes presented in these reports? Since it is impractical for an average reader to review and interpret all the various vehicle technology reports published to date, Sentech Inc. and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have conducted a comparative study to make these interpretations. The primary objective of this comparative study is to present a snapshot of all major projections made on GHG emissions, oil displacement, or market penetration rates of EV technologies. From the extensive data found in relevant publications, the key assumptions that drive each report's analysis are identified and 'apples-to-apples' comparisons between all major report conclusions are attempted. The general approach that was taken in this comparative study is comprised of six primary

  20. Engineering Ethics Education: A Comparative Study of Japan and Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Balamuralithara; Tochinai, Fumihiko; Kanemitsu, Hidekazu

    2018-03-22

    This paper reports the findings of a comparative study in which students' perceived attainment of the objectives of an engineering ethics education and their attitude towards engineering ethics were investigated and compared. The investigation was carried out in Japan and Malaysia, involving 163 and 108 engineering undergraduates respectively. The research method used was based on a survey in which respondents were sent a questionnaire to elicit relevant data. Both descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were performed on the data. The results of the analyses showed that the attainment of the objectives of engineering ethics education and students' attitude towards socio-ethical issues in engineering were significantly higher and positive among Japanese engineering students compared to Malaysian engineering students. Such findings suggest that a well-structured, integrated, and innovative pedagogy for teaching ethics will have an impact on the students' attainment of ethics education objectives and their attitude towards engineering ethics. As such, the research findings serve as a cornerstone to which the current practice of teaching and learning of engineering ethics education can be examined more critically, such that further improvements can be made to the existing curriculum that can help produce engineers that have strong moral and ethical characters.

  1. Assessing Compliance With Mercaptopurine Treatment in Younger Patients With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in First Remission | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This randomized phase III trial studies compliance to a mercaptopurine treatment intervention compared to standard of care in younger patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in remission. Assessing ways to help patients who have acute lymphoblastic leukemia to take their medications as prescribed may help them in taking their medications more consistently and may improve

  2. PLURALISM AND THE STUDY OF RELIGION: A COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. SAMIAN

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the Malaysian government outline of Vision 2020, the importance of the study of religion as an integral component of general education is explicitly stated. This paper examines the present state of comparative religious studies in Malaysian Institutes of Higher Learning. Several philosophical issues are highlighted including the local concept and objective of religious studies, suitability of courses offered, and its relevance to the national development, i.e., industrialization of the country. An attempt is made to suggest how the religious course in a plural society like Malaysia, in the future, can be used to achieve Vision 2020 by integrating science and religion based on the position that science is a problem-solving activity.

  3. Toxicity profile and treatment delays in NOPHO ALL2008-comparing adults and children with Philadelphia chromosome-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Nina; Birgens, Henrik; Abrahamsson, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Cure rates improve when adolescents and young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are treated according to pediatric protocols. Assumed risks of toxicities and associated delays in treatment have played a role in setting upper age limits. The aim of this study was to examine...... the toxicity profile and treatment delays in NOPHO ALL2008 comparing children and adults. METHODS: We collected information on 19 treatment-related toxicities, systematically captured at 3-month intervals throughout therapy, and time intervals between 12 consecutive treatment phases for 1076 patients aged 1......-45 yrs treated according to the Nordic/Baltic ALL2008 protocol. RESULTS: No adults died during induction. The duration of induction therapy and postinduction treatment phases did not differ between children and adults, except for patients 18-45 yrs being significantly delayed during two of nine high...

  4. Trisomy 19 and T(9;22 In a Patient with Acute Basophilic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Rojas-Atencio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of acute basophilic leukemia with two coexisting clonal abnormalities, t(9;22 and trisomy 19. The blast showed positive reaction with myeloperoxidase but negative reaction with chloroacetate esterase and acid phosphatase. Metachromatic features of the blast were observed with toluidine blue stain. Ultrastructure study showed the presence of azurophilic granules in basophils and blast mast cells. Conventional and molecular cytogenetic studies revealed, t(9;22 with BCR/ABL positive and trisomy 19 in all metaphase cells. To our knowledge, this paper here is the first to present acute basophilic leukemia with trisomy 19 and t(9;22.

  5. Pediatric acute myeloid leukemia with t(8;16)(p11;p13), a distinct clinical and biological entity: a collaborative study by the International-Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster AML-study group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coenen, Eva A.; Zwaan, C. Michel; Reinhardt, Dirk; Harrison, Christine J.; Haas, Oskar A.; de Haas, Valerie; Mihál, Vladimir; De Moerloose, Barbara; Jeison, Marta; Rubnitz, Jeffrey E.; Tomizawa, Daisuke; Johnston, Donna; Alonzo, Todd A.; Hasle, Henrik; Auvrignon, Anne; Dworzak, Michael; Pession, Andrea; van der Velden, Vincent H. J.; Swansbury, John; Wong, Kit-fai; Terui, Kiminori; Savasan, Sureyya; Winstanley, Mark; Vaitkeviciene, Goda; Zimmermann, Martin; Pieters, Rob; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M.

    2013-01-01

    In pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML), cytogenetic abnormalities are strong indicators of prognosis. Some recurrent cytogenetic abnormalities, such as t(8;16)(p11;p13), are so rare that collaborative studies are required to define their prognostic impact. We collected the clinical characteristics, morphology, and immunophenotypes of 62 pediatric AML patients with t(8;16)(p11;p13) from 18 countries participating in the International Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster (I-BFM) AML study group. We used the AML-BFM cohort diagnosed from 1995-2005 (n = 543) as a reference cohort. Median age of the pediatric t(8;16)(p11;p13) AML patients was significantly lower (1.2 years). The majority (97%) had M4-M5 French-American-British type, significantly different from the reference cohort. Erythrophagocytosis (70%), leukemia cutis (58%), and disseminated intravascular coagulation (39%) occurred frequently. Strikingly, spontaneous remissions occurred in 7 neonates with t(8;16)(p11;p13), of whom 3 remain in continuous remission. The 5-year overall survival of patients diagnosed after 1993 was 59%, similar to the reference cohort (P = .14). Gene expression profiles of t(8;16)(p11;p13) pediatric AML cases clustered close to, but distinct from, MLL-rearranged AML. Highly expressed genes included HOXA11, HOXA10, RET, PERP, and GGA2. In conclusion, pediatric t(8;16)(p11;p13) AML is a rare entity defined by a unique gene expression signature and distinct clinical features in whom spontaneous remissions occur in a subset of neonatal cases. PMID:23974201

  6. Favorable outcome in non-infant children with MLL-AF4-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report from the Tokyo Children's Cancer Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomizawa, Daisuke; Kato, Motohiro; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Fujimura, Junya; Inukai, Takeshi; Fukushima, Takashi; Kiyokawa, Nobutaka; Koh, Katsuyoshi; Manabe, Atsushi; Ohara, Akira

    2015-11-01

    Unlike acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in infants, MLL gene rearrangement (MLL-r) is rare in ALL children (≥1 year old). The outcome and optimal treatment options for MLL-r ALL remain controversial. Among the 1827 children enrolled in the Tokyo Children's Cancer Study Group ALL studies L95-14, L99-15, L99-1502, L04-16, and L07-1602 (1995-2009), 25 MLL-r ALL patients (1.3 %) were identified. Their median age and leukocyte count at diagnosis was 2 years old (range 1-15 years) and 27,690/μL (range 1800-1,113,000/μL), respectively. All but one patient achieved complete remission (CR) after induction therapy, and 19 underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in first CR according to the protocol. The 5-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) rate were 60.0 % [standard error (SE), 9.7 %] and 64.0 % (SE 9.6 %), respectively. Notably, 9/12 cases with MLL-AF4-positive ALL are alive in continuous CR with a 75.0 % (SE 12.5 %) EFS rate. The causes of treatment failure were as follows: one induction failure, five relapses, and five transplant-related deaths. With intensive chemotherapy and allogeneic HSCT, favorable outcome of children (≥1 year old) with MLL-AF4-positive ALL was observed. However, considering the risk of acute and late toxicities associated with HSCT, its indication should be restricted.

  7. [Comparing audiological evaluation and screening: a study on presbycusis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samelli, Alessandra Giannella; Negretti, Camila Aparecida; Ueda, Kerli Saori; Moreira, Renata Rodrigues; Schochat, Eliane

    2011-01-01

    Given the high prevalence of presbycusis and the damage it brings about, a screening test can be useful in the identification of hearing loss in primary care. To estimate the prevalence of hearing loss in a representative sample of elderly people living at Butantan using an audiological screening method (questionnaire) and a basic audiological evaluation; to compare the results of the two kinds of evaluations, checking the validity of this tool for hearing loss screening. Cross sectional descriptive study. 200 individuals (above 60 years old, both genders) were randomly selected to undergo audiological screening (questionnaire). Another randomly selected group encompassed 100 individuals who were submitted to a set of audiological tests. Then, we compared the results from the two methods. There were no statistically significant associations between the questionnaire and the degree of hearing loss of the patients. The prevalence of hearing loss in our sample was of 56% in the screening and of 95% when checked by the audiological evaluation. Therefore, screening was not proven valid to assess hearing when compared to audiological evaluation.

  8. The efficacy of primary care chaplaincy compared with antidepressants: a retrospective study comparing chaplaincy with antidepressants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Gordon

    2017-07-01

    Aim To determine the effectiveness of primary care chaplaincy (PCC) when used as the sole intervention, with outcomes being compared directly with those of antidepressants. This was to be carried out in a homogenous study population reflective of certain demographics in the United Kingdom. Increasing numbers of patients are living with long-term conditions and 'modern maladies' and are experiencing loss of well-being and depression. There is an increasing move to utilise non-pharmacological interventions such as 'talking therapies' within this context. Chaplaincy is one such 'talking therapy' but within primary care its evidence base is sparse with only one quantitative study to date. There is therefore a need to evaluate PCC excluding those co-prescribed antidepressants, as this is not evidenced in the literature as yet. PCC also needs to be directly compared with the use of antidepressants to justify its use as a valid alternative treatment for loss of well-being and depression. This was a retrospective observational study based on routinely collected data. There were 107 patients in the PCC group and 106 in the antidepressant group. Socio-demographic data were collected. Their pre- and post-intervention (either chaplaincy or antidepressant) well-being was assessed, by the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS) which is a validated Likert scale. Findings The majority of both groups were female with both groups showing marked ethnic homogeneity. PCC was associated with a significant and clinically meaningful improvement in well-being at a mean follow-up of 80 days. This treatment effect was maintained after those co-prescribed antidepressants were removed. PCC was associated with an improvement in well-being similar to that of antidepressants with no significant difference between the two groups.

  9. Programming PHREEQC calculations with C++ and Python a comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Scott R.; Parkhurst, David L.; Muller, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The new IPhreeqc module provides an application programming interface (API) to facilitate coupling of other codes with the U.S. Geological Survey geochemical model PHREEQC. Traditionally, loose coupling of PHREEQC with other applications required methods to create PHREEQC input files, start external PHREEQC processes, and process PHREEQC output files. IPhreeqc eliminates most of this effort by providing direct access to PHREEQC capabilities through a component object model (COM), a library, or a dynamically linked library (DLL). Input and calculations can be specified through internally programmed strings, and all data exchange between an application and the module can occur in computer memory. This study compares simulations programmed in C++ and Python that are tightly coupled with IPhreeqc modules to the traditional simulations that are loosely coupled to PHREEQC. The study compares performance, quantifies effort, and evaluates lines of code and the complexity of the design. The comparisons show that IPhreeqc offers a more powerful and simpler approach for incorporating PHREEQC calculations into transport models and other applications that need to perform PHREEQC calculations. The IPhreeqc module facilitates the design of coupled applications and significantly reduces run times. Even a moderate knowledge of one of the supported programming languages allows more efficient use of PHREEQC than the traditional loosely coupled approach.

  10. Internal Structure Quality Control of Solid Pharmaceuticals. A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Silvia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was a comparative investigation by spectral and thermal analysis in order to asses a number of characteristics of different varieties ofrawmaterials of ursodeoxycholic acid and ibuprofen. The different dissolution behavior of two ursodeoxycholic acid pharmaceutical product by crystallinity pattern was investigated. Methods: Raw materials of ursodeoxycholic acid and ibuprofen were used. IR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and X-Ray Diffraction Analysis were applied. Results: The results show no crystallinitydifferences for different batches of the tested drugs. No solid solid transition was proved during sample preparation for transmission IR analysis. Conclusions: A combination of two more affordabletests by IR spectrometry and differential scanning calorimetry lead to the same results as X-Ray diffraction analysis for crystallinity similarity assessment of the studied substances. The dissolution differences of test drugs were not related to the polymorphism of the raw materials.

  11. A Comparative Study of Aerocapture Missions with a Mars Destination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Diane; Miller, Heather C.; Griffin, Brand; James, Bonnie F.; Munk, Michelle M.

    2005-01-01

    Conventional interplanetary spacecraft use propulsive systems to decelerate into orbit. Aerocapture is an alternative approach for orbit capture, in which the spacecraft makes a single pass through a target destination's atmosphere. Although this technique has never been performed, studies show there are substantial benefits of using aerocapture for reduction of propellant mass, spacecraft size, and mission cost. The In-Space Propulsion (ISP) Program, part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate, has invested in aerocapture technology development since 2002. Aerocapture investments within ISP are largely driven by mission systems analysis studies, The purpose of this NASA-funded report is to identify and document the fundamental parameters of aerocapture within previous human and robotic Mars mission studies which will assist the community in identifying technology research gaps in human and robotic missions, and provide insight for future technology investments. Upon examination of the final data set, some key attributes within the aerocapture disciplines are identified.

  12. High Incidences of Invasive Fungal Infections in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients Receiving Induction Chemotherapy without Systemic Antifungal Prophylaxis: A Prospective Observational Study in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jih-Luh Tang

    Full Text Available Invasive fungal infections (IFIs is an important complication for acute myeloid leukemia (AML patients receiving induction chemotherapy. However, the epidemiological information is not clear in Southeastern Asia, an area of potential high incidences of IFIs. To clarify it, we enrolled 298 non-M3 adult AML patients receiving induction chemotherapy without systemic anti-fungal prophylaxis from Jan 2004 to Dec 2009, when we applied a prospective diagnostic and treatment algorithm for IFIs. Their demographic parameters, IFI characters, and treatment outcome were collected for analysis. The median age of these patients was 51 years. Standard induction chemotherapy was used for 246 (82.6% patients, and 66.8% of patients achieved complete remission (CR or partial remission. The incidence of all-category IFIs was 34.6% (5.7% proven IFIs, 5.0% probable IFIs and 23.8% possible IFIs. Candida tropicalis was the leading pathogen among yeast, and lower respiratory tract was the most common site for IFIs (75.4%, 80/106. Standard induction chemotherapy and failure to CR were identified as risk factors for IFIs. The presence of IFI in induction independently predicted worse survival (hazard ratio 1.536 (1.100-2.141, p value = 0.012. Even in those who survived from the initial IFI insults after 3 months, the presence of IFIs in induction still predicted a poor long-term survival. This study confirms high incidences of IFIs in Southeastern Asia, and illustrates potential risk factors; poor short-term and long-term outcomes are also demonstrated. This epidemiological information will provide useful perspectives for anti-fungal prophylaxis and treatment for AML patients during induction, so that best chances of cure and survival can be provided.

  13. A comparative phylogenetic study of genetics and folk music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamjav, Horolma; Juhász, Zoltán; Zalán, Andrea; Németh, Endre; Damdin, Bayarlkhagva

    2012-04-01

    Computer-aided comparison of folk music from different nations is one of the newest research areas. We were intrigued to have identified some important similarities between phylogenetic studies and modern folk music. First of all, both of them use similar concepts and representation tools such as multidimensional scaling for modelling relationship between populations. This gave us the idea to investigate whether these connections are merely accidental or if they mirror population migrations from the past. We raised the question; does the complex structure of musical connections display a clear picture and can this system be interpreted by the genetic analysis? This study is the first to systematically investigate the incidental genetic background of the folk music context between different populations. Paternal (42 populations) and maternal lineages (56 populations) were compared based on Fst genetic distances of the Y chromosomal and mtDNA haplogroup frequencies. To test this hypothesis, the corresponding musical cultures were also compared using an automatic overlap analysis of parallel melody styles for 31 Eurasian nations. We found that close musical relations of populations indicate close genetic distances (music; maternal lineages have a more important role in folk music traditions than paternal lineages. Furthermore, the combination of these disciplines establishing a new interdisciplinary research field of "music-genetics" can be an efficient tool to get a more comprehensive picture on the complex behaviour of populations in prehistoric time.

  14. [Laparoscopic versus open surgery for colorectal cancer. A comparative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas-Martin, Antonio; Díaz-Pizarro-Graf, José Ignacio; Muñoz-Hinojosa, Jorge Demetrio; Valdés-Castañeda, Alberto; Cruz-Ramírez, Omar; Bertrand, Martin Marie

    2014-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer is currently accepted and widespread worldwide. However, according tol the surgical experience on this approach, surgical and short-term oncologic results may vary. Studies comparing laparoscopic vs. open surgery in our population are scarce. To determine the superiority of the laparoscopic vs. open technique for colorectal cancer surgery. This retrospective and comparative study collected data from patients operated on for colorectal cancer between 1999 and 2011 at the Angeles Lomas Hospital, Mexico. A total of 82 patients were included in this study; 47 were operated through an open approach and 35 laparoscopically. Mean operative time was significantly lower in the open approach group (p= 0.008). There were no significant difference between both techniques for intraoperative bleeding (p= 0.3980), number of lymph nodes (p= 0.27), time to initiate oral feeding (p= 0.31), hospital stay (p= 0.12), and postoperative pain (p= 0.19). Procedure-related complications rate and type were not significantly different in both groups (p= 0.44). Patients operated laparoscopically required significantly less analgesic drugs (p= 0.04) and less need for epidural postoperative analgesia (p= 0.01). Laparoscopic approach is as safe as the traditional open approach for colorectal cancer. Early oncological and surgical results confirm its suitability according to this indication.

  15. Atomic bomb irradiation-induced leukemias revisited. Summary data of 50 years-long term follow up study on survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomonaga, Masao; Matsuo, Tatsuki; Preston, D.L.; Bennett, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The Life Span Study (LSS) on 93,741 survivors (fixed cohort) and the Open City Study (OCS) on all survivors (unfixed) irrespective of whether they belonged to LSS or not, have been conducted in parallel over 45 years to ensure reliable case detection. We adopted the FAB classification for acute leukemias and for exposure dose of individual survivors, the new dosimetry system 1986 (DS86). In LSS, 221 leukemia cases were analysed. There was strong evidence of radiation-induced risks for acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), but not for adult T-cell leukemia and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. There was also significant difference between three major types with respect to the effects of age at bombing and sex, and in the temporal pattern of the elevated risks. For AML the dose response function was non-linear, whereas there was no evidence against linearity for ALL and CML. The hypothesis of a 0.5 Gy threshold could be rejected for three major types of leukemia. Excess Absolute Risk (EAR) estimates in cases per 10,000 Person Year Sievert (PYSv) were 0.6, 1.1, 0.9 for ALL, AML and CML, respectively. The corresponding relative risk at 1.0 Sv were 9.1, 3.3, 6.2, respectively. Although childhood exposure <15 age at bombing apparently induced three major types, the age-related highest risk was observed for ALL. In OCS, 413 cases with DS86 estimates were used for analysis. Type specific incidence rates were calculated indirectly by using the over all incidence of leukemia from LSS data and multiplying these values by the corresponding proportions of cases in OCS. In conjunction with LSS data, the effects of radiation were significantly greater on the incidences of ALL and CML than on that of AML. In the high dose group there was a strong evidence for shorter incubation time and faster decline of elevated risk for ALL and CML than for AML. AML risk was apparently persistent through 1980. (K.H.)

  16. Comparing interventions for selective mutism: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manassis, Katharina; Tannock, Rosemary

    2008-10-01

    To examine the outcome within 6 to 8 months of medical and nonmedical intervention for children with severe selective mutism (SM). Children with SM (n = 17) and their mothers, seen in a previous study, attended follow-up appointments with a clinician. Obtained by maternal report were: treatment received, current diagnosis (based on semi-structured interview), speech in various environments, and global improvement. An independent clinician also rated global functioning. The diagnosis of SM persisted in 16 children, but significant symptomatic improvement was evident in the sample. All children had received school consultations. Children who had been treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) (n = 10) showed greater global improvement, improvement in functioning, and improvement in speech outside the family than children who were unmedicated (n = 7). No differences were evident for children receiving and not receiving additional nonmedical intervention. The findings suggest the potential benefit of SSRI treatment in severe SM, but randomized comparative treatment studies are indicated.

  17. Enculturating Conversational Agents based on a Comparative Corpus Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipi, Afia Akhter; Yamaoka, Yuji; Rehm, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    When encountering people who have a different cultural background from our own, many of us feel uncomfortable because gestures and facial expressions may not be familiar to us. Thus, to enhance the believability of conversational agents, culture-specific nonverbal behaviors should be implemented ...... a more detailed analysis about posture shifts, and proposes a chat system with an embodied conversational agent (ECA) that can act as a language trainer....... into the agents. In our previous study, with the goal of building a user interface that incorporates a user’s cultural background, we have collected comparative conversation corpus in Germany and Japan, and investigated the differences in gestures and posture shifts between these two countries. This paper reports...

  18. Osteochondroma in a young cat infected by feline leukemia virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus de Oliveira Reis

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Osteochondromas are primary bone tumors characterized by cartilage-covered bone projections involving single or multiple masses (osteochondromatosis. This study reports the clinical and pathological findings from a young domestic cat with osteochondroma in the humerus. During the clinical evaluation, the animal had pronounced right forelimb musculature atrophy and an increased distal humeral volume. Histopathological examination of the neoplasm revealed a proliferative lesion characterized mostly by endochondral ossification and peripheral foci of proliferating cartilage tissue. Further testing using immunohistochemical staining and polymerase chain reaction revealed the presence of feline leukemia virus antigens in the hematopoietic cells of the bone marrow and FeLV proviral DNA in the peripheral blood lymphocytes. Clinical and pathological findings are consistent with osteochondroma. This neoplasm occurred in an eight-month-old feline with humeral enlargement that had been present since two months old.

  19. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia In a Pregnant Woman: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aytekin Tokmak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML is a rare disease in pregnancy. Our aim is to present a 37 weeks of pregnant woman with chronic myelogenous leukemia. A 27 Years in multigravi (gravida 5, parity: 4, at 37 weeks gestation was admitted with the diagnosis of painful pregnancy and CML. Physical examination findings were normal, complete blood count and peripheral blood smear results were consistent with CML. The patient was diagnosed CML in the 30th week of pregnancy and were treated with hydroxyurea and interferon. Treatment depends on the mother and the fetus did not develop any side effects. Our patient with CML is interesting due to lack of perinatal effects and take the diagnosis at an early age. CML diagnosed during pregnancy requires a multidisciplinary approach and hydroxyurea and interferon treatment on the mother and fetus are at low risk of inducing adverse effects. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(4.000: 811-813

  20. Pneumatosis Intestinalis in a Patient with Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Mangaonkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumatosis Intestinalis is a rare condition characterized by the presence of gas within the intestinal wall. We describe a case of a 33-year-old woman with acute promyelocytic leukemia who developed nausea and nonbloody diarrhea. CT showed intramural air in transverse and descending colon. Patient clinically improved with conservative management.

  1. Combined Treatment with Splenectomy and Cladribine in Hairy Cell Leukemia in Taiwan: A Clinicopathologic Study of 5 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Bin Yu

    2007-12-01

    Conclusion: For the HCL patients in this study, splenectomy had a role not only in improving cytopenia but in aiding diagnosis. Cladribine is safe and highly effective for Taiwanese patients and should be considered as first-line treatment for HCL.

  2. A comparative study of image low level feature extraction algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. El-gayar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Feature extraction and matching is at the base of many computer vision problems, such as object recognition or structure from motion. Current methods for assessing the performance of popular image matching algorithms are presented and rely on costly descriptors for detection and matching. Specifically, the method assesses the type of images under which each of the algorithms reviewed herein perform to its maximum or highest efficiency. The efficiency is measured in terms of the number of matches founds by the algorithm and the number of type I and type II errors encountered when the algorithm is tested against a specific pair of images. Current comparative studies asses the performance of the algorithms based on the results obtained in different criteria such as speed, sensitivity, occlusion, and others. This study addresses the limitations of the existing comparative tools and delivers a generalized criterion to determine beforehand the level of efficiency expected from a matching algorithm given the type of images evaluated. The algorithms and the respective images used within this work are divided into two groups: feature-based and texture-based. And from this broad classification only three of the most widely used algorithms are assessed: color histogram, FAST (Features from Accelerated Segment Test, SIFT (Scale Invariant Feature Transform, PCA-SIFT (Principal Component Analysis-SIFT, F-SIFT (fast-SIFT and SURF (speeded up robust features. The performance of the Fast-SIFT (F-SIFT feature detection methods are compared for scale changes, rotation, blur, illumination changes and affine transformations. All the experiments use repeatability measurement and the number of correct matches for the evaluation measurements. SIFT presents its stability in most situations although its slow. F-SIFT is the fastest one with good performance as the same as SURF, SIFT, PCA-SIFT show its advantages in rotation and illumination changes.

  3. Radioactivity of natural and artificial building materials - a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Zs; Völgyesi, P; Nagy, H É; Szabó, Cs; Kis, Z; Csorba, O

    2013-04-01

    Building materials and their additives contain radioactive isotopes, which can increase both external and internal radioactive exposures of humans. In this study Hungarian natural (adobe) and artificial (brick, concrete, coal slag, coal slag concrete and gas silicate) building materials were examined. We qualified 40 samples based on their radium equivalent, activity concentration, external hazard and internal hazard indices and the determined threshold values of these parameters. Absorbed dose rate and annual effective dose for inhabitants living in buildings made of these building materials were also evaluated. The calculations are based on (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K activity concentrations determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. Measured radionuclide concentrations and hence, calculated indices and doses of artificial building materials show a rather disparate distribution compared to adobes. The studied coal slag samples among the artificial building materials have elevated (226)Ra content. Natural, i.e. adobe and also brick samples contain higher amount of (40)K compared to other artificial building materials. Correlation coefficients among radionuclide concentrations are consistent with the values in the literature and connected to the natural geochemical behavior of U, Th and K elements. Seven samples (coal slag and coal slag concrete) exceed any of the threshold values of the calculated hazard indices, however only three of them are considered to be risky to use according to the fact that the building material was used in bulk amount or in restricted usage. It is shown, that using different indices can lead to different conclusions; hence we recommend considering more of the indices at the same time when building materials are studied. Additionally, adding two times their statistical uncertainties to their values before comparing to thresholds should be considered for providing a more conservative qualification. We have defined radon hazard portion to point

  4. A comparative genomic hybridization study in a 46,XX male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigola, M Angels; Carrera, Marta; Ribas, Isabel; Egozcue, Josep; Miró, Rosa; Fuster, Carme

    2002-07-01

    To identify Y chromosome material in an azoospermic male with an XX karyotype. Case report. Faculty of medicine and Centro de Patologia Celular (CPC) medical center. A 33-year-old man with infertility. G-banding, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). FISH for X and Y chromosomes, PCR for the SRYgene and amelogenin gene in the Xp (AMGX) and (AMGY), and losses or gains with CGH. FISH analysis using X and Y chromosome-specific probes showed an X chromosome containing Y chromosome sequences on the top of the short arm; this Y chromosome region was not visible by conventional cytogenetic analysis. PCR amplification of DNA showed the presence of the sex-determining region of the Y chromosome (SRY) and the amelogenin gene in the pseudoautosomal boundary of the X chromosome (AMGX). CGH confirmed the presence of the chromosome region Yp11.2-pter and detected the presence of the two otherwise normal X chromosomes. The two Xpter (XPAR1) pseudoautosomal regions present in this XX male suggest the need to reevaluate XX males using CGH and PCR to characterize the clinical variability in XX males due to genes other than those located on the Y chromosome.

  5. A comparative study of machine learning models for ethnicity classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Advait; Bessie Amali, D. Geraldine

    2017-11-01

    This paper endeavours to adopt a machine learning approach to solve the problem of ethnicity recognition. Ethnicity identification is an important vision problem with its use cases being extended to various domains. Despite the multitude of complexity involved, ethnicity identification comes naturally to humans. This meta information can be leveraged to make several decisions, be it in target marketing or security. With the recent development of intelligent systems a sub module to efficiently capture ethnicity would be useful in several use cases. Several attempts to identify an ideal learning model to represent a multi-ethnic dataset have been recorded. A comparative study of classifiers such as support vector machines, logistic regression has been documented. Experimental results indicate that the logical classifier provides a much accurate classification than the support vector machine.

  6. MRI compatibility of robot actuation techniques--a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Gregory S; Krieger, Axel; Iordachita, Iulian; Csoma, Csaba; Whitcomb, Louis L; Gabor, Fichtinger

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports an experimental evaluation of the following three different MRI-compatible actuators: a Shinsei ultrasonic motor a Nanomotion ultrasonic motor and a pneumatic cylinder actuator. We report the results of a study comparing the effect of these actuators on the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of MRJ images under a variety of experimental conditions. Evaluation was performed with the controller inside and outside the scanner room and with both 1.5T and 3T MRI scanners. Pneumatic cylinders function with no loss of SNR with controller both inside and outside of the scanner room. The Nanomotion motor performs with moderate loss of SNR when moving during imaging. The Shinsei is unsuitable for motion during imaging. All may be used when motion is appropriately interleaved with imaging cycles.

  7. MRI Compatibility of Robot Actuation Techniques – A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Gregory S.; Krieger, Axel; Iordachita, Iulian; Csoma, Csaba; Whitcomb, Louis L.; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports an experimental evaluation of the following three different MRI-compatible actuators: a Shinsei ultrasonic motor, a Nanomotion ultrasonic motor and a pneumatic cylinder actuator. We report the results of a study comparing the effect of these actuators on the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of MRI images under a variety of experimental conditions. Evaluation was performed with the controller inside and outside the scanner room and with both 1.5T and 3T MRI scanners. Pneumatic cylinders function with no loss of SNR with controller both inside and outside of the scanner room. The Nanomotion motor performs with moderate loss of SNR when moving during imaging. The Shinsei is unsuitable for motion during imaging. All may be used when motion is appropriately interleaved with imaging cycles. PMID:18982643

  8. In vitro acellular dissolution of mineral fibres: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualtieri, Alessandro F; Pollastri, Simone; Bursi Gandolfi, Nicola; Gualtieri, Magdalena Lassinantti

    2018-05-04

    The study of the mechanisms by which mineral fibres promote adverse effects in both animals and humans is a hot topic of multidisciplinary research with many aspects that still need to be elucidated. Besides length and diameter, a key parameter that determines the toxicity/pathogenicity of a fibre is biopersistence, one component of which is biodurability. In this paper, biodurability of mineral fibres of social and economic importance (chrysotile, amphibole asbestos and fibrous erionite) has been determined for the first time in a systematic comparative way from in vitro acellular dissolution experiments. Dissolution was possible using the Gamble solution as simulated lung fluid (pH = 4 and at body temperature) so to reproduce the macrophage phagolysosome environment. The investigated mineral fibres display very different dissolution rates. For a 0.25 μm thick fibre, the calculated dissolution time of chrysotile is in the range 94-177 days, very short if compared to that of amphibole fibres (49-245 years), and fibrous erionite (181 years). Diffraction and SEM data on the dissolution products evidence that chrysotile rapidly undergoes amorphization with the formation of a nanophasic silica-rich fibrous metastable pseudomorph as first dissolution step whereas amphibole asbestos and fibrous erionite show minor signs of dissolution even after 9-12 months.

  9. Female Sexual Homicide Offenders: A Descriptive and Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skott, Sara; Beauregard, Eric; Darjee, Rajan

    2018-04-23

    Research on female sexual homicide has been very scarce. In Europe, it has rarely been examined, and in Scotland, it has never previously been studied. This exploratory study aims to examine the characteristics of sexual homicides involving female offenders between 1990 and 2015 in Scotland. Using data from the Scottish Homicide Database between 1990 and 2015, female sexual homicides (n = 7) were compared to nonsexual homicides committed by females (n = 106) and to sexual homicides committed by men (n = 89) using Fisher's exact tests. The findings show that although female sexual homicide offenders are similar to both female nonsexual homicide offenders and male sexual homicide offenders in certain aspects, there are important differences that distinguish sexual homicides involving female offenders from both groups. Female sexual homicide offenders can arguably be seen as a distinct group of offenders, with specific characteristics and specific needs. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. An animal model to study toxicity of central nervous system therapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Effects on behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullenix, P.J.; Kernan, W.J.; Tassinari, M.S.; Schunior, A.; Waber, D.P.; Howes, A.; Tarbell, N.J.

    1990-01-01

    Central nervous system prophylactic therapy used in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia can reduce intelligence quotient scores and impair memory and attention in children. Cranial irradiation, intrathecal methotrexate, and steroids are commonly utilized in acute lymphoblastic leukemia therapy. How they induce neurotoxicity is unknown. This study employs an animal model to explore the induction of neurotoxicity. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats at 17 and 18 days of age were administered 18 mg/kg prednisolone, 2 mg/kg methotrexate, and 1000 cGy cranial irradiation. Another 18-day-old group was administered 1000 cGy cranial irradiation but no drugs. Matching controls received saline and/or a sham exposure to radiation. All animals at 6 weeks and 4 months of age were tested for alterations in spontaneous behavior. A computer pattern recognition system automatically recorded and classified individual behavioral acts displayed during exploration of a novel environment. Measures of behavioral initiations, total time, and time structure were used to compare treated and control animals. A permanent sex-specific change in the time structure of behavior was induced by the prednisolone, methotrexate, and radiation treatment but not by radiation alone. Unlike hyperactivity, the effect consisted of abnormal clustering and dispersion of acts in a pattern indicative of disrupted development of sexually dimorphic behavior. This study demonstrates the feasibility of an animal model delineating the agent/agents responsible for the neurotoxicity of central nervous system prophylactic therapy

  11. Mac protocols for wireless sensor network (wsn): a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arshad, J.; Akram, Q.; Saleem, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Data communication between nodes is carried out under Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol which is defined at data link layer. The MAC protocols are responsible to communicate and coordinate between nodes according to the defined standards in WSN (Wireless Sensor Networks). The design of a MAC protocol should also address the issues of energy efficiency and transmission efficiency. There are number of MAC protocols that exist in the literature proposed for WSN. In this paper, nine MAC protocols which includes S-MAC, T-MAC, Wise-MAC, Mu-MAC, Z-MAC, A-MAC, D-MAC, B-MAC and B-MAC+ for WSN have been explored, studied and analyzed. These nine protocols are classified in contention based and hybrid (combination of contention and schedule based) MAC protocols. The goal of this comparative study is to provide a basis for MAC protocols and to highlight different mechanisms used with respect to parameters for the evaluation of energy and transmission efficiency in WSN. This study also aims to give reader a better understanding of the concepts, processes and flow of information used in these MAC protocols for WSN. A comparison with respect to energy reservation scheme, idle listening avoidance, latency, fairness, data synchronization, and throughput maximization has been presented. It was analyzed that contention based MAC protocols are less energy efficient as compared to hybrid MAC protocols. From the analysis of contention based MAC protocols in term of energy consumption, it was being observed that protocols based on preamble sampling consume lesser energy than protocols based on static or dynamic sleep schedule. (author)

  12. A Comparative Study between Universal Eclectic Septoplasty Technique and Cottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral Neto, Odim Ferreira do; Mizoguchi, Flavio Massao; Freitas, Renato da Silva; Maniglia, João Jairney; Maniglia, Fábio Fabrício; Maniglia, Ricardo Fabrício

    2017-01-01

    Introduction  Since the last century surgical correction of nasal septum deviation has been improved. The Universal Eclectic Technique was recently reported and there are still few studies dedicated to address this surgical approach. Objective  The objective of this study is to compare the results of septal deviation correction achieved using the Universal Eclectic Technique (UET) with those obtained through Cottle's Technique. Methods  This is a prospective study with two consecutive case series totaling 90 patients (40 women and 50 men), aged between 18 and 55 years. We divided patients into two groups according to the surgical approach. Fifty-three patients underwent septoplasty through Universal Eclectic Technique (UET) and thirty-seven patients were submitted to classical Cottle's septoplasty technique. All patients have answered the Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation Scale (NOSE) questionnaire to assess pre and postoperative nasal obstruction. Results  Statistical analysis showed a significantly shorter operating time for the UET group. Nasal edema assessment performed seven days after the surgery showed a prevalence of mild edema in UET group and moderate edema in Cottle's technique group. In regard to complication rates, UET presented a single case of septal hematoma while in Cottle's technique group we observed: 02 cases of severe edemas, 01 case of incapacitating headache, and 01 complaint of nasal pain. Conclusion  The Universal Eclectic Technique (UET) has proven to be a safe and effective surgical technique with faster symptomatic improvement, low complication rates, and reduced surgical time when compared with classical Cottle's technique. PMID:28680499

  13. A case of acute lymphoblastic leukemia with an intracerebellar mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Yukio; Shitara, Toshiji; Kuribayashi, Toshio; Noji, Takashi; Kuroume, Takayoshi

    1983-01-01

    A 3-year-old boy, who had a complaint of hemorrhagic diathesis, was diagnosed as having acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Remission was induced by a combination of vincristine and prednisolone. Prophylactic intrathecal methotrexate and cranial irradiation were administered. Two years later, he was hospitalized for CNS leukemia and treated with multiple doses of intrathecal methotrexate. At the time, the results of CT scanning were normal. Six months later, though, he developed vomiting and lethargy. CT scanning showed a mass of an increased density in the right cerebellar hemisphere that displaced the fourth ventricle to the left and resulted in an obstructive hydrocephalus. Decompression was done by means of Ommaya reservoir setting. Soon his consciousness returned to normal, and CT scanning revealed no abnormal mass three weeks later. A month later, though, the CNS leukemia returned. He developed vomiting and a headache, and CT scanning showed a high-density mass in the right cerebellar hemisphere. The mass was diagnosed as hematoma. He died one month later. In this case, the previous mass showed evidence of a relatively uniform contrast enhancement, which is consistent with the intracerebral leukemic mass reported by Wendling. In Japan, this is the first report of an intracerebellar mass of acute lymphoblastic leukemia as perceived by CT scanning. (author)

  14. Isodicentric chromosome 21: a novel aberration in acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, M; Tanaka, K; Arif, M; Shintani, T; Kumaravel, T S; Kyo, T; Dohy, H; Kamada, N

    1998-11-01

    We present here a 78-year-old female patient with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), French-American-British classification M2, exhibiting isodicentric chromosome 21, idic(21)(q22), at the time of diagnosis. The patient had three idic(21)(q22), besides the del(5)(q13q32), add(21)(q22), dic(21;22) (q22;q13), and +22. Fluorescence in situ hybridization studies with whole-chromosome painting and centromere-specific probes for chromosome 21 verified the diagnosis of idic(21)(q22). There were no distinct clinicohematological characteristics of AML with isodicentric 21. The patient was treated with remission-induction therapy followed by consolidation therapy. Two years later, the patient showed the disappearance of isodicentric 21 but retained del(5)(q13q32) and gained other chromosomal abnormalities, +add(17)(p11) and -16. To our knowledge, this is the first report of AML with acquired idic(21)(q22).

  15. The contributions of the European Medicines Agency and its pediatric committee to the fight against childhood leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose K

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Klaus Rose,1,* Philip D Walson,2,* 1klausrose Consulting, Pediatric Drug Development and More, Riehen, Switzerland; 2Department of Clinical Pharmacology, University Medical School, Goettingen, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Although the diagnosis of childhood leukemia is no longer a death sentence, too many patients still die, more with acute myeloid leukemia than with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The European Union pediatric legislation was introduced to improve pharmaceutical treatment of children, but some question whether the European Medicines Agency (EMA approach is helping children with leukemia. Some have even suggested that the decisions of EMA pediatric committee (PDCO are counterproductive. This study was designed to investigate the impact of PDCO-issued pediatric investigation plans (PIPs for leukemia drugs.Methods: All PIPs listed under “oncology” were downloaded from the EMA website. Non-leukemia decisions including misclassifications, waivers (no PIP, and solid tumors were discarded. The leukemia decisions were analyzed, compared to pediatric leukemia trials in the database http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, and discussed in the light of current literature.Results: The PDCO leukemia decisions demand clinical trials in pediatric leukemia for all new adult drugs without prioritization. However, because leukemia in children is different and much rarer than in adults, these decisions have resulted in proposed studies that are scientifically and ethically questionable. They are also unnecessary, since once promising new compounds are approved for adults, more appropriate, prioritized pediatric leukemia trials are initiated worldwide without PDCO involvement.Conclusion: EMA/PDCO leukemia PIPs do little to advance the treatment of childhood leukemia. The unintended negative effects of the flawed EMA/PDCO's standardized requesting of non-prioritized testing of every new adult leukemia drug in

  16. Identification of Heme Oxygenase-1 as a Novel Predictor of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Outcomes in Acute Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghao Lu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main aim of this study was to determine the correlation between clinical outcome and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 expression before and after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT in acute leukemia. Methods: HO-1 mRNA levels in 83 patients were measured using qRT-PCR. In a comparative analysis of HO-1 levels in relation to different post-transplant outcomes, the HO-1 threshold, determined via the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve, was effectively used to predict clinical relapse and acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD. The correlations among clinical relapse, aGVHD and HO-1 expression were analyzed based on this threshold. Results: Leukemia risk stratification and relative expression of HO-1 before pretreatment had significant effects on clinical relapse. Leukemia risk stratification, relative expression of HO-1 after HSCT and the interval from diagnosis to transplantation had a significant influence on aGVHD. Both relapse and aGVHD appeared to be associated with relative HO-1 expression. The relative expression rate of HO-1 was 1.131-1.186 before pretreatment, and strongly associated with post-transplantation relapse. The relative expression rate of HO-1 was 1.102-1.144 after transplantation, and closely related to aGVHD. ROC curve analysis revealed high specificity and sensitivity of HO-1 expression in predicting relapse and aGVHD after allo-HSCT. Conclusions: HO-1 expression can be effectively used as a predictor of relapse as well as a diagnostic factor of aGVHD after transplantation for allo-HSCT patients with acute leukemia.

  17. Acquired hemoglobin H disease in a patient with aplastic anemia evolving into acute myeloid leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Stella Figueiredo

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The prognosis of severe aplastic anemia has improved since the introduction of bone marrow transplantation and treatment with antithymocyte globulin. In contrast to the success of these protocols, studies with long term follow-up have shown the occurrence of clonal diseases such as paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, myelodysplastic syndrome and acute leukemia in aplastic anemia. CASE REPORT: We report the first case of a Brazilian patient with aplastic anemia who developed myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia showing acquired hemoglobin H and increased fetal hemoglobin.

  18. A comparative study of European nuclear energy programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Presas i Puig, Albert [ed.

    2011-07-01

    The report includes the following contributions: Comparative study of European Nuclear Energy Programs. From international cooperation to the failure of a national program: the Austrian case. The ''go-and-stop'' of the Italian civil nuclear programs, among improvisations, ambitions and conspiracy. Nuclear energy in Spain - a research agenda for economic historians. The Portuguese nuclear program: a peripheral experience under dictatorship (1945-1973). The nuclear energy programs in Switzerland. The rise and decline of an independent nuclear power industry in Sweden, 1945-1970. The German fast breeder program, a historical review. Fast reactors as future visions - the case of Sweden. Transnational flows of nuclear knowledge between the U.S. and the U.K. and continental Europe in the 1950/60s. The Carter administration and its non-proliferation policies: the road to INFCE.

  19. Sibling relationships in individuals with Angelman syndrome: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Victoria; Richters, Lotte; Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert; Machalicek, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Investigating the impact of Angelman syndrome on the sibling relationship. This study explored differences in sibling relationships between children with a typically-developing sibling (n = 55) and children with a sibling with Angelman syndrome (n = 44). Sibling relationships were compared on four factors and 16 sub-scales of the Sibling Relationship Questionnaire-Revised. Results showed significant differences in mean scores on each of the four factors (i.e. Warmth/Closeness, Conflict, Rivalry and Dominance/Nurturance) and most of the sub-scales. ANCOVAs showed that demographic variables (number of siblings, living in a two-parent vs single parent household, gender, participant's age, place of residence) did not influence significant differences in sibling relationships between the two groups. Having a brother or sister with Angelman syndrome may influence the way in which the sibling perceives the sibling relationship. This may have important implications for family-centred intervention for this population.

  20. A Prospective Study Comparing Ligasure and Open Hemorrhoidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimi M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hemorrhoid is among the most common anorectal diseases and patients with high-grade disease conditions need surgical treatment. Many surgical procedures are available to treat the disease. The aim of this study was to compare the operative time and outcomes, (post-operative pain and complications of LigaSure hemorrhoidectomy with those of the open conventional method.Methods : This randomized single-blind clinical trial included 57 patients (28 in LigaSure and 29 in the open group. The primary variable was the operative time for the excision of a single hemorrhoidal packet. The other variables were post-operative pain measured by morphine doses administered to control pain, scores of visual analogue scale (VAS used to measure pain severity, pain during home stay measured by doses of oral ibuprofen and the mean daily VAS scores, early complications including bleeding and urinary retention, longer-term complications and time to return to work.Results : The demographic data were comparatively the same between the two groups. The average time to excise a single packet of hemorrhoid was significantly shorter in the LigaSure group (8.91 min vs. 17.35 min, P<0.001. Post-operative pain measurements (morphine doses and VAS scores were lower in the LigaSure group, but the differences were not statistically significant (P=0.055 and 0.077, respectively. Complications of the two procedures were also comparable. Neither of the groups returned to work in a shorter time.Conclusion: LigaSure hemorrhoidectomy seems to be a safe method and it can reduce the operative time significantly. It may also have a modest effect on post-operative pain.

  1. A comparative study of two-piece ostomy appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welser, Marion; Riedlinger, Inge; Prause, Ulla

    The quality of life of people with a stoma may be affected by peristomal skin disorders and by frequent unplanned changes of ostomy appliances due to problems with those appliances. The aim of this study was to evaluate two new, two-piece ostomy appliances with mechanical couplings (both from the SenSura range by Coloplast) and their ability to address areas that may be important to the quality of life of people with stomas, including appliance changes, stool seepage and overfilling. The study design featured two comparative, crossover, randomized multi-centre studies that were conducted in Germany. The SenSura appliances were evaluated against established reference appliances. Seventy-three individuals with a colostomy (closed-end appliances) and 75 individuals with an ileostomy (drainable appliances) participated in the studies. The participants tested 4-6 flanges of each type within a maximum period of two weeks. The results demonstrated that there was less seepage of stool observed under the SenSura flange when it was removed (pappliances. The SenSura flanges had better adhesion and flexibility and were easier to remove than the references (pappliances on quality of life indicators - there were fewer unplanned changes and less seepage of stool was observed in patients using the SenSura products.

  2. Severe malnutrition evaluated by patient-generated subjective global assessment results in poor outcome among adult patients with acute leukemia: A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji; Wang, Chang; Liu, Xiaoliang; Liu, Qiuju; Lin, Hai; Liu, Chunshui; Jin, Fengyan; Yang, Yan; Bai, Ou; Tan, Yehui; Gao, Sujun; Li, Wei

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate nutritional status in adult patients with acute leukemia (AL) using patient-generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA) and to investigate the influence of nutritional status on prognosis.We observationally investigated 68 adult patients with newly diagnosed AL who received PG-SGA at the First Hospital of Jilin University between May 2013 and July 2015. Clinical features, chemotherapy regimens, biochemical indexes, body composition, complete remission (CR) rate, minimal residual disease (MRD), survival time, and side-effects of chemotherapy were compared between patients with and without severe malnutrition.Mean PG-SGA scores of the total patients were 6.1 ± 4.0, and 19 of 68 (27.9%) patients had severe malnutrition (PG-SGA score ≥9). Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) had higher scores than those with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL; P = .011) and high-risk patients had higher scores regardless of whether they had AML or ALL (AML, P = .012; ALL, P = .043). Univariate analysis showed that severe malnutrition was correlated with age (P = .041), transferrin (P = .042), Karnofsky Performance Status score (P = .006), and C-reactive protein (CRP) (P = .018). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that severe malnutrition was associated with CRP (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.020, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.002-1.039, P = .026). No difference was found in CR rate (P = .831) between patients with and without malnutrition, but those who were severely malnourished had higher MRD (P = .048 in AML patients, P = .036 in ALL patients) and more gastrointestinal side-effects (P = .014). Severe malnutrition was also associated with inferior overall survival (HR = 0.243, 95% CI: 0.063-0.945, P = .041) but not with event-free survival (HR = 0.808, 95% CI: 0.338-1.934, P = .663).Severe malnutrition defined by PG-SGA in adult patients with de novo AL may result in poor outcome. Copyright

  3. Heuristic Synthesis of Reversible Logic – A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chua Shin Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reversible logic circuits have been historically motivated by theoretical research in low-power, and recently attracted interest as components of the quantum algorithm, optical computing and nanotechnology. However due to the intrinsic property of reversible logic, traditional irreversible logic design and synthesis methods cannot be carried out. Thus a new set of algorithms are developed correctly to synthesize reversible logic circuit. This paper presents a comprehensive literature review with comparative study on heuristic based reversible logic synthesis. It reviews a range of heuristic based reversible logic synthesis techniques reported by researchers (BDD-based, cycle-based, search-based, non-search-based, rule-based, transformation-based, and ESOP-based. All techniques are described in detail and summarized in a table based on their features, limitation, library used and their consideration metric. Benchmark comparison of gate count and quantum cost are analysed for each synthesis technique. Comparing the synthesis algorithm outputs over the years, it can be observed that different approach has been used for the synthesis of reversible circuit. However, the improvements are not significant. Quantum cost and gate count has improved over the years, but arguments and debates are still on certain issues such as the issue of garbage outputs that remain the same. This paper provides the information of all heuristic based synthesis of reversible logic method proposed over the years. All techniques are explained in detail and thus informative for new reversible logic researchers and bridging the knowledge gap in this area.

  4. Skin cancer in Puerto Rico: a multiannual incidence comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Torre-Lugo, Eneida M; Figueroa, Luz D; Sánchez, Jorge L; Morales-Burgos, Adisbeth; Conde, Daniel

    2010-09-01

    The incidence of skin cancer continues to increase worldwide. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of skin cancer in Puerto Rico in a selected year (2005) and to compare these findings with those previously reported for Puerto Rico in 1974 and 1981 and with other countries. The data was collected from the pathology reports corresponding to the period of January to December 2005 of 21 participating Pathology Laboratories throughout Puerto Rico. The rate and distribution of the main types of skin cancer was calculated based on sex, age, anatomic location and laterality. The incidence of skin cancer in Puerto Rico for 2005 was 6,568 cases, which represent a rate of 167.9 per 100,000 inhabitants. The most common type of skin cancer was basal-cell carcinoma. Skin cancer was more common in males except for melanoma, which was more common in females. The incidence increases with age on all types of skin cancer. The head and neck area was the most frequent location, except for melanoma in women, which was more common on the legs. The incidence rate was 41.5/100,000 in 1974, 52.5/100,000 in 1981 and 167.9/100,000 in 2005, a 305% increase. We found an increasing incidence of skin cancer in Puerto Rico when compared with previous reported data. This analysis provides a comprehensive evaluation of the epidemiology of skin cancer in Puerto Rico.

  5. New Image Qualities in Education: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çankaya, Ibrahim

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare Turkish and European Union Countries Educations in terms of the new image qualities such as data like access to online education, digital access, foreign languages learnt per pupil, research & development investments, human resources employed in science and technology, the study opportunities offered to…

  6. Political Ideology: A Comparative Study of Three Chicano Youth Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Richard A.

    The study investigated the political ideology of three Chicano youth groups in El Paso, Texas: Mexican American Youth Association (MAYA), Mexican American Political Association (MAPA), and the Alianza. Purpose of the study was to identify and compare the political ideas and attitudes of the three organizations. Questionnaires were administered to…

  7. A Comparative Study on Cutting Electrodes for Batteries with Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luetke, Matthias; Franke, Volker; Techel, Anja; Himmer, Thomas; Klotzbach, Udo; Wetzig, Andreas; Beyer, Eckhard

    E-mobility is still one of the most discussed topics within the automotive industry. Electric powered vehicles can drive emissionfree and present consequently the future propulsion. Nearly all global players in the automotive industry are making great efforts to develop cost-efficient electric drives, which are suitable for series production. The national governments support this evolution progressively. For example the mobility research programme of the Federal Republic of Germany looks at the production of Li- Ion cells in its entirety. Within this programme the cutting of electrodes for Li-Ion cells by lasers is an issue, too. This paper provides a comparative study on cutting materials relevant for Li-Ion cells with beam sources operating in a cw mode and a pulsed mode respectively.

  8. A comparative study of two stochastic mode reduction methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinis, Panagiotis

    2005-09-01

    We present a comparative study of two methods for thereduction of the dimensionality of a system of ordinary differentialequations that exhibits time-scale separation. Both methods lead to areduced system of stochastic differential equations. The novel feature ofthese methods is that they allow the use, in the reduced system, ofhigher order terms in the resolved variables. The first method, proposedby Majda, Timofeyev and Vanden-Eijnden, is based on an asymptoticstrategy developed by Kurtz. The second method is a short-memoryapproximation of the Mori-Zwanzig projection formalism of irreversiblestatistical mechanics, as proposed by Chorin, Hald and Kupferman. Wepresent conditions under which the reduced models arising from the twomethods should have similar predictive ability. We apply the two methodsto test cases that satisfy these conditions. The form of the reducedmodels and the numerical simulations show that the two methods havesimilar predictive ability as expected.

  9. A Comparative Study of Distribution System Parameter Estimation Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yannan; Williams, Tess L.; Gourisetti, Sri Nikhil Gup

    2016-07-17

    In this paper, we compare two parameter estimation methods for distribution systems: residual sensitivity analysis and state-vector augmentation with a Kalman filter. These two methods were originally proposed for transmission systems, and are still the most commonly used methods for parameter estimation. Distribution systems have much lower measurement redundancy than transmission systems. Therefore, estimating parameters is much more difficult. To increase the robustness of parameter estimation, the two methods are applied with combined measurement snapshots (measurement sets taken at different points in time), so that the redundancy for computing the parameter values is increased. The advantages and disadvantages of both methods are discussed. The results of this paper show that state-vector augmentation is a better approach for parameter estimation in distribution systems. Simulation studies are done on a modified version of IEEE 13-Node Test Feeder with varying levels of measurement noise and non-zero error in the other system model parameters.

  10. Dense Descriptors for Optical Flow Estimation: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadreza Baghaie

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the displacements of intensity patterns between sequential frames is a very well-studied problem, which is usually referred to as optical flow estimation. The first assumption among many of the methods in the field is the brightness constancy during movements of pixels between frames. This assumption is proven to be not true in general, and therefore, the use of photometric invariant constraints has been studied in the past. One other solution can be sought by use of structural descriptors rather than pixels for estimating the optical flow. Unlike sparse feature detection/description techniques and since the problem of optical flow estimation tries to find a dense flow field, a dense structural representation of individual pixels and their neighbors is computed and then used for matching and optical flow estimation. Here, a comparative study is carried out by extending the framework of SIFT-flow to include more dense descriptors, and comprehensive comparisons are given. Overall, the work can be considered as a baseline for stimulating more interest in the use of dense descriptors for optical flow estimation.

  11. EARLY ENTERAL FEEDING AND DELAYED ENTERAL FEEDING- A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alli Muthiah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Nutrients form the fuel for the body, which comes in the form of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. The body is intended to burn fuels in order to perform work. Starvation with malnutrition affects the postoperative patients and patients with acute pancreatitis. There is an increased risk of nosocomial infections and a delay in the wound healing may be noted. They are more prone for respiratory tract infections. Enteral Nutrition (EN delivers nutrition to the body through gastrointestinal tract. This also includes the oral feeding. This study will review the administration, rationale and assess the pros and cons associated with the early initiation of enteral feeding. The aim of this study is to evaluate if early commencement of enteral nutrition compared to traditional management (delayed enteral feeding is associated with fewer complications and improved outcome-  In patients undergoing elective/emergency gastrointestinal surgery.  In patients with acute pancreatitis. It is also used to determine whether a period of starvation (nil by mouth after gastrointestinal surgery or in the early days of acute pancreatitis is beneficial in terms of specific outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective cohort interventional study was conducted using 100 patients from July 2012 to November 2012. Patients satisfying the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in the study. Patients admitted in my unit for GIT surgeries or acute pancreatitis constituted the test group, while patients admitted in other units for similar disease processes constituted the control group. RESULTS Our study concluded that early enteral feeding resulted in reduced incidence of surgical site infections. When the decreased length of stay, shorter convalescent period and the lesser post-interventional fatigue were taken into account, early enteral feeding has a definite cost benefit.CONCLUSION Early enteral feeding was beneficial associated with fewer

  12. A comparative study of three different kinds of school furniture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Jens; Storr-Paulsen, Annette

    1995-05-01

    Several studies indicate that the ISO standards for school furniture seem to be inappropriate, and there is increasing evidence that the inclination of the seat should be forward and that it should be possible to adjust the table-top to a certain non-horizontal angle. However, these studies have predominantly used objective measurement methods on adult subjects for short-term experiments in rather artificial surroundings. By means of structured interviews registering the school children's perception of ergonomic comfort, the present study has compared three types of school furniture-the original ISO-standard type, and two different new types characterized by forward slanting seats and tiltable desk-tops, the main difference between the two being approximately 15 cm in the height of the chair as well as the table. The study showed that the highest of the two tilting types was perceived to be significantly better than the two others in terms of table height, chair height, reading position, back-rest, and global assessment. Likewise, the feature of a tiltable table-top was considered overwhelmingly positive independently of the height of the furniture. It is recommended that school authorities, producers of school furniture, and relevant medical personnel consider these results for alternative designs of school furniture. It should be kept in mind, however, that school furniture is only one among many factors in the multifactorial field of the back health of school children.

  13. A comparative study of road traffic accidents in West Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, J F

    1978-11-01

    The problem of road traffic accidents in developing countries is now becoming a cause for concern. This is more so as preventive measures have not kept pace with economic progress and development. This paper reviews the present situation in West Malaysia, one of the better developed countries of the East, during the period 1970 to 1975. A comparative study has been made between the United States and Malaysia. To enable the urgency of the problem in developing countries to be appreciated the increases in the country's population and in the number of vehicles in use and their relation to the lesser increase in road mileage over the period of study have been discussed. The study has considered every aspect of the causative factors leading to traffic accidents, such as the effects of weather, seasonal variation, and road and lighting conditions. The common human errors leading to accidents have been discussed. Other factors, such as the ethnic distribution in Malaysia, and their relation to road accidents have shown the effect of the social structure on the problems. The data evaluated in this study make it clear that preventive measures are very necessary in underdeveloped as well as in developed countries.

  14. Severe Rotavirus gastroenteritis in a patient with infant leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Uygun

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children. Reports about the clinical relevance of rotavirus in immunocompromised children are rare. We herein presented a case of life-threatening Rotavirus gastroenteritis in an infant with acute myeloblastic leukemia which could be prevented by recently recommended Rotavirus vaccination.

  15. Changing trends of chronic myeloid leukemia in greater Mumbai, India over a period of 30 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikshit, Rajesh P.; Nagrani, Rajini; Yeole, Balkrishna; Koyande, Shravani; Banawali, Shripad

    2011-01-01

    Background: Little is known about burden of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in India. There is a recent interest to observe incidence and mortality because of advent of new diagnostic and treatment policies for CML. Materials and Methods: We extracted data from the oldest population-based cancer registry of Mumbai for 30 years period from 1976−2005 to observe incidence and mortality rates of CML. We classified the data into four age groups 0–14, 15–29, 30–54 and 55–74 to observe incidence rates in the respective age groups. Results: The age specific rates were highest for the age group of 55–74 years. No significant change in trends of CML was observed for 30 years period. However, there was a significant reduction in incidence rate for recent 15-years period (Estimated average annual percentage change=-3.9). No significant reduction in mortality rate was observed till 2005. Conclusion: The study demonstrates that age-specific rates for CML are highest in age group of 55-74 years, although they are lower compared to western populations. Significant reduction in incidence of CML in recent periods might be because of reduced misclassification of leukemias. The data of CML has to be observed for another decade to witness reduction in mortality because of changes in treatment management. PMID:22174498

  16. Review of diagnosis and classification of leukemias that occurred in A-bomb survivors (preliminary report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Tatsuki; Tomonaga, Masao; Ichimaru, Michito; Kamata, Nanao; Kuramoto, Atsushi.

    1984-01-01

    According to the current knowledge of diagnosis and classification, a review of 157 patients who had developed leukemia before June 30, 1967 was made. The total number of acute leukemia slightly decreased among A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima; however, the number of acute lymphatic leukemia (ALL) increased. The number of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) was unchanged. The frequency of CML implied that A-bombing damaged stem cells in a high incidence. Among A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki, although the number of acute non-lymphatic leukemia decreased, the number of ALL was unchanged. Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) was diagnosed in 7 A-bomb survivors, confirming that Nagasaki is an endemic area for ATL. These preliminary results seem to be of importance in elucidating the mechanism of leukemia developiong among A-bomb survivors. (Namekawa, K.)

  17. Occupation and leukemia in Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talibov, Madar; Kautiainen, Susanna; Martinsen, Jan Ivar

    2012-01-01

    We studied occupational variation of the risk of acute myeloid leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and other leukemia in Nordic countries.......We studied occupational variation of the risk of acute myeloid leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and other leukemia in Nordic countries....

  18. Review of diagnosis and classification of leukemias that occurred in A-bomb survivors (preliminary report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuo, T; Tomonaga, M; Ichimaru, M; Kamata, N; Kuramoto, A

    1984-11-01

    According to the current knowledge of diagnosis and classification, a review of 157 patients who had developed leukemia before June 30, 1967 was made. The incidence of acute leukemia decreased slightly among A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima; however, the incidence of acute lymphatic leukemia (ALL) increased. The number of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) was unchanged. The frequency of CML implied that A-bombing damaged stem cells. Among A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki, although the number of acute non-lymphatic leukemia decreased, the number of ALL was unchanged. Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) was diagnosed in 7 A-bomb survivors, confirming that Nagasaki is an endemic area for ATL. These preliminary results seem to be of importance in elucidating the mechanism of leukemia developing among A-bomb survivors. (Namekawa, K.).

  19. PREDICTING THE INTENTION TO USE INTERNET – A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slaven Brumec

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on an application of the Triandis Model in researching Internet usage and the intention to use Internet. Unlike other TAM-based studies undertaken to date, the Triandis Model offers a sociological account of interaction between the various factors, particularly attitude, intention, and behavior. The technique of Structural Equation Modeling was used to assess the impact those factors have on intention to use the Internet in accordance with the relationships posited by the Triandis Model. The survey was administered to Croatian undergraduate students at and employed individuals. The survey results are compared to the results of a similar survey that was carried out by two universities in Hong Kong.

  20. THE FLAT TAX - A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE EXISTING MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiau (Macavei Laura - Liana

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In the two last decades the flat tax systems have spread all around the globe from East and Central Europe to Asia and Central America. Many specialists consider this phenomenon a real fiscal revolution, but others see it as a mistake as long as the new systems are just a feint of the true flat tax designed by the famous Stanford University professors Robert Hall and Alvin Rabushka. In this context this paper tries to determine which of the existing flat tax systems resemble the true flat tax model by comparing and contrasting their main characteristics with the features of the model proposed by Hall and Rabushka. The research also underlines the common features and the differences between the existing models. The idea of this kind of study is not really new, others have done it but the comparison was limited to one country. For example Emil Kalchev from New Bulgarian University has asses the Bulgarian income system, by comparing it with the flat tax and concluding that taxation in Bulgaria is not simple, neutral and non-distortive. Our research is based on several case studies and on compare and contrast qualitative and quantitative methods. The study starts form the fiscal design drawn by the two American professors in the book The Flat Tax. Four main characteristics of the flat tax system were chosen in order to build the comparison: fiscal design, simplicity, avoidance of double taxation and uniformity of the tax rates. The jurisdictions chosen for the case study are countries all around the globe with fiscal systems which are considered flat tax systems. The results obtained show that the fiscal design of Hong Kong is the only flat tax model which is built following an economic logic and not a legal sense, being in the same time a simple and transparent system. Others countries as Slovakia, Albania, Macedonia in Central and Eastern Europe fulfill the requirement regarding the uniformity of taxation. Other jurisdictions avoid the double

  1. Psychological profile of women with infertility: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddar, Shuvabrata; Sanyal, Nilanjana; Mukherjee, Urbi

    2014-01-01

    An endeavour to probe into the psychological profile of infertile women in a comparative stance with the fertile women is not very common. This study is an attempt to explore the possible non-apparent personality factors which contribute to the unexplained pain of infertility. The main objectives of the present study were (a) to examine whether infertile women are different from fertile women in terms of selected psychological variables- narcissistic components, dimensions of attachment style and uses of defensive manoeuvres; and (b) whether the primary infertile women (n=18) are different from the secondary infertile women (n=12) with respect to those variables. A total of 60 individuals (30 infertile women and 30 matched fertile women) were assessed through Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ), Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) and Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40). General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) was administered on to the fertile women to rule out the psychiatric morbidity. Findings revealed that infertile women group differed from fertile women group with respect to narcissism, dimensions of attachment style and uses of defense mechanism. The primary infertile group also showed marked difference from the secondary infertile group with respect to those variables. This study endeavours to enrich the knowledge regarding the personality dynamics of infertile women to design psychotherapeutic programme to aid their well-being, help them to cherish the flavour of parenthood and improve their quality of life.

  2. Psychological profile of women with infertility: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuvabrata Poddar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: An endeavour to probe into the psychological profile of infertile women in a comparative stance with the fertile women is not very common. This study is an attempt to explore the possible non-apparent personality factors which contribute to the unexplained pain of infertility. Methods: The main objectives of the present study were (a to examine whether infertile women are different from fertile women in terms of selected psychological variables- narcissistic components, dimensions of attachment style and uses of defensive manoeuvres; and (b whether the primary infertile women (n=18 are different from the secondary infertile women (n=12 with respect to those variables. A total of 60 individuals (30 infertile women and 30 matched fertile women were assessed through Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ, Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI and Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40. General Health Questionnaire (GHQ was administered on to the fertile women to rule out the psychiatric morbidity. Results: Findings revealed that infertile women group differed from fertile women group with respect to narcissism, dimensions of attachment style and uses of defense mechanism. The primary infertile group also showed marked difference from the secondary infertile group with respect to those variables. Conclusions: This study endeavours to enrich the knowledge regarding the personality dynamics of infertile women to design psychotherapeutic programme to aid their well-being, help them to cherish the flavour of parenthood and improve their quality of life.

  3. Atherosclerotic Plaque Destabilization in Mice: A Comparative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Hartwig

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis-associated diseases are the main cause of mortality and morbidity in western societies. The progression of atherosclerosis is a dynamic process evolving from early to advanced lesions that may become rupture-prone vulnerable plaques. Acute coronary syndromes are the clinical manifestation of life-threatening thrombotic events associated with high-risk vulnerable plaques. Hyperlipidemic mouse models have been extensively used in studying the mechanisms controlling initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. However, the understanding of mechanisms leading to atherosclerotic plaque destabilization has been hampered by the lack of proper animal models mimicking this process. Although various mouse models generate atherosclerotic plaques with histological features of human advanced lesions, a consensus model to study atherosclerotic plaque destabilization is still lacking. Hence, we studied the degree and features of plaque vulnerability in different mouse models of atherosclerotic plaque destabilization and find that the model based on the placement of a shear stress modifier in combination with hypercholesterolemia represent with high incidence the most human like lesions compared to the other models.

  4. How breast cancer chemotherapy increases the risk of leukemia: Thoughts about a case of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and leukemia after breast cancer chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Xia; Li, Minghuan; Kong, Li; Deng, Xiaoqin; Yu, Jinming

    2016-01-01

    The latest studies suggest that prophylactic chemotherapy or adjuvant chemotherapy for early stage breast cancer may increase the leukemia risk in patients. For patients with a low risk for breast cancer recurrence, physicians who make the choice for adjuvant therapy should consider the risk of its long-term side effects. Is the occurrence of lymphatic system cancer and leukemia after breast cancer treatment associated with chemotherapy? Can these types of leukemia be classified as therapy-related leukaemias? We believe that there may be correlations between any diseases, butwe cannot rush to conclusions or dismiss a correlation because we understand little about the diseases themselves.In this paper, we present a case of secondary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and leukemia in patients after breast cancer chemotherapy, it is undeniable that this is a special event. For two distinct tumouroccurrences at different times, we cannot give a clear explanation because of thechanges in the genes that might link them together and we hope to attract the attention of other clinicians.

  5. From Comparative Education to Comparative Pedagogy: A Physical Education Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakis, Steve; Graham, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    In the last two decades forces of globalization and the rise of and access to information technology have transformed the nature of educational research. Traditional disciplines such as comparative education have not been immune to these transformational impacts. Although one might expect globalization to promote the study of comparative…

  6. Epidural analgesia during labor vs no analgesia: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesam Farid Mousa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidural analgesia is claimed to result in prolonged labor. Previous studies have assessed epidural analgesia vs systemic opioids rather than to parturients receiving no analgesia. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of epidural analgesia on labor duration compared with parturients devoid of analgesia. Methods: One hundred sixty nulliparous women in spontaneous labor at full term with a singleton vertex presentation were assigned to the study. Parturients who request epidural analgesia were allocated in the epidural group, whereas those not enthusiastic to labor analgesia were allocated in the control group. Epidural analgesia was provided with 20 mL bolus 0.5% epidural lidocaine plus fentanyl and maintained at 10 mL for 1 h. Duration of the first and second stages of labor, number of parturients receiving oxytocin, maximal oxytocin dose required for each parturient, numbers of instrumental vaginal, vacuum-assisted, and cesarean deliveries and neonatal Apgar score were recorded. Results: There was no statistical difference in the duration of the active-first and the second stages of labor, instrumental delivery, vacuum-assisted or cesarean delivery rates, the number of newborns with 1-min and 5-min Apgar scores less than 7 between both groups and number of parturients receiving oxytocin, however, the maximal oxytocin dose was significantly higher in the epidural group. Conclusion: Epidural analgesia by lidocaine (0.5% and fentanyl does not prolong labor compared with parturients without analgesia; however, significant oxytocin augmentation is required during the epidural analgesia to keep up the aforementioned average labor duration.

  7. HLA-DR-, CD33+, CD56+, CD16- myeloid/natural killer cell acute leukemia: a previously unrecognized form of acute leukemia potentially misdiagnosed as French-American-British acute myeloid leukemia-M3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, A A; Head, D R; Kopecky, K J; Appelbaum, F R; Theil, K S; Grever, M R; Chen, I M; Whittaker, M H; Griffith, B B; Licht, J D

    1994-07-01

    normal CD56+, CD16- NK precursor cells. Using a combination of panning and multiparameter flow cytometric sorting, we identified a normal CD56+, CD33+, CD16- counterpart cell at a frequency of 1% to 2% in the peripheral blood of healthy individuals. Our studies suggest that this form of acute leukemia may arise from transformation of a precursor cell common to both the myeloid and NK cell lineages; thus we propose the designation myeloid/NK acute leukemia. Recognition of this new leukemic entity will be important in distinguishing these ATRA-nonresponsive cases from ATRA-responsive true APL.

  8. Cell biological effects of total body irradiation on growth and differentiation of acute myelogenous leukemia cells compared to normal bone marrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberger, J S; Weichselbaum, R R; Botnick, L E; Sakakeeny, M; Moloney, W C

    1979-01-01

    Radiation therapy is used as total body treatment in preparation of the acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) patient for bone marrow transplantation. Many AML patients will have residual leukemia cells at the time of total body irradiation (TBI). In the present study, the effect of TBI on leukemic myeloid cells was compared to the effect on normal marrow granulocytic stem cells (CFUc) in vitro. Little difference from that of normal CFUc was found in the radiosensitivity of two mouse myeloid leukemia cell lines. The effect of TBI on growth of WEHI-3 or J774 cells in millipore diffusion chambers was stimulatory. These AML cell lines as well as others derived from Friend or Abelson virus infected in vitro long term mouse marrow cultures showed some morphologic differentiation by 7 days growth in diffusion chambers in irradiated heterologous rat hosts, but immature cells predominated by day 21. Thus, evidence in murine models of AML indicates that residual AML cells surviving chemotherapy will show no greater susceptibility to radiation killing compared to normal stem cells and will rapidly repopulate the irradiated host.

  9. Sequence analysis of Leukemia DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacong, Nasria; Lusiyanti, Desy; Irawan, Muhammad. Isa

    2018-03-01

    Cancer is a very deadly disease, one of which is leukemia disease or better known as blood cancer. The cancer cell can be detected by taking DNA in laboratory test. This study focused on local alignment of leukemia and non leukemia data resulting from NCBI in the form of DNA sequences by using Smith-Waterman algorithm. SmithWaterman algorithm was invented by TF Smith and MS Waterman in 1981. These algorithms try to find as much as possible similarity of a pair of sequences, by giving a negative value to the unequal base pair (mismatch), and positive values on the same base pair (match). So that will obtain the maximum positive value as the end of the alignment, and the minimum value as the initial alignment. This study will use sequences of leukemia and 3 sequences of non leukemia.

  10. Patient Activation through Counseling and Exercise – Acute Leukemia (PACE-AL) – a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarden, Mary; Møller, Tom; Kjeldsen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    and treatment related symptoms and side effects. To date, there are no clinical practice exercise guidelines for patients with acute leukemia undergoing induction and consolidation chemotherapy. A randomized controlled trial is needed to determine if patients with acute leukemia can benefit by a structured...... and supervised counseling and exercise program.Methods/design: This paper presents the study protocol: Patient Activation through Counseling and Exercise -- Acute Leukemia (PACE-AL) trial, a two center, randomized controlled trial of 70 patients with acute leukemia (35 patients/study arm) following induction...... chemotherapy in the outpatient setting. Eligible patients will be randomized to usual care or to the 12 week exercise and counseling program. The intervention includes 3 hours + 30 minutes per week of supervised and structured aerobic training (moderate to high intensity 70 - 80%) on an ergometer cycle...

  11. A comparative study in disaster planning in selected countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmode M

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Assessment of different strategic in disaster planning in selected countries. According to the international report indicating that IRAN is among the seven countries most susceptible to disaster, experiencing 31 known disasters out of 40 in the world, occurrence of 1536 moderate to severe earthquake, during 1370-80 and 712 other disasters at the same period it seems necessary to design a disaster plan."nMethods: This research is a comparative-descriptive and case based study in which the researcher used random sampling process in selecting the statistical society from both developed and developing countries. In this goal oriented research the necessary information are extracted from valid global reports, articles and many questionnaires which were subjected to scientific analysis."nResults: Studying different countries (which includes: Canada, Japan, India, USA, Turkey, Pakistan and Iran shows that there is a direct relationship between the level of countries development and their success in disaster planning and management (including preventive measures and confrontation. In most of the studied countries, decentralized planning caused many professional planners participate in different levels of disaster management which ultimately led to development of efficient and realistic plans which in turn decreased the catastrophic effects of disasters dramatically. The results of the aforementioned countries showed that a balanced approach to disaster plan with investment in prophylactic area is very important."nConclusion: As our country uses a centralized strategy for disaster management which has proven its ineffectiveness, the researcher suggests that we should change our approach in disaster management and let our planners participate from all levels include: provincial, rural and etc. This will led to a reality based planning and using all potential capacities in disaster management. According to this study it will be possible to use

  12. Laser diagnodent: a comparative study with other diagnostic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godinho, Reugma Rego

    2002-01-01

    An evaluation of the Diagnodent equipment (Kavo Company, Germany) for the occlusal caries detection was dane through the comparison with other conventional diagnostic techniques, such as visual inspection, intra-oral micro camera and digital X-ray. The effectiveness of the equipment in the detection of hidden caries and its viability as a diagnosis method for caries in their initial stage was also studied. Fifty eight permanent molars and premolars teeth from patients with age between 6 and 30 years were studied. The obtained results indicated that the conventional methods employed for the caries diagnosis are unable to detect the carious lesion in its initial stage. The Diagnodent equipment has this capability to detect caries presenting a flawless surface, specially the hidden caries, allowing the dentist to decide between a preventive ar a conservative procedure. The main advantage of the Diagnodent is to be an objective method, compared to the visual and radiographic ones, that are dependent on the professional interpretation. The Diagnodent is, therefore, a promising alternative as an objective and standardized diagnosis method for the final diagnostic. (author)

  13. The relationship between CNS prophylactic treatment and smoking behavior in adult survivors of childhood leukemia: a National Cancer Institute and Children's Cancer Group (NCI/CCG) study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, M.L.; Weiss, R.E.; Guo, M.D.; Byrne, J.; Mills, J.L.; Robison, L.L.; Zeltzer, L.K.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To determine the relationship of both cranial radiation dose (CRD) and intra-thecal methotrexate (IT-MTX) dose with smoking behavior in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Material and Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted by NCI/CCG with 593 young adult survivors (median age, 21.6 years), treated prior to age 20 years on CCG ALL protocols from 1970 to 1986, and 409 sibling controls (median age, 24.5 years). Subjects were telephone surveyed regarding risk-taking behaviors, including cigarette smoking. A previous report has compared the smoking behavior of survivors to controls; this report will focus on the association between CNS treatment variables and smoking behavior for survivors only. Contingency table analysis was used to determine the prevalence of having ever smoked regularly (i.e. ≥ 100 cigarettes total and daily use for ≥ 6 months) for each treatment group: combinations of CRD (0-18 Gy vs. 24 Gy) and IT-MTX (0 to ≤ 83 mg vs. >83 mg). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine CRD, IT-MTX dose, age at diagnosis and age at follow-up as predictors for smoking. Too few subjects received intravenous methotrexate to evaluate this as an explanatory variable. The analysis was done separately for survivors from treatment periods 1 and 2 (1970-77 and 1978-86, respectively) to control for the time period cohort effect (which we have previously demonstrated to be significant). These treatment period definitions also correlated with a shift in protocol treatment trends from 24 Gy to 0-18 Gy and lower dose IT-MTX to higher dose IT-MTX. Results: Among the survivors from treatment period 1 who received 24 Gy CRD, those treated with higher dose IT-MTX (>83 mg) were significantly more likely to have ever been regular smokers than those treated with no or lower dose IT-MTX (31% vs. 16%, p=0.016). Among survivors from treatment period 1 who received 0-18 Gy CRD, the smoking prevalence was also greater in

  14. A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE PROFITABILITY OF TOURISTIC PENSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana TINDECHE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The expansion that rural tourism has witnessed in the late XIXth century was determined by the existence of two reasons: on the one side the revival and development of the rural area, and the other side the alternative tourism form compared to traditional, classic or table tourism. It is known that regardless of the external environment in which tourist accommodation units operate, an important role belongs to the quality of the services offered and the satisfaction level of the customers. This study aimed to comparatively analyze the economic efficiency of the Confort Pension located in a rural area and the Danacris Pension from the urban area. The reason for choosing these two units was that the types of tourism they represent are significant areas of operation, namely leisure tourism ("Confort " Pension from Suceava area and business tourism ("Danacris" Pension fromBucharest. Based on the existing methodology in the specialized literature, specific indicators were calculated in order to highlight economic efficiency. Based on the analysis of the main financial standing indicators and the evolution of income and expenditure one may conclude that both companies were profitable.

  15. Manual tracing versus smartphone application (app) tracing: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayar, Gülşilay; Kilinc, Delal Dara

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to compare the results of conventional manual cephalometric tracing with those acquired with smartphone application cephalometric tracing. The cephalometric radiographs of 55 patients (25 females and 30 males) were traced via the manual and app methods and were subsequently examined with Steiner's analysis. Five skeletal measurements, five dental measurements and two soft tissue measurements were managed based on 21 landmarks. The durations of the performances of the two methods were also compared. SNA (Sella, Nasion, A point angle) and SNB (Sella, Nasion, B point angle) values for the manual method were statistically lower (p < .001) than those for the app method. The ANB value for the manual method was statistically lower than that of app method. L1-NB (°) and upper lip protrusion values for the manual method were statistically higher than those for the app method. Go-GN/SN, U1-NA (°) and U1-NA (mm) values for manual method were statistically lower than those for the app method. No differences between the two methods were found in the L1-NB (mm), occlusal plane to SN, interincisal angle or lower lip protrusion values. Although statistically significant differences were found between the two methods, the cephalometric tracing proceeded faster with the app method than with the manual method.

  16. Early parenting styles and sexual offending behavior: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigre-Leirós, Vera; Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro J

    2016-01-01

    Sexual offenders, in general, report problematic rearing practices from their parents, lacking however more empirical research on this topic regarding particular subtypes of offenders. The current study examined the relationship between early parenting styles and different types of sexual offending. A total of 113 sexual offenders (rapists, pedophilic and nonpedophilic child molesters), and 51 nonsexual offenders completed the EMBU (My Memories of Upbringing), the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the Socially Desirable Response Set Measure. Results showed that rapists were less likely to remember their fathers as being emotionally warm compared with nonsexual offenders and pedophilic child molesters. In addition, compared with rapists, pedophilic offenders perceived their mothers as having been less emotionally warm to them. Overall, results showed that certain developmental experiences with parents were able to distinguish between subtypes of offenders supporting an association between distal interpersonal factors and sexual offending. These findings may have important implications for early intervention and prevention of sexual crimes. Further research using larger samples of pedophilic child molesters is recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Reclassification of leukemia among A-bomb survivors by French-American-British (FAB) classification, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Tatsuki; Tomonaga, Masao; Bennett, J.M.

    1987-09-01

    The concordance rate for the French-American-British (FAB) reclassification diagnoses of atomic bomb-related cases of leukemia in Nagasaki was determined by a group of RERF hematologists and one of the members of the FAB cooperative gruop. The peripheral blood and/or bone marrow smears from 193 persons with leukemia or related disorder were reviewed. There was 85% agreement in the identification of leukemia types and subtypes. There was almost complete agreement for the diagnosis of non-FAB disorders (chronic myeloid leukemia and others) resulting in overall concordance of 88.2%. The conclusion from this remarkably high rate of concordance is that it is feasible to accurately apply the FAB classification system to the cases of A-bomb-related leukemia. These preliminary observations suggest that the previously established leukemia types for about a quarter of the cases of acute leukemia and related disorders should be changed. (author)

  18. Outpatient- and inpatient-based buckling surgery: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee JC

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Jin Cheol Lee,* Yu Cheol Kim*Department of Ophthalmology, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu, Korea *Both authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of ambulatory buckling surgery, comparing outpatient- with inpatient-based surgery.Methods: The authors performed a retrospective study of 80 consecutive cases of rhegmato genous retinal detachment from January 2009 to December 2011 treated by scleral buckling surgery. Two groups of patients were defined according to inpatient (group 1 or outpatient (group 2 surgery, and a comparison of several parameters between these two groups was performed.Results: Of the 80 subjects in this study, the average age of group 1 (50 patients was 49.7 years, and that of group 2 (30 patients was 47.5 years. There were no statistically significant differences in the average logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution-visual acuity, the condition of the lens, or the presence of retinal lattice degeneration prior to the surgery between the groups. There were no statistically significant differences in the patterns of tear or retinal detachment or in surgical procedure between the groups. Comparing the best-corrected visual acuity after 6 months with that prior to the surgery, the changes in group 1 and group 2 were 0.26 and 0.31, respectively. The functional success rates of group 1 and group 2 after 6 months were 90% and 93%, respectively, and the anatomical success rates of group 1 and group 2 after 6 months were 94% and 96%, respectively, but these were also statistically insignificant.Conclusion: Hospitalization is not essential for buckling surgery in uncomplicated rhegmatogenous retinal detachment surgery.Keywords: ambulatory, scleral buckling, rhegmatogenous retinal detachment

  19. Long-term effects of cranial irradiation and intrathecal chemotherapy in treatment of childhood leukemia: a MEG study of power spectrum and correlated cognitive dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Prophylaxis to prevent relapses in the central nervous system after childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) used to consist of both intrathecal chemotherapy (CT) and cranial irradiation (CRT). CRT was mostly abolished in the eighties because of its neurotoxicity, and replaced with more intensive intrathecal CT. In this study, a group of survivors treated with CRT before 1983 and another group treated without CRT thereafter are investigated 20–25 years later, giving a much stronger perspective on long-term quality of life than previous studies. The outcomes will help to better understand these groups’ current needs and will aid in anticipating late effects of prophylactic CRT that is currently applied for other diseases. This study evaluates oscillatory neuronal activity in these long-term survivors. Power spectrum deviations are hypothesized to correlate with cognitive dysfunction. Methods Resting state eyes-closed magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings were obtained from 14 ALL survivors treated with CT + CRT, 18 treated with CT alone and 35 controls. Relative spectral power was calculated in the δ, θ, α1, α2, β and γ frequency bands. The Amsterdam Neuropsychological Tasks (ANT) program was used to assess cognition in the executive functions domain. MEG data and ANT scores were correlated. Results In the CT + CRT group, relative θ power was slightly increased (p = 0.069) and α2 power was significantly decreased (p = 0.006). The CT + CRT group performed worse on various cognitive tests. A deficiency in visuomotor accuracy, especially of the right hand, could be clearly associated with the deviating regional θ and α2 powers (0.471 < r < 0.697). A significant association between decreased regional α2 power and less attentional fluctuations was found for CT + CRT patients as well as controls (0.078 < r < 0.666). Patients treated with CT alone displayed a power spectrum similar to controls, except

  20. A Comparative study on sexual dysfunctions before and after menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beigi, Marjan; Fahami, Fariba

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sexual instinct which is the cause of numerous changes in an individual’s life could be influenced by different factors such as menopause and ageing. This study was designed to compare sexual dysfunction before and after menopause. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Participants were 174 menopausal women who referred to medical health centers of Isfahan, Iran. Data were collected through self constructed sexual dysfunctions questionnaire in relation to their sexual activities before and after menopause. The reliability and validity of this questionnaire was determined by content validity and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. Findings: Findings showed that the relative frequency of sexual dysfunctions was 38% in the productive period and 72.4% in the menopause period. There was a significant association between sexual dysfunctions before and after the menopause period (p vaginismus, respectively. Conclusions: A considerable percentage of women experienced sexual dysfunctions in productive and menopause periods, and menopause could be a factor to maintain or intensify sexual dysfunctions. PMID:23833604

  1. A comparative study of electronic stethoscopes for cardiac auscultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, C; Pereira, D; Ferreira-Coimbra, J; Portugues, J; Gama, V; Coimbra, M

    2017-07-01

    There are several electronic stethoscopes available on the market today, with a very high potential for healthcare namely telemedicine, assisted decision and education. However, there are no recent comparatives studies published about the recording quality of auscultation sounds. In this study we aim to: a) define a ranking, according to experts opinion of 6 of the most relevant electronic stethoscopes on the market today; b) verify if there are any relations between a stethoscope's performance and the type of pathology present; c) analyze if some pathologies are more easily identified than others when using electronic auscultation. Our methodology consisted in creating two study groups: the first group included 18 cardiologists and cardiology house officers, acting as the gold standard of this work. The second included 30 medical students. Using a database of heart sounds recorded in real hospital environments, we applied questionnaires to observers from each group. The first group listened to 60 cardiac auscultations recorded by the 6 stethoscopes, and each one was asked to identify the pathological sound present: aortic stenosis, mitral regurgitation or normal. The second group was asked to choose, between two auscultation recordings, using as criteria the best sound quality for the identification of pathological sounds. Results include a total of 1080 evaluations, in which 72% of cases were correctly diagnosed. A detailed breakdown of these results is presented in this paper. As conclusions, results showed that the impact of the differences between stethoscopes is very small, given that we did not find statistically significant differences between all pairs of stethoscopes. Normal sounds showed to be easier to identify than pathological sounds, but we did not find differences between stethoscopes in this identification.

  2. A comparative study of Interactions between chronic Alcohol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The effects of drinking 10% alcohol solution for 12 weeks on daily body weight, and drinking and feeding behaviour were studied in Sprague – Dawley rats of both sexes. Daily measurement of body weight, fluid intake and food consumption were recorded and compared. Multiple linear regression analysis was ...

  3. A Comparative Study of The Economic Performance of Farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined the better irrigation method between large scale and motorised pump to recommend to farmers in Katsina state of Nigeria. The target populations were Farmers Under Large Scale (FULS) and Farmers Using Motorised Pumps (FUMP) and were compared along their socio-economic characteristics, ...

  4. A comparative study of the performances of some estimators of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These estimators are compared using the finite properties of estimators' criteria namely; sum of biases, sum of variances and sum of the mean squared error of the estimated parameter of the model at different levels of autocorrelation and sample size through Monte – Carlo studies. Results show that at each level of ...

  5. Secondary leukemia associated with a conventional dose of etoposide: review of serial germ cell tumor protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, C R; Breeden, E S; Loehrer, P J; Williams, S D; Einhorn, L H

    1993-01-06

    Case reports have suggested that treatment with high-dose etoposide can result in development of a unique secondary leukemia. This study was designed to estimate the risk of developing leukemia for patients receiving conventional doses of etoposide along with cisplatin and bleomycin. We reviewed the records at Indiana University of all untreated patients entering clinical trials using etoposide at conventional doses (cumulative dose, 2000 mg/m2 or less) for germ cell cancer between 1982 and 1991. The records of all patients who received a chemotherapy regimen containing etoposide, ifosfamide, or cisplatin after failing to respond to primary chemotherapy were also reviewed. Between 1982 and 1991, 538 patients entered serial clinical trials with planned cumulative etoposide doses of 1500-2000 mg/m2 in combination with cisplatin plus either ifosfamide or bleomycin. Of these 538 patients, 348 received an etoposide combination as initial chemotherapy and 190 received etoposide as part of salvage treatment. To date, 315 patients are alive, with median follow-up of 4.9 years, and 337 patients have had follow-up beyond 2 years. Two patients (0.37%) developed leukemia. One developed acute undifferentiated leukemia with a t(4;11) (q21;q23) cytogenetic abnormality 2.0 years after starting etoposide-based therapy, and one developed acute myelomonoblastic leukemia with no chromosome abnormalities 2.3 years after beginning chemotherapy. During this period, several hundred patients were treated with etoposide-based chemotherapy and did not enter clinical trials. Three of these patients are known to have developed hematologic abnormalities, including one patient with acute monoblastic leukemia with a t(11;19)(q13;p13) abnormality. Secondary leukemia after treatment with a conventional dose of etoposide does occur, but the low incidence does not alter the risk-to-benefit ratio of etoposide-based chemotherapy in germ cell cancer. The reports of leukemia associated with high doses of

  6. A Comparative Study of Chinese and Western Journalistic Ethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏晓非

    2014-01-01

    related to journalistic ethics in China and the west. This paper starts with the comparison of journalistic respon-sibility ethics. Then from different points, I make a comparative analysis of journalistic ethics.

  7. Case study: Massachusetts Department of Public Health's Southeastern Massachusetts health study on leukemia around Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station: Who won?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, Anita [Boston Edison Company (United States)

    1993-07-01

    In October 1990, the Massachusetts Department of Public Health released their Southeastern Massachusetts health study. This is a study of leukemia incidence in 22 towns around Pilgrim NPP, for the period 1978 through 1986. Pilgrim Station had been returned to operation following a 3 year outage, from 1986-1989. During this period, some $300 million in capital outlay was invested by Boston Edison in upgrading safety systems and installing the so-Called Three Mile Island upgrades. A copy of the peer review panel report is attached to this paper. Because of the interest in the Southeastern Massachusetts Health Study in Europe. There are three major points the Panel made which can summarized: 1. No excess of leukemia was found around Pilgrim Station. 2. The Southeastern Massachusetts Health Study over-predicted by a factor of 90 the number of leukemia cases attributable to plant operation. 3. The Southeastern Massachusetts Health Study failed to account for exposure to natural background radiation, which represents far larger biological exposure than plant Operation. Given All Of This, One Might Ask Why Didn't Common Sense Prevail In The Beginning? One Answer Might Be The Energy Of The Media In Pursuing The Story And Playing It Up No Matter What. Another Answer Might Be That The Original Study Purported To Show 'What Everyone Knows'. No One Really Stopped To Question Whether The Study Was Politically Motivated, Given That The Division of Environmental Health's Budget Had Been Cut.

  8. Case study: Massachusetts Department of Public Health's Southeastern Massachusetts health study on leukemia around Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station: Who won?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, Anita

    1993-01-01

    In October 1990, the Massachusetts Department of Public Health released their Southeastern Massachusetts health study. This is a study of leukemia incidence in 22 towns around Pilgrim NPP, for the period 1978 through 1986. Pilgrim Station had been returned to operation following a 3 year outage, from 1986-1989. During this period, some $300 million in capital outlay was invested by Boston Edison in upgrading safety systems and installing the so-Called Three Mile Island upgrades. A copy of the peer review panel report is attached to this paper. Because of the interest in the Southeastern Massachusetts Health Study in Europe. There are three major points the Panel made which can summarized: 1. No excess of leukemia was found around Pilgrim Station. 2. The Southeastern Massachusetts Health Study over-predicted by a factor of 90 the number of leukemia cases attributable to plant operation. 3. The Southeastern Massachusetts Health Study failed to account for exposure to natural background radiation, which represents far larger biological exposure than plant Operation. Given All Of This, One Might Ask Why Didn't Common Sense Prevail In The Beginning? One Answer Might Be The Energy Of The Media In Pursuing The Story And Playing It Up No Matter What. Another Answer Might Be That The Original Study Purported To Show 'What Everyone Knows'. No One Really Stopped To Question Whether The Study Was Politically Motivated, Given That The Division of Environmental Health's Budget Had Been Cut

  9. A comparative study of accelerated tests to simulate atmospheric corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assis, Sergio Luiz de

    2000-01-01

    In this study, specimens coated with five organic coating systems were exposed to accelerated tests for periods up to 2000 hours, and also to weathering for two years and six months. The accelerated tests consisted of the salt spray test, according to ASTM B-117; Prohesion (ASTM G 85-98 annex 5A); Prohesion combined with cyclic exposure to UV-A radiation and condensation; 'Prohchuva' a test described by ASTM G 85-98 using a salt spray with composition that simulated the acid rain of Sao Paulo, but one thousand times more concentrated, and 'Prohchuva' combined with cyclic exposure to UV-A radiation and condensation. The coated specimens were exposed with and without incision to expose the substrate. The onset and progress of corrosion at and of the exposed metallic surface, besides coating degradation, were followed by visual observation, and photographs were taken. The coating systems were classified according to the extent of corrosion protection given to the substrate, using a method based on ASTM standards D-610, D-714, D-1654 and D-3359. The rankings of the coatings obtained from accelerated tests and weathering were compared and contrasted with classification of the same systems obtained from literature, for specimens exposed to an industrial atmosphere. Coating degradation was strongly dependent on the test, and could be attributed to differences in test conditions. The best correlation between accelerated test and weathering was found for the test Prohesion alternated with cycles of exposure to UV-A radiation and condensation. (author)

  10. Effects of Education and Income on Treatment and Outcome in Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia in a Tax-Supported Health Care System: A National Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østgård, Lene Sofie Granfeldt; Nørgaard, Mette; Medeiros, Bruno C; Friis, Lone Smidstrup; Schoellkopf, Claudia; Severinsen, Marianne Tang; Marcher, Claus Werenberg; Nørgaard, Jan Maxwell

    2017-11-10

    Purpose Previous US studies have shown that socioeconomic status (SES) affects survival in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, no large study has investigated the association between education or income and clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcome in AML. Methods To investigate the effects of education and income in a tax-supported health care system, we conducted a population-based study using individual-level SES and clinical data on all Danish patients with AML (2000 to 2014). We compared treatment intensity, allogeneic transplantation, and response rates by education and income level using logistic regression (odds ratios). We used Cox regression (hazard ratios [HRs]) to compare survival, adjusting for age, sex, SES, and clinical prognostic markers. Results Of 2,992 patients, 1,588 (53.1%) received intensive chemotherapy. Compared with low-education patients, highly educated patients more often received allogeneic transplantation (16.3% v 8.7%). In intensively treated patients younger than 60 years of age, increased mortality was observed in those with lower and medium education (1-year survival, 66.7%; adjusted HR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.93; and 1-year survival, 67.6%; adjusted HR, 1.55; CI, 1.21 to 1.98, respectively) compared with higher education (1-year survival, 76.9%). Over the study period, 5-year survival improvements were limited to high-education patients (from 39% to 58%), increasing the survival gap between groups. In older patients, low-education patients received less intensive therapy (30% v 48%; adjusted odds ratio, 0.65; CI, 0.44 to 0.98) compared with high-education patients; however, remission rates and survival were not affected in those intensively treated. Income was not associated with therapy intensity, likelihood of complete remission, or survival (high income: adjusted HR, 1.0; medium income: adjusted HR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.82 to 1.12; low income: adjusted HR, 1.06; CI, .88 to 1.27). Conclusion In a universal health care

  11. The risk of upcoding in casemix systems: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbusch, Paul J M; Oostenbrink, Jan B; Zuurbier, Joost J; Schaepkens, Frans J M

    2007-05-01

    With the introduction of a diagnosis related group (DRG) classification system in the Netherlands in 2005 it has become relevant to investigate the risk of upcoding. The problem of upcoding in the US casemix system is substantial. In 2004, the US Centres for Medicare and Medicaid estimated that the total number of improper Medicare payments for the Prospective Payment system for acute inpatient care (both short term and long term) amounted to US$ 4.8 billion (5.2%). By comparing the casemix systems in the US, Australian and Dutch healthcare systems, this article illustrates why certain casemix systems are more open to the risk of upcoding than other systems. This study identifies various market, control and casemix characteristics determining the weaknesses of a casemix reimbursement system to upcoding. It can be concluded that fewer opportunities for upcoding occur in casemix systems that do not allow for-profit ownership and in which the coder's salary does not depend on the outcome of the classification process. In addition, casemix systems in which the first point in time of registration is at the beginning of the care process and in which there are a limited number of occasions to alter the registration are less vulnerable to the risk of upcoding. Finally, the risk of upcoding is smaller in casemix systems that use classification criteria that are medically meaningful and aligned with clinical practice. Comparing the US, Australian and Dutch systems the following conclusions can be drawn. Given the combined occurrences of for-profit hospitals and the use of the secondary diagnosis criterion to classify DRGs, the US casemix system tends to be more open to upcoding than the Australian system. The strength of the Dutch system is related to the detailed classification scheme, using medically meaningful classification criteria. Nevertheless, the detailed classification scheme also causes a weakness, because of its increased complexity compared with the US and

  12. Angular deflection of rotary nickel titanium files: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Gambarini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A new manufacturing method of twisting nickel titanium wire to produce rotary nickel titanium (RNT files has recently been developed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the new manufacturing process increased the angular deflection of RNT files, by comparing instruments produced using the new manufacturing method (Twisted Files versus instruments produced with the traditional grinding process. Testing was performed on a total of 40 instruments of the following commercially available RNT files: Twisted Files (TF, Profile, K3 and M2 (NRT. All instruments tested had the same dimensions (taper 0.06 and tip size 25. Test procedures strictly followed ISO 3630-1. Data were collected and statistically analyzed by means ANOVA test. The results showed that TF demonstrated significantly higher average angular deflection levels (P<0.05, than RNT manufactured by a grinding process. Since angular deflection represent the amount of rotation (and consequently deformation that a RNT file can withstand before torsional failure, such a significant improvement is a favorable property for the clinical use of the tested RNT files.

  13. A Comparative Study of virtual and operational met mast data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orhan, Dr Ö Emre; Ahmet, Gökhan

    2014-01-01

    Performance of wind assessment studies depend on the adequacy and duration of the wind data. For a reasonable wind assessment, at least one full year wind data is needed so that, all the variations throughout the year are represented. On the other hand, it is always a question of time and cost how to get the wind data. On-site measurements are the most common way of obtaining wind data but it is the most expensive and time consuming as well. Apart from onsite data, there are also reanalysis long term data sources like MERRA, NCAR, etc. Time and spatial resolution of these long term data are lower compared to on-site measurements but in cases where on-site measurements are not available, they are also utilized. On top of on-site and reanalysis wind data, weather forecasting models like WRF, MM5 are available. Although, these models mainly are used for forecasting services, flexibility of the models makes them suitable for preliminary resource assessment purposes. In this study, comparisons of annual energy production estimations are computed using virtual and on-site met mast data separately for a specific time range. The widely used weather research and forecasting model (WRF) is used to provide virtual met mast data. Once WRF simulations are completed, interpolation routines are employed in order to extract data for a specific location. The on-site met mast is located inside a wind farm project area which is under development. Project site is located in the south of Turkey. There are four different met masts, three of them recording wind data presently. On-site measurements together with WRF results are used to obtain energy yields for the project area. The performance of both methodologies is compared. It has been observed that WRF can as well serve as a preliminary model in cases where no other data source is available but the model has to be implemented with great care depending on the project site conditions

  14. Linguistic Features of English and Russian Dictionaries (A Comparative Study

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    Robert Leščinskij

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to establish differences and similarities between linguistic characteristics of English and Russian dictionaries. Two dictionaries were selected for the study – electronic version of the 8th edition of Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (OALD and the online version of Ozhegov’s explanatory dictionary. The methods chosen for the study were descriptive, comparative and contrastive analysis. Linguistic characteristics of the dictionaries were analysed and compared. The research showed that both reference books provided different linguistic information on the headwords. OALD provided exhaustive phonetic information, which Ozhegov’s dictionary lacked. The two dictionaries provided different orthographic information. OALD disclosed semantic information via various tools available in the electronic version; these were unavailable in Ozhegov’s dictionary. Both dictionaries used similar stylistic labels.

  15. A Comparative Study Of Stock Price Forecasting Using Nonlinear Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diteboho Xaba

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the in-sample forecasting accuracy of three forecasting nonlinear models namely: the Smooth Transition Regression (STR model, the Threshold Autoregressive (TAR model and the Markov-switching Autoregressive (MS-AR model. Nonlinearity tests were used to confirm the validity of the assumptions of the study. The study used model selection criteria, SBC to select the optimal lag order and for the selection of appropriate models. The Mean Square Error (MSE, Mean Absolute Error (MAE and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE served as the error measures in evaluating the forecasting ability of the models. The MS-AR models proved to perform well with lower error measures as compared to LSTR and TAR models in most cases.

  16. Does Cigarette Smoking Affect Seminal Fluid Parameters? A Comparative Study

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    Zakarya Bani Meri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of cigarette smoking on seminal fluid parameters, namely; volume, sperm concentration, and motility, as well as morphology, leukocyte infiltration, among males complaining of infertility.Methods: Between August 2010 and July 2011, seminal fluid analysis was done for 1438 males who are partners of couples who visited the infertility clinic at Prince Rashid Ben Al Hassan Hospital (PRH for infertility. The men who fit the inclusion criteria (n=960 were classified into two groups: group a (non-smokers; n=564 and group B (smokers; n=396, which represents 41.25% of the study group. Seminal fluid was collected using masturbation after 3-5 days of abstinence then analyzed for volume, sperm count, sperm concentration, motility and morphology. In order to analyze whether the number of cigarettes smoked per day has an effect on the spermatogram; the smoking men were divided into two subgroups: the heavy smokers (n=266 and non-heavy smokers (n=130.Results: A total of 960 adult males were enrolled. Their age ranged between 21 and 76 years, 564 were non-smokers with mean age of 36. 45±6.27 (Mean±SD. Three-hundred-and-ninety-six were smokers with a mean age of 34.35±4.25 (Mean±SD. There was a significant effect of smoking on the motility of sperms and the ratios of abnormality (p<0.005. Concentration appeared not to be affected by smoking. Furthermore, the group of heavy smokers were found to have lower sperm concentrations and a higher percentage of abnormal sperms compared to the non-heavy smokers.Conclusion: Cigarette smoking has a deleterious effect on some of the seminal fluid parameters (motility, morphology and leukocyte count which in turn may result in male subfertility.

  17. Clinical Utility of Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization for Detection of Chromosomal Abnormalities in Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Karen R.; Man, Tsz-Kwong; Yu, Alexander; Folsom, Matthew R.; Zhao, Yi-Jue; Rao, Pulivarthi H.; Plon, Sharon E.; Naeem, Rizwan C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Accurate detection of recurrent chromosomal abnormalities is critical to assign patients to risk-based therapeutic regimens for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Procedure We investigated the utility of array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) for detection of chromosomal abnormalities compared to standard clinical evaluation with karyotype and fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH). Fifty pediatric ALL diagnostic bone marrows were analyzed by bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) array, and findings compared to standard clinical evaluation. Results Sensitivity of aCGH was 79% to detect karyotypic findings other than balanced translocations, which cannot be detected by aCGH because they involve no copy number change. aCGH also missed abnormalities occurring in subclones constituting less than 25% of cells. aCGH detected 44 additional abnormalities undetected or misidentified by karyotype, 21 subsequently validated by FISH, including abnormalities in 4 of 10 cases with uninformative cytogenetics. aCGH detected concurrent terminal deletions of both 9p and 20q in three cases, in two of which the 20q deletion was undetected by karyotype. A narrow region of loss at 7p21 was detected in two cases. Conclusions An array with increased BAC density over regions important in ALL, combined with PCR for fusion products of balanced translocations, could minimize labor- and time-intensive cytogenetic assays and provide key prognostic information in the approximately 35% of cases with uninformative cytogenetics. PMID:18253961

  18. A comparative study on two explosive acetone peroxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egorshev, V. Yu.; Sinditskii, V.P., E-mail: vps@rctu.ru; Smirnov, S.P.

    2013-12-20

    Highlights: • The most accurate heats of DADP and TATP sublimation were evaluated from experimental vapor pressures in a widened temperature range. • DADP is more volatile while more thermally stable peroxide than TATP. • DADP reveals lesser sensitivity to drop-weight impact, flame temperature, burning rate, and initiating efficiency as compared with TATP. - Abstract: Two explosive cyclic acetone peroxides, diacetone diperoxide (DADP) and triacetone triperoxide (TATP) have been studied in respect of thermal decomposition, burning behavior, impact sensitivity, and initiating efficiency. Using the glass Bourdon gauge technique, the vapor pressures of TATP and DADP were determined over the temperature range 75–144 °C and 67–120 °C, respectively. The kinetic parameters of decomposition of the peroxides in the gas phase have been obtained in the temperature interval of 140–200 °C. The decomposition of both DADP and TATP followed the first-order reaction to high degrees of decay with close activation energies of 159.2 kJ/mol (38.0 kcal/mol) and 165.8 kJ/mol (39.6 kcal/mol), respectively. The decomposition rate constants of DADP were found to be approximately 2 times less than those of TATP. The linear burning rate of DADP measured in a constant-pressure window bomb appeared to be approximately 5 times less than that of TATP. Temperature profiles in the combustion wave were measured at subatmospheric pressures with the help of thin tungsten-rhenium thermocouples. The leading reaction on combustion of both volatile peroxides was assumed to occur in the gas phase. Kinetic parameters of the leading reaction derived from the combustion data showed a good agreement with kinetic parameters of low-temperature thermal decomposition extrapolated to the high-temperature flame zone. In the drop-weight impact test, DADP appeared to be notably less sensitive peroxide than TATP. No deflagration-to-detonation transition was observed when RDX was attempted to explode by

  19. The minds of gods: a comparative study of supernatural agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purzycki, Benjamin Grant

    2013-10-01

    The present work is the first study to systematically compare the minds of gods by examining some of the intuitive processes that guide how people reason about them. By examining the Christian god and the spirit-masters of the Tyva Republic, it first confirms that the consensus view of the Christian god's mind is one of omniscience with acute concern for interpersonal social behavior (i.e., moral behaviors) and that Tyvan spirit-masters are not as readily attributed with knowledge or concern of moral information. Then, it reports evidence of a moralization bias of gods' minds; American Christians who believe that God is omniscient rate God as more knowledgeable of moral behaviors than nonmoral information. Additionally, Tyvans who do not readily report pro- or antisocial behavior among the things that spirit-masters care about will nevertheless rate spirit-masters' knowledge and concern of moral information higher than nonmoral information. However, this knowledge is distributed spatially; the farther away from spirits' place of governance a moral behavior takes place, the less they know and care about it. Finally, the wider the breadth of knowledge Tyvans attribute to spirit-masters, the more they attribute moral concern for behaviors that transpire beyond their jurisdiction. These results further demonstrate that there is a significant gulf between expressed beliefs and intuitive religious cognition and provides evidence for a moralization bias of gods' minds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A Comparative thermophysiological study in sport bras for running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, L. P.; Miranda, T. M. R.; Catarino, A.

    2017-10-01

    Comfort in clothing is essential for user’s performance and is considered as a quality factor when choosing a particular piece of garment. Sportswear’s need include comfort and functionality, meaning that the thermo-physiological properties are of extreme importance. The aim of this work consists in comparing six different models of sports bra used specifically for running, taking into consideration the aspects of the thermo-physiological properties, air permeability, moisture behaviour, and friction. This paper is part of an ongoing research aiming to establish a comprehension about function and comfort characteristics for sport bras and propose a new bra with improved characteristics both in ergonomics design as well as in comfort performance. The thermal characterization of different regions on each bra were tested using Alambeta apparatus, Textest FX 3300 for air permeability and Frictorq for friction. Evaporation tests were also carried out in different regions on each bra at 37ºC corresponding to internal temperature of the human body. The results show that raw material, structures and construction can have influence in the properties studied.

  1. Quality of Sibling Relationship and Substance Misuse: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Tsamparli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study is to examine the quality of sibling relationship in families with a sibling with substance misuse (SSU and compare the relationship to families with a sibling with no use (SNU. Thirty-six (36 families participated in the study (17 with SSU and 19 with SNU; N = 144. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 40 siblings (20 SNU and 20 SSU; 18-31 years old in order to qualitatively investigate the characteristics of the sibling relationship. The siblings were not identified with any psychopathology, according to SCL-90R. Moreover, we considered the family cohesion and adaptability, as identified by the FACES III (administered to the whole sample and the family constellation (including number of children, birth order, gender, family size, family structure, years of substance misuse and socioeconomic level. The results of the thematic analysis seem to support Furman and Buhrmester’s (1985 framework, in the context of SNU families. Nevertheless, when considering families with SSU the framework is enriched with a new axis: Loss/mourning. The substance misuse seems to provoke an overturn of the representation of the sibling relationship: the behavioral changes (i.e. disengagement of the sibling with drug use are experienced as a loss by the sibling non user, thus triggering the psychological process of ‘mourning’. Moreover, in these families, the sibling with no drug use seem to experience differential parenting, they feel neglected, angry and they take up a parental role towards the SSU, whom they experience as “sensitive” and “vulnerable”.

  2. Prognosis and treatment after relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: 1985. A report from the Childrens Cancer Study Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleyer, W.A.; Sather, H.; Hammond, G.D.

    1986-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma constitute 42% to 45% of the cancers in infants, children, and adolescents: In 1985, an estimated 2025 children were newly diagnosed with these two cancers and 900 (43%) of the pediatric cancer deaths in the United States have been projected to be due to these diseases. The single most important obstacle to preventing these deaths is relapse, and prevention of relapse or salvage of the patient who has had a relapse continues to be a major therapeutic challenge. The most important initial step in the treatment of the child whose disease has relapsed is to determine, to the extent possible, the prognosis. In a child with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, a relapse confers an extremely poor prognosis, regardless of site of relapse, tumor histology, or other original prognostic factors, prior therapy, or time to relapse. In the child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in relapse, the prognosis depends on multiple factors. The primary therapy is chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy with marrow grafting. Other options exist, including no therapy, or investigational therapy. The therapy selected should be predicated on the prognosis. In the child with an isolated central nervous system (CNS) relapse off therapy, minimum therapy should be administered, particularly if the relapse occurred without prior cranial irradiation. In the child whose relapse is more than 6 months off therapy, conventional therapy should be considered. Also, a patient with an isolated CNS relapse on therapy after prior cranial irradiation should be given moderate therapy. Bone marrow transplantation or high-dose chemoradiotherapy with autologous marrow rescue should be reserved in children with a second or subsequent extramedullary relapse, and possibly for those with a first isolated overt testicular relapse on therapy

  3. The structure of risk perception. A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Arias, R. [Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain); Prades, A. [Ciemat, Madrid (Spain); Arranz, L. [Hospital Ramon y Cajal, Madrid (Spain); Macias, M.T. [CSIC, Madrid (Spain)

    2000-05-01

    Research by cognitive and social psychologists has demonstrated that when lay persons make estimates of risks they do not merely calculate in terms of probabilistic information. People tend to construe the risk in accordance with other schemata. The Psychometric Paradigm (Slovic et. al., 1980), found out two main dimensions in the perception of risk: the Dread and the Familiarity-Voluntariness factors. This paper presents some of the key findings of a comparative Latin-American study on radiological risk perception in the health area. The main objective is to check whether or not the Dread and the Familiarity-Voluntariness dimensions explain the perception of risk in this specific context. A questionnaire was distributed to outpatient samples from ten countries: Argentine, Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Uruguay, and Spain, thanks to the collaboration of the different National Radioprotection Societies of the above mentioned countries, and of other concerned professionals (in case they didn't have any association at the time). A list of 22 risks, including both radiological and non-radiological ones, were evaluated on two rating scales: possibility and seriousness. Factor analysis, both exploratory and confirmatory, as well as Multidimensional Scaling will be used for the data analysis. The paper will discuss the main cross-cultural differences with regard to the structure of risk perception. The peculiarities of the health related risks will be emphasised. (author)

  4. A framework for the comparative study of language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uriagereka, Juan; Reggia, James A; Wilkinson, Gerald S

    2013-07-18

    Comparative studies of language are difficult because few language precursors are recognized. In this paper we propose a framework for designing experiments that test for structural and semantic patterns indicative of simple or complex grammars as originally described by Chomsky. We argue that a key issue is whether animals can recognize full recursion, which is the hallmark of context-free grammar. We discuss limitations of recent experiments that have attempted to address this issue, and point out that experiments aimed at detecting patterns that follow a Fibonacci series have advantages over other artificial context-free grammars. We also argue that experiments using complex sequences of behaviors could, in principle, provide evidence for fully recursive thought. Some of these ideas could also be approached using artificial life simulations, which have the potential to reveal the types of evolutionary transitions that could occur over time. Because the framework we propose has specific memory and computational requirements, future experiments could target candidate genes with the goal of revealing the genetic underpinnings of complex cognition.

  5. The structure of risk perception. A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Arias, R.; Prades, A.; Arranz, L.; Macias, M.T.

    2000-01-01

    Research by cognitive and social psychologists has demonstrated that when lay persons make estimates of risks they do not merely calculate in terms of probabilistic information. People tend to construe the risk in accordance with other schemata. The Psychometric Paradigm (Slovic et. al., 1980), found out two main dimensions in the perception of risk: the Dread and the Familiarity-Voluntariness factors. This paper presents some of the key findings of a comparative Latin-American study on radiological risk perception in the health area. The main objective is to check whether or not the Dread and the Familiarity-Voluntariness dimensions explain the perception of risk in this specific context. A questionnaire was distributed to outpatient samples from ten countries: Argentine, Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Uruguay, and Spain, thanks to the collaboration of the different National Radioprotection Societies of the above mentioned countries, and of other concerned professionals (in case they didn't have any association at the time). A list of 22 risks, including both radiological and non-radiological ones, were evaluated on two rating scales: possibility and seriousness. Factor analysis, both exploratory and confirmatory, as well as Multidimensional Scaling will be used for the data analysis. The paper will discuss the main cross-cultural differences with regard to the structure of risk perception. The peculiarities of the health related risks will be emphasised. (author)

  6. Static response of deformable microchannels: a comparative modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shidhore, Tanmay C.; Christov, Ivan C.

    2018-02-01

    We present a comparative modelling study of fluid-structure interactions in microchannels. Through a mathematical analysis based on plate theory and the lubrication approximation for low-Reynolds-number flow, we derive models for the flow rate-pressure drop relation for long shallow microchannels with both thin and thick deformable top walls. These relations are tested against full three-dimensional two-way-coupled fluid-structure interaction simulations. Three types of microchannels, representing different elasticity regimes and having been experimentally characterized previously, are chosen as benchmarks for our theory and simulations. Good agreement is found in most cases for the predicted, simulated and measured flow rate-pressure drop relationships. The numerical simulations performed allow us to also carefully examine the deformation profile of the top wall of the microchannel in any cross section, showing good agreement with the theory. Specifically, the prediction that span-wise displacement in a long shallow microchannel decouples from the flow-wise deformation is confirmed, and the predicted scaling of the maximum displacement with the hydrodynamic pressure and the various material and geometric parameters is validated.

  7. A case of acute lymphoblastic leukemia with abnormal brain CT scan after cranial irradiation for central nervous system leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Junko; Abe, Takanori; Watanabe, Tsutomu

    1988-01-01

    A 21-year-old woman with acute lymphoblastic leukemia presented with central neurologic symptoms immediately after the second irradiation (20 Gy to the brain and 10 Gy to the spinal cord) for central nervous system (CNS)-leukemia 3 years and 2 months after the first cranial irradiation with 20 Gy. White matter was depicted as diffusely high density area on CT; histology revealed necrosis of leukemic cells. In the present patient with repeated recurrent CNS-leukemia, leukemic cells seemed to have been damaged simultaneously after irradiation because of parenchymal widespread involvement of leukemic cells, resulting in brain edema, an increased intracranial pressure and parenchymal disturbance. This finding may have an important implication for the risk of cranial irradiation in the case of widespread involvement of leukemic cells. Re-evaluation of cranial irradiation in such cases is suggested. (Namekawa, K.)

  8. Outcome of patients with HTLV-1-associated adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma after SCT: a retrospective study by the EBMT LWP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazarbachi, A; Cwynarski, K; Boumendil, A; Finel, H; Fields, P; Raj, K; Nagler, A; Mohty, M; Sureda, A; Dreger, P; Hermine, O

    2014-10-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) carries a dismal prognosis. Experience with allo-SCT for ATL appears encouraging but is limited to Japanese series. This retrospective analysis of the EBMT registry revealed 21 HTLV-I seropositive ATL including 7 acute and 12 lymphoma subtypes. Four patients received auto-SCT and rapidly died from ATL. Out of 17 allo-SCT (4 myeloablative, 13 reduced intensity), 6 are still alive (4 were in CR1 at SCT). Eleven patients died within 2 years, eight from relapse/progression and three from transplant toxicity. Six of seven informative patients who lived >12 months had chronic GVHD. Overall these results indicate that allo-SCT but not auto-SCT may salvage a subset of ATL patients, supporting the existence of graft vs ATL effect also in non-Japanese patients.

  9. Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in family caregivers of adult patients with acute leukemia from a dyadic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Mutian; Li, Jie; Chen, Chunyan; Cao, Fenglin

    2015-12-01

    Acute leukemia is a fatal disease in adults that not only affects the patients who suffer from it but also their family caregivers. No studies have investigated post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSS) in family caregivers of adult patients with acute leukemia using a matched sample. The current study examined PTSS in adult patients with acute leukemia and their family caregivers and investigated the factors associated with caregivers' PTSS. A total of 163 patient-caregiver dyads completed questionnaires assessing their PTSS, psychological resilience, and perceived social support. Hierarchical linear regression was used to explore the related factors of caregivers' PTSS. More caregivers than patients met caseness criteria for PTSS (36.8% vs. 18.4%, p caregivers, being more closely related to the patients (e.g., spouses and parents), having patients with higher PTSS and having lower psychological resilience were independently associated with more severe PTSS. Caregivers of acute leukemia patients had significantly more severe PTSS than did their patients. This study is the first to investigate PTSS among family caregivers of adult patients with acute leukemia and its related factors in a matched sample. More attention should be paid to the caregivers of patients with acute leukemia to minimize their PTSS and thus improve mental health of caregivers and reduce potential negative consequences for the patients themselves. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. The role of stigmas in mental health: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhabor S. Idemudia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV (Human immunodeficiency Virus, AIDS and cancer are feared terminal diseases. HIV sufferers are known to be stigmatized. The stigma surrounding cancer, unfortunately, is hardly the focus of psychological investigations, and hence this provoked the need to compare the stigma suffered by both groups, and how these have impacted on the psychological functioning of the disease sufferer. Objectives: The study had two main objectives, firstly, to explore whether HIV patients suffer more stigma than cancer patients or not, and secondly, to understand the most common type of stigma and if stigma is associated with psychopathology. Psychopathology is measured with GHQ–28 which evaluates somatic complaints, anxiety, depression and social dysfunction. Method: The study was a survey, and descriptive in nature, and anchored on two hypotheses: Firstly, that HIV patients will experience more stigmas than cancer patients and consequently report more psychological dysfunctions. Secondly that there will be a significant difference between types of stigma and the symptoms reported about them. Data were collected from a conveniently sampled group of 50 HIV positive patients and another 50 patients diagnosed with cancer, in two clinics and a hospital around the Gauteng Province. The majority of the participants were