WorldWideScience

Sample records for letting readers run

  1. Annotating a "Reader's Digest" Article--'The NEA: A Washington Lobby Run Rampant.'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methvin, Eugene H.; Herndon, Terry

    1979-01-01

    The copy of a "Reader's Digest" article critical of the political activities of the National Education Association (NEA) is run with marginal comments written by Terry Herndon, NEA executive director. (IRT)

  2. CUZCO READER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SOLA, DONALD F.

    WRITTEN TO ACCOMPANY THE SPOKEN CUZCO QUECHUA MATERIALS, THIS READER CONSISTS OF SHORT SELECTIONS ACTUALLY RECORDED IN THE FIELD AND REPRESENTING SEVERAL SUBDIALECTS SPOKEN IN RURAL SECTIONS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF CUZCO, PERU. INCLUDED ARE DIALOGS, STORIES, SONGS, CULTURAL SELECTIONS, AND INTERVIEWS. THE FORMAT GIVES THE CUZCO QUECHUA DIALECT AND…

  3. Let a sewage plant running smart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shan-Shan; Pang, Ji-Wei; Jin, Xiao-Man; Wu, Zhong-Yang; Yang, Xiao-Yin; Guo, Wan-Qian; Zhao, Zhi-Qing; Ren, Nan-Qi

    2018-03-01

    Out-dated technical equipment, occlusive information communication, inadequate sanitation, low management level and some irrational distribution structures in the existing sewage plants bring about lower sewage treatment efficiency and poorer water quality, thereby permanently harming human health and severely damaging the environment. With the rapid development of scientific-technological progress and the vigorous support of the entire international community, the existing sewage plants call for more and more intelligent operation and management in the future. This review for the first time proposes the novel concept of the “smart” sewage plant, and gives a through interpretation of its special functions and attributes. We envision that the future smart sewage plant will became an “ambient intelligence” in all aspects in the sewage plants.

  4. Policy Reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    This policy reader comprises: Correspondence; Memorandum of Understanding between the US Department of Transportation and the US Department of Energy for the Transportation of Radioactive Materials under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act; Internal Guidelines for Interactions with Communities and Local Governments; Statement by Ben C. Rusche before the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, Subcommittee on Energy and the Environment, US House of Representatives, September 13, 1985; Speech presented by Ben C. Rusche before the ANS/CNS/AESJ/ENS Topical Meeting, Pasco, Washington, September 24, 1985 - ''Status of the United States' High-Level Nuclear Waste Disposal Program''; and ''DOE Seeks Comments on Nuclear Transportation Planning,'' DOE News, September 30, 1985

  5. Reader survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-10-15

    Many, thanks to the hundreds of people who took the time to reply to the CERN Courier readership survey questionnaire published in our May issue. Bringing out a monthly journal is a lonely business. Issue after issue goes out, and the only response is when there's an occasional factual error. Send out a readership survey and a faint echo comes back. Most striking was the sheer enthusiasm of the replies. Despite the current erosion of support in the US (see page 2), subatomic physics has significant world-wide box-office appeal. Most important was to find out who our readers are. 61% of the replies came from Europe, 21% from the USA, 14% from elsewhere, (including the former Soviet Union), and 4% from inside CERN. Not surprisingly, the main audience (37%) is in the high energy physics sector. Then comes teaching (31%), followed closely by accelerators operations and design (12%) and industry (11%). Apart from detailed breakdowns of readership and feedback on the journal's content and style, the replies revealed several major features. Firstly, the CERN Courier is widely read and appreciated. There are a lot of people outside the immediate research field who want to keep broadly up to date with the latest developments in high energy physics and related fields, without getting too involved in details. It was gratifying to receive replies from far-flung places (Nepal, Indonesia,....), and learn how much distant readers appreciate getting such regular information. 'It helps us feel part of the world scene,' was a typical such reply, from Australia. Despite jet airplanes, fax and electronic mail, our planet is still big.

  6. Reader survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Many, thanks to the hundreds of people who took the time to reply to the CERN Courier readership survey questionnaire published in our May issue. Bringing out a monthly journal is a lonely business. Issue after issue goes out, and the only response is when there's an occasional factual error. Send out a readership survey and a faint echo comes back. Most striking was the sheer enthusiasm of the replies. Despite the current erosion of support in the US (see page 2), subatomic physics has significant world-wide box-office appeal. Most important was to find out who our readers are. 61% of the replies came from Europe, 21% from the USA, 14% from elsewhere, (including the former Soviet Union), and 4% from inside CERN. Not surprisingly, the main audience (37%) is in the high energy physics sector. Then comes teaching (31%), followed closely by accelerators operations and design (12%) and industry (11%). Apart from detailed breakdowns of readership and feedback on the journal's content and style, the replies revealed several major features. Firstly, the CERN Courier is widely read and appreciated. There are a lot of people outside the immediate research field who want to keep broadly up to date with the latest developments in high energy physics and related fields, without getting too involved in details. It was gratifying to receive replies from far-flung places (Nepal, Indonesia,....), and learn how much distant readers appreciate getting such regular information. 'It helps us feel part of the world scene,' was a typical such reply, from Australia. Despite jet airplanes, fax and electronic mail, our planet is still big

  7. Let them eat cake!

    OpenAIRE

    Samson, Audrey; Gallardo, Francisco; FRAUD, -

    2017-01-01

    Let them eat cake!' is a food-led event serving an edible imaginary of a Facebook profile. In early 2012, Facebook conducted massive scale emotional contagion by manipulating the emotional expressions in the News Feeds of 689,003 users. This exemplifies how the governability and the biopolitics of everyday life flow through the many layers of shared images, liked videos, protocols, and hyperlinks, all orchestrated by the Facebook News Feed algorithm. 'Let them eat cake!' proposes a gustatory ...

  8. What Can Readers Read after Graded Readers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillan, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Nation (2014) concluded that most of the vocabulary one needs to read challenging texts in English can be acquired incidentally through voluminous reading. This study examines possible texts that second language (L2) readers can use to move from controlled-vocabulary materials such as graded readers, which go up through approximately the…

  9. "Let's Move" campaign: applying the extended parallel process model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelder, Alicia; Matusitz, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    This article examines Michelle Obama's health campaign, "Let's Move," through the lens of the extended parallel process model (EPPM). "Let's Move" aims to reduce the childhood obesity epidemic in the United States. Developed by Kim Witte, EPPM rests on the premise that people's attitudes can be changed when fear is exploited as a factor of persuasion. Fear appeals work best (a) when a person feels a concern about the issue or situation, and (b) when he or she believes to have the capability of dealing with that issue or situation. Overall, the analysis found that "Let's Move" is based on past health campaigns that have been successful. An important element of the campaign is the use of fear appeals (as it is postulated by EPPM). For example, part of the campaign's strategies is to explain the severity of the diseases associated with obesity. By looking at the steps of EPPM, readers can also understand the strengths and weaknesses of "Let's Move."

  10. Running the running

    OpenAIRE

    Cabass, Giovanni; Di Valentino, Eleonora; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Pajer, Enrico; Silk, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    We use the recent observations of Cosmic Microwave Background temperature and polarization anisotropies provided by the Planck satellite experiment to place constraints on the running $\\alpha_\\mathrm{s} = \\mathrm{d}n_{\\mathrm{s}} / \\mathrm{d}\\log k$ and the running of the running $\\beta_{\\mathrm{s}} = \\mathrm{d}\\alpha_{\\mathrm{s}} / \\mathrm{d}\\log k$ of the spectral index $n_{\\mathrm{s}}$ of primordial scalar fluctuations. We find $\\alpha_\\mathrm{s}=0.011\\pm0.010$ and $\\beta_\\mathrm{s}=0.027\\...

  11. JAPANESE READERS (TITLE SUPPLIED).

    Science.gov (United States)

    THREE JAPANESE READERS ARE PRESENTED WHICH CONTAIN VOCABULARY, NOTES, AND DRILL SENTENCES. THE THREE READERS--(1) ARU SARARIIMAN NO ITI-NITI, (2) OTOOSAN WA KAMI-SAMA, AND (3) ARU GAKUSEI NO HANNITI--ARE WRITTEN IN THE ROMAJI ALPHABET. EACH READER HAS A VOCABULARY LISTING WITH ENGLISH EXPLANATIONS AND DRILL SENTENCES. AN ENGLISH WORD DEFINITION…

  12. Thermoluminescence dosimeter reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, M.E.A.; Marshall, J.; Brabants, J.A.P.; Davies, M.E.

    1975-01-01

    An electric circuit arrangement is described including a photomultiplier tube and a high voltage source therefor also includes a feedback loop from the output of the tube to the high voltage source, and loop providing automatic gain stabilization for the tube. The arrangement is used in a dosimeter reader to provide sensitivity correction for the reader each time the reader is to be used

  13. Texts and Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iser, Wolfgang

    1980-01-01

    Notes that, since fictional discourse need not reflect prevailing systems of meaning and norms or values, readers gain detachment from their own presuppositions; by constituting and formulating text-sense, readers are constituting and formulating their own cognition and becoming aware of the operations for doing so. (FL)

  14. Running Away

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diseases is higher on streets, too, because these kids might use IV drugs or have unprotected sex (often for money). Runaway Prevention Let's face it — stress is a part of life, even for kids — but being able to deal with problems with ...

  15. Relativistically speaking: Let's walk or run through the rain?

    OpenAIRE

    Assis, Armando V. D. B.

    2010-01-01

    We analyse under a simple approach the problem one must decide the best strategy to minimize the contact with rain when moving between two points through the rain. The available strategies: walk (low speed boost $

  16. DEAFNESS, RETELLING AND READER FOMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcos Rosendo de Souza

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Research on formation of readers has raised some discussions and change of atitudes, to the development of full readers. But, the methodologies that strive for proficiency of Deaf readers there are scarse. We intend to discuss in this article the formation of a reader Deaf through from an interventional research, with cognitive approach. The reader formation of Deaf will be possible with appropriate method to their peculiarities.

  17. Our Readers Write ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    This concerns the article 'Ashoke Sen and S-duality'. The article omits an important fact: there is absolutely no experimental evidence for string theory. Without this information, readers may think they are reading about established facts, not speculation. A string theorist, Witten, was awarded a Fields Medal, which shows that ...

  18. Bytes, Books and Readers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Krista Stinne Greve

    2016-01-01

    In diesem Beitrag werden Ergebnisse aus der Dissertation der Autorin Bytes, Books, and Readers. A Historical Analysis of the Transition from Printed to Digital Scholarly Editions Focusing on ‘The Writings of Søren Kierkegaard’ (2015) vorgestellt. Dabei wird dem Wechselverhältnis zwischen der...

  19. Growing Young Gifted Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Patricia F.

    2009-01-01

    There is great pressure on parents to teach children to read as early as possible. In reality, precocious (early advanced) readers seem to almost master the skill on their own, without the assistance of highly touted, commercially available programs. The 18-month-old toddler who names the letters on alphabet blocks; or the 26-month-old who can…

  20. High-let radiation carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.; Powers-Risius, P.; Alpen, E.L.; Ainsworth, E.J.; Ullrich, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent results for neutron radiation-induced tumors are presented to illustrate the complexities of the dose-response curves for high-LET radiation. It is suggested that in order to derive an appropriate model for dose-response curves for the induction of tumors by high-LET radiation it is necessary to take into account dose distribution, cell killing and the susceptibility of the tissue under study. Preliminary results for the induction of Harderian gland tumors in mice exposed to various heavy ion beams are presented. The results suggest that the effectiveness of the heavy ion beams increases with increasing LET. The slopes of the dose-response curves for the different high-LET radiations decrease between 20 and 40 rads and therefore comparisons of the relative effectiveness should be made from data obtained at doses below about 20 to 30 rads

  1. LET-effects in DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, G.; Taucher-Scholz, G.; Heilmann, J.

    1995-01-01

    The use of heavy particles in radiobiological experiments provides a fundamental tool to study the influence of different ionization densities and to prove the physical basis of models and theories. The knowledge of the interaction of high LET radiation (LET: linear energy transfer [keV/microm]) with biological matter is of great importance for the application of neutrons, protons and heavier ions in radiotherapy. It is also essential in radioprotection to estimate the risk in case of exposure to high LET radiation. In this contribution, an introductory view on the physical properties of ions is given and the cellular response to high LET radiation is summarized. Then the measurements of strand break induction of DNA in solution and in intracellular DNA are reported and compared to cell survival. The possibility of changes in the quality of the lesions is discussed and finally the present status of model calculations in comparison to the experiments is given

  2. Liquidity Runs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matta, R.; Perotti, E.

    2016-01-01

    Can the risk of losses upon premature liquidation produce bank runs? We show how a unique run equilibrium driven by asset liquidity risk arises even under minimal fundamental risk. To study the role of illiquidity we introduce realistic norms on bank default, such that mandatory stay is triggered

  3. Crash course in readers' advisory

    CERN Document Server

    Orr, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    One of the key services librarians provide is helping readers find books they'll enjoy. This ""crash course"" will furnish you with the basic, practical information you need to excel at readers' advisory (RA) for adults and teens.

  4. Cognitive Development in Early Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Chari; Elkind, David

    Some studies of early readers are discussed. It is pointed out that study of early readers has relevance for practical and theoretical issues in psychology and education. Of interest in this document are the following questions: (1) Are there any special talents or traits distinguishing early from non-early readers? (2) Do children who read early…

  5. Dose reader CD-02

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakowiuk, A.; Kaluska, I.; Machaj, B.

    2005-01-01

    Dose Reader CD-02 is designed for measurement of dose from a long narrow band of dosimetric foil used for check up and control of electron beam dose during sterilization of materials and products on conveyor belt. Irradiated foil after processing (heating) is inserted into foil driving (moving) system and when the foil is moved across focused light beam the absorbed dose is measured and displayed at the same time at computer monitor (in form of a diagram). The absorbed dose is measured on the principle of light attenuation at selected light wavelength (foil absorbance is measured). (author)

  6. Chipless RFID reader architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Karmakar, Nemai Chandra; Kalansuriya, Prasanna

    2013-01-01

    In the era of information communication technology (ICT), radio frequency identification (RFID) has been going through tremendous development. RFID technology has the potential of replacing barcodes due to its large information carrying capacity, flexibility in operations, and applications. The deployment of RFID has been hindered by its cost. However, with the advent of low powered ICs, energy scavenging techniques, and low-cost chipless tags, RFID technology has achieved significant development. This book addresses the new reader architecture, presents fundamentals of chipless RFID systems,

  7. Let G be a group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    I moderne formalistisk matematik er ontologi blevet erstattet med spørgsmålet om konsistens af et aksiomatisk system. I artiklen gøres der rede for hvordan denne opfattelse er blevet til og denne historie opfattes i sig selv som en slags erstatning for ontologi......I moderne formalistisk matematik er ontologi blevet erstattet med spørgsmålet om konsistens af et aksiomatisk system. I artiklen gøres der rede for hvordan denne opfattelse er blevet til og denne historie opfattes i sig selv som en slags erstatning for ontologi...

  8. Let us fish4tomorrow

    OpenAIRE

    J.D., Farrugia

    2015-01-01

    All over the world, governments and stakeholders are trying to cope with overfishing. Overfishing is when too much fish is caught which leads to an overall degradation of the marine ecosystem. It is the non-sustainable use of ocean resources. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/let-us-fish4tomorrow/

  9. Running Linux

    CERN Document Server

    Dalheimer, Matthias Kalle

    2006-01-01

    The fifth edition of Running Linux is greatly expanded, reflecting the maturity of the operating system and the teeming wealth of software available for it. Hot consumer topics such as audio and video playback applications, groupware functionality, and spam filtering are covered, along with the basics in configuration and management that always made the book popular.

  10. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Delaere

    2013-01-01

    Since the LHC ceased operations in February, a lot has been going on at Point 5, and Run Coordination continues to monitor closely the advance of maintenance and upgrade activities. In the last months, the Pixel detector was extracted and is now stored in the pixel lab in SX5; the beam pipe has been removed and ME1/1 removal has started. We regained access to the vactank and some work on the RBX of HB has started. Since mid-June, electricity and cooling are back in S1 and S2, allowing us to turn equipment back on, at least during the day. 24/7 shifts are not foreseen in the next weeks, and safety tours are mandatory to keep equipment on overnight, but re-commissioning activities are slowly being resumed. Given the (slight) delays accumulated in LS1, it was decided to merge the two global runs initially foreseen into a single exercise during the week of 4 November 2013. The aim of the global run is to check that we can run (parts of) CMS after several months switched off, with the new VME PCs installed, th...

  11. Google Wave Up and Running

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrate, Andres

    2010-01-01

    Catch Google Wave, the revolutionary Internet protocol and web service that lets you communicate and collaborate in realtime. With this book, you'll understand how Google Wave integrates email, instant messaging (IM), wiki, and social networking functionality into a powerful and extensible platform. You'll also learn how to use its features, customize its functions, and build sophisticated extensions with Google Wave's open APIs and network protocol. Written for everyone -- from non-techies to ninja coders -- Google Wave: Up and Running provides a complete tour of this complex platform. You'

  12. SSR: What's in "School Science Review" for "PSR" Readers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakin, Liz

    2004-01-01

    This article summarises ideas and developments in teaching and learning in science of relevance to "Primary Science Review" ("PSR") readers from three recent issues (309, 310, and 311) of "School Science Review" ("SSR"), the ASE journal for science education 11-19. The themes running through these are: ICT, the implications for science education…

  13. Running Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Running Club

    2011-01-01

    The cross country running season has started well this autumn with two events: the traditional CERN Road Race organized by the Running Club, which took place on Tuesday 5th October, followed by the ‘Cross Interentreprises’, a team event at the Evaux Sports Center, which took place on Saturday 8th October. The participation at the CERN Road Race was slightly down on last year, with 65 runners, however the participants maintained the tradition of a competitive yet friendly atmosphere. An ample supply of refreshments before the prize giving was appreciated by all after the race. Many thanks to all the runners and volunteers who ensured another successful race. The results can be found here: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/default.aspx CERN participated successfully at the cross interentreprises with very good results. The teams succeeded in obtaining 2nd and 6th place in the Mens category, and 2nd place in the Mixed category. Congratulations to all. See results here: http://www.c...

  14. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Christophe Delaere

    2013-01-01

    The focus of Run Coordination during LS1 is to monitor closely the advance of maintenance and upgrade activities, to smooth interactions between subsystems and to ensure that all are ready in time to resume operations in 2015 with a fully calibrated and understood detector. After electricity and cooling were restored to all equipment, at about the time of the last CMS week, recommissioning activities were resumed for all subsystems. On 7 October, DCS shifts began 24/7 to allow subsystems to remain on to facilitate operations. That culminated with the Global Run in November (GriN), which   took place as scheduled during the week of 4 November. The GriN has been the first centrally managed operation since the beginning of LS1, and involved all subdetectors but the Pixel Tracker presently in a lab upstairs. All nights were therefore dedicated to long stable runs with as many subdetectors as possible. Among the many achievements in that week, three items may be highlighted. First, the Strip...

  15. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Chamizo

    2012-01-01

      On 17th January, as soon as the services were restored after the technical stop, sub-systems started powering on. Since then, we have been running 24/7 with reduced shift crew — Shift Leader and DCS shifter — to allow sub-detectors to perform calibration, noise studies, test software upgrades, etc. On 15th and 16th February, we had the first Mid-Week Global Run (MWGR) with the participation of most sub-systems. The aim was to bring CMS back to operation and to ensure that we could run after the winter shutdown. All sub-systems participated in the readout and the trigger was provided by a fraction of the muon systems (CSC and the central RPC wheel). The calorimeter triggers were not available due to work on the optical link system. Initial checks of different distributions from Pixels, Strips, and CSC confirmed things look all right (signal/noise, number of tracks, phi distribution…). High-rate tests were done to test the new CSC firmware to cure the low efficiency ...

  16. Report Card on Basal Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Kenneth S.; And Others

    This report examines the nature of the modern basal reader, its economics, and use. First, the report provides a history showing how the confluence of business principles, positivistic science, and behavioral psychology led to the transformation of reading textbooks into basal readers. Next, the report examines objectives and subjective factors…

  17. The Routledge Applied Linguistics Reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Li, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "The Routledge Applied Linguistics Reader" is an essential collection of readings for students of Applied Linguistics. Divided into five sections: Language Teaching and Learning, Second Language Acquisition, Applied Linguistics, Identity and Power and Language Use in Professional Contexts, the "Reader" takes a broad…

  18. LET-effects in DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, G.; Taucher-Scholz, G.; Heilmann, J.

    1994-11-01

    In this contribution, an introductory view on the physical properties of ions is given and the cellular response to high LET radiation is summarized. Then the measurements of strand break induction of DNA in solution and in intracellular DNA are reported and compared to cell survival. The possibility of changes in the quality of the lesions is discussed and finally the present status of model calculations in comparison to the experiments is given. (orig./HSI)

  19. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Rakness.

    2013-01-01

    After three years of running, in February 2013 the era of sub-10-TeV LHC collisions drew to an end. Recall, the 2012 run had been extended by about three months to achieve the full complement of high-energy and heavy-ion physics goals prior to the start of Long Shutdown 1 (LS1), which is now underway. The LHC performance during these exciting years was excellent, delivering a total of 23.3 fb–1 of proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV, 6.2 fb–1 at 7 TeV, and 5.5 pb–1 at 2.76 TeV. They also delivered 170 μb–1 lead-lead collisions at 2.76 TeV/nucleon and 32 nb–1 proton-lead collisions at 5 TeV/nucleon. During these years the CMS operations teams and shift crews made tremendous strides to commission the detector, repeatedly stepping up to meet the challenges at every increase of instantaneous luminosity and energy. Although it does not fully cover the achievements of the teams, a way to quantify their success is the fact that that...

  20. Ionization chambers for LET determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Franz-Joachim; Bassler, Niels; Tölli, Heikki

    2010-01-01

    resolution and high sensitivity are necessary. For exact dosimetry which is done using ionization chambers (ICs), the recombination taking place in the IC has to be known. Up to now, recombination is corrected phenomenologically and more practical approaches are currently used. Nevertheless, Jaff´e's theory...... of columnar recombination was designed to model the detector efficiency of an ionization chamber. Here, we have shown that despite the approximations and simplification made, the theory is correct for the LETs typically found in clinical radiotherapy employing particles from protons to carbon ions...

  1. Running Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Running Club

    2010-01-01

    The 2010 edition of the annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 29th September at 18h. The 5.5km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent + best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and the online entry form, can be found at http://cern.ch/club...

  2. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Christophe Delaere

    2012-01-01

      On Wednesday 14 March, the machine group successfully injected beams into LHC for the first time this year. Within 48 hours they managed to ramp the beams to 4 TeV and proceeded to squeeze to β*=0.6m, settings that are used routinely since then. This brought to an end the CMS Cosmic Run at ~Four Tesla (CRAFT), during which we collected 800k cosmic ray events with a track crossing the central Tracker. That sample has been since then topped up to two million, allowing further refinements of the Tracker Alignment. The LHC started delivering the first collisions on 5 April with two bunches colliding in CMS, giving a pile-up of ~27 interactions per crossing at the beginning of the fill. Since then the machine has increased the number of colliding bunches to reach 1380 bunches and peak instantaneous luminosities around 6.5E33 at the beginning of fills. The average bunch charges reached ~1.5E11 protons per bunch which results in an initial pile-up of ~30 interactions per crossing. During the ...

  3. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Delaere

    2012-01-01

      With the analysis of the first 5 fb–1 culminating in the announcement of the observation of a new particle with mass of around 126 GeV/c2, the CERN directorate decided to extend the LHC run until February 2013. This adds three months to the original schedule. Since then the LHC has continued to perform extremely well, and the total luminosity delivered so far this year is 22 fb–1. CMS also continues to perform excellently, recording data with efficiency higher than 95% for fills with the magnetic field at nominal value. The highest instantaneous luminosity achieved by LHC to date is 7.6x1033 cm–2s–1, which translates into 35 interactions per crossing. On the CMS side there has been a lot of work to handle these extreme conditions, such as a new DAQ computer farm and trigger menus to handle the pile-up, automation of recovery procedures to minimise the lost luminosity, better training for the shift crews, etc. We did suffer from a couple of infrastructure ...

  4. High-LET radiation carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.; Powers-Risius, P.; Alpen, E.L.; Ainsworth, E.J.

    1985-01-01

    The dose-response curves for the induction of tumors by high-LET radiation are complex and are insufficiently understood. There is no model or formulation to describe the dose-response relationship over a range 0 to 100 rad. Evidence suggests that at doses below 20 rad the response is linear, at least for life shortening and some tumor systems. Thus, limiting values of RBEs for the induction of cancer in various tissues can be determined, but it will require sufficient data obtained at low single doses or with small fractions. The results obtained from experiments with heavy ions indicate an initial linear response with a plateauing of the curve at a tumor incidence level that is dependent on the type of tissue. The RBE values for the heavy ions using 60 Co gamma rays as the reference radiation increase with the estimated LET from 4 for 4 H to about 27 for 56 Fe, 40 Ar. The dose-responses and RBEs for 56 Fe and 40 Ar are similar to those for fission neutrons. These findings suggest the possibility that the effectiveness for tumor induction reaches a maximum. 26 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Killing, letting die and euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husak, D N

    1979-12-01

    Medical ethicists debate whether or not the moral assessment of cases of euthanasia should depend on whether the patient is 'killed' or 'allowed to die'. The usual presupposition is that a clear distinction between killing and letting die can be drawn so that this substantive question is not begged. I contend that the categorisation of cases of instances of killing rather than as instances of letting die depends in part on a prior moral assessment of the case. Hence is it trivially rather than substantively true that the distinction has moral significance. But even if a morally neutral (ie non-question begging) distinction could be drawn, its application to the euthanasia controversy is problematic. I illustrate the difficulties of employing this distinction to reach moral conclusions by critically discussing Philippa Foot's recent treatment of euthanasia. I conclude that even if an act of euthanasia is an instance of killing, and there exists a prima facie moral duty not to kill, and no more stringent duty overrides this duty, one still cannot determine such an act to be morally impermissible.

  6. Killing, letting die and euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husak, D N

    1979-01-01

    Medical ethicists debate whether or not the moral assessment of cases of euthanasia should depend on whether the patient is 'killed' or 'allowed to die'. The usual presupposition is that a clear distinction between killing and letting die can be drawn so that this substantive question is not begged. I contend that the categorisation of cases of instances of killing rather than as instances of letting die depends in part on a prior moral assessment of the case. Hence is it trivially rather than substantively true that the distinction has moral significance. But even if a morally neutral (ie non-question begging) distinction could be drawn, its application to the euthanasia controversy is problematic. I illustrate the difficulties of employing this distinction to reach moral conclusions by critically discussing Philippa Foot's recent treatment of euthanasia. I conclude that even if an act of euthanasia is an instance of killing, and there exists a prima facie moral duty not to kill, and no more stringent duty overrides this duty, one still cannot determine such an act to be morally impermissible. PMID:541821

  7. Keep it local (and final): Remnant preferences in ‘let alone’ ellipsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jesse A.; Carlson, Katy

    2015-01-01

    The let alone construction (John can't run a mile, let alone a marathon) differs from standard coordination structures (with and or but) by requiring ellipsis of the second conjunct, e.g., a marathon is the remnant of an elided clause [John run a marathon]. In support of an ellipsis account, a corpus study of British and American English finds that let alone exhibits a Locality bias, as the second conjunct preferentially contrasts with the nearest lexical item of the same syntactic type. Two self-paced reading studies show that the Locality bias is active during online processing, but must be reconciled with indicators of semantic contrast and discourse information. Further, a sentence-rating study shows that the Locality bias interacts with a Finality bias that favors placing the let alone phrase at the end of a clause, which sometimes necessitates a non-local contrast. Together, the results show how a general bias in ellipsis for local contrasts is affected by discourse demands, such as the need for scalar contrast imposed by let alone, thereby offering a window into how possibly divergent syntactic and discourse constraints impact sentence processing. PMID:26085004

  8. My Bluford High Boys: How a Book Club for Reluctant Readers Proved the Naysayers Wrong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Sara

    2009-01-01

    As a middle school librarian in Austin, Texas, the author has been running weekly book clubs for years, which covered many genres that appeal to a wide cross section of kids. When approached by a group of Latino boys from low-income families, the author was inspired to run a Bluford High book club for reluctant readers. The author shares how she…

  9. Ataxia telangiectasia: LET dependence of cellular inactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blakely, E.A.; Tobias, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    Human Ataxia telangiectasia cells (AT 2SF line) have been irradiated in vitro under aerobic and hypoxic conditions with heavy-ion beams accelerated at the Berkeley Bevalac as a part of a study to characterize the radiation responses of genetically sensitive and resistant cell lines to high LET radiations. Results from track-segment exposures to neon, silicon, argon and iron ion beams accelerated to initial energies of from 225 to 670 MeV/amu provided an LET range between 30 to 1,000 KeV/μm. The data indicate: (1) The sensitivity of AT cells increases with increasing LET, similar to resistant human lines (e.g., T-1 cells). However, due to efficient repair, T-1 cells are more resistant than AT cells at LET values below 200 keV/μm; (2) Maximum cell kill occurs for both lines at 100-200 keV/μm; at higher LET the sensitivity of the two lines approach each other; (3) There is only small variation in the sensitivity of AT cells to particles of various atomic numbers at the same LET; differences are more pronounced in the LET domain between 50 and 200 keV/μm; and (4) AT cells have slightly lower OER values than T-1 cells in the range of LET studied below 200 keV/μm

  10. Identification of let-7-regulated oncofetal genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyerinas, Benjamin; Park, Sun-Mi; Shomron, Noam

    2008-01-01

    -regulated at the end of embryonic development. Let-7 is often down-regulated early during cancer development, suggesting that let-7-regulated oncofetal genes (LOG) may become reexpressed in cancer cells. Using comparative bioinformatics, we have identified 12 conserved LOGs that include HMGA2 and IMP-1/CRD-BP. IMP-1...

  11. Calculated LET-Spectrum of Antiprotons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassler, Niels

    -LET components resulting from the annihilation. Though, the calculations of dose-averaged LET in the entry region may suggest that the RBE of antiprotons in the plateau region could significantly differ from unity. Materials and Methods Monte Carlo simulations using FLUKA were performed for calculating...

  12. Triage for Struggling Adolescent Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Linda J.

    2006-01-01

    To improve achievement for struggling readers in particular, secondary schools must design programs and curricula to address students' lack of background knowledge, delayed English language development, and limited success in reading. In this article, the author presents a systems approach that offers intensive care for the most at-risk students…

  13. Readers' Knowledge of Popular Genre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Peter; Bortolussi, Marisa

    2009-01-01

    This research examined readers' knowledge of popular genres. Participants wrote short essays on fantasy, science fiction, or romance. The similarities among the essays were measured using latent semantic analysis (LSA) and were then analyzed using multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis. The clusters and scales were interpreted by searching…

  14. Serving Boys through Readers' Advisory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Based on more than twenty years' experience working to get boys interested in reading, the author now offers his first readers' advisory volume. With an emphasis on nonfiction and the boy-friendly categories of genre fiction, the work offers a wealth of material including: (1) Suggestions for how to booktalk one-on-one as well as in large groups;…

  15. Ombud's corner: About letting go…

    CERN Multimedia

    Sudeshna Datta-Cockerill

    2015-01-01

    New year, old problems? The best way to start 2015 is by not carrying over any frustration from 2014. Instead, let it go and move forward.   As I blew out the candle to celebrate my first anniversary of my position as the CERN Ombud, I found myself reflecting back over the past year, wondering what I could share with you, and the following recurring situation came to mind… Often, people come to the Ombud’s office either because they feel mistreated or because they consider themselves to be facing an unfair situation. When this happens, we work through the problems together and identify different options by which to tackle the situation.  Sometimes they ask to be coached through the way in which to go back and deal with the issues themselves; at other times they prefer to address the issue with the other person, in the presence of the Ombud, and request mediation. In both cases, the objective is the same: to ensure that both points of view are understood...

  16. Let's do comprehension 5-6

    CERN Document Server

    Brodie, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Let's Do Comprehension is a brand new series of six titles in the popular 'Let's Do' range. Each book contains a rich variety of stimulating reading passages, accompanied by questions of varying difficulty. Designed to be used at home, each book includes tips and clues from Alice the Alligator as well as extra challenges in Brodie's Brain Boosters. There is a clear answer section for reference by parents and children, together with bright, colourful reward stickers.

  17. Let's do comprehension 8-9

    CERN Document Server

    Brodie, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Let's Do Comprehension is a brand new series of six titles in the popular 'Let's Do' range. Each book contains a rich variety of stimulating reading passages, accompanied by questions of varying difficulty. Designed to be used at home, each book includes tips and clues from Alice the Alligator as well as extra challenges in Brodie's Brain Boosters. There is a clear answer section for reference by parents and children, together with bright, colourful reward stickers.

  18. Owning, letting and demanding second homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloze, Gintautas; Skak, Morten

    register data and presents estimations of the probability of owning a second home, the decision to let the second home and the number of let weeks per year. Also income elasticities for primary and second housing demand are estimated. We find a conventional monotonic increase in demand elasticities...... for primary housing demand for non-owners of second homes; however, owners of second homes have the highest income elasticity in the middle income group....

  19. Special photographic emulsions for high LET dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, R.

    1978-12-01

    The purpose of these investigations into photographic emulsion dosimetry is to attempt to use the photographic emulsion to mimic the response of human tissues to high LET radiations. The program therefore requires that a systematic understanding of the response of mammalian cells to ionizing radiations be achieved. We have been concerned with differences in RBE and in radiation response to both high and LET radiations, and in the interrelationship between observations with these different radiations

  20. Gemcitabine radiosensitizes multiple myeloma cells to low let, but not high let, irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supiot, Stephane; Thillays, Francois; Rio, Emmanuel; Gouard, Sebastien; Morgenstern, Alfred; Bruchertseifer, Frank; Mahe, Marc-Andre; Chatal, Jean-Francois; Davodeau, Francois; Cherel, Michel

    2007-01-01

    The radiosensitizing properties of gemcitabine in relation to low Linear Energy Transfer (LET) particles (Cobalt 60) and high-LET particles (alpha-RIT 213 Bi-radiolabeled CHX-DTPA-B-B4) were analyzed. Three multiple myeloma cell lines (LP1, RPMI 8226, U266) were irradiated with or without 10 nM gemcitabine 24 h prior to radiation. Gemcitabine led to radiosensitization of LP1 and U266 cells with low-LET (Radiation Enhancement Ratio: 1.55 and 1.49, respectively) but did not radiosensitize any cell line when combined with high-LET

  1. The concept of average LET values determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarewicz, M.

    1981-01-01

    The concept of average LET (linear energy transfer) values determination, i.e. ordinary moments of LET in absorbed dose distribution vs. LET of ionizing radiation of any kind and any spectrum (even the unknown ones) has been presented. The method is based on measurement of ionization current with several values of voltage supplying an ionization chamber operating in conditions of columnar recombination of ions or ion recombination in clusters while the chamber is placed in the radiation field at the point of interest. By fitting a suitable algebraic expression to the measured current values one can obtain coefficients of the expression which can be interpreted as values of LET moments. One of the advantages of the method is its experimental and computational simplicity. It has been shown that for numerical estimation of certain effects dependent on LET of radiation it is not necessary to know the dose distribution but only a number of parameters of the distribution, i.e. the LET moments. (author)

  2. Keep it local (and final): Remnant preferences in "let alone" ellipsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jesse A; Carlson, Katy

    2016-01-01

    The let alone construction (John can't run a mile, let alone a marathon) differs from standard coordination structures (with and or but) by requiring ellipsis of the second conjunct--for example, a marathon is the remnant of an elided clause [[see text] a marathon]. In support of an ellipsis account, a corpus study of British and American English finds that let alone exhibits a Locality bias, as the second conjunct preferentially contrasts with the nearest lexical item of the same syntactic type. Two self-paced reading studies show that the Locality bias is active during online processing, but must be reconciled with indicators of semantic contrast and discourse information. Further, a sentence-rating study shows that the Locality bias interacts with a Finality bias that favours placing the let alone phrase at the end of a clause, which sometimes necessitates a nonlocal contrast. Together, the results show how a general bias in ellipsis for local contrasts is affected by discourse demands, such as the need for scalar contrast imposed by let alone, thereby offering a window into how possibly divergent syntactic and discourse constraints impact sentence processing.

  3. Extending the E-Z Reader Model of Eye Movement Control to Chinese Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Keith; Li, Xingshan; Pollatsek, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Chinese readers' eye movements were simulated in the context of the E-Z Reader model, which was developed to account for the eye movements of readers of English. Despite obvious differences between English and Chinese, the model did a fairly good job of simulating the eye movements of Chinese readers. The successful simulation suggests that the…

  4. Let s make progress together!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriana, Mazare; Liliana, Gheorghian

    2015-04-01

    Let's make progress together! The "Theodor Balan" Secondary School in the urban area of Suceava County in northeastern Romania is involved in several different projects. In order to extend previous successful projects with the students, parents, teachers, businesses and local government representatives in science symposiums for civic projects within the concept of sustainable development, the school is continuing to develop various successful programs. "The battle" continues both in nature and in the classrooms, in order to preserve the environment and to discover new resources. To raise awareness about the importance of existing resources even at the level of individuals there is a constant concern for keeping up to date on what already exists and is well known, but at the same time to remove "barriers" and discover new horizons and resources. Scientific activities held in our school are an effective way to educate students and the community to which they belong. In our community, we discovered sources of drinking water polluted by nitrites from fertilizers used in agriculture. In order to inform and educate people in the area, our teachers have organized several educational activities. Its purpose was: -Knowledge of the importance of water for the environment and human health. -Reducing water pollution. Students have informed their families' about sustainable development acquired at school. In this way, the school manages to educate and change people's ideas. The ways and methods of adults' learning were practiced within a Grundtvig training course "It's never too late learning to learn" in February 2014, in Florence, Italy. The GIFT 2014 was a great occasion for the teachers and students, the county's educational department and the participants at the National Colloquia of Physics to discover new materials provided at the Conference and the latest news and topics in the world of science. The theme trips at the physics laboratories of "Alexandru Ioan Cuza

  5. 77 FR 16566 - Submission for OMB Review, Comment Request, Proposed Collection: Let's Move Museums, Let's Move...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ..., Proposed Collection: Let's Move Museums, Let's Move Gardens AGENCY: Institute of Museum and Library..., comment request. SUMMARY: The Institute of Museum and Library Services announces that the following... functions of the agency, including whether the information will have practical utility; Evaluate the...

  6. Dr. Sheehan on Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, George A.

    This book is both a personal and technical account of the experience of running by a heart specialist who began a running program at the age of 45. In its seventeen chapters, there is information presented on the spiritual, psychological, and physiological results of running; treatment of athletic injuries resulting from running; effects of diet…

  7. Every reader his book – every book its reader?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kann-Christensen, Nanna; Balling, Gitte

    2014-01-01

    ’ advisory and audience development. This is achieved through an analysis of opinions and reflections expressed by 13 managers and librarians in all six county libraries in Denmark. The interviews are analysed through the model which merges three concepts: cultural policy, new public management......Collections are no longer the main attraction in libraries, and libraries are working to find new paths to tread. One strategy is to focus on reading and literature in new and surprising ways. The aim of this article is to enrich an understanding of activities situated in the span between readers...... and professional logics. Our findings show that Danish librarians’ views on readers’ advisory and audience development strike a balance between the experience and empowerment rationales with a prevailing focus on users. A user orientation and focus on user experiences have created a situation wherein the notions...

  8. Integrated Rapid-Diagnostic-Test Reader Platform on a Cellphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudanyali, Onur; Dimitrov, Stoyan; Sikora, Uzair; Padmanabhan, Swati; Navruz, Isa; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a cellphone based Rapid-Diagnostic-Test (RDT) reader platform that can work with various lateral flow immuno-chromatographic assays and similar tests to sense the presence of a target analyte in a sample. This compact and cost-effective digital RDT reader, weighing only ~65 grams, mechanically attaches to the existing camera unit of a cellphone, where various types of RDTs can be inserted to be imaged in reflection or transmission modes under light-emitting-diode (LED) based illumination. Captured raw images of these tests are then digitally processed (within less than 0.2 sec/image) through a smart application running on the cellphone for validation of the RDT as well as for automated reading of its diagnostic result. The same smart application running on the cellphone then transmits the resulting data, together with the RDT images and other related information (e.g., demographic data) to a central server, which presents the diagnostic results on a world-map through geo-tagging. This dynamic spatio-temporal map of various RDT results can then be viewed and shared using internet browsers or through the same cellphone application. We tested this platform using malaria, tuberculosis (TB) as well as HIV RDTs by installing it on both Android based smart-phones as well as an iPhone. Providing real-time spatio-temporal statistics for the prevalence of various infectious diseases, this smart RDT reader platform running on cellphones might assist health-care professionals and policy makers to track emerging epidemics worldwide and help epidemic preparedness. PMID:22596243

  9. Are you a developer? Let's talk!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    Many of us have to create software as part of our work, if you do probably you asked yourself some of the following: How other people at CERN develop? What technologies have they used? What worked and what didn't for them? Am I reinventing the wheel? What CERN services can make my life easier? What other services I miss that would be useful to have? How can I integrate my system with XXYY at CERN? Unfortunately there is little communication between us and we need to fix that, let's find initiatives to improve and share experiences between software engineers... let's talk!

  10. A Sign Language Screen Reader for Deaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ghoul, Oussama; Jemni, Mohamed

    Screen reader technology has appeared first to allow blind and people with reading difficulties to use computer and to access to the digital information. Until now, this technology is exploited mainly to help blind community. During our work with deaf people, we noticed that a screen reader can facilitate the manipulation of computers and the reading of textual information. In this paper, we propose a novel screen reader dedicated to deaf. The output of the reader is a visual translation of the text to sign language. The screen reader is composed by two essential modules: the first one is designed to capture the activities of users (mouse and keyboard events). For this purpose, we adopted Microsoft MSAA application programming interfaces. The second module, which is in classical screen readers a text to speech engine (TTS), is replaced by a novel text to sign (TTSign) engine. This module converts text into sign language animation based on avatar technology.

  11. E-book Reader Devices and Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pažur, I.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Most library studies thematically related to electronic books don't consider readers of electronic books. Only in recent years librarians conduct studies in which they want to find out readers' opinions about the possibilities, advantages and disadvantages of reading using e-readers, as well as their possible application in the libraries.User studies of e-readers have shown that their opinion is generally positive, but great attachment to traditional books is still present, e-readers are still seen only as an additional tool for reading. Sony with its e-reader (the latest Reader model Daily and Reader Store online bookstore (http://ebookstore.sony.com/is the only one who cooperate with libraries and has made lending electronic books possible. Cooperation was launched in 2009th,and the New York Public Library was the first library that offered such a service.Cooperation between Sony and libraries, indicates clearly what the near future could be if other online booksellers / publishers begin to follow the model of lending e-books through the libraries over the network. However it is possible that a large online bookstores / publishers consider that the further price reduction of e-readers and electronic books will constantly increase their sales, and in that case lending e-books will be unnecessary.Are the libraries ready for this scenario?

  12. Reader-Centered Technical Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2012-12-01

    Technical writing is an essential part of professional communication and in recent years it has shifted from a genre-based approach. Formerly, technical writing primarily focused on generating templates of documents and sometimes it was creating or reproducing traditional forms with minor modifications and updates. Now, technical writing looks at the situations surrounding the need to write. This involves deep thinking about the goals and objectives of the project on hand. Furthermore, one observes that it is very important for any participatory process to have the full support of management. This support needs to be well understood and believed by employees. Professional writing may be very persuasive in some cases. When presented in the appropriate context, technical writing can persuade a company to improve work conditions ensuring employee safety and timely production. However, one must recognize that lot of professional writing still continues to make use of reports and instruction manuals. Normally, technical and professional writing addresses four aspects. Objective: The need for generating a given professionally written technical document and the goals the document is expected to achieve and accomplish. Clientele: The clientele who will utilize the technical document. This may include the people in the organization. This may also include "unintended readers." Customers: The population that may be affected by the content of the technical document generated. This includes the stakeholders who will be influenced. Environment: The background in which the document is created. Also, the nature of the situation that warranted the generation of the document. Swiss Psychologist Jean Piaget's view of Learning focuses on three aspects. The author likes to extend Jean Piaget's ideas to students, who are asked to prepare and submit Reader-Centered Technical Writing reports and exercises. Assimilation: Writers may benefit specifically, by assimilating a new object into

  13. The Lin28/let-7 Axis Regulates Glucose Metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Hao; Shyh-Chang, Ng; Segre, Ayellet V.; Shinoda, Gen; Shah, Samar P.; Einhorn, William S.; Takeuchi, Ayumu; Engreitz, Jesse M.; Hagan, John P.; Kharas, Michael G.; Urbach, Achia; Thornton, James E.; Triboulet, Robinson; Gregory, Richard I.; Altshuler, David; Daley, George Q.

    2011-01-01

    The let-7 tumor suppressor microRNAs are known for their regulation of oncogenes, while the RNA-binding proteins Lin28a/b promote malignancy by inhibiting let-7 biogenesis. We have uncovered unexpected roles for the Lin28/let-7 pathway in regulating-metabolism. When overexpressed in mice, both

  14. Letting die: A moral defence | Adenugba | Sophia: An African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper draws a distinction between letting die and active euthanasia. It argues that there is a moral difference between letting die and active euthanasia which strictly intends to cause death. The difference between letting die and active euthanasia lies in intention though intention in both cases can be said to be ...

  15. Running and osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willick, Stuart E; Hansen, Pamela A

    2010-07-01

    The overall health benefits of cardiovascular exercise, such as running, are well established. However, it is also well established that in certain circumstances running can lead to overload injuries of muscle, tendon, and bone. In contrast, it has not been established that running leads to degeneration of articular cartilage, which is the hallmark of osteoarthritis. This article reviews the available literature on the association between running and osteoarthritis, with a focus on clinical epidemiologic studies. The preponderance of clinical reports refutes an association between running and osteoarthritis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Gene-expression profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae irradiated by high-LET radiations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ionizing radiations are categorized by linear energy transfer (LET) into low-LET and high-LET. High-LET is considered to have a higher relative biological...

  17. Teaching the Total Language with Readers Theatre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Jess A., Jr.

    Reading, writing, speech assignments for special education classes, English as a second language and many other classroom projects can be taught through the involvement created by Readers Theatre. Readers Theatre is the presentation of dialogue-type material in play form. The actors hold the script as they move through it and a narrator's voice…

  18. Planning Behaviour in Good and Poor Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Shamita

    2016-01-01

    A group of 50 good readers and a group of 50 poor readers of Grade 5 matched for age and intelligence and selected on the basis of their proficiency in reading comprehension were tested for their competence in word reading and the process of planning at three different levels, namely, perceptual, memory and conceptual in order to study the…

  19. Reader responses to literary depictions of rape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Koopman (Emy); M. Hilscher (Michelle); G.C. Cupchik (Gerald)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis study explored reader responses to different literary depictions of rape. Four literary excerpts were used and divided as aesthetic versus nonaesthetic (style) and allusive versus explicit (detail). The general question was how readers would react to literary fragments depicting

  20. Using Readers' Theater with Multicultural Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisenburger, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    The author needed a way to engage her students in the reading process and found one extremely successful strategy: using Readers' Theater. Readers' Theater "dramatizes" literature through a classroom performance and provides visual and oral stimulus to students who are not used to using imagination to appreciate literary texts. It involves a…

  1. Postmodern theories about readers in electronic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanka Kuić

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introductory part of the paper discusses theories about readers in the last decades of the 20th century. In particular, two big theoretical schools are discussed: aesthetic reception theory and reader-response-criticism movement. Readers are a subject of very different scientific disciplines: literature theory, sociology, anthropology, book history and library science. The idea that a reader is an essential subject for future life of a literary work is common to all theorists. By constructing the theory about a reader, theorists have thought about the reader who uses the conventions of printed text. The issue whether these concepts correspond to electronic surroundings is discussed. Characteristics of the hypertext are emphasized as a new paradigm, and also the issue weather readers enjoys in hypertextual fiction. In conclusion, paper expands the virtual dimension of Isers's theory about interaction between the text and the reader, and also Fish's concept of “interpretative community” which may be constituted on the Internet as a flexible virtual community.

  2. Readers Theatre plus Comprehension and Word Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Chase; Stokes, Faida; Rasinski, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    Readers Theatre has been used to introduce critical issues, promote fluency among English learners and non-English learners, teach vocabulary, and integrate content in the classroom. Previous studies of Readers Theatre application have demonstrated an increase in student reading fluency, motivation, and confidence. The focus of this systemic…

  3. The active reader: what is active?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerkum, van C.

    2012-01-01

    How writers can adapt to their readers is an important issue in effective communication strategies, and certainly crucial in the case of functional texts. Therefore, it is necessary to look at how readers are constructed as partners in a communication co-production. This article explores the concept

  4. Practicum Training for Teachers of Struggling Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Darrell

    2011-01-01

    Teachers who work with struggling beginning readers need a supervised training experience that leads them to understand both how reading ability develops and how to adapt instruction to meet the needs of individual children. The practicum, in which a teacher works with one struggling reader under the supervision of an experienced and expert…

  5. Cyber Literature: A Reader – Writer Interactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathu Rahman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cyber Literature is a term known since the coming of the internet which brings a convenience, changing habit and world view. This study is a survey-based on respondents’ opinion about the existence of cyber literature on social media; of its benefit and impact to the reader. This study limits to the poems on Facebook group. The reason is simple; it favors the short form. For the study of a reader-writer interactivity in cyber literature is more likely on poetry. The approach is reader response literary theory with focus on the reader-writer interactivity on Facebook. This research aimed at uncovering the motivation of readers to response the uploaded text, the reasons why they love it and what its advantages. The results showed that cyber literature is successfully to introduce a new literary genre as well as to raise motivation and creativity of authors to make use the internet space.

  6. High-LET charged particle radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, J.R.; California Univ., San Francisco, CA

    1991-07-01

    The Department of Radiation Oncology at UCSF Medical Center and the Radiation Oncology Department at UC Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory have been evaluating the use of high LET charged particle radiotherapy in a Phase 1--2 research trial ongoing since 1979. In this clinical trail, 239 patients have received at least 10 Gy (physical) minimum tumor dose with neon ions, meaning that at least one-half of their total treatment was given with high-LET charged particle therapy. Ninety-one patients received all of their therapy with neon ions. Of the 239 patients irradiated, target sites included lesions in the skin, subcutaneous tissues, head and neck such as paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx and salivary glands (major and minor), skull base and juxtaspinal area, GI tract including esophagus, pancreas and biliary tract, prostate, lung, soft tissue and bone. Analysis of these patients has been carried out with a minimum followup period of 2 years

  7. Design criteria for a hemispherical detector for LET measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schell, M.C.; DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Pearson, D.W.; Attix, F.H.

    1980-01-01

    A detector for the direct measurement of the Linear Energy Transfer (LET) in cylindrical geometry was developed by Brandan and DeLuca. The detector successfully measured the LET of protons and a fraction of the heavy charged particles generated in cylindrical A150 plastic and graphite walls by 14.8 MeV neutrons. In this report, we present design tests for the hemispherical LET detector which will measure the LET of charged particles in spherical geometry and allow comparison with calculated LET spectra. The hemispherical LET detector will also provide a data base for radiobiological predictions with the Track Structure Model by Katz. A comparison of predictions of radiobiological effects by the Theory of Dual Radiation Action and the Track Structure Model by Edwards and the authors indicate that the Track Structure Model predicts cell survival as a function of dose more accurately and hence an additional motivation for the present construction of the hemispherical LET detector

  8. A new fully automated TLD badge reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, S.; Ratna, P.; Kulkarni, M.S.

    2003-01-01

    At present personnel monitoring in India is being carried out using a number of manual and semiautomatic TLD badge Readers and the BARC TL dosimeter badge designed during 1970. Of late the manual TLD badge readers are almost completely replaced by semiautomatic readers with a number of performance improvements like use of hot gas heating to reduce the readout time considerably. PC based design with storage of glow curve for every dosimeter, on-line dose computation and printout of dose reports, etc. However the semiautomatic system suffers from the lack of a machine readable ID code on the badge and the physical design of the dosimeter card not readily compatible for automation. This paper describes a fully automated TLD badge Reader developed in the RSS Division, using a new TLD badge with machine readable ID code. The new PC based reader has a built-in reader for reading the ID code, in the form of an array of holes, on the dosimeter card. The reader has a number of self-diagnostic features to ensure a high degree of reliability. (author)

  9. Electron run-away

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levinson, I.B.

    1975-01-01

    The run-away effect of electrons for the Coulomb scattering has been studied by Dricer, but the question for other scattering mechanisms is not yet studied. Meanwhile, if the scattering is quasielastic, a general criterion for the run-away may be formulated; in this case the run-away influence on the distribution function may also be studied in somewhat general and qualitative manner. (Auth.)

  10. Triathlon: running injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiker, Andrea M; Dixit, Sameer; Cosgarea, Andrew J

    2012-12-01

    The running portion of the triathlon represents the final leg of the competition and, by some reports, the most important part in determining a triathlete's overall success. Although most triathletes spend most of their training time on cycling, running injuries are the most common injuries encountered. Common causes of running injuries include overuse, lack of rest, and activities that aggravate biomechanical predisposers of specific injuries. We discuss the running-associated injuries in the hip, knee, lower leg, ankle, and foot of the triathlete, and the causes, presentation, evaluation, and treatment of each.

  11. Process Synchronization with Readers and Writers Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Kawash, Jalal

    2005-01-01

    The readers-writers problem is one of the very well known problems in concurrency theory. It was first introduced by Courtois et.al. in 1971 [1] and requires the synchronization of processes trying to read and write a shared resource. Several readers are allowed to access the resource simultaneously, but a writer must be given exclusive access to that resource. Courtois et.al. gave semaphore-based solutions to what they called the first and second readers-writers problems. Both of their solut...

  12. Overcoming the "Run" Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Patricia E.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that it is not simply experiencing anxiety that affects mathematics performance but also how one responds to and regulates that anxiety (Lyons and Beilock 2011). Most people have faced mathematics problems that have triggered their "run response." The issue is not whether one wants to run, but rather…

  13. Overuse injuries in running

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Henrik; Rasmussen, Sten; Jørgensen, Jens Erik

    2016-01-01

    What is an overuse injury in running? This question is a corner stone of clinical documentation and research based evidence.......What is an overuse injury in running? This question is a corner stone of clinical documentation and research based evidence....

  14. PRECIS Runs at IITM

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. PRECIS Runs at IITM. Evaluation experiment using LBCs derived from ERA-15 (1979-93). Runs (3 ensembles in each experiment) already completed with LBCs having a length of 30 years each, for. Baseline (1961-90); A2 scenario (2071-2100); B2 scenario ...

  15. Cultural Journalism Publications for Reluctant Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Barbara

    1980-01-01

    Provides a list of cultural journalism publications (based on oral history interviews) written, edited, and produced by students around the country that provide good easy reading for older reluctant readers. (MKM)

  16. Giving blood: Donor stress and hemostasis : Don't let your blood run cold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogerwerf, M.D.

    2017-01-01

    Does a donation induce stress in blood donors, and does this affect the donor’s hemostasis? Donation-induced psychological, hormonal and physiological stress response patterns during a blood donation procedure were examined, and the effects of donation-induced stress response on immediate changes in

  17. The LHCb Run Control

    CERN Document Server

    Alessio, F; Callot, O; Duval, P-Y; Franek, B; Frank, M; Galli, D; Gaspar, C; v Herwijnen, E; Jacobsson, R; Jost, B; Neufeld, N; Sambade, A; Schwemmer, R; Somogyi, P

    2010-01-01

    LHCb has designed and implemented an integrated Experiment Control System. The Control System uses the same concepts and the same tools to control and monitor all parts of the experiment: the Data Acquisition System, the Timing and the Trigger Systems, the High Level Trigger Farm, the Detector Control System, the Experiment's Infrastructure and the interaction with the CERN Technical Services and the Accelerator. LHCb's Run Control, the main interface used by the experiment's operator, provides access in a hierarchical, coherent and homogeneous manner to all areas of the experiment and to all its sub-detectors. It allows for automated (or manual) configuration and control, including error recovery, of the full experiment in its different running modes. Different instances of the same Run Control interface are used by the various sub-detectors for their stand-alone activities: test runs, calibration runs, etc. The architecture and the tools used to build the control system, the guidelines and components provid...

  18. Face-to-face with the reader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana KAIGORODOVA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Thank you for inviting me to this meeting. I understood that it is a meeting of the editorial board with readers. But I would like to note that there is still such a small layer between the editors and readers, which is called the printing house. So it is the typography that materially embodies the ideas, thoughts and innovations of the editorial staff and the authors.

  19. Symmetry in running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raibert, M H

    1986-03-14

    Symmetry plays a key role in simplifying the control of legged robots and in giving them the ability to run and balance. The symmetries studied describe motion of the body and legs in terms of even and odd functions of time. A legged system running with these symmetries travels with a fixed forward speed and a stable upright posture. The symmetries used for controlling legged robots may help in elucidating the legged behavior of animals. Measurements of running in the cat and human show that the feet and body sometimes move as predicted by the even and odd symmetry functions.

  20. Research on Positioning Algorithm of Forklift-mounted RFID Reader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjin Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To conduct real-time and accurate positioning of the forklifts (people and goods in the warehouse is an effective means for improving warehouse management efficiency. To this end, this article puts forward the active positioning system with the forklift installed with RFID reader and the ground passageway embedded with RFID tag. In the running process, the position of forklift can be determined through recognition of the reference tags which are embedded at both sides of the passageway based on the three-side layout at right angle principle and their RSSI value. The positional accuracy can be improved by adjusting the layout distance of those reference tags. The experimental results show that this system can realize the positioning function of forklift, and it can be used in practical situations.

  1. A Review: Some biological effects of high LET radiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, A., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    There are qualitative and quantitative differences in the biological damage observed after exposure to high LET radiation as compared to that caused by low LET radiations. This review is concerned with these differences, which are ultimately reflected at the biochemical, cellular and even whole animal levels. In general, high LET radiations seem to produce biochemical damage which is more severe and possibly less repairable. Experimental data for those effects are presented in terms of biochemical RBE's with consideration of both early and late manifestations. An LET independent process by which significant biochemical damage may result from protons, neutrons and negative pion mesons is discussed.

  2. RUNNING INJURY DEVELOPMENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Karen Krogh; Hulme, Adam; Damsted, Camma

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Behavioral science methods have rarely been used in running injury research. Therefore, the attitudes amongst runners and their coaches regarding factors leading to running injuries warrants formal investigation. PURPOSE: To investigate the attitudes of middle- and long-distance runners...... able to compete in national championships and their coaches about factors associated with running injury development. METHODS: A link to an online survey was distributed to middle- and long-distance runners and their coaches across 25 Danish Athletics Clubs. The main research question was: "Which...... factors do you believe influence the risk of running injuries?". In response to this question, the athletes and coaches had to click "Yes" or "No" to 19 predefined factors. In addition, they had the possibility to submit a free-text response. RESULTS: A total of 68 athletes and 19 coaches were included...

  3. Running Injury Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh Johansen, Karen; Hulme, Adam; Damsted, Camma

    2017-01-01

    Background: Behavioral science methods have rarely been used in running injury research. Therefore, the attitudes amongst runners and their coaches regarding factors leading to running injuries warrants formal investigation. Purpose: To investigate the attitudes of middle- and long-distance runners...... able to compete in national championships and their coaches about factors associated with running injury development. Methods: A link to an online survey was distributed to middle- and long-distance runners and their coaches across 25 Danish Athletics Clubs. The main research question was: “Which...... factors do you believe influence the risk of running injuries?”. In response to this question, the athletes and coaches had to click “Yes” or “No” to 19 predefined factors. In addition, they had the possibility to submit a free-text response. Results: A total of 68 athletes and 19 coaches were included...

  4. RBE-LET relationships of high-LET radiations in drosophila mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Isao; Takatsuji, Toshihiro; Nagano, Masaaki; Takada, Jun; Endo, Satoru; Hoshi, Masaharu

    1999-01-01

    The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 252 Cf neutrons and synchrotron-generated high-energy charged particles for mutation induction was evaluated as a function of linear energy transfer (LET), using the loss of heterozygosity for wing-hair mutations and the reversion of the mutant white-ivory eye-color in Drosophila melanogaster. Loss of heterozygosity for wing-hair mutations results predominantly from mitotic crossing over induced in wing anlage cells of larvae, while the reverse mutation of eye-color is due to an intragenic structural change (2.96 kb-DNA excision) in the white locus on the X-chromosome. The measurements were performed in a combined mutation assay system so that induced mutant wing-hair clones as well as revertant eye-color clone can be detected simultaneously in the same individual. Larvae were irradiated at the age of 3 days post oviposition with 252 Cf neutrons, carbon beam or neon beam. For the neutron irradiation, the RBE values for wing-hair mutations were larger than that for eye-color mutation by about 7 fold. The RBE of carbon ions for producing the wing-hair mutations increased with increase in LET. The estimated RBE values were found to be in the range 2 to 6.5 for the wing-hair. For neon beam irradiation, the RBE values for wing-hair mutations peak near 150 keV/μm and decrease with further increase in LET. On the other hand, the RBE values for the induction of the eye-color mutation are nearly unity in 252 Cf neutrons and both ions throughout the LET range irradiated. We discuss the relationships between the initial DNA damage and LET in considering the mechanism of somatic mutation induction. (author)

  5. The LHCb Run Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alessio, F; Barandela, M C; Frank, M; Gaspar, C; Herwijnen, E v; Jacobsson, R; Jost, B; Neufeld, N; Sambade, A; Schwemmer, R; Somogyi, P [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Callot, O [LAL, IN2P3/CNRS and Universite Paris 11, Orsay (France); Duval, P-Y [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Franek, B [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Galli, D, E-mail: Clara.Gaspar@cern.c [Universita di Bologna and INFN, Bologna (Italy)

    2010-04-01

    LHCb has designed and implemented an integrated Experiment Control System. The Control System uses the same concepts and the same tools to control and monitor all parts of the experiment: the Data Acquisition System, the Timing and the Trigger Systems, the High Level Trigger Farm, the Detector Control System, the Experiment's Infrastructure and the interaction with the CERN Technical Services and the Accelerator. LHCb's Run Control, the main interface used by the experiment's operator, provides access in a hierarchical, coherent and homogeneous manner to all areas of the experiment and to all its sub-detectors. It allows for automated (or manual) configuration and control, including error recovery, of the full experiment in its different running modes. Different instances of the same Run Control interface are used by the various sub-detectors for their stand-alone activities: test runs, calibration runs, etc. The architecture and the tools used to build the control system, the guidelines and components provided to the developers, as well as the first experience with the usage of the Run Control will be presented

  6. Chemical protection from high LET radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Koichi; Koike, Sachiko; Matsushita, Satoru; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Ohara, Hiroshi

    1992-01-01

    Radioprotection by WR151327 from high LET fast neutrons was investigated and compared with that from low LET radiation. Radiation damage in bone marrow, intestine, skin and leg length were all protected by a pretreatment with 400 mg/kg WR151327. Most prominent protection was observed for bone marrow, which gave a Dose Modifying Factor (DMF) of 2.2 against γ rays. Identical protection was observed between early and late radiation damage. WR151327 protected fast neutrons less efficiently than γ rays; 40% for bone marrow and 80% for skin leg. Pathological findings indicated that hyperplastic change in both dermis and epidermis associated with late skin shrinkage. Laser doppler flow-metry showed a good relationship between reduction of blood flow and late skin shrinkage. Irradiation of skin by heavy particle Carbon-12 indicated that skin shrinkage was modified by unirradiated surrounding normal tissues, which proposed a significant role of 'Volume Effect' in radiation damage. Tumor tissues were less protected by WR151327 than normal tissues. Dependence of radioprotection by WR151327 on tissue oxygen concentration is a probable reason to explain the difference between normal and tumor tissues. (author)

  7. E-Book Readers in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur N. Olsen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on a research project at the University of Agder that has studied the use of e-readers as a tool for academic study. E-readers (Kindle DX and iPad were loaded with texts from required reading lists in five courses with 94 participating students. Initially, 87 students responded to the invitation to participate in a survey, but eventually 13 of these submissions had to be removed, as the degree of completion was not sufficient. The final response rate achieved was 79%. Students were in general positive to the use of e-readers but still show a preference for print on paper as the best medium for serious academic study. When reading books, 54% preferred print, 28% a combination of print and e-reader, and finally only 11% were satisfied solely using an e-reader. The iPad scored significantly better than the Kindle DX on tasks that required active interaction with the texts such as highlighting and note taking.

  8. The differential effects of position, ad and reader characteristics on readers' processing of newspaper ads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, E.G.; Neijens, P.C.; Heath, R.

    2013-01-01

    Building on previous research on the processing of newspaper ads, this comprehensive field study, with 26,556 newspaper readers and 290 unique advertisements, investigated the combined effects of position in the newspaper, ad characteristics and reader characteristics. The results show a

  9. Gene conversion in yeast as a function of linear energy transfer (LET) for low-LET radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unrau, P.; Morrison, D.P.; Johnson, J.R.

    1992-05-01

    The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for low-LET radiation is known to depend on such factors as LET and dose rate. Microdosimetric calculations indicate that the biological target size could also be an important parameter, and calculations predict that the RBE for effects produced by hits in target sizes below about 100 nm should be unity for all low LET radiation. We have measured that RBE for gene conversion in yeast (a small target) for five different low LET photon sources, and the results were consistent with an RBE of unity, which agrees with microdosimetric predictions. 4 refs

  10. Microcomputer control of automated TL reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjarland, B.

    1980-01-01

    An automatic TL reader has been developed for use within a TLD based personal monitoring service. A 6800 based microcomputer is used for system control, operator communication, calibration and checking of reader operation, and for output of data. The dosimeter identity code is printed in human readable characters on the dosimeter card, and is read by using an optical character recognition unit. The code may include individual sensitivity correction coefficients for the TL chips on the card. The chips are heated with hot nitrogen gas and the thermoluminescence is recorded by a photomultiplier tube circuit, the gain and offset of which are continuously monitored and, when necessary, adjusted, to maintain calibration. The reader may operate in any of seven modes, i.e. reading modes for three types of dosimeters, semiautomatic modes for production of the three types of dosimeters, and a monitor mode. (Auth.)

  11. Postdecisional counterfactual thinking by actors and readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, Vittorio; Ferrante, Donatella; Pighin, Stefania; Gonzalez, Michel

    2007-06-01

    How do individuals think counterfactually about the outcomes of their decisions? Most previous studies have investigated how readers think about fictional stories, rather than how actors think about events they have actually experienced. We assumed that differences in individuals' roles (actor vs. reader) can make different information available, which in turn can affect counterfactual thinking. Hence, we predicted an effect of role on postdecisional counterfactual thinking. Reporting the results of eight studies, we show that readers undo the negative outcome of a story by undoing the protagonist's choice to tackle a given problem, rather than the protagonist's unsuccessful attempt to solve it. But actors who make the same choice and experience the same negative outcome as the protagonist undo this outcome by altering features of the problem. We also show that this effect does not depend on motivational factors. These results contradict current accounts of counterfactual thinking and demonstrate the necessity of investigating the counterfactual thoughts of individuals in varied roles.

  12. Personhood: Fukuyama’s Caveats and Ishiguro’s Never Let Me Go

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Brown

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Together, fiction and rhetoric not only illustrate grim possibilities, but also the processes and rationale by which they occur. Kazuo Ishiguro’s dystopian novel Never Let Me Go (2005 documents the lives of cloned children in twentieth century England whose sole purpose is to provide organs to keep their human predecessors alive. While the children mature to become donors or caregivers to peers undergoing donation, nothing exempts them from death following repeated organ harvesting. However unnerving, the novel tells of potential realities associated with genetic engineering, a trend bioconservative political scientist Francis Fukuyama addresses in his work Our Post Human Future. This article endeavors to present Never Let Me Go as a fictional, yet appropriate supplement to Fukuyama’s writing, incorporating new historicism and accentuating Fukuyama’s points of caution in Ishiguro’s novel. Through dissecting and discerning the complementary relationship of the two works, readers may garner enriched perspectives in debates on cloning and other forms of bioengineering.   Keywords: genetic engineering; cloning; eugenics; ethics; dystopia; speculation

  13. Reader construction in interactive online journalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartley, Jannie Møller

    how online journalists are constructing their readers, seeking to explain how these views affect practices of journalism. Gans idea of the “constructed public” is re-visited, by analyzing the newsroom negotiations between one hand enabling the user participation and on the other hand their very...... be seen as journalistic positioning strategies and interactivity and mediated connectivity as both vital and challenging for the very field of journalism. This indicates that not only do the different kinds of interactivity seem to imply different kind of readers – they also seem to imply different ideals...

  14. Passive microfluidic array card and reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Lawrence Christopher [Modesto, CA; Coleman, Matthew A [Oakland, CA

    2011-08-09

    A microfluidic array card and reader system for analyzing a sample. The microfluidic array card includes a sample loading section for loading the sample onto the microfluidic array card, a multiplicity of array windows, and a transport section or sections for transporting the sample from the sample loading section to the array windows. The microfluidic array card reader includes a housing, a receiving section for receiving the microfluidic array card, a viewing section, and a light source that directs light to the array window of the microfluidic array card and to the viewing section.

  15. LET calibration for CR-39 detectors in different oxygen environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, D.; Semones, E.; Weyland, M.; Benton, E.R.

    2007-01-01

    High LET (linear energy transfer) radiation is the main contributor to the radiation field in low Earth orbit (LEO) in terms of dose equivalent. CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs) can measure the LET spectrum and charge spectrum for the complicated radiation field in space. Previous research indicated that the sensitivity of CR-39 is different for CR-39 PNTDs working in different oxygen environments. LET calibration for CR-39 detectors in different oxygen environments is needed. Almost all the previous LET calibration work was carried out for CR-39 detectors in good-oxygen condition, LET calibration work for CR-39 in poor-oxygen condition has not been conducted until our work. Systematic LET calibrations were carried out by JSC-SRAG (Space Radiation Analysis Group) for CR-39 detectors working in different oxygen environments and abundant results of LET calibrations were obtained. This paper introduces the method for CR-39 LET calibration, presents and discusses the calibration results and some applications

  16. Running Boot Camp

    CERN Document Server

    Toporek, Chuck

    2008-01-01

    When Steve Jobs jumped on stage at Macworld San Francisco 2006 and announced the new Intel-based Macs, the question wasn't if, but when someone would figure out a hack to get Windows XP running on these new "Mactels." Enter Boot Camp, a new system utility that helps you partition and install Windows XP on your Intel Mac. Boot Camp does all the heavy lifting for you. You won't need to open the Terminal and hack on system files or wave a chicken bone over your iMac to get XP running. This free program makes it easy for anyone to turn their Mac into a dual-boot Windows/OS X machine. Running Bo

  17. Learning, Leading and Letting go of Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annie Aarup; Kjær-Rasmussen, Lone Krogh; Iversen, Ann-Merete

    Learning, leading and letting go of control – Learner Led Approaches in Education Annie Aarup Jensen, Lone Krogh Kjær-Rasmussen, Ann-Merete Iversen and Anni Stavnskær Pedersen Abstract The aim of the paper is to introduce a new term in teaching in Higher Education: Learner Led Approaches...... in Education: LED. The sources of inspiration are many as are the experiences we draw from. Problem-based project work (PBL) being one, various classical teacher centered methods, and last but not least a variety of methods aiming towards developing creativity, innovational skills and entrepreneurship. LED...... is inspired by collaboration between professors from Aalborg University, Cornwall College and University College of Northern Denmark. Moravec (2008) claims that educational systems still operate in 1.0 or perhaps 2.0 mode while the surrounding cultures and societies operate in 3.0 mode. The amount...

  18. Liquid ionization chambers for LET determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Franz-Joachim; Bassler, Niels; Tölli, Heikki

    Liquid ionization chambers [1] (LICs) have have been used in the last decades as background dosemeters. Since a few years LICs are also commercially available for dosimetry and are used for measurements of dose distributions where a high spatial distribution is necessary. Also in the last decades...... a differential equation applying several simplifications and approximations leading to discrepancies between theory and experiments [3]. The theory predicts the collection efficiency as a function of the electrical field and was applied for both air filled ionization chambers and liquid filled ionization...... chambers. For liquids the LET can be roughly deduced from the collection efficiency dependency on the electrical field inside a liquid ionization chambers [4] using an extrapolation method. We solved the fundamental differential equation again presented by Jaffe numerically, but now taking into account...

  19. The interaction of radiations of different LET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, G.K.Y.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental data for mixed radiation of different LET are analysed using an isobologram approach and are shown to be consistent with the special case of 'zero interaction' in a general formulation of the effect of a combination of agents proposed by Berenbaum. This zero interaction is defined in the same sense as interaction between the lesions produced by the same radiation. This makes analysis and predictions of mixed radiation results particularly straightforward. The zero-interaction formula can be mathematically derived from a simple model of mixed radiation called the lesion additivity model using the assumption that different early lesions produced in the radiation mixture can gradually develop into an indistinguishable intermediate state and hence become additive to produce the same end point. The model is shown to be applicable to irradiation under both hypoxic and oxygenated conditions and hence is extended to the use of hypoxic cell sensitisers. (author)

  20. Fermilab DART run control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oleynik, G.; Engelfried, J.; Mengel, L.

    1996-01-01

    DART is the high speed, Unix based data acquisition system being developed by Fermilab in collaboration with seven High Energy Physics Experiments. This paper describes DART run control, which has been developed over the past year and is a flexible, distributed, extensible system for the control and monitoring of the data acquisition systems. The authors discuss the unique and interesting concepts of the run control and some of the experiences in developing it. They also give a brief update and status of the whole DART system

  1. Fermilab DART run control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oleynik, G.; Engelfried, J.; Mengel, L.

    1995-05-01

    DART is the high speed, Unix based data acquisition system being developed by Fermilab in collaboration with seven High Energy Physics Experiments. This paper describes DART run control, which has been developed over the past year and is a flexible, distributed, extensible system for the, control and monitoring of the data acquisition systems. We discuss the unique and interesting concepts of the run control and some of our experiences in developing it. We also give a brief update and status of the whole DART system

  2. In vitro RBE-LET dependence for multiple particle types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Brita Singers; Overgaard, Jens; Bassler, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Background. In vitro RBE values for various high LET radiation types have been determined for many different cell types. Occasionally it is criticized that RBE for a given endpoint cannot be single-value dependent on LET alone, but also on particle species, due to the different dose deposition...... profiles on microscopic scale. Hence LET is not sufficient as a predictor of RBE, and this is one of the motivations for development of radiobiological models which explicitly depend on the detailed particle energy spectrum of the applied radiation field. The aim of the present study is to summarize...... the available data in the literature regarding the dependency of RBE on LET for different particles. Method. As RBE is highly dependent on cell type and endpoint, we discriminated the RBE-LET relationship for the three investigated cell lines and at the same endpoint (10% survival in colony formation). Data...

  3. High-LET particle exposure of Skylab astronauts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benton, E.V.; Peterson, D.D.; Bailey, J.V.; Parnell, T.

    1977-01-01

    High-LET particle radiation was registered in nuclear track recording plastic dosimeters worn on the wrists of Skylab astronauts and located in a heavily shielded film vault. The mission-average planar flux of high-LET particles with LET >= 100 keV/micron . tissue has been determined to be 2.7 +- 0.6 particles/cm 2 . day . 2π sr and 0.34 +- 0.4 particles/cm 2 . day . 2π sr, respectively, for the nine astronauts and for the film vault. Comparison of results representative of a wide range of shielding depths reveals that the magnitude and slope of the integral LET spectrum of high-LET particles inside spacecraft are proportional to the amount of shielding. (author)

  4. Rights of Postsecondary Readers and Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, JoAnne; Angus, Kathryn Bartle

    2018-01-01

    A position statement on the rights of adult readers and learners was adopted by the CRLA board in 2002 and published with a theoretical rationale in ["Journal of College Reading and Learning"] "JCRL," Spring 2003. The statement was a guideline for educators seeking to improve the quality of adult education. In 2016, at the…

  5. Communication: Learning to Write for the Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Mavis M.

    1980-01-01

    A new approach to teaching students to write effective business letters is presented. It uses class members as resources, writers, and readers for the assignment. Four stages are described: the interview, discussion of models and format, revision, and the reply. Results of the exercise and suggestions for continued application are included. (CT)

  6. A digital reader for condenser ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuermer, K.

    1978-01-01

    A reader for condenser chambers is described which has a completely automatic reading/charging operation, a modern digital readout presentation, and two full decades of exposure readout for each dosimeter type. The calibration and operation of the instrument are given

  7. Satisfying the Needs of the Serious Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Richard

    1987-01-01

    An examination of how well the Canadian public library is meeting the needs of the serious reader interested in self education, as compared to new and secondhand book stores and academic libraries, found that the public library is the most important and effective agency in providing materials for this group. (CLB)

  8. Patterns of Analogical Reasoning among Beginning Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington-Flint, Lee; Wood, Clare; Canobi, Katherine H.; Faulkner, Dorothy

    2004-01-01

    Despite compelling evidence that analogy skills are available to beginning readers, few studies have actually explored the possibility of identifying individual differences in young children's analogy skills in early reading. The present study examined individual differences in children's use of orthographic and phonological relations between…

  9. Collaboration between SSMJ and its readers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All of us in the healthcare professions throughout the world can learn much from each other. This has been demonstrated so well by the collaboration between the editors, authors, medical experts and readers of the South Sudan Medical Journal. The Editor-in-Chief recently sent out a request for photographs and received a ...

  10. Readers' Tellings: Narrators, Settings, Flashbacks and Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucer, Stephen B.

    2010-01-01

    This research explores the impact of flashbacks and changes in settings and narrators on reader comprehension. Individually, 34 fourth graders (9 and 10 years of age), mostly with above average reading abilities (5.0), orally read the first chapter of a novel. Both publisher and readability formulae estimated the text to be at a fourth- grade…

  11. Next Generation Model 8800 Automatic TLD Reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velbeck, K.J.; Streetz, K.L.; Rotunda, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    BICRON NE has developed an advanced version of the Model 8800 Automatic TLD Reader. Improvements in the reader include a Windows NT TM -based operating system and a Pentium microprocessor for the host controller, a servo-controlled transport, a VGA display, mouse control, and modular assembly. This high capacity reader will automatically read fourteen hundred TLD Cards in one loading. Up to four elements in a card can be heated without mechanical contact, using hot nitrogen gas. Improvements in performance include an increased throughput rate and more precise card positioning. Operation is simplified through easy-to-read Windows-type screens. Glow curves are displayed graphically along with light intensity, temperature, and channel scaling. Maintenance and diagnostic aids are included for easier troubleshooting. A click of a mouse will command actions that are displayed in easy-to-understand English words. Available options include an internal 90 Sr irradiator, automatic TLD calibration, and two different extremity monitoring modes. Results from testing include reproducibility, reader stability, linearity, detection threshold, residue, primary power supply voltage and frequency, transient voltage, drop testing, and light leakage. (author)

  12. Towards a Culturally Situated Reader Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Wanda; Browne, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a theory of how culture enables literary interpretations of texts. We begin with a brief overview of the reader response field. From there, we introduce the theory and provide illustrative participant data examples. These data examples illustrate the four cultural positions middle grade students in our research assumed when…

  13. Meeting the Needs of Struggling Adolescent Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stover, Katie; O'Rear, Allison; Morris, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that additional reading instruction is necessary to support struggling adolescent readers. In addition to time allocated for reading and access to appropriately leveled texts, many students need teacher support in learning and implementing a range of reading strategies. As a high school English teacher and a middle school Social…

  14. Shakespeare and Reader's Theatre: Fellow Traveling Companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, Gerald Lee

    2010-01-01

    Whether constructed on literary analysis models or inspired by conventional acting theories, Reader's Theatre performance techniques are an invaluable instructional tool available to teachers who want their students to see, hear and feel Shakespeare texts in classroom discussion and performance. These exercises are designed to promote both a…

  15. Understanding Deaf Readers: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelstone, Aaron Weir

    2013-01-01

    The development of reading skills, beyond a functional level, is difficult for most deaf readers. Standardized testing demonstrates a median 4th grade reading level that remains consistent even after national norming of the Stanford Achievement test on the population of deaf school children. Deaf education continues to generate various educational…

  16. The Emergent Reader's Working Kit of Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    This article draws on a careful study of series fiction read in the 1950s to explore how stereotypes feature in the development of a young reader's competence in learning to process stories in print. Five categories of stereotype are teased out: "embodied stereotypes," understood through physical experience; "working stereotypes," discerned…

  17. Guiding Young Readers to Multicultural Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton-Johnson, KaaVonia; Dickinson, Gail

    2005-01-01

    Stocking the shelves of library media centers with multicultural literature is not enough, it is important that children are helped to choose the ones that would interest them as reading about various cultures is of great benefit to young readers. The importance of accurately representing to children a multicultural society is emphasized and…

  18. Lexical Reading in Dysfluent Readers of German

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangl, Melanie; Moll, Kristina; Jones, Manon W.; Banfi, Chiara; Schulte-Körne, Gerd; Landerl, Karin

    2018-01-01

    Dyslexia in consistent orthographies like German is characterized by dysfluent reading, which is often assumed to result from failure to build up an orthographic lexicon and overreliance on decoding. However, earlier evidence indicates effects of lexical processing at least in some German dyslexic readers. We investigated variations in reading…

  19. Readerly and Writerly "Letters from the Park."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Susana

    1993-01-01

    Discusses in depth the film "Cartas del parque" ("Letters from the Park"), the first of six films in the "Amores Dificiles" series. Notes that the film is pervaded by the traditional overdetermination of gender roles. Suggests that an intrusive and authoritative narrator makes of this both a "readerly" and a…

  20. Trade Related Reading Packets for Disabled Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Beverly; Woodruff, Nancy S.

    Six trade-related reading packets for disabled readers are provided for these trades: assemblers, baking, building maintenance, data entry, interior landscaping, and warehousing. Each packet stresses from 9 to 14 skills. Those skills common to most packets include context clues, fact or opinion, details, following directions, main idea,…

  1. Radiosensitization by inhibiting survivin in human hepatoma HepG2 cells to high-LET radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Xiaodong; Li Qiang; Wu Qingfeng; Li Ping; Gong Li; Hao Jifang; Dai Zhongying; Matsumoto, Yoshitaka; Furusawa, Yoshiya

    2011-01-01

    In this study, whether survivin plays a direct role in mediating high-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation resistance in human hepatoma cells was investigated. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting survivin mRNA was designed and transfected into human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blotting analyses revealed that survivin expression in HepG2 cells decreased at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels after treatment with survivin-specific siRNA. Caspase-3 activity was determined with a microplate reader assay as well. Following exposure to high-LET carbon ions, a reduced clonogenic survival effect, increased apoptotic rates and caspase-3 activity were observed in the cells treated with the siRNA compared to those untreated with the siRNA. The cells with transfection of the survivin-specific siRNA also increased the level of G 2 /M arrest. These results suggest that survivin definitely plays a role in mediating the resistance of HepG2 cells to high-LET radiation and depressing survivin expression might be useful to improve the therapeutic efficacy of heavy ions for radioresistant solid tumors. (author)

  2. 'Outrunning' the running ear

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    In even the most experienced hands, an adequate physical examination of the ears can be difficult to perform because of common problems such as cerumen blockage of the auditory canal, an unco- operative toddler or an exasperated parent. The most common cause for a running ear in a child is acute purulent otitis.

  3. Thomas Hardy and His Readers: Contradictions of the Rebellious Serial Writer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelina Sánchez Espinosa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution explores the relationship between Thomas Hardy and his contemporary readers from The Poor Man and the Lady, his first, unpublished, novel, to The Well- Beloved, his last one. It discovers a writer split into two, with Hardy, the artist, striving to cohabitate with Hardy-the serial writer for the three decades his career as a novelist lasted. In order to fully appreciate Hardy's novels as they have reached us nowadays, after the 1912 Wessex edition, we should focus on the contradictions between their initial manuscripts, their edited versions for the family magazines and their final reconstructions into volume forms. Although Hardy certainly wanted quick success with the Victorian masses he never let go of his "higher aspirations" to be received differently by a more select readership, even if this alternative reading had to be done between the lines at a later stage.

  4. The Lin28/let-7 axis regulates glucose metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hao; Shyh-Chang, Ng; Segrè, Ayellet V.; Shinoda, Gen; Shah, Samar P.; Einhorn, William S.; Takeuchi, Ayumu; Engreitz, Jesse M.; Hagan, John P.; Kharas, Michael G; Urbach, Achia; Thornton, James E.; Triboulet, Robinson; Gregory, Richard I.; Altshuler, David; Daley, George Q.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The let-7 tumor suppressor microRNAs are known for their regulation of oncogenes, while the RNA-binding proteins Lin28a/b promote malignancy by blocking let-7 biogenesis. In studies of the Lin28/let-7 pathway, we discovered unexpected roles in regulating metabolism. When overexpressed in mice, both Lin28a and LIN28B promoted an insulin-sensitized state that resisted high fat diet-induced diabetes, whereas muscle-specific loss of Lin28a and overexpression of let-7 resulted in insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance. These phenomena occurred in part through let-7-mediated repression of multiple components of the insulin-PI3K-mTOR pathway, including IGF1R, INSR, and IRS2. The mTOR inhibitor rapamycin abrogated the enhanced glucose uptake and insulin-sensitivity conferred by Lin28a in vitro and in vivo. In addition, we found that let-7 targets were enriched for genes that contain SNPs associated with type 2 diabetes and fasting glucose in human genome-wide association studies. These data establish the Lin28/let-7 pathway as a central regulator of mammalian glucose metabolism. PMID:21962509

  5. Blind Braille readers mislocate tactile stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterr, Annette; Green, Lisa; Elbert, Thomas

    2003-05-01

    In a previous experiment, we observed that blind Braille readers produce errors when asked to identify on which finger of one hand a light tactile stimulus had occurred. With the present study, we aimed to specify the characteristics of this perceptual error in blind and sighted participants. The experiment confirmed that blind Braille readers mislocalised tactile stimuli more often than sighted controls, and that the localisation errors occurred significantly more often at the right reading hand than at the non-reading hand. Most importantly, we discovered that the reading fingers showed the smallest error frequency, but the highest rate of stimulus attribution. The dissociation of perceiving and locating tactile stimuli in the blind suggests altered tactile information processing. Neuroplasticity, changes in tactile attention mechanisms as well as the idea that blind persons may employ different strategies for tactile exploration and object localisation are discussed as possible explanations for the results obtained.

  6. The automated Risoe TL dating reader system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boetter-Jensen, L.

    1988-01-01

    The features of the new modified Riso TL dating reader system are described. A vacuum chamber that accommodates the entire 24-position sample changer unit has been designed. The vacuum and N 2 -gas functions are software-controlled. A newly designed heater system is capable of repeated heating cycles to 700 0 C. The sample changer system accommodates fine-grain discs as well as planchettes for coarse grains. Two software-controlled beta irradiators can be attached to the reader, e.g. for predose measurement. The software allows a user without programming expertise to create any desired measuring sequence, and to store and recall data and glow curves for making analyses. (author)

  7. Mathematics skills in good readers with hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Marcia A; Pengelly, Sarah; Dennis, Maureen; Wilkinson, Margaret; Rogers, Tracey; Faulkner, Heather

    2002-01-01

    Children with hydrocephalus have poor math skills. We investigated the nature of their arithmetic computation errors by comparing written subtraction errors in good readers with hydrocephalus, typically developing good readers of the same age, and younger children matched for math level to the children with hydrocephalus. Children with hydrocephalus made more procedural errors (although not more fact retrieval or visual-spatial errors) than age-matched controls; they made the same number of procedural errors as younger, math-level matched children. We also investigated a broad range of math abilities, and found that children with hydrocephalus performed more poorly than age-matched controls on tests of geometry and applied math skills such as estimation and problem solving. Computation deficits in children with hydrocephalus reflect delayed development of procedural knowledge. Problems in specific math domains such as geometry and applied math, were associated with deficits in constituent cognitive skills such as visual spatial competence, memory, and general knowledge.

  8. Improvements of RGD3 TLD reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jianxing; Wang Jiaqi; Li Yuanfang; Wu Furong; Xiao Wuyun

    1999-01-01

    The author summarized the main features of the improved RGD3 TLD reader. Through a large number of experiments some persuasive data are obtained, which show that an remarkable improvement has been achieved, especially in its stability to the standard illuminates, data dispersivity, and effectiveness to glow curves analysis. Working with the newly developed data processing software, the comprehensive performance of the whole system will be enhanced greatly

  9. The StorySpinner Sculptural Reader

    OpenAIRE

    Hooper, Clare; Weal, Mark

    2005-01-01

    This demo is of a hypertext reading system called StorySpinner. It follows the sculptural hypertext methodology and has been used as a test bed for experimenting with the authoring of narrative flow in automatically generated stories. Readers are able to select and read one of two available stories. Reading a story involves selecting tarot cards which are mapped to chunks of story text based on possible interpretations of the cards and information concerning current story state.

  10. Plastic Logic quits e-reader market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perks, Simon

    2012-07-01

    A UK firm spun out from the University of Cambridge that sought to be a world leader in flexible organic electronic circuits and displays has pulled out of the competitive e-reader market as it struggles to find a commercial outlet for its technology. Plastic Logic announced in May that it is to close its development facility in Mountain View, California, with the loss of around 40 jobs.

  11. Microcomputer control of automated TLD reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjarland, Bert.

    1979-10-01

    The interfacing electronics, the control algorithms and the developed programs of a 6800 microcomputer controlled automated TLD reader are described. The TL reading system is implemented with a photomultiplier tube and a charge-to-pulse converter. The gain of the TL reading system is controlled through the use of a temperature compensated LED reference light source. Automatic compensation of PM tube dark current is optional. The short term stability of TL readings is better than 3 %. (author)

  12. Movie reviews: Who are the readers?

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Ignacio Azuela Flores; Victor Fernandez-Blanco; Maria Jose Sanzo-Perez

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of the relationship between movie reviews and consumer's decision process has focused mainly on the side of critics, who have been defined as "influencers" or as "predictors" (Eliashberg & Shugan, 1997). Also, new ways to measure the impact of the critic have been introduced (Gemser, van Oostrum & Leenders, 2007) and the consistency of their opinions over time has been proved (Ginsburgh & Weyers, 1999). However, there is scarce evidence about the readers of movie reviews: who are...

  13. Tactile spatial resolution in blind braille readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Boven, R W; Hamilton, R H; Kauffman, T; Keenan, J P; Pascual-Leone, A

    2000-06-27

    To determine if blind people have heightened tactile spatial acuity. Recently, studies using magnetic source imaging and somatosensory evoked potentials have shown that the cortical representation of the reading fingers of blind Braille readers is expanded compared to that of fingers of sighted subjects. Furthermore, the visual cortex is activated during certain tactile tasks in blind subjects but not sighted subjects. The authors hypothesized that the expanded cortical representation of fingers used in Braille reading may reflect an enhanced fidelity in the neural transmission of spatial details of a stimulus. If so, the quantitative limit of spatial acuity would be superior in blind people. The authors employed a grating orientation discrimination task in which threshold performance is accounted for by the spatial resolution limits of the neural image evoked by a stimulus. The authors quantified the psychophysical limits of spatial acuity at the middle and index fingers of 15 blind Braille readers and 15 sighted control subjects. The mean grating orientation threshold was significantly (p = 0.03) lower in the blind group (1.04 mm) compared to the sighted group (1.46 mm). The self-reported dominant reading finger in blind subjects had a mean grating orientation threshold of 0.80 mm, which was significantly better than other fingers tested. Thresholds at non-Braille reading fingers in blind subjects averaged 1.12 mm, which were also superior to sighted subjects' performances. Superior tactile spatial acuity in blind Braille readers may represent an adaptive, behavioral correlate of cortical plasticity.

  14. Microdosimetry of high LET therapeutic beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Akira

    1980-01-01

    Experimental microdosimetry of high LET therapeutic beams were presented. The cyclotron produced fast neutron beams at IMS, TAMVEC and NRL, a reactor fast neutron at YAYOI, a proctor beam at Harvard and a pion beam at TRIUMF are included. Measurements were performed with a conventional tissue equivalent spherical proportional counter with a logarithmic amplifier which made the recording and analysis quite simple. All the energy deposition spectra were analysed in the conventional manner and anti y F, anti y D as well as anti y D* were calculated. The spectra and their mean lineal energies showed wide variations, depending on the particle type, energy, position in phantom. Fractional contribution of elemental particles ( electron, muon, pion, proton, alpha and so on) to the total dose were analysed. For fast neutron beams, the y spectra stayed almost constant at any depth along the central axis in the phantom. The y spectra of proton beam changed slightly along the depth. On the other side, the y spectra of pion beam change drastically in the phantom between plateau and dose peak region. A novel technique of time-of-flight microdosimetry was employed, which made it possible to separate the fractional contribution of contaminant electrons and muons out of pions. Finally, a map of the radiation quality for all the beams is presented and its significances are discussed. (author)

  15. Running economy and energy cost of running with backpacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Volker; Cramer, Leoni; Heitkamp, Hans-Christian

    2018-05-02

    Running is a popular recreational activity and additional weight is often carried in backpacks on longer runs. Our aim was to examine running economy and other physiological parameters while running with a 1kg and 3 kg backpack at different submaximal running velocities. 10 male recreational runners (age 25 ± 4.2 years, VO2peak 60.5 ± 3.1 ml·kg-1·min-1) performed runs on a motorized treadmill of 5 minutes durations at three different submaximal speeds of 70, 80 and 90% of anaerobic lactate threshold (LT) without additional weight, and carrying a 1kg and 3 kg backpack. Oxygen consumption, heart rate, lactate and RPE were measured and analysed. Oxygen consumption, energy cost of running and heart rate increased significantly while running with a backpack weighing 3kg compared to running without additional weight at 80% of speed at lactate threshold (sLT) (p=0.026, p=0.009 and p=0.003) and at 90% sLT (p<0.001, p=0.001 and p=0.001). Running with a 1kg backpack showed a significant increase in heart rate at 80% sLT (p=0.008) and a significant increase in oxygen consumption and heart rate at 90% sLT (p=0.045 and p=0.007) compared to running without additional weight. While running at 70% sLT running economy and cardiovascular effort increased with weighted backpack running compared to running without additional weight, however these increases did not reach statistical significance. Running economy deteriorates and cardiovascular effort increases while running with additional backpack weight especially at higher submaximal running speeds. Backpack weight should therefore be kept to a minimum.

  16. Blood-letting in anorexia nervosa: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, J F; Lacey, J H

    2000-05-01

    Deliberate blood-letting has been characterized as an alternative to purging behavior in bulimia. We describe a female healthcare worker with an 8-year history of restrictive anorexia nervosa, who initially presented with anemia, using blood-letting, cold baths, and starvation to control her mental state. In contrast with the previous cases of bulimia, the aim of blood-letting in this case of anorexia nervosa was to achieve anemia. She compared the psychic correlates of anemia to emaciation, rather than to deliberate self-harm or purging. We note that mainstream 19th century psychiatry prescribed "baths, blood-letting and diet" as a treatment of "madness." Copyright 2000 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  17. Mouse fecal microbiome after exposure to high LET radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space travel is associated with continuous low-dose-rate exposure to high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) radiation. Pathophysiological manifestations after low-dose...

  18. Applicability of LET to single events in microelectronic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xapsos, Michael A.

    1992-12-01

    LET is often used as a single parameter to determine the energy deposited in a microelectronic structure by a single event. The accuracy of this assumption is examined for ranges of ion energies and volumes of silicon appropriate for modern microelectronics. It is shown to be accurate only under very restricted conditions. Significant differences arise because (1) LET is related to energy lost by the ion, not energy deposited in the volume; and (2) LET is an average value and does not account for statistical variations in energy deposition. Criteria are suggested for determining when factors other than LET should be considered, and new analytical approaches are presented to account for them. One implication of these results is that improvements can be made in space upset rate predictions by incorporating the new methods into currently used codes such as CREME and CRUP.

  19. Let the Right One In : Motion picture (2008)

    OpenAIRE

    Buhagiar, Celaine; Lauri Lucente, Gloria

    2009-01-01

    Twilight: A teenage girl risks everything when she falls in love with a vampire. Let the Right One In: Oskar, an overlooked and bullied boy, finds love and revenge through Eli, a beautiful but peculiar girl.

  20. The dependence of relative biological effectiveness from LET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savich, A.V.

    1985-01-01

    A dependence of radiation-chemical yields of DNA injuries on the LET value is found for two transformations - one and two-strand breaks of it. It is shown that the yield of one-strand breaks decreases with the increase of LET value, and the quantity of two-strand breaks at first increases reaching the maximum value within the LET range from 100 up to 150 eV/nm and then decreases. The considered semiempiric theories of the RBE dependences on LET permits using the experimentally determined parameters characterizing radiosensitivity, to estimate the efficiency of the effect of ionizing radiation on cells at different doses, types of radiation and levels of saturation with oxygen. The stage of the cell cycle is also taken into account

  1. Radiosensitivity of yeast cells as a function of radiation LET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobachevskij, P.N.; Krasavin, E.A.

    1988-01-01

    A model is proposed for interpreting the radiosensitivity of yeast cells as a function of linear energy transfer (LET) of ionizing radiation. The model takes into account the role of repair processes in sensitivity of yeast cells to ionizing radiation of different LET. Two types of repair are discussed: (1) a nonspecific repair (characteristic of both haploid and diploid cells), and (2) a diploid - soecific repair (characteristic of diploid cells only)

  2. Ubuntu Up and Running

    CERN Document Server

    Nixon, Robin

    2010-01-01

    Ubuntu for everyone! This popular Linux-based operating system is perfect for people with little technical background. It's simple to install, and easy to use -- with a strong focus on security. Ubuntu: Up and Running shows you the ins and outs of this system with a complete hands-on tour. You'll learn how Ubuntu works, how to quickly configure and maintain Ubuntu 10.04, and how to use this unique operating system for networking, business, and home entertainment. This book includes a DVD with the complete Ubuntu system and several specialized editions -- including the Mythbuntu multimedia re

  3. 21 CFR 886.5800 - Ophthalmic bar reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar reader. 886.5800 Section 886.5800...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5800 Ophthalmic bar reader. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar reader is a device that consists of a magnifying lens intended for use by a...

  4. Readers and Texts in the Primary Years. Rethinking Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Tony; Leather, Bob

    Exploring the responses of a variety of readers from three-year-old Dominic sharing a picture book with his father to adults reading a poem by Ted Hughes, this book examines the ways in which various readers respond to different texts. The aim of the book is to develop an awareness of the issues involved in readers' responses for primary teachers.…

  5. Rereading Multicultural Readers: What Definition of Multicultural Are We Buying?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Nancy

    A flood of new multicultural readers and textbooks are hitting the market for writing and literature courses at the college level. Yet there has been no systematic examination of how these readers are being used, the purposes and audiences for which they are written, or the critical reception they have received. Multicultural readers distinguish…

  6. Choosing the Adequate Level of Graded Readers--Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prtljaga, Jelena; Palinkaševic, Radmila; Brkic, Jovana

    2015-01-01

    Graded readers have been used as second language teaching material since the end of the Second World War. They are an important source of simplified material which provides comprehensible input on all levels. It is of crucial importance for a successful usage of graded readers in the classroom and in studies which focus on graded readers, that an…

  7. Gifted Male Readers: Current Understandings and Suggestions for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnani, Alexander R.

    2013-01-01

    Research literature concerning gifted male readers relies primarily on more extensive bodies of work regarding gifted males and male readers. Studied as a whole, the two halves portray a worrisome state of affairs for gifted male readers, who lag behind their female counterparts in the same patterns found across the ability spectrum. This literacy…

  8. Reader Engagement in English and Persian Applied Linguistics Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansarin, Ali Akbar; Tarlani-Aliabdi, Hassan

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in the way academic writers establish the presence of their readers over the past few years. Establishing the presence of readers or what Kroll (1984, p.181) calls imagining "a second voice" is accomplished when a writer refers "explicitly" to their readers using explicit linguistic resources…

  9. Reading and Spelling Error Analysis of Native Arabic Dyslexic Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-rabia, Salim; Taha, Haitham

    2004-01-01

    This study was an investigation of reading and spelling errors of dyslexic Arabic readers ("n"=20) compared with two groups of normal readers: a young readers group, matched with the dyslexics by reading level ("n"=20) and an age-matched group ("n"=20). They were tested on reading and spelling of texts, isolated…

  10. LET effects on normal and radiosensitive cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geard, C.R.; Travisano, M.

    1986-01-01

    Charged particles in the track segment mode were produced by the RARAF Van de Graaff accelerator and used to irradiate two CHO cell lines, a radiosensitive hypermutable line EM9 and its normal parent AA8. Asynchronous cells were irradiated attached to 6 micrometer thick Mylar with protons, deuterons and helium-3 particles at LETs ranging from 10 to 150 keV per micrometer. A 50 kVp x-ray tube integrated into the track segment facility provided a low LET comparison. Following irradiation cells were monitored for clonogenicity, and in a separate series of experiments frequencies of sister chromatid exchanges. Up to 9 experiments were carried out at each LET, with a total of 8 radiations of different LETs being compared. The optimally effective LET for cell survival was between 80 and 120 keV per micrometer, with the 150 keV per micrometer particles indicating energy wastage. The differential between the normal and radiosensitive cell lines was maintained at all LETs

  11. Adaptive response to high LET radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dam, Annamaria; Bogdandi, E. Noemi; Polonyi, Istvan; Sardy, M. Marta; Balashazy, Imre; Palfalvy, Jozsef

    2001-01-01

    The biological consequences of exposure to ionizing radiation include gene mutation, chromosome aberrations, cellular transformation and cell death. These effects are attributed to the DNA damaging effects of the irradiation resulting in irreversible changes during DNA replication or during the processing of the DNA damage by enzymatic repair processes. These repair processes could initiate some adaptive mechanisms in the cell, which could lead to radioadaptive response (RAR). Adaptive responses have typically been detected by exposing cells to a low radiation dose (1-50 mGy) and then challenging the cells with a higher dose of radiation (2-4 Gy) and comparing the outcome to that seen with the challenge dose only. For adaptive response to be seen the challenge dose must be delivered within 24 hour of the inducing dose. Radio-adaptation is extensively studied for low LET radiation. Nevertheless, few data are available for high LET radiation at very low doses and dose rate. Our study was aimed to investigate the radioadaptive response to low-dose neutron irradiation by detection of the genotoxic damage i.e.: hprt-mutant colonies induced. Altered protein synthesis was also studied to identify stress proteins may responsible for radio-adaptation. New alpha particle irradiator system was also built up to study the biological effects of low dose alpha irradiation. The experiments were carried out on monolayers of human melanoma and CHO (Chines Hamster Ovary) cells irradiated by neutrons produced in the biological irradiation channel of the Research Reactor of Budapest Neutron Center. Cells were exposed to 0.5-50 mGy neutron doses with dose rates of 1.59-10 mGy/min. The challenge doses of 2-4 Gy gamma rays were administrated within 1-48 hours after priming treatment. The induced mutants at hprt locus were selected by adding 6-thioguanine and allow to grow for 10 days for expression of the phenotype. The protein synthesis was studied by PAGE, the molecular mass of specific

  12. ATLAS people can run!

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni de Oliveira; Pauline Gagnon

    It must be all the training we are getting every day, running around trying to get everything ready for the start of the LHC next year. This year, the ATLAS runners were in fine form and came in force. Nine ATLAS teams signed up for the 37th Annual CERN Relay Race with six runners per team. Under a blasting sun on Wednesday 23rd May 2007, each team covered the distances of 1000m, 800m, 800m, 500m, 500m and 300m taking the runners around the whole Meyrin site, hills included. A small reception took place in the ATLAS secretariat a week later to award the ATLAS Cup to the best ATLAS team. For the details on this complex calculation which takes into account the age of each runner, their gender and the color of their shoes, see the July 2006 issue of ATLAS e-news. The ATLAS Running Athena Team, the only all-women team enrolled this year, won the much coveted ATLAS Cup for the second year in a row. In fact, they are so good that Peter Schmid and Patrick Fassnacht are wondering about reducing the women's bonus in...

  13. Underwater running device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogure, Sumio; Matsuo, Takashiro; Yoshida, Yoji

    1996-01-01

    An underwater running device for an underwater inspection device for detecting inner surfaces of a reactor or a water vessel has an outer frame and an inner frame, and both of them are connected slidably by an air cylinder and connected rotatably by a shaft. The outer frame has four outer frame legs, and each of the outer frame legs is equipped with a sucker at the top end. The inner frame has four inner frame legs each equipped with a sucker at the top end. The outer frame legs and the inner frame legs are each connected with the outer frame and the inner frame by the air cylinder. The outer and the inner frame legs can be elevated or lowered (or extended or contracted) by the air cylinder. The sucker is connected with a jet pump-type negative pressure generator. The device can run and move by repeating attraction and releasing of the outer frame legs and the inner frame legs alternately while maintaining the posture of the inspection device stably. (I.N.)

  14. The design of the run Clever randomized trial: running volume, -intensity and running-related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramskov, Daniel; Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard; Sørensen, Henrik; Parner, Erik; Lind, Martin; Rasmussen, Sten

    2016-04-23

    Injury incidence and prevalence in running populations have been investigated and documented in several studies. However, knowledge about injury etiology and prevention is needed. Training errors in running are modifiable risk factors and people engaged in recreational running need evidence-based running schedules to minimize the risk of injury. The existing literature on running volume and running intensity and the development of injuries show conflicting results. This may be related to previously applied study designs, methods used to quantify the performed running and the statistical analysis of the collected data. The aim of the Run Clever trial is to investigate if a focus on running intensity compared with a focus on running volume in a running schedule influences the overall injury risk differently. The Run Clever trial is a randomized trial with a 24-week follow-up. Healthy recreational runners between 18 and 65 years and with an average of 1-3 running sessions per week the past 6 months are included. Participants are randomized into two intervention groups: Running schedule-I and Schedule-V. Schedule-I emphasizes a progression in running intensity by increasing the weekly volume of running at a hard pace, while Schedule-V emphasizes a progression in running volume, by increasing the weekly overall volume. Data on the running performed is collected by GPS. Participants who sustain running-related injuries are diagnosed by a diagnostic team of physiotherapists using standardized diagnostic criteria. The members of the diagnostic team are blinded. The study design, procedures and informed consent were approved by the Ethics Committee Northern Denmark Region (N-20140069). The Run Clever trial will provide insight into possible differences in injury risk between running schedules emphasizing either running intensity or running volume. The risk of sustaining volume- and intensity-related injuries will be compared in the two intervention groups using a competing

  15. How to diagnose any type of TLD Reader?; Como diagnosticar cualquier tipo de TLD Reader?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Manuel Lopez; Garcia, Jose A. Tamayo; Gil, Alex Vergara; Lores, Stefan Gutierrez; Acosta, Andry Romero; Villanueva, Gilberto Alonso, E-mail: manolo@cphr.edu.cu, E-mail: jotag@cphr.edu.cu, E-mail: alex@cphr.edu.cu, E-mail: stefan@cphr.edu.cu, E-mail: andy@cphr.edu.cu, E-mail: gilberto@cphr.edu.cu [Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones (CPHR), La Habana (Cuba)

    2013-07-01

    The acquisition of know how of practical experiences obtained in the repair and maintenance of readers TLD RADOS for five years of work and the request by the International Atomic Energy for signing new Research Contracts (CRP), made possible the CRP 13328, in which the specialist is committed in the course of a year, to deliver educational software in order to train personnel associated with the operation of the TLD readers RADOS. Due to the importance of continuous transfer of knowledge for new generations of technicians and specialists who join our laboratories, the idea came when the first interactive CD that grouped 19 videos, divided into three blocks was ready: learning, repair and maintenance; it was suggested to expand the training for any TLD reader. Thus a much more complete than the first version package emerged. 7 cases were subsequently published in an IAEA TECDOC, 1599 were included.

  16. Techno-Literacy Practices of Emergent Readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razeale G. Fernandez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available – This research explored the techno-literacy practices of emergent readers. The study found that young children experienced a multi-literate practices in their homes that comprised not only print and paper-based literacies but also techno-literacies. That television, games on tablets and phones are the sources of textual pleasure of young children.Families reported that children watched television and play games on tablets/phones regularly. This is due to the limited options of leisure activities available to younger children. Emergent readers are highly focused to televisual text as they demonstrate meaningmaking practices when they constantly ask questions and talk about what they are watching,hence they are active meaning-makers. The learning opportunities which include hand eye coordination, parallel processing, and problem solving skills young children acquired through playing computer games and games on tablet/iPad . Aside from these, they also developed a number of literacy skills as well as how to behave as players.It can be concluded thatexposure to imagery in electronic technologies contributed to the children’s literacy development. The literate identities of emergent readers can be further enhanced as they begin formal schooling. Data indicated that young children are developing techno-literacy practices and this concurs to the findings of Marsh (2010. Therefore, technology serves as a tool for the literacy development of young children. That techno-literacy practices of young children should be valued in school. Future research should also consider attitude, behavior and practices of parents towards the use of technology by children.

  17. Face-to-face with the reader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas SCHMITZ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available From the scientific perspective this review is very interesting. It is well-structured, has an attractive lay-out and typography and serves as an important forum for the scientific debate on public administration in the Republic of Moldova. Furthermore, there is a special website with several subwebsites for the review. This makes it easy for every interested reader to get an idea of the review. Finally, the websites allows free downloads even of the newest issue. This allows everybody to read it, even students (because it is free and foreign researchers (who otherwise would not have access to Moldovan scientific reviews.

  18. PC-based car license plate reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chung-Mu; Shu, Shyh-Yeong; Chen, Wen-Yu; Chen, Yie-Wern; Wen, Kuang-Pu

    1992-11-01

    A car license plate reader (CLPR) using fuzzy inference and neural network algorithm has been developed in Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) and installed in highway toll stations to identify stolen cars. It takes an average of 0.7 seconds to recognize a car license plate by using a PC with 80486-50 CPU. The recognition rate of the system is about 97%. The techniques of CLPR include vehicle sensing, image grab control, optic pre- processing, lighting, and optic character recognition (OCR). The CLPR can be used in vehicle flow statistics, the checking of stolen vehicles, automatic charging systems in parking lots or garage management, and so on.

  19. BOOK REVIEW: Astrophysics (Advanced Physics Readers)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibble, Bob

    2000-07-01

    Here is a handy and attractive reader to support students on post-16 courses. It covers the astrophysics, astronomy and cosmology that are demanded at A-level and offers anyone interested in these fields an interesting and engaging reference book. The author and the production team deserve credit for producing such an attractive book. The content, in ten chapters, covers what one would expect at this level but it is how it is presented that struck me as the book's most powerful asset. Each chapter ends with a summary of key ideas. Line drawings are clear and convey enough information to make them more than illustrations - they are as valuable as the text in conveying information. Full colour is used throughout to enhance illustrations and tables and to lift key sections of the text. A number of colour photographs complement the material and serve to maintain interest and remind readers that astrophysics is about real observable phenomena. Included towards the end is a set of tables offering information on physical and astronomical data, mathematical techniques and constellation names and abbreviations. This last table puzzled me as to its value. There is a helpful bibliography which includes society contacts and a website related to the text. Perhaps my one regret is that there is no section where students are encouraged to actually do some real astronomy. Astrophysics is in danger of becoming an armchair and calculator interest. There are practical projects that students could undertake either for school assessment or for personal interest. Simple astrophotography to capture star trails, observe star colours and estimate apparent magnitudes is an example, as is a simple double-star search. There are dozens more. However, the author's style is friendly and collaborative. He befriends the reader as they journey together through the ideas. There are progress questions at the end of each chapter. Their style tends to be rather closed and they emphasize factual recall

  20. An Analysis of Practical Lexicography: A Reader (Ed. Fontenelle 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles-Maurice de Schryver

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: Intended as a companion volume to The Oxford Guide to Practical Lexicography (Atkins and Run-dell 2008, Fontenelle's book aims to bring together the most relevant papers in practical lexicography. This review article presents a critical analysis of the success thereof, both in quantitative and qualitative terms.

    Keywords: PRACTICAL LEXICOGRAPHY, DICTIONARY, MONOLINGUAL, BILINGUAL, QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION, QUALITATIVE EVALUATION, CITATION PATTERNS, CORPUS TOOLS, MEANING, DEFINITIONS, EXAMPLES, EQUIVALENCE, DICTIONARY USE, ENGLISH, FRENCH

    Samenvatting: Een analyse van Practical Lexicography: A Reader (Fonte-nelle 2008. Bedoeld als achtergrondlectuur bij The Oxford Guide to Practical Lexicography (Atkins en Rundell 2008, is het doel van Fontenelle's boek om de meest relevante papers m.b.t. praktische lexicografie samen te brengen. Dit recensieartikel is een kritische analyse van het succes daarvan, zowel in kwantitatieve als kwalitatieve termen.

    Sleutelwoorden: PRAKTISCHE LEXICOGRAFIE, WOORDENBOEK, EENTALIG, TWEE-TALIG, KWANTITATIEVE EVALUATIE, KWALITATIEVE EVALUATIE, CITATIEPATRONEN, CORPUS SOFTWARE, BETEKENIS, DEFINITIES, VOORBEELDEN, EQUIVALENTIE, WOOR-DENBOEKGEBRUIK, ENGELS, FRANS

  1. Barefoot running: biomechanics and implications for running injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Allison R; Davis, Irene S

    2012-01-01

    Despite the technological developments in modern running footwear, up to 79% of runners today get injured in a given year. As we evolved barefoot, examining this mode of running is insightful. Barefoot running encourages a forefoot strike pattern that is associated with a reduction in impact loading and stride length. Studies have shown a reduction in injuries to shod forefoot strikers as compared with rearfoot strikers. In addition to a forefoot strike pattern, barefoot running also affords the runner increased sensory feedback from the foot-ground contact, as well as increased energy storage in the arch. Minimal footwear is being used to mimic barefoot running, but it is not clear whether it truly does. The purpose of this article is to review current and past research on shod and barefoot/minimal footwear running and their implications for running injuries. Clearly more research is needed, and areas for future study are suggested.

  2. Stop fighting alone, let synergy rule!

    CERN Document Server

    Computer Security Team

    2013-01-01

    Could it be true, as it seems to me, that CERN still has manpower to spare? I thought that now, during LS1, resources were scarce and everybody was very busy. But apparently not. We are getting more requests than ever to open firewalls for stand-alone web servers running local databases and custom web applications.   What we are talking about here are “newly” created software applications with similar functions to existing alternatives. We often encounter computing hardware and network equipment managed in multiple ways by multiple people, and commercial software or cloud services that closely resemble CERN’s existing computing services are bought or rented – for instance, SurveyMonkey vs. SharePoint or tinyurl.com vs. cern.ch/go. Why does CERN run two document stores, CDS and EDMS, that provide similar functions and workflows? Wouldn’t one be sufficient? And four (or more!) JIRA ticketing systems? Why are there so many local Git instances, do...

  3. Automatic spent fuel ID number reader (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, S.; Kawamoto, H.; Fujimaki, K.; Kobe, A.

    1991-01-01

    An effective and efficient technique has been developed for facilitating identification works of LWR spent fuel stored in large scale spent fuel storage pools of such as processing plants. Experience shows that there are often difficulties in the implementation of operator's nuclear material accountancy and control works as well as safeguards inspections conducted on spent fuel assemblies stored in deep water pool. This paper reports that the technique is realized as an automatic spent fuel ID number reader system installed on fuel handling machine. The ID number reader system consists of an optical sub-system and an image processing sub-system. Thousands of spent fuel assemblies stored in under water open racks in each storage pool could be identified within relatively short time (e.g. within several hours) by using this combination. Various performance tests were carried out on image processing sub-system in 1990 using TV images obtained from different types of spent fuel assemblies stored in various storage pools of PWR and BWR power stations

  4. Metacognition and Reading: Comparing Three Forms of Metacognition in Normally Developing Readers and Readers with Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnes, Bjarte; Norman, Elisabeth

    2015-08-01

    Metacognition refers to 'cognition about cognition' and includes metacognitive knowledge, strategies and experiences (Efklides, 2008; Flavell, 1979). Research on reading has shown that better readers demonstrate more metacognitive knowledge than poor readers (Baker & Beall, 2009), and that reading ability improves through strategy instruction (Gersten, Fuchs, Williams, & Baker, 2001). The current study is the first to specifically compare the three forms of metacognition in dyslexic (N = 22) versus normally developing readers (N = 22). Participants read two factual texts, with learning outcome measured by a memory task. Metacognitive knowledge and skills were assessed by self-report. Metacognitive experiences were measured by predictions of performance and judgments of learning. Individuals with dyslexia showed insight into their reading problems, but less general knowledge of how to approach text reading. They more often reported lack of available reading strategies, but groups did not differ in the use of deep and surface strategies. Learning outcome and mean ratings of predictions of performance and judgments of learning were lower in dyslexic readers, but not the accuracy with which metacognitive experiences predicted learning. Overall, the results indicate that dyslexic reading and spelling problems are not generally associated with lower levels of metacognitive knowledge, metacognitive strategies or sensitivity to metacognitive experiences in reading situations. 2015 The Authors. Dyslexia Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Biomarkers specific to densely-ionising (high LET) radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, D.J.; Okladnikova, N.; Hande, P.; Burak, L.; Geard, C.R.; Azizova, T.

    2001-01-01

    There have been several suggestions of biomarkers that are specific to high LET radiation. Such a biomarker could significantly increase the power of epidemiological studies of individuals exposed to densely-ionising radiations such as alpha particles (e.g. radon, plutonium workers, individuals exposed to depleted uranium) or neutrons (e.g. radiation workers, airline personnel). We discuss here a potentially powerful high LET biomarker (the H value) which is the ratio of induced inter-chromosomal aberrations to intra-arm aberrations. Both theoretical and experimental studies have suggested that this ratio should differ by a factor of about three between high LET radiation and any other likely clastogen, and will yield more discrimination than the previously suggested F value (ratio of inter-chromosomal aberrations to intra-chromosomal inter-arm aberrations). Evidence of the long-term stability of such chromosomal biomarkers has also been generated. Because these stable intra-arm and inter-chromosomal aberrations are (1) frequent and (2) measurable at long times after exposure, this H value appears to be a practical biomarker of high LET exposure, and several in vitro studies have confirmed the approach for unstable aberrations. The approach is currently being tested in a population of Russian radiation workers exposed several decades ago to high- or low LET radiation. (author)

  6. A simple theory of LET spectra of heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.W.; Townsend, L.W.; Schimmerling, W.; Norbury, J.W.; Wong, M.; Badavi, F.

    1985-01-01

    The transition of high energy ion beams through extended matter is of considerable interest to the space program as well as radiobiology and medical therapy. The transition is defined in terms of various atomic/molecular and nuclear cross sections in a Boltzmann-like equation. One dimensional solutions are derived herein from which LET spectra are derived for secondary fragments. Such LET spectra are fundamental to the evaluation of beam quality, biological effects, and radiation shield effectiveness. Sensitivity of LET spectral distributions to uncertainty in physical parameters such as the isotopic fragmentation parameters, fragment mass, and absorption cross section is established for a number of ion beams. The main limitation in LET studies is the paucity of both elemental and isotopic fragmentation data. The elemental fragmentation data is more readily available because of its simple experimental procedures. It has been suggested by some that natural abundance ratios should be used with the elemental cross sections but this leads to an order-of-magnitude error in LET spectra in many cases. Very few examples of isotopic fragmentation measurements are available. Although major advances in nuclear fragmentation theory have been made, we must await more extensive isotopic fragmentation experiments for final validation

  7. Fast Neutrons - LET Distributions and the Response of Mammalian Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bewley, D. K. [Medical Research Council Cyclotron Unit, Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    1968-03-15

    Distributions of stopping power (LET) are given for four beams of fast neutrons, namely, neutrons of 14.6 MeV, neutrons produced by bombarding a thick beryllium target with 15 MeV deuterons, neutrons of 3 MeV, and fast neutrons produced by bombardment of a {sup 235}U converter plate with thermal neutrons. The track average LET is correlated with mean neutron energy, but the dose average is approximately constant. However, neither of these types of average is expected to have much relevance to radiobiology. Further, specification of a ''biologically effective LET'' depends on the biological test used, and is not solely a function of the radiation quality. An attempt has been made to calculate the response of T.I. kidney cells in tissue culture to these four beams of neutrons, based on their response to charged particles using the track-segment method. The calculated RBE's of the neutron beams are lower than the observed values and the calculated values of the oxygen enhancement ratio are higher. These differences seem too great to be explained by errors in dosimetry and in the calculated LET spectra. The suggestion is made that LET is not an adequate criterion of radiation quality, and that the discrepancies may be explained by more detailed consideration of the part played by delta rays and by heavy recoil tracks of short range. (author)

  8. The inactivation of papain by high LET radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisby, R.H.; Cundall, R.B.; Sims, H.E.; Burns, W.G.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of varying LET over a wide range (0.2-1570 eV/nm) on the radiation-induced inactivation of the enzyme papain in dilute aqueous solution has been investigated. Measurements of total, reparable and non-reparable inactivation G values in oxygen, nitrous oxide and argon saturated solutions have allowed the contributions to inactivation from radicals and hydrogen peroxide to be evaluated. At high LET the results demonstrate an increasing component due to reaction of the superoxide radical, formed from oxygen produced in the track as a primary radiolysis product. This effect was not observed in our previous study with ribonuclease due to the insensitivity of ribonuclease to inactivation by superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. The results obtained with papain clearly demonstrate a maximum in G(H 2 O 2 ) at an LET of equivalent to 140 eV/nm. Generation of O 2 within the track as a primary radiolysis product at high LET now appears to be confirmed as an important mechanism leading to reduction in the oxygen enhancement ratio for cellular systems exposed to high LET radiations (Baverstock and Burns 1981). (author)

  9. [Survey among readers of the Tijdschrift voor Psychiatrie].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt-Dominicus, J C; van Harten, P N

    2006-01-01

    The editorial board has defined the objectives of this journal as follows: to provide its readers with refreshing information, to report the results of scientific research and to build bridges between research and everyday practice. To find out what readers want and whether they support the board's objectives, and to use this information in planning the contents of future issues of the journal. All readers were invited to complete a questionnaire either on paper or via the website. Questionnaires were completed by 255 readers (response rate 5.7%). The average rating on a 5-point Likert scale was 3.8. Thematic issues and issues devoted to book reviews were given a high rating. There seems to be a demandfor evidence-based medicine, the inclusion of scientific results reported in other journals and practice-based articles. No significant differences were found between the views expressed by readers who had previously submitted an article for publication and those who had not, nor between Flemish readers and Dutch readers. The website was not visited very often. The Tijdschrift voor Psychiatrie is greatly appreciated by its readers. They are largely in agreement with the objectives formulated by the editorial board. Thematic issues are highly rated and many subjects are mentioned by the readers for future issues. The low response to the survey can affect its representativity. The editorial board will take readers' wishes into consideration when selecting material for future issues of the journal.

  10. Darlington up and running

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Show, Don

    1993-01-01

    We've built some of the largest and most successful generating stations in the world. Nonetheless, we cannot take our knowledge and understanding of the technology for granted. Although, I do believe that we are getting better, building safer, more efficient plants, and introducing significant improvements to our existing stations. Ontario Hydro is a large and technically rich organization. Even so, we realize that partnerships with others in the industry are absolutely vital. I am thinking particularly of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. We enjoy a very close relationship with Aecl, and their support was never more important than during the N/A Investigations. In recent years, we've strengthened our relationship with Aecl considerably. For example, we recently signed an agreement with Aecl, making available all of the Darlington 900 MW e design. Much of the cooperation between Ontario Hydro and Aecl occurs through the CANDU Engineering Authority and the CANDU Owners Group (CO G). These organizations are helping both of US to greatly improve cooperation and efficiency, and they are helping ensure we get the biggest return on our CANDU investments. CO G also provides an important information network which links CANDU operators in Canada, here in Korea, Argentina, India, Pakistan and Romania. In many respects, it is helping to develop the strong partnerships to support CANDU technology worldwide. We all benefit in the long run form sharing information and resources

  11. Backward running or absence of running from Creutz ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giedt, Joel; Weinberg, Evan

    2011-01-01

    We extract the running coupling based on Creutz ratios in SU(2) lattice gauge theory with two Dirac fermions in the adjoint representation. Depending on how the extrapolation to zero fermion mass is performed, either backward running or an absence of running is observed at strong bare coupling. This behavior is consistent with other findings which indicate that this theory has an infrared fixed point.

  12. Physiological demands of running during long distance runs and triathlons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausswirth, C; Lehénaff, D

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this review article is to identify the main metabolic factors which have an influence on the energy cost of running (Cr) during prolonged exercise runs and triathlons. This article proposes a physiological comparison of these 2 exercises and the relationship between running economy and performance. Many terms are used as the equivalent of 'running economy' such as 'oxygen cost', 'metabolic cost', 'energy cost of running', and 'oxygen consumption'. It has been suggested that these expressions may be defined by the rate of oxygen uptake (VO2) at a steady state (i.e. between 60 to 90% of maximal VO2) at a submaximal running speed. Endurance events such as triathlon or marathon running are known to modify biological constants of athletes and should have an influence on their running efficiency. The Cr appears to contribute to the variation found in distance running performance among runners of homogeneous level. This has been shown to be important in sports performance, especially in events like long distance running. In addition, many factors are known or hypothesised to influence Cr such as environmental conditions, participant specificity, and metabolic modifications (e.g. training status, fatigue). The decrease in running economy during a triathlon and/or a marathon could be largely linked to physiological factors such as the enhancement of core temperature and a lack of fluid balance. Moreover, the increase in circulating free fatty acids and glycerol at the end of these long exercise durations bear witness to the decrease in Cr values. The combination of these factors alters the Cr during exercise and hence could modify the athlete's performance in triathlons or a prolonged run.

  13. Mutagenic effect of radiations of various LET on Salmonella cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozubek, S.; Krasavin, E.A.; Amirtaev, K.G.; Tokarova, B.; Basha, S.G.

    1989-01-01

    Regularities of mutagenic effect of heavy charged particles of helium, deuterium ions and protons on various strains of Salmonella typhimurium were studied. Linear dose dependences of mutation frequency in the range of low doses were revealed. A conclusion was made that mutation process at low dose irradiation is determined in various teststrains of Salmonella typhimurium by certain premutation injuries. Quite a different picture is observed in mutation process in case of high dose irradiation where effect of inducible SOS-repair is distinctly manifested. Not only spectra of primary DNA injuries but probability of their fixation into mutation can change with the increase of LET. If fixation probability doesn't change with LET increase for replicative mutagenesis which make basis contribution to linear component of dose dependence of mutation frequency the probability of fixation is increased for reparative mutagenesis. It accounts for increase of values of relative genetic efficiency with LET increase. 7 refs.; 6 figs.; 1 tab

  14. High LET radiation and mechanism of DNA damage repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furusawa, Yoshiya

    2004-01-01

    Clarifying the mechanism of repair from radiation damage gives most important information on radiation effects on cells. Approximately 10% of biological experiments groups in Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) cooperative research group has performed the subject. They gave a lot of new findings on the mechanism, and solved some open questions. The reason to show the peak of relative biological effectiveness RBE at around 100-200 keV/μm causes miss-repair of DNA damage. Sub-lethal damage generated by high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation can be repaired fully. Potentially lethal damages by high-LET radiation also repaired, but the efficiency decreased with the LET, and so on. (author)

  15. LET dependence of scintillation yields in liquid argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doke, Tadayoshi; Hitachi, Akira; Kikuchi, Jun; Crawford, H J; Lindstrom, P J; Masuda, Kimiaki; Shibamura, Eido; Takahashi, Tan

    1988-06-01

    Scintillation yields (scintillation intensity per unit absorbed energy) in liquid argon for ionizing particles are reviewed as a function of LET for the particles. The maximum scintillation yield, which is obtained for relativistic heavy ions from Ne to La, is about 1.2 times larger than that for gamma rays in NaI(Tl) crystal. In the low LET region, the scintillation yields for relativistic electrons, protons and He ions are 10-20% lower than the maximum yield. This tendency can be explained by taking into account the existence of the electrons which have escaped from their parent ions. In the high LET region, a quenching effect due to high ionization density is observed for alpha particles, fission fragments and relativistic Au ions.

  16. Reader performance in visual assessment of breast density using visual analogue scales: Are some readers more predictive of breast cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Millicent; Harkness, Elaine F.; Foden, Philip; Wilson, Mary; Gadde, Soujanya; Beetles, Ursula; Lim, Yit Y.; Jain, Anil; Bundred, Sally; Barr, Nicky; Evans, D. Gareth; Howell, Anthony; Maxwell, Anthony; Astley, Susan M.

    2018-03-01

    Mammographic breast density is one of the strongest risk factors for breast cancer, and is used in risk prediction and for deciding appropriate imaging strategies. In the Predicting Risk Of Cancer At Screening (PROCAS) study, percent density estimated by two readers on Visual Analogue Scales (VAS) has shown a strong relationship with breast cancer risk when assessed against automated methods. However, this method suffers from reader variability. This study aimed to assess the performance of PROCAS readers using VAS, and to identify those most predictive of breast cancer. We selected the seven readers who had estimated density on over 6,500 women including at least 100 cancer cases, analysing their performance using multivariable logistic regression and Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) analysis. All seven readers showed statistically significant odds ratios (OR) for cancer risk according to VAS score after adjusting for classical risk factors. The OR was greatest for reader 18 at 1.026 (95% Cl 1.018-1.034). Adjusted Area Under the ROC Curves (AUCs) were statistically significant for all readers, but greatest for reader 14 at 0.639. Further analysis of the VAS scores for these two readers showed reader 14 had higher sensitivity (78.0% versus 42.2%), whereas reader 18 had higher specificity (78.0% versus 46.0%). Our results demonstrate individual differences when assigning VAS scores; one better identified those with increased risk, whereas another better identified low risk individuals. However, despite their different strengths, both readers showed similar predictive abilities overall. Standardised training for VAS may improve reader variability and consistency of VAS scoring.

  17. Skilled deaf readers have an enhanced perceptual span in reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Nathalie N; Slattery, Timothy J; Mayberry, Rachel I; Rayner, Keith

    2012-07-01

    Recent evidence suggests that, compared with hearing people, deaf people have enhanced visual attention to simple stimuli viewed in the parafovea and periphery. Although a large part of reading involves processing the fixated words in foveal vision, readers also utilize information in parafoveal vision to preprocess upcoming words and decide where to look next. In the study reported here, we investigated whether auditory deprivation affects low-level visual processing during reading by comparing the perceptual span of deaf signers who were skilled and less-skilled readers with the perceptual span of skilled hearing readers. Compared with hearing readers, the two groups of deaf readers had a larger perceptual span than would be expected given their reading ability. These results provide the first evidence that deaf readers' enhanced attentional allocation to the parafovea is used during complex cognitive tasks, such as reading.

  18. Apoptosis induced by high- and low-LET radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendry, J.H.; Potten, C.S.; Merritt, A.

    1995-01-01

    Cell death after irradiation occurs by apoptosis in certain cell populations in tissues. The phenomenon also occurs after high linear energy transfer (LET) irradiation, and the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) is 3 to 4 (with respect to low-LET radiation and apoptosis in intestinal crypts) for neutrons with energies of 14 MeV and up to 600 MeV. It is thought that p53 plays a role in the phenomenon, as radiation-induced apoptosis is not observed in p53-null animals. (orig.)

  19. Prophage λ induction by ionizing radiation of different LETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonev, M.N.; Kozubek, S.; Krasavin, E.A.; Amirtaev, K.G.

    1988-01-01

    The λ prophage induction caused by γ-irradiation and accelerated heavy ions with different LET was studied in variety Escherichia coli strains. The induction frequency on the dose I(D) shaped a curve with a maximum in the strains which possess recA + /lexA + genotype. The inductivity of these strains increases as well as LET and an alteration poor → rich media does it. Unlike I(D) for recA + /lexA + , the dependence I(D) for recA, lexA and recBC strains was a constant. 15 refs.; 6 figs.; 3 tabs

  20. Voluntary Wheel Running in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Jorming; Ladiges, Warren

    2015-12-02

    Voluntary wheel running in the mouse is used to assess physical performance and endurance and to model exercise training as a way to enhance health. Wheel running is a voluntary activity in contrast to other experimental exercise models in mice, which rely on aversive stimuli to force active movement. This protocol consists of allowing mice to run freely on the open surface of a slanted, plastic saucer-shaped wheel placed inside a standard mouse cage. Rotations are electronically transmitted to a USB hub so that frequency and rate of running can be captured via a software program for data storage and analysis for variable time periods. Mice are individually housed so that accurate recordings can be made for each animal. Factors such as mouse strain, gender, age, and individual motivation, which affect running activity, must be considered in the design of experiments using voluntary wheel running. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  1. Reception theory and the Christian reader: A preliminary perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Comhrink

    1983-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been a significant shift in emphasis from text- centred criticism in literature to reader-centred criticism. This new field of criticism, called Reception Theory or Reader Response Criticism, denies the immutable nature of the "text” and regards as its object of study the work of literature that is created through the co-constituent creative and interpre­tive acts o f both writer and reader.

  2. Readers Theatre : Dramatising environment issues for oral skills development

    OpenAIRE

    Paatrick Ng Chin Leong

    2009-01-01

    Readers Theatre was introduced to a class of Japanese students studying intermediate-level English in an international university in Japan. The aim of the study is to investingate whether Readers Theatre enhances the oral skills of Japanese students as they negotiate an environmental issue in English. In my presentation, I will demonstrate how Readers Theatre is implemented in class and the comments by students will be analysed and discussed during the presentation.

  3. Effective action and brane running

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevik, Iver; Ghoroku, Kazuo; Yahiro, Masanobu

    2004-01-01

    We address the renormalized effective action for a Randall-Sundrum brane running in 5D bulk space. The running behavior of the brane action is obtained by shifting the brane position without changing the background and fluctuations. After an appropriate renormalization, we obtain an effective, low energy brane world action, in which the effective 4D Planck mass is independent of the running position. We address some implications for this effective action

  4. Asymmetric information and bank runs

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Chao

    2007-01-01

    It is known that sunspots can trigger panic-based bank runs and that the optimal banking contract can tolerate panic-based runs. The existing literature assumes that these sunspots are based on a publicly observed extrinsic randomizing device. In this paper, I extend the analysis of panic-based runs to include an asymmetric-information, extrinsic randomizing device. Depositors observe different, but correlated, signals on the stability of the bank. I find that if the signals that depositors o...

  5. How to run 100 meters ?

    OpenAIRE

    Aftalion, Amandine

    2016-01-01

    A paraitre dans SIAP; The aim of this paper is to bring a mathematical justification to the optimal way of organizing one's effort when running. It is well known from physiologists that all running exercises of duration less than 3mn are run with a strong initial acceleration and a decelerating end; on the contrary, long races are run with a final sprint. This can be explained using a mathematical model describing the evolution of the velocity, the anaerobic energy, and the propulsive force: ...

  6. A Running Start: Resource Guide for Youth Running Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenny, Seth; Becker, Andrew; Armstrong, Tess

    2016-01-01

    The lack of physical activity is an epidemic problem among American youth today. In order to combat this, many schools are incorporating youth running programs as a part of their comprehensive school physical activity programs. These youth running programs are being implemented before or after school, at school during recess at the elementary…

  7. Changes in Running Mechanics During a 6-Hour Running Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanelli, Nicola; Taboga, Paolo; Lazzer, Stefano

    2017-05-01

    To investigate changes in running mechanics during a 6-h running race. Twelve ultraendurance runners (age 41.9 ± 5.8 y, body mass 68.3 ± 12.6 kg, height 1.72 ± 0.09 m) were asked to run as many 874-m flat loops as possible in 6 h. Running speed, contact time (t c ), and aerial time (t a ) were measured in the first lap and every 30 ± 2 min during the race. Peak vertical ground-reaction force (F max ), stride length (SL), vertical downward displacement of the center of mass (Δz), leg-length change (ΔL), vertical stiffness (k vert ), and leg stiffness (k leg ) were then estimated. Mean distance covered by the athletes during the race was 62.9 ± 7.9 km. Compared with the 1st lap, running speed decreased significantly from 4 h 30 min onward (mean -5.6% ± 0.3%, P running, reaching the maximum difference after 5 h 30 min (+6.1%, P = .015). Conversely, k vert decreased after 4 h, reaching the lowest value after 5 h 30 min (-6.5%, P = .008); t a and F max decreased after 4 h 30 min through to the end of the race (mean -29.2% and -5.1%, respectively, P running, suggesting a possible time threshold that could affect performance regardless of absolute running speed.

  8. The e-Reader — an Educational or an Entertainment Tool? e-Readers in an Academic Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ahlroos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors will discuss a pilot project conducted at the Tritonia Academic Library, Vaasa, in Finland, from September 2010 until May 2011. The project was designed to investigate the application of e-readers in academic settings and to learn how teachers and students experience the use of e-readers in academic education. Four groups of students and one group of teachers used Kindle readers for varied periods of time in different courses. The course material and the textbooks were downloaded on the e-readers. The feedback from the participants was collected through questionnaires and teacher interviews. The results suggest that the e-reader is a future tool for learning, though some features need to be improved before e-readers can really enable efficient learning and researching.

  9. CDF run II run control and online monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arisawa, T.; Ikado, K.; Badgett, W.; Chlebana, F.; Maeshima, K.; McCrory, E.; Meyer, A.; Patrick, J.; Wenzel, H.; Stadie, H.; Wagner, W.; Veramendi, G.

    2001-01-01

    The authors discuss the CDF Run II Run Control and online event monitoring system. Run Control is the top level application that controls the data acquisition activities across 150 front end VME crates and related service processes. Run Control is a real-time multi-threaded application implemented in Java with flexible state machines, using JDBC database connections to configure clients, and including a user friendly and powerful graphical user interface. The CDF online event monitoring system consists of several parts: the event monitoring programs, the display to browse their results, the server program which communicates with the display via socket connections, the error receiver which displays error messages and communicates with Run Control, and the state manager which monitors the state of the monitor programs

  10. A critique of Katz's 'High LET constraint on low LET survival'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, P.R.J.; Chesters, M.S.

    1979-01-01

    Katz's interpretation of the connexion between RBE and LET is contrasted with a version published previously by Burch. The implications of Katz's model for dose-response relations apply only at ultra-high absorbed doses in Burch's model. In the latter, the shoulder on type-C survival curves for mammalian cells is explained in terms of Haynes' repair model. Under certain conditions the repair model becomes mathematically equivalent to the α-β model; under some other conditions it becomes equivalent to the 'two-component' model. The formulation of a new repair hypothesis, based on the idea of an inducible repair mechanism, is also set out. It is argued that Katz's supralinearity index' is appropriate to the induction of (rare) mutations but inappropriate to cell survival, for which an alternative index is proposed. Certain plausible hypotheses of radiobiological action conflict with Katz's 'logical constraint' which, it is contended, is neither logical nor valid. In conclusion, although experimental findings for some radiobiological systems conform to Katz's 'constraint', the frequently observed violations should not necessarily be regarded as artefacts. (author)

  11. Let us make impact assessment more accessible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, Charles C.; Underwood, P. Benjamin

    2003-01-01

    Impact assessment professionals have traditionally written documents for themselves. Often, their work appears to be received with indifference by business professionals and decision makers who have different needs and interests. The two groups conflict when they should be thinking and planning together at the 'big picture' level (including the understanding of the social factors at work in environmental impact assessment) and developing related and workable 'site-specific' implementation that characterizes socially acceptable decision making. To achieve this goal, the IA professional needs to rethink the approach. IA professionals often focus on the traditional 'physical' environment, confining the assessment to facts and figures about hard aspects of the environment. Reams of detailed data are compiled to demonstrate impact assessment and to achieve a degree of certainty and precision. However, the sheer bulk of data assures that it will not be read by those who most need to use it. The IA professional must learn to prepare assessments that effectively consider less quantifiable, 'softer' aspects of the environment. We advocate preparation of an impact analysis that management decision makers and environmental stewards can use as a reference tool. The goal is to reduce or eliminate the hundreds of unread pages containing lengthy modeling runs and obscure details, and instead to prepare documents that are useful in both courtroom and boardroom. This convenient and quick-study 'consumer report' style combines with a tiered decision making process that assures broad long-term thinking and planning, and focused short-term detailed implementation, using a level of detail appropriate to the decision at hand. This methodology integrates social factors into decision making, so as to provide meaningful discussion and analysis. These principles, which have been proven in US boardrooms and courtrooms, will be illustrated with actual examples from broad policy-level impact

  12. Biological fingerprint of high LET radiation. Brenner hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Yoshiaki; Awa, Akio; Nakamura, Nori

    1997-01-01

    Hypothesis by Brenner et al. (1994) that in chromosome aberrations in human peripheral lymphocytes induced by radiation exposure, F value (dicentrics/rings) differs dependently on the LET and can be a biomarker of high LET radiation like neutron and α-ray was reviewed and evaluated as follows. Radiation and chromosome aberrations; in this section, unstable aberrations like dicentric and rings (r) and stable ones like translocation and pericentric inversions were described. F value. Brenner hypothesis. Bauchinger's refutation. F value determined by FISH method; here, FISH is fluorescence in situ hybridization. F value in studies by author's Radiation Effect Research Facility. Frequency of chromosome aberration in A-bomb survivors and ESR (ESR: electron spin resonance). The cause for fluctuation of F values. The Brenner hypothesis could not be supported by studies by author's facility, suggesting that the rate of inter-chromosomal and intra-chromosomal exchange abnormalities can not be distinguishable by the radiation LET. This might be derived from the difference in detection technology of r rather than in LET. (K.H.)

  13. Irradiation of single cells with individual high-LET particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, J.M.; Braby, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    The dose-limiting normal tissue of concern when irradiating head and neck lesions is often the vascular endothelium within the treatment field. Consequently, the response of capillary endothelial cells exposed to moderate doses of high LET particles is essential for establishing exposure limits for neutron-capture therapy. In an effort to characterize the high-LET radiation biology of cultured endothelial cells, the authors are attempting to measure cellular response to single particles. The single-particle irradiation apparatus, described below, allows them to expose individual cells to known numbers of high-LET particles and follow these cells for extended periods, in order to assess the impact of individual particles on cell growth kinetics. Preliminary cell irradiation experiments have revealed complications related to the smooth and efficient operation of the equipment; these are being resolved. Therefore, the following paragraphs deal primarily with the manner by which high LET particles deposit energy, the requirements for single-cell irradiation, construction and assembly of such apparatus, and testing of experimental procedures, rather than with the radiation biology of endothelial cells

  14. Let's Play: Exploring Literacy Practices in an Emerging Videogame Paratext

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burwell, Catherine; Miller, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the literacy practices associated with Let's Play videos (or LPs) on YouTube. A hybrid of digital gaming and video, LPs feature gameplay footage accompanied by simultaneous commentary recorded by the player. Players may set out to promote, review, critique or satirize a game. In recent years, LPs have become hugely popular…

  15. Operation of a hemispherical detector for LET measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schell, M.C.; DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Pearson, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    A hemispherical ΔE/E detector has been constructed and tested for the measurement of linear-energy-transfer distributions of charged particles induced by fast neutrons. The initial performance test results and LET distributions from 14.8-MeV monoenergetic neutron irradiation in free space of carbon, lead, and Al50-plastic are presented

  16. Evaluation of normal tissue responses to high-LET radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halnan, K.E.

    1979-01-01

    Clinical results presented have been analysed to evaluate normal tissue responses to high-LET radiations. Damage to brain, spinal cord, gut, skin, connective tissue and bone has occurred. A high RBE is probable for brain and possible for spinal cord and gut but other reasons for damage are also discussed. A net gain seems likely. Random controlled trials are advocated. (author)

  17. Don't Let Osteoporosis Slow You Down | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... has never let anything stop her from doing what she loves, and she wasn't about to let osteoporosis keep her off the dance floor. It's that kind of spirit that led the National Osteoporosis Foundation (NOF) to ...

  18. Co-editors’ Note to Readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-hsin Yeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dear Cross-Currents readers, We are pleased to present you with the fifteenth quarterly issue of the Cross-Currents e-journal. The research articles in the June 2015 issue—guest edited by Elena Barabantseva (University of Manchester, Xiang Biao (University of Oxford, and Antonia Chao (Tunghai University—explore the theme “Governing Marriage Migrations: Perspectives from Mainland China and Taiwan.” The issue includes five articles by scholars from Japan, Germany, the UK, Taiwan, and Hong Kong who are engaged in critical analysis of cross-border migration for the purpose of marriage in the People’s Republic of China and Taiwan as a subject of governance. As the guest editors emphasize in their introduction, cross-border marriage is “perceived to be inseparable from a wide range of other issues, such as sexual morality, family norms, national identity, and border security.” The contributors—Hongfang Hao (Kyoto University, Caroline Grillot (Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology, Elena Barabantseva (University of Manchester, Mei-Hua Chen (National Sun Yat-sen University, and Hsun-Hui Tseng (Chinese University of Hong Kong—offer valuable new insights on international marriage migration in their multidisciplinary and fieldwork-based studies...

  19. Breaking the Silence: Toward Improving LGBTQ Representation in Composition Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, John

    2014-01-01

    Lesbian-Gay-Bisexual-Transgender-Queer (LGBTQ) representation in composition readers remains limited and is frequently nonexistent. In addition, the LGBTQ-related materials that do find their way into composition readers are often problematic. In this essay I explain why WPAs and composition teachers should be concerned about LGBTQ representation…

  20. Accelerated Reader Program: What Do Teachers Really Think?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Amy Frances; Westberg, Karen; Hejny, Anne

    2017-01-01

    What do teachers really think about the Accelerated Reader program, a widely used supplemental, independent reading program in which their students read fiction and non-fiction books of their choice and take brief online comprehension quizzes about the books? The Accelerated Reader (AR) program was designed by Renaissance Learning Company to…

  1. Eye Movements Reveal Readers' Lexical Quality and Reading Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jessica Nelson; Perfetti, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments demonstrate that individual differences among normal adult readers, including lexical quality, are expressed in silent reading at the word level. In the first of two studies we identified major dimensions of variability among college readers and among words using factor analysis. We then examined the effects of these dimensions of…

  2. Infographics for Educational Purposes: Their Structure, Properties and Reader Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Serkan

    2016-01-01

    Infographics are one of the new educational environments used to provide information to their readers in a visual way. Infographics are designed to provide information to their readers using various visuals such as texts, pictures, drawings, diagrams, graphs, etc. The use of infographics becomes increasingly widespread both in advertising…

  3. How the Relationship between Text and Headings Influences Readers' Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchey, Kristin; Schuster, Jonathan; Allen, Jaryn

    2008-01-01

    Two questions regarding signals' influence on memory were examined. First, the relationship between headings and text was manipulated to determine whether headings serve as visual cues, directing readers to recall all subsequent information, or content-specific cues, directing readers to recall only to certain information. Second, distance between…

  4. Are You Ready for E-Readers in Your Library?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses some things to consider when thinking about adding e-readers to one's collection. These include: (1) What is the purpose?; (2) Which device?; (3) How will one keep track of his or her e-readers and their contents?; (4) What are some potential pitfalls?; (5) Is there a positive impact on student learning?; and (6) Are…

  5. Sexism Springs Eternal--in the Reader's Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimbardo, Philip G.; Meadow, Wendy

    This document reports on an empirical investigation of anti-women humor appearing in the Reader's Digest over three decades, revealing the operation of an unconscious sexist ideology. A systematic analysis was made of 1,069 jokes appearing in two featured columns of the Reader's Digest for the two-year periods 1947-48, 1957-58, and 1967-68.…

  6. A Comparative Review of Stratification Texts and Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peoples, Clayton D.

    2012-01-01

    Social stratification is a core substantive area within sociology. There are a number of textbooks and readers available on the market that deal with this central topic. In this article, I conduct a comparative review of (a) four stratification textbooks and (b) four stratification readers. (Contains 2 tables.)

  7. Chinese Deaf Readers Have Early Access to Parafoveal Semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ming; Pan, Jinger; Bélanger, Nathalie N.; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we manipulated different types of information available in the parafovea during the reading of Chinese sentences and examined how deaf readers make use of the parafoveal information. Results clearly indicate that although the reading-level matched hearing readers make greater use of orthographic information in the parafovea,…

  8. Resolving Struggling Readers' Homework Difficulties: A Social Cognitive Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Howard; Mccabe, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    Struggling readers often fail to complete homework or complete it in a slipshod, haphazard fashion. Often, this adversely affects grades, erodes motivation for academics, and causes conflict between readers, parents, and school personnel. To help teachers and educational consultants (e.g., reading specialists, school psychologists) help struggling…

  9. Organizing Instruction for Struggling Readers in Tutorial Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Kouider; Hutchison, Amy C.; Edwards, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors suggest that many of the problems struggling readers encounter while reading stem from distinct yet fundamental sources of difficulty related to the types of text read (print or online), the task or activity readers engage in, and the sociocultural context of reading. The authors further argue that although these…

  10. Addressing Learning Disabilities with UDL and Technology: Strategic Reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Tracey E.; Cohen, Nicole; Vue, Ge; Ganley, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    CAST created "Strategic Reader," a technology-based system blending Universal Design for Learning (UDL) and Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) in a digital learning environment to improve reading comprehension instruction. This experimental study evaluates the effectiveness of Strategic Reader using two treatment conditions for measuring…

  11. Peace Pilgrim: A Readers Theatre Approach to Peace Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Joanne M.

    Readers theater is a dramatic art that directs attention to the words of a text. During a performance, a reader (rather than an actor) presents and interprets the work within a narrative context intended by the author. In this project, the text, a collection of the words and writings of a woman known as the Peace Pilgrim, tells the story of her…

  12. Finding versus Fixing: Self-Monitoring for Readers Who Struggle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Nancy L.; Kaye, Elizabeth L.

    2017-01-01

    This article explains how teachers can understand, notice, and supportively respond to readers who struggle with self-monitoring during text reading. The unique strategic processing demands for readers who struggle support the argument that teaching children to find and notice errors is different than fixing a word, or getting it right. Three…

  13. Molecular analysis of two genes between let-653 and let-56 in the unc-22(IV) region of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, M A; Prasad, S S; Baillie, D L

    1993-01-01

    A previous study of genomic organization described the identification of nine potential coding regions in 150 kb of genomic DNA from the unc-22(IV) region of Caenorhabditis elegans. In this study, we focus on the genomic organization of a small interval of 0.1 map unit bordered on the right by unc-22 and on the left by the left-hand breakpoints of the deficiencies sDf9, sDf19 and sDf65. This small interval at present contains a single mutagenically defined locus, the essential gene let-56. The cosmid C11F2 has previously been used to rescue let-56. Therefore, at least some of C11F2 must reside in the interval. In this paper, we report the characterization of two coding elements that reside on C11F2. Analysis of nucleotide sequence data obtained from cDNAs and cosmid subclones revealed that one of the coding elements closely resembles aromatic amino acid decarboxylases from several species. The other of these coding elements was found to closely resemble a human growth factor activatable Na+/H+ antiporter. Paris of oligonucleotide primers, predicted from both coding elements, have been used in PCR experiments to position these coding elements between the left breakpoint of sDf19 and the left breakpoint of sDf65, between the essential genes let-653 and let-56.

  14. LESS SKILLED READERS HAVE LESS EFFICIENT SUPPRESSION MECHANISMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    1993-09-01

    One approach to understanding the component processes and mechanisms underlying adult reading skill is to compare the performance of more skilled and less skilled readers on laboratory experiments. The results of some recent experiments employing this approach demonstrate that less skilled adult readers suppress less efficiently the inappropriate meanings of ambiguous words (e.g., the playing card vs. garden tool meanings of spade ), the incorrect forms of homophones (e.g., patients vs. patience ), the typical-but-absent members of scenes (e.g., a tractor in a farm scene), and words superimposed on pictures. Less skilled readers are not less efficient in activating contextually appropriate information; in fact, they activate contextually appropriate information more strongly than more skilled readers do. Therefore, one conclusion that can be drawn from these experiments is that less skilled adult readers suffer from less efficient suppression mechanisms.

  15. Overview of PADC nuclear track readers. Recent trends and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulber, E.

    2009-01-01

    The development of automated track readers dates back to the first routine dosimetry applications of solid state nuclear track detectors. Many research-laboratory track readers and a few commercial systems were introduced in the past 25 years. The traditional application area for high-throughput track readers is radon testing in buildings and fast neutron dosimetry. The latter application, in particular, has considerably increased the need for efficient polyallyldiglycol carbonate (PADC) track reader systems with high throughput. The paper provides an overview of recent trends in the development of high-throughput PADC track readers and it gives a glimpse into the practice of designing this category of devices. A general overview is provided of the technical aspects relating to the optics, the hardware and the track recognition approaches. Ultimate theoretical limits in the performance as well as promising new approaches are addressed. Requirements and practical solutions are illustrated with reference to a commercially available system.

  16. Running continuous academic adoption programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tobias Alsted

    Running successful academic adoption programmes requires executive support, clear strategies, tactical resources and organisational agility. These two presentations will discuss the implementation of strategic academic adoption programs down to very concrete tool customisations to meet specific...

  17. Turkey Run Landfill Emissions Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — landfill emissions measurements for the Turkey run landfill in Georgia. This dataset is associated with the following publication: De la Cruz, F., R. Green, G....

  18. Phthalate SHEDS-HT runs

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Inputs and outputs for SHEDS-HT runs of DiNP, DEHP, DBP. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Moreau, M., J. Leonard, K. Phillips, J. Campbell,...

  19. Examining College Students’ Reading Behaviors and Needs for Ebook Readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Jane Lin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates college students’ reading behaviors and attitudes toward print and electronic carriers of books. With the prosperity and variety of ebook readers currently, it is important to understand the genuine needs of the users to better leverage the features and functions of the ebook readers. The methodology of survey research is conducted to explore 76 undergraduate students’ experiences, preferences and appraisals toward reading via the print books and ebook readers. Generally the college students possess positive attitudes toward and are willing to take advantage of the ebook and ebook reader services provided by libraries, but the current rate of use is low. The results suggested that student adoption of ebook readers are affected by their goals of reading. The college students prefer ebook readers significantly for leisure reading, and highly demand the functionality of multimedia presentations and file management. When reading academic contexts, the college students preferred hardcovers and online ebooks via the Web browser, and they value the functions of searching, marking and file management on ebook readers especially. [Article content in Chinese

  20. Semantic and phonological coding in poor and normal readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellutino, F R; Scanlon, D M; Spearing, D

    1995-02-01

    Three studies were conducted evaluating semantic and phonological coding deficits as alternative explanations of reading disability. In the first study, poor and normal readers in second and sixth grade were compared on various tests evaluating semantic development as well as on tests evaluating rapid naming and pseudoword decoding as independent measures of phonological coding ability. In a second study, the same subjects were given verbal memory and visual-verbal learning tasks using high and low meaning words as verbal stimuli and Chinese ideographs as visual stimuli. On the semantic tasks, poor readers performed below the level of the normal readers only at the sixth grade level, but, on the rapid naming and pseudoword learning tasks, they performed below the normal readers at the second as well as at the sixth grade level. On both the verbal memory and visual-verbal learning tasks, performance in poor readers approximated that of normal readers when the word stimuli were high in meaning but not when they were low in meaning. These patterns were essentially replicated in a third study that used some of the same semantic and phonological measures used in the first experiment, and verbal memory and visual-verbal learning tasks that employed word lists and visual stimuli (novel alphabetic characters) that more closely approximated those used in learning to read. It was concluded that semantic coding deficits are an unlikely cause of reading difficulties in most poor readers at the beginning stages of reading skills acquisition, but accrue as a consequence of prolonged reading difficulties in older readers. It was also concluded that phonological coding deficits are a probable cause of reading difficulties in most poor readers.

  1. LET effect on irradiation of hydroxyphthal imide in alcohol solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, S.; Murakami, T.

    2005-01-01

    Hydroxyphthalimide(C 6 H 4 (CO) 2 -NOH) was irradiated with C ion (290MeV/u) in isopropyl alcohol, methanol, ethanol, and acetonitrile. LET was 13.2 and 26.5 keV/m. Dose was 5 and 10 kGy. A little amount of phthalimide was produced. The G value of the production of phthalimide by ion irradiation was less than that by -irradiation except for in methanol. In methanol solution, the production rate of phthalimide increased with increasing the value of LET. The amount of the substitution for C 6 H 4 (CO) 2 -NOD in methanol-d decreased by ion irradiation. These results suggest that the reaction mechanism in ion irradiation is different from -irradiation. (author)

  2. Neoplastic cell transformation by high-LET radiation - Molecular mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tracy Chui-Hsu; Craise, Laurie M.; Tobias, Cornelius A.; Mei, Man-Tong

    1989-01-01

    Quantitative data were collected on dose-response curves of cultured mouse-embryo cells (C3H10T1/2) irradiated with heavy ions of various charges and energies. Results suggests that two breaks formed on DNA within 80 A may cause cell transformation and that two DNA breaks formed within 20 A may be lethal. From results of experiments with restriction enzymes which produce DNA damages at specific sites, it was found that DNA double strand breaks are important primary lesions for radiogenic cell transformation and that blunt-ended double-strand breaks can form lethal as well as transformational damages due to misrepair or incomplete repair in the cell. The RBE-LET relationship for high-LET radiation is similar to that for HGPRT locus mutation, chromosomal deletion, and cell transformation, indicating that common lesions may be involved in these radiation effects.

  3. Owning, letting and demanding second homes in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloze, Gintautas; Skak, Morten

    with administrative register data and presents estimations of the probability of owning a second home, the decision to let the second home and the number of let weeks per year. Also income elasticities for primary and second housing demand are estimated. We find a conventional monotonic increase in demand...... elasticities for primary housing demand for non-owners of second homes; however, owners of second homes have the highest income elasticity in the middle income group.......An increasing number of households consume housing beyond the primary home as owners of a second home. Economic studies of non-speculative demand for second homeownership are still scarce, and the present empirical study fills this gap to some extent. It is based on Danish survey data combined...

  4. E-Books on the Mobile E-Reader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chulyun Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The market for e-books has been established during the past several years. Many e-book readers are commercially available, and millions of e-book titles are available for purchase or free download. E-paper technology has matured enough to be used as the screen for dedicated e-book readers which make reading possible with the familiar feel of reading printed books. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review of the status of the e-book, including the architecture and features of e-book readers, market adoption and e-book industry ecosystem.

  5. Journal of Clipped Words in Reader's Digest Magazine

    OpenAIRE

    Simanjuntak, Lestari

    2012-01-01

    This study deals with Clipped Words in the “Laughter, the Best Medicine” of Reader's Digest. The objectives of the study are to find out the types of clipped words which are used in the “Laughter, the Best Medicine” of Reader's Digest, to find out sthe dominantly used in the whole story and to reason the dominant clipped word use in the text. The study use descriptive qualitative method. The data were collected from seventeen selected Reader's Digest which contains the clipped word by applie...

  6. Usability and Accessibility of eBay by Screen Reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzi, Maria Claudia; Buzzi, Marina; Leporini, Barbara; Akhter, Fahim

    The evolution of Information and Communication Technology and the rapid growth of the Internet have fuelled a great diffusion of eCommerce websites. Usually these sites have complex layouts crowded with active elements, and thus are difficult to navigate via screen reader. Interactive environments should be properly designed and delivered to everyone, including the blind, who usually use screen readers to interact with their computers. In this paper we investigate the interaction of blind users with eBay, a popular eCommerce website, and discuss how using the W3C Accessible Rich Internet Applications (WAI-ARIA) suite could improve the user experience when navigating via screen reader.

  7. Power Efficient Gurumukhi Unicode Reader Design and Implementation on FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur, Amanpreet; Singh, Sunny; Pandey, Bishwajeet

    2017-01-01

    Gurumukhi is found to be the most widely used language of Pakistan, and it is ranked 3rd in Canada, 7th in India and almost 4th most spoken language in U.K. This Unicode Reader is cost effective solution for learning as well as understanding the Punjabi language by the people across the globe .This...... reader helps the user to understand, whether written text is consonants, vowels or digits of Gurumukhi scripts. This paper can also be the solution to the various problems occurred in research of Punjabi natural language processing. Hardware is designed for Gurumukhi Unicode Reader (GUR...

  8. LET spectrum measurements in Cr-39 PNTD with AFM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Carl Edward; DeWitt, Joel M.; Benton, Eric R.; Yasuda, Nakahiro; Benton, Eugene V.

    2010-01-01

    Energetic protons, neutrons, and heavy ions undergoing collisions with target nuclei of varying Z can produce residual heavy recoil fragments via intra-nuclear cascade/evaporation reactions. The particles produced in these non-elastic collisions generally have such extremely short range (∼< 10 μm) that they cannot be directly observed by conventional detection methods including CR-39 plastic nuclear track detector (PNTD) that has been chemically etched for analysis by standard visible light microscopy. However, high-LET recoil fragments having range on the order of several cell diameters can be produced in tissue during radiotherapy using proton and carbon beams. We have developed a method to analyze short-range, high-LET tracks in CR-39 plastic nuclear track detector (PNTD) using short duration chemical etching (∼< 1 μm) followed by automated atomic force microscope (AFM) scanning. The post-scan data processing used in this work was based on semi-automated matrix analysis opposed to traditional grey-scale image analysis. This method takes advantage of the 3-D data obtained via AFM to achieve robust discrimination of nuclear tracks from other features. Through automation of AFM scanning, sufficient AFM scan frames were obtained to attain an LET spectrum spanning the LET range from 200-1500 keV/μm. In addition to our experiments, simulations were carried out with the Monte Carlo transport code, FLUKA. To demonstrate this method, CR-39 PNTD was exposed to the proton therapy beam at Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC) at 60 and 230 MeV. Additionally, detectors were exposed to I GeV protons at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). For these exposures CR-39 PNTD, Al and Cu target foils were used between detector layers.

  9. Forget about the future - let's get on with the past!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McQuaid, Sara Dybris

    'Forget about the Future - Let's get on with the Past! Trails of truth recovery and provisional justice in Northern Ireland' Abstract: In Northern Ireland an agreed and comprehensive framework for ‘dealing with the past’ has yet to be worked out. In this policy vacuum a bricolage of different met...... demonstrate how initiatives conceived to serve a particular function can often transmute to serve other or additional functions with severe consequences for both the peace process and future policies for the past....

  10. LET spectrum measurements in Cr-39 PNTD with AFM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Carl Edward [Los Alamos National Laboratory; De Witt, Joel M [OSU, PHYSICS; Benton, Eric R [OSU, PHYSICS; Yasuda, Nakahiro [NIRS, HIMAC; Benton, Eugene V [UNIV OF SAN FRANCISCO

    2010-01-01

    Energetic protons, neutrons, and heavy ions undergoing collisions with target nuclei of varying Z can produce residual heavy recoil fragments via intra-nuclear cascade/evaporation reactions. The particles produced in these non-elastic collisions generally have such extremely short range ({approx}< 10 {mu}m) that they cannot be directly observed by conventional detection methods including CR-39 plastic nuclear track detector (PNTD) that has been chemically etched for analysis by standard visible light microscopy. However, high-LET recoil fragments having range on the order of several cell diameters can be produced in tissue during radiotherapy using proton and carbon beams. We have developed a method to analyze short-range, high-LET tracks in CR-39 plastic nuclear track detector (PNTD) using short duration chemical etching ({approx}< 1 {mu}m) followed by automated atomic force microscope (AFM) scanning. The post-scan data processing used in this work was based on semi-automated matrix analysis opposed to traditional grey-scale image analysis. This method takes advantage of the 3-D data obtained via AFM to achieve robust discrimination of nuclear tracks from other features. Through automation of AFM scanning, sufficient AFM scan frames were obtained to attain an LET spectrum spanning the LET range from 200-1500 keV/{mu}m. In addition to our experiments, simulations were carried out with the Monte Carlo transport code, FLUKA. To demonstrate this method, CR-39 PNTD was exposed to the proton therapy beam at Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC) at 60 and 230 MeV. Additionally, detectors were exposed to I GeV protons at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). For these exposures CR-39 PNTD, Al and Cu target foils were used between detector layers.

  11. Let the Data Speak for Themselves: Opportunities and Caveats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koenraad Debackere

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available “Let the data speak for themselves” highlights the tremendous opportunities for scientific inquiry that emerge from the digital and data science revolution. It is obvious that the sophistication of novel data and information science methods offers tremendous opportunities for theory testing, theory advancement, and theory development. In order to fully capture those opportunities, it is important to avoid the slippery slope of pure induction.

  12. THE LET ME LEARN PROFESSIONAL LEARNING PROCESS FOR TEACHER TRANSFORMATION

    OpenAIRE

    Calleja, Colin

    2013-01-01

    This research set out to explore how a group of nine educators from a Catholic Church school in Malta, who have attended the Let Me Learn professional Learning process (LMLpLp), experienced personal and professional transformation. This study investigates those factors influencing participants in their transformative learning journey. It also explores the dynamics of transformative learning and whether individual transformation affects the school’s transformative learning experience. More spe...

  13. Let your communication skills equal your clinical skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarais, Ann; Baum, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Relating effectively with patients is among the most valued skills of clinical care. Honing your communication skills is an art that every physician needs to learn and understand. In this era of increased volume of patients there is a tendency to lose sight of the importance of having good communication skills. This article will review 11 suggestions for letting your communication skills equal your clinical skills.

  14. Internal high linear energy transfer (LET) targeted radiotherapy for cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, Barry J

    2006-01-01

    High linear energy transfer (LET) radiation for internal targeted therapy has been a long time coming on to the medical therapy scene. While fundamental principles were established many decades ago, the clinical implementation has been slow. Localized neutron capture therapy, and more recently systemic targeted alpha therapy, are at the clinical trial stage. What are the attributes of these therapies that have led a band of scientists and clinicians to dedicate so much of their careers? High LET means high energy density, causing double strand breaks in DNA, and short-range radiation, sparing adjacent normal tissues. This targeted approach complements conventional radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Such therapies fail on several fronts. Foremost is the complete lack of progress for the control of primary GBM, the holy grail for cancer therapies. Next is the inability to regress metastatic cancer on a systemic basis. This has been the task of chemotherapy, but palliation is the major application. Finally, there is the inability to inhibit the development of lethal metastatic cancer after successful treatment of the primary cancer. This review charts, from an Australian perspective, the developing role of local and systemic high LET, internal radiation therapy. (review)

  15. How Readers and Advertisers Benefit from Local Newspaper Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Shu-Ling Chen; Everett, Stephen E.

    1989-01-01

    Explores relations among three competitive schemes with respect to newspapers' price structures, including advertising rates and prices to consumers. Finds that readers get some benefit from greater competition, but that advertisers do not. (MM)

  16. 21 CFR 866.2850 - Automated zone reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2850 Automated zone reader... surface of certain culture media used in disc-agar diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility tests. The...

  17. An Interview with Crosby Bonsall: A Writer for Beginning Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Carole

    1985-01-01

    Crosby Bonsall, a prolific author-illustrator for young readers, comments on many topics related to writing, illustrating, and young children's initial independent encounters with print in books. (HOD)

  18. the management of writer-reader interaction in newspaper editorials

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ntsane

    how dialogically expansive and contractive resources are used in this respect in editorials from different ... adopts a particular position and how they interact with potential readers. Engagement ..... An introductory tour through Appraisal Theory.

  19. Harderian Gland Tumorigenesis: Low-Dose and LET Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Polly Y. [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States). Biosciences Div.; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Life Sciences Div.; Cucinotta, Francis A. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Dept. of Health Physics and Diagnostic Sciences; Bjornstad, Kathleen A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Life Sciences Div.; Bakke, James [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States). Biosciences Div.; Rosen, Chris J. [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States). Biosciences Div.; Du, Nicholas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Life Sciences Div.; Fairchild, David G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Life Sciences Div.; Cacao, Eliedonna [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Dept. of Health Physics and Diagnostic Sciences; Blakely, Eleanor A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Life Sciences Div.

    2016-04-19

    Increased cancer risk remains a primary concern for travel into deep space and may preclude manned missions to Mars due to large uncertainties that currently exist in estimating cancer risk from the spectrum of radiations found in space with the very limited available human epidemiological radiation-induced cancer data. Existing data on human risk of cancer from X-ray and gamma-ray exposure must be scaled to the many types and fluences of radiations found in space using radiation quality factors and dose-rate modification factors, and assuming linearity of response since the shapes of the dose responses at low doses below 100 mSv are unknown. The goal of this work was to reduce uncertainties in the relative biological effect (RBE) and linear energy transfer (LET) relationship for space-relevant doses of charged-particle radiation-induced carcinogenesis. The historical data from the studies of Fry et al. and Alpen et al. for Harderian gland (HG) tumors in the female CB6F1 strain of mouse represent the most complete set of experimental observations, including dose dependence, available on a specific radiation-induced tumor in an experimental animal using heavy ion beams that are found in the cosmic radiation spectrum. However, these data lack complete information on low-dose responses below 0.1 Gy, and for chronic low-dose-rate exposures, and there are gaps in the LET region between 25 and 190 keV/μm. In this study, we used the historical HG tumorigenesis data as reference, and obtained HG tumor data for 260 MeV/u silicon (LET ~70 keV/μm) and 1,000 MeV/u titanium (LET ~100 keV/μm) to fill existing gaps of data in this LET range to improve our understanding of the dose-response curve at low doses, to test for deviations from linearity and to provide RBE estimates. Animals were also exposed to five daily fractions of 0.026 or 0.052 Gy of 1,000 MeV/u titanium ions to simulate chronic exposure, and HG tumorigenesis from this fractionated study were compared to the

  20. LESS SKILLED READERS HAVE LESS EFFICIENT SUPPRESSION MECHANISMS

    OpenAIRE

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    1993-01-01

    One approach to understanding the component processes and mechanisms underlying adult reading skill is to compare the performance of more skilled and less skilled readers on laboratory experiments. The results of some recent experiments employing this approach demonstrate that less skilled adult readers suppress less efficiently the inappropriate meanings of ambiguous words (e.g., the playing card vs. garden tool meanings of spade), the incorrect forms of homophones (e.g., patients vs. patien...

  1. Making a Commitment to Strategic-Reader Training

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FREDRICKA L. STOLLER; REIKO KOMIYAMA

    2013-01-01

    Skilled readers by definition are strategic; they are able to use a repertoire of reading strategies , flexibly and in meaningful combinations , to achieve their reading comprehension goals . Thus , one of the aims of foreign and second language (L2) reading curricula should be to move students toward becoming more strategic readers . This curricular orientation can be best achieved when a strong commitment is made to strategic-reader training as a regular and consistent component of instruction across the curriculum . To explore this stance , we examine the reading strategies used by skilled readers , contrast teaching strategies with training strategic readers ( i .e . , strategic-reader training) , and examine five strategic-reader training approaches from first language contexts that can be adapted by L2 professionals to enhance the reading instruction offered in their L 2 classes . The five approaches targeted for exploration include Directed Reading-Thinking Activity , Reciprocal Teaching , Transactional Strategies Instruction , Questioning the Author , and Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction . Though distinct from one another , they all acknowledge the importance of explicit explanations about strategies (or reminders about the use of select strategies) , teacher modeling , scaffolded tasks , active student engagement , student practice , classroom discussions of strategy use , and the gradual release of responsibility to students who eventually decide for themselves (and/or with peers) when , where , and why to use which strategies to achieve their comprehension goals . We conclude with a discussion of the challenges , and suggestions for overcoming them , that L 2 teachers and students often face in making a commitment to strategic-reader training .

  2. Flexible electronics enters the e-reader market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Michael

    2010-02-01

    A company that was spun off from the physics department at the University of Cambridge in the UK 10 years ago released its first product last month. Plastic Logic, founded by Henning Sirringhaus and Richard Friend, launched an electronic reader that can display books, magazines and newspapers on a flexible, lightweight plastic display. The reader commercializes pioneering work first started over 20 years ago at the lab by the two physicists, who are based in the department's optoelectronics group.

  3. Inferential processes in readers with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosende-Vázquez, Marta

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to know if the source of the difficulty in making inferences, readers with Down syndrome, is in access to prior knowledge or constructing ideas from purely textual knowledge (based on Saldaña and Frith, 2002 for autism. Involved a sample of 20 students with Down syndrome and mild mental retardation (mean IQ = 60 and a control group of 20 children without cognitive deficits. They were matched as to their extent read metal age via Prueba de Evaluación del Retraso Lector (average 8 years. We created two experimental situations: a subjects had to generate inferences based on physical knowledge, b social inferences about knowledge. The ability to check and reaction times in the activation of inferences about physical and social knowledge. We also analyzed the influence that the effect "priming". Results showed: a a rate of correct inferences similar verification tasks between the two groups, b Down subjects take longer to access knowledge that the previous text, c reaction times used by subjects Down were higher in activating physical inferences, d there were no significant differences in the population without reaction times gap between physical and social inferences e subjects without deficits benefited effect "priming" in both types of inferences f Down subjects only improve reaction time in the inferences of social nature. El presente estudio pretende conocer si el origen de la dificultad para realizar inferencias, en lectores con Síndrome de Down, se encuentra en el acceso al conocimiento previo o en la construcción de ideas a partir del conocimiento puramente textual (basándonos en Saldaña y Frith, 2002 para autismo. Participó una muestra de 20 alumnos con Síndrome de Down y discapacidad mental leve (media de C.I.= 60 y un grupo control de 20 alumnos sin déficit cognitivo. Ambos fueron igualados en cuanto a su edad mental lectora medida a través de la Prueba de Evaluación del Retraso Lector (media 8 a

  4. Networks of reader and country status: an analysis of Mendeley reader statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Haunschild

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The number of papers published in journals indexed by the Web of Science core collection is steadily increasing. In recent years, nearly two million new papers were published each year; somewhat more than one million papers when primary research papers are considered only (articles and reviews are the document types where primary research is usually reported or reviewed. However, who reads these papers? More precisely, which groups of researchers from which (self-assigned scientific disciplines and countries are reading these papers? Is it possible to visualize readership patterns for certain countries, scientific disciplines, or academic status groups? One popular method to answer these questions is a network analysis. In this study, we analyze Mendeley readership data of a set of 1,133,224 articles and 64,960 reviews with publication year 2012 to generate three different networks: (1 The network based on disciplinary affiliations of Mendeley readers contains four groups: (i biology, (ii social sciences and humanities (including relevant computer sciences, (iii bio-medical sciences, and (iv natural sciences and engineering. In all four groups, the category with the addition “miscellaneous” prevails. (2 The network of co-readers in terms of professional status shows that a common interest in papers is mainly shared among PhD students, Master’s students, and postdocs. (3 The country network focusses on global readership patterns: a group of 53 nations is identified as core to the scientific enterprise, including Russia and China as well as two thirds of the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries.

  5. An IoT Reader for Wireless Passive Electromagnetic Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-Romera, Gabriel; Carnerero-Cano, Javier; Martínez-Martínez, José Juan; Herraiz-Martínez, Francisco Javier

    2017-03-28

    In the last years, many passive electromagnetic sensors have been reported. Some of these sensors are used for measuring harmful substances. Moreover, the response of these sensors is usually obtained with laboratory equipment. This approach highly increases the total cost and complexity of the sensing system. In this work, a novel low-cost and portable Internet-of-Things (IoT) reader for passive wireless electromagnetic sensors is proposed. The reader is used to interrogate the sensors within a short-range wireless link avoiding the direct contact with the substances under test. The IoT functionalities of the reader allows remote sensing from computers and handheld devices. For that purpose, the proposed design is based on four functional layers: the radiating layer, the RF interface, the IoT mini-computer and the power unit. In this paper a demonstrator of the proposed reader is designed and manufactured. The demonstrator shows, through the remote measurement of different substances, that the proposed system can estimate the dielectric permittivity. It has been demonstrated that a linear approximation with a small error can be extracted from the reader measurements. It is remarkable that the proposed reader can be used with other type of electromagnetic sensors, which transduce the magnitude variations in the frequency domain.

  6. Environmental dose measurement with microprocessor based portable TLD reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deme, S.; Apathy, I.; Feher, I.

    1996-01-01

    Application of TL method for environmental gamma-radiation dosimetry involves uncertainty caused by the dose collected during the transport from the point of annealing to the place of exposure and back to the place of evaluation. Should an accident occur read out is delayed due to the need to transport to a laboratory equipped with a TLD reader. A portable reader capable of reading out the TL dosemeter at the place of exposure ('in situ TLD reader') eliminates the above mentioned disadvantages. We have developed a microprocessor based portable TLD reader for monitoring environmental gamma-radiation doses and for on board reading out of doses on space stations. The first version of our portable, battery operated reader (named Pille - 'butterfly') was made at the beginning of the 80s. These devices used CaSO 4 bulb dosemeters and the evaluation technique was based on analogue timing circuits and analogue to digital conversion of the photomultiplier current with a read out precision of 1 μGy and a measuring range up to 10 Gy. The measured values were displayed and manually recorded. The version with an external power supply was used for space dosimetry as an onboard TLD reader

  7. Precise let-7 expression levels balance organ regeneration against tumor suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Linwei; Nguyen, Liem H; Zhou, Kejin; de Soysa, T Yvanka; Li, Lin; Miller, Jason B; Tian, Jianmin; Locker, Joseph; Zhang, Shuyuan; Shinoda, Gen; Seligson, Marc T; Zeitels, Lauren R; Acharya, Asha; Wang, Sam C; Mendell, Joshua T; He, Xiaoshun; Nishino, Jinsuke; Morrison, Sean J; Siegwart, Daniel J; Daley, George Q; Shyh-Chang, Ng; Zhu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    The in vivo roles for even the most intensely studied microRNAs remain poorly defined. Here, analysis of mouse models revealed that let-7, a large and ancient microRNA family, performs tumor suppressive roles at the expense of regeneration. Too little or too much let-7 resulted in compromised protection against cancer or tissue damage, respectively. Modest let-7 overexpression abrogated MYC-driven liver cancer by antagonizing multiple let-7 sensitive oncogenes. However, the same level of overexpression blocked liver regeneration, while let-7 deletion enhanced it, demonstrating that distinct let-7 levels can mediate desirable phenotypes. let-7 dependent regeneration phenotypes resulted from influences on the insulin-PI3K-mTOR pathway. We found that chronic high-dose let-7 overexpression caused liver damage and degeneration, paradoxically leading to tumorigenesis. These dose-dependent roles for let-7 in tissue repair and tumorigenesis rationalize the tight regulation of this microRNA in development, and have important implications for let-7 based therapeutics. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09431.001 PMID:26445246

  8. Letting down Rapunzel: Feminism's Effects on Fairy Tales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Angela

    2015-01-01

    The importance of stories written for young readers is undisputed, and in particular the central place of the fairy story in popular culture is clearly recognized. Whilst most of these stories are centuries old, they have been adapted by the cultures of the tellers to be more compatible with the ideological views of the audience. This article will…

  9. Children's Fitness. Managing a Running Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, J. Scott; Tuckman, Bruce W.

    1987-01-01

    A running program to increase the cardiovascular fitness levels of fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade children is described. Discussed are the running environment, implementation of a running program, feedback, and reinforcement. (MT)

  10. High energy ion irradiation effects on polymer materials. LET dependence of G value of scission of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudoh, H; Sasuga, T; Seguchi, T [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Linear energy transfer (LET) dependence on the probability of main chain scission of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) was investigated. The probability was obtained from decreases in molecular weight measured by the gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and LET was evaluated by TRIM code. The scission probability as a function of LET was almost constant in the low LET, and decreased in the high LET ion irradiation. The mechanism was interpreted from the model of spur-overlapping along an ion`s path. (author)

  11. Barefoot running survey: Evidence from the field

    OpenAIRE

    David Hryvniak; Jay Dicharry; Robert Wilder

    2014-01-01

    Background: Running is becoming an increasingly popular activity among Americans with over 50 million participants. Running shoe research and technology has continued to advance with no decrease in overall running injury rates. A growing group of runners are making the choice to try the minimal or barefoot running styles of the pre-modern running shoe era. There is some evidence of decreased forces and torques on the lower extremities with barefoot running, but no clear data regarding how thi...

  12. When High-Capacity Readers Slow Down and Low-Capacity Readers Speed Up: Working Memory and Locality Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicenboim, Bruno; Logačev, Pavel; Gattei, Carolina; Vasishth, Shravan

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of argument-head distance in SVO and SOV languages (Spanish and German), while taking into account readers' working memory capacity and controlling for expectation (Levy, 2008) and other factors. We predicted only locality effects, that is, a slowdown produced by increased dependency distance (Gibson, 2000; Lewis and Vasishth, 2005). Furthermore, we expected stronger locality effects for readers with low working memory capacity. Contrary to our predictions, low-capacity readers showed faster reading with increased distance, while high-capacity readers showed locality effects. We suggest that while the locality effects are compatible with memory-based explanations, the speedup of low-capacity readers can be explained by an increased probability of retrieval failure. We present a computational model based on ACT-R built under the previous assumptions, which is able to give a qualitative account for the present data and can be tested in future research. Our results suggest that in some cases, interpreting longer RTs as indexing increased processing difficulty and shorter RTs as facilitation may be too simplistic: The same increase in processing difficulty may lead to slowdowns in high-capacity readers and speedups in low-capacity ones. Ignoring individual level capacity differences when investigating locality effects may lead to misleading conclusions.

  13. Red light running camera assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    In the 2004-2007 period, the Mission Street SE and 25th Street SE intersection in Salem, Oregon showed relatively few crashes attributable to red light running (RLR) but, since a high number of RLR violations were observed, the intersection was ident...

  14. Teaching Bank Runs through Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, David T.

    2009-01-01

    The author advocates the use of films to supplement textbook treatments of bank runs and panics in money and banking or general banking classes. Modern students, particularly those in developed countries, tend to be unfamiliar with potential fragilities of financial systems such as a lack of deposit insurance or other safety net mechanisms. Films…

  15. Running and Breathing in Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramble, Dennis M.; Carrier, David R.

    1983-01-01

    Mechanical constraints appear to require that locomotion and breathing be synchronized in running mammals. Phase locking of limb and respiratory frequency has now been recorded during treadmill running in jackrabbits and during locomotion on solid ground in dogs, horses, and humans. Quadrupedal species normally synchronize the locomotor and respiratory cycles at a constant ratio of 1:1 (strides per breath) in both the trot and gallop. Human runners differ from quadrupeds in that while running they employ several phase-locked patterns (4:1, 3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 5:2, and 3:2), although a 2:1 coupling ratio appears to be favored. Even though the evolution of bipedal gait has reduced the mechanical constraints on respiration in man, thereby permitting greater flexibility in breathing pattern, it has seemingly not eliminated the need for the synchronization of respiration and body motion during sustained running. Flying birds have independently achieved phase-locked locomotor and respiratory cycles. This hints that strict locomotor-respiratory coupling may be a vital factor in the sustained aerobic exercise of endothermic vertebrates, especially those in which the stresses of locomotion tend to deform the thoracic complex.

  16. Does Addiction Run in Families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Makes Someone More Likely to Get Addicted to Drugs? Does Addiction Run in Families? Why Is It So Hard ... news is that many children whose parents had drug problems don't become addicted when they grow up. The chances of addiction are higher, but it doesn't have to ...

  17. Running codes through the web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.E.H.

    2001-01-01

    Dr. Clark presented a report and demonstration of running atomic physics codes through the WWW. The atomic physics data is generated from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) codes that calculate electron impact excitation, ionization, photoionization, and autoionization, and inversed processes through detailed balance. Samples of Web interfaces, input and output are given in the report

  18. Echoic memory processes in good and poor readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipe, S; Engle, R W

    1986-07-01

    Four experiments were conducted to determine whether echoic memory plays a role in differences between good and poor readers. The first two experiments used a suffix procedure in which the subject is read a list of digits with either a tone control or the word go appended to the list. For lists that exceeded the length of the subjects memory span by one digit (i.e., that avoided ceiling effects), the poor readers showed a larger decrement in the suffix condition than did the good readers. The third experiment was directed at the question of whether the duration of echoic memory is different for good and poor readers. Children shadowed words presented to one ear at a rate determined to give 75-85% shadowing accuracy. The items presented to the nonattended ear were words and an occasional digit. At various intervals after the presentation of the digit, a light signaled that the subject was to cease shadowing and attempt to recall any digit that had occurred in the nonattended ear recently. Whereas good and poor readers recalled the digit equally if tested immediately after presentation, the poor readers showed a faster decline in recall of the digit as retention interval increased. A fourth experiment was conducted to determine whether the differences in echoic memory were specific to speech stimuli or occurred at a more basic level of aural persistence. Bursts of white noise were separated by 9-400 ms of silence and the subject was to say whether there were one or two sounds presented. There were no differences in detectability functions for good and poor readers.

  19. Visual consequences of electronic reader use: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maducdoc, Marlon M; Haider, Asghar; Nalbandian, Angèle; Youm, Julie H; Morgan, Payam V; Crow, Robert W

    2017-04-01

    With the increasing prevalence of electronic readers (e-readers) for vocational and professional uses, it is important to discover if there are visual consequences in the use of these products. There are no studies in the literature quantifying the incidence or severity of eyestrain, nor are there clinical characteristics that may predispose to these symptoms with e-reader use. The primary objective of this pilot study was to assess the degree of eyestrain associated with e-reader use compared to traditional paper format. The secondary outcomes of this study were to assess the rate of eyestrain associated with e-reader use and identify any clinical characteristics that may be associated with the development of eyestrain. Forty-four students were randomly assigned to study (e-reader iPAD) and control (print) groups. Participant posture, luminosity of the room, and reading distance from reading device were measured during a 1-h session for both groups. At the end of the session, questionnaires were administered to determine symptoms. Significantly higher rates of eyestrain (p = 0.008) and irritation (p = 0.011) were found among the iPAD study group as compared to the print 'control' group. The study group was also 4.9 times more likely to report severe eyestrain (95 % CI [1.4, 16.9]). No clinical characteristics predisposing to eyestrain could be identified. These findings conclude that reading on e-readers may induce increased levels of irritation and eyestrain. Predisposing factors, etiology, and potential remedial interventions remain to be determined.

  20. Protein-directed modulation of high-LET hyperthermic radiosensitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, P.Y.

    1991-01-01

    A pair of Chinese Hamster Ovary cell lines, the wild-type CHO-SC1, and its temperature-sensitive mutant (CHO-tsH1) was used to examine the importance of protein synthesis in the development of thermotolerance. The classical biphasic thermotolerant survival response to hyperthermia was observed in the SC1 cells after continuous heating at 41.5C to 42.5C, while tsH1 showed no thermotolerance. In separate experiments, each cell line was triggered and challenged at 45C. The heat doses were separated with graded incubaton periods at 35C or 40C for thermotolerance development. SC1 cells expressed thermoresistance, with the synthesis of heat shock proteins, under both incubation conditions. tsH1 cells expressed thermotolerance similar to that seen in the SC1 cells when incubated at 35C, but the survival response with the non-permissive 40C incubation was much reduced in the absence of protein synthesis. The combined effects of heavy-ion radiation and hyperthermia were examined using the same cell system. A mild heat dose of 41.5C was used in conjunction with Neon particle radiation of various high LET values. The cell killing effects were highly dependent on the sequence of application of heat and Neon radiation. Heat applied immediately after Neon irradiation was more cytotoxic to SC1 cells than when heat was applied prior to the irradiation. The ability of cells to synthesize new proteins plays a key role in this sequence-dependent thermal radiosensitization. In the absence of protein synthesis in the tsH1 cells, the high-LET thermal enhancement for cell-killing was unchanged regardless of the sequence. In the presence of protein synthetic activity in the SC1 cells, the thermal enhancement of radiation-induced cell killing was LET-dependent

  1. Low LET protons focused to submicrometer shows enhanced radiobiological effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, T E; Zlobinskaya, O; Michalski, D; Molls, M; Multhoff, G; Greubel, C; Hable, V; Girst, S; Siebenwirth, C; Dollinger, G; Schmid, E

    2012-01-01

    This study shows that enhanced radiobiological effectiveness (RBE) values can be generated focusing low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation and thus changing the microdose distribution. 20 MeV protons (LET = 2.65 keV µm −1 ) are focused to submicrometer diameter at the ion microprobe superconducting nanoprobe for applied nuclear (Kern) physics experiments of the Munich tandem accelerator. The RBE values, as determined by measuring micronuclei (RBE MN = 1.48 ± 0.07) and dicentrics (RBE D = 1.92 ± 0.15), in human–hamster hybrid (A L ) cells are significantly higher when 117 protons were focused to a submicrometer irradiation field within a 5.4 × 5.4 µm 2 matrix compared to quasi homogeneous in a 1 × 1 µm 2 matrix applied protons (RBE MN = 1.28 ± 0.07; RBE D = 1.41 ± 0.14) at the same average dose of 1.7 Gy. The RBE values are normalized to standard 70 kV (dicentrics) or 200 kV (micronuclei) x-ray irradiation. The 117 protons applied per point deposit the same amount of energy like a 12 C ion with 55 MeV total energy (4.48 MeV u −1 ). The enhancements are about half of that obtained for 12 C ions (RBE MN = 2.20 ± 0.06 and RBE D = 3.21 ± 0.10) and they are attributed to intertrack interactions of the induced damages. The measured RBE values show differences from predictions of the local effect model (LEM III) that is used to calculate RBE values for irradiation plans to treat tumors with high LET particles. (paper)

  2. Low LET protons focused to submicrometer shows enhanced radiobiological effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, T. E.; Greubel, C.; Hable, V.; Zlobinskaya, O.; Michalski, D.; Girst, S.; Siebenwirth, C.; Schmid, E.; Molls, M.; Multhoff, G.; Dollinger, G.

    2012-10-01

    This study shows that enhanced radiobiological effectiveness (RBE) values can be generated focusing low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation and thus changing the microdose distribution. 20 MeV protons (LET = 2.65 keV µm-1) are focused to submicrometer diameter at the ion microprobe superconducting nanoprobe for applied nuclear (Kern) physics experiments of the Munich tandem accelerator. The RBE values, as determined by measuring micronuclei (RBEMN = 1.48 ± 0.07) and dicentrics (RBED = 1.92 ± 0.15), in human-hamster hybrid (AL) cells are significantly higher when 117 protons were focused to a submicrometer irradiation field within a 5.4 × 5.4 µm2 matrix compared to quasi homogeneous in a 1 × 1 µm2 matrix applied protons (RBEMN = 1.28 ± 0.07; RBED = 1.41 ± 0.14) at the same average dose of 1.7 Gy. The RBE values are normalized to standard 70 kV (dicentrics) or 200 kV (micronuclei) x-ray irradiation. The 117 protons applied per point deposit the same amount of energy like a 12C ion with 55 MeV total energy (4.48 MeV u-1). The enhancements are about half of that obtained for 12C ions (RBEMN = 2.20 ± 0.06 and RBED = 3.21 ± 0.10) and they are attributed to intertrack interactions of the induced damages. The measured RBE values show differences from predictions of the local effect model (LEM III) that is used to calculate RBE values for irradiation plans to treat tumors with high LET particles.

  3. Microdosimetric spectra and parameters of low LET-radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booz, J.

    1976-01-01

    The experimental methods used for the evaluation of the flux averaged lineal energy y and the energy averaged lineal energy ysub(D) are briefly described. The composition of the y-distribution of low LET-radiations are discussed taking into consideration the energy of the electrons causing the event and the influence of their W-values. Some published values of ysub(F) and ysub(D) and their relation to the dimensions of the sensitive volume are analyzed. The wall effect is briefly discussed

  4. Reader error during CT colonography: causes and implications for training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slater, Andrew; Tam, Emily; Gartner, Louise; Scarth, Julia; Peiris, Chand; Gupta, Arun; Marshall, Michele; Burling, David; Taylor, Stuart A.; Halligan, Steve

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the variability in baseline computed tomography colonography (CTC) performance using untrained readers by documenting sources of error to guide future training requirements. Twenty CTC endoscopically validated data sets containing 32 polyps were consensus read by three unblinded radiologists experienced in CTC, creating a reference standard. Six readers without prior CTC training [four residents and two board-certified subspecialty gastrointestinal (GI) radiologists] read the 20 cases. Readers drew a region of interest (ROI) around every area they considered a potential colonic lesion, even if subsequently dismissed, before creating a final report. Using this final report, reader ROIs were classified as true positive detections, true negatives correctly dismissed, true detections incorrectly dismissed (i.e., classification error), or perceptual errors. Detection of polyps 1-5 mm, 6-9 mm, and ≥10 mm ranged from 7.1% to 28.6%, 16.7% to 41.7%, and 16.7% to 83.3%, respectively. There was no significant difference between polyp detection or false positives for the GI radiologists compared with residents (p=0.67, p=0.4 respectively). Most missed polyps were due to failure of detection rather than characterization (range 82-95%). Untrained reader performance is variable but generally poor. Most missed polyps are due perceptual error rather than characterization, suggesting basic training should focus heavily on lesion detection. (orig.)

  5. CT colonography: effect of experience and training on reader performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Stuart A.; Burling, David; Morley, Simon; Bartram, Clive I.; Halligan, Steve; Bassett, Paul; Atkin, Wendy

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate the effect of radiologist experience and increasing exposure to CT colonography on reader performance. Three radiologists of differing general experience (consultant, research fellow, trainee) independently analysed 100 CT colonographic datasets. Readers had no prior experience of CT colonography and received feedback and training after the first 50 cases from an independent experienced radiologist. Diagnostic performance and reporting times were compared for the first and second 50 datasets and compared with the results of a radiologist experienced in CT colonography. Before training only the consultant reader achieved statistical equivalence with the reference standard for detection of larger polyps. After training, detection rates ranged between 25 and 58% for larger polyps. Only the trainee significantly improved after training (P=0.007), with performance of other readers unchanged or even worse. Reporting times following training were reduced significantly for the consultant and fellow (P<0.001 and P=0.03, respectively), but increased for the trainee (P<0.001). In comparison to the consultant reader, the odds of detection of larger polyps was 0.36 (CI 0.16, 0.82) for the fellow and 0.36 (CI 0.14, 0.91) for the trainee. There is considerable variation in the ability to report CT colonography. Prior experience in gastrointestinal radiology is a distinct advantage. Competence cannot be assumed even after directed training via a database of 50 cases. (orig.)

  6. Development of optically stimulated luminescence reader systems in BARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    BARC has very vast experience in the development of thermoluminescence (TL) reader systems both for routine personnel monitoring and research application. However, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) related instrumentation is a recent development in BARC. The increasing popularity of OSL technique in the radiation dosimetry applications in the recent past has driven investigation and developmental programme in the OSL measurement facilities at BARC. As the consequence of the efforts directed towards the indigenous development of OSL reader system, OSL readers with various readout modes like continuous wave (CW) OSL mode, linear intensity modulated OSL (LM-OSL), pulsed OSL (POSL) have been developed. In addition to these conventional modes of operation a novel non-linear OSL mode (NL-OSL) has also been developed for the OSL measurements. This paper reviews the details of the development of OSL reader system including experience with high intensity blue/green LED stimulation light source and detection system. Also discussed are recently developed versatile integrated TL/OSL reader systems for TL and OSL measurements. (author)

  7. A study on the development of an infographic reader questionnaire and reader opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yıldırım Serkan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Educational materials are commonly used to assist with communication during learning. One of the ways to determine the use of educational materials and their contribution to the learning process is to ask students for their opinions. Student opinions provide useful information regarding various objectives such as making both the learning process and resources more effective, bringing about the necessary improvements and organising the teaching process. In this study, we developed a questionnaire for determining the opinions of information graphics (infographics readers on information graphics prepared for teaching purposes. This study was conducted in the fall semester of the 2013-2014 academic year with the participation of 59 students from the Department of Computer and Instructional Technologies Education of the Kazım Karabekir Faculty of Education. The students were provided with a questionnaire consisting of 29 items that inquired their opinions on infographics. The collected data were assessed using Principal Component Analysis. Based on the analysis results, a second questionnaire consisting of 23 items and six factors (Learnability, Selection Preferences, Sharing, Basic Presentation Structure, Memorability, and Role in the Learning Process was developed. According to the study results, the students considered infographics as highly instructive, and described that they help ensure a more lasting learning experience.

  8. Mutagenic action of radiation with different LET on Bacillus subtilis cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    edinennyj Inst. Yadernykh Issledovanij, Dubna (Russian Federation))" data-affiliation=" (Obedinennyj Inst. Yadernykh Issledovanij, Dubna (Russian Federation))" >Borejko, A.V.; edinennyj Inst. Yadernykh Issledovanij, Dubna (Russian Federation))" data-affiliation=" (Obedinennyj Inst. Yadernykh Issledovanij, Dubna (Russian Federation))" >Krasavin, E.A.

    1997-01-01

    The induction of the his - -> his + mutants in vegetative and spores of Bacillus subtilis wild type cells irradiated with γ-rays and helium ions (LET = 20-80 keV/μm) has been investigated. It was shown that the dose dependence of the mutation induction in vegetative cells is described by a linear-quadratic function of dose in case of both γ-rays and helium ions. RBE (LET) dependencies on the lethal and mutagenic effect of radiation have a local maximum. The maximum of RBE (LET) dependence on the mutagenic assay is shifted at the low region of LET in comparison with the lethal effect of irradiation. (author)

  9. The let-7/Lin28 axis regulates activation of hepatic stellate cells in alcoholic liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Kelly; Huang, Li; Sato, Keisaku; Wu, Nan; Annable, Tami; Zhou, Tianhao; Ramos-Lorenzo, Sugeily; Wan, Ying; Huang, Qiaobing; Francis, Heather; Glaser, Shannon; Tsukamoto, Hidekazu; Alpini, Gianfranco; Meng, Fanyin

    2017-07-07

    The let-7/Lin28 axis is associated with the regulation of key cellular regulatory genes known as microRNAs in various human disorders and cancer development. This study evaluated the role of the let-7/Lin28 axis in regulating a mesenchymal phenotype of hepatic stellate cells in alcoholic liver injury. We identified that ethanol feeding significantly down-regulated several members of the let-7 family in mouse liver, including let-7a and let-7b. Similarly, the treatment of human hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) significantly decreased the expressions of let-7a and let-7b. Conversely, overexpression of let-7a and let-7b suppressed the myofibroblastic activation of cultured human HSCs induced by LPS and TGF-β, as evidenced by repressed ACTA2 (α-actin 2), COL1A1 (collagen 1A1), TIMP1 (TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor 1), and FN1 (fibronectin 1); this supports the notion that HSC activation is controlled by let-7. A combination of bioinformatics, dual-luciferase reporter assay, and Western blot analysis revealed that Lin28B and high-mobility group AT-hook (HMGA2) were the direct targets of let-7a and let-7b. Furthermore, Lin28B deficiency increased the expression of let-7a/let-7b as well as reduced HSC activation and liver fibrosis in mice with alcoholic liver injury. This feedback regulation of let-7 by Lin28B is verified in hepatic stellate cells isolated by laser capture microdissection from the model. The identification of the let-7/Lin28 axis as an important regulator of HSC activation as well as its upstream modulators and down-stream targets will provide insights into the involvement of altered microRNA expression in contributing to the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver fibrosis and novel therapeutic approaches for human alcoholic liver diseases. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Preventing Running Injuries through Barefoot Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Priscilla M.; Smith, Darla R.

    2008-01-01

    Running has become a very popular lifetime physical activity even though there are numerous reports of running injuries. Although common theories have pointed to impact forces and overpronation as the main contributors to chronic running injuries, the increased use of cushioning and orthotics has done little to decrease running injuries. A new…

  11. Factors determinating the shape of survival curves of Escherichia coli cells irradiated by ionizing radiation with different LET. The dependence of the shape of survival curve on LET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozubek, S.; Krasavin, E.A.; Fajsi, Ch.

    1984-01-01

    The dependence of the shape of bacterial sUrvival curve in the case of Escherichia coli Wild type, rec - and pol - mutants on linear energy transfer is considered. When increasing LET of the radiation the shouldered survival curves are transformed to exponential ones. In the case of sensitive mutants the transformation is observed for smaller values of LET. The dependence of cell sensitivity on LET calculated on the basis of Landau-Vavilov distribution is compared with earlier calculations. The comparison showed a good agreement between two methods of calculation for ions with 4 MeV per nucleon energy

  12. How to diagnose any type of TLD Reader?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Manuel Lopez; Garcia, Jose A. Tamayo; Gil, Alex Vergara; Lores, Stefan Gutierrez; Acosta, Andry Romero; Villanueva, Gilberto Alonso

    2013-01-01

    The acquisition of know how of practical experiences obtained in the repair and maintenance of readers TLD RADOS for five years of work and the request by the International Atomic Energy for signing new Research Contracts (CRP), made possible the CRP 13328, in which the specialist is committed in the course of a year, to deliver educational software in order to train personnel associated with the operation of the TLD readers RADOS. Due to the importance of continuous transfer of knowledge for new generations of technicians and specialists who join our laboratories, the idea came when the first interactive CD that grouped 19 videos, divided into three blocks was ready: learning, repair and maintenance; it was suggested to expand the training for any TLD reader. Thus a much more complete than the first version package emerged. 7 cases were subsequently published in an IAEA TECDOC, 1599 were included

  13. Running: Improving Form to Reduce Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Running is often perceived as a good option for "getting into shape," with little thought given to the form, or mechanics, of running. However, as many as 79% of all runners will sustain a running-related injury during any given year. If you are a runner-casual or serious-you should be aware that poor running mechanics may contribute to these injuries. A study published in the August 2015 issue of JOSPT reviewed the existing research to determine whether running mechanics could be improved, which could be important in treating running-related injuries and helping injured runners return to pain-free running.

  14. Polarisation analysis on the LET time-of-flight spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, G. J.; Košata, J.; Devonport, M.; Galsworthy, P.; Bewley, R. I.; Voneshen, D. J.; Dalgliesh, R.; Stewart, J. R.

    2017-06-01

    We present a design for implementing uniaxial polarisation analysis on the LET cold neutron time-of-flight spectrometer, installed on the second target station at ISIS. The polarised neutron beam is to be produced by a transmission-based supermirror polariser with the polarising mirrors arranged in a “double-V” formation. This will be followed by a Mezei-type precession coil spin flipper, selected for its small spatial requirements, as well as a permanent magnet guide field to transport the beam polarisation to the sample position. The sample area will contain a set of holding field coils, whose purpose is to produce a highly homogenous magnetic field for the wide-angle 3He analyser cell. To facilitate fast cell changes and reduce the risk of cell failure, we intend to separate the cell and cryostat from the vacuum of the sample tank by installing both in a vessel at atmospheric pressure. When the instrument upgrade is complete, the performance of LET is expected to be commensurate with existing and planned polarised cold neutron spectrometers at other sources. Finally, we discuss the implications of performing uniaxial polarisation analysis only, and identify quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) on ionic conducting materials as an interesting area to apply the technique.

  15. Calculated LET spectrum from antiproton beams stopping in water

    CERN Document Server

    Bassler, Niels

    2009-01-01

    Antiprotons have been proposed as a potential modality for radiotherapy because the annihilation at the end of range leads to roughly a doubling of physical dose in the Bragg peak region. So far it has been anticipated that the radiobiology of antiproton beams is similar to that of protons in the entry region of the beam, but very different in the annihilation region, due to the expected high-LET components resulting from the annihilation. On closer inspection we find that calculations of dose averaged LET in the entry region may suggest that the RBE of antiprotons in the plateau region could significantly differ from unity, which seems to warrant closer inspection of the radiobiology in this region. Materials and Methods. Monte Carlo simulations using FLUKA were performed for calculating the entire particle spectrum of a beam of 126 MeV antiprotons hitting a water phantom. Results and Discussion. In the plateau region of the simulated antiproton beam we observe a dose-averaged unrestrict...

  16. Run-off from roofs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roed, J.

    1985-01-01

    In order to find the run-off from roof material a roof has been constructed with two different slopes (30 deg C and 45 deg C). Beryllium-7 and caesium-137 has been used as tracers. Considering new roof material the pollution removed by runoff processes has been shown to be very different for various roof materials. The pollution is much more easily removed from silicon-treated material than from porous red-tile roof material. Caesium is removed more easily than beryllium. The content of caesium in old roof materials is greater in red-tile than in other less-porous materials. However, the measured removal from new material does not correspond to the amount accumulated in the old. This could be explained by weathering and by saturation effects. This last effect is probably the more important. The measurements on old material indicates a removal of 44-86% of the caesium pollution by run-off, whereas the measurement on new showed a removal of only 31-50%. It has been demonstrated that the pollution concentration in the run-off water could be very different from that in rainwater. The work was part of the EEC Radiation Protection Programme and done under a subcontract with Association Euratom-C.E.A. No. SC-014-BIO-F-423-DK(SD) under contract No. BIO-F-423-81-F. (author)

  17. Better in the long run

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Last week, the Chamonix workshop once again proved its worth as a place where all the stakeholders in the LHC can come together, take difficult decisions and reach a consensus on important issues for the future of particle physics. The most important decision we reached last week is to run the LHC for 18 to 24 months at a collision energy of 7 TeV (3.5 TeV per beam). After that, we’ll go into a long shutdown in which we’ll do all the necessary work to allow us to reach the LHC’s design collision energy of 14 TeV for the next run. This means that when beams go back into the LHC later this month, we’ll be entering the longest phase of accelerator operation in CERN’s history, scheduled to take us into summer or autumn 2011. What led us to this conclusion? Firstly, the LHC is unlike any previous CERN machine. Because it is a cryogenic facility, each run is accompanied by lengthy cool-down and warm-up phases. For that reason, CERN’s traditional &...

  18. LHC Report: Positive ion run!

    CERN Multimedia

    Mike Lamont for the LHC Team

    2011-01-01

    The current LHC ion run has been progressing very well. The first fill with 358 bunches per beam - the maximum number for the year - was on Tuesday, 15 November and was followed by an extended period of steady running. The quality of the beam delivered by the heavy-ion injector chain has been excellent, and this is reflected in both the peak and the integrated luminosity.   The peak luminosity in ATLAS reached 5x1026 cm-2s-1, which is a factor of ~16 more than last year's peak of 3x1025 cm-2s-1. The integrated luminosity in each of ALICE, ATLAS and CMS is now around 100 inverse microbarn, already comfortably over the nominal target for the run. The polarity of the ALICE spectrometer and solenoid magnets was reversed on Monday, 28 November with the aim of delivering another sizeable amount of luminosity in this configuration. On the whole, the LHC has been behaving very well recently, ensuring good machine availability. On Monday evening, however, a faulty level sensor in the cooling towe...

  19. GASIFICATION TEST RUN TC06

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southern Company Services, Inc.

    2003-08-01

    This report discusses test campaign TC06 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) Transport Reactor train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (Siemens Westinghouse) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The Transport Reactor is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed reactor designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier using a particulate control device (PCD). The Transport Reactor was operated as a pressurized gasifier during TC06. Test run TC06 was started on July 4, 2001, and completed on September 24, 2001, with an interruption in service between July 25, 2001, and August 19, 2001, due to a filter element failure in the PCD caused by abnormal operating conditions while tuning the main air compressor. The reactor temperature was varied between 1,725 and 1,825 F at pressures from 190 to 230 psig. In TC06, 1,214 hours of solid circulation and 1,025 hours of coal feed were attained with 797 hours of coal feed after the filter element failure. Both reactor and PCD operations were stable during the test run with a stable baseline pressure drop. Due to its length and stability, the TC06 test run provided valuable data necessary to analyze long-term reactor operations and to identify necessary modifications to improve equipment and process performance as well as progressing the goal of many thousands of hours of filter element exposure.

  20. Running jobs in the vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNab, A; Stagni, F; Garcia, M Ubeda

    2014-01-01

    We present a model for the operation of computing nodes at a site using Virtual Machines (VMs), in which VMs are created and contextualized for experiments by the site itself. For the experiment, these VMs appear to be produced spontaneously 'in the vacuum' rather having to ask the site to create each one. This model takes advantage of the existing pilot job frameworks adopted by many experiments. In the Vacuum model, the contextualization process starts a job agent within the VM and real jobs are fetched from the central task queue as normal. An implementation of the Vacuum scheme, Vac, is presented in which a VM factory runs on each physical worker node to create and contextualize its set of VMs. With this system, each node's VM factory can decide which experiments' VMs to run, based on site-wide target shares and on a peer-to-peer protocol in which the site's VM factories query each other to discover which VM types they are running. A property of this system is that there is no gate keeper service, head node, or batch system accepting and then directing jobs to particular worker nodes, avoiding several central points of failure. Finally, we describe tests of the Vac system using jobs from the central LHCb task queue, using the same contextualization procedure for VMs developed by LHCb for Clouds.

  1. Cognitive Processes in Discourse Comprehension: Passive Processes, Reader-Initiated Processes, and Evolving Mental Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, Paul; Helder, Anne

    2017-01-01

    As readers move through a text, they engage in various types of processes that, if all goes well, result in a mental representation that captures their interpretation of the text. With each new text segment the reader engages in passive and, at times, reader-initiated processes. These processes are strongly influenced by the readers'…

  2. Struggling Readers: Assessment and Instruction in Grades K-6. Solving Problems in the Teaching of Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balajthy, Ernest; Lipa-Wade, Sally

    This book focuses on three distinct types of struggling readers that teachers will instantly recognize from their own classrooms--the "Catch-On Reader," the "Catch-Up Reader," and the "Stalled Reader." The book provides detailed case studies which bring to life the specific problems these students are likely to face…

  3. Using Twitter to Teach Reader-Oriented Biblical Interpretation: "Tweading" the Gospel of Mark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Robert, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Twitter offers an engaging way to introduce students to reader-oriented interpretation of the Bible. The exercise described here introduces students to the idea that the reader has a role in the production of a text's meaning, which thus varies from reader to reader. Twitter enables us to capture the real-time thoughts of a variety of…

  4. How Do Fluent and Poor Readers' Endurance Differ in Reading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastug, Muhammet; Keskin, Hasan Kagan; Akyol, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    It was observed in this research how endurance status of fluent readers and poor readers changed as the text became longer. 40 students of the primary school 4th-grade, 20 were fluent readers and other 20 were poor readers, participated in the research. A narrative text was utilised in the data collection process. Students' oral readings were…

  5. When high-capacity readers slow down and low-capacity readers speed up: Working memory and locality effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno eNicenboim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effects of argument-head distance in SVO and SOV languages (Spanish and German, while taking into account readers’ working memory capacity and controlling for expectation (Levy, 2008 and other factors. We predicted only locality effects, that is, a slow-down produced by increased dependency distance (Gibson, 2000; Lewis & Vasishth, 2005. Furthermore, we expected stronger locality effects for readers with low working memory capacity. Contrary to our predictions, low-capacity readers showed faster reading with increased distance, while high-capacity readers showed locality effects. We suggest that while the locality effects are compatible with memory-based explanations, the speedup of low-capacity readers can be explained by an increased probability of retrieval failure. We present a computational model based on ACT-R built under the previous assumptions, which is able to give a qualitative account for the present data and can be tested in future research. Our results suggest that in some cases, interpreting longer RTs as indexing increased processing difficulty and shorter RTs as facilitation may be too simplistic: The same increase in processing difficulty may lead to slowdowns in high-capacity readers and speedups in low-capacity ones. Ignoring individual level capacity differences when investigating locality effects may lead to misleading conclusions.

  6. Collider shot setup for Run 2 observations and suggestions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annala, J.; Joshel, B.

    1996-01-01

    This note is intended to provoke discussion on Collider Run II shot setup. We hope this is a start of activities that will converge on a functional description of what is needed for shot setups in Collider Run II. We will draw on observations of the present shot setup to raise questions and make suggestions for the next Collider run. It is assumed that the reader has some familiarity with the Collider operational issues. Shot setup is defined to be the time between the end of a store and the time the Main Control Room declares colliding beams. This is the time between Tevatron clock events SCE and SCB. This definition does not consider the time experiments use to turn on their detectors. This analysis was suggested by David Finley. The operational scenarios for Run II will require higher levels of reliability and speed for shot setup. See Appendix I and II. For example, we estimate that a loss of 3 pb -1 /week (with 8 hour stores) will occur if shot setups take 90 minutes instead of 30 minutes. In other words: If you do 12 shots for one week and accept an added delay of one minute in each shot, you will loose more than 60 nb -1 for that week alone (based on a normal shot setup of 30 minutes). These demands should lead us to be much more pedantic about all the factors that affect shot setups. Shot setup will be viewed as a distinct process that is composed of several inter- dependent 'components': procedures, hardware, controls, and sociology. These components don't directly align with the different Accelerator Division departments, but are topical groupings of the needed accelerator functions. Defining these components, and categorizing our suggestions within them, are part of the goal of this document. Of course, some suggestions span several of these components

  7. Run Clever - No difference in risk of injury when comparing progression in running volume and running intensity in recreational runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramskov, Daniel; Rasmussen, Sten; Sørensen, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    Background/aim: The Run Clever trial investigated if there was a difference in injury occurrence across two running schedules, focusing on progression in volume of running intensity (Sch-I) or in total running volume (Sch-V). It was hypothesised that 15% more runners with a focus on progression...... in volume of running intensity would sustain an injury compared with runners with a focus on progression in total running volume. Methods: Healthy recreational runners were included and randomly allocated to Sch-I or Sch-V. In the first eight weeks of the 24-week follow-up, all participants (n=839) followed...... participants received real-time, individualised feedback on running intensity and running volume. The primary outcome was running-related injury (RRI). Results: After preconditioning a total of 80 runners sustained an RRI (Sch-I n=36/Sch-V n=44). The cumulative incidence proportion (CIP) in Sch-V (reference...

  8. MicroRNA let-7, T cells, and patient survival in colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Ruoxu; Nishihara, Reiko; Cao, Yin; Hamada, Tsuyoshi; Mima, Kosuke; Masuda, Atsuhiro; Masugi, Yohei; Shi, Yan; Gu, Mancang; Li, Wanwan; da Silva, Annacarolina; Nosho, Katsuhiko; Zhang, Xuehong; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Chan, Andrew T.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Qian, Zhi Rong; Ogino, Shuji

    2016-01-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that the let-7 family of noncoding RNAs suppresses adaptive immune responses, contributing to immune evasion by the tumor. We hypothesized that the amount of let-7a and let-7b expression in colorectal carcinoma might be associated with limited T-lymphocyte infiltrates in the tumor microenvironment and worse clinical outcome. Utilizing the molecular pathological epidemiology resources of 795 rectal and colon cancers in two U.S.-nationwide prospective cohort studies, we measured tumor-associated let-7a and let-7b expression levels by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR, and CD3+, CD8+, CD45RO (PTPRC)+, and FOXP3+ cell densities by tumor tissue microarray immunohistochemistry and computer-assisted image analysis. Logistic regression analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression were used to assess associations of let-7a (and let-7b) expression (quartile predictor variables) with T-cell densities (binary outcome variables) and mortality, respectively, controlling for tumor molecular features, including microsatellite instability, CpG island methylator phenotype, LINE-1 methylation, and KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA mutations. Compared with cases in the lowest quartile of let-7a expression, those in the highest quartile were associated with lower densities of CD3+ [multivariate odds ratio (OR), 0.40; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.23 to 0.67; Ptrend = 0.003] and CD45RO+ cells (multivariate OR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.17 to 0.58; Ptrend = 0.0004), and higher colorectal cancer-specific mortality (multivariate hazard ratio, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.42 to 3.13; Ptrend = 0.001). In contrast, let-7b expression was not significantly associated with T-cell density or colorectal cancer prognosis. Our data support the role of let-7a in suppressing antitumor immunity in colorectal cancer, and suggest let-7a as a potential target of immunotherapy. PMID:27737877

  9. High and Low LET Radiation Differentially Induce Normal Tissue Damage Signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemantsverdriet, Maarten; Goethem, Marc-Jan van; Bron, Reinier; Hogewerf, Wytse; Brandenburg, Sytze; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Luijk, Peter van; Coppes, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy using high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation is aimed at efficiently killing tumor cells while minimizing dose (biological effective) to normal tissues to prevent toxicity. It is well established that high LET radiation results in lower cell survival per absorbed dose than low LET radiation. However, whether various mechanisms involved in the development of normal tissue damage may be regulated differentially is not known. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate whether two actions related to normal tissue toxicity, p53-induced apoptosis and expression of the profibrotic gene PAI-1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor 1), are differentially induced by high and low LET radiation. Methods and Materials: Cells were irradiated with high LET carbon ions or low LET photons. Cell survival assays were performed, profibrotic PAI-1 expression was monitored by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and apoptosis was assayed by annexin V staining. Activation of p53 by phosphorylation at serine 315 and serine 37 was monitored by Western blotting. Transfections of plasmids expressing p53 mutated at serines 315 and 37 were used to test the requirement of these residues for apoptosis and expression of PAI-1. Results: As expected, cell survival was lower and induction of apoptosis was higher in high -LET irradiated cells. Interestingly, induction of the profibrotic PAI-1 gene was similar with high and low LET radiation. In agreement with this finding, phosphorylation of p53 at serine 315 involved in PAI-1 expression was similar with high and low LET radiation, whereas phosphorylation of p53 at serine 37, involved in apoptosis induction, was much higher after high LET irradiation. Conclusions: Our results indicate that diverse mechanisms involved in the development of normal tissue damage may be differentially affected by high and low LET radiation. This may have consequences for the development and manifestation of normal tissue damage.

  10. Using Randomized Clinical Trials to Determine the Impact of Reading Intervention on Struggling Adolescent Readers: Reports of Research from Five Nationally Funded Striving Readers Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loadman, William; Sprague, Kim; Hamilton, Jennifer; Coffey, Deb; Faddis, Bonnie

    2010-01-01

    In 2005, the U.S. Department of Education awarded eight Striving Readers grants to projects around the country. The goal of Striving Readers is to improve literacy skills and achievement for struggling readers in middle and high school and to increase the research base using randomized clinical research to address improvement in adolescent…

  11. LHCb siliicon detectors: the Run 1 to Run 2 transition and first experience of Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Rinnert, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    LHCb is a dedicated experiment to study New Physics in the decays of heavy hadrons at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The detector includes a high precision tracking system consisting of a silicon-strip vertex detector (VELO) surrounding the pp interaction region, a large- area silicon-strip detector located upstream of a dipole magnet (TT), and three stations of silicon- strip detectors (IT) and straw drift tubes placed downstream (OT). The operational transition of the silicon detectors VELO, TT and IT from LHC Run 1 to Run 2 and first Run 2 experiences will be presented. During the long shutdown of the LHC the silicon detectors have been maintained in a safe state and operated regularly to validate changes in the control infrastructure, new operational procedures, updates to the alarm systems and monitoring software. In addition, there have been some infrastructure related challenges due to maintenance performed in the vicinity of the silicon detectors that will be discussed. The LHCb silicon dete...

  12. Connectionist agent-based learning in bank-run decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weihong; Huang, Qiao

    2018-05-01

    It is of utter importance for the policy makers, bankers, and investors to thoroughly understand the probability of bank-run (PBR) which was often neglected in the classical models. Bank-run is not merely due to miscoordination (Diamond and Dybvig, 1983) or deterioration of bank assets (Allen and Gale, 1998) but various factors. This paper presents the simulation results of the nonlinear dynamic probabilities of bank runs based on the global games approach, with the distinct assumption that heterogenous agents hold highly correlated but unidentical beliefs about the true payoffs. The specific technique used in the simulation is to let agents have an integrated cognitive-affective network. It is observed that, even when the economy is good, agents are significantly affected by the cognitive-affective network to react to bad news which might lead to bank-run. Both the rise of the late payoffs, R, and the early payoffs, r, will decrease the effect of the affective process. The increased risk sharing might or might not increase PBR, and the increase in late payoff is beneficial for preventing the bank run. This paper is one of the pioneers that links agent-based computational economics and behavioral economics.

  13. Barefoot running: does it prevent injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kelly; Curry, Emily J; Matzkin, Elizabeth G

    2013-11-01

    Endurance running has evolved over the course of millions of years and it is now one of the most popular sports today. However, the risk of stress injury in distance runners is high because of the repetitive ground impact forces exerted. These injuries are not only detrimental to the runner, but also place a burden on the medical community. Preventative measures are essential to decrease the risk of injury within the sport. Common running injuries include patellofemoral pain syndrome, tibial stress fractures, plantar fasciitis, and Achilles tendonitis. Barefoot running, as opposed to shod running (with shoes), has recently received significant attention in both the media and the market place for the potential to promote the healing process, increase performance, and decrease injury rates. However, there is controversy over the use of barefoot running to decrease the overall risk of injury secondary to individual differences in lower extremity alignment, gait patterns, and running biomechanics. While barefoot running may benefit certain types of individuals, differences in running stance and individual biomechanics may actually increase injury risk when transitioning to barefoot running. The purpose of this article is to review the currently available clinical evidence on barefoot running and its effectiveness for preventing injury in the runner. Based on a review of current literature, barefoot running is not a substantiated preventative running measure to reduce injury rates in runners. However, barefoot running utility should be assessed on an athlete-specific basis to determine whether barefoot running will be beneficial.

  14. HTML 5 up and running

    CERN Document Server

    Pilgrim, Mark

    2010-01-01

    If you don't know about the new features available in HTML5, now's the time to find out. This book provides practical information about how and why the latest version of this markup language will significantly change the way you develop for the Web. HTML5 is still evolving, yet browsers such as Safari, Mozilla, Opera, and Chrome already support many of its features -- and mobile browsers are even farther ahead. HTML5: Up & Running carefully guides you though the important changes in this version with lots of hands-on examples, including markup, graphics, and screenshots. You'll learn how to

  15. Inequality in the long run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piketty, Thomas; Saez, Emmanuel

    2014-05-23

    This Review presents basic facts regarding the long-run evolution of income and wealth inequality in Europe and the United States. Income and wealth inequality was very high a century ago, particularly in Europe, but dropped dramatically in the first half of the 20th century. Income inequality has surged back in the United States since the 1970s so that the United States is much more unequal than Europe today. We discuss possible interpretations and lessons for the future. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  16. Electroweak processes at Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Spalla, Margherita; Sestini, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    We present a summary of the studies of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model at LHC after the first year of data taking of Run2, focusing on possible results to be achieved with the analysis of full 2015 and 2016 data. We discuss the measurements of W and Z boson production, with particular attention to the precision determination of basic Standard Model parameters, and the study of multi-boson interactions through the analysis of boson-boson final states. This work is the result of the collaboration between scientists from the ATLAS, CMS and LHCb experiments.

  17. Running gratings in photoconductive materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kukhtarev, N. V.; Kukhtareva, T.; Lyuksyutov, S. F.

    2005-01-01

    Starting from the three-dimensional version of a standard photorefractive model (STPM), we obtain a reduced compact Set of equations for an electric field based on the assumption of a quasi-steady-state fast recombination. The equations are suitable for evaluation of a current induced by running...... gratings at small-contrast approximation and also are applicable for the description of space-charge wave domains. We discuss spatial domain and subharmonic beam formation in bismuth silicon oxide (BSO) crystals in the framework of the small-contrast approximation of STPM. The experimental results...

  18. The Role of Hand Dominance in Beginning Braille Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Tessa

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author examines the role of "hand dominance" in beginning braille readers. "Hand dominance" refers to whether an individual is "right handed" or "left handed." The data for these analyses were taken from the Alphabetic Braille and Contracted Braille Study (ABC Braille Study). The ABC Braille Study was a five-year nonrandomized…

  19. Moral Choices in Contemporary Society: A Courses by Newspaper Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieff, Philip, Ed.; Finkle, Isaac, Ed.

    This reader, which contains 135 primary source readings about morality, is one of several college-level instructional materials developed to supplement a nationwide newspaper course on moral issues in contemporary society. The authors represent a diverse group including theologians, psychologists, politicians, professional athletes, lawyers, and…

  20. 3,000 Paper Cranes: Children's Literature for Remedial Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumaker, Marjorie P.; Shumaker, Ronald C.

    1988-01-01

    Describes how the educational experience of sixth grade remedial readers was revitalized and enriched through a project that grew out of reading "Sadako and the Thousand Paper Cranes." Suggests using "real" books (literature) to liberate remedial students from skill drills and reading games. (NH)

  1. The Fluid Reading Primer: Animated Decoding Support for Emergent Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellweger, Polle T.; Mackinlay, Jock D.

    A prototype application called the Fluid Reading Primer was developed to help emergent readers with the process of decoding written words into their spoken forms. The Fluid Reading Primer is part of a larger research project called Fluid Documents, which is exploring the use of interactive animation of typography to show additional information in…

  2. Scaffolding or Distracting: CD-ROM Storybooks and Young Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearman, Cathy J.; Chang, Ching-Wen

    2010-01-01

    CD-ROM storybooks, often referred to as electronic texts, e-books, and interactive stories, are learning tools with supplemental features such as automatic reading of text, sound effects, word pronunciations, and graphic animations which support the development of reading skills and comprehension in beginning readers. Some CD-ROM storybooks also…

  3. English for Mass Communications and for Other Purposes-Readers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was an investigation into the way readers perceive the use of English, for different purposes, and in particular, for mass communication in a second language setting. For this purpose, a simple questionnaire in form of the Likert rating scale was used to generate data. The study involved 337 respondents.

  4. Medical Readers' Theater: Relevance to Geriatrics Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Johanna; Cho, Beverly

    2011-01-01

    Medical Readers' Theater (MRT) is an innovative and simple way of helping medical students to reflect on difficult-to-discuss topics in geriatrics medical education, such as aging stereotypes, disability and loss of independence, sexuality, assisted living, relationships with adult children, and end-of-life issues. The authors describe a required…

  5. Verbal Processing Reaction Times in "Normal" and "Poor" Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, Jack; And Others

    After it had been determined that reaction time (RT) was a sensitive measure of hemispheric dominance in a verbal task performed by normal adult readers, the reaction times of three groups of subjects (20 normal reading college students, 12 normal reading third graders and 11 poor reading grade school students) were compared. Ss were exposed to…

  6. ReaderBench: An Integrated Cohesion-Centered Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dascalu, Mihai; Stavarache, Lucia Larise; Dessus, Philippe; Trausan-Matu, Stefan; McNamara, Danielle S.; Bianco, Maryse

    2015-01-01

    Dascalu, M., Stavarache, L.L., Dessus, P., Trausan-Matu, S., McNamara, D.S., & Bianco, M. (2015). ReaderBench: An Integrated Cohesion-Centered Framework. In G. Conole, T. Klobucar, C. Rensing, J. Konert & É. Lavoué (Eds.), 10th European Conf. on Technology Enhanced Learning (pp. 505–508). Toledo,

  7. Child Readers and the Worlds of the Picture Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Adela; Laugharne, Janet; Maagerø, Eva; Tønnessen, Elise Seip

    2016-01-01

    Children as readers of picture books and the ways they respond to, and make meaning from, such texts are the focus of this article, which reports on a small-scale study undertaken in Norway and Wales, UK. The theoretical framing of the research draws on concepts of the multimodal ensemble in picture books and of the reading event as part of a…

  8. The Role of Reader in Felpo Filva, by Eva Furnari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elvira L. Gebara

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze the relationship between writer-reader and mediation of the text, it is necessary to identify the positions they occupy. Before the Internet, it was not common for the reader to approach the writer directly, except though letters. This virtual (but not digital contact is modelling to understand the reader’s relationship with the author because, in the written lines, he ends up indicating how he understands himself and the other – in a game of faces, understood in this work as Kerbrat-Orecchioni (2006 it characterizes in conversation. In this hyper-gender, without socio-historical restrictions or of categorization (MAINGUENEAU, 2010, there is a mandatory provision that constrains the sender to identify his position from the moment he chooses how to address the recipient. In these forms of treatment, the relationships of preservation or threat to the in the light of what is extended or made explicit in the treatment given to the theme of the letter to be outlined. This article aims to identify the concepts of the reader in the correspondence exchanged by the main characters, Charlô and Felpo, core of the development of the narrative (FURNARI, 2006. These concepts allow us to comprehend, in a discursive and dialogical perspective, which boundaries remain for the reader towards the text and which are outdated.

  9. Video Vortex reader II: moving images beyond YouTube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lovink, G.; Somers Miles, R.

    2011-01-01

    Video Vortex Reader II is the Institute of Network Cultures' second collection of texts that critically explore the rapidly changing landscape of online video and its use. With the success of YouTube ('2 billion views per day') and the rise of other online video sharing platforms, the moving image

  10. Dose reader of dosimetric foil; Czytnik dawki folii dozymetrycznej

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machaj, B.; Strzalkowski, J.; Smolko, K.

    1997-12-31

    Read out the absorbance of a dosimetric foil is accomplished by two beam spectrophotometer. Such a solution makes possible the compensation of light source instabilities and ensures higher stability of the dose reader. The error of absorbance measurement caused by the instabilities does not exceed 0.0004 A. (author). 3 refs, 3 figs.

  11. Readers' opinion about English original articles in Ugeskrift for Laeger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jan; Rosberg, Hanne Mohr; Rosenberg, J.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Danish Medical Association performed a survey together with TNS Gallup Denmark among the readers of Ugeskrift for Laeger (Journal of the Danish Medical Association). The main motivation for the questionnaire was to evaluate the acceptability of changing the publication language...

  12. Spongelike Acquisition of Sight Vocabulary in Beginning Readers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Morag; Masterson, Jackie; Dixon, Maureen

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the relation between phonological awareness, sound-to-letter mapping knowledge, and printed word learning in novice five-year-old readers. Explores effects of visual memory and of teaching methods. Finds mental representations of printed words are more easily formed by beginners who are able to match at least some of the phonological…

  13. Dewitt Wallace-Reader's Digest Fund National Library Power Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Library Media Annual (SLMA), 1993

    1993-01-01

    Describes the National Library Power Program, a collaborative effort sponsored by the Dewitt Wallace-Reader's Digest Fund in cooperation with local education funds and public school districts that was designed to create public elementary and middle school library programs that are central to the education program of the school. (LRW)

  14. Guiding the Gifted Reader. ERIC Digest #E481.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsted, Judith Wynn

    This digest offers guidelines in providing challenging reading opportunities for gifted students. Research findings concerning the characteristics of the gifted child as reader (e.g., they read earlier, better and more) are noted. Specific needs of gifted learners can be met by: using literature as a supplement to the readings in basal texts;…

  15. Prosodic Awareness and Punctuation Ability in Adult Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggie, Lindsay; Wade-Woolley, Lesly

    2018-01-01

    We examined the relationship between two metalinguistic tasks: prosodic awareness and punctuation ability. Specifically, we investigated whether adults' ability to punctuate was related to the degree to which they are aware of and able to manipulate prosody in spoken language. English-speaking adult readers (n = 115) were administered a receptive…

  16. Selecting literature for beginner readers in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hibbert, Liesel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores complexities of choosing appropriate reading material which may provide maximum engagement for beginner readers in Southern Africa, with the aim of instilling a lifelong love of reading. The article presents a case in favour of literary criteria as base line for choices of reading material for beginner readers. Furthermore, the article outlines general characteristics of reading material for beginner readers, as well as specific criteria to be considered in the Southern African context, taking into account the linguistic diversity which exists in formal education and the vast literacy backlog in the region. Furthermore, it is argued that translated children’s stories should ideally be adapted rather than literally translated, in order to meet the requirements of what is universally regarded as good children’s literature for beginner readers. A culture of reading can only be instilled by adhering to the following criteria, i.e. ensuring affective engagement, maximum meaning-making potential, delight, the engagement of the imagination for the purposes of developing the creative mind, and strong identification with the material for the purposes of developing a sense of agency.

  17. Supporting Struggling Readers in Secondary School Science Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Kelly D.; Takahashi, Kiriko; Park, Hye-Jin; Stodden, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Many secondary school students struggle to read complex expository text such as science textbooks. This article provides step-by-step guidance on how to foster expository reading for struggling readers in secondary school science classes. Two strategies are introduced: Text-to-Speech (TTS) Software as a reading compensatory strategy and the…

  18. The influence of psychological type preferences on readers trying To ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Around 65% could do so ('imaginers') and 35% could not. The likelihood of being an imaginer was higher among (i) women than among men, (ii) those who preferred intuition to sensing or feeling to thinking, and (iii) those who were most charismatically active. Readers with intuition as their dominant function were most ...

  19. The Impact of Open Licensing on the Early Reader Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Neil; Hoosen, Sarah; Levey, Lisbeth; Moore, Derek

    2016-01-01

    The Impact of Open Licensing on the Early Reader Ecosystem examines how to use open licensing to promote quality learning resources for young children that are relevant and interesting. Research in early reading tends to focus on traditional publishing value and supply chains, without taking much consideration of new approaches and solutions…

  20. Technology for the Struggling Reader: Free and Easily Accessible Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkeley, Sheri; Lindstrom, Jennifer H.

    2011-01-01

    A fundamental problem for many struggling readers, their parents, and their teachers is that there are few benchmarks to guide decision making about assistive technological supports when the nature of a disability is cognitive (e.g., specific learning disability, SLD) rather than physical. However, resources such as the National Center on…

  1. Improving the Performance of Poor Readers through Autogenic Relaxation Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Herbert

    1980-01-01

    Reports that the addition of 15 minutes of relaxation training to weekly remedial reading periods for disabled readers throughout a school year raised concentration levels and decreased anxiety, neuroticism, and number of reading errors. Describes a few types of relaxation exercises that may be helpful. (ET)

  2. ELISA reader does not interfere by mobile phone radiofrequency radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Mohammad Javad Mortazavi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: This study showed that ELISA reader does not interfere by mobile phone RF radiation at a closed contact (less than 5 cm distance. However, we recommend that medical institutions discuss these issues in the context of their specific use of technologies and frame a policy that is clear and straightforward to guide staff, patients, and visitors.

  3. Learning Strategies in Proficient and Less Proficient Readers in Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemati, Majid; Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali Salmani; Ashrafzadeh, Anis

    2010-01-01

    The current study aimed to diagnose the probable significant differences in the use of language learning strategies among medical-text readers of opposite sex from different levels of proficiency. 120 (N = 120) participants were randomly selected from Azad Medical University of Mashhad: 60 medical students (age range 23-25; 30 = male and 30 =…

  4. Reader practice in mammography screen reporting in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, W.; Poulos, A.; Brennan, P.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Reader variability is a problem in mammography image reporting and compromises the efficacy of screening programmes. The purpose of this exploratory study was to survey reader practice in reporting screening mammograms in Australia to identify aspects of practice that warrant further investigation. Mammography reporting practice and influences on concentration and attention were investigated by using an original questionnaire distributed to screen readers in Australia. A response rate of 71% (83 out of 117) was achieved. Demographic data indicated that the majority of readers were over 46 years of age (73%), have been reporting on screening mammograms for over 10 years (61%), take less than 1 min to report upon a screening mammogram examination (66%), report up to 200 examinations in a single session (83%) and take up to 2 h to report one session (61%). A majority report on more than 5000 examinations annually (66%); 93% of participants regard their search strategy as systematic, 87% agreed that their concentration can vary throughout a session, 64% agreed that the relatively low number of positives can lead to lapses in concentration and attention and almost all (94%) participants agreed that methods to maximise concentration should be explored. Participants identified a range of influences on concentration within their working environment including volume of images reported in one session, image types and aspects of the physical environment. This study has provided important evidence of the need to investigate adverse influences on concentration during mammography screen reporting

  5. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part II. Sun story. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    Magazine articles which focus on the subject of solar energy are presented. The booklet prepared is the second of a four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. Excerpts from the magazines include the history of solar energy, mythology and tales, and selected poetry on the sun. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)

  6. Kindling: The Amazon e-Reader as an Educational Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezicki, Colin

    2011-01-01

    The revolutionary electronic reading device, Amazon's Kindle, is already obsolete. Such is the breakneck speed of technology that the machine touted to spell the death of printed books is already heading for the scrap heap, replaced by e-readers like the iPad that access the Internet, make phone calls, download movies, and connect users with all…

  7. The Development of Visual Search Strategies in Biscriptal Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liow, Susan Rikard; Green, David; Tam, Melissa

    1999-01-01

    To test whether cognitive processing in bilingual depends on script combinations and language proficiency, this study investigated the development of alphabetic and logographic visual search strategies in two kinds of biscriptals: (1) Malay-English and (2) Chinese-English readers. Results support the view that there are script implications of…

  8. Trends in Teacher Certification: Equipping Teachers to Prepare Proficient Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Ensuring that students are reading proficiently by third grade is a key component of keeping students on track to graduate high school and pursue college and careers. Because of the magnitude of this academic milestone, states typically pursue policies that promote early identification and intervention for struggling readers. However, teachers are…

  9. A new microcontroller-based RADFET dosimeter reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasović, Nikola D.; Ristić, Goran S.

    2012-01-01

    A new reader for radiation dose measurements using RADFET (pMOSFET) dosemeters has been developed. The threshold voltage (V T ) of the pMOSFETs is measured using a “one-point” method that determines V T as the gate voltage for a given drain current. Using V T , the absorbed dose, which is directly proportional to the threshold voltage shift, is calculated. The reader is based on a low cost 8-bit PIC 18F4520 microcontroller (MCU), and works independently of a personal computer, uses a touch screen and stores the data in microcontroller memory. Good agreement in threshold voltage values, obtained using a high-quality source-measure unit and the reader, was obtained. In addition, the reader can be used for threshold voltage measurement with other types of MOSFETs, especially in long duration experiments, as well as for the real-time measurements in radiotherapy, either as an autonomous system or integrated in a larger monitoring configuration.

  10. Reader Response and the Verbal Icon: Implications for English Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harker, W. John

    During the past 15 years, a fundamental change has taken place in literary criticism, with a decline in New Criticism (literature viewed as a public object) and an increase in reader response criticism (literature viewed as a private experience). New Critics considered the meaning of a literary text to exist within the text as an independent and…

  11. Students Attendance Management System Based On RFID And Fingerprint Reader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moth Moth Myint Thein

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Today students class attendance is become more important part for any organizationsinstitutions. The conventional method of taking attendance by calling names or signing on paper is very time consuming and insecure hence inefficient. This paper presents the manual students attendance management into computerized system for convenience or data reliability. So the system is developed by the integration of ubiquitous computing systems into classroom for managing the students attendance using RFID and fingerprint reader. The system is designed to implement an attendance management system based on RFID and fingerprint reader which students need to use their student identification card ID and their finger ID to success the attendance where only authentic student can be recorded the attendance during the class. In this system passive RFID tag and reader pairs are used to register the student ID cards individually and fingerprint reader is used for attendance. This system takes attendance electronically with the help of the RFID and finger print device and the records of the attendance are stored in a database. Students roll call percentages and their details are easily seenvia Graphical User Interface GUI. This system will have the required databases for students attendance teachers subjects and students details. This application is implemented by Microsoft Visual Studio and Microsoft SQL Server as IDE. C language is used to implement this system.

  12. Empowering Adolescent Readers: Intertextuality in Three Novels by David Almond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Don

    2008-01-01

    In "Skellig," "Kit's Wilderness," and "Clay", David Almond employs various types of intertextuality to enrich his narratives. Through the use of allusion, adaptation, collage, and mise-en-abyme, he encourages his adolescent readers to seek out precursor texts and to consider the interrelationships between these texts and his own. By so doing, he…

  13. Building the Foundation for Close Reading with Developing Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Sheila F.; McEnery, Lillian

    2017-01-01

    Close Reading utilizes several strategies to help readers think more critically about a text. Close reading can be performed within the context of shared readings, read-alouds by the teacher, literature discussion groups, and guided reading groups. Students attempting to more closely read difficult texts may benefit from technologies and platforms…

  14. 14 CFR 151.47 - Performance of construction work: Letting of contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Development Projects § 151.47 Performance of construction work: Letting of contracts. (a) Advertising required... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Performance of construction work: Letting... project, each contract for construction work on a project in the amount of more than $2,000 must be...

  15. Let7a involves in neural stem cell differentiation relating with TLX level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Juhyun [Department of Anatomy, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyoung Joo; Oh, Yumi [Department of Anatomy, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); BK21 Plus Project for Medical Sciences, and Brain Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Eun, E-mail: jelee@yuhs.ac [Department of Anatomy, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); BK21 Plus Project for Medical Sciences, and Brain Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-10

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) have the potential for differentiation into neurons known as a groundbreaking therapeutic solution for central nervous system (CNS) diseases. To resolve the therapeutic efficiency of NSCs, recent researchers have focused on the study on microRNA's role in CNS. Some micro RNAs have been reported significant functions in NSC self-renewal and differentiation through the post-transcriptional regulation of neurogenesis genes. MicroRNA-Let7a (Let7a) has known as the regulator of diverse cellular mechanisms including cell differentiation and proliferation. In present study, we investigated whether Let7a regulates NSC differentiation by targeting the nuclear receptor TLX, which is an essential regulator of NSC self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation. We performed the following experiments: western blot analysis, TaqMan assay, RT-PCR, and immunocytochemistry to confirm the alteration of NSCs. Our data showed that let7a play important roles in controlling NSC fate determination. Thus, manipulating Let-7A and TLX could be a novel strategy to enhance the efficiency of NSC's neuronal differentiation for CNS disorders. - Highlights: • Let7a influences on NSC differentiation and proliferation. • Let7a involves in mainly NSC differentiation rather than proliferation. • Let7a positively regulates the TLX expression.

  16. Let7a involves in neural stem cell differentiation relating with TLX level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Juhyun; Cho, Kyoung Joo; Oh, Yumi; Lee, Jong Eun

    2015-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) have the potential for differentiation into neurons known as a groundbreaking therapeutic solution for central nervous system (CNS) diseases. To resolve the therapeutic efficiency of NSCs, recent researchers have focused on the study on microRNA's role in CNS. Some micro RNAs have been reported significant functions in NSC self-renewal and differentiation through the post-transcriptional regulation of neurogenesis genes. MicroRNA-Let7a (Let7a) has known as the regulator of diverse cellular mechanisms including cell differentiation and proliferation. In present study, we investigated whether Let7a regulates NSC differentiation by targeting the nuclear receptor TLX, which is an essential regulator of NSC self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation. We performed the following experiments: western blot analysis, TaqMan assay, RT-PCR, and immunocytochemistry to confirm the alteration of NSCs. Our data showed that let7a play important roles in controlling NSC fate determination. Thus, manipulating Let-7A and TLX could be a novel strategy to enhance the efficiency of NSC's neuronal differentiation for CNS disorders. - Highlights: • Let7a influences on NSC differentiation and proliferation. • Let7a involves in mainly NSC differentiation rather than proliferation. • Let7a positively regulates the TLX expression

  17. Enabling narrative pedagogy: inviting, waiting, and letting be.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ironside, Pamela M

    2014-01-01

    This article describes how teachers enable Narrative Pedagogy in their courses by explicating the Concernful Practice Inviting: Waiting and Letting Be. Narrative Pedagogy, a research-based, phenomenological approach to teaching and learning, extends conventional pedagogies and offers nursing faculty an alternative way of transforming their schools and courses. Using hermeneutic phenomenology, interview data collected over a 10-year period were analyzed by coding practical examples of teachers' efforts to enact Narrative Pedagogy. When Narrative Pedagogy is enacted, teachers and students focus on thinking and learning together about nursing phenomena and seek new understandings about how they may provide care in the myriad situations they encounter. Although the Concernful Practices co-occur, explicating inviting experiences can assist new teachers, and those seeking to extend their pedagogical literacy, by providing new understandings of how Narrative Pedagogy can be enacted.

  18. Creating effective social marketing: let your customer be your guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, R

    2000-02-01

    Social marketing uses commercial marketing techniques to change behaviors that benefit individuals or society in general. Unlike conventional marketing, which seeks to sell products or services, social marketing aims to promote voluntary behavior change. Some examples of behaviors that have changed due to social marketing are: using seat belts, wearing bike helmets, child immunizations, and smoking cessation. Although good social marketing campaigns use the same techniques as that of commercial marketers, by letting the customer be the guide for all major decisions, it is not primarily advertising and is not about top-down planning and decisions. Instead, it is about having a consumer orientation, which means understanding the target audience very well. An effective social marketer must be committed to ongoing communication with the audience in order to create programs, products, or practice that enable them to make the changes desired.

  19. The PS locomotive runs again

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Over forty years ago, the PS train entered service to steer the magnets of the accelerator into place... ... a service that was resumed last Tuesday. Left to right: Raymond Brown (CERN), Claude Tholomier (D.B.S.), Marcel Genolin (CERN), Gérard Saumade (D.B.S.), Ingo Ruehl (CERN), Olivier Carlier (D.B.S.), Patrick Poisot (D.B.S.), Christian Recour (D.B.S.). It is more than ten years since people at CERN heard the rumbling of the old PS train's steel wheels. Last Tuesday, the locomotive came back into service to be tested. It is nothing like the monstrous steel engines still running on conventional railways -just a small electric battery-driven vehicle employed on installing the magnets for the PS accelerator more than 40 years ago. To do so, it used the tracks that run round the accelerator. In fact, it is the grandfather of the LEP monorail. After PS was commissioned in 1959, the little train was used more and more rarely. This is because magnets never break down, or hardly ever! In fact, the loc...

  20. Suppression of MicroRNA let-7a Expression by Agmatine Regulates Neural Stem Cell Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Juhyun; Oh, Yumi; Kim, Jong Youl; Cho, Kyoung Joo; Lee, Jong Eun

    2016-11-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) effectively reverse some severe central nervous system (CNS) disorders, due to their ability to differentiate into neurons. Agmatine, a biogenic amine, has cellular protective effects and contributes to cellular proliferation and differentiation in the CNS. Recent studies have elucidated the function of microRNA let-7a (let-7a) as a regulator of cell differentiation with roles in regulating genes associated with CNS neurogenesis. This study aimed to investigate whether agmatine modulates the expression of crucial regulators of NSC differentiation including DCX, TLX, c-Myc, and ERK by controlling let-7a expression. Our data suggest that high levels of let-7a promoted the expression of TLX and c-Myc, as well as repressed DCX and ERK expression. In addition, agmatine attenuated expression of TLX and increased expression of ERK by negatively regulating let-7a. Our study therefore enhances the present understanding of the therapeutic potential of NSCs in CNS disorders.

  1. Analysis of mutagenic effects induced by carbon beams at different LET in a red yeast strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Haining; Wang Jufang; Ma Shuang; Lu Dong; Wu Xin; Li Wenjian

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate inactive and mutagenic effects of carbon beam at different LET, the inactivation cross section and mutation cross section induced by carbon beams of different LET values were investigated in a red yeast strain Rhodotorula glutinis AY 91015. It was found that the maximum inactivation cross section of 4.37μm 2 , which was very close to the average nucleus cross section, was at LET of 120.0 keV/μm. The maximum mutation cross section was at LET of 96.0 keV/μm. Meanwhile, the highest mutagenicity of carbon ion was found around 58.2 keV/μm. It implied that the most efficient LET to induce mutation in survival yeasts was 58.2 keV/μm, which corresponded to energy of 35 MeV/u carbon beam. The most effective carbon beam to induce inactivation and mutation located at different energy region. (authors)

  2. Potential proteins targeted by let-7f-5p in HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Chen, Xiujuan; Zhang, Yi; Song, Jiandong

    2017-07-24

    MicroRNAs are a class of small, endogenous, non-coding RNAs mediating posttranscriptional gene silencing. The current authors hypothesized that let-7f-5p is likely involved in cell invasion and proliferation by regulating the expression of target genes. The current study combined let-7f-5p with iTRAQ to assess its effect on gene expression in HeLa cells. Results indicated that 164 proteins were expressed at different levels in HeLa cells overexpressing let-7f-5p and negative controls and that 172 proteins were expressed at different levels in let-7f-5p-silenced HeLa cells and negative controls. Results indicated that let-7f-5p may suppress insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA binding protein 1 (IGF2BP1) in HeLa cells.

  3. Effect of Minimalist Footwear on Running Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillinov, Stephen M.; Laux, Sara; Kuivila, Thomas; Hass, Daniel; Joy, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although minimalist footwear is increasingly popular among runners, claims that minimalist footwear enhances running biomechanics and efficiency are controversial. Hypothesis: Minimalist and barefoot conditions improve running efficiency when compared with traditional running shoes. Study Design: Randomized crossover trial. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Methods: Fifteen experienced runners each completed three 90-second running trials on a treadmill, each trial performed in a different type of footwear: traditional running shoes with a heavily cushioned heel, minimalist running shoes with minimal heel cushioning, and barefoot (socked). High-speed photography was used to determine foot strike, ground contact time, knee angle, and stride cadence with each footwear type. Results: Runners had more rearfoot strikes in traditional shoes (87%) compared with minimalist shoes (67%) and socked (40%) (P = 0.03). Ground contact time was longest in traditional shoes (265.9 ± 10.9 ms) when compared with minimalist shoes (253.4 ± 11.2 ms) and socked (250.6 ± 16.2 ms) (P = 0.005). There was no difference between groups with respect to knee angle (P = 0.37) or stride cadence (P = 0.20). When comparing running socked to running with minimalist running shoes, there were no differences in measures of running efficiency. Conclusion: When compared with running in traditional, cushioned shoes, both barefoot (socked) running and minimalist running shoes produce greater running efficiency in some experienced runners, with a greater tendency toward a midfoot or forefoot strike and a shorter ground contact time. Minimalist shoes closely approximate socked running in the 4 measurements performed. Clinical Relevance: With regard to running efficiency and biomechanics, in some runners, barefoot (socked) and minimalist footwear are preferable to traditional running shoes. PMID:26131304

  4. Mind the Gap: Bridging the Divide between Non-Readers and Lifelong Readers with Hi-Lo Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Carrie

    2011-01-01

    In the past few years, there has been increasing demand from school librarians for books for "reluctant readers"--despite the impressive offering of children's literature published each year and the success of blockbuster series like "Harry Potter, Diary of a Wimpy Kid, Twilight," and "Hunger Games," among others. This is also in addition to all…

  5. Pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 polymorphism is associated with gastric cancer prognosis and might affect mature let-7a expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Y

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ying Li, Qian Xu, Jingwei Liu, Caiyun He, Quan Yuan, Chengzhong Xing, Yuan Yuan Tumor Etiology and Screening Department of Cancer Institute and General Surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, and Key Laboratory of Cancer Etiology and Prevention (China Medical University, Liaoning Provincial Education Department, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The relationship between the pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 polymorphism and gastric cancer (GC risk has been reported. However, the role of this polymorphism in the prognosis of GC remains largely elusive. Sequenom MassARRAY platform method and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism were used to investigate pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 G→A in 334 GC patients. Real-time PCR detected expression of mature let-7a in serum and tissue. Patients with AA or GA+AA genotypes of the pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 polymorphism demonstrated significantly longer survival time than those with the wild GG genotype. Stratified analysis indicated that survival time was significantly longer in women with AA or GA+AA genotypes and in Borrmann type I/II patients with GA heterozygote or GA+AA genotypes. AA genotype was more frequent in the lymphatic-metastasis-negative subgroup. Serum mature let-7a expression in healthy people with the GA heterozygote and the GA+AA genotype was higher than in those with the GG genotype, and the difference remained significant in the female healthy subgroup. Pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 polymorphism might be a biomarker for GC prognosis, especially for female and Borrmann type I/II patients. The pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 polymorphism might affect serum mature let-7a expression, and partly explain the mechanism of the relationship between the pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 polymorphism and GC survival. Keywords: miRNA, let-7a, polymorphism, gastric cancer, prognosis, expression

  6. Running Parallel Discrete Event Simulators on Sierra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, P. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jefferson, D. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-12-03

    In this proposal we consider porting the ROSS/Charm++ simulator and the discrete event models that run under its control so that they run on the Sierra architecture and make efficient use of the Volta GPUs.

  7. ATLAS inner detector: the Run 1 to Run 2 transition, and first experience from Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Dobos, Daniel; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is equipped with a tracking system, the Inner Detector, built using different technologies, silicon planar sensors (pixel and micro-strip) and gaseous drift- tubes, all embedded in a 2T solenoidal magnetic field. For the LHC Run II, the system has been upgraded; taking advantage of the long showdown, the Pixel Detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to surface, to equip it with new service quarter panels, to repair modules and to ease installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL), a fourth layer of pixel detectors, installed in May 2014 between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm from the beam axis. To cope with the high radiation and pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point and the increase of Luminosity that LHC will face in Run-2, a new read-out chip within CMOS 130nm and two different silicon sensor pixel technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed. SCT and TRT systems consolidation was also carri...

  8. Adding run history to CLIPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Sharon M.; Eick, Christoph F.

    1991-01-01

    To debug a C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) program, certain 'historical' information about a run is needed. It would be convenient for system builders to have the capability to request such information. We will discuss how historical Rete networks can be used for answering questions that help a system builder detect the cause of an error in a CLIPS program. Moreover, the cost of maintaining a historical Rete network is compared with that for a classical Rete network. We will demonstrate that the cost for assertions is only slightly higher for a historical Rete network. The cost for handling retraction could be significantly higher; however, we will show that by using special data structures that rely on hashing, it is also possible to implement retractions efficiently.

  9. Robotic Bipedal Running : Increasing disturbance rejection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karssen, J.G.D.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the research presented in this thesis is to increase the understanding of the human running gait. The understanding of the human running gait is essential for the development of devices, such as prostheses and orthoses, that enable disabled people to run or that enable able people to

  10. Barefoot running survey: Evidence from the field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hryvniak

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Prior studies have found that barefoot running often changes biomechanics compared to shod running with a hypothesized relationship of decreased injuries. This paper reports the result of a survey of 509 runners. The results suggest that a large percentage of this sample of runners experienced benefits or no serious harm from transitioning to barefoot or minimal shoe running.

  11. Combined chemo/radiotherapy of cancer: present state and prospects for use with high-LET radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, T.L.

    1979-01-01

    Cytotoxic chemotherapy added to low-LET radiotherapy has improved survival and in some cases local control. In some instances the combination has yielded increased normal tissue damage. Similar results can be expected, as confirmed by intestinal crypt cell experiments, with high-LET. Less interaction than with low-LET appears to occur with agents blocking sublethal damage repair or causing synchronization. (author)

  12. A TLD reader for wide range in situ dose measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deme, S; Apathy, I.; Bodnar, L.; Csoeke, A.; Hejja, I.

    1998-01-01

    A portable thermoluminescent dosemeter reader suitable for reading at the site of exposure is described. The instrument consists of a glass bulb containing the CaSO 4 :Dy thermoluminescent material laminated to the surface of an electrically heated resistive metal plate. The bulb is encapsulated in a cylindrical, pen-like metal holder made of aluminium. A one-wire-port integrated electronic programmable memory chip mounted inside the holder contains the identification code and the individual calibration parameters of the dosemeter. The aperture of the holder is normally covered by a stainless steel tube to protect the bulb from light and mechanical shocks. The tube slips backwards automatically when the dosemeter is inserted into the reader. The system is used by the Hungarian nuclear power plant. (M.D.)

  13. Optimised to Fail: Card Readers for Online Banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drimer, Saar; Murdoch, Steven J.; Anderson, Ross

    The Chip Authentication Programme (CAP) has been introduced by banks in Europe to deal with the soaring losses due to online banking fraud. A handheld reader is used together with the customer’s debit card to generate one-time codes for both login and transaction authentication. The CAP protocol is not public, and was rolled out without any public scrutiny. We reverse engineered the UK variant of card readers and smart cards and here provide the first public description of the protocol. We found numerous weaknesses that are due to design errors such as reusing authentication tokens, overloading data semantics, and failing to ensure freshness of responses. The overall strategic error was excessive optimisation. There are also policy implications. The move from signature to PIN for authorising point-of-sale transactions shifted liability from banks to customers; CAP introduces the same problem for online banking. It may also expose customers to physical harm.

  14. Social Imaginary in web advertising of e-readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina Marcela Angelozzi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the imaginary meanings that appear in the advertising discourses on e-book reading devices commonly known as e-readers. It starts from the assumption that imaginary meanings are associated with both: the imaginary associated to digital technologies (Cabrera, 2006, 2011 and to the imaginary of "order of books" (Chartier, 2000, 2005. In order to carry out the exploration, the advertising discourses in the homepages of three cases are analized: The Amazon Kindle, Kobo and MovistarBq brands. The conclusion is that e-readers are devices that participate of the imaginary of the digital technologies as other devices in the complex of digital technologies in everyday life, and also refers strongly to the imaginary meanings related to printed books.

  15. THE CRITICAL READER IN THE POETRY OF MANUEL GUSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleide Anchieta de Lima

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the poetry of Manuel Gusmão, the reader is invited to actively partici­pate in writing and reading scenes. To the poet-critic, the act of reading, understood as emancipatory and political practice, is sharing the aesthe­tic experience and the development of our sensitive-cognitive instances, beyond the world learning outside and inside the text. In this sense, our article aims to examine the critical reader configuration from three aspects present in that poetry – act of co-motion, epistemological construction and erratic tissue habitation. With this perspective, we turn to the theoretical­-critical of Roland Bathes, Jacques Rancière and Eduardo Prado Coelho.

  16. In vitro cellular transformation induced by charged particles of defined LET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hei, T.K.; Hall, E.J.; Komatsu, K.; Goldhagen, P.

    1985-01-01

    Cytotoxicity and neoplastic transformation were scored in the C/sub 3/H 10T1/2 cell system following irradiation with protons, deuterons and helium-3 ions of defined LET in the track segment mode. The charged particles were accelerated at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility at the Nevis Laboratories of Columbia University and provided a range of LET values from 10 to 175 keV/μm. Exponential phase cultures of C3H 10T1/2 cells, growing on a thin mylar surface were irradiated with charged particles of various LET values and subsequently replated onto commercial plastic petri dishes. The cultures were incubated for six weeks at which time they were fixed, stained and type II and III scored as transformants. Over the range of LET values studied thus far, it was found that as the LET of the charged particles increased, the shoulder of the survival curves decreased and approached an exponential function of dose at LET values of 100 keV/μm and above. The transformation incidence, likewise, showed a direct correlation with LET over the dose ranges examined

  17. High-LET dose-response characteristics by track structure theory of heavy charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, J.W.; Olsen, K.J.

    1981-09-01

    The track structure theory developed by Katz and co-workers ascribes the effect of high-LET radiation to the highly inhomogeneous dose distribution due to low energy Δ-rays ejected from the particle track. The theory predicts the effectiveness of high-LET radiation by using the ion parameters zsub(eff') effective charge of the ion, and β = v/c, the relative ion velocity, together with the characteristic dose D 37 derived from low-LET dose-response characteristic of the detector and the approximate size asub(0) of the sensitive element of the detector. 60 Co gamma-irradiation is used as a reference low-LET radiation, while high-LET radiation ranging from 16 MeV protons to 4 MeV/amu 16 0-ions covering an initial LET range of 30-5500 MeVcm 2 /g is obtained from a tandem Van de Graaff accelerator. A thin film (5mg/cm 2 ) radiochromic dye cyanide plastic dosemeter was used as detector with the characteristic dose of 16.8 Mrad and a sensitive element size of 10 -7 cm. Theoretical and experimental effectiveness, RBE, agreed within 10 to 25% depending on LET. (author)

  18. How does typeface familiarity affect reading performance and reader preference?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2013-01-01

    the reading speed and preferences of participants. Participants were tested twice with common and uncommon letter shapes, once before and once after spending 20 minutes reading a story with the font. The results indicate that the exposure period has an effect on the speed of reading, but the uncommon letter...... shapes did not. Readers did not like the uncommon letter shapes. This has implications for the selection of type and the design of future typefaces....

  19. The Use of English Collocations in Reader's Digest

    OpenAIRE

    Sinaga, Yudita Putri Nurani; Sinaga, Lidiman Sahat Martua

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive qualitative study is aimed at identifying and describing the types of free collocations found in the articles of Reader's Digest. By taking a sample of ten articles from different months for each year since 2003 up to 2012, it was found all the four productive free collocations were in the data. Type 4 (Determiner + Adjective + Noun) was the dominant type (53.92 %). This was possible because the adjective in the pattern included the present participle and past participle of v...

  20. Featured Article: Genotation: Actionable knowledge for the scientific reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahawatte, Panduka; Willis, Ethan; Sakauye, Mark; Jose, Rony; Chen, Hao; Davis, Robert L

    2016-06-01

    We present an article viewer application that allows a scientific reader to easily discover and share knowledge by linking genomics-related concepts to knowledge of disparate biomedical databases. High-throughput data streams generated by technical advancements have contributed to scientific knowledge discovery at an unprecedented rate. Biomedical Informaticists have created a diverse set of databases to store and retrieve the discovered knowledge. The diversity and abundance of such resources present biomedical researchers a challenge with knowledge discovery. These challenges highlight a need for a better informatics solution. We use a text mining algorithm, Genomine, to identify gene symbols from the text of a journal article. The identified symbols are supplemented with information from the GenoDB knowledgebase. Self-updating GenoDB contains information from NCBI Gene, Clinvar, Medgen, dbSNP, KEGG, PharmGKB, Uniprot, and Hugo Gene databases. The journal viewer is a web application accessible via a web browser. The features described herein are accessible on www.genotation.org The Genomine algorithm identifies gene symbols with an accuracy shown by .65 F-Score. GenoDB currently contains information regarding 59,905 gene symbols, 5633 drug-gene relationships, 5981 gene-disease relationships, and 713 pathways. This application provides scientific readers with actionable knowledge related to concepts of a manuscript. The reader will be able to save and share supplements to be visualized in a graphical manner. This provides convenient access to details of complex biological phenomena, enabling biomedical researchers to generate novel hypothesis to further our knowledge in human health. This manuscript presents a novel application that integrates genomic, proteomic, and pharmacogenomic information to supplement content of a biomedical manuscript and enable readers to automatically discover actionable knowledge. © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and

  1. ELISA reader does not interfere by mobile phone radiofrequency radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Seyyed Mohammad Javad; Baradaran-Ghahfarokhi, Hamid Reza; Abdi, Mohammad Reza; Baradaran-Ghahfarokhi, Milad; Mostafavi, Nayyer Sadat; Mahmoudi, Golshan; Berenjkoub, Nafiseh; Akmali, Zahra; Hossein-Beigi, Fahimeh; Arsang, Vajiheh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The increasing number of mobile phones can physically cause electromagnetic interference (EMI) in medical environments; can also cause errors in immunoassays in laboratories. The ELISA readers are widely used as a useful diagnostic tool for Enzymun colorimetric assay in medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the ELISA reader could be interfered by the exposure to the 900 MHz cell phones in the laboratory. Materials and Methods: Human serum samples were collected from 14 healthy donors (9 women and 5 men) and each sample was divided into four aliquots and was placed into four batches for the in-vitro quantitative determination of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). During colorimetric reading of the first, second, and third batches, the ELISA reader (Stat Fax 2100, Awareness Technology, Inc., USA) was exposed to 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 W exposure of 900 MHz radiation, respectively. For the forth batch (control group), no radiation was applied. All experiments were performed comparing ELISA read out results of the I, II, and III batches with the control batch, using the Wilcoxon test with criterion level of P = 0.050. Results: The final scores in the exposed batches I, II, and III were not statistically significant relative to the control batch (P > 0.05). The results showed that 900 MHz radiation exposure did not alter the ELISA measured levels of hCG hormone in I (P = 0.219), II (P = 0.909), and III (P = 0.056) batches compared to the control batch. Conclusion: This study showed that ELISA reader does not interfere by mobile phone RF radiation at a closed contact (less than 5 cm distance). However, we recommend that medical institutions discuss these issues in the context of their specific use of technologies and frame a policy that is clear and straightforward to guide staff, patients, and visitors. PMID:27376040

  2. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part IV. Sun schooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    A collection of magazine articles which focus on solar energy is presented. This is the final book of the four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. The articles include brief discussions on energy topics such as the sun, ocean energy, methane gas from cow manure, and solar homes. Instructions for constructing a sundial and a solar stove are also included. A glossary of energy related terms is provided. (BCS)

  3. Lesion type and reader experience affect the diagnostic accuracy of breast MRI: A multiple reader ROC study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltzer, Pascal A.T., E-mail: patbaltzer@gmail.com [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Imge-guided Therapy, Medical University of Vienna, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Kaiser, Werner Alois [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Jena, Erlanger Allee 101, 07740 Jena (Germany); Dietzel, Matthias, E-mail: dietzelmatthias2@hotmail.com [Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital Erlangen, Schwabachanlage 6, 91054 Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The main findings of our study are, that reader experience and lesion type (i.e., mass versus non-mass enhancement) are independent predictors of the diagnostic accuracy of breast MRI. • Specifically, benign and malignant non-mass lesions cannot be differentiated with sufficient accuracy, especially if readers are not experienced. • We conclude that future research in breast MRI should focus on non-mass lesions, as these are the problem makers in modern breast MRI. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the influence of lesion type (mass versus non-mass) and reader experience on the diagnostic performance of breast MRI (BMRI) in a non-screening setting. Materials and methods: Consecutive patients (mean age, 55 ± 12 years) with breast lesions that were verified by biopsy or surgery, and who had had BMRI as part of their diagnostic workup, were eligible for this retrospective single-center study. Cancers diagnosed by biopsy before BMRI were excluded to eliminate biological and interpretation bias due to biopsy or chemotherapy effects (n = 103). Six blinded readers (experience level, high (HE, n = 2); intermediate (IE, n = 2); and low (LE, n = 2)) evaluated all examinations and assigned independent MRI BI-RADS ratings. Lesion type (mass, non-mass, focal) was noted. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) and logistic regression analysis was performed to compare diagnostic accuracies. Results: There were 259 histologically verified lesions (123 malignant, 136 benign) investigated. There were 169 mass (103 malignant, 66 benign) and 48 non-mass lesions (19 malignant, 29 benign). Another 42 lesions that met the inclusion criteria were biopsied due to conventional findings (i.e., microcalcifications, architectural distortions), but did not enhance on MRI (41 benign, one DCIS). ROC analysis revealed a total area under the curve (AUC) between 0.834 (LE) and 0.935 (HI). Logistic regression identified a significant effect of non-mass lesions (P < 0.0001) and

  4. Running high availability services in hybrid cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Dzekunskas, Karolis

    2018-01-01

    IT infrastructure is now expanding rapidly. Many enterprises are thinking of migration to the cloud to increase the time of service availability. High availability services and advanced technologies let to find flexible and scalable balance between resources and costs. The aim of this work is to prove that high availability services in hybrid cloud are secure, flexible, optimized and available to anyone. This paperwork provides detailed explanation about the imitation of two datacenters with ...

  5. STARtorialist: Astronomy Fashion & Culture Blog and Reader Survey Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Summer; Rice, Emily L.; Jarreau, Paige B.

    2016-01-01

    STARtorialist (startorialist.com) is a Tumblr-based blog that curates the proliferation of "Astro Fashion" - clothing accessories, decor, and more - with the goal of celebrating the beauty of the universe and highlighting the science behind the astronomical imagery. Since launching in January 2013, we have written over 1000 unique posts about everything from handmade and boutique products to mass-produced commercial items to haute couture seen on fashion runways. Each blog post features images and descriptions of the products with links to the original astronomical images or other relevant science content. We also feature profiles of astronomers, scientists, students, and communicators wearing, making, or decorating with "startorial" items. Our most popular posts accumulate hundreds or thousands of notes (faves or reblogs, in Tumblr parlance), and one post has nearly 150,000 notes. In our second year, we have grown from 1,000 to just shy of 20,000 followers on Tumblr, with an increased audience on Twitter, Instagram, and Facebook as well. We present preliminary results from a reader survey conducted September-October 2015 in collaboration with science communication researcher Dr. Paige Jarreau. The survey provides data on reader habits, motivations, attitudes, and demographics in order to assess how STARtorialist has influenced our readers' views on science, scientists, and the scientific community as a whole.

  6. Social  reading - the reader on digital margins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivona Despot

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Electronic books enrich the reading experience through a range of possibilities digital technology offers, such as commenting or adding content at the margin space, marking interesting chapters and sharing the content with other readers. The phenomenon of social reading emerges with the influence of technology in the sphere of reading books and creates interactions for readers with the content and other readers. The great potential of enriching the reading experience is visible in the digital platforms for social reading, where the interaction and the creation of new content encourages the development of new way of reading and creativity. These activities may contribute to better understanding of the text. This enhances the communication about the text thus revitalizing the content and moves the reading itself from private to public sphere. This paper will show how are the activities in the digital margins transformed into a good indicator of the reading behavior, as well as the importance and usefulness of such for publishers to create new publishing products and services.

  7. Text Mining in Python through the HTRC Feature Reader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Organisciak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a toolkit for working with the 13.6 million volume Extracted Features Dataset from the HathiTrust Research Center. You will learn how to peer at the words and trends of any book in the collection, while developing broadly useful Python data analysis skills. The HathiTrust holds nearly 15 million digitized volumes from libraries around the world. In addition to their individual value, these works in aggregate are extremely valuable for historians. Spanning many centuries and genres, they offer a way to learn about large-scale trends in history and culture, as well as evidence for changes in language or even the structure of the book. To simplify access to this collection the HathiTrust Research Center (HTRC has released the Extracted Features dataset (Capitanu et al. 2015: a dataset that provides quantitative information describing every page of every volume in the collection. In this lesson, we introduce the HTRC Feature Reader, a library for working with the HTRC Extracted Features dataset using the Python programming language. The HTRC Feature Reader is structured to support work using popular data science libraries, particularly Pandas. Pandas provides simple structures for holding data and powerful ways to interact with it. The HTRC Feature Reader uses these data structures, so learning how to use it will also cover general data analysis skills in Python.

  8. PARP-1 is a key player in controlling apoptosis induced by high LET carbon ion beam and low LET gamma radiation in HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghorai, Atanu; Ghosh, Utpal; Bhattacharyya, Nitai P.; Sarma, Asitikantha

    2014-01-01

    PARP-1 inhibitors have long been used as chemo-sensitizer or radio-sensitizer and specific PARP-1 inhibitors are also in clinical trial for the treatment of various cancers. PARP-1 is not only involved in DNA repair but also plays very complex role in induction of apoptosis in postirradiation condition. Our objective is to investigate role of PARP-1 in apoptosis triggered by high LET carbon ion beam (CIB) and low LET gamma. We have treated HeLa and PARP-1 knock down HeLa (Hsil) cells with various doses of CIB and gamma. We measured DNA damage by comet assay and various apoptotic parameters such as nuclear fragmentation, activation of caspase-3,8,9, AIF translocation etc. We observed higher DNA breaks and also higher apoptosis in HsiI cells compared with HeLa cells. Both CIB and gamma treatment results G2/M arrest but unlike gamma CIB makes S-phase delay, implicating that gamma and CIB triggers different pathway after DNA damage. Cell death by CIB or by gamma increased up on knocking down of PARP-1 but increase is higher for high LET CIB compared with low LET gamma. Furthermore, expression level of PARP-1 controls the intensity of overall apoptosis in cells in post-irradiation condition. So, combination of PARP-1 inhibition with high LET CIB could be a promising tool to combat cancer. (author)

  9. Consumer Products Advertised to Save Energy--Let the Buyer Beware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-24

    AD-AL06 653 GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE WASHINGTON DC HUMAN RESOUR--ETC F/G 5/3 CONSUMER PRODUCTS ADVERTISED TO SAVE ENERGY--LET THE BUYER BEWA-ETC...COMPTROLLER GENERAL’S CONSUMER PRODUCTS ADVERTISED REPORT TO THE CONGRESS TO SAVE ENERGY- - LET THE BUYER BEWARE D IG E ST In efforts to reduce energy costs...and comparable, GAO believes that the best ad- vice for consumers is "let the buyer beware." (See p. 42.) F’TC ’S COMMENTS FTC said that GAO

  10. Mutagenic action of radiation with different LET on Bacillus subtilis cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borejko, A.V.; Krasavin, E.A.

    1996-01-01

    The induction of the his - →his + mutants in vegetative and spores of Bacillus subtilis wild type cells irradiated with γ-rays and helium ions (LET=20-80 keV/μm has been investigated. It was shown that the dose dependence of the mutation induction in vegetative cells is described by a linear-quadratic function of dose in case of both γ-rays and helium ions. RBE (LET) dependence on the mutagenic assay is shifted at the low region of LET. (author). 11 refs., 4 figs

  11. Oxygen as a product of water radiolysis in high-LET tracks. II. Radiobiological implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baverstock, K.F.; Burns, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    Consideration is given to the possibility that molecular oxygen generated in the tracks of energetic heavy ions is responsible for the reduction in oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) with increasing linear energy transfer (LET) observed for the loss of reproductive capacity caused by radiation in many cellular organisms. Yields of oxygen relationship of OER to LET for two organisms, Chlamydomonas reinhardii and Shigella flexneri, using a simple diffusion kinetic model for radiobiological action which takes account of the diffusion of oxygen after its formation. The results of these calculations show that the model accounts well for the shape of the OER vs. LET relationship

  12. Mathematical analysis of running performance and world running records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péronnet, F; Thibault, G

    1989-07-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an empirical model relating human running performance to some characteristics of metabolic energy-yielding processes using A, the capacity of anaerobic metabolism (J/kg); MAP, the maximal aerobic power (W/kg); and E, the reduction in peak aerobic power with the natural logarithm of race duration T, when T greater than TMAP = 420 s. Accordingly, the model developed describes the average power output PT (W/kg) sustained over any T as PT = [S/T(1 - e-T/k2)] + 1/T integral of T O [BMR + B(1 - e-t/k1)]dt where S = A and B = MAP - BMR (basal metabolic rate) when T less than TMAP; and S = A + [Af ln(T/TMAP)] and B = (MAP - BMR) + [E ln(T/TMAP)] when T greater than TMAP; k1 = 30 s and k2 = 20 s are time constants describing the kinetics of aerobic and anaerobic metabolism, respectively, at the beginning of exercise; f is a constant describing the reduction in the amount of energy provided from anaerobic metabolism with increasing T; and t is the time from the onset of the race. This model accurately estimates actual power outputs sustained over a wide range of events, e.g., average absolute error between actual and estimated T for men's 1987 world records from 60 m to the marathon = 0.73%. In addition, satisfactory estimations of the metabolic characteristics of world-class male runners were made as follows: A = 1,658 J/kg; MAP = 83.5 ml O2.kg-1.min-1; 83.5% MAP sustained over the marathon distance. Application of the model to analysis of the evolution of A, MAP, and E, and of the progression of men's and women's world records over the years, is presented.

  13. Progression in Running Intensity or Running Volume and the Development of Specific Injuries in Recreational Runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramskov, Daniel; Rasmussen, Sten; Sørensen, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    -training. Participants were randomized to one of two running schedules: Schedule Intensity(Sch-I) or Schedule Volume(Sch-V). Sch-I progressed the amount of high intensity running (≥88% VO2max) each week. Sch-V progressed total weekly running volume. Global positioning system watch or smartphone collected data on running...

  14. Running Club - Nocturne des Evaux

    CERN Multimedia

    Running club

    2017-01-01

    Les coureurs du CERN sont encore montés sur les plus hautes marches du podium lors de la course interentreprises. Cette course d’équipe qui se déroule de nuit et par équipe de 3 à 4 coureurs est unique dans la région de par son originalité : départ groupé toutes les 30 secondes, les 3 premiers coureurs doivent passer la ligne d’arrivée ensemble. Double victoire pour le running club a la nocturne !!!! 1ère place pour les filles et 22e au classement général; 1ère place pour l'équipe mixte et 4e au général, battant par la même occasion le record de l'épreuve en mixte d'environ 1 minute; 10e place pour l'équipe homme. Retrouvez tous les résultats sur http://www.chp-geneve.ch/web-cms/index.php/nocturne-des-evaux

  15. LHCf completes its first run

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    LHCf, one of the three smaller experiments at the LHC, has completed its first run. The detectors were removed last week and the analysis of data is continuing. The first results will be ready by the end of the year.   One of the two LHCf detectors during the removal operations inside the LHC tunnel. LHCf is made up of two independent detectors located in the tunnel 140 m either side of the ATLAS collision point. The experiment studies the secondary particles created during the head-on collisions in the LHC because they are similar to those created in a cosmic ray shower produced when a cosmic particle hits the Earth’s atmosphere. The focus of the experiment is to compare the various shower models used to estimate the primary energy of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. The energy of proton-proton collisions at the LHC will be equivalent to a cosmic ray of 1017eV hitting the atmosphere, very close to the highest energies observed in the sky. “We have now completed the fir...

  16. Daytime Running Lights. Public Consultation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-12-15

    The Road Safety Authority is considering the policy options available to promote the use of Daytime Running Lights (DRL), including the possibility of mandating the use of DRL on all vehicles. An EC Directive would make DRL mandatory for new vehicles from 2011 onwards and by 2024 it is predicted that due to the natural replacement of the national fleet, almost all vehicles would be equipped with DRL. The RSA is inviting views on introducing DRL measures earlier, whereby all road vehicles would be required to use either dipped head lights during hours of daylight or dedicated DRL from next year onwards. The use of DRL has been found to enhance the visibility of vehicles, thereby increasing road safety by reducing the number and severity of collisions. This paper explores the benefits of DRL and the implications for all road users including pedestrians, cyclists and motorcyclists. In order to ensure a comprehensive consideration of all the issues, the Road Safety Authority is seeking the views and advice of interested parties.

  17. Dosimetry and microdosimetry using LET spectrometer based on the track-etch detector: radiotherapy Bremsstrahlung beam, onboard aircraft radiation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadrnickova, I.; Spurny, F.

    2006-01-01

    The spectrometer of linear energy transfer (Let) based on the chemically etched poly-allyl-diglycol-carbonate (P.A.D.C.) track-etch detector was developed several years ago in our institute. This Let spectrometer enables determining Let of particles approximately from 10 to 700 keV/μm. From the Let spectra, dose characteristics can be calculated. The contribution presents the Let spectra and other dosimetric characteristics obtained onboard a commercial aircraft during more than 6 months long exposure and in the 18 MV radiotherapy Bremsstrahlung beam. (authors)

  18. Subgrouping Poor Readers on the Basis of Individual Differences in Reading-Related Abilities

    OpenAIRE

    Catts, Hugh W.; Hogan, Tiffany; Fey, Marc E.

    2003-01-01

    The present study investigated the use of the Reading Component Model to subgroup poor readers. A large sample of poor readers was identified in second grade and subgrouped on the basis of relative strengths and weaknesses in word recognition and listening comprehension. Although homogeneous subgroups were not identified, poor readers could be classified into four subgroups that differed significantly in reading-related abilities. Further analyses showed that poor readers' strengths and weakn...

  19. Injury to the central nervous system after high LET radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laramore, G.E.

    1991-01-01

    To date, clinical experiments with high LET irradiation have used fast neutrons, π-mesons, and heavy ions. The data for all of these modalities will be reviewed here, but by far the greatest body of information is for fast neutrons. Boron neutron capture therapy work for brain tumors, and interesting area in its own right, will not be discussed. In the paper, the author considered separately the brain and the spinal cord in terms of radiation effects. Most of the information on the brain comes from the treatment of high-grade gliomas and so the effects of the tumor and its surrounding edema must be folded in. There is, however, some information relating to the treatment of tumors lying adjacent to the brain. The spinal cord data come primarily from the treatment of head and neck tumors and intrathoracic tumors. Because the majority of these tumors were quite advanced, they often caused the patient's early death, and many patients may not have survived long enough to show the effects of radiation damage even if doses were given that exceeded cord tolerance

  20. A clean environmental week: Let the nature breathe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2017-11-15

    High levels of CO 2 emissions in the atmosphere and toxic pollutants in air, water and food have serious repercussions on all life's systems, including living beings, environment and economy. Everyone on the Earth is concerned by pollution in some way or another, no matter where and how the pollution is produced as airborne and foodborne pollutants could circulate around the world in different ways, through for example climate components (wind, rain) and/or import and export of foodstuffs. Similarly to living beings that take advantage of day-night circadian rhythms to recover after diurnal hardships, the environment in its entirety could also be seen as a complex living system that needs regular breaks to assimilate or ingest toxic pollutants produced during intensive and continuous industrial processes. If greenhouses gas emissions and pollution rates continue to increase at the same rates as they are nowadays, uncontrollable climate effects might be inevitable and the air quality in some crowded cities in the world might be hardly respirable in the future. A global "Clean Environmental Week" is discussed as an attempt toward reducing air pollution and CO 2 emissions through the interruption or reduction of industrial polluting activities regularly, for a week or so per year, to let the nature 'breathe' and recover from environmentally challenging pollutions. A clean environmental period of 10 days per year could reduce CO 2 emissions by about one billion tons of CO 2 per annum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. TWENTY-ONE-YEAR EXTENSION PROJECT PERFORMANCE "LET'S BREASTFEEDING, MOMMY?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marizete Argolo Teixeira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Research aiming to describe the actions that were developed by the Extension Project "Let's breastfeed, Mom?" During the 21 years of its performance in Jequié / Bahia and identify the difficulties, facilities and progress of the project. This is a descriptive, quantitative-qualitative study. The data were collected in the archived project documents, analyzed through descriptive statistics and content analysis. The results showed that 8,923 registered postpartum women with educational activities and 1,313 domiciliary visits were carried out, as the main actions carried out by the project. The difficulties were: lack of consumer / permanent materials and human resources; As facilities: responsibility and commitment of the members of the project, as well as the support of the transportation service of the institution. The advances were the elaboration of the research project, with insertion of research fellows, creation of the webpage and the logo. It is necessary to reflect on the difficulties and propose measures to remedy them and thus continue to contribute to the promotion, protection and support of breastfeeding in the Municipality, contributing to the reduction of infant morbidity and mortality

  2. Autonomy and why you can "Never Let Me Go".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, Lynne

    2014-06-01

    Kazuo Ishiguro's book Never Let Me Go is a thoughtful and provocative exploration of what it means to be human. Drawing on insights from the hermeneutic-phenomenology of Martin Heidegger, I argue that the movement of Ishiguro's story can be understood in terms of actualising the human potential for autonomous action. Liberal theories take autonomy to be concerned with analytically and ethically isolatable social units directing their lives in accordance with self-interested preferences, arrived at by means of rational calculation. However, I argue that such theories are simplistic abstractions from our human-life world, distorting the fundamental embodied, embedded, and relational nature of autonomy. When we attend closely to our concrete, lived existence we see instead that autonomy is about responding appropriately to others with whom we share a world. As we follow the path of Ishiguro's central character Kathy H., we are shown how an awareness and acceptance of our existential finitude as precarious and fallible creatures is necessary for guiding such appropriate interactions. As Kathy grows and is affirmed into her life-world, which grounds and supports her Being, she moves from heteronomy to autonomy; from being moved by external laws to embodying those laws, thereby becoming autonomous. This is exemplified by her appropriation of the carer role, through which she responds in a fitting way to those with whom she shares her world, bearing the weight of and dwelling responsibly within our human condition.

  3. Impact Accelerations of Barefoot and Shod Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, M; Seegmiller, J; McGowan, C P

    2016-05-01

    During the ground contact phase of running, the body's mass is rapidly decelerated resulting in forces that propagate through the musculoskeletal system. The repetitive attenuation of these impact forces is thought to contribute to overuse injuries. Modern running shoes are designed to reduce impact forces, with the goal to minimize running related overuse injuries. Additionally, the fore/mid foot strike pattern that is adopted by most individuals when running barefoot may reduce impact force transmission. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of the barefoot running form (fore/mid foot strike & decreased stride length) and running shoes on running kinetics and impact accelerations. 10 healthy, physically active, heel strike runners ran in 3 conditions: shod, barefoot and barefoot while heel striking, during which 3-dimensional motion analysis, ground reaction force and accelerometer data were collected. Shod running was associated with increased ground reaction force and impact peak magnitudes, but decreased impact accelerations, suggesting that the midsole of running shoes helps to attenuate impact forces. Barefoot running exhibited a similar decrease in impact accelerations, as well as decreased impact peak magnitude, which appears to be due to a decrease in stride length and/or a more plantarflexed position at ground contact. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. MicroRNAs let-7b/i suppress human glioma cell invasion and migration by targeting IKBKE directly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Yuan; Hao, Shaobo; Ye, Minhua; Zhang, Anling; Nan, Yang; Wang, Guangxiu; Jia, Zhifan; Yu, Kai; Guo, Lianmei; Pu, Peiyu; Huang, Qiang; Zhong, Yue

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrated that IKBKE is overexpressed in human gliomas and that the downregulation of IKBKE markedly inhibits the proliferative and invasive abilities of glioma cells, which is consistent with the results reported by several different research groups. Therefore, IKBKE represents a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of glioma. In the present study, we verified that the microRNAs let-7b and let-7i target IKBKE through luciferase assays and found that let-7b/i mimics can knock down IKBKE and upregulate E-cadherin through western blot analysis. Moreover, the expression levels of let-7b/i were significantly lower in glioma cell lines than that in normal brain tissues, as determined by quantitative real-time PCR. Furthermore, let-7b/i inhibit the invasion and migration of glioma cells, as determined through wound healing and Transwell assays. The above-mentioned data suggest that let-7b/i inhibit the invasive ability of glioma cells by directly downregulating IKBKE and indirectly upregulating E-cadherin. - Highlights: • Let-7b and let-7i are downregulated in glioma cell lines. • IKBKE is a target gene of let-7b/i. • Let-7b/i inhibit the invasion and migration of glioma cells. • Let-7b/i upregulate E-cadherin by downregulating IKBKE

  5. MicroRNA let-7b regulates neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation by targeting nuclear receptor TLX signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chunnian; Sun, GuoQiang; Li, Shengxiu; Lang, Ming-Fei; Yang, Su; Li, Wendong; Shi, Yanhong

    2010-02-02

    Neural stem cell self-renewal and differentiation is orchestrated by precise control of gene expression involving nuclear receptor TLX. Let-7b, a member of the let-7 microRNA family, is expressed in mammalian brains and exhibits increased expression during neural differentiation. However, the role of let-7b in neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation remains unknown. Here we show that let-7b regulates neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation by targeting the stem cell regulator TLX and the cell cycle regulator cyclin D1. Overexpression of let-7b led to reduced neural stem cell proliferation and increased neural differentiation, whereas antisense knockdown of let-7b resulted in enhanced proliferation of neural stem cells. Moreover, in utero electroporation of let-7b to embryonic mouse brains led to reduced cell cycle progression in neural stem cells. Introducing an expression vector of Tlx or cyclin D1 that lacks the let-7b recognition site rescued let-7b-induced proliferation deficiency, suggesting that both TLX and cyclin D1 are important targets for let-7b-mediated regulation of neural stem cell proliferation. Let-7b, by targeting TLX and cyclin D1, establishes an efficient strategy to control neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation.

  6. MicroRNAs let-7b/i suppress human glioma cell invasion and migration by targeting IKBKE directly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Yuan; Hao, Shaobo [Department of Neurosurgery, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin 300052 (China); Laboratory of Neuro-Oncology, Tianjin Neurological Institute, Tianjin 300052 (China); Key Laboratory of Neurotrauma, Variation and Regeneration, Ministry of Education and Tianjin Municipal Government (China); Ye, Minhua [Department of Neurosurgery, Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi Province 330006 (China); Zhang, Anling [Laboratory of Neuro-Oncology, Tianjin Neurological Institute, Tianjin 300052 (China); Key Laboratory of Neurotrauma, Variation and Regeneration, Ministry of Education and Tianjin Municipal Government (China); Nan, Yang [Department of Neurosurgery, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin 300052 (China); Wang, Guangxiu; Jia, Zhifan [Laboratory of Neuro-Oncology, Tianjin Neurological Institute, Tianjin 300052 (China); Key Laboratory of Neurotrauma, Variation and Regeneration, Ministry of Education and Tianjin Municipal Government (China); Yu, Kai; Guo, Lianmei [Department of Neurosurgery, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin 300052 (China); Pu, Peiyu [Laboratory of Neuro-Oncology, Tianjin Neurological Institute, Tianjin 300052 (China); Key Laboratory of Neurotrauma, Variation and Regeneration, Ministry of Education and Tianjin Municipal Government (China); Huang, Qiang, E-mail: huangqiang209@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin 300052 (China); Zhong, Yue, E-mail: zhongyue2457@sina.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin 300052 (China)

    2015-03-06

    We demonstrated that IKBKE is overexpressed in human gliomas and that the downregulation of IKBKE markedly inhibits the proliferative and invasive abilities of glioma cells, which is consistent with the results reported by several different research groups. Therefore, IKBKE represents a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of glioma. In the present study, we verified that the microRNAs let-7b and let-7i target IKBKE through luciferase assays and found that let-7b/i mimics can knock down IKBKE and upregulate E-cadherin through western blot analysis. Moreover, the expression levels of let-7b/i were significantly lower in glioma cell lines than that in normal brain tissues, as determined by quantitative real-time PCR. Furthermore, let-7b/i inhibit the invasion and migration of glioma cells, as determined through wound healing and Transwell assays. The above-mentioned data suggest that let-7b/i inhibit the invasive ability of glioma cells by directly downregulating IKBKE and indirectly upregulating E-cadherin. - Highlights: • Let-7b and let-7i are downregulated in glioma cell lines. • IKBKE is a target gene of let-7b/i. • Let-7b/i inhibit the invasion and migration of glioma cells. • Let-7b/i upregulate E-cadherin by downregulating IKBKE.

  7. Computer-aided detection of lung nodules on multidetector CT in concurrent-reader and second-reader modes: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Sumiaki; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Aoki, Takatoshi; Yamagata, Hitoshi; Nogami, Munenobu; Matsumoto, Keiko; Yamashita, Yoshiko; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the reading times and detection performances of radiologists in concurrent-reader and second-reader modes of computer-aided detection (CAD) for lung nodules on multidetector computed tomography (CT). Materials and Methods: Fifty clinical multidetector CT datasets containing nodules up to 20 mm in diameter were retrospectively collected. For the detection and rating of non-calcified nodules larger than 4 mm in diameter, 6 radiologists (3 experienced radiologists and 3 resident radiologists) independently interpreted these datasets twice, once with concurrent-reader CAD and once with second-reader CAD. The reference standard of nodules in the datasets was determined by the consensus of two experienced chest radiologists. The reading times and detection performances in the two modes of CAD were statistically compared, where jackknife free-response receiver operating characteristic (JAFROC) analysis was used for the comparison of detection performances. Results: Two hundreds and seven nodules constituted the reference standard. Reading time was significantly shorter in the concurrent-reader mode than in the second-reader mode, with the mean reading time for the 6 radiologists being 132 s with concurrent-reader CAD and 210 s with second-reader CAD (p < 0.01). JAFROC analysis revealed no significant difference between the detection performances in the two modes, with the average figure-of-merit value for the 6 radiologists being 0.70 with concurrent-reader CAD and 0.72 with second-reader CAD (p = 0.35). Conclusion: In CAD for lung nodules on multidetector CT, the concurrent-reader mode is more time-efficient than the second-reader mode, and there can be no significant difference between the two modes in terms of detection performance of radiologists

  8. Predicting Text Comprehension, Processing, and Familiarity in Adult Readers: New Approaches to Readability Formulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Scott A.; Skalicky, Stephen; Dascalu, Mihai; McNamara, Danielle S.; Kyle, Kristopher

    2017-01-01

    Research has identified a number of linguistic features that influence the reading comprehension of young readers; yet, less is known about whether and how these findings extend to adult readers. This study examines text comprehension, processing, and familiarity judgment provided by adult readers using a number of different approaches (i.e.,…

  9. A General Audiovisual Temporal Processing Deficit in Adult Readers with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Ana A.; Jesse, Alexandra; Groen, Margriet A.; McQueen, James M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Because reading is an audiovisual process, reading impairment may reflect an audiovisual processing deficit. The aim of the present study was to test the existence and scope of such a deficit in adult readers with dyslexia. Method: We tested 39 typical readers and 51 adult readers with dyslexia on their sensitivity to the simultaneity of…

  10. A general audiovisual temporal processing deficit in adult readers with dyslexia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francisco, A.A.; Jesse, A.; Groen, M.A.; McQueen, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Because reading is an audiovisual process, reading impairment may reflect an audiovisual processing deficit. The aim of the present study was to test the existence and scope of such a deficit in adult readers with dyslexia. Method: We tested 39 typical readers and 51 adult readers with

  11. Does Feeling Come First? How Poetry Can Help Readers Broaden Their Understanding of Metacognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eva-Wood, Amy L.

    2008-01-01

    Assuming that readers' emotional responses can enhance readers' metacognitive experiences and inform literary analysis, this study of 11th-grade poetry readers features instruction that models both cognitive and affective reading processes. The author: (1) Presents a case for more explicit attention to emotion in language arts classrooms; (2)…

  12. Bimodal Reading: Benefits of a Talking Computer for Average and Less Skilled Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montali, Julie; Lewandowski, Lawrence

    1996-01-01

    Eighteen average readers and 18 less-skilled readers (grades 8 and 9) were presented with social studies and science passages via a computer either visually (on screen), auditorily (read by digitized voice), or bimodally (on screen, highlighted while being voiced). Less-skilled readers demonstrated comprehension in the bimodal condition equivalent…

  13. Computer Games versus Maps before Reading Stories: Priming Readers' Spatial Situation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Glenn Gordon; Majchrzak, Dan; Hayes, Shelley; Drobisz, Jack

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated how computer games and maps compare as preparation for readers to comprehend and retain spatial relations in text narratives. Readers create situation models of five dimensions: spatial, temporal, causal, goal, and protagonist (Zwaan, Langston, & Graesser 1995). Of these five, readers mentally model the spatial…

  14. French Immersion Experience and Reading Skill Development in At-Risk Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, Richard S.; Reynolds, Kristin A. A.

    2012-01-01

    We tracked the developmental influences of exposure to French on developing English phonological awareness, decoding and reading comprehension of English-speaking at-risk readers from Grade 1 to Grade 3. Teacher-nominated at-risk readers were matched with not-at-risk readers in French immersion and English language programs. Exposure to spoken…

  15. Follow the Reader: An Effective Strategy to Support Students Reading More Complex Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klvacek, Michelle L.; Monroe, Eula Ewing; Wilcox, Brad; Hall-Kenyon, Kendra M.; Morrison, Timothy G.

    2017-01-01

    This article describes how one second-grade teacher implemented Follow the Reader, her term for dyad reading. Common Core expects students to read increasingly complex texts. Teachers can implement dyad reading with this end in mind. It is a modified version of the neurological impress method in which a lead reader and an assisted reader sit side…

  16. LET spectrometry with track etch detectors-Use in high-energy radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadrnickova, I.; Spurny, F.

    2008-01-01

    For assessing the risk from ionizing radiation it is necessary to know not only the absorbed dose but also the quality of the radiation; radiation quality is connected with the physical quantity linear energy transfer (LET). One of the methods of determination of LET is based on chemically etched track detectors. This contribution concerns with a spectrometer of LET based on the track detectors and discusses some results obtained at: ·high-energy radiation reference field created at the SPS accelerator at CERN; and ·onboard of International Space Station where track-etch based LET spectrometer has been exposed 273 days during 'Matrjoshka - R' experiment. Results obtained are compared with the results of studies at some lower-energy neutron sources; some conclusions on the registrability of neutrons and the ability of this spectrometer to determine dose equivalent in high-energy radiation fields are formulated

  17. Mechanism and significance of let-7 in diagnosis and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUO Tingting

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:MicroRNA (miRNA play important roles in post-transcriptional gene regulation. In recent years, miRNA has become a hot topic in the research on the development and progression of tumors, and gene targeting therapy for malignant tumors has achieved preliminary progress. As one of the first discovered miRNA, let-7 can regulate the cell cycle and angiogenesis and is involved in the proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of various tumor cells. Most members of the let-7 family can act as tumor suppressor gene and have low expression in various tumor tissues and high expression in the serum of patients with malignant tumors. Let-7 is closely associated with the invasion and drug resistance of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. The studies above show that let-7 might become a new marker for the early diagnosis of HCC and provide new targets for the treatment of HCC.

  18. let-7 miRNAs Can Act through Notch to Regulate Human Gliogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Patterson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available It is clear that neural differentiation from human pluripotent stem cells generates cells that are developmentally immature. Here, we show that the let-7 plays a functional role in the developmental decision making of human neural progenitors, controlling whether these cells make neurons or glia. Through gain- and loss-of-function studies on both tissue and pluripotent derived cells, our data show that let-7 specifically regulates decision making in this context by regulation of a key chromatin-associated protein, HMGA2. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the let-7/HMGA2 circuit acts on HES5, a NOTCH effector and well-established node that regulates fate decisions in the nervous system. These data link the let-7 circuit to NOTCH signaling and suggest that this interaction serves to regulate human developmental progression.

  19. Eesti ja Soome kooliõpilased toovad lavale muusikali "Let Mamma Mia in!"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    21. okt. Kaja keskuses etendavad Tallinna 32. keskkooli ja Meri-Porin Lukio õpilased muusikali "Let Mamma Mia in". Muusikal koosneb muusikalihittidest, mille on looks kokku kirjutanud Sven Kivisildnik

  20. When Your Back Hurts: Don't Let Back Pain Knock You Flat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Back Hurts Don’t Let Back Pain Knock You Flat En español Send us your comments ... Complementary Health Approaches Halt the Hurt! References The SPORT Value Compass: Do the Extra Costs of Undergoing ...

  1. A method for radiobiological investigations in radiation fields with different LET and high dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundler, W.

    1976-01-01

    For investigations: 1. Performed in the field of radiobiology with different LET-radiation and a relatively high background dose rate of one component (e.g. investigations with fast and intermediate reactor neutrons) 2. Concerning radiation risk studies within a wide range 3. Of irradiations, covering a long time period (up to 100 days) a test system is necessary which on the one hand makes it possible to analyze the influence of different LET radiation and secondly shows a relative radiation resistant behaviour and allows a simple cell cycle regulation. A survey is given upon the installed device of a simple cell observation method, the biological test system used and the analysis of effects caused by dose, repair and LET. It is possible to analyze the behaviour of the nonsurvival cells and to demonstrate different reactions of the test parameters to the radiation of different LET. (author)

  2. Induction and disappearance of G2 chromatid breaks in lymphocytes after low doses of low LET γ - rays and high LET fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vral, Anne; Thierens, Hubert; Baeyens, Ans; De Ridder, Leo

    2001-01-01

    In view of the potential importance of the G2 assay for detecting chromosomal radiosensitivity and possible predisposition to cancer the need to elucidate the mechanism underlying the formation of chromatid breaks, observed with the G2 assay after low dose irradiation, has been recognised. In this study we irradiated blood samples of 4 healthy donors with low LET γ-rays and high LET neutrons, which initially produce the same number of dsb but of a different quality. By means of the G2 assay, we determined the number of chromatid breaks induced by γ-rays and neutrons and compared the kinetics of chromatid break rejoining for radiations of different quality. In a first set of experiments a dose-response curve for the formation of chromatid breaks was carried out for γ-rays and neutrons with doses ranging between 0.1 and 0.5 Gy. In a second set of experiments the kinetics of chromatid break formation and disappearance was investigated after a dose of 0.5 Gy using post-irradiation times ranging between 0.5 h and 3.5 h. For the highest dose of 0.5 Gy the number of isochromatid breaks were also scored. No significant differences in the number of chromatid breaks were observed between low LET γ-rays and high LET neutrons for the 4 donors at any of the doses given. The dose response curves for the formation of chromatid breaks are linear for both radiation qualities and RBE values equal to one were obtained. Scoring of isochromatid breaks at the highest dose of 0.5 Gy revealed that high LET neutrons are however more effective at inducing isochromatid breaks (RBE of 6.2). The rejoining experiments further showed that the kinetics of disappearance of chromatid breaks following irradiation with low LET γ-rays or high-LET neutrons are not significantly different. T 1/2 0.92 h for γ-rays and t 1/2 = 0.84 h for neutrons were obtained. In conclusion, our results show that at low doses of radiation the induction as well as the disappearance of G2 chromatid breaks is LET

  3. [Physiological differences between cycling and running].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Grégoire

    2009-08-05

    This review compares the differences in systemic responses (VO2max, anaerobic threshold, heart rate and economy) and in underlying mechanisms of adaptation (ventilatory and hemodynamic and neuromuscular responses) between cycling and running. VO2max is specific to the exercise modality. Overall, there is more physiological training transfer from running to cycling than vice-versa. Several other physiological differences between cycling and running are discussed: HR is different between the two activities both for maximal and sub-maximal intensities. The delta efficiency is higher in running. Ventilation is more impaired in cycling than running due to mechanical constraints. Central fatigue and decrease in maximal strength are more important after prolonged exercise in running than in cycling.

  4. Design of ProjectRun21

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsted, Camma; Parner, Erik Thorlund; Sørensen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Participation in half-marathon has been steeply increasing during the past decade. In line, a vast number of half-marathon running schedules has surfaced. Unfortunately, the injury incidence proportion for half-marathoners has been found to exceed 30% during 1-year follow......-up. The majority of running-related injuries are suggested to develop as overuse injuries, which leads to injury if the cumulative training load over one or more training sessions exceeds the runners' load capacity for adaptive tissue repair. Owing to an increase of load capacity along with adaptive running...... the association between running experience or running pace and the risk of running-related injury. METHODS: Healthy runners using Global Positioning System (GPS) watch between 18 and 65 years will be invited to participate in this 14-week prospective cohort study. Runners will be allowed to self-select one...

  5. Should the Air Force Teach Running Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    barefoot running, and gait training techniques. Current research indicates efficiencies in running with a forefoot or midfoot- strike gait, and a...recent retrospective study showed a lower injury rate in forefoot - strike runners as compared with heel- strike runners. However, there are no...barefoot-like” fashion and allows a forefoot or midfoot- strike gait, as opposed to the heel- strike gait style often seen with traditional running

  6. Running-in as an Engineering Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Jamari, Jamari

    2007-01-01

    Running-in is a process which can be found in daily lives. This phenomenon occurs after the start of the contact between fresh solid surfaces, resulting in changes in the surface topography, friction and wear. Before the contacting engineering solid surfaces reach a steady-state operation situation this running-n enhances the contact performance. Running-in is very complex and is a vast problem area. A lot of variable occurs in the running-in process, physically, mechanically or chemically. T...

  7. Run 2 ATLAS Trigger and Detector Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Solovyanov, Oleg; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The 2nd LHC run has started in June 2015 with a proton-proton centre-of-mass collision energy of 13 TeV. During the years 2016 and 2017, LHC delivered an unprecedented amount of luminosity under the ever-increasing challenging conditions in terms of peak luminosity, pile-up and trigger rates. In this talk, the LHC running conditions and the improvements made to the ATLAS experiment in the course of Run 2 will be discussed, and the latest ATLAS detector and ATLAS trigger performance results from the Run 2 will be presented.

  8. How to run ions in the future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Küchler, D; Manglunki, D; Scrivens, R

    2014-01-01

    In the light of different running scenarios potential source improvements will be discussed (e.g. one month every year versus two month every other year and impact of the different running options [e.g. an extended ion run] on the source). As the oven refills cause most of the down time the oven design and refilling strategies will be presented. A test stand for off-line developments will be taken into account. Also the implications on the necessary manpower for extended runs will be discussed

  9. ATLAS detector performance in Run1: Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Burghgrave, B; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    ATLAS operated with an excellent efficiency during the Run 1 data taking period, recording respectively in 2011 and 2012 an integrated luminosity of 5.3 fb-1 at √s = 7 TeV and 21.6 fb-1 at √s = 8TeV. The Liquid Argon and Tile Calorimeter contributed to this effort by operating with a good data quality efficiency, improving over the whole Run 1. This poster presents the Run 1 overall status and performance, LS1 works and Preparations for Run 2.

  10. Functional improvement of dystrophic muscle by repression of utrophin: let-7c interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj K Mishra

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is a fatal genetic disease caused by an absence of the 427kD muscle-specific dystrophin isoform. Utrophin is the autosomal homolog of dystrophin and when overexpressed, can compensate for the absence of dystrophin and rescue the dystrophic phenotype of the mdx mouse model of DMD. Utrophin is subject to miRNA mediated repression by several miRNAs including let-7c. Inhibition of utrophin: let-7c interaction is predicted to 'repress the repression' and increase utrophin expression. We developed and tested the ability of an oligonucleotide, composed of 2'-O-methyl modified bases on a phosphorothioate backbone, to anneal to the utrophin 3'UTR and prevent let-7c miRNA binding, thereby upregulating utrophin expression and improving the dystrophic phenotype in vivo. Suppression of utrophin: let-7c interaction using bi-weekly intraperitoneal injections of let7 site blocking oligonucleotides (SBOs for 1 month in the mdx mouse model for DMD, led to increased utrophin expression along with improved muscle histology, decreased fibrosis and increased specific force. The functional improvement of dystrophic muscle achieved using let7-SBOs suggests a novel utrophin upregulation-based therapeutic strategy for DMD.

  11. Multiple mechanisms disrupt the let-7 microRNA family in neuroblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, John T; Tsanov, Kaloyan M; Pearson, Daniel S; Roels, Frederik; Spina, Catherine S; Ebright, Richard; Seligson, Marc; de Soysa, Yvanka; Cahan, Patrick; Theiβen, Jessica; Tu, Ho-Chou; Han, Areum; Kurek, Kyle C; LaPier, Grace S; Osborne, Jihan K; Ross, Samantha J; Cesana, Marcella; Collins, James J; Berthold, Frank; Daley, George Q

    2016-01-01

    Poor prognosis in neuroblastoma is associated with genetic amplification of MYCN. MYCN is itself a target of let-7, a tumor suppressor family of microRNAs implicated in numerous cancers. LIN28B, an inhibitor of let-7 biogenesis, is overexpressed in neuroblastoma and has been reported to regulate MYCN. However, here we show that LIN28B is dispensable in MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma cell lines, despite de-repression of let-7. We further demonstrate that MYCN mRNA levels in amplified disease are exceptionally high and sufficient to sponge let-7, which reconciles the dispensability of LIN28B. We found that genetic loss of let-7 is common in neuroblastoma, inversely associated with MYCN-amplification, and independently associated with poor outcomes, providing a rationale for chromosomal loss patterns in neuroblastoma. We propose that let-7 disruption by LIN28B, MYCN sponging, or genetic loss is a unifying mechanism of neuroblastoma pathogenesis with broad implications for cancer pathogenesis. PMID:27383785

  12. Improvement of date palm plant lets during rooting stage by silver ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharaf, M.M.; Khamis, M.A.; El Bana, A.; Abd El Galeil, L.M.; Zaid, Z.E.

    2012-01-01

    This study aim to promote growth plant lets of date palm cv. Zaghlool by decreasing ethylene production inside the containers during rooting stage. Data obtained declared that three silver thiosulphate (STS) levels added to one half strength MS rooting medium improved significantly three rooting measurements (rooting percentage; number and length of developed root lets). However, the lightest STS level (0.25 ml/L of 4 mM STS solution) was the superior, while highest one (1.0 ml/L) was the inferior from statistical point of view. Data obtained displayed that providing MS rooting medium with silver nitrate improved 3 rooting measurements (rooting %; number of root lets and their length) for Zaghloul date palm shoot lets proliferated from somatic embryos. However, the 0.50 mg/L AgNO 3 provided MS medium was the most preferable in this concern. Plant lets were transferred to capped tubes contained 1/4 liquid MS medium through 3 weeks in the growth chamber (under aseptic condition). Ventilation was allowed gradually by punching holes in aluminum foil caps during first five days of 2 nd week. After then, the plant lets were transplanted in acclimatization green house on mixture from (peat moss + perlite + vermiculite at 1:1:1) and survival percentage was 75% after three months.

  13. Diffusion-kinetic theories for LET effects on the radiolysis of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimblott, S.M.; LaVerne, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Diffusion-kinetic methods are used to investigate the effects of incident particle linear energy transfer (LET) on the radiolysis of water and aqueous solutions. Chemically realistic deterministic diffusion-kinetic calculations examining the scavenging capacity dependences of the scavenged yield of e aq - and of OH demonstrate that the scavenged yields are related to the underlying time-dependent kinetics in the absence of the scavenger by a simple Laplace transform relationship. This relationship is also shown to link the effect of an e eq - scavenger on the formation of H 2 with the time dependence of H 2 production in the absence of the scavenger. The simple Laplace relationship does not work well when applied to H 2 O 2 formation in high-LET particle tracks even though such a relationship is valid with low-LET particles. It is found that while the secondary reaction of H 2 O 2 with e aq - can be neglected in low-LET particle radiolysis, it is of considerable significance in the tracks produced by high-LET particles. The increased importance of this reaction with increasing LET is the major reason for the failure of the Laplace relationship for H 2 O 2 . 55 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Assessing user preferences for e-readers and tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Ber, Jeanne M; Lombardo, Nancy T; Honisett, Amy; Jones, Peter Stevens; Weber, Alice

    2013-01-01

    Librarians purchased 12 e-readers and six tablets to provide patrons the opportunity to experiment with the latest mobile technologies. After several train-the-trainer sessions, librarians shared device information with the broader health sciences community. Devices were cataloged and made available for a two-week checkout. A limited number of books and applications (apps) were preloaded for all the devices, and patrons were allowed to download their own content. Each tablet has Google Books, iBooks, Kindle, and Nook apps available to allow choice in reading e-books. Upon return, patrons were asked to complete a ten-question survey to determine preferences for device use.

  15. Reader-taylor: sewing and plotting the “text”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Bernardi Souza

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the presence of the ‘empty slots in the text’ in the short story "Imagens desabrigadas" of the writer Luci Collin. Investigates, therefore, the importance of these ‘openings to the textual’ embodiment of literary writing and also contributes to the emancipation of the reader in his encounter with the text. To this end, we raised some theoretic support brought by Wolfgang Iser and Terry Eagleton, as well as the reception theory of the literary text.

  16. First French reader a beginner's dual-language book

    CERN Document Server

    Appelbaum, Stanley

    2008-01-01

    This excellent anthology offers the beginning French-language student a first taste of some of the world's most significant prose. Chosen for both their eloquence and ease of reading, excerpts from such masterpieces as Les Misérables, The Red and the Black, Madame Bovary, Carmen, and The Three Musketeers will open new worlds for linguists. Readers will savor the words of fifty great writers of multiple genres from the seventeenth through twentieth centuries, including Voltaire, Rousseau, Balzac, Baudelaire, Dumas, Proust, and other literary virtuosos.Lucid and accessible, the unabridged Englis

  17. Models for cell survival with low LET radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, M.G.; Garrett, W.R.

    1975-01-01

    A model for cell survival under low LET irradiation was developed in which the cell is considered to have N 0 -independent sensitive sites, each of which can exist in either an undamaged state (state A) or one of two damaged states. Radiation can change the sensitive sites from the undamaged state to either of two damaged states. The first damaged state (state B) can either be repaired or be promoted on the second damaged state (state C), which is irreparable. The promotion from the first damaged state to the second can occur due to any of the following: (1) further radiation damage, (2) an abortive attempt to repair the site, or (3) the arrival at a part of the cell cycle where the damage is ''fixed.'' Subject to the further assumptions that radiation damage can occur either indirectly (i.e., through radiation products) or due to direct interaction, and that repair of the first damaged state is a one-step process, expressions can be derived for P(N/sub A/, N/sub B/,t) = probability that after time t a cell will have N/sub A/ sites in state A and N/sub B/ in state B. The problem of determining P(N/sub A/, N/sub B/, t) is formulated for arbitrary time dependences of the radiation field and of all rate coefficients. A large family of cell-survival models can be described by interpreting the sensitive sites in different ways and by making different choices of rate coefficients and of the combinations of numbers of sites in different states that will lead to cell death. (U.S.)

  18. The Impact of Readers Theatre on the Development of Preintermediate Iranian EFL Learners’ Oral Proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Boroojerdi Moghadam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The significant effect of employing Readers Theater (RT in reading comprehension, fluency, and motivation of English language students has already been established. However, this study was an attempt to investigate the effect of RT on the oral proficiency of Iranian learners of English as a foreign language. From among the learners studying English at a language school in Isfahan, Iran, a sample of 90 female intermediate EFL learners were asked to participate in this study. Having been taken Quick Placement Test to make sure they were all homogeneous regarding their level of proficiency in English, 75 learners were chosen. Afterwards, an interview served as one of the pretests of the study was run as the homogenizing test of oral ability and 60 homogenous preintermediate learners were ultimately selected as the participants of the study. They were then assigned to the two groups of control and experimental. During the treatment, the learners in the experimental group were exposed to RT, but the control group attended their regular classes. To gauge the oral proficiency development of the subjects, an interview was administered. The results of data analysis indicated improvements of fluency and complexity because of the learners’ exposure to the treatment. The results may provide further impetus for teachers to make attempts at extending the students’ active knowledge for real time communication as well as providing language which is both more complex and fluent.

  19. Generalized concept of the LET-RBE relationship of radiation-induced chromosome aberration and cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatsuji, Toshihiro; Yoshikawa, Isao; Sasaki, Masao S.

    1999-01-01

    The frequency of chromosome aberrations per traversal of a nucleus by a charged particle at the low dose limit increases proportionally to the square of the linear energy transfer (LET), peaks at about 100 keV/μm and then decreases with further increase of LET. This has long been interpreted as an excessive energy deposition over the necessary energy required to produce a biologically effective event. Here, we present an alternative interpretation. Cell traversed by a charged particle has certain probability to receive lethal damage leading to direct death. Such events may increase with an increase of LET and the number of charged particles traversing the cell. Assuming that the lethal damage is distributed according to a Poisson distribution, the probability that a cell has no such damage is expressed by e -cLx , where c is a constant, L is LET, and x is the number of charged particles traversing the cell. From these assumptions, the frequency of chromosome aberration in surviving cells can be described by Y=αSD+βS 2 D 2 with the empirical relation Y=αD+βD 2 in the low LET region, where S=e -cL , α is a value proportional to LET, β is a constant, and D is the absorbed dose. This model readily explains the empirically established relationship between LET and relative biological effectiveness (RBE). The model can also be applied to clonogenic survival. If cells can survive and they have neither unstable chromosome aberrations nor other lethal damage, the LET-RBE relationship for clonogenic survival forms a humped curve. The relationship between LET and inactivation cross-section becomes proportional to the square of LET in the low LET region when the frequency of a directly lethal events is sufficiently smaller than unity, and the inactivation cross-section saturates to the cell nucleus cross-sectional area with an increase in LET in the high LET region. (author)

  20. Accelerated Reader[R]: What Are the Lasting Effects on the Reading Habits of Middle School Students Exposed to Accelerated Reader[R] in Elementary Grades?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavonetti, Linda M.; Brimmer, Kathryn M.; Cipielewski, James F.

    Promoted by effective advertising and disseminated by word of mouth, many schools have adopted Accelerated Reader[R] as a supplementary reading program or as their primary reading program. Accelerated Reader[R]'s philosophy is that by using the system, students are motivated to read more and better books. A study investigated whether seventh grade…

  1. Responding for sucrose and wheel-running reinforcement: effect of pre-running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, Terry W

    2006-01-10

    Six male albino Wistar rats were placed in running wheels and exposed to a fixed interval 30-s schedule that produced either a drop of 15% sucrose solution or the opportunity to run for 15s as reinforcing consequences for lever pressing. Each reinforcer type was signaled by a different stimulus. To assess the effect of pre-running, animals were allowed to run for 1h prior to a session of responding for sucrose and running. Results showed that, after pre-running, response rates in the later segments of the 30-s schedule decreased in the presence of a wheel-running stimulus and increased in the presence of a sucrose stimulus. Wheel-running rates were not affected. Analysis of mean post-reinforcement pauses (PRP) broken down by transitions between successive reinforcers revealed that pre-running lengthened pausing in the presence of the stimulus signaling wheel running and shortened pauses in the presence of the stimulus signaling sucrose. No effect was observed on local response rates. Changes in pausing in the presence of stimuli signaling the two reinforcers were consistent with a decrease in the reinforcing efficacy of wheel running and an increase in the reinforcing efficacy of sucrose. Pre-running decreased motivation to respond for running, but increased motivation to work for food.

  2. The Effect of Training in Minimalist Running Shoes on Running Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge, Sarah T; Standifird, Tyler; Rivera, Jessica; Johnson, A Wayne; Mitchell, Ulrike; Hunter, Iain

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of minimalist running shoes on oxygen uptake during running before and after a 10-week transition from traditional to minimalist running shoes. Twenty-five recreational runners (no previous experience in minimalist running shoes) participated in submaximal VO2 testing at a self-selected pace while wearing traditional and minimalist running shoes. Ten of the 25 runners gradually transitioned to minimalist running shoes over 10 weeks (experimental group), while the other 15 maintained their typical training regimen (control group). All participants repeated submaximal VO2 testing at the end of 10 weeks. Testing included a 3 minute warm-up, 3 minutes of running in the first pair of shoes, and 3 minutes of running in the second pair of shoes. Shoe order was randomized. Average oxygen uptake was calculated during the last minute of running in each condition. The average change from pre- to post-training for the control group during testing in traditional and minimalist shoes was an improvement of 3.1 ± 15.2% and 2.8 ± 16.2%, respectively. The average change from pre- to post-training for the experimental group during testing in traditional and minimalist shoes was an improvement of 8.4 ± 7.2% and 10.4 ± 6.9%, respectively. Data were analyzed using a 2-way repeated measures ANOVA. There were no significant interaction effects, but the overall improvement in running economy across time (6.15%) was significant (p = 0.015). Running in minimalist running shoes improves running economy in experienced, traditionally shod runners, but not significantly more than when running in traditional running shoes. Improvement in running economy in both groups, regardless of shoe type, may have been due to compliance with training over the 10-week study period and/or familiarity with testing procedures. Key pointsRunning in minimalist footwear did not result in a change in running economy compared to running in traditional footwear

  3. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity during running

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyngeraa, T. S.; Pedersen, L. M.; Mantoni, T.; Belhage, B.; Rasmussen, L. S.; van Lieshout, J. J.; Pott, F. C.

    2013-01-01

    Running induces characteristic fluctuations in blood pressure (BP) of unknown consequence for organ blood flow. We hypothesized that running-induced BP oscillations are transferred to the cerebral vasculature. In 15 healthy volunteers, transcranial Doppler-determined middle cerebral artery (MCA)

  4. EnergyPlus Run Time Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Tianzhen; Buhl, Fred; Haves, Philip

    2008-09-20

    EnergyPlus is a new generation building performance simulation program offering many new modeling capabilities and more accurate performance calculations integrating building components in sub-hourly time steps. However, EnergyPlus runs much slower than the current generation simulation programs. This has become a major barrier to its widespread adoption by the industry. This paper analyzed EnergyPlus run time from comprehensive perspectives to identify key issues and challenges of speeding up EnergyPlus: studying the historical trends of EnergyPlus run time based on the advancement of computers and code improvements to EnergyPlus, comparing EnergyPlus with DOE-2 to understand and quantify the run time differences, identifying key simulation settings and model features that have significant impacts on run time, and performing code profiling to identify which EnergyPlus subroutines consume the most amount of run time. This paper provides recommendations to improve EnergyPlus run time from the modeler?s perspective and adequate computing platforms. Suggestions of software code and architecture changes to improve EnergyPlus run time based on the code profiling results are also discussed.

  5. Running with technology: Where are we heading?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Møller; Mueller, Florian 'Floyd'

    2014-01-01

    technique- related information in run-training interfaces. From that finding, this paper presents three questions to be addressed by designers of future run-training interfaces. We believe that addressing these questions will support creation of expedient interfaces that improve runners’ technique...

  6. The Second Student-Run Homeless Shelter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seider, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    From 1983-2011, the Harvard Square Homeless Shelter (HSHS) in Cambridge, Massachusetts, was the only student-run homeless shelter in the United States. However, college students at Villanova, Temple, Drexel, the University of Pennsylvania, and Swarthmore drew upon the HSHS model to open their own student-run homeless shelter in Philadelphia,…

  7. Performance evaluation and financial market runs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, W.B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops a model in which performance evaluation causes runs by fund managers and results in asset fire sales. Performance evaluation nonetheless is efficient as it disciplines managers. Optimal performance evaluation combines absolute and relative components in order to make runs less

  8. Impact of Running Away on Girls' Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrane, Lisa E.; Chen, Xiaojin

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the impact of running away on pregnancy in the subsequent year among U.S. adolescents. We also investigated interactions between running away and sexual assault, romance, and school disengagement. Pregnancy among females between 11 and 17 years (n = 6100) was examined utilizing the Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add…

  9. Teaching Bank Runs with Classroom Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkenborg, Dieter; Kaplan, Todd; Miller, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Once relegated to cinema or history lectures, bank runs have become a modern phenomenon that captures the interest of students. In this article, the authors explain a simple classroom experiment based on the Diamond-Dybvig model (1983) to demonstrate how a bank run--a seemingly irrational event--can occur rationally. They then present possible…

  10. Training errors and running related injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Østergaard; Buist, Ida; Sørensen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the link between training characteristics (volume, duration, frequency, and intensity) and running related injuries.......The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the link between training characteristics (volume, duration, frequency, and intensity) and running related injuries....

  11. Minimum Wage Effects in the Longer Run

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark, David; Nizalova, Olena

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to minimum wages at young ages could lead to adverse longer-run effects via decreased labor market experience and tenure, and diminished education and training, while beneficial longer-run effects could arise if minimum wages increase skill acquisition. Evidence suggests that as individuals reach their late 20s, they earn less the longer…

  12. Long Run Relationship Between Agricultural Production And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study sought to estimate the impact of agricultural production on the long run economic growth in Nigeria using the Vector Error Correction Methodology. The result shows that long run relationship exists between agricultural production and economic growth in Nigeria. Among the variables in the model, crop production ...

  13. A Minkowski Fractal Circularly Polarized Antenna for RFID Reader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanzhong Yu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A design of fractal-like antenna with circular polarization for radio frequency identification (RFID reader applications is presented in this article. The modified Minkowski fractal structure is adopted as radiating patch for size reduction and broadband operation. A corner-truncated technology and a slot-opened method are employed to realize circular polarization and improve the gain of the proposed antenna, respectively. The proposed antenna is analyzed and optimized by HFSS. Return loss and maximum gain of the optimized antenna achieve to -22.2 dB and 1.12 dB at 920 MHz, respectively. The optimized design has an axial ratio (AR of 1.2 dB at central frequency of 920 MHz and impedance bandwidth (S11<=-10 dB of 40 MHz (4.3 %. Its input impedance is (57.9-j2.6 W that is close to input impedance of coaxial line (50 W. Numerical results demonstrate that the optimized antenna exhibits acceptable performances and may satisfy requirements of RFID reader applications.

  14. Signal and array processing techniques for RFID readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Amin, Moeness; Zhang, Yimin

    2006-05-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) has recently attracted much attention in both the technical and business communities. It has found wide applications in, for example, toll collection, supply-chain management, access control, localization tracking, real-time monitoring, and object identification. Situations may arise where the movement directions of the tagged RFID items through a portal is of interest and must be determined. Doppler estimation may prove complicated or impractical to perform by RFID readers. Several alternative approaches, including the use of an array of sensors with arbitrary geometry, can be applied. In this paper, we consider direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation techniques for application to near-field narrowband RFID problems. Particularly, we examine the use of a pair of RFID antennas to track moving RFID tagged items through a portal. With two antennas, the near-field DOA estimation problem can be simplified to a far-field problem, yielding a simple way for identifying the direction of the tag movement, where only one parameter, the angle, needs to be considered. In this case, tracking of the moving direction of the tag simply amounts to computing the spatial cross-correlation between the data samples received at the two antennas. It is pointed out that the radiation patterns of the reader and tag antennas, particularly their phase characteristics, have a significant effect on the performance of DOA estimation. Indoor experiments are conducted in the Radar Imaging and RFID Labs at Villanova University for validating the proposed technique for target movement direction estimations.

  15. From Reader to Writer: Citizen Journalism as News Produsage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Axel

    Today, participatory or citizen journalism - journalism which enables readers to become writers - exists online and offline in a variety of forms and formats, operates under a number of editorial schemes, and focuses on a wide range of topics from the specialist to the generic and the micro-local to the global. Key models in this phenomenon include veteran sites Slashdot and Indymedia, as well as news-related weblogs; more recent additions into the mix have been the South Korean OhmyNews, which in 2003 was “the most influential online news site in that country, attracting an estimated 2 million readers a day” (Gillmor, 2003a, p. 7), with its new Japanese and international offshoots, as well as the Wikipedia with its highly up-to-date news and current events section and its more recent offshoot Wikinews, and even citizen-produced video news as it is found in sites such as YouTube and Current.tv.

  16. Using miscue analysis to assess comprehension in deaf college readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertini, John; Mayer, Connie

    2011-01-01

    For over 30 years, teachers have used miscue analysis as a tool to assess and evaluate the reading abilities of hearing students in elementary and middle schools and to design effective literacy programs. More recently, teachers of deaf and hard-of-hearing students have also reported its usefulness for diagnosing word- and phrase-level reading difficulties and for planning instruction. To our knowledge, miscue analysis has not been used with older, college-age deaf students who might also be having difficulty decoding and understanding text at the word level. The goal of this study was to determine whether such an analysis would be helpful in identifying the source of college students' reading comprehension difficulties. After analyzing the miscues of 10 college-age readers and the results of other comprehension-related tasks, we concluded that comprehension of basic grade school-level passages depended on the ability to recognize and comprehend key words and phrases in these texts. We also concluded that these diagnostic procedures provided useful information about the reading abilities and strategies of each reader that had implications for designing more effective interventions.

  17. Orthopaedic Perspective on Barefoot and Minimalist Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Jonathan; Neumann, Julie; Tao, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, there has been a movement toward barefoot and minimalist running. Advocates assert that a lack of cushion and support promotes a forefoot or midfoot strike rather than a rearfoot strike, decreasing the impact transient and stress on the hip and knee. Although the change in gait is theorized to decrease injury risk, this concept has not yet been fully elucidated. However, research has shown diminished symptoms of chronic exertional compartment syndrome and anterior knee pain after a transition to minimalist running. Skeptics are concerned that, because of the effects of the natural environment and the lack of a standardized transition program, barefoot running could lead to additional, unforeseen injuries. Studies have shown that, with the transition to minimalist running, there is increased stress on the foot and ankle and risk of repetitive stress injuries. Nonetheless, despite the large gap of evidence-based knowledge on minimalist running, the potential benefits warrant further research and consideration.

  18. Running injuries - changing trends and demographics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Karl B

    2011-01-01

    Running injuries are common. Recently the demographic has changed, in that most runners in road races are older and injuries now include those more common in master runners. In particular, Achilles/calf injuries, iliotibial band injury, meniscus injury, and muscle injuries to the hamstrings and quadriceps represent higher percentages of the overall injury mix in recent epidemiologic studies compared with earlier ones. Evidence suggests that running mileage and previous injury are important predictors of running injury. Evidence-based research now helps guide the treatment of iliotibial band, patellofemoral syndrome, and Achilles tendinopathy. The use of topical nitroglycerin in tendinopathy and orthotics for the treatment of patellofemoral syndrome has moderate to strong evidence. Thus, more current knowledge about the changing demographics of runners and the application of research to guide treatment and, eventually, prevent running injury offers hope that clinicians can help reduce the high morbidity associated with long-distance running.

  19. ATLAS strip detector: Operational Experience and Run1 → Run2 transition

    CERN Document Server

    NAGAI, K; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS SCT operational experience and the detector performance during the RUN1 period of LHC will be reported. Additionally the preparation outward to RUN2 during the long shut down 1 will be mentioned.

  20. Excessive Progression in Weekly Running Distance and Risk of Running-related Injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, R.O.; Parner, Erik Thorlund; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard

    2014-01-01

    Study Design An explorative, 1-year prospective cohort study. Objective To examine whether an association between a sudden change in weekly running distance and running-related injury varies according to injury type. Background It is widely accepted that a sudden increase in running distance...... is strongly related to injury in runners. But the scientific knowledge supporting this assumption is limited. Methods A volunteer sample of 874 healthy novice runners who started a self-structured running regimen were provided a global-positioning-system watch. After each running session during the study...... period, participants were categorized into 1 of the following exposure groups, based on the progression of their weekly running distance: less than 10% or regression, 10% to 30%, or more than 30%. The primary outcome was running-related injury. Results A total of 202 runners sustained a running...

  1. Review of relative biological effectiveness dependence on linear energy transfer for low-LET radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, Nezahat; Muirhead, Colin R

    2009-01-01

    Information on Japanese A-bomb survivors exposed to gamma radiation has been used to estimate cancer risks for the whole range of photon (x-rays) and electron energies which are commonly encountered by radiation workers in the work place or by patients and workers in diagnostic radiology. However, there is some uncertainty regarding the radiation effectiveness of various low-linear energy transfer (low-LET) radiations (x-rays, gamma radiation and electrons). In this paper we review information on the effectiveness of low-LET radiations on the basis of epidemiological and in vitro radiobiological studies. Data from various experimental studies for chromosome aberrations and cell transformation in human lymphocytes and from epidemiological studies of the Japanese A-bomb survivors, patients medically exposed to radiation for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, and occupational exposures of nuclear workers are considered. On the basis of in vitro cellular radiobiology, there is considerable evidence that the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of high-energy low-LET radiation (gamma radiation, electrons) is less than that of low-energy low-LET radiation (x-rays, betas). This is a factor of about 3 to 4 for 29 kVp x-rays (e.g. as in diagnostic radiation exposures of the female breast) and for tritium beta-rays (encountered in parts of the nuclear industry) relative to Co-60 gamma radiation and 2-5 MeV gamma-rays (as received by the Japanese A-bomb survivors). In epidemiological studies, although for thyroid and breast cancer there appears to be a small tendency for the excess relative risks to decrease as the radiation energy increases for low-LET radiations, it is not statistically feasible to draw any conclusion regarding an underlying dependence of cancer risk on LET for the nominally low-LET radiations. (review)

  2. Let-7b-mediated suppression of basigin expression and metastasis in mouse melanoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Tzu-Yen; Chang, Chia-Che; Lin, Chun-Ting; Lai, Cong-Hao; Peng, Shao-Yu; Ko, Yi-Ju; Tang, Pin-Chi

    2011-01-01

    Basigin (Bsg), also called extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN), is highly expressed on the surface of tumor cells and stimulates adjacent fibroblasts or tumor cells to produce matrix metalloproteinases (mmps). It has been shown that Bsg plays an important role in growth, development, cell differentiation, and tumor progression. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short endogenous non-protein coding RNAs of 20-25 nucleotides (nt) that function as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression by base-pairing to their target mRNAs and thereby mediate cleavage of target mRNAs or translational repression. In this study, let-7b, one of the let-7 family members, was investigated for its effect on the growth and invasiveness of the mouse melanoma cell line B16-F10. We have shown that let-7b can suppress the expression of Bsg in B16-F10 cells and also provided evidence that this suppression could result in the indirect suppression of mmp-9. The ability of B16-F10 cells transfected with let-7b to invade or migrate was significantly reduced. In addition, let-7b transfected B16-F10 cells displayed an inhibition of both cellular proliferation and colony formation. Furthermore, it was shown that the overexpression of let-7b in B16-F10 cells could reduce lung metastasis. Taken together, the present study identifies let-7b as a tumor suppressor that represses cancer cell proliferation and migration as well as tumor metastasis in mouse melanoma cells.

  3. Let-7b-mediated suppression of basigin expression and metastasis in mouse melanoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Tzu-Yen [Department of Animal Science, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Chang, Chia-Che [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, 91 Hsueh Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chun-Ting [Department of Animal Science, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Lai, Cong-Hao [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Department of Life Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Peng, Shao-Yu; Ko, Yi-Ju [Department of Animal Science, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Tang, Pin-Chi, E-mail: pctang@dragon.nchu.edu.tw [Department of Animal Science, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China)

    2011-02-15

    Basigin (Bsg), also called extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN), is highly expressed on the surface of tumor cells and stimulates adjacent fibroblasts or tumor cells to produce matrix metalloproteinases (mmps). It has been shown that Bsg plays an important role in growth, development, cell differentiation, and tumor progression. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short endogenous non-protein coding RNAs of 20-25 nucleotides (nt) that function as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression by base-pairing to their target mRNAs and thereby mediate cleavage of target mRNAs or translational repression. In this study, let-7b, one of the let-7 family members, was investigated for its effect on the growth and invasiveness of the mouse melanoma cell line B16-F10. We have shown that let-7b can suppress the expression of Bsg in B16-F10 cells and also provided evidence that this suppression could result in the indirect suppression of mmp-9. The ability of B16-F10 cells transfected with let-7b to invade or migrate was significantly reduced. In addition, let-7b transfected B16-F10 cells displayed an inhibition of both cellular proliferation and colony formation. Furthermore, it was shown that the overexpression of let-7b in B16-F10 cells could reduce lung metastasis. Taken together, the present study identifies let-7b as a tumor suppressor that represses cancer cell proliferation and migration as well as tumor metastasis in mouse melanoma cells.

  4. High LET radiation enhances apoptosis in mutated p53 cancer cells through Caspase-9 activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakawa, Nobuhiro; Takahashi, Akihisa; Mori, Eiichiro; Imai, Yuichiro; Ohnishi, Ken; Kirita, Tadaaki; Ohnishi, Takeo; Furusawa, Yoshiya

    2008-01-01

    Although mutations in the p53 gene can lead to resistance to radiotherapy, chemotherapy and thermotherapy, high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation induces apoptosis regardless of p53 gene status in cancer cells. The aim of this study was to clarify the mechanisms involved in high LET radiation-induced apoptosis. Human gingival cancer cells (Ca9-22 cells) containing a mutated p53 (mp53) gene were irradiated with X-rays, C-ion (13-100 KeV/μm), or Fe-ion beams (200 KeV/μm). Cellular sensitivities were determined using colony forming assays. Apoptosis was detected and quantified with Hoechst 33342 staining. The activity of Caspase-3 was analyzed with Western blotting and flow cytometry. Cells irradiated with high LET radiation showed a high sensitivity with a high frequency of apoptosis induction. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for the surviving fraction and apoptosis induction increased in a LET-dependent manner. Both RBE curves reached a peak at 100 KeV/μm, and then decreased at values over 100 KeV/μm. When cells were irradiated with high LET radiation, Caspase-3 was cleaved and activated, leading to poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage. In addition, Caspase-9 inhibitor suppressed Caspase-3 activation and apoptosis induction resulting from high LET radiation to a greater extent than Caspase-8 inhibitor. These results suggest that high LET radiation enhances apoptosis by activation of Caspase-3 through Caspase-9, even in the presence of mp53. (author)

  5. Experimental and calculated LET distributions in the Cosmos-2044 biosatellite orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudkin, V.E.; Karpov, O.N.; Potapov, Yu.V.; Benton, E.V.; Frank, A.L.; Watts, J.W. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    During the flight of the Cosmos-2044 biosatellite, joint U.S.S.R.-U.S.A. investigations of different characteristics of cosmic radiation (CR) in the near-Earth environment were carried out. The U.S. dielectric track detectors CR-39 and Soviet BYa- and BR-type nuclear photo-emulsions were used as detectors. The present work shows some results of experimental measurements of linear energy transfer (LET) spectra of CR particles obtained with the use of these detectors, which were placed both inside and outside the satellite. The LET spectra measurement with plastic detectors is composed of two parts: the measurement of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) particles, and of short-range particles. The contributions of these components to the total LET distribution at various thicknesses of the shielding were analyzed and the results of these studies are presented. Calculated LET spectra in the Cosmos-2044 orbit were compared with experimental data. On the basis of experimental and calculated values of the LET spectra, absorbed and equivalent CR doses were calculated. In the shielding range of 1-1.5 g cm -2 , outside the spacecraft, the photo-emulsions yielded 10.3 mrad d -1 and 27.5 mrem d -1 (LET ≥ 2 MeV cm -1 ) while the CR-39 yielded averages of 1.43 mrad d -1 and 13.4 mrem d -1 (LET ≥ 40 MeV cm -1 ). Inside the spacecraft (≥10 g cm -2 ) the photo-emulsions yielded 8.9 mrad d -1 and 14.5 mrem d -1 . (author)

  6. VE-821, an ATR inhibitor, causes radiosensitization in human tumor cells irradiated with high LET radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisawa, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Nakako Izumi; Sunada, Shigeaki; Lee, Younghyun; Hirakawa, Hirokazu; Yajima, Hirohiko; Fujimori, Akira; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Okayasu, Ryuichi

    2015-01-01

    High linear energy transfer (LET) radiation such as carbon ion particles is successfully used for treatment of solid tumors. The reason why high LET radiation accomplishes greater tumor-killing than X-rays is still not completely understood. One factor would be the clustered or complex-type DNA damages. We previously reported that complex DNA double-strand breaks produced by high LET radiation enhanced DNA end resection, and this could lead to higher kinase activity of ATR protein recruited to RPA-coated single-stranded DNA. Although the effect of ATR inhibition on cells exposed to low LET gamma-rays has recently been reported, little is known regarding the effect of ATR inhibitor on cells treated with high LET radiation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the ATR inhibitor VE-821 in human tumor and normal cells irradiated with high LET carbon ions. HeLa, U2OS, and 1BR-hTERT (normal) cells were pre-treated with 1 μM VE-821 for 1 hour and irradiated with either high LET carbon ions or X-rays. Cell survival, cell cycle distribution, cell growth, and micronuclei formation were evaluated. VE-821 caused abrogation of G2/M checkpoint and forced irradiated cells to divide into daughter cells. We also found that carbon ions caused a higher number of multiple micronuclei than X-rays, leading to decreased cell survival in tumor cells when treated with VE-821, while the survival of irradiated normal cells were not significantly affected by this inhibitor. ATR inhibitor would be an effective tumor radiosensitizer with carbon ion irradiation. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13014-015-0464-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  7. Let-7a is a direct EWS-FLI-1 target implicated in Ewing's sarcoma development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio De Vito

    Full Text Available Ewing's sarcoma family tumors (ESFT are the second most common bone malignancy in children and young adults, characterized by unique chromosomal translocations that in 85% of cases lead to expression of the EWS-FLI-1 fusion protein. EWS-FLI-1 functions as an aberrant transcription factor that can both induce and suppress members of its target gene repertoire. We have recently demonstrated that EWS-FLI-1 can alter microRNA (miRNA expression and that miRNA145 is a direct EWS-FLI-1 target whose suppression is implicated in ESFT development. Here, we use miRNA arrays to compare the global miRNA expression profile of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC and ESFT cell lines, and show that ESFT display a distinct miRNA signature that includes induction of the oncogenic miRNA 17-92 cluster and repression of the tumor suppressor let-7 family. We demonstrate that direct repression of let-7a by EWS-FLI-1 participates in the tumorigenic potential of ESFT cells in vivo. The mechanism whereby let-7a expression regulates ESFT growth is shown to be mediated by its target gene HMGA2, as let-7a overexpression and HMGA2 repression both block ESFT cell tumorigenicity. Consistent with these observations, systemic delivery of synthetic let-7a into ESFT-bearing mice restored its expression in tumor cells, decreased HMGA2 expression levels and resulted in ESFT growth inhibition in vivo. Our observations provide evidence that deregulation of let-7a target gene expression participates in ESFT development and identify let-7a as promising new therapeutic target for one of the most aggressive pediatric malignancies.

  8. Rocker shoe, minimalist shoe, and standard running shoe : A comparison of running economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobhani, Sobhan; Bredeweg, Steven; Dekker, Rienk; Kluitenberg, Bas; van den Heuvel, Edwin; Hijmans, Juha; Postema, Klaas

    Objectives: Running with rocker shoes is believed to prevent lower limb injuries. However, it is not clear how running in these shoes affects the energy expenditure. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to assess the effects of rocker shoes on running economy in comparison with standard and

  9. Effect of computer-aided detection as a second reader in multidetector-row CT colonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mang, Thomas; Peloschek, Philipp; Plank, Christina; Maier, Andrea; Weber, Michael; Herold, Christian; Schima, Wolfgang; Graser, Anno; Bogoni, Luca

    2007-01-01

    Our purpose was to assess the effect of computer-aided detection (CAD) on lesion detection as a second reader in computed tomographic colonography, and to compare the influence of CAD on the performance of readers with different levels of expertise. Fifty-two CT colonography patient data-sets (37 patients: 55 endoscopically confirmed polyps ≥0.5 cm, seven cancers; 15 patients: no abnormalities) were retrospectively reviewed by four radiologists (two expert, two nonexpert). After primary data evaluation, a second reading augmented with findings of CAD (polyp-enhanced view, Siemens) was performed. Sensitivities and reading time were calculated for each reader without CAD and supported by CAD findings. The sensitivity of expert readers was 91% each, and of nonexpert readers, 76% and 75%, respectively, for polyp detection. CAD increased the sensitivity of expert readers to 96% (P = 0.25) and 93% (P = 1), and that of nonexpert readers to 91% (P = 0.008) and 95% (P = 0.001), respectively. All four readers diagnosed 100% of cancers, but CAD alone only 43%. CAD increased reading time by 2.1 min (mean). CAD as a second reader significantly improves sensitivity for polyp detection in a high disease prevalence population for nonexpert readers. CAD causes a modest increase in reading time. CAD is of limited value in the detection of cancer. (orig.)

  10. Running Economy from a Muscle Energetics Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared R. Fletcher

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The economy of running has traditionally been quantified from the mass-specific oxygen uptake; however, because fuel substrate usage varies with exercise intensity, it is more accurate to express running economy in units of metabolic energy. Fundamentally, the understanding of the major factors that influence the energy cost of running (Erun can be obtained with this approach. Erun is determined by the energy needed for skeletal muscle contraction. Here, we approach the study of Erun from that perspective. The amount of energy needed for skeletal muscle contraction is dependent on the force, duration, shortening, shortening velocity, and length of the muscle. These factors therefore dictate the energy cost of running. It is understood that some determinants of the energy cost of running are not trainable: environmental factors, surface characteristics, and certain anthropometric features. Other factors affecting Erun are altered by training: other anthropometric features, muscle and tendon properties, and running mechanics. Here, the key features that dictate the energy cost during distance running are reviewed in the context of skeletal muscle energetics.

  11. The effect of footwear on running performance and running economy in distance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Joel T; Bellenger, Clint R; Thewlis, Dominic; Tsiros, Margarita D; Buckley, Jonathan D

    2015-03-01

    The effect of footwear on running economy has been investigated in numerous studies. However, no systematic review and meta-analysis has synthesised the available literature and the effect of footwear on running performance is not known. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of footwear on running performance and running economy in distance runners, by reviewing controlled trials that compare different footwear conditions or compare footwear with barefoot. The Web of Science, Scopus, MEDLINE, CENTRAL (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), EMBASE, AMED (Allied and Complementary Medicine), CINAHL and SPORTDiscus databases were searched from inception up until April 2014. Included articles reported on controlled trials that examined the effects of footwear or footwear characteristics (including shoe mass, cushioning, motion control, longitudinal bending stiffness, midsole viscoelasticity, drop height and comfort) on running performance or running economy and were published in a peer-reviewed journal. Of the 1,044 records retrieved, 19 studies were included in the systematic review and 14 studies were included in the meta-analysis. No studies were identified that reported effects on running performance. Individual studies reported significant, but trivial, beneficial effects on running economy for comfortable and stiff-soled shoes [standardised mean difference (SMD) beneficial effect on running economy for cushioned shoes (SMD = 0.37; P beneficial effect on running economy for training in minimalist shoes (SMD = 0.79; P beneficial effects on running economy for light shoes and barefoot compared with heavy shoes (SMD running was identified (P running economy. Certain models of footwear and footwear characteristics can improve running economy. Future research in footwear performance should include measures of running performance.

  12. Characterization and expression patterns of let-7 microRNA in the silkworm (Bombyx mori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Kaili

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background lin-4 and let-7, the two founding members of heterochronic microRNA genes, are firstly confirmed in Caenorhabditis elegans to control the proper timing of developmental programs in a heterochronic pathway. let-7 has been thought to trigger the onset of adulthood across animal phyla. Ecdysone and Broad-Complex are required for the temporal expression of let-7 in Drosophila melanogaster. For a better understanding of the conservation and functions of let-7, we seek to explore how it is expressed in the silkworm (Bombyx mori. Results One member of let-7 family has been identified in silkworm computationally and experimentally. All known members of this family share the same nucleotides at ten positions within the mature sequences. Sequence logo and phylogenetic tree show that they are not only conserved but diversify to some extent among some species. The bmo-let-7 was very lowly expressed in ova harvested from newborn unmated female adult and in individuals from the first molt to the early third instar, highly expressed after the third molt, and the most abundant expression was observed after mounting, particularly after pupation. The expression levels were higher at the end of each instar and at the beginning of each molt than at other periods, coinciding with the pulse of ecdysone and BR-C as a whole. Using cultured ovary cell line, BmN-SWU1, we examined the effect of altered ecdysone levels on bmo-let-7 expression. The expression was also detected in various tissues of day 3 of the fifth instar and of from day 7 of the fifth to pupa, suggesting a wide distributing pattern with various signal intensities. Conclusion bmo-let-7 is stage- and tissue-specifically expressed in the silkworm. Although no signals were detected during embryonic development and first larval instar stages, the expression of bmo-let-7 was observed from the first molt, suggesting that it might also function at early larval stage of the silkworm. The

  13. Characterization and expression patterns of let-7 microRNA in the silkworm (Bombyx mori).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiping; Xia, Qingyou; Zhao, Ping; Cheng, Tingcai; Hong, Kaili; Xiang, Zhonghuai

    2007-07-25

    lin-4 and let-7, the two founding members of heterochronic microRNA genes, are firstly confirmed in Caenorhabditis elegans to control the proper timing of developmental programs in a heterochronic pathway. let-7 has been thought to trigger the onset of adulthood across animal phyla. Ecdysone and Broad-Complex are required for the temporal expression of let-7 in Drosophila melanogaster. For a better understanding of the conservation and functions of let-7, we seek to explore how it is expressed in the silkworm (Bombyx mori). One member of let-7 family has been identified in silkworm computationally and experimentally. All known members of this family share the same nucleotides at ten positions within the mature sequences. Sequence logo and phylogenetic tree show that they are not only conserved but diversify to some extent among some species. The bmo-let-7 was very lowly expressed in ova harvested from newborn unmated female adult and in individuals from the first molt to the early third instar, highly expressed after the third molt, and the most abundant expression was observed after mounting, particularly after pupation. The expression levels were higher at the end of each instar and at the beginning of each molt than at other periods, coinciding with the pulse of ecdysone and BR-C as a whole. Using cultured ovary cell line, BmN-SWU1, we examined the effect of altered ecdysone levels on bmo-let-7 expression. The expression was also detected in various tissues of day 3 of the fifth instar and of from day 7 of the fifth to pupa, suggesting a wide distributing pattern with various signal intensities. bmo-let-7 is stage- and tissue-specifically expressed in the silkworm. Although no signals were detected during embryonic development and first larval instar stages, the expression of bmo-let-7 was observed from the first molt, suggesting that it might also function at early larval stage of the silkworm. The detailed expression profiles in the whole life cycle and

  14. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity during running

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngeraa, Tobias; Pedersen, Lars Møller; Mantoni, T

    2013-01-01

    for eight subjects, respectively, were excluded from analysis because of insufficient signal quality. Running increased mean arterial pressure and mean MCA velocity and induced rhythmic oscillations in BP and in MCA velocity corresponding to the difference between step rate and heart rate (HR) frequencies....... During running, rhythmic oscillations in arterial BP induced by interference between HR and step frequency impact on cerebral blood velocity. For the exercise as a whole, average MCA velocity becomes elevated. These results suggest that running not only induces an increase in regional cerebral blood flow...

  15. CMB constraints on running non-Gaussianity

    OpenAIRE

    Oppizzi, Filippo; Liguori, Michele; Renzi, Alessandro; Arroja, Frederico; Bartolo, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    We develop a complete set of tools for CMB forecasting, simulation and estimation of primordial running bispectra, arising from a variety of curvaton and single-field (DBI) models of Inflation. We validate our pipeline using mock CMB running non-Gaussianity realizations and test it on real data by obtaining experimental constraints on the $f_{\\rm NL}$ running spectral index, $n_{\\rm NG}$, using WMAP 9-year data. Our final bounds (68\\% C.L.) read $-0.3< n_{\\rm NG}

  16. Running Injuries During Adolescence and Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabak, Brian J; Snitily, Brian; Milani, Carlo J E

    2016-02-01

    The popularity of running among young athletes has significantly increased over the past few decades. As the number of children who participate in running increases, so do the potential number of injuries to this group. Proper care of these athletes includes a thorough understanding of the unique physiology of the skeletally immature athlete and common injuries in this age group. Treatment should focus on athlete education, modification of training schedule, and correction of biomechanical deficits contributing to injury. Early identification and correction of these factors will allow a safe return to running sports. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. ATLAS Strip Detector: Operational Experience and Run1-> Run2 Transition

    CERN Document Server

    Nagai, Koichi; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Large hadron collider was operated very successfully during the Run1 and provided a lot of opportunities of physics studies. It currently has a consolidation work toward to the operation at $\\sqrt{s}=14 \\mathrm{TeV}$ in Run2. The ATLAS experiment has achieved excellent performance in Run1 operation, delivering remarkable physics results. The SemiConductor Tracker contributed to the precise measurement of momentum of charged particles. This paper describes the operation experience of the SemiConductor Tracker in Run1 and the preparation toward to the Run2 operation during the LS1.

  18. Electricity prices and fuel costs. Long-run relations and short-run dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, Hassan

    2009-01-01

    The paper examines the long-run relation and short-run dynamics between electricity prices and three fossil fuel prices - coal, natural gas and crude oil - using annual data for the U.S. for 1960-2007. The results suggest (1) a stable long-run relation between real prices for electricity and coal (2) Bi-directional long-run causality between coal and electricity prices. (3) Insignificant long-run relations between electricity and crude oil and/or natural gas prices. And (4) no evidence of asymmetries in the adjustment of electricity prices to deviations from equilibrium. A number of implications are addressed. (author)

  19. Let7a involves in neural stem cell differentiation relating with TLX level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Juhyun; Cho, Kyoung Joo; Oh, Yumi; Lee, Jong Eun

    2015-07-10

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) have the potential for differentiation into neurons known as a groundbreaking therapeutic solution for central nervous system (CNS) diseases. To resolve the therapeutic efficiency of NSCs, recent researchers have focused on the study on microRNA's role in CNS. Some micro RNAs have been reported significant functions in NSC self-renewal and differentiation through the post-transcriptional regulation of neurogenesis genes. MicroRNA-Let7a (Let7a) has known as the regulator of diverse cellular mechanisms including cell differentiation and proliferation. In present study, we investigated whether Let7a regulates NSC differentiation by targeting the nuclear receptor TLX, which is an essential regulator of NSC self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation. We performed the following experiments: western blot analysis, TaqMan assay, RT-PCR, and immunocytochemistry to confirm the alteration of NSCs. Our data showed that let7a play important roles in controlling NSC fate determination. Thus, manipulating Let-7A and TLX could be a novel strategy to enhance the efficiency of NSC's neuronal differentiation for CNS disorders. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mutational influences of low-dose and high let ionizing radiation in drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Huang; Fanjun, Kong; Sun, Yeqing

    For cosmic environment consists of a varying kinds of radiation particles including high Z and energy ions which was charactered with low-dose and high RBE, it is important to determine the possible biofuctions of high LET radiation on human beings. To analyse the possible effectes of mutational influences of low-dose and high-LET ionizing radiation, wild fruit flies drosophila melanogaster were irradiated by 12C6+ ions in two LET levels (63.3 and 30 keV/µum) with different low doses from 2mGy to 2000mGy (2, 20, 200, 2000mGy) in HIRFL (Heavy ion radiation facility laboratory, lanzhou, China).In the same LET value group, the average polymorphic frequency was elevated along with adding doses of irradation, the frequency in 2000 mGy dose samples was significantly higher than other samples (p<0.01).These results suggest that genomic DNA sequence could be effected by low-dose and high-LET ionizing radiation, the irradiation dose is an important element in genomic mutation frequency origination.

  1. Verbal Reports of Proficient Readers In Coping With Unfamiliar Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusumarasdyati Kusumarasdyati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the actual strategy use of good readers when they face hindrance in the form of unfamiliar words. Eight undergraduates majoring in English at Surabaya State University performed think-aloud while reading two texts to find out how they coped with such difficulties. The verbal protocol indicated that half of the participants mainly relied on a bilingual (English-Indonesian dictionary to attack unfamiliar words, and only one of them preferred to use a monolingual (English-English one. Two of them employed context cues to infer the meaning of the words, while one participant combined the use of context cues and a monolingual dictionary as the major strategy. All but one of the participants skipped some of lexical items whose meaning was unknown to them, especially when these words did not have a key contribution to the meaning of the whole text.

  2. The African Novel and the Western Reader. A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Vermeulen

    1986-02-01

    Full Text Available African literature, like any other literature remote in space or time, can be approached in two different ways. We can read it from our own point of view and try to appreciate it with our own literary standards. We can also try to read it as it was experienced and appreciated by its immediate audience, which means by the African public at the time of publication. Reactions given by a group of Dutch-speaking readers on a novel by E. Dongala clearly illustrate that the second approach is hardly achievable, however attractive it may seem. So we have to accept that every reading of an African literary work implies a serious degree of creative treason. KEYWORDS : Literary reception, literary criticism, African literature in French, E. Dongala

  3. Astrobites: The Astro-ph Reader's Digest For Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna; Astrobites Team

    2013-04-01

    Astrobites (http://astrobites.com) is a daily blog aimed primarily at undergraduates interested in astrophysical research and written by a team of graduate students located at diverse institutions around the world. Nearly every day we present a journal article recently posted to astro-ph in a brief format that is accessible to anyone with a general background in the physical sciences. In addition to summarizing new work, Astrobites provides valuable context for readers not yet familiar with the astrophysical literature. Special posts offer career guidance for undergraduates (e.g. applying for an NSF graduate fellowship) and describe personal experiences (e.g. attending an astronomy summer school). We will discuss the Astrobites format and recent readership statistics, as well as potential methods for incorporating Astrobites into the classroom.

  4. Updates from Astrobites: The Astro-ph Reader's Digest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montet, Benjamin; Chisari, N.; Donaldson, J.; Dressing, C. D.; Drout, M.; Faesi, C.; Fuchs, J. T.; Kohler, S.; Lovegrove, E.; Mills, E. A.; Nesvold, E.; Newton, E. R.; Olmstead, A.; Vasel, J. A.; Weiss, L. M.; Astrobites Team

    2014-01-01

    Astrobites (http://astrobites.com) is a daily blog aimed at undergraduates interested in astrophysical research and written by a team of graduate students located at diverse institutions across the United States. Primarily, we present journal articles recently posted to astro-ph in a brief format that is accessible to anyone with a general background in the physical sciences, including readers who are not yet familiar with the astrophysical literature. Special posts offer career guidance for undergraduates (e.g. applying for an NSF graduate fellowship) and describe personal experiences (e.g. attending an astronomy summer school). We present recent readership statistics and potential methods for incorporating Astrobites into the classroom. We also discuss the Astrobites format across multiple social media platforms, including the newly launched Astroplots, and highlight our recent work organizing the annual "Communicating Science" workshop for graduate students.

  5. NEDO Forum 2001. Session on New Energy/Energy Conservation Popularization Project (Let's walk and save energy - Let new energy run on its course); NEDO Forum 2001. Shinene shoene donyu fukyu jigyo session (aruko shoene hashiro shinene)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-20

    The presentations made at the above-named session of the NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) forum held in Tokyo on September 20, 2001, are collected in this report. Professor Kashiwagi of Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology in his keynote address, entitled 'How the popularization of new energy and energy conservation should be in the future,' discussed energy conservation measures, new energy measures, fuel conversion, natural gas, and atomic energy, and disclosed his long-term outlook of energy supply and demand. NEDO in its achievement report mentioned a simulation on the smooth interconnection of distributed power sources such as wind power sites to a commercial power system. It reported also that, under its 3-year high performance industrial furnace field test project started in 1998, 167 furnaces, including heating furnaces, ladles, heat treatment furnaces, melting furnaces, and gas treatment furnaces were converted into high performance industrial furnaces capable of high temperature preheated air combustion near 1000 degrees C and that the conversion brought about a great reduction in energy consumption and in carbon dioxide gas and nitrogen gas emissions. (NEDO)

  6. Effects of let-7b and TLX on the proliferation and differentiation of retinal progenitor cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Ni; Zhang, Dandan; Xie, Qing; Chen, Junzhao; Wang, Zi; Deng, Yuan; Wen, Xuyang; Zhu, Mengyu; Ji, Jing; Fan, Xianqun; Luo, Min; Gu, Ping

    2014-10-20

    MicroRNAs manifest significant functions in brain neural stem cell (NSC) self-renewal and differentiation through the post-transcriptional regulation of neurogenesis genes. Let-7b is expressed in the mammalian brain and regulates NSC proliferation and differentiation by targeting the nuclear receptor TLX, which is an essential regulator of NSC self-renewal. Whether let-7b and TLX act as important regulators in retinal progenitor cell (RPC) proliferation and differentiation remains unknown. Here, our data show that let-7b and TLX play important roles in controlling RPC fate determination in vitro. Let-7b suppresses TLX expression to negatively regulate RPC proliferation and accelerate the neuronal and glial differentiation of RPCs. The overexpression of let-7b downregulates TLX levels in RPCs, leading to reduced RPC proliferation and increased neuronal and glial differentiation, whereas antisense knockdown of let-7b produces robust TLX expression,enhanced RPC proliferation and decreased differentiation. Moreover, the inhibition of endogenous TLX by small interfering RNA suppresses RPC proliferation and promotes RPC differentiation. Furthermore, overexpression of TLX rescues let-7b-induced proliferation deficiency and weakens the RPC differentiation enhancement caused by let-7b alone. These results suggest that let-7b, by forming a negative feedback loop with TLX, provides a novel model to regulate the proliferation and differentiation of retinal progenitors in vitro.

  7. Common running musculoskeletal injuries among recreational half ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    probing the prevalence and nature of running musculoskeletal injuries in the 12 months preceding ... or agony, and which prevented them from physical activity for ..... injuries to professional football players: Developing the UEFA model.

  8. TEK twisted gradient flow running coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, Margarita García; Keegan, Liam; Okawa, Masanori

    2014-01-01

    We measure the running of the twisted gradient flow coupling in the Twisted Eguchi-Kawai (TEK) model, the SU(N) gauge theory on a single site lattice with twisted boundary conditions in the large N limit.

  9. Run-2 Supersymmetry searches in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Soffer, Abner; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Despite the absence of experimental evidence, weak scale supersymmetry remains one of the best motivated and studied Standard Model extensions. With the large increase in collision energy with the LHC Run-2 (from 8TeV to 13 TeV) the sensitivity to heavy strongly produced SUSY particles (squarks and gluinos) increases tremendously. This talk presents recent ATLAS Run-2 searches for such particles in final states including jets, missing transverse momentum, and possibly light leptons.

  10. Running heavy-quark masses in DIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekhin, S.; Moch, S.

    2011-07-01

    We report on determinations of the running mass for charm quarks from deep-inelastic scattering reactions. The method provides complementary information on this fundamental parameter from hadronic processes with space-like kinematics. The obtained values are consistent with but systematically lower than the world average as published by the PDG. We also address the consequences of the running mass scheme for heavy-quark parton distributions in global fits to deep-inelastic scattering data. (orig.)

  11. The meaning of running away for girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peled, Einat; Cohavi, Ayelet

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this qualitative research was to understand how runaway girls perceive the processes involved in leaving home and the meaning they attribute to it. Findings are based on in-depth interviews with 10 Israeli girls aged 13-17 with a history of running away from home. The meaning of running away as it emerged from the girls' descriptions of their lives prior to leaving home was that of survival - both psychological and physical. The girls' stories centered on their evolving experiences of alienation, loneliness and detachment, and the failure of significant relationships at home and outside of home to provide them with the support they needed. These experiences laid the ground for the "final moments" before leaving, when a feeling of "no alternative," a hope for a better future, and various particular triggers led the girls to the decision to leave home. Participants' insights about the dynamics leading to running-away center on the meaning of family relationships, particularly those with the mother, as constituting the girl's psychological home. The girls seemed to perceive running away as an inevitability, rather than a choice, and even portrayed the running away as "living suicide." Yet, their stories clearly demonstrate their ability to cope and the possession of strengths and skills that enabled them to survive in extremely difficult home situations. The findings of this research highlight the importance of improving services for reaching out and supporting girls who are on the verge of running away from home. Such services should be tailored to the needs of girls who experience extreme but often silenced distress at home, and should facilitate alternative solutions to the girls' plight other than running away. An understanding of the dynamics leading to running away from the girls' perspective has the potential to improve the efficacy of services provided by contributing to the creation of a caring, empowering, understanding and trustful professional

  12. AUSES AND GRATIFICTIONS RESEARCH ON READING MOTIVATIONSE AND GRATIFICATIONS OFNEWSPAPER READERS

    OpenAIRE

    Fatih Bayram

    2008-01-01

    Giving information is one of the main function of mass communication tools. Newspaper readers are using newspaper for different motivations. Gaining information, entertainment, leisure time activities, social integration is some motivations of media. Uses and gratifications theory asserts that reader is active part of communication process and reading habits figure on social and psychological needs. Items from readers’gratifications are categorized by using factor analysis from questionnair...

  13. EDMC: An enhanced distributed multi-channel anti-collision algorithm for RFID reader system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, YuJing; Cui, Yinghua

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we proposes an enhanced distributed multi-channel reader anti-collision algorithm for RFID environments which is based on the distributed multi-channel reader anti-collision algorithm for RFID environments (called DiMCA). We proposes a monitor method to decide whether reader receive the latest control news after it selected the data channel. The simulation result shows that it improves interrogation delay.

  14. High-LET particle dosimetry in the ASTP-Biostack III: Zea mays experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, D.D.; Benton, E.V.; Tran, M.; Yang, T.; Freeling, M.; Craise, L.; Tobias, C.A.

    1977-01-01

    High-LET particle hits in embryos of Zea mays (corn) seeds, flown as part of the ASTP-Biostack III, were determined via plastic nuclear track detectors. Based on etched particle-tracks measurements, 41 embryos were hit in seed layer 1 which contained 80 seeds, and 49 hits occurred in layer 2 which contained 79 seeds. The mean LET value and range of atomic numbers of recorded hits is, respectively, 210 +- 57 keV/μm and 9 approximately less than Z approximately less than 26. Detailed analysis of one particular seed showing marked growth anomalies revealed two hits in the central region of the embryo. These two hits had LET values in the region of 100 to 150 keV/μm, and Z less than approximately 20. (author)

  15. Cooperative interplay of let-7 mimic and HuR with MYC RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunzburg, Menachem J; Sivakumaran, Andrew; Pendini, Nicole R; Yoon, Je-Hyun; Gorospe, Myriam; Wilce, Matthew C J; Wilce, Jacqueline A

    2015-01-01

    Both RNA-binding proteins (RBP) and miRNA play important roles in the regulation of mRNA expression, often acting together to regulate a target mRNA. In some cases the RBP and miRNA have been reported to act competitively, but in other instances they function cooperatively. Here, we investigated HuR function as an enhancer of let-7-mediated translational repression of c-Myc despite the separation of their binding sites. Using an in vitro system, we determined that a let-7 mimic, consisting of single-stranded (ss)DNA complementary to the let-7 binding site, enhanced the affinity of HuR for a 122-nt MYC RNA encompassing both binding sites. This finding supports the biophysical principle of cooperative binding by an RBP and miRNA purely through interactions at distal mRNA binding sites.

  16. The Othering in Kazuo Ishiguro’s Never Let Me Go

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matava Vichiensing

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I will investigate the concept of ‘othering’ originally as part of a post-colonial theory. This concept is interested in many academic areas, including a literary study. In Kazuo Ishiguro’s novel Never Let Me Go is about human clones raised for organs. The clones are excluded and discriminated to be ‘the other’ from the normal people. The manifestations of othering in Never Let Me Go can be presented in the forms of linguistic features, indoctrination, objectification, and assimilation. Although the othering phenomenon can be found in the reality, it can be appeared in literary texts as well. The findings show that the study of Kazuo Ishiguro’s Never Let Me Go helps us to understand and aware of how the negative consequences of the othering process affect undesirable treatments in the society as a whole.

  17. Depth-Dose and LET Distributions of Antiproton Beams in Various Target Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Rochus; Olsen, Sune; Petersen, Jørgen B.B.

    the annihilation process. Materials We have investigated the impact of substituting the target material on  the depth-dose distribution of pristine and  spread out antiproton beams using the FLUKA Monte Carlo transport program. Classical ICRP targets are compared to water phantoms. In addition, track average...... unrestricted LET is calculated for all configurations. Finally, we investigate which concentrations of gadolinium and boron are needed in a water target in order to observe a significant change in the antiproton depth-dose distribution.  Results Results indicate, that there is no significant change...... in the depth-dose distribution and average LET when substituting the materials. Adding boron and gadolinium up to concentrations of 1 per 1000 atoms to a water phantom, did not change the depth-dose profile nor the average LET. Conclusions  According to our FLUKA calculations, antiproton neutron capture...

  18. Influence of chemical inhibitors on cell recovery after exposure to different LET radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evstratova, Ekaterina S.; Petin, Vladislav G. [Medical Radiological Research Center, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Kim, Jin Kyu; KIm, Jin Hong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Chemical radiosensitizers are often used to increase cell radiosensitivity. It is known that the ability of chemical drugs to increase cell radiosensitivity is related with inhibition of cell recovery from damage induced by ionizing radiation. However, there are little comparative investigations of cell sensitivity modification after exposure to radiation with high linear energy transfer (LET). Therefore, we studied the anticancer drugs cisplatin and endoxan and their impact on the ability of yeast cells to recover after cell exposure to radiations with different LET. The ability of cell recovery from radiation damage was less effective after exposure to high-LET radiation, when cells were irradiated without drug, with the increase in cisplatin concentration resulting in the disappearance of this difference. The increase of cisplatin concentration results in progressive increase in the fraction of irreversible damage independently of radiation quality.

  19. Influence of chemical inhibitors on cell recovery after exposure to different LET radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evstratova, Ekaterina S.; Petin, Vladislav G.; Kim, Jin Kyu; KIm, Jin Hong

    2016-01-01

    Chemical radiosensitizers are often used to increase cell radiosensitivity. It is known that the ability of chemical drugs to increase cell radiosensitivity is related with inhibition of cell recovery from damage induced by ionizing radiation. However, there are little comparative investigations of cell sensitivity modification after exposure to radiation with high linear energy transfer (LET). Therefore, we studied the anticancer drugs cisplatin and endoxan and their impact on the ability of yeast cells to recover after cell exposure to radiations with different LET. The ability of cell recovery from radiation damage was less effective after exposure to high-LET radiation, when cells were irradiated without drug, with the increase in cisplatin concentration resulting in the disappearance of this difference. The increase of cisplatin concentration results in progressive increase in the fraction of irreversible damage independently of radiation quality.

  20. [Osteoarthritis from long-distance running?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, E; Wörtler, K; Imhoff, A

    2005-06-01

    Long distance running has become a fashionable recreational activity. This study investigated the effects of external impact loading on bone and cartilage introduced by performing a marathon race. Seven beginners were compared to six experienced recreational long distance runners and two professional athletes. All participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the hip and knee before and after a marathon run. Coronal T1 weighted and STIR sequences were used. The pre MRI served as a baseline investigation and monitored the training effect. All athletes demonstrated normal findings in the pre run scan. All but one athlete in the beginner group demonstrated joint effusions after the race. The experienced and professional runners failed to demonstrate pathology in the post run scans. Recreational and professional long distance runners tolerate high impact forces well. Beginners demonstrate significant changes on the post run scans. Whether those findings are a result of inadequate training (miles and duration) warrant further studies. We conclude that adequate endurance training results in adaptation mechanisms that allow the athlete to compensate for the stresses introduced by long distance running and do not predispose to the onset of osteoarthritis. Significant malalignment of the lower extremity may cause increased focal loading of joint and cartilage.