WorldWideScience

Sample records for lets traffic lights

  1. Traffic Light Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    This paper introduces, prices, and analyzes traffic light options. The traffic light option is an innovative structured OTC derivative developed independently by several London-based investment banks to suit the needs of Danish life and pension (L&P) companies, which must comply with the traffic...... 2006, and supervisory authorities in many other European countries have implemented similar regulation. Traffic light options are therefore likely to attract the attention of a wider audience of pension fund managers in the future. Focusing on the valuation of the traffic light option we set up a Black...... light scenarios. These stress scenarios entail drops in interest rates as well as in stock prices, and traffic light options are thus designed to pay off and preserve sufficient capital when interest rates and stock prices fall simultaneously. Sweden's FSA implemented a traffic light system in January...

  2. Traffic Light Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces, prices, and analyzes traffic light options. The traffic light option is an innovative structured OTC derivative developed independently by several London-based investment banks to suit the needs of Danish life and pension (L&P) companies, which must comply with the traffic...... 2006, and supervisory authorities in many other European countries have implemented similar regulation. Traffic light options are therefore likely to attract the attention of a wider audience of pension fund managers in the future. Focusing on the valuation of the traffic light option we set up a Black...... light scenarios. These stress scenarios entail drops in interest rates as well as in stock prices, and traffic light options are thus designed to pay off and preserve sufficient capital when interest rates and stock prices fall simultaneously. Sweden's FSA implemented a traffic light system in January...

  3. Traffic Light Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Mark Philip; Jensen, Morten Bornø; Møgelmose, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Traffic light recognition (TLR) is an integral part of any intelligent vehicle, which must function in the existing infrastructure. Pedestrian and sign detection have recently seen great improvements due to the introduction of learning based detectors using integral channel features. A similar push...... database is collected based on footage from US roads. The database consists of both test and training data, totaling 46,418 frames and 112,971 annotated traffic lights, captured in continuous sequences under a varying light and weather conditions. The learning based detector achieves an AUC of 0.4 and 0...

  4. Dynamic control of traffic lights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haijema, Rene; Hendrix, Eligius M.T.; Wal, van der Jan

    2017-01-01

    Traffic lights are put in place to dynamically change priority between traffic participants. Commonly, the duration of green intervals and the grouping, and ordering in which traffic flows are served are pre-fixed. In this chapter, the problem of minimizing vehicle delay at isolated intersections is

  5. Traffic Light Detection at Night

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Bornø; Philipsen, Mark Philip; Bahnsen, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Traffic light recognition (TLR) is an integral part of any in- telligent vehicle, it must function both at day and at night. However, the majority of TLR research is focused on day-time scenarios. In this paper we will focus on detection of traffic lights at night and evalu- ate the performance...... of three detectors based on heuristic models and one learning-based detector. Evaluation is done on night-time data from the public LISA Traffic Light Dataset. The learning-based detector out- performs the model-based detectors in both precision and recall. The learning-based detector achieves an average...

  6. Intelligent Traffic Light Based on PLC Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Lin; Zhang, Lijian; Wang, Lingling

    2017-11-01

    The traditional traffic light system with a fixed control mode and single control function is contradicted with the current traffic section. The traditional one has been unable to meet the functional requirements of the existing flexible traffic control system. This paper research and develop an intelligent traffic light called PLC control system. It uses PLC as control core, using a sensor module for receiving real-time information of vehicles, traffic control mode for information to select the traffic lights. Of which control mode is flexible and changeable, and it also set the countdown reminder to improve the effectiveness of traffic lights, which can realize the goal of intelligent traffic diversion, intelligent traffic diversion.

  7. Fuzzy Multiobjective Traffic Light Signal Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Shahsavari Pour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion is a major concern for many cities throughout the world. In a general traffic light controller, the traffic lights change at a constant cycle time. Hence it does not provide an optimal solution. Many traffic light controllers in current use are based on the “time-of-the-day” scheme, which use a limited number of predetermined traffic light patterns and implement these patterns depending upon the time of the day. These automated systems do not provide an optimal control for fluctuating traffic volumes. In this paper, the fuzzy traffic light controller is used to optimize the control of fluctuating traffic volumes such as oversaturated or unusual load conditions. The problem is solved by genetic algorithm, and a new defuzzification method is introduced. The performance of the new defuzzification method (NDM is compared with the centroid point defuzzification method (CPDM by using ANOVA. Finally, an illustrative example is presented to show the competency of proposed algorithm.

  8. Light signals for road traffic control.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    Signals for road traffic control are a major constituent of the modern traffic scene, particularly in built-up areas. A vast amount of research has been executed in the last two decennia, resulting in a fairly generally accepted view on what the requirements for effective traffic lights are. For the

  9. Fiat Lux, Let There Be Light!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Most of us think of light as helping us see things, but it is so much more important than that. Light is electromagnetic energy moving in waves through space, interacting with atoms and molecules as it goes. So are radio waves, microwaves, infrared light, ultraviolet, x-rays and gamma rays - all of them are electromagnetic energy, and the only real difference is the spacing between the wave crests. So light gives us communications with each other with radio and TV, and it gives us the ability to travel through the universe using telescopes and our imagination. But light also gives us access to scientific questions, such as: what holds the atoms and molecules together? How does the mysterious quantum mechanics work? And understanding all these, how can we build electronic devices for modern life? And if we are very ambitious, we build accelerators like the Large Hadron Collider, and particles collide and concentrate electromagnetic energy into tiny spaces, and according to Einstein's E equals mc squared, we turn energy into new particles to learn, perhaps what the universe was like when it was a tiny fraction of a second old.

  10. Proportional green time scheduling for traffic lights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Kovacs; Le, T. (Tung); R. Núñez Queija (Rudesindo); Vu, H. (Hai); N. Walton

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe consider the decentralized scheduling of a large number of urban traffic lights. We investigate factors determining system performance, in particular, the length of the traffic light cycle and the proportion of green time allocated to each junction. We study the effect of the length

  11. Uppaal Stratego for Intelligent Traffic Lights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Andreas Berre; Huang, Chao; Kildebogaard, Jan

    2017-01-01

    not profit from this additional information. Using this information could minimize waiting times and energy waste. Uppaal Stratego is a tool that combines machine learning and model checking techniques to synthesize near optimal control strategies. The tool has been applied successfully to several case......Modern traffic lights use information from induction loops and to some extend radar information. Recent developments in radar technology has made it possible to obtain more detailed information relevant to the control mechanism of the traffic light. Unfortunately much of the current controllers do...

  12. Traffic light control by multiagent reinforcement learning systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, B.; Whiteson, S.; Kester, L.; Groen, F.C.A.; Babuška, R.; Groen, F.C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Traffic light control is one of the main means of controlling road traffic. Improving traffic control is important because it can lead to higher traffic throughput and reduced traffic congestion. This chapter describes multiagent reinforcement learning techniques for automatic optimization of

  13. Traffic Light Control by Multiagent Reinforcement Learning Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, B.; Whiteson, S.; Kester, L.J.H.M.; Groen, F.C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Traffic light control is one of the main means of controlling road traffic. Improving traffic control is important because it can lead to higher traffic throughput and reduced traffic congestion. This chapter describes multiagent reinforcement learning techniques for automatic optimization of

  14. Let there be light from a second light Higgs doublet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haisch, Ulrich; Malinauskas, Augustinas

    2018-03-01

    In this article, we demonstrate that the unexpected peak at around 95 GeV as seen recently by CMS in the di-photon final state can be explained within the type-I two-Higgs-doublet model by means of a moderately-to-strongly fermiophobic CP-even Higgs H. Depending on the Higgs mass spectrum, the production of such a H arises dominantly from vector boson fusion or through a cascade in either pp\\to t\\overline{t} with \\overset{(-)}{t}\\to {H}^{±}\\overset{(-)}{b}\\to {W}^{± *}H\\overset{(-)}{b} or pp → A with A → W ∓ H ± → W ∓ W ± H or via pp → W ± ∗ → H ± H. In this context, we also discuss other Higgs anomalies such as the LEP excess in Higgsstrahlung and the observation of enhanced rates in t\\overline{t}h at both the Tevatron and the LHC, showing that parameters capable of explaining the CMS di-photon signal can address the latter deviations as well. The Higgs spectra that we explore comprise masses between 80 GeV and 350 GeV. While at present all constraints from direct and indirect searches for spin-0 resonances can be shown to be satisfied for such light Higgses, future LHC data will be able to probe the parameter space that leads to a simultaneous explanation of the discussed anomalies.

  15. Intelligent traffic lights based on MATLAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Ying

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, I describes the traffic lights system and it has some. Through analysis, I used MATLAB technology, transformed the camera photographs into digital signals. Than divided the road vehicle is into three methods: very congestion, congestion, a little congestion. Through the MCU programming, solved the different roads have different delay time, and Used this method, saving time and resources, so as to reduce road congestion.

  16. Efficiency of Roundabouts as Compared to Traffic Light Controlled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison is made between roundabouts with traffic light and without traffic light and signalized intersections on the basis of their performance to simplify traffic congestion. Computer simulations are used to propose critical arrival rates to separate between the three mentioned modes to decrease congestion at intersection ...

  17. Development of traffic light control algorithm in smart municipal network

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzminykh, Ievgeniia

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents smart system that bypasses the normal functioning algorithm of traffic lights, triggers a green light when the lights are red or reset the timer of the traffic lights when they are about to turn red. Different pieces of hardware like microcontroller units, transceivers, resistors, diodes, LEDs, a digital compass and accelerometer will be coupled together and programed to create unified complex intelligent system.

  18. Lights out, let's move about: locomotory activity patterns of Wagner's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to assess whether these animals possess an endogenous rhythm of locomotor activity that entrains to the light:dark cycle, they were subjected to three ... by the light:dark cycle with the most activity concentrated during the night and consequently this desert-dwelling mammal may thus be considered truly nocturnal.

  19. Development of an uninterrupted solar powered traffic light from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Advances in transport technology have brought benefits, but growing vehicular traffic and increased fossil fuel use have created problems. In view of these, the need to address the shortage of important infrastructures such as traffic light systems in most cities of Nigeria is imperative. This paper aims at designing, ...

  20. Pricing of Traffic Light Options and other Correlation Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokholm, Thomas

    This paper considers derivatives with payoffs that depend on a stock index and underlying LIBOR rates. A traffic light option pricing formula is derived under lognormality assumptions on the underlying processes. The traffic light option is aimed at the Danish life and pension sector to help...... the pricing of a hybrid derivative known as the EUR Sage Note. The approach can be used to price many existing structured products....

  1. Traffic light labelling: traduzindo a rotulagem de alimentos Traffic light labeling: translating food labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Longo-Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar uma adaptação do Traffic Light Labelling, ou "Semáforo Nutricional", adotado no Reino Unido e outros países da Europa, às normas vigentes no Brasil e classificar produtos industrializados comercializados no país. MÉTODOS: Esta ferramenta baseia-se na utilização das cores do semáforo para valorar concentrações de gorduras total, saturada e trans, açúcar, sódio e fibra correspondente a 100g ou 100mL do produto. O sinal vermelho indica que o nutriente está presente em quantidade excessiva; o amarelo, média e o verde, adequada. Para fibras as baixas concentrações têm cor vermelha e as recomendadas, verde. A adaptação e aplicação desses conceitos para consumidores brasileiros fundamentaram-se nas normas do Regulamento Técnico Referente à Informação Nutricional Complementar da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária e da Food Standards Agency. RESULTADOS: Foram classificados cem produtos industrializados, os quais foram selecionados da página eletrônica de um hipermercado brasileiro, optando pelos primeiros cinco a oito produtos listados na página, para cada uma das 17 categorias. A análise mostra que são altas as quantidades de gordura total, saturada e sódio e baixas as quantidades de gordura trans e fibra. CONCLUSÃO: A adaptação dessa metodologia visa facilitar a escolha de alimentos saudáveis, sensibilizando os consumidores quanto às desvantagens no que se refere a qualidade nutricional dos alimentos industrializados, e estimular as indústrias a melhorar a composição nutricional de seus produtos, sob a perspectiva de receberem maior quantidade de sinais verdes e menor quantidade de sinais vermelhos; assim, contribuindo para a prevenção de erros alimentares, obesidade e doenças crônicas não-transmissíveis, principais causas de incapacidade e mortes precoces no Brasil.OBJECTIVE: This study presented an adaptation of the Traffic Light Labeling or Nutrition Traffic Light adopted

  2. Design and development of an improved traffic light control system using hybrid lighting system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Osigbemeh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The deployment of light emitting diodes (LEDs based traffic system control created the problem of dim displays when ambient light is similar to traffic lights. It causes some drivers' disability of seeing and obeying traffic signs. This makes drivers violate traffic rules. In this paper, an attempt to use hybrid lighting technology to mitigate this problem was developed. Incandescent lightings with deployed halogen bulbs provided an instantaneous source of highly efficacious illumination which is brighter than the drivers' ambient lights (both daylight, electrical lights and their reflections, which can help drivers get access to enough warning and help them initiate traffic safety warning as necessary. The halogen lightings also offered the required high current draw needed in electrical circuitry to help brighten the LED displays. The problem of heat generated was eliminated by aerating the T-junction traffic light control unit designed for this technology. The result of hybrid lighting system design was found to be high luminosity and capability of gaining driver attention in real-time. It also allowed enhanced sign's image detection and processing for smart based technologies by providing the “light punch” needed for a wide range of visual concerns.

  3. Measuring the Complexity of Self-Organizing Traffic Lights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Zubillaga

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We apply measures of complexity, emergence, and self-organization to an urban traffic model for comparing a traditional traffic-light coordination method with a self-organizing method in two scenarios: cyclic boundaries and non-orientable boundaries. We show that the measures are useful to identify and characterize different dynamical phases. It becomes clear that different operation regimes are required for different traffic demands. Thus, not only is traffic a non-stationary problem, requiring controllers to adapt constantly; controllers must also change drastically the complexity of their behavior depending on the demand. Based on our measures and extending Ashby’s law of requisite variety, we can say that the self-organizing method achieves an adaptability level comparable to that of a living system.

  4. Experiments simulation and design to set traffic lights operation rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez Garcia, J.A.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper it is used the experimental design to minimize the travel time of motor vehicles, in one of the most important avenues of Celaya City in Guanajuato, Mexico, by means of optimal synchronization of existing traffic lights. In the optimization process three factors are considered: the traffic lights’ cycle times, the synchrony defined as stepped, parallel and actual, and speed limit, each one with 3 evaluation levels. The response variables to consider are: motor vehicles’ travel time, fuel consumption and greenhouse effect gas (CO2) emissions. The different experiments are performed using the simulation model developed in the PTV-VISSIM software, which represents the vehicle traffic system. The obtained results for the different proposed scenarios allow to find proper levels at which the vehicle traffic system must be operated in order to improve mobility, to reduce contamination rates and decrease the fuel consumption for the different motor vehicles that use the avenue. (Author)

  5. Efficiency of Roundabouts as Compared to Traffic Light Controlled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    controlled intersection and multi-lane roundabouts to maximize flow along the system. Thus ... double-lane roundabout two vehicles can approach a roundabout at a time. ..... light color changes that used to permit traffic to flow or to deny. .... also view this comparison in terms of the queue length formed at the entrance of an ...

  6. Vision for Looking at Traffic Lights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Bornø; Philipsen, Mark Philip; Møgelmose, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    . An overview of the applied methods and noteworthy contributions from a wide range of recent papers is presented, along with the corresponding evaluation results. The evaluation of TLR systems is studied and discussed in depth, and we propose a common evaluation procedure, which will strengthen evaluation...... and ease comparison. To provide a shared basis for comparing TLR systems, we publish an extensive public data set based on footage from U.S. roads. The data set contains annotated video sequences, captured under varying light and weather conditions using a stereo camera. The data set, with its variety......, size, and continuous sequences, should challenge current and future TLR systems....

  7. Investigating traffic light violations by cyclists in Dublin City Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Matthew; Caulfield, Brian

    2015-11-01

    This research examines the behaviour of cyclists in Dublin City with specific regard to red light running. A number of specific research questions are raised by this study. These questions address the impact of different infrastructure types on red light running, as well as the behavioural patterns and demographics of offending cyclists. Two data collection methods were used to gather information on cyclists in Dublin City - an observational survey and an online questionnaire. The observational surveys examined cyclist compliance with different traffic signal systems and the impact of on-road and off-road cycle infrastructure. An online questionnaire was used to get direct feedback from cyclists in Dublin City on the reasons (if any) they decide to commit infringement at traffic lights. With the recent growth of cycling in Dublin City (as well as many other international cities) it is vital to accommodate and manage this growing demand by ensuring the safety and road discipline of cyclists. The next few years will be crucial for the continued development of cycling in Dublin, particularly due to the increasing investment by transport planners in cycle infrastructure. It is therefore important to identify now the main factors which influence cyclist's decisions to break red lights in order to guide local traffic authorities in their efforts to reduce such transgressions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pricing of Traffic Light Options and other Hybrid Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokholm, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    companies stay solvent in the traffic light stress test system introduced by the Danish Financial Supervisory Authorities in 2001. Similar systems are now being implemented in several other European countries. A pricing approach for general payoffs is presented and illustrated with simulation via...... the pricing of a hybrid derivative known as the EUR Sage Note. The approach can be used to price many existing structured products....

  9. Deliberative Self-Organizing Traffic Lights with Elementary Cellular Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge L. Zapotecatl

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-organizing traffic lights have shown considerable improvements compared to traditional methods in computer simulations. Self-organizing methods, however, use sophisticated sensors, increasing their cost and limiting their deployment. We propose a novel approach using simple sensors to achieve self-organizing traffic light coordination. The proposed approach involves placing a computer and a presence sensor at the beginning of each block; each such sensor detects a single vehicle. Each computer builds a virtual environment simulating vehicle movement to predict arrivals and departures at the downstream intersection. At each intersection, a computer receives information across a data network from the computers of the neighboring blocks and runs a self-organizing method to control traffic lights. Our simulations showed a superior performance for our approach compared with a traditional method (a green wave and a similar performance (close to optimal compared with a self-organizing method using sophisticated sensors but at a lower cost. Moreover, the developed sensing approach exhibited greater robustness against sensor failures.

  10. A Traffic Prediction Algorithm for Street Lighting Control Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPA Valentin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a traffic prediction algorithm that can be integrated in a street lighting monitoring and control system. The prediction algorithm must enable the reduction of energy costs and improve energy efficiency by decreasing the light intensity depending on the traffic level. The algorithm analyses and processes the information received at the command center based on the traffic level at different moments. The data is collected by means of the Doppler vehicle detection sensors integrated within the system. Thus, two methods are used for the implementation of the algorithm: a neural network and a k-NN (k-Nearest Neighbor prediction algorithm. For 500 training cycles, the mean square error of the neural network is 9.766 and for 500.000 training cycles the error amounts to 0.877. In case of the k-NN algorithm the error increases from 8.24 for k=5 to 12.27 for a number of 50 neighbors. In terms of a root means square error parameter, the use of a neural network ensures the highest performance level and can be integrated in a street lighting control system.

  11. The Pricing of Traffic Light Options and other Correlation Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokholm, Thomas

    This paper considers the valuation of European style derivatives with payoffs depending on both a stock index and underlying LIBOR rates. The model has the attractive feature that it is based on observable market quantities which makes it very easy to calibrate. A closed form solution is derived...... for the price of the correlation derivative known as the traffic light option under lognormality assumptions for the underlying processes. A pricing approach for more general payoffs is presented, and an illustration is performed with Monte Carlo simulation by the pricing of a specific hybrid derivative...

  12. Perancangan Miniatur Traffic Light Dengan Mempergunakan Pengendali Port Paralel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Wahyudi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Port paralel tentunya sudah tidak asing lagi dalam dunia komputer. Hal tersebut disebabkan karena port paralel merupakan sarana komunikasi yang terdapat pada Personal Computer (PC. Dengan memanfaatkan port tersebut, saat ini komputer juga dapat dipergunakan untuk keperluan pengontrolan/pengendalian rangkaian listrik dengan memanfaatkan port paralel (port printer. Port paralel memiliki kecepatan transfer data yang lebih cepat apabila dibandingkan dengan port serial, maka dari itu port paralel lebih banyak dipergunakan untuk pengendalian nyala lampu (LED. Dengan memanfaatkan bantuan software Saraf Listrik versi 1.01, maka port paralel dapat menjadi alternatif baru untuk pengendalian traffic light.

  13. Long-Range Emergency Preemption of Traffic Lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelder, Aaron

    2005-01-01

    A forwarding system could prove beneficial as an addition to an electronic communication-and-control system that automatically modifies the switching of traffic lights to give priority to emergency vehicles. A system to which the forwarding system could be added could be any of a variety of emergency traffic-signal-preemption systems: these include systems now used in some municipalities as well as advanced developmental systems described in several NASA Tech Briefs articles in recent years. Because of a variety of physical and design limitations, emergency traffic-signal- preemption systems now in use are often limited in range to only one intersection at a time: in a typical system, only the next, closest intersection is preempted for an emergency vehicle. Simulations of gridlock have shown that such systems offer minimal advantages and can even cause additional delays. In analogy to what happens in fluid dynamics, the forwarding system insures that flow at a given location is sustained by guaranteeing downstream flow along the predicted route (typically a main artery) and intersecting routes (typically, side streets). In simplest terms, the forwarding system starts by taking note of any preemption issued by the preemption system to which it has been added. The forwarding system predicts which other intersections could be encountered by the emergency vehicle downstream of the newly preempted intersection. The system then forwards preemption triggers to those intersections. Beyond affording a right of way for the emergency vehicle at every intersection that lies ahead along any likely route from the current position of the vehicle, the forwarding system also affords the benefit of clearing congested roads far ahead of the vehicle. In a metropolitan environment with heavy road traffic, forwarding of preemption triggers could greatly enhance the performance of a pre-existing preemption system.

  14. Enhancing lean supply chain through traffic light quality management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mazharul Islam

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Lean is a continuous journey to grow and excel the company. Any company want to develop and cope with the world pace must adopt lean. However, in most of the organizations the management culture or people’s mentality is not so good to embrace change. They have predestined mind set where no change is normally allowed. Lean is a cooperative way of working that involves all departments and all personnel to work together in a team for the betterment of the entire company. Without providing fixed solution of any problem it suggests the best way that people willingly accept to do. Lean normally deals with highest quality, shorter lead time and lowest cost. In Bangladesh, most of the garment manufacturing companies are experiencing a massive quality problem. We describe a case where traffic light, a tool of lean quality system was adopted to a garment manufacturing company in Bangladesh. We also provide the charts to contrast the before and after scenario in detail, in order to illustrate the company benefits. After the traffic light system being implemented, the quality status was improved, production capacity was increased; significant days were saved that enhanced the lead time and thus strengthen the supply chain.

  15. Evaluating State-of-the-art Object Detector on Challenging Traffic Light Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Bornø; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2017-01-01

    -of-the-art, real-time object detection system You Only Look Once, (YOLO) on the public LISA Traffic Light dataset available through the VIVA-challenge, which contain a high number of annotated traffic lights, captured in varying light and weather conditions. The YOLO object detector achieves an AUC of impres...

  16. A Sarsa(λ)-based control model for real-time traffic light coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoke; Zhu, Fei; Liu, Quan; Fu, Yuchen; Huang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Traffic problems often occur due to the traffic demands by the outnumbered vehicles on road. Maximizing traffic flow and minimizing the average waiting time are the goals of intelligent traffic control. Each junction wants to get larger traffic flow. During the course, junctions form a policy of coordination as well as constraints for adjacent junctions to maximize their own interests. A good traffic signal timing policy is helpful to solve the problem. However, as there are so many factors that can affect the traffic control model, it is difficult to find the optimal solution. The disability of traffic light controllers to learn from past experiences caused them to be unable to adaptively fit dynamic changes of traffic flow. Considering dynamic characteristics of the actual traffic environment, reinforcement learning algorithm based traffic control approach can be applied to get optimal scheduling policy. The proposed Sarsa(λ)-based real-time traffic control optimization model can maintain the traffic signal timing policy more effectively. The Sarsa(λ)-based model gains traffic cost of the vehicle, which considers delay time, the number of waiting vehicles, and the integrated saturation from its experiences to learn and determine the optimal actions. The experiment results show an inspiring improvement in traffic control, indicating the proposed model is capable of facilitating real-time dynamic traffic control.

  17. A Sarsa(λ-Based Control Model for Real-Time Traffic Light Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoke Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic problems often occur due to the traffic demands by the outnumbered vehicles on road. Maximizing traffic flow and minimizing the average waiting time are the goals of intelligent traffic control. Each junction wants to get larger traffic flow. During the course, junctions form a policy of coordination as well as constraints for adjacent junctions to maximize their own interests. A good traffic signal timing policy is helpful to solve the problem. However, as there are so many factors that can affect the traffic control model, it is difficult to find the optimal solution. The disability of traffic light controllers to learn from past experiences caused them to be unable to adaptively fit dynamic changes of traffic flow. Considering dynamic characteristics of the actual traffic environment, reinforcement learning algorithm based traffic control approach can be applied to get optimal scheduling policy. The proposed Sarsa(λ-based real-time traffic control optimization model can maintain the traffic signal timing policy more effectively. The Sarsa(λ-based model gains traffic cost of the vehicle, which considers delay time, the number of waiting vehicles, and the integrated saturation from its experiences to learn and determine the optimal actions. The experiment results show an inspiring improvement in traffic control, indicating the proposed model is capable of facilitating real-time dynamic traffic control.

  18. SU-F-T-239: Evaluation of Plastic Scintillator Light Output for Various Lead Doping Concentrations: Towards LET Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nusrat, H; Pang, G; Sarfehnia, A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This work seeks to develop a beam quality meter using multiple differently doped plastic scintillators that are thus intrinsically beam-quality dependent. Plastic scintillators spontaneously emit visible light upon irradiation; the amount of light produced is dependent on stopping power (closely related to LET) according to Birks’ law. Doping plastic scintillators can be used to tune their sensitivity to specific LET ranges. Methods: GEANT4.10.1 Monte Carlo (MC) was used to evaluate the response of various scintillator dopant combinations. MC radiation transport and scintillator light response were validated against previously published literature. Current work involves evaluating detector response experimentally; to that end, a detector prototype with interchangeable scintillator housing was constructed. Measurement set-up guides light emitted by the scintillator to a photomultiplier tube via a glass taper junction coupled to an optical fiber. The resulting signal is measured by an electrometer, and normalized to dose readout from a diode. Measurements have been done using clinical electron and orthovoltage beams. MC response (simulated scintillator light normalized to dose scored inside the scintillating volume) was evaluated for four different LET radiations for an undoped and 1%Pb doped scintillator (σ=0.85%). Simulated incident electrons included: 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 6, 12, and 18 MeV; these energies correspond to a range of stopping power (related to LET) values ranging from 1.824 to 11.09 MeVcm"2g"−"1 (SCOL from NIST-ESTAR). Results: Initial MC results show a distinct divergence in scintillator response as LET increases. The response for undoped plastic scintillator indicated a 35.0% increase in signal when going from 18 MeV (low LET) to 0.05 MeV (high LET) while 1%-Pb doped scintillator indicated a 100.9% increase. Conclusion: After validating MC against measurement, simulations will be used to test various concentrations (2%, 4%, 6%) of different

  19. SU-F-T-239: Evaluation of Plastic Scintillator Light Output for Various Lead Doping Concentrations: Towards LET Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nusrat, H [Ryerson University, Toronto, ON (Canada); Pang, G; Sarfehnia, A [Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: This work seeks to develop a beam quality meter using multiple differently doped plastic scintillators that are thus intrinsically beam-quality dependent. Plastic scintillators spontaneously emit visible light upon irradiation; the amount of light produced is dependent on stopping power (closely related to LET) according to Birks’ law. Doping plastic scintillators can be used to tune their sensitivity to specific LET ranges. Methods: GEANT4.10.1 Monte Carlo (MC) was used to evaluate the response of various scintillator dopant combinations. MC radiation transport and scintillator light response were validated against previously published literature. Current work involves evaluating detector response experimentally; to that end, a detector prototype with interchangeable scintillator housing was constructed. Measurement set-up guides light emitted by the scintillator to a photomultiplier tube via a glass taper junction coupled to an optical fiber. The resulting signal is measured by an electrometer, and normalized to dose readout from a diode. Measurements have been done using clinical electron and orthovoltage beams. MC response (simulated scintillator light normalized to dose scored inside the scintillating volume) was evaluated for four different LET radiations for an undoped and 1%Pb doped scintillator (σ=0.85%). Simulated incident electrons included: 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 6, 12, and 18 MeV; these energies correspond to a range of stopping power (related to LET) values ranging from 1.824 to 11.09 MeVcm{sup 2}g{sup −1} (SCOL from NIST-ESTAR). Results: Initial MC results show a distinct divergence in scintillator response as LET increases. The response for undoped plastic scintillator indicated a 35.0% increase in signal when going from 18 MeV (low LET) to 0.05 MeV (high LET) while 1%-Pb doped scintillator indicated a 100.9% increase. Conclusion: After validating MC against measurement, simulations will be used to test various concentrations (2%, 4%, 6%) of

  20. A decision support system for the maintenance of lights of traffic regulation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duyn Schouten, F.A. van der; Klusener, A.S.; Vlijmen, S.F.M. van; Vos de Wael, S.L.E.

    From October 1994 to June 1995 the authors executed a project, the so called 'Lampremplace' project, in cooperation with Nederland Haarlem, a Dutch constructor and supplier of traffic regulation systems. 'Lampremplace', as it is called in traffic jargon, is the maintenance of lights of traffic

  1. design and implementation of a density-based traffic light control

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    sensors, a new traffic light control system was developed to ease the flow of traffic at a particular ... of traffic on each lane at the intersection triggered when a vehicle comes between the ... change the sequence back to the normal sequence.

  2. Model petri net of adaptive traffic lights and its collaboration with a special event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristono Tomi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic lights have an important role as the system control of vehicles flow on the urban network. Commonly, most countries still using fixed time strategy. Our research proposes the adaptive traffic lights model to response the traffic demand. It uses basic Petri net as a general modeling framework. Foractuating method of minimum and maximum green signal time interval, the green traffic lights have three-time extension units. Next, we collaborate on a case of the existence of railways that crosses on the southern arm of an intersection. We introduce both of collaboration model design of traffic lights and the railway's gate which always closes while a train passing. Verification and validation of the model are based on the simulation result of vehicles queue. The collaboration model design of traffic lights has excellent performance, and it can resolve the congestion problem better than conventional schedule.

  3. Simulating and evaluating an adaptive and integrated traffic lights control system for smart city application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuana, E.; Rahardjo, K.; Gozali, F.; Tan, S.; Rambung, R.; Adrian, D.

    2018-01-01

    A city could be categorized as a smart city when the information technology has been developed to the point that the administration could sense, understand, and control every resource to serve its people and sustain the development of the city. One of the smart city aspects is transportation and traffic management. This paper presents a research project to design an adaptive traffic lights control system as a part of the smart system for optimizing road utilization and reducing congestion. Research problems presented include: (1) Congestion in one direction toward an intersection due to dynamic traffic condition from time to time during the day, while the timing cycles in traffic lights system are mostly static; (2) No timing synchronization among traffic lights in adjacent intersections that is causing unsteady flows; (3) Difficulties in traffic condition monitoring on the intersection and the lack of facility for remotely controlling traffic lights. In this research, a simulator has been built to model the adaptivity and integration among different traffic lights controllers in adjacent intersections, and a case study consisting of three sets of intersections along Jalan K. H. Hasyim Ashari has been simulated. It can be concluded that timing slots synchronization among traffic lights is crucial for maintaining a steady traffic flow.

  4. Intelligent Testing of Traffic Light Programs: Validation in Smart Mobility Scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Ferrer; José García-Nieto; Enrique Alba; Francisco Chicano

    2016-01-01

    In smart cities, the use of intelligent automatic techniques to find efficient cycle programs of traffic lights is becoming an innovative front for traffic flow management. However, this automatic programming of traffic lights requires a validation process of the generated solutions, since they can affect the mobility (and security) of millions of citizens. In this paper, we propose a validation strategy based on genetic algorithms and feature models for the automatic generation of different ...

  5. Traffic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtblau, G.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter deals with passenger and freight traffic, public and private transportation, traffic related environmental impacts, future developments, traffic indicators, regional traffic planning, health costs due to road traffic related air pollution, noise pollution, measures and regulations for traffic control and fuels for traffic. In particular energy consumption, energy efficiency, pollutant emissions ( CO 2 , SO 2 , NO x , HC, CO, N 2 O, NH 3 and particulates) and environmental effects of the different types of traffic and different types of fuels are compared and studied. Legal regulations and measures for an effective traffic control are discussed. (a.n.)

  6. Road crossing behavior under traffic light conflict: Modulating effects of green light duration and signal congruency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Florian; Haiduk, Michael; Boos, Moritz; Tinschert, Peter; Schwarze, Anke; Eggert, Frank

    2016-10-01

    A large number of pedestrians and cyclists regularly ignore the traffic lights to cross the road illegally. In a recent analysis, illegal road crossing behavior has been shown to be enhanced in the presence of incongruent stimulus configurations. Pedestrians and cyclists are more likely to cross against a red light when exposed to an irrelevant conflicting green light. Here, we present experimental and observational data on the factors moderating the risk associated with incongruent traffic lights. In an observational study, we demonstrated that the conflict-related increase in illegal crossing rates is reduced when pedestrian and cyclist green light periods are long. In a laboratory experiment, we manipulated the color of the irrelevant signals to expose participants to different degrees of incongruency. Results revealed that individuals' performance gradually varied as a function of incongruency, suggesting that the negative impact of a conflicting green light can be reduced by slightly adjusting its color. Our findings highlight that the observation of real-world behavior at intersections and the experimental analysis of psychological processes under controlled laboratory conditions can complement each other in identifying risk factors of risky road crossing behavior. Based on this combination, our study elaborates on promising measures to improve safety at signalized intersections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Desain Sistem Kontrol Traffic Light Adaptif Pada Persimpangan Empat Berbasis PLC Siemens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfikar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, traffic lights are using a fixed time as on-off light signal controller. However this system has many disadveantages, such as vehicles have to queue long time in certain road section (lane at rush hour. As a consequence, it reguires a traffic light control system that can prioritize a more dense lane. Adaptive traffic light control detects the number of queues of vehicles on the lane. Sensors detect the vehicle queue’s length. There are three sensors that will detect queues’s length of vehicles on each lane. When the queue of vehicles reached the first sensor, the green light will be on longer 5 seconds compare to the normal traffic. When the queue of vehicles reaches the second sensor, the green light provide 10 seconds more compare to the normal traffic and if the queue of vehicles reaches the third sensor, the green light will be longer which is about 20 seconds compare. In this adaptive traffic light control system, there are two jam sensors installed in the middle of the intersection that will turn on all the red lights when there is an unexpected problems happened. This adaptive traffic light control system will provide the longest queuing time 92 seconds, when all sensors on all lanes active and the fastest time is 47 seconds which is the time when the normal system.

  8. Optimization of traffic light control system of an intersection using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper considers an automated static road traffic control system of an intersection for the purpose of minimizing the effects of traffic jam and hence its attendant consequences such as prolonged waiting time, emission of toxic hydrocarbons from automobiles, etc. Using real-time road traffic data, a dynamic round-robin ...

  9. Travelers ability to observe changes in traffic intensities and traffic light settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, Jacob Dirk; Do, Michael; Middag, Wilco; Martens, Marieke Hendrikje; van Berkum, Eric C.; van Arem, Bart; ITSC,

    2011-01-01

    Travel choice behavior is an important determinant in traffic and subject to human imperfection and bounded rationality. In decision-making processes travelers seldom act perfectly rational. Traffic models and traffic network management measure could become more realistic and effective, if

  10. Study on Determination of Preceding Vehicle Motion State at the Traffic Lights Intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cailin Wu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance the security of automotive safety systems and reduce traffic accidents in traffic lights intersection, In view of this, it is proposed to apply the distance measurement technology of binocular vision ranging in determination of preceding vehicle motion state at the traffic lights intersection, We study the determination of preceding vehicle motion state at the traffic lights intersection based on binocular vision. The system, which is divided into four steps, adopts the theory combining the binocular stereo vision principle and the triangulation principle. First of all, from different angles, image information with preceding vehicles and traffic lights, collected by two CCD cameras, is processed and positioned. Next, two pairs of corresponding feature matching points is obtained by using the stereo matching method. Furthermore, the distance between the cameras and the preceding vehicle, and the distance between the cameras and the traffic lights are determined, according to the camera calibration technique, the parallax disparity principle and the triangulation principle. Finally, the determination about the motion state of traffic lights intersection is determined according to the distance difference principle. Experimental results show that the design, with high measurement accuracy and application value, realize the determination of preceding vehicle’s motion state at traffic lights intersection.

  11. Intelligent Testing of Traffic Light Programs: Validation in Smart Mobility Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ferrer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In smart cities, the use of intelligent automatic techniques to find efficient cycle programs of traffic lights is becoming an innovative front for traffic flow management. However, this automatic programming of traffic lights requires a validation process of the generated solutions, since they can affect the mobility (and security of millions of citizens. In this paper, we propose a validation strategy based on genetic algorithms and feature models for the automatic generation of different traffic scenarios checking the robustness of traffic light cycle programs. We have concentrated on an extensive urban area in the city of Malaga (in Spain, in which we validate a set of candidate cycle programs generated by means of four optimization algorithms: Particle Swarm Optimization for Traffic Lights, Differential Evolution for Traffic Lights, random search, and Sumo Cycle Program Generator. We can test the cycles of traffic lights considering the different states of the city, weather, congestion, driver expertise, vehicle’s features, and so forth, but prioritizing the most relevant scenarios among a large and varied set of them. The improvement achieved in solution quality is remarkable, especially for CO2 emissions, in which we have obtained a reduction of 126.99% compared with the experts’ solutions.

  12. Synaptic membrane rafts: traffic lights for local neurotrophin signaling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonta, Barbara; Minichiello, Liliana

    2013-10-18

    Lipid rafts, cholesterol and lipid rich microdomains, are believed to play important roles as platforms for the partitioning of transmembrane and synaptic proteins involved in synaptic signaling, plasticity, and maintenance. There is increasing evidence of a physical interaction between post-synaptic densities and post-synaptic lipid rafts. Localization of proteins within lipid rafts is highly regulated, and therefore lipid rafts may function as traffic lights modulating and fine-tuning neuronal signaling. The tyrosine kinase neurotrophin receptors (Trk) and the low-affinity p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) are enriched in neuronal lipid rafts together with the intermediates of downstream signaling pathways, suggesting a possible role of rafts in neurotrophin signaling. Moreover, neurotrophins and their receptors are involved in the regulation of cholesterol metabolism. Cholesterol is an important component of lipid rafts and its depletion leads to gradual loss of synapses, underscoring the importance of lipid rafts for proper neuronal function. Here, we review and discuss the idea that translocation of neurotrophin receptors in synaptic rafts may account for the selectivity of their transduced signals.

  13. Synaptic membrane rafts: traffic lights for local neurotrophin signalling?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eZonta

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Lipid rafts, cholesterol and lipid rich microdomains, are believed to play important roles as platforms for the partitioning of transmembrane and synaptic proteins involved in synaptic signalling, plasticity and maintenance. There is increasing evidence of a physical interaction between post-synaptic densities and post-synaptic lipid rafts. Localization of proteins within lipid rafts is highly regulated, and therefore lipid rafts may function as traffic lights modulating and fine-tuning neuronal signalling. The tyrosine kinase neurotrophin receptors (Trk and the low-affinity p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR are enriched in neuronal lipid rafts together with the intermediates of downstream signalling pathways, suggesting a possible role of rafts in neurotrophin signalling. Moreover, neurotrophins and their receptors are involved in the regulation of cholesterol metabolism. Cholesterol is an important component of lipid rafts and its depletion leads to gradual loss of synapses, underscoring the importance of lipid rafts for proper neuronal function. Here, we review and discuss the idea that translocation of neurotrophin receptors in synaptic rafts may account for the selectivity of their transduced signals.

  14. High Performance and Energy Efficient Traffic Light Controller Design Using FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pandey, Sujeet; Shrivastav, Vivek Kumar; Sharma, Rashmi

    2017-01-01

    and then we have analyzed power consumption for traffic light controller on different FPGA. Leakage power is in range of 97.5-99% of total power consumption by traffic light controller on Virtex-7 FPGA. Signal power, clock power and IOs power are almost negligible. Power dissipation is measured on XPOWER......In this work, Verilog is used as hardware description language for implementation of traffic light controller. It shows Red, Green and Yellow color at a predefined interval. Technology scaling is used as energy efficient technique. We have used 90nm, 65nm, 40nm and 28nm technology based FPGA...

  15. Light-effect transistor (LET with multiple independent gating controls for optical logic gates and optical amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason eMarmon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern electronics are developing electronic-optical integrated circuits, while their electronic backbone, e.g. field-effect transistors (FETs, remains the same. However, further FET down scaling is facing physical and technical challenges. A light-effect transistor (LET offers electronic-optical hybridization at the component level, which can continue Moore’s law to quantum region without requiring a FET’s fabrication complexity, e.g. physical gate and doping, by employing optical gating and photoconductivity. Multiple independent gates are therefore readily realized to achieve unique functionalities without increasing chip space. Here we report LET device characteristics and novel digital and analog applications, such as optical logic gates and optical amplification. Prototype CdSe-nanowire-based LETs show output and transfer characteristics resembling advanced FETs, e.g. on/off ratios up to ~1.0x106 with a source-drain voltage of ~1.43 V, gate-power of ~260 nW, and subthreshold swing of ~0.3 nW/decade (excluding losses. Our work offers new electronic-optical integration strategies and electronic and optical computing approaches.

  16. Maximum Power Point Tracking of Photovoltaic System for Traffic Light Application

    OpenAIRE

    Muhida, Riza; Mohamad, Nor Hilmi; Legowo, Ari; Irawan, Rudi; Astuti, Winda

    2013-01-01

    Photovoltaic traffic light system is a significant application of renewable energy source. The development of the system is an alternative effort of local authority to reduce expenditure for paying fees to power supplier which the power comes from conventional energy source. Since photovoltaic (PV) modules still have relatively low conversion efficiency, an alternative control of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) method is applied to the traffic light system. MPPT is intended to catch up th...

  17. Light Emitting Diode (LED) circular traffic signal lifetime management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this research is to build lifetime curves for red, yellow, and green LED circular traffic signals through 20,000-hr. accelerated stress testing of samples operating under Louisianas environmental conditions.

  18. CpG traffic lights are markers of regulatory regions in humans

    KAUST Repository

    Khamis, Abdullah M.; Lioznova, Anna V.; Artemov, Artem V.; Ramensky, Vasily; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Medvedeva, Yulia A.

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation is involved in regulation of gene expression. Although modern methods profile DNA methylation at single CpG sites, methylation levels are usually averaged over genomic regions in the downstream analyses. In this study we demonstrate that single CpG methylation can serve as a more accurate predictor of gene expression compared to average promoter / gene body methylation. CpG positions with significant correlation between methylation and expression of a gene nearby (named CpG traffic lights) are evolutionary conserved and enriched for exact TSS positions and active enhancers. Among all promoter types, CpG traffic lights are especially enriched in poised promoters. Genes that harbor CpG traffic lights are associated with development and signal transduction. Methylation levels of individual CpG traffic lights vary between cell types dramatically with the increased frequency of intermediate methylation levels, indicating cell population heterogeneity in CpG methylation levels. Being in line with the concept of the inherited stochastic epigenetic variation, methylation of such CpG positions might contribute to transcriptional regulation. Alternatively, one can hypothesize that traffic lights are markers of absent gene expression resulting from inactivation of their regulatory elements. The CpG traffic lights provide a promising insight into mechanisms of enhancer activity and gene regulation linking methylation of single CpG to expression.

  19. CpG traffic lights are markers of regulatory regions in humans

    KAUST Repository

    Khamis, Abdullah M.

    2016-12-29

    DNA methylation is involved in regulation of gene expression. Although modern methods profile DNA methylation at single CpG sites, methylation levels are usually averaged over genomic regions in the downstream analyses. In this study we demonstrate that single CpG methylation can serve as a more accurate predictor of gene expression compared to average promoter / gene body methylation. CpG positions with significant correlation between methylation and expression of a gene nearby (named CpG traffic lights) are evolutionary conserved and enriched for exact TSS positions and active enhancers. Among all promoter types, CpG traffic lights are especially enriched in poised promoters. Genes that harbor CpG traffic lights are associated with development and signal transduction. Methylation levels of individual CpG traffic lights vary between cell types dramatically with the increased frequency of intermediate methylation levels, indicating cell population heterogeneity in CpG methylation levels. Being in line with the concept of the inherited stochastic epigenetic variation, methylation of such CpG positions might contribute to transcriptional regulation. Alternatively, one can hypothesize that traffic lights are markers of absent gene expression resulting from inactivation of their regulatory elements. The CpG traffic lights provide a promising insight into mechanisms of enhancer activity and gene regulation linking methylation of single CpG to expression.

  20. Statistical analysis of traversal behavior under different types of traffic lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Boran; Wang, Ziyang; Li, Zhiyin

    2017-12-01

    According to the video observation, it is found that the traffic signal type signal has a significant effect on the illegal crossing behavior of pedestrians at the intersection. Through the method of statistical analysis and variance analysis, the difference between the violation rate and the waiting position of pedestrians at different intersecting lights is compared, and the influence of traffic signal type on pedestrian crossing behavior is evaluated. The results show that the violation rate of the intersection of the static pedestrian lights is significantly higher than that of the countdown signal lights. There are significant differences in the waiting position of the intersection of different signal lights.

  1. Optimized Sensor Network and Multi-Agent Decision Support for Smart Traffic Light Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Piris, Luis; Rivera, Diego; Fernandez, Susel; Marsa-Maestre, Ivan

    2018-02-02

    One of the biggest challenges in modern societies is to solve vehicular traffic problems. Sensor networks in traffic environments have contributed to improving the decision-making process of Intelligent Transportation Systems. However, one of the limiting factors for the effectiveness of these systems is in the deployment of sensors to provide accurate information about the traffic. Our proposal is using the centrality measurement of a graph as a base to locate the best locations for sensor installation in a traffic network. After integrating these sensors in a simulation scenario, we define a Multi-Agent Systems composed of three types of agents: traffic light management agents, traffic jam detection agents, and agents that control the traffic lights at an intersection. The ultimate goal of these Multi-Agent Systems is to improve the trip duration for vehicles in the network. To validate our solution, we have developed the needed elements for modelling the sensors and agents in the simulation environment. We have carried out experiments using the Simulation of Urban MObility (SUMO) traffic simulator and the Travel and Activity PAtterns Simulation (TAPAS) Cologne traffic scenario. The obtained results show that our proposal allows to reduce the sensor network while still obtaining relevant information to have a global view of the environment. Finally, regarding the Multi-Agent Systems, we have carried out experiments that show that our proposal is able to improve other existing solutions such as conventional traffic light management systems (static or dynamic) in terms of reduction of vehicle trip duration and reduction of the message exchange overhead in the sensor network.

  2. Optimized Sensor Network and Multi-Agent Decision Support for Smart Traffic Light Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Cruz-Piris

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest challenges in modern societies is to solve vehicular traffic problems. Sensor networks in traffic environments have contributed to improving the decision-making process of Intelligent Transportation Systems. However, one of the limiting factors for the effectiveness of these systems is in the deployment of sensors to provide accurate information about the traffic. Our proposal is using the centrality measurement of a graph as a base to locate the best locations for sensor installation in a traffic network. After integrating these sensors in a simulation scenario, we define a Multi-Agent Systems composed of three types of agents: traffic light management agents, traffic jam detection agents, and agents that control the traffic lights at an intersection. The ultimate goal of these Multi-Agent Systems is to improve the trip duration for vehicles in the network. To validate our solution, we have developed the needed elements for modelling the sensors and agents in the simulation environment. We have carried out experiments using the Simulation of Urban MObility (SUMO traffic simulator and the Travel and Activity PAtterns Simulation (TAPAS Cologne traffic scenario. The obtained results show that our proposal allows to reduce the sensor network while still obtaining relevant information to have a global view of the environment. Finally, regarding the Multi-Agent Systems, we have carried out experiments that show that our proposal is able to improve other existing solutions such as conventional traffic light management systems (static or dynamic in terms of reduction of vehicle trip duration and reduction of the message exchange overhead in the sensor network.

  3. Teaching Guide for the Traffic Signal Light Program: Kindergarten Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.

    This teachers' guide provides materials and suggestions for approximately 125 lessons that are designed to increase kindergarten children's traffic safety skills and knowledge. Most of the guide focuses on (1) lessons about physical structures in the pedestrian environment such as sidewalks, curbs, crosswalks, and intersections, and (2) signal…

  4. Discrete events simulation of a route with traffic lights through automated control in real time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo César Teixeira Baptista

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the integration and communication in real-time of a discrete event simulation model with an automatic control system. The simulation model of an intersection with roads having traffic lights was built in the Arena environment. The integration and communication have been made via network, and the control system was operated by a programmable logic controller. Scenarios were simulated for the free, regular and congested traffic situations. The results showed the average number of vehicles that entered in the system and that were retained and also the total average time of the crossing of the vehicles on the road. In general, the model allowed evaluating the behavior of the traffic in each of the ways and the commands from the controller to activation and deactivation of the traffic lights.

  5. Road Artery Traffic Light Optimization with Use of the Reinforcement Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rok Marsetič

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The basic principle of optimal traffic control is the appropriate real-time response to dynamic traffic flow changes. Signal plan efficiency depends on a large number of input parameters. An actuated signal system can adjust very well to traffic conditions, but cannot fully adjust to stochastic traffic volume oscillation. Due to the complexity of the problem analytical methods are not applicable for use in real time, therefore the purpose of this paper is to introduce heuristic method suitable for traffic light optimization in real time. With the evolution of artificial intelligence new possibilities for solving complex problems have been introduced. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate that the use of the Q learning algorithm for traffic lights optimization is suitable. The Q learning algorithm was verified on a road artery with three intersections. For estimation of the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed algorithm comparison with an actuated signal plan was carried out. The results (average delay per vehicle and the number of vehicles that left road network show that Q learning algorithm outperforms the actuated signal controllers. The proposed algorithm converges to the minimal delay per vehicle regardless of the stochastic nature of traffic. In this research the impact of the model parameters (learning rate, exploration rate, influence of communication between agents and reward type on algorithm effectiveness were analysed as well.

  6. Signal optimization in urban transport: A totally asymmetric simple exclusion process with traffic lights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, Chikashi; Foulaadvand, M Ebrahim; Santen, Ludger

    2017-03-01

    We consider the exclusion process on a ring with time-dependent defective bonds at which the hopping rate periodically switches between zero and one. This system models main roads in city traffics, intersecting with perpendicular streets. We explore basic properties of the system, in particular dependence of the vehicular flow on the parameters of signalization as well as the system size and the car density. We investigate various types of the spatial distribution of the vehicular density, and show existence of a shock profile. We also measure waiting time behind traffic lights, and examine its relationship with the traffic flow.

  7. Predictive control strategies for energy saving of hybrid electric vehicles based on traffic light information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaijiang YU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As the conventional control method for hybrid electric vehicle doesn’t consider the effect of known traffic light information on the vehicle energy management, this paper proposes a model predictive control intelligent optimization strategies based on traffic light information for hybrid electric vehicles. By building the simplified model of the hybrid electric vehicle and adopting the continuation/generalized minimum residual method, the model prediction problem is solved. The simulation is conducted by using MATLAB/Simulink platform. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed model of the traffic light information, and that the proposed model predictive control method can improve fuel economy and the real-time control performance significantly. The research conclusions show that the proposed control strategy can achieve optimal control of the vehicle trajectory, significantly improving fuel economy of the vehicle, and meet the system requirements for the real-time optimal control.

  8. [Effects of calorie information and nutrition traffic light on alimentation behaviour in public catering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, A; Honekamp, W; Hackl, J M

    2013-08-01

    Due to the significant increase in overweight and obese people, action is needed to raise eating behaviour awareness. A significant main meal (lunch) is witnessing a growing trend in the catering (part of the out-of-home nutrition). The aim of this study is to determine whether the selection of lunch menus is affected through the display of nutritional information in the form of number of calories or a traffic light model. In this exploratory study, quantitative data were collected in a cross-sectional design. In addition to the established measurement instruments, socio-demographic and socio-economic information of the subjects based on the study were evaluated. The survey took place in 2008 in 2 passes (time t A/t B). The identical lunch menu of a catering company was applied twice respectively for 4 weeks. In the second run (t B) the lunch menu contained additional nutritional information (big 4 instructions) in the form of calories or a traffic light nutrition. The test of group differences was based on scientific statistical analysis in SPSS. The overall results for the illustration of kilocalories or traffic light do not have a unique significance in the direction of a low average number of calories at the time t B in comparison to the time t A. The food participants, on average, choose a lower calorie-containing menu, when a combination of traffic light and calories is given. The nutrition behaviour is accompanied by an oversupply of unhealthy foods. Lunch participants are sensitised for the selection of healthier lunch menus by a traffic light nutrition information or calories information. Nutrition labelling for lunch menus in the form of calories nutrition information or a coloured traffic light could trigger preventive effects. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. An implementation of traffic light system using multi-hop Ad hoc networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique

    2009-08-01

    In ad hoc networks nodes cooperate with each other to form a temporary network without the aid of any centralized administration. No wired base station or infrastructure is supported, and each host communicates via radio packets. Each host must act as a router, since routes are mostly multi-hop, due to the limited power transmission set by government agencies, (e.g. the Federal Communication Commission (FCC), which is 1 Watt in Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) band. The natures of wireless mobile ad hoc networks depend on batteries or other fatiguing means for their energy. A limited energy capacity may be the most significant performance constraint. Therefore, radio resource and power management is an important issue of any wireless network. In this paper, a design for traffic light system employing ad hoc networks is proposed. The traffic light system runs automatically based on signals sent through a multi-hop ad hoc network of \\'n\\' number of nodes utilizing the Token Ring protocol, which is efficient for this application from the energy prospective. The experiment consists of a graphical user interface that simulates the traffic lights and laptops (which have wireless network adapters) are used to run the graphical user interface and are responsible for setting up the ad hoc network between them. The traffic light system has been implemented utilizing A Mesh Driver (which allows for more than one wireless device to be connected simultaneously) and Java-based client-server programs. © 2009 IEEE.

  10. Video Demo: Deep Reinforcement Learning for Coordination in Traffic Light Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pol, E.; Oliehoek, F.A.; Bosse, T.; Bredeweg, B.

    2016-01-01

    This video demonstration contrasts two approaches to coordination in traffic light control using reinforcement learning: earlier work, based on a deconstruction of the state space into a linear combination of vehicle states, and our own approach based on the Deep Q-learning algorithm.

  11. UK consumer perceptions of a novel till-receipt 'traffic-light' nutrition system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Matthew; Peek, Hayden; Cowen, Daniel

    2018-03-26

    Front-of-pack (FoP) traffic light nutrition labelling has been widely proposed as a tool to improve public health nutrition. Current evidence suggests that whilst consumers generally find them to be useful and an important source of information about a particular food or ingredient, this may have limited value in isolation when considering a person's overall nutritional intake. This study sought to examine UK consumers' use of existing FoP traffic light food labelling and ascertain public perception of a novel 'till-receipt' summary providing nutritional information about consumers entire shopping purchases. In total, 237 respondents completed an online questionnaire between May and June 2016. Almost two-thirds were female (n = 152, 64.1%) and the largest proportion of responses were received from those aged 25-32 years (n = 53, 22.4%) and 41-50 years (n = 53, 22.4%). About 83.5% of respondents suggested that they currently use traffic light information to inform their food purchases and 'health' was reported as the most important factor influencing food choice (42.2%; n = 100). Notably, 54.4% of respondents indicated that the novel till-receipt system could provide a solution to the potential limitations of existing FoP labelling and could help inform healthier food purchases. Our findings strengthen the existing evidence base to suggest that traffic light information is a useful tool to aid consumer food purchases. Moreover, our outcomes propose that consumers may benefit from a new receipt-based traffic light system which provides a more holistic summary of their entire food purchases.

  12. Submissions to the Australian and New Zealand Review of Food Labelling Law and Policy support traffic light nutrition labelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, John; Signal, Louise

    2012-10-01

    Food labels to support healthier choices are an important potential intervention for improving population health by reducing obesity and diet-related disease. This study examines the use of research evidence about traffic light nutrition labelling in submissions to the Review of Food Labelling Law and Policy conducted in Australia and New Zealand. Content analysis of final submissions to the Review and a literature review of documents reporting research evidence about traffic light labelling. Sixty-two submitters to the Review were categorised as 'supporters' of traffic light labelling and 29 as 'opponents'. Supporters focused on studies showing traffic light labels were better than other systems at helping consumers identify healthier food options. Opponents cited evidence that traffic light labels were no better than other systems in this respect and noted a lack of evidence that they led to changes in food consumption. A literature review demonstrated that, as a group, submitters had drawn attention to most of the relevant research evidence on traffic light labelling. Both supporters and opponents were, however, selective in their use of evidence. The weight of evidence suggested that traffic light labelling has strengths in helping consumers to identify healthier food options. Further research would be valuable in informing the development of an interpretive front-of-pack labelling system. The findings have significant implications for the development of front-of-pack nutrition labelling currently being considered in Australia and New Zealand. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.

  13. Reducing a congestion with introduce the greedy algorithm on traffic light control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catur Siswipraptini, Puji; Hendro Martono, Wisnu; Hartanti, Dian

    2018-03-01

    The density of vehicles causes congestion seen at every junction in the city of jakarta due to the static or manual traffic timing lamp system consequently the length of the queue at the junction is uncertain. The research has been aimed at designing a sensor based traffic system based on the queue length detection of the vehicle to optimize the duration of the green light. In detecting the length of the queue of vehicles using infrared sensor assistance placed in each intersection path, then apply Greedy algorithm to help accelerate the movement of green light duration for the path that requires, while to apply the traffic lights regulation program based on greedy algorithm which is then stored on microcontroller with Arduino Mega 2560 type. Where a developed system implements the greedy algorithm with the help of the infrared sensor it will extend the duration of the green light on the long vehicle queue and accelerate the duration of the green light at the intersection that has the queue not too dense. Furthermore, the design is made to form an artificial form of the actual situation of the scale model or simple simulator (next we just called as scale model of simulator) of the intersection then tested. Sensors used are infrared sensors, where the placement of sensors in each intersection on the scale model is placed within 10 cm of each sensor and serves as a queue detector. From the results of the test process on the scale model with a longer queue obtained longer green light time so it will fix the problem of long queue of vehicles. Using greedy algorithms can add long green lights for 2 seconds on tracks that have long queues at least three sensor levels and accelerate time at other intersections that have longer queue sensor levels less than level three.

  14. Determination system for solar cell layout in traffic light network using dominating set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eka Yulia Retnani, Windi; Fambudi, Brelyanes Z.; Slamin

    2018-04-01

    Graph Theory is one of the fields in Mathematics that solves discrete problems. In daily life, the applications of Graph Theory are used to solve various problems. One of the topics in the Graph Theory that is used to solve the problem is the dominating set. The concept of dominating set is used, for example, to locate some objects systematically. In this study, the dominating set are used to determine the dominating points for solar panels, where the vertex represents the traffic light point and the edge represents the connection between the points of the traffic light. To search the dominating points for solar panels using the greedy algorithm. This algorithm is used to determine the location of solar panel. This research produced applications that can determine the location of solar panels with optimal results, that is, the minimum dominating points.

  15. Energy and traffic light labelling have no impact on parent and child fast food selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, Pennie; Wolfenden, Luke; Chapman, Kathy; Wellard, Lyndal; Hughes, Clare; Wiggers, John

    2013-10-25

    Labelling of food from fast food restaurants at point-of-purchase has been suggested as one strategy to reduce population energy consumption and contribute to reductions in obesity prevalence. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of energy and single traffic light labelling systems on the energy content of child and adult intended food purchases. The study employed a randomised controlled trial design. English speaking parents of children aged between three and 12 years were recruited from an existing research cohort. Participants were mailed one of three hypothetical fast food menus. Menus differed in their labelling technique- either energy labels, single traffic light labels, or a no-label control. Participants then completed a telephone survey which assessed intended food purchases for both adult and child. The primary trial outcome was total energy of intended food purchase. A total of 329 participants completed the follow-up telephone interview. Eighty-two percent of the energy labelling group and 96% of the single traffic light labelling group reported noticing labelling information on their menu. There were no significant differences in total energy of intended purchases of parents, or intended purchases made by parents for children, between the menu labelling groups, or between menu labelling groups by socio-demographic subgroups. This study provided no evidence to suggest that energy labelling or single traffic light labelling alone were effective in reducing the energy of fast food items selected from hypothetical fast food menus for purchase. Additional complementary public health initiatives promoting the consumption of healthier foods identified by labelling, and which target other key drivers of menu item selection in this setting may be required. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Digestible information: The impact of Multiple Traffic Light nutritional labeling in a developing country

    OpenAIRE

    Defago, Daniel; Geng, José F.; Molina, Oswaldo; Santa María, Diego

    2017-01-01

    Bad dietary habits are among the main causes of increasing obesity and other health problems. According to the literature, information asymmetry and cognitive biases may lead to suboptimal decisions by individuals regarding food consumption. Many countries have implemented different forms of nutritional labelling in order to provide individuals with better information when making choices. We assess the Multiple Traffic Light (MTL) system, an alternative and simplified labelling format impleme...

  17. A qualitative study of consumer perceptions and use of traffic light food labelling in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Wilma B; Waters, William F; Rivas-Mariño, Gabriela; Nguyen, Tien; Rivas, Patricio

    2017-04-01

    To analyse patterns of knowledge, comprehension, attitudes and practices regarding the traffic light label placed on processed food packages to inform Ecuadorian consumers about levels of added fat, sugar and salt. Twenty-one focus group discussions organized by age group, sex and place of residence. Interviews with representatives of companies that manufacture or market processed foods. Analysis of regulations and structured observations of processed food labels. Cities and towns in Ecuador's coastal, highland and eastern lowland regions. One hundred and seventy-eight participants in twenty-one focus group discussions and nine key informants. Focus group participants knew about the traffic light label and understood the information it conveys, but not all changed their attitudes and practices related to the purchase and consumption of processed foods. Children, adolescents and adult males reported using the information infrequently; adolescents interested in health and adult women used the label the most to select products. Representatives of companies that manufacture or market processed foods generally opposed the policy, stating that the information is misleading. Nevertheless, some companies have reduced levels of added fat, sugar or salt in their products. The traffic light label is an effective tool for conveying complex information. Its potential contribution to reduce consumption of products with high levels of fat, sugar and salt could be enhanced by promoting healthy diets among consumers who have not changed purchasing and consumption behaviour, by placing the label on front panels and by monitoring the production and marketing of processed foods.

  18. Design mechanic generator under speed bumper to support electricity recourse for urban traffic light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, M.; Lauzuardy, Jason; Syam, Bustami

    2018-03-01

    The electrical energy needs for the traffic lights in some cities of developing countries cannot be achieved continuously due to limited capacity and interruption of electricity distribution, the main power plant. This issues can lead to congestion at the crossroads. To overcome the problem of street chaos due to power failure, we can cultivate to provide electrical energy from other sources such as using the bumper to generate kinetic energy, which can be converted into electrical energy. This study designed a generator mechanic that will be mounted on the bumper construction to generate electricity for the purposes of traffic lights at the crossroads. The Mechanical generator is composed of springs, levers, sprockets, chains, flywheel and customize power generator. Through the rotation of the flywheel, we can earned 9 Volt DC voltage and electrical current of 5.89 Ampere. This achievement can be used to charge the accumulator which can be used to power the traffic lights, and to charge the accumulator capacity of 6 Ah, the generator works in the charging time for 1.01 hours.

  19. Analyzing Traffic Crash Severity in Work Zones under Different Light Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin Wei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have investigated various factors that contribute to the severity of work zone crashes. However, little has been done on the specific effects of light conditions. Using the data from the Enhanced Tennessee Roadway Information Management System (E-TRIMS, crashes that occurred in the Tennessee work zones during 2003–2015 are categorized into three light conditions: daylight, dark-lighted, and dark-not-lighted. One commonly used decision tree method—Classification and Regression Trees (CART—is adopted to investigate the factors contributing to crash severity in highway work zones under these light conditions. The outcomes from the three decision trees with differing light conditions show significant differences in the ranking and importance of the factors considered in the study, thereby indicating the necessity of examining traffic crashes according to light conditions. By separately considering the crash characteristics under different light conditions, some new findings are obtained from this study. The study shows that an increase in the number of lanes increases the crash severity level in work zones during the day while decreasing the severity at night. Similarly, drugs and alcohol are found to increase the severity level significantly under the dark-not-lighted condition, while they have a limited influence under daylight and dark-lighted conditions.

  20. Light-effect transistor (LET) with multiple independent gating controls for optical logic gates and optical amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmon, Jason; Rai, Satish; Wang, Kai; Zhou, Weilie; Zhang, Yong

    The pathway for CMOS technology beyond the 5-nm technology node remains unclear for both physical and technological reasons. A new transistor paradigm is required. A LET (Marmon et. al., Front. Phys. 2016, 4, No. 8) offers electronic-optical hybridization at the component level, and is capable of continuing Moore's law to the quantum scale. A LET overcomes a FET's fabrication complexity, e.g., physical gate and doping, by employing optical gating and photoconductivity, while multiple independent, optical gates readily realize unique functionalities. We report LET device characteristics and novel digital and analog applications, such as optical logic gates and optical amplification. Prototype CdSe-nanowire-based LETs, incorporating an M-S-M structure, show output and transfer characteristics resembling advanced FETs, e.g., on/off ratios up to 106 with a source-drain voltage of 1.43V, gate-power of 260nW, and a subthreshold swing of 0.3nW/decade (excluding losses). A LET has potential for high-switching (THz) speeds and extremely low-switching energies (aJ) in the ballistic transport region. Our work offers new electronic-optical integration strategies for high speed and low energy computing approaches, which could potentially be extended to other materials and devices.

  1. Estimation of red-light running frequency using high-resolution traffic and signal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Yu, Guizhen; Wu, Xinkai; Ren, Yilong; Li, Yueguang

    2017-05-01

    Red-light-running (RLR) emerges as a major cause that may lead to intersection-related crashes and endanger intersection safety. To reduce RLR violations, it's critical to identify the influential factors associated with RLR and estimate RLR frequency. Without resorting to video camera recordings, this study investigates this important issue by utilizing high-resolution traffic and signal event data collected from loop detectors at five intersections on Trunk Highway 55, Minneapolis, MN. First, a simple method is proposed to identify RLR by fully utilizing the information obtained from stop bar detectors, downstream entrance detectors and advance detectors. Using 12 months of event data, a total of 6550 RLR cases were identified. According to a definition of RLR frequency as the conditional probability of RLR on a certain traffic or signal condition (veh/1000veh), the relationships between RLR frequency and some influential factors including arriving time at advance detector, approaching speed, headway, gap to the preceding vehicle on adjacent lane, cycle length, geometric characteristics and even snowing weather were empirically investigated. Statistical analysis shows good agreement with the traffic engineering practice, e.g., RLR is most likely to occur on weekdays during peak periods under large traffic demands and longer signal cycles, and a total of 95.24% RLR events occurred within the first 1.5s after the onset of red phase. The findings confirmed that vehicles tend to run the red light when they are close to intersection during phase transition, and the vehicles following the leading vehicle with short headways also likely run the red light. Last, a simplified nonlinear regression model is proposed to estimate RLR frequency based on the data from advance detector. The study is expected to helpbetter understand RLR occurrence and further contribute to the future improvement of intersection safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Examination of the LED Source in Traffic Lights and the Effect of Airborne Dirt on its Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amela Softić

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The performed evaluation consisted of two phases: measurement of the illumination levels of (new LED system and carrying out the public opinion poll on the subjective visual performance of LED in traffic lights. The results of the measured levels of illumination show that deposition of dirt considerably affects its values. The survey results confirm an overall positive impression on LED performances in traffic lights.

  3. Female vs. Male Ampelmännchen-Gender-Specific Reaction Times to Male and Female Traffic Light Figures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid I. Kandil

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Traffic signs are important visual guiding signals for the safe navigation through complex road traffic. Interestingly, there is little variation in the traffic signs for cars around the world. However, remarkable variation exists for pedestrian traffic signs. Following up from an earlier study, we investigated the visual efficacy of female vs. male German Ampelmännchen pedestrian traffic signs. In a Stroop-like test, 30 subjects were presented with female and male go and no-go traffic light figures that were shown either in the corresponding or opposing color. Subjects had to indicate, based either solely on the form or the color of the figure, whether they were allowed to go. Accuracy and response times across all subjects did not differ for the female vs. male signs, indicating that Ampelfrau and Ampelmann signs have equal visual efficacy. However, subjects responded faster to signs of their own vs. the opposite gender. This preference for signs of one's own gender is in accordance with effects in social psychology described by social learning theory. An introduction of such novel traffic lights may, thus, contribute to higher compliance with the traffic sign signals.

  4. Drivers' phone use at red traffic lights: a roadside observation study comparing calls and visual-manual interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, Véronique; Sanchez, Yann; Brusque, Corinne

    2015-01-01

    Phone use while driving has become one of the priority issues in road safety, given that it may lead to decreased situation awareness and deteriorated driving performance. It has been suggested that drivers can regulate their exposure to secondary tasks and seek for compatibility of phone use and driving. Phone use strategies include the choice of driving situations with low demands and interruptions of the interaction when the context changes. Traffic light situations at urban intersections imply both a temptation to use the phone while waiting at the red traffic light and a potential threat due to the incompatibility of phone use and driving when the traffic light turns green. These two situations were targeted in a roadside observation study, with the aim to investigate the existence of a phone use strategy at the red traffic light and to test its effectiveness. N=124 phone users and a corresponding control group of non-users were observed. Strategic phone use behaviour was detected for visual-manual interactions, which are more likely to be initiated at the red traffic light and tend to be stopped before the vehicle moves off, while calls are less likely to be limited to the red traffic light situation. As an indicator of impaired situation awareness, delayed start was associated to phone use and in particular to visual-manual interactions, whether phone use was interrupted before moving off or not. Traffic light situations do not seem to allow effective application of phone use strategies, although drivers attempt to do so for the most demanding phone use mode. The underlying factors of phone use need to be studied so as to reduce the temptation of phone use and facilitate exposure regulation strategies. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Maximum Power Point Tracking of Photovoltaic System for Traffic Light Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riza Muhida

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic traffic light system is a significant application of renewable energy source. The development of the system is an alternative effort of local authority to reduce expenditure for paying fees to power supplier which the power comes from conventional energy source. Since photovoltaic (PV modules still have relatively low conversion efficiency, an alternative control of maximum power point tracking (MPPT method is applied to the traffic light system. MPPT is intended to catch up the maximum power at daytime in order to charge the battery at the maximum rate in which the power from the battery is intended to be used at night time or cloudy day. MPPT is actually a DC-DC converter that can step up or down voltage in order to achieve the maximum power using Pulse Width Modulation (PWM control. From experiment, we obtained the voltage of operation using MPPT is at 16.454 V, this value has error of 2.6%, if we compared with maximum power point voltage of PV module that is 16.9 V. Based on this result it can be said that this MPPT control works successfully to deliver the power from PV module to battery maximally.

  6. Traffic Light Protocol for Induced Seismicity: What is the Best Strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, H.; Mahani, A. B.; Atkinson, G. M.; Eaton, D. W. S.; Maxwell, S.

    2015-12-01

    In response to the occurrence of relatively large (and felt) earthquakes that are potentially induced by man-made activities, there is an increasing trend for the industry and government regulators to include a "traffic light" system in their decision-making process. Despite its tremendous implications to the cost of operations and the protection of public safety, the protocol that defines the different scenarios for different lights ("green", "yellow", or "red") has not been thoroughly validated to truly reflect the associated seismic risk. Most government regulators adopt a traffic light protocol (TLP) that depends on the magnitude of the earthquake of interest and sometimes felt reports from local communities. It is well known that the estimate of an earthquake's magnitude can have some uncertainty. While an uncertainty of +/-0.2 in magnitude is understandable and generally accepted by the seismological community, it can create a serious problem when the value of magnitude is the predominant factor in the TLP for induced seismicity. Recent examples of magnitude 4 and larger earthquakes in northeast BC and western AB that are possibly induced by shale gas hydraulic fracturing have demonstrated vividly the possible deficiency of existing TLP for induced seismicity. From the viewpoint of mitigating seismic risk, we argue that a ground-motion based TLP should be more effective than a magnitude-based approach. A workshop with representatives from government agencies, the industry, and the academia will be held to review the deficiency of the current TLP for induced seismicity and to explore innovative ways of improvement. The ultimate goal of the TLP for induced seismicity is to reach a balance between the protection of public safety and the economic benefit of developing natural resources In this presentation, main conclusions of this workshop will be presented.

  7. Evaluating the Influence of Road Lighting on Traffic Safety at Accesses Using An Artificial Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yueru; Ye, Zhirui; Wang, Yuan; Wang, Chao; Sun, Cuicui

    2018-05-18

    This paper focuses on the effect of road lighting on road safety at accesses and tries to quantitatively analyze the relationship between road lighting and road safety. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was applied in this study. This method is one of the most popular machine-learning methods in recent years and does not require any pre-defined assumptions. This method was applied using field data collected from ten road segments in Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China. The results show that the impact of road lighting on road safety at accesses is significant. In addition, road lighting has greater influence when vehicle speeds are higher or the number of lanes is larger. A threshold illuminance was also found in this paper, and the results show that the safety level at accesses will become stable when reaching this value. The improvement of illuminance can decrease the speed variation among vehicles and improve the safety level. In addition, high-grade roads need better illuminance at accesses. A threshold value can also be obtained based on related variables and used to develop scientific guidelines for traffic management organizations.

  8. Smart Pedestrian Crossing Management at Traffic Light Junctions through a Fuzzy-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Pau

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, numerous research efforts have been conducted to merge the Internet of Things (IoT with smart city environments. The goal to make a city “smart” is arising as a possible solution to lessen the issues caused by the urban population growth and fast urbanization. Attention also has focused on the pedestrian crossings because they are one of the most dangerous places in the transport field. Information and Communications Technologies (ICT can undoubtedly be an excellent support in developing infrastructures that can best manage pedestrian crossing. For this reason, this paper introduces a fuzzy logic-based solution able to manage dynamically the traffic lights’ phases in signalized pedestrian crossings. The proposed approach provides the possibility to change the phases of the traffic light taking into account the time of the day and the number of pedestrians about to cross the road. The paper presents a thorough description of the fuzzy logic controller configuration, an in-depth analysis of the application scenario and simulative assessments obtained through Vissim simulations.

  9. Traffic light – nutrition labelling: knowledge, perception and use in consumers of Madrid, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimen Andrea León-Flández

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Describe knowledge, comprehension level, perception and use of traffic light labelling in consumers of Madrid.Material and Methods: A two phases, cross-sectional study design, carried out in Madrid, in 2012. Our sample was recruited randomly, and interviewed using a questionnaire designed for this purpose. Consumers of 7 stores of main supermarket chains in Madrid were questioned. Information about knowledge, comprehension, perception and use of traffic light labelling (TLL was collected. Analyses examined the frequency of the variables of interest. Differences were tested using the χ2 test.Results: The response rate was 80.6% (first phase and 97.8% (second phase. Consumers that knew the TLL and understood its color-coding system were 41.4% and 18.6% respectively. From the participants that knew the TLL system, 61.5% thought it was very useful (80% among those >65 years and 90% among those with primary studies; p>0.05. Just 31.4% of consumers habitually used TLL to buy their products (70% among those with primary studies; p=0.04. This percentage was higher in consumers that understood the color-coding system (second phase (66.6%; p<0.01.Conclusions: The level of TLL’s knowledge and comprehension was low. Consumers that know TLL, consider it a useful nutrition instrument. Those who understand, use it habitually to buy their products, especially consumers older than 65 years old and with primary studies. A widespread introduction of this system in Spain might contribute to improve food and eating habits, especially elderly people and less educated.

  10. Antibiotic prophylaxis audit and questionnaire study: Traffic Light Poster improves adherence to protocol in gastrointestinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Michaella; Jones, Stacey; Adedeji, Olufunso

    2015-07-01

    To measure adherence to antibiotic prophylaxis (AP) protocol amongst surgeons and anesthetists and explore their understanding of AP prescribing in practice. A prospective audit of AP in gastrointestinal surgery and re-audit after intervention. A questionnaire survey of practice. 58 (38%- clean; 62%- clean contaminated) operations were audited and 73 (48%-clean; 51%-clean contaminated) operations were re-audited after intervention with "Traffic Light Poster" (TFP) .55 colleagues (32 consultants and 23 trainees) were recruited for questionnaire survey in three West Midlands hospitals. Audit and Re-Audits. Only 31% of procedures followed the protocol correctly in the initial audit and this increased to 73% in the re-audit. 73% of patients undergoing clean procedures received AP inappropriately in the initial audit but reduced significantly to 20% (p audit. In the initial audit, 62% of clean contaminated procedures did not receive the appropriate first line AP but this fell to 35% (p audit. Questionnaire Survey- Only 30% of respondents would not give AP in clean surgery as recommended. 45% would use appropriate AP for clean-contaminated wounds. 73% of respondents will give AP at induction, 20% 1 h pre op and 7% just before incision. There is poor compliance with AP protocols in gastrointestinal surgery in part due to general lack of awareness. An educational intervention in the form of a 'Traffic Light Poster' improved adherence to AP protocol two fold. There was improved rationalizing of AP. Clean procedures, in particular, had less inappropriate prescribing. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Traffic-Light Labels and Choice Architecture Promoting Healthy Food Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorndike, Anne N.; Riis, Jason; Sonnenberg, Lillian M.; Levy, Douglas E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Preventing obesity requires maintenance of healthy eating behaviors over time. Food labels and strategies that increase visibility and convenience of healthy foods (choice architecture) promote healthier choices, but long-term effectiveness is unknown. Purpose Assess effectiveness of traffic-light labeling and choice architecture cafeteria intervention over 24 months. Design Longitudinal pre–post cohort follow-up study between December 2009 and February 2012. Data were analyzed in 2012. Setting/participants Large hospital cafeteria with mean of 6511 transactions daily. Cafeteria sales were analyzed for: (1) all cafeteria customers and (2) longitudinal cohort of 2285 hospital employees who used the cafeteria regularly. Intervention After 3-month baseline period, cafeteria items were labeled green (healthy), yellow (less healthy) or red (unhealthy) and rearranged to make healthy items more accessible. Main outcome measures Proportion of cafeteria sales that were green or red during each 3-month period from baseline to 24 months. Changes in 12- and 24-month sales were compared to baseline for all transactions and transactions by the employee cohort. Results The proportion of sales of red items decreased from 24% at baseline to 20% at 24 months (p<0.001), and green sales increased from 41% to 46% (p<0.001). Red beverages decreased from 26% of beverage sales at baseline to 17% at 24 months (p<0.001); green beverages increased from 52% to 60% (p<0.001). Similar patterns were observed for the cohort of employees, with largest change for red beverages (23% to 14%, p<0.001). Conclusions A traffic-light and choice architecture cafeteria intervention resulted in sustained healthier choices over 2 years, suggesting food environment interventions can promote long-term changes in population eating behaviors. PMID:24439347

  12. THE APPLICABILITY OF EXISTING COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY TO AUTOMATE FUZZY SYNTHESIS OF TRAFFIC LIGHT UAV IN ADVERSE WEATHER CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Lysenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the analysis of the applicability of known application software systems for automated synthesis of fuzzy control traffic light UAV during its flight in adverse weather conditions. The solution is based on a previously formulated and put into consideration the principle of permissible limited a priori estimation of the uncertainty of aerodynamic characteristics of UAVs.

  13. 'Traffic-light' nutrition labelling and 'junk-food' tax: a modelled comparison of cost-effectiveness for obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, G; Veerman, J L; Moodie, M; Swinburn, B

    2011-07-01

    Cost-effectiveness analyses are important tools in efforts to prioritise interventions for obesity prevention. Modelling facilitates evaluation of multiple scenarios with varying assumptions. This study compares the cost-effectiveness of conservative scenarios for two commonly proposed policy-based interventions: front-of-pack 'traffic-light' nutrition labelling (traffic-light labelling) and a tax on unhealthy foods ('junk-food' tax). For traffic-light labelling, estimates of changes in energy intake were based on an assumed 10% shift in consumption towards healthier options in four food categories (breakfast cereals, pastries, sausages and preprepared meals) in 10% of adults. For the 'junk-food' tax, price elasticities were used to estimate a change in energy intake in response to a 10% price increase in seven food categories (including soft drinks, confectionery and snack foods). Changes in population weight and body mass index by sex were then estimated based on these changes in population energy intake, along with subsequent impacts on disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Associated resource use was measured and costed using pathway analysis, based on a health sector perspective (with some industry costs included). Costs and health outcomes were discounted at 3%. The cost-effectiveness of each intervention was modelled for the 2003 Australian adult population. Both interventions resulted in reduced mean weight (traffic-light labelling: 1.3 kg (95% uncertainty interval (UI): 1.2; 1.4); 'junk-food' tax: 1.6 kg (95% UI: 1.5; 1.7)); and DALYs averted (traffic-light labelling: 45,100 (95% UI: 37,700; 60,100); 'junk-food' tax: 559,000 (95% UI: 459,500; 676,000)). Cost outlays were AUD81 million (95% UI: 44.7; 108.0) for traffic-light labelling and AUD18 million (95% UI: 14.4; 21.6) for 'junk-food' tax. Cost-effectiveness analysis showed both interventions were 'dominant' (effective and cost-saving). Policy-based population-wide interventions such as traffic-light

  14. Energy-efficient multicast traffic grooming strategy based on light-tree splitting for elastic optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huanlin; Yin, Yarui; Chen, Yong

    2017-07-01

    In order to address the problem of optimizing the spectrum resources and power consumption in elastic optical networks (EONs), we investigate the potential gains by jointly employing the light-tree splitting and traffic grooming for multicast requests. An energy-efficient multicast traffic grooming strategy based on light-tree splitting (EED-MTGS-LS) is proposed in this paper. Firstly, we design a traffic pre-processing mechanism to decide the multicast requests' routing order, which considers the request's bandwidth requirement and physical hops synthetically. Then, by dividing a light-tree to some sub-light-trees and grooming the request to these sub-light-trees, the light-tree sharing ratios of multicast requests can be improved. What's more, a priority scheduling vector is constructed, which aims to improve the success rate of spectrum assignment for grooming requests. Finally, a grooming strategy is designed to optimize the total power consumption by reducing the use of transponders and IP routers during routing. Simulation results show that the proposed strategy can significantly improve the spectrum utilization and save the power consumption.

  15. Evaluation of countermeasures for red light running by traffic simulator-based surrogate safety measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Changju; So, Jaehyun Jason; Ma, Jiaqi

    2018-01-02

    The conflicts among motorists entering a signalized intersection with the red light indication have become a national safety issue. Because of its sensitivity, efforts have been made to investigate the possible causes and effectiveness of countermeasures using comparison sites and/or before-and-after studies. Nevertheless, these approaches are ineffective when comparison sites cannot be found, or crash data sets are not readily available or not reliable for statistical analysis. Considering the random nature of red light running (RLR) crashes, an inventive approach regardless of data availability is necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of each countermeasure face to face. The aims of this research are to (1) review erstwhile literature related to red light running and traffic safety models; (2) propose a practical methodology for evaluation of RLR countermeasures with a microscopic traffic simulation model and surrogate safety assessment model (SSAM); (3) apply the proposed methodology to actual signalized intersection in Virginia, with the most prevalent scenarios-increasing the yellow signal interval duration, installing an advance warning sign, and an RLR camera; and (4) analyze the relative effectiveness by RLR frequency and the number of conflicts (rear-end and crossing). All scenarios show a reduction in RLR frequency (-7.8, -45.5, and -52.4%, respectively), but only increasing the yellow signal interval duration results in a reduced total number of conflicts (-11.3%; a surrogate safety measure of possible RLR-related crashes). An RLR camera makes the greatest reduction (-60.9%) in crossing conflicts (a surrogate safety measure of possible angle crashes), whereas increasing the yellow signal interval duration results in only a 12.8% reduction of rear-end conflicts (a surrogate safety measure of possible rear-end crash). Although increasing the yellow signal interval duration is advantageous because this reduces the total conflicts (a possibility of total

  16. LightFD: A Lightweight Flow Detection Mechanism for Traffic Grooming in Optical Wireless DCNs

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Ghadhban, Amer

    2018-05-05

    State of the art wireless technologies have recently shown a great potential for enabling re-configurable data center network (DCN) topologies by augmenting the cabling complexity and link inflexibility of traditional wired data centers (DCs). In this paper, we propose an optical traffic grooming (TG) method for mice flows (MFs) and elephant flows (EFs) in wireless DCNs which are interconnected with wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) capable free-space optical (FSO) links. Since handling the bandwidth-hungry EFs along with delay-sensitive MFs over the same network resources have undesirable consequences, proposed TG policy handles MFs and EFs over distinctive network resources. MFs/EFs destined to the same rack are groomed into larger rack-to-rack MF/EF flows over dedicated lightpaths whose routes and capacities are jointly determined in a load balancing manner. Performance evaluations of proposed TG policy show a significant throughput improvement thanks to efficient bandwidth utilization of the WDM-FSO links. As MFs and EFs are needed to be separated, proposed TG requires expeditious flow detection mechanisms which can immediately classify EFs with very high accuracy. Since these cannot be met by existing packet-sampling and port-mirroring based solutions, we propose a fast and lightweight in-network flow detection (LightFD) mechanism with perfect accuracy. LightFD is designed as a module on the Virtual-Switch/Hypervisor, which detects EFs based on acknowledgment sequence number of flow packets. Emulation results show that LightFD can provide up to 500 times faster detection speeds than the sampling-based methods with %100 detection precision. We also demonstrate that the EF detection speed has a considerable impact on achievable EF throughput.

  17. Novel application of red-light runner proneness theory within traffic microsimulation to an actual signal junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Margaret Carol; Galatioto, Fabio; Giuffrè, Tullio; Tesoriere, Giovanni

    2012-05-01

    Building on previous research a conceptual framework, based on potential conflicts analysis, has provided a quantitative evaluation of 'proneness' to red-light running behaviour at urban signalised intersections of different geometric, flow and driver characteristics. The results provided evidence that commonly used violation rates could cause inappropriate evaluation of the extent of the red-light running phenomenon. Initially, an in-depth investigation of the functional form of the mathematical relationship between the potential and actual red-light runners was carried out. The application of the conceptual framework was tested on a signalised intersection in order to quantify the proneness to red-light running. For the particular junction studied proneness for daytime was found to be 0.17 north and 0.16 south for opposing main road approaches and 0.42 east and 0.59 west for the secondary approaches. Further investigations were carried out using a traffic microsimulation model, to explore those geometric features and traffic volumes (arrival patterns at the stop-line) that significantly affect red-light running. In this way the prediction capability of the proposed potential conflict model was improved. A degree of consistency in the measured and simulated red-light running was observed and the conceptual framework was tested through a sensitivity analysis applied to different stop-line positions and traffic volume variations. The microsimulation, although at its early stages of development, has shown promise in its ability to model unintentional red light running behaviour and following further work through application to other junctions, potentially provides a tool for evaluation of alternative junction designs on proneness. In brief, this paper proposes and applies a novel approach to model red-light running using a microsimulation and demonstrates consistency with the observed and theoretical results. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Traffic-light labels and choice architecture: promoting healthy food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorndike, Anne N; Riis, Jason; Sonnenberg, Lillian M; Levy, Douglas E

    2014-02-01

    Preventing obesity requires maintenance of healthy eating behaviors over time. Food labels and strategies that increase visibility and convenience of healthy foods (choice architecture) promote healthier choices, but long-term effectiveness is unknown. Assess effectiveness of traffic-light labeling and choice architecture cafeteria intervention over 24 months. Longitudinal pre-post cohort follow-up study between December 2009 and February 2012. Data were analyzed in 2012. Large hospital cafeteria with a mean of 6511 transactions daily. Cafeteria sales were analyzed for (1) all cafeteria customers and (2) a longitudinal cohort of 2285 hospital employees who used the cafeteria regularly. After a 3-month baseline period, cafeteria items were labeled green (healthy); yellow (less healthy); or red (unhealthy) and rearranged to make healthy items more accessible. Proportion of cafeteria sales that were green or red during each 3-month period from baseline to 24 months. Changes in 12- and 24-month sales were compared to baseline for all transactions and transactions by the employee cohort. The proportion of sales of red items decreased from 24% at baseline to 20% at 24 months (pchoice architecture cafeteria intervention resulted in sustained healthier choices over 2 years, suggesting that food environment interventions can promote long-term changes in population eating behaviors. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine Published by American Journal of Preventive Medicine All rights reserved.

  19. Power Stabilization Strategy of Random Access Loads in Electric Vehicles Wireless Charging System at Traffic Lights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Tan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An opportunity wireless charging system for electric vehicles when they stop and wait at traffic lights is proposed in this paper. In order to solve the serious power fluctuation caused by random access loads, this study presents a power stabilization strategy based on counting the number of electric vehicles in a designated area, including counting method, power source voltage adjustment strategy and choice of counting points. Firstly, the circuit model of a wireless power system with multi-loads is built and the equation of each load is obtained. Secondly, after the counting method of electric vehicles is stated, the voltage adjustment strategy, based on the number of electric vehicles when the system is at a steady state, is set out. Then, the counting points are chosen according to power curves when the voltage adjustment strategy is adopted. Finally, an experimental prototype is implemented to verify the power stabilization strategy. The experimental results show that, with the application of this strategy, the charging power is stabilized with the fluctuation of no more than 5% when loads access randomly.

  20. Identification of Behavior Based Safety by Using Traffic Light Analysis to Reduce Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, A.; Nasution, M. I.

    2016-01-01

    This work present the safety assessment of a case study and describes an important area within the field production in oil and gas industry, namely behavior based safety (BBS). The company set a rigorous BBS and its intervention program that implemented and deployed continually. In this case, observers requested to have discussion and spread a number of determined questions related with work behavior to the workers during observation. Appraisal of Traffic Light Analysis (TLA) as one tools of risk assessment used to determine the estimated score of BBS questionnaire. Standardization of TLA appraisal in this study are based on Regulation of Minister of Labor and Occupational Safety and Health No:PER.05/MEN/1996. The result shown that there are some points under 84%, which categorized in yellow category and should corrected immediately by company to prevent existing bad behavior of workers. The application of BBS expected to increase the safety performance at work time-by-time and effective in reducing accidents.

  1. Using traffic light labels to improve food selection in recreation and sport facility eating environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olstad, Dana Lee; Vermeer, Julianne; McCargar, Linda J; Prowse, Rachel J L; Raine, Kim D

    2015-08-01

    Many recreation and sports facilities have unhealthy food environments, however managers are reluctant to offer healthier foods because they perceive patrons will not purchase them. Preliminary evidence indicates that traffic light labeling (TLL) can increase purchase of healthy foods in away-from-home food retail settings. We examined the effectiveness of TLL of menus in promoting healthier food purchases by patrons of a recreation and sport facility concession, and among various sub-groups. TLL of all menu items was implemented for a 1-week period and sales were assessed for 1-week pre- and 1-week post-implementation of TLL (n = 2101 transactions). A subset of consumers completed a survey during the baseline (n = 322) and intervention (n = 313) periods. We assessed change in the proportion of patrons' purchases that were labeled with green, yellow and red lights from baseline to the TLL intervention, and association with demographic characteristics and other survey responses. Change in overall revenues was also assessed. There was an overall increase in sales of green (52.2% to 55.5%; p sales of red (30.4% to 27.2%; p revenues did not differ between the baseline and TLL periods. TLL of menus increased purchase of healthy, and reduced purchase of unhealthy foods in a publicly funded recreation and sport facility, with no loss of revenue. Policymakers should consider extending menu labeling laws to public buildings such as recreation and sports facilities to promote selection of healthier items. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of energy and traffic light labelling on parent and child fast food selection: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, Pennie; Wolfenden, Luke; Chapman, Kathy; Wellard, Lyndal; Hughes, Clare; Wiggers, John

    2014-02-01

    Labelling of food from fast food restaurants at point-of-purchase has been suggested as one strategy to reduce population energy consumption and contribute to reductions in obesity prevalence. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of energy and single traffic light labelling systems on the energy content of child and adult intended food purchases. The study employed a randomised controlled trial design. English speaking parents of children aged between three and 12 years were recruited from an existing research cohort. Participants were mailed one of three hypothetical fast food menus. Menus differed in their labelling technique – either energy labels, single traffic light labels, or a no-label control. Participants then completed a telephone survey which assessed intended food purchases for both adult and child. The primary trial outcome was total energy of intended food purchase. A total of 329 participants completed the follow-up telephone interview. Eighty-two percent of the energy labelling group and 96% of the single traffic light labelling group reported noticing labelling information on their menu. There were no significant differences in total energy of intended purchases of parents, or intended purchases made by parents for children, between the menu labelling groups, or between menu labelling groups by socio-demographic subgroups. This study provided no evidence to suggest that energy labelling or single traffic light labelling alone were effective in reducing the energy of fast food items selected from hypothetical fast food menus for purchase. Additional complementary public health initiatives promoting the consumption of healthier foods identified by labelling, and which target other key drivers of menu item selection in this setting may be required.

  3. Traffic signal synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ding-wei; Huang, Wei-neng

    2003-05-01

    The benefits of traffic signal synchronization are examined within the cellular automata approach. The microsimulations of traffic flow are obtained with different settings of signal period T and time delay delta. Both numerical results and analytical approximations are presented. For undersaturated traffic, the green-light wave solutions can be realized. For saturated traffic, the correlation among the traffic signals has no effect on the throughput. For oversaturated traffic, the benefits of synchronization are manifest only when stochastic noise is suppressed.

  4. TRAFFIC SIMULATION FOR MIXED TRAFFIC SYSTEMS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EGETE

    2012-05-04

    May 4, 2012 ... Traffic problem is classified into single and mixed, especially in most developing countries, where motorbikes are ..... The traffic light control system presented by its location on ... multi-destination dynamic routing and real-time.

  5. Empirical Study of How Traffic Intensity Detector Parameters Influence Dynamic Street Lighting Energy Consumption: A Case Study in Krakow, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Wojnicki

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The deployment of dynamic street lighting, which adjusts lighting levels to fulfill particular needs, leads to energy savings. These savings contribute to the overall lighting infrastructure maintenance cost. Yet another contribution is the cost of traffic intensity data. The data is read directly from sensor systems or intelligent transportation systems (ITSs. The more frequent the readings are, the more costly they become, because of hardware capabilities, data transfer and software license costs, among others. The paper investigates a relationship between the frequency of readings, in particular the averaging window size and step, and achieved energy savings. It is based on a simulation, taking into account a representative part of a city and traffic intensity data, which span over a period of one year. While the energy consumption reduction is simulated, all data, including each luminaire power setting, induction loop locations and street characteristics, come from a representative sample of the city of Krakow, Poland. Controlling the power settings complies with the lighting standard CEN/TR 13201. Analysis of the outcomes indicates that the shorter the window size or step are, the more energy saving that is available. In particular, for the previous standard CEN/TR 13201 2004, having the window size and step at 15 min results in 26.75% of energy saving, while reducing these values to 6 min provides 27%. Savings are more profound for the current standard (CEN/TR 13201 2014, assuming a 15 min size and step results in 47.43%, while having a 6 min size and step provides 47.69%. The results can serve as a guideline for identifying the economic viability of dynamic lighting control systems. Additionally, it can be observed that the current lighting standard provides far greater potential for dynamic control then the previous standard.

  6. Using the Tools in TRADE I: A Decision Support System for Traffic Light maintenance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vlijmen, S.F.M.; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    1997-01-01

    In this report we develop a specification of requirements and conceptual design of a decision support system for maintenance of the lamps in traffic regulation systems. Requirements and design are both specified using semi-formal techniques in TRADE (Toolkit for Requirements and Design Engineering).

  7. New Solutions Based On Wireless Networks For Dynamic Traffic Lights Management: A Comparison Between IEEE 802.15.4 And Bluetooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collotta Mario

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Wireless Sensor Networks are widely used to detect and exchange information and in recent years they have been increasingly involved in Intelligent Transportation System applications, especially in dynamic management of signalized intersections. In fact, the real-time knowledge of information concerning traffic light junctions represents a valid solution to congestion problems. In this paper, a wireless network architecture, based on IEEE 802.15.4 or Bluetooth, in order to monitor vehicular traffic flows near to traffic lights, is introduced. Moreover, an innovative algorithm is proposed in order to determine dynamically green times and phase sequence of traffic lights, based on measured values of traffic flows. Several simulations compare IEEE 802.15.4 and Bluetooth protocols in order to identify the more suitable communication protocol for ITS applications. Furthermore, in order to confirm the validity of the proposed algorithm for the dynamic management of traffic lights, some case studies have been considered and several simulations have been performed.

  8. PERSEPSI DAN SIKAP KONSUMEN TERHADAP PENERAPAN TRAFFIC LIGHT CARD PADA PRODUK PANGAN KEMASAN (CONSUMER’S PERCEPTION AND ATTITUDE TOWARDS IMPLEMENTATION OF TRAFFIC LIGHT CARD FOR PACKAGED FOOD PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Puspita Sari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT There has been an increase in number of deaths caused by noncommunicable diseases. It is related to the intensification of packaged products consumption that contain high sugar, fat, and sodium compositions. Thus, a clear and transparent product label is needed to prevent unnecessary mistake in choosing the right food. Traffic Light (TL is a format of colour-coded nutrition label that has been implemented on packaged foods in various countries. Previous research conducted in the United Kingdom and Australia indicate that the TL system allowed consumers to more easily and accurately select healthier food products compared with other labelling systems. Research about TL has never been conducted in Indonesia. This study aimed to identify perception and attitude of consumers towards Traffic Light Card (TLC for packaged food products. An exploratory survey on 95 consumers were done at a supermarket in Yogyakarta, supported by data from in-depth interview. Eighty-six percent of consumers perceive TLC as having clear nutrition information, was easy to use, and helpful for choosing packaged foods. Seventy percent of consumers also support the implementation of TLC for selecting healthy products with “green colour” as well as applying TLC as a label format in Indonesia. Future study should be done in different population and measuring practice of TLC use. This study may serve as basis for policy evaluation of nutrition labelling.ABSTRAK Peningkatan prevalensi penyakit degeneratif berkaitan dengan meningkatnya konsumsi pangan kemasan yang tinggi kandungan gula, lemak, dan natrium. Label gizi yang jelas dan informatif diperlukan untuk membantu konsumen dalam pemilihan produk makanan. Traffic Light (TL merupakan format label dengan kode warna yang dikembangkan oleh The UK Food Standards Agency (FSA dan telah diterapkan pada produk pangan kemasan. Beberapa studi di Inggris dan Australia menunjukkan bahwa TL lebih berhasil membantu konsumen

  9. Evaluating the Impacts of Red Light Camera Deployment on Intersection Traffic Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-06-01

    Red-light cameras (RLC) are a popular countermeasure to reduce red-light running and improve intersection safety. Studies show that the reduction in side impact crashes at RLC intersections are often accompanied by no-change or an increase in the num...

  10. Development of a graphical method for choosing the optimal mode of traffic light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, A. N.; Katunin, A. A.; Novikov, I. A.; Kravchenko, A. A.; Shevtsova, A. G.

    2018-05-01

    Changing the transportation infrastructure for improving the main characteristics of the transportation flow is the key problem in transportation planning, therefore the main question lies in the ability to plan the change of the main indicators for the long term. In this investigation, an analysis of the city’s population has been performed and the most difficult transportation segment has been identified. During its identification, the main characteristics of the transportation flow have been established. For the evaluation of these characteristics until 2025, an analysis of the available methods of establishing changes in their values has been conducted. During the analysis of the above mentioned methods of evaluation of the change in intensity, based on the method of extrapolation, three scenarios of the development of the transportation system have been identified. It has been established that the most favorable method of controlling the transportation flow in the entrance to the city is the long term control of the traffic system. For the first time, with the help of the authors, based on the investigations of foreign scientists and the mathematical analysis of the changes in intensiveness on the main routes of the given road, the method of graphically choosing the required control plan has been put forward. The effectiveness of said organization scheme of the transportation system has been rated in the Transyt-14 program, with the analysis of changes in the main characteristics of the transportation flow.

  11. Association between light absorption measurements of PM2.5 and distance from heavy traffic roads in the Mexico City metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez-Lugo, Marlene; Escamilla-Núñez, Consuelo; Barraza-Villarreal, Albino; Texcalac-Sangrador, José Luis; Chow, Judith; Watson, John; Hernández-Cadena, Leticia; Romieu, Isabelle

    2013-04-01

    To study the relationship between light absorption measurements of PM2.5 at various distances from heavy traffic roads and diesel vehicle counts in Mexico City. PM2.5 samples were obtained from June 2003-June 2005 in three MCMA regions. Light absorption (b abs) in a subset of PM2.5 samples was determined. We evaluated the effect of distance and diesel vehicle counts to heavy traffic roads on PM2.5 b abs using generalized estimating equation models. Median PM2.5 b abs measurements significantly decrease as distance from heavy traffic roads increases (proads. Our model predicts that PM2.5 b abs measurements would increase by 20% (CI95% 3-38) as the hourly heavy diesel vehicle count increases by 150 per hour. PM2.5 b abs measurements are significantly associated with distance from motorways and traffic density and therefore can be used to assess human exposure to traffic-related emissions.

  12. The relationship between the level of street lighting and the traffic safety : a preliminary study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    This report is a full English translation from the Dutch of B 30405 (IRRD 833001). Road lighting represents only a relatively small part of expenditure, both regarding costs and energy. Nevertheless it involves considerable sums, and it is justifiable to use the money and the energy for road

  13. Overcoming Therapeutic Inertia in Multiple Sclerosis Care: A Pilot Randomized Trial Applying the Traffic Light System in Medical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Saposnik

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPhysicians often do not initiate or intensify treatments when clearly warranted, a phenomenon known as therapeutic inertia (TI. Limited information is available on educational interventions to ameliorate knowledge-to-action gaps in TI.ObjectivesTo evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of an educational intervention compared to usual care among practicing neurologists caring for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS.MethodsWe conducted a pilot double-blind, parallel-group, randomized clinical trial. Inclusion criteria included neurologists who are actively involved in managing MS patients. Participants were exposed to 20 simulated case-scenarios (10 cases at baseline, and 10 cases post-randomization to usual care vs. educational intervention of relapsing–remitting MS with moderate or high risk of disease progression. The educational intervention employed a traffic light system (TLS to facilitate decisions, allowing participants to easily recognize high-risk scenarios requiring treatment escalation. We also measured differences between blocks to invoke decision fatigue. The control group responded as they would do in their usual clinical practice not exposed to the educational intervention. The primary feasibility outcome was the proportion of participants who completed the study and the proportion of participants who correctly identified a high-risk case-scenario with the “red traffic light.” Secondary outcomes included decision fatigue (defined as an increment of TI in the second block of case-scenarios compared to the first block and the efficacy of the educational intervention measured as a reduction in TI for MS treatment.ResultsOf 30 neurologists invited to be part of the study, the participation rate was 83.3% (n = 25. Of the 25 participants, 14 were randomly assigned to the control group and 11 to the intervention group. TI was present in 72.0% of participants in at least one case scenario. For the primary feasibility

  14. Let them eat cake!

    OpenAIRE

    Samson, Audrey; Gallardo, Francisco; FRAUD, -

    2017-01-01

    Let them eat cake!' is a food-led event serving an edible imaginary of a Facebook profile. In early 2012, Facebook conducted massive scale emotional contagion by manipulating the emotional expressions in the News Feeds of 689,003 users. This exemplifies how the governability and the biopolitics of everyday life flow through the many layers of shared images, liked videos, protocols, and hyperlinks, all orchestrated by the Facebook News Feed algorithm. 'Let them eat cake!' proposes a gustatory ...

  15. A traffic light food labeling intervention increases consumer awareness of health and healthy choices at the point-of-purchase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenberg, Lillian; Gelsomin, Emily; Levy, Douglas E; Riis, Jason; Barraclough, Susan; Thorndike, Anne N

    2013-10-01

    We surveyed customers in a hospital cafeteria in Boston, Massachusetts before and after implementation of traffic light food labeling to determine the effect of labels on customers' awareness and purchase of healthy foods. Cafeteria items were identified as red (unhealthy), yellow (less healthy), or green (healthy). Customers were interviewed before (N=166) and after (N=223) labeling was implemented. Each respondent was linked to cash register data to determine the proportion of red, yellow, and green items purchased. Data were collected from February-April 2010. We compared responses to survey questions and mean proportion of red, yellow, and green items per transaction between customers interviewed during baseline and customers interviewed during the intervention. Survey response rate was 60%. Comparing responses during labeling intervention to baseline, more respondents identified health/nutrition as an important factor in their purchase (61% vs. 46%, p=0.004) and reported looking at nutrition information (33% vs. 15%, ppurchases were more likely to purchase healthier items than respondents who did not notice labels (ppoint-of-purchase. © 2013.

  16. The transient M/G/1/0 queue: some bounds and approximations for light traffic with application to reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ben Atkinson

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the transient analysis of the M/G/1/0 queue, for which Pn(t denotes the probability that there are no customers in the system at time t, given that there are n(n=0,1 customers in the system at time 0. The analysis, which is based upon coupling theory, leads to simple bounds on Pn(t for the M/G/1/0 and M/PH/1/0 queues and improved bounds for the special case M/Er/1/0. Numerical results are presented for various values of the mean arrival rate λ to demonstrate the increasing accuracy of approximations based upon the above bounds in light traffic, i.e., as λ→0. An important area of application for the M/G/1/0 queue is as a reliability model for a single repairable component. Since most practical reliability problems have λ values that are small relative to the mean service rate, the approximations are potentially useful in that context. A duality relation between the M/G/1/0 and GI/M/1/0 queues is also described.

  17. Impact of light rail transit on traffic-related pollution and stroke mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun Sug; Sener, Ipek Nese

    2017-09-01

    This paper evaluates the changes in vehicle exhaust and stroke mortality for the general public residing in the surrounding area of the light rail transit (LRT) in Houston, Texas, after its opening. The number of daily deaths due to stroke for 2002-2005 from the surrounding area of the original LRT line (exposure group) and the control groups was analyzed using an interrupted time-series analysis. Ambient concentrations of acetylene before and after the opening of LRT were also compared. A statistically significant reduction in the average concentration of acetylene was observed for the exposure sites whereas the reduction was negligible at the control site. Poisson regression models applied to the stroke mortality data indicated a significant reduction in daily stroke mortality after the opening of LRT for the exposure group, while there was either an increase or a considerably smaller reduction for the control groups. The findings support the idea that LRT systems provide health benefits for the general public and that the reduction in motor-vehicle-related air pollution may have contributed to these health benefits.

  18. Implementation of supply chain management in supplier performance assessment using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP Objective Matrix (OMAX and Traffic Light System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukendar Irwan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on researching the implementation of supply chain management in supplier performance measurement using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP Objective Matrix (OMAX and Traffic Light System. The method used consisted of several stages: Identification stage of criteria variable and subcriteria variable, designing hierarchy AHP structure, calculating the weight of each criterion and subcriteria, supplier performance appraisal using OMAX method, calculating the total value of each supplier perfomance and identifying the performance of each supplier Using color indicator from Traffic Light System. Based on the results of the research, it can be seen that 9 out of 10 suppliers that are considered have a good performance while 1 supplier has a performance under the target.

  19. Standardization of light signals for road traffic control. Contribution in: Speed enforcement, visibility, and effects of traffic control measures on drivers, Transportation Research Record No. 811, p. 14-15, Transportation Research Board, National Academies of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1981.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    A recent technical report on road-traffic-control signals prepared by the International Commission on Illumination is briefly discussed. The report represents a first step toward international standardisation of traffic signal lights in order to benefit trade and transportation. The principal

  20. Impact of front-of-pack nutrition information and label design on children's choice of two snack foods: Comparison of warnings and the traffic-light system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrúa, Alejandra; Curutchet, María Rosa; Rey, Natalia; Barreto, Patricia; Golovchenko, Nadya; Sellanes, Andrea; Velazco, Guillermo; Winokur, Medy; Giménez, Ana; Ares, Gastón

    2017-09-01

    Research on the relative influence of package features on children's perception of food products is still necessary to aid policy design and development. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the relative influence of two front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition labelling schemes, the traffic light system and Chilean warning system, and label design on children's choice of two popular snack foods in Uruguay, wafer cookies and orange juice. A total of 442 children in grades 4 to 6 from 12 primary schools in Montevideo (Uruguay) participated in the study. They were asked to complete a choice-conjoint task with wafer cookies and orange juice labels, varying in label design and the inclusion of FOP nutrition information. Half of the children completed the task with labels featuring the traffic-light system (n = 217) and the other half with labels featuring the Chilean warning system (n = 225). Children's choices of wafer cookies and juice labels was significantly influenced by both label design and FOP nutritional labels. The relative impact of FOP nutritional labelling on children's choices was higher for the warning system compared to the traffic-light system. Results from the present work stress the need to regulate the design of packages and the inclusion of nutrient claims, and provide preliminary evidence of the potential of warnings to discourage children's choice of unhealthful products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Does front-of-pack nutrition information improve consumer ability to make healthful choices? Performance of warnings and the traffic light system in a simulated shopping experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machín, Leandro; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Curutchet, María Rosa; Giménez, Ana; Ares, Gastón

    2018-02-01

    The inclusion of more attention-grabbing and easily interpretable front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition information is one of the public policies that can be implemented to empower consumers to identify unhealthful food products and to make more informed food choices. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the influence of two FOP nutrition labelling schemes - the traffic light labelling and the warning scheme - on consumer food purchases when facing a health goal. The study was conducted with 1182 people from Montevideo (Uruguay), recruited using a Facebook advertisement. Participants were randomly allocated to one of three between-subjects experimental conditions: (i) a control condition with no FOP nutrition information, (ii) FOP nutrition information using a modified version of the traffic light system including information about calorie, saturated fat, sugars and sodium content per portion, and (iii) FOP nutrition information using the Chilean warning system including separate signs for high calorie, saturated fat, sugars and sodium content. Respondents were asked to imagine that they had to purchase food in order to prepare a healthy dinner for themselves and their family, using the website of an online grocery store. Results showed that FOP nutrition information effectively improved the average healthfulness of participants' choices compared to the control condition, both in terms of the average nutritional composition of the purchased products and expenditure in specific product categories. No relevant differences between the effect of the traffic light and the warning system were found. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Traffic theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gazis, Denos C

    2002-01-01

    ... of traffic signal settings The vehicle-actuated traffic signal 87 89 77 CHAPTER 3. TRAFFIC CONTROL 101 Objectives of Traffic Control 103 Single, Isolated Intersection 105 Synchronization Scheme...

  3. Modeling real-world fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions with high resolution for light-duty passenger vehicles in a traffic populated city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Un, Puikei; Fu, Lixin; Hao, Jiming

    2016-01-01

    Modeling fuel consumption of light-duty passenger vehicles has created substantial concerns due to the uncertainty from real-world operating conditions. Macao is world-renowned for its tourism industry and high population density. An empirical model is developed to estimate real-world fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions for gasoline-powered light-duty passenger vehicles in Macao by considering local fleet configuration and operating conditions. Thanks to increasingly stringent fuel consumption limits in vehicle manufacturing countries, estimated type-approval fuel consumption for light-duty passenger vehicles in Macao by model year was reduced from 7.4 L/100 km in 1995 to 5.9 L/100 km in 2012, although a significant upsizing trend has considerably offset potential energy-saving benefit. However, lower driving speed and the air-conditioning usage tend to raise fleet-average fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emission factors, which are estimated to be 10.1 L/100 km and 240 g/km in 2010. Fleet-total fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions are modeled through registered vehicle population-based and link-level traffic demand approaches and the results satisfactorily coincide with the historical record of fuel sales in Macao. Temporal and spatial variations in fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions from light-duty passenger vehicles further highlight the importance of effective traffic management in congested areas of Macao. - Highlights: • A fuel consumption model is developed for Macao's light-duty passenger cars. • Increased vehicle size partially offset energy benefit from tightened fuel consumption standard. • Lower speed and use of air-conditioning greatly increase fuel use of Macao light-duty passenger cars. • A high resolution inventory of fuel use and carbon dioxide emissions is built with link-level traffic data. • Policy suggestions are provided to mitigate fuel use in a traffic populated city.

  4. Traffic Signal Cycle Lengths

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Traffic signal location list for the town of Chapel Hill. This data set includes light cycle information as well as as intersection information.The Town of Chapel...

  5. Improving radiation awareness and feeling of personal security of non-radiological medical staff by implementing a traffic light system in computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heilmaier, C.; Mayor, A.; Zuber, N.; Weishaupt, D. [Stadtspital Triemli, Zurich (Switzerland). Dept. of Radiology; Fodor, P. [Stadtspital Triemli, Zurich (Switzerland). Dept. of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine

    2016-03-15

    Non-radiological medical professionals often need to remain in the scanning room during computed tomography (CT) examinations to supervise patients in critical condition. Independent of protective devices, their position significantly influences the radiation dose they receive. The purpose of this study was to assess if a traffic light system indicating areas of different radiation exposure improves non-radiological medical staff's radiation awareness and feeling of personal security. Phantom measurements were performed to define areas of different dose rates and colored stickers were applied on the floor according to a traffic light system: green = lowest, orange = intermediate, and red = highest possible radiation exposure. Non-radiological medical professionals with different years of working experience evaluated the system using a structured questionnaire. Kruskal-Wallis and Spearman's correlation test were applied for statistical analysis. Fifty-six subjects (30 physicians, 26 nursing staff) took part in this prospective study. Overall rating of the system was very good, and almost all professionals tried to stand in the green stickers during the scan. The system significantly increased radiation awareness and feeling of personal protection particularly in staff with ? 5 years of working experience (p < 0.05). The majority of non-radiological medical professionals stated that staying in the green stickers and patient care would be compatible. Knowledge of radiation protection was poor in all groups, especially among entry-level employees (p < 0.05). A traffic light system in the CT scanning room indicating areas with lowest, in-termediate, and highest possible radiation exposure is much appreciated. It increases radiation awareness, improves the sense of personal radiation protection, and may support endeavors to lower occupational radiation exposure, although the best radiation protection always is to re-main outside the CT room during the scan.

  6. Improving radiation awareness and feeling of personal security of non-radiological medical staff by implementing a traffic light system in computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilmaier, C.; Mayor, A.; Zuber, N.; Weishaupt, D.; Fodor, P.

    2016-01-01

    Non-radiological medical professionals often need to remain in the scanning room during computed tomography (CT) examinations to supervise patients in critical condition. Independent of protective devices, their position significantly influences the radiation dose they receive. The purpose of this study was to assess if a traffic light system indicating areas of different radiation exposure improves non-radiological medical staff's radiation awareness and feeling of personal security. Phantom measurements were performed to define areas of different dose rates and colored stickers were applied on the floor according to a traffic light system: green = lowest, orange = intermediate, and red = highest possible radiation exposure. Non-radiological medical professionals with different years of working experience evaluated the system using a structured questionnaire. Kruskal-Wallis and Spearman's correlation test were applied for statistical analysis. Fifty-six subjects (30 physicians, 26 nursing staff) took part in this prospective study. Overall rating of the system was very good, and almost all professionals tried to stand in the green stickers during the scan. The system significantly increased radiation awareness and feeling of personal protection particularly in staff with ? 5 years of working experience (p < 0.05). The majority of non-radiological medical professionals stated that staying in the green stickers and patient care would be compatible. Knowledge of radiation protection was poor in all groups, especially among entry-level employees (p < 0.05). A traffic light system in the CT scanning room indicating areas with lowest, in-termediate, and highest possible radiation exposure is much appreciated. It increases radiation awareness, improves the sense of personal radiation protection, and may support endeavors to lower occupational radiation exposure, although the best radiation protection always is to re-main outside the CT room during the scan.

  7. Traffic-light labels and financial incentives to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage purchases by low-income Latino families: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franckle, Rebecca L; Levy, Douglas E; Macias-Navarro, Lorena; Rimm, Eric B; Thorndike, Anne N

    2018-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to test the effectiveness of financial incentives and traffic-light labels to reduce purchases of sugar-sweetened beverages in a community supermarket. In this randomized controlled trial, after a 2-month baseline period (February-March 2014), in-store traffic-light labels were posted to indicate healthy (green), less healthy (yellow) or unhealthy (red) beverages. During the subsequent five months (April-August 2014), participants in the intervention arm were eligible to earn a $US 25 in-store gift card each month they refrained from purchasing red-labelled beverages. Urban supermarket in Chelsea, MA, USA, a low-income Latino community. Participants were customers of this supermarket who had at least one child living at home. A total of 148 customers (n 77 in the intervention group and n 71 in the control group) were included in the final analyses. Outcomes were monthly in-store purchases tracked using a store loyalty card and self-reported consumption of red-labelled beverages. Compared with control participants, the proportion of intervention participants who purchased any red-labelled beverages decreased by 9 % more per month (P=0·002). More intervention than control participants reduced their consumption of red-labelled beverages (-23 % v. -2 % for consuming ≥1 red beverage/week, P=0·01). Overall, financial incentives paired with in-store traffic-light labels modestly reduced purchase and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages by customers of a community supermarket.

  8. Ultra-processed foods: Consumption among children at day-care centers and their classification according to Traffic Light Labelling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana LONGO-SILVA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the age at which ultra-processed foods are introduced in the diet of infants enrolled in public daycare centers and analyze these foods' nutritional composition according to the Traffic Light Labelling system adapted to the Brazilian norms and recommendations.Methods: Cross-sectional study including 636 nursery age children attending day care centers. Their mothers were interviewed about the age of introduction of instant noodles, snack chips, encased meat, chocolate, ice cream, and stuffed cookies. The proximate composition of these foods was evaluated according to the Traffic Light Labelling adapted to the Brazilian norms and recommendations, which classifies total fat, saturated fat, trans fat, fiber, and sodium amounts as green, yellow, or red indicators.Results: It was found that before 12 months of age 70.6% of children had consumed instant noodles, 65.9% snack chips, 54.7% encased meat, 67.1% chocolate, 36.9% ice cream, and 68.7% stuffed cookies. In addition, all foods were classified as red for saturated fat and sodium and 50.0% were classified as red for total fat.Conclusion: The introduction of ultra-processed foods in the children's diets occurred early, but it is worth mentioning that such foods have an inadequate nutritional composition, contributing to the excess consumption of total fat, saturated fat, and sodium, as well as low fiber.

  9. Reds are more important than greens: how UK supermarket shoppers use the different information on a traffic light nutrition label in a choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarborough, Peter; Matthews, Anne; Eyles, Helen; Kaur, Asha; Hodgkins, Charo; Raats, Monique M; Rayner, Mike

    2015-12-12

    Colour coded front-of-pack nutrition labelling ('traffic light labelling') has been recommended for use in the UK since 2006. The voluntary scheme is used by all the major retailers and some manufacturers. It is not clear how consumers use these labels to make a single decision about the relative healthiness of foods. Our research questions were: Which of the four nutrients on UK traffic light labels (total fat, saturated fat, sugar and salt) has the most influence on decisions? Do green lights or red lights have a greater influence? Are there age and gender differences in how people use the colour and nutrient information? We recruited participants from a UK supermarket chain membership list to conduct an online choice experiment in May 2014. We analysed data using multilevel logisitic models with food choices (n = 3321) nested in individuals (n = 187) as the unit of analysis. A food with more reds was 11.4 (95% confidence intervals: 10.3, 12.5) times less likely to be chosen as healthy, whereas a food with more greens was 6.1 (5.6, 6.6) times more likely to be chosen as healthy. Foods with better colours on saturated fat and salt were 7.3 (6.7, 8.0) and 7.1 (6.5, 7.8) times more likely to be chosen as healthy - significantly greater than for total fat (odds ratio 4.8 (4.4, 5.3)) and sugar (5.2 (4.7, 5.6)). Results were broadly similar for different genders and age groups. We found that participants were more concerned with avoiding reds than choosing greens, and that saturated fat and salt had a greater influence on decisions regarding healthiness than total fat and sugar. This could influence decisions about food reformulation and guidance on using nutrition labelling.

  10. Protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial of an intervention to increase the use of traffic light food labelling in UK shoppers (the FLICC trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarborough, Peter; Hodgkins, Charo; Raats, Monique M; Harrington, Richard A; Cowburn, Gill; Dean, Moira; Doherty, Aiden; Foster, Charlie; Juszczak, Edmund; Matthews, Anne; Mizdrak, Anja; Mhurchu, Cliona Ni; Shepherd, Richard; Tiomotijevic, Lada; Winstone, Naomi; Rayner, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Traffic light labelling of foods-a system that incorporates a colour-coded assessment of the level of total fat, saturated fat, sugar and salt on the front of packaged foods-has been recommended by the UK Government and is currently in use or being phased in by many UK manufacturers and retailers. This paper describes a protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial of an intervention designed to increase the use of traffic light labelling during real-life food purchase decisions. The objectives of this two-arm randomised controlled pilot trial are to assess recruitment, retention and data completion rates, to generate potential effect size estimates to inform sample size calculations for the main trial and to assess the feasibility of conducting such a trial. Participants will be recruited by email from a loyalty card database of a UK supermarket chain. Eligible participants will be over 18 and regular shoppers who frequently purchase ready meals or pizzas. The intervention is informed by a review of previous interventions encouraging the use of nutrition labelling and the broader behaviour change literature. It is designed to impact on mechanisms affecting belief and behavioural intention formation as well as those associated with planning and goal setting and the adoption and maintenance of the behaviour of interest, namely traffic light label use during purchases of ready meals and pizzas. Data will be collected using electronic sales data via supermarket loyalty cards and web-based questionnaires and will be used to estimate the effect of the intervention on the nutrition profile of purchased ready meals and pizzas and the behavioural mechanisms associated with label use. Data collection will take place over 48 weeks. A process evaluation including semi-structured interviews and web analytics will be conducted to assess feasibility of a full trial. The design of the pilot trial allows for efficient recruitment and data collection. The intervention could be

  11. Urban Road Traffic Simulation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Nicoleta Mocofan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available For achieving a reliable traffic control system it is necessary to first establish a network parameter evaluation system and also a simulation system for the traffic lights plan. In 40 years of history, the computer aided traffic simulation has developed from a small research group to a large scale technology for traffic systems planning and development. In the following thesis, a presentation of the main modeling and simulation road traffic applications will be provided, along with their utility, as well as the practical application of one of the models in a case study.

  12. Traffic analysis and control using image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, K.; Ellappan, Vijayan; Arun, A. R.

    2017-11-01

    This paper shows the work on traffic analysis and control till date. It shows an approach to regulate traffic the use of image processing and MATLAB systems. This concept uses computational images that are to be compared with original images of the street taken in order to determine the traffic level percentage and set the timing for the traffic signal accordingly which are used to reduce the traffic stoppage on traffic lights. They concept proposes to solve real life scenarios in the streets, thus enriching the traffic lights by adding image receivers like HD cameras and image processors. The input is then imported into MATLAB to be used. as a method for calculating the traffic on roads. Their results would be computed in order to adjust the traffic light timings on a particular street, and also with respect to other similar proposals but with the added value of solving a real, big instance.

  13. Artificial night lighting rather than traffic noise affects the daily timing of dawn and dusk singing in common European songbirds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Da Silva, Arnaud; Samplonius, Jelmer Menno; Schlicht, Emmi; Valcu, Mihai; Kempenaers, Bart

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that artificial night lighting can influence animal orientation, but there is less information about its effects on other behaviors. Previous work suggested that light pollution can affect both seasonal and daily patterns of behavior. The aim of our study was to investigate

  14. Automatic Traffic Data Collection under Varying Lighting and Temperature Conditions in Multimodal Environments: Thermal versus Visible Spectrum Video-Based Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Fu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vision-based monitoring systems using visible spectrum (regular video cameras can complement or substitute conventional sensors and provide rich positional and classification data. Although new camera technologies, including thermal video sensors, may improve the performance of digital video-based sensors, their performance under various conditions has rarely been evaluated at multimodal facilities. The purpose of this research is to integrate existing computer vision methods for automated data collection and evaluate the detection, classification, and speed measurement performance of thermal video sensors under varying lighting and temperature conditions. Thermal and regular video data was collected simultaneously under different conditions across multiple sites. Although the regular video sensor narrowly outperformed the thermal sensor during daytime, the performance of the thermal sensor is significantly better for low visibility and shadow conditions, particularly for pedestrians and cyclists. Retraining the algorithm on thermal data yielded an improvement in the global accuracy of 48%. Thermal speed measurements were consistently more accurate than for the regular video at daytime and nighttime. Thermal video is insensitive to lighting interference and pavement temperature, solves issues associated with visible light cameras for traffic data collection, and offers other benefits such as privacy, insensitivity to glare, storage space, and lower processing requirements.

  15. Improving the effectiveness of nighttime temporary traffic control warning devices, volume 2 : evaluation of nighttime mobile warning lights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Vehicle-mounted warning lights for nighttime mobile highway operations provide critical protection to workers and the driving : public. Alerting the traveling public of the approaching work activity and providing guidance is vital to maintaining safe...

  16. Multiagent reinforcement learning for urban traffic control using coordination graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuyer, L.; Whiteson, S.; Bakker, B.; Vlassis, N.

    2008-01-01

    Since traffic jams are ubiquitous in the modern world, optimizing the behavior of traffic lights for efficient traffic flow is a critically important goal. Though most current traffic lights use simple heuristic protocols, more efficient controllers can be discovered automatically via multiagent

  17. High-let radiation carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.; Powers-Risius, P.; Alpen, E.L.; Ainsworth, E.J.; Ullrich, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent results for neutron radiation-induced tumors are presented to illustrate the complexities of the dose-response curves for high-LET radiation. It is suggested that in order to derive an appropriate model for dose-response curves for the induction of tumors by high-LET radiation it is necessary to take into account dose distribution, cell killing and the susceptibility of the tissue under study. Preliminary results for the induction of Harderian gland tumors in mice exposed to various heavy ion beams are presented. The results suggest that the effectiveness of the heavy ion beams increases with increasing LET. The slopes of the dose-response curves for the different high-LET radiations decrease between 20 and 40 rads and therefore comparisons of the relative effectiveness should be made from data obtained at doses below about 20 to 30 rads

  18. LET-effects in DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, G.; Taucher-Scholz, G.; Heilmann, J.

    1995-01-01

    The use of heavy particles in radiobiological experiments provides a fundamental tool to study the influence of different ionization densities and to prove the physical basis of models and theories. The knowledge of the interaction of high LET radiation (LET: linear energy transfer [keV/microm]) with biological matter is of great importance for the application of neutrons, protons and heavier ions in radiotherapy. It is also essential in radioprotection to estimate the risk in case of exposure to high LET radiation. In this contribution, an introductory view on the physical properties of ions is given and the cellular response to high LET radiation is summarized. Then the measurements of strand break induction of DNA in solution and in intracellular DNA are reported and compared to cell survival. The possibility of changes in the quality of the lesions is discussed and finally the present status of model calculations in comparison to the experiments is given

  19. Traffic simulation for mixed traffic systems | Mbam | Global Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traffic problem is classified into single and mixed, especially in most developing countries, where motorbikes are used as the most popular transportation system. The aim of this paper is to introduce the motorbike symbol into the traffic light control system to separate cars/lorries indicator from that of motorbike. This is likely ...

  20. Lighting.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-09-01

    Since lighting accounts for about one-third of the energy used in commercial buildings, there is opportunity to conserve. There are two ways to reduce lighting energy use: modify lighting systems so that they used less electricity and/or reduce the number of hours the lights are used. This booklet presents a number of ways to do both. Topics covered include: reassessing lighting levels, reducing lighting levels, increasing bulb & fixture efficiency, using controls to regulate lighting, and taking advantage of daylight.

  1. Traffic Flow Prediction Using MI Algorithm and Considering Noisy and Data Loss Conditions: An Application to Minnesota Traffic Flow Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hadi Hosseini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Traffic flow forecasting is useful for controlling traffic flow, traffic lights, and travel times. This study uses a multi-layer perceptron neural network and the mutual information (MI technique to forecast traffic flow and compares the prediction results with conventional traffic flow forecasting methods. The MI method is used to calculate the interdependency of historical traffic data and future traffic flow. In numerical case studies, the proposed traffic flow forecasting method was tested against data loss, changes in weather conditions, traffic congestion, and accidents. The outcomes were highly acceptable for all cases and showed the robustness of the proposed flow forecasting method.

  2. Fair and efficient prices in traffic. Propositions on price policy for the sustainable development of traffic in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maibach, M.; Ott, W.; Schreyer, Ch.

    2000-01-01

    Fair and efficient prices are a central topic in traffic policy, both at the EU level and in Switzerland. They should allow the efficient use of the infrastructure, set up fair terms of competition between road and rail traffic and reduce traffic loading. At the same time, they should also make it possible to finance traffic in a sustainable manner. One of the main directions of attack is letting those responsible pay the external costs which result from traffic jams, accidents and environmental pollution. With the planned introduction of the usage-dependent heavy traffic levy, Switzerland has made an important step in the direction of true cost-allocation for goods vehicles. As for the rest of road traffic, however, considerable external costs are still not covered. On the other hand, rail traffic is not able to cover its infrastructure costs itself in spite of compensation it receives for the provision of public services

  3. Fair and efficient prices in traffic. Propositions on price policy for the sustainable development of traffic in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maibach, M.; Ott, W.; Schreyer, Ch.

    1999-01-01

    Fair and efficient prices are a central topic in traffic policy, both at the European Union level and in Switzerland. They should allow the efficient use of the infrastructure, set up fair terms of competition between road and rail traffic and reduce traffic loading. At the same time, they should also make it possible to finance traffic in a sustainable manner. One of the main directions of attack is letting those responsible pay the external costs which result from traffic jams, accidents and environmental pollution. With the planned introduction of the usage-dependent heavy traffic levy, Switzerland has made an important step in the direction of true cost-allocation for goods vehicles. As for the rest of road traffic, however, considerable external costs are still not covered. On the other hand, rail traffic is not able to cover its infrastructure costs itself in spite of compensation it receives for the provision of public services [de

  4. Live and let die

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neves Lundin, Ana Luisa

    , samples of active sludge were spiked with a biosensor that expresses GFP when in presence of IPTG, and irradiated at different radiation rates and doses. Amount of metabolic active bacteria after irradiation was measured by flow cytometry. This procedure showed the tremendous potential use of biosensors...... the sample’s single cells into a stream of single particles and carry them in a flow through one of more beams of light (usually a laser). The scattered light and the fluorescence emission (if the cells are labeled) are collected, filtered and converted into digitized values that can be further analyzed...... techniques in environmental microbiology. In manuscript 4 these techniques are employed in the evaluation of the application of gamma radiation in wastewater treatment, as the technology inactivates microorganisms even when particle associated, promotes pollutants oxidation and odor nuisance. Among others...

  5. Photonics approach to traffic signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, Dariusz; Galas, Jacek; CzyŻewski, Adam; Rymsza, Barbara; Kornalewski, Leszek; Kryszczyński, Tadeusz; Mikucki, Jerzy; Wikliński, Piotr; Daszkiewicz, Marek; Malasek, Jacek

    2016-12-01

    The automotive industry has been always a driving force for all economies. Despite of its beneficial meaning to every society it brings also many issues including wide area of road safety. The latter has been enforced by the increasing number of cars and the dynamic development of the traffic as a whole. Road signs and traffic lights are crucial in context of good traffic arrangement and its fluency. Traffic designers are used to treat horizontal road signs independently of vertical signs. However, modern light sources and growing flexibility in shaping optical systems create opportunity to design more advanced and smart solutions. In this paper we present an innovative, multidisciplinary approach that consists in tight interdependence of different traffic signals. We describe new optical systems together with their influence on the perception of the road user. The analysis includes maintenance and visibility in different weather conditions. A special attention has been focused on intersections of complex geometry.

  6. Lighting

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Lighting Systems Test Facilities aid research that improves the energy efficiency of lighting systems. • Gonio-Photometer: Measures illuminance from each portion of...

  7. Let G be a group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    I moderne formalistisk matematik er ontologi blevet erstattet med spørgsmålet om konsistens af et aksiomatisk system. I artiklen gøres der rede for hvordan denne opfattelse er blevet til og denne historie opfattes i sig selv som en slags erstatning for ontologi......I moderne formalistisk matematik er ontologi blevet erstattet med spørgsmålet om konsistens af et aksiomatisk system. I artiklen gøres der rede for hvordan denne opfattelse er blevet til og denne historie opfattes i sig selv som en slags erstatning for ontologi...

  8. Physics of traffic gridlock in a city

    OpenAIRE

    Kerner, Boris S.

    2011-01-01

    Based of simulations of a stochastic three-phase traffic flow model, we reveal that at a signalized city intersection under small link inflow rates at which a vehicle queue developed during the red phase of light signal dissolves fully during the green phase, i.e., no traffic gridlock should be expected, nevertheless, traffic breakdown with the subsequent city gridlock occurs with some probability after a random time delay. This traffic breakdown is initiated by a first-order phase transition...

  9. Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, N.B.; Kristensen, Helle Halkjær; Wathes, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter presents the effect of artificial light environments (light levels, colour, photoperiod and flicker) on the welfare of broilers in terms of vision, behaviour, lameness and mortality......This chapter presents the effect of artificial light environments (light levels, colour, photoperiod and flicker) on the welfare of broilers in terms of vision, behaviour, lameness and mortality...

  10. Let us fish4tomorrow

    OpenAIRE

    J.D., Farrugia

    2015-01-01

    All over the world, governments and stakeholders are trying to cope with overfishing. Overfishing is when too much fish is caught which leads to an overall degradation of the marine ecosystem. It is the non-sustainable use of ocean resources. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/let-us-fish4tomorrow/

  11. Delays at signalised intersections with exhaustive traffic control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, M.A.A.; Adan, I.J.B.F.; Winands, E.M.M.; Down, D.G.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we study a traffic intersection with vehicle-actuated traffic signal control. Traffic lights stay green until all lanes within a group are emptied. Assuming general renewal arrival processes, we derive exact limiting distributions of the delays under Heavy Traffic (HT) conditions,

  12. Delays at signalized intersections with exhaustive traffic control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, M.A.A.; Adan, I.J.B.F.; Winands, E.M.M.; Down, D.G.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study a traffic intersection with vehicle-actuated traffic signal control. Traffic lights stay green until all lanes within a group are emptied. Assuming general renewal arrival processes, we derive exact limiting distributions of the delays under heavy traffic (HT) conditions.

  13. Delays at signalised intersections with exhaustive traffic control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, M.A.A.; Adan, I.J.B.F.; Winands, E.M.M.; Down, D.G.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study a traffic intersection with vehicle-actuated traffic signal control. Traffic lights stay green until all lanes within a group are emptied. Assuming general renewal arrival processes, we derive exact limiting distributions of the delays under heavy traffic (HT) conditions.

  14. Examining perimeter gating control of urban traffic networkswith locally adaptive traffic signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyvan Ekbatani, M.; Gao, X.; Gayah, V.V.; Knoop, V.L.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, urban traffic is controlled by traffic lights. Recent findings of the Macroscopic or Network Fundamental Diagram (MFD or NFD) have led to the development of novel traffic control strategies that can be applied at a networkwide level. One pertinent example is perimeter flow control

  15. Data on the determinants of the risk of fatalities, serious injuries and light injuries in traffic accidents on interurban roads in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, María Pilar Sánchez; Sotos, Francisco Escribano; Ponce, Ángel Tejada

    2018-06-01

    This article describes the data collection used to analyse the risk of fatalities and injuries resulting from traffic accidents on interurban roads in the provinces of Spain from 1999 to 2015. The database includes data on different factors related to accidents rates for each Spanish province. These data were used in the article entitled "Impact of provincial characteristics on the number of traffic accident victims on interurban roads in Spain" (Sánchez et al., 2018) [1].

  16. LET-effects in DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, G.; Taucher-Scholz, G.; Heilmann, J.

    1994-11-01

    In this contribution, an introductory view on the physical properties of ions is given and the cellular response to high LET radiation is summarized. Then the measurements of strand break induction of DNA in solution and in intracellular DNA are reported and compared to cell survival. The possibility of changes in the quality of the lesions is discussed and finally the present status of model calculations in comparison to the experiments is given. (orig./HSI)

  17. Physics of traffic gridlock in a city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, Boris S

    2011-10-01

    Based on simulations of stochastic three-phase and two-phase traffic flow models, we reveal that at a signalized city intersection under small link inflow rates at which a vehicle queue developed during the red phase of the light signal dissolves fully during the green phase, i.e., no traffic gridlock should be expected, nevertheless, spontaneous traffic breakdown with subsequent city gridlock occurs with some probability after a random time delay. In most cases, this traffic breakdown is initiated by a phase transition from free flow to a synchronized flow occurring upstream of the queue at the light signal. The probability of traffic breakdown at the light signal is an increasing function of the link inflow rate and duration of the red phase of the light signal.

  18. Light

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2003-01-01

    Why is left right and right left in the mirror? Baffled by the basics of reflection and refraction? Wondering just how the eye works? If you have trouble teaching concepts about light that you don t fully grasp yourself, get help from a book that s both scientifically accurate and entertaining with Light. By combining clear explanations, clever drawings, and activities that use easy-to-find materials, this book covers what science teachers and parents need to know to teach about light with confidence. It uses ray, wave, and particle models of light to explain the basics of reflection and refraction, optical instruments, polarization of light, and interference and diffraction. There s also an entire chapter on how the eye works. Each chapter ends with a Summary and Applications section that reinforces concepts with everyday examples. Whether you need a deeper understanding of how light bends or a good explanation of why the sky is blue, you ll find Light more illuminating and accessible than a college textbook...

  19. Ionization chambers for LET determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Franz-Joachim; Bassler, Niels; Tölli, Heikki

    2010-01-01

    resolution and high sensitivity are necessary. For exact dosimetry which is done using ionization chambers (ICs), the recombination taking place in the IC has to be known. Up to now, recombination is corrected phenomenologically and more practical approaches are currently used. Nevertheless, Jaff´e's theory...... of columnar recombination was designed to model the detector efficiency of an ionization chamber. Here, we have shown that despite the approximations and simplification made, the theory is correct for the LETs typically found in clinical radiotherapy employing particles from protons to carbon ions...

  20. Traffic Perturbation

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Colloca TS/FM

    2004-01-01

    TS/FM group informs you that, for the progress of the works at the Prévessin site entrance, some perturbation of the traffic may occur during the week between the 14th and 18th of June for a short duration. Access will be assured at any time. For more information, please contact 160239. C. Colloca TS/FM

  1. High-LET radiation carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.; Powers-Risius, P.; Alpen, E.L.; Ainsworth, E.J.

    1985-01-01

    The dose-response curves for the induction of tumors by high-LET radiation are complex and are insufficiently understood. There is no model or formulation to describe the dose-response relationship over a range 0 to 100 rad. Evidence suggests that at doses below 20 rad the response is linear, at least for life shortening and some tumor systems. Thus, limiting values of RBEs for the induction of cancer in various tissues can be determined, but it will require sufficient data obtained at low single doses or with small fractions. The results obtained from experiments with heavy ions indicate an initial linear response with a plateauing of the curve at a tumor incidence level that is dependent on the type of tissue. The RBE values for the heavy ions using 60 Co gamma rays as the reference radiation increase with the estimated LET from 4 for 4 H to about 27 for 56 Fe, 40 Ar. The dose-responses and RBEs for 56 Fe and 40 Ar are similar to those for fission neutrons. These findings suggest the possibility that the effectiveness for tumor induction reaches a maximum. 26 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Killing, letting die and euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husak, D N

    1979-12-01

    Medical ethicists debate whether or not the moral assessment of cases of euthanasia should depend on whether the patient is 'killed' or 'allowed to die'. The usual presupposition is that a clear distinction between killing and letting die can be drawn so that this substantive question is not begged. I contend that the categorisation of cases of instances of killing rather than as instances of letting die depends in part on a prior moral assessment of the case. Hence is it trivially rather than substantively true that the distinction has moral significance. But even if a morally neutral (ie non-question begging) distinction could be drawn, its application to the euthanasia controversy is problematic. I illustrate the difficulties of employing this distinction to reach moral conclusions by critically discussing Philippa Foot's recent treatment of euthanasia. I conclude that even if an act of euthanasia is an instance of killing, and there exists a prima facie moral duty not to kill, and no more stringent duty overrides this duty, one still cannot determine such an act to be morally impermissible.

  3. Killing, letting die and euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husak, D N

    1979-01-01

    Medical ethicists debate whether or not the moral assessment of cases of euthanasia should depend on whether the patient is 'killed' or 'allowed to die'. The usual presupposition is that a clear distinction between killing and letting die can be drawn so that this substantive question is not begged. I contend that the categorisation of cases of instances of killing rather than as instances of letting die depends in part on a prior moral assessment of the case. Hence is it trivially rather than substantively true that the distinction has moral significance. But even if a morally neutral (ie non-question begging) distinction could be drawn, its application to the euthanasia controversy is problematic. I illustrate the difficulties of employing this distinction to reach moral conclusions by critically discussing Philippa Foot's recent treatment of euthanasia. I conclude that even if an act of euthanasia is an instance of killing, and there exists a prima facie moral duty not to kill, and no more stringent duty overrides this duty, one still cannot determine such an act to be morally impermissible. PMID:541821

  4. Light

    CERN Document Server

    Ditchburn, R W

    1963-01-01

    This classic study, available for the first time in paperback, clearly demonstrates how quantum theory is a natural development of wave theory, and how these two theories, once thought to be irreconcilable, together comprise a single valid theory of light. Aimed at students with an intermediate-level knowledge of physics, the book first offers a historical introduction to the subject, then covers topics such as wave theory, interference, diffraction, Huygens' Principle, Fermat's Principle, and the accuracy of optical measurements. Additional topics include the velocity of light, relativistic o

  5. GPS queues with heterogeneous traffic classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, Sem; Mandjes, M.R.H.; van Uitert, Miranda

    2002-01-01

    We consider a queue fed by a mixture of light-tailed and heavy-tailed traffic. The two traffic classes are served in accordance with the generalized processor sharing (GPS) discipline. GPS-based scheduling algorithms, such as weighted fair queueing (WFQ), have emerged as an important mechanism for

  6. Ataxia telangiectasia: LET dependence of cellular inactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blakely, E.A.; Tobias, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    Human Ataxia telangiectasia cells (AT 2SF line) have been irradiated in vitro under aerobic and hypoxic conditions with heavy-ion beams accelerated at the Berkeley Bevalac as a part of a study to characterize the radiation responses of genetically sensitive and resistant cell lines to high LET radiations. Results from track-segment exposures to neon, silicon, argon and iron ion beams accelerated to initial energies of from 225 to 670 MeV/amu provided an LET range between 30 to 1,000 KeV/μm. The data indicate: (1) The sensitivity of AT cells increases with increasing LET, similar to resistant human lines (e.g., T-1 cells). However, due to efficient repair, T-1 cells are more resistant than AT cells at LET values below 200 keV/μm; (2) Maximum cell kill occurs for both lines at 100-200 keV/μm; at higher LET the sensitivity of the two lines approach each other; (3) There is only small variation in the sensitivity of AT cells to particles of various atomic numbers at the same LET; differences are more pronounced in the LET domain between 50 and 200 keV/μm; and (4) AT cells have slightly lower OER values than T-1 cells in the range of LET studied below 200 keV/μm

  7. Identification of let-7-regulated oncofetal genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyerinas, Benjamin; Park, Sun-Mi; Shomron, Noam

    2008-01-01

    -regulated at the end of embryonic development. Let-7 is often down-regulated early during cancer development, suggesting that let-7-regulated oncofetal genes (LOG) may become reexpressed in cancer cells. Using comparative bioinformatics, we have identified 12 conserved LOGs that include HMGA2 and IMP-1/CRD-BP. IMP-1...

  8. Calculated LET-Spectrum of Antiprotons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassler, Niels

    -LET components resulting from the annihilation. Though, the calculations of dose-averaged LET in the entry region may suggest that the RBE of antiprotons in the plateau region could significantly differ from unity. Materials and Methods Monte Carlo simulations using FLUKA were performed for calculating...

  9. LET spectrum measurements in Cr-39 PNTD with AFM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Carl Edward; DeWitt, Joel M.; Benton, Eric R.; Yasuda, Nakahiro; Benton, Eugene V.

    2010-01-01

    Energetic protons, neutrons, and heavy ions undergoing collisions with target nuclei of varying Z can produce residual heavy recoil fragments via intra-nuclear cascade/evaporation reactions. The particles produced in these non-elastic collisions generally have such extremely short range (∼< 10 μm) that they cannot be directly observed by conventional detection methods including CR-39 plastic nuclear track detector (PNTD) that has been chemically etched for analysis by standard visible light microscopy. However, high-LET recoil fragments having range on the order of several cell diameters can be produced in tissue during radiotherapy using proton and carbon beams. We have developed a method to analyze short-range, high-LET tracks in CR-39 plastic nuclear track detector (PNTD) using short duration chemical etching (∼< 1 μm) followed by automated atomic force microscope (AFM) scanning. The post-scan data processing used in this work was based on semi-automated matrix analysis opposed to traditional grey-scale image analysis. This method takes advantage of the 3-D data obtained via AFM to achieve robust discrimination of nuclear tracks from other features. Through automation of AFM scanning, sufficient AFM scan frames were obtained to attain an LET spectrum spanning the LET range from 200-1500 keV/μm. In addition to our experiments, simulations were carried out with the Monte Carlo transport code, FLUKA. To demonstrate this method, CR-39 PNTD was exposed to the proton therapy beam at Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC) at 60 and 230 MeV. Additionally, detectors were exposed to I GeV protons at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). For these exposures CR-39 PNTD, Al and Cu target foils were used between detector layers.

  10. LET spectrum measurements in Cr-39 PNTD with AFM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Carl Edward [Los Alamos National Laboratory; De Witt, Joel M [OSU, PHYSICS; Benton, Eric R [OSU, PHYSICS; Yasuda, Nakahiro [NIRS, HIMAC; Benton, Eugene V [UNIV OF SAN FRANCISCO

    2010-01-01

    Energetic protons, neutrons, and heavy ions undergoing collisions with target nuclei of varying Z can produce residual heavy recoil fragments via intra-nuclear cascade/evaporation reactions. The particles produced in these non-elastic collisions generally have such extremely short range ({approx}< 10 {mu}m) that they cannot be directly observed by conventional detection methods including CR-39 plastic nuclear track detector (PNTD) that has been chemically etched for analysis by standard visible light microscopy. However, high-LET recoil fragments having range on the order of several cell diameters can be produced in tissue during radiotherapy using proton and carbon beams. We have developed a method to analyze short-range, high-LET tracks in CR-39 plastic nuclear track detector (PNTD) using short duration chemical etching ({approx}< 1 {mu}m) followed by automated atomic force microscope (AFM) scanning. The post-scan data processing used in this work was based on semi-automated matrix analysis opposed to traditional grey-scale image analysis. This method takes advantage of the 3-D data obtained via AFM to achieve robust discrimination of nuclear tracks from other features. Through automation of AFM scanning, sufficient AFM scan frames were obtained to attain an LET spectrum spanning the LET range from 200-1500 keV/{mu}m. In addition to our experiments, simulations were carried out with the Monte Carlo transport code, FLUKA. To demonstrate this method, CR-39 PNTD was exposed to the proton therapy beam at Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC) at 60 and 230 MeV. Additionally, detectors were exposed to I GeV protons at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). For these exposures CR-39 PNTD, Al and Cu target foils were used between detector layers.

  11. Ombud's corner: About letting go…

    CERN Multimedia

    Sudeshna Datta-Cockerill

    2015-01-01

    New year, old problems? The best way to start 2015 is by not carrying over any frustration from 2014. Instead, let it go and move forward.   As I blew out the candle to celebrate my first anniversary of my position as the CERN Ombud, I found myself reflecting back over the past year, wondering what I could share with you, and the following recurring situation came to mind… Often, people come to the Ombud’s office either because they feel mistreated or because they consider themselves to be facing an unfair situation. When this happens, we work through the problems together and identify different options by which to tackle the situation.  Sometimes they ask to be coached through the way in which to go back and deal with the issues themselves; at other times they prefer to address the issue with the other person, in the presence of the Ombud, and request mediation. In both cases, the objective is the same: to ensure that both points of view are understood...

  12. Let's do comprehension 5-6

    CERN Document Server

    Brodie, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Let's Do Comprehension is a brand new series of six titles in the popular 'Let's Do' range. Each book contains a rich variety of stimulating reading passages, accompanied by questions of varying difficulty. Designed to be used at home, each book includes tips and clues from Alice the Alligator as well as extra challenges in Brodie's Brain Boosters. There is a clear answer section for reference by parents and children, together with bright, colourful reward stickers.

  13. Let's do comprehension 8-9

    CERN Document Server

    Brodie, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Let's Do Comprehension is a brand new series of six titles in the popular 'Let's Do' range. Each book contains a rich variety of stimulating reading passages, accompanied by questions of varying difficulty. Designed to be used at home, each book includes tips and clues from Alice the Alligator as well as extra challenges in Brodie's Brain Boosters. There is a clear answer section for reference by parents and children, together with bright, colourful reward stickers.

  14. Owning, letting and demanding second homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloze, Gintautas; Skak, Morten

    register data and presents estimations of the probability of owning a second home, the decision to let the second home and the number of let weeks per year. Also income elasticities for primary and second housing demand are estimated. We find a conventional monotonic increase in demand elasticities...... for primary housing demand for non-owners of second homes; however, owners of second homes have the highest income elasticity in the middle income group....

  15. Special photographic emulsions for high LET dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, R.

    1978-12-01

    The purpose of these investigations into photographic emulsion dosimetry is to attempt to use the photographic emulsion to mimic the response of human tissues to high LET radiations. The program therefore requires that a systematic understanding of the response of mammalian cells to ionizing radiations be achieved. We have been concerned with differences in RBE and in radiation response to both high and LET radiations, and in the interrelationship between observations with these different radiations

  16. Architectural Creation of Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Bidraget "Architectural Creation of Light" indgår sammen med 108 andre bidrag i bogen "You Say Light, I Think Shadow". Bogens indhold undersøger: "Hvad er lys". I dette bidrag besvares spørgsmålet gennem iagttagelser af arkitektstuderendes undersøgelser af lyset i deres arbejdsmodeller i...

  17. Gemcitabine radiosensitizes multiple myeloma cells to low let, but not high let, irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supiot, Stephane; Thillays, Francois; Rio, Emmanuel; Gouard, Sebastien; Morgenstern, Alfred; Bruchertseifer, Frank; Mahe, Marc-Andre; Chatal, Jean-Francois; Davodeau, Francois; Cherel, Michel

    2007-01-01

    The radiosensitizing properties of gemcitabine in relation to low Linear Energy Transfer (LET) particles (Cobalt 60) and high-LET particles (alpha-RIT 213 Bi-radiolabeled CHX-DTPA-B-B4) were analyzed. Three multiple myeloma cell lines (LP1, RPMI 8226, U266) were irradiated with or without 10 nM gemcitabine 24 h prior to radiation. Gemcitabine led to radiosensitization of LP1 and U266 cells with low-LET (Radiation Enhancement Ratio: 1.55 and 1.49, respectively) but did not radiosensitize any cell line when combined with high-LET

  18. The concept of average LET values determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarewicz, M.

    1981-01-01

    The concept of average LET (linear energy transfer) values determination, i.e. ordinary moments of LET in absorbed dose distribution vs. LET of ionizing radiation of any kind and any spectrum (even the unknown ones) has been presented. The method is based on measurement of ionization current with several values of voltage supplying an ionization chamber operating in conditions of columnar recombination of ions or ion recombination in clusters while the chamber is placed in the radiation field at the point of interest. By fitting a suitable algebraic expression to the measured current values one can obtain coefficients of the expression which can be interpreted as values of LET moments. One of the advantages of the method is its experimental and computational simplicity. It has been shown that for numerical estimation of certain effects dependent on LET of radiation it is not necessary to know the dose distribution but only a number of parameters of the distribution, i.e. the LET moments. (author)

  19. Traffic noise and vehicle movement at a controlled intersection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Traffic noise at an intersection controlled by traffic lights shows noise level variations due to the alternating green and red lights for the different trafficstreams. Noise peaks caused by automobiles pulling up or passing by at highspeed may be quite annoying for people living near the

  20. Synchronizing Education to Adolescent Biology: "Let Teens Sleep, Start School Later"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Paul; Lockley, Steven W.; Foster, Russell G.; Kelley, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Arne Duncan, US Secretary of State for Education, tweeted in 2013: "let teens sleep, start school later". This paper examines early starts and their negative consequences in the light of key research in the last 30 years in sleep medicine and circadian neuroscience. An overview of the circadian timing system in adolescence leading to…

  1. Queueing and traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baër, Niek

    2015-01-01

    Traffic jams are everywhere, some are caused by constructions or accidents but a large portion occurs naturally. These "natural" traffic jams are a result of variable driving speeds combined with a high number of vehicles. To prevent these traffic jams, we must understand traffic in general, and to

  2. Let s make progress together!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriana, Mazare; Liliana, Gheorghian

    2015-04-01

    Let's make progress together! The "Theodor Balan" Secondary School in the urban area of Suceava County in northeastern Romania is involved in several different projects. In order to extend previous successful projects with the students, parents, teachers, businesses and local government representatives in science symposiums for civic projects within the concept of sustainable development, the school is continuing to develop various successful programs. "The battle" continues both in nature and in the classrooms, in order to preserve the environment and to discover new resources. To raise awareness about the importance of existing resources even at the level of individuals there is a constant concern for keeping up to date on what already exists and is well known, but at the same time to remove "barriers" and discover new horizons and resources. Scientific activities held in our school are an effective way to educate students and the community to which they belong. In our community, we discovered sources of drinking water polluted by nitrites from fertilizers used in agriculture. In order to inform and educate people in the area, our teachers have organized several educational activities. Its purpose was: -Knowledge of the importance of water for the environment and human health. -Reducing water pollution. Students have informed their families' about sustainable development acquired at school. In this way, the school manages to educate and change people's ideas. The ways and methods of adults' learning were practiced within a Grundtvig training course "It's never too late learning to learn" in February 2014, in Florence, Italy. The GIFT 2014 was a great occasion for the teachers and students, the county's educational department and the participants at the National Colloquia of Physics to discover new materials provided at the Conference and the latest news and topics in the world of science. The theme trips at the physics laboratories of "Alexandru Ioan Cuza

  3. 77 FR 16566 - Submission for OMB Review, Comment Request, Proposed Collection: Let's Move Museums, Let's Move...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ..., Proposed Collection: Let's Move Museums, Let's Move Gardens AGENCY: Institute of Museum and Library..., comment request. SUMMARY: The Institute of Museum and Library Services announces that the following... functions of the agency, including whether the information will have practical utility; Evaluate the...

  4. Let-7i-Induced Atg4B Suppression Is Essential for Autophagy of Placental Trophoblast in Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yinyan; Huang, Xinyan; Xie, Juan; Chen, Yanni; Fu, Jing; Wang, Li

    2017-09-01

    Autophagy, identified as type II programmed cell death, has already been known to be involved in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia (PE), which is a gestational disease with high morbidity. The present study aims to investigate the functional role of let-7i, a miRNA, in trophoblastic autophagy. Placental tissue used in this study was collected from patients with severe preeclampsia (SPE) or normal pregnant women. A decreased level of let-7i was found in placenta of SPE. In addition, autophagic vacuoles were observed in SPE and the expression of microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) II/I was elevated. In vitro, let-7i mimics suppressed the autophagic activities in human HTR-8/SVneo trophoblast cell line (HTR-8) and human placental choriocarcinoma cell line JEG-3, whereas let-7i inhibitor enhanced the activities. As a potential target of let-7i, autophagy-related 4B cysteine peptidase (Atg4B) had an increased expression level in SPE. As expected, the increased expression of Atg4B was negatively regulated by let-7i using dual luciferase reporter assay. Furthermore, these trophoblast-like cells transfected with the let-7i mimic or inhibitors resulted in a significant change of Atg4B in both mRNA and protein level. More importantly, Atg4B overexpression could partly reverse let-7i mimic-reduced LC3II/I levels; whereas Atg4B silencing partly attenuated let-7i inhibitor-induced the level of LC3II/I expression. Taken together, these findings suggest that let-7i is able to regulate autophagic activity via regulating Atg4B expression, which might contribute to the pathogenesis of PE. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 2581-2589, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Using Automated Planning for Traffic Signals Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matija Gulić

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Solving traffic congestions represents a high priority issue in many big cities. Traditional traffic control systems are mainly based on pre-programmed, reactive and local techniques. This paper presents an autonomic system that uses automated planning techniques instead. These techniques are easily configurable and modified, and can reason about the future implications of actions that change the default traffic lights behaviour. The proposed implemented system includes some autonomic properties, since it monitors the current traffic state, detects if the system is degrading its performance, sets up new sets of goals to be achieved by the planner, triggers the planner that generates plans with control actions, and executes the selected courses of actions. The obtained results in several artificial and real world data-based simulation scenarios show that the proposed system can efficiently solve traffic congestion.

  6. Traffic Congestion Evaluation and Signal Control Optimization Based on Wireless Sensor Networks: Model and Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the model and algorithms for traffic flow data monitoring and optimal traffic light control based on wireless sensor networks. Given the scenario that sensor nodes are sparsely deployed along the segments between signalized intersections, an analytical model is built using continuum traffic equation and develops the method to estimate traffic parameter with the scattered sensor data. Based on the traffic data and principle of traffic congestion formation, we introduce the congestion factor which can be used to evaluate the real-time traffic congestion status along the segment and to predict the subcritical state of traffic jams. The result is expected to support the timing phase optimization of traffic light control for the purpose of avoiding traffic congestion before its formation. We simulate the traffic monitoring based on the Mobile Century dataset and analyze the performance of traffic light control on VISSIM platform when congestion factor is introduced into the signal timing optimization model. The simulation result shows that this method can improve the spatial-temporal resolution of traffic data monitoring and evaluate traffic congestion status with high precision. It is helpful to remarkably alleviate urban traffic congestion and decrease the average traffic delays and maximum queue length.

  7. Sabkha Trafficability,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    southwest Arabian Gulf (Figure 2). Between Ras Ghanda in the east to the Qatar peninsula on the west an essentially unbroken coastal sabkha stretches for...were found embedded in lightly cemented surficial crusts of the end of a 20 year old jetty in Qatar . It may also be of interest to note that beer cans...flows underground in aquifers . The uppermost aquifer in Jubail is the Neogene Formation, sur- ficial unconsolidated aeolian and marine calcareous

  8. Remotely Accessed Vehicle Traffic Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alawi, Raida

    2010-06-01

    The ever increasing number of vehicles in most metropolitan cities around the world and the limitation in altering the transportation infrastructure, led to serious traffic congestion and an increase in the travelling time. In this work we exploit the emergence of novel technologies such as the internet, to design an intelligent Traffic Management System (TMS) that can remotely monitor and control a network of traffic light controllers located at different sites. The system is based on utilizing Embedded Web Servers (EWS) technology to design a web-based TMS. The EWS located at each intersection uses IP technology for communicating remotely with a Central Traffic Management Unit (CTMU) located at the traffic department authority. Friendly GUI software installed at the CTMU will be able to monitor the sequence of operation of the traffic lights and the presence of traffic at each intersection as well as remotely controlling the operation of the signals. The system has been validated by constructing a prototype that resembles the real application.

  9. Autonomic urban traffic optimization using data analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Garriga Porqueras, Albert

    2017-01-01

    This work focuses on a smart mobility use case where real-time data analytics on traffic measures is used to improve mobility in the event of a perturbation causing congestion in a local urban area. The data monitored is analysed in order to identify patterns that are used to properly reconfigure traffic lights. The monitoring and data analytics infrastructure is based on a hierarchical distributed architecture that allows placing data analytics processes such as machine learning close to the...

  10. White-light-emitting supramolecular gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, Vakayil K; Ranjith, Choorikkat; Armaroli, Nicola

    2014-01-07

    Let there be light, let it be white: Recent developments in the use of chromophore-based gels as scaffolds for the assembly of white-light-emitting soft materials have been significant. The main advantage of this approach lies in the facile accommodation of selected luminescent components within the gel. Excitation-energy-transfer processes between these components ultimately generate the desired light output. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Are you a developer? Let's talk!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    Many of us have to create software as part of our work, if you do probably you asked yourself some of the following: How other people at CERN develop? What technologies have they used? What worked and what didn't for them? Am I reinventing the wheel? What CERN services can make my life easier? What other services I miss that would be useful to have? How can I integrate my system with XXYY at CERN? Unfortunately there is little communication between us and we need to fix that, let's find initiatives to improve and share experiences between software engineers... let's talk!

  12. Consensus-Based Cooperative Control Based on Pollution Sensing and Traffic Information for Urban Traffic Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artuñedo, Antonio; Del Toro, Raúl M; Haber, Rodolfo E

    2017-04-26

    Nowadays many studies are being conducted to develop solutions for improving the performance of urban traffic networks. One of the main challenges is the necessary cooperation among different entities such as vehicles or infrastructure systems and how to exploit the information available through networks of sensors deployed as infrastructures for smart cities. In this work an algorithm for cooperative control of urban subsystems is proposed to provide a solution for mobility problems in cities. The interconnected traffic lights controller ( TLC ) network adapts traffic lights cycles, based on traffic and air pollution sensory information, in order to improve the performance of urban traffic networks. The presence of air pollution in cities is not only caused by road traffic but there are other pollution sources that contribute to increase or decrease the pollution level. Due to the distributed and heterogeneous nature of the different components involved, a system of systems engineering approach is applied to design a consensus-based control algorithm. The designed control strategy contains a consensus-based component that uses the information shared in the network for reaching a consensus in the state of TLC network components. Discrete event systems specification is applied for modelling and simulation. The proposed solution is assessed by simulation studies with very promising results to deal with simultaneous responses to both pollution levels and traffic flows in urban traffic networks.

  13. Consensus-Based Cooperative Control Based on Pollution Sensing and Traffic Information for Urban Traffic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Artuñedo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays many studies are being conducted to develop solutions for improving the performance of urban traffic networks. One of the main challenges is the necessary cooperation among different entities such as vehicles or infrastructure systems and how to exploit the information available through networks of sensors deployed as infrastructures for smart cities. In this work an algorithm for cooperative control of urban subsystems is proposed to provide a solution for mobility problems in cities. The interconnected traffic lights controller (TLC network adapts traffic lights cycles, based on traffic and air pollution sensory information, in order to improve the performance of urban traffic networks. The presence of air pollution in cities is not only caused by road traffic but there are other pollution sources that contribute to increase or decrease the pollution level. Due to the distributed and heterogeneous nature of the different components involved, a system of systems engineering approach is applied to design a consensus-based control algorithm. The designed control strategy contains a consensus-based component that uses the information shared in the network for reaching a consensus in the state of TLC network components. Discrete event systems specification is applied for modelling and simulation. The proposed solution is assessed by simulation studies with very promising results to deal with simultaneous responses to both pollution levels and traffic flows in urban traffic networks.

  14. Leveraging brightness from transportation lighting systems through light source color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Roadway transportation lighting is installed for multiple reasons including traffic safety and pedestrian : security. Judgments of pedestrian safety and security along roadways are not strictly correlated to : specified light levels, but the color of...

  15. TCP/IP Communication System for Controlling a Vehicular Traffic Intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedraza-Martínez Luis Fernando

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a prototype of a vehicular traffic controller, whose system of communication is based on the TCP/IP protocol, in order to re- motely monitor and control the operation of traffic lights for a vehicular intersection. The results show the times of communication between the central and the traffic controller. The conclusions highlight the importance of using the TCP/IP protocol in traffic light systems.

  16. On Letting the Dialectic Go

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Code

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Alfred North Whiteheadrsquo;s critique of modern naturalisms suggest that they betray reason by ignoring the vast extent and depth of the problematic of symbolism. This is partly borne out by the still unexplained fact that highly abstract systems of symbolism, as in mathematics, can throw light on the hidden workings of nature. But since these include ordinary perception itself, and since symbolisms always mediate between minds and nature, all reasonings about truth or reality elicit references to mysterious natural powers. Good reasoning in natural philosophy thus requires an artful dialectic which is primarily concerned not with exact analyses of meanings but rather with the element of creativity in their ongoing production. Such a dialectic must be based on a polar logic that is opposed to the modern tendency to treat fundamental conceptual contrasts, such as nature-culture, subject-object, matter-spirit, and so on, as separable.

  17. Traffic management simulation development : summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Increasingly, Florida traffic is monitored electronically by components of the Intelligent Traffic System (ITS), which send data to regional traffic management centers and assist management of traffic flows and incident response using software called...

  18. Traffic planning for non-homogeneous traffic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vehicles based on similar traffic operating characteristics are grouped into ... of distances to the video monitor involved using a measuring wheel to mark ... Secondly, the observers reviewed the videotape to sample traffic entity ...... makes a strong case for including service lanes for slow moving vehicles for improving the.

  19. State Traffic Safety Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The State Traffic Safety Information (STSI) portal is part of the larger Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) Encyclopedia. STSI provides state-by-state traffic...

  20. Traffic management simulation development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    Microscopic simulation can provide significant support to traffic management center (TMC) operations. However, traffic simulation applications require data that are expensive and time-consuming to collect. Data collected by TMCs can be used as a prim...

  1. The Lin28/let-7 Axis Regulates Glucose Metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Hao; Shyh-Chang, Ng; Segre, Ayellet V.; Shinoda, Gen; Shah, Samar P.; Einhorn, William S.; Takeuchi, Ayumu; Engreitz, Jesse M.; Hagan, John P.; Kharas, Michael G.; Urbach, Achia; Thornton, James E.; Triboulet, Robinson; Gregory, Richard I.; Altshuler, David; Daley, George Q.

    2011-01-01

    The let-7 tumor suppressor microRNAs are known for their regulation of oncogenes, while the RNA-binding proteins Lin28a/b promote malignancy by inhibiting let-7 biogenesis. We have uncovered unexpected roles for the Lin28/let-7 pathway in regulating-metabolism. When overexpressed in mice, both

  2. Letting die: A moral defence | Adenugba | Sophia: An African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper draws a distinction between letting die and active euthanasia. It argues that there is a moral difference between letting die and active euthanasia which strictly intends to cause death. The difference between letting die and active euthanasia lies in intention though intention in both cases can be said to be ...

  3. Gene-expression profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae irradiated by high-LET radiations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ionizing radiations are categorized by linear energy transfer (LET) into low-LET and high-LET. High-LET is considered to have a higher relative biological...

  4. A measure theoretic approach to traffic flow optimization on networks

    OpenAIRE

    Cacace, Simone; Camilli, Fabio; De Maio, Raul; Tosin, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    We consider a class of optimal control problems for measure-valued nonlinear transport equations describing traffic flow problems on networks. The objective isto minimise/maximise macroscopic quantities, such as traffic volume or average speed,controlling few agents, for example smart traffic lights and automated cars. The measuretheoretic approach allows to study in a same setting local and nonlocal drivers interactionsand to consider the control variables as additional measures interacting ...

  5. High-LET charged particle radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, J.R.; California Univ., San Francisco, CA

    1991-07-01

    The Department of Radiation Oncology at UCSF Medical Center and the Radiation Oncology Department at UC Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory have been evaluating the use of high LET charged particle radiotherapy in a Phase 1--2 research trial ongoing since 1979. In this clinical trail, 239 patients have received at least 10 Gy (physical) minimum tumor dose with neon ions, meaning that at least one-half of their total treatment was given with high-LET charged particle therapy. Ninety-one patients received all of their therapy with neon ions. Of the 239 patients irradiated, target sites included lesions in the skin, subcutaneous tissues, head and neck such as paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx and salivary glands (major and minor), skull base and juxtaspinal area, GI tract including esophagus, pancreas and biliary tract, prostate, lung, soft tissue and bone. Analysis of these patients has been carried out with a minimum followup period of 2 years

  6. Using Mobile Device Samples to Estimate Traffic Volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    In this project, TTI worked with StreetLight Data to evaluate a beta version of its traffic volume estimates derived from global positioning system (GPS)-based mobile devices. TTI evaluated the accuracy of average annual daily traffic (AADT) volume :...

  7. Robust, Optimal, Predictive, and Integrated Road Traffic Control : Research proposal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Weg, G.S.; Hegyi, A.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2014-01-01

    The development of control strategies for traffic lights, ramp metering installations, and variable speed limits to improve the throughput of road traffic networks can contribute to a more efficient use of road networks. In this project, a hierarchical controller will be developed for the

  8. Efficient Algorithms for Network-Wide Road Traffic Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Weg, G.S.

    2017-01-01

    Controlling road traffic networks is a complex problem. One of the difficulties is the coordination of actuators, such as traffic lights, variables speed limits, ramp metering and route guidance, with the aim to improve the network performance over a near-future time horizon. This dissertation

  9. A new modelling approach for road traffic emissions: VERSIT+

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, R.; Smokers, R.T.M.; Rabé, E.L.M.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of VERSIT+ LD is to predict traffic stream emissions for light-duty vehicles in any particular traffic situation. With respect to hot running emissions, VERSIT+ LD consists of a set of statistical models for detailed vehicle categories that have been constructed using multiple linear

  10. Design criteria for a hemispherical detector for LET measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schell, M.C.; DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Pearson, D.W.; Attix, F.H.

    1980-01-01

    A detector for the direct measurement of the Linear Energy Transfer (LET) in cylindrical geometry was developed by Brandan and DeLuca. The detector successfully measured the LET of protons and a fraction of the heavy charged particles generated in cylindrical A150 plastic and graphite walls by 14.8 MeV neutrons. In this report, we present design tests for the hemispherical LET detector which will measure the LET of charged particles in spherical geometry and allow comparison with calculated LET spectra. The hemispherical LET detector will also provide a data base for radiobiological predictions with the Track Structure Model by Katz. A comparison of predictions of radiobiological effects by the Theory of Dual Radiation Action and the Track Structure Model by Edwards and the authors indicate that the Track Structure Model predicts cell survival as a function of dose more accurately and hence an additional motivation for the present construction of the hemispherical LET detector

  11. Using Probe Vehicle Data for Automatic Extraction of Road Traffic Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Popescu Maria Alexandra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Through this paper the author aims to study and find solutions for automatic detection of traffic light position and for automatic calculation of the waiting time at traffic light. The first objective serves mainly the road transportation field, mainly because it removes the need for collaboration with local authorities to establish a national network of traffic lights. The second objective is important not only for companies which are providing navigation solutions, but especially for authorities, institutions, companies operating in road traffic management systems. Real-time dynamic determination of traffic queue length and of waiting time at traffic lights allow the creation of dynamic systems, intelligent and flexible, adapted to actual traffic conditions, and not to generic, theoretical models. Thus, cities can approach the Smart City concept by boosting, efficienting and greening the road transport, promoted in Europe through the Horizon 2020, Smart Cities, Urban Mobility initiative.

  12. Overexpression of let-7a increases neurotoxicity in a PC12 cell model of Alzheimer's disease via regulating autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Huizi; Li, Lan; Cui, Chen; Zhao, Zihui; Song, Guijun

    2017-10-01

    Increased deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) protein is one of the typical characteristics of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent evidence has demonstrated that the microRNA let-7 family, which is highly expressed in the central nervous system, participates in the regulation of pathologic processes of AD. In the present study, the effect of let-7a overexpression on Aβ1-40-induced neurotoxicity was evaluated in PC12 and SK-N-SH cells. The results indicated that overexpression of let-7a enhanced the neurotoxicity induced by Aβ1-40 in PC12 and SK-N-SH cells. In addition, the apoptosis induced by Aβ1-40 in PC12 and SK-N-SH cells was increased by let-7a overexpression. Furthermore, Aβ1-40 treatment increased the protein levels of microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3) and beclin-1 and increased the LC3 II/I ratio. The mRNA expression levels of beclin-1, autophagy protein 5 (Atg-5) and Atg-7 were also increased by Aβ1-40 treatment in PC12 cells. Let-7a overexpression further upregulated the above autophagy-related markers. Furthermore, the protein level of p62 was increased by Aβ1-40 treatment, and this was further enhanced by let-7a overexpression. Finally, the present results demonstrated that the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway was involved in the autophagy regulation by let-7a. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that the neurotoxicity induced by Aβ1-40 is augmented by let-7a overexpression via regulation of autophagy, and the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway also serves a function in this process.

  13. Trajectory Based Traffic Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Andersen, Ove; Lewis-Kelham, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    We present the INTRA system for interactive path-based traffic analysis. The analyses are developed in collaboration with traffic researchers and provide novel insights into conditions such as congestion, travel-time, choice of route, and traffic-flow. INTRA supports interactive point-and-click a......We present the INTRA system for interactive path-based traffic analysis. The analyses are developed in collaboration with traffic researchers and provide novel insights into conditions such as congestion, travel-time, choice of route, and traffic-flow. INTRA supports interactive point......-and-click analysis, due to a novel and efficient indexing structure. With the web-site daisy.aau.dk/its/spqdemo/we will demonstrate several analyses, using a very large real-world data set consisting of 1.9 billion GPS records (1.5 million trajectories) recorded from more than 13000 vehicles, and touching most...

  14. Costs of traffic injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie

    2015-01-01

    assessed using Danish national healthcare registers. Productivity costs were computed using duration analysis (Cox regression models). In a subanalysis, cost per severe traffic injury was computed for the 12 995 individuals that experienced a severe injury. RESULTS: The socioeconomic cost of a traffic...... injury was €1406 (2009 price level) in the first year, and €8950 over a 10-year period. Per 100 000 population, the 10-year cost was €6 565 668. A severe traffic injury costs €4969 per person in the first year, and €4 006 685 per 100 000 population over a 10-year period. Victims of traffic injuries...

  15. Study on Driver Visual Physiological Characteristics in Urban Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengyuan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the integrated traffic environment, human factor is always a main factor of the three elementary factors, besides the vehicle and road factor. The driver physiological and psychological characteristics have an important impact especially on traffic safety in urban road traffic conditions. Some typical traffic scenes in condition of urban road, such as light signal control at intersection, overtaking, and passing, are selected for condition analysis. An eye movement apparatus was used to obtain driver eye closure, blink frequency, and other visual physiological indicators in the traffic conditions of urban road. The regular patterns of driver visual characteristics in the corresponding scenes were analyzed in detail to provide data and theoretical support for the further research on traffic safety of urban environment from the viewpoint of driver psychology and behavior.

  16. Public transportation development and traffic accident prevention in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutanto Soehodho

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Traffic accidents have long been known as an iceberg for comprehending the discrepancies of traffic management and entire transportation systems. Figures detailing traffic accidents in Indonesia, as is the case in many other countries, show significantly high numbers and severity levels; these types of totals are also evident in Jakarta, the highest-populated city in the country. While the common consensus recognizes that traffic accidents are the results of three different factor types, namely, human factors, vehicle factors, and external factors (including road conditions, human factors have the strongest influence—and figures on a worldwide scale corroborate that assertion. We, however, try to pinpoint the issues of non-human factors in light of increasing traffic accidents in Indonesia, where motorbike accidents account for the majority of incidents. We then consider three important pillars of action: the development of public transportation, improvement of the road ratio, and traffic management measures.

  17. Traffic Flow Wide-Area Surveillance system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgood, G.O.; Ferrell, R.K.; Kercel, S.W.; Abston, R.A.

    1994-09-01

    Traffic management can be thought of as a stochastic queuing process where the serving time at one of its control points is dynamically linked to the global traffic pattern, which is, in turn, dynamically linked to the control point. For this closed-loop system to be effective, the traffic management system must sense and interpret a large spatial projection of data originating from multiple sensor suites. This concept is the basis for the development of a Traffic Flow Wide-Area Surveillance (TFWAS) system. This paper presents the results of a study by Oak Ridge National Laboratory to define the operational specifications and characteristics, to determine the constraints, and to examine the state of technology of a TFWAS system in terms of traffic management and control. In doing so, the functions and attributes of a TFWAS system are mapped into an operational structure consistent with the Intelligent Vehicle Highway System (IVHS) concept and the existing highway infrastructure. This mapping includes identifying candidate sensor suites and establishing criteria, requirements, and performance measures by which these systems can be graded in their ability and practicality to meet the operational requirements of a TFWAS system. In light of this, issues such as system integration, applicable technologies, impact on traffic management and control, and public acceptance are addressed.

  18. Traffic flow wide-area surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgood, Glenn O.; Ferrell, Regina K.; Kercel, Stephen W.; Abston, Ruth A.

    1995-01-01

    Traffic management can be thought of as a stochastic queuing process where the serving time at one of its control points is dynamically linked to the global traffic pattern, which is, in turn, dynamically linked to the control point. For this closed-loop system to be effective, the traffic management system must sense and interpret a large spatial projection of data originating from multiple sensor suites. This concept is the basis for the development of a traffic flow wide-area surveillance (TFWAS) system. This paper presents the results of a study by Oak Ridge National Laboratory to define the operational specifications and characteristics, to determine the constraints, and to examine the state of technology of a TFWAS system in terms of traffic management and control. In doing so, the functions and attributes of a TFWAS system are mapped into an operational structure consistent with the Intelligent Vehicle Highway System (IVHS) concept and the existing highway infrastructure. This mapping includes identifying candidate sensor suites and establishing criteria, requirements, and performance measures by which these systems can be graded in their ability and practicality to meet the operational requirements of a TFWAS system. In light of this, issues such as system integration, applicable technologies, impact on traffic management and control, and public acceptance are addressed.

  19. Calculation of vehicle delay at signal-controlled intersections with adaptive traffic control algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andronov Roman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available By widely introducing information technology tools in the field of traffic control, it is possible to increase the capacity of hubs and reduce vehicle delays. Adaptive traffic light control is one of such tools. Its effectiveness can be assessed through traffic flow simulation. The aim of this study is to create a simulation model of a signal-controlled intersection that can be used to assess the effectiveness of adaptive control in various traffic situations, including the presence or absence of pedestrian traffic through an intersection. The model is based on a numerical experiment conducted using the Monte Carlo method. As a result of the study, vehicle delays, queue length and duration of traffic light cycles are calculated subject to different intensities of incoming traffic flows, and the presence or absence of pedestrian traffic.

  20. Assessing the Structural, Driver and Economic Impacts of Traffic Pole Mounted Wind Power Generator and Solar Panel Hybrid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This project evaluates the physical and economic feasibility of using existing traffic infrastructure to mount wind power : generators. Some possible places to mount a light weight wind generator and solar panel hybrid system are: i) Traffic : signal...

  1. Microscopic modeling of multi-lane highway traffic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodas, Nathan O.; Jagota, Anand

    2003-12-01

    We discuss a microscopic model for the study of multi-lane highway traffic flow dynamics. Each car experiences a force resulting from a combination of the desire of the driver to attain a certain velocity, aerodynamic drag, and change of the force due to car-car interactions. The model also includes multi-lane simulation capability and the ability to add and remove obstructions. We implement the model via a Java applet, which is used to simulate traffic jam formation, the effect of bottlenecks on traffic flow, and the existence of light, medium, and heavy traffic flow. The simulations also provide insight into how the properties of individual cars result in macroscopic behavior. Because the investigation of emergent characteristics is so common in physics, the study of traffic in this manner sheds new light on how the micro-to-macro transition works in general.

  2. An Efficient PageRank Approach for Urban Traffic Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Pop

    2012-01-01

    to determine optimal decisions for each traffic light, based on the solution given by Larry Page for page ranking in Web environment (Page et al. (1999. Our approach is similar with work presented by Sheng-Chung et al. (2009 and Yousef et al. (2010. We consider that the traffic lights are controlled by servers and a score for each road is computed based on efficient PageRank approach and is used in cost function to determine optimal decisions. We demonstrate that the cumulative contribution of each car in the traffic respects the main constrain of PageRank approach, preserving all the properties of matrix consider in our model.

  3. Probability in Action: The Red Traffic Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, John A.

    2007-01-01

    Emphasis on problem solving in mathematics has gained considerable attention in recent years. While statistics teaching has always been problem driven, the same cannot be said for the teaching of probability where discrete examples involving coins and playing cards are often the norm. This article describes an application of simple probability…

  4. Traffic Flow Visualization and Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Larson, Robert

    1999-01-01

    .... Air Force Research Laboratory. It is a video-camera-based, wide-area, traffic surveillance and detection system that provides real-time traffic information to traffic management center operators...

  5. Pedestrian Friendly Traffic Signal Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This project continues research aimed at real-time detection and use of pedestrian : traffic flow information to enhance adaptive traffic signal control in urban areas : where pedestrian traffic is substantial and must be given appropriate attention ...

  6. Sci-Sat AM: Radiation Dosimetry and Practical Therapy Solutions - 10: Towards LET detection: A study on the effects of scintillator doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nusrat, Humza; Pang, Geordi; Ahmad, Syed; Keller, Brian; Sarfehnia, Arman [Ryerson University, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: In radiotherapy, the amount of radiation delivered is determined by optimizing the amount of absorbed dose to the tumor. Dose does not always correlate well with the actual biological effects of radiation. This work seeks to validate the LET-dependence of doped plastic scintillators for use in a radiation beam quality (LET) detector. Methods: The LET spectrum ([Φ]) can be resolved knowing the measured signals of uniquely LET-dependent detectors, [S], and the response of each LET-dependent detector to specific LETs ([R]), through the relation [Φ]=[S][R]{sup −1}. Plastic scintillator response is intrinsically LET dependent and can be varied via doping. Initial prototype consists of plastic scintillator and glass taper coupled to an optical fiber; components are housed in black acrylic, reducing effect of ambient light. In order to determine [R], the light response matrix, GEANT4.10.1 Monte Carlo (MC) was used. To validate MC, measurements were done using high energy electrons (9,12,15MeV) and orthovoltage x-rays (100,250kV); scintillator signal was normalized to dose measured simultaneously. Results: Stopping power was varied by changing particle type/energy; measurements indicated that as stopping power increased from 1.9 to 6.6MeV/cm, detector response increased by 263% (+/−29.2%) for 5%Pb-doped scintillator (155% in MC); 52% (+/−7.8%) increase observed when undoped scintillator was used (49% in MC). 5%Pb-doped discrepancy (100kV x-rays) is being investigated. Conclusions: This work validates that doping effects LET/energy response of scintillators; an effect that can be utilized for construction of an LET detector.

  7. Controlled Traffic Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Controlled Traffic Farming Europe

    2011-01-01

    Metadata only record Controlled Traffic Farming (CTF) is a farming method used to reduce soil compaction, decrease inputs, and improve soil structure when coupled with reduced-till or no-till practices. This practices utilizes permanent traffic/wheel zones to limit soil compaction to a specific area. This website provides practical information on CTF, case studies, workshops, and links to additional resources.

  8. Visualization of Traffic Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong; Khattak, Asad

    2010-01-01

    Traffic accidents have tremendous impact on society. Annually approximately 6.4 million vehicle accidents are reported by police in the US and nearly half of them result in catastrophic injuries. Visualizations of traffic accidents using geographic information systems (GIS) greatly facilitate handling and analysis of traffic accidents in many aspects. Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), Inc. is the world leader in GIS research and development. ArcGIS, a software package developed by ESRI, has the capabilities to display events associated with a road network, such as accident locations, and pavement quality. But when event locations related to a road network are processed, the existing algorithm used by ArcGIS does not utilize all the information related to the routes of the road network and produces erroneous visualization results of event locations. This software bug causes serious problems for applications in which accurate location information is critical for emergency responses, such as traffic accidents. This paper aims to address this problem and proposes an improved method that utilizes all relevant information of traffic accidents, namely, route number, direction, and mile post, and extracts correct event locations for accurate traffic accident visualization and analysis. The proposed method generates a new shape file for traffic accidents and displays them on top of the existing road network in ArcGIS. Visualization of traffic accidents along Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel is included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. Road Traffic in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jie, L.; Van Zuylen, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Traffic is tightly related to the social and economic development in a country. In China the development of the economy has been very fast in the past 30 years and this is still continuing. The transport infrastructure shows a similar pattern, while traffic is also rapidly growing. In urban areas

  10. Properties of Traffic Risk Coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Huang, Hai-Jun; Shang, Hua-Yan; Xue, Yu

    2009-10-01

    We use the model with the consideration of the traffic interruption probability (Physica A 387(2008)6845) to study the relationship between the traffic risk coefficient and the traffic interruption probability. The analytical and numerical results show that the traffic interruption probability will reduce the traffic risk coefficient and that the reduction is related to the density, which shows that this model can improve traffic security.

  11. A Review: Some biological effects of high LET radiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, A., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    There are qualitative and quantitative differences in the biological damage observed after exposure to high LET radiation as compared to that caused by low LET radiations. This review is concerned with these differences, which are ultimately reflected at the biochemical, cellular and even whole animal levels. In general, high LET radiations seem to produce biochemical damage which is more severe and possibly less repairable. Experimental data for those effects are presented in terms of biochemical RBE's with consideration of both early and late manifestations. An LET independent process by which significant biochemical damage may result from protons, neutrons and negative pion mesons is discussed.

  12. Road lighting for safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    2000-01-01

    This book is aimed at broad readership, not especially at lighting experts. Lighting is presented as a system, as part of the public highway. Much attention is paid to subjects not greatly covered in the specialist literature, such as environmental aspects, traffic safety, crime prevention, and the

  13. Traffic safety strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sadauskas

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Fast development of the number of vehicles is closely related not only to large benefit for the public but also to certain undesirable social and economic consequences. Firstly - large numbers of injured and killed people are involved into the accidents. The target to improve traffic safety situation in Lithuania can be reached only after the detailed evaluation of transport system, environment, traffic participants, road and vehicle. Taking into consideration the accident situation in Lithuania and its causes the followings priority trends are suggested: The improvement of the coordination of road traffic safety system, the training and education of road users, the explanation of the importance of traffic safety and its propagation, the improvement of traffic conditions. Recommendations and proposals for differentiated criterion of maximum speed limit selection taking into account different factors are provided in the work.

  14. RBE-LET relationships of high-LET radiations in drosophila mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Isao; Takatsuji, Toshihiro; Nagano, Masaaki; Takada, Jun; Endo, Satoru; Hoshi, Masaharu

    1999-01-01

    The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 252 Cf neutrons and synchrotron-generated high-energy charged particles for mutation induction was evaluated as a function of linear energy transfer (LET), using the loss of heterozygosity for wing-hair mutations and the reversion of the mutant white-ivory eye-color in Drosophila melanogaster. Loss of heterozygosity for wing-hair mutations results predominantly from mitotic crossing over induced in wing anlage cells of larvae, while the reverse mutation of eye-color is due to an intragenic structural change (2.96 kb-DNA excision) in the white locus on the X-chromosome. The measurements were performed in a combined mutation assay system so that induced mutant wing-hair clones as well as revertant eye-color clone can be detected simultaneously in the same individual. Larvae were irradiated at the age of 3 days post oviposition with 252 Cf neutrons, carbon beam or neon beam. For the neutron irradiation, the RBE values for wing-hair mutations were larger than that for eye-color mutation by about 7 fold. The RBE of carbon ions for producing the wing-hair mutations increased with increase in LET. The estimated RBE values were found to be in the range 2 to 6.5 for the wing-hair. For neon beam irradiation, the RBE values for wing-hair mutations peak near 150 keV/μm and decrease with further increase in LET. On the other hand, the RBE values for the induction of the eye-color mutation are nearly unity in 252 Cf neutrons and both ions throughout the LET range irradiated. We discuss the relationships between the initial DNA damage and LET in considering the mechanism of somatic mutation induction. (author)

  15. Chemical protection from high LET radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Koichi; Koike, Sachiko; Matsushita, Satoru; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Ohara, Hiroshi

    1992-01-01

    Radioprotection by WR151327 from high LET fast neutrons was investigated and compared with that from low LET radiation. Radiation damage in bone marrow, intestine, skin and leg length were all protected by a pretreatment with 400 mg/kg WR151327. Most prominent protection was observed for bone marrow, which gave a Dose Modifying Factor (DMF) of 2.2 against γ rays. Identical protection was observed between early and late radiation damage. WR151327 protected fast neutrons less efficiently than γ rays; 40% for bone marrow and 80% for skin leg. Pathological findings indicated that hyperplastic change in both dermis and epidermis associated with late skin shrinkage. Laser doppler flow-metry showed a good relationship between reduction of blood flow and late skin shrinkage. Irradiation of skin by heavy particle Carbon-12 indicated that skin shrinkage was modified by unirradiated surrounding normal tissues, which proposed a significant role of 'Volume Effect' in radiation damage. Tumor tissues were less protected by WR151327 than normal tissues. Dependence of radioprotection by WR151327 on tissue oxygen concentration is a probable reason to explain the difference between normal and tumor tissues. (author)

  16. Gene conversion in yeast as a function of linear energy transfer (LET) for low-LET radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unrau, P.; Morrison, D.P.; Johnson, J.R.

    1992-05-01

    The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for low-LET radiation is known to depend on such factors as LET and dose rate. Microdosimetric calculations indicate that the biological target size could also be an important parameter, and calculations predict that the RBE for effects produced by hits in target sizes below about 100 nm should be unity for all low LET radiation. We have measured that RBE for gene conversion in yeast (a small target) for five different low LET photon sources, and the results were consistent with an RBE of unity, which agrees with microdosimetric predictions. 4 refs

  17. Using Lighting And Visual Information To Alter Driver Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Inappropriate traffic speeds are a major cause of traffic fatalities. Since driving is a task with a substantial contribution : from vision, the use of lighting and visual information such as signage could assist in providing appropriate cues to : en...

  18. Using lighting and visual information to alter driver behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Inappropriate traffic speeds are a major cause of traffic fatalities. Since driving is a task with a substantial contribution : from vision, the use of lighting and visual information such as signage could assist in providing appropriate cues to : en...

  19. Traffic Safety and Vehicle Choice: Quantifying the Effects of the "Arms Race" on American Roads

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shanjun

    2009-01-01

    The increasing market share of light trucks in the U.S. in recent years has been characterized as an “arms race” where individual purchase of light trucks for better self-protection in collisions nevertheless leads to worse traffic safety for the society. This paper investigates the interrelation between traffic safety and vehicle choice by quantifying the effects of the arms race on vehicle demand, producer performance, and traffic safety. The empirical analysis shows that the accident exter...

  20. Fuzzy Logic Based Autonomous Traffic Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad ABBAS

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to design and implement fuzzy logic based traffic light Control system to solve the traffic congestion issues. In this system four input parameters: Arrival, Queue, Pedestrian and Emergency Vehicle and two output parameters: Extension in Green and Pedestrian Signals are used. Using Fuzzy Rule Base, the system extends or terminates the Green Signal according to the Traffic situation at the junction. On the presence of emergency vehicle, the system decides which signal(s should be red and how much an extension should be given to Green Signal for Emergency Vehicle. The system also monitors the density of people and makes decisions accordingly. In order to verify the proposed design algorithm MATLAB simulation is adopted and results obtained show concurrency to the calculated values according to the Mamdani Model of the Fuzzy Control System.

  1. Production of perhydroxy radical (HO2) and oxygen in the radiolysis of aqueous solution and the LET effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, Masashi

    1987-01-01

    This article aims to review the results concerning the production of perhydroxy radical (HO 2 ) and oxygen from irradiated aqueous solutions and the LET effects on these products, beginning with a brief introduction to the elementary primary processes in radiolysis of aqueous solution. Oxygen, if produced in the radiolysis of aqueous solution, may be considered responsible for the decreased oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) in biological systems exposed to high LET radiation. A Harwell's group has determined oxygen generated from aqueous ferrous solutions irradiated with heavy ions and concluded that the oxygen is a precursor of perhydroxy radicals. The LET-dependent yields for perhydroxy radical have been determined by LaVerne and Schuler; the analysis of their results sheds light into the reactions taking place in high-LET track cores. In conjunction with these results, the possible contributions to the LET effects are pointed out and discussed of the energetic secondary electrons ejected from the track core by knock-on collision with heavy ions and of the variation in the track core size with energy of the heavy particles. (author)

  2. VBR video traffic models

    CERN Document Server

    Tanwir, Savera

    2014-01-01

    There has been a phenomenal growth in video applications over the past few years. An accurate traffic model of Variable Bit Rate (VBR) video is necessary for performance evaluation of a network design and for generating synthetic traffic that can be used for benchmarking a network. A large number of models for VBR video traffic have been proposed in the literature for different types of video in the past 20 years. Here, the authors have classified and surveyed these models and have also evaluated the models for H.264 AVC and MVC encoded video and discussed their findings.

  3. Road Traffic Injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zheng-guo

    2005-01-01

    @@ As everybody knows that automobiles have been greatly changing our life. However, everything has two sides, motor vehicles have also caused a huge number of people's deaths, injuries and property damage. Traffic crashes are perhaps the number one public health problem in developed countries [1]. In the United States, pre-retirement years of life lost in traffic crashes are more than that of the two combined leading diseases: cancer and heart disease [1]. Today road traffic crash (RTC) ranks 11th in leading cause of death and accounts for 2.1% of all deaths globally.

  4. LET calibration for CR-39 detectors in different oxygen environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, D.; Semones, E.; Weyland, M.; Benton, E.R.

    2007-01-01

    High LET (linear energy transfer) radiation is the main contributor to the radiation field in low Earth orbit (LEO) in terms of dose equivalent. CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs) can measure the LET spectrum and charge spectrum for the complicated radiation field in space. Previous research indicated that the sensitivity of CR-39 is different for CR-39 PNTDs working in different oxygen environments. LET calibration for CR-39 detectors in different oxygen environments is needed. Almost all the previous LET calibration work was carried out for CR-39 detectors in good-oxygen condition, LET calibration work for CR-39 in poor-oxygen condition has not been conducted until our work. Systematic LET calibrations were carried out by JSC-SRAG (Space Radiation Analysis Group) for CR-39 detectors working in different oxygen environments and abundant results of LET calibrations were obtained. This paper introduces the method for CR-39 LET calibration, presents and discusses the calibration results and some applications

  5. Learning, Leading and Letting go of Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annie Aarup; Kjær-Rasmussen, Lone Krogh; Iversen, Ann-Merete

    Learning, leading and letting go of control – Learner Led Approaches in Education Annie Aarup Jensen, Lone Krogh Kjær-Rasmussen, Ann-Merete Iversen and Anni Stavnskær Pedersen Abstract The aim of the paper is to introduce a new term in teaching in Higher Education: Learner Led Approaches...... in Education: LED. The sources of inspiration are many as are the experiences we draw from. Problem-based project work (PBL) being one, various classical teacher centered methods, and last but not least a variety of methods aiming towards developing creativity, innovational skills and entrepreneurship. LED...... is inspired by collaboration between professors from Aalborg University, Cornwall College and University College of Northern Denmark. Moravec (2008) claims that educational systems still operate in 1.0 or perhaps 2.0 mode while the surrounding cultures and societies operate in 3.0 mode. The amount...

  6. Liquid ionization chambers for LET determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Franz-Joachim; Bassler, Niels; Tölli, Heikki

    Liquid ionization chambers [1] (LICs) have have been used in the last decades as background dosemeters. Since a few years LICs are also commercially available for dosimetry and are used for measurements of dose distributions where a high spatial distribution is necessary. Also in the last decades...... a differential equation applying several simplifications and approximations leading to discrepancies between theory and experiments [3]. The theory predicts the collection efficiency as a function of the electrical field and was applied for both air filled ionization chambers and liquid filled ionization...... chambers. For liquids the LET can be roughly deduced from the collection efficiency dependency on the electrical field inside a liquid ionization chambers [4] using an extrapolation method. We solved the fundamental differential equation again presented by Jaffe numerically, but now taking into account...

  7. The interaction of radiations of different LET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, G.K.Y.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental data for mixed radiation of different LET are analysed using an isobologram approach and are shown to be consistent with the special case of 'zero interaction' in a general formulation of the effect of a combination of agents proposed by Berenbaum. This zero interaction is defined in the same sense as interaction between the lesions produced by the same radiation. This makes analysis and predictions of mixed radiation results particularly straightforward. The zero-interaction formula can be mathematically derived from a simple model of mixed radiation called the lesion additivity model using the assumption that different early lesions produced in the radiation mixture can gradually develop into an indistinguishable intermediate state and hence become additive to produce the same end point. The model is shown to be applicable to irradiation under both hypoxic and oxygenated conditions and hence is extended to the use of hypoxic cell sensitisers. (author)

  8. In vitro RBE-LET dependence for multiple particle types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Brita Singers; Overgaard, Jens; Bassler, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Background. In vitro RBE values for various high LET radiation types have been determined for many different cell types. Occasionally it is criticized that RBE for a given endpoint cannot be single-value dependent on LET alone, but also on particle species, due to the different dose deposition...... profiles on microscopic scale. Hence LET is not sufficient as a predictor of RBE, and this is one of the motivations for development of radiobiological models which explicitly depend on the detailed particle energy spectrum of the applied radiation field. The aim of the present study is to summarize...... the available data in the literature regarding the dependency of RBE on LET for different particles. Method. As RBE is highly dependent on cell type and endpoint, we discriminated the RBE-LET relationship for the three investigated cell lines and at the same endpoint (10% survival in colony formation). Data...

  9. High-LET particle exposure of Skylab astronauts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benton, E.V.; Peterson, D.D.; Bailey, J.V.; Parnell, T.

    1977-01-01

    High-LET particle radiation was registered in nuclear track recording plastic dosimeters worn on the wrists of Skylab astronauts and located in a heavily shielded film vault. The mission-average planar flux of high-LET particles with LET >= 100 keV/micron . tissue has been determined to be 2.7 +- 0.6 particles/cm 2 . day . 2π sr and 0.34 +- 0.4 particles/cm 2 . day . 2π sr, respectively, for the nine astronauts and for the film vault. Comparison of results representative of a wide range of shielding depths reveals that the magnitude and slope of the integral LET spectrum of high-LET particles inside spacecraft are proportional to the amount of shielding. (author)

  10. Driver behavior in traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Existing traffic analysis and management tools do not model the ability of drivers to recognize their environment and respond to it with behaviors that vary according to the encountered driving situation. The small body of literature on characterizin...

  11. Penalties in traffic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    Traffic offenders are penalized in various ways: fines, (temporary) driving licence suspensions, confiscation of their vehicles, penalty points, mandatory participation in rehabilitation programmes, prison sentences or community service. The aim of penalties is to punish offenders, to protect

  12. Non-Traffic Citations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Non-traffic citations (NTCs, also known as "summary offenses") document low-level criminal offenses where a law enforcement officer or other authorized official...

  13. Allegheny County Traffic Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Traffic sensors at over 1,200 locations in Allegheny County collect vehicle counts for the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. Data included in the Health...

  14. Green supply chain: Simulating road traffic congestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, Muhammad Zulqarnain Hakim Abd; Nawawi, Mohd Kamal Mohd; Laailatul Hanim Mat Desa, Wan; Khalid, Ruzelan; Khalid Abduljabbar, Waleed; Ramli, Razamin

    2017-09-01

    With the increasing awareness of the consumers about environmental issues, businesses, households and governments increasingly want use green products and services which lead to green supply chain. This paper discusses a simulation study of a selected road traffic system that will contribute to the air pollution if in the congestion state. Road traffic congestion (RTC) can be caused by a temporary obstruction, a permanent capacity bottleneck in the network itself, and stochastic fluctuation in demand within a particular sector of the network, leading to spillback and queue propagation. A discrete-event simulation model is developed to represent the real traffic light control (TLC) system condition during peak hours. Certain performance measures such as average waiting time and queue length were measured using the simulation model. Existing system uses pre-set cycle time to control the light changes which is fixed time cycle. In this research, we test several other combination of pre-set cycle time with the objective to find the best system. In addition, we plan to use a combination of the pre-set cycle time and a proximity sensor which have the authority to manipulate the cycle time of the lights. The sensors work in such situation when the street seems to have less occupied vehicles, obviously it may not need a normal cycle for green light, and automatically change the cycle to street where vehicle is present.

  15. The Study of Reinforcement Learning for Traffic Self-Adaptive Control under Multiagent Markov Game Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lun-Hui Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban traffic self-adaptive control problem is dynamic and uncertain, so the states of traffic environment are hard to be observed. Efficient agent which controls a single intersection can be discovered automatically via multiagent reinforcement learning. However, in the majority of the previous works on this approach, each agent needed perfect observed information when interacting with the environment and learned individually with less efficient coordination. This study casts traffic self-adaptive control as a multiagent Markov game problem. The design employs traffic signal control agent (TSCA for each signalized intersection that coordinates with neighboring TSCAs. A mathematical model for TSCAs’ interaction is built based on nonzero-sum markov game which has been applied to let TSCAs learn how to cooperate. A multiagent Markov game reinforcement learning approach is constructed on the basis of single-agent Q-learning. This method lets each TSCA learn to update its Q-values under the joint actions and imperfect information. The convergence of the proposed algorithm is analyzed theoretically. The simulation results show that the proposed method is convergent and effective in realistic traffic self-adaptive control setting.

  16. Reducing Downlink Signaling Traffic in Wireless Systems Using Mobile-Assisted Scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Moosavi, Reza; Larsson, Erik G.

    2010-01-01

    We present an idea to reduce the part of the downlink signaling traffic in wireless multiple access systems that contains scheduling information. The theoretical basis of the scheme is that the scheduling decisions made by the base station are correlated with the CSI reports from the mobiles. This correlation can be exploited by the source coding scheme that is used to compress the scheduling maps before they are sent to the mobiles. In the proposed scheme, this idea is implemented by letting...

  17. Multicast traffic grooming in flexible optical WDM networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ankitkumar N.; Ji, Philip N.; Jue, Jason P.; Wang, Ting

    2012-12-01

    In Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs), point-to-multipoint applications, such as IPTV, video-on-demand, distance learning, and content distribution, can be efficiently supported through light-tree-based multicastcommunications instead of lightpath-based unicast-communications. The application of multicasting for such traffic is justified by its inherent benefits of reduced control and management overhead and elimination of redundant resource provisioning. Supporting such multicast traffic in Flexible optical WDM (FWDM) networks that can provision light-trees using optimum amount of spectrum within flexible channel spacing leads to higher wavelength and spectral efficiencies compared to the conventional ITU-T fixed grid networks. However, in spite of such flexibility, the residual channel capacity of stranded channels may not be utilized if the network does not offer channels with arbitrary line rates. Additionally, the spectrum allocated to guard bands used to isolate finer granularity channels remains unutilized. These limitations can be addressed by using traffic grooming in which low-rate multicast connections are aggregated and switched over high capacity light-trees. In this paper, we address the multicast traffic grooming problem in FWDM networks, and propose a novel auxiliary graph-based algorithm for the first time. The performance of multicast traffic grooming is evaluated in terms of spectral, cost, and energy efficiencies compared to lightpath-based transparent FWDM networks, lightpathbased traffic grooming-capable FWDM networks, multicast-enabled transparent FWDM networks, and multicast traffic grooming-capable fixed grid networks. Simulation results demonstrate that multicast traffic grooming in FWDM networks not only improves spectral efficiency, but also cost, and energy efficiencies compared to other multicast traffic provisioning approaches of FWDM and fixed grid networks.

  18. Control of Networked Traffic Flow Distribution - A Stochastic Distribution System Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hong [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Aziz, H M Abdul [ORNL; Young, Stan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Patil, Sagar [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

    2017-10-01

    Networked traffic flow is a common scenario for urban transportation, where the distribution of vehicle queues either at controlled intersections or highway segments reflect the smoothness of the traffic flow in the network. At signalized intersections, the traffic queues are controlled by traffic signal control settings and effective traffic lights control would realize both smooth traffic flow and minimize fuel consumption. Funded by the Energy Efficient Mobility Systems (EEMS) program of the Vehicle Technologies Office of the US Department of Energy, we performed a preliminary investigation on the modelling and control framework in context of urban network of signalized intersections. In specific, we developed a recursive input-output traffic queueing models. The queue formation can be modeled as a stochastic process where the number of vehicles entering each intersection is a random number. Further, we proposed a preliminary B-Spline stochastic model for a one-way single-lane corridor traffic system based on theory of stochastic distribution control.. It has been shown that the developed stochastic model would provide the optimal probability density function (PDF) of the traffic queueing length as a dynamic function of the traffic signal setting parameters. Based upon such a stochastic distribution model, we have proposed a preliminary closed loop framework on stochastic distribution control for the traffic queueing system to make the traffic queueing length PDF follow a target PDF that potentially realizes the smooth traffic flow distribution in a concerned corridor.

  19. Modeling, Identification, Estimation, and Simulation of Urban Traffic Flow in Jakarta and Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Y. Sutarto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of urban traffic flow from the perspective of system theory and stochastic control. The topics of modeling, identification, estimation and simulation techniques are evaluated and validated using actual traffic flow data from the city of Jakarta and Bandung, Indonesia, and synthetic data generated from traffic micro-simulator VISSIM. The results on particle filter (PF based state estimation and Expectation-Maximization (EM based parameter estimation (identification confirm the proposed model gives satisfactory results that capture the variation of urban traffic flow. The combination of the technique and the simulator platform assembles possibility to develop a real-time traffic light controller.  

  20. The Lin28/let-7 axis regulates glucose metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hao; Shyh-Chang, Ng; Segrè, Ayellet V.; Shinoda, Gen; Shah, Samar P.; Einhorn, William S.; Takeuchi, Ayumu; Engreitz, Jesse M.; Hagan, John P.; Kharas, Michael G; Urbach, Achia; Thornton, James E.; Triboulet, Robinson; Gregory, Richard I.; Altshuler, David; Daley, George Q.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The let-7 tumor suppressor microRNAs are known for their regulation of oncogenes, while the RNA-binding proteins Lin28a/b promote malignancy by blocking let-7 biogenesis. In studies of the Lin28/let-7 pathway, we discovered unexpected roles in regulating metabolism. When overexpressed in mice, both Lin28a and LIN28B promoted an insulin-sensitized state that resisted high fat diet-induced diabetes, whereas muscle-specific loss of Lin28a and overexpression of let-7 resulted in insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance. These phenomena occurred in part through let-7-mediated repression of multiple components of the insulin-PI3K-mTOR pathway, including IGF1R, INSR, and IRS2. The mTOR inhibitor rapamycin abrogated the enhanced glucose uptake and insulin-sensitivity conferred by Lin28a in vitro and in vivo. In addition, we found that let-7 targets were enriched for genes that contain SNPs associated with type 2 diabetes and fasting glucose in human genome-wide association studies. These data establish the Lin28/let-7 pathway as a central regulator of mammalian glucose metabolism. PMID:21962509

  1. INTELLIGENT TRAFFIC-SAFETY MIRROR BY USING WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Danišovič

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on the problematic of traffic safety, dealing with the problem of car intersections with blocked view crossing by a special wireless sensor network (WSN proposed for the traffic monitoring, concretely for vehicle’s detection at places, where it is necessary. Some ultra-low-power TI products were developed due to this reason: microcontroller MSP430F2232, 868MHz RF transceiver CC1101 and LDO voltage regulator TPS7033. The WSN consist of four network nodes supplied with the special safety lightings which serve the function of intelligent traffic safety mirror.

  2. Bayes classifiers for imbalanced traffic accidents datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujalli, Randa Oqab; López, Griselda; Garach, Laura

    2016-03-01

    Traffic accidents data sets are usually imbalanced, where the number of instances classified under the killed or severe injuries class (minority) is much lower than those classified under the slight injuries class (majority). This, however, supposes a challenging problem for classification algorithms and may cause obtaining a model that well cover the slight injuries instances whereas the killed or severe injuries instances are misclassified frequently. Based on traffic accidents data collected on urban and suburban roads in Jordan for three years (2009-2011); three different data balancing techniques were used: under-sampling which removes some instances of the majority class, oversampling which creates new instances of the minority class and a mix technique that combines both. In addition, different Bayes classifiers were compared for the different imbalanced and balanced data sets: Averaged One-Dependence Estimators, Weightily Average One-Dependence Estimators, and Bayesian networks in order to identify factors that affect the severity of an accident. The results indicated that using the balanced data sets, especially those created using oversampling techniques, with Bayesian networks improved classifying a traffic accident according to its severity and reduced the misclassification of killed and severe injuries instances. On the other hand, the following variables were found to contribute to the occurrence of a killed causality or a severe injury in a traffic accident: number of vehicles involved, accident pattern, number of directions, accident type, lighting, surface condition, and speed limit. This work, to the knowledge of the authors, is the first that aims at analyzing historical data records for traffic accidents occurring in Jordan and the first to apply balancing techniques to analyze injury severity of traffic accidents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Game Theory Model of Traffic Participants within Amber Time at Signalized Intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Qi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The traffic light scheme is composed of red, green, and amber lights, and it has been defined clearly for the traffic access of red and green lights; however, the definition of that for the amber light is indistinct, which leads to the appearance of uncertainty factors and serious traffic conflicts during the amber light. At present, the traffic administrations are faced with the decision of whether to forbid passing or not during the amber light in the cities of China. On one hand, it will go against the purpose of setting amber lights if forbidding passing; on the other hand, it may lead to a mess of traffic flow running if not. And meanwhile the drivers are faced with the decision of passing the intersection or stopping during the amber light as well. So the decision-making behavior of traffic administrations and drivers can be converted into a double game model. And through quantification of their earnings in different choice conditions, the optimum decision-making plan under specific conditions could be solved via the Nash equilibrium solution concept. Thus the results will provide a basis for the formulation of the traffic management strategy.

  4. Game Theory Model of Traffic Participants within Amber Time at Signalized Intersection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Weiwei; Wen, Huiying; Fu, Chuanyun; Song, Mo

    2014-01-01

    The traffic light scheme is composed of red, green, and amber lights, and it has been defined clearly for the traffic access of red and green lights; however, the definition of that for the amber light is indistinct, which leads to the appearance of uncertainty factors and serious traffic conflicts during the amber light. At present, the traffic administrations are faced with the decision of whether to forbid passing or not during the amber light in the cities of China. On one hand, it will go against the purpose of setting amber lights if forbidding passing; on the other hand, it may lead to a mess of traffic flow running if not. And meanwhile the drivers are faced with the decision of passing the intersection or stopping during the amber light as well. So the decision-making behavior of traffic administrations and drivers can be converted into a double game model. And through quantification of their earnings in different choice conditions, the optimum decision-making plan under specific conditions could be solved via the Nash equilibrium solution concept. Thus the results will provide a basis for the formulation of the traffic management strategy. PMID:25580108

  5. Microdosimetry of high LET therapeutic beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Akira

    1980-01-01

    Experimental microdosimetry of high LET therapeutic beams were presented. The cyclotron produced fast neutron beams at IMS, TAMVEC and NRL, a reactor fast neutron at YAYOI, a proctor beam at Harvard and a pion beam at TRIUMF are included. Measurements were performed with a conventional tissue equivalent spherical proportional counter with a logarithmic amplifier which made the recording and analysis quite simple. All the energy deposition spectra were analysed in the conventional manner and anti y F, anti y D as well as anti y D* were calculated. The spectra and their mean lineal energies showed wide variations, depending on the particle type, energy, position in phantom. Fractional contribution of elemental particles ( electron, muon, pion, proton, alpha and so on) to the total dose were analysed. For fast neutron beams, the y spectra stayed almost constant at any depth along the central axis in the phantom. The y spectra of proton beam changed slightly along the depth. On the other side, the y spectra of pion beam change drastically in the phantom between plateau and dose peak region. A novel technique of time-of-flight microdosimetry was employed, which made it possible to separate the fractional contribution of contaminant electrons and muons out of pions. Finally, a map of the radiation quality for all the beams is presented and its significances are discussed. (author)

  6. Summary of meeting on disposal of LET ampersand D HEPA filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report is a compilation of correspondence between Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company and the US EPA over a period of time from 1988 to 1992 (most from 1991-92) regarding waste management compliance with EPA regulations. Typical subjects include: compliance with satellite accumulation requirements; usage of ''Sure Shot'' containers in place of aerosol cans; notice of upcoming recyclable battery shipments; disposition of batteries; HEPA filter leach sampling and permit impacts; functional and operation requirements for the spent filter handling system; summary of meeting on disposal of LET and D HEPA filters; solvent substitution database report; and mercury vapor light analytical testing

  7. Moral Theories and Cloning in Kazuo Ishiguro’s Never Let Me Go

    OpenAIRE

    Petrillo, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I will consider the ethics of cloning as it occurs in Kazuo Ishiguro’s dystopian novel Never Let Me Go from the standpoint of a number of moral theories – consequentialism, natural law theory, Kantian moral theory, rights based theory, and virtue ethics. In light of the moral theories, I will develop an analysis for why cloning-for-biomedical-research as outlined in the 2002 document Human Cloning and Human Dignity by the President’s Council on Bioethics is morally permissible, ...

  8. Emergent traffic jams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagel, K.; Paczuski, M.

    1995-01-01

    We study a single-lane traffic model that is based on human driving behavior. The outflow from a traffic jam self-organizes to a critical state of maximum throughput. Small perturbations of the outflow far downstream create emergent traffic jams with a power law distribution P(t)∼t -3/2 of lifetimes t. On varying the vehicle density in a closed system, this critical state separates lamellar and jammed regimes and exhibits 1/f noise in the power spectrum. Using random walk arguments, in conjunction with a cascade equation, we develop a phenomenological theory that predicts the critical exponents for this transition and explains the self-organizing behavior. These predictions are consistent with all of our numerical results

  9. Emergent traffic jams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Kai; Paczuski, Maya

    1995-04-01

    We study a single-lane traffic model that is based on human driving behavior. The outflow from a traffic jam self-organizes to a critical state of maximum throughput. Small perturbations of the outflow far downstream create emergent traffic jams with a power law distribution P(t)~t-3/2 of lifetimes t. On varying the vehicle density in a closed system, this critical state separates lamellar and jammed regimes and exhibits 1/f noise in the power spectrum. Using random walk arguments, in conjunction with a cascade equation, we develop a phenomenological theory that predicts the critical exponents for this transition and explains the self-organizing behavior. These predictions are consistent with all of our numerical results.

  10. "Let's Move" campaign: applying the extended parallel process model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelder, Alicia; Matusitz, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    This article examines Michelle Obama's health campaign, "Let's Move," through the lens of the extended parallel process model (EPPM). "Let's Move" aims to reduce the childhood obesity epidemic in the United States. Developed by Kim Witte, EPPM rests on the premise that people's attitudes can be changed when fear is exploited as a factor of persuasion. Fear appeals work best (a) when a person feels a concern about the issue or situation, and (b) when he or she believes to have the capability of dealing with that issue or situation. Overall, the analysis found that "Let's Move" is based on past health campaigns that have been successful. An important element of the campaign is the use of fear appeals (as it is postulated by EPPM). For example, part of the campaign's strategies is to explain the severity of the diseases associated with obesity. By looking at the steps of EPPM, readers can also understand the strengths and weaknesses of "Let's Move."

  11. Blood-letting in anorexia nervosa: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, J F; Lacey, J H

    2000-05-01

    Deliberate blood-letting has been characterized as an alternative to purging behavior in bulimia. We describe a female healthcare worker with an 8-year history of restrictive anorexia nervosa, who initially presented with anemia, using blood-letting, cold baths, and starvation to control her mental state. In contrast with the previous cases of bulimia, the aim of blood-letting in this case of anorexia nervosa was to achieve anemia. She compared the psychic correlates of anemia to emaciation, rather than to deliberate self-harm or purging. We note that mainstream 19th century psychiatry prescribed "baths, blood-letting and diet" as a treatment of "madness." Copyright 2000 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  12. Mouse fecal microbiome after exposure to high LET radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space travel is associated with continuous low-dose-rate exposure to high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) radiation. Pathophysiological manifestations after low-dose...

  13. Applicability of LET to single events in microelectronic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xapsos, Michael A.

    1992-12-01

    LET is often used as a single parameter to determine the energy deposited in a microelectronic structure by a single event. The accuracy of this assumption is examined for ranges of ion energies and volumes of silicon appropriate for modern microelectronics. It is shown to be accurate only under very restricted conditions. Significant differences arise because (1) LET is related to energy lost by the ion, not energy deposited in the volume; and (2) LET is an average value and does not account for statistical variations in energy deposition. Criteria are suggested for determining when factors other than LET should be considered, and new analytical approaches are presented to account for them. One implication of these results is that improvements can be made in space upset rate predictions by incorporating the new methods into currently used codes such as CREME and CRUP.

  14. Let the Right One In : Motion picture (2008)

    OpenAIRE

    Buhagiar, Celaine; Lauri Lucente, Gloria

    2009-01-01

    Twilight: A teenage girl risks everything when she falls in love with a vampire. Let the Right One In: Oskar, an overlooked and bullied boy, finds love and revenge through Eli, a beautiful but peculiar girl.

  15. The dependence of relative biological effectiveness from LET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savich, A.V.

    1985-01-01

    A dependence of radiation-chemical yields of DNA injuries on the LET value is found for two transformations - one and two-strand breaks of it. It is shown that the yield of one-strand breaks decreases with the increase of LET value, and the quantity of two-strand breaks at first increases reaching the maximum value within the LET range from 100 up to 150 eV/nm and then decreases. The considered semiempiric theories of the RBE dependences on LET permits using the experimentally determined parameters characterizing radiosensitivity, to estimate the efficiency of the effect of ionizing radiation on cells at different doses, types of radiation and levels of saturation with oxygen. The stage of the cell cycle is also taken into account

  16. Traffic speed management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subotić Jovana Lj.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Speed, and vehicles themselves, affect the level of service and road safety, quality of life, noise from traffic, the environment, health, air pollution, emission of carbon dioxide, global warming, the economy and consumption of non-renewable energy such as oil. Therefore, the speed management of the traffic of multiple significance and that should be primarily to provide effective and economical conditions of the modern and preventive protection of human life as the greatest treasure and then the material resources. The way to accomplish this is by using various (different measures such as: appropriate planning and projecting roads and streets, speed control, the legislation, enforcement, campaigns, education, advanced technologies (ITS.

  17. Intelligent Traffic Quantification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Anita; Bhanja, Urmila; Mahapatra, Sudipta

    2017-08-01

    Currently, city traffic monitoring and controlling is a big issue in almost all cities worldwide. Vehicular ad-hoc Network (VANET) technique is an efficient tool to minimize this problem. Usually, different types of on board sensors are installed in vehicles to generate messages characterized by different vehicle parameters. In this work, an intelligent system based on fuzzy clustering technique is developed to reduce the number of individual messages by extracting important features from the messages of a vehicle. Therefore, the proposed fuzzy clustering technique reduces the traffic load of the network. The technique also reduces congestion and quantifies congestion.

  18. Radiosensitivity of yeast cells as a function of radiation LET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobachevskij, P.N.; Krasavin, E.A.

    1988-01-01

    A model is proposed for interpreting the radiosensitivity of yeast cells as a function of linear energy transfer (LET) of ionizing radiation. The model takes into account the role of repair processes in sensitivity of yeast cells to ionizing radiation of different LET. Two types of repair are discussed: (1) a nonspecific repair (characteristic of both haploid and diploid cells), and (2) a diploid - soecific repair (characteristic of diploid cells only)

  19. National guidelines for traffic calming

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schermers, G

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available and provides a policy framework on traffic calming. It also describes the administrative and management procedures required to meet policy objectives in the implementation and monitoring of traffic calming in urban areas. Related legal requirements, liability...

  20. Texas traffic thermostat marketing package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The traffic thermostat decision tool is built to help guide the user through a logical, step-wise, process of examining potential changes to their Manage Lane/toll facility. : **NOTE: Project Title: Application of the Traffic Thermostat Framework. Ap...

  1. 2016 Traffic Safety Culture Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Newsroom SEARCH Driver Behavior & Performance 2016 Traffic Safety Culture Index This report presents the results of our annual Traffic Safety Culture Index survey, providing data on the attitudes and ...

  2. Texas traffic thermostat software tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The traffic thermostat decision tool is built to help guide the user through a logical, step-wise, process of examining potential changes to their Manage Lane/toll facility. : **NOTE: Project Title: Application of the Traffic Thermostat Framework. Ap...

  3. Citizen Science for Traffic Planning: A Practical Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieke, Matthes; Stasch, Christoph; Autermann, Christian; de Wall, Arne; Remke, Albert; Wulffius, Herwig; Jirka, Simon

    2017-04-01

    Measures affecting traffic flows in urban areas, e.g. changing the configuration of traffic lights, are often causing emotional debates by citizens who are affected by these measures. Up to now, citizens are usually not involved in traffic planning and the evaluation of the decisions that were taken. The enviroCar project provides an open platform for collecting and analyzing car sensor data with GPS position data. On the hardware side, enviroCar relies on using Android smartphones and OBD-II Bluetooth adapters. A Web server component collects and aggregates the readings from the cars, anonymizes them and publishes the data as open data which scientists, public administrations or other third parties can utilize for further analysis. In this work, we provide a general overview on the enviroCar project and present a project in a mid-size city in Germany. The city's administration utilized the enviroCar platform with the help of a traffic system consultancy for including citizens in the evaluation process of different traffic light configurations along major traffic axes. Therefore, a public campaign was started including local workshops to engage the citizens. More than 150 citizens were actively collecting more about 9.500 tracks including about 2.5 million measurements. Dedicated evaluation results for the different traffic axes were computed based on the collected data set. Because the data is publicly available as open data, others may prove and reproduce the evaluation results contributing to an objective discussion of traffic planning measures. In summary, the project illustrates how Citizen Science methods and technologies improve traffic planning and related discussions.

  4. LET effects on normal and radiosensitive cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geard, C.R.; Travisano, M.

    1986-01-01

    Charged particles in the track segment mode were produced by the RARAF Van de Graaff accelerator and used to irradiate two CHO cell lines, a radiosensitive hypermutable line EM9 and its normal parent AA8. Asynchronous cells were irradiated attached to 6 micrometer thick Mylar with protons, deuterons and helium-3 particles at LETs ranging from 10 to 150 keV per micrometer. A 50 kVp x-ray tube integrated into the track segment facility provided a low LET comparison. Following irradiation cells were monitored for clonogenicity, and in a separate series of experiments frequencies of sister chromatid exchanges. Up to 9 experiments were carried out at each LET, with a total of 8 radiations of different LETs being compared. The optimally effective LET for cell survival was between 80 and 120 keV per micrometer, with the 150 keV per micrometer particles indicating energy wastage. The differential between the normal and radiosensitive cell lines was maintained at all LETs

  5. An intelligent vehicular traffic signal control system with state flow chart design and fpga prototyping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solangi, U.S.; Memon, T.D.; Noonari, A.S.; Ansari, O.A.

    2017-01-01

    The problem of vehicular traffic congestion is a persistent constraint in the socio-economic development of Pakistan. This paper presents design and implementation of an intelligent traffic controller based on FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) to provide an efficient traffic management by optimizing functioning of traffic lights which will result in minimizing traffic congestion at intersections. The existent Traffic Signal system in Pakistan is fixed-time based and offers only Open Loop method for Traffic Control. The Intelligent Traffic Controller presented here uses feedback sensors to read the Traffic density present at a four way intersection to provide an efficient alternative for better supervisory Control of Traffic flow. The traffic density based control logic has been developed in a State Flow Chart for improved visualization of State Machine based operation, and implemented as a Subsystem in Simulink and transferred into VHDL (Hardware Description Language) code using HDL Coder for reducing development time and time to market, which are essential to capitalize Embedded Systems Market. The VHDL code is synthesized with Altera QUARTUS, simulated timing waveform is obtained to verify correctness of the algorithm for different Traffic Scenarios. For implementation purpose estimations were obtained for Cyclone-III and Stratix-III. (author)

  6. An Intelligent Vehicular Traffic Signal Control System with State Flow Chart Design and FPGA Prototyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UMAIR SAEEDSOLANGI

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of vehicular traffic congestion is a persistent constraint in the socio-economic development of Pakistan. This paper presents design and implementation of an intelligent traffic controller based on FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array to provide an efficient traffic management by optimizing functioning of traffic lights which will result in minimizing traffic congestion at intersections. The existent Traffic Signal system in Pakistan is fixed-time based and offers only Open Loop method for Traffic Control. The Intelligent Traffic Controller presented here uses feedback sensors to read the Traffic density present at a four way intersection to provide an efficient alternative for better supervisory Control of Traffic flow. The traffic density based control logic has been developed in a State Flow Chart for improved visualization of State Machine based operation, and implemented as a Subsystem in Simulink and transferred into VHDL (Hardware Description Language code using HDL Coder for reducing development time and time to market, which are essential to capitalize Embedded Systems Market. The VHDL code is synthesized with Altera QUARTUS, simulated timing waveform is obtained to verify correctness of the algorithm for different Traffic Scenarios. For implementation purpose estimations were obtained for Cyclone-III and Stratix-III.

  7. Automated Traffic and the Finite Size Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerman, J. J. P.; Stošić, B. D.; Tangerman, F. M.

    2009-10-01

    We investigate in detail what one might call the canonical (automated) traffic problem: A long string of N+1 cars (numbered from 0 to N) moves along a one-lane road "in formation" at a constant velocity and with a unit distance between successive cars. Each car monitors the relative velocity and position of only its neighboring cars. This information is then fed back to its own engine which decelerates (brakes) or accelerates according to the information it receives. The question is: What happens when due to an external influence—a traffic light turning green—the `zero'th' car (the "leader") accelerates? As a first approximation, we analyze linear(ized) equations and show that in this scenario the traffic flow has a tendency to be stop-and-go. We give approximate solutions for the global traffic as function of all the relevant parameters (the feed back parameters as well as cruise velocity and so on). We discuss general design principles for these algorithms, that is: how does the choice of parameters influence the performance.

  8. Adaptive response to high LET radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dam, Annamaria; Bogdandi, E. Noemi; Polonyi, Istvan; Sardy, M. Marta; Balashazy, Imre; Palfalvy, Jozsef

    2001-01-01

    The biological consequences of exposure to ionizing radiation include gene mutation, chromosome aberrations, cellular transformation and cell death. These effects are attributed to the DNA damaging effects of the irradiation resulting in irreversible changes during DNA replication or during the processing of the DNA damage by enzymatic repair processes. These repair processes could initiate some adaptive mechanisms in the cell, which could lead to radioadaptive response (RAR). Adaptive responses have typically been detected by exposing cells to a low radiation dose (1-50 mGy) and then challenging the cells with a higher dose of radiation (2-4 Gy) and comparing the outcome to that seen with the challenge dose only. For adaptive response to be seen the challenge dose must be delivered within 24 hour of the inducing dose. Radio-adaptation is extensively studied for low LET radiation. Nevertheless, few data are available for high LET radiation at very low doses and dose rate. Our study was aimed to investigate the radioadaptive response to low-dose neutron irradiation by detection of the genotoxic damage i.e.: hprt-mutant colonies induced. Altered protein synthesis was also studied to identify stress proteins may responsible for radio-adaptation. New alpha particle irradiator system was also built up to study the biological effects of low dose alpha irradiation. The experiments were carried out on monolayers of human melanoma and CHO (Chines Hamster Ovary) cells irradiated by neutrons produced in the biological irradiation channel of the Research Reactor of Budapest Neutron Center. Cells were exposed to 0.5-50 mGy neutron doses with dose rates of 1.59-10 mGy/min. The challenge doses of 2-4 Gy gamma rays were administrated within 1-48 hours after priming treatment. The induced mutants at hprt locus were selected by adding 6-thioguanine and allow to grow for 10 days for expression of the phenotype. The protein synthesis was studied by PAGE, the molecular mass of specific

  9. Actor-Network Theory as I image it. Brief essay on traffic lights La ANT tal como yo la imagino. Breve ensayo sobre el cosmos semafórico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Enrique Silva Rios

    2011-03-01

    ="hps">I decided to do my research in Barcelona only. Later on, for studying people crossing the street, I decided to consider traffic lights as a starting point. Then I undertook the task of preparing a field diary based on some of the notions of Actor-Network Theory as Bruno Latour puts them. I did not use Framework for Traffic Congestion Prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaki, J.F.W.; Ali-Eldin, A.M.T.; Hussein, S.E.; Saraya, S.F.; Areed, F.F.

    2016-01-01

    Traffic Congestion is a complex dilemma facing most major cities. It has undergone a lot of research since the early 80s in an attempt to predict traffic in the short-term. Recently, Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) became an integral part of traffic research which helped in modeling and

  10. Traffic sign detection and analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelmose, Andreas; Trivedi, Mohan M.; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2012-01-01

    Traffic sign recognition (TSR) is a research field that has seen much activity in the recent decade. This paper introduces the problem and presents 4 recent papers on traffic sign detection and 4 recent papers on traffic sign classification. It attempts to extract recent trends in the field...

  11. ITSA: Internet Traffic Statistics Archive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogesteger, Martijn; de Oliveira Schmidt, R.; Pras, Aiko

    Motivated by the fact that comprehensive and long term Internet traffic measurements can be hard to obtain, we have proposed and developed the Internet Traffic Statistics Archive (ITSA). Since 2013, ITSA concentrates reports on high-level statistics of Internet traffic worldwide. Examples of

  12. Distraction in traffic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    Many drivers, as well as cyclists and pedestrians, are occupied with all kinds of activities that can distract their attention from traffic, like listening to music, conducting a conversation on their mobile phone, or reading and typing text messages (texting). Distraction has negative effects on

  13. TRAFFIC - Wildlife Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    growing in Eastern and Southern Africa in response to increased human populations and poverty. fuel-trees etc. Conversely, extreme poverty of others means they regard wildlife as a means to meet their short worldwide. You can also find us online in: mainland China, India, Japan, Taiwan TRAFFIC is a strategic

  14. Decline traffic information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Plessis, K [Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC), Sydney (Australia)

    2007-09-06

    BHP Billion (BHPB) Cannington has experienced problems in regards to their traffic flow in the decline at the mine. The problems related to reports on near misses of vehicles moving towards each other in the decline. The decline is also to narrow for trucks to pass each other and the operators need to be aware of oncoming traffic in the decline to ensure they could take early evasive steps to ensure the rules of right of way in the decline are adhered to. BHPB Cannington requested CSC to conduct a problem analysis and to provide a solutions proposal to Cannington. The solution was put forward as an augmentation of their current safety procedures used with in the decline. During this phase of the project CSC developed a solutions architecture which involved the use of Active (Radio Frequency Identification) RFID tagging which will enable vehicle movement tracking on a real time basis after which the appropriate traffic movement can be relayed to the operators in the decline. The primary objective of the DTIS is to provide accurate information of traffic movement in the decline and present that information to the operators of the decline IN THE DECLINE upon which they would make their decisions. (orig.)

  15. Visualization of vessel traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Moving objects are captured in multivariate trajectories, often large data with multiple attributes. We focus on vessel traffic as a source of such data. Patterns appearing from visually analyzing attributes are used to explain why certain movements have occurred. In this research, we have developed

  16. Alcohol and Traffic Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, Frances Baker, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Seven papers discuss current issues and applied social research concerning alcohol traffic safety. Prevention, policy input, methodology, planning strategies, anti-drinking/driving programs, social-programmatic orientations of Mothers Against Drunk Driving, Kansas Driving Under the Influence Law, New Jersey Driving While Impaired Programs,…

  17. Impact of traffic noise on railway traffic safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravko TOŠ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic noise is one of the dominant factors of ergo-assessment. The harmful impact of traffic noise on the engine driver as target group can be studied in isolation from other ergo-assessment factors only in the initial phase of research. The simultaneous action of several related factors in the system of ergo-assessment factors has cumulative effect on the perception and psychomotoric status of the railway traffic participants in the appropriate traffic situation. The initial partial research of traffic noise by a combination of several scientific methods needs to be eventually upgraded by studying the relations among several concurrent important or dominant ergo-assessment factors.

  18. Assistance System for Traffic Signs Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Zídek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We can see arising trend in the automotive industry in last years – autonomous cars that are driven just by on-board computers. The traffic signs tracking system must deal with real conditions with data that are frequently obtained in poor light conditions, fog, heavy rain or are otherwise disturbed. Completely same problem is solved by mapping companies that are producing geospatial data for different information systems, navigations, etc. They are frequently using cars equipped with a wide range of measuring instruments including panoramic cameras. These measurements are frequently done during early morning hours when the traffic conditions are acceptable. However, in this time, the sun position is usually not optimal for the photography. Most of the traffic signs and other street objects are heavily underexposed. Hence, it is difficult to find an automatic approach that can identify them reliably. In this article, we focus on methods designed to deal with the described conditions. An overview of the state-of-the-art methods is outlined. Further, where it is possible, we outline an implementation of the described methods using well-known Open Computer Vision library. Finally, emphasis is placed on the methods that can deal with low light conditions, fog or other situations that complicate the detection process.

  19. Traffic accidents involving fatigue driving and their extent of casualties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangnan; Yau, Kelvin K W; Zhang, Xun; Li, Yanyan

    2016-02-01

    The rapid progress of motorization has increased the number of traffic-related casualties. Although fatigue driving is a major cause of traffic accidents, the public remains not rather aware of its potential harmfulness. Fatigue driving has been termed as a "silent killer." Thus, a thorough study of traffic accidents and the risk factors associated with fatigue-related casualties is of utmost importance. In this study, we analyze traffic accident data for the period 2006-2010 in Guangdong Province, China. The study data were extracted from the traffic accident database of China's Public Security Department. A logistic regression model is used to assess the effect of driver characteristics, type of vehicles, road conditions, and environmental factors on fatigue-related traffic accident occurrence and severity. On the one hand, male drivers, trucks, driving during midnight to dawn, and morning rush hours are identified as risk factors of fatigue-related crashes but do not necessarily result in severe casualties. Driving at night without street-lights contributes to fatigue-related crashes and severe casualties. On the other hand, while factors such as less experienced drivers, unsafe vehicle status, slippery roads, driving at night with street-lights, and weekends do not have significant effect on fatigue-related crashes, yet accidents associated with these factors are likely to have severe casualties. The empirical results of the present study have important policy implications on the reduction of fatigue-related crashes as well as their severity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Web traffic and firm performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Aguenaou, Samir

    2013-01-01

    Does the traffic generated by websites of firms signal anything to stock market participants? Does higher web-traffic translate into availability of more information and therefore lower agency problems? And if answers to above questions are in affirmative, does higher web-traffic traffic translate...... into better firm performance? This paper aims to answer these questions by documenting a positive relationship between the extent of web-traffic and firm performance in the MENA region during the 2010. We argue that higher web-traffic lowers the agency problems in firms by disseminating more information...... to stock market participants. Consequently, lower agency problems translate into better performance. Furthermore, we also show that agency reducing role of web-traffic is more pronounced in regimes where information environment is already bad. For example, our results show stronger impact of web...

  2. The trend of road traffic crashes at urban signalised intersection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhana Nasarrudin, Nurul; Razelan, Intan Suhana Mohd

    2018-04-01

    Road traffic crash is one of the main contributing factors for deaths in the world. Intersection is listed as the second road type which road crashes occurred frequently. Hence, the traffic light was installed to minimise the road crashes at intersection. However, the crashes are still occurring and arising. The objective of this study was to exhibit the trend of road crashes at the signalised intersections. The data of road crashes for the past 6 years were analysed using descriptive analysis. The results showed that the road traffic crashes at three- and four-legged signalised intersection recorded the increasing trend. In conclusion, this finding shows that the road traffic crashes for these types of signalised intersection in Malaysia is rising. It is also one the contributors to the increasing number of crashes in Malaysia. This finding will encourage the local authority to conduct awareness programs on the safety at the signalised intersection.

  3. Biomarkers specific to densely-ionising (high LET) radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, D.J.; Okladnikova, N.; Hande, P.; Burak, L.; Geard, C.R.; Azizova, T.

    2001-01-01

    There have been several suggestions of biomarkers that are specific to high LET radiation. Such a biomarker could significantly increase the power of epidemiological studies of individuals exposed to densely-ionising radiations such as alpha particles (e.g. radon, plutonium workers, individuals exposed to depleted uranium) or neutrons (e.g. radiation workers, airline personnel). We discuss here a potentially powerful high LET biomarker (the H value) which is the ratio of induced inter-chromosomal aberrations to intra-arm aberrations. Both theoretical and experimental studies have suggested that this ratio should differ by a factor of about three between high LET radiation and any other likely clastogen, and will yield more discrimination than the previously suggested F value (ratio of inter-chromosomal aberrations to intra-chromosomal inter-arm aberrations). Evidence of the long-term stability of such chromosomal biomarkers has also been generated. Because these stable intra-arm and inter-chromosomal aberrations are (1) frequent and (2) measurable at long times after exposure, this H value appears to be a practical biomarker of high LET exposure, and several in vitro studies have confirmed the approach for unstable aberrations. The approach is currently being tested in a population of Russian radiation workers exposed several decades ago to high- or low LET radiation. (author)

  4. A simple theory of LET spectra of heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.W.; Townsend, L.W.; Schimmerling, W.; Norbury, J.W.; Wong, M.; Badavi, F.

    1985-01-01

    The transition of high energy ion beams through extended matter is of considerable interest to the space program as well as radiobiology and medical therapy. The transition is defined in terms of various atomic/molecular and nuclear cross sections in a Boltzmann-like equation. One dimensional solutions are derived herein from which LET spectra are derived for secondary fragments. Such LET spectra are fundamental to the evaluation of beam quality, biological effects, and radiation shield effectiveness. Sensitivity of LET spectral distributions to uncertainty in physical parameters such as the isotopic fragmentation parameters, fragment mass, and absorption cross section is established for a number of ion beams. The main limitation in LET studies is the paucity of both elemental and isotopic fragmentation data. The elemental fragmentation data is more readily available because of its simple experimental procedures. It has been suggested by some that natural abundance ratios should be used with the elemental cross sections but this leads to an order-of-magnitude error in LET spectra in many cases. Very few examples of isotopic fragmentation measurements are available. Although major advances in nuclear fragmentation theory have been made, we must await more extensive isotopic fragmentation experiments for final validation

  5. Fast Neutrons - LET Distributions and the Response of Mammalian Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bewley, D. K. [Medical Research Council Cyclotron Unit, Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    1968-03-15

    Distributions of stopping power (LET) are given for four beams of fast neutrons, namely, neutrons of 14.6 MeV, neutrons produced by bombarding a thick beryllium target with 15 MeV deuterons, neutrons of 3 MeV, and fast neutrons produced by bombardment of a {sup 235}U converter plate with thermal neutrons. The track average LET is correlated with mean neutron energy, but the dose average is approximately constant. However, neither of these types of average is expected to have much relevance to radiobiology. Further, specification of a ''biologically effective LET'' depends on the biological test used, and is not solely a function of the radiation quality. An attempt has been made to calculate the response of T.I. kidney cells in tissue culture to these four beams of neutrons, based on their response to charged particles using the track-segment method. The calculated RBE's of the neutron beams are lower than the observed values and the calculated values of the oxygen enhancement ratio are higher. These differences seem too great to be explained by errors in dosimetry and in the calculated LET spectra. The suggestion is made that LET is not an adequate criterion of radiation quality, and that the discrepancies may be explained by more detailed consideration of the part played by delta rays and by heavy recoil tracks of short range. (author)

  6. The inactivation of papain by high LET radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisby, R.H.; Cundall, R.B.; Sims, H.E.; Burns, W.G.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of varying LET over a wide range (0.2-1570 eV/nm) on the radiation-induced inactivation of the enzyme papain in dilute aqueous solution has been investigated. Measurements of total, reparable and non-reparable inactivation G values in oxygen, nitrous oxide and argon saturated solutions have allowed the contributions to inactivation from radicals and hydrogen peroxide to be evaluated. At high LET the results demonstrate an increasing component due to reaction of the superoxide radical, formed from oxygen produced in the track as a primary radiolysis product. This effect was not observed in our previous study with ribonuclease due to the insensitivity of ribonuclease to inactivation by superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. The results obtained with papain clearly demonstrate a maximum in G(H 2 O 2 ) at an LET of equivalent to 140 eV/nm. Generation of O 2 within the track as a primary radiolysis product at high LET now appears to be confirmed as an important mechanism leading to reduction in the oxygen enhancement ratio for cellular systems exposed to high LET radiations (Baverstock and Burns 1981). (author)

  7. Inaccuracy in traffic forecasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent; Holm, Mette K. Skamris; Buhl, Søren Ladegaard

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents results from the first statistically significant study of traffic forecasts in transportation infrastructure projects. The sample used is the largest of its kind, covering 210 projects in 14 nations worth US$58 billion. The study shows with very high statistical significance...... that forecasters generally do a poor job of estimating the demand for transportation infrastructure projects. The result is substantial downside financial and economic risk. Forecasts have not become more accurate over the 30-year period studied. If techniques and skills for arriving at accurate demand forecasts...... forecasting. Highly inaccurate traffic forecasts combined with large standard deviations translate into large financial and economic risks. But such risks are typically ignored or downplayed by planners and decision-makers, to the detriment of social and economic welfare. The paper presents the data...

  8. The Use of Adaptive Traffic Signal Systems Based on Floating Car Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Astarita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simple concept which has not been, up to now, thoroughly explored in scientific research: the use of information coming from the network of Internet connected mobile devices (on vehicles to regulate traffic light systems. Three large-scale changes are going to shape the future of transportation and could lead to the regulation of traffic signal system based on floating car data (FCD: (i the implementation of Internet connected cars with global navigation satellite (GNSS system receivers and the autonomous car revolution; (ii the spreading of mobile cooperative Web 2.0 and the extension to connected vehicles; (iii an increasing need for sustainability of transportation in terms of energy efficiency, traffic safety, and environmental issues. Up to now, the concept of floating car data (FCD has only been extensively used to obtain traffic information and estimate traffic parameters. Traffic lights regulation based on FCD technology has not been fully researched since the implementation requires new ideas and algorithms. This paper intends to provide a seminal insight into the important issue of adaptive traffic light based on FCD by presenting ideas that can be useful to researchers and engineers in the long-term task of developing new algorithms and systems that may revolutionize the way traffic lights are regulated.

  9. Traffic Responsive Control of Intersections with Predicted Arrival Times: A Markovian Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haijema, R.; Hendrix, E.M.T.

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic adaptive control of traffic lights can be formulated as a Markov decision problem (MDP). This framework is hardly used, as solving an MDP can be very time-consuming and is only possible for simple infrastructures with a small number of traffic flows. Nevertheless, we show that the MDP

  10. Metering with Traffic Signal Control : Development and Evaluation of an Algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taale, H.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.; Legius, P.

    2015-01-01

    For some on-ramps, which cause congestion on the motorway, it is not possible to install a ramp metering system for geometric or other reasons. But sometimes it is possible to meter traffic with the traffic lights of nearby intersections in such a way that the situation on the motorway improves and

  11. Daytime running lights : the attention light : a literature survey of daytime running lights for motor vehicles and their effect on road safety in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polak, P.H.

    1987-01-01

    In the history of (motorised) traffic, the role of lighting has assumed increasing importance, not only at night but also during daylight hours. Studies in the U.S. and Sweden demonstrated the positive effect of daytime running lights (DRL) on traffic safety. The aim of this study is to investigate

  12. Assessing Road Traffic Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic is a problem which is increasing in cities with large population. Unrelated to this fact the number of portable and wearable devices has also been increasing throughout the population of most countries. With this advent, the capacity to monitor and register data about people habits and locations as well as more complex data such as intensity and strength of movements has created an opportunity to contribute to the general wealth and comfort within these environments. Ambient Intelligence and Intelligent Decision Making processes can benefit from the knowledge gathered by these devices to improve decisions on everyday tasks such as deciding navigation routes by car, bicycle or other means of transportation and avoiding route perils. The concept of computational sustainability may also be applied to this problem. Current applications in this area demonstrate the usefulness of real time system that inform the user of certain conditions in the surrounding area. On the other hand, the approach presented in this work aims to describe models and approaches to automatically identify current states of traffic inside cities and use methods from computer science to improve overall comfort and the sustainability of road traffic both with the user and the environment in mind. Such objective is delivered by analyzing real time contributions from those mobile ubiquitous devices to identifying problematic situations and areas under a defined criteria that have significant influence towards a sustainable use of the road transport infrastructure.

  13. Mutagenic effect of radiations of various LET on Salmonella cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozubek, S.; Krasavin, E.A.; Amirtaev, K.G.; Tokarova, B.; Basha, S.G.

    1989-01-01

    Regularities of mutagenic effect of heavy charged particles of helium, deuterium ions and protons on various strains of Salmonella typhimurium were studied. Linear dose dependences of mutation frequency in the range of low doses were revealed. A conclusion was made that mutation process at low dose irradiation is determined in various teststrains of Salmonella typhimurium by certain premutation injuries. Quite a different picture is observed in mutation process in case of high dose irradiation where effect of inducible SOS-repair is distinctly manifested. Not only spectra of primary DNA injuries but probability of their fixation into mutation can change with the increase of LET. If fixation probability doesn't change with LET increase for replicative mutagenesis which make basis contribution to linear component of dose dependence of mutation frequency the probability of fixation is increased for reparative mutagenesis. It accounts for increase of values of relative genetic efficiency with LET increase. 7 refs.; 6 figs.; 1 tab

  14. High LET radiation and mechanism of DNA damage repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furusawa, Yoshiya

    2004-01-01

    Clarifying the mechanism of repair from radiation damage gives most important information on radiation effects on cells. Approximately 10% of biological experiments groups in Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) cooperative research group has performed the subject. They gave a lot of new findings on the mechanism, and solved some open questions. The reason to show the peak of relative biological effectiveness RBE at around 100-200 keV/μm causes miss-repair of DNA damage. Sub-lethal damage generated by high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation can be repaired fully. Potentially lethal damages by high-LET radiation also repaired, but the efficiency decreased with the LET, and so on. (author)

  15. LET dependence of scintillation yields in liquid argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doke, Tadayoshi; Hitachi, Akira; Kikuchi, Jun; Crawford, H J; Lindstrom, P J; Masuda, Kimiaki; Shibamura, Eido; Takahashi, Tan

    1988-06-01

    Scintillation yields (scintillation intensity per unit absorbed energy) in liquid argon for ionizing particles are reviewed as a function of LET for the particles. The maximum scintillation yield, which is obtained for relativistic heavy ions from Ne to La, is about 1.2 times larger than that for gamma rays in NaI(Tl) crystal. In the low LET region, the scintillation yields for relativistic electrons, protons and He ions are 10-20% lower than the maximum yield. This tendency can be explained by taking into account the existence of the electrons which have escaped from their parent ions. In the high LET region, a quenching effect due to high ionization density is observed for alpha particles, fission fragments and relativistic Au ions.

  16. Association between light absorption measurements of PM2.5 and distance from heavy traffic roads in the Mexico City metropolitan area Asociación entre las mediciones de PM2.5 por absorbancia y la distancia a vías de alto tráfico en la zona metropolitana de la Ciudad de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Cortez-Lugo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between light absorption measurements of PM2.5 at various distances from heavy traffic roads and diesel vehicle counts in Mexico City. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PM2.5 samples were obtained from June 2003-June 2005 in three MCMA regions. Light absorption (b abs in a subset of PM2.5 samples was determined. We evaluated the effect of distance and diesel vehicle counts to heavy traffic roads on PM2.5 b abs using generalized estimating equation models. RESULTS: Median PM2.5 b abs measurements significantly decrease as distance from heavy traffic roads increases (pOBJETIVO: Evaluar la relación entre las mediciones de absorción de luz de las PM2.5 a diferentes distancias de vías de tráfico y el aforo vehicular de diesel en la Ciudad de México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizaron mediciones de PM2.5 y su análisis de b abs en tres zonas de la Ciudad de México. Se usaron modelos GEE para evaluar el efecto de la distancia y el aforo vehicular de tráfico pesado sobre PM2.5 b abs. RESULTADOS: Se observó una tendencia decreciente en la mediana de PM2.5 b abs conforme se incrementó la distancia a las avenidas de alto tráfico (p<0.002; los niveles decrecen en 7% (CI95% 0.9-14 por cada 100 metros de incremento. Las mediciones de PM2.5 b abs se incrementan en 20% (CI95% 3-38 cuando el aforo vehicular a diesel es mayor de 150 en una hora. CONCLUSIONES: Las mediciones de PM2.5 b abs están significativamente asociadas con la distancia de avenidas con alto tránsito vehicular y con vehículos de diesel.

  17. Traffic Games: Modeling Freeway Traffic with Game Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Berrueco, Luis E; Gershenson, Carlos; Stephens, Christopher R

    2016-01-01

    We apply game theory to a vehicular traffic model to study the effect of driver strategies on traffic flow. The resulting model inherits the realistic dynamics achieved by a two-lane traffic model and aims to incorporate phenomena caused by driver-driver interactions. To achieve this goal, a game-theoretic description of driver interaction was developed. This game-theoretic formalization allows one to model different lane-changing behaviors and to keep track of mobility performance. We simulate the evolution of cooperation, traffic flow, and mobility performance for different modeled behaviors. The analysis of these results indicates a mobility optimization process achieved by drivers' interactions.

  18. Apoptosis induced by high- and low-LET radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendry, J.H.; Potten, C.S.; Merritt, A.

    1995-01-01

    Cell death after irradiation occurs by apoptosis in certain cell populations in tissues. The phenomenon also occurs after high linear energy transfer (LET) irradiation, and the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) is 3 to 4 (with respect to low-LET radiation and apoptosis in intestinal crypts) for neutrons with energies of 14 MeV and up to 600 MeV. It is thought that p53 plays a role in the phenomenon, as radiation-induced apoptosis is not observed in p53-null animals. (orig.)

  19. Prophage λ induction by ionizing radiation of different LETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonev, M.N.; Kozubek, S.; Krasavin, E.A.; Amirtaev, K.G.

    1988-01-01

    The λ prophage induction caused by γ-irradiation and accelerated heavy ions with different LET was studied in variety Escherichia coli strains. The induction frequency on the dose I(D) shaped a curve with a maximum in the strains which possess recA + /lexA + genotype. The inductivity of these strains increases as well as LET and an alteration poor → rich media does it. Unlike I(D) for recA + /lexA + , the dependence I(D) for recA, lexA and recBC strains was a constant. 15 refs.; 6 figs.; 3 tabs

  20. Traffic forecasts ignoring induced demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter; Nicolaisen, Morten Skou; Strand, Arvid

    2012-01-01

    the model calculations included only a part of the induced traffic, the difference in cost-benefit results compared to the model excluding all induced traffic was substantial. The results show lower travel time savings, more adverse environmental impacts and a considerably lower benefitcost ratio when...... induced traffic is partly accounted for than when it is ignored. By exaggerating the economic benefits of road capacity increase and underestimating its negative effects, omission of induced traffic can result in over-allocation of public money on road construction and correspondingly less focus on other...... performance of a proposed road project in Copenhagen with and without short-term induced traffic included in the transport model. The available transport model was not able to include long-term induced traffic resulting from changes in land use and in the level of service of public transport. Even though...

  1. Evaluation of mobile source greenhouse gas emissions for assessment of traffic management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in investigating the air quality benefits of traffic : management strategies in light of challenges associated with the global warming and climate change. : However, there has been a lack of syst...

  2. Traffic accidents: an econometric investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Tito Moreira; Adolfo Sachsida; Loureiro Paulo

    2004-01-01

    Based on a sample of drivers in Brasilia's streets, this article investigates whether distraction explains traffic accidents. A probit model is estimated to determine the predictive power of several variables on traffic accidents. The main conclusion drawn from this study is that the proxies used to measure distraction, such as the use of cell phones and cigarette smoking in a moving vehicle, are significant factors in determining traffic accidents.

  3. Depression and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Road Traffic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... Depression and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Road Traffic. Accident Victims ... that is more in line with a case–control model. For example, instead of ... Asuquo et al. in light of the first (of the above two proposals).

  4. Traffic-related air pollution and spectacles use in schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dadvand, Payam; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Basagaña, Xavier; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Dalmau-Bueno, Albert; Cirach, Marta; Rivas, Ioar; Brunekreef, Bert; Querol, Xavier; Morgan, Ian G; Sunyer, Jordi

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the association between exposure to traffic-related air pollution and use of spectacles (as a surrogate measure for myopia) in schoolchildren. METHODS: We analyzed the impact of exposure to NO2 and PM2.5 light absorbance at home (predicted by land-use regression models) and

  5. OPTIMASI BANDWITH MENGGUNAKAN TRAFFIC SHAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Riadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan layanan komunikasi telah berkembang sangat pesat. Salah satunya adalah pemanfaatan penggunaan bandwith untuk mengakases jaringan Internet. Traffic shapping bandwidth dapat memberikan efesiensi dalam hal pemanfaatan bandwidth pada instansi yang melakukan manajemen dalam lalulintas jaringannya. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode literatur yaitu metode pengumpulan data yang dilakukan dengan mengumpulkan sumber- sumber data yang terkait dan metode eksperimen yaitu melakukan penelitian dengan mengkonfigurasi Mikrotik RouterOS untuk melakukan traffic shapping bandwidth. Hasil penelitian ini adalah router yang dapat melakukan traffic shapping sehingga kualitas koneksi menjadi lebih baik untuk mengakses dan mengambil data dari sebuah website. Kata kunci : Optimasi, Bandwith, Traffic Shapping, MikroTik. 

  6. Bicycle traffic in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Zorica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cycling is a term describing the use of bicycles, but also any mean of transport driven solely by human power. Development of bicycle traffic in urban areas involves construction of cycling infrastructure, adapting streets and other traffic infrastructure to a form suitable for cycling and other means of transport (individual motorized traffic, public transport, walking, ensuring the adequate budget and systematic planning and development of sustainable transport in cities. The paper presents basic settings and conditions as input elements to plan bicycle traffic in urban areas, as well as program- design conditions which lead the activities of planners and designers of urban roads in connection with cyclists.

  7. On acceleration dependence of Doppler effect in light

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    being the speed of light (in vacuum). Now, at the aforementioned initial instant of time, let the observer at O move with uniform velocity v making an angle θ with the line SO, the initial line-of-sight with the source, as shown in figure 1a. Furthermore, let the wave at M reach the observer at point. P after a lapse T of time.

  8. The Conception Approach to the Traffic Control in Czech Cities - Examples from Prague

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichý, Tomáš; Krajčír, Dušan

    Modern and economic development of contemporary towns is without question highly dependent upon traffic infrastructure progress. Automobile transport intensity is dramatically rising in large towns and other Czech and European cities. At the same time number of traffic congestions and accidents is increasing, standing times are becoming longer and ecological stress is also escalated. To solve this situation seems to be the most effective solution to design intelligent traffic light intersection control system, variable message signs, preference of public transportation, road line traffic control and next telematics subsystems. This control system and subsystems should improve permeability of traffic road network with a respect for all demands on recent trends of traffic development in towns and regions.

  9. Computing Programs for Determining Traffic Flows from Roundabouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroiu, A. A.; Tabacu, I.; Ene, A.; Neagu, E.; Boroiu, A.

    2017-10-01

    For modelling road traffic at the level of a road network it is necessary to specify the flows of all traffic currents at each intersection. These data can be obtained by direct measurements at the traffic light intersections, but in the case of a roundabout this is not possible directly and the literature as well as the traffic modelling software doesn’t offer ways to solve this issue. Two sets of formulas are proposed by which all traffic flows from the roundabouts with 3 or 4 arms are calculated based on the streams that can be measured. The objective of this paper is to develop computational programs to operate with these formulas. For each of the two sets of analytical relations, a computational program was developed in the Java operating language. The obtained results fully confirm the applicability of the calculation programs. The final stage for capitalizing these programs will be to make them web pages in HTML format, so that they can be accessed and used on the Internet. The achievements presented in this paper are an important step to provide a necessary tool for traffic modelling because these computational programs can be easily integrated into specialized software.

  10. Lagrangian generic second order traffic flow models for node

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Khelifi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study sheds light on higher order macroscopic traffic flow modeling on road networks, thanks to the generic second order models (GSOM family which embeds a myriad of traffic models. It has been demonstrated that such higher order models are easily solved in Lagrangian coordinates which are compatible with both microscopic and macroscopic descriptions. The generalized GSOM model is reformulated in the Lagrangian coordinate system to develop a more efficient numerical method. The difficulty in applying this approach on networks basically resides in dealing with node dynamics. Traffic flow characteristics at node are different from that on homogeneous links. Different geometry features can lead to different critical research issues. For instance, discontinuity in traffic stream can be an important issue for traffic signal operations, while capacity drop may be crucial for lane-merges. The current paper aims to establish and analyze a new adapted node model for macroscopic traffic flow models by applying upstream and downstream boundary conditions on the Lagrangian coordinates in order to perform simulations on networks of roads, and accompanying numerical method. The internal node dynamics between upstream and downstream links are taken into account of the node model. Therefore, a numerical example is provided to underscore the efficiency of this approach. Simulations show that the discretized node model yields accurate results. Additional kinematic waves and contact discontinuities are induced by the variation of the driver attribute.

  11. A critique of Katz's 'High LET constraint on low LET survival'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, P.R.J.; Chesters, M.S.

    1979-01-01

    Katz's interpretation of the connexion between RBE and LET is contrasted with a version published previously by Burch. The implications of Katz's model for dose-response relations apply only at ultra-high absorbed doses in Burch's model. In the latter, the shoulder on type-C survival curves for mammalian cells is explained in terms of Haynes' repair model. Under certain conditions the repair model becomes mathematically equivalent to the α-β model; under some other conditions it becomes equivalent to the 'two-component' model. The formulation of a new repair hypothesis, based on the idea of an inducible repair mechanism, is also set out. It is argued that Katz's supralinearity index' is appropriate to the induction of (rare) mutations but inappropriate to cell survival, for which an alternative index is proposed. Certain plausible hypotheses of radiobiological action conflict with Katz's 'logical constraint' which, it is contended, is neither logical nor valid. In conclusion, although experimental findings for some radiobiological systems conform to Katz's 'constraint', the frequently observed violations should not necessarily be regarded as artefacts. (author)

  12. Traffic Infrastructure in the Development of the Croatian Traffic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Šimulčik

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The absence of a long-term traffic policy and of the policyof financing the constntction and maintenance of traffic infrastructurefacilities, represents a synthesis of numerous unresolvedrelations whose negative effects are felt in the overalleconomic and traffic development and consequently theevaluation of national potentials in the field. Adverse aspectcaused by the lack of a clear and feasible policy of financing thetraffic infrastructure facilities, is also a result of not having definedan adequate traffic policy, programme and strategiccourses of development, nor financing models that would be inaccordance with the market and economy system.This indicates that it is necessary to determine a policy forfinancing the constntction and maintenance of traffic infrastntcture,which has to be based on scientific development,team work, availability of plans and programmes to scientistsand experts, determined methodology based on marketing andeconomic logic in defining the programme and strategic tasksand assignments so as to make them feasible.In the near future, intensive preparations for investments inthe overall traffic sysiem are necessary, especially regarding thetraffic infrastntcture facilities - the pivotal points in the processof evaluating the traffic in our national tenitory. Croatia needsto define clearly its strategy in constructing and maintaining thegeneral traffic infrastructure, appointing at the same time thosewho will carry out the given tasks.

  13. Real time traffic models, decision support for traffic management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, Luc Johannes Josephus; de Romph, E.; Friso, K.; Zantema, K.

    2014-01-01

    Reliable and accurate short-term traffic state prediction can improve the performance of real-time traffic management systems significantly. Using this short-time prediction based on current measurements delivered by advanced surveillance systems will support decision-making processes on various

  14. Real Time Traffic Models, Decision Support for Traffic Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, L.; De Romph, E.; Friso, K.; Zantema, K.

    2014-01-01

    Reliable and accurate short-term traffic state prediction can improve the performance of real-time traffic management systems significantly. Using this short-time prediction based on current measurements delivered by advanced surveillance systems will support decision-making processes on various

  15. Particulate matter urban air pollution from traffic car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filip, G. M.; Brezoczki, V. M.

    2017-05-01

    The particulate matters (PM) are very important compounds of urban air pollution. There are a lot of air pollution sources who can generate PM and one of the most important of them it is urban traffic car. Air particulate matters have a major influence on human health so everywhere are looking for PM reducing solutions. It is knows that one of the solution for reduce the PM content from car traffic on ambient urban air is the fluidity of urban traffic car by introduction the roundabout intersections. This paper want to present some particulate matter determinations for PM10 and PM2.5 conducted on the two types of urban intersection respectively traffic light and roundabout intersections in Baia Mare town in the approximate the same work conditions. The determinations were carried out using a portable particulate matter monitor Haz - Dust model EPAM - 5000, who can provide a real time data for PM10, PM 2.5.Determinations put out that there are differences between the two locations regarding the PM content on ambient air. On roundabout intersection the PM content is less than traffic light intersection for both PM10 and PM 2.5 with more than 30%.

  16. Safety effects of permanent running lights for bicycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens Chr. Overgaard; Andersen, T.; Lahrmann, Harry

    2013-01-01

    , including all recorded bicycle accidents with personal injury to the participating cyclist, is 19% lower for cyclists with permanent running lights mounted; indicating that the permanent bicycle running light significantly improves traffic safety for cyclists. The study shows that use of permanent bicycle......Making the use of daytime running lights mandatory for motor vehicles is generally documented to have had a positive impact upon traffic safety. Improving traffic safety for bicyclists is a focal point in the road traffic safety work in Denmark. In 2004 and 2005 a controlled experiment including...... 3845 cyclists was carried out in Odense, Denmark in order to examine, if permanent running lights mounted to bicycles would improve traffic safety for cyclists. The permanent running lights were mounted to 1845 bicycles and the accident rate was recorded through 12 months for this treatment group...

  17. Biological fingerprint of high LET radiation. Brenner hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Yoshiaki; Awa, Akio; Nakamura, Nori

    1997-01-01

    Hypothesis by Brenner et al. (1994) that in chromosome aberrations in human peripheral lymphocytes induced by radiation exposure, F value (dicentrics/rings) differs dependently on the LET and can be a biomarker of high LET radiation like neutron and α-ray was reviewed and evaluated as follows. Radiation and chromosome aberrations; in this section, unstable aberrations like dicentric and rings (r) and stable ones like translocation and pericentric inversions were described. F value. Brenner hypothesis. Bauchinger's refutation. F value determined by FISH method; here, FISH is fluorescence in situ hybridization. F value in studies by author's Radiation Effect Research Facility. Frequency of chromosome aberration in A-bomb survivors and ESR (ESR: electron spin resonance). The cause for fluctuation of F values. The Brenner hypothesis could not be supported by studies by author's facility, suggesting that the rate of inter-chromosomal and intra-chromosomal exchange abnormalities can not be distinguishable by the radiation LET. This might be derived from the difference in detection technology of r rather than in LET. (K.H.)

  18. Irradiation of single cells with individual high-LET particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, J.M.; Braby, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    The dose-limiting normal tissue of concern when irradiating head and neck lesions is often the vascular endothelium within the treatment field. Consequently, the response of capillary endothelial cells exposed to moderate doses of high LET particles is essential for establishing exposure limits for neutron-capture therapy. In an effort to characterize the high-LET radiation biology of cultured endothelial cells, the authors are attempting to measure cellular response to single particles. The single-particle irradiation apparatus, described below, allows them to expose individual cells to known numbers of high-LET particles and follow these cells for extended periods, in order to assess the impact of individual particles on cell growth kinetics. Preliminary cell irradiation experiments have revealed complications related to the smooth and efficient operation of the equipment; these are being resolved. Therefore, the following paragraphs deal primarily with the manner by which high LET particles deposit energy, the requirements for single-cell irradiation, construction and assembly of such apparatus, and testing of experimental procedures, rather than with the radiation biology of endothelial cells

  19. Let's Play: Exploring Literacy Practices in an Emerging Videogame Paratext

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burwell, Catherine; Miller, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the literacy practices associated with Let's Play videos (or LPs) on YouTube. A hybrid of digital gaming and video, LPs feature gameplay footage accompanied by simultaneous commentary recorded by the player. Players may set out to promote, review, critique or satirize a game. In recent years, LPs have become hugely popular…

  20. Operation of a hemispherical detector for LET measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schell, M.C.; DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Pearson, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    A hemispherical ΔE/E detector has been constructed and tested for the measurement of linear-energy-transfer distributions of charged particles induced by fast neutrons. The initial performance test results and LET distributions from 14.8-MeV monoenergetic neutron irradiation in free space of carbon, lead, and Al50-plastic are presented

  1. Evaluation of normal tissue responses to high-LET radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halnan, K.E.

    1979-01-01

    Clinical results presented have been analysed to evaluate normal tissue responses to high-LET radiations. Damage to brain, spinal cord, gut, skin, connective tissue and bone has occurred. A high RBE is probable for brain and possible for spinal cord and gut but other reasons for damage are also discussed. A net gain seems likely. Random controlled trials are advocated. (author)

  2. Don't Let Osteoporosis Slow You Down | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... has never let anything stop her from doing what she loves, and she wasn't about to let osteoporosis keep her off the dance floor. It's that kind of spirit that led the National Osteoporosis Foundation (NOF) to ...

  3. Road safety and daytime running lights : a concise overview of the evidence. Paper presented to the Joint Meeting of the ECMT's Road Safety Committee and Committee for Road Traffic Signs and Signals, the Hague, The Netherlands, 15 March 1989.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornstra, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    It is concluded that in Europe and particular in the Netherlands, an obligation for daytime running lights will most likely reduce the number of daytime multiple accidents by about 25% and will surely reduce these accidents by more. / than 10%. Since in the Netherlands the number of these accidents

  4. Differences of Driving Experience and Gender on Traffic Offences Among Malaysian Motorists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liew Sharifah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study attempt to examine the influence of driving experience and gender on different traffic offences. Questionnaire survey was conducted to measure the frequency of committing eleven types of traffic. Data collected were analysed using t-test and Chi-square. Results indicate that male drivers have high score in speeding, red light running, tailgating and using emergency lane. Significant differences emerged between driving experiences in speeding, red light running, dangerously cutting into traffic, using hand phone while driving/riding and driving/riding with noncompliance specification vehicle.

  5. A Cooperative Traffic Control of Vehicle–Intersection (CTCVI) for the Reduction of Traffic Delays and Fuel Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinjian; Dridi, Mahjoub; El-Moudni, Abdellah

    2016-01-01

    The problem of reducing traffic delays and decreasing fuel consumption simultaneously in a network of intersections without traffic lights is solved by a cooperative traffic control algorithm, where the cooperation is executed based on the connection of Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I). This resolution of the problem contains two main steps. The first step concerns the itinerary of which intersections are chosen by vehicles to arrive at their destination from their starting point. Based on the principle of minimal travel distance, each vehicle chooses its itinerary dynamically based on the traffic loads in the adjacent intersections. The second step is related to the following proposed cooperative procedures to allow vehicles to pass through each intersection rapidly and economically: on one hand, according to the real-time information sent by vehicles via V2I in the edge of the communication zone, each intersection applies Dynamic Programming (DP) to cooperatively optimize the vehicle passing sequence with minimal traffic delays so that the vehicles may rapidly pass the intersection under the relevant safety constraints; on the other hand, after receiving this sequence, each vehicle finds the optimal speed profiles with the minimal fuel consumption by an exhaustive search. The simulation results reveal that the proposed algorithm can significantly reduce both travel delays and fuel consumption compared with other papers under different traffic volumes. PMID:27999333

  6. A Cooperative Traffic Control of Vehicle–Intersection (CTCVI for the Reduction of Traffic Delays and Fuel Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinjian Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of reducing traffic delays and decreasing fuel consumption simultaneously in a network of intersections without traffic lights is solved by a cooperative traffic control algorithm, where the cooperation is executed based on the connection of Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I. This resolution of the problem contains two main steps. The first step concerns the itinerary of which intersections are chosen by vehicles to arrive at their destination from their starting point. Based on the principle of minimal travel distance, each vehicle chooses its itinerary dynamically based on the traffic loads in the adjacent intersections. The second step is related to the following proposed cooperative procedures to allow vehicles to pass through each intersection rapidly and economically: on one hand, according to the real-time information sent by vehicles via V2I in the edge of the communication zone, each intersection applies Dynamic Programming (DP to cooperatively optimize the vehicle passing sequence with minimal traffic delays so that the vehicles may rapidly pass the intersection under the relevant safety constraints; on the other hand, after receiving this sequence, each vehicle finds the optimal speed profiles with the minimal fuel consumption by an exhaustive search. The simulation results reveal that the proposed algorithm can significantly reduce both travel delays and fuel consumption compared with other papers under different traffic volumes.

  7. Visual ergonomic evaluations on four different designs of LED traffic signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Chun; Huang, Ting-Yuan; Lee, Tsung-Xian; Sun, Ching-Cherng

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the legibility and visual comfort of LED traffic signs, an ergonomic experiment is performed on four custom-designed LED traffic signs, including three self-luminous ones as LED lightbox, LED backlight and regional LED backlight, and one non-self-luminous sign with external LED lighting. The four signs are hanged side-by-side and evaluated by observers through questionnaires. The signage dimension is one-sixth of the real freeway traffic signs, and the observation distance is 25 m. The luminance of three self-luminous signs is 216 cd/m2. The illuminance of external LED lighting is 400 lux on the traffic sign. The ambient illuminance is 2.8 and 6.0 lux in two rounds. The results show that self-luminous traffic signs provide superior legibility, visual comfort and user preference than the non-self-luminous one. Among the three self-luminous signs, regional LED backlight is most susceptible to the ambient illumination. LED lightbox has significantly better preference score than LED backlight under darker ambient lighting. Only LED lightbox has significantly better visual comfort than external LED lighting in the brighter environment. Based on the four LED traffic signs evaluated in this study, we suggest LED lightbox as the prior choice. Further investigations on the effect of ambient illumination and other designs of self-luminous traffic signs are in progress.

  8. Let's Exploit Available Knowledge on Vegetation Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnani, Federico; Raddi, Sabrina; Mohammed, Gina; Middleton, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    The potential to measure vegetation fluorescence from space (1) and to derive from it direct information on the gross primary productivity (GPP) of terrestrial ecosystems is probably the most thrilling development in remote sensing and global ecology of recent years, as it moves Earth observation techniques from the detection of canopy biophysics (e.g., fraction of absorbed radiation) and biochemistry (chlorophyll and nitrogen content) to the realm of ecosystem function. The existence of a functional relationship between fluorescence and photosynthesis has been elucidated over the last decade by several laboratories, notably as part of the preliminary studies of the European Space Agency Fluorescence Explorer (FLEX) Earth Explorer Mission. The empirical observation presented by Guanter et al. (2) of a linear relationship between fluorescence radiance and GPP, however, provides the first experimental confirmation of the feasibility of the approach— already thoroughly tested at leaf level—at the desired scale, despite the confounding effects associated with the satellite detection of such a faint signal. A word of clarification is needed here. The use of fluorescence as a probe of leaf photochemistry has been a staple of plant ecophysiology for decades, rooted in a sound understanding of photosynthetic energy dissipation. However, most past studies had to rely for the interpretation of results on active (pulse-saturated) techniques, making them unsuitable for remote-sensing applications. Over recent years, however, novel process based models have been developed for the interpretation of steady-state, solar-induced fluorescence at the leaf to canopy scale (3). We are therefore in a position to move beyond the mere empirical observation of an association between GPP and fluorescence radiance. In particular, Guanter et al. (2) base their analysis on the assumption of a constant ratio between photosynthetic and fluorescence light use efficiencies (equation 3 in ref

  9. Reports on internet traffic statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogesteger, Martijn; de Oliveira Schmidt, R.; Sperotto, Anna; Pras, Aiko

    2013-01-01

    Internet traffic statistics can provide valuable information to network analysts and researchers about the way nowadays networks are used. In the past, such information was provided by Internet2 in a public website called Internet2 NetFlow: Weekly Reports. The website reported traffic statistics

  10. Probabilistic description of traffic flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahnke, R.; Kaupuzs, J.; Lubashevsky, I.

    2005-01-01

    A stochastic description of traffic flow, called probabilistic traffic flow theory, is developed. The general master equation is applied to relatively simple models to describe the formation and dissolution of traffic congestions. Our approach is mainly based on spatially homogeneous systems like periodically closed circular rings without on- and off-ramps. We consider a stochastic one-step process of growth or shrinkage of a car cluster (jam). As generalization we discuss the coexistence of several car clusters of different sizes. The basic problem is to find a physically motivated ansatz for the transition rates of the attachment and detachment of individual cars to a car cluster consistent with the empirical observations in real traffic. The emphasis is put on the analogy with first-order phase transitions and nucleation phenomena in physical systems like supersaturated vapour. The results are summarized in the flux-density relation, the so-called fundamental diagram of traffic flow, and compared with empirical data. Different regimes of traffic flow are discussed: free flow, congested mode as stop-and-go regime, and heavy viscous traffic. The traffic breakdown is studied based on the master equation as well as the Fokker-Planck approximation to calculate mean first passage times or escape rates. Generalizations are developed to allow for on-ramp effects. The calculated flux-density relation and characteristic breakdown times coincide with empirical data measured on highways. Finally, a brief summary of the stochastic cellular automata approach is given

  11. Molecular analysis of two genes between let-653 and let-56 in the unc-22(IV) region of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, M A; Prasad, S S; Baillie, D L

    1993-01-01

    A previous study of genomic organization described the identification of nine potential coding regions in 150 kb of genomic DNA from the unc-22(IV) region of Caenorhabditis elegans. In this study, we focus on the genomic organization of a small interval of 0.1 map unit bordered on the right by unc-22 and on the left by the left-hand breakpoints of the deficiencies sDf9, sDf19 and sDf65. This small interval at present contains a single mutagenically defined locus, the essential gene let-56. The cosmid C11F2 has previously been used to rescue let-56. Therefore, at least some of C11F2 must reside in the interval. In this paper, we report the characterization of two coding elements that reside on C11F2. Analysis of nucleotide sequence data obtained from cDNAs and cosmid subclones revealed that one of the coding elements closely resembles aromatic amino acid decarboxylases from several species. The other of these coding elements was found to closely resemble a human growth factor activatable Na+/H+ antiporter. Paris of oligonucleotide primers, predicted from both coding elements, have been used in PCR experiments to position these coding elements between the left breakpoint of sDf19 and the left breakpoint of sDf65, between the essential genes let-653 and let-56.

  12. Area-wide traffic calming for preventing traffic related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, F; Collier, T; Frost, C; Ker, K; Roberts, I; Wentz, R

    2003-01-01

    It is estimated that by 2020 road traffic crashes will have moved from ninth to third in the world disease burden ranking, as measured in disability adjusted life years, and second in developing countries. The identification of effective strategies for the prevention of traffic related injuries is of global health importance. Area-wide traffic calming schemes that discourage through traffic on residential roads is one such strategy. To evaluate the effectiveness of area-wide traffic calming in preventing traffic related crashes, injuries, and deaths. We searched the following electronic databases: Cochrane Injuries Group's Specialised Register, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE and TRANSPORT (NTIS, TRIS, TRANSDOC). We searched the web sites of road safety organisations, handsearched conference proceedings, checked reference lists of relevant papers and contacted experts in the area. The search was not restricted by language or publication status. Randomised controlled trials, and controlled before-after studies of area-wide traffic calming schemes. Two reviewers independently extracted data on type of study, characteristics of intervention and control areas, and length of data collection periods. Before and after data were collected on the total number of road traffic crashes, all road user deaths and injuries, pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions and road user deaths. The statistical package STATA was used to calculate rate ratios for each study, which were then pooled to give an overall estimate using a random effects model. We found no randomised controlled trials, but 16 controlled before-after trials met our inclusion criteria. Seven studies were done in Germany, six in the UK, two in Australia and one in the Netherlands. There were no studies in low or middle income countries. Eight trials reported the number of road traffic crashes resulting in deaths. The pooled rate ratio was 0.63 (0.14, 2.59 95% CI). Sixteen studies reported the number

  13. Dissociative Tendencies and Traffic Incidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valle, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the relationship between dissociative experiences and road traffic incidents (crashes and traffic tickets in drivers (n=295 from Mar del Plata (Argentina city. A self-report questionnaire was applied to assess traffic crash involvement and sociodemographic variables. Dissociative tendencies were assessed by a modified version of the DES scale. To examine differences in DES scores tests of the difference of means were applied. Drivers who reported to be previously involved in traffic incidents obtained higher puntuations in the dissociative experiences scale than drivers who did not report such events. This result is observed for the total scale and for the three sub-scales (absorption, amnesia and depersonalization. However, differences appeared mainly for minor damage collisions. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of dissociative tendencies as a risk factor in road traffic safety.

  14. Model for traffic emissions estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexopoulos, A.; Assimacopoulos, D.; Mitsoulis, E.

    A model is developed for the spatial and temporal evaluation of traffic emissions in metropolitan areas based on sparse measurements. All traffic data available are fully employed and the pollutant emissions are determined with the highest precision possible. The main roads are regarded as line sources of constant traffic parameters in the time interval considered. The method is flexible and allows for the estimation of distributed small traffic sources (non-line/area sources). The emissions from the latter are assumed to be proportional to the local population density as well as to the traffic density leading to local main arteries. The contribution of moving vehicles to air pollution in the Greater Athens Area for the period 1986-1988 is analyzed using the proposed model. Emissions and other related parameters are evaluated. Emissions from area sources were found to have a noticeable share of the overall air pollution.

  15. The NASA Air Traffic Management Ontology (atmonto)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA ATM (Air Traffic Management) Ontology describes classes, properties, and relationships relevant to the domain of air traffic management, and represents...

  16. Traffic information computing platform for big data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Zongtao, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Li, Ying, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Zheng, Xibin, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Liu, Yan, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Dai, Jiting, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Kang, Jun, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn [Chang' an University School of Information Engineering, Xi' an, China and Shaanxi Engineering and Technical Research Center for Road and Traffic Detection, Xi' an (China)

    2014-10-06

    Big data environment create data conditions for improving the quality of traffic information service. The target of this article is to construct a traffic information computing platform for big data environment. Through in-depth analysis the connotation and technology characteristics of big data and traffic information service, a distributed traffic atomic information computing platform architecture is proposed. Under the big data environment, this type of traffic atomic information computing architecture helps to guarantee the traffic safety and efficient operation, more intelligent and personalized traffic information service can be used for the traffic information users.

  17. Traffic information computing platform for big data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Zongtao; Li, Ying; Zheng, Xibin; Liu, Yan; Dai, Jiting; Kang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Big data environment create data conditions for improving the quality of traffic information service. The target of this article is to construct a traffic information computing platform for big data environment. Through in-depth analysis the connotation and technology characteristics of big data and traffic information service, a distributed traffic atomic information computing platform architecture is proposed. Under the big data environment, this type of traffic atomic information computing architecture helps to guarantee the traffic safety and efficient operation, more intelligent and personalized traffic information service can be used for the traffic information users

  18. Emergency vehicle traffic signal preemption system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelder, Aaron D. (Inventor); Foster, Conrad F. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An emergency vehicle traffic light preemption system for preemption of traffic lights at an intersection to allow safe passage of emergency vehicles. The system includes a real-time status monitor of an intersection which is relayed to a control module for transmission to emergency vehicles as well as to a central dispatch office. The system also provides for audio warnings at an intersection to protect pedestrians who may not be in a position to see visual warnings or for various reasons cannot hear the approach of emergency vehicles. A transponder mounted on an emergency vehicle provides autonomous control so the vehicle operator can attend to getting to an emergency and not be concerned with the operation of the system. Activation of a priority-code (i.e. Code-3) situation provides communications with each intersection being approached by an emergency vehicle and indicates whether the intersection is preempted or if there is any conflict with other approaching emergency vehicles. On-board diagnostics handle various information including heading, speed, and acceleration sent to a control module which is transmitted to an intersection and which also simultaneously receives information regarding the status of an intersection. Real-time communications and operations software allow central and remote monitoring, logging, and command of intersections and vehicles.

  19. A Two-Stage Fuzzy Logic Control Method of Traffic Signal Based on Traffic Urgency Degree

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Ge

    2014-01-01

    City intersection traffic signal control is an important method to improve the efficiency of road network and alleviate traffic congestion. This paper researches traffic signal fuzzy control method on a single intersection. A two-stage traffic signal control method based on traffic urgency degree is proposed according to two-stage fuzzy inference on single intersection. At the first stage, calculate traffic urgency degree for all red phases using traffic urgency evaluation module and select t...

  20. Framework for Traffic Congestion Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmud Hassan TALUKDAR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Traffic Congestion is one of many serious global problems in all great cities resulted from rapid urbanization which always exert negative externalities upon society. The solution of traffic congestion is highly geocentric and due to its heterogeneous nature, curbing congestion is one of the hard tasks for transport planners. It is not possible to suggest unique traffic congestion management framework which could be absolutely applied for every great cities. Conversely, it is quite feasible to develop a framework which could be used with or without minor adjustment to deal with congestion problem. So, the main aim of this paper is to prepare a traffic congestion mitigation framework which will be useful for urban planners, transport planners, civil engineers, transport policy makers, congestion management researchers who are directly or indirectly involved or willing to involve in the task of traffic congestion management. Literature review is the main source of information of this study. In this paper, firstly, traffic congestion is defined on the theoretical point of view and then the causes of traffic congestion are briefly described. After describing the causes, common management measures, using world- wide, are described and framework for supply side and demand side congestion management measures are prepared.

  1. Piezoelectric materials involved in road traffic applications test system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez Rodriguez, M.; Jimenez Martinez, F.; Frutos, J. de

    2011-01-01

    The test bench system described in this paper performs experiments on piezoelectric materials used in road traffic applications, covering a range between 14 and 170 km/h, which is considered enough for testing under standard traffic conditions. A software has been developed to control the three phase induction motor driver and to acquire all the measurement data of the piezoelectric materials. The mass over each systems axis can be selected, with a limit of 60 kg over each wheel. The test bench is used to simulate the real behaviour of buried piezoelectric cables in road traffic applications for both light and heavy vehicles. This new test bed system is a powerful research tool and can be applied to determine the optimal installation and configuration of the piezoelectric cable sensors and opens a new field of research: the study of energy harvesting techniques based on piezoelectric materials. (Author) 10 refs.

  2. LET effect on irradiation of hydroxyphthal imide in alcohol solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, S.; Murakami, T.

    2005-01-01

    Hydroxyphthalimide(C 6 H 4 (CO) 2 -NOH) was irradiated with C ion (290MeV/u) in isopropyl alcohol, methanol, ethanol, and acetonitrile. LET was 13.2 and 26.5 keV/m. Dose was 5 and 10 kGy. A little amount of phthalimide was produced. The G value of the production of phthalimide by ion irradiation was less than that by -irradiation except for in methanol. In methanol solution, the production rate of phthalimide increased with increasing the value of LET. The amount of the substitution for C 6 H 4 (CO) 2 -NOD in methanol-d decreased by ion irradiation. These results suggest that the reaction mechanism in ion irradiation is different from -irradiation. (author)

  3. Neoplastic cell transformation by high-LET radiation - Molecular mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tracy Chui-Hsu; Craise, Laurie M.; Tobias, Cornelius A.; Mei, Man-Tong

    1989-01-01

    Quantitative data were collected on dose-response curves of cultured mouse-embryo cells (C3H10T1/2) irradiated with heavy ions of various charges and energies. Results suggests that two breaks formed on DNA within 80 A may cause cell transformation and that two DNA breaks formed within 20 A may be lethal. From results of experiments with restriction enzymes which produce DNA damages at specific sites, it was found that DNA double strand breaks are important primary lesions for radiogenic cell transformation and that blunt-ended double-strand breaks can form lethal as well as transformational damages due to misrepair or incomplete repair in the cell. The RBE-LET relationship for high-LET radiation is similar to that for HGPRT locus mutation, chromosomal deletion, and cell transformation, indicating that common lesions may be involved in these radiation effects.

  4. Owning, letting and demanding second homes in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloze, Gintautas; Skak, Morten

    with administrative register data and presents estimations of the probability of owning a second home, the decision to let the second home and the number of let weeks per year. Also income elasticities for primary and second housing demand are estimated. We find a conventional monotonic increase in demand...... elasticities for primary housing demand for non-owners of second homes; however, owners of second homes have the highest income elasticity in the middle income group.......An increasing number of households consume housing beyond the primary home as owners of a second home. Economic studies of non-speculative demand for second homeownership are still scarce, and the present empirical study fills this gap to some extent. It is based on Danish survey data combined...

  5. OPTIMASI BANDWITH MENGGUNAKAN TRAFFIC SHAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Riadi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan layanan komunikasi telah berkembang sangat pesat. Salah satunya adalah pemanfaatan penggunaan bandwith untuk mengakases jaringan Internet. Traffic shapping bandwidth dapat memberikan efesiensi dalam hal pemanfaatan bandwidth pada instansi yang melakukan manajemen dalam lalulintas jaringannya. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode literatur yaitu metode pengumpulan data yang dilakukan dengan mengumpulkan sumber-sumber data yang terkait dan metode eksperimen yaitu melakukan penelitian dengan mengkonfigurasi Mikrotik RouterOS untuk melakukan traffic shapping bandwidth. Hasil penelitian ini adalah router yang dapat melakukan traffic shapping sehingga kualitas koneksi menjadi lebih baik untuk mengakses dan mengambil data dari sebuah website.

  6. Assessment of Traffic Noise Impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rich, Jeppe Husted; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2004-01-01

    A steady growth in traffic intensities in most urban areas throughout the world has forced planners and politicians to seriously consider the resulting environmental impact, such as traffic noise, accidents and air pollution. The assessment of such negative factors is needed in order to reveal...... the true social benefit of infrastructure plans. The paper presents a noise assessment model for the Copenhagen region, which brings together GIS technology and non-linear hedonic regression models to reveal the implicit costs of traffic noise measured as the marginal percentage loss in property values...

  7. A new cellular automaton for signal controlled traffic flow based on driving behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Chen, Yan-Yan

    2015-03-01

    The complexity of signal controlled traffic largely stems from the various driving behaviors developed in response to the traffic signal. However, the existing models take a few driving behaviors into account and consequently the traffic dynamics has not been completely explored. Therefore, a new cellular automaton model, which incorporates the driving behaviors typically manifesting during the different stages when the vehicles are moving toward a traffic light, is proposed in this paper. Numerical simulations have demonstrated that the proposed model can produce the spontaneous traffic breakdown and the dissolution of the over-saturated traffic phenomena. Furthermore, the simulation results indicate that the slow-to-start behavior and the inch-forward behavior can foster the traffic breakdown. Particularly, it has been discovered that the over-saturated traffic can be revised to be an under-saturated state when the slow-down behavior is activated after the spontaneous breakdown. Finally, the contributions of the driving behaviors on the traffic breakdown have been examined. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grand No. 2012CB723303) and the Beijing Committee of Science and Technology, China (Grand No. Z1211000003120100).

  8. Cellular automata model for traffic flow at intersections in internet of vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Han-Tao; Liu, Xin-Ru; Chen, Xiao-Xu; Lu, Jian-Cheng

    2018-03-01

    Considering the effect of the front vehicle's speed, the influence of the brake light and the conflict of the traffic flow, we established a cellular automata model called CE-NS for traffic flow at the intersection in the non-vehicle networking environment. According to the information interaction of Internet of Vehicles (IoV), introducing parameters describing the congestion and the accurate speed of the front vehicle into the CE-NS model, we improved the rules of acceleration, deceleration and conflict, and finally established a cellular automata model for traffic flow at intersections of IoV. The relationship between traffic parameters such as vehicle speed, flow and average travel time is obtained by numerical simulation of two models. Based on this, we compared the traffic situation of the non-vehicle networking environment with conditions of IoV environment, and analyzed the influence of the different degree of IoV on the traffic flow. The results show that the traffic speed is increased, the travel time is reduced, the flux of intersections is increased and the traffic flow is more smoothly under IoV environment. After the vehicle which achieves IoV reaches a certain proportion, the operation effect of the traffic flow begins to improve obviously.

  9. Effects of the amount of feedback information on urban traffic with advanced traveler information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Li, Ming; Jiang, Rui; Hu, Mao-Bin

    2017-09-01

    In a real traffic system, information feedback has already been proven to be a good way to alleviate traffic jams. However, due to the massive traffic information of real system, the procedure is often difficult in practice. In this paper, we study the effects of the amount of feedback information based on a cellular automaton model of urban traffic. What we found most interesting is that when providing the traffic information of a part of a road to travelers, the performance of the system will be better than that providing the road's full traffic information. From this basis, we can provide more effective routing strategy with less information. We demonstrate that only providing the traffic information of about first half road from upstream to downstream can maximize the traffic capacity of the system. We also give an explanation for these phenomena by studying the distribution pattern of vehicles and the detailed turning environment at the intersections. The effects of the traffic light period are also provided.

  10. [Comics for traffic education: evaluation of a traffic safety campaign].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfadelli, H

    1989-01-01

    Traffic safety campaigns often are ineffective to change driving behavior because they don't reach the target group or are recognized only by people who are already interested or concerned. The evaluation of a traffic safety campaign called "Leo Lässig", addressed to young new drivers, shows that recognition and acceptance by the target group were stimulated by the age-conform means of comic-strips.

  11. Forget about the future - let's get on with the past!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McQuaid, Sara Dybris

    'Forget about the Future - Let's get on with the Past! Trails of truth recovery and provisional justice in Northern Ireland' Abstract: In Northern Ireland an agreed and comprehensive framework for ‘dealing with the past’ has yet to be worked out. In this policy vacuum a bricolage of different met...... demonstrate how initiatives conceived to serve a particular function can often transmute to serve other or additional functions with severe consequences for both the peace process and future policies for the past....

  12. Let the Data Speak for Themselves: Opportunities and Caveats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koenraad Debackere

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available “Let the data speak for themselves” highlights the tremendous opportunities for scientific inquiry that emerge from the digital and data science revolution. It is obvious that the sophistication of novel data and information science methods offers tremendous opportunities for theory testing, theory advancement, and theory development. In order to fully capture those opportunities, it is important to avoid the slippery slope of pure induction.

  13. THE LET ME LEARN PROFESSIONAL LEARNING PROCESS FOR TEACHER TRANSFORMATION

    OpenAIRE

    Calleja, Colin

    2013-01-01

    This research set out to explore how a group of nine educators from a Catholic Church school in Malta, who have attended the Let Me Learn professional Learning process (LMLpLp), experienced personal and professional transformation. This study investigates those factors influencing participants in their transformative learning journey. It also explores the dynamics of transformative learning and whether individual transformation affects the school’s transformative learning experience. More spe...

  14. Let your communication skills equal your clinical skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarais, Ann; Baum, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Relating effectively with patients is among the most valued skills of clinical care. Honing your communication skills is an art that every physician needs to learn and understand. In this era of increased volume of patients there is a tendency to lose sight of the importance of having good communication skills. This article will review 11 suggestions for letting your communication skills equal your clinical skills.

  15. Internal high linear energy transfer (LET) targeted radiotherapy for cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, Barry J

    2006-01-01

    High linear energy transfer (LET) radiation for internal targeted therapy has been a long time coming on to the medical therapy scene. While fundamental principles were established many decades ago, the clinical implementation has been slow. Localized neutron capture therapy, and more recently systemic targeted alpha therapy, are at the clinical trial stage. What are the attributes of these therapies that have led a band of scientists and clinicians to dedicate so much of their careers? High LET means high energy density, causing double strand breaks in DNA, and short-range radiation, sparing adjacent normal tissues. This targeted approach complements conventional radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Such therapies fail on several fronts. Foremost is the complete lack of progress for the control of primary GBM, the holy grail for cancer therapies. Next is the inability to regress metastatic cancer on a systemic basis. This has been the task of chemotherapy, but palliation is the major application. Finally, there is the inability to inhibit the development of lethal metastatic cancer after successful treatment of the primary cancer. This review charts, from an Australian perspective, the developing role of local and systemic high LET, internal radiation therapy. (review)

  16. Road traffic noise prediction model for heterogeneous traffic based on ASJ-RTN Model 2008 with consideration of horn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustim, M.; Arifin, Z.; Aly, S. H.; Ramli, M. I.; Zakaria, R.; Liputo, A.

    2018-04-01

    This research aimed to predict the noise produced by the traffic in the road network in Makassar City using ASJ-RTN Model 2008 by calculating the horn sound. Observations were taken at 37 survey points on road side. The observations were conducted at 06.00 - 18.00 and 06.00 - 21.00 which research objects were motorcycle (MC), light vehicle (LV) and heavy vehicle (HV). The observed data were traffic volume, vehicle speed, number of horn and traffic noise using Sound Level Meter Tenmars TM-103. The research result indicates that prediction noise model by calculating the horn sound produces the average noise level value of 78.5 dB having the Pearson’s correlation and RMSE of 0.95 and 0.87. Therefore, ASJ-RTN Model 2008 prediction model by calculating the horn sound is said to be sufficiently good for predicting noise level.

  17. Lagrangian Multi-Class Traffic State Estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Road traffic is important to everybody in the world. People travel and commute everyday. For those who travel by cars (or other types of road vehicles), traffic congestion is a daily experience. One essential goal of traffic researchers is to reduce traffic congestion and to improve the whole

  18. Metro manila transport and traffic management plan (1993-1998)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cal, P.C.

    1995-12-31

    In 1988, former President Corazon Aquino created the Presidential Task Force on Traffic Management to formulate plans and programs to improve the traffic situation in Metro Manila and to address the emerging problem of air pollution and concern on renewable energy sources for transportation. The Task Force formulated the Metro Manila Traffic Improvement Plan (TRIP) which was approved by President Aquino for implementation. TRIP called for the development of a mass urban transport system, which included the expansion of the light rail transit system and the construction and improvement of the Metro Manila road network. Culled mainly from the TRIP proposals, the Updated Transport and Traffic Management Plan for Metro Manila (1993-1998) was developed through interagency discussions, public consultations, data collation and research work. This plan is directed towards the development of a more responsive public transport system, expansion of road network capacity, and improvement of traffic management and enforcement. Constraints may be present along the way but opportunities and potentials exist for the deliverance of daily commuters struggling to make a living.

  19. Traffic Route Modelling and Assignment with Intelligent Transport System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunicina Nadezhda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of signal transmitting environment for multimodal traffic control will enhance the integration of emergency and specialized transport routing tools in usual traffic control paradigms - it is one of the opportunities offered by modern intelligent traffic control systems. The improvement of effective electric power use in public transport system is an advantage of Intelligent Transport System (ITS. The research is connected with the improvement of on-line traffic control and adaptation of special traffic lighting alternatives by ITS. The assignment of the nearest appropriate transport will be done by passenger request, but unlike information system, the transport planning is done on demand. The task can be solved with the help of modern technical methods and equipment, as well as by applying control paradigms of the distributed systems. The problem is solved with the help of calculations hyper-graph and scheduling theory. The goal of the research is to develop methods, which support scheduling of the emergency transport, using high performance computing.

  20. Traffic behavior at freeway bottlenecks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This study examines traffic behavior in the vicinity of a freeway bottleneck, revisiting commonly held : assumptions and uncovering systematic biases that likely have distorted empirical studies of bottleneck : formation, capacity drop, and the funda...

  1. Traffic fatalities and economic growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    As countries develop death rates usually fall, especially for diseases that affect the young and result in substantial life-years lost. Deaths due to traffic accidents are a notable exception: the growth in motor vehicles that accompanies economic gr...

  2. Automatic Traffic Recorder (ATR) Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The data included in the GIS Traffic Stations Version database have been assimilated from station description files provided by FHWA for Weigh-in-Motion (WIM), and...

  3. AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Top Deadly Mistakes Made by Teen Drivers -- AAA AAA: Road debris causes avoidable crashes, deaths Save the ... and 500 deaths! Foundation News Stay Tuned New AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety website coming Fall 2017 ...

  4. Game theory and traffic assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Traffic assignment is used to determine the number of users on roadway links in a network. While this problem has : been widely studied in transportation literature, its use of the concept of equilibrium has attracted considerable interest : in the f...

  5. Estimating Emissions from Railway Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Morten W.; Sorenson, Spencer C.

    1998-01-01

    Several parameters of importance for estimating emissions from railway traffic are discussed, and typical results presented. Typical emissions factors from diesel engines and electrical power generation are presented, and the effect of differences in national electrical generation sources...

  6. Harderian Gland Tumorigenesis: Low-Dose and LET Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Polly Y. [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States). Biosciences Div.; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Life Sciences Div.; Cucinotta, Francis A. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Dept. of Health Physics and Diagnostic Sciences; Bjornstad, Kathleen A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Life Sciences Div.; Bakke, James [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States). Biosciences Div.; Rosen, Chris J. [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States). Biosciences Div.; Du, Nicholas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Life Sciences Div.; Fairchild, David G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Life Sciences Div.; Cacao, Eliedonna [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Dept. of Health Physics and Diagnostic Sciences; Blakely, Eleanor A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Life Sciences Div.

    2016-04-19

    Increased cancer risk remains a primary concern for travel into deep space and may preclude manned missions to Mars due to large uncertainties that currently exist in estimating cancer risk from the spectrum of radiations found in space with the very limited available human epidemiological radiation-induced cancer data. Existing data on human risk of cancer from X-ray and gamma-ray exposure must be scaled to the many types and fluences of radiations found in space using radiation quality factors and dose-rate modification factors, and assuming linearity of response since the shapes of the dose responses at low doses below 100 mSv are unknown. The goal of this work was to reduce uncertainties in the relative biological effect (RBE) and linear energy transfer (LET) relationship for space-relevant doses of charged-particle radiation-induced carcinogenesis. The historical data from the studies of Fry et al. and Alpen et al. for Harderian gland (HG) tumors in the female CB6F1 strain of mouse represent the most complete set of experimental observations, including dose dependence, available on a specific radiation-induced tumor in an experimental animal using heavy ion beams that are found in the cosmic radiation spectrum. However, these data lack complete information on low-dose responses below 0.1 Gy, and for chronic low-dose-rate exposures, and there are gaps in the LET region between 25 and 190 keV/μm. In this study, we used the historical HG tumorigenesis data as reference, and obtained HG tumor data for 260 MeV/u silicon (LET ~70 keV/μm) and 1,000 MeV/u titanium (LET ~100 keV/μm) to fill existing gaps of data in this LET range to improve our understanding of the dose-response curve at low doses, to test for deviations from linearity and to provide RBE estimates. Animals were also exposed to five daily fractions of 0.026 or 0.052 Gy of 1,000 MeV/u titanium ions to simulate chronic exposure, and HG tumorigenesis from this fractionated study were compared to the

  7. Reports on internet traffic statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Hoogesteger, Martijn; de Oliveira Schmidt, R.; Sperotto, Anna; Pras, Aiko

    2013-01-01

    Internet traffic statistics can provide valuable information to network analysts and researchers about the way nowadays networks are used. In the past, such information was provided by Internet2 in a public website called Internet2 NetFlow: Weekly Reports. The website reported traffic statistics from the Abilene network on a weekly basis. At that time, the network connected 230 research institutes with a 10Gb/s link. Although these reports were limited to the behavior of the Albeline's users,...

  8. Traffic classification with passive measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Hoang Phong

    2005-01-01

    Abstract This is a master thesis from a collaboration between Oslo University College and Uninett Research. Uninett have a passive monitoring device on a 2.5 Gbps backbone link between Trondheim and Narvik. They uses measurement with optical splitters and specialized measuring interfaces to trace traffic with Gigabit speed. We would like to investigate the structure and patterns in these data. It is of special interest to classify the traffic belonging to different services and protocols. ...

  9. Future Emissions from Railway Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorenson, Spencer C.

    1998-01-01

    In investigation of the expected development in factors which influence railway energy consumption and emissions. Traffic factors such as train speed, load, an occupancy were considered. Tehcnical factors such an emissions factors, fleet composition and train weight were also considered. An estim......In investigation of the expected development in factors which influence railway energy consumption and emissions. Traffic factors such as train speed, load, an occupancy were considered. Tehcnical factors such an emissions factors, fleet composition and train weight were also considered...

  10. Estimating emissions from railway traffic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, M.W.; Sorenson, C.

    1997-07-01

    The report discusses methods that can be used to estimate the emissions from various kinds of railway traffic. The methods are based on the estimation of the energy consumption of the train, so that comparisons can be made between electric and diesel driven trains. Typical values are given for the necessary traffic parameters, emission factors, and train loading. Detailed models for train energy consumption are presented, as well as empirically based methods using average train speed and distance between stop. (au)

  11. Regulatory measures for traffic safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veerapur, R.D.; Bharambe, S.D.; Patnaik, S.K.; Tandle, A.K.; Sonawane, K.A.; Kumar, Rajesh; Venkat Subramanian, K.

    2017-01-01

    Traffic safety is an issue related to occupational safety not restricted alone to the transportation but extends beyond. BARC has many facilities spread across large area in Mumbai and outside Mumbai. BARC deploys large number of buses, mini buses, jeeps and cars for commuting its employees to reach BARC and for commuting within BARC premises. Additionally, trucks, fire tenders, trailers etc. are also deployed for transportation of materials. No moving vehicle is ever free of the possibility of involvement in an accident. Vehicular accidents and the fatalities on road are the result of inter-play of a number of factors. The vehicle population has been steadily increasing with the pace picking up significantly in recent past. Increase in vehicle population in the face of limited road space used by a large variety of traffic has heightened the need and urgency for a well-thought-out road safety. Therefore, existence of regulatory authority to regulate traffic and vehicles to ensure safety of its employees and vehicles is very essential. BARC Traffic Safety Committee (BTSC), which is the regulating body for traffic safety is responsible for ensuring overall traffic safety. (author)

  12. Classification of Automated Search Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehrer, Greg; Stokes, Jack W.; Chellapilla, Kumar; Platt, John C.

    As web search providers seek to improve both relevance and response times, they are challenged by the ever-increasing tax of automated search query traffic. Third party systems interact with search engines for a variety of reasons, such as monitoring a web site’s rank, augmenting online games, or possibly to maliciously alter click-through rates. In this paper, we investigate automated traffic (sometimes referred to as bot traffic) in the query stream of a large search engine provider. We define automated traffic as any search query not generated by a human in real time. We first provide examples of different categories of query logs generated by automated means. We then develop many different features that distinguish between queries generated by people searching for information, and those generated by automated processes. We categorize these features into two classes, either an interpretation of the physical model of human interactions, or as behavioral patterns of automated interactions. Using the these detection features, we next classify the query stream using multiple binary classifiers. In addition, a multiclass classifier is then developed to identify subclasses of both normal and automated traffic. An active learning algorithm is used to suggest which user sessions to label to improve the accuracy of the multiclass classifier, while also seeking to discover new classes of automated traffic. Performance analysis are then provided. Finally, the multiclass classifier is used to predict the subclass distribution for the search query stream.

  13. Precise let-7 expression levels balance organ regeneration against tumor suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Linwei; Nguyen, Liem H; Zhou, Kejin; de Soysa, T Yvanka; Li, Lin; Miller, Jason B; Tian, Jianmin; Locker, Joseph; Zhang, Shuyuan; Shinoda, Gen; Seligson, Marc T; Zeitels, Lauren R; Acharya, Asha; Wang, Sam C; Mendell, Joshua T; He, Xiaoshun; Nishino, Jinsuke; Morrison, Sean J; Siegwart, Daniel J; Daley, George Q; Shyh-Chang, Ng; Zhu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    The in vivo roles for even the most intensely studied microRNAs remain poorly defined. Here, analysis of mouse models revealed that let-7, a large and ancient microRNA family, performs tumor suppressive roles at the expense of regeneration. Too little or too much let-7 resulted in compromised protection against cancer or tissue damage, respectively. Modest let-7 overexpression abrogated MYC-driven liver cancer by antagonizing multiple let-7 sensitive oncogenes. However, the same level of overexpression blocked liver regeneration, while let-7 deletion enhanced it, demonstrating that distinct let-7 levels can mediate desirable phenotypes. let-7 dependent regeneration phenotypes resulted from influences on the insulin-PI3K-mTOR pathway. We found that chronic high-dose let-7 overexpression caused liver damage and degeneration, paradoxically leading to tumorigenesis. These dose-dependent roles for let-7 in tissue repair and tumorigenesis rationalize the tight regulation of this microRNA in development, and have important implications for let-7 based therapeutics. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09431.001 PMID:26445246

  14. The Application of the Exhaustive Polling Theory in Intelligent Traffic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Meng Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new use of exhaustive service polling system in the intelligent traffic light control system.Vehicles arrival rate is measured in the system. Through the relationship between arrival rate and mean waiting time ,mean queue length in exhaustive service polling system, achieved an technology that intelligent adjust the length of traffic light time according to the arrive rate.The more arrive rate the longer green light time. With the intelligent control, the road capacity is more.

  15. 33 CFR 161.60 - Vessel Traffic Service Prince William Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... William Sound. 161.60 Section 161.60 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Movement Reporting System Areas and Reporting Points § 161.60 Vessel Traffic Service Prince William Sound... Cape Hinchinbrook Light to Schooner Rock Light, comprising that portion of Prince William Sound between...

  16. Right-­turn traffic volume adjustment in traffic signal warrant analysis : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-06

    This report was based on the research project, Right-Turn Traffic Volume Adjustment in Traffic Signal Warrants, sponsored by the Nevada Department of Transportation (NDOT) and SOLARIS. Right-turn traffic does not affect intersection performance in th...

  17. Right-\\0xADturn traffic volume adjustment in traffic signal warrant analysis : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-06

    This report was based on the research project, Right-Turn Traffic Volume Adjustment in : Traffic Signal Warrants, sponsored by the Nevada Department of Transportation (NDOT) : and SOLARIS. Right-turn traffic does not affect intersection performance i...

  18. High energy ion irradiation effects on polymer materials. LET dependence of G value of scission of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudoh, H; Sasuga, T; Seguchi, T [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Linear energy transfer (LET) dependence on the probability of main chain scission of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) was investigated. The probability was obtained from decreases in molecular weight measured by the gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and LET was evaluated by TRIM code. The scission probability as a function of LET was almost constant in the low LET, and decreased in the high LET ion irradiation. The mechanism was interpreted from the model of spur-overlapping along an ion`s path. (author)

  19. Latent heat of traffic moving from rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzad Ahmadi, S.; Berrier, Austin S.; Doty, William M.; Greer, Pat G.; Habibi, Mohammad; Morgan, Hunter A.; Waterman, Josam H. C.; Abaid, Nicole; Boreyko, Jonathan B.

    2017-11-01

    Contrary to traditional thinking and driver intuition, here we show that there is no benefit to ground vehicles increasing their packing density at stoppages. By systematically controlling the packing density of vehicles queued at a traffic light on a Smart Road, drone footage revealed that the benefit of an initial increase in displacement for close-packed vehicles is completely offset by the lag time inherent to changing back into a ‘liquid phase’ when flow resumes. This lag is analogous to the thermodynamic concept of the latent heat of fusion, as the ‘temperature’ (kinetic energy) of the vehicles cannot increase until the traffic ‘melts’ into the liquid phase. These findings suggest that in situations where gridlock is not an issue, drivers should not decrease their spacing during stoppages in order to lessen the likelihood of collisions with no loss in flow efficiency. In contrast, motion capture experiments of a line of people walking from rest showed higher flow efficiency with increased packing densities, indicating that the importance of latent heat becomes trivial for slower moving systems.

  20. Safety effects of permanent running lights for bicycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens Chr. Overgaard; Andersen, T.; Lahrmann, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Making the use of daytime running lights mandatory for motor vehicles is generally documented to have had a positive impact upon traffic safety. Improving traffic safety for bicyclists is a focal point in the road traffic safety work in Denmark. In 2004 and 2005 a controlled experiment including...... 3845 cyclists was carried out in Odense, Denmark in order to examine, if permanent running lights mounted to bicycles would improve traffic safety for cyclists. The permanent running lights were mounted to 1845 bicycles and the accident rate was recorded through 12 months for this treatment group...... and 2000 other bicyclists, the latter serving as a control group without bicycle running lights. The safety effect of the running lights is analysed by comparing incidence rates – number of bicycle accidents recorded per man-month – for the treatment group and the control group. The incidence rate...

  1. The impact of environmental factors on traffic accidents in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankarani, Kamran B; Heydari, Seyed Taghi; Aghabeigi, Mohammad Reza; Moafian, Ghasem; Hoseinzadeh, Amin; Vossoughi, Mehrdad

    2014-07-01

    Road traffic crashes are the third highest cause of mortality in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of roadway environmental factors on traffic crash. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Iran between March 21, 2010 and December 30, 2010. The data on road traffic crashes were obtained from the Traffic Police Department records. These records were classified to control for the main confounders related to the type of crash and roadway environmental factors. Roadway environmental factors included crash scene light, weather, place of accident, the defects and geometrics of roadway and road surface. The study included 542,863 traffic crashes. The proportions of road traffic crash which led to injury were 24.44% at sunrise and 27.16% at sunset compared with 5.43% and 1.43% deaths at sunrise and sunset respectively. In regard to day time accidents, the proportions were 20.50% injuries and 0.55% deaths. The statistical analysis of the results showed that the ratio of injuries and deaths were significantly higher at sunrise and sunset than those occurring during daytime (P less than 0.001). The highest rate of death (5.07%) was due to dusty weather compared to 5.07% for other weather conditions (P less than 0.001). The highest mortality rate (3.45%) occurred on oily surfaces (P less than 0.001). The defective traffic signs were responsible for 30,046 injuries and 5.58% deaths, and road narrowing accounted for 22,775 injuries and, 4.23% deaths which indicated that the roadway defects inflict most frequent injuries and deaths. The lowest (0.74 %) and highest (3.09%) proportion of traffic crash- related deaths were due to flat straight and winding uphill/downhill roads respectively (P less than 0.001). Sunrise, sunset, dusty weather, oily road surfaces and winding uphill/downhill road were hazardous environmental factors. This study provides an insight into the potential impacts of environmental factors on road traffic accidents and underlines the

  2. Synchronized flow in oversaturated city traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, Boris S; Klenov, Sergey L; Hermanns, Gerhard; Hemmerle, Peter; Rehborn, Hubert; Schreckenberg, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Based on numerical simulations with a stochastic three-phase traffic flow model, we reveal that moving queues (moving jams) in oversaturated city traffic dissolve at some distance upstream of the traffic signal while transforming into synchronized flow. It is found that, as in highway traffic [Kerner, Phys. Rev. E 85, 036110 (2012)], such a jam-absorption effect in city traffic is explained by a strong driver's speed adaptation: Time headways (space gaps) between vehicles increase upstream of a moving queue (moving jam), resulting in moving queue dissolution. It turns out that at given traffic signal parameters, the stronger the speed adaptation effect, the shorter the mean distance between the signal location and the road location at which moving queues dissolve fully and oversaturated traffic consists of synchronized flow only. A comparison of the synchronized flow in city traffic found in this Brief Report with synchronized flow in highway traffic is made.

  3. Determination of traffic intensity from camera images using image processing and pattern recognition techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrübeoğlu, Mehrübe; McLauchlan, Lifford

    2006-02-01

    The goal of this project was to detect the intensity of traffic on a road at different times of the day during daytime. Although the work presented utilized images from a section of a highway, the results of this project are intended for making decisions on the type of intervention necessary on any given road at different times for traffic control, such as installation of traffic signals, duration of red, green and yellow lights at intersections, and assignment of traffic control officers near school zones or other relevant locations. In this project, directional patterns are used to detect and count the number of cars in traffic images over a fixed area of the road to determine local traffic intensity. Directional patterns are chosen because they are simple and common to almost all moving vehicles. Perspective vision effects specific to each camera orientation has to be considered, as they affect the size and direction of patterns to be recognized. In this work, a simple and fast algorithm has been developed based on horizontal directional pattern matching and perspective vision adjustment. The results of the algorithm under various conditions are presented and compared in this paper. Using the developed algorithm, the traffic intensity can accurately be determined on clear days with average sized cars. The accuracy is reduced on rainy days when the camera lens contains raindrops, when there are very long vehicles, such as trucks or tankers, in the view, and when there is very low light around dusk or dawn.

  4. Optical illusions and life-threatening traffic crashes: A perspective on aerial perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redelmeier, Donald A; Raza, Sheharyar

    2018-05-01

    Aerial perspective illusion is a feature of visual perception where landscapes appear relatively close in clear light and distant in dim light. We hypothesized that bright sunlight might cause drivers to perceive distant terrain as relatively close and misinterpret the approach speed of surrounding landscape as unduly slow. This hypothesis would mean, in turn, that drivers in bright sunlight may underestimate their progress on the road, compensate by traveling at a faster baseline speed, and ultimately increase the prevailing risk of a life-threatening traffic crash. We conducted three pilot studies to illustrate how the illusion might contribute to a life- threatening traffic crash. The first illustration used a questionnaire to demonstrate that most respondents were mistaken when judging the distance between simple balls in different positions. The second illustration involved an experimental manipulation to assess whether aerial perspective influenced judgments about the relative positions of vehicles in traffic. The third illustration analyzed a segment of high-volume fast-speed traffic and found an increased frequency of speeding under bright sunlight. Together with past work based on the visual arts, these examples illustrate how an aerial perspective illusion can affect distance perception, may appear in realistic traffic situations, and could potentially contribute to the risk of a life-threatening traffic crash. An awareness of this hypothesis might lead to applications on how optical illusions could extend to everyday traffic and might potentially inform safety warnings to prevent life- threatening crashes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. enviroCar - citizen science for sustainable traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasch, Christoph; Remke, Albert; Jirka, Simon; Nuest, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Optimizing traffic flow is a challenging task, affecting both the mobility of people and the environment. Up to now, traffic monitoring is based on small samples using GPS devices or remote sensors such as cameras. Citizens are usually not actively involved in the process of collecting or analyzing traffic data. The enviroCar project (www.envirocar.org) aims at addressing this situation by providing an open platform that can be used by everyone to collect and analyze traffic-related data and thus to achieve sustainable traffic management by answering questions such as: How is the average speed on a certain route? Where are exceptionally long waiting times in front of traffic lights? At which crossings do more cars stop than drive through? Where are hotspots of fuel consumption and air pollutant emission during a certain time interval? In this presentation, an overview on the enviroCar project is given and current research challenges addressed in the context of the project are presented. Citizens are able to participate by registering at the enviroCar portal and downloading the enviroCar Android app. Once installed, the Android app allows citizens to collect car sensor data, e.g. speed, mass air flow, or intake temperature via an On-Board Diagnosis 2 (OBD-II) Adapter. After finishing a car ride, the data can be uploaded to the central enviroCar server where the data is anonymized and published as open data. Each enviroCar member has a profile page giving control on his own data and providing statistics on personal driving behavior. The portal also allows comparing personal statistics with the statistics of other members. It thus facilitates analysis whether, for example, a member is driving in a more fuel saving manner than other users. Besides only acting as a data collector, citizens can also explore the enviroCar data in online maps or download the data in standard formats for certain spatial areas and/or time intervals allowing them to conduct spatio

  6. Protein-directed modulation of high-LET hyperthermic radiosensitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, P.Y.

    1991-01-01

    A pair of Chinese Hamster Ovary cell lines, the wild-type CHO-SC1, and its temperature-sensitive mutant (CHO-tsH1) was used to examine the importance of protein synthesis in the development of thermotolerance. The classical biphasic thermotolerant survival response to hyperthermia was observed in the SC1 cells after continuous heating at 41.5C to 42.5C, while tsH1 showed no thermotolerance. In separate experiments, each cell line was triggered and challenged at 45C. The heat doses were separated with graded incubaton periods at 35C or 40C for thermotolerance development. SC1 cells expressed thermoresistance, with the synthesis of heat shock proteins, under both incubation conditions. tsH1 cells expressed thermotolerance similar to that seen in the SC1 cells when incubated at 35C, but the survival response with the non-permissive 40C incubation was much reduced in the absence of protein synthesis. The combined effects of heavy-ion radiation and hyperthermia were examined using the same cell system. A mild heat dose of 41.5C was used in conjunction with Neon particle radiation of various high LET values. The cell killing effects were highly dependent on the sequence of application of heat and Neon radiation. Heat applied immediately after Neon irradiation was more cytotoxic to SC1 cells than when heat was applied prior to the irradiation. The ability of cells to synthesize new proteins plays a key role in this sequence-dependent thermal radiosensitization. In the absence of protein synthesis in the tsH1 cells, the high-LET thermal enhancement for cell-killing was unchanged regardless of the sequence. In the presence of protein synthetic activity in the SC1 cells, the thermal enhancement of radiation-induced cell killing was LET-dependent

  7. Low LET protons focused to submicrometer shows enhanced radiobiological effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, T E; Zlobinskaya, O; Michalski, D; Molls, M; Multhoff, G; Greubel, C; Hable, V; Girst, S; Siebenwirth, C; Dollinger, G; Schmid, E

    2012-01-01

    This study shows that enhanced radiobiological effectiveness (RBE) values can be generated focusing low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation and thus changing the microdose distribution. 20 MeV protons (LET = 2.65 keV µm −1 ) are focused to submicrometer diameter at the ion microprobe superconducting nanoprobe for applied nuclear (Kern) physics experiments of the Munich tandem accelerator. The RBE values, as determined by measuring micronuclei (RBE MN = 1.48 ± 0.07) and dicentrics (RBE D = 1.92 ± 0.15), in human–hamster hybrid (A L ) cells are significantly higher when 117 protons were focused to a submicrometer irradiation field within a 5.4 × 5.4 µm 2 matrix compared to quasi homogeneous in a 1 × 1 µm 2 matrix applied protons (RBE MN = 1.28 ± 0.07; RBE D = 1.41 ± 0.14) at the same average dose of 1.7 Gy. The RBE values are normalized to standard 70 kV (dicentrics) or 200 kV (micronuclei) x-ray irradiation. The 117 protons applied per point deposit the same amount of energy like a 12 C ion with 55 MeV total energy (4.48 MeV u −1 ). The enhancements are about half of that obtained for 12 C ions (RBE MN = 2.20 ± 0.06 and RBE D = 3.21 ± 0.10) and they are attributed to intertrack interactions of the induced damages. The measured RBE values show differences from predictions of the local effect model (LEM III) that is used to calculate RBE values for irradiation plans to treat tumors with high LET particles. (paper)

  8. Low LET protons focused to submicrometer shows enhanced radiobiological effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, T. E.; Greubel, C.; Hable, V.; Zlobinskaya, O.; Michalski, D.; Girst, S.; Siebenwirth, C.; Schmid, E.; Molls, M.; Multhoff, G.; Dollinger, G.

    2012-10-01

    This study shows that enhanced radiobiological effectiveness (RBE) values can be generated focusing low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation and thus changing the microdose distribution. 20 MeV protons (LET = 2.65 keV µm-1) are focused to submicrometer diameter at the ion microprobe superconducting nanoprobe for applied nuclear (Kern) physics experiments of the Munich tandem accelerator. The RBE values, as determined by measuring micronuclei (RBEMN = 1.48 ± 0.07) and dicentrics (RBED = 1.92 ± 0.15), in human-hamster hybrid (AL) cells are significantly higher when 117 protons were focused to a submicrometer irradiation field within a 5.4 × 5.4 µm2 matrix compared to quasi homogeneous in a 1 × 1 µm2 matrix applied protons (RBEMN = 1.28 ± 0.07; RBED = 1.41 ± 0.14) at the same average dose of 1.7 Gy. The RBE values are normalized to standard 70 kV (dicentrics) or 200 kV (micronuclei) x-ray irradiation. The 117 protons applied per point deposit the same amount of energy like a 12C ion with 55 MeV total energy (4.48 MeV u-1). The enhancements are about half of that obtained for 12C ions (RBEMN = 2.20 ± 0.06 and RBED = 3.21 ± 0.10) and they are attributed to intertrack interactions of the induced damages. The measured RBE values show differences from predictions of the local effect model (LEM III) that is used to calculate RBE values for irradiation plans to treat tumors with high LET particles.

  9. Microdosimetric spectra and parameters of low LET-radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booz, J.

    1976-01-01

    The experimental methods used for the evaluation of the flux averaged lineal energy y and the energy averaged lineal energy ysub(D) are briefly described. The composition of the y-distribution of low LET-radiations are discussed taking into consideration the energy of the electrons causing the event and the influence of their W-values. Some published values of ysub(F) and ysub(D) and their relation to the dimensions of the sensitive volume are analyzed. The wall effect is briefly discussed

  10. Structuring of Road Traffic Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Planko Rožić

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Systemic traffic count on the Croatian road network hasbeen carried out for more than three decades in different ways.During this period a large number of automatic traffic countershave been installed, and they operate on different principles.The traffic count has been analyzed from the aspect of vehicleclassification. The count results can be only partly comparedsince they yield different structures of traffic flows. Special analysisrefers to the classification of vehicles by automatic trafficcounters.During the research, a database has been formed with physicalelements of vehicles of over five thousand vehicle types. Theresearch results prove that the vehicle length only is not sufficientfor the classification of vehicles, the way it is used in thepresent automatic traffic counts, but rather the number of axles,the wheelbase as well as the front and rear overhangs needto be considered as well. Therefore, the detector system shouldapply also the detector of axles.The results have been presented that were obtained as partof the program TEST- Technological, research, developmentproject supported by the Minist1y of Science, Education andSport.

  11. Traffic noise in Hyderabad city. part I: road traffic noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, G.H.; Shaikh, Q.

    2000-01-01

    Traffic noise survey was conducted at 20 sites in different areas and localities in Hyderabad city and each site noise data was collected continuously from 0800 to 2000 h. The data was analyzed for L/sub A99/, L/sub A90/, L/sub A50/, L/sub 10/ and L/sub A1/, and approximate values of L/sub Aeq12h/ were evaluated for each site. The results are discussed with reference to some criteria for community annoyance and means and ways to limit high-level traffic noise are suggested. (author)

  12. Mutagenic action of radiation with different LET on Bacillus subtilis cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    edinennyj Inst. Yadernykh Issledovanij, Dubna (Russian Federation))" data-affiliation=" (Obedinennyj Inst. Yadernykh Issledovanij, Dubna (Russian Federation))" >Borejko, A.V.; edinennyj Inst. Yadernykh Issledovanij, Dubna (Russian Federation))" data-affiliation=" (Obedinennyj Inst. Yadernykh Issledovanij, Dubna (Russian Federation))" >Krasavin, E.A.

    1997-01-01

    The induction of the his - -> his + mutants in vegetative and spores of Bacillus subtilis wild type cells irradiated with γ-rays and helium ions (LET = 20-80 keV/μm) has been investigated. It was shown that the dose dependence of the mutation induction in vegetative cells is described by a linear-quadratic function of dose in case of both γ-rays and helium ions. RBE (LET) dependencies on the lethal and mutagenic effect of radiation have a local maximum. The maximum of RBE (LET) dependence on the mutagenic assay is shifted at the low region of LET in comparison with the lethal effect of irradiation. (author)

  13. The let-7/Lin28 axis regulates activation of hepatic stellate cells in alcoholic liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Kelly; Huang, Li; Sato, Keisaku; Wu, Nan; Annable, Tami; Zhou, Tianhao; Ramos-Lorenzo, Sugeily; Wan, Ying; Huang, Qiaobing; Francis, Heather; Glaser, Shannon; Tsukamoto, Hidekazu; Alpini, Gianfranco; Meng, Fanyin

    2017-07-07

    The let-7/Lin28 axis is associated with the regulation of key cellular regulatory genes known as microRNAs in various human disorders and cancer development. This study evaluated the role of the let-7/Lin28 axis in regulating a mesenchymal phenotype of hepatic stellate cells in alcoholic liver injury. We identified that ethanol feeding significantly down-regulated several members of the let-7 family in mouse liver, including let-7a and let-7b. Similarly, the treatment of human hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) significantly decreased the expressions of let-7a and let-7b. Conversely, overexpression of let-7a and let-7b suppressed the myofibroblastic activation of cultured human HSCs induced by LPS and TGF-β, as evidenced by repressed ACTA2 (α-actin 2), COL1A1 (collagen 1A1), TIMP1 (TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor 1), and FN1 (fibronectin 1); this supports the notion that HSC activation is controlled by let-7. A combination of bioinformatics, dual-luciferase reporter assay, and Western blot analysis revealed that Lin28B and high-mobility group AT-hook (HMGA2) were the direct targets of let-7a and let-7b. Furthermore, Lin28B deficiency increased the expression of let-7a/let-7b as well as reduced HSC activation and liver fibrosis in mice with alcoholic liver injury. This feedback regulation of let-7 by Lin28B is verified in hepatic stellate cells isolated by laser capture microdissection from the model. The identification of the let-7/Lin28 axis as an important regulator of HSC activation as well as its upstream modulators and down-stream targets will provide insights into the involvement of altered microRNA expression in contributing to the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver fibrosis and novel therapeutic approaches for human alcoholic liver diseases. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Air Traffic Control Tools Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Noskievič

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Undoubtedly air transport in today’s world wouldn’t be able to exist without any air traffic control service. As the air transport has been coming through major changes and it has been expanding, it is assumed that its volume will be doubled in the next 15 years. Air traffic control uses strictly organised procedures to ensure safe course of air operations. With the skies covered with more airplanes every year, new tools must be introduced to allow the controllers to manage this rising amount of flying aircraft and to keep the air transport safe. This paper provides a comprehensive and organized material, which describes the newest tools and systems used by air traffic control officers. It proposes improvements for further research and development of ATC tools.

  15. Air traffic security act unconstitutional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2006-01-01

    In the interest of more effective protective measures against terrorist attacks, the German federal parliament inter alia added a clause to the Air Traffic Security Act (Sec. 14, Para. 3, Air Traffic Security Act) empowering the armed forces to shoot down aircraft to be used as a weapon against human lives. In Germany, this defense possibility has been discussed also in connection with deliberate crashes of hijacked aircraft on nuclear power plants. The 1 st Division of the German Federal Constitutional Court, in its decision of February 15, 2006, ruled that Sec. 14, Para. 3, Air Traffic Security Act was incompatible with the Basic Law and thus was null and void (file No. 1 BvR 357/05) for two reasons: - There was no legislative authority on the part of the federal government. - The provision was incompatible with the basic right of life and the guarantee of human dignity as enshrined in the Basic Law. (orig.)

  16. On vehicular traffic data analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brics, Martins; Mahnke, Reinhard [Institute of Physics, Rostock University (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    This contribution consists of analysis of empirical vehicular traffic flow data. The main focus lies on the Next Generation Simulation (NGSIM) data. The first findings show that there are artificial structures within the data due to errors of monitoring as well as smoothing position measurement data. As a result speed data show discretisation in 5 feet per second. The aim of this investigation is to construct microscopic traffic flow models which are in agreement to the analysed empirical data. The ongoing work follows the subject of research summarized by Christof Liebe in his PhD thesis entitled ''Physics of traffic flow: Empirical data and dynamical models'' (Rostock, 2010).

  17. Factors determinating the shape of survival curves of Escherichia coli cells irradiated by ionizing radiation with different LET. The dependence of the shape of survival curve on LET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozubek, S.; Krasavin, E.A.; Fajsi, Ch.

    1984-01-01

    The dependence of the shape of bacterial sUrvival curve in the case of Escherichia coli Wild type, rec - and pol - mutants on linear energy transfer is considered. When increasing LET of the radiation the shouldered survival curves are transformed to exponential ones. In the case of sensitive mutants the transformation is observed for smaller values of LET. The dependence of cell sensitivity on LET calculated on the basis of Landau-Vavilov distribution is compared with earlier calculations. The comparison showed a good agreement between two methods of calculation for ions with 4 MeV per nucleon energy

  18. Polarisation analysis on the LET time-of-flight spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, G. J.; Košata, J.; Devonport, M.; Galsworthy, P.; Bewley, R. I.; Voneshen, D. J.; Dalgliesh, R.; Stewart, J. R.

    2017-06-01

    We present a design for implementing uniaxial polarisation analysis on the LET cold neutron time-of-flight spectrometer, installed on the second target station at ISIS. The polarised neutron beam is to be produced by a transmission-based supermirror polariser with the polarising mirrors arranged in a “double-V” formation. This will be followed by a Mezei-type precession coil spin flipper, selected for its small spatial requirements, as well as a permanent magnet guide field to transport the beam polarisation to the sample position. The sample area will contain a set of holding field coils, whose purpose is to produce a highly homogenous magnetic field for the wide-angle 3He analyser cell. To facilitate fast cell changes and reduce the risk of cell failure, we intend to separate the cell and cryostat from the vacuum of the sample tank by installing both in a vessel at atmospheric pressure. When the instrument upgrade is complete, the performance of LET is expected to be commensurate with existing and planned polarised cold neutron spectrometers at other sources. Finally, we discuss the implications of performing uniaxial polarisation analysis only, and identify quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) on ionic conducting materials as an interesting area to apply the technique.

  19. Calculated LET spectrum from antiproton beams stopping in water

    CERN Document Server

    Bassler, Niels

    2009-01-01

    Antiprotons have been proposed as a potential modality for radiotherapy because the annihilation at the end of range leads to roughly a doubling of physical dose in the Bragg peak region. So far it has been anticipated that the radiobiology of antiproton beams is similar to that of protons in the entry region of the beam, but very different in the annihilation region, due to the expected high-LET components resulting from the annihilation. On closer inspection we find that calculations of dose averaged LET in the entry region may suggest that the RBE of antiprotons in the plateau region could significantly differ from unity, which seems to warrant closer inspection of the radiobiology in this region. Materials and Methods. Monte Carlo simulations using FLUKA were performed for calculating the entire particle spectrum of a beam of 126 MeV antiprotons hitting a water phantom. Results and Discussion. In the plateau region of the simulated antiproton beam we observe a dose-averaged unrestrict...

  20. Traffic and Granular Flow '11

    CERN Document Server

    Buslaev, Alexander; Bugaev, Alexander; Yashina, Marina; Schadschneider, Andreas; Schreckenberg, Michael; TGF11

    2013-01-01

    This book continues the biannual series of conference proceedings, which has become a classical reference resource in traffic and granular research alike. It addresses new developments at the interface between physics, engineering and computational science. Complex systems, where many simple agents, be they vehicles or particles, give rise to surprising and fascinating phenomena.   The contributions collected in these proceedings cover several research fields, all of which deal with transport. Topics include highway, pedestrian and internet traffic, granular matter, biological transport, transport networks, data acquisition, data analysis and technological applications. Different perspectives, i.e. modeling, simulations, experiments and phenomenological observations, are considered.

  1. Smart street lighting management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzuti, S.; Annunziato, M. [Energy New Technologies and Sustainable Economic Development Agency ENEA, Rome (Italy); Moretti, F. [Automation and Computer Science Department, University & #x27; Roma Tre& #x27; , Rome (Italy)

    2013-08-15

    In this work, we propose a new street lighting energy management system in order to reduce energy consumption. The key idea we want to accomplish is that of 'energy on demand' meaning that energy, in this case light, is provided only when needed. In order to achieve this goal, it is critical to have a reliable demand model, which in the case of street lighting turns out to be a traffic flow rate forecasting model. In order to achieve this goal, several methods on the 1-h prediction have been compared and the one providing the best results is based on artificial neural networks. Moreover, several control strategies have been tested and the one which gave the best energy savings is the adaptive one we carried out. Experimentation has been carried out on real data and the study shows that with the proposed approach, it is possible to save up to 50 % of energy compared to no regulation systems.

  2. Wireless traffic steering for green cellular networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Shan; Zhou, Sheng; Niu, Zhisheng; Shen, Xuemin (Sherman)

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces wireless traffic steering as a paradigm to realize green communication in multi-tier heterogeneous cellular networks. By matching network resources and dynamic mobile traffic demand, traffic steering helps to reduce on-grid power consumption with on-demand services provided. This book reviews existing solutions from the perspectives of energy consumption reduction and renewable energy harvesting. Specifically, it explains how traffic steering can improve energy efficiency through intelligent traffic-resource matching. Several promising traffic steering approaches for dynamic network planning and renewable energy demand-supply balancing are discussed. This book presents an energy-aware traffic steering method for networks with energy harvesting, which optimizes the traffic allocated to each cell based on the renewable energy status. Renewable energy demand-supply balancing is a key factor in energy dynamics, aimed at enhancing renewable energy sustainability to reduce on-grid energy consum...

  3. Distraction-related road traffic collisions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drivers involved in road traffic collisions (RTC) were using mobile phones. Our study supports ... while driving. Keywords: Distraction, prevention, road traffic collision, mobile phone. ..... keeps us connected with others with great advantages.

  4. Active Traffic Capture for Network Forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaviero, Marco; Granova, Anna; Olivier, Martin

    Network traffic capture is an integral part of network forensics, but current traffic capture techniques are typically passive in nature. Under heavy loads, it is possible for a sniffer to miss packets, which affects the quality of forensic evidence.

  5. Traffic control concepts for incident clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This document discusses various aspects of traffic control for incidents with the focus on the traffic control roles and responsibilities of the responders as well as the safety of the responders and the motoring public. It also recognizes that activ...

  6. MicroRNA let-7, T cells, and patient survival in colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Ruoxu; Nishihara, Reiko; Cao, Yin; Hamada, Tsuyoshi; Mima, Kosuke; Masuda, Atsuhiro; Masugi, Yohei; Shi, Yan; Gu, Mancang; Li, Wanwan; da Silva, Annacarolina; Nosho, Katsuhiko; Zhang, Xuehong; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Chan, Andrew T.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Qian, Zhi Rong; Ogino, Shuji

    2016-01-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that the let-7 family of noncoding RNAs suppresses adaptive immune responses, contributing to immune evasion by the tumor. We hypothesized that the amount of let-7a and let-7b expression in colorectal carcinoma might be associated with limited T-lymphocyte infiltrates in the tumor microenvironment and worse clinical outcome. Utilizing the molecular pathological epidemiology resources of 795 rectal and colon cancers in two U.S.-nationwide prospective cohort studies, we measured tumor-associated let-7a and let-7b expression levels by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR, and CD3+, CD8+, CD45RO (PTPRC)+, and FOXP3+ cell densities by tumor tissue microarray immunohistochemistry and computer-assisted image analysis. Logistic regression analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression were used to assess associations of let-7a (and let-7b) expression (quartile predictor variables) with T-cell densities (binary outcome variables) and mortality, respectively, controlling for tumor molecular features, including microsatellite instability, CpG island methylator phenotype, LINE-1 methylation, and KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA mutations. Compared with cases in the lowest quartile of let-7a expression, those in the highest quartile were associated with lower densities of CD3+ [multivariate odds ratio (OR), 0.40; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.23 to 0.67; Ptrend = 0.003] and CD45RO+ cells (multivariate OR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.17 to 0.58; Ptrend = 0.0004), and higher colorectal cancer-specific mortality (multivariate hazard ratio, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.42 to 3.13; Ptrend = 0.001). In contrast, let-7b expression was not significantly associated with T-cell density or colorectal cancer prognosis. Our data support the role of let-7a in suppressing antitumor immunity in colorectal cancer, and suggest let-7a as a potential target of immunotherapy. PMID:27737877

  7. High and Low LET Radiation Differentially Induce Normal Tissue Damage Signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemantsverdriet, Maarten; Goethem, Marc-Jan van; Bron, Reinier; Hogewerf, Wytse; Brandenburg, Sytze; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Luijk, Peter van; Coppes, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy using high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation is aimed at efficiently killing tumor cells while minimizing dose (biological effective) to normal tissues to prevent toxicity. It is well established that high LET radiation results in lower cell survival per absorbed dose than low LET radiation. However, whether various mechanisms involved in the development of normal tissue damage may be regulated differentially is not known. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate whether two actions related to normal tissue toxicity, p53-induced apoptosis and expression of the profibrotic gene PAI-1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor 1), are differentially induced by high and low LET radiation. Methods and Materials: Cells were irradiated with high LET carbon ions or low LET photons. Cell survival assays were performed, profibrotic PAI-1 expression was monitored by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and apoptosis was assayed by annexin V staining. Activation of p53 by phosphorylation at serine 315 and serine 37 was monitored by Western blotting. Transfections of plasmids expressing p53 mutated at serines 315 and 37 were used to test the requirement of these residues for apoptosis and expression of PAI-1. Results: As expected, cell survival was lower and induction of apoptosis was higher in high -LET irradiated cells. Interestingly, induction of the profibrotic PAI-1 gene was similar with high and low LET radiation. In agreement with this finding, phosphorylation of p53 at serine 315 involved in PAI-1 expression was similar with high and low LET radiation, whereas phosphorylation of p53 at serine 37, involved in apoptosis induction, was much higher after high LET irradiation. Conclusions: Our results indicate that diverse mechanisms involved in the development of normal tissue damage may be differentially affected by high and low LET radiation. This may have consequences for the development and manifestation of normal tissue damage.

  8. Approaches for Intelligent Traffic System: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Pratishtha Gupta; G.N Purohit; Amrita Dadhich

    2012-01-01

    This survey presents various approaches for intelligent traffic systems. The potential research fields in which Intelligent Traffic System emerges as an important application area are highlighted andvarious issues have been identified which need to be handled while developing such a system for an urban area, where an efficient traffic management has become the need of hour.A model is also proposed capable of managing intelligent traffic system using CCTV cameras and WAN. The proposed model wi...

  9. Navigators’ Behavior in Traffic Separation Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Pietrzykowski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the areas of decision support in the navigational ship conduct process is a Traffic Separation Scheme. TSSs are established in areas with high traffic density, often near the shore and in port approaches. The main purpose of these schemes is to improve maritime safety by channeling vessel traffic into streams. Traffic regulations as well as ships behavior in real conditions in chosen TSSs have been analyzed in order to develop decision support algorithms.

  10. An LTE implementation based on a road traffic density model

    OpenAIRE

    Attaullah, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    The increase in vehicular traffic has created new challenges in determining the behavior of performance of data and safety measures in traffic. Hence, traffic signals on intersection used as cost effective and time saving tools for traffic management in urban areas. But on the other hand the signalized intersections in congested urban areas are the key source of high traffic density and slow traffic. High traffic density causes the slow network traffic data rate between vehicle to vehicle and...

  11. Visual Analysis in Traffic & Re-identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelmose, Andreas

    and analysis, and person re-identification. In traffic sign detection, the work comprises a thorough survey of the state of the art, assembly of the worlds largest public dataset with U.S. traffic signs, and work in machine learning based detection algorithms. It was shown that detection of U.S. traffic signs...

  12. ReFlow: Reports on Internet Traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogesteger, Martijn; de Oliveira Schmidt, R.; Sperotto, Anna; Pras, Aiko

    Internet traffic statistics can provide valuable information to network analysts and researchers about the traffic, technologies and main characteristics of today’s networks. For many years Internet2 maintained a public website with statistics about the traffic in the Abilene network. This site was

  13. Predicting Information Flows in Network Traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinich, Melvin J.; Molyneux, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses information flow in networks and predicting network traffic and describes a study that uses time series analysis on a day's worth of Internet log data. Examines nonlinearity and traffic invariants, and suggests that prediction of network traffic may not be possible with current techniques. (Author/LRW)

  14. Phase diagram distortion from traffic parameter averaging.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stipdonk, H. Toorenburg, J. van & Postema, M.

    2010-01-01

    Motorway traffic congestion is a major bottleneck for economic growth. Therefore, research of traffic behaviour is carried out in many countries. Although well describing the undersaturated free flow phase as an almost straight line in a (k,q)-phase diagram, congested traffic observations and

  15. NEW POSSIBILITIES OF RAILWAY TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionginas LIUDVINAVIČIUS

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the train traffic control systems in 1435 mm and 1520 mm gauge railways. The article analyses the aspects of train traffic control and locomotive energy saving by using the coordinates of track profile change that have been received from GPS. In the article, achievements of Lithuanian railways (LG in the area of train traffic control optimisation are presented.

  16. Some random models in traffic science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjorth, U.

    1996-06-01

    We give an overview of stochastic models for the following traffic phenomena. Models for traffic flow including gaps and capacities for lanes, crossings and roundabouts. Models for wanted and achieved speed distributions. Mode selection models including dispersed equilibrium models and traffic accident models. Also some statistical questions are discussed. 60 refs, 1 tab

  17. 30 CFR 56.9100 - Traffic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Traffic control. 56.9100 Section 56.9100 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9100 Traffic control. To provide for the safe movement of self-propelled...

  18. Traffic at risk in Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilardo, U.; Mureddu, G.

    1993-01-01

    The Mediterranean Sea represents only about 0.7% of the planet's total water surface area, yet it is host to as much as one-quarter of the world's total maritime oil traffic. Statistics indicate that from 47 to 77,000 tonnes of crude oil are now being released annually into the Sea through accidental spills; and over the last decade, its tourism dependent coastlines have been fouled by the highest levels of tar contamination in the world. Oil carrier traffic, routed within the Sea's already overcrowded shipping lanes, is intense and this traffic is expected to increase, as a result of rises in world energy demand, to levels of from 7 to 8 million barrels a day. It has been estimated that, at the end of 1992, 90% of all large tankers operating in this area, will have reached a service life of 15-16 years which is very close to the average recommended life cycle limit of 15-20 years. Only 20% of the world's 3,000 tankers are currently equipped with double bottomed hulls. This paper uses these and other facts and figures to argue that the risks of future severe oil tanker accidents in the Mediterranean Sea are high, and that these must be countered with the development of a new set of stricter marine traffic safety regulations at the Italian, national, as well as, European level

  19. The Physics of Traffic Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Peter

    1975-01-01

    Shows how physics can be used to analyze and prevent traffic accidents by determining critical speeds on curves, the behavior of motor cycles and stability of articulated vehicles, and the visibility that is needed to make a minor road junction safe. (MLH)

  20. The role of traffic rules.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, P.C.

    1988-01-01

    Experienced road users seem to have their own set of traffic rules (including rules about when to violate the official rules). The number of violations is enormous, causing great concern for the authorities. The situation could be improved by separating a set of rules with the aim of deterring road

  1. Learning to Detect Traffic Signs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelmose, Andreas; Trivedi, Mohan M.; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2012-01-01

    This study compares the performance of sign detection based on synthetic training data to the performance of detection based on real-world training images. Viola-Jones detectors are created for 4 different traffic signs with both synthetic and real data, and varying numbers of training samples. T...

  2. Macroscopic models for traffic safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppe, S.

    1988-01-01

    Recently there has been an increased interest in the application of macroscopic models for the description of developments in traffic safety. A discussion was started on the causes of the sudden decrease in the number of fatal and injury accidents after 1974. Before that time these numbers had

  3. Stochastic control of traffic patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri B.; Gorria, Carlos; Berkemer, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    A stochastic modulation of the safety distance can reduce traffic jams. It is found that the effect of random modulation on congestive flow formation depends on the spatial correlation of the noise. Jam creation is suppressed for highly correlated noise. The results demonstrate the advantage of h...

  4. 2008 Michigan traffic crash facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-18

    In keeping with recent trends, traffic fatalities in 2008 were down to 980, a 9.6 : percent decrease from last year. The total number of persons injured also declined : 7.5 percent to 74,568 and total crashes dropped 2.5 percent to 316,057. Most : no...

  5. 2009 Michigan traffic crash facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    In keeping with recent trends, traffic fatalities in 2009 were down to 871, a 11.1 : percent decrease from last year. The total number of persons injured also declined : 4.9 percent to 70,931 and total crashes dropped 7.9 percent to 290,978. Most : n...

  6. Creativity at the Film-Making Club: Let there be light!

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The Film-Making Club was created in 2005, and already has ten short films to its credit. Spotlight on a club that does more than making movies! Making a film requires solid teamwork and genuine commitment. In addition to shooting, which requires at least five people in key roles—plus the actors!—there is also the work of casting, location work, choice of equipment and techniques, logistics (hardware, costume design etc.) and post-production, which includes film editing and soundtrack.What does it take to make a film? "It involves a marriage of the power of the imagination, the technical constraints and the actors’ performances," explains Quentin King, the current president and founder of the club. "You need a real synthesis of art and technique," he adds. For club member Neal Hartman, "the French word réalisateur really reflects this aspect of the work, where you need to imagine something, then reconceptualise it in terms of its...

  7. Let There Be Light: the Role of Electrification in Liberia's Post-Conflict Stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitaker, Rick

    2007-07-01

    Early in 2006, President Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf made re-electrification a cornerstone of Liberia's stabilization and redevelopment programs. After 14 years of civil war, there was no electric grid or commercial electricity in the country. The Liberia Electricity Corporation (LEC) was moribund, with no infrastructure or customers. An international donors group of Ghana, the EC, the World Bank, and USAID formulated a $7 million Emergency Power Program to restore power to parts of Monrovia. In four months, this group, with the active participation of GOL and LEC, imported generators, rebuilt distribution networks, and began commercial service. By the end of 2006, LEC was serving 280 customers and had achieved operational self-sufficiency. There were streetlights in the capital for the first time in years. A second phase, increasing generation and customers 5-fold, is underway. It is funded at $22 million by a donor group including Norway. At its conclusion, 70% of Monrovia's neighborhoods will have access to service. International private financing of a next phase is in the offing. Critical lessons offered: Electrification is central to post-conflict stabilization; Capacity development is as important as technology; Commercialization of electricity is required; and, Top level support is critical. (auth)

  8. Let there be light: A multi-actor approach to alleviating energy poverty in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spagnoletti, Belinda; O’Callaghan, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Energy poverty is the primary energy security issue impacting almost 800 million people, particularly women and children, in the developing countries of Asia. Current trends indicate that should there be no change to existing policies, and the governance systems and institutions underpinning them, the absolute number of energy poor will barely shift. Most significantly, addressing energy poverty is critical to absolute poverty reduction, enhanced gender equality and political stability in the Asian region. We offer a solution to progress the energy poverty alleviation effort focused on encouraging sustainable, development-centred investment. This will involve multi-actor partnerships between developed and developing country governments, investors, and multilateral institutions. We propose that there may be spill over effects for investing firms, in the form of strengthened corporate reputation. Consequently, energy poverty alleviation efforts can create new opportunities for commerce, multilateral institutions, NGOs, and developing and developed countries. It is envisaged that the multi-actor approach put forward by this paper will facilitate the partnerships, programs and provisions needed to alleviate energy poverty in Asia. However, critical to the success of this collaborative approach is a genuine shift in sentiment from the key stakeholders involved in the effort

  9. Letting in the light: Science and democracy in the Muslim world ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-02-21

    Feb 21, 2011 ... ... science and its values to advance sustainable and equitable development, ... But following the 13th century, for several reasons, Muslim societies fell into ... far greater investment in science, technology, and innovation must ...

  10. How do light railways fit Sustainably-Safe?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    Light rail vehicles (tram-like trains or train-like trams) are a new vehicle type that falls outside the current sustainably safe vehicle types. Because of the increase in the number of light rail vehicles, there will be an increase in the number of crashes if they mix with other traffic. Light rail

  11. Diagnostics for electrical discharge light sources : pushing the limits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zissis, G.; Haverlag, M.

    2010-01-01

    Light sources play an indispensable role in the daily life of any human being. Quality of life, health and urban security related to traffic and crime prevention depend on light and on its quality. In fact, every day approximately 30 billion electric light sources operate worldwide. These electric

  12. From Goods to Traffic:First Steps Toward an Auction-based Traffic Signal Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael, Jeffery; Maskell, Simon; Sklar, Elizabeth Ida

    2015-01-01

    Traffic congestion is a major issue that plagues many urban road networks large and small. Traffic engineers are now leaning towards Intelligent Traffic Systems as many physical changes to road networks are costly or infeasible. Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) have become a popular paradigm for intelligent solutions to traffic management problems. There are many MAS approaches to traffic management that utilise market mechanisms. In market-based approaches, drivers “pay” to use the roadways. Howeve...

  13. 14 CFR 151.47 - Performance of construction work: Letting of contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Development Projects § 151.47 Performance of construction work: Letting of contracts. (a) Advertising required... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Performance of construction work: Letting... project, each contract for construction work on a project in the amount of more than $2,000 must be...

  14. Let7a involves in neural stem cell differentiation relating with TLX level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Juhyun [Department of Anatomy, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyoung Joo; Oh, Yumi [Department of Anatomy, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); BK21 Plus Project for Medical Sciences, and Brain Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Eun, E-mail: jelee@yuhs.ac [Department of Anatomy, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); BK21 Plus Project for Medical Sciences, and Brain Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-10

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) have the potential for differentiation into neurons known as a groundbreaking therapeutic solution for central nervous system (CNS) diseases. To resolve the therapeutic efficiency of NSCs, recent researchers have focused on the study on microRNA's role in CNS. Some micro RNAs have been reported significant functions in NSC self-renewal and differentiation through the post-transcriptional regulation of neurogenesis genes. MicroRNA-Let7a (Let7a) has known as the regulator of diverse cellular mechanisms including cell differentiation and proliferation. In present study, we investigated whether Let7a regulates NSC differentiation by targeting the nuclear receptor TLX, which is an essential regulator of NSC self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation. We performed the following experiments: western blot analysis, TaqMan assay, RT-PCR, and immunocytochemistry to confirm the alteration of NSCs. Our data showed that let7a play important roles in controlling NSC fate determination. Thus, manipulating Let-7A and TLX could be a novel strategy to enhance the efficiency of NSC's neuronal differentiation for CNS disorders. - Highlights: • Let7a influences on NSC differentiation and proliferation. • Let7a involves in mainly NSC differentiation rather than proliferation. • Let7a positively regulates the TLX expression.

  15. Let7a involves in neural stem cell differentiation relating with TLX level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Juhyun; Cho, Kyoung Joo; Oh, Yumi; Lee, Jong Eun

    2015-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) have the potential for differentiation into neurons known as a groundbreaking therapeutic solution for central nervous system (CNS) diseases. To resolve the therapeutic efficiency of NSCs, recent researchers have focused on the study on microRNA's role in CNS. Some micro RNAs have been reported significant functions in NSC self-renewal and differentiation through the post-transcriptional regulation of neurogenesis genes. MicroRNA-Let7a (Let7a) has known as the regulator of diverse cellular mechanisms including cell differentiation and proliferation. In present study, we investigated whether Let7a regulates NSC differentiation by targeting the nuclear receptor TLX, which is an essential regulator of NSC self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation. We performed the following experiments: western blot analysis, TaqMan assay, RT-PCR, and immunocytochemistry to confirm the alteration of NSCs. Our data showed that let7a play important roles in controlling NSC fate determination. Thus, manipulating Let-7A and TLX could be a novel strategy to enhance the efficiency of NSC's neuronal differentiation for CNS disorders. - Highlights: • Let7a influences on NSC differentiation and proliferation. • Let7a involves in mainly NSC differentiation rather than proliferation. • Let7a positively regulates the TLX expression

  16. The Application of The Double Queue Asymmetric Gated Service Polling Control Theory in Intelligent Traffic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yi Fan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available paper presents a new use of double queues asymmetric gated service polling system in the intelligent traffic light control system.Usually there are more vehicles in main road than minor road,so there are more green light time be needed in the main road.From the computer simulation and theory analysis,we can find that the application of double queues asymmetric gated service polling theory in intelligent traffic system can balance intersections load and set suitable passing time for vehicles to assure the roads open.

  17. Modeling the heterogeneous traffic correlations in urban road systems using traffic-enhanced community detection approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Feng; Liu, Kang; Duan, Yingying; Cheng, Shifen; Du, Fei

    2018-07-01

    A better characterization of the traffic influence among urban roads is crucial for traffic control and traffic forecasting. The existence of spatial heterogeneity imposes great influence on modeling the extent and degree of road traffic correlation, which is usually neglected by the traditional distance based method. In this paper, we propose a traffic-enhanced community detection approach to spatially reveal the traffic correlation in city road networks. First, the road network is modeled as a traffic-enhanced dual graph with the closeness between two road segments determined not only by their topological connection, but also by the traffic correlation between them. Then a flow-based community detection algorithm called Infomap is utilized to identify the road segment clusters. Evaluated by Moran's I, Calinski-Harabaz Index and the traffic interpolation application, we find that compared to the distance based method and the community based method, our proposed traffic-enhanced community based method behaves better in capturing the extent of traffic relevance as both the topological structure of the road network and the traffic correlations among urban roads are considered. It can be used in more traffic-related applications, such as traffic forecasting, traffic control and guidance.

  18. Machine vision algorithms applied to dynamic traffic light control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Andrés Espinosa Valcárcel

    2013-01-01

    número de autos presentes en imágenes capturadas por un conjunto de cámaras estratégicamente ubicadas en cada intersección. Usando esta información, el sistema selecciona la secuencia de acciones que optimicen el flujo vehicular dentro de la zona de control, en un escenario simulado. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que el sistema disminuye en un 20% los tiempos de retraso para cada vehículo y que además es capaz de adaptarse rápida y eficientemente a los cambios de flujo.

  19. Perancangan Miniatur Traffic Light Dengan Mempergunakan Pengendali Port Paralel

    OpenAIRE

    Eka Wahyudi; Desi Permanasari

    2012-01-01

    Port paralel tentunya sudah tidak asing lagi dalam dunia komputer. Hal tersebut disebabkan karena port paralel merupakan sarana komunikasi yang terdapat pada Personal Computer (PC). Dengan memanfaatkan port tersebut, saat ini komputer juga dapat dipergunakan untuk keperluan pengontrolan/pengendalian rangkaian listrik dengan memanfaatkan port paralel (port printer). Port paralel memiliki kecepatan transfer data yang lebih cepat apabila dibandingkan dengan port serial, maka dari itu port parale...

  20. Optimization of Traffic Light Control System of an Intersection Using

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nwokem et al.

    created for road transport system, they have far less capacity to contain the number of vehicles being .... (such as fuzzy logic, artificial neural networks, genetic/evolutionary computing, and swarm intelligence) have been found to be more cost ...

  1. Enabling narrative pedagogy: inviting, waiting, and letting be.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ironside, Pamela M

    2014-01-01

    This article describes how teachers enable Narrative Pedagogy in their courses by explicating the Concernful Practice Inviting: Waiting and Letting Be. Narrative Pedagogy, a research-based, phenomenological approach to teaching and learning, extends conventional pedagogies and offers nursing faculty an alternative way of transforming their schools and courses. Using hermeneutic phenomenology, interview data collected over a 10-year period were analyzed by coding practical examples of teachers' efforts to enact Narrative Pedagogy. When Narrative Pedagogy is enacted, teachers and students focus on thinking and learning together about nursing phenomena and seek new understandings about how they may provide care in the myriad situations they encounter. Although the Concernful Practices co-occur, explicating inviting experiences can assist new teachers, and those seeking to extend their pedagogical literacy, by providing new understandings of how Narrative Pedagogy can be enacted.

  2. Creating effective social marketing: let your customer be your guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, R

    2000-02-01

    Social marketing uses commercial marketing techniques to change behaviors that benefit individuals or society in general. Unlike conventional marketing, which seeks to sell products or services, social marketing aims to promote voluntary behavior change. Some examples of behaviors that have changed due to social marketing are: using seat belts, wearing bike helmets, child immunizations, and smoking cessation. Although good social marketing campaigns use the same techniques as that of commercial marketers, by letting the customer be the guide for all major decisions, it is not primarily advertising and is not about top-down planning and decisions. Instead, it is about having a consumer orientation, which means understanding the target audience very well. An effective social marketer must be committed to ongoing communication with the audience in order to create programs, products, or practice that enable them to make the changes desired.

  3. Suppression of MicroRNA let-7a Expression by Agmatine Regulates Neural Stem Cell Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Juhyun; Oh, Yumi; Kim, Jong Youl; Cho, Kyoung Joo; Lee, Jong Eun

    2016-11-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) effectively reverse some severe central nervous system (CNS) disorders, due to their ability to differentiate into neurons. Agmatine, a biogenic amine, has cellular protective effects and contributes to cellular proliferation and differentiation in the CNS. Recent studies have elucidated the function of microRNA let-7a (let-7a) as a regulator of cell differentiation with roles in regulating genes associated with CNS neurogenesis. This study aimed to investigate whether agmatine modulates the expression of crucial regulators of NSC differentiation including DCX, TLX, c-Myc, and ERK by controlling let-7a expression. Our data suggest that high levels of let-7a promoted the expression of TLX and c-Myc, as well as repressed DCX and ERK expression. In addition, agmatine attenuated expression of TLX and increased expression of ERK by negatively regulating let-7a. Our study therefore enhances the present understanding of the therapeutic potential of NSCs in CNS disorders.

  4. Analysis of mutagenic effects induced by carbon beams at different LET in a red yeast strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Haining; Wang Jufang; Ma Shuang; Lu Dong; Wu Xin; Li Wenjian

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate inactive and mutagenic effects of carbon beam at different LET, the inactivation cross section and mutation cross section induced by carbon beams of different LET values were investigated in a red yeast strain Rhodotorula glutinis AY 91015. It was found that the maximum inactivation cross section of 4.37μm 2 , which was very close to the average nucleus cross section, was at LET of 120.0 keV/μm. The maximum mutation cross section was at LET of 96.0 keV/μm. Meanwhile, the highest mutagenicity of carbon ion was found around 58.2 keV/μm. It implied that the most efficient LET to induce mutation in survival yeasts was 58.2 keV/μm, which corresponded to energy of 35 MeV/u carbon beam. The most effective carbon beam to induce inactivation and mutation located at different energy region. (authors)

  5. Potential proteins targeted by let-7f-5p in HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Chen, Xiujuan; Zhang, Yi; Song, Jiandong

    2017-07-24

    MicroRNAs are a class of small, endogenous, non-coding RNAs mediating posttranscriptional gene silencing. The current authors hypothesized that let-7f-5p is likely involved in cell invasion and proliferation by regulating the expression of target genes. The current study combined let-7f-5p with iTRAQ to assess its effect on gene expression in HeLa cells. Results indicated that 164 proteins were expressed at different levels in HeLa cells overexpressing let-7f-5p and negative controls and that 172 proteins were expressed at different levels in let-7f-5p-silenced HeLa cells and negative controls. Results indicated that let-7f-5p may suppress insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA binding protein 1 (IGF2BP1) in HeLa cells.

  6. Simulation of traffic control signal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, P. J.; Concannon, P. A.; Ricci, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    In recent years there has been considerable interest in the development and testing of control strategies for networks of urban traffic signal systems by simulation. Simulation is an inexpensive and timely method for evaluating the effect of these traffic control strategies since traffic phenomena are too complex to be defined by analytical models and since a controlled experiment may be hazardous, expensive, and slow in producing meaningful results. This paper describes the application of an urban traffic corridor program, to evaluate the effectiveness of different traffic control strategies for the Massachusetts Avenue TOPICS Project.

  7. The road traffic crashes as a neglected public health concern; an observational study from Iranian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiyari, Mahmood; Delpisheh, Ali; Monfared, Ayad Bahadori; Kazemi-Galougahi, Mohammad Hassan; Mehmandar, Mohammad Reza; Riahi, Mohammad; Salehi, Masoud; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    Traffic crashes are multifactorial events caused by human factors, technical issues, and environmental conditions. The present study aimed to determine the role of human factors in traffic crashes in Iran using the proportional odds regression model. The database of all traffic crashes in Iran in 2010 (n = 592, 168) registered through the "COM.114" police forms was investigated. Human risk factors leading to traffic crashes were determined and the odds ratio (OR) of each risk factor was estimated using an ordinal regression model and adjusted for potential confounding factors such as age, gender, and lighting status within and outside of cities. The drivers' mean age ± standard deviation was 34.1 ± 14.0 years. The most prevalent risk factors leading to death within cities were disregarding traffic rules and regulations (45%), driver rushing (31%), and alcohol consumption (12.3%). Using the proportional odds regression model, alcohol consumption was the most significant human risk factor in traffic crashes within cities (OR = 6.5, 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.88-8.65) and outside of cities (OR = 1.73, 95% CI, 1.22-3.29). Public health strategies and preventive policies should be focused on more common human risk factors such as disregarding traffic rules and regulations, drivers' rushing, and alcohol consumption due to their greater population attributable fraction and more intuitive impacts on society.

  8. Energy savings in traffic, technical possibilities. Energiansaeaestoe liikenteessae, tekniset mahdollisuudet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alppivuori, K; Himanen, V [Valtion Teknillinen Tutkimuskeskus, Espoo (Finland). Tie- ja Liikennelab.

    1991-01-01

    The fuel consumption of passenger cars can be reduced in many ways. Decreasing the drag coefficient cuts down on the consumption with 3-10% calculated on the basis of the total consumption of passenger cars. Decreasing the cubic capacity of the engine with 200 ccm reduces the consumption with 12-24%. Introduction of small city cars (engine capacity of less than 660 ccm) gives a reduction of 8-13%, changing over to diesel engines gives a reduction of 20-3% and to small two-stroke engines a reduction of 30%. Changing over to electric cars in cities and in the short-distance traffic of cities would reduce the consumption of liquid fuel in traffic with passenger cars with 30-40%, but it would require using of the power of six power plants (total 3000 MW) for charging in the night-time. The consumption of liquid fuel of buses varies considerably according to the bus and the driving conditions in question. Developing of the qualities of a car may produce a saving of 5-15% in its energy consumption. Additionally, optimized use of a car can produce a saving of 5-10%. In future, the boundary between delivery vans and lorries may blur when new types of distribution systems will be introduced. The possibilities of saving fuel will be considerably good, up to 30-49% for delivery vans and light lorries, and 20-30% for heavy lorries. The development of traffic is a result of the traffic policy of the public administration and the behaviour of private people. Background factors are various measures of car manufacturers and marketing organizations. The prevailing development will lead to a steady growth of consumption of liquid fuel in the traffic.

  9. Safety in traffic for vulnerable military road users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar J. Bulajić

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Army of Serbia, as a relatively closed system, regulates the field of traffic safety; however, during peacetime, general rules apply to all participants in traffic circulation. The Republic of Serbia is in the group of countries with a high number of road fatalities. The level of traffic safety in the Serbian Army has been on constant increase since 2000, although the relevant transport authorities in the military are not yet satisfied with the achieved level (even one lost life is too much. The increase can be deceptive, since if we take into account the substantial reduction in vehicle use due to various factors in the last few years (poor financial situation in the country as well as in the military, under-investment in the purchase of new vehicles, purchase of transportation services, fewer drivers drafted and more vehicles driven by trained officers, etc., it is not surprising that there are fewer accidents and fewer road deaths and injuries among military personnel. This paper aims at approaching the problem of pedestrian safety as a segment of road safety and at making an educational impact on all members of the military, because they all participate in traffic daily, if not as drivers or passengers, then certainly in large numbers as pedestrians. The basis of this paper is aimed at shedding light on the causes of pedestrian road fatalities due to their mistakes, i. e. 'negligence' of the participants in car accidents with the participation of pedestrians, as well as at proposing measures to reduce and prevent traffic accidents with pedestrians.

  10. Incorporating Traffic Control and Safety Hardware Performance Functions into Risk-based Highway Safety Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongzhi Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Traffic control and safety hardware such as traffic signs, lighting, signals, pavement markings, guardrails, barriers, and crash cushions form an important and inseparable part of highway infrastructure affecting safety performance. Significant progress has been made in recent decades to develop safety performance functions and crash modification factors for site-specific crash predictions. However, the existing models and methods lack rigorous treatments of safety impacts of time-deteriorating conditions of traffic control and safety hardware. This study introduces a refined method for computing the Safety Index (SI as a means of crash predictions for a highway segment that incorporates traffic control and safety hardware performance functions into the analysis. The proposed method is applied in a computation experiment using five-year data on nearly two hundred rural and urban highway segments. The root-mean square error (RMSE, Chi-square, Spearman’s rank correlation, and Mann-Whitney U tests are employed for validation.

  11. Real-time traffic sign recognition based on a general purpose GPU and deep-learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kwangyong; Hong, Yongwon; Choi, Yeongwoo; Byun, Hyeran

    2017-01-01

    We present a General Purpose Graphics Processing Unit (GPGPU) based real-time traffic sign detection and recognition method that is robust against illumination changes. There have been many approaches to traffic sign recognition in various research fields; however, previous approaches faced several limitations when under low illumination or wide variance of light conditions. To overcome these drawbacks and improve processing speeds, we propose a method that 1) is robust against illumination changes, 2) uses GPGPU-based real-time traffic sign detection, and 3) performs region detecting and recognition using a hierarchical model. This method produces stable results in low illumination environments. Both detection and hierarchical recognition are performed in real-time, and the proposed method achieves 0.97 F1-score on our collective dataset, which uses the Vienna convention traffic rules (Germany and South Korea).

  12. Symmetry breaking in optimal timing of traffic signals on an idealized two-way street.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaggio, Mark J; Ottino-Löffler, Bertand J; Hu, Peiguang; Abrams, Daniel M

    2013-09-01

    Simple physical models based on fluid mechanics have long been used to understand the flow of vehicular traffic on freeways; analytically tractable models of flow on an urban grid, however, have not been as extensively explored. In an ideal world, traffic signals would be timed such that consecutive lights turned green just as vehicles arrived, eliminating the need to stop at each block. Unfortunately, this "green-wave" scenario is generally unworkable due to frustration imposed by competing demands of traffic moving in different directions. Until now this has typically been resolved by numerical simulation and optimization. Here, we develop a theory for the flow in an idealized system consisting of a long two-way road with periodic intersections. We show that optimal signal timing can be understood analytically and that there are counterintuitive asymmetric solutions to this signal coordination problem. We further explore how these theoretical solutions degrade as traffic conditions vary and automotive density increases.

  13. Symmetry breaking in optimal timing of traffic signals on an idealized two-way street

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaggio, Mark J.; Ottino-Löffler, Bertand J.; Hu, Peiguang; Abrams, Daniel M.

    2013-09-01

    Simple physical models based on fluid mechanics have long been used to understand the flow of vehicular traffic on freeways; analytically tractable models of flow on an urban grid, however, have not been as extensively explored. In an ideal world, traffic signals would be timed such that consecutive lights turned green just as vehicles arrived, eliminating the need to stop at each block. Unfortunately, this “green-wave” scenario is generally unworkable due to frustration imposed by competing demands of traffic moving in different directions. Until now this has typically been resolved by numerical simulation and optimization. Here, we develop a theory for the flow in an idealized system consisting of a long two-way road with periodic intersections. We show that optimal signal timing can be understood analytically and that there are counterintuitive asymmetric solutions to this signal coordination problem. We further explore how these theoretical solutions degrade as traffic conditions vary and automotive density increases.

  14. Pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 polymorphism is associated with gastric cancer prognosis and might affect mature let-7a expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Y

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ying Li, Qian Xu, Jingwei Liu, Caiyun He, Quan Yuan, Chengzhong Xing, Yuan Yuan Tumor Etiology and Screening Department of Cancer Institute and General Surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, and Key Laboratory of Cancer Etiology and Prevention (China Medical University, Liaoning Provincial Education Department, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The relationship between the pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 polymorphism and gastric cancer (GC risk has been reported. However, the role of this polymorphism in the prognosis of GC remains largely elusive. Sequenom MassARRAY platform method and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism were used to investigate pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 G→A in 334 GC patients. Real-time PCR detected expression of mature let-7a in serum and tissue. Patients with AA or GA+AA genotypes of the pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 polymorphism demonstrated significantly longer survival time than those with the wild GG genotype. Stratified analysis indicated that survival time was significantly longer in women with AA or GA+AA genotypes and in Borrmann type I/II patients with GA heterozygote or GA+AA genotypes. AA genotype was more frequent in the lymphatic-metastasis-negative subgroup. Serum mature let-7a expression in healthy people with the GA heterozygote and the GA+AA genotype was higher than in those with the GG genotype, and the difference remained significant in the female healthy subgroup. Pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 polymorphism might be a biomarker for GC prognosis, especially for female and Borrmann type I/II patients. The pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 polymorphism might affect serum mature let-7a expression, and partly explain the mechanism of the relationship between the pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 polymorphism and GC survival. Keywords: miRNA, let-7a, polymorphism, gastric cancer, prognosis, expression

  15. Natural light illumination system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whang, Allen Jong-Woei; Chen, Yi-Yung; Yang, Shu-Hua; Pan, Po-Hsuan; Chou, Kao-Hsu; Lee, Yu-Chi; Lee, Zong-Yi; Chen, Chi-An; Chen, Cheng-Nan

    2010-12-10

    sources, depending on circumstances. The system is controlled by a light detector. We used optical simulation tools to design and simulate the efficiency of the active module. Finally, we used the natural light illumination system to provide natural illumination for a traffic tunnel. This system will provide a great number of benefits for the people who use it.

  16. p-i-n Homojunction in Organic Light-Emitting Transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisri, Satria Zulkarnaen; Takenobu, Taishi; Sawabe, Kosuke; Tsuda, Satoshi; Yomogidao, Yohei; Yamao, Takeshi; Hotta, Shu; Adachi, Chihaya; Iwasa, Yoshihiro

    2011-01-01

    A new method for investigating light-emitting property in organic devices is demonstrated. We apply the ambipolar light-emitting transistors (LETS) to directly observe the recombination zone, and find a strong link between the transistor performance and the zone size. This finding unambiguously

  17. Tetracene-based organic light-emitting transistors: optoelectronic properties and electron injection mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santato, C.; Capelli, R.; Loi, M.A.; Murgia, M.; Cicoira, F.; Roy, Arunesh; Stallinga, P; Zamboni, R.; Rost, C.; Karg, S.F.; Muccini, M.

    2004-01-01

    Optoelectronic properties of light-emitting field-effect transistors (LETs) fabricated on bottom-contact transistor structures using a tetracene film as charge-transport and light-emitting material are investigated. Electroluminescence generation and transistor current are correlated, and the bias

  18. SMART VIDEO SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM FOR VEHICLE DETECTION AND TRAFFIC FLOW CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. SHAFIE

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Traffic signal light can be optimized using vehicle flow statistics obtained by Smart Video Surveillance Software (SVSS. This research focuses on efficient traffic control system by detecting and counting the vehicle numbers at various times and locations. At present, one of the biggest problems in the main city in any country is the traffic jam during office hour and office break hour. Sometimes it can be seen that the traffic signal green light is still ON even though there is no vehicle coming. Similarly, it is also observed that long queues of vehicles are waiting even though the road is empty due to traffic signal light selection without proper investigation on vehicle flow. This can be handled by adjusting the vehicle passing time implementing by our developed SVSS. A number of experiment results of vehicle flows are discussed in this research graphically in order to test the feasibility of the developed system. Finally, adoptive background model is proposed in SVSS in order to successfully detect target objects such as motor bike, car, bus, etc.

  19. Modelling traffic pollution in streets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkowicz, R.; Hertel, O. [National Environmental Research Inst., Dept. of Atmospheric Environment, Roskilde (Denmark); Larsen, S.E.; Soerensen, N.N.; Nielsen, M. [Risoe National Lab., Dept. of Meteorology and Wind Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    This report concerns mainly the subject related to modelling air pollution from traffic in urban streets. A short overview is presented over the theoretical aspects and examples of most commonly used methods and models are given. Flow and dispersion conditions in street canyons are discussed and the presentation is substantiated with the analysis of the experimental data. The main emphasis is on the modelling methods that are suitable for routine applications and a more detailed presentation is given of the Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM), which was developed by the National Environmental Research Institute. The model is used for surveillance of air pollution from traffic in Danish cities and also for special air pollution studies. (au) 76 refs.

  20. Container Traffic In European Ports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elen Twrdy

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last fifteen years the European transport markethas witnessed a growth of container traffic which today reachesapproximately 50 million TEU per year. From 1997 to 2002,container traffic in the northern European ports increased from14 to 20.6 million TEU per year, in the ports of the westernMedite"anean from 6 to 10 million TEU per year, and in thenorthern Adriatic ports from 0. 69 to 0. 74 million TEU per year.The ports of the northern Adriatic are located in three states(Slovenia, Croatia and Italy with different statuses in relationto the common European market. In addition, different developmentlevels of these states are reflected in different levels ofinternational commercial exchange, the development of the existinginfrastructure and plans for the construction of new infrastructures.However, all three countries share a common goaltoincrease their competitiveness in comparison with the westemEuropean ports.

  1. Health effects of traffic noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ising, H; Dienel, D; Guenther, T; Markert, B

    1980-11-01

    In 57 test persons having worked 1 day under traffic noise (Leq = 85 dB(A) and 1 day without noise (Leq < 50 dB(A)), blood pressure and pulse frequency were measured at 1 h intervals and total urine was collected during working hours. Additionally, blood was sampled at the end of each working day. Psychological parameters were assessed by means of questionnaires. Statistically significant reactions to noise were found in the following fields: 1. Ergonomics: decrease of working quality; 2. Psychology: increase of psychical tension; 3. Blood circulation: increase of blood pressure and pulse frequency; 4. Biochemistry: increase of epinephrine, cAMP, urine and serum Mg, protein, cholesterol plus decrease of erythrocyte Na, and renin. Hypothetical mechanisms of the action of traffic noise are discussed.

  2. Crowding effects in vehicular traffic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Samuel L Combinido

    Full Text Available While the impact of crowding on the diffusive transport of molecules within a cell is widely studied in biology, it has thus far been neglected in traffic systems where bulk behavior is the main concern. Here, we study the effects of crowding due to car density and driving fluctuations on the transport of vehicles. Using a microscopic model for traffic, we found that crowding can push car movement from a superballistic down to a subdiffusive state. The transition is also associated with a change in the shape of the probability distribution of positions from a negatively-skewed normal to an exponential distribution. Moreover, crowding broadens the distribution of cars' trap times and cluster sizes. At steady state, the subdiffusive state persists only when there is a large variability in car speeds. We further relate our work to prior findings from random walk models of transport in cellular systems.

  3. Combined chemo/radiotherapy of cancer: present state and prospects for use with high-LET radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, T.L.

    1979-01-01

    Cytotoxic chemotherapy added to low-LET radiotherapy has improved survival and in some cases local control. In some instances the combination has yielded increased normal tissue damage. Similar results can be expected, as confirmed by intestinal crypt cell experiments, with high-LET. Less interaction than with low-LET appears to occur with agents blocking sublethal damage repair or causing synchronization. (author)

  4. Active Traffic Management in Michigan

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Pat

    2018-01-01

    The US 23 Flex Route is the first active traffic management (ATM) project in the state of Michigan. This route utilizes overhead lane control gantries equipped with various intelligent transportation system (ITS) equipment to facilitate the following ATM strategies: dynamic shoulder use, dynamic lane control, variable speed advisories, and queue warning. The focus of this presentation is how the project team overcame several challenges during the planning, design, and system management phases...

  5. In vitro cellular transformation induced by charged particles of defined LET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hei, T.K.; Hall, E.J.; Komatsu, K.; Goldhagen, P.

    1985-01-01

    Cytotoxicity and neoplastic transformation were scored in the C/sub 3/H 10T1/2 cell system following irradiation with protons, deuterons and helium-3 ions of defined LET in the track segment mode. The charged particles were accelerated at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility at the Nevis Laboratories of Columbia University and provided a range of LET values from 10 to 175 keV/μm. Exponential phase cultures of C3H 10T1/2 cells, growing on a thin mylar surface were irradiated with charged particles of various LET values and subsequently replated onto commercial plastic petri dishes. The cultures were incubated for six weeks at which time they were fixed, stained and type II and III scored as transformants. Over the range of LET values studied thus far, it was found that as the LET of the charged particles increased, the shoulder of the survival curves decreased and approached an exponential function of dose at LET values of 100 keV/μm and above. The transformation incidence, likewise, showed a direct correlation with LET over the dose ranges examined

  6. High-LET dose-response characteristics by track structure theory of heavy charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, J.W.; Olsen, K.J.

    1981-09-01

    The track structure theory developed by Katz and co-workers ascribes the effect of high-LET radiation to the highly inhomogeneous dose distribution due to low energy Δ-rays ejected from the particle track. The theory predicts the effectiveness of high-LET radiation by using the ion parameters zsub(eff') effective charge of the ion, and β = v/c, the relative ion velocity, together with the characteristic dose D 37 derived from low-LET dose-response characteristic of the detector and the approximate size asub(0) of the sensitive element of the detector. 60 Co gamma-irradiation is used as a reference low-LET radiation, while high-LET radiation ranging from 16 MeV protons to 4 MeV/amu 16 0-ions covering an initial LET range of 30-5500 MeVcm 2 /g is obtained from a tandem Van de Graaff accelerator. A thin film (5mg/cm 2 ) radiochromic dye cyanide plastic dosemeter was used as detector with the characteristic dose of 16.8 Mrad and a sensitive element size of 10 -7 cm. Theoretical and experimental effectiveness, RBE, agreed within 10 to 25% depending on LET. (author)

  7. Ambulance traffic accidents in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Po-Wei; Lin, Chih-Hao; Wu, Chen-Long; Fang, Pin-Hui; Lu, Chien-Hsin; Hsu, Hsiang-Chin; Chi, Chih-Hsien

    2018-04-01

    Ambulance traffic accidents (ATAs) are the leading cause of occupation-related fatalities among emergency medical service (EMS) personnel. We aim to use the Taiwan national surveillance system to analyze the characteristics of ATAs and to assist EMS directors in developing policies governing ambulance operations. A retrospective, cross-sectional and largely descriptive study was conducted using Taiwan national traffic accidents surveillance data from January 1, 2011 to October 31, 2016. Among the 1,627,217 traffic accidents during the study period, 715 ATAs caused 8 deaths within 24 h and 1844 injured patients. On average, there was one ATA for every 8598 ambulance runs. Compared to overall traffic accidents, ATAs were 1.7 times more likely to result in death and 1.9 times more likely to have injured patients. Among the 715 ATAs, 8 (1.1%) ATAs were fatal and 707 (98.9%) were nonfatal. All 8 fatalities were associated with motorcycles. The urban areas were significantly higher than the rural areas in the annual number of ATAs (14.2 ± 7.3 [7.0-26.7] versus 3.1 ± 1.9 [0.5-8.4], p = 0.013), the number of ATA-associated fatalities per year (0.2 ± 0.2 [0.0-0.7] versus 0.1 ± 0.1 [0.0-0.2], p = 0.022), and the annual number of injured patients (who needed urgent hospital visits) in ATAs (19.4 ± 7.3 [10.5-30.9] versus 5.2 ± 3.8 [0.9-15.3], p traffic accident reporting system should be built to provide EMS policy guidance for ATA reduction and outcome improvements. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Vehicular traffic flow at an intersection with the possibility of turning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foulaadvand, M Ebrahim; Belbasi, Somayyeh

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a Nagel-Schreckenberg cellular automata model for describing a vehicular traffic flow at a single intersection. A set of traffic lights operating in a fixed-time scheme controls the traffic flow. An open boundary condition is applied to the streets each of which conducts a unidirectional flow. Streets are single lane and cars can turn upon reaching to the intersection with prescribed probabilities. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations are carried out to find the model flow characteristics. In particular, we investigate the flow dependence on signalization parameters, turning probabilities and input rates. It is shown that for each set of parameters, there exists a plateau region inside which the total outflow from the intersection remains almost constant. We also compute total waiting time of vehicles per cycle behind red lights for various control parameters.

  9. PARP-1 is a key player in controlling apoptosis induced by high LET carbon ion beam and low LET gamma radiation in HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghorai, Atanu; Ghosh, Utpal; Bhattacharyya, Nitai P.; Sarma, Asitikantha

    2014-01-01

    PARP-1 inhibitors have long been used as chemo-sensitizer or radio-sensitizer and specific PARP-1 inhibitors are also in clinical trial for the treatment of various cancers. PARP-1 is not only involved in DNA repair but also plays very complex role in induction of apoptosis in postirradiation condition. Our objective is to investigate role of PARP-1 in apoptosis triggered by high LET carbon ion beam (CIB) and low LET gamma. We have treated HeLa and PARP-1 knock down HeLa (Hsil) cells with various doses of CIB and gamma. We measured DNA damage by comet assay and various apoptotic parameters such as nuclear fragmentation, activation of caspase-3,8,9, AIF translocation etc. We observed higher DNA breaks and also higher apoptosis in HsiI cells compared with HeLa cells. Both CIB and gamma treatment results G2/M arrest but unlike gamma CIB makes S-phase delay, implicating that gamma and CIB triggers different pathway after DNA damage. Cell death by CIB or by gamma increased up on knocking down of PARP-1 but increase is higher for high LET CIB compared with low LET gamma. Furthermore, expression level of PARP-1 controls the intensity of overall apoptosis in cells in post-irradiation condition. So, combination of PARP-1 inhibition with high LET CIB could be a promising tool to combat cancer. (author)

  10. Analysis of vehicular traffic flow in the major areas of Kuala Lumpur utilizing open-traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manogaran, Saargunawathy; Ali, Muhammad; Yusof, Kamaludin Mohamad; Suhaili, Ramdhan

    2017-09-01

    Vehicular traffic congestion occurs when a large number of drivers are overcrowded on the road and the traffic flow does not run smoothly. Traffic congestion causes chaos on the road and interruption to daily activities of users. Time consumed on road give lots of negative effects on productivity, social behavior, environmental and cost to economy. Congestion is worsens and leads to havoc during the emergency such as flood, accidents, road maintenance and etc., where behavior of traffic flow is always unpredictable and uncontrollable. Real-time and historical traffic data are critical inputs for most traffic flow analysis applications. Researcher attempt to predict traffic using simulations as there is no exact model of traffic flow exists due to its high complexity. Open Traffic is an open source platform available for traffic data analysis linked to Open Street Map (OSM). This research is aimed to study and understand the Open Traffic platform. The real-time traffic flow pattern in Kuala Lumpur area was successfully been extracted and analyzed using Open Traffic. It was observed that the congestion occurs on every major road in Kuala Lumpur and most of it owes to the offices and the economic and commercial centers during rush hours. At some roads the congestion occurs at night due to the tourism activities.

  11. Consumer Products Advertised to Save Energy--Let the Buyer Beware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-24

    AD-AL06 653 GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE WASHINGTON DC HUMAN RESOUR--ETC F/G 5/3 CONSUMER PRODUCTS ADVERTISED TO SAVE ENERGY--LET THE BUYER BEWA-ETC...COMPTROLLER GENERAL’S CONSUMER PRODUCTS ADVERTISED REPORT TO THE CONGRESS TO SAVE ENERGY- - LET THE BUYER BEWARE D IG E ST In efforts to reduce energy costs...and comparable, GAO believes that the best ad- vice for consumers is "let the buyer beware." (See p. 42.) F’TC ’S COMMENTS FTC said that GAO

  12. Mutagenic action of radiation with different LET on Bacillus subtilis cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borejko, A.V.; Krasavin, E.A.

    1996-01-01

    The induction of the his - →his + mutants in vegetative and spores of Bacillus subtilis wild type cells irradiated with γ-rays and helium ions (LET=20-80 keV/μm has been investigated. It was shown that the dose dependence of the mutation induction in vegetative cells is described by a linear-quadratic function of dose in case of both γ-rays and helium ions. RBE (LET) dependence on the mutagenic assay is shifted at the low region of LET. (author). 11 refs., 4 figs

  13. Oxygen as a product of water radiolysis in high-LET tracks. II. Radiobiological implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baverstock, K.F.; Burns, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    Consideration is given to the possibility that molecular oxygen generated in the tracks of energetic heavy ions is responsible for the reduction in oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) with increasing linear energy transfer (LET) observed for the loss of reproductive capacity caused by radiation in many cellular organisms. Yields of oxygen relationship of OER to LET for two organisms, Chlamydomonas reinhardii and Shigella flexneri, using a simple diffusion kinetic model for radiobiological action which takes account of the diffusion of oxygen after its formation. The results of these calculations show that the model accounts well for the shape of the OER vs. LET relationship

  14. Dosimetry and microdosimetry using LET spectrometer based on the track-etch detector: radiotherapy Bremsstrahlung beam, onboard aircraft radiation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadrnickova, I.; Spurny, F.

    2006-01-01

    The spectrometer of linear energy transfer (Let) based on the chemically etched poly-allyl-diglycol-carbonate (P.A.D.C.) track-etch detector was developed several years ago in our institute. This Let spectrometer enables determining Let of particles approximately from 10 to 700 keV/μm. From the Let spectra, dose characteristics can be calculated. The contribution presents the Let spectra and other dosimetric characteristics obtained onboard a commercial aircraft during more than 6 months long exposure and in the 18 MV radiotherapy Bremsstrahlung beam. (authors)

  15. 11th Traffic and Granular Flow Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Daamen, Winnie

    2016-01-01

    The Conference on Traffic and Granular Flow brings together international researchers from different fields ranging from physics to computer science and engineering to discuss the latest developments in traffic-related systems. Originally conceived to facilitate new ideas by considering the similarities of traffic and granular flow, TGF'15, organised by Delft University of Technology, now covers a broad range of topics related to driven particle and transport systems. Besides the classical topics of granular flow and highway traffic, its scope includes data transport (Internet traffic), pedestrian and evacuation dynamics, intercellular transport, swarm behaviour and the collective dynamics of other biological systems. Recent advances in modelling, computer simulation and phenomenology are presented, and prospects for applications, for example to traffic control, are discussed. The conference explores the interrelations between the above-mentioned fields and offers the opportunity to stimulate interdisciplinar...

  16. Traffic Flow Management Wrap-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabbe, Shon

    2011-01-01

    Traffic Flow Management involves the scheduling and routing of air traffic subject to airport and airspace capacity constraints, and the efficient use of available airspace. Significant challenges in this area include: (1) weather integration and forecasting, (2) accounting for user preferences in the Traffic Flow Management decision making process, and (3) understanding and mitigating the environmental impacts of air traffic on the environment. To address these challenges, researchers in the Traffic Flow Management area are developing modeling, simulation and optimization techniques to route and schedule air traffic flights and flows while accommodating user preferences, accounting for system uncertainties and considering the environmental impacts of aviation. This presentation will highlight some of the major challenges facing researchers in this domain, while also showcasing recent innovations designed to address these challenges.

  17. Autosolitons in applied physics and traffic flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerner, B.S.

    1996-01-01

    A review of investigations of autosolitons in nonlinear systems which are of interest for the applied physics and for the transportation research is presented. Autosolitons are solitary intrinsic states which can be formed in a broad class of physical, chemical, biological dissipative distributed media and in traffic flow. Properties of autosolitons which are general for physical systems and for traffic flow will be discussed. Based on results of recent investigations of traffic jams in traffic flow, a comparison of nonlinear characteristics of traffic jams and with nonlinear properties of autosolitons which can be formed in active systems with diffusion will be given. Forms, properties, processes of evolution of autosolitons in traffic flow, in semiconductors and in gas discharge plasma are considered. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  18. Traffic and Granular Flow ’07

    CERN Document Server

    Chevoir, François; Gondret, Philippe; Lassarre, Sylvain; Lebacque, Jean-Patrick; Schreckenberg, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This book covers several research fields, all of which deal with transport. Three main topics are treated: road traffic, granular matter, and biological transport. Different points of view, i.e. modelling, simulations, experiments, and phenomenological observations, are considered. Sub-topics include: highway or urban vehicular traffic (dynamics of traffic, macro/micro modelling, measurements, data analysis, security issues, psychological issues), pedestrian traffic, animal traffic (e.g. social insects), collective motion in biological systems (molecular motors...), granular flow (dense flows, intermittent flows, solid/liquid transition, jamming, force networks, fluid and solid friction), networks (biological networks, urban traffic, the internet, vulnerability of networks, optimal transport networks) and cellular automata applied to the various aforementioned fields.

  19. Traffic analysis toolbox volume XI : weather and traffic analysis, modeling and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    This document presents a weather module for the traffic analysis tools program. It provides traffic engineers, transportation modelers and decisions makers with a guide that can incorporate weather impacts into transportation system analysis and mode...

  20. Real-Time Corrected Traffic Correlation Model for Traffic Flow Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-pu Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the problems of short-term traffic flow forecasting. The main goal is to put forward traffic correlation model and real-time correction algorithm for traffic flow forecasting. Traffic correlation model is established based on the temporal-spatial-historical correlation characteristic of traffic big data. In order to simplify the traffic correlation model, this paper presents correction coefficients optimization algorithm. Considering multistate characteristic of traffic big data, a dynamic part is added to traffic correlation model. Real-time correction algorithm based on Fuzzy Neural Network is presented to overcome the nonlinear mapping problems. A case study based on a real-world road network in Beijing, China, is implemented to test the efficiency and applicability of the proposed modeling methods.