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Sample records for leukemia group palg

  1. Comparable Efficacy of Idelalisib Plus Rituximab and Ibrutinib in Relapsed/refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: A Retrospective Case Matched Study of the Polish Adult Leukemia Group (PALG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puła, Bartosz; Budziszewska, Bożena Katarzyna; Rybka, Justyna; Gil, Lidia; Subocz, Edyta; Długosz-Danecka, Monika; Zawirska, Daria; Waszczuk-Gajda, Anna; Iskierka-Jażdżewska, Elżbieta; Kopacz, Agnieszka; Szymczyk, Agnieszka; Czyż, Jarosław; Lech-Marańda, Ewa; Warzocha, Krzysztof; Jamroziak, Krzysztof

    2018-05-01

    There is limited amount of data available on the comparative efficacy of ibrutinib and idelalisib, the B-cell receptor inhibitors (BCRi) newly approved for relapsed/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (r/r CLL/SLL) treatment. The aim of our study was to analyze and compare the outcomes of real-world r/r CLL/SLL patients treated with these two BCRi in outside clinical trials. A comparative case matched 1:2 analysis was performed on idelalisib combined with rituximab and ibrutinib efficacy in 102 patients with r/r CLL/SLL from two observational studies of the Polish Adult Leukemia Group (PALG). Both therapies produced similar overall response rates (idelalisib plus rituximab 76.4% and ibrutinib 72.1%). Median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in both groups were not reached. Furthermore, no significant difference was observed between both BCRi regimens in regard to PFS (HR=0.75, 95% CI=0.30-1.86, p=0.55) and OS (HR=0.65, 95%CI=0.26-1.68, p=0.39). In summary, the results of this retrospective analysis suggest that idelalisib combined with rituximab and ibrutinib therapies have comparable activity in r/r CLL/SLL in daily clinical practice. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  2. Red Blood Cell Transfusion Dependency and Hyperferritinemia Are Associated with Impaired Survival in Patients Diagnosed with Myelodysplastic Syndromes: Results from the First Polish MDS-PALG Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszczuk-Gajda, Anna; Mądry, Krzysztof; Machowicz, Rafał; Drozd-Sokołowska, Joanna; Stella-Hołowiecka, Beata; Mital, Andrzej; Obara, Agata; Szmigielska-Kapłon, Anna; Sikorska, Anna; Subocz, Edyta; Jędrzejczak, Wiesław W; Dwilewicz-Trojaczek, Jadwiga

    2016-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of clonal stem cell disorders characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis, cytopenias and a risk of progression to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Anemia is the most frequent cytopenia diagnosed in patients with MDS. Regular RBC transfusions are the only treatment option for about 40% of patients. Transfusion-dependent patients develop secondary iron overload. The influence of serum ferritin (SF) concentration on survival and acute myeloid leukemia transformation in MDS patients remains controversial. The data for the Central European population is scarce and so far there is no description for Poland. The aim of this study was to perform a retrospective analysis of the relationship of SF concentration with red blood cell transfusion dependency, survival and transformation to acute myeloid leukemia. We retrospectively evaluated the data of the 819 MDS patients (58% male; median age 70 years) included in the MDS Registry of the MDS Section of the Polish Adult Leukemia Group (PALG). Analyses were performed on 190 patients diagnosed with MDS, maximal 6 months before inclusion to the registry in order to avoid selection bias (a shorter survival of higher risk MDS patients). Patients with hyperferritinemia higher than 1000 ng/L vs. patients with SF concentration lower than 1000 ng/L had a median survival of 320 days vs. 568 days, respectively (p log-rank = 0.014). The following factors were found to significantly worsen survival: RBC-transfusion dependence (p = 0.0033; HR 2.67L), platelet transfusion dependence (p = 0.0071; HR 3.321), hemoglobin concentration lower than 10 g/dL (p = 0.0036; HR 2.97), SF concentration higher than 1000 ng/L (p = 0.0023; HR = 2.94), platelet count lower than 10 G/L (p = 0.0081 HR = 5.04), acute leukemia transformation (p = 0.0081; HR 1.968). Taking into account the relatively low number of patients in previous studies exploring hyperferritinemia in MDS, the results of the first Polish

  3. Leukemia Support Groups: How Are They Doing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss

    1997-10-01

    BACKGROUND: Support groups help their participants to cope with the emotional and practical impact of their illnesses. METHODS: The effectiveness of the Leukemia Society of America support groups in enhancing the quality of life for their participants is reviewed. The groundwork, purpose, and structure of such groups, as well as alternate sources of support, are presented. Evaluation and future directions for oncology groupwork are discussed. RESULTS: Support groups complement the therapies provided by clinical practitioners and scientists by addressing the additional needs of cancer patients over the course of illness and survival. CONCLUSIONS: New concepts and methods that address the needs of specific age-groups and incorporate the newly generated data on cancer treatments will further enhance the benefits provided by support groups.

  4. Risk Groups for Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells in the blood at the time of diagnosis. Whether the leukemia cells began from B lymphocytes or T lymphocytes. ... How long it is between the time of diagnosis and when the leukemia comes back. Whether the leukemia comes back in ...

  5. Chromosomal study for prognostic grouping in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junaid, A.; Rao, P.N.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the frequency of various cytogenetic aberrations in newly diagnosed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients, and their detection rate by cytogenetic and fluorescent In situ hybridization (FISH) technique separately. Analysis was made on 100 diagnosed chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients. Cytogenetics and FISH technique were performed on blood or bone marrow samples. Nineteen out of 100 cases (19%) showed karyotype abnormalities; whereas 55 showed abnormalities using the CLL - specific FISH probes. The most frequent abnormality detected by standard cytogenetics was trisomy 12. The most common abnormality detected by FISH was a deletion of 13q14 (40 out of 55 cases; 72% of the abnormal). For prognostic grouping of CLL patients, FISH must always be requested which may even replace standard karyotyping. These chromosomal markers help in choosing the therapeutic options. (author)

  6. Leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Kusumi, Shizuyo

    1992-01-01

    Leukemia is the first malignant disease found among A-bomb survivors. Leukemia registration has greatly contributed to epidemiological and hematological studies on A-bomb radiation-related leukemia and other hematopoietic diseases, consisting of community population and the RERF Life Span Study (LSS) sample (approximately 120,000 persons containing A-bomb survivors). Using the fixed LSS cohort, the prevalence rate of leukemia reached the peak during the years 1950-1954, and thereafter, it has been gradually decreased. However, risk patterns for leukemia are still unsolved: has leukemia risk increased in recent years?; are serial changes in leukemia risk influenced by age at the time of exposure (ATE)?; is there variation between Hiroshima and Nagasaki?; and others. To solve these questions, leukemia data are now under analysis using the revised DS86. Relative risk for leukemia, especially chronic myelogenous leukemia and acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), is found to be linearly increased with increasing bone marrow doses. Serial patterns of both excess risk and excess relative risk have revealed that leukemia risk is high at 5-10 years after A-bombing in younger A-bomb survivors ATE. The influence of age ATE on serial changes is noticeable in ALL. Another factor involved in the prevalence of leukemia is background (spontaneously developed leukemia), which is the recent interest because young A-bomb survivors ATE reach the cancer-prone age. (N.K.)

  7. Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. White blood cells help your body fight infection. Your blood cells form in your bone marrow. In leukemia, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. ...

  8. Children's Oncology Group's 2013 blueprint for research: acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamis, Alan S; Alonzo, Todd A; Perentesis, John P; Meshinchi, Soheil

    2013-06-01

    For the 365 children diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia in the US annually, 5-year survival for patients on COG trials with low, intermediate, and high risk disease is 83%, 62%, and 23%, respectively. Recent advances include improved therapeutic stratification, improved survival with dose intensification, and further elucidation of the heterogeneity specific to childhood AML. These discoveries now guide current strategy incorporating targeted agents to pathways specific to childhood AML as well as evaluating methods to increase the sensitivity of the leukemic stem cell, first in Phase II feasibility trials followed by Phase III efficacy trials of the most promising agents. Acute myeloid leukemia in children, though with similar subgroups to adults, remains uniquely different based upon quite different prevalence of subtypes as well as overall response to therapy. The Children's Oncology Group's research agenda builds upon earlier efforts to better elucidate the leukemogenic steps distinct to childhood AML in order to more scientifically develop and test novel therapeutic approaches to the treatment and ultimate cure for children with this disorder. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2013; 60: 964-971. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Supportive care for children with acute leukemia - Report of a survey on supportive care by the Dutch Childhood Leukemia Study Group. Part I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, A; Van Leeuwen, EF; Gerritsen, EJA; Roord, JJ; De vries-Hospers, HG

    1998-01-01

    The Dutch Childhood Leukemia Study Group celebrated its 20th anniversary by conducting a nationwide survey on supportive care for children with leukemia. Pediatricians were asked about daily practice and current perceptions with regard to supportive care. The results are discussed and compared to

  10. Outcome of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children with down syndrome-Polish pediatric leukemia and lymphoma study group report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawitkowska, Joanna; Odój, Teresa; Drabko, Katarzyna; Zaucha-Prażmo, Agnieszka; Rudnicka, Julia; Romiszewski, Michał; Matysiak, Michał; Kwiecińska, Kinga; Ćwiklińska, Magdalena; Balwierz, Walentyna; Owoc-Lempach, Joanna; Derwich, Katarzyna; Wachowiak, Jacek; Niedźwiecki, Maciej; Adamkiewicz-Drożyńska, Elżbieta; Trelińska, Joanna; Młynarski, Wojciech; Kołtan, Andrzej; Wysocki, Mariusz; Tomaszewska, Renata; Szczepański, Tomasz; Płonowski, Marcin; Krawczuk-Rybak, Maryna; Ociepa, Tomasz; Urasiński, Tomasz; Mizia-Malarz, Agnieszka; Sobol-Milejska, Grażyna; Karolczyk, Grażyna; Kowalczyk, Jerzy

    2017-05-01

    Children with Down syndrome (DS) have a 20-fold increased risk of developing leukemia compared with the general population. The aim of the study was to analyze the outcome of patients diagnosed with Down syndrome and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in Poland between the years 2003 and 2010. A total of 1848 children were diagnosed with ALL (810 females and 1038 males). Of those, 41 (2.2%) had DS. The children were classified into three risk groups: a standard-risk group-14 patients, an intermediate-risk group-24, a high-risk group-3. All patients were treated according to ALLIC 2002 protocol. The median observation time of all patients was 6.1 years, and in patients with DS 5.3 years. Five-year overall survival (OS) was the same in all patients (86% vs 86%, long-rank test, p = .9). The relapse-free survival (RFS) was calculated as 73% in patients with DS and 81% in patients without DS during a median observation time (long-rank test, p = .3). No statistically significant differences were found in the incidence of nonrelapse mortality between those two groups of patients (p = .72). The study was based on children with ALL and Down syndrome who were treated with an identical therapy schedule as ALL patients without DS, according to risk group. This fact can increase the value of the presented results.

  11. Reinduction therapy for adult acute leukemia with adriamycin, vincristine, and prednisone: a Southwest Oncology Group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, L; Shaw, M T; Raab, S O

    1979-08-01

    In an attempt to improve remissions and survivals in previously treated patients with adult acute leukemia, we gave Adriamycin, vincristine, and prednisone for induction therapy, followed by 6-mercaptopurine and methotrexate for maintenance therapy to patients attaining complete remission (CR). The study group consisted of 18 patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML), ten with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and one with acute undifferentiated leukemia. Only one patient had previously received Adriamycin. Overall, there were ten CRs and two partial remissions. The five CRs and one partial remission in patients with AML occurred among those with one prior induction attempt; none of the eight AML patients with more than one prior induction attempt responded. The actuarial median duration of CR was 15 weeks and was similar for AML and acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients. Responders had a longer median survival (30 weeks) than nonresponders (9 weeks). Thus, although a reasonable number of responses in previously treated patients were obtained with this program, improvements in maintenance therapy are clearly needed.

  12. Changes in cytogenetics and molecular genetics in acute myeloid leukemia from childhood to adult age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creutzig, Ursula; Zimmermann, Martin; Reinhardt, Dirk; Rasche, Mareike; von Neuhoff, Christine; Alpermann, Tamara; Dworzak, Michael; Perglerová, Karolína; Zemanova, Zuzana; Tchinda, Joelle; Bradtke, Jutta; Thiede, Christian; Haferlach, Claudia

    2016-12-15

    To obtain better insight into the biology of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in various age groups, this study focused on the genetic changes occurring during a lifetime. This study analyzed the relation between age and genetics from birth to 100 years in 5564 patients with de novo AML diagnosed from 1998 to 2012 (1192 patients from nationwide pediatric studies [AML Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster studies 98 and 2004] and 4372 adults registered with the Munich Leukemia Laboratory). The frequencies of cytogenetic subgroups were age-dependent. Favorable subtypes (t(8;21), inv(16)/t(16;16), and t(15;17)) decreased in general from the pediatric age group (2 to groups ( 70 years; P age-specific incidence with age. Interestingly, the frequency of 11q23 abnormalities decreased from infants to older patients. The proportion of clinically relevant molecular aberrations of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α, nucleophosmin (NPM1), and NPM1/fms-related tyrosine kinase 3-internal tandem duplication increased with age. Altogether, with the exclusion of infants, a significant decrease in the proportion of favorable cytogenetic subtypes and an increase in unfavorable cytogenetics were observed with increasing age. These findings indicate different mechanisms for the pathogenesis of AML; these different mechanisms also suggest directions for etiological research and contribute to the more unfavorable prognosis with increasing age. Cancer 2016;122:3821-3830. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  13. Management of infection during chemotherapy for acute leukemia in Japan: a nationwide questionnaire-based survey by the Japan Adult Leukemia Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Shun-Ichi; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Kato, Hideaki; Hiramoto, Nobuhiro; Hosono, Naoko; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Shigeno, Kazuyuki; Hatsumi, Naoko; Minamiguchi, Hitoshi; Miyatake, Junichi; Handa, Hiroshi; Akiyama, Nobu; Kanda, Yoshinobu; Yoshida, Minoru; Kiyoi, Hitoshi; Miyazaki, Yasushi; Naoe, Tomoki

    2017-11-01

    We performed a nationwide questionnaire-based survey to evaluate the current clinical practices of infectious complications during chemotherapy for acute leukemia in Japan. We e-mailed a questionnaire to member institutions of the Japan Adult Leukemia Study Group in September, 2013. The questionnaire consisted of 50 multiple-choice questions covering therapeutic environment, antimicrobial prophylaxis, screening test during neutropenia, empirical therapy for febrile neutropenia, and the use of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor. The results were compared to those of previous surveys conducted in 2001 and 2007, and also to the recommendations described in the guidelines. Usable responses were received from 141 out of 222 (63.5%) institutions. Chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia was performed in protective environment in 90% of the institutions, which increased compared to previous survey (76%). Fluoroquinolones and fluconazole were the most commonly used antimicrobial agents for antibacterial and antifungal prophylaxis, followed by sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim and itraconazole, respectively. In empirical therapy for febrile neutropenia, monotherapy with β-lactum antibiotics was the first-line therapy in most of the institutions. While empirical antifungal therapy was adopted for persistent fever in more than half of the institutions, preemptive/presumptive therapy was also used in approximately 40% of the institutions. Most of the clinicians were reluctant to use granulocyte-colony stimulating factor routinely in chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia. This study clarified the current clinical practices of infectious complications during chemotherapy for acute leukemia and would provide important information for the development of a suitable guideline in Japan.

  14. Doxorubicin and ifosfamide combination chemotherapy in previously treated acute leukemia in adults: a Southwest Oncology Group pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, D H; Bickers, J N; Vial, R H; Hussein, K; Bottomley, R; Hewlett, J S; Wilson, H E; Stuckey, W J

    1980-01-01

    The Southwest Oncology Group did a limited institutional pilot study of the combination of doxorubicin and ifosfamide in the treatment of previously treated adult patients with acute leukemia. Thirty-four patients received one or two courses of the combination. All patients had received prior chemotherapy and 32 had received prior anthracycline chemotherapy. Three patients died before their responses could be fully evaluated. Fourteen patients achieved complete remission (41%) and one patient achieved partial remission. The complete remission rate was 27% for patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia (myelomonoblastic leukemia, monoblastic leukemia, and erythroleukemia) and 89% for patients with acute lymphocytic and undifferentiated leukemia (ALL). Toxic effects included severe hematologic reactions in 33 of 34 patients, hematuria in six patients, altered sensorium in one patient, and congestive heart failure in one patient. The safety of the combination was established and toxic side effects of this therapy were tolerable. The 89% complete remission rate for previously treated patients with ALL suggests that the combination of doxorubicin and ifosfamide may be particularly effective in ALL.

  15. Treatment results in children with myeloid leukemia of Down syndrome in Saudi Arabia: A multicenter SAPHOS leukemia group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastaniah, Wasil; Alsultan, Abdulrahman; Al Daama, Saad; Ballourah, Walid; Bayoumy, Mohammad; Al-Anzi, Faisal; Al Shareef, Omar; Abrar, Mohammed Burhan; Al Sudairy, Reem; Al Ghemlas, Ibrahim

    2017-07-01

    Despite the high incidence of Down syndrome (DS) in Arab countires, the incidence and outcomes of myeloid leukemia of DS (ML-DS) have not been studied. We evaluated 206 pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients diagnosed between 2005 and 2012 and identified 31 (15%) ML-DS. The incidence of ML-DS was 48 per 100,000 compared to 0.6 per 100,000 for AML in non-DS children. Thus, patients with DS had 80-fold increased risk of ML-DS compared to AML in non-DS children. The median age at diagnosis was 1.8 years, male/female ratio was 1.2, majority (84%) of patients had FAB-M7 subtype, and the cytogenetic abnormalities were normal karyotype (constitutional trisomy 21) in 48%, additional trisomy in 23%, and other aberrations in 29%. Complete remission, cumulative incidences of relapse (CIR), toxic-death, and 5-year event-free survival (EFS) rates were 96.8%, 19.4%, 13.1%, and 67.7±8.4%; respectively. In the present study, multivariate analysis revealed favorable outcome (5-year EFS 86.7±8.8%) for patients with normal karyotype. The incidence and clinical characteristics of ML-DS in Saudi patients were comparable to other reports. However, there is a need to optimize risk stratification and treatment intensity to reduce CIR and toxic death rates to further improve outcomes of patients with ML-DS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. MINIMAL REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DIAGNOSIS, CLASSIFICATION, AND EVALUATION OF THE TREATMENT OF CHILDHOOD ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC-LEUKEMIA (ALL) IN THE BFM FAMILY COOPERATIVE GROUP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERDOESVANDENBERG, A; BARTRAM, CR; BASSO, G; BENOIT, YCM; BIONDI, A; DEBATIN, KM; HAAS, OA; HARBOTT, J; KAMPS, WA; KOLLER, U; LAMPERT, F; LUDWIG, WD; NIEMEYER, CM; VANWERING, ER

    1992-01-01

    Minimal requirements and their rationale for the diagnosis and the response to treatment in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) were defined in the recently instituted "BFM-Family"-Group, in which the German, Austrian, Dutch, Italian, Belgian, French and Hungarian childhood leukemia study

  17. Discontinuation of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in chronic myeloid leukemia: Recommendations for clinical practice from the French Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, Delphine; Ame, Shanti; Berger, Marc; Cayuela, Jean-Michel; Charbonnier, Aude; Coiteux, Valérie; Cony-Makhoul, Pascale; Dubruille, Viviane; Dulucq, Stéphanie; Etienne, Gabriel; Legros, Laurence; Nicolini, Franck; Roche-Lestienne, Catherine; Escoffre-Barbe, Martine; Gardembas, Martine; Guerci-Bresler, Agnès; Johnson-Ansah, Hyacinthe; Rigal-Huguet, Françoise; Rousselot, Philippe; Mahon, François-Xavier

    2018-05-03

    The ultimate goal of chronic myeloid leukemia management in the tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) era for patients who obtain deep molecular responses is maintaining a durable off-treatment response after treatment discontinuation; this situation is called treatment-free remission (TFR). Knowledge accumulated during the last 10 years justifies moving TFR strategies from research to clinical practice. Twenty experts from the French Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Study Group (France Intergroupe des Leucémies Myéloïdes Chroniques), including 17 hematologists, 2 molecular biologists, and 1 cytogeneticist, critically reviewed published data with the goal of developing evidence-based recommendations for TKI discontinuation in clinical practice. Clinically relevant questions were addressed, including the selection of candidate patients (with known prognostic factors for outcomes taken into account), detailed monitoring procedures during the treatment-free phase, a definition of relapse requiring therapy resumption, and monitoring after treatment reintroduction. This work presents consensus statements with the aim of guiding physicians and biologists by means of pragmatic recommendations for safe TKI discontinuation in daily practice. Cancer 2018. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

  18. Statistical Analysis of Competing Risks: Overall Survival in a Group of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Patients

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fürstová, Jana; Valenta, Zdeněk

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2011), s. 2-10 ISSN 1801-5603 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : competing risks * chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) * overall survival * cause-specific hazard * cumulative incidence function Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://www.ejbi.eu/images/2011-1/Furstova_en.pdf

  19. Wilms’ Tumor 1 Gene Mutations Independently Predict Poor Outcome in Adults With Cytogenetically Normal Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A Cancer and Leukemia Group B Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschka, Peter; Marcucci, Guido; Ruppert, Amy S.; Whitman, Susan P.; Mrózek, Krzysztof; Maharry, Kati; Langer, Christian; Baldus, Claudia D.; Zhao, Weiqiang; Powell, Bayard L.; Baer, Maria R.; Carroll, Andrew J.; Caligiuri, Michael A.; Kolitz, Jonathan E.; Larson, Richard A.; Bloomfield, Clara D.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the prognostic impact of Wilms’ tumor 1 (WT1) gene mutations in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML). Patients and Methods We studied 196 adults younger than 60 years with newly diagnosed primary CN-AML, who were treated similarly on Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) protocols 9621 and 19808, for WT1 mutations in exons 7 and 9. The patients also were assessed for the presence of FLT3 internal tandem duplications (FLT3-ITD), FLT3 tyrosine kinase domain mutations (FLT3-TKD), MLL partial tandem duplications (MLL-PTD), NPM1 and CEBPA mutations, and for the expression levels of ERG and BAALC. Results Twenty-one patients (10.7%) harbored WT1 mutations. Complete remission rates were not significantly different between patients with WT1 mutations and those with unmutated WT1 (P = .36; 76% v 84%). Patients with WT1 mutations had worse disease-free survival (DFS; P < .001; 3-year rates, 13% v 50%) and overall survival (OS; P < .001; 3-year rates, 10% v 56%) than patients with unmutated WT1. In multivariable analyses, WT1 mutations independently predicted worse DFS (P = .009; hazard ratio [HR] = 2.7) when controlling for CEBPA mutational status, ERG expression level, and FLT3-ITD/NPM1 molecular-risk group (ie, FLT3-ITDnegative/NPM1mutated as low risk v FLT3-ITDpositive and/or NPM1wild-type as high risk). WT1 mutations also independently predicted worse OS (P < .001; HR = 3.2) when controlling for CEBPA mutational status, FLT3-ITD/NPM1 molecular-risk group, and white blood cell count. Conclusion We report the first evidence that WT1 mutations independently predict extremely poor outcome in intensively treated, younger patients with CN-AML. Future trials should include testing for WT1 mutations as part of molecularly based risk assessment and risk-adapted treatment stratification of patients with CN-AML. PMID:18559874

  20. Novel Feline Leukemia Virus Interference Group Based on the env Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Ariko; Watanabe, Shinya; Hiratsuka, Takahiro; Ito, Jumpei; Ngo, Minh Ha; Makundi, Isaac; Kawasaki, Junna; Endo, Yasuyuki; Tsujimoto, Hajime; Nishigaki, Kazuo

    2016-05-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) subgroups have emerged in infected cats via the mutation or recombination of the env gene of subgroup A FeLV (FeLV-A), the primary virus. We report the isolation and characterization of a novel env gene, TG35-2, and report that the TG35-2 pseudotype can be categorized as a novel FeLV subgroup. The TG35-2 envelope protein displays strong sequence identity to FeLV-A Env, suggesting that selection pressure in cats causes novel FeLV subgroups to emerge. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. An early thymic precursor phenotype predicts outcome exclusively in HOXA-overexpressing adult T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a Group for Research in Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Jonathan; Marchand, Tony; Touzart, Aurore; Cieslak, Agata; Trinquand, Amélie; Sutton, Laurent; Radford-Weiss, Isabelle; Lhermitte, Ludovic; Spicuglia, Salvatore; Dombret, Hervé; Macintyre, Elizabeth; Ifrah, Norbert; Hamel, Jean-François; Asnafi, Vahid

    2016-06-01

    Gene expression studies have consistently identified a HOXA-overexpressing cluster of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias, but it is unclear whether these constitute a homogeneous clinical entity, and the biological consequences of HOXA overexpression have not been systematically examined. We characterized the biology and outcome of 55 HOXA-positive cases among 209 patients with adult T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia uniformly treated during the Group for Research on Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (GRAALL)-2003 and -2005 studies. HOXA-positive patients had markedly higher rates of an early thymic precursor-like immunophenotype (40.8% versus 14.5%, P=0.0004), chemoresistance (59.3% versus 40.8%, P=0.026) and positivity for minimal residual disease (48.5% versus 23.5%, P=0.01) than the HOXA-negative group. These differences were due to particularly high frequencies of chemoresistant early thymic precursor-like acute lymphoblastic leukemia in HOXA-positive cases harboring fusion oncoproteins that transactivate HOXA Strikingly, the presence of an early thymic precursor-like immunophenotype was associated with marked outcome differences within the HOXA-positive group (5-year overall survival 31.2% in HOXA-positive early thymic precursor versus 66.7% in HOXA-positive non-early thymic precursor, P=0.03), but not in HOXA-negative cases (5-year overall survival 74.2% in HOXA-negative early thymic precursor versus 57.2% in HOXA-negative non-early thymic precursor, P=0.44). Multivariate analysis further revealed that HOXA positivity independently affected event-free survival (P=0.053) and relapse risk (P=0.039) of chemoresistant T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. These results show that the underlying mechanism of HOXA deregulation dictates the clinico-biological phenotype, and that the negative prognosis of early thymic precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia is exclusive to HOXA-positive patients, suggesting that early treatment intensification is currently

  2. Respiratory syncytial virus infection in infants with acute leukemia: a retrospective survey of the Japanese Pediatric Leukemia/Lymphoma Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, Michiki; Miyamura, Takako; Koh, Katsuyoshi; Taga, Takashi; Tawa, Akio; Hasegawa, Daisuke; Kajihara, Ryosuke; Adachi, Souichi; Ishii, Eiichi; Tomizawa, Daisuke

    2015-12-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) can cause life-threatening complications of lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in young children with malignancies, but reports remain limited. We performed a retrospective nationwide survey to clarify the current status of RSV disease among infants with hematological malignancies. Clinical course, treatment, and outcome of patients with hematological malignancies who suffered from RSV infections at the age of acute leukemia were identified as having experienced RSV disease. The primary diseases were acute myeloid leukemia (n = 8) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 4). RSV infection occurred pre- or during induction therapy (n = 8) and during consolidation therapy (n = 4). Eight patients developed LRTI, four of whom had severe pneumonia or acute respiratory distress syndrome; these four patients died despite receiving intensive care. In our survey, the prognosis of RSV disease in pediatric hematological malignancies was poor, and progression of LRTI in particular was associated with high mortality. In the absence of RSV-specific therapy, effective prevention and treatment strategies for severe RSV disease must be investigated.

  3. Clinical characteristics and genetic analysis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: a Japanese retrospective study by the Kyushu-Yamaguchi Children's Cancer Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritake, Hiroshi; Kamimura, Sachiyo; Nunoi, Hiroyuki; Nakayama, Hideki; Suminoe, Aiko; Inada, Hiroko; Inagaki, Jiro; Yanai, Fumio; Okamoto, Yasuhiro; Shinkoda, Yuichi; Shimomura, Maiko; Itonaga, Nobuyoshi; Hotta, Noriko; Hidaka, Yasufumi; Ohara, Osamu; Yanagimachi, Masakatsu; Nakajima, Noriko; Okamura, Jun; Kawano, Yoshifumi

    2014-07-01

    This present study sought to analyze acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) registered in Kyushu-Yamaguchi Children's Cancer Study Group studies conducted between 1996 and 2007. Four of 357 patients, including two of 318 patients with B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) and two of 39 of those with T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), were identified. HLH was observed more frequently in the T-ALL patients than in the BCP-ALL patients (P = 0.061). The mean age of 13.0 years at the diagnosis of leukemia in the HLH + ALL group was significantly higher than the 6.05 years observed in the remaining ALL groups (P = 0.001). A female predisposition was noted, as all four patients were female (P = 0.043). In two of four patients, the leukemic cells exhibited deletions on the long arm of chromosome 6 (P = 0.003). Three patients suffered from HLH during maintenance therapy. Parvovirus B19 infection and cytomegalovirus reactivation were identified as causes of HLH in one and two patients, respectively. All four patients are currently in complete remission, although one developed relapse of leukemia after receiving maintenance therapy. Based on the genetic analyses, non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in UNC13D, syntaxin 11, and STXBP2 were identified in all patients. Clinicians should therefore be aware of the risk of HLH during maintenance therapy, especially in older T-ALL patients with SNPs in familial HLH causative genes.

  4. Current status of total body irradiation in conditioning regimen for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Survey in the Japan Association of Childhood Leukemia Study (JACLS) Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Nobuhiro; Hara, Jun-ichi; Chayama, Kohsuke; Akiyama, Yuichi; Nakahata, Tatsutoshi

    2005-01-01

    We surveyed methods of total body irradiation (TB I) in conditioning regimens of stem cell transplantation (SCT) for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) at participating institutions of the Japan Association of Childhood Leukemia Study (JACLS) ALL-97 protocol. We obtained information about TBI from 25 institutions. Total dose of 12 Gy fractionated by four to six in two to three days for TBI was conducted in 22 of 25 institutions. High-risk patients, such as patients with Philadelphia positive ALL, received over 12 Gy in five institutions. Beam direction and patient's positioning were horizontal and lateral respectively in 15 institutions. Shielding of lung and/or eyes and boost irradiation to central nervous system and/or testis were done in 24 and 11 institutions respectively, but in various ways. We have to keep in mind that a great variety of TBI have been undergone in each institution when we intend to interpret multi-institutional trials of treatment including SCT for patients with ALL. (author)

  5. Birth characteristics, maternal reproductive history, and the risk of infant leukemia: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Logan G; Davies, Stella M; Robison, Leslie L; Hilden, Joanne M; Roesler, Michelle; Ross, Julie A

    2007-01-01

    Leukemias with MLL gene rearrangements predominate in infants (birth weight, higher birth order, and prior fetal loss have, with varying consistency, been associated with infant leukemia, but no studies have reported results with respect to MLL status. Here, we report for the first time such an analysis. During 1999 to 2003, mothers of 240 incident cases (113 MLL(+), 80 MLL(-), and 47 indeterminate) and 255 random digit dialed controls completed a telephone interview. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for quartile of birth weight, birth order, gestational age, maternal age at delivery, prior fetal loss, pre-pregnancy body mass index, and weight gain during pregnancy were obtained using unconditional logistic regression; P for linear trend was obtained by modeling continuous variables. There was a borderline significant linear trend of increasing birth weight with MLL(+) (P = 0.06), but not MLL(-) (P = 0.93), infant leukemia. Increasing birth order showed a significant inverse linear trend, independent of birth weight, with MLL(+) (P = 0.01), but not MLL(-) (P = 0.18), infant leukemia. Other variables of interest were not notably associated with infant leukemia regardless of MLL status. This investigation further supports the contention that molecularly defined subtypes of infant leukemia have separate etiologies.

  6. Atypical chronic myeloid leukaemia: A case of an orphan disease-A multicenter report by the Polish Adult Leukemia Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozd-Sokołowska, Joanna; Mądry, Krzysztof; Waszczuk-Gajda, Anna; Biecek, Przemysław; Szwedyk, Paweł; Budziszewska, Katarzyna; Raźny, Magdalena; Dutka, Magdalena; Obara, Agata; Wasilewska, Ewa; Lewandowski, Krzysztof; Piekarska, Agnieszka; Bober, Grażyna; Krzemień, Helena; Stella-Hołowiecka, Beata; Kapelko-Słowik, Katarzyna; Sawicki, Waldemar; Paszkowska-Kowalewska, Małgorzata; Machowicz, Rafał; Dwilewicz-Trojaczek, Jadwiga

    2018-03-07

    Atypical chronic myeloid leukaemia (aCML) belongs to myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms. Because of its rarity and changing diagnostic criteria throughout subsequent classifications, data on aCML are very scarce. Therefore, we at the Polish Adult Leukemia Group performed a nationwide survey on aCML. Eleven biggest Polish centres participated in the study. Altogether, 45 patients were reported, among whom only 18 patients (40%) fulfilled diagnostic criteria. Among misdiagnosed patients, myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative syndrome unclassifiable and chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia were the most frequent diagnoses. Thirteen patients were male, median age 64.6 years (range 40.4-80.9). The median parameters at diagnosis were as follows: white blood cell count 97 × 10 9 /L (23.8-342) with immature progenitors amounting at 27.5% (12-72), haemoglobin 8.6 g/dL (3.9-14.9), and platelet count 66 × 10 9 /L (34-833). Cytoreductive treatment was used in all patients, and 2 patients underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The median overall survival was 14.1 months (95% CI, 7.2), with median acute myeloid leukaemia-free survival of 13.3 months (95% CI, 3.6-22.6). Cumulative incidence of acute myeloid leukaemia transformation after 1 year in aCML group was 12.5% (95% CI, 0%-29.6%). To conclude, aCML harbours a poor prognosis. Treatment options are limited, with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation being the only curative method at present, although only a minority of patients are transplant eligible. Educational measures are needed to improve the quality of diagnoses. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Prognostic factors in children and adolescents with acute myeloid leukemia (excluding children with Down syndrome and acute promyelocytic leukemia): univariate and recursive partitioning analysis of patients treated on Pediatric Oncology Group (POG) Study 8821.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, M; Raimondi, S C; Ravindranath, Y; Carroll, A J; Camitta, B; Gresik, M V; Steuber, C P; Weinstein, H

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of the paper was to define clinical or biological features associated with the risk for treatment failure for children with acute myeloid leukemia. Data from 560 children and adolescents with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia who entered the Pediatric Oncology Group Study 8821 from June 1988 to March 1993 were analyzed by univariate and recursive partitioning methods. Children with Down syndrome or acute promyelocytic leukemia were excluded from the study. Factors examined included age, number of leukocytes, sex, FAB morphologic subtype, cytogenetic findings, and extramedullary disease at the time of diagnosis. The overall event-free survival (EFS) rate at 4 years was 32.7% (s.e. = 2.2%). Age > or =2 years, fewer than 50 x 10(9)/I leukocytes, and t(8;21) or inv(16), and normal chromosomes were associated with higher rates of EFS (P value = 0.003, 0.049, 0.0003, 0.031, respectively), whereas the M5 subtype of AML (P value = 0.0003) and chromosome abnormalities other than t(8;21) and inv(16) were associated with lower rates of EFS (P value = 0.0001). Recursive partitioning analysis defined three groups of patients with widely varied prognoses: female patients with t(8;21), inv(16), or a normal karyotype (n = 89) had the best prognosis (4-year EFS = 55.1%, s.e. = 5.7%); male patients with t(8;21), inv(16) or normal chromosomes (n = 106) had an intermediate prognosis (4-year EFS = 38.1%, s.e. = 5.3%); patients with chromosome abnormalities other than t(8;21) and inv(16) (n = 233) had the worst prognosis (4-year EFS = 27.0%, s.e. = 3.2%). One hundred and thirty-two patients (24%) could not be grouped because of missing cytogenetic data, mainly due to inadequate marrow samples. The results suggest that pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia can be categorized into three potential risk groups for prognosis and that differences in sex and chromosomal abnormalities are associated with differences in estimates of EFS. These results are tentative and

  8. Atomic bomb and leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichimaru, M; Tomonaga, M; Amenomori, T; Matsuo, T [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1991-12-01

    Characteristic features of the leukemia among atomic bomb survivors were studied. Dose estimates of atomic bomb radiation were based on T65D, but the new dosimetry system DS86 was used for some analyses. The ratio of a single leukemia type to all leukemias was highest for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in Hiroshima, and the occurrence of CML was thought to be most characteristic to atomic bomb radiation induced leukemia. The threshold of CML occurrence in Hiroshima is likely to be between 0.5{approx}0.09 Gy. However, the threshold of acute leukemia appears to be nearly 1 Gy. In the distribution of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) subtypes by French-American-British classification, there was no M3 case in 1 Gy or more group, although several atypical AML cases of survivors were observed. Although aplastic anemia has not increased as a late effect of the atomic bomb radiation exposure, many atypical leukemia or other myeloproliferative diseases who had been diagnosed as aplastic anemia or its related diseases have been experienced among atomic bomb survivors. Chromosome study was conducted using colony forming cells induced by hemopoietic stem cells of peripheral blood of proximal survivors. Same chromosome aberrations were observed in colony forming cells and peripheral T-cells in several atomic bomb survivors. (author).

  9. Atomic bomb and leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimaru, M.; Tomonaga, M.; Amenomori, T.; Matsuo, T.

    1991-01-01

    Characteristic features of the leukemia among atomic bomb survivors were studied. Dose estimates of atomic bomb radiation were based on T65D, but the new dosimetry system DS86 was used for some analyses. The ratio of a single leukemia type to all leukemias was highest for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in Hiroshima, and the occurrence of CML was thought to be most characteristic to atomic bomb radiation induced leukemia. The threshold of CML occurrence in Hiroshima is likely to be between 0.5∼0.09 Gy. However, the threshold of acute leukemia appears to be nearly 1 Gy. In the distribution of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) subtypes by French-American-British classification, there was no M3 case in 1 Gy or more group, although several atypical AML cases of survivors were observed. Although aplastic anemia has not increased as a late effect of the atomic bomb radiation exposure, many atypical leukemia or other myeloproliferative diseases who had been diagnosed as aplastic anemia or its related diseases have been experienced among atomic bomb survivors. Chromosome study was conducted using colony forming cells induced by hemopoietic stem cells of peripheral blood of proximal survivors. Same chromosome aberrations were observed in colony forming cells and peripheral T-cells in several atomic bomb survivors. (author)

  10. Leukemia - B-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia and Hairy Cell Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Leukemia - B-cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia and Hairy Cell Leukemia Introduction Statistics Risk Factors Symptoms and Signs Diagnosis Stages Treatment Options About Clinical Trials Latest Research ...

  11. Sequential Oral Hydroxyurea and Intravenous Cytosine Arabinoside in Refractory Childhood Acute Leukemia: A Pediatric Oncology Group Phase I Study

    OpenAIRE

    Dubowy, Ronald; Graham, Michael; Hakami, Nasrollah; Kletzel, Morris; Mahoney, Donald; Newman, Edward; Ravindranath, Yaddanapudi; Camitta, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    At concentrations >0.1 mM, Hydroxyurea (HU) enhances the accumulation of cytosine arabinoside (ara-C) in leukemia cells in vitro. This study of children with refractory acute leukemia was designed to take advantage of this biochemical modulation. A fixed dose of HU and an escalating dose of ara-C were used. Oral HU, 1200 mg/m2 was followed 2 hours later by ara-C, 250-3100 mg/m2 intravenously in 15 minutes. The combination was given on days 1,2,3 and 8,9,10. Thirty-three children (26 ALL, 7 AN...

  12. Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)

    Science.gov (United States)

    CML; Chronic myeloid leukemia; Chronic granulocytic leukemia; Leukemia - chronic granulocytic ... nuclear disaster. It takes many years to develop leukemia from radiation exposure. Most people treated for cancer ...

  13. Weight change during childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia induction therapy predicts obesity: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withycombe, Janice S; Smith, Lynette M; Meza, Jane L; Merkle, Carrie; Faulkner, Melissa Spezia; Ritter, Leslie; Seibel, Nita L; Moore, Ki

    2015-03-01

    Obesity is a well documented problem associated with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with increasing body mass index often observed during therapy. This study aims to evaluate if weight gain, early in therapy, is predictive of obesity at the end of treatment. In this secondary analysis, data from 1,017 high-risk ALL patients previously treated on a Children's Oncology Group protocol (CCG study 1961) were reviewed. Logistic regression was used to examine whether change in BMI z-score at Induction or Delayed Intensification (DI) 1 were predictive of obesity at the end of therapy. The BMI z-score at the beginning of Induction and the change in BMI z-score during Induction were both significant predictors of obesity at the end of therapy. The change in BMI z-score during cycle 1 of DI was not found to be associated with obesity. It is well know that obesity at the beginning of therapy is predictive of obesity at the end of ALL therapy. The new, and more important, finding from this study is that even after adjusting for baseline weight, the increase in BMI z-scores during induction was an independent predictor of obesity at the end of therapy. Most researchers agree that prevention is the best form of treatment for obesity as it is difficult to reverse once it is present. This study suggests that monitoring weight trends during Induction may be useful in guiding healthcare practitioners in identifying which patients are at highest risk for obesity development so that early intervention may occur. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Characterization of children with FLT3-ITD acute myeloid leukemia: a report from the AIEOP AML-2002 study group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manara, E; Basso, G; Zampini, M; Buldini, B; Tregnago, C; Rondelli, R; Masetti, R; Bisio, V; Frison, M; Polato, K; Cazzaniga, G; Menna, G; Fagioli, F; Merli, P; Biondi, A; Pession, A; Locatelli, F; Pigazzi, M

    2017-01-01

    Recurrent molecular markers have been routinely used in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) for risk assessment at diagnosis, whereas their post-induction monitoring still represents a debated issue. We evaluated the prognostic value and biological impact of minimal residual disease (MRD) and of the allelic ratio (AR) of FLT3-internal-tandem duplication (ITD) in childhood AML. We retrospectively screened 494 children with de novo AML for FLT3-ITD mutation, identifying 54 harboring the mutation; 51% of them presented high ITD-AR at diagnosis and had worse event-free survival (EFS, 19.2 versus 63.5% for low ITD-AR, <0.05). Forty-one percent of children with high levels of MRD after the 1st induction course, measured by a patient-specific real-time-PCR, had worse EFS (22.2 versus 59.4% in low-MRD patients, P<0.05). Next, we correlated these parameters with gene expression, showing that patients with high ITD-AR or persistent MRD had characteristic expression profiles with deregulated genes involved in methylation and acetylation. Moreover, patients with high CyclinA1 expression presented an unfavorable EFS (20.3 versus 51.2% in low CyclinA1 group, P<0.01). Our results suggest that ITD-AR levels and molecular MRD should be considered in planning clinical management of FLT3-ITD patients. Different transcriptional activation of epigenetic and oncogenic profiles may explain variability in outcome among these patients, for whom novel therapeutic approaches are desirable.

  15. CSF drug levels for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated by 5 g/m2 methotrexate. A study from the EORTC Children's Leukemia Cooperative Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milano, G; Thyss, A; Serre Debeauvais, F; Laureys, G; Benoit, Y; Deville, A; Dutour, C; Robert, A; Otten, J; Behar, C

    1990-04-01

    A multicenter EORTC study was conducted in children with acute lymphocytic leukemia to determine whether 5 g/m2 of methotrexate (MTX) (24 h i.v. infusion, four cycles) is an appropriate dosage for obtaining CSF drug concentrations approaching the critical cytotoxic level of 10(-6) M. A total of 193 cycles were analyzed for 58 patients. At the end of the 24 h infusion, the mean MTX serum level was 65.27 +/- 33.11 microM; the mean CSF MTX level was 1.47 +/- 1.1 microM; no significant difference in CSF MTX levels was observed between patients with (n = 20) and those without i.v. Ara-C (n = 38). The mean CSF MTX/serum MTX ratio was 0.029 +/- 0.027. CSF drug concentrations greater than or equal to 10(-6) M were achieved in 81% of the courses. The highest level was 8.4 X 10(-6) M. Only 5% of patients failed to achieve this drug concentration in at least one cycle. No significant correlation was observed between blood and CSF MTX levels. Mean CSF MTX levels were comparable from one cycle to another.

  16. Monocytic leukemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, M T

    1980-05-01

    The monocytic leukemias may be subdivided into acute monocytic leukemia, acute myelomonocytic leukemia, and subacute and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. The clinical features of acute monocytic and acute myelomonocytic leukemias are similar and are manifestations of bone marrow failure. Gingival hypertrophy and skin infiltration are more frequent in acute monocytic leukemia. Cytomorphologically the blast cells in acute monocytic leukemia may be undifferentiated or differentiated, whereas in the acute myelomonocytic variety there are mixed populations of monocytic and myeloblastic cells. Cytochemical characteristics include strongly positive reactions for nonspecific esterase, inhibited by fluoride. The functional characteristics of acute monocytic and acute myelomonocytic cells resemble those of monocytes and include glass adherence and phagocytoses, the presence of Fc receptors for IgG and C'3, and the production of colony stimulating activity. Subacute and chronic myelomonocytic leukemias are insidious and slowly progressive diseases characterized by anemia and peripheral blood monocytosis. Atypical monocytes called paramyeloid cells are characteristic. The drugs used in the treatment of acute monocytic and acute myelomonocytic leukemias include cytosine arabinoside, the anthracyclines, and VP 16-213. Drug therapy in subacute and chronic myelomonocytic leukemias is not usually indicated, although VP 16-213 has been claimed to be effective.

  17. Leukemia -- Eosinophilic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Leukemia - Eosinophilic Introduction Statistics Risk Factors Symptoms and Signs Diagnosis Stages Treatment Options About Clinical Trials Latest Research ...

  18. Chemotherapy for Initial Induction Failures in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: a Children’s Oncology Group Study (POG 8764)

    OpenAIRE

    Joyce, Michael; Pollock, Brad H.; Devidas, Meenakshi; Buchanan, George; Camitta, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) who fail to enter remission have a poor prognosis. In a previous study, 9 of 14 children with induction failure entered remission after teniposide (VM26) plus cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C). We attempted to confirm these results. Twenty children received teniposide (200 mg/m2/day IV) for 3 days and cytosine arabinoside (100 mg/m2/day continuous IV infusion) for 7 days. There were 3 complete and 3 partial responses. Two additional patients achieved ...

  19. French registry of acute leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes. Age distribution and hemogram analysis of the 4496 cases recorded during 1982-1983 and classified according to FAB criteria. Groupe Francais de Morphologie Hematologique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    During 1982 and 1983, 4496 new cases were recorded in the French Registry of acute leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes by the French Group of Hematologic Morphology. This cooperative group associated members of 37 university centers spread throughout France; these centers handle the overwhelming majority of acute leukemias diagnoses. The cases were all classified according to FAB guidelines. Two thousand four hundred ninety-nine cases of acute myeloid leukemia were recorded, with similar total recruitment and distribution by cytologic subclass for both years. Hemogram data analysis revealed significant differences between different classes for certain parameters, particularly leukocytosis. A greater proportion of the acute myelogenous leukemias (AMLs) secondary to chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy (n = 145) were unclassifiable according to the French-American-British (FAB) system than the de novo AMLs (n = 1954). Eight hundred twenty cases of myelodysplastic syndromes were analyzed. Their frequency was underestimated due to optional reporting during the first year and the less favorable position of the university centers for recruiting these syndromes. The characteristics of the hemograms were established for acquired idiopathic sideroblastic anemia (n = 107), refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB) (n = 329), chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (n = 129) and RAEB in transformation (n = 65). Analysis of the 1177 acute lymphoblastic leukemias (ALLs) recorded showed good stability from one year to the next in terms of numbers of cases and distribution in the subclasses L1, L2, and L3. The distribution among these three subclasses by age also was determined. For L1 and L2 the hemogram data were examined separately for adults and children. The study of 74 cases of type L3 ALL enabled us to detail the hematologic presentation of this rare form of leukemia

  20. Clinical and biological significance of isolated Y chromosome loss in myelodysplastic syndromes and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. A report from the Spanish MDS Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomdedeu, Meritxell; Pereira, Arturo; Calvo, Xavier; Colomer, Joan; Sole, Francesc; Arias, Amparo; Gomez, Candida; Luño, Elisa; Cervera, Jose; Arnan, Montserrat; Pomares, Helena; Ramos, Fernando; Oiartzabal, Itziar; Espinet, Blanca; Pedro, Carme; Arrizabalaga, Beatriz; Blanco, María Laura; Tormo, Mar; Hernandez-Rivas, Jesus Maria; Díez-Campelo, María; Ortega, Margarita; Valcárcel, David; Cedena, Maria-Teresa; Collado, Rosa; Grau, Javier; Granada, Isabel; Sanz, Guillermo; Campo, Elias; Esteve, Jordi; Costa, Dolors

    2017-12-01

    Isolate loss of chromosome Y (-Y) in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) is associated to a better outcome but it is also well described as an age-related phenomenon. In this study we aimed to analyze the prognostic impact of -Y in the context of the IPSS-R cytogenetic classification, evaluate the clinical significance of the percentage of metaphases with isolated -Y, and test whether finding -Y may predispose to over-diagnose MDS in patients with borderline morphological features. We evaluated 3581 male patients from the Spanish MDS Registry with a diagnosis of MDS or chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML). -Y was identified in 177 patients (4.9%). Compared with the 2246 male patients with normal karyotype, -Y group showed a reduced risk of leukemic transformation that did not translate into a survival advantage. The overall survival and the risk of leukemic transformation were not influenced by the percentage of metaphases with -Y. The -Y group was not enriched in patients with minor morphologic traits of dysplasia, suggesting that the better outcome in the -Y group cannot be explained by enrichment in cases misdiagnosed as MDS. In conclusion, our results support the current recommendation of classifying patients with -Y within the very good risk category of the IPSS-R for MDS and rule out a selection bias as a possible explanation of this better outcome. An analysis of the molecular basis of MDS with isolated -Y would be of interest as it may provide a biological basis of protection against progression to acute leukemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... myeloproliferative neoplasms, leukemia , and other conditions . Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia Key Points Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia is a disease ... chance of recovery) and treatment options. Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia is a disease in which too many myelocytes ...

  2. Atypical Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... myeloproliferative neoplasms, leukemia , and other conditions . Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia Key Points Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia is a disease ... chance of recovery) and treatment options. Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia is a disease in which too many myelocytes ...

  3. Understanding Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for as long as they take it. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is another treatment option that is only done if CML is not responding as expected to drug therapy. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) . Some CLL patients do not need treatment ...

  4. Childhood Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... acute types. Symptoms include Infections Fever Loss of appetite Tiredness Easy bruising or bleeding Swollen lymph nodes Night sweats Shortness of breath Pain in the bones or joints Risk factors for childhood leukemia include having a brother ...

  5. Phase II trial of paclitaxel and cisplatin in patients with extensive stage small cell lung cancer: Cancer and Leukemia Group B Trial 9430.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcombe, Thomas E; Mauer, Ann M; Hodgson, Lydia D; Herndon, James E; Lynch, Thomas J; Green, Mark R; Vokes, Everett E

    2008-11-01

    Cancer and Leukemia Group B trial 9430 was a randomized phase II trial which investigated the safety and activity of four novel doublets in untreated extensive stage small cell lung cancer. The results of the paclitaxel and cisplatin arm have not been reported. Patients received paclitaxel 230 mg/m followed by cisplatin 75 mg/m on day 1 every 21 days. All patients received granulocyte colony stimulating factor 5 microg/kg/d beginning on day 3 of each cycle. The patient characteristics of the 34 patients assigned to this treatment arm were: median age 61.5 years (range 41-82), male (76%), performance status 0 (41%), 1 (32%), and 2 (26%). An objective response was observed in 23 patients (68%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 49-83%); 2 complete responses (6%) and 21 partial responses (62%). Median progression-free survival time was 5.6 months (95% CI: 4.8-7.1 month), and median overall survival time was 7.7 months (95% CI: 7.2-12.6 months). The 1-year survival rate observed was 29% (95% CI: 15-45%). Grade 3/4 neutropenia and thrombocytopenia was observed in 5 (15%) and 4 (12%) patients, respectively. Two patients developed febrile neutropenia including one patient who died of neutropenic sepsis. Grade 3/4 nonhematologic observed were: sensory neuropathy in eight patients (24%); and hyperglycemia, malaise and nausea were all observed in four patients (12%). Cancer and Leukemia Group B will not pursue further investigation of paclitaxel and cisplatin due to the modest activity and the toxicity observed on this trial.

  6. Risk group assignment differs for children and adults 1-45 yr with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated by the NOPHO ALL-2008 protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Nina; Birgens, Henrik; Abrahamsson, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    The prognosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia is poorer in adults than in children. Studies have indicated that young adults benefit from pediatric treatment, although no upper age limit has been defined.......The prognosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia is poorer in adults than in children. Studies have indicated that young adults benefit from pediatric treatment, although no upper age limit has been defined....

  7. The results of treatment of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and leukocyte count over 50 x 109/1 according to the modified New York protocol. Preliminary report of Polish Leukemia-Lymphoma Study Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armata, J.

    1993-01-01

    92 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and leukocyte count over 50 x 10 9 /1 were treated according to the modified New York protocol. The modifications were based on elements of Dana Faber protocol. The 4 year DFS was 66%. (author)

  8. Outcome of pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoblastic lymphoma with hypersensitivity to pegaspargase treated with PEGylated Erwinia asparaginase, pegcrisantaspase: A report from the Children's Oncology Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Rachel E.; Dreyer, ZoAnn; Choi, Mi Rim; Liang, Wei; Skowronski, Roman; Allamneni, Krishna P.; Devidas, Meenakshi; Raetz, Elizabeth A.; Adamson, Peter C.; Blaney, Susan M.; Loh, Mignon L; Hunger, Stephen P.

    2018-01-01

    Background Erwinia asparaginase is a Food and Drug Administration approved agent for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) for patients who develop hypersensitivity to Escherichia coli derived asparaginases. Erwinia asparaginase is efficacious, but has a short half-life, requiring six doses to replace one dose of the most commonly used first-line asparaginase, pegaspargase, a polyethylene glycol (PEG) conjugated E. coli asparaginase. Pegcristantaspase, a recombinant PEGylated Erwinia asparaginase with improved pharmacokinetics, was developed for patients with hypersensitivity to pegaspargase. Here, we report a series of patients treated on a pediatric phase 2 trial of pegcrisantaspase. Procedure Pediatric patients with ALL or lymphoblastic lymphoma and hypersensitivity to pegaspargase enrolled on Children's Oncology Group trial AALL1421 (Jazz 13-011) and received intravenous pegcrisantaspase. Serum asparaginase activity (SAA) was monitored before and after dosing; immunogenicity assays were performed for antiasparaginase and anti-PEG antibodies and complement activation was evaluated. Results Three of the four treated patients experienced hypersensitivity to pegcrisantaspase manifested as clinical hypersensitivity reactions or rapid clearance of SAA. Immunogenicity assays demonstrated the presence of anti-PEG immunoglobulin G antibodies in all three hypersensitive patients, indicating a PEG-mediated immune response. Conclusions This small series of patients, nonetheless, provides data, suggesting preexisting immunogenicity against the PEG moiety of pegaspargase and poses the question as to whether PEGylation may be an effective strategy to optimize Erwinia asparaginase administration. Further study of larger cohorts is needed to determine the incidence of preexisting antibodies against PEG-mediated hypersensitivity to pegaspargase. PMID:29090524

  9. Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic myelogenous leukemia Overview Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is an uncommon type of cancer of the blood cells. The term "chronic" in chronic myelogenous leukemia indicates that this cancer ...

  10. Treatment outcomes of different prognostic groups of patients on cancer and leukemia group B trial 39801: induction chemotherapy followed by chemoradiotherapy compared with chemoradiotherapy alone for unresectable stage III non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcombe, Thomas E; Hodgson, Lydia; Herndon, James E; Kelley, Michael J; Cicchetti, M Giulia; Ramnath, Nithya; Niell, Harvey B; Atkins, James N; Akerley, Wallace; Green, Mark R; Vokes, Everett E

    2009-09-01

    In Cancer and Leukemia Group B 39801, we evaluated whether induction chemotherapy before concurrent chemoradiotherapy would result in improved survival and demonstrated no significant benefit from the addition of induction chemotherapy. The primary objective of this analysis was to dichotomize patients into prognostic groups using factors predictive of survival and to investigate whether induction chemotherapy was beneficial in either prognostic group. A Cox proportional hazard model was used to assess the impact on survival of the following factors: (>or=70 versus or=13 g/dl), performance status (PS) (1 versus 0), weight loss (>or=5% versus or=5%, age >or=70 years, PS of 1, and hgb or=2 poor prognostic factors (n = 165) or or=2 versus patients with or=2 factors (HR = 0.86, 95% CI, 0.63-1.17; p = 0.34) or group.

  11. The use of adjuvant radiotherapy in elderly patients with early-stage breast cancer: changes in practice patterns after publication of Cancer and Leukemia Group B 9343.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palta, Manisha; Palta, Priya; Bhavsar, Nrupen A; Horton, Janet K; Blitzblau, Rachel C

    2015-01-15

    The Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 9343 randomized phase 3 trial established lumpectomy and adjuvant therapy with tamoxifen alone, rather than both radiotherapy and tamoxifen, as a reasonable treatment course for women aged >70 years with clinical stage I (AJCC 7th edition), estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. An analysis of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry was undertaken to assess practice patterns before and after the publication of this landmark study. The SEER database from 2000 to 2009 was used to identify 40,583 women aged ≥70 years who were treated with breast-conserving surgery for clinical stage I, estrogen receptor-positive and/or progesterone receptor-positive breast cancer. The percentage of patients receiving radiotherapy and the type of radiotherapy delivered was assessed over time. Administration of radiotherapy was further assessed across age groups; SEER cohort; and tumor size, grade, and laterality. Approximately 68.6% of patients treated between 2000 and 2004 compared with 61.7% of patients who were treated between 2005 and 2009 received some form of adjuvant radiotherapy (P < .001). Coinciding with a decline in the use of external beam radiotherapy, there was an increase in the use of implant radiotherapy from 1.4% between 2000 and 2004 to 6.2% between 2005 to 2009 (P < .001). There were significant reductions in the frequency of radiotherapy delivery over time across age groups, tumor size, and tumor grade and regardless of laterality (P < .001 for all). Randomized phase 3 data support the omission of adjuvant radiotherapy in elderly women with early-stage breast cancer. Analysis of practice patterns before and after the publication of these data indicates a significant decline in radiotherapy use; however, nearly two-thirds of women continue to receive adjuvant radiotherapy. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  12. Leukemia, multiple myeloma, and malignant lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimaru, M.; Ishimaru, T.; Ohkita, T.

    1986-01-01

    Excess risk of leukemia among atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors increased with radiation dose in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The incidence of all types of leukemia, except chronic lymphocytic leukemia, has increased among A-bomb survivors. However, chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is thought to be the most characteristic type of the A-bomb induced leukemias. The highest risk of leukemia among A-bomb survivors was recognized in 1951 and has not yet disappeared in survivors in Hiroshima. Excess risk of leukemia in the younger age at time of bomb (ATB) groups appeared early; however, in older age ATB groups it appeared much later especially among Hiroshima survivors. In both cities the effect of radiation exposure on the occurrence of CML was more clearly observable in the younger age ATB groups and occurred more frequently in Hiroshima. Leukemia among individuals exposed in utero and children of A-bomb survivors has not increased significantly. The relationship between radiation induced leukemia and chromosome abnormalities is discussed. Twenty years after the A-bomb, the risk of multiple myeloma (MM) increased among survivors aged 20-59 years ATB. Non-Hodgkin's malignant lymphoma also increased among A-bomb survivors and showed roughly the same tendency as MM

  13. Leukemia, multiple myeloma, and malignant lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimaru, Michito; Ohkita, Takeshi; Ishimaru, Toranosuke.

    1986-01-01

    Excess risk of leukemia among atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors increased with radiation dose in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The incidence of all types of leukemia, except chronic lymphocytic leukemia, has increased among A-bomb survivors. However, chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is thought to be the most characteristic type of the A-bomb induced leukemias. The highest risk of leukemia among A-bomb survivors was recognized in 1951 and has not yet disappeared in survivors in Hiroshima. Excess risk of leukemia in the younger age at time of bomb (ATB) groups appeared early; however, in the older age ATB groups it appeared much later especially among Hiroshima survivors. In both cities the effect of radiation exposure on the occurrence of CML was more clearly observable in the younger age ATB groups and occurred more frequently in Hiroshima. Leukemia among individuals exposed in utero and children of A-bomb survivors has not increased significantly. The relationship between radiation induced leukemia and chromosome abnormalities is discussed. Twenty years after the A-bomb, the risk of multiple myeloma (MM) increased among survivors aged 20 - 59 years ATB. Non-Hodgkin's malignant lymphoma also increased among A-bomb survivors and showed roughly the same tendency as MM. (author)

  14. Prevalence of Gene Rearrangements in Mexican Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Population Study—Report from the Mexican Interinstitutional Group for the Identification of the Causes of Childhood Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker-Méndez, Vilma Carolina; Miranda-Peralta, Enrique; Núñez-Enríquez, Juan Carlos; Olarte-Carrillo, Irma; Guerra-Castillo, Francisco Xavier; Pompa-Mera, Ericka Nelly; Ocaña-Mondragón, Alicia; Bernáldez-Ríos, Roberto; Medina-Sanson, Aurora; Jiménez-Hernández, Elva; Amador-Sánchez, Raquel; Peñaloza-González, José Gabriel; de Diego Flores-Chapa, José; Fajardo-Gutiérrez, Arturo; Flores-Lujano, Janet; Rodríguez-Zepeda, María del Carmen; Dorantes-Acosta, Elisa María; Bolea-Murga, Victoria; Núñez-Villegas, Nancy; Velázquez-Aviña, Martha Margarita; Torres-Nava, José Refugio; Reyes-Zepeda, Nancy Carolina; González-Bonilla, Cesar; Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Mexico has one of the highest incidences of childhood leukemia worldwide and significantly higher mortality rates for this disease compared with other countries. One possible cause is the high prevalence of gene rearrangements associated with the etiology or with a poor prognosis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The aims of this multicenter study were to determine the prevalence of the four most common gene rearrangements [ETV6-RUNX1, TCF3-PBX1, BCR-ABL1, and MLL rearrangements] and to explore their relationship with mortality rates during the first year of treatment in ALL children from Mexico City. Patients were recruited from eight public hospitals during 2010–2012. A total of 282 bone marrow samples were obtained at each child's diagnosis for screening by conventional and multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to determine the gene rearrangements. Gene rearrangements were detected in 50 (17.7%) patients. ETV6-RUNX1 was detected in 21 (7.4%) patients, TCF3-PBX1 in 20 (7.1%) patients, BCR-ABL1 in 5 (1.8%) patients, and MLL rearrangements in 4 (1.4%) patients. The earliest deaths occurred at months 1, 2, and 3 after diagnosis in patients with MLL, ETV6-RUNX1, and BCR-ABL1 gene rearrangements, respectively. Gene rearrangements could be related to the aggressiveness of leukemia observed in Mexican children. PMID:25692130

  15. Validation of Progression‐Free Survival as a Surrogate Endpoint for Overall Survival in Malignant Mesothelioma: Analysis of Cancer and Leukemia Group B and North Central Cancer Treatment Group (Alliance) Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyi; Hodgson, Lydia; George, Stephen L.; Sargent, Daniel J.; Foster, Nate R.; Ganti, Apar Kishor; Stinchcombe, Thomas E.; Crawford, Jeffrey; Kratzke, Robert; Adjei, Alex A.; Kindler, Hedy L.; Vokes, Everett E.; Pang, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Purpose. The aim of this study was to investigate whether progression‐free survival (PFS) can be considered a surrogate endpoint for overall survival (OS) in malignant mesothelioma. Materials and Methods. Individual data were collected from 15 Cancer and Leukemia Group B (615 patients) and 2 North Central Cancer Treatment Group (101 patients) phase II trials. The effects of 5 risk factors for OS and PFS, including age, histology, performance status (PS), white blood cell count, and European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) risk score, were used in the analysis. Individual‐level surrogacy was assessed by Kendall's tau through a Clayton bivariate Copula survival (CBCS) model. Summary‐level surrogacy was evaluated via the association between logarithms of the hazard ratio (log HR)—log HROS and log HRPFS—measured in R2 from a weighted least‐square (WLS) regression model and the CBCS model. Results. The median PFS for all patients was 3.0 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.8–3.5 months) and the median OS was 7.2 months (95% CI, 6.5–8.0 months). Moderate correlations between PFS and OS were observed across all risk factors at the individual level, with Kendall's tau ranging from 0.46 to 0.47. The summary‐level surrogacy varied among risk factors. The Copula R2 ranged from 0.51 for PS to 0.78 for histology. The WLS R2 ranged from 0.26 for EORTC and PS to 0.67 for age. Conclusions. The analyses demonstrated low to moderate individual‐level surrogacy between PFS and OS. At the summary level, the surrogacy between PFS and OS varied significantly across different risk factors. With a short postprogression survival and a moderate correlation between PFS and OS, there is no evidence that PFS is a valid surrogate endpoint for OS in malignant mesothelioma. Implications for Practice. For better disease management and for more efficient clinical trial designs, it is important to know if progression‐free survival (PFS) is

  16. The Danish National Acute Leukemia Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østgård, Lene Sofie Granfeldt; Nørgaard, Jan Maxwell; Raaschou-Jensen, Klas Kræsten

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The main aim of the Danish National Acute Leukemia Registry (DNLR) was to obtain information about the epidemiology of the hematologic cancers acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). STUDY POPULATION: The registry...... was established in January 2000 by the Danish Acute Leukemia Group and has been expanded over the years. It includes adult AML patients diagnosed in Denmark since 2000, ALL patients diagnosed since 2005, and MDS patients diagnosed since 2010. The coverage of leukemia patients exceeds 99%, and the coverage of MDS...... years. To ensure this high coverage, completeness, and quality of data, linkage to the Danish Civil Registration System and the Danish National Registry of Patients, and several programmed data entry checks are used. CONCLUSION: The completeness and positive predictive values of the leukemia data have...

  17. Biologic determinants of tumor recurrence in stage II colon cancer: validation study of the 12-gene recurrence score in cancer and leukemia group B (CALGB) 9581.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venook, Alan P; Niedzwiecki, Donna; Lopatin, Margarita; Ye, Xing; Lee, Mark; Friedman, Paula N; Frankel, Wendy; Clark-Langone, Kim; Millward, Carl; Shak, Steven; Goldberg, Richard M; Mahmoud, Najjia N; Warren, Robert S; Schilsky, Richard L; Bertagnolli, Monica M

    2013-05-10

    A greater understanding of the biology of tumor recurrence should improve adjuvant treatment decision making. We conducted a validation study of the 12-gene recurrence score (RS), a quantitative assay integrating stromal response and cell cycle gene expression, in tumor specimens from patients enrolled onto Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 9581. CALGB 9581 randomly assigned 1,713 patients with stage II colon cancer to treatment with edrecolomab or observation and found no survival difference. The analysis reported here included all patients with available tissue and recurrence (n = 162) and a random (approximately 1:3) selection of nonrecurring patients. RS was assessed in 690 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor samples with quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction by using prespecified genes and a previously validated algorithm. Association of RS and recurrence was analyzed by weighted Cox proportional hazards regression. Continuous RS was significantly associated with risk of recurrence (P = .013) as was mismatch repair (MMR) gene deficiency (P = .044). In multivariate analyses, RS was the strongest predictor of recurrence (P = .004), independent of T stage, MMR, number of nodes examined, grade, and lymphovascular invasion. In T3 MMR-intact (MMR-I) patients, prespecified low and high RS groups had average 5-year recurrence risks of 13% (95% CI, 10% to 16%) and 21% (95% CI, 16% to 26%), respectively. The 12-gene RS predicts recurrence in stage II colon cancer in CALGB 9581. This is consistent with the importance of stromal response and cell cycle gene expression in colon tumor recurrence. RS appears to be most discerning for patients with T3 MMR-I tumors, although markers such as grade and lymphovascular invasion did not add value in this subset of patients.

  18. Clinical relevance of IDH1/2 mutant allele burden during follow-up in acute myeloid leukemia. A study by the French ALFA group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferret, Yann; Boissel, Nicolas; Helevaut, Nathalie; Madic, Jordan; Nibourel, Olivier; Marceau-Renaut, Alice; Bucci, Maxime; Geffroy, Sandrine; Celli-Lebras, Karine; Castaigne, Sylvie; Thomas, Xavier; Terré, Christine; Dombret, Hervé; Preudhomme, Claude; Renneville, Aline

    2018-01-01

    Assessment of minimal residual disease has emerged as a powerful prognostic factor in acute myeloid leukemia. In this study, we investigated the potential of IDH1/2 mutations as targets for minimal residual disease assessment in acute myeloid leukemia, since these mutations collectively occur in 15–20% of cases of acute myeloid leukemia and now represent druggable targets. We employed droplet digital polymerase chain reaction assays to quantify IDH1R132, IDH2R140, and IDH2R172 mutations on genomic DNA in 322 samples from 103 adult patients with primary IDH1/2 mutant acute myeloid leukemia and enrolled on Acute Leukemia French Association (ALFA) - 0701 or -0702 clinical trials. The median IDH1/2 mutant allele fraction in bone marrow samples was 42.3% (range, 8.2 – 49.9%) at diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia, and below the detection limit of 0.2% (range, <0.2 – 39.3%) in complete remission after induction therapy. In univariate analysis, the presence of a normal karyotype, a NPM1 mutation, and an IDH1/2 mutant allele fraction <0.2% in bone marrow after induction therapy were statistically significant predictors of longer disease-free survival. In multivariate analysis, these three variables remained significantly predictive of disease-free survival. In 7/103 (7%) patients, IDH1/2 mutations persisted at high levels in complete remission, consistent with the presence of an IDH1/2 mutation in pre-leukemic hematopoietic stem cells. Five out of these seven patients subsequently relapsed or progressed toward myelodysplastic syndrome, suggesting that patients carrying the IDH1/2 mutation in a pre-leukemic clone may be at high risk of hematologic evolution. PMID:29472349

  19. Outcome of Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation for Patients Transformed to Myelodysplastic Syndrome or Leukemia from Severe Aplastic Anemia: A Report from the MDS Subcommittee of the Chronic Malignancies Working Party and the Severe Aplastic Anemia Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hussein, A.A.; Halkes, C.M.; Socie, G.; Tichelli, A.; Borne, P.A. von dem; Schaap, M.N.; Foa, R.; Ganser, A.; Dufour, C.; Bacigalupo, A.; Locasciulli, A.; Aljurf, M.; Peters, C.; Robin, M.; Biezen, A.A. van; Volin, L.; Witte, T.J. de; Marsh, J.; Passweg, J.R.; Kroger, N.; et al.,

    2014-01-01

    One hundred and forty patients who had undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) transformation after treatment of severe aplastic anemia (SAA) were identified in the European Group for Blood and Marrow

  20. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation for chronic lymphocytic leukemia with 17p deletion: a retrospective European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schetelig, Johannes; van Biezen, Anja; Brand, Ronald; Caballero, Dolores; Martino, Rodrigo; Itala, Maija; García-Marco, José A; Volin, Liisa; Schmitz, Norbert; Schwerdtfeger, Rainer; Ganser, Arnold; Onida, Francesco; Mohr, Brigitte; Stilgenbauer, Stephan; Bornhäuser, Martin; de Witte, Theo; Dreger, Peter

    2008-11-01

    Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and 17p deletion (17p-) have a poor prognosis. Although allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HCT) has the potential to cure patients with advanced CLL, it is not known whether this holds true for patients with 17p-CLL. Baseline data from patients, for whom information on the presence of 17p-CLL was available, were downloaded from the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation database. Additional information on the course of CLL and follow-up was collected with a questionnaire. A total of 44 patients with 17p-CLL received allogeneic HCT between March 1995 and July 2006 from a matched sibling (n = 24) or an alternative donor (n = 20). 17p-CLL had been diagnosed by fluorescent in situ hybridization in 82% of patients and by conventional banding in 18% of patients. The median age was 54 years. Before HCT, a median of three lines of chemotherapy had been administered. At HCT, 53% of patients were in remission. Reduced-intensity conditioning was applied in 89% of patients. Acute, grade 2 to 4 graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) occurred in 43% of patients, and extensive chronic GVHD occurred in 53% of patients. At last follow-up, 19 patients were alive, with a median observation time of 39 months (range, 18 to 101 months). Three-year overall survival and progression-free survival rates were 44% and 37%, respectively. The cumulative incidence of progressive disease at 4 years was 34%. No late relapse occurred in nine patients with a follow-up longer than 4 years. Allogeneic HCT has the potential to induce long-term disease-free survival in patients with 17p-CLL.

  1. Early autologous stem cell transplantation for chronic lymphocytic leukemia: long-term follow-up of the German CLL Study Group CLL3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreger, Peter; Döhner, Hartmut; McClanahan, Fabienne; Busch, Raymonde; Ritgen, Matthias; Greinix, Hildegard; Fink, Anna-Maria; Knauf, Wolfgang; Stadler, Michael; Pfreundschuh, Michael; Dührsen, Ulrich; Brittinger, Günter; Hensel, Manfred; Schetelig, Johannes; Winkler, Dirk; Bühler, Andreas; Kneba, Michael; Schmitz, Norbert; Hallek, Michael; Stilgenbauer, Stephan

    2012-05-24

    The CLL3 trial was designed to study intensive treatment including autologous stem cell transplantation (autoSCT) as part of first-line therapy in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Here, we present the long-term outcome of the trial with particular focus on the impact of genomic risk factors, and we provide a retrospective comparison with patients from the fludarabine-cyclophosphamide-rituximab (FCR) arm of the German CLL Study Group (GCLLSG) CLL8 trial. After a median observation time of 8.7 years (0.3-12.3 years), median progression-free survival (PFS), time to retreatment, and overall survival (OS) of 169 evaluable patients, including 38 patients who did not proceed to autoSCT, was 5.7, 7.3, and 11.3 years, respectively. PFS and OS were significantly reduced in the presence of 17p- and of an unfavorable immunoglobulin heavy variable chain mutational status, but not of 11q-. Five-year nonrelapse mortality was 6.5%. When 110 CLL3 patients were compared with 126 matched patients from the FCR arm of the CLL8 trial, 4-year time to retreatment (75% vs 77%) and OS (86% vs 90%) was similar despite a significant benefit for autoSCT in terms of PFS. In summary, early treatment intensification including autoSCT can provide very effective disease control in poor-risk CLL, although its clinical benefit in the FCR era remains uncertain. The trial has been registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00275015.

  2. Favorable outcome in non-infant children with MLL-AF4-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report from the Tokyo Children's Cancer Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomizawa, Daisuke; Kato, Motohiro; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Fujimura, Junya; Inukai, Takeshi; Fukushima, Takashi; Kiyokawa, Nobutaka; Koh, Katsuyoshi; Manabe, Atsushi; Ohara, Akira

    2015-11-01

    Unlike acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in infants, MLL gene rearrangement (MLL-r) is rare in ALL children (≥1 year old). The outcome and optimal treatment options for MLL-r ALL remain controversial. Among the 1827 children enrolled in the Tokyo Children's Cancer Study Group ALL studies L95-14, L99-15, L99-1502, L04-16, and L07-1602 (1995-2009), 25 MLL-r ALL patients (1.3 %) were identified. Their median age and leukocyte count at diagnosis was 2 years old (range 1-15 years) and 27,690/μL (range 1800-1,113,000/μL), respectively. All but one patient achieved complete remission (CR) after induction therapy, and 19 underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in first CR according to the protocol. The 5-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) rate were 60.0 % [standard error (SE), 9.7 %] and 64.0 % (SE 9.6 %), respectively. Notably, 9/12 cases with MLL-AF4-positive ALL are alive in continuous CR with a 75.0 % (SE 12.5 %) EFS rate. The causes of treatment failure were as follows: one induction failure, five relapses, and five transplant-related deaths. With intensive chemotherapy and allogeneic HSCT, favorable outcome of children (≥1 year old) with MLL-AF4-positive ALL was observed. However, considering the risk of acute and late toxicities associated with HSCT, its indication should be restricted.

  3. “Treatment outcomes of different prognostic groups of patients on Cancer and Leukemia Group B trial 39801: Induction chemotherapy followed by chemoradiotherapy compared with chemoradiotherapy alone for unresectable stage III non-small cell lung cancer”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcombe, Thomas E.; Hodgson, Lydia; Herndon, James E.; Kelley, Michael J.; Cicchetti, M. Giulia; Ramnath, Nithya; B.Niell, Harvey; Atkins, James N.; Akerley, Wallace; Green, Mark. R.; Vokes, Everett E.

    2009-01-01

    Background In Cancer and Leukemia Group B 39801, we evaluated whether induction chemotherapy before concurrent chemoradiotherapy would result in improved survival, and demonstrated no significant benefit from the addition of induction chemotherapy. The primary objective of this analysis was to dichotomize patients into prognostic groups using factors predictive of survival, and to investigate if induction chemotherapy was beneficial in either prognostic group. Patients and Methods A Cox proportional hazard model was used to assess the impact on survival of the following factors: (≥ 70 vs. < 70 years), gender, race, stage (IIIB vs. IIIA), hemoglobin (hgb) (< 13 vs. ≥13 g/dl), performance status (PS) (1 vs.0), weight loss (≥5% vs. < 5%), treatment arm, and the interaction between weight loss and hgb. Results Factors predictive of decreased survival were weight loss ≥ 5%, age ≥ 70 years, PS of 1, and hgb < 13 g/dl (p<0.05). Patients were classified as having ≥2 poor prognostic factors (n=165) or ≤ 1 factor (n=166). The hazard ratio (HR) for overall survival for the patients with ≥ 2 versus patients with ≤ 1 was 1.88 (95% CI, 1.49 to 2.37; p= < 0.0001); median survival times observed were 9 (95% CI, 8 to 11) and 18 (95% CI, 16 to 24) months, respectively. There was no significant difference in survival between treatment arms in patients with ≥ 2 factors (HR=0.86, 95% CI, 0.63 to 1.17; p=0.34) or ≤1 factor (HR=0.97, 95% CI, 0.70 to 1.35; p=0.87) Conclusions There is no evidence that induction chemotherapy is beneficial in either prognostic group. PMID:19652624

  4. Leukemia revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronkite, E P

    1980-01-01

    Selected features of the historical development of our knowledge of leukemia are discussed. The use of different methodologies for study of the nature of leukemic cell proliferation are analyzed. The differences between older cell kinetic data using tritiated thymidine and autoradiography and the newer cell culture methods are more apparent than real. It is suggested that tritiated thymidine and extracorporeal irradiation of the blood may be useful for therapeutic agents that have not been given an adequate trial. Radiation leukemogenesis presents an opportunity for study of the nature of leukemogenesis that has not been exploited adequately.

  5. Leukemia revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronkite, E.P.

    1980-01-01

    Selected features of the historical development of our knowledge of leukemia are discussed. The use of different methodologies for study of the nature of leukemic cell proliferation are analyzed. The differences between older cell kinetic data using tritiated thymidine and autoradiography and the newer cell culture methods are more apparent than real. It is suggested that tritiated thymidine and extracorporeal irradiation of the blood may be useful for therapeutic agents that have not been given an adequate trial. Radiation leukemogenesis presents an opportunity for study of the nature of leukemogenesis that has not been exploited adequately

  6. Outcome After First Relapse in Children With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia : A Report Based on the Dutch Childhood Oncology Group (DCOG) Relapse ALL 98 Protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, H.; de Groot-Kruseman, H. A.; Damen-Korbijn, C. M.; de Bont, E. S. J. M.; Schouten-van Meeteren, A. Y. N.; Hoogerbrugge, P. M.

    Background. We report on the treatment of children and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in first relapse. The protocol focused on: (1) Intensive chemotherapy preceding allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) in early bone marrow relapse; (2) Rotational chemotherapy in late

  7. Outcome after first relapse in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report based on the Dutch Childhood Oncology Group (DCOG) relapse all 98 protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, H. van den; Groot-Kruseman, H.A. de; Damen-Korbijn, C.M.; Bont, E.S. de; Schouten-van Meeteren, A.Y.; Hoogerbrugge, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We report on the treatment of children and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in first relapse. The protocol focused on: (1) Intensive chemotherapy preceding allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) in early bone marrow relapse; (2) Rotational chemotherapy in late

  8. Outcome After First Relapse in Children With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Report Based on the Dutch Childhood Oncology Group (DCOG) Relapse ALL 98 Protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, H.; de Groot-Kruseman, H. A.; Damen-Korbijn, C. M.; de Bont, E. S. J. M.; Schouten-van Meeteren, A. Y. N.; Hoogerbrugge, P. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background. We report on the treatment of children and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in first relapse. The protocol focused on: (1) Intensive chemotherapy preceding allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) in early bone marrow relapse; (2) Rotational chemotherapy in late

  9. The leukemias: Epidemiologic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linet, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    Particularly geared to physicians and cancer researchers, this study of the epidemiology and etiology of leukemia analyzes the four major leukemia subtypes in terms of genetic and familial determinant factors and examines the incidence, distribution and frequency of reported leukemia clusters. Linet discusses the connection between other types of malignancies, their treatments, and the subsequent development of leukemia and evaluates the impact on leukemia onset of such environmental factors as radiation therapy, drugs, and occupational hazards

  10. Outcome after relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in adult patients included in four consecutive risk-adapted trials by the PETHEMA Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriol, Albert; Vives, Susana; Hernández-Rivas, Jesús-María; Tormo, Mar; Heras, Inmaculada; Rivas, Concepción; Bethencourt, Concepción; Moscardó, Federico; Bueno, Javier; Grande, Carlos; del Potro, Eloy; Guardia, Ramon; Brunet, Salut; Bergua, Juan; Bernal, Teresa; Moreno, Maria-José; Calvo, Carlota; Bastida, Pilar; Feliu, Evarist; Ribera, Josep-Maria

    2010-04-01

    About one half of adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia are not cured of the disease and ultimately die. The objective of this study was to explore the factors influencing the outcome of adult patients with relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. We analyzed the characteristics, the outcome and the prognostic factors for survival after first relapse in a series of 263 adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (excluding those with mature B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia) prospectively enrolled in four consecutive risk-adapted PETHEMA trials. The median overall survival after relapse was 4.5 months (95% CI, 4-5 months) with a 5-year overall survival of 10% (95% CI, 8%-12%); 45% of patients receiving intensive second-line treatment achieved a second complete remission and 22% (95% CI, 14%-30%) of them remained disease free at 5 years. Factors predicting a good outcome after rescue therapy were age less than 30 years (2-year overall survival of 21% versus 10% for those over 30 years old; P<0.022) and a first remission lasting more than 2 years (2-year overall survival of 36% versus 17% among those with a shorter first remission; P<0.001). Patients under 30 years old whose first complete remission lasted longer than 2 years had a 5-year overall survival of 38% (95% CI, 23%-53%) and a 5-year disease-free survival of 53% (95% CI, 34%-72%). The prognosis of adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who relapse is poor. Those aged less than 30 years with a first complete remission lasting longer than 2 years have reasonable possibilities of becoming long-term survivors while patients over this age or those who relapse early cannot be successfully rescued using the therapies currently available.

  11. Radiotherapy for leukemia in children, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Toru; Konishi, Kiyosaburo; Sato, Noriko; Fujiwara, Fumihiro

    1983-01-01

    Following the development of effective chemotherapy for producing remissions of acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), a new phenomenon has emerged in this disease--central nervous system (CNS) leukemia. CNS leukemia has become an increasingly frequent obstacle to prolongation of initial complete remission. Prophylactic irradiation of the CNS concomitant with intrathecal administration of methotrexate (IT-MTX) has proved to be effective in the reduction of CNS involvement. The purpose of this paper is to describe the results of irradiation for prevention of CNS leukemia and to discuss their implications. The patients consisted of 32 children with acute leukemia, admitted to MAIZURU National Hospital from 1966 to 1980; 22 patients of them had ALL, the others ANLL (acute non-lymphocytic leukemia). Preventive CNS therapy was started in 1974, (group A), but there was no prevention before 1974 (group B). 1. In group B, six patients was treated by therapeutic cranial irradiation, but all cases resulted in death. 2. In group A, seven patients was treated by prophylactic cranial irradiation combined with IT-MTX, and all of them have been alive without CNS relapse for 2 to 4 2/3 years after therapy. 3. In group A, none of 7 patients (0 %) relapsed CNS leukemia initially as compared to 7 (50 %) of 14 in group B, thus preventive efficacy was clear. 4. There were no severe complications attributable to the radiotherapy, with or without IT-MTX. (author)

  12. [Acute myeloid leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuchi, Ken

    2007-02-01

    The annual incident rate of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is now 10 per million in Japan, against 5 to 9 per million in the USA and Europe. Overall long-term survival has now been achieved for more than 50% of pediatric patients with AML in the USA and in Europe. The prognostic factors of pediatric AML were analyzed,and patients with AML were classified according to prognostic factors. The t(15;17), inv(16) and t(8;21) have emerged as predictors of good prognosis in children with AML. Monosomy 7, monosomy 5 and del (5 q) abnormalities showed a poor prognosis. In addition to chromosomal deletions, FLT 3/ITD identifies pediatric patients with a particularly poor prognosis. Clinical trials of AML feature intensive chemotherapy with or without subsequent stem cell transplantation. Risk group stratification is becoming increasingly important in planning AML therapy. APL can be distinguished from other subtypes of AML by virtue of its excellent response and overall outcome as a result of differentiation therapy with ATRA. Children with Down syndrome and AML have been shown to have a superior prognosis to AML therapy compared to other children with AML. The results of the Japan Cooperative Study Group protocol ANLL 91 was one of the best previously reported in the literature. With the consideration of quality of life (QOL), risk-adapted therapy was introduced in the AML 99 trial conducted by the Japanese Childhood AML Cooperative Study Group. A high survival rate of 79% at 3 years was achieved for childhood de novo AML in the AML 99 trial. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the treatment strategy according to risk stratification based on leukemia cell biology and response to the initial induction therapy in children with AML, the Japanese Pediatric Leukemia/Lymphoma Study Group (JPLSG) has organized multi-center phase II trials in children with newly diagnosed AML.

  13. Radiogenic leukemia revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moloney, W.C.

    1987-01-01

    Radiation-induced leukemia is considered to be similar to the de novo disease. However, following an analysis of clinical and hematological findings in leukemia occurring in irradiated cervical cancer patients, adult Japanese atomic-bomb survivors, and spondylitics treated with x-ray, striking differences were noted. Acute leukemias in cervical cancer patients and Japanese survivors were similar in type to acute de novo leukemias in adults. Cell types among spondylitics were very dissimilar; rare forms, eg, acute erythromyelocytic leukemia (AEL) and acute megakaryocytic leukemia, were increased. Pancytopenia occurred in 25 of 35 cases and erythromyelodysplastic disorders were noted in seven of 35 acute cases. The leukemias and myelodysplastic disorders closely resembled those occurring in patients treated with alkylating agents. This similarity suggests a common pathogenesis involving marrow stem cell injury and extra-medullary mediators of hematopoiesis. Investigation of early acute leukemias and myelodysplastic disorders with newer techniques may provide valuable insights into the pathogenesis of leukemia in humans

  14. Kelainan Hemostasis pada Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelly Dia Rofinda

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Leukemia adalah penyakit keganasan pada jaringan hematopoietik yang ditandai denganpenggantian elemen sumsum tulang normal oleh sel darah abnormal atau sel leukemik. Salah satu manifestasi klinisdari leukemia adalah perdarahan yang disebabkan oleh berbagai kelainan hemostasis.Kelainan hemostasis yang dapat terjadi pada leukemia berupa trombositopenia, disfungsi trombosit,koagulasi intravaskuler diseminata, defek protein koagulasi, fibrinolisis primer dan trombosis. Patogenesis danpatofosiologi kelainan hemostasis pada leukemia tersebut terjadi dengan berbagai mekanisme.Kata kunci: leukemia, kelainan hemostasisAbstractBackground: AbstractLeukemia is a malignancy of hematopoietic tissue which is characterized bysubstituted of bone marrow element with abnormal blood cell or leukemic cell. One of clinical manifestation ofleukemia is bleeding that is caused by several hemostasis disorders.Hemostasis disorders in leukemia such asthrombocytopenia, platelet dysfunction, disseminated intravascular coagulation, coagulation protein defect, primaryfibrinolysis and thrombosis. Pathogenesis and pathophysiology of thus hemostasis disorders in leukemia occur withdifferent mechanism.Keywords: leukemia, hemostasis disorder

  15. Leukemia among participants in military maneuvers at a nuclear bomb test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, G.G.; Kelley, D.B.; Heath, C.W.

    1980-01-01

    To test the possibility of a casual relationship between leukemia and exposure to nuclear radiation, the frequency of leukemia in personnel observing the detonation of a nuclear device called ''Smoky'' during August 1957 was determined. Of some 3224 men who witnessed the detonation, nine cases of leukemia were observed. They included four cases of acute myelocytic leukemia, three of chronic myelocytic leukemia, one of hairy cell lymphocyctic leukemia, and one of acute lymphocytic luekemia. These findings represent a significant increase over the expected leukemia incidence of 3.5 cases. Mean film-badge gamma radiation dose for the study group was 466.2 mrem

  16. Thrombocytopenia in leukemia: Pathogenesis and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrabi, Saeid; Behzad, Masumeh Maleki; Jaseb, Kaveh; Saki, Najmaldin

    2018-02-20

    Leukemias, a heterogeneous group of hematological disorders, are characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis and morphologic abnormalities of hematopoietic cells. Thrombocytopenia is a common problem among leukemia types that can lead to hemorrhagic complications in patients. The purpose of this review article is to identify the conditions associated with the incidence of thrombocytopenia in leukemias. It can be stated that although translocations have been considered responsible for this complication in many studies, other factors such as bone marrow failure, genes polymorphism, a mutation in some transcription factors, and the adverse effects of treatment could be associated with pathogenesis and poor prognosis of thrombocytopenia in leukemias. Considering the importance of thrombocytopenia in leukemias, it is hoped that the recognition of risk factors increasing the incidence of this complication in leukemic patients would be useful for prevention and treatment of this disorder.

  17. Leukemia in Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyssel, R; Brill, A B; Woodbury, L A; Nishimura, Edwin T; Ghose, Tarunendu; Hoshino, Takashi; Yamasaki, Mitsuru

    1959-03-01

    This report is intended to provide the basic data pertinent to the leukemia experience observed in the survivors of the Hiroshima atomic explosion. Many of the conclusions in this report are tentative. The one clear fact to emerge is that radiation increases the occurrence rate of leukemia and that the magnitude of increase is dependent on dose received. Additional observations can be made, which, while not definitive in themselves, seem to complement each other, and are corroborated by other experiences in radiation biology. From the data a linear relationship between dose and incidence of leukemia is found. The shape of the relation in the lower dose range is not known with certainty. An approximate minimum time for the appearance of leukemia following radiation is 3 years or less. The data suggest that the time of maximum risk of leukemia may be dependent on the dose of radiation received. In this group the mean latent period is found to lie in the interval between 4 and 8 years following exposure. The length of time during which the increased incidence of leukemia persists is not known. The incidence of the acute leukemias and of chronic granulocytic leukemia is increased in the exposed survivors. The chronic granulocytic variety is disproportionately increased in Japanese survivors of the atomic bomb. No effect of radiation on monocytic or chronic lymphatic leukemia incidence is noted. Aplastic anemia, polycythemia vera, and myelofibrosis have been investigated. Myelofibrosis is the only one of this group of diseases in which a suggestive relation to radiation exposure is apparent. The natural history of leukemia following radiation does not seem to differ from that of the spontaneously occurring variety. 17 references, 5 figures, 38 tables.

  18. Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. White blood cells help your body fight infection. Your blood cells form in your bone marrow. In leukemia, however, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood ...

  19. Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. White blood cells help your body fight infection. Your blood cells form in your bone marrow. In leukemia, however, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood ...

  20. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. White blood cells help your body fight infection. Your blood cells form in your bone marrow. In leukemia, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. ...

  1. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. White blood cells help your body fight infection. Your blood cells form in your bone marrow. In leukemia, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. ...

  2. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is used for painful and enlarged lymph nodes. Blood transfusions or platelet transfusions may be required if blood ... unexplained fatigue, bruising, excessive sweating, or weight loss. Alternative ... Leukemia - chronic lymphocytic (CLL); Blood cancer - chronic lymphocytic leukemia; Bone marrow cancer - chronic ...

  3. Markedly improved outcomes and acceptable toxicity in adolescents and young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia following treatment with a pediatric protocol: a phase II study by the Japan Adult Leukemia Study Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, F; Sakura, T; Yujiri, T; Kondo, E; Fujimaki, K; Sasaki, O; Miyatake, J; Handa, H; Ueda, Y; Aoyama, Y; Takada, S; Tanaka, Y; Usui, N; Miyawaki, S; Suenobu, S; Horibe, K; Kiyoi, H; Ohnishi, K; Miyazaki, Y; Ohtake, S; Kobayashi, Y; Matsuo, K; Naoe, T

    2014-01-01

    The superiority of the pediatric protocol for adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has already been demonstrated, however, its efficacy in young adults remains unclear. The ALL202-U protocol was conducted to examine the efficacy and feasibility of a pediatric protocol in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with BCR–ABL-negative ALL. Patients aged 15–24 years (n=139) were treated with the same protocol used for pediatric B-ALL. The primary objective of this study was to assess the disease-free survival (DFS) rate and its secondary aims were to assess toxicity, the complete remission (CR) rate and the overall survival (OS) rate. The CR rate was 94%. The 5-year DFS and OS rates were 67% (95% confidence interval (CI) 58–75%) and 73% (95% CI 64–80%), respectively. Severe adverse events were observed at a frequency that was similar to or lower than that in children treated with the same protocol. Only insufficient maintenance therapy significantly worsened the DFS (hazard ratio 5.60, P<0.001). These results indicate that this protocol may be a feasible and highly effective treatment for AYA with BCR–ABL-negative ALL

  4. Radiotherapy for leukemia in children, (1). Radiotherapy for central nervous system leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, Toru; Konishi, Kiyosaburo; Sato, Noriko; Fujiwara, Fumihiro [Maizuru National Hospital, Kyoto (Japan)

    1983-07-01

    Following the development of effective chemotherapy for producing remissions of acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), a new phenomenon has emerged in this disease--central nervous system (CNS) leukemia. CNS leukemia has become an increasingly frequent obstacle to prolongation of initial complete remission. Prophylactic irradiation of the CNS concomitant with intrathecal administration of methotrexate (IT-MTX) has proved to be effective in the reduction of CNS involvement. The purpose of this paper is to describe the results of irradiation for prevention of CNS leukemia and to discuss their implications. The patients consisted of 32 children with acute leukemia, admitted to MAIZURU National Hospital from 1966 to 1980; 22 patients of them had ALL, the others ANLL (acute non-lymphocytic leukemia). Preventive CNS therapy was started in 1974, (group A), but there was no prevention before 1974 (group B). 1. In group B, six patients was treated by therapeutic cranial irradiation, but all cases resulted in death. 2. In group A, seven patients was treated by prophylactic cranial irradiation combined with IT-MTX, and all of them have been alive without CNS relapse for 2 to 4 2/3 years after therapy. 3. In group A, none of 7 patients (0 %) relapsed CNS leukemia initially as compared to 7 (50 %) of 14 in group B, thus preventive efficacy was clear. 4. There were no severe complications attributable to the radiotherapy, with or without IT-MTX.

  5. Acute leukemia in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Emerenciano

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute leukemia in early childhood is biologically and clinically distinct. The particular characteristics of this malignancy diagnosed during the first months of life have provided remarkable insights into the etiology of the disease. The pro-B, CD10 negative immunophenotype is typically found in infant acute leukemia, and the most common genetic alterations are the rearrangements of the MLL gene. In addition, the TEL/AML1 fusion gene is most frequently found in children older than 24 months. A molecular study on a Brazilian cohort (age range 0-23 months has detected TEL/AML1+ve (N = 9, E2A/PBX1+ve (N = 4, PML/RARA+ve (N = 4, and AML1/ETO+ve (N = 2 cases. Undoubtedly, the great majority of genetic events occurring in these patients arise prenatally. The environmental exposure to damaging agents that give rise to genetic changes prenatally may be accurately determined in infants since the window of exposure is limited and known. Several studies have shown maternal exposures that may give rise to leukemogenic changes. The Brazilian Collaborative Study Group of Infant Acute Leukemia has found that mothers exposed to dipyrone, pesticides and hormones had an increased chance to give birth to babies with infant acute leukemia [OR = 1.48 (95%CI = 1.05-2.07, OR = 2.27 (95%CI = 1.56-3.31 and OR = 9.08 (95%CI = 2.95-27.96], respectively. This review aims to summarize recent clues that have facilitated the elucidation of the biology of early childhood leukemias, with emphasis on infant acute leukemia in the Brazilian population.

  6. Imatinib use immediately before stem cell transplantation in children with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Results from Japanese Pediatric Leukemia/Lymphoma Study Group (JPLSG) Study Ph(+) ALL04.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Atsushi; Kawasaki, Hirohide; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Kato, Itaru; Kodama, Yuichi; Sato, Atsushi; Matsumoto, Kimikazu; Kato, Keisuke; Yabe, Hiromasa; Kudo, Kazuko; Kato, Motohiro; Saito, Tomohiro; Saito, Akiko M; Tsurusawa, Masahito; Horibe, Keizo

    2015-05-01

    Incorporation of imatinib into chemotherapeutic regimens has improved the prognosis of children with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph(+) ALL). We investigated a role of imatinib immediately before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Children with Ph(+) ALL were enrolled on JPLSG Ph(+) ALL 04 Study within 1 week of initiation of treatment for ALL. Treatment regimen consisted of Induction phase, Consolidation phase, Reinduction phase, 2 weeks of imatinib monotherapy phase, and HSCT phase (Etoposide+CY+TBI conditioning). Minimal residual disease (MRD), the amount of BCR-ABL transcripts, was measured with the real-time PCR method. The study was registered in UMIN-CTR: UMIN ID C000000290. Forty-two patients were registered and 36 patients (86%) achieved complete remission (CR). Eight of 17 patients (47%) who had detectable MRD at the beginning of imatinib monotherapy phase showed disappearance or decrease in MRD after imatinib treatment. Consequently, 26 patients received HSCT in the first CR and all the patients had engraftment and no patients died because of complications of HSCT. The 4-year event-free survival rates and overall survival rates among all the 42 patients were 54.1 ± 7.8% and 78.1 ± 6.5%, respectively. Four of six patients who did achieve CR and three of six who relapsed before HSCT were salvaged with imatinib-containing chemotherapy and subsequently treated with HSCT. The survival rate was excellent in this study although all patients received HSCT. A longer use of imatinib concurrently with chemotherapy should eliminate HSCT in a subset of patients with a rapid clearance of the disease. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Reanalysis of atomic bomb survivors' leukemia based on the recent classification for leukemias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Tatsuki; Tomonaga, Masao.

    1990-01-01

    Four hundred and ninety-three A-bomb survivors developing leukemia, who had been exposed within 9,000 m from the hypocenter, were entered on the study for reanalysis of their disease based on the new classification. Chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) showed the highest concordance rate (95%) between the previous and new classifications. For 10 survivors previously diagnosed as having chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), a new classification diagnosed CLL as well in 3 and adult T-cell leukemia in the other 7. None of the A-bomb survivors exposed to one Gy or more had subtype M3 of acute myelocytic leukemia (AML), although the exposed group had almost the same distribution pattern of AML subtypes as the naturally induced leukemic group. The incidence of CML was significantly lower than that of AML in Nagasaki A-bomb survivors. As A-bomb survivors were older at the time of A-bombing, the relative risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) was decreased; that of CML and other types of leukemia was increased. An increased relative risk of ALL and CML tended to be associated with larger doses. A significantly shortened interval between A-bomb exposure and the development of leukemia was also associated with larger doses. (N.K.)

  8. Chronic neutrophilic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredeweg, Arthur; Burch, Micah; Krause, John R

    2018-01-01

    Chronic neutrophilic leukemia is a rare myeloproliferative disorder characterized by a sustained peripheral blood neutrophilia, absence of the BCR/ABL oncoprotein, bone marrow hypercellularity with less than 5% myeloblasts and normal neutrophil maturation, and no dysplasia. This leukemia has been associated with mutations in the colony-stimulating factor 3 receptor (CSF3R) that may activate this receptor, leading to the proliferation of neutrophils that are the hallmark of chronic neutrophilic leukemia. We present a case of chronic neutrophilic leukemia and discuss the criteria for diagnosis and the significance of mutations found in this leukemia.

  9. Cancers other than leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beebe, G W; Kato, H [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1975-09-01

    Cancers which are unlikely to appear among atomic bomb survirors in excess of natural incidence include skin cancer and bone cancer, as these appear to require for their initiation doses that are incompatible with life if administered on a whole body basis. Although chronic lymphocytic leukemia continues to provide an important exception, and for many sites of cancer there is not yet evidence that radiation has increased incidence above normal levels, the data on A-bomb survivors are otherwise consistent with the hypothesis that the carcinogenic effect of ionizing radiation is general, involving all tissues. Studies of cancer among A-bomb survivors are notably limited with respect to the influence of variables other than dose, age, sex, and time. It seems highly desirable that other risk factors be studied in conjunction with radiation dose and demographic variables in an effort to detect interactions that might provide clues as to the etiology of cancer and as to the mechanisms by which ionizing radiation produces cancer. Provisional estimates suggest that the absolute risk of cancer, in terms of excess cases per 10/sup 6/ person-year rads (T65 dose) are about 1.6 for leukemia, 1.2 for thyroid, 2.1 for breast and 2.0 for lung, when estimation is based on age-ATB groups that have demonstrated these effects.

  10. The relationship between CNS prophylactic treatment and smoking behavior in adult survivors of childhood leukemia: a National Cancer Institute and Children's Cancer Group (NCI/CCG) study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, M.L.; Weiss, R.E.; Guo, M.D.; Byrne, J.; Mills, J.L.; Robison, L.L.; Zeltzer, L.K.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To determine the relationship of both cranial radiation dose (CRD) and intra-thecal methotrexate (IT-MTX) dose with smoking behavior in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Material and Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted by NCI/CCG with 593 young adult survivors (median age, 21.6 years), treated prior to age 20 years on CCG ALL protocols from 1970 to 1986, and 409 sibling controls (median age, 24.5 years). Subjects were telephone surveyed regarding risk-taking behaviors, including cigarette smoking. A previous report has compared the smoking behavior of survivors to controls; this report will focus on the association between CNS treatment variables and smoking behavior for survivors only. Contingency table analysis was used to determine the prevalence of having ever smoked regularly (i.e. ≥ 100 cigarettes total and daily use for ≥ 6 months) for each treatment group: combinations of CRD (0-18 Gy vs. 24 Gy) and IT-MTX (0 to ≤ 83 mg vs. >83 mg). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine CRD, IT-MTX dose, age at diagnosis and age at follow-up as predictors for smoking. Too few subjects received intravenous methotrexate to evaluate this as an explanatory variable. The analysis was done separately for survivors from treatment periods 1 and 2 (1970-77 and 1978-86, respectively) to control for the time period cohort effect (which we have previously demonstrated to be significant). These treatment period definitions also correlated with a shift in protocol treatment trends from 24 Gy to 0-18 Gy and lower dose IT-MTX to higher dose IT-MTX. Results: Among the survivors from treatment period 1 who received 24 Gy CRD, those treated with higher dose IT-MTX (>83 mg) were significantly more likely to have ever been regular smokers than those treated with no or lower dose IT-MTX (31% vs. 16%, p=0.016). Among survivors from treatment period 1 who received 0-18 Gy CRD, the smoking prevalence was also greater in

  11. Prognosis and treatment after relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: 1985. A report from the Childrens Cancer Study Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleyer, W.A.; Sather, H.; Hammond, G.D.

    1986-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma constitute 42% to 45% of the cancers in infants, children, and adolescents: In 1985, an estimated 2025 children were newly diagnosed with these two cancers and 900 (43%) of the pediatric cancer deaths in the United States have been projected to be due to these diseases. The single most important obstacle to preventing these deaths is relapse, and prevention of relapse or salvage of the patient who has had a relapse continues to be a major therapeutic challenge. The most important initial step in the treatment of the child whose disease has relapsed is to determine, to the extent possible, the prognosis. In a child with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, a relapse confers an extremely poor prognosis, regardless of site of relapse, tumor histology, or other original prognostic factors, prior therapy, or time to relapse. In the child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in relapse, the prognosis depends on multiple factors. The primary therapy is chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy with marrow grafting. Other options exist, including no therapy, or investigational therapy. The therapy selected should be predicated on the prognosis. In the child with an isolated central nervous system (CNS) relapse off therapy, minimum therapy should be administered, particularly if the relapse occurred without prior cranial irradiation. In the child whose relapse is more than 6 months off therapy, conventional therapy should be considered. Also, a patient with an isolated CNS relapse on therapy after prior cranial irradiation should be given moderate therapy. Bone marrow transplantation or high-dose chemoradiotherapy with autologous marrow rescue should be reserved in children with a second or subsequent extramedullary relapse, and possibly for those with a first isolated overt testicular relapse on therapy

  12. What You Need to Know about Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications Reports What You Need To Know About™ Leukemia This booklet is about leukemia. Leukemia is cancer of the blood and bone marrow ( ... This book covers: Basics about blood cells and leukemia Types of doctors who treat leukemia Treatments for ...

  13. Parental exposure to medications and hydrocarbons and ras mutations in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: A report from the Children's Oncology Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, X.O.; Perentesis, J.P.; Wen, W.Q.; Buckley, J.D.; Boyle, E.; Ross, J.A.; Robison, L.L. [Childrens Oncology Group, Arcadia, CA (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Using data from a large case-control study of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; age < 15 years), we used a case-case comparison approach to examine whether reported parental exposure to hydrocarbons at work or use of specific medications are related to ras gene mutations in the leukemia cells of children with ALL. We examined mutations in K-ras and N-ras genes atcodons 12, 13, and 61 by PCR and allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization and confirmed them by DNA sequencing. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were derived from logistic regression to examine the association of parental exposures with ras mutations. A total of 127 (15.2%) cases had ras mutations (K-ras 4.7% and N-ras 10.68%). Both maternal (OR 3.2,95% CI 1.7-6.1) and paternal (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1-3.7) reported use of mind-altering drugs were associated with N-ras mutations. Paternal use of amphetamines or diet pills was associated with N-ras mutations (OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.1-15.0). Maternal exposure to solvents (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.0-9.7) and plastic materials (OR 6.9, 95% CI 1.2-39.7) during pregnancy and plastic materials after pregnancy (OR 8.3, 95% CI 1.4-48.8) were related to K-ras mutation. Maternal over exposure to oil and coal products before case diagnosis (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.1-4.8) and during the postnatal period (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.0-5.5) and paternal exposure to plastic materials before index pregnancy (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.1-5.1) and other hydrocarbons during the postnatal period (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.0-1.3) were associated with N-ras mutations. This study suggests that parental exposure to specific chemicals may be associated with distinct ras mutations in children who develop ALL.

  14. Identification of an MLC suppressor cell population in acute leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, C.F.; Broxmeyer, H.E.; Hansen, J.; Pollack, M.; Dupont, B.

    1978-01-01

    The MLC data from the 20 nonsuppressing patients and the 10 suppressing leukemia patients were analyzed with regard to HLA-A, -B, and -C antigens in the leukemia patients and compared with the presence or absence of suppression. These results demonstrate a significant increase (p < 0.02, Mann-Whitney U test) of HLA antigens Al, A3, and A11 in the leukemia suppressor group. Seven of the 10 leukemia patients showing suppression were A1, A3, or A11, while only 4 of the 20 nonsuppressing leukemia patients carried any of these three HLA-A antigens. The studies demonstrate that a nonspecific suppression of MLC responses is observed in 33% of the patients with acute leukemia

  15. Prediction of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplantation Mortality 100 Days After Transplantation Using a Machine Learning Algorithm: A European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Acute Leukemia Working Party Retrospective Data Mining Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shouval, Roni; Labopin, Myriam; Bondi, Ori; Mishan-Shamay, Hila; Shimoni, Avichai; Ciceri, Fabio; Esteve, Jordi; Giebel, Sebastian; Gorin, Norbert C; Schmid, Christoph; Polge, Emmanuelle; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Kroger, Nicolaus; Craddock, Charles; Bacigalupo, Andrea; Cornelissen, Jan J; Baron, Frederic; Unger, Ron; Nagler, Arnon; Mohty, Mohamad

    2015-10-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) is potentially curative for acute leukemia (AL), but carries considerable risk. Machine learning algorithms, which are part of the data mining (DM) approach, may serve for transplantation-related mortality risk prediction. This work is a retrospective DM study on a cohort of 28,236 adult HSCT recipients from the AL registry of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. The primary objective was prediction of overall mortality (OM) at 100 days after HSCT. Secondary objectives were estimation of nonrelapse mortality, leukemia-free survival, and overall survival at 2 years. Donor, recipient, and procedural characteristics were analyzed. The alternating decision tree machine learning algorithm was applied for model development on 70% of the data set and validated on the remaining data. OM prevalence at day 100 was 13.9% (n=3,936). Of the 20 variables considered, 10 were selected by the model for OM prediction, and several interactions were discovered. By using a logistic transformation function, the crude score was transformed into individual probabilities for 100-day OM (range, 3% to 68%). The model's discrimination for the primary objective performed better than the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation score (area under the receiver operating characteristics curve, 0.701 v 0.646; Prisk evaluation of patients with AL before HSCT, and is available online (http://bioinfo.lnx.biu.ac.il/∼bondi/web1.html). It is presented as a continuous probabilistic score for the prediction of day 100 OM, extending prediction to 2 years. The DM method has proved useful for clinical prediction in HSCT. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  16. The biology and targeting of FLT3 in pediatric leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen eAnnesley

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite remarkable improvement in treatment outcomes in pediatric leukemia over the past several decades, the prognosis for high risk groups of acute myeloid leukemia (AML and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, as well as for relapsed leukemia, remains poor. Intensified chemotherapy regimens have somewhat improved success rates, but at the cost of drastically increased morbidity and long term adverse effects. With the success of imatinib in Philadelphia-chromosome positive leukemia and all-trans retinoic acid in acute promyelocytic leukemia, the quest to find additional molecularly targeted therapies has generated much excitement over the past 15 years. Another such possible target in pediatric acute leukemia is FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3. FLT3 aberrations are among the most frequently identified transforming events in AML, and have significant clinical implications in both high risk pediatric AML and in certain high risk groups of pediatric ALL. Therefore, the successful targeting of FLT3 has tremendous potential to improve outcomes in these subsets of patients. This article will give an overview of the molecular function and signaling of the FLT3 receptor, as well as its pathogenic role in leukemia. We review the discovery of targeting FLT3, discuss currently available FLT3 inhibitors in pediatric leukemia and results of clinical trials to date, and finally, consider the future promise and challenges of FLT3 inhibitor therapy.

  17. Murine and human leukemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchenal, J H

    1975-01-01

    Essentially all the drugs which are active against human leukemias and lymphomas are active against one type or another of the rodent leukemias and lymphomas. Leukemia L1210 has been generally the most successful screening tool for clinically active compounds. Leukemia P388, however, seems to be better in detecting active antibiotics and natural products and P1534 is particularly sensitive to the Vinca alkaloids, while L5178Y, EARAD, and 6C3HED are useful in detecting the activities of various asparaginase containing fractions. Cell cultures of these leukemias can demonstrate mechanism of drug action and quantitate resistance. Spontaneous AKR leukemia is a model of the advanced human disease. In these leukemias vincristine and prednisone produce a 4 log cell kill. Cytoxan and arabinosyl cytosine (Ara-C) are also effective. On the other hand drugs such as mercaptopurine (6MP) and methotrexate which are highly active in the maintenance phase of acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and in L1210 have little or no activity against the AKR spontaneous system. Mouse leukemias can also detect schedule dependence, synergistic combinations, cross resistance, oral activity, and the ability of drugs to pass the blood brain barrier. A case in point is the Ara-C analog 2,2'-anhydro-arabinofuranosyl-5-fluorocytosine (AAFC) which is not schedule dependent, is active orally, is potentiated by thioguanine, and is effective against intracerebrally inoculated mouse leukemia. AAFC and its analogs might thus be a considerable improvement over Ara-C which is at the present time the most important component of the combination treatment of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML).

  18. Chromosome aberrations and oncogene alterations in atomic bomb related leukemias - different mechanisms from de novo leukemias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, K.; Tanaka, H.; Kamada, N.

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that leukemia occurred more frequently among atomic bomb survivors. In 132 atomic bomb related ( AB- related) leukemia patients during 1978-1999, 33 acute myeloid leukemia (AML)/myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients had their exposure doses of more than 1Gy (DS86). Chromosome aberrations of the 33 patients were compared with those from 588 de novo AML/MDS patients who had been bone before August 1945 as control. No FAB M3 patient was observed in the exposed group. Most AB-related AML preceded a long term of MDS stage. Twenty seven of the 33 patients showed complex types of chromosome aberrations with more than three chromosomes involving chromosomes 5,7 and 11. The number of chromosomes abnormality per cell in the AB-related leukemia was 3.78 while 0.92 in de novo leukemia. Only one of the 33 patients had normal karyotype, while 44.1% in de novo leukemia patients. Translocations of chromosome 11 at 11q13 to 11q23 and deletion/ loss of chromosome 20 were frequently observed in AB-related leukemia. No leukemia-type specific translocations such as t(8;21),t(15;17) and 11q23 were found in the 33 AB-related leukemia patients. Furthermore, molecular analyses using FISH and PCR-SSCP revealed the presence of breakpoint located outside of MLL gene in the patients with translocations at 11q22-23 and DNA base derangements of RUNT domain of AML1(CBF β 2)gene with AML/MDS patients without t(8;21) and with a high dose of exposure. These results suggest that AB-related leukemia derives from an exposed pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell which has been preserved for a long time in the bone marrow, expressing high genetic instability such as microsatellite instability. On the other hand, de novo leukemia develops from a committed hematopoietic stem cell and shows simple and leukemia-type specific chromosome aberrations. These findings are important for understanding mechanisms for radiation-induced leukemia

  19. Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that may increase the risk of acute lymphocytic leukemia include: Previous cancer treatment. Children and adults who've had certain types of chemotherapy and radiation therapy for other kinds of cancer may have an increased ... leukemia. Exposure to radiation. People exposed to very high ...

  20. Pediatric acute myeloid leukemia with t(8;16)(p11;p13), a distinct clinical and biological entity: a collaborative study by the International-Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster AML-study group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coenen, Eva A.; Zwaan, C. Michel; Reinhardt, Dirk; Harrison, Christine J.; Haas, Oskar A.; de Haas, Valerie; Mihál, Vladimir; De Moerloose, Barbara; Jeison, Marta; Rubnitz, Jeffrey E.; Tomizawa, Daisuke; Johnston, Donna; Alonzo, Todd A.; Hasle, Henrik; Auvrignon, Anne; Dworzak, Michael; Pession, Andrea; van der Velden, Vincent H. J.; Swansbury, John; Wong, Kit-fai; Terui, Kiminori; Savasan, Sureyya; Winstanley, Mark; Vaitkeviciene, Goda; Zimmermann, Martin; Pieters, Rob; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M.

    2013-01-01

    In pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML), cytogenetic abnormalities are strong indicators of prognosis. Some recurrent cytogenetic abnormalities, such as t(8;16)(p11;p13), are so rare that collaborative studies are required to define their prognostic impact. We collected the clinical characteristics, morphology, and immunophenotypes of 62 pediatric AML patients with t(8;16)(p11;p13) from 18 countries participating in the International Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster (I-BFM) AML study group. We used the AML-BFM cohort diagnosed from 1995-2005 (n = 543) as a reference cohort. Median age of the pediatric t(8;16)(p11;p13) AML patients was significantly lower (1.2 years). The majority (97%) had M4-M5 French-American-British type, significantly different from the reference cohort. Erythrophagocytosis (70%), leukemia cutis (58%), and disseminated intravascular coagulation (39%) occurred frequently. Strikingly, spontaneous remissions occurred in 7 neonates with t(8;16)(p11;p13), of whom 3 remain in continuous remission. The 5-year overall survival of patients diagnosed after 1993 was 59%, similar to the reference cohort (P = .14). Gene expression profiles of t(8;16)(p11;p13) pediatric AML cases clustered close to, but distinct from, MLL-rearranged AML. Highly expressed genes included HOXA11, HOXA10, RET, PERP, and GGA2. In conclusion, pediatric t(8;16)(p11;p13) AML is a rare entity defined by a unique gene expression signature and distinct clinical features in whom spontaneous remissions occur in a subset of neonatal cases. PMID:23974201

  1. Experimental studies of leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoro, Kenjiro

    1977-01-01

    Mouse leukemia, especially the relationship between that and endogenous type-C RNA virus (murine leukemia virus, MLV), was generally discussed centering around the recent findings and reports. Correlation of carcinogenesis due to x-rays and carcinogens with the occurrence of MLV, the relationship of total body fractionated x-ray irradiation and successive acellular transmission by the neonatal inoculation with MLV, and the relationship between N-nitrosobutylurea or N-nitrosoethylurea and MLV were discussed. The relationship between the occurrence of MLV and thymus or spleen was also discussed. Biotic differences in mice and rats, the relationship between MLV the organotropism of MLV and provocation of leukemia, the directivity of MLV to thymus and the etiologic correlation of rat leukemia or mouse leukemia with MLV were mentioned. (Ichikawa, K.)

  2. Distribution of onset of leukemia among atomic bomb survivors in the leukemia registry by dose, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1946-75

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimaru, Toranosuke; Ichimaru, Michito; Mikami, Motoko; Yamada, Yasuaki; Tomonaga, Yuu.

    1982-03-01

    The data from the RERF Leukemia Registry for the years 1946-75 were used to determine the distribution of onset of acute leukemia and chronic granulocytic leukemia among atomic bomb survivors in relation to city, dose, and age at the time of the bomb (ATB). A total of 509 confirmed leukemia cases (297 in Hiroshima and 212 in Nagasaki) have occurred among A-bomb survivors in the open populations of these cities in these years. Analysis revealed that the onset of both acute leukemia and chronic granulocytic leukemia tends to shift to earlier years with increasing dose in Hiroshima, but in Nagasaki, although the onset of both types of leukemia was earlier in the high dose group than in the low dose or control groups, the latter two groups did not differ. The distribution of onset of acute leukemia in the three dose groups also depended upon age ATB. While the distribution of onset of acute leukemia among those survivors whose age ATB was less than 30 differed significantly in the three dose classes, this tendency was not observed among those individuals whose age ATB was 30 years or more. For chronic granulocytic leukemia, the onset was shifted to earlier years in the high dose group than in the control group regardless of age ATB in Hiroshima. These findings support the pattern of leukemogenesis observed in A-bomb survivors in the Life Span Study sample, a fixed cohort, in relation to city, dose, age ATB, and years after exposure. (author)

  3. Reclassification of leukemia among A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki using French-American-British (FAB) classification for acute leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Tatsuki; Tomonaga, Masao; Bennett, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The concordance rate for diagnoses of atomic bomb-related cases of leukemia in Nagasaki was determined using the French-American-British (FAB) classification for acute leukemias and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Two Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) hematologists and one of the members (JMB) of the FAB cooperative group reviewed independently the peripheral blood and/or bone marrow smears from 193 people with leukemia or a related disorder. There was 85 % agreement in the identification of types and subtypes of acute leukemia. There was almost complete agreement for the diagnoses of non-FAB disorders (chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and others) resulting in overall concordance of 88.2 %. The present study suggest that the previously established leukemia types for about a quarter of the cases of acute leukemia and related disorders except CML should be changed. Considerable numbers of cases of ATL and MDS were involved in this series. The frequency of the former disease was not high in the high-dose irradiated group, but that of the latter was considerably high. All subtypes of AML except M3 and M6 were present in the high-dose group. The striking difference in CML incidence between Nagasaki and Hiroshima may continue to be a problem in relation to biological response to radiation exposure. (author)

  4. Reclassification of leukemia among A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki using French-American-British (FAB) classification for acute leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuo, Tatsuki; Tomonaga, Masao; Bennett, J.M. and others

    1988-06-01

    The concordance rate for diagnoses of atomic bomb-related cases of leukemia in Nagasaki was determined using the French-American-British (FAB) classification for acute leukemias and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Two Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) hematologists and one of the members (JMB) of the FAB cooperative group reviewed independently the peripheral blood and/or bone marrow smears from 193 people with leukemia or a related disorder. There was 85 % agreement in the identification of types and subtypes of acute leukemia. There was almost complete agreement for the diagnoses of non-FAB disorders (chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and others) resulting in overall concordance of 88.2 %. The present study suggest that the previously established leukemia types for about a quarter of the cases of acute leukemia and related disorders except CML should be changed. Considerable numbers of cases of ATL and MDS were involved in this series. The frequency of the former disease was not high in the high-dose irradiated group, but that of the latter was considerably high. All subtypes of AML except M3 and M6 were present in the high-dose group. The striking difference in CML incidence between Nagasaki and Hiroshima may continue to be a problem in relation to biological response to radiation exposure.

  5. Progress in the leukemias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galton, D.A.G.; Spiers, A.S.D.

    1971-01-01

    Recent work on the epidemiology of leukemia is reviewed in relation to factors of possible etiologic importance. There is still much geographic variation in the accuracy of diagnosis, the reliability of death certification, and the provision of national registries for classifying leukemia according to cytologic type. This variation and the low incidence of all types of leukemia make difficult the recognition of potentially significant distributions or trends that might suggest the operation of environmental leukemogens and their interaction with genetically determined susceptibility. Exposure to ionizing radiation remains the only predisposing factor beyond doubt for acute and chronic granulocytic leukemia, but its exact role remains obscure. There is no evidence that radiation plays a part in the etiology of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. In the population of survivors of the Hiroshima atomic bomb explosion of 1945, the incidence of leukemia (mainly CGL), though declining in the second 10-year period, was still higher than that of Japan as a whole. The suggestion that the exposure of women to radiation could increase the likelihood of leukemia in their still unconceived children was examined by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission in a prospective study of 17,700 children, and no increase in the incidence of leukemia was found in the children of parents who had been heavily exposed to radiation before conception. In the 1960's a decline in the United States mortality rates for leukemia among the white population was recorded. This decline was most marked in children below age 5, and it was suggested that the decline could have resulted from a drop in the use of diagnostic radiology in pregnant women following the reports in 1956 of the Medical Research Council and the National Academy of Sciences on the biologic hazards of radiation. A similar decline in mortality was reported from Norway. (464 references) (U.S.)

  6. Drugs Approved for Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the FDA for use in leukemia. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  7. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... better. Most children with ALL can be cured. Children often have a better outcome than adults. ... Both leukemia itself and the treatment can lead to many problems such as bleeding, weight loss, and infections.

  8. Occupation and leukemia in Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talibov, Madar; Kautiainen, Susanna; Martinsen, Jan Ivar

    2012-01-01

    We studied occupational variation of the risk of acute myeloid leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and other leukemia in Nordic countries.......We studied occupational variation of the risk of acute myeloid leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and other leukemia in Nordic countries....

  9. [Cytomorphology of acute mixed leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucić, Mirna; Batinić, Drago; Zadro, Renata; Mrsić, Sanja; Labar, Boris

    2008-10-01

    Biphenotypic acute leukemias (AL) with blasts expressing both myeloid and lymphoid antigens are grouped with undifferentiated AL and bilineal AL in the group of AL of ambiguous lineage. Not all AL with myeloid and lymphoid antigens (ALMy+Ly) are true biphenotypic AL. According to EGIL scoring system, true biphenotypic ALMy+Ly are those with a sum of antigens 2 or more points for both myeloid and lymphoid lineage or for B and T lineage. The aim of this study was to compare cytomorphology and immunophenotype of AL to better understand the relation of certain AL morphology, immunophenotype, cytogenetics and molecular biology of biphenotypic AL. The study included a group of 169 AL patients treated from 1985 till 1991, and a group of 102 AL patients treated from 1993 till 1996 at Zagreb University Hospital Center. Bone marrow and peripheral blood of the two groups of AL patients were analyzed according to Pappenheim (May-Grunwald-Giemsa), cytochemical and alkaline phosphatase-anti-alkaline phosphatase (APAAP) immunocytochemical staining. Flow cytometry immunophenotyping of bone marrow was also done in both patient groups. In the group of 169 adult AL patients, 116 were cytomorphologically classified as acute myeloblastic leukemias (AML), 35 as acute lymphoblastic leukemias (ALL) and 18 as acute undifferentiated leukemias (ANLM). In 6 (3.4%) of 169 AL patients, blasts expressed both myeloid and lymphoid antigens. In the group of 102 AL patients there were 19 (18.6%) ALMy+Ly. In 64 patients cytomorphologically classified into AML subgroup out of 102 AL patients, there were 15 (14.7%/102; 23.4%/64) AML with lymphoid antigens (AMLLy+). In 35 patients cytomorphologically diagnosed as ALL and 3 as ANLM out of 102 AL, there were 4 (3.9%/102; 10.5%/38) ALL with myeloid antigens (ALLMy+). The incidence of mixed AL in 102 AL was more consistent with other studies, pointing to the necessity of myeloperoxidase (MPO), CD7 and TdT determination as part of standard immunophenotyping

  10. Leukemias in the progeny of exposed parents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosenko, M.M.; Gudkova, N.V.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of leukemias among the progeny of exposed parents. The parents were exposed as a result of discharge of radioactive waste from the Mayak atomic plant into the Techa river in the Southern Urals. The doses per parents gonads, ranging from 0.035 to 1.27 Sv, were due to external exposure in 1950-1956 and to incorporation of Cs-137. Nine cases with leukemia and four with lympohoma were recorded in 13.500 antenatally exposed subjects and descendants of exposed parents over the period of 1950 to 1988. The leukemia morbidity index for the progeny of exposed parents was 2.51, which virtually not statistically differ from that in control group. Refs. 7, figs. 3, tabs. 3

  11. Outcomes after HLA-matched sibling transplantation or chemotherapy in children with B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a second remission: a collaborative study of the Children's Oncology Group and the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eapen, Mary; Raetz, Elizabeth; Zhang, Mei-Jie; Muehlenbein, Catherine; Devidas, Meenakshi; Abshire, Thomas; Billett, Amy; Homans, Alan; Camitta, Bruce; Carroll, William L; Davies, Stella M

    2006-06-15

    The best treatment approach for children with B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in second clinical remission (CR) after a marrow relapse is controversial. To address this question, we compared outcomes in 188 patients enrolled in chemotherapy trials and 186 HLA-matched sibling transplants, treated between 1991 and 1997. Groups were similar except that chemotherapy recipients were younger (median age, 5 versus 8 years) and less likely to have combined marrow and extramedullary relapse (19% versus 30%). To adjust for time-to-transplant bias, treatment outcomes were compared using left-truncated Cox regression models. The relative efficacy of chemotherapy and transplantation depended on time from diagnosis to first relapse and the transplant conditioning regimen used. For children with early first relapse (children with a late first relapse (> or = 36 months), risks of second relapse were similar after TBI-containing regimens and chemotherapy (RR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.49-1.70, P = .78). These data support HLA-matched sibling donor transplantation using a TBI-containing regimen in second CR for children with ALL and early relapse.

  12. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute myeloid leukemia is a cancer of the blood and bone marrow. Bone marrow is the soft tissue inside ... develops quickly. Both adults and children can get acute myeloid leukemia ( AML ). This article is about AML in children.

  13. Inheritance of leukemia in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Nanao

    1991-01-01

    Since Gardner et al. reported an increased incidence of leukemia among children of workers of a nuclear reactor in Sellafield, UK, there have been a number of discussions on the possibility of increased incidence of leukemia among children born from parents exposed to radiation or chemical agents. In this present paper, apart from the leukemia incidence in children from atomic bomb survivors which was discussed by Dr. Yoshimoto, familial leukemia, i.e., a cluster of leukemia among family members within four genetic relations, was discussed with special reference to the age distribution, type of leukemia and consanguinity. Leukemia in twin and leukemias in individuals with congenital anomalies with or without chromosome abnormalities were also discussed. (author)

  14. Stages of Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ALL Treatment Childhood AML Treatment Research Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Chronic ...

  15. Chemical exposure and leukemia clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartwright, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper draws attention to the heterogeneous distribution of leukemia in childhood and in adults. The topic of cluster reports and generalized clustering is addressed. These issues are applied to what is known of the risk factor for both adult and childhood leukemia. Finally, the significance of parental occupational exposure and childhood leukemia is covered. (author). 23 refs

  16. Reclassification of leukemia among A-bomb survivors by French-American-British (FAB) classification, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Tatsuki; Tomonaga, Masao; Bennett, J.M.

    1987-09-01

    The concordance rate for the French-American-British (FAB) reclassification diagnoses of atomic bomb-related cases of leukemia in Nagasaki was determined by a group of RERF hematologists and one of the members of the FAB cooperative gruop. The peripheral blood and/or bone marrow smears from 193 persons with leukemia or related disorder were reviewed. There was 85% agreement in the identification of leukemia types and subtypes. There was almost complete agreement for the diagnosis of non-FAB disorders (chronic myeloid leukemia and others) resulting in overall concordance of 88.2%. The conclusion from this remarkably high rate of concordance is that it is feasible to accurately apply the FAB classification system to the cases of A-bomb-related leukemia. These preliminary observations suggest that the previously established leukemia types for about a quarter of the cases of acute leukemia and related disorders should be changed. (author)

  17. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Current Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Eun-Mi; Kittai, Adam; Tabbara, Imad A

    2015-10-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common type of leukemia in adults, and while in early, asymptomatic stages treatment is not indicated, the threat to the quality of life and increased mortality of patients posed by more advanced-stage disease necessitate therapeutic intervention. Guidelines of when and how to treat are not well-established because CLL is a disease of the elderly and it is important to balance preservation of functional status and control of the disease. Advances in molecular and genetic profiling has led to the ability to identify sub-groups of patients with CLL whose disease may respond to selected therapy. This review discusses current standard therapies in the major sub-groups of CLL based on age and functional status, in both the front-line and relapsed/refractory settings. It also provides a concise review of novel agents that have shown considerable efficacy in CLL. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  18. Equivalence of intrathecal chemotherapy and radiotherapy as central nervous system prophylaxis in children with acute lymphatic leukemia: a pediatric oncology group study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, M.P. (M.D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Inst., Houston, TX); Chen, T.; Dyment, P.G.; Hvizdala, E.; Steuber, C.P.

    1982-10-01

    The efficacy of intrathecal (i.t.) chemoprophylaxis was compared with cranial radiotherapy plus i.t. methotrexate (MTX) in a Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG) study accessing 408 patients from September 10, 1974, to October 29, 1976. Randomization was stratified by prognostic groups (PGs) based on age and white blood cell count at diagnosis. All received induction therapy with vincristine and prednisone (Pred); maintenance therapy consisted of daily 6-mercaptopurine and weekly MTX. Consolidation for arm 1 employed cyclophosphamide and L-asparaginase followed by biwekly 5-day courses of parenteral MTX. The first dose of each course of MTX was given i.t. in triple chemoprophylaxis (MTX, hydrocortisone, and cytosine arabinoside). During maintenance, i.t. chemoprophylaxis was bimonthly and 28-day Pred ''pulses'' were given every 3 mo. Arm 2 i.t. chemoprophylaxis was initiated on achievement of remission, and arm 3 i.t. on treatment day 1; both continued 1 yr. Arm 4 induction included two doses of L-asparaginase. On achievement of remission, CNS prophylaxis (radiotherapy, 2400 rad plus i.t. MTX) was given. For all, therapy was discontinued after 3 yr of continuous complete remission. Survival and the incidence of extramedullary relapse were similar for the treatment employing either i.t. chemoprophylaxis or radiotherapy plus i.t. MTX upon achievement of remission. The study indicates that i.t. chemoprophylaxis may be substituted for cranial radiotherapy when utilizing effective systemic regimens. Additionally, chemoprophylaxis may be reduced from 3 to 1 yr in patients with good prognostic factors. (JMT)

  19. Extreme heterogeneity of myeloablative total body irradiation techniques in clinical practice: a survey of the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebel, Sebastian; Miszczyk, Leszek; Slosarek, Krzysztof; Moukhtari, Leila; Ciceri, Fabio; Esteve, Jordi; Gorin, Norbert-Claude; Labopin, Myriam; Nagler, Arnon; Schmid, Christoph; Mohty, Mohamad

    2014-09-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) is widely used for conditioning before hematopoietic cell transplantation. Its efficacy and toxicity may depend on many methodological aspects. The goal of the current study was to explore current clinical practice in this field. A questionnaire was sent to all centers collaborating in the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation and included 19 questions regarding various aspects of TBI. A total of 56 centers from 23 countries responded. All centers differed with regard to at least 1 answer. The total maximum dose of TBI used for myeloablative transplantation ranged from 8 grays (Gy) to 14.4 Gy, whereas the dose per fraction was 1.65 Gy to 8 Gy. A total of 16 dose/fractionation modalities were identified. The dose rate ranged from 2.25 centigrays to 37.5 centigrays per minute. The treatment unit was linear accelerator (LINAC) (91%) or cobalt unit (9%). Beams (photons) used for LINAC were reported to range from 6 to 25 megavolts. The most frequent technique used for irradiation was "patient in 1 field," in which 2 fields and 2 patient positions per fraction are used (64%). In 41% of centers, patients were immobilized during TBI. Approximately 93% of centers used in vivo dosimetry with accepted discrepancies between the planned and measured doses of 1.5% to 10%. In 84% of centers, the lungs were shielded during irradiation. The maximum accepted dose for the lungs was 6 Gy to 14.4 Gy. TBI is an extremely heterogeneous treatment modality. The findings of the current study should warrant caution in the interpretation of clinical studies involving TBI. Further investigation is needed to evaluate how methodological differences influence outcome. Efforts to standardize the method should be considered. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  20. Prospective, longitudinal assessment of quality of life in children from diagnosis to 3 months off treatment for standard risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Results of Children's Oncology Group study AALL0331.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Hannah-Rose; Lu, Xiaomin; Myers, Regina M; Sung, Lillian; Balsamo, Lyn M; Carroll, William L; Raetz, Elizabeth; Loh, Mignon L; Mattano, Leonard A; Winick, Naomi J; Devidas, Meenakshi; Hunger, Stephen P; Maloney, Kelly; Kadan-Lottick, Nina S

    2016-01-15

    Standard risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (SR-ALL) has high cure rates, but requires 2-3 years of therapy. We aimed to (i) prospectively evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQOL) during and after SR-ALL therapy, and (ii) identify associated predictors. Parents of 160 SR-ALL patients enrolled on Children's Oncology Group (COG) therapeutic trial AALL0331 at 31 sites completed the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) 4.0 Generic Core Scales (physical, emotional and social functioning) and Family Assessment Device-General Functioning (FAD-GF) at 1, 6 and 12 months after diagnosis, and 3 months post-therapy. Mean PedsQL scores in physical, emotional and social functioning were impaired 1 month after diagnosis but steadily improved. Three months post-therapy, impaired physical and social functioning was observed in 27.8 and 25.8% of patients, respectively. In repeated-measures analysis, problematic family functioning predicted emotional (OR = 1.85, 95% CI 1.03-3.34) and social (OR = 1.99, 95% CI 1.21-3.27) impairment. Larger household size was associated with social impairment (OR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.02-1.45). Adverse neurological event(s) during therapy predicted post-therapy physical (OR = 5.17, 95% CI 1.61-16.63) and social (OR = 8.17, 95% CI 1.19-56.16) impairment. HRQOL 1 month after diagnosis was not predictive of HRQOL 3 months after therapy completion. In conclusion, children with SR-ALL experience considerable impairment in HRQOL at the end of induction, but rapidly improve. However, many still experience physical and social impairment 3 months post-therapy, suggesting a role for continued family and physical functioning support. Longer follow-up is needed to determine if post-therapy deficits change over time. © 2015 UICC.

  1. Randomized Phase II Study of Pemetrexed, Carboplatin, and Thoracic Radiation With or Without Cetuximab in Patients With Locally Advanced Unresectable Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Cancer and Leukemia Group B Trial 30407

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindan, Ramaswamy; Bogart, Jeffrey; Stinchcombe, Thomas; Wang, Xiaofei; Hodgson, Lydia; Kratzke, Robert; Garst, Jennifer; Brotherton, Timothy; Vokes, Everett E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Cancer and Leukemia Group B conducted a randomized phase II trial to investigate two novel chemotherapy regimens in combination with concurrent thoracic radiation therapy (TRT). Patients and Methods Patients with unresectable stage III non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were randomly assigned to carboplatin (area under the curve, 5) and pemetrexed (500 mg/m2) every 21 days for four cycles and TRT (70 Gy; arm A) or the same treatment with cetuximab administered concurrent only with TRT (arm B). Patients in both arms received up to four cycles of pemetrexed as consolidation therapy. The primary end point was the 18-month overall survival (OS) rate; if the 18-month OS rate was ≥ 55%, the regimen(s) would be considered for further study. Results Of the 101 eligible patients enrolled (48 in arm A and 53 in arm B), 60% were male; the median age was 66 years (range, 32 to 81 years); 44% and 35% had adenocarcinoma and squamous carcinoma, respectively; and more patients enrolled onto arm A compared with arm B had a performance status of 0 (58% v 34%, respectively; P = .04). The 18-month OS rate was 58% (95% CI, 46% to 74%) in arm A and 54% (95% CI, 42% to 70%) in arm B. No significant difference in OS between patients with squamous and nonsquamous NSCLC was observed (P = .667). The toxicities observed were consistent with toxicities associated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Conclusion The combination of pemetrexed, carboplatin, and TRT met the prespecified criteria for further evaluation. This regimen should be studied further in patients with locally advanced unresectable nonsquamous NSCLC. PMID:21747084

  2. Congenital Leukemia in Down's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, W.; Khan, F.; Muzaffar, M.; Khan, U. A.; Rehman, M. U.; Khan, M. A.; Bari, A.

    2006-01-01

    Congenital Leukemia is a condition and often associated with fatal outcome/sup 1/. Most of the neonatal cases reported have acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia, in contrast to the predominance of acute lymphoblastic leukemia found in later childhood. congenital leukemia is occasionally associated with number of congenital anomalies and with chromosomal disorders such as Down's syndrome. Subtle cytogenetic abnormalities may occur more commonly in the affected infants and their parents, when studied with newer cytogenetic techniques/sup 2/. Inherent unstable hematopoieses resulting from chromosomal aberration in children with Downs's syndrome can present with transient myeloproliferative disorder, mimicking leukemia which undergoes spontaneous recovery/sup 3/. Only few cases of congenital leukemia with Downs syndrome, presented as congenital leukemia. (author)

  3. Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: from genome to patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolenova, A.

    2016-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is the most common malignant disease in childhood. During recent decades prognosis for children with acute leukemia has greatly improved, including the patients treated in the Slovak Republic. The prognosis for these patients has improved as a result of the systematic and well-organized international research efforts and clinical trials. The advent of new genomic technologies has provided new insights into leukemogenesis, identified many novel subtypes of leukemia, and triggered development of new therapeutic formulations. The success of treatment depends on stratifying patients into risk group and incorporating novel treatment strategies.The Slovak pediatric leukemia group is actively incorporated into these international clinical trials and the outcome for our patients is comparable to the results published in Western Europe. (author)

  4. Leukemia after therapy with alkylating agents for childhood cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucker, M.A.; Meadows, A.T.; Boice, J.D. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The risk of leukemia was evaluated in 9,170 2-or-more-year survivors of childhood cancer in the 13 institutions of the Late Effects Study Group. Secondary leukemia occurred in 22 nonreferred individuals compared to 1.52 expected, based on general population rates [relative risk (RR) = 14; 95% confidence interval (CI), 9-22]. The influence of therapy for the first cancer on subsequent leukemia risk was determined by a case-control study conducted on 25 cases and 90 matched controls. Treatment with alkylating agents was associated with a significantly elevated risk of leukemia (RR = 4.8; 95% CI, 1.2-18.9). A strong dose-response relationship was also observed between leukemia risk and total dose of alkylating agents, estimated by an alkylator score. The RR of leukemia reached 23 in the highest dose category. Radiation therapy, however, did not increase risk. Although doxorubicin was also identified as a possible risk factor, the excess risk of leukemia following treatment for childhood cancer appears almost entirely due to alkylating agents

  5. Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pui, Ching-Hon; Yang, Jun J; Hunger, Stephen P

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To review the impact of collaborative studies on advances in the biology and treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children and adolescents. METHODS: A review of English literature on childhood ALL focusing on collaborative studies was performed. The resulting article...

  6. Mouse models in leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voncken, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    Human Philadelphia-positive leukemia results from a balanced chromosomal translocation, which fuses the BCR gene on chromosome 22 to the ABL proto-oncogene on chromosome 9. The understanding of Ph-positive leukemogenesis has advanced enormously over

  7. Leukemia & Lymphoma Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be the exclusive property of The Leukemia & Lymphoma Society which in its sole discretion may use this material as it sees fit. I agree to the terms of the Standard Photography Release.* Submit * This field is required * Please fix the validation error messages in the Form Your story was ...

  8. Pediatric acute myeloid leukemia with t(8;16)(p11;p13), a distinct clinical and biological entity: A collaborative study by the International-Berlin- Frankfurt-Münster AML-study group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. Coenen (Eva); C.M. Zwaan (Christian Michel); D. Reinhardt (Dirk); C.J. Harrison (Christine); O.A. Haas (Oskar); V. de Haas (Valerie); V. Mihál (Vladimir); B. de Moerloose (Barbara); M. Jeison (Marta); J.E. Rubnitz (Jeffrey); D. Tomizawa (Daisuke); D. Johnston (Donna); T.A. Alonzo (Todd); H. Hasle (Henrik); A. Auvrignon (Anne); M.N. Dworzak (Michael); A. Pession (Andrea); V.H.J. van der Velden (Vincent); J. Swansbury (John); K.-F. Wong (Kit-Fai); N. Terui (Nobuhiko); S. Savasan (Sureyya); M. Winstanley (Mark); G. Vaitkeviciene (Goda); M. Zimmermann (Martin); R. Pieters (Rob); M.M. van den Heuvel-Eibrink (Marry)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML), cytogenetic abnormalities are strong indicators of prognosis. Some recurrent cytogenetic abnormalities, such as t(8;16)(p11;p13), are so rare that collaborative studies are required to define their prognostic impact. We collected the clinical

  9. TBI parameters and relapse of acute leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawara, Tadashi; Inoue, Toshihiko; Mori, Tomoyuki.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study, which involved 240 acute leukemia patients (ALL: 115, ANL: 125) who received an allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) with preconditioning by total body irradiation (TBI) and chemotherapy, was to examine retrospectively the TBI factors that may have influenced a leukemic relapse. The patients were divided into two groups: 124 patients who had received their BMT within a diagnosis-transplantation period of 9 months or less (DTP9 group), and 116 patients who had received their BMT within a diagnosis-transplantation period of 10 months or more (DTP10 group). It was concluded that: (1) the higher the TBI dose, the fewer the relapse rates in DTP9 group; (2) the longer the TBI period, the greater the increase in the relapse rate in DTP10 group. It was thus speculated that an effective TBI regimen for acute leukemia patients may vary depending on the length of time that has elapsed from the diagnosis of leukemia to the BMT. (author)

  10. Apoptosis of bone marrow leukemia cells in mice after low dose radiation at different time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guangyu; Yu Mingming; Li Xianjun; Liu Zhixiang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the apoptosis of bone marrow leukemia cell in mice after low dose radiation (LDR) at different time and the experimental basis for LDR auxiliary therapy on leukemia. Methods: WEHI-3 cells were injected into BALB/c mice through tail veins to make an experimental mice model of myelornonocytic leukemia. 60 leukemia mice models were divided half-and half. 30 mice models in experimental group were irradiated with LDR of 75mGy at the same time while the others 30 in the control group were not. 6 mice models with LDR and 6 mice models without LDR would be killed at the time the 1st day, the 2nd day, the 3rd day, the 5th day- and the l0th day after LDR in order to extract bone marrow samples. The apoptosis percentage of leukemia cells in bone marrow was examined. Results: The apoptosis percentage of leukemia cells in experimental group was increasing after LDR and went to top on the 2nd day and the 3rd day. The apoptosis percentage of leukemia cells was remarkably different between experimental and control group, all P<0.05. Conclusion: LDR could significantly increase the apoptosis percentage of bone marrow leukemia cells in mice. Its mechanism is remarkably different in kill and wound of big dose radiation to tumour cells. It is probably related to of the increase immune exciting response as to promote some cytokine secretion, in leukemia mice. (authors)

  11. A new interpretation of the relationship between radiation and risk of leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz-Niggli, H.

    1990-01-01

    The article refers to the report, which appeared in England on the increasing occurence of leukemia in youths in the surroundings of nuclear facilities, where their fathers were working. The problem of leukemia clusters is discussed, as well as epidemiological examinations and the exposure of the youths' fathers to radiation, as well as occuring cases of leukemia with survivors of Hiroshima. New studies are encouraged and especially a comparison with groups of people working with mutagenic chemicals

  12. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) KidsHealth / For Parents / Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) What's in this article? About Leukemia Causes ...

  13. How Is Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Myeloid Leukemia? More In Chronic Myeloid Leukemia About Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treatment After Treatment Back To Top Imagine a world ...

  14. Use of recombinant granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor during and after remission induction chemotherapy in patients aged 61 years and older with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) : Final report of AML-11, a phase III randomized study of the Leukemia Cooperative Group of European Organisation for the Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC-LCG) and the Dutch Belgian Hemato-Oncology Cooperative Group (HOVON)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lowenberg, B; Suciu, S; Archimbaud, E; Ossenkoppele, G; Verhoef, GEG; Vellenga, E; Wijermans, P; Berneman, Z; Dekker, AW; Stryckmans, P; Jehn, U; Muus, P; Sonneveld, P; Dardenne, M; Zittoun, R

    1997-01-01

    We conducted a prospective randomized multicenter clinical trial comparing the effects of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) as an adjunct to intensive chemotherapy in patients of 61 years and older with untreated newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Patients were

  15. Pattern of occurrence of leukemia at a teaching hospital in eastern region of Nepal - a six year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshrestha, R; Sah, S P

    2009-01-01

    Pattern of leukemia is known to vary widely throughout the world. The characterization of distribution patterns of different subtypes of leukemia in Nepal needs further study. We wanted to study the leukemia pattern in our institute. A retrospective study of 196 cases of leukemia, diagnosed at BPKIHS, between January 1997 to December 2002 was done. We analyzed the pattern of leukemia at BPKIHS by morphological subtype, gender, age at diagnosis, time period of diagnosis (seasonality), and geographic distribution. Morphological sub typing showed that 121 cases were of acute leukemia and 75 of chronic leukemia. Chronic myeloid leukemia constituted the single largest group comprising 35.2 % of all cases, followed by acute myeloid leukemia (28.57 %) and acute lymphoid leukemia (19.9 %). Maximum numbers of cases were from the lowlands while least number of cases were from the mountain districts. Results were compared with literature from Nepal and other countries. This is the second series of leukemia from Nepal. The data published in this study reflects the leukemia pattern in the eastern region of Nepal. The pattern and distribution of AML, CML, ALL was similar to that in the developed western countries while the lesser frequency of CLL was similar to that in Southeast Asian region.

  16. Vaccination of adult and newborn mice of a resistant strain (C57BL/6J) against challenge with leukemias induced by Moloney murine leukemia virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reif, A.E.

    1985-01-01

    Adult or newborn C57BL/6J mice were immunized with isogenic Moloney strain MuLV-induced leukemia cells irradiated with 10,000 rads or treated with low concentrations of formalin. Groups of immunized and control mice were challenged with a range of doses of viable leukemia cells, and tumor deaths were recorded for 90 days after challenge. Then, the doses of challenge cells which produced 50% tumor deaths were calculated for immunized and control mice. The logarithm of their ratio quantified the degree of protection provided by immunization. For adult C57BL/6J mice, a single immunization with MuLV-induced leukemia cells was not effective; either cells plus Bacillus Calmette-Guerin or Corynebacterium parvum, or else two immunizations with irradiated leukemia cells were needed to produce statistically significant increases in the values of the doses of challenge cells which produced 50% tumor deaths. Cross-protection was obtained by immunization with other isogenic MuLV-induced leukemias, but not by immunization with isogenic carcinogen-induced tumors or with an isogenic spontaneous leukemia. For newborn mice, a single injection of irradiated leukemia cells provided 1.3 to 1.5 logs of protection, and admixture of B. Calmette-Guerin or C. parvum increased this protection to 2.4 to 2.7 logs. Since irradiated and frozen-thawed MuLV-induced leukemia cells contained viable MuLV, leukemia cells treated with 0.5 or 1.0% formalin were tested as an alternative. A single injection of formalin-treated isogenic leukemia cells admixed with C. parvum provided between 1.7 and 2.8 logs of protection. These results demonstrate that a single vaccination of newborn animals against a highly antigenic virally induced leukemia produces strong protection against a subsequent challenge with viable leukemia cells

  17. Leukemia and radium groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracy, B.L.; Letourneau, E.G.

    1986-01-01

    In the August 2, 1985, issue of JAMMA, Lyman et al claim to have shown an association between leukemia incidence in Florida and radium in groundwater supplies. Although cautious in their conclusions, the authors imply that this excess in leukemia was in fact caused by radiation. The authors believe they have not presented a convincing argument for causation. The radiation doses at these levels of exposure could account for only a tiny fraction of the leukemia excess

  18. Trends in incidence of leukemia in Poland after the Chernobyl disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiatkowski, B.

    1996-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident the whole population of Poland was exposed to low-level radiation mainly emitted by I-131 and Cs-137. In 6-year period the incidence of leukemia increased in 2 groups of children: age 0-4 in males and 5-7 in females. In adults in some clinical types of leukemia significant trends of incidence were observed: in acute myleoid leukemia in age groups of 70-79 for males, in chronic myleoid leukemia in age groups of 40-49 and 60-69 for females, in chronic lymphatic leukemia in age group of 70-79 for males. Non of those trends was significant prior to the Chernobyl disaster

  19. Analysis of low Z elements in serum of patients with leukemias by SRTXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canellas, Catarine G.L.; Jesus, Edgar F.O. de; Anjos, Marcelino J.; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: marcelin@lin.ufrj.b, E-mail: catarine@lin.ufrj.b, E-mail: edgar@lin.ufrj.b, E-mail: marcelin@lin.ufrj.b, E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.b [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ/COPPE), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Nuclear Engineering Program. Nuclear Instrumentation Lab.; Carvalho, Silvia M.F., E-mail: silvia@hemorio.rj.gov.b [State Institute of Hematology Arthur de Siqueira Cavalcanti (HEMORIO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Leukemia is a disease that occurs all over the world. Leukemia is a type of cancer. All cancers begin in cells, which make up blood and other tissues. Normally, cells grow and divide to form new cells as the body needs them. When cells grow old, they die, and new cells take their place. Sometimes this orderly process goes wrong. New cells form when the body does not need them, and old cells do not die when they should. Leukemia is a kind of cancer that begins in blood cells. There are four common types of leukemia: Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML), Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML), Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) and Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL). In this work, low Z elements were determined in serum of patients with four groups of leukemia (CML, AML, CLL and ALL) and control group (CG) or healthy subjects using Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence induced by Synchrotron Radiation (SRTXRF). We studied thirty patients - male gender and feminine gender - with ages ranging from 18 to 60 years, suffering from CML, AML, CLL, ALL and thirty healthy volunteers aged 18 to 60 years. All the serum samples were collected from people who live in the urban area of Rio de Janeiro City/Brazil. All of them were submitted to medical history. This study was performed with the approval of the ethics committee. It was possible to determine the elemental concentrations of the following six elements: Na, P, S, Cl, K and Ca. By using t-test it could be seen significant differences (alpha = 0.05) between groups of healthy subjects and four groups of leukemia. The t- test showed real differences among the elemental concentrations. Thus, our findings indicate that the elements can be directly related to the biochemical processes in leukemias. The significant differences found between the groups may be indicators of these diseases. This could help biomedical field with regard to early diagnosis and improved medical treatment. (author)

  20. Analysis of low Z elements in serum of patients with leukemias by SRTXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canellas, Catarine G.L.; Jesus, Edgar F.O. de; Anjos, Marcelino J.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2009-01-01

    Leukemia is a disease that occurs all over the world. Leukemia is a type of cancer. All cancers begin in cells, which make up blood and other tissues. Normally, cells grow and divide to form new cells as the body needs them. When cells grow old, they die, and new cells take their place. Sometimes this orderly process goes wrong. New cells form when the body does not need them, and old cells do not die when they should. Leukemia is a kind of cancer that begins in blood cells. There are four common types of leukemia: Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML), Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML), Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) and Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL). In this work, low Z elements were determined in serum of patients with four groups of leukemia (CML, AML, CLL and ALL) and control group (CG) or healthy subjects using Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence induced by Synchrotron Radiation (SRTXRF). We studied thirty patients - male gender and feminine gender - with ages ranging from 18 to 60 years, suffering from CML, AML, CLL, ALL and thirty healthy volunteers aged 18 to 60 years. All the serum samples were collected from people who live in the urban area of Rio de Janeiro City/Brazil. All of them were submitted to medical history. This study was performed with the approval of the ethics committee. It was possible to determine the elemental concentrations of the following six elements: Na, P, S, Cl, K and Ca. By using t-test it could be seen significant differences (α = 0.05) between groups of healthy subjects and four groups of leukemia. The t- test showed real differences among the elemental concentrations. Thus, our findings indicate that the elements can be directly related to the biochemical processes in leukemias. The significant differences found between the groups may be indicators of these diseases. This could help biomedical field with regard to early diagnosis and improved medical treatment. (author)

  1. SB-715992 in Treating Patients With Acute Leukemia, Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, or Advanced Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-10

    Acute Undifferentiated Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  2. Festivali erinevad palged / Niina Kotsarenko ; tõlk. Madis Kolk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kotsarenko, Niina

    2007-01-01

    Mõnedest selleaastasele teatrifestivalile "Talveöö unenägu 2006" iseloomulikest joontest. Erinevatest meistriklassidest, lühidalt etendustest: "Söör Vantes. Donki Hot" - lavastaja Dmitri Krõmovislandi, "Saja-aastane maja" Fru Emilia Teatri esituses, jaapanlase Issei Ogata monoetendus "Linnaelu kataloog" - lavastaja Yuzo Morita, Ghana tantsuansambli Kusum Gboo tantsusetendus "Somu" Richard Danguah lavastuses. Vene teatrikriitikustNatalja Krõmovast, tema sidemetest Eestiga ja tema raamatu "Nimed" presentatsioonist Linnateatris. Lk. 36-38 lühiintervjuud lavastaja Dmitri Krõmovi, tõlkija ja dramaturg Fredrik Linde ning festivali kunstilise juhi Jaanus Rohumaaga

  3. Extramedullary leukemia in children with acute myeloid leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støve, Heidi Kristine; Sandahl, Julie Damgaard; Abrahamsson, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prognostic significance of extramedullary leukemia (EML) in childhood acute myeloid leukemia is not clarified. PROCEDURE: This population-based study included 315 children from the NOPHO-AML 2004 trial. RESULTS: At diagnosis, 73 (23%) patients had EML: 39 (12%) had myeloid sarcoma...... the OS. No patients relapsed at the primary site of the myeloid sarcoma despite management without radiotherapy....

  4. Childhood Leukemia and Primary Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Todd P.; Metayer, Catherine; Wiemels, Joseph L.; Singer, Amanda W.; Miller, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Leukemia is the most common pediatric cancer, affecting 3,800 children per year in the United States. Its annual incidence has increased over the last decades, especially among Latinos. Although most children diagnosed with leukemia are now cured, many suffer long-term complications, and primary prevention efforts are urgently needed. The early onset of leukemia – usually before age five – and the presence at birth of “pre-leukemic” genetic signatures indicate that pre- and postnatal events are critical to the development of the disease. In contrast to most pediatric cancers, there is a growing body of literature – in the United States and internationally – that has implicated several environmental, infectious, and dietary risk factors in the etiology of childhood leukemia, mainly for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the most common subtype. For example, exposures to pesticides, tobacco smoke, solvents, and traffic emissions have consistently demonstrated positive associations with the risk of developing childhood leukemia. In contrast, intake of vitamins and folate supplementation during the pre-conception period or pregnancy, breastfeeding, and exposure to routine childhood infections have been shown to reduce the risk of childhood leukemia. Some children may be especially vulnerable to these risk factors, as demonstrated by a disproportionate burden of childhood leukemia in the Latino population of California. The evidence supporting the associations between childhood leukemia and its risk factors – including pooled analyses from around the world and systematic reviews – is strong; however, the dissemination of this knowledge to clinicians has been limited. To protect children’s health, it is prudent to initiate programs designed to alter exposure to well-established leukemia risk factors rather than to suspend judgement until no uncertainty remains. Primary prevention programs for childhood leukemia would also result in the significant co

  5. An Approach for Leukemia Classification Based on Cooperative Game Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Torkaman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematological malignancies are the types of cancer that affect blood, bone marrow and lymph nodes. As these tissues are naturally connected through the immune system, a disease affecting one of them will often affect the others as well. The hematological malignancies include; Leukemia, Lymphoma, Multiple myeloma. Among them, leukemia is a serious malignancy that starts in blood tissues especially the bone marrow, where the blood is made. Researches show, leukemia is one of the common cancers in the world. So, the emphasis on diagnostic techniques and best treatments would be able to provide better prognosis and survival for patients. In this paper, an automatic diagnosis recommender system for classifying leukemia based on cooperative game is presented. Through out this research, we analyze the flow cytometry data toward the classification of leukemia into eight classes. We work on real data set from different types of leukemia that have been collected at Iran Blood Transfusion Organization (IBTO. Generally, the data set contains 400 samples taken from human leukemic bone marrow. This study deals with cooperative game used for classification according to different weights assigned to the markers. The proposed method is versatile as there are no constraints to what the input or output represent. This means that it can be used to classify a population according to their contributions. In other words, it applies equally to other groups of data. The experimental results show the accuracy rate of 93.12%, for classification and compared to decision tree (C4.5 with (90.16% in accuracy. The result demonstrates that cooperative game is very promising to be used directly for classification of leukemia as a part of Active Medical decision support system for interpretation of flow cytometry readout. This system could assist clinical hematologists to properly recognize different kinds of leukemia by preparing suggestions and this could improve the treatment

  6. An approach for leukemia classification based on cooperative game theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkaman, Atefeh; Charkari, Nasrollah Moghaddam; Aghaeipour, Mahnaz

    2011-01-01

    Hematological malignancies are the types of cancer that affect blood, bone marrow and lymph nodes. As these tissues are naturally connected through the immune system, a disease affecting one of them will often affect the others as well. The hematological malignancies include; Leukemia, Lymphoma, Multiple myeloma. Among them, leukemia is a serious malignancy that starts in blood tissues especially the bone marrow, where the blood is made. Researches show, leukemia is one of the common cancers in the world. So, the emphasis on diagnostic techniques and best treatments would be able to provide better prognosis and survival for patients. In this paper, an automatic diagnosis recommender system for classifying leukemia based on cooperative game is presented. Through out this research, we analyze the flow cytometry data toward the classification of leukemia into eight classes. We work on real data set from different types of leukemia that have been collected at Iran Blood Transfusion Organization (IBTO). Generally, the data set contains 400 samples taken from human leukemic bone marrow. This study deals with cooperative game used for classification according to different weights assigned to the markers. The proposed method is versatile as there are no constraints to what the input or output represent. This means that it can be used to classify a population according to their contributions. In other words, it applies equally to other groups of data. The experimental results show the accuracy rate of 93.12%, for classification and compared to decision tree (C4.5) with (90.16%) in accuracy. The result demonstrates that cooperative game is very promising to be used directly for classification of leukemia as a part of Active Medical decision support system for interpretation of flow cytometry readout. This system could assist clinical hematologists to properly recognize different kinds of leukemia by preparing suggestions and this could improve the treatment of leukemic

  7. Optimization of experimental human leukemia models (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Pankov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Actual problem of assessing immunotherapy prospects including antigenpecific cell therapy using animal models was covered in this review.Describe the various groups of currently existing animal models and methods of their creating – from different immunodeficient mice to severalvariants of tumor cells engraftment in them. The review addresses the possibility of tumor stem cells studying using mouse models for the leukemia treatment with adoptive cell therapy including WT1. Also issues of human leukemia cells migration and proliferation in a mice withdifferent immunodeficiency degree are discussed. To assess the potential immunotherapy efficacy comparison of immunodeficient mouse model with clinical situation in oncology patients after chemotherapy is proposed.

  8. Sequence analysis of Leukemia DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacong, Nasria; Lusiyanti, Desy; Irawan, Muhammad. Isa

    2018-03-01

    Cancer is a very deadly disease, one of which is leukemia disease or better known as blood cancer. The cancer cell can be detected by taking DNA in laboratory test. This study focused on local alignment of leukemia and non leukemia data resulting from NCBI in the form of DNA sequences by using Smith-Waterman algorithm. SmithWaterman algorithm was invented by TF Smith and MS Waterman in 1981. These algorithms try to find as much as possible similarity of a pair of sequences, by giving a negative value to the unequal base pair (mismatch), and positive values on the same base pair (match). So that will obtain the maximum positive value as the end of the alignment, and the minimum value as the initial alignment. This study will use sequences of leukemia and 3 sequences of non leukemia.

  9. High Throughput Drug Sensitivity Assay and Genomics- Guided Treatment of Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-28

    Acute Leukemia of Ambiguous Lineage; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Refractory Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  10. Vorinostat in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-30

    Adult Acute Erythroid Leukemia (M6); Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Cytopenia With Multilineage Dysplasia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  11. Analysis of childhood leukemia mortality trends in Brazil, from 1980 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciane F. Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Leukemias comprise the most common group of cancers in children and adolescents. Studies conducted in other countries and Brazil have observed a decrease in their mortality.This study aimed to evaluate the trend of mortality from leukemia in children under 19 years of age in Brazil, from 1980 to 2010. METHODS: This was an ecological study, using retrospective time series data from the Mortality Information System, from 1980 to 2010. Calculations of mortality rates were performed, including gross, gender-specific, and age-based. For trend analysis, linear and semi-log regression models were used. The significance level was 5%. RESULTS: Mortality rates for lymphoid and myeloid leukemias presented a growth trend, with the exception of lymphoid leukemia among children under 4 years of age (percentage decrease: 1.21% annually, while in the sub-group "Other types of leukemia", a downward trend was observed. Overall, mortality from leukemia tended to increase for boys and girls, especially in the age groups 10-14 years (annual percentage increase of 1.23% for males and 1.28% for females and 15-19 years (annual percentage increase of 1.40% for males and 1.62% for females. CONCLUSIONS: The results for leukemia generally corroborate the results of other similar studies. A detailed analysis by subgroup of leukemia, age, and gender revealed no trends shown in other studies, thus indicating special requirements for each variable in the analysis.

  12. Analysis of childhood leukemia mortality trends in Brazil, from 1980 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Franciane F; Zandonade, Eliana; Zouain-Figueiredo, Glaucia P

    2014-01-01

    Leukemias comprise the most common group of cancers in children and adolescents. Studies conducted in other countries and Brazil have observed a decrease in their mortality.This study aimed to evaluate the trend of mortality from leukemia in children under 19 years of age in Brazil, from 1980 to 2010. This was an ecological study, using retrospective time series data from the Mortality Information System, from 1980 to 2010. Calculations of mortality rates were performed, including gross, gender-specific, and age-based. For trend analysis, linear and semi-log regression models were used. The significance level was 5%. Mortality rates for lymphoid and myeloid leukemias presented a growth trend, with the exception of lymphoid leukemia among children under 4 years of age (percentage decrease: 1.21% annually), while in the sub-group "Other types of leukemia", a downward trend was observed. Overall, mortality from leukemia tended to increase for boys and girls, especially in the age groups 10-14 years (annual percentage increase of 1.23% for males and 1.28% for females) and 15-19 years (annual percentage increase of 1.40% for males and 1.62% for females). The results for leukemia generally corroborate the results of other similar studies. A detailed analysis by subgroup of leukemia, age, and gender revealed no trends shown in other studies, thus indicating special requirements for each variable in the analysis. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Prophylactic CNS therapy in childhood leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Takashi; Hiyoshi, Yasuhiko; Fujimoto, Takeo

    1982-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of CNS-prophylaxis with high-dose methotrexate (MTX). Seventy children with previously untreated acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) entered to this study between July 1978 and December 1980. According to initial white blood count (WBC), they were stratified to induce remission with; vincristine and prednine in low initial WBC ( lt 25,000/mm 3 ) group and these two agents plus adriamycin in high initial WBC ( gt 25,000/mm 3 ) group. After inducing remission, 62 children who achieved CR, received different CNS-prophlaxis; using a regimen of three doses of weekly high-dose MTX (1,000 mg/m 2 ) 6-hour infusion, which was repeated every 12 weeks-Group A (n = 14); high-dose MTX followed by 2400 rad cranial irradiation plus three doses of i.t. MT X-Group B (n = 15), 2400 rad cranial irradiation plus three doses of i.t. MTX-Group C (n = 16), and in 17 patients with high initial WBC, same as in Group A-Group D (n = 17). During an intravenous 6-h infusion of MTX at a dose of 1,000 mg/m 2 , the CSF concentration of MTX rose to 2.3 +- 2.4 x 10 -6 M after initiation of infusion and remained in 10 -7 M level for 48 hours. CNS-leukemia terminated complete remission in one of 14 children in Group A, two of 15 in Group B, two of 16 in Group C and two of 17 in Group D. The cumulative incidence of CNS-leukemia at 20 months calculated by the technique of Kaplan and Meier was 0% i n Group A, 18.1% in Group B, 7.1% in Group C and 50.8% in Group D. There was no statistical difference among Groups A, B and C. These data suggested that CNS-prophylaxis with high-dose intravenous MTX was effective as well as 2400 rad cranial irradiation plus three doses of i.t. MTX in childhood ALL with low initial WBC. (author)

  14. Expression of CD133 in acute leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolba, Fetnat M; Foda, Mona E; Kamal, Howyda M; Elshabrawy, Deena A

    2013-06-01

    There have been conflicting results regarding a correlation between CD133 expression and disease outcome. To assess CD133 expression in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and to evaluate its correlation with the different clinical and laboratory data as well as its relation to disease outcome, the present study included 60 newly diagnosed acute leukemic patients; 30 ALL patients with a male to female ratio of 1.5:1 and their ages ranged from 9 months to 48 years, and 30 AML patients with a male to female ratio of 1:1 and their ages ranged from 17 to 66 years. Flow cytometric assessment of CD133 expression was performed on blast cells. In ALL, no correlations were elicited between CD133 expression and some monoclonal antibodies, but in AML group, there was a significant positive correlation between CD133 and HLA-DR, CD3, CD7 and TDT, CD13 and CD34. In ALL group, patients with negative CD133 expression achieved complete remission more than patients with positive CD133 expression. In AML group, there was no statistically significant association found between positive CD133 expression and treatment outcome. The Kaplan-Meier curve illustrated a high significant negative correlation between CD133 expression and the overall survival of the AML patients. CD133 expression is an independent prognostic factor in acute leukemia, especially ALL patients and its expression could characterize a group of acute leukemic patients with higher resistance to standard chemotherapy and relapse. CD133 expression was highly associated with poor prognosis in acute leukemic patients.

  15. Stages of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the lymph system . Having relatives who are Russian Jews or Eastern European Jews. Signs and symptoms ... information about clinical trials is also available. To Learn More About Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia For more information ...

  16. Down syndrome preleukemia and leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Kelly W; Taub, Jeffrey W; Ravindranath, Yaddanapudi; Roberts, Irene; Vyas, Paresh

    2015-02-01

    Children with Down syndrome (DS) and acute leukemias acute have unique biological, cytogenetic, and intrinsic factors that affect their treatment and outcome. Myeloid leukemia of Down syndrome (ML-DS) is associated with high event-free survival (EFS) rates and frequently preceded by a preleukemia condition, the transient abnormal hematopoiesis (TAM) present at birth. For acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), their EFS and overall survival are poorer than non-DS ALL, it is important to enroll them on therapeutic trials, including relapse trials; investigate new agents that could potentially improve their leukemia-free survival; and strive to maximize the supportive care these patients need. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Central nervous system in leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phair, J P; Anderson, R E; Namiki, Hideo

    1964-03-12

    The present report summarizes the pertinent clinical and pathologic findings in 165 cases of leukemia in atomic bomb exposed victims autopsied during the period 1949 to 1962 at ABCC in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. Significant parenchymal hemorrhage occurred most often in acute myelogenous leukemia and was markedly increased in patients dying with high terminal white blood cell counts. Possible mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of cerebral hemorrhage in leukemia are discussed. Subarachnoid hemorrhage and subdural hematoma were not related to leukocytosis but appeared to be influenced by marked thrombocytopenia. Leukemic infiltrates of a diffuse nature involving the meninges were paradoxically increased in patients receiving adequate chemotherapy. Meningeal tumors did not show this peculiar relationship to therapy and were not found in association with lymphatic leukemia. Infections involving the central nervous system were confined to patients receiving chemotherapy including steroids. 39 references, 3 figures, 4 tables.

  18. Pharmacogenetics in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheok, Meyling H.; Pottier, Nicolas; Kager, Leo

    2009-01-01

    Progress in the treatment of acute leukemia in children has been remarkable, from a disease being lethal four decades ago to current cure rates exceeding 80%. This exemplary progress is largely due to the optimization of existing treatment modalities rather than the discovery of new antileukemic agents. However, despite these high cure rates, the annual number of children whose leukemia relapses after their initial therapy remains greater than that of new cases of most types of childhood cancers. The aim of pharmacogenetics is to develop strategies to personalize treatment and tailor therapy to individual patients, with the goal of optimizing efficacy and safety through better understanding of human genome variability and its influence on drug response. In this review, we summarize recent pharmacogenomic studies related to the treatment of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia. These studies illustrate the promise of pharmacogenomics to further advance the treatment of human cancers, with childhood leukemia serving as a paradigm. PMID:19100367

  19. PROGRESS IN ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadia, Tapan M.; Ravandi, Farhad; O’Brien, Susan; Cortes, Jorge; Kantarjian, Hagop M.

    2014-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Steady gains in clinical research and a renaissance of genomics in leukemia have led to improved outcomes. The recognition of tremendous heterogeneity in AML has allowed individualized treatments of specific disease entities within the context of patient age, cytogenetics, and mutational analysis. The following is a comprehensive review of the current state of AML therapy and a roadmap of our approach to these distinct disease entities. PMID:25441110

  20. Plasma cell leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández de Larrea, C; Kyle, R A; Durie, B G M

    2013-01-01

    Plasma cell leukemia (PCL) is a rare and aggressive variant of myeloma characterized by the presence of circulating plasma cells. It is classified as either primary PCL occurring at diagnosis or as secondary PCL in patients with relapsed/refractory myeloma. Primary PCL is a distinct clinic......-pathological entity with different cytogenetic and molecular findings. The clinical course is aggressive with short remissions and survival duration. The diagnosis is based upon the percentage (≥ 20%) and absolute number (≥ 2 × 10(9)/l) of plasma cells in the peripheral blood. It is proposed that the thresholds...... regimens and bortezomib-based regimens are recommended followed by high-dose therapy with autologous stem cell transplantation if feasible. Allogeneic transplantation can be considered in younger patients. Prospective multicenter studies are required to provide revised definitions and better understanding...

  1. Treatment of prolymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollister, D. Jr.; Coleman, M.

    1982-01-01

    Prolymphocytic leukemia is characterized by marked splenomegaly, distinctive cellular morphologic characteristics, and a poor clinical course. Five patients with typical PL were treated systematically with vincristine/prednisone, chlorambucil/prednisone, splenic irradiation, splenectomy, and other chemotherapy regimens. No patient responded to vincristine/prednisone. Two patients responded to chlorambucil/prednisone, and four patients had brief responses to splenic irradiation. Two patients underwent splenectomy, one of whom had a prolonged clinical remission. There were no complete remissions. No other chemotherapy combinations were of value. The median survival was 33 months. Recommendations are made to use chlorambucil/prednisone or splenic irradiation as initial treatment. Splenectomy should be considered in patients refractory to these modalities. The course of PL may be more protracted than originally reported

  2. Treatment of prolymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollister, S. Jr.; Coleman, M.

    1982-01-01

    Prolymphocytic leukemia is characterized by marked splenomegaly, distinctive cellular morphologic characteristics, and a poor clinical course. Five patients with typical PL were treated systematically with vincristine/prednisone, chlorambucil/prednisone, splenic irradiation, splenectomy, and other chemotherapy regimens. No patient responded to vincristine/prednisone. Two patients responded to chlorambucil/prednisone, and four patients had brief responses to splenic irradiation. Two patients underwent splenectomy, one of whom had a prolonged clinical remissions. No other chemotherapy combinations were of value. The median survival was 33 months. Recommendations are made to use chlorambucil/prednisone or splenic irradiation as initial treatment. Splenectomy should be considered in patients refractory to these modalities. The course of PL may be more protracted than originally reported

  3. Non-radiation risk factors for leukemia: A case-control study among chornobyl cleanup workers in Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudzenko, N; Hatch, M; Bazyka, D; Dyagil, I; Reiss, R F; Brenner, A; Chumak, V; Babkina, N; Zablotska, L B; Mabuchi, K

    2015-10-01

    Occupational and environmental exposure to chemicals such as benzene has been linked to increased risk of leukemia. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption have also been found to affect leukemia risk. Previous analyses in a large cohort of Chornobyl clean-up workers in Ukraine found significant radiation-related increased risk for all leukemia types. We investigated the potential for additional effects of occupational and lifestyle factors on leukemia risk in this radiation-exposed cohort. In a case-control study of chronic lymphocytic and other leukemias among Chornobyl cleanup workers, we collected data on a range of non-radiation exposures. We evaluated these and other potential risk factors in analyses adjusting for estimated bone marrow radiation dose. We calculated Odds Ratios and 95% Confidence Intervals in relation to lifestyle factors and occupational hazards. After adjusting for radiation, we found no clear association of leukemia risk with smoking or alcohol but identified a two-fold elevated risk for non-CLL leukemia with occupational exposure to petroleum (OR=2.28; 95% Confidence Interval 1.13, 6.79). Risks were particularly high for myeloid leukemias. No associations with risk factors other than radiation were found for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. These data - the first from a working population in Ukraine - add to evidence from several previous reports of excess leukemia morbidity in groups exposed environmentally or occupationally to petroleum or its products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Risk-Based Classification System of Patients With Newly Diagnosed Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-22

    Adult B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Adult T Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Childhood B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Childhood T Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  5. Residential mobility and childhood leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoon, A T; Oksuzyan, S; Crespi, C M; Arah, O A; Cockburn, M; Vergara, X; Kheifets, L

    2018-07-01

    Studies of environmental exposures and childhood leukemia studies do not usually account for residential mobility. Yet, in addition to being a potential risk factor, mobility can induce selection bias, confounding, or measurement error in such studies. Using data collected for California Powerline Study (CAPS), we attempt to disentangle the effect of mobility. We analyzed data from a population-based case-control study of childhood leukemia using cases who were born in California and diagnosed between 1988 and 2008 and birth certificate controls. We used stratified logistic regression, case-only analysis, and propensity-score adjustments to assess predictors of residential mobility between birth and diagnosis, and account for potential confounding due to residential mobility. Children who moved tended to be older, lived in housing other than single-family homes, had younger mothers and fewer siblings, and were of lower socioeconomic status. Odds ratios for leukemia among non-movers living mobility, including dwelling type, increased odds ratios for leukemia to 2.61 (95% CI: 1.76-3.86) for living mobility of childhood leukemia cases varied by several sociodemographic characteristics, but not by the distance to the nearest power line or calculated magnetic fields. Mobility appears to be an unlikely explanation for the associations observed between power lines exposure and childhood leukemia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Acute childhood leukemia: Nursing care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zietz, Hallie A

    1997-01-01

    Modern therapy for childhood acute leukemia has provided a dramatically improved prognosis over that of just 30 years ago. In the early 1960's survival rates for acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) were 4% and 3%, respectively. By the 1980's survival rates had risen to 72% for all and 25% to 40% for AML. Today, a diagnosis of all carries an 80% survival rate and as high as a 90% survival rate for some low-risk subtypes. Such high cure rates depend on intense and complex, multimodal therapeutic protocols. Therefore, nursing care of the child with acute leukemia must meet the demands of complicated medical therapies and balance those with the needs of a sick child and their concerned family. An understanding of disease process and principles of medical management guide appropriate and effective nursing interventions. Leukemia is a malignant disorder of the blood and blood- forming organs (bone marrow, lymph nodes and spleen). Most believe that acute leukemia results from a malignant transformation of a single early haematopoietic stem cell that is capable of indefinite self-renewal. These immature cells of blasts do not respond to normal physiologic stimuli for differentiation and gradually become the predominant cell in the bone marrow

  7. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation provides durable disease control in poor-risk chronic lymphocytic leukemia: long-term clinical and MRD results of the German CLL Study Group CLL3X trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreger, Peter; Döhner, Hartmut; Ritgen, Matthias; Böttcher, Sebastian; Busch, Raymonde; Dietrich, Sascha; Bunjes, Donald; Cohen, Sandra; Schubert, Jörg; Hegenbart, Ute; Beelen, Dietrich; Zeis, Matthias; Stadler, Michael; Hasenkamp, Justin; Uharek, Lutz; Scheid, Christof; Humpe, Andreas; Zenz, Thorsten; Winkler, Dirk; Hallek, Michael; Kneba, Michael; Schmitz, Norbert; Stilgenbauer, Stephan

    2010-10-07

    The purpose of this prospective multicenter phase 2 trial was to investigate the long-term outcome of reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) in patients with poor-risk chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Conditioning was fludarabine/ cyclophosphamide-based. Longitudinal quantitative monitoring of minimal residual disease (MRD) was performed centrally by MRD-flow or real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. One hundred eligible patients were enrolled, and 90 patients proceeded to alloSCT. With a median follow-up of 46 months (7-102 months), 4-year nonrelapse mortality, event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were 23%, 42%, and 65%, respectively. Of 52 patients with MRD monitoring available, 27 (52%) were alive and MRD negative at 12 months after transplant. Four-year EFS of this subset was 89% with all event-free patients except for 2 being MRD negative at the most recent assessment. EFS was similar for all genetic subsets, including 17p deletion (17p-). In multivariate analyses, uncontrolled disease at alloSCT and in vivo T-cell depletion with alemtuzumab, but not 17p-, previous purine analogue refractoriness, or donor source (human leukocyte antigen-identical siblings or unrelated donors) had an adverse impact on EFS and OS. In conclusion, alloSCT for poor-risk chronic lymphocytic leukemia can result in long-term MRD-negative survival in up to one-half of the patients independent of the underlying genomic risk profile. This trial is registered at http://clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00281983.

  8. Heterogeneity of acute myeloblastic leukemia without maturation: an ultrastructural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamoto, K; Date, M; Taniguchi, H; Nagano, T; Kishimoto, Y; Kimura, T; Fukuhara, S

    1995-01-01

    We demonstrated by ultrastructural examination that the leukemic blasts of 13 patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) without maturation (M1 in the French-American-British classification) showed heterogeneous features. In 7 patients, the leukemic blasts had a high level of light microscopic myeloperoxidase positivity (> 50%). Ultrastructurally, the cells were myeloblast-promyelocytes with 100% myeloperoxidase positivity, and these 7 patients appeared to have typical AML. In contrast, the remaining 6 patients had leukemic blasts with a low myeloperoxidase positivity (undifferentiated blasts. The former group had a better prognosis than the latter, indicating that ultrastructural analysis of M1 leukemia may help predict the response to therapy.

  9. ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUKEMIA WITHOUT CIRCULATING BLASTS PRESENTING AS SEVERE HYPERCALCEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Oloomi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypercalcemia complicating malignancy is a rare complication in pediatric age group. In this article, we present a case with acute lymphoblastic leukemia presenting as severe hypercalcemia. A 10 years old girl presented with an acute onset of fever, nausea, vomiting, loss of weight, costovertebral pain and frequency. She was admitted with a presumptive diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis. Her examination showed mild hepatosplenomegaly. In laboratory studies she had sever hypercalcemia. Despite the absence of circulating blast, bone marrow aspiration was diagnostic of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The hypercalcemia was initially treated with intravenous hydration and furosemide but the serum calcium levels normalized only after the beginning of specific chemotherapy. Hypercalcemia represents an emergency in children, and acute leukemia must be considered in differential diagnosis even when there are no circulating blasts.

  10. Analysis of the leukemia cases occurrence at Vauhallan (Essonne)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The researches and environmental measurements realised at Vauhallan did not allow to assume a link between an environmental exposure of the population and the occurrence of the two cases of leukemia. In the lack of new hypothesis, the technical group has decided to not pursue the local investigations but to keep, at systematic title, the sanitary surveillance of the commune by a regular questioning of the national register of children leukemia and lymphomas. it is to notice that only studies at a broader scale , as the three national studies of I.n.s.e.r.m., actually running, are in a position to bring new knowledge on the risk factors of children leukemia as well their spatial distribution. (N.C.)

  11. Leukemia in patients following radiotherapy for malignant neoplasms in the pelvic region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murohashi, Ikuo

    1985-01-01

    A prospective study of 1572 women treated with radiotherapy for cervical (1478 women) and ovarian cancer (95 women) was done. Patients had been followed clinically and especially by blood tests between 1961 and 1981, comprising 8990 women-years (WY). Following radiotherapy, 5 patients developed non-lymphocytic leukemia (2 acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML), 1 acute monocytic leukemia (AMoL), and 2 chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)). Based on rates for the general population, 0.45 case would be expected, and, therefore, the relative risk was 11.2. The average mean marrow dose for all our subjects was calculated to be 11.77 rad, the risk of radiation-induced leukemia was 0.43 excess case per year per one million women exposed to 1 rad of radiation to the bone marrow. Four patients with cervical cancer who developed leukemia were in a high-dose-rate group treated with both a linear accelerator (Linac) and remote afterloading system (RALS), and 1 patient with ovarian cancer who developed leukemia was treated with a Linac alone. This is the first report of a statistically significant increased risk of leukemia for patients treated with large doses of radiation for malignant neoplasms in the pelvic region. (author).

  12. Leukemia in patients following radiotherapy for malignant neoplasms in the pelvic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murohashi, Ikuo

    1985-01-01

    A prospective study of 1572 women treated with radiotherapy for cervical (1478 women) and ovarian cancer (95 women) was done. Patients had been followed clinically and especially by blood tests between 1961 and 1981, comprising 8990 women-years (WY). Following radiotherapy, 5 patients developed non-lymphocytic leukemia [2 acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML), 1 acute monocytic leukemia (AMoL), and 2 chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)]. Based on rates for the general population, 0.45 case would be expected, and, therefore, the relative risk was 11.2. The average mean marrow dose for all our subjects was calculated to be 11.77 rad, the risk of radiation-induced leukemia was 0.43 excess case per year per one million women exposed to 1 rad of radiation to the bone marrow. Four patients with cervical cancer who developed leukemia were in a high-dose-rate group treated with both a linear accelerator (Linac) and remote afterloading system (RALS), and 1 patient with ovarian cancer who developed leukemia was treated with a Linac alone. This is the first report of a statistically significant increased risk of leukemia for patients treated with large doses of radiation for malignant neoplasms in the pelvic region. (author)

  13. Somnolence syndrome after cranial radiation in children with lymphatic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novaes, P.E.R.S.; Camargo, B. de; Cusato, M.P.; Bianchi, A.; Peres, O.

    1985-01-01

    Thirty-five children with acute lymphocytic leukemia were reviewed to study the incidence of somnolence syndrome. Fourteen evaluable patients received 1,800 rad (12x150 rad) and twenty-one similar evaluable patients received 2,400 rad (16x150 rad). For both groups the same chemotherapy schedule including intratecal methotrexate was admnistered. (M.A.C.) [pt

  14. Second Malignant Neoplasms After Treatment of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, K.; Levinsen, Mette Frandsen; Attarbaschi, Andishe

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Second malignant neoplasms (SMNs) after diagnosis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are rare events. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed data on risk factors and outcomes of 642 children with SMNs occurring after treatment for ALL from 18 collaborative study groups between 19...

  15. Stereotyped B-cell receptors in one-third of chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agathangelidis, Andreas; Darzentas, Nikos; Hadzidimitriou, Anastasia

    2012-01-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that grouping of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) into distinct subsets with stereotyped BCRs is functionally and prognostically relevant. However, several issues need revisiting, including the criteria for identification of BCR stereotypy and its actual frequency...

  16. Population pharmacokinetics of intravenous Erwinia asparaginase in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sassen, Sebastiaan D. T.; Mathôt, Ron A. A.; Pieters, Rob; Kloos, Robin Q. H.; de Haas, Valérie; Kaspers, Gertjan J. L.; van den Bos, Cor; Tissing, Wim J. E.; te Loo, Maroeska; Bierings, Marc B.; Kollen, Wouter J. W.; Zwaan, Christian M.; van der Sluis, Inge M.

    2017-01-01

    Erwinia asparaginase is an important component in the treatment of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia. A large variability in serum concentrations has been observed after intravenous Erwinia asparaginase. Currently, Dutch Childhood Oncology Group protocols dose alterations are based on trough

  17. Population pharmacokinetics of intravenous Erwinia asparaginase in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sassen, Sebastiaan D. T.; Mathot, Ron A. A.; Pieters, Rob; Kloos, Robin Q. H.; de Haas, Valerie; Kaspers, Gertjan J. L.; van den Bos, Cor; Tissing, Wim J. E.; te Loo, D. Maroeska W. M.; Bierings, Marc B.; Kollen, Wouter J. W.; Zwaan, Christian M.; van der Sluis, Inge M.

    Erwinia asparaginase is an important component in the treatment of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia. A large variability in serum concentrations has been observed after intravenous Erwinia asparaginase. Currently, Dutch Childhood Oncology Group protocols dose alterations are based on trough

  18. Modifying factors of radiation induced myeloid leukemia of C3H/He mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kazuko; Nishimura, Mayumi; Nemoto, Kumie; Seki, Masatoshi

    1989-01-01

    The first experiment examined modifying factors, such as adrenocortical hormones, inflammatory reaction, and surgical stress, for radiation induced myeloid leukemia in C3H/He mice. The incidence of myeloid leukemia was not affected by a solitary subcutaneous injection of one mg of prednisolone acetate (predonine), but increased significantly by whole body irradiation, immediately followed by predonine. Augumentated effects of predonine was found in the 0.47 Gy, 1.42 Gy, and 2.84 Gy irradiated groups, but not found in the 4.73 Gy irradiated group. These results suggest that predonine itself did not have any effect on initiation of leukemogenesis, but promoted the incidence of radiation-induced myeloid leukemia. In the next experiment determining whether the incidence of myeloid leukemia was increased with stimulation of hematopoietic tissues, mice were inserted a piece of cellulose acetate membrane (CAM) into the peritoneal cavity. In the non-irradiated group of mice, CAM insertion did not affect the incidence of myeloid leukemia at all. The incidence of leukemia increased significantly by CAM insertion combined with irradiation of 2.84 Gy. Mice suffered from both surgical stress and inflammatory reaction after CAM insertion. Therefore, surgical stress was considered responsible for the development of radiation-induced leukemia. (Namekawa, K)

  19. Quantitation of human thymus/leukemia-associated antigen by radioimmunoassay in different forms of leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chechik, B E; Jason, J; Shore, A; Baker, M; Dosch, H M; Gelfand, E W

    1979-12-01

    Using a radioimmunoassay, increased levels of a human thymus/leukemia-associated antigen (HThy-L) have been detected in leukemic cells and plasma from most patients with E-rosette-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and a number of patients with E-rosette-negative ALL, acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML), acute monomyelocytic leukemia (AMML), and acute undifferentiated leukemia (AVL). Low levels of HThy-L have been demonstrated in white cells from patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (stable phase) and in mononuclear cells from patients with chronic lymphatic leukemia. The relationship between HThy-L and differentiation of hematopoietic cells is discussed.

  20. Treatment Option Overview (Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ALL Treatment Childhood AML Treatment Research Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Chronic ...

  1. General Information about Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ALL Treatment Childhood AML Treatment Research Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Chronic ...

  2. Treatment Options for Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells in the blood at the time of diagnosis. Whether the leukemia cells began from B lymphocytes or T lymphocytes. ... How long it is between the time of diagnosis and when the leukemia comes back. Whether the leukemia comes back in ...

  3. General Information about Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells in the blood at the time of diagnosis. Whether the leukemia cells began from B lymphocytes or T lymphocytes. ... How long it is between the time of diagnosis and when the leukemia comes back. Whether the leukemia comes back in ...

  4. Monoclonal antibodies reactive with hairy cell leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, L; Shaw, A; Slupsky, J; Vos, H; Poppema, S

    Monoclonal antibodies reactive with hairy cell leukemia were developed to aid in the diagnosis of this subtype of B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia and to gain better insight into the origin of hairy cells. Three antibodies were found to be of value in the diagnosis of hairy cell leukemia.

  5. Acute leukemias of ambiguous lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béné, Marie C; Porwit, Anna

    2012-02-01

    The 2008 edition of the WHO Classification of Tumors of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues recognizes a special category called "leukemias of ambiguous lineage." The vast majority of these rare leukemias are classified as mixed phenotype acute leukemia (MPAL), although acute undifferentiated leukemias and natural killer lymphoblastic leukemias are also included. The major immunophenotypic markers used by the WHO 2008 to determine the lineage for these proliferations are myeloperoxidase, CD19, and cytoplasmic CD3. However, extensive immunophenotyping is necessary to confirm that the cells indeed belong to 2 different lineages or coexpress differentiation antigens of more than 1 lineage. Specific subsets of MPAL are defined by chromosomal anomalies such as the t(9;22) Philadelphia chromosome BCR-ABL1 or involvement of the MLL gene on chromosome 11q23. Other MPAL are divided into B/myeloid NOS, T/myeloid NOS, B/T NOS, and B/T/myeloid NOS. MPAL are usually of dire prognosis, respond variably to chemotherapy of acute lymphoblastic or acute myeloblastic type, and benefit most from rapid allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

  6. Diagnostic value of CD117 in differential diagnosis of acute leukemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Abbas; Poorfathollah, Ali-Akbar; Aghaiipour, Mahnaz; Rezaei, Mansour; Nikoo-ghoftar, Mahin; Abdi, Mohammad; Gharib, Alireza; Amini, Amir

    2014-07-01

    C-kit receptor (CD117) and its ligand, stem cell factor, play a key role in normal hematopoiesis. It has been demonstrated that its expression extremely increases in leukemias with myeloid commitment. We analyzed findings on CD117 expression together with other myeloid related markers in 203 de novo acute leukemias, referred to Iranian immunophenotyping centers: Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization (IBTO) and Baghiatallah Hospital (BH). All cases were characterized based on the French American British cooperative group (FAB) and European Group for Immunological Classification of Leukemias (EGIL). The cases comprised of 111 acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML), 86 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and 6 acute undifferentiated leukemia (AUL). CD117 was positive in 75 % of AML and 50 % of AUL, whereas none of the ALL cases was positive for this marker. Although CD117 was positive in 100 % of M5a cases, no M5b positive was found (p = 0.036). The calculated specificity for myeloid involvement was 100 % for CD117 and CD33, and 98 % for CD13 and CD15 (p acute leukemias.

  7. Leukemia among atomic bomb survivors during the 1980s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusumi, Shizuyo; Matsuo, Tatsuki

    1990-01-01

    On the basis of the dosimetry system 1986, exposure doses were determined in a cohort of 86,502 subjects for the Life Span Study during the period 1950-1985. A total of 248 people were found to develop leukemia in Hiroshima and Nagasaki cities. This is an analysis of the 248 patients with leukemia in connection with exposure doses, years after A-bombing, age at the time of A-bombing, relative risk, and background. An average exposure dose was 0.20 Gy for Hiroshima and 0.22 Gy for Nagasaki. Relative risk for leukemia tended to show a linear increase in proportion to exposure doses. This was significant for acute myelocytic leukemia (AML), regardless of whether A-bomb survivors came from Hiroshima or Nagasaki. The younger the age at the time of A-bombing was, the higher excess relative risk for acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) was. For AML, however, it was independent of the age at that time. These findings were similar in Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors, irrespective of age. As for non-exposed group, the incidence of CML was three times higher in Hiroshima citizen than Nagasaki citizen. Similarly, Hiroshima citizen had a 1.6 fold incidence of AML. There was no significant difference in the incidence of ALL between the cities. The incidences of both AML and ALL tended to increase more and more with aging, but the prevalences tended to increase in younger generation. An increased incidence of CML was associated with aging alone. (N.K.)

  8. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation for adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who had central nervous system involvement: a study from the Adult ALL Working Group of the Japan Society for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigematsu, Akio; Kako, Shinichi; Mitsuhashi, Kenjiro; Iwato, Koji; Uchida, Naoyuki; Kanda, Yoshinobu; Fukuda, Takahiro; Sawa, Masashi; Senoo, Yasushi; Ogawa, Hiroyasu; Miyamura, Koichi; Takada, Satoru; Nagamura-Inoue, Tokiko; Morishima, Yasuo; Ichinohe, Tatsuo; Atsuta, Yoshiko; Mizuta, Shuichi; Tanaka, Junji

    2017-06-01

    The prognosis for adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients with central nervous system (CNS) involvement (CNS+) who received allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) remains unclear. We retrospectively compared the outcomes of allo-SCT for patients with CNS involvement and for patients without CNS involvement (CNS-) using a database in Japan. The eligibility criteria for this study were as follows: diagnosis of ALL, aged more than 16 years, allo-SCT between 2005 and 2012, and first SCT. Data for 2582 patients including 136 CNS+ patients and 2446 CNS- patients were used for analyses. As compared with CNS- patients, CNS+ patients were younger, had worse disease status at SCT and had poorer performance status (PS) at SCT (P < 0.01). Incidence of relapse was higher in CNS+ patients (P = 0.02), and incidence of CNS relapse was also higher (P < 0.01). The probability of 3-year overall survival (OS) was better in CNS- patients (P < 0.01) by univariate analysis. However, in patients who received SCT in CR, there was no difference in the probability of OS between CNS+ and CNS- patients (P = 0.38) and CNS involvement did not have an unfavorable effect on OS by multivariate analysis. CNS+ patients who achieved CR showed OS comparable to that of CNS- patients.

  9. Characteristic patterns of relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic SCT for adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma: a comparative study of recurrent lesions after transplantation and chemotherapy by the Nagasaki Transplant Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itonaga, H; Sawayama, Y; Taguchi, J; Honda, S; Taniguchi, H; Makiyama, J; Matsuo, E; Sato, S; Ando, K; Imanishi, D; Imaizumi, Y; Yoshida, S; Hata, T; Moriuchi, Y; Fukushima, T; Miyazaki, Y

    2015-04-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic SCT (allo-SCT) is a promising therapy that may provide long-term durable remission for adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL) patients; however, the incidence of relapse associated with ATL remains high. To determine the clinical features of these patients at relapse, we retrospectively analyzed tumor lesions in 30 or 49 patients who relapsed following allo-SCT or chemotherapy (CHT), respectively, at three institutions in Nagasaki prefecture between 1997 and 2011. A multivariate analysis revealed that the development of abnormal lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of patients at relapse was less frequent after allo-SCT than after CHT (PSCT (P=0.014). Lesions were more frequently observed in the central nervous systems of patients who relapsed with new lesions only (P=0.005). Thus, the clinical manifestation of relapsed ATL was slightly complex, especially in post-transplant patients. Our results emphasized the need to develop adoptive modalities for early and accurate diagnoses of relapsed ATL.

  10. The Efficacy of Reduced-dose Dasatinib as a Subsequent Therapy in Patients with Chronic Myeloid Leukemia in the Chronic Phase: The LD-CML Study of the Kanto CML Study Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriyama, Noriyoshi; Ohashi, Kazuteru; Hashino, Satoshi; Kimura, Shinya; Nakaseko, Chiaki; Takano, Hina; Hino, Masayuki; Uchiyama, Michihiro; Morita, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Junichi; Sakamaki, Hisashi; Inokuchi, Koiti

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate the efficacy and safety profiles of low-dose dasatinib therapy (50 mg once daily). Methods Patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in the chronic phase (CML-CP) who were being treated with low-dose imatinib (≤200 mg/day), but were resistant to this agent were enrolled in the current study (referred to as the LD-CML study). Results There subjects included 9 patients (4 men and 5 women); all were treated with dasatinib at a dose of 50 mg once daily. Among 8 patients who had not experienced major molecular response (MMR; BCR-ABL1 transcript ≤0.1% according to International Scale [IS]) at study enrollment, 5 attained MMR by 12 months. In particular, 3 of 9 patients demonstrated a deep molecular response (DMR; IS ≤0.0069%) by 18 months. Five patients developed lymphocytosis accompanied by cytotoxic lymphocyte predominance. There was no mortality or disease progression, and all continue to receive dasatinib therapy at 18 months with only 2 patients requiring dose reduction. Toxicities were mild-to-moderate, and pleural effusion was observed in 1 patient (grade 1). Conclusion Low-dose dasatinib can attain MMR and DMR without severe toxicity in patients with CML-CP who are unable to achieve MMR with low-dose imatinib. Switching to low-dose dasatinib should therefore be considered for patients in this setting, especially if they are otherwise considering a cessation of treatment. PMID:29033428

  11. Immunophenotypic investigation of infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Popov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study – immunophenotype description of infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL. 64 patients (29 boys and 35 girls with acute leukemia (AL aged from 0 to 11 months were included in the current study. ALL was found less frequently in infants than in older children (67.19 % and 87.69 %, respectively. BI-ALL was the most common immunological ALL type (60.46 % in infant ALL, while BII-ALL was notably less frequent compared with other age groups (30.23 %. Significant immunophenotypic differences were observed in patients with and without MLL gene rearrangements. Number of cases in those tumor cells expressed CD10, CD20, CD45, CD133, CD15, NG2 varied between MLL-positive and MLL-negative groups. CD10- and CD20-negativity, high CD45, CD15, CD65 and NG2 expression were immunophenotypic signatures of MLL-rearranged infant ALL, although NG2 had the highest diagnostic efficacy. High CD34 and CD65 expression was frequently associated with presence of MLL-AF4 fusion gene. Thus infants’ B-cell precursor ALL immunophenotype differs significantly due to the presence of MLL gene rearrangements. Diagnostic immunophenotyping of infants’ ALL allows predicting presence of MLL rearrangements and NG2 is the most applicable single marker.

  12. Immunophenotypic investigation of infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Popov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study – immunophenotype description of infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL. 64 patients (29 boys and 35 girls with acute leukemia (AL aged from 0 to 11 months were included in the current study. ALL was found less frequently in infants than in older children (67.19 % and 87.69 %, respectively. BI-ALL was the most common immunological ALL type (60.46 % in infant ALL, while BII-ALL was notably less frequent compared with other age groups (30.23 %. Significant immunophenotypic differences were observed in patients with and without MLL gene rearrangements. Number of cases in those tumor cells expressed CD10, CD20, CD45, CD133, CD15, NG2 varied between MLL-positive and MLL-negative groups. CD10- and CD20-negativity, high CD45, CD15, CD65 and NG2 expression were immunophenotypic signatures of MLL-rearranged infant ALL, although NG2 had the highest diagnostic efficacy. High CD34 and CD65 expression was frequently associated with presence of MLL-AF4 fusion gene. Thus infants’ B-cell precursor ALL immunophenotype differs significantly due to the presence of MLL gene rearrangements. Diagnostic immunophenotyping of infants’ ALL allows predicting presence of MLL rearrangements and NG2 is the most applicable single marker.

  13. Childhood leukemia around nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Information Bulletin highlights the conclusion made from an Atomic Energy Control Board of Canada (AECB) study on the incidence of childhood leukemia near nuclear facilities. All of the locations with the nuclear facilities are located in Ontario, the nuclear generating stations at Pickering and Bruce; the uranium mines and mills in Elliot Lake; the uranium refining facility in Port Hope; and nuclear research facilities located at Chalk River plus the small nuclear power plant in Rolphton. Two conclusions are drawn from the study: 1) while the rate of childhood leukemias made be higher or lower than the provincial average, there is no statistical evidence that the difference is due to anything but the natural variation in the occurrence of the disease; and 2) the rate of occurrence of childhood leukemia around the Pickering nuclear power station was slightly greater than the Ontario average both before and after the plant opened, but this, too , could be due to the natural variation

  14. Non-radiation risk factors for leukemia: A case-control study among chornobyl cleanup workers in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudzenko, N.; Hatch, M.; Bazyka, D.; Dyagil, I.; Reiss, R.F.; Brenner, A.; Chumak, V.; Babkina, N.; Zablotska, L.B.; Mabuchi, K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Occupational and environmental exposure to chemicals such as benzene has been linked to increased risk of leukemia. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption have also been found to affect leukemia risk. Previous analyses in a large cohort of Chornobyl clean-up workers in Ukraine found significant radiation-related increased risk for all leukemia types. We investigated the potential for additional effects of occupational and lifestyle factors on leukemia risk in this radiation-exposed cohort. Methods: In a case-control study of chronic lymphocytic and other leukemias among Chornobyl cleanup workers, we collected data on a range of non-radiation exposures. We evaluated these and other potential risk factors in analyses adjusting for estimated bone marrow radiation dose. We calculated Odds Ratios and 95% Confidence Intervals in relation to lifestyle factors and occupational hazards. Results: After adjusting for radiation, we found no clear association of leukemia risk with smoking or alcohol but identified a two-fold elevated risk for non-CLL leukemia with occupational exposure to petroleum (OR=2.28; 95% Confidence Interval 1.13, 6.79). Risks were particularly high for myeloid leukemias. No associations with risk factors other than radiation were found for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Conclusions: These data – the first from a working population in Ukraine – add to evidence from several previous reports of excess leukemia morbidity in groups exposed environmentally or occupationally to petroleum or its products. - Highlights: • A unique population – a cohort of 110,645 Chernobyl clean-up workers from Ukraine. • Followed 1986–2006 for leukemia, interviewed about non-radiation risk factors. • Petroleum exposure increased risk for non-CLL leukemias, particularly CML. • No risk factor other than radiation was found for CLL.

  15. Non-radiation risk factors for leukemia: A case-control study among chornobyl cleanup workers in Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudzenko, N., E-mail: gudznat@gmail.com [National Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Kyiv (Ukraine); Hatch, M., E-mail: hatchm@mail.nih.gov [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD (United States); Bazyka, D., E-mail: Bazyka@yahoo.com [National Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Kyiv (Ukraine); Dyagil, I., E-mail: leuk@ukr.net [National Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Kyiv (Ukraine); Reiss, R.F., E-mail: rfr1@columbia.edu [Department of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Brenner, A., E-mail: brennera@mail.nih.gov [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD (United States); Chumak, V., E-mail: Chumak.vadim@gmail.com [National Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Kyiv (Ukraine); Babkina, N., E-mail: natalie.babkina@gmail.com [National Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Kyiv (Ukraine); Zablotska, L.B., E-mail: lydia.zablotska@ucsf.edu [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Mabuchi, K., E-mail: mabuchik@mail.nih.gov [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Background: Occupational and environmental exposure to chemicals such as benzene has been linked to increased risk of leukemia. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption have also been found to affect leukemia risk. Previous analyses in a large cohort of Chornobyl clean-up workers in Ukraine found significant radiation-related increased risk for all leukemia types. We investigated the potential for additional effects of occupational and lifestyle factors on leukemia risk in this radiation-exposed cohort. Methods: In a case-control study of chronic lymphocytic and other leukemias among Chornobyl cleanup workers, we collected data on a range of non-radiation exposures. We evaluated these and other potential risk factors in analyses adjusting for estimated bone marrow radiation dose. We calculated Odds Ratios and 95% Confidence Intervals in relation to lifestyle factors and occupational hazards. Results: After adjusting for radiation, we found no clear association of leukemia risk with smoking or alcohol but identified a two-fold elevated risk for non-CLL leukemia with occupational exposure to petroleum (OR=2.28; 95% Confidence Interval 1.13, 6.79). Risks were particularly high for myeloid leukemias. No associations with risk factors other than radiation were found for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Conclusions: These data – the first from a working population in Ukraine – add to evidence from several previous reports of excess leukemia morbidity in groups exposed environmentally or occupationally to petroleum or its products. - Highlights: • A unique population – a cohort of 110,645 Chernobyl clean-up workers from Ukraine. • Followed 1986–2006 for leukemia, interviewed about non-radiation risk factors. • Petroleum exposure increased risk for non-CLL leukemias, particularly CML. • No risk factor other than radiation was found for CLL.

  16. Association of leukemia with radium groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyman, G.H.; Lyman, C.G.; Johnson, W.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation exposure, including the ingestion of radium, has been causally associated with leukemia in man. Groundwater samples from 27 counties on or near Florida phosphate lands were found to exceed 5 pCi/L total radium in 12.4% of measurements. The incidence of leukemia was greater in those counties with high levels of radium contamination (greater than 10% of the samples contaminated) than in those with low levels of contamination. Rank correlation coefficients of .56 and .45 were observed between the radium contamination level and the incidence of total leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia, respectively. The standardized incidence density ratio for those in high-contamination counties was 1.5 for total leukemia and 2.0 for acute myeloid leukemia. Further investigation is necessary, however, before a causal relationship between groundwater radium content and human leukemia can be established

  17. Immunophenotypic investigation of infant acute myeloid leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Popov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study – characterization of immunophenotype in infant acute myeloid leukemia (AML. 90 patients (40 boys and 50 girls with acute leukemia (AL aged up to 365 days were included in the current study. AML was found more frequently in infants than in older children (26.67 % and 10.83 % respectively; p = 0.0002. Significant immunophenotypic differences were observed in patients with and without MLL gene rearrangements. Number of cases in those tumor cells expressed CD99, CD61, CD133, CD15, NG2 varied between MLL-positive and MLL-negative groups. CD61-negativity, high CD99, CD15, CD133 and NG2 expression were immunophenotypic signatures of MLLrearranged infant AML, although CD99 and NG2 had the highest diagnostic efficacy. Thus infants’ AML immunophenotype differs significantly due to the presence of MLL gene rearrangements. Diagnostic immunophenotyping of infants’ AML allows predicting presence of MLL rearrangements by either CD99 or NG2 expression.

  18. Immunophenotypic investigation of infant acute myeloid leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Popov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study – characterization of immunophenotype in infant acute myeloid leukemia (AML. 90 patients (40 boys and 50 girls with acute leukemia (AL aged up to 365 days were included in the current study. AML was found more frequently in infants than in older children (26.67 % and 10.83 % respectively; p = 0.0002. Significant immunophenotypic differences were observed in patients with and without MLL gene rearrangements. Number of cases in those tumor cells expressed CD99, CD61, CD133, CD15, NG2 varied between MLL-positive and MLL-negative groups. CD61-negativity, high CD99, CD15, CD133 and NG2 expression were immunophenotypic signatures of MLLrearranged infant AML, although CD99 and NG2 had the highest diagnostic efficacy. Thus infants’ AML immunophenotype differs significantly due to the presence of MLL gene rearrangements. Diagnostic immunophenotyping of infants’ AML allows predicting presence of MLL rearrangements by either CD99 or NG2 expression.

  19. Cytogenetic and molecular genetic analysis of leukemias found in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Nanao; Tanaka, Kimio; Eguchi, Mariko

    1994-01-01

    Seventy five radiation-related leukemia patients in Hiroshima including 16 patients exposed to more than one Gray were cytogenetically examined. Statistical analysis of data on the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations in the survivor groups according to bone marrow doses by DS86 estimation revealed that the heavily exposed group tended to have significantly higher aberration rates compared to the non-exposed group. Furthermore, the chromosomal aberrations in the survivors were observed to be of a more complex nature and had the characteristic findings of secondary leukemia. These observations therefore suggest that patients with a history of heavy exposure to atomic bomb radiation had leukemic cells originating from a stem cell which had been damaged by irradiation at the time of the bombing as well as cells involved in complex chromosome abnormalities. A higher incidence(p=0.06) of 11q23 abnormality was found in acute leukemia patients who had a history of exposure to A-bomb and developed from 1986 to 1993. However, we could not detect rearrangement of MLL gene in these patients. Break point region on 11q23 of radiation induced leukemias may be different from the common 8.5 kb region. Molecular biologic studies on RAS genes in acute and chronic leukemias and the BCR gene in chronic myelocytic leukemia were performed in exposed and non-exposed groups. So far, no distinctive differences have been observed in the frequency and sites of point mutations in N and K-RAS genes or in the rearrangement of the BCR gene. Further, retrospective analysis using DNA from leukemia patients who developed the disease in the early period from atomic bomb radiation exposure would be useful for elucidation of the mechanisms of radiation-induced leukemia. (author)

  20. Thromboembolism in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Cecilie Utke; Toft, Nina; Tuckuviene, Ruta

    2018-01-01

    Thromboembolism frequently occurs during acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) therapy. We prospectively registered thromboembolic events during treatment of 1772 consecutive Nordic/Baltic ALL patients 1-45years treated according to the Nordic Society of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology (NOPHO) ALL...

  1. Heterogeneity in acute undifferentiated leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMaistre, A; Childs, C C; Hirsch-Ginsberg, C; Reuben, J; Cork, A; Trujillo, J M; Andersson, B; McCredie, K B; Freireich, E; Stass, S A

    1988-01-01

    From January 1985 to May 1987, we studied 256 adults with newly diagnosed acute leukemia. Acute undifferentiated leukemia (AUL) was diagnosed in 12 of the 256 (4.6%) cases when lineage could not be delineated by light microscopy and light cytochemistry. To further characterize the blasts, immunophenotyping, ultrastructural myeloperoxidase (UMPO), and ultrastructural platelet peroxidase parameters were examined in 10, 11, and 6 of the 12 cases, respectively. Five cases demonstrated UMPO and were reclassified as acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML). Of the six UMPO-negative cases, three had a myeloid and one had a mixed immunophenotype. One UMPO-negative patient with a myeloid immunophenotype was probed for the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene (JH) and the beta chain of the T-cell receptor gene (Tcr beta) with no evidence of rearrangement. Six cases were treated with standard acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) chemotherapy and failed to achieve complete remission (CR). Various AML chemotherapeutic regimens produced CR in only 3 of the 12 cases. One case was treated with gamma interferon and the other 2 with high-dose Ara-C. Our findings indicate a myeloid lineage can be detected by UMPO (5/12) in some cases of AUL. A germline configuration with JH and Tcr beta in one case as well as a myeloid immunophenotype in 3 UMPO-negative cases raises the possibility that myeloid lineage commitment may occur in the absence of myeloid peroxidase (MPO) cytochemical positivity.

  2. Clinical Presentations of Acute Leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahab, F.; Raziq, F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To document the clinical presentation and epidemiology of various types of acute leukemia with their respective referral source at a tertiary level centre in Peshawar. Study Design: An observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pathology, Hayatabad Medical Complex (HMC), Peshawar, from January 2011 to May 2012. Methodology: A total of 618 bone marrow biopsy reports were reviewed. All biopsy reports labeled as acute leukemia were reviewed for age, gender, address, referring unit, diagnosis on bone marrow examination, presenting complaints, duration of illness and findings of clinical examination. Results: Ninety-two patients were diagnosed as suffering from acute leukemias (15%). ALL was most prevalent (46%), followed by AML (38%) and undifferentiated acute leukemia (16%). Males were affected more compared to females (60% vs. 40%). ALL and AML were predominant in pediatric (64%) and adults (77%) patients respectively. Patients from Afghanistan accounted for 33% of all cases followed by Peshawar (14%). Fever (77%), pallor (33%) and bleeding disorders (23%) were the main presenting complaints. Enlargement of liver, spleen and lymph nodes together was associated with ALL compared with AML (p = 0.004). Conclusion: ALL-L1 and AML-M4 were the most common sub-types. Fever, pallor and bleeding disorders were the main presenting complaints. Enlargement of liver, spleen and lymph nodes was more frequently associated with ALL compared to AML. (author)

  3. on Lymphoblastic Leukemia Jurkat Cells

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    human tumor cell line (Hela) by using MTT assay. [13]. In the present study, we have observed the cytotoxic effect of ethanolic extract of C. arvensis against Jurkat cells, a human lymphoblastic leukemia cell line, by using Trypan blue, MTS assay and FACS analysis. It was shown from the trypan blue exclusion assay that ...

  4. Effects of low dose rate irradiation on induction of myeloid leukemia in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuse, Takeshi

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the induction of myeloid leukemia and other kinds of neoplasias in C3H male mice irradiated at several dose rate levels. We compared the incidence of neoplasias among these groups, obtained dose and dose rate effectiveness factors (DDREF) for myeloid leukemia. C3H/He male mice were exposed to whole body gamma-ray irradiation at 8 weeks of age. All mice were maintained for their entire life span and teh pathologically examined after their death. Radiation at a high dose-rate of 882 mGy/min (group H), a medium dose-rate of 95.6 mGy/min (group M), and low dose-rates of 0.298 mGy/min (group L-A), 0.067 mGy/min (group L-B) or 0.016 mGy/min (group L-C) were delivered from 137 Cs sources. The mice in group L were irradiated continuously for 22 hours daily up to total doses of 1, 2, 3, 4, 10 Gy over a period of 3 days to 200 days. As for the induction of neoplasias, myeloid leukemia developed significantly more frequently in irradiated groups than in unirradiated groups. The time distribution of mice dying from myeloid leukemia did not show a difference between groups H and L. The incidence of myeloid leukemia showed a greater increase in the high dose-rate groups than in the low and medium dose-rate groups in the dose range over 2 Gy, it also showed significant increases in the groups irradiated with 1 Gy of various dose rate, but the difference between these groups was not clear. These dose effect curves had their highest values on each curve at about 3 Gy. We obtained DDREF values of 2-3 by linear fittings for their dose response curves of dose ranges in which leukemia incidences were increasing. (author)

  5. Vitamin E - its status and role in leukemia and lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, J.; Das, S.; Sanyal, U.

    1993-01-01

    A comparative study has been performed on the relationship between vitamin E and immuno-function in normal and malignant condition in human and murine systems. Further, the effects of supplemental vitamin E on tumor take, host survival and tumor growth has been studied in a transplantable lymphoma in mice. Vitamin E was assayed in serum samples from normal subjects and from patient with leukemia and lymphoma by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) The murine group included Dalton's ascite lymphoma (DL), Schwartz lymphoblastic leukemia (SVL) and Moloney lymphoblastic leukemia (MVL). Serum vitamin E was found to be lower than that of the normal controls in all cases of leukemia and lymphoma both in human and lymphoma. Supplementary vitamin E administered at the initial phase of development of murine lymphomas reduced the rate of tumor growth, improved host survival and elevated serum vitamin E level. Vitamin E supplementation also activated specific induced blastogenesis of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and elevated serum IgG level. IgM remained unaltered and and macrophage activity did not seem to be affected. The present findings indicated a low status of vitamin E in tumor bearing host and beneficial effect of supplemental vitamin E on the host which was mediated by the host immune system. (author)

  6. The MLL recombinome of acute leukemias in 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, C; Burmeister, T; Gröger, D; Tsaur, G; Fechina, L; Renneville, A; Sutton, R; Venn, N C; Emerenciano, M; Pombo-de-Oliveira, M S; Barbieri Blunck, C; Almeida Lopes, B; Zuna, J; Trka, J; Ballerini, P; Lapillonne, H; De Braekeleer, M; Cazzaniga, G; Corral Abascal, L; van der Velden, V H J; Delabesse, E; Park, T S; Oh, S H; Silva, M L M; Lund-Aho, T; Juvonen, V; Moore, A S; Heidenreich, O; Vormoor, J; Zerkalenkova, E; Olshanskaya, Y; Bueno, C; Menendez, P; Teigler-Schlegel, A; Zur Stadt, U; Lentes, J; Göhring, G; Kustanovich, A; Aleinikova, O; Schäfer, B W; Kubetzko, S; Madsen, H O; Gruhn, B; Duarte, X; Gameiro, P; Lippert, E; Bidet, A; Cayuela, J M; Clappier, E; Alonso, C N; Zwaan, C M; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, M M; Izraeli, S; Trakhtenbrot, L; Archer, P; Hancock, J; Möricke, A; Alten, J; Schrappe, M; Stanulla, M; Strehl, S; Attarbaschi, A; Dworzak, M; Haas, O A; Panzer-Grümayer, R; Sedék, L; Szczepański, T; Caye, A; Suarez, L; Cavé, H; Marschalek, R

    2018-02-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements of the human MLL/KMT2A gene are associated with infant, pediatric, adult and therapy-induced acute leukemias. Here we present the data obtained from 2345 acute leukemia patients. Genomic breakpoints within the MLL gene and the involved translocation partner genes (TPGs) were determined and 11 novel TPGs were identified. Thus, a total of 135 different MLL rearrangements have been identified so far, of which 94 TPGs are now characterized at the molecular level. In all, 35 out of these 94 TPGs occur recurrently, but only 9 specific gene fusions account for more than 90% of all illegitimate recombinations of the MLL gene. We observed an age-dependent breakpoint shift with breakpoints localizing within MLL intron 11 associated with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and younger patients, while breakpoints in MLL intron 9 predominate in AML or older patients. The molecular characterization of MLL breakpoints suggests different etiologies in the different age groups and allows the correlation of functional domains of the MLL gene with clinical outcome. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of the MLL recombinome in acute leukemia and demonstrates that the establishment of patient-specific chromosomal fusion sites allows the design of specific PCR primers for minimal residual disease analyses for all patients.

  7. Mercaptopurine Ingestion Habits, Red Cell Thioguanine Nucleotide Levels, and Relapse Risk in Children With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Report From the Children’s Oncology Group Study AALL03N1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landier, Wendy; Hageman, Lindsey; Chen, Yanjun; Kornegay, Nancy; Evans, William E.; Bostrom, Bruce C.; Casillas, Jacqueline; Dickens, David S.; Angiolillo, Anne L.; Lew, Glen; Maloney, Kelly W.; Mascarenhas, Leo; Ritchey, A. Kim; Termuhlen, Amanda M.; Carroll, William L.; Relling, Mary V.; Wong, F. Lennie

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are generally instructed to take mercaptopurine (6-MP) in the evening and without food or dairy products. This study examines the association between 6-MP ingestion habits and 6-MP adherence, red cell thioguanine nucleotide (TGN) levels, and risk of relapse in children with TMPT wild-type genotype. Methods Participants included 441 children with ALL receiving oral 6-MP for maintenance. Adherence was monitored over 48,086 patient-days using the Medication Event Monitoring System; nonadherence was defined as adherence rate < 95%. 6-MP ingestion habits examined included: takes 6-MP with versus never with food, takes 6-MP with versus never with dairy, and takes 6-MP in the evening versus morning versus varying times. Results Median age at study was 6 years (range, 2 to 20 years); 43.8% were nonadherent. Certain 6-MP ingestion habits were associated with nonadherence (taking 6-MP with dairy [odds ratio (OR), 1.9; 95% CI, 1.3 to 2.9; P = .003] and at varying times [OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.8 to 6.3; P = .0001]). After adjusting for adherence and other prognosticators, there was no association between 6-MP ingestion habits and relapse risk (6-MP with food: hazard ratio [HR], 0.7; 95% CI, 0.3 to 1.9; P = .5; with dairy: HR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.07 to 1.5; P = .2; taken in evening/night: HR, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.2 to 7.8; P = .9; at varying times: HR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.04 to 2.7; P = .3). Among adherent patients, there was no association between red cell TGN levels and taking 6-MP with food versus without (206.1 ± 107.1 v 220.6 ± 121.6; P = .5), with dairy versus without (220.1 ± 87.8 v 216.3 ± 121.3; P =.7), or in the evening/night versus morning/midday versus varying times (218.8 ± 119.7 v 195.5 ± 82.3 v 174.8 ± 93.4; P = .6). Conclusion Commonly practiced restrictions surrounding 6-MP ingestion might not influence outcome but may hinder adherence. Future recommendations regarding 6-MP intake during maintenance therapy for

  8. Mercaptopurine Ingestion Habits, Red Cell Thioguanine Nucleotide Levels, and Relapse Risk in Children With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group Study AALL03N1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landier, Wendy; Hageman, Lindsey; Chen, Yanjun; Kornegay, Nancy; Evans, William E; Bostrom, Bruce C; Casillas, Jacqueline; Dickens, David S; Angiolillo, Anne L; Lew, Glen; Maloney, Kelly W; Mascarenhas, Leo; Ritchey, A Kim; Termuhlen, Amanda M; Carroll, William L; Relling, Mary V; Wong, F Lennie; Bhatia, Smita

    2017-05-20

    Purpose Children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are generally instructed to take mercaptopurine (6-MP) in the evening and without food or dairy products. This study examines the association between 6-MP ingestion habits and 6-MP adherence, red cell thioguanine nucleotide (TGN) levels, and risk of relapse in children with TMPT wild-type genotype. Methods Participants included 441 children with ALL receiving oral 6-MP for maintenance. Adherence was monitored over 48,086 patient-days using the Medication Event Monitoring System; nonadherence was defined as adherence rate < 95%. 6-MP ingestion habits examined included: takes 6-MP with versus never with food, takes 6-MP with versus never with dairy, and takes 6-MP in the evening versus morning versus varying times. Results Median age at study was 6 years (range, 2 to 20 years); 43.8% were nonadherent. Certain 6-MP ingestion habits were associated with nonadherence (taking 6-MP with dairy [odds ratio (OR), 1.9; 95% CI, 1.3 to 2.9; P = .003] and at varying times [OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.8 to 6.3; P = .0001]). After adjusting for adherence and other prognosticators, there was no association between 6-MP ingestion habits and relapse risk (6-MP with food: hazard ratio [HR], 0.7; 95% CI, 0.3 to 1.9; P = .5; with dairy: HR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.07 to 1.5; P = .2; taken in evening/night: HR, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.2 to 7.8; P = .9; at varying times: HR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.04 to 2.7; P = .3). Among adherent patients, there was no association between red cell TGN levels and taking 6-MP with food versus without (206.1 ± 107.1 v 220.6 ± 121.6; P = .5), with dairy versus without (220.1 ± 87.8 v 216.3 ± 121.3; P =.7), or in the evening/night versus morning/midday versus varying times (218.8 ± 119.7 v 195.5 ± 82.3 v 174.8 ± 93.4; P = .6). Conclusion Commonly practiced restrictions surrounding 6-MP ingestion might not influence outcome but may hinder adherence. Future recommendations regarding 6-MP intake during maintenance therapy for

  9. Mixed-phenotype acute leukemia: state-of-the-art of the diagnosis, classification and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernan, Martin; Szotkowski, Tomas; Pikalova, Zuzana

    2017-09-01

    Mixed-phenotype acute leukemia (MPAL) is a heterogeneous group of hematopoietic malignancies in which blasts show markers of multiple developmental lineages and cannot be clearly classified as acute myeloid or lymphoblastic leukemias. Historically, various names and classifications were used for this rare entity accounting for 2-5% of all acute leukemias depending on the diagnostic criterias used. The currently valid classification of myeloid neoplasms and acute leukemia published by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2016 refers to this group of diseases as MPAL. Because adverse cytogenetic abnormalities are frequently present, MPAL is generally considered a disease with a poor prognosis. Knowledge of its treatment is limited to retrospective analyses of small patient cohorts. So far, no treatment recommendations verified by prospective studies have been published. The reported data suggest that induction therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia followed by allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation is more effective than induction therapy for acute myeloid leukemia or consolidation chemotherapy. The establishment of cooperative groups and international registries based on the recent WHO criterias are required to ensure further progress in understanding and treatment of MPAL. This review summarizes current knowledge on the diagnosis, classification, prognosis and treatment of MPAL patients.

  10. Emodin Induces Apoptotic Death in Murine Myelomonocytic Leukemia WEHI-3 Cells In Vitro and Enhances Phagocytosis in Leukemia Mice In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Chang Chang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Emodin is one of major compounds in rhubarb (Rheum palmatum L., a plant used as herbal medicine in Chinese population. Although many reports have shown that emodin exhibits anticancer activity in many tumor cell types, there is no available information addressing emodin-affected apoptotic responses in the murine leukemia cell line (WEHI-3 and modulation of the immune response in leukemia mice. We investigated that emodin induced cytotoxic effects in vitro and affected WEHI-3 cells in vivo. This study showed that emodin decreased viability and induced DNA fragmentation in WEHI-3 cells. Cells after exposure to emodin for 24 h have shown chromatin condensation and DNA damage. Emodin stimulated the productions of ROS and Ca2+ and reduced the level of ΔΨm by flow cytometry. Our results from Western blotting suggest that emodin triggered apoptosis of WEHI-3 cells through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, caspase cascade-dependent and -independent mitochondrial pathways. In in vivo study, emodin enhanced the levels of B cells and monocytes, and it also reduced the weights of liver and spleen compared with leukemia mice. Emodin promoted phagocytic activity by monocytes and macrophages in comparison to the leukemia mice group. In conclusions, emodin induced apoptotic death in murine leukemia WEHI-3 cells and enhanced phagocytosis in the leukemia animal model.

  11. Post-induction residual leukemia in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia quantified by PCR correlates with in vitro prednisolone resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, K; Nyvold, C; Seyfarth, J

    2001-01-01

    Most prognostic factors in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are informative for groups of patients, whereas new approaches are needed to predict the efficacy of chemotherapy for the individual patient. The residual leukemia following 4 weeks of induction therapy with prednisolone......, vincristine, doxorubicin and i.t. methotrexate and the in vitro resistance to prednisolone, vincristine, and doxorubicin were measured in 30 boys and 12 girls with B (n = 34) or T lineage (n = 8) ALL. The residual leukemia was quantified after 2 (MRD-D15, n = 29) and 4 weeks (MRD-PI, n = 42) of induction...... pronounced when B cell precursor and T cell leukemia were analyzed separately (B cell precursor ALL: MRD-PI vs prednisolone LC50: n = 33, rs = 0.47, P = 0.006; T cell ALL: MRD-PI vs prednisolone resistance: n = 8, rs = 0.84, P = 0.009). After a median follow-up of 5.0 years (75% range 3.2-6.9) eight patients...

  12. Investigation of selected trace elements in Sudanese patients with leukemia using NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elradi, M. M. M.

    2010-10-01

    In the present study, the concentrations of Co, Cr, Fe, Hg, Rb, Se, Zn in the serum of 103 adult patients with newly diagnosed of leukemia (before treatment) were studied. Samples were collected from Radiation of Isotopes Center-Khartoum (RICK) and Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Biology-Aljazeera State. Samples were freeze-dried and analyzed using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). Serum levels of these elements were compared with the contents found in healthy group samples. The patients were divided into 4 groups: 1- Acute Lymphoid Leukemia (ALL), 2- Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML), 3- Chronic Lymphoid Leukemia (CLL), 4- Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML). The control group was formed of 40 healthy subjects, data analysis was performed using the T-tests. partial correlation was used to study a relationship between two variables. It was found that, In group I (ALL ): higher concentration of Cr, Fe, Hg, Rb, Zn, were found in the serum of patients with significant difference as compared to healthy group (p 0.05), the level of selenium was statistically lower than in the control group (p 0.05). Similar result was obtained in Co. The level of selenium was statistically lower than in the control group (p< 0.05). (Author)

  13. Ref-1/APE1 as a Transcriptional Regulator and Novel Therapeutic Target in Pediatric T-cell Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jixin; Fishel, Melissa L; Reed, April M; McAdams, Erin; Czader, Magdalena B; Cardoso, Angelo A; Kelley, Mark R

    2017-07-01

    The increasing characterization of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has led to the identification of multiple molecular targets but has yet to translate into more effective targeted therapies, particularly for high-risk, relapsed T-cell ALL. Searching for master regulators controlling multiple signaling pathways in T-ALL, we investigated the multifunctional protein redox factor-1 (Ref-1/APE1), which acts as a signaling "node" by exerting redox regulatory control of transcription factors important in leukemia. Leukemia patients' transcriptome databases showed increased expression in T-ALL of Ref-1 and other genes of the Ref-1/SET interactome. Validation studies demonstrated that Ref-1 is expressed in high-risk leukemia T cells, including in patient biopsies. Ref-1 redox function is active in leukemia T cells, regulating the Ref-1 target NF-κB, and inhibited by the redox-selective Ref-1 inhibitor E3330. Ref-1 expression is not regulated by Notch signaling, but is upregulated by glucocorticoid treatment. E3330 disrupted Ref-1 redox activity in functional studies and resulted in marked inhibition of leukemia cell viability, including T-ALL lines representing different genotypes and risk groups. Potent leukemia cell inhibition was seen in primary cells from ALL patients, relapsed and glucocorticoid-resistant T-ALL cells, and cells from a murine model of Notch-induced leukemia. Ref-1 redox inhibition triggered leukemia cell apoptosis and downregulation of survival genes regulated by Ref-1 targets. For the first time, this work identifies Ref-1 as a novel molecular effector in T-ALL and demonstrates that Ref-1 redox inhibition results in potent inhibition of leukemia T cells, including relapsed T-ALL. These data also support E3330 as a specific Ref-1 small-molecule inhibitor for leukemia. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(7); 1401-11. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. Genetics Home Reference: PDGFRB-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia PDGFRB-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... expand/collapse boxes. Description PDGFRB -associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia is a type of cancer of blood-forming ...

  15. Risk of leukemia in first degree relatives of patients with nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo GONÇALVES

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of leukemia in parents of patients with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or cleft palate (NSCL/P. This case-control study evaluated first-degree family members of 358 patients with NSCL/P and 1,432 subjects without craniofacial alterations or syndromes. Statistical analysis was carried out using Fisher’s test. From the 358 subjects with NSCL/P, 3 first-degree parents had history of leukemia, while 2 out of 1,432 subjects from the unaffected group had a family history of leukemia. The frequency of positive family history of leukemia was not significantly increased in first-degree relatives of patients with NSCL/P.

  16. Leukemia and lymphoma in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, S.C.

    1984-01-01

    Leukemia has been observed to increase with increasing radiation dose in the A-bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The first radiation-related cases occurred 3 to 5 years following exposure. The peak incidence years were about 7 to 8 years following exposure and the leukemogenic effect has decreased since that time, but it may last for 40 years or longer in the most heavily exposed persons. A bimodal susceptibility pattern was observed, with peaks following exposure during childhood and after age 50. Latent periods for the development of acute leukemia were shortest in the younger exposed persons. Both acute and chronic forms of leukemia occurred in exposed persons at younger ages in life than normally is expected. The most common types of radiation-induced leukemia were acute and chronic granulocytic in adults and children, and acute lymphocytic in children. The highest radiation-related leukemia risk was for chronic granulocytic leukemia following childhood exposure

  17. Childhood leukemia and residential proximity to industrial and urban sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Pérez, Javier; López-Abente, Gonzalo; Gómez-Barroso, Diana; Morales-Piga, Antonio; Pardo Romaguera, Elena; Tamayo, Ibon; Fernández-Navarro, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Few risk factors for the childhood leukemia are well established. While a small fraction of cases of childhood leukemia might be partially attributable to some diseases or ionizing radiation exposure, the role of industrial and urban pollution also needs to be assessed. Objectives: To ascertain the possible effect of residential proximity to both industrial and urban areas on childhood leukemia, taking into account industrial groups and toxic substances released. Methods: We conducted a population-based case–control study of childhood leukemia in Spain, covering 638 incident cases gathered from the Spanish Registry of Childhood Tumors and for those Autonomous Regions with 100% coverage (period 1990-2011), and 13,188 controls, individually matched by year of birth, sex, and autonomous region of residence. Distances were computed from the respective subject’s residences to the 1068 industries and the 157 urban areas with ≥10,000 inhabitants, located in the study area. Using logistic regression, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for categories of distance to industrial and urban pollution sources were calculated, with adjustment for matching variables. Results: Excess risk of childhood leukemia was observed for children living near (≤2.5 km) industries (OR=1.31; 95%CI=1.03–1.67) – particularly glass and mineral fibers (OR=2.42; 95%CI=1.49–3.92), surface treatment using organic solvents (OR=1.87; 95%CI=1.24–2.83), galvanization (OR=1.86; 95%CI=1.07–3.21), production and processing of metals (OR=1.69; 95%CI=1.22–2.34), and surface treatment of metals (OR=1.62; 95%CI=1.22–2.15) – , and urban areas (OR=1.36; 95%CI=1.02–1.80). Conclusions: Our study furnishes some evidence that living in the proximity of industrial and urban sites may be a risk factor for childhood leukemia. - Highlights: • We studied proximity to both industrial and urban sites on childhood leukemia. • We conducted a case–control study in

  18. Childhood leukemia and residential proximity to industrial and urban sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Pérez, Javier, E-mail: jgarcia@isciii.es [Cancer and Environmental Epidemiology Unit, National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); López-Abente, Gonzalo, E-mail: glabente@isciii.es [Cancer and Environmental Epidemiology Unit, National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); Gómez-Barroso, Diana, E-mail: dgomez@externos.isciii.es [CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid (Spain); Morales-Piga, Antonio, E-mail: amorales@isciii.es [Rare Disease Research Institute (IIER), Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid (Spain); Consortium for Biomedical Research in Rare Diseases (CIBERER), Madrid (Spain); Pardo Romaguera, Elena, E-mail: elena.pardo@uv.es [Spanish Registry of Childhood Tumors (RETI-SEHOP), University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Tamayo, Ibon, E-mail: ibontama@gmail.com [Public Health Division of Gipuzkoa, BIODonostia Research Institute, Department of Health of the Regional Government of the Basque Country, Donostia (Spain); Fernández-Navarro, Pablo, E-mail: pfernandezn@isciii.es [Cancer and Environmental Epidemiology Unit, National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); and others

    2015-07-15

    Background: Few risk factors for the childhood leukemia are well established. While a small fraction of cases of childhood leukemia might be partially attributable to some diseases or ionizing radiation exposure, the role of industrial and urban pollution also needs to be assessed. Objectives: To ascertain the possible effect of residential proximity to both industrial and urban areas on childhood leukemia, taking into account industrial groups and toxic substances released. Methods: We conducted a population-based case–control study of childhood leukemia in Spain, covering 638 incident cases gathered from the Spanish Registry of Childhood Tumors and for those Autonomous Regions with 100% coverage (period 1990-2011), and 13,188 controls, individually matched by year of birth, sex, and autonomous region of residence. Distances were computed from the respective subject’s residences to the 1068 industries and the 157 urban areas with ≥10,000 inhabitants, located in the study area. Using logistic regression, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for categories of distance to industrial and urban pollution sources were calculated, with adjustment for matching variables. Results: Excess risk of childhood leukemia was observed for children living near (≤2.5 km) industries (OR=1.31; 95%CI=1.03–1.67) – particularly glass and mineral fibers (OR=2.42; 95%CI=1.49–3.92), surface treatment using organic solvents (OR=1.87; 95%CI=1.24–2.83), galvanization (OR=1.86; 95%CI=1.07–3.21), production and processing of metals (OR=1.69; 95%CI=1.22–2.34), and surface treatment of metals (OR=1.62; 95%CI=1.22–2.15) – , and urban areas (OR=1.36; 95%CI=1.02–1.80). Conclusions: Our study furnishes some evidence that living in the proximity of industrial and urban sites may be a risk factor for childhood leukemia. - Highlights: • We studied proximity to both industrial and urban sites on childhood leukemia. • We conducted a case–control study in

  19. Diagnosis of large granular lymphocytic leukemia in a patient previously treated for acute myeloblastic leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Sinem Civriz Bozdag; Sinem Namdaroglu; Omur Kayikci; Gülsah Kaygusuz; Itir Demiriz; Murat Cinarsoy; Emre Tekgunduz; Fevzi Altuntas

    2013-01-01

    Large granular lymphocytic (LGL) leukemia is a lymphoproliferative disease characterized by the clonal expansion of cytotoxic T or natural killer cells. We report on a patient diagnosed with T-cell LGL leukemia two years after the achievement of hematologic remission for acute myeloblastic leukemia.

  20. Uranium concentration in blood samples of Southern Iraqi leukemia patients using CR-39 track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hamzawi, A.A.; Al-Qadisiyah University, Qadisiyah; Jaafar, M.S.; Tawfiq, N.F.

    2014-01-01

    The simple and effective technique of fission track etch has been applied to determine trace concentration of uranium in human blood samples taken from two groups of male and female participants: leukemia patients and healthy subjects group. The blood samples of leukemia patients and healthy subjects were collected from three key southern governorates namely, Basrah, Muthanna and Dhi-Qar. These governorates were the centers of intensive military activities during the 1991 and 2003 Gulf wars, and the discarded weapons are still lying around in these regions. CR-39 track detector was used for registration of induced fission tracks. The results show that the highest recorded uranium concentration in the blood samples of leukemia patients was 4.71 ppb (female, 45 years old, from Basrah) and the minimum concentration was 1.91 ppb (male, 3 years old, from Muthanna). For healthy group, the maximum uranium concentration was 2.15 ppb (female, 55 years old, from Basrah) and the minimum concentration was 0.86 ppb (male, 5 years old, from Dhi-Qar). It has been found that the uranium concentrations in human blood samples of leukemia patients are higher than those of the healthy group. These uranium concentrations in the leukemia patients group were significantly different (P < 0.001) from those in the healthy group. (author)

  1. Secondary acute leukemia - review of 15 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venugopal, P; Rajni, A; Gopal, R; Saikia, T; Kurkure, P A; Nair, C N; Advani, S H

    1988-12-01

    Acute leukemia is a rare complication of long-term chemotherapy, immunosuppressive therapy and radiotherapy. With improved survival in cancer patients resulting from modern methods of investigations and treatment, more case of secondary leukemia have come to light. In this review, fifteen cases of secondary leukemia, its prognostic implications and methods to reduce the risk of its development are emphasised. Relevant literature is also reviewed. (author). 3 tabs., 24 refs.

  2. Profile of imatinib in pediatric leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burke MJ

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Michael J BurkeDepartment of Pediatrics, Division of Hematology/Oncology/Bone Marrow Transplantation, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USAAbstract: Using targeted therapy for treatment of cancer has become the paradigm to which clinical trials aspire. Imatinib, the BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI, was the first of its kind to specifically target and inhibit the underlying Philadelphia chromosome (Ph+ oncogene found to be driving chronic myeloid leukemia in adults, and has since become standard of care for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia in children. Imatinib, with its ability to target Ph+ leukemia, has been successfully incorporated into the treatment of not only pediatric chronic myeloid leukemia but also Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia. With the incorporation of imatinib into combination chemotherapy for pediatric Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia, current survival rates are far higher than at any other time for this once dreadful disease. With more children today receiving treatment with imatinib for either chronic myeloid leukemia or Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia, knowledge is accumulating surrounding the short-term and long-term toxicities observed in children, adolescents, and young adults treated with this TKI. In summary, the TKI imatinib has made a historic impact in the treatment of pediatric Ph+ leukemias, transforming what were once very high-risk diseases with considerable morbidity and mortality into ones that are now very treatable but with a new awareness surrounding the long-term toxicities that may come with this price for cure.Keywords: imatinib, leukemia, lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, pediatric

  3. Biological Therapy in Treating Patients With Advanced Myelodysplastic Syndrome, Acute or Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, or Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Who Are Undergoing Stem Cell Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-27

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); B-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; B-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Essential Thrombocythemia; Polycythemia Vera; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; T-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; T-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  4. Radiation in the treatment of meningeal leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkin, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    At the present time, a successful regimen for the eradication of occult meningeal leukemia is the combination of cranial radiotherapy in a dose of 1800 rads in 10 fractions in 12 to 14 days with six doses of intrathecal methotrexate. This regimen, when given with prednisone and vincristine can be expected to give a relapse rate for isolated meningeal leukemia of approximately 5% during the first 2 years of follow-up. A modification of this regimen utilizing craniospinal radiation with prior and concurrent intrathecal methotrexate is given for the treatment of overt meningeal leukemia at diagnosis or for an isolated first relapse with meningeal leukemia. Radiation technique and morbidity are discussed

  5. Leukemia-associated antigens in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, G; Capellaro, D; Greaves, M

    1975-12-01

    Rabbit antisera raised against acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells were used to distinguish ALL from other leukemias, to identify rare leukemia cells in the bone marrow of patients in remission, and to define human leukemia-associated antigens. Antibody binding was studied with the use of immunofluorescence reagents and the analytic capacity of the Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorter-1 (FACS-1). The results indicated that most non-T-cell ALL have three leukemia-associated antigens on their surface which are absent from normal lymphoid cells: 1) an antigen shared with myelocytes, myeloblastic leukemia cells, and fetal liver (hematopoietic) cells; 2) an antigen shared with a subset of intermediate normoblasts in normal bone marrow and fetal liver; and 3) an antigen found thus far only on non-T-cell ALL and in some acute undifferentiated leukemias, which we therefore regard as a strong candidate for a leukemia-specific antigen. These antigens are absent from a subgroup of ALL patients in which the lymphoblasta express T-cell surface markers. Preliminary studies on the bone marrow samples of patients in remission indicated that rare leukemia cells were present in some samples. The implications of these findings with respect to the heterogeneity and cell origin(s) of ALL, its diagnosis, and its potential monitoring during treatment were discussed.

  6. Infection and childhood leukemia: review of evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel da Rocha Paiva Maia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : To analyze studies that evaluated the role of infections as well as indirect measures of exposure to infection in the risk of childhood leukemia, particularly acute lymphoblastic leukemia. METHODS : A search in Medline, Lilacs, and SciELO scientific publication databases initially using the descriptors “childhood leukemia” and “infection” and later searching for the words “childhood leukemia” and “maternal infection or disease” or “breastfeeding” or “daycare attendance” or “vaccination” resulted in 62 publications that met the following inclusion criteria: subject aged ≤ 15 years; specific analysis of cases diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia or total leukemia; exposure assessment of mothers’ or infants’ to infections (or proxy of infection, and risk of leukemia. RESULTS : Overall, 23 studies that assessed infections in children support the hypothesis that occurrence of infection during early childhood reduces the risk of leukemia, but there are disagreements within and between studies. The evaluation of exposure to infection by indirect measures showed evidence of reduced risk of leukemia associated mainly with daycare attendance. More than 50.0% of the 16 studies that assessed maternal exposure to infection observed increased risk of leukemia associated with episodes of influenza, pneumonia, chickenpox, herpes zoster, lower genital tract infection, skin disease, sexually transmitted diseases, Epstein-Barr virus, and Helicobacter pylori . CONCLUSIONS : Although no specific infectious agent has been identified, scientific evidence suggests that exposure to infections has some effect on childhood leukemia etiology.

  7. T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Robbie L.; Cooper, Barry; Krause, John R.

    2013-01-01

    T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia is a rare and unusual malignancy characterized by the proliferation of small- to medium-sized prolymphocytes of postthymic origin with distinctive clinical, morphologic, immunophenotypic, and cytogenetic features. Involvement of the peripheral blood, bone marrow, lymph nodes, liver, spleen, and skin can occur. The clinical course is typically very aggressive with poor response to conventional chemotherapy and short survival rates, and the only potential long-ter...

  8. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with polycythemia vera or essential thrombocythemia transformed to myelofibrosis or acute myeloid leukemia: a report from the MPN Subcommittee of the Chronic Malignancies Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lussana, F.; Rambaldi, A.; Finazzi, M.C.; Biezen, A. van; Scholten, M.; Oldani, E.; Carobbio, A.; Iacobelli, S.; Finke, J.; Nagler, A.; Volin, L.; Lamy, T.; Arnold, R.; Mohty, M.; Michallet, M.; Witte, T.J.M. de; Olavarria, E.; Kroger, N.

    2014-01-01

    The clinical course of polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia is potentially associated with long-term severe complications, such as evolution to myelofibrosis or acute myeloid leukemia. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is currently the only potentially curative treatment for advanced

  9. Epidemiology of acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendergrass, T.W.

    1985-01-01

    Although the etiology of acute leukemia is largely unknown, some facets of the puzzle are becoming clarified. Recognition of important patterns in age-specific mortality rates has suggested that events early in life, perhaps even prenatally, may have an influence on developing leukemia in childhood. The racial differences evident in mortality, incidence, and immunologic subtype of ALL suggest either differences in exposures to certain factors or differences in responses to those factors by white children. Hereditary factors appear to play a role. Familial and hereditary conditions exist that have high incidences of acute leukemia. Chromosomal anomalies are common in these conditions. Viral infections may play a role by contributing to alteration in genetic material through incorporation of the viral genome. How that virus is dealt with after primary infection seems important. The presence of immunodeficiency may allow wider dissemination or enhanced replication of such viruses, thereby increasing the likelihood of cellular transformation to an abnormal cell. Proliferation of that malignant cell to a clone may depend on other cofactors. Perhaps prolonged exposure to substances like benzene or alkylating agents may enhance these interactions between virus and genetic material. Does this change DNA repair mechanisms. Are viral infections handled differently. Is viral genomic information more easily integrated into host cells. Ionizing radiation has multiple effects. Alteration in genetic material occurs both at the molecular and chromosomal levels. DNA may be altered, lost, or added in the cell's attempt to recover from the injury

  10. Biologico-clinical significance of DNMT3A variants expression in acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Na; Fu, Wei; Zhao, Chen; Li, Bixin; Yan, Xiaojing; Li, Yan

    2017-12-09

    DNA methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A) catalyzes de novo DNA methylation and plays important roles in the pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia. However, the expression status of DNMT3A variants in acute myeloid leukemia remains obscure. This study aimed to assess the expression levels of alternative splicing of DNMT3A variants and explore their roles in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). DNMT3A variants gene expression were assessed, measuring their effects on cell proliferation. In addition, the expression of DNMT3A variants were evaluated in acute myeloid leukemia patients. Four DNMT3A variants were identified, with DNMT3A1 and DNMT3A2V found to be dominant in acute myeloid leukemia cell lines. Moreover, DNMT3A2V overexpression delayed cell proliferation; while, DNMT3A2V R882H mutation promoted cell proliferation. Further, DNMT3A1 and DNMT3A2V were detected in newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients and controls with non-malignant hematological disease, with DNMT3A2V significantly up-regulated in AML patients. The main transcript switched from DNMT3A1 to DNMT3A2V in some patients, especially the low risk group based on the NCCN 2016 guidelines. These findings suggest that DNMT3A1 and DNMT3A2V are the main variants in acute myeloid leukemia with different clinical association, and might play important roles in the pathophysiology of acute myeloid leukemia. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Additional chromosome abnormalities in chronic myeloid leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Hua Hsiao

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The Philadelphia (Ph chromosome and/or Breakpoint cluster region-Abelson leukemia virus oncogene transcript are unique markers for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML. However, CML demonstrates heterogeneous presentations and outcomes. We analyzed the cytogenetic and molecular results of CML patients to evaluate their correlation with clinical presentations and outcome. A total of 84 newly diagnosed CML patients were enrolled in the study. Patients were treated according to disease status. Bone marrow samples were obtained to perform cytogenetic and molecular studies. Clinical presentations, treatment courses, and survival were reviewed retrospectively. Among 84 patients, 72 had chronic phase and 12 had accelerated phase CML. Cytogenetic study showed 69 (82.1% with the classic Ph chromosome, 6 (7.2% with a variant Ph chromosome, and 9 (10.7% with additional chromosome abnormalities. Fifty-four (64.3% cases harbored b3a2 transcripts, 29 (34.5% had b2a2 transcript, and 1 had e19a2 transcript. There was no difference in clinical presentations between different cytogenetic and molecular groups; however, additional chromosome abnormalities were significantly associated with the accelerated phase. Imatinib therapy was an effective treatment, as measured by cytogenetic response, when administered as first- and second-line therapy in chronic phase patients. Survival analysis showed that old age, additional chromosome abnormalities, high Sokal score, and no cytogenetic response in second-line therapy had a significant poor impact (p<0.05. In conclusion, we presented the cytogenetic and molecular pattern of CML patients and demonstrated that the additional chromosome abnormality was associated with poor outcome.

  12. Treatment-associated leukemia following testicular cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Travis, LB; Andersson, M; Gospodarowicz, M; van Leeuwen, FE; Bergfeldt, K; Lynch, CF; Curtis, RE; Kohler, BA; Wiklund, T; Storm, H; Holowaty, E; Hall, P; Pukkala, E; Sleijfer, DT; Clarke, EA; Boice, JD; Stovall, M; Gilbert, E

    2000-01-01

    Background: Men with testicular cancer are at an increased risk of leukemia, but the relationship to prior treatments is not well characterized. The purpose of our study was to describe the risk of leukemia following radiotherapy and chemotherapy for testicular cancer. Methods: Within a

  13. Treatment of Aggressive NK-Cell Leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Anders Kindberg; Jensen, Paw; Johansen, Preben

    2011-01-01

    Aggressive NK-cell leukemia is a rare malignancy with neoplastic proliferation of natural killer cells. It often presents with constitutional symptoms, a rapid declining clinical course, and a poor prognosis with a median survival of a few months. The disease is usually resistant to cytotoxic...... literature concerning treatment of aggressive NK-cell leukemia....

  14. The Danish National Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Cunha-Bang, Caspar; Geisler, Christian Hartmann; Enggaard, Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    AIM: In 2008, the Danish National Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Registry was founded within the Danish National Hematology Database. The primary aim of the registry is to assure quality of diagnosis and care of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in Denmark. Secondarily, to evaluate...

  15. The discovery and early understanding of leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, Kim R.

    The early history of leukemia reaches back 200 years. In 1811, Peter Cullen defined a case of splenitis acutus with unexplainable milky blood. Alfred Velpeau defined the leukemia associated symptoms, and observed pus in the blood vessels (1825). Alfred Donne detected a maturation arrest of the white

  16. Esterase reactions in acute myelomonocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, L

    1977-05-01

    Specific and nonspecific esterase reactions of bone marrow cells from 14 patients with untreated acute myelomonocytic leukemia and six patients with acute histiomonocytic leukemia were examined. The technic for esterase determination permitted simultaneous visualization of both esterases on the same glass coverslip containing the marrow cells. In cases of acute histiomonocytic leukemia, monocytes, monocytoid hemohistioblasts and undifferentiated blasts stained intensely positive for nonspecific esterase, using alpha-naphthyl acetate as the substrate. No evidence of specific esterase activity using naphthol ASD-chloroacetate as the substrate and fast blue BBN as the dye coupler was apparent in these cells. In all of the cases of acute myelomonocytic leukemia, both specific and nonspecific esterases were visualized within monocytes, monocytoid cells, and granulocytic cells that had monocytoid-type nuclei. Nonspecific esterase activity was not observed in polymorphonuclear leukocytes in cases of myelomonocytic leukemia. The results support a current viewpoint that acute myelomonocytic leukemia may be a variant of acute myeloblastic leukemia, and that cytochemically, many of the leukemic cells in myelomonocytic leukemia share properties of both granulocytes and monocytes.

  17. Genetics Home Reference: chronic myeloid leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Central Quintás-Cardama A, Cortes JE. Chronic myeloid leukemia: diagnosis and treatment. Mayo Clin Proc. 2006 Jul;81(7):973-88. Review. Citation on PubMed Skorski T. Genetic mechanisms of chronic myeloid leukemia blastic transformation. Curr Hematol Malig Rep. 2012 Jun; ...

  18. Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... studying the leukemia cells collected from the blood, bone marrow, and/or spinal fluid, doctors can determine the type of leukemia a child has. This is important because treatment varies among different types ... blood or bone marrow, doctors can tell whether the Philadelphia chromosome is ...

  19. Effect of Taurine on Febrile Episodes in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Islambulchilar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of oral taurine on the incidence of febrile episodes during chemotherapy in young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Methods: Forty young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, at the beginning of maintenance course of their chemotherapy, were eligible for this study. The study population was randomized in a double blind manner to receive either taurine or placebo (2 gram per day orally. Life quality and side effects including febrile episodes were assessed using questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Pearson’s Chi square test. Results: Of total forty participants, 43.8% were female and 56.3 % were male. The mean age was 19.16±1.95 years (ranges: 16-23 years. The results indicated that the levels of white blood cells are significantly (P<0.05 increased in taurine treated group. There was no elevation in blasts count. A total of 70 febrile episodes were observed during study, febrile episodes were significantly (P<0.05 lower in taurine patients in comparison to the control ones. Conclusion: The overall incidence of febrile episodes and infectious complications in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients receiving taurine was lower than placebo group. Taurine’s ability to increase leukocyte count may result in lower febrile episodes.

  20. Reassessment of diagnosis and subtyping of leukemias among atomic bomb survivors, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomonaga, Masao; Kuriyama, Kazutaka; Ichimaru, Michito; Matsuo, Tatsuki; Finch, S.C.; Imanaka, Fumio; Kuramoto, Atsushi; Kamada, Nanao.

    1988-01-01

    In evaluable 456 (60 %) of 750 leukemic patients exposed at ≤9,000 m from the hypocenter, diagnosis and subtypes of leukemia were reevaluated in relation to radiation doses and age at the time of bombing using a new classification method of French-American-British (FAB). The FAB classification diagnosed 63 patients (13.5 %) as acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL), 181 (39.0 %) as acute myeloid leukemia (AML), 26 (5.6 %) as myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), 106 (22.8 %) as chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), 39 (7.5 %) as adult T-cell leukemia, and 5 (0.8 %) as chronic lymphocytic leukemia. According to radiation doses, the incidence of CML increased in the group exposed to one to 99 cGy; the incidences of ALL and MDS increased in the group exposed to ≥100 cGy. The incidence of CML was definitively higher in Hiroshima than Nagasaki in all groups; this was noted in the group exposed to 0 cGy (approximately 2.5 times higher). The incidences of ALL and MDS showed a tendency to increase in proportion to radiation doses. In the group exposed to ≥100 cGy, the incidences of ALL, CML, and MDS increased in patients younger than 15 years, those aged 16 - 35 years, and those older than 36 years, respectively, at the time of the bombing. In this group, there were also differences in latent period (10 yr in ALL and CML, 15 yr in AML, and 17 yr in MDS). None of the AML patients in the group exposed to ≥100 cGy had M3. (Namekawa, K.)

  1. 42 CFR 81.24 - Guidelines for leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Guidelines for leukemia. 81.24 Section 81.24 Public... Causation § 81.24 Guidelines for leukemia. (a) For claims involving leukemia, DOL will calculate one or more probability of causation estimates from up to three of the four alternate leukemia risk models included in...

  2. Parental and infant characteristics and childhood leukemia in Minnesota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Julie A

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leukemia is the most common childhood cancer. With the exception of Down syndrome, prenatal radiation exposure, and higher birth weight, particularly for acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL, few risk factors have been firmly established. Translocations present in neonatal blood spots and the young age peak of diagnosis suggest that early-life factors are involved in childhood leukemia etiology. Methods We investigated the association between birth characteristics and childhood leukemia through linkage of the Minnesota birth and cancer registries using a case-cohort study design. Cases included 560 children with ALL and 87 with acute myeloid leukemia (AML diagnoses from 28 days to 14 years. The comparison group was comprised of 8,750 individuals selected through random sampling of the birth cohort from 1976–2004. Cox proportional hazards regression specific for case-cohort studies was used to compute hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Results Male sex (HR = 1.41, 95% CI 1.16–1.70, white race (HR = 2.32, 95% CI 1.13–4.76, and maternal birth interval ≥ 3 years (HR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.01–1.70 increased ALL risk, while maternal age increased AML risk (HR = 1.21/5 year age increase, 95% CI 1.0–1.47. Higher birth weights (>3798 grams (HRALL = 1.46, 1.08–1.98; HRAML = 1.97, 95% CI 1.07–3.65, and one minute Apgar scores ≤ 7 (HRALL = 1.30, 95% CI 1.05–1.61; HRAML = 1.62, 95% CI 1.01–2.60 increased risk for both types of leukemia. Sex was not a significant modifier of the association between ALL and other covariates, with the exception of maternal education. Conclusion We confirmed known risk factors for ALL: male sex, high birth weight, and white race. We have also provided data that supports an increased risk for AML following higher birth weights, and demonstrated an association with low Apgar scores.

  3. Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Adolescents and Young Adults Treated in Pediatric and Adult Departments in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wennström, Lovisa; Edslev, Pernille Wendtland; Abrahamsson, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies on adolescents and young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia suggest better results when using pediatric protocols for adult patients, while corresponding data for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are limited. PROCEDURE: We investigated disease characteristics and outcome...... countries. RESULTS: The incidence of AML was 4.9/million/year for the age group 10-14 years, 6.5 for 15-18 years, and 6.9 for 19-30 years. Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) was more frequent in adults and in females of all ages. Pediatric patients with APL had similar overall survival as pediatric patients...

  4. Pulmonary Toxicity in Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Treated With High-Dose (74 Gy) 3-Dimensional Conformal Thoracic Radiotherapy and Concurrent Chemotherapy Following Induction Chemotherapy: A Secondary Analysis of Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) Trial 30105

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, Joseph K.; Stinchcombe, Thomas E.; Gu Lin; Wang Xiaofei; Morano, Karen; Bogart, Jeffrey A.; Crawford, Jeffrey C.; Socinski, Mark A.; Blackstock, A. William; Vokes, Everett E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 30105 tested two different concurrent chemoradiotherapy platforms with high-dose (74 Gy) three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) after two cycles of induction chemotherapy for Stage IIIA/IIIB non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients to determine if either could achieve a primary endpoint of >18-month median survival. Final results of 30105 demonstrated that induction carboplatin and gemcitabine and concurrent gemcitabine 3D-CRT was not feasible because of treatment-related toxicity. However, induction and concurrent carboplatin/paclitaxel with 74 Gy 3D-CRT had a median survival of 24 months, and is the basis for the experimental arm in CALGB 30610/RTOG 0617/N0628. We conducted a secondary analysis of all patients to determine predictors of treatment-related pulmonary toxicity. Methods and Materials: Patient, tumor, and treatment-related variables were analyzed to determine their relation with treatment-related pulmonary toxicity. Results: Older age, higher N stage, larger planning target volume (PTV)1, smaller total lung volume/PTV1 ratio, larger V20, and larger mean lung dose were associated with increasing pulmonary toxicity on univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis confirmed that V20 and nodal stage as well as treatment with concurrent gemcitabine were associated with treatment-related toxicity. A high-risk group comprising patients with N3 disease and V20 >38% was associated with 80% of Grades 3-5 pulmonary toxicity cases. Conclusions: Elevated V20 and N3 disease status are important predictors of treatment related pulmonary toxicity in patients treated with high-dose 3D-CRT and concurrent chemotherapy. Further studies may use these metrics in considering patients for these treatments.

  5. Pulmonary Toxicity in Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Treated With High-Dose (74 Gy) 3-Dimensional Conformal Thoracic Radiotherapy and Concurrent Chemotherapy Following Induction Chemotherapy: A Secondary Analysis of Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) Trial 30105

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salama, Joseph K., E-mail: joseph.salama@duke.edu [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Stinchcombe, Thomas E. [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Gu Lin; Wang Xiaofei [CALGB Statistical Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Morano, Karen [Quality Assurance Review Center, Lincoln, RI (United States); Bogart, Jeffrey A. [State University of New York Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY (United States); Crawford, Jeffrey C. [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Socinski, Mark A. [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Blackstock, A. William [Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Vokes, Everett E. [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 30105 tested two different concurrent chemoradiotherapy platforms with high-dose (74 Gy) three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) after two cycles of induction chemotherapy for Stage IIIA/IIIB non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients to determine if either could achieve a primary endpoint of >18-month median survival. Final results of 30105 demonstrated that induction carboplatin and gemcitabine and concurrent gemcitabine 3D-CRT was not feasible because of treatment-related toxicity. However, induction and concurrent carboplatin/paclitaxel with 74 Gy 3D-CRT had a median survival of 24 months, and is the basis for the experimental arm in CALGB 30610/RTOG 0617/N0628. We conducted a secondary analysis of all patients to determine predictors of treatment-related pulmonary toxicity. Methods and Materials: Patient, tumor, and treatment-related variables were analyzed to determine their relation with treatment-related pulmonary toxicity. Results: Older age, higher N stage, larger planning target volume (PTV)1, smaller total lung volume/PTV1 ratio, larger V20, and larger mean lung dose were associated with increasing pulmonary toxicity on univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis confirmed that V20 and nodal stage as well as treatment with concurrent gemcitabine were associated with treatment-related toxicity. A high-risk group comprising patients with N3 disease and V20 >38% was associated with 80% of Grades 3-5 pulmonary toxicity cases. Conclusions: Elevated V20 and N3 disease status are important predictors of treatment related pulmonary toxicity in patients treated with high-dose 3D-CRT and concurrent chemotherapy. Further studies may use these metrics in considering patients for these treatments.

  6. Cytogenetic, clinical, and cytologic characteristics of radiotherapy-related leukemias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philip, P.; Pedersen-Bjergaard, J.

    1988-01-01

    From 1978 to 1985, we observed eight cases of acute nonlymphocytic leukemia or preleukemia, three cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and three cases of chronic myeloid leukemia in patients previously treated exclusively with radiotherapy for other tumor types. The latent period from administration of radiotherapy to development of leukemia varied between 12 and 243 months. Clonal chromosome aberrations reported previously as characteristic of acute nonlymphocytic leukemia following therapy with alkylating agents were observed in three of the eight patients with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (5q- and -7) and in two of the three patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (-7 and 12p-). All three patients with radiotherapy-related chronic myeloid leukemia presented a t(9;22)(q34;q11). The results suggest that cytogenetic characteristics may reflect the etiology in radiation-induced acute leukemias, whereas radiation-related chronic myeloid leukemia does not seem to differ chromosomally from de novo cases of the disease

  7. Rhabdomyosarcoma presenting as acute leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, S; Manna, A; Sabattini, E; Porcellini, A

    1996-08-01

    We describe a case of a very unusual presentation of rhabdomyosarcoma. An 18-year-old woman presented with symptoms and signs compatible with acute leukemia. The bone marrow picture showed diffuse involvement sustained by undifferentiated blasts that turned out to be of striated muscle origin by immunochemistry. While it is well known that rhabdomyosarcoma may metastasize to the bone marrow, extensive marrow involvement with leukemic spread as a unique clinical manifestation is extremely rare. Our observation further confirms the need to consider rhabdomyosarcoma among the possible differential diagnoses in patients who present with a leukemic picture and atypical blasts lacking all hematopoietic markers.

  8. Hairy cell leukemia-variant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quadri, Mohammad I.; Al-Sheikh, Iman H.

    2001-01-01

    Hairy cell leukaemia variant is a very rare chronic lymphoproliferative disorder and is closely related to hairy cell leukemia. We hereby describe a case of hairy cell leukaemia variant for the first time in Saudi Arabia. An elderly Saudi man presented with pallor, massive splenomegaly, and moderate hepatomegaly. Hemoglobin was 7.7 g/dl, Platelets were 134 x109/l and white blood count was 140x10 9/l with 97% being abnormal lymphoid cells with cytoplasmic projections. The morphology, cytochemistry, and immunophenotype of the lymphoid cells were classical of hairy cell leukaemia variant. The bone marrow was easily aspirated and findings were consistent with hairy cell leukaemia variant. (author)

  9. Complete suppression of in vivo growth of human leukemia cells by specific immunotoxins: nude mouse models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, H.; Seon, B.K.

    1987-01-01

    In this study, immunotoxins containing monoclonal anti-human T-cell leukemia antibodies are shown to be capable of completely suppressing the tumor growth of human T-cell leukemia cells in vivo without any overt undersirable toxicity. These immunotoxins were prepared by conjugating ricin A chain (RA) with our monoclonal antibodies, SN1 and SN2, directed specifically to the human T-cell leukemia cell surface antigens TALLA and GP37, respectively. The authors have shown that these monoclonal antibodies are highly specific for human T-cell leukemia cells and do not react with various normal cells including normal T and B cells, thymocytes, and bone marrow cells. Ascitic and solid human T-cell leukemia cell tumors were generated in nude mice. The ascitic tumor was generated by transplanting Ichikawa cells (a human T-cell leukemia cell) i.p. into nude mice, whereas the solid tumor was generated by transplanting s.c. MOLT-4 cells (a human T-cell leukemia cell line) and x-irradiated human fibrosarcoma cells into x-irradiated nude mice. To investigate the efficacy of specific immunotoxins in suppression the in vivo growth of the ascitic tumor, they divided 40 nude mice that were injected with Ichikawa cells into four groups. None of the mice in group 4 that were treated with SN1-RA and SN2-RA showed any signs of a tumor or undesirable toxic effects for the 20 weeks that they were followed after the transplantation. Treatment with SN1-RA plus SN2-RA completely suppressed solid tumor growth in 4 of 10 nude mice carrying solid tumors and partially suppressed the tumor growth in the remaining 6 nude mice. These results strongly suggest that SN1-RA and SN2-RA may be useful for clinical treatment

  10. Risk of leukemia in susceptible children exposed to preconception, in utero, and postnatal radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bross, I.D.J.; Natarajan, N.

    1974-01-01

    Further statistical analysis has clarified the hypothesis that there exists a susceptible subgroup of children who are prone to develop leukemia after exposure to low doses of diagnostic radiation which have no effect on normal insusceptible children. The susceptible group does not show marked increase in relative risk when there is no report of exposure. The risk of developing leukemia among the susceptible children with any of the three types of radiation exposure is markedly increased in the appropriate age groups. The data are concordant with a latent period of 4 to 7 years. (auth)

  11. Collaborative Efforts Driving Progress in Pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwaan, C. Michel; Kolb, Edward A.; Reinhardt, Dirk; Abrahamsson, Jonas; Adachi, Souichi; Aplenc, Richard; De Bont, Eveline S.J.M.; De Moerloose, Barbara; Dworzak, Michael; Gibson, Brenda E.S.; Hasle, Henrik; Leverger, Guy; Locatelli, Franco; Ragu, Christine; Ribeiro, Raul C.; Rizzari, Carmelo; Rubnitz, Jeffrey E.; Smith, Owen P.; Sung, Lillian; Tomizawa, Daisuke; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M.; Creutzig, Ursula; Kaspers, Gertjan J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis, treatment, response monitoring, and outcome of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have made enormous progress during the past decades. Because AML is a rare type of childhood cancer, with an incidence of approximately seven occurrences per 1 million children annually, national and international collaborative efforts have evolved. This overview describes these efforts and includes a summary of the history and contributions of each of the main collaborative pediatric AML groups worldwide. The focus is on translational and clinical research, which includes past, current, and future clinical trials. Separate sections concern acute promyelocytic leukemia, myeloid leukemia of Down syndrome, and relapsed AML. A plethora of novel antileukemic agents that have emerged, including new classes of drugs, are summarized as well. Finally, an important aspect of the treatment of pediatric AML—supportive care—and late effects are discussed. The future is bright, with a wide range of emerging innovative therapies and with more and more international collaboration that ultimately aim to cure all children with AML, with fewer adverse effects and without late effects. PMID:26304895

  12. Design, development, and validation of a high-throughput drug-screening assay for targeting of human leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, Katja; Pasqualini, Renata; Cortes, Jorge E.; Kornblau, Steven M.; Lichtiger, Benjamin; O'Brien, Susan; Kantarjian, Hagop M.; Sidman, Richard L.; Arap, Wadih; Koivunen, Erkki

    2015-01-01

    Background We introduce an ex vivo methodology to perform drug library screening against human leukemia. Method Our strategy relies on human blood or bone marrow cultures under hypoxia; under these conditions, leukemia cells deplete oxygen faster than normal cells, causing a hemoglobin oxygenation shift. We demonstrate several advantages: (I) partial recapitulation of the leukemia microenvironment, (ii) use of native hemoglobin oxygenation as real-time sensor/reporter, (iii) cost-effectiveness, (iv) species-specificity, and (v) format that enables high-throughput screening. Results As a proof-of-concept, we screened a chemical library (size ∼20,000) against human leukemia cells. We identified 70 compounds (“hit” rate=0.35%; Z-factor=0.71) with activity; we examined 20 to find 18 true-positives (90%). Finally, we show that carbonohydraxonic diamide group-containing compounds are potent anti-leukemia agents that induce cell death in leukemia cells and patient-derived samples. Conclusions This unique functional assay can identify novel drug candidates as well as find future applications in personalized drug selection for leukemia patients. PMID:24496871

  13. Bone mineral density in children with acute leukemia and its associated factors in Iran: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordbar, Mohammad Reza; Haghpanah, Sezaneh; Dabbaghmanesh, Mohammad Hossein; Omrani, Gholamhossein Ranjbar; Saki, Forough

    2016-12-01

    Acute leukemia is the most common malignancy in children. We showed that low bone mass is prevalent among children with leukemia, especially in femur. Serum calcium, exercise, chemotherapy protocol, and radiotherapy are the main contributing factors. We suggest that early diagnosis and treatment of this problem could improve bone health in them. Acute leukemia is the most common malignancy in children and has been reported to be associated with low bone mass. Due to lack of sufficient data about the bone mineral density of children with leukemia in the Middle East, and inconsistencies between possible associated factors contributing to decreasing bone density in these children, we aimed to conduct a case-control study in Iran. This case-control study was conducted on 60 children with acute leukemia and 60 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Anthropometric data, sun exposure, puberty, physical activity, and mineral biochemical parameters were assessed. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Data analysis was done by SPSS software v. 21. Serum calcium was higher in the control group (P = 0.012) while serum phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase, and serum 25(OH)D 3 were higher in children with leukemia with P values of 0.04, 0.002, and 0.036, respectively. Sun exposure and physical activity were more in healthy controls (P values children with leukemia, especially in the femoral neck. Serum calcium, physical activity, chemotherapy protocol, and radiotherapy are the main contributing factors.

  14. Leukemia in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brill, A B; Heyssel, R; Itoga, T; Tomonaga, M

    1960-08-01

    In the 13.5 years following the detonation of the atomic bomb, 95 cases of leukemia have been observed in the Nagasaki survivors. This increase is highly significant statistically. The increased leukemia risk apparently started 1.5 to 2.5 years following radiation exposure, and has lasted through 1958. Acute leukemias of all types and chronic granulocytic leukemia are increased, (with the possible exception of the Schilling type of acute monocytic leukemia). Males in general, and individuals in the younger ages (0 to 09), are apparently most sensitive. The risk of radiation induction of leukemia is related to the size of the dose. The shape of the curve does not differ greatly from a linear model, but is consistent with a variety of hypotheses. The data in the low dose region are too limited to be of significance in evaluating the risk of low doses of radiation. The data suggest that high radiation doses may be associated with a decrease in the latent period to leukemia induction. 43 references, 2 figures, 31 tables.

  15. RESULTS OF HEMATOPOIETIC CELL TRANSPLANTATION IN PEDIATRIC LEUKEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mousavi

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT is an accepted treatment for acute myeloid leukemia (AML in first remission, the treatment of choice for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML and high risk groups of ALL who relapse with conventional chemotherapy. We assessed results of HCT for pediatric leukemia in our center. A total of 92 children, 63 with diagnose of AML, 23 with ALL and 6 with CML received allogeneic transplantation from HLA full matched siblings (57.6% and autologous transplantation (42.4%. Source of hematopoietic cells were peripheral blood 83.7%, bone marrow 15.2% and cord blood 1.6%. The median transplanted nucleated cells were 6.4 ± 4.7 ×108 /Kg (body weight of patients and mononuclear cells were 5.5 ± 2.9×108/Kg. The most common conditioning regimens were cyclophosphamide + busulfan. Prophylaxis regimen for GVHD was cyclosporin ± methotrexate. GVHD occurred in 50 (54.3% patients. Eighty five of children had engraftment, 26 (28.6% relapsed and 57 (62% are alive. The most common cause of death was relapse (68.6%. Five years overall survival of patients with AML and ALL were 49% and 44% respectively and disease free survival of them were 52% and 49%. One year overall survival and disease free survival of CML was 57%. Overall survival increased with increasing age of patients at transplantation time (P = 0.06. Longer survival significantly related to earlier WBC and platelet recovery (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.006 respectively. Considering acceptable overall and disease free survival of patients after HCT, we concluded that is a good modality in treatment of leukemia of children.

  16. Hairy cell leukemia: current concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Timothy; Mobarek, Dalia; Wegge, Julia; Tabbara, Imad A

    2008-10-01

    Hairy cell Leukemia (HCL) is a chronic lymphoproliferative disorder that was characterized in the late 1950s. HCL is defined, according to the WHO classification, as a mature (peripheral) B-cell neoplasm (1). HCL accounts for between 2-3% of all leukemia cases, with about 600 new cases diagnosed in the U.S. each year (1). HCL occurs more commonly in males, with an overall male to female ratio of approximately 4:1. The median age of onset is 52 years. This disease is seen more commonly in Caucasians and appears to be especially frequent in Ashkenazi Jewish males, with rare occurrence in persons of Asian and African descents (1). Hairy cells are distinct, clonal B cells arrested at a late stage of maturation. They are small B lymphoid cells that possess oval nuclei and abundant cytoplasm with characteristic micro-filamentous ("hairy") projections. They strongly express CD103, CD22, and CD11c (2). These cells typically infiltrate the bone marrow, the spleen, and to a lesser extent the liver, lymph nodes, and skin. Many patients present with splenomegaly and pancytopenia. Other clinical manifestations include recurrent opportunistic infections and vasculitis. Historically, HCL was considered uniformly fatal (2). However, recent treatment advances, using purine analogues such as Cladribine and Pentostatin, led to a significant improvement in prognosis with achievement of high response rates and durable remissions (2).

  17. Leukemia and ionizing radiation revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuttler, J.M. [Cuttler & Associates Inc., Vaughan, Ontario (Canada); Welsh, J.S. [Loyola University-Chicago, Dept. or Radiation Oncology, Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, Illinois (United States)

    2016-03-15

    A world-wide radiation health scare was created in the late 19508 to stop the testing of atomic bombs and block the development of nuclear energy. In spite of the large amount of evidence that contradicts the cancer predictions, this fear continues. It impairs the use of low radiation doses in medical diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy. This brief article revisits the second of two key studies, which revolutionized radiation protection, and identifies a serious error that was missed. This error in analyzing the leukemia incidence among the 195,000 survivors, in the combined exposed populations of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, invalidates use of the LNT model for assessing the risk of cancer from ionizing radiation. The threshold acute dose for radiation-induced leukemia, based on about 96,800 humans, is identified to be about 50 rem, or 0.5 Sv. It is reasonable to expect that the thresholds for other cancer types are higher than this level. No predictions or hints of excess cancer risk (or any other health risk) should be made for an acute exposure below this value until there is scientific evidence to support the LNT hypothesis. (author)

  18. Extramedullary leukemia in children presenting with proptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naik Milind

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We highlight the orbital manifestations of acute myeloid leukemia and the role of peripheral blood smear in the diagnosis of these cases. A total of 12 patients who presented with proptosis and were subsequently diagnosed to have acute myeloid leukemia based on incision biopsy or peripheral blood smear were included in the study. Results A retrospective review of all cases of acute myeloid leukemia presenting to the Orbital clinic was performed. The age at presentation, gender, presenting features, duration of symptoms and fundus features were noted. In addition the temporal relationship of the orbital disease to the diagnosis of leukemia, laterality, location of the orbital mass, imaging features and the diagnostic tools used to diagnose leukemia were noted. The median age at presentation was 6 years. The male: female ratio was 0.7:1. None of these patients had been diagnosed earlier as having acute myeloid leukemia. The presenting features included proptosis in all patients, orbital mass in 5 (41.7%, visual symptoms in 2 (16.7% and subconjunctival hemorrhage in one patient (8.3%. A diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia was established by incision biopsy in 4 patients, subsequently confirmed by peripheral blood smear testing and bone marrow biopsy in 2 patients which revealed the presence of systemic involvement. Imprint smears of the biopsy identified blasts in 2 of 4 cases. In 8 patients presenting with ocular manifestations, diagnosis was established by peripheral blood smear examination alone which revealed a diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia. Conclusion A peripheral blood smear should be performed in all cases of sudden onset proptosis or an orbital mass in children and young adults along with an orbital biopsy. It can always be complemented with a bone marrow biopsy especially in cases of aleukemic leukemia or when the blood smear is inconclusive.

  19. Calorie restriction reduces the incidence of radiation-induced myeloid leukemia and spontaneous tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kazuko

    1999-01-01

    The host-defense mechanisms against cancers are known to be modulated by changing the environmental factor(s). The spontaneous incidence of myeloid leukemia is about 1% in C3H/He mice, and the incidence increases up to 23.3% when a single dose of radiation, 3 Gy X-ray, is exposed to a whole-body. Since calorie restriction was known to reduce the incidence of spontaneous tumors, a question as to whether such radiation induced-increase of myeloid leukemia would be also decreased by calorie restriction, was aimed to answer to elucidate possible mechanism of radiation-induced myeloid leukemia. By the calorie restriction, the incidence of myeloid leukemia was significantly decreased; it was reduced to 7.9% and 10.7% when restriction was started before (6 weeks old) and after (10 weeks old) irradiation, respectively. In addition, the latent period of the myeloid leukemia in the groups for calorie restriction was significantly extended at a greater extent as compared with the control diet groups. Number of hematopoietic stem cells, the possible target cells for radiation-induced leukemias, in the groups for the calorie restriction demonstrated a significant decrease, especially in the spleen, as compared with that in the control, when the evaluation was made at the time of radiation exposure. Then, we examined whether the decreased number of target cells at the time of exposure is caused by the reduction of radiation-induced myeloid leukemia with caloric restriction. The third restricted groups were fed 65 kcal diet (restricted diet) for the first 4 weeks i.e. from 6 weeks to 10 weeks old, then, the mice were fed with control diet after radiation. The incidence of myeloid leukemia in this group was slightly decreased but did not show statistically significance. Therefore, the caloric restriction seems to be more effective in the promotion stage than the initiation stage on radiation-induced leukemogenesis. It is well known that C3H/He mice develop hepatoma spontaneously

  20. Fungal natural products targeting chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Tanja Thorskov; Kildgaard, Sara; Knudsen, Peter Boldsen

    2012-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common leukemia in adults from the western world. No curative treatments of CLL are presently known so the treatment strategy today is primarily to prolong patient survival,1 why we have initiated new activities towards discovery of novel compounds......,3 This includes analysis of the spectroscopic data generated from LC-DAD-MS to reveal whether the active principles are either structurally known compounds or are likely to be novel compounds. This paper will illustrate our integrated discovery approaches and recent findings of anti-leukemia compounds....

  1. Gastrointestinal complications of leukemia and its treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, T.B.; Bjelland, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Leukemia represents 4% of all cancer deaths and is the leading cause of death from malignancy for all patients under 30 years of age. Various rare, usually preterminal gastrointestinal complications of leukemia have been reported. These complications are becoming more common and no longer should be considered unusual. Their increasing incidence is the result of new, more aggressive treatment methods and increased patient lifespan. The authors describe the relative incidence and common radiographic presentations of leukemia-related gastrointestinal disease and emphasize that its prognosis is favorable with prompt diagnosis and treatment

  2. Circumvention of glucocorticoid resistance in childhood leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarman, E G; Kaspers, G J L; Pieters, R; Rottier, M M A; Veerman, A J P

    2008-09-01

    In this study, we determined if in vitro resistance to prednisolone and dexamethasone could be circumvented by cortivazol or methylprednisolone, or reversed by meta-iodobenzylguanidine in pediatric lymphoblastic and myeloid leukemia. As there were strong correlations between the LC50 values (drug concentration inducing 50% leukemic cell kill, LCK) of the different glucocorticoids and median prednisolone/methylprednisolone, prednisolone/dexamethasone and prednisolone/cortivazol LC50 ratios did not differ between the leukemia subtypes, we conclude that none of the glucocorticoids had preferential anti-leukemic activity. Meta-iodobenzylguanidine however, partially reversed glucocorticoid resistance in 19% of the lymphoblastic leukemia samples.

  3. Occupation, hobbies, and acute leukemia in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Paul D; Shore, David L; Rauscher, Garth H; Sandler, Dale P

    2005-10-01

    Occupational and industrial exposures have been implicated in the etiology of leukemia, yet uncertainty remains regarding potential high risk occupations. We examined the associations between self-reported occupations and hobbies and acute leukemia risk using data from 811 cases and 637 controls participating in a case-control study in the U.S. and Canada. We found that several occupations may increase the risk of acute leukemia, particularly occupations related to petroleum products, rubber, nuclear energy, munitions, plastics, and electronics manufacturing. Differences were noted according to histological type. Other occupations and hobbies were not clearly associated with risk.

  4. Omacetaxine Mepesuccinate for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosshandler, Yasmin; Shen, Ann Q; Cortes, Jorge; Khoury, Hanna Jean

    2016-05-01

    Omacetaxine mepesuccinate is approved by the Food and Drug Administration in the United States for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic or accelerated phase resistant to two or more tyrosine kinase inhibitors. This review summarizes the mode of action, pharmacokinetics, efficacy and safety of omacetaxine mepesuccinate. Omacetaxine mepesuccinate has activity in chronic myeloid leukemia, especially in the chronic phase, regardless of the presence of ABL1 kinase domain mutations. Omacetaxine mepesuccinate has distinct but manageable adverse events profile. Omacetaxine mepesuccinate is a treatment option for a subset of patients with refractory chronic myeloid leukemia.

  5. Leukemia in humans following exposure to ionizing radiation. A summary of the findings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and comparison with other human experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brill, A B; Tomonaga, Masanobu; Heyssel, R M

    1960-10-01

    A review of the Hiroshima-Nagasaki leukemia experience thirteen years after the atomic bomb explosion in those two cities, and comparisons with other collected series of leukemia cases following radiation has again demonstrated beyond reasonable doubt the leukemogenic effect of ionizing radiation on humans. In spite of the heterogeneity of the various study groups there are surprisingly consistent findings. An increased risk of leukemia following doses probably as low as 50 to 100 rads (air-entry dose) whole body radiation has been demonstrated. Above this dose the increase in incidence of leukemia may be related linearly to dose of radiation. When extrapolated to zero dose this line intersects the expected spontaneous incidence. In the lower range it is impossible to be certain regarding the presence or absence of a threshold. As in other series the acute lymphocytic variety of leukemia in the very young is most increased. Chronic granulocytic leukemia was seen most commonly among the Japanese in the older age groups. The predilection of the various types of leukemia for specific age groups does not appear to be markedly altered although possibly the incidence of chronic granulocytic leukemia has been shifted to younger ages. Males and children in the age group below ten appear to be most sensitive to induction of leukemia by irradiation. The increased occurrenc of leukemia in an irradiated population appears to start about eighteen months after the event. In Japan the increased risk has persisted for thirteen years with the time of maximum risk approximately four to eight years following radiation. 128 references, 2 figures, 14 tables.

  6. Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Progress Through Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun J.; Hunger, Stephen P.; Pieters, Rob; Schrappe, Martin; Biondi, Andrea; Vora, Ajay; Baruchel, André; Silverman, Lewis B.; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Escherich, Gabriele; Horibe, Keizo; Benoit, Yves C.M.; Izraeli, Shai; Yeoh, Allen Eng Juh; Liang, Der-Cherng; Downing, James R.; Evans, William E.; Relling, Mary V.; Mullighan, Charles G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To review the impact of collaborative studies on advances in the biology and treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children and adolescents. Methods A review of English literature on childhood ALL focusing on collaborative studies was performed. The resulting article was reviewed and revised by the committee chairs of the major ALL study groups. Results With long-term survival rates for ALL approaching 90% and the advent of high-resolution genome-wide analyses, several international study groups or consortia were established to conduct collaborative research to further improve outcome. As a result, treatment strategies have been improved for several subtypes of ALL, such as infant, MLL-rearranged, Philadelphia chromosome–positive, and Philadelphia chromosome–like ALL. Many recurrent genetic abnormalities that respond to tyrosine kinase inhibitors and multiple genetic determinants of drug resistance and toxicities have been identified to help develop targeted therapy. Several genetic polymorphisms have been recognized that show susceptibility to developing ALL and that help explain the racial/ethnic differences in the incidence of ALL. Conclusion The information gained from collaborative studies has helped decipher the heterogeneity of ALL to help improve personalized treatment, which will further advance the current high cure rate and the quality of life for children and adolescents with ALL. PMID:26304874

  7. Leukemia-Initiating Cells in T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Shi Hao; Bertulfo, Fatima Carla; Sanda, Takaomi

    2017-01-01

    T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is a hematological malignancy characterized by the clonal proliferation of immature T-cell precursors. T-ALL has many similar pathophysiological features to acute myeloid leukemia, which has been extensively studied in the establishment of the cancer stem cell (CSC) theory, but the CSC concept in T-ALL is still debatable. Although leukemia-initiating cells (LICs), which can generate leukemia in a xenograft setting, have been found in both human T-AL...

  8. Does the quality of radiation therapy (RT) impact upon outcome in the tri-modality treatment of stage IIIA(N2) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)?: Analysis of cancer and leukemia group B (CALGB) protocol 8935

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, P.; Herndon, J.; Glicksman, A.; Eaton, W.; Langer, M.; Kass, F.C.; Seagren, S.; Green, M.; Sugarbaker, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The impact of the adequacy of portal fields and the total dose of RT upon pattern of local failure and survival was analyzed. Materials and Methods: Seventy-four patients with pathological stage IIIA(N 2 ) NSCLC were enrolled to a sequential tri-modality protocol consisting of induction chemotherapy [cisplatin(P) at 100 mg/m 2 on days 1,29 and vinblastine(V) 5 mg/m 2 weekly x 5] followed by thoracotomy. Patients with resected disease received an additional two cycles of the same PV followed by thoracic RT. Patients with completely resected disease were treated to 54 Gy while those with incompletely resected disease (i.e., positive margins and/or positive highest sampled mediastinal lymph node) received 59.4 Gy at 1.8 Gy/fraction (fx) once daily. Following protocol therapy, the adequacy of portal fields and total dose of RT was independently peer reviewed by a committee of CALGB Radiation Oncologists under the auspices of the Quality Assurance Review Center (QARC) in Providence, RI. A major deviation was scored if the radiation portal 'cut through' the required target volume and/or if the total radiation dose was greater than +/-10% from the protocol. Results: Thirty-three of 74 patients completed the full adjuvant protocol treatment including post-operative RT. Among patients undergoing complete vs. incomplete resection, no significant difference in 2-year post-RT failure-free survival (FFS) [48% vs. 17%, respectively, p .13] or overall survival (OS) [43% vs. 50%, respectively, p = .27] was evident between the two resection groups. Pattern of first failure among these 33 patients was as follows: Local (L) only = 1(5%), L/Distant (D) 6(28%), D only = 14(67%), p .99). Conclusion: In our study, thoracic RT delivered according to protocol requirements did not affect either pattern of local failure or survival in the tri-modality treatment of pathological stage IIIA(N 2 ) NSCLC. However, these findings could also reflect the sample size of our

  9. 5-Fluoro-2'-Deoxycytidine and Tetrahydrouridine in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia or Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-03

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  10. Differential effects of atomic bomb irradiation in inducing major leukemia types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomonaga, Masao; Matsuo, Tatsuki; Carter, R.L.

    1993-05-01

    In this report we utilize data from the additional 517 cases from the leukemia registry together with the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort data to study the effects of atomic bomb irradiation on major leukemia types. The French-American-British classification and other improved diagnostic methods were used to reclassify cases into 21 categories, including new disease entities such as adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). These categories were then grouped into four major types for analysis: (1) acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), (2) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) including myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), (3) chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), and (4) OTHER types including ATL. Analyses of radiation effects were based on the updated Dosimetry System 1986(DS86). Incidence rates of all four leukemia types increased with increasing exposure level. The effects of radiation were significantly greater on the incidence of ALL and CML than on that of AML and OTHER. In the two lowest dose categories (1-49 and 50-499 mGy), estimated incidence either remained constant or increased slightly as the population of survivors aged. In the two highest dose categories (500-1,499 and ≥ 1,500 mGy). Among unexposed persons, the estimated risk of CML in Nagasaki relative to Hiroshima was significantly less than that of AML, whereas that of OTHER types was significantly greater. The time to onset of ALL, AML, and CML declined with increasing dose. The rate of decline, however, was greater for ALL and CML than for AML. The resulting differences at high doses reflect shorter incubation times for atomic-bomb-induced ALL and CML than for AML. (J.P.N.)

  11. Hairy Cell Leukemia Treatment Option Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or a swollen spleen. Certain factors affect treatment options and prognosis (chance of recovery). The treatment options ... cell leukemia has not responded to treatment. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  12. General Information about Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the lymph system . Having relatives who are Russian Jews or Eastern European Jews. Signs and symptoms ... information about clinical trials is also available. To Learn More About Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia For more information ...

  13. Cytogenetic basis of acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, J H; Pittman, S M; Singh, S; Wass, E J; Vincent, P C; Gunz, F W

    1975-10-01

    The chromosomes of 12 adult patients with acute leukemia were analyzed by conventional means and by Giemsa and centromeric banding techniques. Acute myeloblastic leukemia was diagnosed in 7, acute myelomonocytic leukemia in 2, and acute undifferentiated leukemia in 3. Bone marrow was aspirated from patients when in relapse or remission, and both euploid and aneuploid cells were examined. All patients showed trisomy no. 9 and many showed additional numerical or structural changes in some or all their cells. These changes included monosomy no. 21 and/or monosomy no. 8. The proportion of trisomy no. 9 cells was 30-50% in patients in full remission and up to 100% in patients in relapse; thus trisomy no. 9 might be an important marker of leukemic cells. A mechanism was proposed to explain the induction and selection of the trisomy no. 9 karotype.

  14. Leukemia -- Chronic T-Cell Lymphocytic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Leukemia - Chronic T-Cell Lymphocytic Introduction Statistics Risk Factors Symptoms and Signs Diagnosis Stages Treatment Options About Clinical Trials Latest Research ...

  15. General Information About Hairy Cell Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Myeloid Malignancies Treatment . Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Treatment . Gender and age may affect the risk of hairy ... in the shape of blood cells. Blood chemistry studies : A procedure in which a blood sample is ...

  16. Proceedings of the symposium on leukemia clustering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elaguppillai, V [Atomic Energy Control Board, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Goyette, J P [Atomic Energy Control Board, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Advisory Committee on Radiological Protection; Hill, G; Krewski, D [Department of National Health and Welfare, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Osborne, R V [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Labs.

    1992-07-01

    Clusters of leukemia in populations living in specific locations in various countries have been examined by scientific and medical experts for many years. In general, the reason for the existence of these clusters is unknown. The recent discovery of a small cluster of leukemias among children who were born in the vicinity of a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility in England has stimulated wide interest in the possible occurrence of clusters of leukemia around nuclear facilities. The purpose of this symposium was to present scientific evidence concerning the existence of leukemia clusters in the population, to discuss possible causes for these clusters and to suggest directions for future research. Distinguished speakers from Canada, the United Kingdom, Germany, Italy and the U.S.A. participated in this symposium. (author).

  17. Cellular immune therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kater, Arnon P.; van Oers, Marinus H. J.; Kipps, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    Although chemotherapy can induce complete responses in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), it is not considered curative. Treated patients generally develop recurrent disease requiring additional therapy, which can cause worsening immune dysfunction, myelosuppression, and selection for

  18. Increased leukemia risk in Chernobyl cleanup workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new study found a significantly elevated risk for chronic lymphocytic leukemia among workers who were engaged in recovery and clean-up activities following the Chernobyl power plant accident in 1986.

  19. Eliminating Hairy Cell Leukemia Minimal Residual Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this trial, patients with hairy cell leukemia who have disease-related symptoms that require treatment will be randomly assigned to receive cladribine with either concurrent rituximab or rituximab at least 6 months after completing cladribine therapy.

  20. Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia (JMML) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fluid (CSF), the fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord, for examination in a lab. Flow cytometry tests. Using markers on leukemia cells collected from the blood, bone marrow, and/or CSF, doctors can determine the type ...

  1. Proceedings of the symposium on leukemia clustering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elaguppillai, V.; Goyette, J.P.; Osborne, R.V.

    1992-07-01

    Clusters of leukemia in populations living in specific locations in various countries have been examined by scientific and medical experts for many years. In general, the reason for the existence of these clusters is unknown. The recent discovery of a small cluster of leukemias among children who were born in the vicinity of a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility in England has stimulated wide interest in the possible occurrence of clusters of leukemia around nuclear facilities. The purpose of this symposium was to present scientific evidence concerning the existence of leukemia clusters in the population, to discuss possible causes for these clusters and to suggest directions for future research. Distinguished speakers from Canada, the United Kingdom, Germany, Italy and the U.S.A. participated in this symposium. (author)

  2. Autonomous growth potential of leukemia blast cells is associated with poor prognosis in human acute leukemias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakubowski Ann A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have described a severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID mouse model that permits the subcutaneous growth of primary human acute leukemia blast cells into a measurable subcutaneous nodule which may be followed by the development of disseminated disease. Utilizing the SCID mouse model, we examined the growth potential of leukemic blasts from 133 patients with acute leukemia, (67 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL and 66 acute myeloid leukemia (AML in the animals after subcutaneous inoculation without conditioning treatment. The blasts displayed three distinct growth patterns: "aggressive", "indolent", or "no tumor growth". Out of 133 leukemias, 45 (33.8% displayed an aggressive growth pattern, 14 (10.5% displayed an indolent growth pattern and 74 (55.6% did not grow in SCID mice. The growth probability of leukemias from relapsed and/or refractory disease was nearly 3 fold higher than that from patients with newly diagnosed disease. Serial observations found that leukemic blasts from the same individual, which did not initiate tumor growth at initial presentation and/or at early relapse, may engraft and grow in the later stages of disease, suggesting that the ability of leukemia cells for engraftment and proliferation was gradually acquired following the process of leukemia progression. Nine autonomous growing leukemia cell lines were established in vitro. These displayed an aggressive proliferation pattern, suggesting a possible correlation between the capacity of human leukemia cells for autonomous proliferation in vitro and an aggressive growth potential in SCID mice. In addition, we demonstrated that patients whose leukemic blasts displayed an aggressive growth and dissemination pattern in SClD mice had a poor clinical outcome in patients with ALL as well as AML. Patients whose leukemic blasts grew indolently or whose leukemia cells failed to induce growth had a significantly longer DFS and more favorable clinical course.

  3. Chimeras of receptors for gibbon ape leukemia virus/feline leukemia virus B and amphotropic murine leukemia virus reveal different modes of receptor recognition by retrovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lene; Johann, Stephen V; van Zeijl, Marja

    1995-01-01

    Glvr1 encodes the human receptor for gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV) and feline leukemia virus subgroup B (FeLV-B), while the related gene Glvr2 encodes the human receptor for amphotropic murine leukemia viruses (A-MLVs). The two proteins are 62% identical in their amino acid sequences...

  4. Leukemia risk following radiotherapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, R.E.; Boice, J.D. Jr.; Stovall, M.; Flannery, J.T.; Moloney, W.C.

    1989-01-01

    To evaluate further the relationship between high-dose radiotherapy and leukemia incidence, a nested case-control study was conducted in a cohort of 22,753 women who were 18-month survivors of invasive breast cancer diagnosed from 1935 to 1972. Women treated for breast cancer after 1973 were excluded to minimize the possible confounding influence of treatment with chemotherapeutic agents. The cases had histologically confirmed leukemia reported to the Connecticut Tumor Registry (CTR) between 1935 and 1984. A total of 48 cases of leukemia following breast cancer were included in the study. Two controls were individually matched to each leukemia case on the basis of age, calendar year when diagnosed with breast cancer, and survival time. Leukemia diagnoses were verified by one hematologist. Radiation dose to active bone marrow was estimated by medical physicists on the basis of the original radiotherapy records of study subjects. Local radiation doses to each of the 16 bone marrow components for each patient were reconstructed; the dose averaged over the entire body was 530 rad (5.3 Gy). Based on this dosage and assuming a linear relationship between dose and affect, a relative risk (RR) in excess of 10 would have been expected. However, there was little evidence that radiotherapy increased the overall risk of leukemia (RR = 1.16; 90% confidence interval [CI], 0.6 to 2.1). The risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, one of the few malignancies without evidence for an association with ionizing radiation, was not significantly increased (RR = 1.8; n = 10); nor was the risk for all other forms of leukemia (RR = 1.0; n = 38). There was no indication that risk varied over categories of radiation dose

  5. Improvement of Leukemia diagnose with molecular techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos Rudin, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study was to contribute with new techniques to the clinical diagnosis and to the monitoring of mycloid chronic leukemias in Costa Rica. The same one achieved to determine that is viable to apply radioactive and non reactive methodologies, for the molecular detection of the Philadelphia chromosome.It also found that the application of techniques of cellular biology, helps to classify better the mycloide leukemias and the chronic mycloproliferatives and miclodisplaced disorders. (S. Grainger) [es

  6. [Report of a case of megakaryoblastic leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, J A; Timóteo, T; Elisário, L

    1990-01-01

    We diagnosed a 20 year old young girl, with clinical and laboratorial evidence of pancytopenia, an acute megakaryoblastic leukemia. The difficulty in arriving at this conclusion was only surpassed with the help of monoclonal antibodies. With the presentation of this case we approach the problematics in obtaining the diagnostic of the megakaryoblastic leukemia. This is fundamental, owing to the possibilities of morphological presentation under undifferentiated blasts or of the type M1 or L2 (FAB).

  7. Thymic irradiation and chronic myelogenous leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimaoka, K.; Sokal, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    Two cases of Ph positive chronic myelogenous leukemia with a history of thymic irradiation are presented. Both patients received radiation therapy from low voltage x-ray equipment at two to three months of age. Leukemia developed 18 and 22 years later. Presentation, response to antileukemic therapy, and clinical course did not differ from that of other patients with this disease treated in our department

  8. Childhood leukemia around nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatch, M.

    1992-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies on health effects of living near nuclear facilities have been rare and, indeed, radiobiological models would not predict any detectable increase in cancer risk to the general public from very low levels of radioactivity emitted by nuclear installations. Thus recent evidence suggesting an excess of childhood leukemias in the vicinity of certain nuclear sites in the United Kingdom has generated considerable controversy. To help resolve the uncertainty and enhance interpretability of results, future epidemiologic studies will need to be designed with great care (and within realistic cost limits). This commentary suggests three areas for methodologic consideration: 1. definition and modelling of radiation exposure; 2. selection of cancer sites and sensitive subgroups, and 3. use of incidence of mortality data. Specific suggestions for further epidemiologic research are offered as well. (author). 8 refs

  9. The Application of Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy to Reduce Stress among Mother with Leukemia Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuni Sufyanti Arief

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A child who is diagnosed with Leukemia will undergo several procedures are long and painful action. During the process of hospitalization due to leukemia children and parents can experience a variety of events or actions handling according to various studies shown by the experience very traumatic and stressful (Supartini 2004 in Arif, SY, 2007. Some of the methods used to deal with anxiety is psikoprofilaksis, relaxation and imagination (Reeder et al., 2011. Rational-emotive behavior therapy by Albert Ellis in 1990 describes a unique man who is basically have a tendency to think rational and irrational. Methods: aim of this study is to explain the effect of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT for stress levels of mothers with children suffering from Leukemia. The study design used was a pre-experiment Quasy-post control group design. The sample was 10 mothers of children diagnosed with leukemia are treated in a child hematology ward Soetomo hospital. Variable in this study is the level of depression and anxiety mothers with children suffering from leukemia. Result: Based on the results obtained Wilcoxon statistical test p = 0.025 in the treatment group and p = 0.32 in the control group. Mann Whitney test results obtained p = 0.012. Conclution: Rational-emotive behavior therapy can reduce levels of depression and anxiety (stress mothers with children suffering from leukemia. It is expected that the application of rational -emotive behavior therapy can be done to reduce depression and anxiety in women with chronic disease cases while maintaining the effectiveness the goal of REBT. Keywords: stress, anxiety, depression, rational-emotive behavior

  10. Effects of prophylactic treatment of central nervous system leukemia in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Yukiko; Asakura, Akio; Endo, Norio

    1982-01-01

    Thirty-five children with previously untreated ALL or AUL who received CNS prophylatic therapy with 3 treatment regiments were analyzed. After eutering complete remission, patients received CNS-prophylaxis with one of the following regimens: Goup A- cyclic high dose multichemotherapy plus intermittent intra-thecal methotrexate (MTX); Group B-craniospinal irradiation plus intermittent intrathecal MTX; Group C-intermittent high dose intravenous MTX. Incidence of CNS-leukemia and bone marrow relapse was less frequent in Group B. EEG abnormalities were seen in 38.5% of Group A, 40% of Group B, and 28.6% of Group C respectively, but the abnormalities were transient. IQs of three groups were above 100, but IQs of CNS-leukemia patients, especially VIQs had a tendency to be low. (author)

  11. Childhood Leukemia--A Look at the Past, the Present and the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findeisen, Regina; Barber, William H.

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview of childhood leukemia. The causes, the survival period, different types (acute lymphocytic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, and hairy cell leukemia), symptoms, treatment, side effects of treatment (including learning problems), and the expected future direction of…

  12. Bone marrow transplantation in severe aplastic anemia and acute or chronic leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, U W; Mahmoud, H K; Beelen, D W; Hoffmann, W; Becher, R; Schmidt, C G; Bamberg, M; Quast, U; Haralambie, E; Linzenmeier, G

    1986-04-01

    In Essen 121 bone marrow transplantations were carried out. The indications were severe aplastic anemia, acute leukemia in relapse, acute leukemia in remission or chronic myeloid leukemia. The conditioning regimen consisted of cyclophosphamide or the combination of cyclophosphamide and total body irradiation. All patients were treated under strict gnotobiotic care. To mitigate the risk of CMV infections intravenous CMV-hyperimmunoglobulin and CMV-negative blood products have been applied routinely since two years. MTX was used as prophylaxis against GVH-disease. In case of severe aplastic anemia 13 patients (72%) are still alive with a median observation time of 24 months. In the prognostically unfavourable group of acute leukemia in relapse only one patient showed long term survival. In this patient leukemic relapse occurred six years after transplantation. The survival rate of AML patients grafted during the first remission is 55% with a median observation time of 40 months. For patients grafted in the first consecutive remission of ALL the survival rate is 42% with a maximal observation time of 29 months. Out of 37 patients grafted because of CML, eight were in an advanced stage of the disease. 13 patients are still alive, the maximal observation time is 37 months. The overall incidence of GVHD in patients at risk was 28% in aplastic anemia, 26% in AML, 9% in ALL and 63% in CML. In aplastic anemia no patient developed an interstitial pneumonia. In leukemia the risk of fatal interstitial pneumonia was 34%.

  13. Bone marrow transplantation in severe aplastic anemia and acute or chronic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, U.W.; Mahmoud, H.K.; Beelen, D.W.; Hoffmann, W.; Becher, R.; Schmidt, C.G.; Bamberg, M.; Quast, U.; Haralambie, E.; Linzenmeier, G.; Stollmann, B.; Grosse-Wilde, H.; Richter, H.J.; Hantschke, D.; Henneberg, K.; Luboldt, W.

    1986-01-01

    In Essen 121 bone marrow transplantations were carried out. The indications were severe aplastic anemia, acute leukemia in relapse, acute leukemia in remission or chronic myeloid leukemia. The conditioning regimen consisted of cyclophosphamide or the combination of cyclophosphamide and total body irradiation. All patients were treated under strict gnotobiotic care. To mitigate the risk of CMV infections intravenous CMV-hyperimmunoglobulin and CMV-negative blood products have been applied routinely since two years. MTX was used as prophylaxis against GVH-disease. In case of severe aplastic anemia 13 patients (72%) are still alive with a median observation time of 24 months. In the prognostically unfavourable group of acute leukemia in relapse only one patient showed long term survival. In this patient leukemic relapse occurred six years after transplantation. The survival rate of AML patients grafted during the first remission is 55% with a median observation time of 40 months. For patients grafted in the first consecutive remission of ALL the survival rate is 42% with a maximal observation time of 29 months. Out of 37 patients grafted because of CML, eight were in an advanced stage of the disease. 13 patients are still alive, the maximal observation time is 37 months. The overall incidence of GVHD in patients at risk was 28% in aplastic anemia, 26% in AML, 9% in ALL and 63% in CML. In aplastic anemia no patient developed an interstitial pneumonia. In leukemia the risk of fatal interstitial pneumonia was 34%. (orig.) [de

  14. Small Molecule Inhibitors in Acute Myeloid Leukemia: From the Bench to the Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hussaini, Muneera; DiPersio, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Many patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) will eventually develop refractory or relapsed disease. In the absence of standard therapy for this population, there is currently an urgent unmet need for novel therapeutic agents. Targeted therapy with small molecule inhibitors (SMIs) represents a new therapeutic intervention that has been successful for the treatment of multiple tumors (e.g., gastrointestinal stromal tumors, chronic myelogenous leukemia). Hence, there has been great interest in generating selective small molecule inhibitors targeting critical pathways of proliferation and survival in AML. This review highlights a selective group of intriguing therapeutic agents and their presumed targets in both preclinical models and in early human clinical trials. PMID:25025370

  15. Mass survey of gastric cancer and leukemia in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakka, Masatoshi; Sasano, Nobuaki; Uzuka, Yoshiro [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). School of Medicine; Hisamichi, Shigeru; Takano, Akira; Hashizume, Tadashi

    1982-11-01

    A little more than 20,000 examinees of x-ray mass survey of gastric cancer and the controls were followed up from 1960 to 1977. Cumulative doses of x-rays were calculated for each examinee, and a collective dose in person-year-rads was constructed. Incidence of leukemia was ascertained from Miyagi Prefectural Cancer Registry. Seven cases of leukemia were found out of 242,689 person-year-rads in the irradiated population, and 9 cases out of 273,344 person-years in the controls. Incidence rate in the two groups was identical. Therefore, the risk of this mass survey was disproved.

  16. INFECTIOUS COMPLICATIONS IN CHRONIC LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AnnaMaria Nosari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Infectious complications have been known to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in CLL patients who are predisposed to infections because of both the humoral immunodepression inherent to hematologic disease, which is related to stage and duration of CLL, and to further immunosuppression related to therapy. The majority of infections in CLL patients treated with alkilating agents is of bacterial origin. The immunodeficiency and natural infectious history of alkylator-resistant, corticosteroid-treated patients appears to have changed with the administration of purine analogs, which has been complicated by very severe and unusual infections and also more viral infections due to sustained reduction of CD4-positive T lymphocytes. The following introduction of monoclonal antibody therapies, in particular alemtuzumab, further increased the immunodepression, increasing also infections which appeared more often in patients with recurrent neutropenia due to chemotherapy cycles. Epidemiological data regarding fungal infections in lymphoproliferative disorders are scarce. Italian SEIFEM group in a retrospective multicentre study regarding CLL patients reported an incidence of mycoses 0.5%; however, chronic lymphoproliferative disorders emerged as second haematological underlying disease after acute leukemia in a French study on aspergillosis; in particular CLL with aspergillosis accounted for a third of these chronic lymphoproliferative diseases presenting mould infection.

  17. Analysis of Leukemia incidence (1997-2007) in vicinity area of a nuclear installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Rong; Sun Quanfu; Liu Fen; Zhang Xu; Xing Ru; Xu Xinmei; Li Xiaoliang; Su Xu

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the leukemia incidence among residents in the vicinity area of a nuclear installation. Methods: The data were collected by the retrospective survey. Diagnosis is based on the medical records in all the relevant hospitals. The study area was those residential areas within 10 km of radium surrounding the installation. All residents who had lived in the study area for six months and over were recruited into the study group. Results: The survey ascertained 643 newly diagnosed leukemia cases in the study area during 1997 to 2007. The crude rate was 2.51/100000, and its standardized rate to national population structure was 2.53/100000. The incidence rate in the study area was slightly lower than that in the whole city. No increase trend was detected during the period. Conclusions: No significant difference of the leukemia incidence rate was found between the vicinity area of the nuclear installation and the whole city. (authors)

  18. [The role of genetic polymorphisms of interleukins in chronic lymphocytic leukemia in patients of different ages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirotina, S S; Tikunova, T S; Proshchaev, K I; Efremova, O A; Batlutskaia, I V; Iakunchenko, T I; Sobianin, F I; Churnosov, M I; Alekseev, S M

    2014-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a multifactorial disease, in which development the important role played the cytokine genes, in particular interleukins. This type of leukemia is more common in the elderly. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the association of genetic polymorphisms of interleukin with the development of chronic lymphocytic leukemia among residents of the Central Chernozem region of Russia. Genotyping of the -889C/T IL-1A, -590C/T IL-4 and VNTR IL-1 Ra was conducted in 206 patients with CLL and 307 individuals of the control group. The study found that the genetic risk factor for the development of CLL is allele -590T IL-4 (OR=-1,45). The development of thrombocytopenia in patients with CLL is associated with genetic variants -889T IL-1A (OR=1,95), -889TT IL-1A (OR=6,2) and IL-1Ra*1 (OR=-2,32).

  19. Non-infectious chemotherapy-associated acute toxicities during childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Müller, Klaus Gottlob; Mogensen, Signe Sloth

    2017-01-01

    During chemotherapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, all organs can be affected by severe acute side effects, the most common being opportunistic infections, mucositis, central or peripheral neuropathy (or both), bone toxicities (including osteonecrosis), thromboembolism, sinusoidal...... useful risk factors, and across study groups there has been wide diversity in toxicity definitions, capture strategies, and reporting, thus hampering meaningful comparisons of toxicity incidences for different leukemia protocols. Since treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia now yields 5-year overall...... obstruction syndrome, endocrinopathies (especially steroid-induced adrenal insufficiency and hyperglycemia), high-dose methotrexate-induced nephrotoxicity, asparaginase-associated hypersensitivity, pancreatitis, and hyperlipidemia. Few of the non-infectious acute toxicities are associated with clinically...

  20. Non-infectious chemotherapy-associated acute toxicities during childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Müller, Klaus; Mogensen, Signe Sloth; Mogensen, Pernille Rudebeck; Wolthers, Benjamin Ole; Stoltze, Ulrik Kristoffer; Tuckuviene, Ruta; Frandsen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    During chemotherapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, all organs can be affected by severe acute side effects, the most common being opportunistic infections, mucositis, central or peripheral neuropathy (or both), bone toxicities (including osteonecrosis), thromboembolism, sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, endocrinopathies (especially steroid-induced adrenal insufficiency and hyperglycemia), high-dose methotrexate-induced nephrotoxicity, asparaginase-associated hypersensitivity, pancreatitis, and hyperlipidemia. Few of the non-infectious acute toxicities are associated with clinically useful risk factors, and across study groups there has been wide diversity in toxicity definitions, capture strategies, and reporting, thus hampering meaningful comparisons of toxicity incidences for different leukemia protocols. Since treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia now yields 5-year overall survival rates above 90%, there is a need for strategies for assessing the burden of toxicities in the overall evaluation of anti-leukemic therapy programs. PMID:28413626

  1. Chronic myelogenous leukemia: molecular monitoring in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. R. Ryabchikova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib has led to significant progress in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML treatment. To date, genetic monitoring is a mandatory attribute of therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The purpose of this study was to access the imatinib therapy efficacy in CML patients using complete molecular genetic monitoring by standard cytogenetics, realtime polymerase chain reaction and mutational analysis. Correlation between cytogenetic and molecular response was shown. Heterogeneity of molecular response in each patient group was revealed by expression of BCR-ABL. Kinase domain mutations were detected in 32 % of CML patients resistant to imatinib.

  2. Features of children temperament with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Kornetov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The temperament characteristics were studied in 86 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL at the age of 3–16 years. Research was conducted using standardized and adapted to the Russian-speaking population of parental questionnaires for children of different age groups (Kolpakov V.G. et al., 1993. Statistically significant differences in temperament ALL patients from healthy children installed and feature of temperament, which is most often seen in children with conduct disorder are installed. The need for psychological and/or psychiatric counseling this category of patients is substantiated.

  3. Prophylactic radiotherapy for central nervous system in acute leukemias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, S.L.; Ferrigno, R.

    1994-01-01

    Prophylaxis of the central nervous system in leukemias is a complex problem and there is no optimal solution that is universal for all patients. Radiation therapy, because of its CNS toxicity and potential carcinogenicity, is reserved for those in the highest risk groups. The cranial radiation dose is 18 Gy, while the spinal cord is treated with intrathecal methotrexate or multidrug therapy. The authors describe the basic aspects of radiation therapy treatment planning, as the main areas that should be included in treatment field, in order to guarantee favourable results. (author)

  4. Treatment of Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milone, Jorge H; Enrico, Alicia

    2009-12-01

    The presence of the Philadelphia chromosome is a poor prognosis factor in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), in both children and adults. Using molecular techniques of the gen bcr/abl, it is possible to detect the abnormality, in up to the 40% of adult patients. The unsatisfactory results with conventional chemotherapy schemes have determined the intensification of the treatments and the consideration of allogenic bone marrow transplants as the best therapeutic instance. The development of tyrosine kinase inhibitors have become a therapeutic improvement in the treatment of Philadelphia chromosome-positive ALL, being combined with chemotherapy schemes, only in a selected group of patients, even in therapeutic programs that include transplant.

  5. Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma associated with HTLV-1 infection in a Brazilian adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALLE Antonio Carlos Francesconi do

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 15-year-old patient infected with HTLV-1 who developed a cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, confirmed by histopathological and immunohistochemical examination, as well as clinically and hematologically confirmed leukemia. The patient died 3 months after initial presentation of the disease. The rarity of the disease in this age group justifies the present report.

  6. Erroneous Exchange of Asparaginase Forms in the Treatment of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, Ka-Chun; van den Bemt, Patricia M. L. A.; Torringa, Maarten L. J.; Tamminga, Rienk Y. J.; Pieters, Rob; de Smet, Peter A. G. M.

    For the treatment of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), Dutch pediatric oncologists use the Dutch Childhood Oncology Group ALL 10 protocol. This protocol is complex, as it comprises many different drug regimens. One of the drugs is asparaginase which is available in different forms

  7. Erroneous exchange of asparaginase forms in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, K.C.; Bemt, P.M. van den; Torringa, M.L.; Tamminga, R.Y.; Pieters, R.; Smet, P.A. de

    2011-01-01

    For the treatment of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), Dutch pediatric oncologists use the Dutch Childhood Oncology Group ALL 10 protocol. This protocol is complex, as it comprises many different drug regimens. One of the drugs is asparaginase which is available in different forms

  8. Deterioration of Intellect among Children Surviving Leukemia: IQ Test Changes Modify Estimates of Treatment Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulhern, Raymond, K; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Assessed association of young age at treatment, cranial irradiation, and time since treatment with intellectual deterioration among 49 long-term survivors of childhood leukemia. Found no significant effects of treatment group (low-dose cranial irradiation versus high-dose chemotherapy) or age at treatment. Small but statistically significant…

  9. Disparities in pediatric leukemia early survival in Argentina: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilda Garibotti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify disparities-using recursive partitioning (RP-in early survival for children with leukemias treated in Argentina, and to depict the main characteristics of the most vulnerable groups. METHODS: This secondary data analysis evaluated 12-month survival (12-ms in 3 987 children diagnosed between 2000 and 2008 with lymphoid leukemia (LL and myeloid leukemia (ML and registered in Argentina's population-based oncopediatric registry. Prognostic groups based on age at diagnosis, gender, socioeconomic index of the province of residence, and migration to a different province to receive health care were identified using the RP method. RESULTS: Overall 12-ms for LL and ML cases was 83.7% and 59.9% respectively. RP detected major gaps in 12-ms. Among 1-10-year-old LL patients from poorer provinces, 12-ms for those who did and did not migrate was 87.0% and 78.2% respectively. Survival of ML patients < 2 years old from provinces with a low/medium socioeconomic index was 38.9% compared to 62.1% for those in the same age group from richer provinces. For 2-14-year-old ML patients living in poor provinces, patient migration was associated with a 30% increase in 12-ms. CONCLUSIONS: Major disparities in leukemia survival among Argentine children were found. Patient migration and socioeconomic index of residence province were associated with survival. The RP method was instrumental in identifying and characterizing vulnerable groups.

  10. Addition of Arsenic Trioxide into Induction Regimens Could Not Accelerate Recovery of Abnormality of Coagulation and Fibrinolysis in Patients with Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Zhang

    Full Text Available All-trans retinoic acid combined to anthracycline-based chemotherapy is the standard regimen of acute promyelocytic leukemia. The advent of arsenic trioxide has contributed to improve the anti-leukemic efficacy in acute promyelocytic leukemia. The objectives of the current study were to evaluate if dual induction by all-trans retinoic acid and arsenic trioxide could accelerate the recovery of abnormality of coagulation and fibrinolysis in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia.Retrospective analysis was performed in 103 newly-diagnosed patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. Hemostatic variables and the consumption of component blood were comparably analyzed among patients treated by different induction regimen with or without arsenic trioxide.Compared to patients with other subtypes of de novo acute myeloid leukemia, patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia had lower platelet counts and fibrinogen levels, significantly prolonged prothrombin time and elevated D-dimers (P<0.001. Acute promyelocytic leukemia patients with high or intermediate risk prognostic stratification presented lower initial fibrinogen level than that of low-risk group (P<0.05. After induction treatment, abnormal coagulation and fibrinolysis of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia was significantly improved before day 10. The recovery of abnormal hemostatic variables (platelet, prothrombin time, fibrinogen and D-dimer was not significantly accelerated after adding arsenic trioxide in induction regimens; and the consumption of transfused component blood (platelet and plasma did not dramatically change either. Acute promyelocytic leukemia patients with high or intermediate risk prognostic stratification had higher platelet transfusion demands than that of low-risk group (P<0.05.Unexpectedly, adding arsenic trioxide could not accelerate the recovery of abnormality of coagulation and fibrinolysis in acute promyelocytic leukemia patients who received all

  11. Overexpression of Rac1 in leukemia patients and its role in leukemia cell migration and growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jiying; Rao, Qing; Wang, Min; Wei, Hui; Xing, Haiyan; Liu, Hang; Wang, Yanzhong; Tang, Kejing; Peng, Leiwen; Tian, Zheng; Wang, Jianxiang

    2009-01-01

    Rac1 belongs to the Rho family that act as critical mediators of signaling pathways controlling cell migration and proliferation and contributes to the interactions of hematopoietic stem cells with their microenvironment. Alteration of Rac1 might result in unbalanced interactions and ultimately lead to leukemogenesis. In this study, we analyze the expression of Rac1 protein in leukemia patients and determine its role in the abnormal behaviours of leukemic cells. Rac1 protein is overexpressed in primary acute myeloid leukemia cells as compared to normal bone marrow mononuclear cells. siRNA-mediated silencing of Rac1 in leukemia cell lines induced inhibition of cell migration, proliferation, and colony formation. Additionally, blocking Rac1 activity by an inhibitor of Rac1-GTPase, NSC23766, suppressed cell migration and growth. We conclude that overexpression of Rac1 contributes to the accelerated migration and high proliferation potential of leukemia cells, which could be implicated in leukemia development and progression.

  12. Overexpression of Rac1 in leukemia patients and its role in leukemia cell migration and growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jiying [State Key Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, Institute of Hematology and Blood Diseases Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 288 Nanjing Road, Tianjin 300020 (China); Rao, Qing, E-mail: raoqing@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, Institute of Hematology and Blood Diseases Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 288 Nanjing Road, Tianjin 300020 (China); Wang, Min; Wei, Hui; Xing, Haiyan; Liu, Hang; Wang, Yanzhong; Tang, Kejing; Peng, Leiwen; Tian, Zheng; Wang, Jianxiang [State Key Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, Institute of Hematology and Blood Diseases Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 288 Nanjing Road, Tianjin 300020 (China)

    2009-09-04

    Rac1 belongs to the Rho family that act as critical mediators of signaling pathways controlling cell migration and proliferation and contributes to the interactions of hematopoietic stem cells with their microenvironment. Alteration of Rac1 might result in unbalanced interactions and ultimately lead to leukemogenesis. In this study, we analyze the expression of Rac1 protein in leukemia patients and determine its role in the abnormal behaviours of leukemic cells. Rac1 protein is overexpressed in primary acute myeloid leukemia cells as compared to normal bone marrow mononuclear cells. siRNA-mediated silencing of Rac1 in leukemia cell lines induced inhibition of cell migration, proliferation, and colony formation. Additionally, blocking Rac1 activity by an inhibitor of Rac1-GTPase, NSC23766, suppressed cell migration and growth. We conclude that overexpression of Rac1 contributes to the accelerated migration and high proliferation potential of leukemia cells, which could be implicated in leukemia development and progression.

  13. Perspectives on the causes of childhood leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemels, Joseph

    2012-04-05

    Acute leukemia is the most common cancer in children but the causes of the disease in the majority of cases are not known. About 80% are precursor-B cell in origin (CD19+, CD10+), and this immunophenotype has increased in incidence over the past several decades in the Western world. Part of this increase may be due to the introduction of new chemical exposures into the child's environment including parental smoking, pesticides, traffic fumes, paint and household chemicals. However, much of the increase in leukemia rates is likely linked to altered patterns of infection during early childhood development, mirroring causal pathways responsible for a similarly increased incidence of other childhood-diagnosed immune-related illnesses including allergy, asthma, and type 1 diabetes. Factors linked to childhood leukemia that are likely surrogates for immune stimulation include exposure to childcare settings, parity status and birth order, vaccination history, and population mixing. In case-control studies, acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is consistently inversely associated with greater exposure to infections, via daycare and later birth order. New evidence suggests also that children who contract leukemia may harbor a congenital defect in immune responder status, as indicated by lower levels of the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10 at birth in children who grow up to contract leukemia, as well as higher need for clinical care for infections within the first year of life despite having lower levels of exposure to infections. One manifestation of this phenomenon may be leukemia clusters which tend to appear as a leukemia "outbreak" among populations with low herd immunity to a new infection. Critical answers to the etiology of childhood leukemia will require incorporating new tools into traditional epidemiologic approaches - including the classification of leukemia at a molecular scale, better exposure assessments at all points in a child's life, a comprehensive

  14. CD19/CD22 Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells and Chemotherapy in Treating Children or Young Adults With Recurrent or Refractory CD19 Positive B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-20

    B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; CD19 Positive; Minimal Residual Disease; Philadelphia Chromosome Positive; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Refractory Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  15. HA-1 T TCR T Cell Immunotherapy for the Treating of Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Leukemia After Donor Stem Cell Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-30

    HLA-A*0201 HA-1 Positive Cells Present; Minimal Residual Disease; Recurrent Acute Biphenotypic Leukemia; Recurrent Acute Undifferentiated Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Refractory Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  16. Report of chronic myeloid leukemia SMS Medical College Hospital, Jaipur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Hemant; Sharma, Rajesh; Singh, Yogender; Chaturvedi, Hemant

    2013-07-01

    This is a retrospective analysis of patients of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) registered and under treatment at the Leukemia Lymphoma Clinic at the Birla Cancer Center, SMS Medical College Hospital, Jaipur. Approximately, two-thirds of the patients are getting imatinib mesylate (IM) through the Glivec International Patient Assistance Program while the rest are on generic IM. In addition to comparison of hematological and molecular responses in the Glivec versus the genetic group, in this analysis, an attempt is also made to assess the socio-economic (SE) status of the patients and its effect on the response rates. Of the 213 patients studied, most (28.6%) are in the age group between 30 years and 40 years and the mean age of the patients in 39 years, a good decade younger that in the west. There is a suggestion that patients in lower SE class present with higher Sokal scores and with more disease burden. Possibly hematological responses are similar with both Glivec and generic IM. No comment can be made with regards to molecular response between the two groups as a significant number of patients in the Glivec arm (42%) do not have molecular assessment because of economic reasons. CML is a common and challenging disease in the developing world with patients presenting at an earlier age with more advanced disease. SE factors play a significant role in therapy and disease monitoring decision making and may impact on response rates and prognosis.

  17. Comprehensive mutational profiling of core binding factor acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duployez, Nicolas; Marceau-Renaut, Alice; Boissel, Nicolas; Petit, Arnaud; Bucci, Maxime; Geffroy, Sandrine; Lapillonne, Hélène; Renneville, Aline; Ragu, Christine; Figeac, Martin; Celli-Lebras, Karine; Lacombe, Catherine; Micol, Jean-Baptiste; Abdel-Wahab, Omar; Cornillet, Pascale; Ifrah, Norbert; Dombret, Hervé; Leverger, Guy; Jourdan, Eric; Preudhomme, Claude

    2016-05-19

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with t(8;21) or inv(16) have been recognized as unique entities within AML and are usually reported together as core binding factor AML (CBF-AML). However, there is considerable clinical and biological heterogeneity within this group of diseases, and relapse incidence reaches up to 40%. Moreover, translocations involving CBFs are not sufficient to induce AML on its own and the full spectrum of mutations coexisting with CBF translocations has not been elucidated. To address these issues, we performed extensive mutational analysis by high-throughput sequencing in 215 patients with CBF-AML enrolled in the Phase 3 Trial of Systematic Versus Response-adapted Timed-Sequential Induction in Patients With Core Binding Factor Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Treating Patients with Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia with Interleukin-2 trials (age, 1-60 years). Mutations in genes activating tyrosine kinase signaling (including KIT, N/KRAS, and FLT3) were frequent in both subtypes of CBF-AML. In contrast, mutations in genes that regulate chromatin conformation or encode members of the cohesin complex were observed with high frequencies in t(8;21) AML (42% and 18%, respectively), whereas they were nearly absent in inv(16) AML. High KIT mutant allele ratios defined a group of t(8;21) AML patients with poor prognosis, whereas high N/KRAS mutant allele ratios were associated with the lack of KIT or FLT3 mutations and a favorable outcome. In addition, mutations in epigenetic modifying or cohesin genes were associated with a poor prognosis in patients with tyrosine kinase pathway mutations, suggesting synergic cooperation between these events. These data suggest that diverse cooperating mutations may influence CBF-AML pathophysiology as well as clinical behavior and point to potential unique pathogenesis of t(8;21) vs inv(16) AML. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  18. Genetics Home Reference: cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testing (1 link) Genetic Testing Registry: Acute myeloid leukemia Other Diagnosis and Management Resources (3 links) Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center National Cancer Institute: Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment St. Jude Children's Research Hospital General Information ...

  19. Study of ultrasonic imagine of spleen in patients with leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Hui; Zhou Chunyan; Jiang Ju; Luo Liying; Huang Yanhong

    2011-01-01

    To investigate spleen ultrasonic imagine in patients with leukemia and to provide basis information for preventing and treat disease,the spleens imaging of 158 patients with leukemia were detected by B mode ultrasonicgraphy and the data of clinical medical examination were analyzed.The results showed that the spleens' ultrasonic imagine of patients with leukemia were not related to the degree of anemia.The ultrasonic imagines of spleen in patients with chronic leukemia were different to the other kinds of leukemia.The ultrasonic imagine of spleens in leukemia patients are related to types and development of leukemia.The B-ultrasound screening should be used to help clinical diagnosis and treatment of patients with leukemia. (authors)

  20. Hairy Cell Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairy cell leukemia treatment options include surveillance, chemotherapy, targeted therapy/immunotherapy, and splenectomy. The decision to treat is based on cytopenias, splenomegaly, or infectious complications. Get detailed information about hairy cell leukemia in this clinician summary.

  1. Trisomy/tetrasomy 13 in seven cases of acute leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreekantaiah, C; Baer, M R; Morgan, S; Isaacs, J D; Miller, K B; Sandberg, A A

    1990-11-01

    We report the clinical presentation and the morphologic, histochemical, and immunophenotypic characteristics of seven patients with acute leukemia who had trisomy/tetrasomy 13 as the sole cytogenetic abnormality in their leukemia. Five patients had trisomy 13 at diagnosis of acute leukemia. All five of these patients had undifferentiated leukemias. The sixth patient, who had French-American-British (FAB) type M2 acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL), and the seventh patient with biphenotypic acute leukemia developed the trisomic clone as a new abnormality late in the course of their disease. A review of the literature revealed 28 previously reported hematologic malignancies with trisomy 13 or tetrasomy 13q as a solitary cytogenetic abnormality. Trisomy 13 appears to represent another rare but nonrandom cytogenetic abnormality in acute leukemia. In our series trisomy 13 is largely associated with acute leukemia with little myeloid or lymphoid differentiation.

  2. Do We Know What Causes Chronic Myeloid Leukemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Be Prevented? More In Chronic Myeloid Leukemia About Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treatment After Treatment Back To Top Imagine a world ...

  3. AR-42 and Decitabine in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-12

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  4. Relative biological effectiveness of tritium for induction of myeloid leukemia in CBA/H mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.R.; Myers, D.K.; Jones, A.R.

    1995-01-01

    To help resolve uncertainties as to the most appropriate weighting factor for tritium β rays, a large experiment was carried out to measure the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of tritiated water compared to X-rays for the induction of myeloid leukemia in male mice of the CBA/H strain. The study was designed to estimate the lifetime incidence of myeloid leukemia in seven groups of about 750 mice each; radiation exposures were approximately 0, 1, 2 and 3 Gy both for tritiated water and for X rays. The lifetime incidence of leukemia in these mice increased from 0.13% in the control group to 6-8% in groups exposed to higher radiation doses. The results were fitted to various equations relating leukemia incidence to radiation dose, using both the raw data and data corrected for cumulative mouse-days at risk. The calculated RBE values for tritium β rays compared to X rays ranged from 1.0 ± to 1.3 ± 0.3. A w R value or 1 would thus appear to be more appropriate than a w R of 2 tritium β rays. 31 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs

  5. RBE of tritium for induction of myeloid leukemia in CBA/H mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.; Jackson, J.S.; Gragtmans, N.J.; Jones, A.R.; Dunford, D.W.; Wyatt, H.M.; Percy, D.H.

    1990-05-01

    In order to help resolve uncertainties as to the most appropriate quality factor for tritium beta rays, a large experiment was carried out to measure the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of tritiated water compared to X rays for the induction of myeloid leukemia in male mice of CBA/H strain. The study was designed to estimate the lifetime incidence of myeloid leukemia in seven groups of about 750 mice each; radiation exposures were approximately 0, 1, 2 and 3 grays both for tritiated water and X rays. The lifetime incidence of leukemia in these mice increased from 0.13% in the control group to 6-8% in groups exposed to higher radiation doses. The results were fitted to various equations relating leukemia incidence to radiation dose, using both the raw data and data corrected for cumulative animal-days at risk. The calculated RBE values for tritium beta rays compared to X rays ranged from 1.0 ± 0.5 to 1.3 ± 0.3. A best estimate of the RBE for this experiment was about 1.2 ± 0.3. A Q value of 1 would thus appear to be more appropriate than a Q of 2 for tritium beta rays

  6. Relative biological effectiveness of tritium for induction of myeloid leukemia in CBA/H mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.R.; Myers, D.K.; Jackson, J.S.; Dunford, D.W.; Gragtmans, N.J.; Wyatt, H.M.; Jones, A.R.; Percy, D.H.

    1995-01-01

    To help resolve uncertainties as to the most appropriate weighting factor for tritium β rays, a large experiment was carried out to measure the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of tritiated water compared to X rays for the induction of myeloid leukemia in male mice of the CBA/H strain. The study was designed to estimate the lifetime incidence of myeloid leukemia in seven groups of about 750 mice each; radiation exposures were approximately 0, 1, 2 and 3 Gy both for tritiated water and for X rays. The lifetime incidence of leukemia in these mice increased from 0.13% in the control group to 6-8% in groups exposed to higher radiation doses. The results were fitted to various equations relating leukemia incidence to radiation dose, using both the raw data and data corrected for cumulative mouse-days at risk. The calculated RBE values for tritium 13 rays compared to X rays ranged from 1.0 ± 0.5 to 1.3 ± 0.3. A best estimate of the RBE for this experiment was about 1.2 ± 0.3. A w R value of 1 would thus appear to be more appropriate than a W R of 2 for tritium β rays. (author)

  7. Relative biological effectiveness of tritium for induction of myeloid leukemia in CBA/H mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.R. [Battelle Pacific Northwest Labs., Health Protection Branch, Health Div., Richland, WA (United States); Myers, D.K.; Jackson, J.S.; Dunford, D.W.; Gragtmans, N.J.; Wyatt, H.M.; Jones, A.R. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontairo (Canada); Percy, D.H. [Univ. of Guelph, Ontario Veterinary College, Guelph, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-07-01

    To help resolve uncertainties as to the most appropriate weighting factor for tritium {beta} rays, a large experiment was carried out to measure the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of tritiated water compared to X rays for the induction of myeloid leukemia in male mice of the CBA/H strain. The study was designed to estimate the lifetime incidence of myeloid leukemia in seven groups of about 750 mice each; radiation exposures were approximately 0, 1, 2 and 3 Gy both for tritiated water and for X rays. The lifetime incidence of leukemia in these mice increased from 0.13% in the control group to 6-8% in groups exposed to higher radiation doses. The results were fitted to various equations relating leukemia incidence to radiation dose, using both the raw data and data corrected for cumulative mouse-days at risk. The calculated RBE values for tritium 13 rays compared to X rays ranged from 1.0 {+-} 0.5 to 1.3 {+-} 0.3. A best estimate of the RBE for this experiment was about 1.2 {+-} 0.3. A w{sub R} value of 1 would thus appear to be more appropriate than a W{sub R} of 2 for tritium {beta} rays. (author)

  8. Relative biological effectiveness of tritium for induction of myeloid leukemia in CBA/H mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J R; Myers, D K; Jackson, J S; Dunford, D W; Gragtmans, N J; Wyatt, H M; Jones, A R; Percy, D H

    1995-10-01

    To help resolve uncertainties as to the most appropriate weighting factor for tritium beta rays, a large experiment was carried out to measure the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of tritiated water compared to X rays for the induction of myeloid leukemia in male mice of the CBA/H strain. The study was designed to estimate the lifetime incidence of myeloid leukemia in seven groups of about 750 mice each; radiation exposures were approximately 0, 1, 2 and 3 Gy both for tritiated water and for X rays. The lifetime incidence of leukemia in these mice increased from 0.13% in the control group to 6-8% in groups exposed to higher radiation doses. The results were fitted to various equations relating leukemia incidence to radiation dose, using both the raw data and data corrected for cumulative mouse-days at risk. The calculated RBE values for tritium beta rays compared to X rays ranged from 1.0 +/- 0.5 to 1.3 +/- 0.3. A best estimate of the RBE for this experiment was about 1.2 +/- 0.3. A wR value of 1 would thus appear to be more appropriate than a wR of 2 for tritium beta rays.

  9. Genetics Home Reference: familial acute myeloid leukemia with mutated CEBPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Familial acute myeloid leukemia with mutated CEBPA Familial acute myeloid leukemia with mutated CEBPA Printable PDF Open All Close ... on PubMed (1 link) PubMed OMIM (1 link) LEUKEMIA, ACUTE MYELOID Sources for This Page Carmichael CL, Wilkins EJ, ...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: core binding factor acute myeloid leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... binding factor acute myeloid leukemia Core binding factor acute myeloid leukemia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... on PubMed (1 link) PubMed OMIM (1 link) LEUKEMIA, ACUTE MYELOID Sources for This Page Goyama S, Mulloy JC. Molecular ...

  11. Blastic Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Leukemia in a Black Malian

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-28

    Jun 28, 2017 ... BPDCN in Mali. KEYWORDS: Acute Leukemia, black african, dendritic cell, Mali ... myeloid neoplasm by the 2008 world health organization classification of .... There are many standardized treatment regimens, and many protocols with ... leukemia chemotherapy regimen[7,11] or chronic leukemia treatment ...

  12. Chronic myeloid leukemia: reminiscences and dreams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughal, Tariq I.; Radich, Jerald P.; Deininger, Michael W.; Apperley, Jane F.; Hughes, Timothy P.; Harrison, Christine J.; Gambacorti-Passerini, Carlo; Saglio, Giuseppe; Cortes, Jorge; Daley, George Q.

    2016-01-01

    With the deaths of Janet Rowley and John Goldman in December 2013, the world lost two pioneers in the field of chronic myeloid leukemia. In 1973, Janet Rowley, unraveled the cytogenetic anatomy of the Philadelphia chromosome, which subsequently led to the identification of the BCR-ABL1 fusion gene and its principal pathogenetic role in the development of chronic myeloid leukemia. This work was also of major importance to support the idea that cytogenetic changes were drivers of leukemogenesis. John Goldman originally made seminal contributions to the use of autologous and allogeneic stem cell transplantation from the late 1970s onwards. Then, in collaboration with Brian Druker, he led efforts to develop ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the treatment of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in the late 1990s. He also led the global efforts to develop and harmonize methodology for molecular monitoring, and was an indefatigable organizer of international conferences. These conferences brought together clinicians and scientists, and accelerated the adoption of new therapies. The abundance of praise, tributes and testimonies expressed by many serve to illustrate the indelible impressions these two passionate and affable scholars made on so many people’s lives. This tribute provides an outline of the remarkable story of chronic myeloid leukemia, and in writing it, it is clear that the historical triumph of biomedical science over this leukemia cannot be considered without appreciating the work of both Janet Rowley and John Goldman. PMID:27132280

  13. Diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demitrovicova, L.; Mikuskova, E.; Copakova, L.; Leitnerova, M.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) was the first cancer associated with the specific chromosomal aberration. Philadelphia chromosome due to translocation (9, 22) is present in 95% cases, fusion gene BCR/ABL is present in 100% cases at the time of diagnosis. Disease has its own characteristics detectable by physical examination, by the examination of blood count and differential and by cytomorhologic examination of bone marrow, however the diagnosis of CML is determined by cytogenetics and molecular genetics. If the diagnosis of Ph+ BCR/ABL positive CML is confirmed, the disease is treated by tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). TKI don´t affect formation of leukemic gene BCR/ABL, but they can stop the action of this gene. The target therapy of tyrosine kinase inhibitors markedly improved the survival of patients with CML by inhibition the proliferation of leukemic clone on the clinically safety level of minimal disease, although probably this treatment cannot cure the CML. Cytogenetics and molecular genetics are very important at the monitoring of residual disease with sensitivity 10"-"6. (author)

  14. Selective host range restriction of goat cells for recombinant murine leukemia virus and feline leukemia virus type A.

    OpenAIRE

    Fischinger, P J; Thiel, H J; Blevins, C S; Dunlop, N M

    1981-01-01

    We isolated a strain of normal goat fibroblasts which was uniquely selective in that it allowed the replication of xenotropic murine leukemia virus but not polytropic recombinant murine leukemia virus. In addition, feline leukemia virus type A replication was severely diminished in these goat cells, whereas feline leukemia virus type B and feline endogenous RD114-CCC viruses replicated efficiently. No other known cells exhibit this pattern of virus growth restriction. These goat cells allow t...

  15. Myeloblastic and lymphoblastic markers in acute undifferentiated leukemia and chronic myelogenous leukemia in blast crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumak, K H; Baker, M A; Taub, R N; Coleman, M S

    1980-11-01

    Blast cells were obtained from 17 patients with acute undifferentiated leukemia and 13 patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia in blast crisis. The blasts were tested with anti-i serum in cytotoxicity tests and with antisera to myeloblastic leukemia-associated antigens in immunofluorescence tests. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TDT) content of the blasts was also measured. Lymphoblasts react strongly with anti-i, do not react with anti-myeloblast serum, and have high levels of TDT; myeloblasts react weakly with anti-i, do not react with anti-myeloblast serum, and have very low levels of TDT. Of the 17 patients with acute undifferentiated leukemia, there were six with blasts which reacted like lymphoblasts, six with blasts which reacted like myeloblasts, and five with blasts bearing different combinations of these lymphoblastic and myeloblastic markers. Eight of the 11 patients with lymphoblastic or mixed lymphoblastic-myeloblastic markers, but only one of the six with myeloblastic markers, achieved complete or partial remission in response to therapy. Thus, in acute undifferentiated leukemia, classification of blasts with these markers may be of prognostic value. Of the 13 patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia in blast crises, the markers were concordant (for myeloblasts) in only two cases. Three of the 13 patients had TDT-positive blasts, but the reactions of these cells with anti-i and with anti-myeloblast serum differed from those seen with lymphoblasts from patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Although the cell involved in "lymphoid" blast crisis of chronic myelogenous leukemia is similar in many respects to that involved in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, these cells are not identical.

  16. Morphologic identification of atypical chronic lymphocytic leukemia by digital microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marionneaux, S; Maslak, P; Keohane, E M

    2014-08-01

    Atypical chronic lymphocytic leukemia (aCLL) is a morphologic variant found in approximately 25% of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Although aCLL has a more aggressive course compared to typical CLL (tCLL), it is not usually reported. This retrospective study used digital microscopy to morphologically classify CLL patients as aCLL or tCLL, and determined the prevalence of prognostic markers in each group. CellaVision AB (Lund, Sweden) was used to evaluate lymphocyte morphology on archived blood films of 97 CLL patients, and results of their prognostic marker analysis at diagnosis were obtained. The unpaired t-test, Chi-square, or Fisher's Exact test were used for statistical analysis. 27% of CLL cases were morphologically classified as aCLL. The aCLL group had a higher prevalence of trisomy 12, unmutated IgVH, and CD38 expression (markers associated with poor prognosis), and a lower prevalence of 13q14 deletions compared to tCLL; this was statistically significant. Using digital imaging to identify aCLL is feasible, economical, and may provide clinically relevant prognostic information at diagnosis and during periodic monitoring. Further study of a larger number of patients is needed to assess the clinical utility of reporting aCLL morphology. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. One hundred patients with acute leukemia treated by chemotherapy, total body irradiation, and allogeneic marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, E.D.; Buckner, C.D.; Banaji, M.

    1977-01-01

    One hundred patients, 54 with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and 46 with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), considered to be in the end stages of their disease, after combination chemotherapy were treated by marrow transplantation. All patients were given a marrow graft from an HLA-identical sibling after receiving 1000-rad total body irradiation (TBI). One group of 43 patients was given cyclophosphamide (CY), 60 mg/kg on each of 2 days, 5 and 4 days before TBI. In a second group of 31 patients, additional chemotherapy was given before CY and TBI. In a third group of 19 patients, BCNU was given before CY and TBI. A fourth group of 7 patients received other chemotherapy regimens before TBI. Six patients died 3 to 17 days after marrow infusion without evidence of engraftment. Ninety-four patients were engrafted rejected and only one patient rejected the graft. Thirteen patients are alive with a marrow graft, on no maintenance antileukemic therapy, and without recurrent leukemia 1--4 1 / 2 yr after transplantation. Three have chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The relapse rate appeared to be relatively constant over the first 2 yr and was extremely low after that time. Neither survival nor leukemic relapse appeared to be influenced by the type of leukemia nor by the preparative chemotherapy regimen given before TBI. Patients in fair clinical condition at the time of transplantation showed significantly longer survival times than patients in poor condition (p = 0.001). This observation, coupled with the observation that some patients may be cured of their disease, indicates that marrow transplantation should now be undertaken earlier in the management of patients with acute leukemia who have an HLA-matched sibling marrow donor

  18. Reassessment of diagnosis and subtyping of leukemias among atomic bomb survivors, 4. Combined analysis of Hiroshima and Nagasaki cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomonaga, Masao; Kuriyama, Kazutaka; Ichimaru, Michito; Matsuo, Tatsuki; Finch, S C; Imanaka, Fumio; Kuramoto, Atsushi; Kamada, Nanao

    1988-03-01

    In evaluable 456 (60 %) of 750 leukemic patients exposed at less than or equal to9,000 m from the hypocenter, diagnosis and subtypes of leukemia were reevaluated in relation to radiation doses and age at the time of bombing using a new classification method of French-American-British (FAB). The FAB classification diagnosed 63 patients (13.5 %) as acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL), 181 (39.0 %) as acute myeloid leukemia (AML), 26 (5.6 %) as myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), 106 (22.8 %) as chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), 39 (7.5 %) as adult T-cell leukemia, and 5 (0.8 %) as chronic lymphocytic leukemia. According to radiation doses, the incidence of CML increased in the group exposed to one to 99 cGy; the incidences of ALL and MDS increased in the group exposed to greater than or equal to100 cGy. The incidence of CML was definitively higher in Hiroshima than Nagasaki in all groups; this was noted in the group exposed to 0 cGy (approximately 2.5 times higher). The incidences of ALL and MDS showed a tendency to increase in proportion to radiation doses. In the group exposed to greater than or equal to100 cGy, the incidences of ALL, CML, and MDS increased in patients younger than 15 years, those aged 16 - 35 years, and those older than 36 years, respectively, at the time of the bombing. In this group, there were also differences in latent period (10 yr in ALL and CML, 15 yr in AML, and 17 yr in MDS). None of the AML patients in the group exposed to greater than or equal to100 cGy had M3. (Namekawa, K.).

  19. Daunorubicin Hydrochloride, Cytarabine and Oblimersen Sodium in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  20. Appearance and Disappearance of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) in Patient with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)

    OpenAIRE

    Payandeh, Mehrdad; Sadeghi, Edris; Khodarahmi, Reza; Sadeghi, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) are the most common leukemias of the elderly (>43 year). However, the sequential occurrence of CML followed by CLL in the same patient is extremely rare. In our report, a 52-year-old female was diagnosed with CLL (type of bone marrow (BM) infiltration was nodular and interstitial) and was treated with chlorambucil. 64 months after the diagnosis of CLL, she developed CML. She was treated with imatinib (400mg/day). After a fe...

  1. Appearance and Disappearance of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) in Patient with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payandeh, Mehrdad; Sadeghi, Edris; Khodarahmi, Reza; Sadeghi, Masoud

    2014-10-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) are the most common leukemias of the elderly (>43 year). However, the sequential occurrence of CML followed by CLL in the same patient is extremely rare. In our report, a 52-year-old female was diagnosed with CLL (type of bone marrow (BM) infiltration was nodular and interstitial) and was treated with chlorambucil. 64 months after the diagnosis of CLL, she developed CML. She was treated with imatinib (400mg/day). After a few months, signs of CML were disappeared and CLL became dominant. This is first reported case.

  2. Apparent feline leukemia virus-induced chronic lymphocytic leukemia and response to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Kristy N; Wright, Zachary

    2010-04-01

    Chylothorax secondary to chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was diagnosed in a feline leukemia virus (FeLV)-positive 8-year-old castrated male domestic shorthair feline. The leukemia resolved following therapy with chlorambucil, prednisone, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and lomustine. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of CLL in an FeLV-positive cat. Although a causative relationship cannot be proven, patients diagnosed with either disease may benefit from diagnostics to rule out the presence of the other concurrent condition. Copyright 2009 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Overview on available animal models for application in leukemia research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkhardt, A.; Sanchez-Garcia, I.; Cobaleda, C.; Hauer, J.

    2015-01-01

    The term ''leukemia'' encompasses a group of diseases with a variable clinical and pathological presentation. Its cellular origin, its biology and the underlying molecular genetic alterations determine the very variable and individual disease phenotype. The focus of this review is to discuss the most important guidelines to be taken into account when we aim at developing an ''ideal'' animal model to study leukemia. The animal model should mimic all the clinical, histological and molecular genetic characteristics of the human phenotype and should be applicable as a clinically predictive model. It should achieve all the requirements to be used as a standardized model adaptive to basic research as well as to pharmaceutical practice. Furthermore it should fulfill all the criteria to investigate environmental risk factors, the role of genomic mutations and be applicable for therapeutic testing. These constraints limit the usefulness of some existing animal models, which are however very valuable for basic research. Hence in this review we will primarily focus on genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) to study the most frequent types of childhood leukemia. GEMMs are robust models with relatively low site specific variability and which can, with the help of the latest gene modulating tools be adapted to individual clinical and research questions. Moreover they offer the possibility to restrict oncogene expression to a defined target population and regulate its expression level as well as its timely activity. Until recently it was only possible in individual cases to develop a murin model, which fulfills the above mentioned requirements. Hence the development of new regulatory elements to control targeted oncogene expression should be priority. Tightly controlled and cell specific oncogene expression can then be combined with a knock-in approach and will depict a robust murine model, which enables almost physiologic oncogene

  4. Late effects of childhood leukemia therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulbright, Joy M; Raman, Sripriya; McClellan, Wendy S; August, Keith J

    2011-09-01

    As survival rates for children treated for childhood cancers become significantly better, the focus is increasingly on determining the late effects of treatments and the best ways to monitor for them and prevent their occurrence. This review focuses on recent literature discussing the late effects of treatment in patients treated for acute myeloid leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia during childhood. The late effects of therapy for childhood leukemia include secondary malignancy, cardiotoxicity, obesity, endocrine abnormalities, reproductive changes, neurocognitive deficits, and psychosocial effects. As clinicians have become more aware of the late effects of therapy, treatment regimens have been changed to decrease late effects, but patients still require long-term follow-up for their prevention and treatment.

  5. Marijuana Smoking in Patients With Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khwaja, Sara; Yacoub, Abraham; Cheema, Asima; Rihana, Nancy; Russo, Robin; Velez, Ana Paula; Nanjappa, Sowmya; Sandin, Ramon L; Bohra, Chandrashekar; Gajanan, Ganesh; Greene, John N

    2016-07-01

    Worldwide, marijuana (cannabis) is a widely used drug. The incidence of marijuana smoking is increasing and is second only to tobacco as the most widely smoked substance in the general population. It is also the second most commonly used recreational drug after alcohol. Some adverse effects of marijuana smoking have been documented; however, the number of studies on the pulmonary effects of marijuana in individuals with leukemia is limited. In our case series, we report on 2 men with acute myeloid leukemia with miliary nodular lung patterns on computed tomography of the chest due to heavy marijuana use. We also report on 2 patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia who had a history of smoking marijuana and then developed lung opacities consistent with mold infection.

  6. A typical presentation of acute myeloid leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udayakumar N

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A young man who presented with fever, altered sensorium and sudden onset tachypnea, is described. Arterial blood gas analysis, revealed the presence of severe high anion gap metabolic acidosis, with compensatory respiratory alkalosis and normal oxygen saturation. A detailed neurological, nephrological, biochemical and hematological evaluation, revealed the presence of Acute myeloid leukemia, with lactic acidosis and hyponatremia. There are very few reports of presentation of leukemia as lactic acidosis. This case report highlights the need for emergency room physicians, to consider the possibility of lactic acidosis, as one of the causes of high anion gap acidosis and to meticulously investigate the cause of lactic acidosis. We describe a rare clinical instance of lactic acidosis as the presenting manifestation of Acute myeloid leukemia.

  7. Mobilized peripheral blood stem cells compared with bone marrow from HLA-identical siblings for reduced-intensity conditioning transplantation in acute myeloid leukemia in complete remission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagler, Arnon; Labopin, Myriam; Shimoni, Avichai

    2012-01-01

    Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC)-alloSCT is increasingly used for acute myelogenous leukemia. Limited data are available for the comparison of peripheral blood stem cells with bone marrow for RIC-alloSCT. We used the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) ALWP data...... to compare the outcome of mobilized peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) (n = 1430) vs. bone marrow (BM) (n = 107) for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) patients with complete remission that underwent RIC-alloSCT from compatible sibling donors. The leukemia features, the disease status, and the time from...

  8. Paranasal Manifestations of Early Stage Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceren Günel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL is the most common adult leukemia. A few studies have been reported about the relationship between CLL and paranasal sinuses. We aimed to investigate the paranasal manifestations of CLL and to determine the expression of nuclear factor-ĸB (NF-kB and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α in the nasal mucosa in patients with CLL. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a clinical trial that involved 40 patients. Group CLL (n=20 consisted of patients with early-stage CLL who were followed-up at the hematology clinic and who did not receive any treatment. The control group (n=20 consisted of patients who had undergone concha surgery because of nasal obstruction. Paranasal sinus computer tomography scans of all patients were taken, they were scored on the basis of the Lund–Mackay system, and sinusitis findings were recorded. The biopsy material taken from the inferior concha head of all patients was immunohistochemically stained with primary antibodies against NF-kB and TNF-α. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups with respect to NF-κB (p=0.716 and TNF-α staining scores (p=1.000. The Lund–Mackay scores were significantly higher in the CLL group than in the control group (p=0.004. Fourteen patients had sinusitis at different locations, while the most common diagnosis was maxillary sinusitis (n=8 in the CLL group. CONCLUSION: This study showed that patients with early-stage CLL tend to have rhinosinusitis. However, NF-kB and TNF-α may not have a role in the inflammatory process involving the paranasal sinuses in patients with CLL.

  9. Long-term cytogenetic effects of antineoplastic treatment in relation to secondary leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genuardi, M.; Zollino, M.; Serra, A.; Leone, G.; Mancini, R.; Mango, G.; Neri, G.

    1988-01-01

    Chromosome translocations are consistently present in leukemias and lymphomas and are likely to represent primary events in the development of these neoplasias. A study of conditions that predispose to leukemia could shed some light on the origin of these translocations and therefore help in clarifying their exact role in the process of neoplastic transformation. Based on this assumption, we studied a group of individuals treated with radiochemotherapy for previous lymphoma and who were at increased risk of developing a secondary leukemia. The group comprised 14 Hodgkin's disease patients, 11 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients, and 13 controls. The patients were in remission and had been off therapy for at least 6 months. Chromosomes were studied from phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated peripheral lymphocytes and from bone marrow cells by the direct method and after short-term cultures (72 hours). The latter were also exposed to 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). Metaphases were scored for chromosome breaks, gaps, and other rearrangements. The percentage of gaps and breaks was significantly higher in patients than in controls. The difference was induced by BrdU and was apparent in bone marrow cells, but not in peripheral lymphocytes. We conclude that individuals exposed to the action of mutagenic agents (radiochemotherapy) have an increased chromosome instability that could be related to their increased risk of developing a secondary leukemia

  10. Phase II trial of vindesine in patients with acute leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklaroff, R B; Arlin, Z; Young, C W

    1979-01-01

    Vindesine was administered to 18 patients with acute leukemia who had failed conventional chemotherapy. Each course of therapy consisted of an iv bolus infusion at a dose of 1-2 mg/m2 given daily x 5-10 days. Of 13 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, two had partial remissions which lasted 2 and 3 months and five had minor responses. One of three patients with acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia and one of two patients with blastic crisis of chronic myelogenous leukemia each had a minor response. The data suggest that vindesine has activity in the treatment of acute leukemia.

  11. Brick mortar exposure and chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic-Denic, L; Jankovic, S; Marinkovic, J; Radovanovic, Z

    1995-01-01

    A case-control study of 130 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and 130 controls matched with respect to sex, age (2 years), type of residence (urban-rural) and area of residence (according to the national per capita income) was carried out. Conditional logistic regression analysis showed that, apart of four risk factors already described in the literature (work in a hazardous industry, hair dye use, family history of leukemia and exposure to electromagnetic radiation), brick mortar exposure was also significantly related to CLL.

  12. Brick mortar exposure and chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markovic-Denic, Lj.; Jankovic, S.; Marinkovic, J.; Radovanovic, Z.

    1995-01-01

    A case-control study of 130 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and 130 controls matched with respect to sex, age (2 years), type of residence, (urban-rural) and area of residence (according to the national per capita income) was carried out. Conditional logistic regression analysis showed that, apart of four risk factors already described in the literature (work in a hazardous industry, hair dye use, family history of leukemia and exposure to electromagnetic radiation), brick mortar exposure was also significantly related to CLL. (author)

  13. Brick mortar exposure and chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markovic-Denic, Lj; Jankovic, S [Institute of Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Marinkovic, J [Institute of Social Medicine, Statistics and Healt Research, Faculty of Medicine, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Radovanovic, Z [Department of Community Medicine and Behavioural Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, 13110 Safat (Kuwait)

    1996-12-31

    A case-control study of 130 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and 130 controls matched with respect to sex, age (2 years), type of residence, (urban-rural) and area of residence (according to the national per capita income) was carried out. Conditional logistic regression analysis showed that, apart of four risk factors already described in the literature (work in a hazardous industry, hair dye use, family history of leukemia and exposure to electromagnetic radiation), brick mortar exposure was also significantly related to CLL. (author) 1 tab., 30 refs.

  14. More child leukemia near nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    A French study shows that there are more cases of child leukemia near nuclear power plants but the statistics is low: only 14 cases detected. The same study shows that the excess is not due to the releases of gaseous effluents from the plant, there is no relationship between the excess and a particular type of plant or even a particular plant. Some experts suggest that it might be the movement and intermingling of populations in the plant area that ease the propagation of infectious agents involved in child acute leukemia. A similar result was obtained in Germany a few years ago. (A.C.)

  15. Expression of MDM2 in an acute lymphocytic leukemia mice model induced by γ-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yuecheng; Cai Jianming; Han Ling; Gao Fu; Cui Jianguo; Gao Jianguo

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of the MDM 2 in the process of carcinogenesis induced by γ-rays and its molecular mechanisms. Methods: Animal model of radiation-induced leukemia was established by γ-irradiation. According to the histological and morphological results, mice tissues were divided into three groups: cancerization group, incancerization group and control group. Expression of MDM 2 protein and mRNA in thymus/bone marrow was detected with Western blot and in situ hybridization (ISH), respectively. The authors also examined the protein phosphorylation level of MDM 2 protein by immunoprecipitation (IP). PCR-SSCP was performed to detect gene mutation. Results: A mice leukemia model was successfully established as verified by pathological findings and confirmed by transplantation test in nude mice. The protein expression in thymus/bone marrow in irradiation groups was significantly higher than that in controls (P 2 was found to be hyper-phosphorylated in the cancerization group as compared with other groups. No gene mutation was detected by SSCP/silver-staining assay in the tumor samples. Conclusion: MDM 2 may be involved in the development and progression of leukemia induced by γ-irradiation. The over-expression but not gene mutation may be responsible for malignant transformation induced by radiation. Phosphorylation is at least partly attributed to activation of MDM 2

  16. Investigation of selected trace elements in Sudanese patients with leukemia using NAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elradi, M M. M. [Atomic Energy Council, Sudan Academy of Sciences, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2010-10-15

    In the present study, the concentrations of Co, Cr, Fe, Hg, Rb, Se, Zn in the serum of 103 adult patients with newly diagnosed of leukemia (before treatment) were studied. Samples were collected from Radiation of Isotopes Center-Khartoum (RICK) and Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Biology-Aljazeera State. Samples were freeze-dried and analyzed using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). Serum levels of these elements were compared with the contents found in healthy group samples. The patients were divided into 4 groups: 1- Acute Lymphoid Leukemia (ALL), 2- Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML), 3- Chronic Lymphoid Leukemia (CLL), 4- Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML). The control group was formed of 40 healthy subjects, data analysis was performed using the T-tests. partial correlation was used to study a relationship between two variables. It was found that, In group I (ALL): higher concentration of Cr, Fe, Hg, Rb, Zn, were found in the serum of patients with significant difference as compared to healthy group (p < 0.05). The concentration of Co was higher than the control group but statistically not significant. The level of selenium was considerably lower than in the control group (p < 0.05). In group II (AML): Significantly elevated values were found in Cr and Fe as compared to the control group. The concentrations of Co, Hg and Zn also were higher but statistically not significant (p> 0.05), the level of selenium was statistically lower than in the control group (p< 0.05). In group III (CLL): It was observed that contents of the Cr, Fe, Hg, Rb, Zn elements were elevated significantly (p<0.05) than healthy subjects. The concentration of Co was higher than the control group but statistically not significant, the level of selenium was considerably lower than in the control group (p < 0.05). In group 4 (CML): The concentrations of Fe, Hg, Rb, Zn were statistically higher than in the healthy subject (p < 0.05). Also the level of Cr was higher but statistically not

  17. Management of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilgenbauer, Stephan; Furman, Richard R; Zent, Clive S

    2015-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL) is usually diagnosed in asymptomatic patients with early-stage disease. The standard management approach is careful observation, irrespective of risk factors unless patients meet the International Workshop on CLL (IWCLL) criteria for "active disease," which requires treatment. The initial standard therapy for most patients combines an anti-CD20 antibody (such as rituximab, ofatumumab, or obinutuzumab) with chemotherapy (fludarabine/cyclophosphamide [FC], bendamustine, or chlorambucil) depending on multiple factors including the physical fitness of the patient. However, patients with very high-risk CLL because of a 17p13 deletion (17p-) with or without mutation of TP53 (17p-/TP53mut) have poor responses to chemoimmunotherapy and require alternative treatment regimens containing B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathway inhibitors. The BCR signaling pathway inhibitors (ibrutinib targeting Bruton's tyrosine kinase [BTK] and idelalisib targeting phosphatidyl-inositol 3-kinase delta [PI3K-delta], respectively) are currently approved for the treatment of relapsed/refractory CLL and all patients with 17p- (ibrutinib), and in combination with rituximab for relapsed/refractory patients (idelalisib). These agents offer great efficacy, even in chemotherapy refractory CLL, with increased tolerability, safety, and survival. Ongoing studies aim to determine the best therapy combinations with the goal of achieving long-term disease control and the possibility of developing a curative regimen for some patients. CLL is associated with a wide range of infectious, autoimmune, and malignant complications. These complications result in considerable morbidity and mortality that can be minimized by early detection and aggressive management. This active monitoring requires ongoing patient education, provider vigilance, and a team approach to patient care.

  18. Mutational analysis of the cell cycle inhibitor Kip1/p27 in childhood leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markaki, E-A; Stiakaki, E; Zafiropoulos, A; Arvanitis, D A; Katzilakis, N; Dimitriou, H; Spandidos, D A; Kalmanti, M

    2006-07-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and cyclins, their regulatory subunits, govern cell-cycle progression in eukaryotic cells. Kip1/p27 is the main cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, which arrests cell division inhibiting G1-S transition. Kip1/p27 seems to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of several human malignancies and its lower expression has been shown to correlate with a poor prognosis in adult solid tumors. Bone marrow blasts from 49 children with leukemia, 37 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and 12 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) were studied. Exon 3 of Kip1/p27 was amplified using the polymerase chain reaction technique (PCR). Single strand conformational polymorphism and heterodouplex analysis were performed to detect DNA sequence with altered conformations and were subsequently sequenced to document mutations. Mutations in Kip1/p27 gene were detected in 2 out of 3 T-ALL, 6 out of 12 AML patients, and only 1 out of 34 B lineage ALL cases. Although the patient groups are small, a highly significant relation of the mutation status with the type of leukemia (P = 0.0037) and the risk group according to treatment protocols (P = 0.00021) was estimated. A statistically significant difference in the white blood count was observed (P = 0.019) between the mutated and non-mutated patient groups although no statistically significant association of the mutation status with the hemoglobin and platelets values, karyotype, age, sex, disease progression, and outcome was determined. Based upon these results, the Kip1/p27 mutations should be considered for further prospective testing as an additional parameter for risk stratification and treatment of childhood leukemia. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Epidemiological assessment of leukemia in Kazakhstan, 2003- 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igissinov, Nurbek; Kulmirzayeva, Dariyana; Moore, Malcolm A; Igissinov, Saginbek; Baidosova, Gulnara; Akpolatova, Gulnur; Bukeyeva, Zhanar; Omralina, Yelvira

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a major health problem facing the entire world, and Kazakhstan is not the exception. The aim of this study was to present an epidemiological assessment of leukemia in the population of Kazakhstan during 2003-2012. This descriptive and retrospective study was based on data obtained from all oncological organizations of the whole country. Age standardized incidence rates per 100,000 population for leukemia were calculated. Totally, 6,741 new cases of leukemia were registered in Kazakhstan during the 10 year period. The mean age of patients with leukemia was 48.5. The ASRs for leukemia among men and women were 5.3 and 3.6, respectively (pKazakhstan, especially in the north of the country. The incidence of leukemia was significantly higher in males and increased with age. Determining and controlling important risk factors of leukemia may lead to decrease in its burden.

  20. Altered brain function in new onset childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia before chemotherapy: A resting-state fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhanqi; Zou, Dongfang; Mai, Huirong; Yuan, Xiuli; Wang, Lihong; Li, Yue; Liao, Jianxiang; Liu, Liwei; Liu, Guosheng; Zeng, Hongwu; Wen, Feiqiu

    2017-10-01

    Cognitive impairments had been reported in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, what caused the impairments needed to be demonstrated, chemotherapy-related or the disease itself. The primary aim of this exploratory investigation was to determine if there were changes in brain function of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia before chemotherapy. In this study, we advanced a measure named regional homogeneity to evaluate the resting-state brain activities, intelligence quotient test was performed at same time. Using regional homogeneity, we first investigated the resting state brain function in patients with new onset childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia before chemotherapy, healthy children as control. The decreased ReHo values were mainly founded in the default mode network and left frontal lobe, bilateral inferior parietal lobule, bilateral temporal lobe, bilateral occipital lobe, precentral gyrus, bilateral cerebellum in the newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients compared with the healthy control. While in contrast, increased ReHo values were mainly shown in the right frontal lobe (language area), superior frontal gyrus-R, middle frontal gyrus-R and inferior parietal lobule-R for acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients group. There were no significant differences for intelligence quotient measurements between the acute lymphoblastic leukemia patient group and the healthy control in performance intelligence quotient, verbal intelligence quotient, total intelligence quotient. The altered brain functions are associated with cognitive change and language, it is suggested that there may be cognition impairment before the chemotherapy. Regional homogeneity by functional magnetic resonance image is a sensitive way for early detection on brain damage in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Leukemia-Initiating Cells in T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shi Hao; Bertulfo, Fatima Carla; Sanda, Takaomi

    2017-01-01

    T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is a hematological malignancy characterized by the clonal proliferation of immature T-cell precursors. T-ALL has many similar pathophysiological features to acute myeloid leukemia, which has been extensively studied in the establishment of the cancer stem cell (CSC) theory, but the CSC concept in T-ALL is still debatable. Although leukemia-initiating cells (LICs), which can generate leukemia in a xenograft setting, have been found in both human T-ALL patients and animal models, the nature and origin of LICs are largely unknown. In this review, we discuss recent studies on LICs in T-ALL and the potential mechanisms of LIC emergence in this disease. We focus on the oncogenic transcription factors TAL1, LMO2 , and NOTCH1 and highlight the significance of the transcriptional regulatory programs in normal hematopoietic stem cells and T-ALL.

  2. Leukemia-Initiating Cells in T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Hao Tan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL is a hematological malignancy characterized by the clonal proliferation of immature T-cell precursors. T-ALL has many similar pathophysiological features to acute myeloid leukemia, which has been extensively studied in the establishment of the cancer stem cell (CSC theory, but the CSC concept in T-ALL is still debatable. Although leukemia-initiating cells (LICs, which can generate leukemia in a xenograft setting, have been found in both human T-ALL patients and animal models, the nature and origin of LICs are largely unknown. In this review, we discuss recent studies on LICs in T-ALL and the potential mechanisms of LIC emergence in this disease. We focus on the oncogenic transcription factors TAL1, LMO2, and NOTCH1 and highlight the significance of the transcriptional regulatory programs in normal hematopoietic stem cells and T-ALL.

  3. Occurrence of chronic lymphocytic leukemia in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritish K Bhattacharyya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL is the most common leukemia of adults in the western world and constitutes about 33% of all leukemia′s. The incidence of CLL increases with age and are more common in older population. Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML on the contrary occurs in both young adults and elderly and is a chronic myeloproliferative disease that originates from abnormal pluripotent stem cells and results in involvement of multiple hematopoietic lineages, but predominantly myeloid and less commonly lymphoid. Association between CLL and myeloid malignancies (CML, acute myeloid leukemia and MDS, myelodysplastic syndrome is rare. In literature documenting CLL and CML in same patients, occur either simultaneously or CML is preceded by CLL.

  4. Radioinduced leukemia. An introduction to the study of experimental leukemia in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudon, P.P.

    1974-01-01

    This thesis attempts to gain insight into any mechanisms involved in the onset of irradiation-induced leukemia in mice, then to show up the presence of a virus in the same animals. Concerning the mechanisms of radio-induced leukemias the pathogenic factors according to Kaplan are analysed: role of the thymus and cell mutation theory; lymphoid leukemias of extra-thymic origin; leukemogenesis co-factor; inhibiting action of the bone narrow. Evidence of the virus in mice was obtained by the use of electron microscopy, by inoculation. The contribution of experimental leukemia research is analysed, especially as it affects the therapeutic aspect. It is shown that in spite of setbacks in the most recent research on man, therapeutic trials on animals should be viewed from the angle of imminent human applications [fr

  5. Clinical effect of increasing doses of lenalidomide in high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia with chromosome 5 abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möllgård, Lars; Saft, Leonie; Treppendahl, Marianne Bach

    2011-01-01

    Background Patients with chromosome 5 abnormalities and high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes or acute myeloid leukemia have a poor outcome. We hypothesized that increasing doses of lenalidomide may benefit this group of patients by inhibiting the tumor clone, as assessed by fluorescence in situ...... hybridization for del(5q31). DESIGN AND METHODS: Twenty-eight patients at diagnosis or with relapsed disease and not eligible for standard therapy (16 with acute myeloid leukemia, 12 with intermediate-risk 2 or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome) were enrolled in this prospective phase II multicenter trial...... the 16 weeks of trial responded to treatment. Using the International Working Group criteria for acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome the overall response rate in treated patients with acute myeloid leukemia was 20% (3/15), while that for patients with myelodysplastic syndrome was 36% (4...

  6. Hematologic long-term modifications after radio-iodine therapy in carcinoma of the thyroid gland. Pt. 2. Modifications of the bone marrow including leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenter, H H; Schober, O; Schwarzrock, R; Hundeshagen, H

    1987-07-01

    59 posttherapeutic examinations of the bone marrow have been performed in 35 patients out of a group of 296 patients treated from 1969 through 1976 by postoperative iodine-131 irradiations for carcinoma of the thyroid gland. Seven patients had normal findings, twelve patients showed panmyelopathy as principal finding, and fourteen patients presented modifications of the three marrow systems in differents degrees and combinations. Acute myeloid leukemia was demonstrated in two patients by examination of the bone marrow, in another case the same disease was diagnosed by an analysis of the peripheral blood count. Taking into account the dosimetric considerations of the authors and the three cases of leukemia observed within the total group of patients, a risk factor for leukemia of 7.0x10/sup -5/xrd/sup -1/ is calculated which is slightly higher than he leukemia induction rate communicated in literature (22/2646 patients; 1-2/100 000/rd/year).

  7. Acute erythroblastic leukemia presenting as acute undifferentiated leukemia: a report of two cases with ultrastructural features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiffers, J; Bernard, P; Larrue, J; Dachary, D; David, B; Boisseau, M; Broustet, A

    1985-01-01

    This report describes two elderly patients with acute leukemia in which blast cells were undifferentiated with conventional light microscopy (L.M.) and cytochemistry. Blast cells were identified as belonging to the erythroblastic line by their ultrastructural features: glycogen deposits, lipidic vacuoles, cytoplasmic ferritin molecules and rhopheocytotic invagination. Moreover, blast cells were surrounding a central macrophage. Thus, these two patients had acute erythroblastic leukemia which differs from erythroleukemia (M6 of FAB classification) in which blast cells present myeloblastic characteristics.

  8. Identification of de Novo Fanconi Anemia in Younger Patients With Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-13

    Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Fanconi Anemia; Refractory Anemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Refractory Anemia With Ringed Sideroblasts; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies

  9. Analysis of peroxidase-negative acute unclassifiable leukemias by monoclonal antibodies. 1. Acute myelogenous leukemia and acute myelomonocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, N; Tanaka, R; Kajihara, H; Kuramoto, A

    1988-11-01

    In this study, pretreatment peripheral and/or bone marrow blasts from 12 patients with acute unclassifiable leukemia (AUL) expressing the myeloid-related cell-surface antigen (CD 11) were isolated for further analysis. Despite a lack of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, 1 patient's blasts contained cytoplasmic Auer rods. The circulating blasts from another patient expressed MPO while maintaining the same surface phenotype during 20 months of clinical follow-up. In addition, the blasts from 3 cases demonstrated both myelomonocytic and monocyte-specific surface antigens, whereas the remaining 9 cases completely lacked any monocyte-specific antigen detectable by monoclonal antibodies, Mo2, My4 and Leu M3 (CD 14). The first case eventually was diagnosed as acute myelomonocytic leukemia and the second as acute myelogenous leukemia by means of immunophenotypic analysis using flow cytometry (FACS IV). In addition, the presence of MPO protein was identified in the cytoplasm of blast cells from 5 patients with AUL by means of a cytoplasmic immunofluorescence test using a monoclonal antibody (MA1). Our study indicates that non-T, non-B AUL expressing OKM1 (CD 11) antigens include acute leukemias which are unequivocally identifiable as being of either myeloid or myelomonocytic origin. However, further investigations, including immunophenotypic and cytoplasmic analysis, ultrastructural cytochemistry and gene analysis with molecular probes (tests applicable to normal myeloid cells), are necessary in order to determine the actual origin of blasts and to recognize the differentiation stages of the various types of leukemic cells from patients with undifferentiated forms of leukemia.

  10. [Pulmonary function of children with acute leukemia in maintenance phase of chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macêdo, Thalita Medeiros Fernandes; Campos, Tania Fernandes; Mendes, Raquel Emanuele de França; França, Danielle Corrêa; Chaves, Gabriela Suéllen da Silva; de Mendonça, Karla Morganna Pereira Pinto

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the pulmonary function of children with acute leukemia. Cross-sectional observational analytical study that enrolled 34 children divided into groups A (17 with acute leukemia in the maintenance phase of chemotherapy) and B (17 healthy children). The groups were matched for sex, age and height. Spirometry was measured using a spirometer Microloop Viasys(®) in accordance with American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society guidelines. Maximal respiratory pressures were measured with an MVD300 digital manometer (Globalmed(®)). Maximal inspiratory pressures and maximal expiratory pressures were measured from residual volume and total lung capacity, respectively. Group A showed a significant decrease in maximal inspiratory pressures when compared to group B. No significant difference was found between the spirometric values of the two groups, nor was there any difference between maximal inspiratory pressure and maximal expiratory pressure values in group A compared to the lower limit values proposed as reference. Children with acute leukemia, myeloid or lymphoid, during the maintenance phase of chemotherapy exhibited unchanged spirometric variables and maximal expiratory pressure; However, there was a decrease in inspiratory muscle strength. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML), juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML), acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) account for about 20% of childhood myeloid leukemias. Other myeloid malignancies include transient abnormal myelopoiesis and myelodysplastic syndrome. Get detailed information about the classification, clinical presentation, diagnostic and molecular evaluation, prognosis, and treatment of newly diagnosed and recurrent disease in this summary for clinicians.

  12. Problems of prophylactic CNS radiotherapy in acute children's leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bek, V.; Pribylova, O.; Abrahamova, J.; Hynieova, H.; Hrodek, O.

    1980-01-01

    The prophylactic treatment of the CNS was conducted by cobalt teletherapy of the cranium and by intrathecal application of MTX after the induction of primary remission in 70 children with acute leukemia throughout 5 years up to the end of 1978. The method of the combined radio- and chemoprophylaxis of the CNS was being changed during the years, especially as far as the radiation dose for the cranium was concerned. A detailed analysis made in a group of 59 children with the minimum interval of 18 months from the beginning of the treatment showed the best results after the application of a dose of 24 Gy/3 weeks. Following this procedure the relapse of leukemia in the CNS occurred in 9% only, whereas on the application of doses of 20 Gy and lower it occurred in 35 to 40%. On the whole 24 out of 59 children, i.e. 41%, are surviving, 35 children, i.e. 59%, died. Mostly complete, but only temporary, epilation was an invariable consequence of the irradiation of the cranium. The somnolence syndrome was only sporadically observed. It cannot be excluded, however, that some of its forms in patients discharged from hospital escaped attention. No case was recorded of serious impairment of the CNS of the leukoencephalopathic type. Up to now the psychomotor, intellectual and emotional development of the surviving children has been normal. (author)

  13. Prophylaxis of meningosis leukemia via intrathecal radioactive colloid gold injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelov, A; Uzunov, I; Marshavelova, J [Meditsinski Fakultet, Plovdiv (Bulgaria)

    1979-01-01

    Prophylaxis against meningosis leukemia (ML) via intrathecal radioactive colloid gold injection was carried out for a period of three years (January 1974 - September 1976) in 21 children with acute lymphoblast leukemia (ALL). The analysis of those patients after one relatively long period of observation (28 months after the last case) reveals that ML developed as a primary isolated manifestation of a recurrence in three children, i.e. in 14.2 per cent versus 68 per cent in the control group without prophylaxis. In another child ML development is in parallel with bone marrow recurrence. The reduction of ML incidence is accompanied with a prolongation of the first remission (in 24 per cent over 2 years and 6 months) and a lengthening of survival for 50 per cent of the patients (62 per cent of the treated patients are alive two years and 4 months during the period of observation). The advantages of the prophylaxis with radioactive colloid gold is emphasized in comparison with the other prophylactic programmes.

  14. Cytogenetic and molecular abnormalities in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patnaik, M M; Tefferi, A

    2016-01-01

    Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is a clonal stem cell disorder associated with peripheral blood monocytosis and an inherent tendency to transform to acute myeloid leukemia. CMML has overlapping features of myelodysplastic syndromes and myeloproliferative neoplasms. Clonal cytogenetic changes are seen in ~30%, whereas gene mutations are seen in >90% of patients. Common cytogenetic abnormalities include; trisomy 8, -Y, -7/del(7q), trisomy 21 and del(20q), with the Mayo–French risk stratification effectively risk stratifying patients based on cytogenetic abnormalities. Gene mutations frequently involve epigenetic regulators (TET2 ~60%), modulators of chromatin (ASXL1 ~40%), spliceosome components (SRSF2 ~50%), transcription factors (RUNX1 ~15%) and signal pathways (RAS ~30%, CBL ~15%). Of these, thus far, only nonsense and frameshift ASXL1 mutations have been shown to negatively impact overall survival. This has resulted in the development of contemporary, molecularly integrated (inclusive of ASXL1 mutations) CMML prognostic models, including Molecular Mayo Model and the Groupe Français des Myélodysplasies model. Better understanding of the prevalent genetic and epigenetic dysregulation has resulted in emerging targeted treatment options for some patients. The development of an integrated (cytogenetic and molecular) prognostic model along with CMML-specific response assessment criteria are much needed future goals

  15. Bcl-2 Protein Expression in Egyptian Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shakankiry, N.; El-Sayed, Gh.M.M.; El-Maghraby, Sh.; Moneer, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The primary cause of treatment failure in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the emergence of both resistant disease and early relapse. The bcl-2 gene encodes a 26-kDa protein that promotes cell survival by blocking programmed cell death (apoptosis). In the present study, bcl-2 protein expression was evaluated in newly diagnosed AML patients and correlated with the induction of remission and overall survival (OS), in an attempt to define patients who might benefit from modified therapeutic strategies. Patients and methods: Pretreatment cellular bcl-2 protein expression was measured in bone marrow samples obtained from 68 patients of newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia and 10 healthy controls by western blotting. Results: The mean bcl-2 protein expression was significantly higher in patients (0.68610.592) compared to controls (0.313±0.016) (p=0.002). The overall survival for patients with mean bcl-2 expression of less, and more than or equal to 0.315, was 67% and 56%, respectively, with no significant difference between the two groups 0»=0.86). Conclusion: Even though we did not observe a significant difference in overall survival between patients with high and low levels of bcl-2, modulation of this protein might still be considered as an option for enhancing the effectiveness of conventional chemotherapy.

  16. Genotyping of feline leukemia virus in Mexican housecats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Hugo; Autran, Marcela; García, M Martha; Carmona, M Ángel; Rodríguez, Cecilia; Martínez, H Alejandro

    2016-04-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a retrovirus with variable rates of infection globally. DNA was obtained from cats' peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and proviral DNA of pol and env genes was detected using PCR. Seventy-six percent of cats scored positive for FeLV using env-PCR; and 54 %, by pol-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of both regions identified sequences that correspond to a group that includes endogenous retroviruses. They form an independent branch and, therefore, a new group of endogenous viruses. Cat gender, age, outdoor access, and cohabitation with other cats were found to be significant risk factors associated with the disease. This strongly suggests that these FeLV genotypes are widely distributed in the studied feline population in Mexico.

  17. Comparison of outcomes after unrelated cord blood and unmanipulated haploidentical stem cell transplantation in adults with acute leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruggeri, A; Labopin, M; Sanz, G

    2015-01-01

    outcomes after UCBT and Haplo in adults with de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Median follow-up was 24 months. Analysis was performed separately for patients with AML, n=918 (Haplo=360, UCBT=558) and ALL, n=528 (Haplo=158 and UCBT=370). UCBT was associated......Outcomes after unmanipulated haploidentical stem cell transplantation (Haplo) and after unrelated cord blood transplantation (UCBT) are encouraging and have become alternative options to treat patients with high-risk acute leukemia without human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matched donor. We compared...... with delayed engraftment and higher graft failure in both AML and ALL recipients. In multivariate analysis, UCBT was associated with lower incidence of chronic graft-vs-host disease both in the AML group (hazard ratio (HR)=0.63, P=0.008) and in the ALL group (HR=0.58, P=0.01). Not statistically significant...

  18. The Danish National Acute Leukemia Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østgård, Lene Sofie Granfeldt; Nørgaard, Jan Maxwell; Raaschou-Jensen, Klas Kræsten

    2016-01-01

    years. To ensure this high coverage, completeness, and quality of data, linkage to the Danish Civil Registration System and the Danish National Registry of Patients, and several programmed data entry checks are used. CONCLUSION: The completeness and positive predictive values of the leukemia data have...

  19. Differentiation Therapy of Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gocek, Elzbieta; Marcinkowska, Ewa

    2011-01-01

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) is a predominant acute leukemia among adults, characterized by accumulation of malignantly transformed immature myeloid precursors. A very attractive way to treat myeloid leukemia, which is now called ‘differentiation therapy’, was proposed as in vitro studies have shown that a variety of agents stimulate differentiation of the cell lines isolated from leukemic patients. One of the differentiation-inducing agents, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), which can induce granulocytic differentiation in myeloid leukemic cell lines, has been introduced into clinics to treat patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) in which a PML-RARA fusion protein is generated by a t(15;17)(q22;q12) chromosomal translocation. Because differentiation therapy using ATRA has significantly improved prognosis for patients with APL, many efforts have been made to find alternative differentiating agents. Since 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 (1,25D) is capable of inducing in vitro monocyte/macrophage differentiation of myeloid leukemic cells, clinical trials have been performed to estimate its potential to treat patients with AML or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Unfortunately therapeutic concentrations of 1,25D can induce potentially fatal systemic hypercalcemia, thus limiting clinical utility of that compound. Attempts to overcome this problem have focused on the synthesis of 1,25D analogs (VDAs) which retain differentiation inducing potential, but lack its hypercalcemic effects. This review aims to discuss current problems and potential solutions in differentiation therapy of AML

  20. Testicular granulocytic sarcoma without systemic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagerveld, B. W.; Wauters, C. A. P.; Karthaus, H. F. M.

    2005-01-01

    This case report describes a unilateral testicular granulocytic sarcoma or chloroma. Because of the relatively immature nature of the tumor cells, the histological diagnosis can be difficult. Granulocytic sarcomas are well known in patients with systemic leukemia and can sometimes precede a systemic

  1. TARGETED NANOPARTICLES FOR PEDIATRIC LEUKEMIA THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyaz eBasha

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The two major forms of leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL and acute myeloid leukemia (AML account for about one third of the malignancies diagnosed in children. Despite the marked successes in ALL and AML treatment, concerns remain regarding the occurrence of resistant disease in subsets of patients the residual effects of therapy that often persist for decades beyond the cessation of treatment. Therefore, new approaches are needed to reduce or to avoid off target toxicities, associated with chemotherapy and their long term residual effects. Recently, nanotechnology has been employed to enhance cancer therapy, via improving the bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy of anti-cancer agents. While in the last several years, numerous review articles appeared detailing the size, composition, assembly and performance evaluation of different types of drug carrying nanoparticles, the description and evaluation of lipoprotein based drug carriers have been conspicuously absent from most of these major reviews. The current review focuses on such information regarding nanoparticles with an emphasis on high density lipoprotein (HDL-based drug delivery systems to examine their potential role(s in the enhanced treatment of children with leukemia.

  2. Modeling Human Leukemia Immunotherapy in Humanized Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxing Xia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The currently available human tumor xenograft models permit modeling of human cancers in vivo, but in immunocompromised hosts. Here we report a humanized mouse (hu-mouse model made by transplantation of human fetal thymic tissue plus hematopoietic stem cells transduced with a leukemia-associated fusion gene MLL-AF9. In addition to normal human lymphohematopoietic reconstitution as seen in non-leukemic hu-mice, these hu-mice showed spontaneous development of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL, which was transplantable to secondary recipients with an autologous human immune system. Using this model, we show that lymphopenia markedly improves the antitumor efficacy of recipient leukocyte infusion (RLI, a GVHD-free immunotherapy that induces antitumor responses in association with rejection of donor chimerism in mixed allogeneic chimeras. Our data demonstrate the potential of this leukemic hu-mouse model in modeling leukemia immunotherapy, and suggest that RLI may offer a safe treatment option for leukemia patients with severe lymphopenia.

  3. Macroglobulinemia in a child with acute leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cejka, J.; Bollinger, R.O.; Schuit, H.R.E.; Lusher, J.M.; Chang, C.H.; Zuelzer, W.W.

    1974-01-01

    A 12-yr-old boy with acute leukemia was found to have paraproteinemia and Bence-Jones proteinuria. The paraprotein was characterized as immunoglobulin M, type κ and the Bence Jones protein as free κ-chains. Increased amounts of β2-microglobulin were found in the patient’s serum and urine. Electron

  4. Psychotherapy for Some Anxiety Sequelae of Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Trevor

    1999-01-01

    This case study describes use of a program of self-mediated recording and intervention, including distraction techniques, with monitoring within the family, with an 8-year-old child with leukemia and a generalized anxiety about health. Anxiety was reduced to the normal range and maintained at that level at a nine-month followup assessment.…

  5. Neuropsychological Functioning in Survivors of Childhood Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeb, Roger N.; Regan, Judith M.

    1998-01-01

    Examined neuropsychological functioning of survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia who underwent central-nervous-system prophylactic treatment. Findings replicated past research in showing survivors perform poorly on visual-motor integration tasks and develop a Nonverbal Learning Disability. Findings offer recommendations for future research and…

  6. Neonatal acute megakaryoblastic leukemia mimicking congenital neuroblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Kawasaki, Yukako; Makimoto, Masami; Nomura, Keiko; Hoshino, Akihiro; Hamashima, Takeru; Hiwatari, Mitsuteru; Nakazawa, Atsuko; Takita, Junko; Yoshida, Taketoshi; Kanegane, Hirokazu

    2014-01-01

    Key Clinical Message We describe a neonate with abdominal distension, massive hepatomegaly, and high serum neuron-specific enolase level suggestive of congenital neuroblastoma. The patient died of pulmonary hemorrhage after therapy. Autopsy revealed that the tumor cells in the liver indicated acute megakaryocytic leukemia with the RBM15-MKL1 fusion gene.

  7. Differentiation Therapy of Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gocek, Elzbieta; Marcinkowska, Ewa, E-mail: ema@cs.uni.wroc.pl [Department of Biotechnology, University of Wroclaw, ul Tamka 2, Wroclaw 50-137 (Poland)

    2011-05-16

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) is a predominant acute leukemia among adults, characterized by accumulation of malignantly transformed immature myeloid precursors. A very attractive way to treat myeloid leukemia, which is now called ‘differentiation therapy’, was proposed as in vitro studies have shown that a variety of agents stimulate differentiation of the cell lines isolated from leukemic patients. One of the differentiation-inducing agents, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), which can induce granulocytic differentiation in myeloid leukemic cell lines, has been introduced into clinics to treat patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) in which a PML-RARA fusion protein is generated by a t(15;17)(q22;q12) chromosomal translocation. Because differentiation therapy using ATRA has significantly improved prognosis for patients with APL, many efforts have been made to find alternative differentiating agents. Since 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} (1,25D) is capable of inducing in vitro monocyte/macrophage differentiation of myeloid leukemic cells, clinical trials have been performed to estimate its potential to treat patients with AML or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Unfortunately therapeutic concentrations of 1,25D can induce potentially fatal systemic hypercalcemia, thus limiting clinical utility of that compound. Attempts to overcome this problem have focused on the synthesis of 1,25D analogs (VDAs) which retain differentiation inducing potential, but lack its hypercalcemic effects. This review aims to discuss current problems and potential solutions in differentiation therapy of AML.

  8. Expression and distribution of PPP2R5C gene in leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Bo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, we clarified at the molecular level novel chromosomal translocation t(14;14(q11;q32 in a case of Sézary syndrome, which caused a rearrangement from TRAJ7 to the PPP2R5C gene. PPP2R5C is one of the regulatory B subunits of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A. It plays a crucial role in cell proliferation, differentiation, and transformation. To characterize the expression and distribution of five different transcript variants of the PPP2R5C gene in leukemia, we analyzed the expression level of PPP2R5C in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 77 patients with de novo leukemia, 26 patients with leukemia in complete remission (CR, and 20 healthy individuals by real-time PCR and identified the different variants of PPP2R5C by RT-PCR. Findings Significantly higher expression of PPP2R5C was found in AML, CML, T-ALL, and B-CLL groups in comparison with healthy controls. High expression of PPP2R5C was detected in the B-ALL group; however, no significant difference was found compared with the healthy group. The expression level of PPP2R5C in the CML-CR group decreased significantly compared with that in the de novo CML group and was not significantly different from the level in the healthy group. By using different primer pairs that covered different exons, five transcript variants of PPP2R5C could be identified. All variants could be detected in healthy samples as well as in all the leukemia samples, and similar frequencies and distributions of PPP2R5C were indicated. Conclusions Overexpression of PPP2R5C in T-cell malignancy as well as in myeloid leukemia cells might relate to its proliferation and differentiation. Investigation of the effect of target inhibition of this gene might be beneficial to further characterization of molecular mechanisms and targeted therapy in leukemia.

  9. Recombinant EphB4-HSA Fusion Protein and Azacitidine or Decitabine for Relapsed or Refractory Myelodysplastic Syndrome, Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia, or Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients Previously Treated With a Hypomethylating Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-18

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia Arising From Previous Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Recurrent Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Myelodysplasia-Related Changes; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  10. Heterogeneity of genomic fusion of BCR and ABL in Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, C.M.; Carrino, J.J.; Dickler, M.N.; Leibowitz, D.; Smith, S.D.; Westbrook, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia occurs in two molecular forms, those with and those without rearrangement of the breakpoint cluster region on chromosome 22. The molecular abnormality in the former group is similar to that found in chronic myelogenous leukemia. To characterize the abnormality in the breakpoint cluster region-unrearranged form, the authors have mapped a 9; 22 translocation from the Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line SUP-B13 by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and have cloned the DNA at the translocation junctions. They demonstrate a BCR-ABL fusion gene on the Philadelphia chromosome. The exons from ABL are the same. Analysis of leukemic cells from four other patients with breakpoint cluster region-unrearranged Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia revealed a rearrangement on chromosome 22 close to the breakpoint in SUP-B13 in only one patient. These data indicate that breakpoints do not cluster tightly in this region but are scattered, possibly in a large intron. Given the large size of BCR and the heterogeneity in breakpoint location, detection of BCR rearrangement by standard Southern blot analysis is difficult. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis should allow detection at the DNA level in every patient and thus will permit clinical correlation of the breakpoint location with prognosis

  11. Cranial radiotherapy predisposes to abdominal adiposity in survivors of childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siviero-Miachon, Adriana Aparecida; Spinola-Castro, Angela Maria; Lee, Maria Lúcia de Martino; Andreoni, Solange; Geloneze, Bruno; Lederman, Henrique; Guerra-Junior, Gil

    2013-01-01

    Advances in treatment of acute lymphocytic leukemia increased the likelihood of developing late treatment-associated effects, such as abdominal adiposity, increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease in this population. Cranial radiotherapy is one of the factors that might be involved in this process. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of cranial radiotherapy on adiposity indexes in survivors of acute lymphocytic leukemia. A comparative cross-sectional study of 56 acute lymphocytic leukemia survivors, chronological age between 15 and 24 years, assigned into two groups according to the exposure to cranial radiotherapy (25 irradiated and 31 non-irradiated), assessed according to body fat (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), computed tomography scan-derived abdominal adipose tissue, lipid profile, and insulin resistance. Cranial radiotherapy increased body fat and abdominal adipose tissue and altered lipid panel. Yet, lipids showed no clinical relevance so far. There were significantly more obese patients among those who received cranial radiotherapy (52% irradiated versus 22.6% non-irradiated), based on dual energy X-ray absorptiometry body fat measurements. Nonetheless, no association was observed between cranial radiotherapy and body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio or insulin resistance. Adolescent and young adult survivors of childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia showed an increase in body fat and an alteration of fat distribution, which were related to cranial radiotherapy. Fat compartment modifications possibly indicate a disease of adipose tissue, and cranial radiotherapy imports in this process

  12. KRAS (G12D Cooperates with AML1/ETO to Initiate a Mouse Model Mimicking Human Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmin Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: It has been demonstrated that KRAS mutations represent about 90% of cancer-associated mutations, and that KRAS mutations play an essential role in neoplastic transformation. Cancer-associated RAS mutations occur frequently in acute myeloid leukemia (AML, suggesting a functional role for Ras in leukemogenesis. Methods: We successfully established a mouse model of human leukemia by transplanting bone marrow cells co-transfected with the K-ras (G12D mutation and AML1/ETO fusion protein. Results: Mice transplanted with AML/ETO+KRAS co-transduced cells had the highest mortality rate than mice transplanted with AML/ETO- or KRAS-transduced cells (115d vs. 150d. Upon reaching a terminal disease stage, EGFP-positive cells dominated their spleen, lymph nodes, peripheral blood and central nervous system tissue. Immunophenotyping, cytologic analyses revealed that AML/ETO+KRAS leukemias predominantly contained immature myeloid precursors (EGFP+/c-Kit+/Mac-1-/Gr-1-. Histologic analyses revealed that massive leukemic infiltrations were closely packed in dense sheets that effaced the normal architecture of spleen and thymus in mice transplanted with AML1/ETO + KRAS co-transduced cells. K-ras mRNA and protein expression were upregulated in bone marrow cells of the K-ras group and AML1/ETO + Kras group. The phosphorylation of MEK/ERK was significantly enhanced in the AML1/ETO + Kras group. The similar results of the AML1/ETO + Nras group were consistent with those reported previously. Conclusion: Co-transduction of KrasG12D and AML1/ETO induces acute monoblastic leukemia. Since expression of mutant K-ras alone was insufficient to induce leukemia, this model may be useful for investigating the multi-step leukemogenesis model of human leukemia.

  13. IKAROS Gene Deleted B-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Mexican Mestizos: Observations in Seven Patients and a Short Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Delgado, Guillermo José; Cantero-Fortiz, Yahveth; León-Peña, Andrés Aurelio; León-González, Mónica; Nuñez-Cortés, Ana Karen; Ruiz-Argüelles, Guillermo José

    2016-01-01

    In B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, one of the most frequent cytogenetic alterations is the presence of the Philadelphia chromosome. Recently, newly identified genetic alterations have been studied, among them the IKZF1 deletion. IKZF1 encodes IKAROS, a zinc finger protein that plays an important role in hematopoiesis involving the regulation process of adhesion, cellular migration, and as a tumor suppressor. We aimed to study the impact of IKAROS deletion in the evolution and prognosis of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. At a single center we prospectively studied patients diagnosed with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and screened for IKZF1 deletion using the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification method. We did a descriptive analysis of patients positive for the IKZF1 deletion to determine its impact on the evolution of the disease and survival rate. Between 2010 and 2015, 16 Mexican mestizo patients with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia were prospectively screened for IKZF1 deletion; seven (43%) were positive and were included for further analysis. The age range of patients was 13-60 years; six were males and one female. All cases had type B acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Of the seven patients, two died, three were lost to follow-up, and two continue in complete remission with treatment. Results are worse than those in a group of patients with non-mutated IKAROS B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia previously studied in our center. Although this is a small sample, the presence of IKAROS deletion in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients could represent a poor-prognosis marker and was probably related to therapy failure. It is also possible that this variant of leukemia may be more prevalent in Mexico. More studies are needed to define the role of IKZF1 deletion in acute lymphoblastic leukemia and the real prevalence of the disease in different populations.

  14. Premature chromosome condensation studies in human leukemia. I. Pretreatment characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hittelman, W N; Broussard, L C; McCredie, K

    1979-11-01

    The phenomenon of premature chromosome condensation (PCC) was used to compare the bone marrow proliferation characteristics of 163 patients with various forms of leukemia prior to the initiation of new therapy. The proliferative potential index (PPI, or fraction of G1 cells in late G1 phase) and the fraction of cells in S phase was determined and compared to the type of disease and the bone marrow blast infiltrate for each patient. Previously untreated patients with acute leukemia exhibited an average PPI value three times that of normal bone marrow (37.5% for acute myeloblastic leukemia [AML], acute monomyeloblastic leukemia [AMML], or acute promyelocytic leukemia [APML] and 42% for acute lymphocytic leukemia [ALL] or acute undifferentiated leukemia [AUL]). Untreated chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) patients showed intermediate PPI values (25.2%), whereas CML patients with controlled disease exhibited nearly normal PPI values (14.6%). On the other hand, blastic-phase CML patients exhibited PPI values closer to that observed in patients with acute leukemia (35.4%). Seven patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) exhibited even higher PPI values. No correlations were observed between PPI values, fraction of cells in S phase, and marrow blast infiltrate. For untreated acute disease patients, PPI values were prognostic for response only at low and high PPI values. These results suggest that the PCC-determined proliferative potential is a biologic reflection of the degree of malignancy within the bone marrow.

  15. Deletions of the long arm of chromosome 5 define subgroups of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Starza, Roberta; Barba, Gianluca; Demeyer, Sofie; Pierini, Valentina; Di Giacomo, Danika; Gianfelici, Valentina; Schwab, Claire; Matteucci, Caterina; Vicente, Carmen; Cools, Jan; Messina, Monica; Crescenzi, Barbara; Chiaretti, Sabina; Foà, Robin; Basso, Giuseppe; Harrison, Christine J; Mecucci, Cristina

    2016-08-01

    Recurrent deletions of the long arm of chromosome 5 were detected in 23/200 cases of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Genomic studies identified two types of deletions: interstitial and terminal. Interstitial 5q deletions, found in five cases, were present in both adults and children with a female predominance (chi-square, P=0.012). Interestingly, these cases resembled immature/early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia showing significant down-regulation of five out of the ten top differentially expressed genes in this leukemia group, including TCF7 which maps within the 5q31 common deleted region. Mutations of genes known to be associated with immature/early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia, i.e. WT1, ETV6, JAK1, JAK3, and RUNX1, were present, while CDKN2A/B deletions/mutations were never detected. All patients had relapsed/resistant disease and blasts showed an early differentiation arrest with expression of myeloid markers. Terminal 5q deletions, found in 18 of patients, were more prevalent in adults (chi-square, P=0.010) and defined a subgroup of HOXA-positive T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia characterized by 130 up- and 197 down-regulated genes. Down-regulated genes included TRIM41, ZFP62, MAPK9, MGAT1, and CNOT6, all mapping within the 1.4 Mb common deleted region at 5q35.3. Of interest, besides CNOT6 down-regulation, these cases also showed low BTG1 expression and a high incidence of CNOT3 mutations, suggesting that the CCR4-NOT complex plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of HOXA-positive T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia with terminal 5q deletions. In conclusion, interstitial and terminal 5q deletions are recurrent genomic losses identifying distinct subtypes of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  16. Childhood leukemia mortality and farming exposure in South Korea: A national population-based birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Eun Shil; Hwang, Seung-sik; Lee, Won Jin

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between leukemia mortality and exposure to farming among children in South Korea. A retrospective cohort study of South Korean children was conducted using data collected by the national birth register between 1995 and 2006; these data were then individually linked to death data. A cohort of 6,479,406 children was followed from birth until either their death or until December 31, 2006. For surrogate measures of pesticide exposure, we used residence at birth, paternal occupation, and month of conception from the birth certificate. Farming and pesticide exposure indexes by county were calculated using information derived from the 2000 agricultural census. Poisson regression analyses were used to calculate rate ratios (RRs) of childhood leukemia deaths according to indices of exposure to agricultural pesticides after adjustment for potential confounders. In total 585 leukemia deaths were observed during the study period. Childhood leukemia mortality was significantly elevated in children born in rural areas (RR=1.43, 95%CI 1.09-1.86) compared to those in metropolises, and in counties with both the highest farming index (RR=1.33, 95%CI 1.04-1.69) and pesticide exposure index (RR=1.30, 95%CI 1.02-1.66) compared to those in the reference group. However, exposure-response associations were significant only in relation to the farming index. When the analyses were limited to rural areas, the risk of death from leukemia among boys conceived between spring and fall increased over those conceived in winter. Our results show an increase in mortality from childhood leukemia in rural areas; however, further studies are warranted to investigate the environmental factors contributing to the excess mortality from childhood leukemia in rural areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Open Label, Phase II Study to Evaluate Efficacy and Safety of Oral Nilotinib in Philadelphia Positive (Ph+) Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-20

    Leukemia; Leukemia,Pediatric; Leukemia, Myleiod; Leukemia, Mylegenous, Chronic; Leukemia, Mylegenous, Accelerated; BCR-ABL Positive; Myeloproliferative Disorder; Bone Marrow Disease; Hematologic Diseases; Neoplastic Processes; Imatinib; Dasatinib; Enzyme Inhibitor; Protein Kinase Inhibitor

  18. Vorinostat and Decitabine in Treating Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors or Relapsed or Refractory Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma, Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia, or Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-26

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Marginal Zone Lymphoma

  19. Second malignancies complicating Hodgkin's disease: a Southwest Oncology Group 10-year followup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coltman, C.A. Jr.; Dixon, D.O.

    1982-01-01

    Thirty-two second malignancies (21 acute leukemias and 11 solid tumors) were identified among 659 patients with all stages of Hodgkin's disease treated by members of the Southwest Oncology Group. There were no leukemias and one solid tumor among 95 patients treated with radiotherapy alone. The actuarial risk of developing acute leukemia at 7 years was 6.2% for chemotherapy alone, 6.4% for combined modality, and 7.7% for salvage chemotherapy. The incidence of acute leukemia was higher (P . 0.002) among those whose treatment began at greater than or equal to 40 years of age. The actuarial risk of leukemia in that group was 20.7% at 7 years. These data are compatible with the hypothesis that chemotherapy alone, combined modality, and salvage chemotherapy have an equivalent oncogenic potential and that patients greater than or equal to 40 years of age have an enhanced susceptibility to these oncogenic stimuli

  20. Brain Function in Young Patients Receiving Methotrexate for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-19

    Childhood B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Childhood T Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Long-Term Effects Secondary to Cancer Therapy in Children; Neurotoxicity Syndrome; Psychological Impact of Cancer; Untreated Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  1. Incidence of leukemias in children from El Salvador and Mexico City between 1996 and 2000: Population-based data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernáldez-Ríos Roberto

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are very few studies that report the incidence of acute leukemias in children in Latin America. This work assesses the incidence of acute leukemias, between 1996 and 2000, in children from 0–14 years old who were attended at the Mexican Social Security Institute in Mexico City and in children from 0–11 years old in El Salvador. Methods Design: Population-based data. Hospitals: In San Salvador, El Salvador, Hospital Nacional de Niños "Benjamín Bloom", the only center in El Salvador which attends all children, younger than 12 years, with oncologic disease. The Pediatric Hospital and the General Hospital of the Mexican Social Security Institute in Mexico City, the only centers in Mexico City which attend all those children with acute leukemia who have a right to this service. Diagnosis: All patients were diagnosed by bone marrow smear and were divided into acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL, acute myeloid leukemia (AML, chronic myeloid leukemia (CML, and unspecified leukemias (UL. The annual incidence rate (AIR and average annual incidence rate (AAIR were calculated per million children. Cases were stratified by age and assigned to one of four age strata: 1 Results The number of cases was 375 and 238 in El Salvador and Mexico City, respectively. AAIRs in Mexico City were 44.9, 10.6, 2.5, 0.5, and 58.4 per million children for ALL, AML, CML, UL, and total leukemias, respectively. The AAIRs in El Salvador could not be calculated because the fourth age stratum in El Salvador included children only from 0–11 years old. The incidence rates for the Salvadoran group of 0–11 year olds were 34.2, 7.1, 0.6, 0.2, and 43.2 per million children for ALL, AML, CML, UL, and total leukemias, respectively. Conclusion Reported AIRs for each age group in El Salvador were similar to those from other American countries. The AAIR of ALL in Mexico City is one of the highest reported for North America.

  2. Cranial computerized tomography in children suffering from acute leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, O.

    1981-01-01

    Cranial computerized (axial) tomography permits a more complete neurologic supervision of children with acute leukemia and a better knowledge of the frequency and varieties of cerebral complications in leukemia. Endocranial complications in acute leukemia are essentially infiltrative, hemorrhagic, infectious or iatrogenic. Cranial computerized tomography can demonstrate cerebral changes in meningeal leukemia, hemorrhages, calcifications, brain atrophy or leukencephalopathy. The preliminary results of cranial computerized tomography in childhood leukemia suggest that the iatrogenic main lesion of the brain due to combined radiation-chemotherapy is atrophy whereas that of the intrathecal cytostatic therapy is demyelination. Accurate diagnostics and control of possible cerebral complications in therapy of leukemia is essentially for appropriate therapeutic management. For that cranial computerized tomography is the best method to a effective supervision of the brain. (author)

  3. Frank hematuria as the presentation feature of acute leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suriya Owais

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Muco-cutaneous bleeding is a common presenting feature of acute leukemias. Mucosal bleeding usually manifests as gum bleeding and/or epistaxis but may occur in any mucosal surface of the body. Hematuria as an isolated or main presenting feature of acute leukemia is rare. We describe two cases of acute leukemia, a 19 year old male with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and a 52 year old male with acute myeloid leukemia, both presenting with gross hematuria. There was no demonstrable leukemic infiltration of the urinary tract on imaging studies. Hematuria in these patients was likely to be due to occult leukemic infiltration of the urinary system, aggravated by thrombocytopenia, as it subsided after starting chemotherapy. Our cases highlight that hematuria should be remembered as a rare presenting feature of acute leukemia.

  4. A comparison between allogeneic stem cell transplantation from unmanipulated haploidentical and unrelated donors in acute leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Piemontese

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the absence of a HLA-matched related or matched unrelated donor, allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT from mismatched unrelated donors or haploidentical donors are potential alternatives for patients with acute leukemia with an indication to allo-SCT. The objective of this study was to compare the outcome of allo-SCT from T cell-replete haploidentical (Haplo versus matched (MUD 10/10 or mismatched unrelated donor at a single HLA-locus (MMUD 9/10 for patients with acute leukemia in remission. Methods Two hundred sixty-five adult patients with de novo acute leukemia in first or second remission that received a Haplo-SCT between January 2007 and December 2013 were compared with 2490 patients receiving a MUD 10/10 and 813 receiving a MMUD 9/10. Propensity score weighted analysis was conducted in order to control for disease risk imbalances between the groups. Results The weighted 3-year non-relapse mortality and relapse incidence were 29 and 30% for Haplo, 21 and 29% for MUD 10/10, and 29 and 25% for MMUD 9/10, respectively. The weighted 3-year leukemia-free survival (LFS and overall survival (OS were 41 and 46% for Haplo, 50 and 56% for MUD 10/10, and 46 and 48% for MMUD 9/10, respectively. Using weighted Cox model, both LFS and OS were significantly higher in transplants from MUD 10/10 compared from those in Haplo but not different between transplants from MMUD 9/10 and Haplo. The type of donor was not significantly associated with neither acute nor chronic graft-versus-host disease. Conclusions Patients with acute leukemia in remission have better outcomes if transplanted from a MUD 10/10. We did not find any significant difference in outcome between transplants from MMUD 9/10 and Haplo, suggesting that both can be equally used in the absence of a 10/10 MUD. Key point 1 Better outcomes using fully (10/10 matched unrelated donor for allo-SCT in acute leukemia in remission. Key point 2 Similar outcomes after allo

  5. [Risk factors associated with the development of leukemia in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo-Gutiérrez, A; Garduño-Espinosa, J; Yamamoto-Kimura, L; Hernández-Hernández, D M; Mejía-Aranguré, M; Gómez-Delgado, A; Farfán-Canto, J M; Ortiz-Fernández, A; Martínez-García, M C

    1993-04-01

    Leukemia is the most frequent neoplasia in children; in our country it is the main cause of medical attention in children with cancer. The are different risk factors associated with the development of this kind of cancer. To identify which of the already known factors described in the literature associated with the development of leukemia are most frequent in the pediatric population of Mexico City. A protective case-control study was carried out using prevalent and incident cases. In two third level hospitals of Mexico City, a total of 81 children who had been diagnosed as suffering from different kind of leukemia, confirmed by biopsy of bone marrow, were select and studied. The control were 154 children from two different sources: 77 of them came from the same hospital where the cases received medical care, the selection criteria was not to have any kind of neoplasia; and 77 came from the same community where those diagnosed children cases lived, the selection criteria for this group was that they were healthy children. Both cases and community controls were visited at home and interview to complete precoded questionnaire with the different variables of the study. The information from the hospital controls was obtained during the time they stayed in the hospital. Odds ratio (OR's) for the different associations were calculated, as well as its confidence intervals at 95% (IC) accord to Cornfield and unconditioned logistic regression was carried out to control confounding variables. OR greater than 1 was found in those with familiar cancer background 1.93 (1.2-3.63); the mother being exposed to X-ray during pregnancy 1.89 (0.84-4.22); previous abortions before the child with leukemia was born 2.44 (1-06-5.68); being born from full term birth 2.42 (0.47-16.65); being born with weight greater that 3500 g 2.21 (1.04-4.33); being exposed to fertilizers 4.73 (1.04-24.14) and insecticides 1.93 (1.05-3.56). OR smaller than 1 was found in those who have been in a hospital

  6. Risk of leukemia among survivors of testicular cancer: a population-based study of 42,722 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, R.; Gilbert, E.; Lynch, C.F.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to quantify excess absolute risk (EAR) and excess relative risk (ERR) of secondary leukemia among a large population-based group of testicular cancer survivors. METHODS: We identified 42,722 1-year survivors of testicular cancer within 14 population-based cancer...... registries in Europe and North America (1943-2002). Poisson regression analysis was used to model EAR (per 100,000 person-years [PY]) and ERR of secondary leukemia. Cumulative risks were calculated using a competing risk model. RESULTS: Secondary leukemia developed in 89 patients (EAR = 10.8 per 100,000 PY......, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.6-14.6; ERR = 1.6, 95%CI = 1.0-2.2). Statistically significantly elevated risks were observed for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (EAR = 7.2, 95%CI = 4.7-10.2) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (EAR = 1.3, 95%CI = 0.4-2.8). In multivariate analyses, AML risk was higher...

  7. Incidence and risk factors for central nervous system relapse in children and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancela, Camila Silva Peres; Murao, Mitiko; Viana, Marcos Borato; de Oliveira, Benigna Maria

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite all the advances in the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, central nervous system relapse remains an important obstacle to curing these patients. This study analyzed the incidence of central nervous system relapse and the risk factors for its occurrence in children and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Methods This study has a retrospective cohort design. The studied population comprised 199 children and adolescents with a diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia followed up at Hospital das Clinicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (HC-UFMG) between March 2001 and August 2009 and submitted to the Grupo Brasileiro de Tratamento de Leucemia da Infância - acute lymphoblastic leukemia (GBTLI-LLA-99) treatment protocol. Results The estimated probabilities of overall survival and event free survival at 5 years were 69.5% (± 3.6%) and 58.8% (± 4.0%), respectively. The cumulative incidence of central nervous system (isolated or combined) relapse was 11.0% at 8 years. The estimated rate of isolated central nervous system relapse at 8 years was 6.8%. In patients with a blood leukocyte count at diagnosis ≥ 50 x 109/L, the estimated rate of isolated or combined central nervous system relapse was higher than in the group with a count 50 x 109/L at diagnosis seems to be a significant prognostic factor for a higher incidence of central nervous system relapse in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. PMID:23323068

  8. No childhood leukemia by emissions from nuclear installations; Keine Kinderleukaemien durch Emissionen aus Kernanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niggli, Felix [Kinderspital Zuerich (Switzerland). Klinik fuer Onkologie; Zuerich Univ. (Switzerland). Medizinische Fakultaet; Voelkle, Hansruedi [Fribourg Univ. (Switzerland). Physikdept.; Schaedelin, Juerg

    2017-10-01

    Childhood leukemia in the vicinity of nuclear power plants has long been a hot discussion topic. For some, it was proved that the nuclear power stations are responsible, for others it could not be explained by the established dosimetric models. Today, with some years of distance, and after a thorough review by a renowned English expert team, the COMARE working group, there is now more clarity. The 17{sup th} report of this working group published in 2016 confirms the hypothesis that there is no causal link between childhood leukemia and the radioactivity released by nuclear plants in the UK. It is therefore necessary to look for other explanations for dose cases where a significant increase has been observed. The commission also does not see any reason to question the established principles and methods of dosimetry and radiation risk assessment.

  9. Effects of Slow-Stroke Back Massage on Symptom Cluster in Adult Patients With Acute Leukemia: Supportive Care in Cancer Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miladinia, Mojtaba; Baraz, Shahram; Shariati, Abdolali; Malehi, Amal Saki

    Patients with acute leukemia usually experience pain, fatigue, and sleep disorders, which affect their quality of life. Massage therapy, as a nondrug approach, can be useful in controlling such problems. However, very few studies have been conducted on the effects of massage therapy on the complications of leukemia. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of slow-stroke back massage (SSBM) on the symptom cluster in acute leukemia adult patients undergoing chemotherapy. In this randomized controlled trial, 60 patients with acute leukemia were allocated randomly to either the intervention or control group. The intervention group received SSBM 3 times a week (every other day for 10 minutes) for 4 weeks. The pain, fatigue, and sleep disorder intensities were measured using the numeric rating scale. The sleep quality was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Statistical tests of χ, t test, and the repeated-measure analysis of variance were used for data analysis. Results showed that the SSBM intervention significantly reduced the progressive sleep disorder, pain, fatigue, and improved sleep quality over time. Slow-stroke back massage, as a simple, noninvasive, and cost-effective approach, along with routine nursing care, can be used to improve the symptom cluster of pain, fatigue, and sleep disorders in leukemia patients. Oncology nurses can increase their knowledge regarding this symptom cluster and work to diminish the cluster components by using SSBM in adult leukemia patients.

  10. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Presented as Multiple Breast Masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayrak, Ilkay Koray; Yalin, Turkay; Ozmen, Zafer; Aksoz, Tolga; Doughanji, Roula

    2009-01-01

    Breast metastases in cases leukemia are very rare and occur primarily in patients with acute myeloid leukemia. We report the involvement of breast metastases in a 30-year-old woman with acute T cell lymphoblastic leukemia. The patient's mammograms revealed an extremely dense pattern with ill-defined, denser mass-like lesions in both breasts. A bilateral breast ultrasonographic evaluation revealed lobular-shaped and partly ill-defined hypoechoic masses with a multi-septated nodular (mottled) appearance

  11. Cytosine Arabinoside Influx and Nucleoside Transport Sites in Acute Leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Wiley, J. S.; Jones, S. P.; Sawyer, W. H.; Paterson, A. R. P.

    1982-01-01

    Although cytosine arabinoside (araC) can induce a remission in a majority of patients presenting with acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML), a minority fail to respond and moreover the drug has less effect in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The carrier-mediated influx of araC into purified blasts from patients with AML, ALL, and acute undifferentiated leukemia (AUL) has been compared to that of normal lymphocytes and polymorphs. Blasts showed a larger mediated influx of araC than mature cells...

  12. Fatal Candidemia in a Patient with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-16

    Profoosionaf 7 ,0 Fatal Candidemia in a Patient with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Brittany Lenz, MD, Arturo Dominguez, MD, Adnan Mir, MD, PhD Objectives...with pre-B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia was admitted for presumed septic shock secondary to an unknown infectious etiology. The patient was...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Fatal Candidcn1ia in a Patient \\\\ith Acute Lympboblastic Leukemia Brittany Lenz. MD. Arturo Dominguez.. MD. Adnan J’vlir. MD, PhD

  13. The contribution of benzene to smoking-induced leukemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Korte, J E; Hertz-Picciotto, I; Schulz, M R; Ball, L M; Duell, E J

    2000-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased risk of leukemia; benzene, an established leukemogen, is present in cigarette smoke. By combining epidemiologic data on the health effects of smoking with risk assessment techniques for low-dose extrapolation, we assessed the proportion of smoking-induced total leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) attributable to the benzene in cigarette smoke. We fit both linear and quadratic models to data from two benzene-exposed occupational cohorts t...

  14. Pupils with leukemia and their reintegration into school

    OpenAIRE

    Purkat, Maja

    2013-01-01

    One of the most common childhood malignancies is leukemia. Treatments are now much more successful than in the past, but many children with leukemia are facing difficulties when returning to school. For pupils with leukemia, school is very important, providing them with a feeling of normalcy and hope for the future. But when such a child, with all his or her characteristics, returns to school, he meets with certain requirements. He or she encounters obstacles which are directly or indirectly ...

  15. An Approach for Leukemia Classification Based on Cooperative Game Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Torkaman, Atefeh; Charkari, Nasrollah Moghaddam; Aghaeipour, Mahnaz

    2011-01-01

    Hematological malignancies are the types of cancer that affect blood, bone marrow and lymph nodes. As these tissues are naturally connected through the immune system, a disease affecting one of them will often affect the others as well. The hematological malignancies include; Leukemia, Lymphoma, Multiple myeloma. Among them, leukemia is a serious malignancy that starts in blood tissues especially the bone marrow, where the blood is made. Researches show, leukemia is one of the common cancers ...

  16. Leydig cell damage after testicular irradiation for lymphoblastic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalet, S.M.; Horner, A.; Ahmed, S.R.; Morris-Jones, P.H.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of testicular irradiation on Leydig cell function has been studied in a group of boys irradiated between 1 and 5 years earlier for a testicular relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Six of the seven boys irradiated during prepubertal life had an absent testosterone response to HCG stimulation. Two of the four boys irradiated during puberty had an appropriate basal testosterone level, but the testosterone response to HCG stimulation was subnormal in three of the four. Abnormalities in gonadotropin secretion consistent with testicular damage were noted in nine of the 11 boys. Evidence of severe Leydig cell damage was present irrespective of whether the boys were studied within 1 year or between 3 and 5 years after irradiation, suggesting that recovery is unlikely. Androgen replacement therapy has been started in four boys and will be required by the majority of the remainder to undergo normal pubertal development

  17. Cranial radiation in childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia. Neuropsychologic sequelae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitt, J.K.; Wells, R.J.; Lauria, M.M.; Wilhelm, C.L.; McMillan, C.W.

    1984-01-01

    A battery of neuropsychologic tests was administered ''blindly'' to 18 children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) who had been randomly assigned to treatment regimens with or without cranial radiation. These children were all in complete continuous remission for more than 3 1/2 years and were no longer receiving therapy. The results indicated no substantial differences between groups as a function of radiation therapy. However, decreased neuropsychologic performance was found when the entire sample was compared with population norms. These data do not support the hypothesis that cranial radiation therapy is responsible for the neuropsychologic sequelae seen in these survivors of ALL. Post hoc multiple regression analysis indicated that parental education levels accounted for more of the neuropsychologic variability seen in these children than other factors such as age at diagnosis, type of therapy, or sex of child

  18. Non-infectious chemotherapy-associated acute toxicities during childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia therapy [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjeld Schmiegelow

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available During chemotherapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, all organs can be affected by severe acute side effects, the most common being opportunistic infections, mucositis, central or peripheral neuropathy (or both, bone toxicities (including osteonecrosis, thromboembolism, sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, endocrinopathies (especially steroid-induced adrenal insufficiency and hyperglycemia, high-dose methotrexate-induced nephrotoxicity, asparaginase-associated hypersensitivity, pancreatitis, and hyperlipidemia. Few of the non-infectious acute toxicities are associated with clinically useful risk factors, and across study groups there has been wide diversity in toxicity definitions, capture strategies, and reporting, thus hampering meaningful comparisons of toxicity incidences for different leukemia protocols. Since treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia now yields 5-year overall survival rates above 90%, there is a need for strategies for assessing the burden of toxicities in the overall evaluation of anti-leukemic therapy programs.

  19. The effects of prophylactic treatment of the central nervous system on the intellectual functioning of children with acute lymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, H.A.; Nannis, E.D.; Poplack, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of central nervous system prophylaxis (cranial radiation and intrathecal chemotherapy) on intellectual function was studied in 24 children with acute lymphocytic leukemia. The Wechsler Intelligence tests were administered to these children and to a sample of their healthy siblings, who served as a comparison group. The mean Full Scale lQ was 98.6 for the patients and 112.5 for the sibling controls (p less than 0.001 level). Those patients who received central nervous system preventive treatment at a young age exhibited a greater decrement in intellectual abilities than did patients who were older when they received this treatment. In contrast, leukemia patients who had not received central nervous system prophylaxis had IQs that did not differ statistically from those of their siblings. These data suggest that central nervous system prophylaxis may have an adverse effect on the intellectual capability of children with acute lymphocytic leukemia

  20. RBE of tritium beta rays for causes of death other than myeloid leukemia in male CBA/H mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.; Jackson, J.S.; Dunford, D.W.

    1991-05-01

    Causes of death were examined for 5,206 male CBA/H mice which had previously been treated with tritiated water or with X rays at comparable doses and comparable dose rates. Data on induced myeloid leukemia had been examined in detail in a previous report. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relative biological effectiveness of tritium beta rays for causes of death other than mye-loid leukemia. However, no consistent values for the tritium relative biological effectiveness were obtained. The values were spread over a wide range for different endpoints and were generally less reliable than those for induction of myeloid leukemia. A surprising decrease in time to death of animals without tumours was observed in the irradiated groups of mice. This observation suggests that a detailed review of recent data on non-specific life shortening in irradiated animals and humans might be useful

  1. Effect of Linezolid on Hematologic Recovery in Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients Following Induction Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedved, Adrienne N; DeFrates, Sean R; Hladnik, Lindsay M; Stockerl-Goldstein, Keith E

    2016-10-01

    Assess the effects of linezolid on hematologic outcomes in newly diagnosed patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) following induction chemotherapy. Single-center, retrospective, observational, cohort study. Large, tertiary care academic medical center. A total of 225 patients ≥ 18 years admitted between December 2010 and 2013 with newly diagnosed AML were assessed for inclusion. Patients were identified through the use of ICD-9 codes and chemotherapy ordered via the computerized physician order entry system. Sixty-eight patients met inclusion criteria and were grouped into two arms based on antimicrobial treatment: LZD group (linezolid plus gram-negative antimicrobial, n=21) or control group (vancomycin or daptomycin plus gram-negative antimicrobial, n=47). The LZD group received linezolid ≥ 72 hours. The control group received vancomycin or daptomycin ≥ 72 hours. If patients switched extended gram-positive therapy, they were included in the LZD group as long as they had received ≥ 72 hours of linezolid. The primary end point of time to neutrophil recovery was not statistically different (28 days for LZD group vs 26 days for control group; p=0.675). The preplanned subgroup analysis of patients who received ≥ 14 days of linezolid demonstrated statistically similar median times to neutrophil recovery (29 days for LZD group vs 26 days for control group; p=0.487). Total duration of extended gram-positive antimicrobial therapy was significantly longer in the LZD group (27 days vs 16 days; plinezolid for extended gram-positive antimicrobial coverage following induction chemotherapy. This study provides new insight with a primary focus on the effects of hematologic outcomes when using linezolid in a well-defined acute leukemia population. Further study is warranted with larger populations to assess the potential adverse effects linezolid may have in patients with acute leukemia. © 2016 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  2. Month of estimated onset of leukemia in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nefzger, M D; Hoshino, Takashi; Itoga, Takashi; Yamada, Atsushi; Toyoda, Shigeki

    1963-10-03

    The monthly distribution of onset of leukemia during 1946-61 has been examined in 638 known cases among Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. Comparisons were made of sex, city, chronicity, and distance from the hypocenter. A summer excess was most prominent in the group 0-1999 m from the hypocenter, and an autumn deficiency was most consistently seen in the various subgroups. No explanation of these differences can be offered. 1 reference, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  3. Leukemia in Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors from 1946 to 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkita, Takeshi

    1976-01-01

    In five recent years, 134 deaths from leukemia among Hiroshima citizen were recorded. Of these, 23 cases (17 acute and 6 chronic types) were atomic bomb survivors exposed within 2,000 m of the hypocenter. Fifteen of them (65%) were over 60 years of age. The frequency of chronic lymphocytic leukemia was still low. Although the risk of leukemia was greatly reduced after 1961, and the frequency of chronic granulocytic leukemia (one of the most characteristic type of Hiroshima atomic bomb-induced leukemia) was also decreased, the death rate from leukemia among survivors exposed within 2,000 m or 1,500 m from the hypocenter was about 3 to 4 times higher than the mean death rate in all Japan. Therefore, careful and long-range follow-up surveillance should be continued. A brief review was also made of relevant studies such as the influence of environmental and host factors in the epidemiology of leukemia, the incidence of leukemia in children exposed in utero, and leukemia in offspring of atomic bomb survivors. (Evans, J.)

  4. Genetics Home Reference: PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... link) Genetic Testing Registry: Idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome Other Diagnosis and Management Resources (3 links) Cancer.Net: Leukemia - Eosinophilic: Treatment MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Eosinophil Count - Absolute Seattle ...

  5. Cure rates of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Lithuania and the benefit of joining international treatment protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaitkevičienė, Goda; Matuzevičienė, Rėda; Stoškus, Mindaugas

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) represents the largest group of pediatric malignancies with long-term survival rates of more than 80% achieved in developed countries. Epidemiological data and survival rates of childhood ALL in Lithuania were lacking. Therefore, the aim of...

  6. Cost-analysis of treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia with asparaginase preparations: The impact of expensive chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H. Tong (Wing); I.M. van der Sluis (Inge); C.J.M. Alleman (Cathelijne); R.R. van Litsenburg (Raphaële ); G.J. Kaspers (Gertjan); R. Pieters (Rob); C.A. Uyl-de Groot (Carin)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Asparaginase is an expensive drug, but important in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In order to compare costs of PEGasparaginase, Erwinia asparaginase and native E. coli asparaginase, we performed a cost-analysis in the Dutch Childhood Oncology Group ALL-10

  7. The Eleventh International Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Workshop Report: Ponte di Legno, Italy, 6-7 May 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, A; Baruchel, A; Hunger, S

    2009-01-01

    An international childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)working group was formed during the 27th annual meeting of the International Society of Pediatric Oncology in 1995. Since then, 10 workshops have been held to address many issues that help advance treatment outcome of childhood ALL but ...

  8. Global Characteristics of Childhood Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Samad, A; Pombo-de-Oliveira, MS; Scelo, G; Smith, MT; Feusner, J; Wiemels, JL; Metayer, C

    2014-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) comprises approximately 5–10% of childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cases in the US. While variation in this percentage among other populations was noted previously, global patterns of childhood APL have not been thoroughly characterized. In this comprehensive review of childhood APL, we examined its geographic pattern and the potential contribution of environmental factors to observed variation. In 142 studies (spanning >60 countries) identified, variation was apparent—de novo APL represented from 2% (Switzerland) to >50% (Nicaragua) of childhood AML in different geographic regions. Because a limited number of previous studies addressed specific environmental exposures that potentially underlie childhood APL development, we gathered 28 childhood cases of therapy-related APL, which exemplified associations between prior exposures to chemotherapeutic drugs/radiation and APL diagnosis. Future population-based studies examining childhood APL patterns and the potential association with specific environmental exposures and other risk factors are needed. PMID:25445717

  9. Cytogenetic patterns in acute nonlymphocytic leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Testa, J R; Rowley, J D

    1978-01-01

    Analysis of chromosomal banding patterns in acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) reveals that approximately 50% of patients have an abnormal karyotype. Although there is substantial variability, certain nonrandom abnormalities occur, e.g., +8, -7, and the 8;21 translocation (often accompanied by loss of an X or Y chromosome). The 15;17 translocation appears to be highly specific for acute promyelocytic leukemia. These abnormalities usually are not seen in remission, but reappear in relapse, sometimes exhibiting further clonal evolution; a +8 is the most frequently observed evolutionary change. Patients with ANLL following treatment of a malignant lymphoma tend to have hypodiploid modal numbers and frequently show loss of a chromosome No. 5 or No. 7.

  10. Biological Prognostic Markers in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimíra Vroblová

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL is the most frequent leukemic disease of adults in the Western world. It is remarkable by an extraordinary heterogeneity of clinical course with overall survival ranging from several months to more than 15 years. Classical staging sytems by Rai and Binet, while readily available and useful for initial assessment of prognosis, are not able to determine individual patient’s ongoing clinical course of CLL at the time of diagnosis, especially in early stages. Therefore, newer biological prognostic parameters are currently being clinically evaluated. Mutational status of variable region of immunoglobulin heavy chain genes (IgVH, cytogenetic aberrations, and both intracellular ZAP- 70 and surface CD38 expression are recognized as parameters with established prognostic value. Molecules regulating the process of angiogenesis are also considered as promising markers. The purpose of this review is to summarize in detail the specific role of these prognostic factors in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

  11. The evolution of clinical trials for infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotecha, R S; Gottardo, N G; Kees, U R; Cole, C H

    2014-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in infants has a significantly inferior outcome in comparison with older children. Despite initial improvements in survival of infants with ALL since establishment of the first pediatric cooperative group ALL trials, the poor outcome has plateaued in recent years. Historically, infants were treated on risk-adapted childhood ALL protocols. These studies were pivotal in identifying the need for infant-specific protocols, delineating prognostic categories and the requirement for a more unified approach between study groups to overcome limitations in accrual because of low incidence. This subsequently led to the development of collaborative infant-specific studies. Landmark outcomes have included the elimination of cranial radiotherapy following the discovery of intrathecal and high-dose systemic therapy as a superior and effective treatment strategy for central nervous system disease prophylaxis, with improved neurodevelopmental outcome. Universal prospective identification of independent adverse prognostic factors, including presence of a mixed lineage leukemia rearrangement and young age, has established the basis for risk stratification within current trials. The infant-specific trials have defined limits to which conventional chemotherapeutic agents can be intensified to optimize the balance between treatment efficacy and toxicity. Despite variations in therapeutic intensity, there has been no recent improvement in survival due to the equilibrium between relapse and toxicity. Ultimately, to improve the outcome for infants with ALL, key areas still to be addressed include identification and adaptation of novel prognostic markers and innovative therapies, establishing the role of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in first complete remission, treatment strategies for relapsed/refractory disease and monitoring and timely intervention of late effects in survivors. This would be best achieved through a single unified

  12. PROGNOSTIC VALUE OF BRAIN AND ACUTE LEUKEMIA CYTOPLASMIC GENE EXPRESSION IN EGYPTIAN CHILDREN WITH ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    adel abd elhaleim hagag

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract      Background: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML accounts for 25%-35% of the acute leukemia in children. BAALC (Brain and Acute Leukemia, Cytoplasmic gene is a recently identified gene on chromosome 8q22.3 that has prognostic significance in AML.  The aim of this work was to study the impact of BAALC gene expression on prognosis of AML in Egyptian children. Patients and methods: This study was conducted on 40 patients of newly diagnosed AML who were subjected to the following: Full history taking, clinical examination, laboratory investigations including: complete blood count, LDH, bone marrow aspiration, cytochemistry and immunophenotyping, assessment of BAALC Gene by real time PCR in bone marrow aspirate mononuclear cells before the start of chemotherapy. Results: BAALC gene expression showed positive expression in 24 cases (60% and negative expression in 16 cases (40%. Patients who showed positive BAALC gene expression included 10 patients achieved complete remission, 8 patients died and 6 relapsed patients, while patients who showed negative expression include 12 patients achieved complete remission, 1 relapsed patient and 3 patients died. There was significant association between BAALC gene expression and FAB classification of patients of AML patientsas positive BAALC expression is predominantly seen in FAB subtypes M1 and M2 compared with negative BAALC gene expression that was found more in M3 and M4 (8 cases with M1, 12 cases with M2, 1 case with M3 and 3 cases with M4 in positive BAALC expression versus 2 cases with M1, 3 cases with M2, 4 cases with M3 and 7 cases with M4 in BAALC gene negative expression group with significant difference regarding FAB subtypes. As regard age, sex, splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, pallor, purpura, platelets count, WBCs count, and percentage of blast cells in BM, the present study showed no significant association with BAALC. Conclusion: BAALC expression is an important prognostic factor in AML

  13. Atomic bomb irradiation-induced leukemias revisited. Summary data of 50 years-long term follow up study on survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomonaga, Masao; Matsuo, Tatsuki; Preston, D.L.; Bennett, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The Life Span Study (LSS) on 93,741 survivors (fixed cohort) and the Open City Study (OCS) on all survivors (unfixed) irrespective of whether they belonged to LSS or not, have been conducted in parallel over 45 years to ensure reliable case detection. We adopted the FAB classification for acute leukemias and for exposure dose of individual survivors, the new dosimetry system 1986 (DS86). In LSS, 221 leukemia cases were analysed. There was strong evidence of radiation-induced risks for acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), but not for adult T-cell leukemia and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. There was also significant difference between three major types with respect to the effects of age at bombing and sex, and in the temporal pattern of the elevated risks. For AML the dose response function was non-linear, whereas there was no evidence against linearity for ALL and CML. The hypothesis of a 0.5 Gy threshold could be rejected for three major types of leukemia. Excess Absolute Risk (EAR) estimates in cases per 10,000 Person Year Sievert (PYSv) were 0.6, 1.1, 0.9 for ALL, AML and CML, respectively. The corresponding relative risk at 1.0 Sv were 9.1, 3.3, 6.2, respectively. Although childhood exposure <15 age at bombing apparently induced three major types, the age-related highest risk was observed for ALL. In OCS, 413 cases with DS86 estimates were used for analysis. Type specific incidence rates were calculated indirectly by using the over all incidence of leukemia from LSS data and multiplying these values by the corresponding proportions of cases in OCS. In conjunction with LSS data, the effects of radiation were significantly greater on the incidences of ALL and CML than on that of AML. In the high dose group there was a strong evidence for shorter incubation time and faster decline of elevated risk for ALL and CML than for AML. AML risk was apparently persistent through 1980. (K.H.)

  14. Acute nonlymphocytic leukemia in a glue sniffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caligiuri, M A; Early, A P; Marinello, M J; Preisler, H D

    1985-09-01

    A 17-year-old white male with a past history of chronic inhalational abuse of plastic glue was referred to our institution for sore throat, cervical adenopathy, and an abnormal peripheral blood smear. A diagnosis of acute myelomonocytic leukemia was made and abnormalities in cytogenetic studies were demonstrated. Specific inquiry regarding this form of drug exposure should be pursued when searching for possible etiologies of malignant disease.

  15. Splenic irradiation in chronic myeloid leukemia

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    Hukku, S.; Baboo, H.A.; Venkataratnam, S.; Vidyasagar, M.S.; Patel, N.L. (Department of Radiation Therapy, Gujarat Cancer Research Institute, Ahmedabad, India)

    1983-01-01

    Results of splenic irradiation as the initial and only method of treatment are reported in 25 patients with chronic myeloid leukemia. Peripheral remission was induced in all the patients. Induction was achieved after a short period of 11 to 30 days in the majority of the patients, the longest period being 40 days. Several patients were in remission 9 months after treatment. The results are compared with those obtained by chemotherapy. Some advantages of splenic irradiation over chemotherapy are emphasized.

  16. Immunophenotyping in leukemia and its diagnostic significance

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    S. B. Kresno

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The identification of cell surface markers, defined as clusters of differentiation antigens (CD’s could be used to classify and sub-classify leukemia. Although the same antigens are expressed on normal cells, the phenotype on malignant cells are aberrantly and frequently asynchronously expressed and may be present in combinations not observed in normal blood or bone marrow. Aberrant expression of surface antigens corresponds with poor therapeutic response and short survival. Additional surface marker analysis complementary to morphologic evaluation and cytochemical staining has greatly improved our ability to characterize hematologic malignancies. A review and illustration on the diagnostic significance of immunophenotyping in leukemia will be presented. Data from 225 patients having complete assessments including morphology, cytochemistry and immunophenotyping in the period of 1994-2001 were collected and analyzed. Based on morphologic evaluation and cytochemistry, the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia were established in 51.1% and 48.9% of cases, respectively. Based on immunophenotyping AML was found in 49.0% of the cases. ALL could be classified into 4.9% pre-B-ALL, 18.7% B-ALL, and 14.7% T-ALL. Cases expressing cross-lineage antigens were found in 12.7%. The prognostic significance of these aberrant expression of antigens for those cases has yet to be established but some of the cases responded poorly to therapy. Immunophenotyping provides the tool to: 1 distinguish normal from clonal populations of leukemic cells; 2 define lineage and reveal the stage of maturation; 3 identify inappropriate expression of lineage associated antigens; 4 provides more informations to establish diagnosis and prognosis compared to standard methods. (Med J Indones 2004; 13: 195-202 Keywords: Immunophenotyping, clusters of differentiation antigens, lineage associated antigens

  17. [Experimental study on aging effect of Angelica sinensis polysaccharides combined with cytarabine on human leukemia KG1alpha cell lines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chun-Yan; Geng, Shan; Liu, Jun; Zhu, Jia-Hong; Zhang, Xian-Ping; Jiang, Rong; Wang, Ya-Ping

    2014-04-01

    The latest findings of our laboratory showed that Angelica sinensis polysaccharide (ASP) showed a definite effect in regulating the aging of hematopoietic stem cells. Leukemia is a type of malignant hematopoietic tumor in hematopoietic stem cells. There have been no relevant reports about ASP's effect in regulating the aging of leukemia cells. In this study, human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) KG1alpha cell lines in logarithmic growth phase were taken as the study object, and were divided into the ASP group, the cytarabine (Ara-C) group, the ASP + Ara-C group and the control group. The groups were respectively treated with different concentration of ASP, Ara-C and ASP + Ara-C for different periods, with the aim to study the effect of ASP combined with Ara-C in regulating the aging of human acute myeloid leukemia KG1alpha cell lines and its relevant mechanism. The results showed that ASP, Ara-C and ASP + Ara-C could obviously inhibit KG1alpha cell proliferation in vitro, block the cells in G0/G1 phase. The cells showed the aging morphological feature. The percentage of positive stained aging cells was dramatically increased, and could significantly up-regulate the expression of aging-related proteins P16 and RB, which were more obvious in the ASP + Ara-C group. In conclusion, the aging mechanism of KG1alpha cell induced by ASP and Ara-C may be related to the regulation of the expression of aging-related proteins, suggesting that the combined administration of ASP and anticancer drugs plays a better role in the treatment of leukemia .

  18. Minimal Residual Disease in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourigan, Christopher S.; Karp, Judith E.

    2014-01-01

    Technological advances in the laboratory have lead to substantial improvements in clinical decision-making by the use of pre-treatment prognostic risk stratification factors in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Unfortunately similar progress has not been made in treatment response criteria, with the definition of “complete remission” in AML largely unchanged for over half a century. Several recent clinical trials have demonstrated that higher sensitivity measurements of residual disease burden during or after treatment can be performed, that results are predictive for clinical outcome and can be used to improve outcomes by guiding additional therapeutic intervention to patients in clinical complete remission but at increased relapse risk. We review here these recent trials, the characteristics and challenges of the modalities currently used to detect minimal residual disease (MRD), and outline opportunities to both refine detection and better clinically utilize MRD measurements. MRD measurement is already the standard of care in other myeloid malignancies such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). It is our belief that response criteria for non-APL AML should be updated to include assessment for molecular complete remission (mCR) and that recommendations for post-consolidation surveillance should include regular monitoring for molecular relapse as a standard of care. PMID:23799371

  19. Targeting the TAM Receptors in Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huey, Madeline G; Minson, Katherine A; Earp, H Shelton; DeRyckere, Deborah; Graham, Douglas K

    2016-11-08

    Targeted inhibition of members of the TAM (TYRO-3, AXL, MERTK) family of receptor tyrosine kinases has recently been investigated as a novel strategy for treatment of hematologic malignancies. The physiologic functions of the TAM receptors in innate immune control, natural killer (NK) cell differentiation, efferocytosis, clearance of apoptotic debris, and hemostasis have previously been described and more recent data implicate TAM kinases as important regulators of erythropoiesis and megakaryopoiesis. The TAM receptors are aberrantly or ectopically expressed in many hematologic malignancies including acute myeloid leukemia, B- and T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and multiple myeloma. TAM receptors contribute to leukemic phenotypes through activation of pro-survival signaling pathways and interplay with other oncogenic proteins such as FLT3, LYN, and FGFR3. The TAM receptors also contribute to resistance to both cytotoxic chemotherapeutics and targeted agents, making them attractive therapeutic targets. A number of translational strategies for TAM inhibition are in development, including small molecule inhibitors, ligand traps, and monoclonal antibodies. Emerging areas of research include modulation of TAM receptors to enhance anti-tumor immunity, potential roles for TYRO-3 in leukemogenesis, and the function of the bone marrow microenvironment in mediating resistance to TAM inhibition.

  20. Targeting the TAM Receptors in Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeline G. Huey

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Targeted inhibition of members of the TAM (TYRO-3, AXL, MERTK family of receptor tyrosine kinases has recently been investigated as a novel strategy for treatment of hematologic malignancies. The physiologic functions of the TAM receptors in innate immune control, natural killer (NK cell differentiation, efferocytosis, clearance of apoptotic debris, and hemostasis have previously been described and more recent data implicate TAM kinases as important regulators of erythropoiesis and megakaryopoiesis. The TAM receptors are aberrantly or ectopically expressed in many hematologic malignancies including acute myeloid leukemia, B- and T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and multiple myeloma. TAM receptors contribute to leukemic phenotypes through activation of pro-survival signaling pathways and interplay with other oncogenic proteins such as FLT3, LYN, and FGFR3. The TAM receptors also contribute to resistance to both cytotoxic chemotherapeutics and targeted agents, making them attractive therapeutic targets. A number of translational strategies for TAM inhibition are in development, including small molecule inhibitors, ligand traps, and monoclonal antibodies. Emerging areas of research include modulation of TAM receptors to enhance anti-tumor immunity, potential roles for TYRO-3 in leukemogenesis, and the function of the bone marrow microenvironment in mediating resistance to TAM inhibition.

  1. Epigenetic analysis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunwell, Thomas L; Hesson, Luke B; Pavlova, Tatiana; Zabarovska, Veronika; Kashuba, Vladimir; Catchpoole, Daniel; Chiaramonte, Raffaella; Brini, Anna T; Griffiths, Mike; Maher, Eamonn R; Zabarovsky, Eugene; Latif, Farida

    2009-04-01

    We used a chromosome 3 wide NotI microarray for identification of epigenetically inactivated genes in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Three novel genes demonstrated frequent methylation in childhood ALL. PPP2R3A (protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B", alpha) was frequently methylated in T (69%) and B (82%)-ALL. Whilst FBLN2 (fibulin 2) and THRB (thyroid hormone receptor, beta) showed frequent methylation in B-ALL (58%; 56% respectively), but were less frequently methylated in T-ALL (17% for both genes). Recently it was demonstrated that BNC1 (Basonuclin 1) and MSX1 (msh homeobox 1) were frequently methylated across common epithelial cancers. In our series of childhood ALL BNC1 was frequently methylated in both T (77%) and B-ALL (79%), whilst MSX1 showed T-ALL (25%) specific methylation. The methylation of the above five genes was cancer specific and expression of the genes could be restored in methylated leukemia cell lines treated with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. This is the first report demonstrating frequent epigenetic inactivation of PPP2R3A, FBLN2, THRB, BNC1 and MSX1 in leukemia. The identification of frequently methylated genes showing cancer specific methylation will be useful in developing early cancer detection screens and for targeted epigenetic therapies.

  2. Is high dose methotrexate without irradiation of the brain sufficiently effective in prevention of CNS disease in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cap, J.; Foltinova, A.; Kaiserova, E.; Mojzesova, A.; Sejnova, D.; Jamarik, M.

    1998-01-01

    We present 5-year results of treatment in 93 children suffering from acute lymphoblastic leukemia using two therapeutic protocols containing multidrug chemotherapy including high dose methotrexate. We could ascertain different results in standard and high risk patients. In a group of 62 children with standard risk we observed improvement in complete remission rate being 98.9% after induction phase of therapy, only one patient died on septicemia. Relapse rate in this group was 21.2% and that 14. 7% in the bone marrow and 6.5% in CNS and no testicular relapse at all. In the group of 31 children with high risk leukemia all patients achieved complete remission. Only one of them died on acute pancreatitis due to toxicity. Overall relapse rate in this group was 28.9% with 12.8% of medullary relapse and 16.1 % of CNS relapse. The last one was significantly higher than in the previous study when brain irradiation was a part of therapeutic procedure. It seems that this treatment is effective mainly in the standard risk leukemia, however, in the high risk leukemias this procedure appears to be less effective in preventing CNS leukemia. In this group of patients irradiation of the brain need to be enclosed in the therapy. (authors)

  3. Leukemia Associated Antigens: Their Dual Role as Biomarkers and Immunotherapeutic Targets for Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schmitt

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Leukemia associated antigens (LAAs are being increasingly identified by methods such as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL cloning, serological analysis of recombinant cDNA expression libraries (SEREX and mass spectrometry (MS. In additional, large scale screening techniques such as microarray, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE and 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE have expanded our understanding of the role that tumor antigens play in the biological processes which are perturbed in acute myeloid leukemia (AML. It has become increasingly apparent that these antigens play a dual role, not only as targets for immunotherapy, but also as biomarkers of disease state, stage, response to treatment and survival. We need biomarkers to enable the identification of the patients who are most likely to benefit from specific treatments (conventional and/or novel and to help clinicians and scientists improve clinical end points and treatment design. Here we describe the LAAs identified in AML, to date, which have already been shown to play a dual role as biomarkers of AML disease.Abbreviations: AML: acute myeloid leukemia; APL: acute promyelocytic leukemia; ATRA: all-trans-retinoic acid; B-CLL: B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia; CT: cancer-testis; CTL: cytotoxic T-lymphocyte; FAB: French-American-British; HI: hypusination inhibitors; HSP: heat shock protein; ITD: internal tandem duplication; LAA: leukemia associated antigen; MDS: myelodysplastic syndrome; MGEA6: meningioma antigen 6; MPD: myeloproliferative disease; MS: mass spectrometry; NK: natural killer; PRAME: preferentially expressed antigen of melanoma; PRTN3: proteinase 3; RAGE-1: renal antigen 1; RHAMM: receptor for hyaluronic acid-mediated motility; RQ-PCR: real-time PCR; SAGE: serial analysis of gene expression; SCT: stem cell transplant; SEREX: serological analysis of recombinant cDNA expression libraries; SNPs: single nucleotide polymorphisms; UPD

  4. Leukemia Mediated Endothelial Cell Activation Modulates Leukemia Cell Susceptibility to Chemotherapy through a Positive Feedback Loop Mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Pezeshkian

    Full Text Available In acute myeloid leukemia (AML, the chances of achieving disease-free survival are low. Studies have demonstrated a supportive role of endothelial cells (ECs in normal hematopoiesis. Here we show that similar intercellular relationships exist in leukemia. We demonstrate that leukemia cells themselves initiate these interactions by directly modulating the behavior of resting ECs through the induction of EC activation. In this inflammatory state, activated ECs induce the adhesion of a sub-set of leukemia cells through the cell adhesion molecule E-selectin. These adherent leukemia cells are sequestered in a quiescent state and are unaffected by chemotherapy. The ability of adherent cells to later detach and again become proliferative following exposure to chemotherapy suggests a role of this process in relapse. Interestingly, differing leukemia subtypes modulate this process to varying degrees, which may explain the varied response of AML patients to chemotherapy and relapse rates. Finally, because leukemia cells themselves induce EC activation, we postulate a positive-feedback loop in leukemia that exists to support the growth and relapse of the disease. Together, the data defines a new mechanism describing how ECs and leukemia cells interact during leukemogenesis, which could be used to develop novel treatments for those with AML.

  5. Graft-versus-Leukemia Effect Following Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Dickinson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The success of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT lies with the ability of the engrafting immune system to remove residual leukemia cells via a graft-versus-leukemia effect (GvL, caused either spontaneously post-HSCT or via donor lymphocyte infusion. GvL effects can also be initiated by allogenic mismatched natural killer cells, antigen-specific T cells, and activated dendritic cells of leukemic origin. The history and further application of this GvL effect and the main mechanisms will be discussed and reviewed in this chapter.

  6. THE EFFECT OF POLYMORPHISM IN GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASES ON THE DEVELOPING SECOND MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS AFTER LEUKEMIA TREATMENT IN CHILDHOOD

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    Janez Jazbec

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Survivors of childhood leukemia have an increased risk of developing second malignant neoplasms and specific treatment factors such as alkylating agents, topoisomerase inhibitors and radiation have been associated with their occurrence. Genetic polymorphism in drug-metabolizing enzymes may result in impared detoxification of chemotherapeutics and may lead to increased risk for cancer.Methods. To test if polymorphism in glutathione S-transferases (GST genes is associated with occurrence of secondary malignant neoplasms, we compared GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 genotypes among 16 patients treated for childhood leukemia in whom second neoplasm occurred and matched the control group.Results. GSTM1 null genotype was found in 44% of patients with second neoplasms and in 50% in control group (p = 0.768, GSTT1 null genotype in 19% of cases and in 29% of controls (p = 0.729 and GSTP1 105 Ile/ile in 50% of cases and 37% of controls (p = 0.537. Differences in distribution of GST genotypes in patients with second neoplasms after childhood leukemia, compared to a matched control group of patients were not statistically significant.Conclusions. In our study we were not able to show relation between GST genotype and occurrence of second neoplasms after the childhood acute leukemia.

  7. Association of energy intake and expenditure with obesity: A cross-sectional study of 150 pediatric patients following treatment for leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Richa; Batra, Atul; Dhawan, Deepa; Bakhshi, Sameer

    2017-02-01

    Increased obesity in leukemia survivors has been attributed to chemotherapy and radiation. Data on total energy intake (TEI) and total energy expenditure (TEE) are lacking in obese childhood leukemia patients after completion of therapy from India. We conducted a cross-sectional study in pediatric acute leukemia patients after completion of therapy wherein energy intake was assessed by 24-hour recall method. TEE was calculated using Harris-Benedict equation, by assessing the physical activity level using Physical Activity Questionnaire for children and basal metabolic rate by World Health Organization equation. Indian Academy of Pediatrics 2015 guidelines for BMI were used for defining overweight and obesity. Nutritional status was assessed in 150 leukemia patients after completion of therapy. Twenty-five percent of leukemia patients after completion of therapy were overweight and obese versus 11% of healthy controls (p = 0.042). The mean ratio of TEI/required energy intake (REI), TEE/required energy expenditure (REE), and (TEI:REI)/(TEE:REE) were significantly higher in overweight and obese group versus nonobese survivors (p obesity. Obesity in leukemia patients after completion of therapy is associated with increased energy intake, causing imbalance between energy intake and TEE in these patients.

  8. Targeting interleukin-11 receptor in leukemia and lymphoma: A functional ligand-directed study and hematopathology analysis of patient-derived specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, Katja; Jaalouk, Diana E.; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos; Bover, Laura; Sun, Yan; Kuniyasu, Akihiko; Driessen, Wouter H. P.; Cardó-Vila, Marina; Rietz, Cecilia; Zurita, Amado J.; O’Brien, Susan; Kantarjian, Hagop M.; Cortes, Jorge E.; Calin, George A.; Koivunen, Erkki; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The interleukin-11 receptor (IL-11R) is an established molecular target in primary tumors of bone, such as osteosarcoma, and in secondary bone metastases from solid tumors such as prostate cancer. However, its potential role in management of hematopoietic malignancies has not yet been determined. Here we evaluated the IL-11R as a candidate therapeutic target in human leukemia and lymphoma. Experimental Design and Results First, we show that the IL-11R protein is expressed in a variety of human leukemia- and lymphoma derived cell lines and in a large panel of bone marrow samples from leukemia and lymphoma patients, while expression is absent from non-malignant control bone marrow. Moreover, a targeted peptidomimetic prototype (termed BMTP-11) specifically bound to leukemia and lymphoma cell membranes, induced ligand-receptor internalization mediated by the IL-11R, and resulted in a specific dose-dependent cell death induction in these cells. Finally, a pilot drug lead-optimization program yielded a new myristoylated BMTP-11 analog with an apparent improved anti-leukemia cell profile. Conclusion These results indicate (i) that the IL-11R is a suitable cell surface target for ligand-directed applications in human leukemia and lymphoma and (ii) that BMTP-11 and its derivatives have translational potential against this group of malignant diseases. PMID:25779950

  9. Incidence of leukemia, lymphoma and thyroid cancers in children under 15 years old in the vicinity of Marcoule nuclear plant, 1985-95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouges, S.; Daures, J.P.; Hebrard, M.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to report incidence of childhood leukemia, lymphoma and thyroid neoplasms in children under 15 years of age living in the vicinity of the French Marcoule nuclear reprocessing plant. This exhaustive and retrospective survey was carried out between 1985 and 1995 in children aged under 14 at the time of diagnosis and living inside a 35 kilometer zone around the nuclear site. 656 practitioners, 109 medical analysis laboratories and 5 hospitals or cancer institutes were investigated. A panel of experts checked each case. 48 cases of acute leukemia (39 acute lymphoid leukemia and 9 acute myeloid leukemia), 15 cases of lymphoma (8 Hodgkin lymphomas - 53 % - and 7 non hodgkinian lymphomas including 5 Burkitt lymphomas), 1 case of chronic myeloid leukemia and 1 case of papillary thyroid cancer, appeared among the 1,116,442 children-years followed. The total incidences of leukemias and lymphomas were respectively 4.12 and 1.29.10 -5 . Standardised Incidence Ratios, calculated according to Poisson methods and Bayesian inference, with various reference rates did not show any excess of risk: 100.67 (95 % confidence interval 72-131) for leukemia. Children under 5 years old and living in non exposed areas to dominant winds or downstream Rhodanian water drawing presented a 3 or 4 fold decreased risk of leukemia than others (the latter still having an identical risk to that of the general population). This was not true for lymphomas, nor for the other age groups. Over the entire zone, children do not have an increased risk of malignant hematology disease but health monitoring by a systematic collection of cases remains useful around Marcoule. The assumption of aquiferous or air contamination thus still remains questionable: further studies investigating models of contamination are needed to take into account all other nonionizing leukemogenic factors (benzene and viral infection in particular) or correlation studies between health indicators and

  10. The Prognostic Significance of The Serum Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL in Childhood Acute Leukemias

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    Zeliha Haytoglu

    2015-12-01

    Results: The comparison of the average values of the TRAIL levels in acute leukemia patients and control group have shown that patients with leukemia have low serum TRAIL levels (p=0.002. In patients with high-risk-grade (HRG of ALL compared with control group have shown low serum TRAIL levels in HRG of ALL (p=0.008. In patients with common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen(CALLA(- B ALL compared with control group have shown low serum TRAIL levels in CALLA(- B ALL (p=0.004. Children with acute leukemias (ALL, AML who died during treatment compared with survived group have shown low levels of serum TRAIL in expired patients (p=0.004. Conclusion: As a result, serum TRAIL might play a role in leukomegenesis. The low levels of serum TRAIL detected in our patients may be associated with leukomogenezis and impaired TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. To suggest soluble TRAIL's role in acute leukemias detection of TRAIL-mediated apoptosis is needed. The low serum TRAIL may be used as a sign of bad prognosis. For more comphrensive results prospective studies with greaater number of patients are needed. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(4.000: 774-781

  11. Ophthalmic evaluation of long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, R.G. Jr.; Chauvenet, A.R.; Smith, T.J.; Schwartz, A.C.

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-four long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) underwent comprehensive ophthalmic examinations to detect retinopathy or other ocular sequelae. Sixteen of the 34 patients received whole brain radiation (greater than or equal to 2400 rad). All 18 patients in the non-radiated group had normal eye examinations, while 4 of 16 in the radiated group had ocular abnormalities. None of the ocular abnormalities could be definitely attributed to radiation and all patients had normal visual acuity. No radiation retinopathy was found in either group

  12. Cyclosporine, Pravastatin Sodium, Etoposide, and Mitoxantrone Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-27

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  13. Prognostic significance of primary bone changes in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajantie, J.; Jaeaeskelaeinen, J.; Perkkioe, M.; Siimes, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    In a period of 6.5 years, acute leukaemia was diagnosed in 140 children at our hospital: 137 children had long bone radiographs and 45 patients had bone lesions. Eleven of the 115 patients who had skull radiographs had osteolytic lesions and another four had wide sutures. No patients had bone changes at relapse or at cessation of 3 years' successful therapy. In acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the frequence of osseous lesions tended to be higher in patients in sub-groups with a more favourable prognosis. The duration of remission and survival times were higher in patients with ''leukemic'' long bones than in those without them (p<0.10 and <0.05, respectively). Changes in the skull could not be related to the outcome. We found no abnormalities in the bones of the eight patients with acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia. (orig.)

  14. Exposure to magnetic fields and survival after diagnosis of childhood leukemia: a German cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Anne Louise; Weihkopf, Thomas; Kaatsch, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Inspired by a recent U.S. study showing poorer survival among children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) exposed to magnetic fields above 0.3 microT, we examine this relationship in a German cohort of childhood leukemia cases derived from previous population-based case-control studies...... for prognostic risk group, the hazard for exposures above 0.2 microT increases to HR, 3.0 (95% CI, 0.9-9.8). In conclusion, this study is generally consistent with the previous finding; however, we report the excess risk at field levels lower than those in the U.S. study. In all, the evidence is still based...

  15. ANTIBODIES TO LEUKEMIA DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR (HLDF IN PATIENTS WITH GASTROINTESTINAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Autenshlus

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies to leukemia differentiation factor (HLDF in patients with gastrointestinal cancer Abstract. Patients with gastric cancer exhibit higher levels of IgG4-antibodies to human leukemia differentiation factor (HLDF, as compared with healthy individuals, whereas, in patients with colorectal cancer, one may detect high levels of IgA anti-HDLF antibodies, along with lower levels of IgG1 class antibodies against HLDF than in control group. Among patients with gastrointestinal cancer, a positive correlation is revealed between contents of highly differentiated cells in the tumor, and IgM antibodies to HDLF. Meanwhile, a reverse relationship is noted between low differentiation of tumor cells and levels of IgG2 antibodies to HDLF in gastric cancer patients, or IgG3 antibodies to HDLF in patients with colorectal cancer.

  16. Pharmacogenetics predictive of response and toxicity in acute lymphoblastic leukemia therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Lin; Ontiveros, Evelena P; Griffiths, Elizabeth A; Thompson, James E; Wang, Eunice S; Wetzler, Meir

    2015-07-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a relatively rare disease in adults accounting for no more than 20% of all cases of acute leukemia. By contrast with the pediatric population, in whom significant improvements in long term survival and even cure have been achieved over the last 30years, adult ALL remains a significant challenge. Overall survival in this group remains a relatively poor 20-40%. Modern research has focused on improved pharmacokinetics, novel pharmacogenetics and personalized principles to optimize the efficacy of the treatment while reducing toxicity. Here we review the pharmacogenetics of medications used in the management of patients with ALL, including l-asparaginase, glucocorticoids, 6-mercaptopurine, methotrexate, vincristine and tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Incorporating recent pharmacogenetic data, mainly from pediatric ALL, will provide novel perspective of predicting response and toxicity in both pediatric and adult ALL therapies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Data quality in the Danish National Acute Leukemia Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostgård, Lene Sofie Granfeldt; Nørgaard, Jan Maxwell; Severinsen, Marianne Tang

    2013-01-01

    The Danish National Acute Leukemia Registry (DNLR) has documented coverage of above 98.5%. Less is known about the quality of the recorded data.......The Danish National Acute Leukemia Registry (DNLR) has documented coverage of above 98.5%. Less is known about the quality of the recorded data....

  18. Hairy Cell Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairy cell leukemia treatment options include watchful waiting when there are no symptoms, chemotherapy, biologic therapy, surgery, and targeted therapy. Learn more about the diagnosis and treatment of newly diagnosed and recurrent hairy cell leukemia in this expert-reviewed summary.

  19. Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; also called acute lymphocytic leukemia) is a blood cancer that often gets worse quickly if it is not treated. Treatments include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, stem cell transplant, and targeted therapy. Get detailed information about ALL in this expert-reviewed summary.

  20. Osteogenesis imperfecta and acute lymphoid leukemia: case report

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    Gabriel David Tarud

    2017-08-01

    Discussion: It is well described that genetic and chromosomal abnormalities increase the risk of leukemia, however the relationship between osteogenesis imperfecta and acute lymphoblastic leukemia is rare. In the world literature, there are few cases mentioning this association. It is important to continue observing the occurrence of later cases, which allow describing if there is a direct relationship between these two entities.

  1. Pathogenesis and treatment of leukemia: an Asian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Yok-Lam

    2012-03-01

    Leukemias occur worldwide, but there are important geographic differences in incidences. Three leukemias with special Asian perspectives, acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), T-cell large granular lymphocyte (T-LGL) leukemia and NK-cell leukemia. In APL, China has made contributions in discovering the efficacy of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide. Some APL patients are potentially curable after treatment with ATRA or arsenic trioxide as a single agent. Combined treatment of APL with ATRA and arsenic trioxide induces remission with deeper molecular response. An oral formulation of arsenic trioxide is available, making outpatient treatment feasible. Future regimens for APL should examine how ATRA and arsenic trioxide can be optimally combined with other synergistic drugs. Asian patients with T-LGL leukemia present more frequently with pure red cell aplasia, but less frequently with neutropenia, recurrent infection, splenomegaly and rheumatoid arthritis as compared with Western patients. These differences have potential effects on treatment and disease pathogenesis. NK-cell leukemia is rapidly fatal and occurs almost exclusively in Asian and South American patients. Conventional anthracycline-based chemotherapy designed for B-cell lymphomas do not work in NK-cell leukemias. Novel therapeutic approaches targeting cellular signaling pathways or preferentially upregulated genes are needed to improve outcome.

  2. The MLL recombinome of acute leukemias in 2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Meyer; T. Burmeister; D. Gröger (D.); G. Tsaur; L. Fechina; A. Renneville; R. Sutton; N. Venn; M. Emerenciano (M.); Pombo-De-Oliveira, M.S. (M. S.); Barbieri Blunck, C. (C.); Almeida Lopes, B. (B.); J. Zuna; J. Trka (Jan); Ballerini, P. (P.); Lapillonne, H. (H.); E. de Braekeleer; G. Cazzaniga (Gianni); Corral Abascal, L. (L.); V.H.J. van der Velden (Vincent); E. Delabesse; Park, T.S. (T. S.); S.H. Oh (S.); M.L.M. Silva (M. L M); T. Lund-Aho (T.); V. Juvonen (V.); A.S. Moore (A.); O. Heidenreich; Vormoor, J. (J.); Zerkalenkova, E. (E.); Olshanskaya, Y. (Y.); Bueno, C. (C.); P. Menéndez (Pablo); A. Teigler-Schlegel; U. zur Stadt; Lentes, J. (J.); G. Göhring (Gudrun); Kustanovich, A. (A.); O. Aleinikova (O.); Schäfer, B.W. (B. W.); S. Kubetzko (S.); H.O. Madsen; Gruhn, B. (B.); Duarte, X. (X.); P. Gameiro; E. Lippert (Eric); Bidet, A. (A.); J.-M. Cayuela (Jean-Michel); E. Clappier; C.N. Alonso (Cristina); C.M. Zwaan (Christian Michel); M.M. van den Heuvel-Eibrink (Marry); S. Izraeli (Shai); L. Trakhtenbrot; P. Archer (P.); J. Hancock; A. Möricke; Alten, J. (J.); M. Schrappe (Martin); M. Stanulla (Martin); S. Strehl; A. Attarbaschi (Andishe); M.N. Dworzak (Michael); Haas, O.A. (O. A.); R. Panzer-Grümayer (Renate); L. Sedek (Lukasz); Szczepa, T. (T.); A. Caye (Aurélie); Suarez, L. (L.); H. Cavé (Helene); R. Marschalek (Rolf)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractChromosomal rearrangements of the human MLL/KMT2A gene are associated with infant, pediatric, adult and therapy-induced acute leukemias. Here we present the data obtained from 2345 acute leukemia patients. Genomic breakpoints within the MLL gene and the involved translocation partner

  3. Imatinib mesylate in chronic myelogenous leukemia: a Congolese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Major cytogenetic response was noticed in 87.18%. After a median follow up of 12 months, chronic myeloid leukemia had not progressed to the accelerated or blastic phase in an estimated 91.8% of patients and 86.6% were alive. Conclusion: Imatinib is effective in newly chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia patient ...

  4. Examining the Origins of Myeloid Leukemia | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute myeloid leukemia or AML, a cancer of the white blood cells, is the most common type of rapidly-growing leukemia in adults. The over-production of white blood cells in the bone marrow inhibits the development of other necessary blood components including red blood cells, which carry oxygen throughout the body, and platelets, which are required for clot formation. The

  5. Neuropsychological late effects of treatment for acute leukemia in children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncadin, Caroline; Hitzler, Johann; Downie, Andrea; Montour-Proulx, Isabelle; Alyman, Cheryl; Cairney, Elizabeth; Spiegler, Brenda J

    2015-05-01

    Children with Down syndrome (DS) have an elevated risk of developing acute leukemia, but little is known about treatment-related neuropsychological morbidity because they are systematically excluded from research in this area. The current study investigated neuropsychological outcomes in children with DS treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) compared to children with DS with no history of cancer. Participants were 4 to 17 years of age at testing and were administered measures of intelligence, academic achievement, language, visual-motor and fine-motor skills, and adaptive function. Patients had been off treatment for at least 2 years. The AML group (N = 12) had significantly lower verbal intelligence and receptive vocabulary compared to controls (N = 21). By contrast, the ALL group (N = 14) performed significantly worse than controls on measures of verbal intelligence, spelling, receptive and expressive vocabulary, visual-motor skills, and adaptive function. Patients with DS treated for AML may have specific post-treatment morbidity in verbal function, whereas those treated for ALL have broader morbidity affecting multiple neuropsychological domains and overall adaptive function. We hypothesize that the broader impairment profile of ALL survivors may be related to a combination of the longer duration of central nervous system-directed treatment for ALL compared to AML and the concomitant limited access to intervention opportunities during active treatment. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. [Molecular characterization of atypical chronic myeloid leukemia and chronic neutrophilic leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senín, Alicia; Arenillas, Leonor; Martínez-Avilés, Luz; Fernández-Rodríguez, Concepción; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Florensa, Lourdes; Besses, Carles; Álvarez-Larrán, Alberto

    2015-06-08

    Atypical chronic myeloid leukemia (aCML) and chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL) display similar clinical and hematological characteristics. The objective of the present study was to determine the mutational status of SETBP1 and CSF3R in these diseases. The mutational status of SETBP1 and CSF3R was studied in 7 patients with aCML (n = 3), CNL (n = 1) and unclassifiable myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN-u) (n = 3). Additionally, mutations in ASXL1, SRSF2, IDH1/2, DNMT3A, and RUNX1 were also analyzed. SETBP1 mutations (G870S and G872R) were detected in 2 patients with MPN-u, and one of them also presented mutations in SRSF2 (P95H) and ASXL1 (E635fs). The CNL case showed mutations in CSFR3 (T618I), SETBP1 (G870S) and SRSF2 (P95H). No patient classified as aCML had mutations in SETBP1 or CSF3R. One of the patients with mutations evolved to acute myeloid leukemia, while the other 2 had disease progression without transformation to overt leukemia. The knowledge of the molecular alterations involved in these rare diseases is useful in the diagnosis and may have an impact on both prognosis and therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Treatment Options for Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, Juvenile Myelomonocytic ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can affect the blood and bone marrow. Transient abnormal myelopoiesis (TAM) TAM is a disorder of the bone marrow that can develop in ... is sometimes used to treat MDS or transient abnormal myelopoiesis (TAM). ... caused by the disease or its treatment. All patients with leukemia receive ...

  8. The MLL recombinome of acute leukemias in 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, C; Hofmann, Julian; Burmeister, T

    2013-01-01

    patients were classified according to their gender (852 females and 745 males), age at diagnosis (558 infant, 416 pediatric and 616 adult leukemia patients) and other clinical criteria. Combined data of our study and recently published data revealed a total of 121 different MLL rearrangements, of which 79......Chromosomal rearrangements of the human MLL (mixed lineage leukemia) gene are associated with high-risk infant, pediatric, adult and therapy-induced acute leukemias. We used long-distance inverse-polymerase chain reaction to characterize the chromosomal rearrangement of individual acute leukemia...... patients. We present data of the molecular characterization of 1590 MLL-rearranged biopsy samples obtained from acute leukemia patients. The precise localization of genomic breakpoints within the MLL gene and the involved translocation partner genes (TPGs) were determined and novel TPGs identified. All...

  9. Expression and role of DJ-1 in leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hang; Wang Min; Li Min; Wang Donghai; Rao Qing; Wang Yang; Xu Zhifang; Wang Jianxiang

    2008-01-01

    DJ-1 is a multifunctional protein that has been implicated in pathogenesis of some solid tumors. In this study, we found that DJ-1 was overexpressed in acute leukemia (AL) patient samples and leukemia cell lines, which gave the first clue that DJ-1 overexpression might be involved in leukemogenesis and/or disease progression of AL. Inactivation of DJ-1 by RNA-mediated interference (RNAi) in leukemia cell lines K562 and HL60 resulted in inhibition of the proliferation potential and enhancement of the sensitivity of leukemia cells to chemotherapeutic drug etoposide. Further investigation of DJ-1 activity revealed that phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), as well as some proliferation and apoptosis-related genes, was regulated by DJ-1. Thus, DJ-1 might be involved in leukemogesis through regulating cell growth, proliferation, and apoptosis. It could be a potential therapeutic target for leukemia

  10. The expression of CD56 antigen is associated with poor prognosis in patients with acute myeloid leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Alegretti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The expression of CD56 is considered a bad prognostic factor for overall survival, lower rates or short complete remission and extramedullary invasion but the results are controversial. The importance of validating new prognostic parameters in acute leukemias was the reason to investigate the CD56 expression in blast cells of patients with acute myeloid leukemia. METHODS: A cohort of 48 patients treated at Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre and diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia as classified by the French-American-British group (FAB criteria using cell morphology, cytochemistry and flow cytometry were evaluated. RESULTS: Eight cases (16.7% were CD56 positive without correlation to age or gender. The highest incidence of CD56 positivity was in FAB subtypes M4 and M5. The death rate during induction was not significantly different between patients with and without CD56 expression (62.5% vs. 27.5%; p-value = 0.097. However, patients that expressed CD56 had significantly lower overall survival than those who did not (mean 4.0 months vs. 14.5 months; p-value = 0.03. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that expression of CD56 in acute myeloid leukemia may be indicative of poor prognosis because it is associated with a shorter overall survival. The death rate during induction was not significantly different despite an apparent difference in proportions between groups.

  11. Computed tomography in intracranial hemorrhage in leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanyu, Haruo; Katsunuma, Hideyo; Yoshimura, Masahiro; Tomonaga, Masanori.

    1984-01-01

    In tracranial hemorrhage in leukemia was clinicopathologically studied in 62 cases of autopsy materials, with special attention paid to a morphological comparison of CT images with pathological findings. Intracranial hemorrhage was found in 32 of the 62 leukemic patients (51.6%), and in 13 of these patients (21.0%) it was responsible for death. Leukemic intracranial hemorrhage occurred more often in the acute leukemic type than in the chronic type, and even more often in younger leukemic patinents; it was pathologically characterized by multiple lesions in the white matter of the cerebral hemisphere, prone to combination with SAH or SDH. The hemorrhages could be divided into five types: (1) scattered small hemorrhagic type, (2) hematoma type, (3) fusion type (large hemorrhage composed of assembled small hemorrhages), (4) SAH type, and (5) SDH type. Among these types, the fusion type was considered to be characteristic of leukemia. CT was undertaken in 5 pathologically proven cases, with findings of the scattered small hemorrhagic type in 1, of the SDH type in 3, and of the fusion type in 1. Yet, one case with scattered small hemorrhages and two cases with SDH failed to be detected by CT. However, one case with a typical fusion hemorrhage was found to have multiple, irregular, high-density areas with surrounding edema and a mass effect as well as pathological findings. Therefore, a large-fusion hemorrhage, which is one of the most characteristic types of leukemic intracranial hemorrhage, could be demonstrated as distinctive CT images which reflected neuropathological findings. On the other hand, small parenchymal hemorrhages and relatively thin subdural hemorrhages could not be detected by CT. In conclusion, it seems that CT has value in the diagnosis of intracranial hemorrhage in leukemia. (J.P.N.)

  12. Effects of Slow-stroke Back Massage on Chemotherapy-induced Nausea and Vomiting in the Pediatrics with Acute Leukemia: a Challenge of Controlling Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Miladinia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Nausea and vomiting are the most common side effects of chemotherapy in the pediatrics with cancer which affect their quality of life. Use of some methods of complementary medicine in leukemia patients is problematic. Because, leukemia patients are at risk of infection and bleeding, therefore the use of acupressure, acupuncture, and deep massage can be risky in these patients. Slow- stroke back massage is applied on the surface of body, so does not have complications. No study has addressed the effect of massage therapy on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in pediatrics with acute leukemia in the world.  Material and methods This study was a two-group randomized controlled trial (RCT, double blind and repeated measures design. In this RCT, 45 school age children with acute leukemia were placed in the massage and control groups. Before start of the study, at the day of chemotherapy administration (day 1th, only nausea and vomiting were measured. Then during 6 days next (day 2 through 7, the intervention group received 5-minutes Super Smash Bros. Melee (SSBM, immediately before start of each session of chemotherapy. Nausea was measured during chemotherapy, 0.5 h and 3 h after each session of chemotherapy in the two groups. Also vomiting was recorded during 24 h after each session of chemotherapy. Repeated measures ANOVA, Chi-square, and t-test were used for analysis. Results Most of pediatrics were male (58.13%, and suffered from Acute myeloid leukemia (AML (81.7%. The repeated measure analysis showed that in the intervention group, the SSBM reduced progressive mean of nausea severity and frequency of vomit over time. While, this side effects have slightly increased over time in the control group. Conclusion The results of this study are suggesting that SSBM, as a non-pharmacologic, easy and safe method, is effective in controlling Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV in the pediatrics with acute leukemia.

  13. Protein blend ingestion before allogeneic stem cell transplantation improves protein-energy malnutrition in patients with leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Guangxu; Zhang, Jianping; Li, Minghua; Yi, Suqin; Xie, Jin; Zhang, Hongru; Wang, Jing

    2017-10-01

    Severe protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) and skeletal muscle wasting are commonly observed in patients with acute leukemia. Recently, the ingestion of a soy-whey protein blend has been shown to promote muscle protein synthesis (MPS). Thus, we tested the hypothesis that the ingestion of a soy-whey blended protein (BP) may improve the PEM status and muscle mass in acute leukemia patients. In total, 24 patients from the same treatment group were randomly assigned to the natural diet plus soy-whey blended protein (BP) group and the natural diet only (ND) group. Our data showed that protein and energy intake decreased significantly (P protein) were observed in the majority (>50%) of the patients. However, 66% of the patients who ingested the BP before transplantation showed obvious increases in arm muscle area. The gripping power value (△ post-pre or △ post-baseline ) was significantly higher in the BP group than in the ND group (P protein to different extents. Notably, the average time to stem cell engraftment was significantly shorter for patients in the BP group (12.2 ± 2.0 days) than for patients in the ND group (15.1 ± 2.9 days). Collectively, our data supported that soy-whey protein can improve PEM status and muscle mass in leukemia patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Ibrutinib (PCI-32765) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Nitin; O'Brien, Susan

    2013-08-01

    B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling is essential for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cell survival. Many kinases in the BCR signaling pathway are being studied as potential therapeutic targets. Ibrutinib (PCI-32765) is a novel first-in-class selective inhibitor of Bruton tyrosine kinase. Preclinical evidence suggests that ibrutinib inhibits CLL cell survival and proliferation and affects CLL cell migration and homing. Early clinical data in patients with CLL and non-Hodgkin lymphoma is encouraging. It is likely that ibrutinib and other drugs targeting the BCR pathway will become an integral component of CLL therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Molecular cytogenetics for acute megakaryocytic leukemia diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Matveeva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Acute megakaryocytic leukemia (AML M7 – a rare disease characterized by poor treatment response, except for t(1;22 variant in infants. Cytogenetic abnormalities in AML M7 are highly heterogeneous. We collected samples from children with AML M7 to analyze the disease cytogenetic profile. During September 2009 to March 2012 20 AML M7 patients was studied using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Complex and heterogeneous chromosomal abnormalities were revealed. It was found that no recurring abnormalities and cytogenetic markers unique to each patients. Also, the 19p13 amplification described previously only in myeloid cell lines was detected.

  16. Molecular cytogenetics for acute megakaryocytic leukemia diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Matveeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute megakaryocytic leukemia (AML M7 – a rare disease characterized by poor treatment response, except for t(1;22 variant in infants. Cytogenetic abnormalities in AML M7 are highly heterogeneous. We collected samples from children with AML M7 to analyze the disease cytogenetic profile. During September 2009 to March 2012 20 AML M7 patients was studied using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Complex and heterogeneous chromosomal abnormalities were revealed. It was found that no recurring abnormalities and cytogenetic markers unique to each patients. Also, the 19p13 amplification described previously only in myeloid cell lines was detected.

  17. DIAGNOSIS AND SUBCLASSIFICATION OF ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUKEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Chiaretti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL is a disseminated malignancy of B- or T-lymphoblasts which imposes a rapid and accurate diagnostic process to support an optimal risk-oriented therapy and thus increase the curability rate. The need for a precise diagnostic algorithm is underlined by the awareness that both ALL therapy and related success rates may vary greatly in function of ALL subset, from standard chemotherapy in patients with standard-risk ALL, to allotransplantation (SCT and targeted therapy in high-risk patients and cases expressing suitable biological targets, respectively. This review offers a glimpse on how best identify ALL and the most relevant ALL subsets.

  18. Flow cytometric characterization of phenotype, DNA indices and p53 gene expression in 55 cases of acute leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powari, Manish; Varma, Neelam; Varma, Subhash; Marwaha, Ram Kumar; Sandhu, Harpreet; Ganguly, Nirmal Kumar

    2002-06-01

    To characterize the phenotype of acute leukemia cases using flow cytometry, to detect mixed lineage cases and to use DNA index determination, including S-phase fraction (SPF) and p53 detection, to find if there was any correlation of SPF and p53 expression with outcome. Fifty-five cases of acute leukemia were enrolled in this study. A complete hemogram and routine bone marrow examination, including cytochemistry, was done. Mycloperoxidase-negative cases were evaluated on a flow cytometer using monoclonal antibodies. DNA indices were determined by flow cytometry in all cases, and p53 was detected immunohistochemically using the alkaline phosphatase/antialkaline phosphatase technique. Acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) was diagnosed in 32 cases; acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) was diagnosed in 18 (14 B lineage and 4 T line age). Four cases showed mixed lineage leukemia, and undifferentiated acute leukemia was diagnosed in one case. The mean/range of SPF for these groups were 3.76/0.33-6.91, 6.25/0.15-21.4, 2.89/0.35-10.64, 2.60/0.72-6.94 and 7.34, respectively. Aneuploidy was detected in two cases of B-lineage ALL and tetraploidy in a case of AML-M7, while all others were diploid p53. Was detected in 6 of 55 cases (10.90%). Follow-up was available for 24 patients. Five patients relapsed, and four had B-cell type ALL and were diploid and expressed no p53 gene. SPF% did not show any correlation with outcome. These data suggest that within acute leukemia subtypes, there is a wide variation in SPF. SPF does not seem to correlate with outcome. Immunophenotyping is essential to determine the lineage in myeloperoxidase-negative cases. It is perhaps the only way to diagnose mixed lineage leukemia and aberrant expression of markers presently. The p53 gene was detected less frequently. However, more studies are required from different centers with longer follow-up to evaluate prognostic significance.

  19. Growth and puberty after treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Claudia Helena Bastos da Silva

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 20 years, after combining treatment of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, there has been an improvement in the survival rate of acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients, with a current cure rate of around 70%. Children with the disease have been enrolled into international treatment protocols designed to improve survival and minimize the serious irreversible late effects. Our oncology unit uses the international protocol: GBTLI LLA-85 and 90, with the drugs methotrexate, cytosine, arabinoside, dexamethasone, and radiotherapy. However, these treatments can cause gonadal damage and growth impairment. PATIENTS AND METHOD: The authors analyzed 20 children off therapy in order to determine the role of the various doses of radiotherapy regarding endocrinological alterations. They were divided into 3 groups according to central nervous system prophylaxis: Group A underwent chemotherapy, group B underwent chemotherapy plus radiotherapy (18 Gy, and group C underwent chemotherapy plus radiotherapy (24 Gy. Serum concentrations of LH, FSH, GH, and testosterone were determined. Imaging studies included bone age, pelvic ultrasound and scrotum, and skull magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: Nine of the patients who received radiotherapy had decreased pituitary volume. There was a significant difference in the response to GH and loss of predicted final stature (Bayley-Pinneau between the 2 irradiated groups and the group that was not irradiated, but there was no difference regarding the radiation doses used (18 or 24 Gy. The final predicted height (Bayley-Pinneau was significantly less (P = 0.0071 in both groups treated with radiotherapy. Two girls had precocious puberty, and 1 boy with delayed puberty presented calcification of the epididymis. CONCLUSION: Radiotherapy was been responsible for late side effects, especially related to growth and puberty.

  20. An anthocyanin-rich extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa linnaeus inhibits N-nitrosomethylurea-induced leukemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tsung-Chang; Huang, Hui-Pei; Chang, Yun-Ching; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2014-02-19

    A previous study reported that anthocyanins from roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) showed significant anticancer activity in human promyelocytic leukemia cells. To explore the antitumor effect of anthocyanin, a roselle bioactive polyphenol in a rat model of chemical-induced leukemia was assayed. Anthocyanin extract of roselle (Hibiscus anthocyanins, HAs) was supplemented in the diet (0.1 and 0.2%). This study was carried out to evaluate the protective effect of HAs on N-nitrosomethylurea (NMU)-induced leukemia of rats. The study employed male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 48), and leukemia was induced by intravenous injection of 35 mg kg(-1) body weight of NMU dissolved in physiologic saline solution. The rats were divided into four groups (n = 12): control, NMU only, and HAs groups that received different doses of HAs (0.1 and 0.2%) daily, orally, after NMU injection. After 220 days, the animals were killed, and the following parameters were assessed: morphological observation, hematology examination, histopathological assessment, and biochemical assay. When compared with the NMU-only group, HAs significantly prevented loss of organ weight and ameliorated the impairment of morphology, hematology, and histopathology. Treatment with HAs caused reduction in the levels of AST, ALT, uric acid, and MPO. Also, the results showed that oral administration of HAs (0.2%) remarkably inhibited progression of NMU-induced leukemia by approximately 33.3% in rats. This is the first report to demonstrate that the sequential administration of HAs followed by NMU resulted in an antileukemic activity in vivo.

  1. Radiogenic leukemia risk analysis for the Techa River Cohort members

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krestinina, L.Y.; Epifanova, S.B.; Akleyev, A.V.; Preston, D.; Davis, F.; Ron, E.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Members of the Techa River Cohort have been exposed to a long-term external and internal irradiation due to releases of radioactive waste from the Mayak Production Association into the Techa River. Since internal exposure resulted primarily from incorporation of 90 Sr in the bone structure, the bone marrow was the principal target. The maximum dose to the red bone marrow accumulated over 50 years in cohort members reached 2 Gy, and the mean dose was 0.3 Gy. The epidemiological analysis of radiogenic risk of leukemia development was conducted based on the retrospective cohort study approach and regression analysis using the Epicure statistical packet. The extended Techa River Cohort (ETRC) includes about 30 thousand people of the two genders, various ages and different ethnicity (mostly Russians, Tartars and Bashkirs). The catchment area for leukemia mortality and incidence follow-up includes the whole Chelyabinsk and Kurgan Oblasts. The previous analysis of leukemia mortality risk for a 50-year follow-up period pointed out statistically significant dose dependence. The presentation will for the first time describe the results of leukemia incidence risk analyses for the period from 1953 through 2004. Over this 52-year follow-up period 92 leukemia cases (42 in men and 50 in women) were registered among ETRC members resident in the catchment area. Among those 92 cases there were 22 cases attributed to chronic lymphoid leukemia (12 in men and 10 in women). The preliminary analysis of leukemia incidence risk showed a statistically significant linear dependence on dose for total leukemias (p = 0.006), as well as for leukemias with CLL excluded (p < 0.001). The point value of the total leukemia incidence ERR was 2.0/Gy (95% CI: 0.4-15.4) and for leukemia with CLL excluded the ERR was 4.5/Gy (95% CI: 1.1-14.7). More than 57% of leukemia cases (excluding CLL) registered in ETRC members could be related to the radiogenic factor. Analyses of chronic lymphoid

  2. Pancytopenia - (? An obstacle in the diagnosis and outcome of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Raja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL ranks first among pediatric malignancies. 8-12% of ALL present with pancytopenia and 2% with hypocellular marrow a. Diagnosis of ALL in the background of pancytopenia and aplastic bone marrow is difficult. Aims: This study was aimed to compare the clinicopathologic, genetic, and outcome of paediatric ALL patients with and without pancytopenia. Settings and Design: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study. Subjects and Methods: The study included all ALL patients presenting with pancytopenia. The control group included equal number of randomly selected patients with ALL without pancytopenia treated during the same period. Ethics committee approved this study. The demographic, laboratory, and treatment-related details were retrieved from the records and entered in an Excel sheet. Statistical Analysis Used: Data was analyzed with Chi-square test with IBM SPSS statistics 16 software. Results: Diagnosis by peripheral smear is significantly lower (P = 0.015 in comparison with the control group. There is no significant difference in diagnosis between the groups by bone marrow aspirate (P = 0.731 and biopsy (P = 0.849. The diagnosis of leukemia is misdiagnosed as hypo cellular/aplastic marrow in 10% of the pancytopenic patients. Flow cytometry yielded the diagnosis in all the pancytopenic patients. Though cytogenetic abnormalities are more common in pancytopenic group, it is not statistically significant (P = 0.106. There is no significant difference in treatment outcome between the groups (P = 0.0827%. Conclusions: Clinical expertise is highly essential to evaluate a case of pancytopenia to diagnose leukemia. Pancytopenia is an obstacle in the diagnosis of ALL without immunophenotyping. There is no significant difference in the outcome between the two groups.

  3. Clinical Efficacy and Safety of First-Line Dasatinib Therapy and the Relevance of Velocity of BCR-ABL1 Transcript Decline for Achievement of Molecular Responses in Newly Diagnosed Chronic-Phase Chronic Myeloid Leukemia: Report from the Juntendo Yamanashi Cooperative Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaku, Tomoiku; Iriyama, Noriyoshi; Mitsumori, Toru; Sato, Eriko; Gotoh, Akihiko; Kirito, Keita; Noguchi, Masaaki; Koike, Michiaki; Sakamoto, Junichi; Oba, Koji; Komatsu, Norio

    2018-01-01

    The use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors led to an improvement in the prognoses of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The aims of this study were to investigate the efficacy and safety of dasatinib in Japanese patients and to explore the factors that affect the achievement of molecular responses. The primary endpoint was a major molecular response (MMR) by 12 months. The halving time for BCR-ABL1 transcripts was calculated using transcript levels. Thirty-two patients with chronic-phase CML (CML-CP) were enrolled and 30 received 100 mg dasatinib once daily. At 24 months of follow-up, 21 (72%) and 24 (83%) patients achieved an MMR by 12 and 24 months, respectively; the rates of a deep molecular response (DMR) by 12 and 24 months were 48 and 59%, respectively. A shorter halving time of BCR-ABL1 transcripts (≤10.6 days) accurately predicted both an MMR and a DMR. The incidence of pleural effusion was 50%. Our study reconfirmed the efficacy and safety of dasatinib treatment in Japanese patients with newly diagnosed CML-CP. In addition, the usefulness of the halving time of BCR-ABL1 transcripts was validated. These data emphasize the significance of an early treatment response in achieving a DMR during dasatinib therapy. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. DNA methylation-based subtype prediction for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordlund, Jessica; Bäcklin, Christofer L; Zachariadis, Vasilios

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We present a method that utilizes DNA methylation profiling for prediction of the cytogenetic subtypes of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells from pediatric ALL patients. The primary aim of our study was to improve risk stratification of ALL patients into treatment groups using DNA...... in cytogenetically undefined ALL patient groups and could be implemented as a complementary method for diagnosis of ALL. The results of our study provide clues to the origin and development of leukemic transformation. The methylation status of the CpG sites constituting the classifiers also highlight relevant...

  5. Studies on the assessment of neurotoxicity in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muchi, H.; Satoh, T.; Yamamoto, K.; Karube, T.; Miyao, M.

    1987-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) prophylaxis caused a remarkable reduction in the incidence of CNS disease, however there has evolved a growing concern regarding the immediate or late toxicities to the developing CNS. Twenty-eight children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who survived for more than 2 years were examined for the assessment of neurotoxicity induced by CNS prophylaxis and its treatment. The patients were stratified into three groups: Stratum I, prophylaxis with methotrexate; Stratum II, prophylaxis with cranial irradiation with methotrexate; and Stratum III, with CNS leukemia. Once CNS disease developed the sequelae were frequent and severe, due to the elevated methotrexate levels in the cerebrospinal fluid. CNS prophylaxis with intermediate-dose methotrexate was less toxic to the developing CNS than prophylactic cranial irradiation, especially in children under 5 years of age. Electroencephalograms and evoked potentials are likely to find increasing application in defining the CNS sequelae of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children and its treatment. Although the sample size was small, the findings delineate specific areas of neurotoxicity

  6. Residuals in post-chemotherapy, non-depressed patients with leukemia that is in remission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson K. Rachel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Debate persists regarding the occurrence and etiology of neurocognitive deficits associated with the utilization of chemotherapeutic agents, commonly referred to as “chemobrain”. While some have previously attributed these features to other factors such as fatigue, emotional reactivity, etc., growing literature suggests that in fact chemotherapeutic agents may be the cause. Although research has investigated these deficits, greater investigation is warranted. The current study investigated the presence of residual neurocognitive deficits in non-depressed patients post-chemotherapy with a history of leukemia that was in remission in comparison to healthy controls. Methods: participants included 16 individuals with a history of leukemia post-chemotherapy, in remission and without depression and 48 healthy controls. Participants were assessed using the WJ-III with data from the first seven subtests entered for analysis. A multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant differences existed between groups. By way of a discriminant function analysis, subtest/domain specific discrepancies were noted. Specifically, participants with a history of leukemia who were post-chemotherapy and without depression were found to perform significantly worse on visual-auditory learning, concept formations, and sound blending than did healthy controls. Findings are seen as additional support of the idea that neurocognitive deficits do in fact occur following chemotherapy. However, they are particularly of interest as they are seen even in the absence of emotional distress and outside the active treatment phase. Additional findings of importance and clinical relevance will be discussed.

  7. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia with Variant Chromosomal Translocations: Results of Treatment with Imatinib Mesylate

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    Rohan Bhise

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of imatinib in chronic myeloid leukemia patients with variant translocations. Methods: Forty eight chronic myeloid leukemia patients carrying variant translocations and treated with imatinib at our institute were considered for the study. Survival and response rates were evaluated. Results: The median follow up was 48 months(m. Forty three (89.58% patients achieved complete hematologic response. Thirty one (64.58% patients achieved complete cytogenetic response and 19(39.58% achieved major molecular response anytime during their follow up period. Only 18.75% of the patients achieved complete cytogenetic response and major molecular response within the stipulated time frames.The estimated overall survival at 48 m median follow up was 81.2%.The progression free survival was also 81.2% and the event free survival was 79.1%.There was no significant survival difference between low vs intermediate and high risk sokal group. Conclusion: We report suboptimal responses to imatinib in chronic myeloid leukemia with variant translocations. Further studies with imatinib and the newer more active drugs dasatinib and nilotinib are justified.

  8. Cytogenetic conversion following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for advanced chronic myelogenous leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGlave, P.B.; Miller, W.J.; Hurd, D.D.; Arthur, D.C.; Kim, T.

    1981-01-01

    We performed a pilot study to test the effectiveness of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia. Five patients in the advanced stages of chronic myelogenous leukemia (four in blast crisis, one in accelerated phase) with abnormal chromosomes underwent matched-sibling allogeneic bone marrow transplantation after preparation with busulfan, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, and fractionated total body irradiation. Engraftment and conversion to normal chromosome patterns after transplantation occurred in all five patients. None of the patients reverted to an abnormal chromosome pattern or demonstrated clinical or hematologic evidence of recurrent disease during the course of this study; however, longest survival from transplant was 248 days. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation can eradicate the abnormal clone even in far advanced chronic myelogenous leukemia and can provide normal hematopoiesis. We suggest that clinical complications of chemotherapeutic toxicity and infection were responsible for the short survival in this group of patients, and that these complications could be decreased by performing transplantation in the chronic phase or early accelerated phase of the disease

  9. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 in patients with monocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, A; Kruithof, E K; Grob, J P

    1991-06-01

    Plasma and tumor cells from 103 patients with leukemia or lymphoma at initial presentation were investigated for the presence of plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-2) antigen, a potent inhibitor of urokinase. PAI-2 was detected in plasma and leukemic cells of the 21 patients with leukemia having a monocytic component [acute myelomonocytic (M4), acute monoblastic (M5), and chronic myelomonocytic leukemias], and in the three patients with acute undifferentiated myeloblastic leukemia (M0). In contrast, this serine protease inhibitor was undetectable in 79 patients with other subtypes of acute myeloid leukemia or other hematological malignancies. Serial serum PAI-2 determinations in 16 patients with acute leukemia at presentation, during therapy, remission, and relapse revealed that in the five patients with M4-M5, elevated PAI-2 levels rapidly normalized under therapy and during remission, but increased again in the patients with a relapse associated with an M4-M5 phenotype. Thus, PAI-2 seems to be a marker highly specific for the active stages of monocytic leukemia, i.e. presentation and relapse. The presence of PAI-2 in the plasma and cells of patients with M0 may give a clue to a monocytic origin of these cells.

  10. Bortezomib interactions with chemotherapy agents in acute leukemia in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Terzah M; Gannavarapu, Anurhadha; Blaney, Susan M; D'Argenio, David Z; Plon, Sharon E; Berg, Stacey L

    2006-07-01

    Although there is effective chemotherapy for many patients with leukemia, 20% of children and up to 65% of adults relapse. Novel therapies are needed to treat these patients. Leukemia cells are very sensitive to the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (VELCADE(R), PS-341), which enhances the in vitro cytotoxic effects of dexamethasone and doxorubicin in multiple myeloma. To determine if bortezomib enhances the cytotoxicity of agents used in leukemia, we employed an in vitro tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay (MTT) to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of bortezomib alone and in combination with dexamethasone, vincristine, doxorubicin, cytarabine, asparaginase, geldanamycin, trichostatin A, and the bcl-2 inhibitor HA14.1. We demonstrated that primary leukemia lymphoblasts and leukemia cell lines are sensitive to bortezomib, with an average IC(50) of 12 nM. Qualitative and quantitative bortezomib-drug interactions were evaluated using the universal response surface approach (URSA). Bortezomib was synergistic with dexamethasone in dexamethasone-sensitive leukemia cells, and additive with vincristine, asparaginase, cytarabine, and doxorubicin. The anti-leukemic activity of bortezomib was also additive with geldanamycin and HA14.1, and additive or synergistic with trichostatin A. These results were compared to analysis using the median-dose effect method, which generated complex drug interactions due to differences in dose-response curve sigmoidicities. These data suggest bortezomib could potentiate the cytotoxic effects of combination chemotherapy in patients with leukemia.

  11. Targeting neuropilin-1 in human leukemia and lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, Katja; Jaalouk, Diana E; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos E; Zurita, Amado J; Kuniyasu, Akihiko; Eckhardt, Bedrich L; Marini, Frank C; Lichtiger, Benjamin; O'Brien, Susan; Kantarjian, Hagop M; Cortes, Jorge E; Koivunen, Erkki; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata

    2011-01-20

    Targeted drug delivery offers an opportunity for the development of safer and more effective therapies for the treatment of cancer. In this study, we sought to identify short, cell-internalizing peptide ligands that could serve as directive agents for specific drug delivery in hematologic malignancies. By screening of human leukemia cells with a combinatorial phage display peptide library, we isolated a peptide motif, sequence Phe-Phe/Tyr-Any-Leu-Arg-Ser (F(F)/(Y)XLRS), which bound to different leukemia cell lines and to patient-derived bone marrow samples. The motif was internalized through a receptor-mediated pathway, and we next identified the corresponding receptor as the transmembrane glycoprotein neuropilin-1 (NRP-1). Moreover, we observed a potent anti-leukemia cell effect when the targeting motif was synthesized in tandem to the pro-apoptotic sequence (D)(KLAKLAK)₂. Finally, our results confirmed increased expression of NRP-1 in representative human leukemia and lymphoma cell lines and in a panel of bone marrow specimens obtained from patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia or acute myelogenous leukemia compared with normal bone marrow. These results indicate that NRP-1 could potentially be used as a target for ligand-directed therapy in human leukemias and lymphomas and that the prototype CGFYWLRSC-GG-(D)(KLAKLAK)₂ is a promising drug candidate in this setting.

  12. The acute monocytic leukemias: multidisciplinary studies in 45 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straus, D J; Mertelsmann, R; Koziner, B; McKenzie, S; de Harven, E; Arlin, Z A; Kempin, S; Broxmeyer, H; Moore, M A; Menendez-Botet, C J; Gee, T S; Clarkson, B D

    1980-11-01

    The clinical and laboratory features of 37 patients with variants of acute monocytic leukemia are described. Three of these 37 patients who had extensive extramedullary leukemic tissue infiltration are examples of true histiocytic "lymphomas." Three additional patients with undifferentiated leukemias, one patient with refractory anemia with excess of blasts, one patient with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, one patient with B-lymphocyte diffuse "histiocytic" lymphoma and one patient with "null" cell, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-positive lymphoblastic lymphoma had bone marrow cells with monocytic features. Another patient had dual populations of lymphoid and monocytoid leukemic cells. The true monocytic leukemias, acute monocytic leukemia (AMOL) and acute myelomonocytic leukemia (AMMOL), are closely related to acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) morphologically and by their response to chemotherapy. like AML, the leukemic cells from the AMMOL and AMOL patients form leukemic clusters in semisolid media. Cytochemical staining of leukemic cells for nonspecific esterases, presence of Fc receptor on the cell surface, phagocytic ability, low TdT activity, presence of surface "ruffles" and "ridges" on scanning EM, elevations of serum lysozyme, and clinical manifestations of leukemic tissue infiltration are features which accompanied monocytic differentiation in these cases.

  13. PRAME Gene Expression in Acute Leukemia and Its Clinical Significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Kai; Wang, Xiao-ming; Fu, Rong; Ruan, Er-bao; Liu, Hui; Shao, Zong-hong

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the expression of the preferentially expressed antigen of melanoma (PRAME) gene in acute leukemia and its clinical significance. The level of expressed PRAME mRNA in bone marrow mononuclear cells from 34 patients with acute leukemia (AL) and in 12 bone marrow samples from healthy volunteers was measured via RT-PCR. Correlation analyses between PRAME gene expression and the clinical characteristics (gender, age, white blood count, immunophenotype of leukemia, percentage of blast cells, and karyotype) of the patients were performed. The PRAME gene was expressed in 38.2% of all 34 patients, in 40.7% of the patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML, n=27), and in 28.6% of the patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, n=7), but was not expressed in the healthy volunteers. The difference in the expression levels between AML and ALL patients was statistically significant. The rate of gene expression was 80% in M 3 , 33.3% in M 2 , and 28.6% in M 5 . Gene expression was also found to be correlated with CD15 and CD33 expression and abnormal karyotype, but not with age, gender, white blood count or percentage of blast cells. The PRAME gene is highly expressed in acute leukemia and could be a useful marker to monitor minimal residual disease. This gene is also a candidate target for the immunotherapy of acute leukemia

  14. ERYTHEMA NODOSUM REVEALING ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA

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    Chebbi Wafa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Erythema nodosum (EN is the most common type of panniculitis. It may be idiopathic or secondary to various etiologies. However, the occurrence of erythema nodosum in malignant hemopathy had rarely been reported. Case report: A 42 year-old woman presented with a four week history of recurrent multiple painful erythematous nodules developed on the lower limbs associated with arthralgia of the ankles and fever. The clinical features of skin lesions with contusiform color evolution allowed establishing the diagnosis of EN. No underlying cause was found. The skin lesions were improved with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and colchicine. Three months later, the patient consulted for recurrence of EN associated with fever, inflammatory polyarthralgia and hepatosplenomegaly. The peripheral blood count revealed pancytopenia. A bone marrow examination confirmed the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia type 2. Initiation of chemotherapy was followed by the complete disappearance of skin lesions of EN. Conclusion: Paraneoplastic erythema nodosum is a rare entity. In the literature, a few cases of association with leukemia have been reported. Exploration for solid neoplasms or hemopathy in case of recurrent EN or resistance to conventional treatment should be systematic

  15. Therapies for acute myeloid leukemia: vosaroxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayar H

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hamid Sayar,1 Parvaneh Bashardoust2 1Indiana University Simon Cancer Center, Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2Oceania University of Medicine, OUM-North America, Indianapolis, IN, USA Abstract: Vosaroxin, a quinolone-derivative chemotherapeutic agent, was considered a promising drug for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML. Early-stage clinical trials with this agent led to a large randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study of vosaroxin in combination with intermediate-dose cytarabine for the treatment of relapsed or refractory AML. The study demonstrated better complete remission rates with vosaroxin, but there was no statistically significant overall survival benefit in the whole cohort. A subset analysis censoring patients who had undergone allogeneic stem cell transplantation, however, revealed a modest but statistically significant improvement in overall survival particularly among older patients. This article reviews the data available on vosaroxin including clinical trials in AML and offers an analysis of findings of these studies as well as the current status of vosaroxin. Keywords: AML, acute myeloid leukemia, vosaroxin, SNS-595, cytarabine

  16. Radiological terrorism and estimate leukemia incidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint' Yves, Thalis Leon de Avila [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Instituto Nacional do Cancer (INCa), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Maia, Arlei; Andrade, Edson R. de [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEX), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Radiological dispersal devices (RDD) are widely used as a terrorist tool leading to major environmental and public health concerns. This work is focused on simulating a dispersive scenario where an amount of most common radionuclide for this purpose is released. In order to estimate the total effective dose from such release, an affected urban area was chosen as a potential public mass concentration during World Cup in 2014 and Olympics in 2016 in Rio de Janeiro. Specialized simulation software called HotSpot Health Physics Code using a semi-empirical Gaussian model, was used to simulate dispersion of Cs-137 following detonation of a RDD. The simulation was designed to determine dose curves as a function of distance from the hot site. Additionally, it was determined the relative risk of leukemia incidence as well as statistical correlation between malignancies and exposure to radiation, based on probability of causation calculations. Results was suggestive that exists dependence on age at exposure time and the probability of leukemia development. This study emphasizes the importance of fast response, using a user-friendly computational method that may help, at first sight, to guide the response from the basic actions to the complete decision making process looking after health effects on public and environmental detriment. (author)

  17. ALLOGENEIC TRANSPLANTATION FOR CHRONIC LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Laurenti

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Even if Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL often has an indolent behavior with good responsiveness to cytoreductive treatment, about 20% of the patients, so called "poor-risk" patients, show an aggressive course and die within a few years despite early intensive therapies. Criteria for poor-risk disease according to the European Bone Marrow Transplantation (EBMT CLL Transplant Consensus are: purine analogue refractoriness, early relapse after purine analogue combination therapy, CLL with p53 lesion requiring treatment. Allogeneic transplant has potential curative role in CLL, however burden with very  high transplant related mortality (TRM rates of 38-50%: A major advance in reducing the short-term morbidity and mortality of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT has been the introduction of non-myeloablative or reduced intensity conditioning (RIC regimens to allow engraftment of allogeneic stem cells. There is no doubt that the crucial therapeutic principle of allo-SCT in CLL is graft versus leukemia (GVL activity. The major complications of allogeneic SCT in CLL are: chronic graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD affecting quality of life, high graft rejection and infection rates rates correlated with preexisting immunosuppression. Disease relapse remains the major cause of failure after RIC allo-HCT in CLL patients. Sensitive minimal residual disease (MRD quantification has strong prognostic impact after transplant.

  18. Radiological terrorism and estimate leukemia incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint'Yves, Thalis Leon de Avila; Maia, Arlei; Andrade, Edson R. de

    2011-01-01

    Radiological dispersal devices (RDD) are widely used as a terrorist tool leading to major environmental and public health concerns. This work is focused on simulating a dispersive scenario where an amount of most common radionuclide for this purpose is released. In order to estimate the total effective dose from such release, an affected urban area was chosen as a potential public mass concentration during World Cup in 2014 and Olympics in 2016 in Rio de Janeiro. Specialized simulation software called HotSpot Health Physics Code using a semi-empirical Gaussian model, was used to simulate dispersion of Cs-137 following detonation of a RDD. The simulation was designed to determine dose curves as a function of distance from the hot site. Additionally, it was determined the relative risk of leukemia incidence as well as statistical correlation between malignancies and exposure to radiation, based on probability of causation calculations. Results was suggestive that exists dependence on age at exposure time and the probability of leukemia development. This study emphasizes the importance of fast response, using a user-friendly computational method that may help, at first sight, to guide the response from the basic actions to the complete decision making process looking after health effects on public and environmental detriment. (author)

  19. [Acute unclassified leukemia with bone marrow necrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uoshima, N; Yamazaki, N; Iinuma, S; Kimura, S; Wada, K; Kobayashi, Y; Ozawa, M; Horiuchi, H; Maruo, N; Kondo, M

    1991-01-01

    Massive bone marrow necrosis was seen in a 42-year-old male with acute leukemia. In December, 1988, on admission, laboratory data revealed pancytopenia and a high level of serum LDH and ALKP. Bone marrow aspiration resulted in dry-tap and showed bone marrow necrosis in the bone marrow biopsy specimen. A bone marrow scintigraphy with 111In faintly visualized the bone marrow but visualized area was expanded in the extremities compared with normal subjects. The second bone marrow biopsy showed proliferation of blasts. In the middle of March, blasts began to appear in peripheral blood. The blasts were cytochemically negative for POX, Es, PAS, AcP, TdT and had surface markers CD3-, CD19-, CD33-, CD13-, LCA-, HLA-DR-. Even by investigation on rearrangement of the immunoglobulin heavy chain region, an origin of the blasts could not be determined. In April, the number of blasts in peripheral blood increased and hepatosplenomegaly developed rapidly. Therefore, he was put on the chemotherapy with vincristine and prednisolone, but he died of cerebral hemorrhage. The autopsy revealed widespread bone marrow necrosis. It has rarely been reported that massive bone marrow necrosis is found prior to the occurrence of acute unclassified leukemia.

  20. Nanomedicine approaches in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatar, Andra-Sorina; Nagy-Simon, Timea; Tomuleasa, Ciprian; Boca, Sanda; Astilean, Simion

    2016-09-28

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the malignancy with the highest incidence amongst children (26% of all cancer cases), being surpassed only by the cancers of the brain and of the nervous system. The most recent research on ALL is focusing on new molecular therapies, like targeting specific biological structures in key points in the cell cycle, or using selective inhibitors for transmembranary proteins involved in cell signalling, and even aiming cell surface receptors with specifically designed antibodies for active targeting. Nanomedicine approaches, especially by the use of nanoparticle-based compounds for the delivery of drugs, cancer diagnosis or therapeutics may represent new and modern ways in the near future anti-cancer therapies. This review offers an overview on the recent role of nanomedicine in the detection and treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia as resulting from a thorough literature survey. A short introduction on the basics of ALL is presented followed by the description of the conventional methods used in the ALL detection and treatment. We follow our discussion by introducing some of the general nano-strategies used for cancer detection and treatment. The detailed role of organic and inorganic nanoparticles in ALL applications is further presented, with a special focus on gold nanoparticle-based nanocarriers of antileukemic drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.