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Sample records for lethal critical body

  1. Estimating bioconcentration factors, lethal concentrations and critical body residues of metals in the mollusks Perna viridis and Mytilus edulis using ion characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kolck, Maurits; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Veltman, Karin; Jan Hendriks, A

    2008-02-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for metal bioconcentration factors (BCF) and median acute lethal water concentrations (LC50) were developed for two species of mollusks, Perna viridis and Mytilus edulis. These endpoints were related to four metal ion characteristics, the covalent index (chi(2)(m)r) (r represents the ion radius in A), the softness index (sigma(p)), the hydrolysis constant (K(OH)) and the ionic index (Z(2)/r). The BCF and LC50 were significantly correlated to chi(m)(2)r. The coefficients of determination r(2) for the relationships with other metal descriptors were much lower. Critical body residue (CBR) QSARs were derived by multiplying the chi(2)(m)r-based BCF and LC50 regressions. The CBRs were independent of the covalent index chi(2)(m)r, as BCF and LC50 scaled to chi(2)(m)r with slope that had opposite signs. Comparison of the estimated CBRs with independent empirical values confirmed the predicted trends, but substantial deviations were noted too.

  2. Critical body residues, Michaelis-Menten analysis of bioaccumulation, lethality and behaviour as endpoints of waterborne Ni toxicity in two teleosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Erin M; Marentette, Julie R; Balshine, Sigal; Wood, Chris M

    2014-03-01

    Traditionally, water quality guidelines/criteria are based on lethality tests where results are expressed as a function of waterborne concentrations (e.g. LC50). However, there is growing interest in the use of uptake and binding relationships, such as biotic ligand models (BLM), and in bioaccumulation parameters, such as critical body residue values (e.g. CBR50), to predict metal toxicity in aquatic organisms. Nevertheless, all these approaches only protect species against physiological death (e.g. mortality, failed recruitment), and do not consider ecological death which can occur at much lower concentrations when the animal cannot perform normal behaviours essential for survival. Therefore, we investigated acute (96 h) Ni toxicity in two freshwater fish species, the round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and compared LC, BLM, and CBR parameters for various organs, as well as behavioural responses (spontaneous activity). In general, round goby were more sensitive. Ni bioaccumulation displayed Michaelis-Menten kinetics in most tissues, and round goby gills had lower Kd (higher binding affinity) but similar Bmax (binding site density) values relative to rainbow trout gills. Round goby also accumulated more Ni than did trout in most tissues at a given exposure concentration. Organ-specific 96 h acute CBR values tended to be higher in round goby but 96 h acute CBR50 and CBR10 values in the gills were very similar in the two species. In contrast, LC50 and LC10 values were significantly higher in rainbow trout. With respect to BLM parameters, gill log KNiBL values for bioaccumulation were higher by 0.4-0.8 log units than the log KNiBL values for toxicity in both species, and both values were higher in goby (more sensitive). Round goby were also more sensitive with respect to the behavioural response, exhibiting a significant decline of 63-75 % in movements per minute at Ni concentrations at and above only 8 % of the LC50 value

  3. Colonic perforation: a lethal consequence of cannabis body packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawich, Shamir O; Downes, Ross; Martin, Allie C; Evans, Necia R; Mitchell, Derek I G; Williams, Eric

    2010-07-01

    Body packing is one method of smuggling cannabis across international borders. The practice is prevalent in Jamaica. There has been one reported death from this practice in medical literature. We report a second fatal case of cannabis body packing, reinforcing the dangerous nature of this practice.

  4. Acclimation effects on critical and lethal thermal limits of workers of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumbam, Keafon R; Jackson, Susan; Terblanche, John S; McGeoch, Melodie A; Chown, Steven L

    2008-06-01

    For the Argentine ant Linepithema humile, bioclimatic models often predict narrower optimal temperature ranges than those suggested by behavioural and physiological studies. Although water balance characteristics of workers of this species have been thoroughly studied, gaps exist in current understanding of its thermal limits. We investigated critical thermal minima and maxima and upper and lower lethal limits following acclimation to four temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30 degrees C; 12L:12D photoperiod) in adult workers of the Argentine ant, L. humile, collected from Stellenbosch, South Africa. At an ecologically relevant rate of temperature change of 0.05 degrees Cmin(-1), CTMax varied between 38 and 40 degrees C, and CTMin varied between 0 and 0.8 degrees C. In both cases the response to acclimation was weak. A significant time by exposure temperature interaction was found for upper and lower lethal limits, with a more pronounced effect of acclimation at longer exposure durations. Upper lethal limits varied between 37 and 44 degrees C, whilst lower lethal limits varied between -4 and -10.5 degrees C, with an acclimation effect more pronounced for upper than lower lethal limits. A thermal envelope for workers of the Argentine ant is provided, demonstrating that upper thermal limits do likely contribute to distributional limits, but that lower lethal limits and limits to activity likely do not, or at least for workers who are not exposed simultaneously to the demands of load carriage and successful foraging behaviour.

  5. Lethal body concentrations and accumulation patterns determine time-dependent toxicity of cadmium in soil arthropods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crommentuijn, T.; Doodeman, C.J.A.M.; Doornekamp, A.; Pol, J.J.C. van der; Bedaux, J.J.M.; Gestel, C.A.M. van (Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands))

    1994-11-01

    Time-dependent toxicity in bioassays is usually explained in terms of uptake and elimination kinetics of the toxicant. By comparing different species with essentially different accumulation kinetics, a firm test of this concept may be made. This article compares the sensitivity of six soil arthropods, the collembolans Orchesella cincta and Tomocerus minor, the oribatid mite Platynothrus peltifer, the isopods Porcellio scaber and Oniscus asellus, and the diplopod Cylindroiulus britannicus, when exposed to cadmium in the food. Survival was determined at various time intervals; accumulation of cadmium in the animals was measured at one time interval. Kinetic-based toxicity models were fitted to the data, and estimates were obtained for lethal body concentration, uptake rate constant, elimination rate constant, and ultimate LC50. Two different accumulation patterns could be discerned; these were correlated with time-survival relationships. One, species that have the possibility to eliminate cadmium will reach an equilibrium for the internal concentration and also an ultimate LC50. Two, species that are unable to eliminate cadmium but store it in the body will have an ultimate LC50 equal to zero. For these species the time in which the lethal body concentration is reached is more important. Taxonomically related species appeared to have comparable accumulation patterns, but lethal body concentrations differed. It is concluded that knowledge of the accumulation pattern is indispensable for the evaluation of species' sensitivities to toxicants.

  6. Use of the lethal body burden in the risk quantification of field sediments: influence of temperature and salinity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wezel, A.P.; Jonker, M.T.O.

    1998-01-01

    The concentration of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene that is additionally required within an organism for lethality, after long-term exposure to sediments, is evaluated as an endpoint for risk assessment. This additionally required body burden for lethality after 2 months of exposure to sediments from differ

  7. Caffeine protects mice against whole-body lethal dose of {gamma}-irradiation

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    George, K.C.; Hebbar, S.A.; Kale, S.P.; Kesavan, P.C. [Biosciences Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    1999-06-01

    Administration of caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine), a major component of coffee, to Swiss mice at doses of 80 or 100 mg/kg body weight 60 min prior to whole-body lethal dose of {gamma}-irradiation (7.5 Gy) resulted in the survival of 70 and 63% of animals, respectively, at the above doses in contrast to absolutely no survivors (LD-100/25 days) in the group exposed to radiation alone. Pre-treatment with a lower concentration of caffeine (50 mg/kg) did not confer any radioprotection. The protection exerted by caffeine (80 mg/kg), however, was reduced from 70 to 50% if administered 30 min prior to irradiation. The trend statistics reveal that a dose of 80 mg/kg administered 60 min before whole-body exposure to 7.5 Gy is optimal for maximal radioprotection. However, caffeine (80 mg/kg) administered within 3 min after irradiation offered no protection. While there is documentation in the literature that caffeine is an antioxidant and radioprotector against the toxic pathway of radiation damage in a wide range of cells and organisms, this is the first report demonstrating unequivocally its potent radioprotective action in terms of survival of lethally whole-body irradiated mice. (author)

  8. Critical stability of few-body systems

    CERN Document Server

    Karmanov, V A

    2013-01-01

    When a two-body system is bound by a zero-range interaction, the corresponding three-body system -- considered in a non-relativistic framework -- collapses, that is its binding energy is unbounded from below. In a paper by J.V. Lindesay and H.P. Noyes it was shown that the relativistic effects result in an effective repulsion in such a way that three-body binding energy remains also finite, thus preventing the three-body system from collapse. Later, this property was confirmed in other works based on different versions of relativistic approaches. However, the three-body system exists only for a limited range of two-body binding energy values. For stronger two-body interaction, the relativistic three-body system still collapses. A similar phenomenon was found in a two-body systems themselves: a two-fermion system with one-boson exchange interaction in a state with zero angular momentum J=0 exists if the coupling constant does not exceed some critical value but it also collapses for larger coupling constant. Fo...

  9. Establishment of a mouse model of 70% lethal dose by total-body irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Seung-Hyun; Park, Jong-Hyung; Jeong, Eui-Suk; Choi, Soo-Young; Ham, Seung-Hoon; Park, Jin-Il; Jeon, Hee-Yeon; Kim, Jun-Young; Yoo, Ran-Ji; Lee, Yong-Jin; Woo, Sang-Keun; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2016-06-01

    Whereas increasing concerns about radiation exposure to nuclear disasters or side effects of anticancer radiotherapy, relatively little research for radiation damages or remedy has been done. The purpose of this study was to establish level of LD70/30 (a lethal dose for 70% of mice within 30 days) by total-body γ irradiation (TBI) in a mouse model. For this purpose, at first, 8-week-old male ICR and C57BL/6N mice from A and B companies were received high dose (10, 11, 12 Gy) TBI. After irradiation, the body weight and survival rate were monitored for 30 days consecutively. In next experiment, 5-week-old male ICR and C57BL/6N mice from B company were received same dose irradiation. Results showed that survival rate and body weight change rate in inbred C57BL/6N mice were similar between A and B company. In ICR mice, however, survival rate and body weight change rate were completely different among the companies. Significant difference of survival rate both ICR and C57BL6N mice was not observed in between 5-week-old and 8-week-old groups receiving 10 or 12 Gy TBI. Our results indicate that the strain and age of mice, and even purchasing company (especially outbred), should be matched over experimental groups in TBI experiment. Based on our results, 8-week-old male ICR mice from B company subjected to 12 Gy of TBI showed LD70/30 and suitable as a mouse model for further development of new drug using the ideal total-body irradiation model.

  10. Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Mitigates Hematopoietic Toxicity After Lethal Total Body Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Dunhua; Deoliveira, Divino; Kang, Yubin; Choi, Seung S. [Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Li, Zhiguo [Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Chao, Nelson J. [Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Immunology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Duke Cancer Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Chen, Benny J., E-mail: chen0032@mc.duke.edu [Duke Cancer Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate whether and how insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) mitigates hematopoietic toxicity after total body irradiation. Methods and Materials: BALB/c mice were irradiated with a lethal dose of radiation (7.5 Gy) and treated with IGF-1 at a dose of 100 μg/dose intravenously once a day for 5 consecutive days starting within 1 hour after exposure. Survival and hematopoietic recovery were monitored. The mechanisms by which IGF-1 promotes hematopoietic recovery were also studied by use of an in vitro culture system. Results: IGF-1 protected 8 of 20 mice (40%) from lethal irradiation, whereas only 2 of 20 mice (10%) in the saline control group survived for more than 100 days after irradiation. A single dose of IGF-1 (500 μg) was as effective as daily dosing for 5 days. Positive effects were noted even when the initiation of treatment was delayed as long as 6 hours after irradiation. In comparison with the saline control group, treatment with IGF-1 significantly accelerated the recovery of both platelets and red blood cells in peripheral blood, total cell numbers, hematopoietic stem cells, and progenitor cells in the bone marrow when measured at day 14 after irradiation. IGF-1 protected both hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells from radiation-induced apoptosis and cell death. In addition, IGF-1 was able to facilitate the proliferation and differentiation of nonirradiated and irradiated hematopoietic progenitor cells. Conclusions: IGF-1 mitigates radiation-induced hematopoietic toxicity through protecting hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells from apoptosis and enhancing proliferation and differentiation of the surviving hematopoietic progenitor cells.

  11. Protective Effects of Hong Shan Capsule against Lethal Total-Body Irradiation-Induced Damage in Wistar Rats

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    Jianzhong Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hong Shan Capsule (HSC, a crude drug of 11 medicinal herbs, was used in clinical practice for the treatment of radiation injuries in China. In this study, we investigated its protection in rats against acute lethal total-body irradiation (TBI. Pre-administration of HSC reduced the radiation sickness characteristics, while increasing the 30-day survival of the irradiated rats. Administration of HSC also reduced the radiation sickness characteristics and increased the 30-day survival of mice after exposure to lethal TBI. Ultrastructural observation illustrated that the pretreatment of rats with HSC significantly attenuated the TBI-induced morphological changes in the different organs of irradiated rats. Gene expression profiles revealed the dramatic effect of HSC on alterations of gene expression caused by lethal TBI. Pretreatment with HSC prevented differential expression of 66% (1398 genes of 2126 genes differentially expressed in response to TBI. Pathway enrichment analysis indicated that these genes were mainly involved in a total of 32 pathways, such as pathways in cancer and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathway. Our analysis indicated that the pretreatment of rats with HSC modulated these pathways induced by lethal TBI, such as multiple MAPK pathways, suggesting that pretreatment with HSC might provide protective effects on lethal TBI mainly or partially through the modulation of these pathways. Our data suggest that HSC has the potential to be used as an effective therapeutic or radio-protective agent to minimize irradiation damage.

  12. Protective Effects of Hong Shan Capsule against Lethal Total-Body Irradiation-Induced Damage in Wistar Rats.

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    Li, Jianzhong; Xu, Jing; Xu, Weiheng; Qi, Yang; Lu, Yiming; Qiu, Lei; Hu, Zhenlin; Chu, Zhiyong; Chai, Yifeng; Zhang, Junping

    2015-08-12

    Hong Shan Capsule (HSC), a crude drug of 11 medicinal herbs, was used in clinical practice for the treatment of radiation injuries in China. In this study, we investigated its protection in rats against acute lethal total-body irradiation (TBI). Pre-administration of HSC reduced the radiation sickness characteristics, while increasing the 30-day survival of the irradiated rats. Administration of HSC also reduced the radiation sickness characteristics and increased the 30-day survival of mice after exposure to lethal TBI. Ultrastructural observation illustrated that the pretreatment of rats with HSC significantly attenuated the TBI-induced morphological changes in the different organs of irradiated rats. Gene expression profiles revealed the dramatic effect of HSC on alterations of gene expression caused by lethal TBI. Pretreatment with HSC prevented differential expression of 66% (1398 genes) of 2126 genes differentially expressed in response to TBI. Pathway enrichment analysis indicated that these genes were mainly involved in a total of 32 pathways, such as pathways in cancer and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Our analysis indicated that the pretreatment of rats with HSC modulated these pathways induced by lethal TBI, such as multiple MAPK pathways, suggesting that pretreatment with HSC might provide protective effects on lethal TBI mainly or partially through the modulation of these pathways. Our data suggest that HSC has the potential to be used as an effective therapeutic or radio-protective agent to minimize irradiation damage.

  13. Tolerization with BLP down-regulates HMGB1 a critical mediator of sepsis-related lethality.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coffey, J Calvin

    2012-02-03

    Tolerization with bacterial lipoprotein (BLP) affords a significant survival benefit in sepsis. Given that high mobility group box protein-1 (HMGB1) is a recognized mediator of sepsis-related lethality, we determined if tolerization with BLP leads to alterations in HMGB1. In vitro, BLP tolerization led to a reduction in HMGB1 gene transcription. This was mirrored at the protein level, as HMGB1 protein expression and release were reduced significantly in BLP-tolerized human THP-1 monocytic cells. BLP tolerance in vivo led to a highly significant, long-term survival benefit following challenge with lethal dose BLP in C57BL\\/6 mice. This was associated with an attenuation of HMGB1 release into the circulation, as evidenced by negligible serum HMGB1 levels in BLP-tolerized mice. Moreover, HMGB1 levels in peritoneal macrophages from BLP-tolerized mice were reduced significantly. Hence, tolerization with BLP leads to a down-regulation of HMGB1 protein synthesis and release. The improved survival associated with BLP tolerance could thus be explained by a reduction in HMGB1, were the latter associated with lethality in BLP-related sepsis. In testing this hypothesis, it was noted that neutralization of HMGB1, using anti-HMGB1 antibodies, abrogated BLP-associated lethality almost completely. To conclude, tolerization with BLP leads to a down-regulation of HMGB1, thus offering a novel means of targeting the latter. HMGB1 is also a mediator of lethality in BLP-related sepsis.

  14. Protected graft copolymer-formulated fibroblast growth factors mitigate the lethality of partial body irradiation injury

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    Castillo, Gerardo M.; Nishimoto-Ashfield, Akiko; Jones, Cynthia C.; Kabirov, Kasim K.; Zakharov, Alexander; Lyubimov, Alexander V.

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the mitigating effects of fibroblast growth factor 4 and 7 (FGF4 and FGF7, respectively) in comparison with long acting protected graft copolymer (PGC)-formulated FGF4 and 7 (PF4 and PF7, respectively) administered to C57BL/6J mice a day after exposure to LD50/30 (15.7 Gy) partial body irradiation (PBI) which targeted the gastrointestinal (GI) system. The PGC that we developed increased the bioavailability of FGF4 and FGF7 by 5- and 250-fold compared to without PGC, respectively, and also sustained a 24 hr presence in the blood after a single subcutaneous administration. The dose levels tested for mitigating effects on radiation injury were 3 mg/kg for the PF4 and PF7 and 1.5 mg each for their combination (PF4/7). Amifostine administered prior to PBI was used as a positive control. The PF4, PF7, or PF4/7 mitigated the radiation lethality in mice. The mitigating effect of PF4 and PF7 was similar to the positive control and PF7 was better than other mitigators tested. The plasma citrulline levels and hematology parameters were early markers of recovery and survival. GI permeability function appeared to be a late or full recovery indicator. The villus length and crypt number correlated with plasma citrulline level, indicating that it can act as a surrogate marker for these histology evaluations. The IL-18 concentrations in jejunum as early as day 4 and TPO levels in colon on day 10 following PBI showed statistically significant changes in irradiated versus non-irradiated mice which makes them potential biomarkers of radiation exposure. Other colon and jejunum cytokine levels are potentially useful but require larger numbers of samples than in the present study before their full utility can be realized. PMID:28207794

  15. Investigation of Lethal Poisonings among Dead Bodies Referred to Regional Office of Iranian Legal Medicine Organization in Shiraz

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    Mahmoud Montazeri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background:Death due to acute poisoning is of medical, legal and social significance. This study was designed to investigate lethal poisonings among dead bodies referred to a regional office of Iranian Legal Medicine Organization (ILMO. Methods:This was a retrospective descriptive-analytical study on dead bodies referred to Fars province regional office of ILMO in Shiraz, Iran, during April 2013 to the end of March 2014. For data analysis, only subjects with poisoning as the definitive cause of death were included. Results:During the study period, 2,594 autopsies were conducted in Fars province office of ILMO, among which poisoning was found to be the cause of death in 147 autopsies (5.7%. Eighty-eight cases (59.9% were men. The majority of subjects aged 20 to 30 years (50.3%. The greatest number of subjects (73.5% was unmarried persons. Regarding the occupation, most subjects were unemployed (49.7% followed by housewives (19.7%. Over half of the cases (54.42% had died within less than 6 hours after the poisoning. The majority of cases were found dead at home (73.5%, while the rest had died in outpatient department or hospital wards. Suicide cases were far more common than unintentional cases (75.5% vs. 24.5%. Suicidal intention was significantly higher in subjects with lower educational status (P = 0.033. The most common causes of poisoning were pharmaceutical products (66.7% followed by aluminum phosphide (10.9% and other types of pesticides (7.2%. Conclusion:Lethal poisonings is mostly seen in young adults, and those with lower educational level and unemployment. Suicidal intention is the main cause of lethal poisonings.

  16. [Surgical complications in drug body-packers: an uncommon but potentially lethal emergency].

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    Álvarez Llano, Laura; Rey Valcárcel, Cristina; Mohamed Al-Lal, Yusef; Sánchez Rodríguez, Teresa; García Marín, Andrés; Pérez Díaz, María Dolores; Turégano Fuentes, Fernando

    2012-11-01

    Drug trafficking by means of introducing packets of illegal substances in body cavities carries a risk of suffering from a gastrointestinal obstruction and/or severe poisoning in the person who transports them. Spain is considered as the port of entry to Europe for drugs, and some Spanish hospitals have experience in managing these types of patients. Two hospitals in Madrid, including the Gregorio Marañón University General Hospital (HGUGM), received these potential patients from the Madrid Barajas airport. To analyse the results of the conservative treatment and the need for surgery in "body-packers". A retrospective, observational study of patients diagnosed as a body-packer between January 2000 and December 2008. Those with gastrointestinal symptoms, signs of poisoning, or positive for drugs of abuse, were admitted to the Custodial Unit of our hospital. The conservative treatment consisted of digestive rest and imaging studies until expulsion from the body. Asymptomatic patients were discharged from the Emergency Department. A total of 549 patients, with a median age of 31 years, and of whom 81% were males, were hospitalised during this period. Less than half (40%) showed positive for drugs in the urine, with cocaine in 80% of the cases. Of the 549 patients with initial conservative treatment, 27 (4.9%) had serious complications (16, bowel obstruction, and 11 with signs of poisoning). Of these, 23 required surgery (the 16 obstructions and 7 of the poisonings); 2 were successfully treated in ICU, and 2 died before surgery (0.4%) of the cases. The most frequent surgical treatment was enterotomy and/or gastrostomy to extract the packets. Thirteen (56%) of those operated on had associated morbidity (11 abdominal infections and 2 nosocomial infections). Conservative treatment is safe in 95% of the patients. A small percentage required surgical treatment, basically for gastrointestinal obstruction or severe poisoning. Copyright © 2011 AEC. Published by Elsevier

  17. Time-dependent lethal body residues for the toxicity of pentachlorobenzene to Hyalella azteca

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    Landrum, Peter F.; Steevens, Jeffery A.; Gossiaux, Duane C.; McElroy, Michael; Robinson, Sander; Begnoche, Linda; Chernyak, Sergei; Hickey, James

    2004-01-01

    The study examined the temporal response of Hyalella azteca to pentachlorobenzene (PCBZ) in water-only exposures. Toxicity was evaluated by calculating the body residue of PCBZ associated with survival. The concentration of PCBZ in the tissues of H. azteca associated with 50% mortality decreased from 3 to 0.5 μmol/g over the temporal range of 1 to 28 d, respectively. No significant difference was observed in the body residue calculated for 50% mortality when the value was determined using live or dead organisms. Metabolism of PCBZ was not responsible for the temporal response because no detectable PCBZ biotransformation occurred over an exposure period of 10 d. A damage assessment model was used to evaluate the impact and repair of damage by PCBZ on H. azteca. The toxicokinetics were determined so that the temporal toxicity data could be fit to a damage assessment model. The half-life calculated for the elimination of PCBZ averaged approximately 49 h, while the value determined for the half-life of damage repair from the damage assessment model was 33 h.

  18. An anti-apoptotic peptide improves survival in lethal total body irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDunn, Jonathan E; Muenzer, Jared T; Dunne, Benjamin; Zhou, Anthony; Yuan, Kevin; Hoekzema, Andrew; Hilliard, Carolyn; Chang, Katherine C; Davis, Christopher G; McDonough, Jacquelyn; Hunt, Clayton; Grigsby, Perry; Piwnica-Worms, David; Hotchkiss, Richard S

    2009-05-15

    Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) have been used to deliver the anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL-derived BH4 peptide to prevent injury-induced apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. Here we demonstrate that the nuclear localization sequence (NLS) from the SV40 large T antigen has favorable properties for BH4 domain delivery to lymphocytes compared to sequences based on the HIV-1 TAT sequence. While both TAT-BH4 and NLS-BH4 protected primary human mononuclear cells from radiation-induced apoptotic cell death, TAT-BH4 caused persistent membrane damage and even cell death at the highest concentrations tested (5-10 microM) and correlated with in vivo toxicity as intravenous administration of TAT-BH4 caused rapid death. The NLS-BH4 peptide has significantly attenuated toxicity compared to TAT-BH4 and we established a dosing regimen of NLS-BH4 that conferred a significant survival advantage in a post-exposure treatment model of LD90 total body irradiation.

  19. The effects of thermal acclimation on lethal temperatures and critical thermal limits in the green vegetable bug, Nezara viridula (L. (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae

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    Pol eChanthy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available According to geographical distribution, Nezara viridula (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae can be found across tropical, subtropical and temperate regions and this pattern is assumed to reflect differences in thermal adaptation, particularly in cold tolerance. Here the lethal temperature and critical thermal limits (thermal tolerance are examined for N. viridula. The upper lethal temperature for N. viridula at two contrasting climate locations (Breeza and Grafton, New South Wales, Australia was 40.3ºC with 20% survival under the stress of high temperature. The lower lethal temperature did not differ between these two populations and was -8.0ºC with 20% survival under low temperature stress. Survival of N. viridula increased after acclimation at high temperature for seven days. In contrast, when acclimated at lower temperatures (10 and 15ºC, survival of Breeza and Grafton N. viridula was lower than 20% at -8.0ºC.Control-reared N. viridula adults (25ºC had a mean CTMinOnset (cold stupor of 1.3 ± 2.1ºC and a mean CTMax (heat coma of 45.9 ± 0.9ºC. After 7 days of acclimation at 10, 20, 30, or 35ºC, N. viridula adults exhibited a 1ºC change in CTMax and a ~ 1.5ºC change in CTMinOnset. CTMax and CTMinOnset of Breeza and Grafton N. viridula populations did not differ across acclimation temperatures. These results suggest that short-term temperature acclimation is more important than provenance for determining lethal temperatures and critical thermal limits in N. viridula.

  20. Critical quasienergy states in driven many-body systems

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    Bastidas Valencia, Victor Manuel; Engelhardt, Georg; Perez-Fernandez, Pedro; Vogl, Malte; Brandes, Tobias

    2015-03-01

    A quantum phase transition (QPT) is characterized by non-analyticities of ground-state properties at the critical points. Recently it has been shown that quantum criticality emerges also in excited states of the system, which is referred to as an excited-state quantum phase transition (ESQPT). This kind of quantum criticality is intimately related to a level clustering at critical energies, which results in a logarithmic singularity in the density of states. Most of the previous studies on quantum criticality in excited states have been focused on time independent systems. Here we study spectral singularities that appear in periodically-driven many-body systems and show how the external control allows one to engineer geometrical features of the quasienergy landscape. In particular, we study singularities in the quasienergy spectrum of a fully-connected network consisting of two-level systems with time-dependent interactions. We discuss the characteristic signatures of these singularities in observables like the magnetization, which should be measurable with current technology. The authors gratefully acknowledge financial support by the DFG via grants BRA 1528/7, BRA 1528/8, SFB 910 (V.M.B., T.B.), the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion (Grants No. FIS2011-28738-C02-01) and Junta de Andalucia (Grants No. FQM160).

  1. Candida albicans isolates from the gut of critically ill patients respond to phosphate limitation by expressing filaments and a lethal phenotype.

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    Kathleen Romanowski

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogen that proliferates in the intestinal tract of critically ill patients where it continues to be a major cause of infectious-related mortality. The precise cues that shift intestinal C. albicans from its ubiquitous indolent colonizing yeast form to an invasive and lethal filamentous form remain unknown. We have previously shown that severe phosphate depletion develops in the intestinal tract during extreme physiologic stress and plays a major role in shifting intestinal Pseudomonas aeruginosa to express a lethal phenotype via conserved phosphosensory-phosphoregulatory systems. Here we studied whether phosphate dependent virulence expression could be similarly demonstrated for C. albicans. C. albicans isolates from the stool of critically ill patients and laboratory prototype strains (SC5314, BWP17, SN152 were evaluated for morphotype transformation and lethality against C. elegans and mice during exposure to phosphate limitation. Isolates ICU1 and ICU12 were able to filament and kill C. elegans in a phosphate dependent manner. In a mouse model of intestinal phosphate depletion (30% hepatectomy, direct intestinal inoculation of C. albicans caused mortality that was prevented by oral phosphate supplementation. Prototype strains displayed limited responses to phosphate limitation; however, the pho4Δ mutant displayed extensive filamentation during low phosphate conditions compared to its isogenic parent strain SN152, suggesting that mutation in the transcriptional factor Pho4p may sensitize C. albicans to phosphate limitation. Extensive filamentation was also observed in strain ICU12 suggesting that this strain is also sensitized to phosphate limitation. Analysis of the sequence of PHO4 in strain ICU12, its transcriptional response to phosphate limitation, and phosphatase assays confirmed that ICU12 demonstrates a profound response to phosphate limitation. The emergence of strains of C. albicans with

  2. MASM, a Matrine Derivative, Offers Radioprotection by Modulating Lethal Total-Body Irradiation-Induced Multiple Signaling Pathways in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianzhong; Xu, Jing; Lu, Yiming; Qiu, Lei; Xu, Weiheng; Lu, Bin; Hu, Zhenlin; Chu, Zhiyong; Chai, Yifeng; Zhang, Junping

    2016-05-17

    Matrine is an alkaloid extracted from Sophora flavescens Ait and has many biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antitumor, anti-fibrosis, and immunosuppressive properties. In our previous studies, the matrine derivative MASM was synthesized and exhibited potent inhibitory activity against liver fibrosis. In this study, we mainly investigated its protection against lethal total-body irradiation (TBI) in rats. Administration of MASM reduced the radiation sickness characteristics and increased the 30-day survival of rats before or after lethal TBI. Ultrastructural observation illustrated that pretreatment of rats with MASM significantly attenuated the TBI-induced morphological changes in the different organs of irradiated rats. Gene expression profiles revealed that pretreatment with MASM had a dramatic effect on gene expression changes caused by TBI. Pretreatment with MASM prevented differential expression of 53% (765 genes) of 1445 differentially expressed genes induced by TBI. Pathway enrichment analysis indicated that these genes were mainly involved in a total of 21 pathways, such as metabolic pathways, pathways in cancer, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Our data indicated that pretreatment of rats with MASM modulated these pathways induced by TBI, suggesting that the pretreatment with MASM might provide the protective effects on lethal TBI mainly or partially through the modulation of these pathways, such as multiple MAPK pathways. Therefore, MASM has the potential to be used as an effective therapeutic or radioprotective agent to minimize irradiation damages and in combination with radiotherapy to improve the efficacy of cancer therapy.

  3. Whole-body sleeping beauty mutagenesis can cause penetrant leukemia/lymphoma and rare high-grade glioma without associated embryonic lethality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Lara S; Adams, David J; Hackett, Christopher S; Bendzick, Laura E; Akagi, Keiko; Davies, Michael N; Diers, Miechaleen D; Rodriguez, Fausto J; Bender, Aaron M; Tieu, Christina; Matise, Ilze; Dupuy, Adam J; Copeland, Neal G; Jenkins, Nancy A; Hodgson, J Graeme; Weiss, William A; Jenkins, Robert B; Largaespada, David A

    2009-11-01

    The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system has been used as a somatic mutagen to identify candidate cancer genes. In previous studies, efficient leukemia/lymphoma formation on an otherwise wild-type genetic background occurred in mice undergoing whole-body mobilization of transposons, but was accompanied by high levels of embryonic lethality. To explore the utility of SB for large-scale cancer gene discovery projects, we have generated mice that carry combinations of different transposon and transposase transgenes. We have identified a transposon/transposase combination that promotes highly penetrant leukemia/lymphoma formation on an otherwise wild-type genetic background, yet does not cause embryonic lethality. Infiltrating gliomas also occurred at lower penetrance in these mice. SB-induced or accelerated tumors do not harbor large numbers of chromosomal amplifications or deletions, indicating that transposon mobilization likely promotes tumor formation by insertional mutagenesis of cancer genes, and not by promoting wide-scale genomic instability. Cloning of transposon insertions from lymphomas/leukemias identified common insertion sites at known and candidate novel cancer genes. These data indicate that a high mutagenesis rate can be achieved using SB without high levels of embryonic lethality or genomic instability. Furthermore, the SB system could be used to identify new genes involved in lymphomagenesis/leukemogenesis.

  4. MASM, a Matrine Derivative, Offers Radioprotection by Modulating Lethal Total-Body Irradiation-Induced Multiple Signaling Pathways in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Matrine is an alkaloid extracted from Sophora flavescens Ait and has many biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antitumor, anti-fibrosis, and immunosuppressive properties. In our previous studies, the matrine derivative MASM was synthesized and exhibited potent inhibitory activity against liver fibrosis. In this study, we mainly investigated its protection against lethal total-body irradiation (TBI in rats. Administration of MASM reduced the radiation sickness characteristics and increased the 30-day survival of rats before or after lethal TBI. Ultrastructural observation illustrated that pretreatment of rats with MASM significantly attenuated the TBI-induced morphological changes in the different organs of irradiated rats. Gene expression profiles revealed that pretreatment with MASM had a dramatic effect on gene expression changes caused by TBI. Pretreatment with MASM prevented differential expression of 53% (765 genes of 1445 differentially expressed genes induced by TBI. Pathway enrichment analysis indicated that these genes were mainly involved in a total of 21 pathways, such as metabolic pathways, pathways in cancer, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways. Our data indicated that pretreatment of rats with MASM modulated these pathways induced by TBI, suggesting that the pretreatment with MASM might provide the protective effects on lethal TBI mainly or partially through the modulation of these pathways, such as multiple MAPK pathways. Therefore, MASM has the potential to be used as an effective therapeutic or radioprotective agent to minimize irradiation damages and in combination with radiotherapy to improve the efficacy of cancer therapy.

  5. Lack of Pwcr1/MBII-85 snoRNA is critical for neonatal lethality in Prader-Willi syndrome mouse models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Feng [Stanford University; Prints, Yelena [Stanford University; Dhar, Madhu [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Johnson, Dabney K [ORNL; Garnacho-Montero, Carmen [University of Pennsylvania; Nicholls, Robert [University of Pennsylvania; Francke, Uta [Stanford University

    2005-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neurobehavioral disorder caused by the lack of paternal expression of imprinted genes in the human chromosome region 15q11-13. Recent studies of rare human translocation patients narrowed the PWS critical genes to a 121-kb region containing PWCR1/HBII-85 and HBII-438 snoRNA genes. The existing mouse models of PWS that lack the expression of multiple genes, including Snrpn, Ube3a, and many intronic snoRNA genes, are characterized by 80%-100% neonatal lethality. To define the candidate region for PWS-like phenotypes in mice,we analyzed the expression of several genetic elements in mice carrying the large radiation-induced p30PUb deletion that includes the p locus. Mice having inherited this deletion from either parent develop normally into adulthood. By Northern blot and RTPCR assays of brain tissue, we found that Pwcr1/MBII-85 snoRNAs are expressed normally, while MBII-52 snoRNAs are not expressed when the deletion is paternally inherited. Mapping of the distal deletion breakpoint indicated that the p30PUb deletion includes the entire MBII-52 snoRNA gene cluster and three previously unmapped EST sequences. The lack of expression of these elements in mice with a paternal p30PUb deletion indicates that they are not critical for the neonatal lethality observed in PWS mouse models. In addition, we identified MBII-436, the mouse homolog of the HBII-436 snoRNA, confirmed its imprinting status, and mapped it outside of the p30PUb deletion. Taking together all available data, we conclude that the lack of Pwcr1/MBII-85 snoRNA expression is the most likely cause for the neonatal lethality in PWS model mice.

  6. Critical Properties of the Many-Body Localization Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemani, Vedika; Lim, S. P.; Sheng, D. N.; Huse, David A.

    2017-04-01

    The transition from a many-body localized phase to a thermalizing one is a dynamical quantum phase transition that lies outside the framework of equilibrium statistical mechanics. We provide a detailed study of the critical properties of this transition at finite sizes in one dimension. We find that the entanglement entropy of small subsystems looks strongly subthermal in the quantum critical regime, which indicates that it varies discontinuously across the transition as the system size is taken to infinity, even though many other aspects of the transition look continuous. We also study the variance of the half-chain entanglement entropy, which shows a peak near the transition, and find substantial variation in the entropy across eigenstates of the same sample. Furthermore, the sample-to-sample variations in this quantity are strongly growing and are larger than the intrasample variations. We posit that these results are consistent with a picture in which the transition to the thermal phase is driven by an eigenstate-dependent sparse resonant "backbone" of long-range entanglement, which just barely gains enough strength to thermalize the system on the thermal side of the transition as the system size is taken to infinity. This discontinuity in a global quantity—the presence of a fully functional bath—in turn implies a discontinuity even for local properties. We discuss how this picture compares with existing renormalization group treatments of the transition.

  7. Allogeneic compact bone-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation increases survival of mice exposed to lethal total body irradiation: a potential immunological mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiao Shukai; Ren Hanyun; Shi Yongjin; Liu Wei

    2014-01-01

    Background Radiation-induced injury after accidental or therapeutic total body exposure to ionizing radiation has serious pathophysiological consequences,and currently no effective therapy exists.This study was designed to investigate whether transplantation of allogeneic murine compact bone derived-mesenchymal stem cells (CB-MSCs) could improve the survival of mice exposed to lethal dosage total body irradiation (TBI),and to explore the potential immunoprotective role of MSCs.Methods BALB/c mice were treated with 8 Gy TBI,and then some were administered CB-MSCs isolated from C57BL/6 mice.Survival rates and body weight were analyzed for 14 days post-irradiation.At three days post-irradiation,we evaluated IFN-Y and IL-4 concentrations; CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cell (Treg) percentage; CXCR3,CCR5,and CCR7 expressions on CD3+T cells; and splenocyte T-bet and GATA-3 mRNA levels.CB-MSC effects on bone marrow hemopoiesis were assessed via colony-forming unit granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM) assay.Results After lethal TBI,compared to non-transplanted mice,CB-MSC-transplanted mice exhibited significantly increased survival,body weight,and CFU-GM counts of bone marrow cells (P<0.05),as well as higher Treg percentages,reduced IFN-Y,CXCR3 and CCR5 down-regulation,and CCR7 up-regulation.CB-MSC transplantation suppressed Th1 immunity.Irradiated splenocytes directly suppressed CFU-GM formation from bone marrow cells,and CB-MSC co-culture reversed this inhibition.Conclusion Allogeneic CB-MSC transplantation attenuated radiation-induced hematopoietic toxicity,and provided immunoprotection by alleviating lymphocyte-mediated CFU-GM inhibition,expanding Tregs,regulating T cell chemokine receptor expressions,and skewing the Th1/Th2 balance toward anti-inflammatory Th2 polarization.

  8. CELO病毒与包涵体肝炎%Chicken embryo lethal orphan virus and inclusion body hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤雪; 王云峰

    2005-01-01

    CELO病毒(Chicken Embryo Lethal Orphan Virus,CELOV)即鸡胚致死孤儿病毒,属于腺病毒科,禽腺病毒属,鸡腺病毒Ⅰ型,归于腺病毒A群。1954年Yates等人首次报告从鸡胚中分离到一种新病毒,并于1957年命名为鸡胚致死孤儿病毒,简称CELO病毒。由于CELO病毒具有禽腺病毒属各种的主要生物学特性及抗原特性,1982年国际病毒学分类委员会(ICTV)第四次报告把CELO病毒确定为禽腺病毒属的代表种。

  9. Critical care of sub-lethal irradiated transgenic mice using a complete soft food formula-DietGel76A™.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumanca, Ovidiu I; Palmer, Jay

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research is to determine whether the administration of a complete soft food formula to sub-lethal irradiated animals from three different transgenic mouse strains over a period of 21 consecutive days will have a significant impact on the clinical signs, and the general survival rate of the animals. Our hypothesis is that using DietGel76A™, along with an antibiotic treatment, strict handling and manipulation procedures, the general mortality rate, as well as the onset of the clinical signs between the treated animals and the control animals, will be significantly lower. This hypothesis was confirmed for the C57BL/6 mice. However, the treatment with DietGel76A™ had only a very limited impact on the recovery of more irradiation sensitive strains (CD45.1 and mostly NRG). Further studies must be conducted on mice from these strains in order to assess whether mice belonging to more sensitive strains should be on DietGel76A™ for a longer period of time (at least 42days post irradiation).

  10. Intermediates of Krebs cycle correct the depression of the whole body oxygen consumption and lethal cooling in barbiturate poisoning in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivnitsky, Jury Ju; Schäfer, Timur V; Malakhovsky, Vladimir N; Rejniuk, Vladimir L

    2004-10-01

    Rats poisoned with one LD50 of thiopental or amytal are shown to increase oxygen consumption when intraperitoneally given sucinate, malate, citrate, alpha-ketoglutarate, dimethylsuccinate or glutamate (the Krebs cycle intermediates or their precursors) but not when given glucose, pyruvate, acetate, benzoate or nicotinate (energy substrates of other metabolic stages etc). Survival was increased with succinate or malate from control groups, which ranged from 30-83% to 87-100%. These effects were unrelated to respiratory depression or hypoxia as judged by little or no effect of succinate on ventilation indices and by the lack of effect of oxygen administration. Body cooling of comatose rats at ambient temperature approximately 19 degrees C became slower with succinate, the rate of cooling correlated well with oxygen consumption decrease. Succinate had no potency to modify oxygen consumption and body temperature in intact rats. A condition for antidote effect of the Krebs intermediate was sufficiently high dosage (5 mmol/kg), further dose increase made no odds. Repeated dosing of succinate had more marked protective effect, than a single one, to oxygen consumption and tended to promote the attenuation of lethal effect of barbiturates. These data suggest that suppression of whole body oxygen consumption with barbiturate overdose could be an important contributor to both body cooling and mortality. Intermediates of Krebs cycle, not only succinate, may have a pronounced therapeutic effect under the proper treatment regimen. Availability of Krebs cycle intermediates may be a limiting factor for the whole body oxygen consumption in barbiturate coma, its role in brain needs further elucidation.

  11. Teaching in Uncharted Waters: Seeking Critical Body Literacy Scripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Lorayne; Thomson, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Schools are places of learning, but they are also sites of struggle when fitness, obesity, and body image issues converge for students and teachers. Responding to teachers' concerns about their students on diets, a Canadian teachers' organization produced a body image program which included a training day for schools undertaking whole-school…

  12. Teaching in Uncharted Waters: Seeking Critical Body Literacy Scripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Lorayne; Thomson, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Schools are places of learning, but they are also sites of struggle when fitness, obesity, and body image issues converge for students and teachers. Responding to teachers' concerns about their students on diets, a Canadian teachers' organization produced a body image program which included a training day for schools undertaking whole-school…

  13. Body Image, Self-Esteem, and Weight-Related Criticism from Romantic Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Befort, Christie; Kurpius, Sharon E. Robinson; Hull-Blanks, Elva; Nicpon, Megan Foley; Huser, Laura; Sollenberger, Sonja

    2001-01-01

    Examines weight-related criticism from romantic partners and the importance of the romantic relationship in relation to the body image and self esteem for college freshmen women. Results reveal that self esteem and body image were positively related. Partner importance also predicted self esteem, whereas criticism did not. (Contains 55 references…

  14. Effect of intestinal microflora on the survival time of mice exposed to lethal whole-body. gamma. irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onoue, M.; Uchida, K.; Yokokura, T.; Takahashi, T.; Mutai, M.

    1981-11-01

    The effect of intestinal microflora on the survival time of mice exposed to 2-kR whole-body ..gamma.. irradiation was studied using germfree, monoassociated, and conventionalized ICR mice. The germfree mice were monoassociated with 1 of 11 bacterial strains, which were isolated from the fresh feces of conventional mice, 2 weeks prior to irradiation. All mice died within 3 weeks after irradiation. Monoassociation with Fusobacterium sp., Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, or Pseudomonas sp. significantly reduced the mean survival time compared to that of germfree mice. In contrast, monoassociation with Clostridium sp., Bifidobacterium pseudolongum, or Lactobacillus acidophilus significantly prolonged the mean survival time compared to that of germfree mice. This suggests that the latter organisms may perform some activity to protect the mice from radiation injury. In this histopathological autopsy examination, the main lesions were hypocellularity in hematopoietic organs and hemorrhage in various organs. Neither karyorrhexis nor desquamation of intestinal mucosal cells was observed in any mice. From these observations, it is suggested that the death of these mice was related to hematopoietic damage. Bacterial invasion into various organs was observed in conventionalized and Pseudomonas-, E. coli-, or S. faecalis-monoassociated mice but not in Clostridium-, B. pseudolongum-, L. acidophilus-, or Fusobacterium-monoassociated mice.

  15. Two-body threshold spectral analysis, the critical case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skibsted, Erik; Wang, Xue Ping

    We study in dimension $d\\geq2$ low-energy spectral and scattering asymptotics for two-body $d$-dimensional Schrödinger operators with a radially symmetric potential falling off like $-\\gamma r^{-2},\\;\\gamma>0$. We consider angular momentum sectors, labelled by $l=0,1,\\dots$, for which $\\gamma...

  16. Whole body vibration in sport: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, C; Gimigliano, R; Olvirri, S; Gimigliano, F

    2014-12-01

    Whole body vibration training is a recent area of study in athletic conditioning, health and rehabilitation. This paper provides a review of the effectiveness of this type of training in sport. A search was conducted across several electronic databases and studies on effects of whole body vibration training on sport performance were reviewed. Thirteen articles were included in the final analysis. The following variables were considered: participants investigated (sex and age), characteristics of the vibration (frequency and amplitude), training (type of sport, exposure time and intensity, tests used, type of study, effects examined and results obtained). This review considers proposed neural mechanisms and identifies studies that have demonstrated the effectiveness of WBV in sports. It considers where WBV might act and suggests that vibration can be an effective training stimulus. Future studies should focus on evaluating the long-term effects of vibration training and identify optimum frequency and amplitude, improve strength and muscular performance.

  17. Critical body residues linked to octanol-water partitioning, organism composition, and LC50 QSARs: meta-analysis and model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, A Jan; Traas, Theo P; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2005-05-01

    To protect thousands of species from thousands of chemicals released in the environment, various risk assessment tools have been developed. Here, we link quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for response concentrations in water (LC50) to critical concentrations in organisms (C50) by a model for accumulation in lipid or non-lipid phases versus water Kpw. The model indicates that affinity for neutral body components such as storage fat yields steep Kpw-Kow relationships, whereas slopes for accumulation in polar phases such as proteins are gentle. This pattern is confirmed by LC50 QSARs for different modes of action, such as neutral versus polar narcotics and organochlorine versus organophosphor insecticides. LC50 QSARs were all between 0.00002 and 0.2Kow(-1). After calibrating the model with the intercepts and, for the first time also, with the slopes of the LC50 QSARs, critical concentrations in organisms C50 are calculated and compared to an independent validation data set. About 60% of the variability in lethal body burdens C50 is explained by the model. Explanations for differences between estimated and measured levels for 11 modes of action are discussed. In particular, relationships between the critical concentrations in organisms C50 and chemical (Kow) or species (lipid content) characteristics are specified and tested. The analysis combines different models proposed before and provides a substantial extension of the data set in comparison to previous work. Moreover, the concept is applied to species (e.g., plants, lean animals) and substances (e.g., specific modes of action) that were scarcely studied quantitatively so far.

  18. The effects of thermal acclimation on lethal temperatures and critical thermal limits in the green vegetable bug, Nezara viridula (L.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanthy, Pol; Martin, Robert J; Gunning, Robin V; Andrew, Nigel R

    2012-01-01

    According to geographical distribution, Nezara viridula (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) can be found across tropical, subtropical, and temperate regions and this pattern is assumed to reflect differences in thermal adaptation, particularly in cold tolerance. Here the lethal temperature (LT) and critical thermal limits (CTL) (thermal tolerance) are examined for N. viridula. The upper LT for N. viridula at two contrasting climate locations (Breeza and Grafton, New South Wales, Australia) was 40.3°C with 20% survival under the stress of high temperature. The lower LT did not differ between these two populations and was -8.0°C with 20% survival under low temperature stress. Survival of N. viridula increased after acclimation at high temperature for 7 days. In contrast, when acclimated at lower temperatures (10 and 15°C), survival of Breeza and Grafton N. viridula was lower than 20% at -8.0°C. Control-reared N. viridula adults (25°C) had a mean CT(MinOnset) (cold stupor) of 1.3 ± 2.1°C and a mean CT(Max) (heat coma) of 45.9 ± 0.9°C. After 7 days of acclimation at 10, 20, 30, or 35°C, N. viridula adults exhibited a 1°C change in CT(Max) and a ~1.5°C change in CT(MinOnset). CT(Max) and CT(MinOnset) of Breeza and Grafton N. viridula populations did not differ across acclimation temperatures. These results suggest that short-term temperature acclimation is more important than provenance for determining LTs and CTL in N. viridula.

  19. Critical body temperature profile as indicator of heat stress vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, P K; Dutta, Priya; Nag, Anjali

    2013-01-01

    Extreme climatic heat is a major health concern among workers in different occupational pursuits. People in the regions of western India confront frequent heat emergencies, with great risk of mortality and morbidity. Taking account of informal occupational groups (foundry and sheet metal, FSM, N=587; ceramic and pottery, CP, N=426; stone quarry, SQ, N=934) in different seasons, the study examined the body temperature profiling as indicator of vulnerability to environmental warmth. About 3/4th of 1947 workers had habitual exposure at 30.1-35.5°C WBGT and ~10% of them were exposed to 38.2-41.6°C WBGT. The responses of FSM, CP and SQ workers indicated prevailing high heat load during summer and post-monsoon months. Local skin temperatures (T(sk)) varied significantly in different seasons, with consistently high level in summer, followed by post-monsoon and winter months. The mean difference of T(cr) and T(sk) was ~5.2°C up to 26.7°C WBGT, and ~2.5°C beyond 30°C WBGT. Nearly 90% of the workers had T(cr) within 38°C, suggesting their self-adjustment strategy in pacing work and regulating T(cr). In extreme heat, the limit of peripheral adjustability (35-36°C T(sk)) and the narrowing down of the difference between T(cr) and T(sk) might indicate the limit of one's ability to withstand heat exposure.

  20. Comparison of the Concentrations of Lidocaine in Different Body Fluids/Tissues after Subarachnoid Space and Intravenous Administration of a Lethal Dose of Lidocaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to compare the concentration of lidocaine in different body fluids/tissues after subarachnoid space and intravenous administrations of a lethal dose of lidocaine. Totally 18 dogs were used in the experiment. Six dogs were given subarachnoid anesthesia, another were given an intravenous injection of a dose of 75 mg/kg weight of lidocaine hydrochloride in 5 min and the last 6 dogs were used as the blank control dogs and given a subarachnoid space injection or a femoral artery injection of the same volume of sodium chloride. As soon as its vital signs disappeared, each dog was dissected and the specimen, such as brain, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF in lateral ventricle, CSF in subarachnoid space, spinal cord (cervical spinal cord, thoracic spinal cord, lumbar spinal cord, and waist spinal cord, heart, lung, liver, spleen, kidney, bile, urine, heart blood, peripheral blood, muscle in injection location, and muscle in no injection location, were collected for analysis of lidocaine immediately. Analysis was performed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. From the maximum to the minimum, the order of lidocaine concentration detected in the subarachnoid space-administered dogs was as follows: CSF in subarachnoid space, waist spinal cord, thoracic spinal cord, CSF in lateral ventricle, lumbar spinal cord, cervical spinal cord, lung, kidney, muscle in injection location, heart, brain, spleen, heart blood, liver, peripheral blood, bile, muscle in no injection location, and urine. The order of lidocaine concentration detected in the intravenously administered dogs was as followed: Kidney, heart, lung, spleen, brain, liver, peripheral blood, bile, heart blood, cervical spinal cord, thoracic spinal cord, muscle in injection location, lumbar spinal cord, muscle in no injection location, CSF in subarachnoid space, urine, and CSF in lateral ventricle. The maximum concentration of lidocaine was detected in the subarachnoid

  1. A critical assessment of two-body and three-body interactions in water

    CERN Document Server

    Medders, Gregory R; Paesani, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    The microscopic behavior of water under different conditions and in different environments remains the subject of intense debate. A great number of the controversies arise due to the contradictory predictions obtained within different theoretical models. Relative to conclusions derived from force fields or density functional theory, there is comparably less room to dispute highly-correlated electronic structure calculations. Unfortunately, such ab initio calculations are severely limited by system size. In this study, a detailed analysis of the two- and three-body water interactions evaluated at the CCSD(T) level is carried out to quantitatively assess the accuracy of several force fields, density functional theory, and ab initio-based interaction potentials that are commonly used in molecular simulations. Based on this analysis, a new model, HBB2-pol, is introduced which is capable of accurately mapping CCSD(T) results for water dimers and trimers into an efficient analytical function. The accuracy of HBB2-p...

  2. Automatic techniques for 3D reconstruction of critical workplace body postures from range imaging data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westfeld, Patrick; Maas, Hans-Gerd; Bringmann, Oliver; Gröllich, Daniel; Schmauder, Martin

    2013-11-01

    The paper shows techniques for the determination of structured motion parameters from range camera image sequences. The core contribution of the work presented here is the development of an integrated least squares 3D tracking approach based on amplitude and range image sequences to calculate dense 3D motion vector fields. Geometric primitives of a human body model are fitted to time series of range camera point clouds using these vector fields as additional information. Body poses and motion information for individual body parts are derived from the model fit. On the basis of these pose and motion parameters, critical body postures are detected. The primary aim of the study is to automate ergonomic studies for risk assessments regulated by law, identifying harmful movements and awkward body postures in a workplace.

  3. Moving Bodies, Building Minds: Foster Preschoolers' Critical Thinking and Problem Solving through Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marigliano, Michelle L.; Russo, Michele J.

    2011-01-01

    Creative movement is an ideal way to help young children develop critical-thinking and problem-solving skills. Most young children are, by nature, extremely physical. They delight in exploring the world with their bodies and expressing their ideas and feelings through movement. During creative movement experiences, children learn to think before…

  4. The Kantian Attempt to Solve the Mind-Body Problem. A Critical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Jesús Teruel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The mind-body problem is one of the perennial challenges in the history of ideas. Immanuel Kant (1724-1804 tried to solve it through an approach with several modulations –parallel to his intellectual evolution– that brought him into contact with both the later projection of the theoretical issue (the mind brain problem and its practical side (the immortality question. In this paper I face the Kantian approach to the mind-body problem from a triple perspective: descriptive, appraising and critical.

  5. Childhood Maltreatment, Depressive Symptoms, and Body Dissatisfaction in Patients with Binge Eating Disorder: The Mediating Role of Self-Criticism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkley, David M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective We examined the mediating role of self-criticism in the relation between childhood maltreatment and both depressive symptoms and body dissatisfaction in patients with binge eating disorder (BED). Method Participants were 170 BED patients who completed measures of childhood maltreatment, self-criticism, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and body dissatisfaction. Results Specific forms of childhood maltreatment (emotional abuse, sexual abuse) were significantly associated with body dissatisfaction. Path analyses demonstrated that self-criticism fully mediated the relation between emotional abuse and both depressive symptoms and body dissatisfaction. Specificity for the mediating role of self-criticism was demonstrated in comparison to other potential mediators (low self-esteem) and alternative competing mediation models. Conclusion These results highlight self-criticism as a potential mechanism through which certain forms of childhood maltreatment may be associated with depressive symptoms and body dissatisfaction in BED patients. PMID:20119938

  6. Hilbert-Glass Transition: New Universality of Temperature-Tuned Many-Body Dynamical Quantum Criticality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pekker

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We study a new class of unconventional critical phenomena that is characterized by singularities only in dynamical quantities and has no thermodynamic signatures. One example of such a transition is the recently proposed many-body localization-delocalization transition, in which transport coefficients vanish at a critical temperature with no singularities in thermodynamic observables. Describing this purely dynamical quantum criticality is technically challenging as understanding the finite-temperature dynamics necessarily requires averaging over a large number of matrix elements between many-body eigenstates. Here, we develop a real-space renormalization group method for excited states that allows us to overcome this challenge in a large class of models. We characterize a specific example: the 1 D disordered transverse-field Ising model with generic interactions. While thermodynamic phase transitions are generally forbidden in this model, using the real-space renormalization group method for excited states we find a finite-temperature dynamical transition between two localized phases. The transition is characterized by nonanalyticities in the low-frequency heat conductivity and in the long-time (dynamic spin correlation function. The latter is a consequence of an up-down spin symmetry that results in the appearance of an Edwards-Anderson-like order parameter in one of the localized phases.

  7. Are high-lethality suicide attempters with bipolar disorder a distinct phenotype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oquendo, Maria A; Carballo, Juan Jose; Rajouria, Namita; Currier, Dianne; Tin, Adrienne; Merville, Jessica; Galfalvy, Hanga C; Sher, Leo; Grunebaum, Michael F; Burke, Ainsley K; Mann, J John

    2009-01-01

    Because Bipolar Disorder (BD) individuals making highly lethal suicide attempts have greater injury burden and risk for suicide, early identification is critical. BD patients were classified as high- or low-lethality attempters. High-lethality attempts required inpatient medical treatment. Mixed effects logistic regression models and permutation analyses examined correlations between lethality, number, and order of attempts. High-lethality attempters reported greater suicidal intent and more previous attempts. Multiple attempters showed no pattern of incremental lethality increase with subsequent attempts, but individuals with early high-lethality attempts more often made high-lethality attempts later. A subset of high-lethality attempters make only high-lethality attempts. However, presence of previous low-lethality attempts does not indicate that risk for more lethal, possibly successful, attempts is reduced.

  8. Classical and quantum many-body effects on the critical properties and thermodynamic regularities of silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desgranges, C.; Anderson, P. W.; Delhommelle, J.

    2017-02-01

    Using molecular simulation, we determine the critical properties of Si as well as the loci for several remarkable thermodynamic contours spanning the supercritical region of the phase diagram. We consider a classical three-body potential as well as a quantum (tight-binding) many-body model, and determine the loci for the ideality contours, including the Zeno line and the H line of ideal enthalpy. The two strategies (classical or quantum) lead to strongly asymmetric binodals and to critical properties in good agreement with each other. The Zeno and H lines are found to remain linear over a wide temperature interval, despite the changes in electronic structure undergone by the fluid along these contours. We also show that the classical and quantum model yield markedly different results for the parameters defining the H line, the exponents for the power-laws underlying the line of minima for the isothermal enthalpy and for the density required to achieve ideal behavior, most notably for the enthalpy.

  9. Reliability of non-lethal assessment methods of body composition and energetic status exemplified by applications to eel (Anguilla anguilla) and carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klefoth, Thomas; Skov, Christian; Aarestrup, Kim;

    2013-01-01

    ),bioelectric impedance-based assessments of body composition (BIA), and microwave-based “fat” meters(FM). Previous studies have revealed mixed findings as to the reliability of each of these. We compared theperformance of Kn, BIA and FM at different temperatures to predict energetic status of the whole bodiesof live eel...

  10. Lethal Midline Granuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh S.N

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Midline granuloma is a term with several synonyms: Stewart’s granuloma, granuloma gangraenescens nasi, lethal granuloma, polymorphous reticulosis 2-4 The conditiin is characterized by localized inflammation, destruction and often mutilation of tissues of the upper respiratory tract and face and, unless treated, it ends fatally within 12 to 18 months of onset. The pathological changes are those of nonspecific chronic inflammation to necrotizing vasculitis and granulomatosis. A case of lethal midline granuloma is reported.

  11. Teaching Critical Perspectives on Body Weight: The Obesity "Epidemic" and Pro-Ana Movement in Classroom Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, David J.

    2017-01-01

    While most sociology students are well prepared to think critically about inequalities involving race, gender, social class, and sexuality, the topics of body weight and health present some challenges for classroom discussion. Primarily, this is due to the body's status in contemporary society as simultaneously malleable (able to be changed) and…

  12. Teaching Critical Perspectives on Body Weight: The Obesity "Epidemic" and Pro-Ana Movement in Classroom Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, David J.

    2017-01-01

    While most sociology students are well prepared to think critically about inequalities involving race, gender, social class, and sexuality, the topics of body weight and health present some challenges for classroom discussion. Primarily, this is due to the body's status in contemporary society as simultaneously malleable (able to be changed) and…

  13. A critical review of cosmetic treatment outcomes in body dysmorphic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, Laura; Krebs, Georgina; Mataix-Cols, David; Veale, David; Monzani, Benedetta

    2016-12-01

    A high proportion of individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) undergo cosmetic treatments in an attempt to 'fix' perceived defect/s in their physical appearance. Despite the frequency with which such procedures are sought, few studies have prospectively examined the outcomes of cosmetic procedures in individuals with BDD. This article aims to critically review the literature and discuss the current debate that exists on outcomes of cosmetic treatment for individuals with BDD. An emerging literature suggests the majority of individuals with BDD have poor outcomes after cosmetic interventions; however, based on the current literature, it cannot be fully ruled out that certain individuals with mild BDD and localised appearance concerns may benefit from these interventions. Gaps in the current literature are highlighted, alongside recommendations for future research. Carefully conducted longitudinal studies with well-characterised patient populations are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Metatropic dysplasia lethal variants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Christine M. [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, WCIN 3JH, London (United Kingdom); Elcioglu, Nursel H. [Department of Pediatric Genetics, Marmara University Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2004-01-01

    Background: The metatropic dysplasia group includes fibrochondrogenesis, Schneckenbecken dysplasia and metatropic dysplasia (various forms). The overlapping features of this group with other dysplasias may cause diagnostic confusion, particularly in perinatal lethal cases. Objective: To attempt to classify the radiological findings of the presented eight sporadic cases based on a broad review of the perinatally lethal metatropic group of conditions and to discuss some overlapping features in the light of current knowledge. Results: The first four cases are of recognised conditions, namely lethal metatropic dysplasia (Type 2) or hyperchondrogenesis, lethal hyperplastic metatropic dysplasia (Type 1) and fibrochondrogenesis. The remaining four cases cannot be categorised accurately and are different from each other but with some features of the metatropic group of dysplasias. Conclusions: The dysplasias within the metatropic dysplasia group are phenotypically distinct from many forms of chondrodysplasia but the pathogenesis still remains poorly understood from the morphological and molecular perspectives. Chondro-osseous morphology might be helpful in all lethal cases especially in our last four cases. (orig.)

  15. Constructing the 'gender-specific body': A critical discourse analysis of publications in the field of gender-specific medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annandale, Ellen; Hammarström, Anne

    2011-11-01

    Gender-specific medicine, a new and increasingly influential ethos within medical research and practice, has received little critical attention to date. The objective of this article is to critically examine the attributes of gender-specific medicine as imparted by its advocates. Through a critical discourse analysis of its two leading academic journals, we identify five interrelated discourses: of male/female difference; of hegemonic biology; of men's disadvantages; of biological and social reductionism; and of the fragmented body. Together these comprise a master discourse of the 'gender-specific body'. The discourse of the 'gender-specific body' is discussed in relation to the current neoliberal political agenda which frames healthcare as a market good and locates health and illness in individual bodies rather than in the wider social arrangements of society. We argue that the 'gender-specific body' threatens not only to turn back the clock to a vision of the biological body as fixed and determinate, but to extend this ever deeper into the social imagination. Lost in the process is any meaningful sense of the human body as a relatively open system which develops in interaction with its social world. We propose that, as it gains momentum, the 'gender-specific body' is likely progressively to circumscribe our thinking about the health of women and men in potentially problematic ways.

  16. Dose evaluation based on 24Na activity in the human body at the JCO criticality accident in Tokai-mura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momose, T; Tsujimura, N; Tasaki, T; Kanai, K; Kurihara, O; Hayashi, N; Shinohara, K

    2001-09-01

    24Na in the human body, activated by neutrons emitted at the JCO criticality accident, was observed for 62 subjects, where 148 subjects were measured by the whole body counter of JNC Tokai Works. The 148 subjects, including JCO employees and the contractors, residents neighboring the site and emergency service officers, were measured by the whole-body counter. The neutron-energy spectrum around the facility was calculated using neutron transport codes (ANISN and MCNP), and the relation between an amount of activated sodium in human body and neutron dose was evaluated from the calculated neutron energy spectrum and theoretical neutron capture probability by the human body. The maximum 24Na activity in the body was 7.7 kBq (83 Bq(24Na)/g(23Na)) and the relevant effective dose equivalent was 47 mSv.

  17. Escaping from body image shame and harsh self-criticism: exploration of underlying mechanisms of binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Cristiana; Pinto-Gouveia, José; Ferreira, Cláudia

    2014-12-01

    Shame has been highlighted as a key component of eating psychopathology. However, the specific impact of body image shame on binge eating and the mechanisms through which it operates remained unexplored. The current study tests a model examining the role that body image shame plays in binge eating and the mediator effect of self-criticism on this association, while controlling for the effect of depressive symptoms, in 329 women from the general population and college students. Correlation analyses showed that binge eating is positively associated with depressive symptoms, body image shame, and self-criticism, namely with a more severe form of self-criticism characterized by self-disgust, hating and wanting to hurt the self - hated self. Furthermore, results indicated that the path model explained 32% of binge eating behaviours and confirmed that body image shame has a significant direct effect on binge eating, and that this effect is partially mediated by increased hated self. These findings suggest that binge eating may emerge as a maladaptive way to cope with the threat of being negatively viewed by others because of one's physical appearance and the consequent engagement in a severe critical self-relating style marked by hatred, disgust and contempt towards the self. This study contributes therefore for the understanding of the processes underlying binge eating. Also, these findings have important research and clinical implications, supporting the relevance of developing eating disorder treatments that specifically target shame and self-criticism, through the development of self-compassionate skills.

  18. Pre-X Experimental Re-Entry Lifting Body: Design of Flight Test Experiments for Critical Aerothermal Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    hypersonic domain has never been explored with a controlled glider . BOR 4 BOR 5 The hypersonic glider HYFLEX The main concrete...the most critical phenomena concerning the design and sizing of a re- entry vehicle. Pre-X hypersonic glider • Improving the flight measurement...laws of a gliding body with body flaps. • Performing the first design and development end to end of the hypersonic glider . • To reduce risk for

  19. POETRY AND CRITICS. WORD AND BODY: SOME CONSIDERATIONS ON MIA COUTO’S WORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Junkes Bueno Martha

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to put in dialogue two texts by Mia Couto, writ­ten in different genders, and published with a large gap of time between each other. In both, the tensions among poetry, thought and life reflect the author’s attitude in face of language and its poetic transformation strength that could act in society and lyric person. The first text, is an intervention [poetic] made in Stockholm, in 2008; the other is a poem from author’s first writings, Nocturnamente, from 1981. In both it is possible to note that authorship figurations address to two kinds of crisis: political and social dilemmas from Africa and also, in terms of individual subjectivity crisis, to the dilemmas of the poetic person, following the path of modernity but adding to it something new: the concern with body and corporality of scripture. In both texts, the intervention and the poem, language and human being has a crucial role, whether to re-ordinate the world or to ordi­nate the profound lyricism of poetic person. In this sense, the critical cons­ciousness are pinpointed not as something usually dropped in traditional crisis debate, but from this debate to something challenger: the reflexions on (unlimited powerful of poetry resistance, as Jean Luc Nancy suggests.

  20. Body without Organs: Notes on Deleuze & Guattari, Critical Race Theory and the Socius of Anti-Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Awad

    2015-01-01

    My aim in this article is to epistemologically read Deleuze and Guattari (D & G) against critical race theory (CRT) and simultaneously delineate how D & G's notion of "body without organs" can benefit from CRT. At first glance, especially for language instructors and researchers, these two epistemological frameworks not only…

  1. Body without Organs: Notes on Deleuze & Guattari, Critical Race Theory and the Socius of Anti-Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Awad

    2015-01-01

    My aim in this article is to epistemologically read Deleuze and Guattari (D & G) against critical race theory (CRT) and simultaneously delineate how D & G's notion of "body without organs" can benefit from CRT. At first glance, especially for language instructors and researchers, these two epistemological frameworks not only…

  2. Intermittent Hypoxia-Induced Carotid Body Chemosensory Potentiation and Hypertension Are Critically Dependent on Peroxynitrite Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban A. Moya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is involved in the development of carotid body (CB chemosensory potentiation and systemic hypertension induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH, the main feature of obstructive sleep apnea. We tested whether peroxynitrite (ONOO−, a highly reactive nitrogen species, is involved in the enhanced CB oxygen chemosensitivity and the hypertension during CIH. Accordingly, we studied effects of Ebselen, an ONOO− scavenger, on 3-nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity (3-NT-ir in the CB, the CB chemosensory discharge, and arterial blood pressure (BP in rats exposed to CIH. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to CIH (5% O2, 12 times/h, 8 h/day for 7 days. Ebselen (10 mg/kg/day was administrated using osmotic minipumps and BP measured with radiotelemetry. Compared to the sham animals, CIH-treated rats showed increased 3-NT-ir within the CB, enhanced CB chemosensory responses to hypoxia, increased BP response to acute hypoxia, and hypertension. Rats treated with Ebselen and exposed to CIH displayed a significant reduction in 3-NT-ir levels (60.8 ± 14.9 versus 22.9 ± 4.2 a.u., reduced CB chemosensory response to 5% O2 (266.5 ± 13.4 versus 168.6 ± 16.8 Hz, and decreased mean BP (116.9 ± 13.2 versus 82.1 ± 5.1 mmHg. Our results suggest that CIH-induced CB chemosensory potentiation and hypertension are critically dependent on ONOO− formation.

  3. The role of body image in prenatal and postpartum depression: a critical review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Marushka L; Ertel, Karen A; Dole, Nancy; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2015-06-01

    Maternal depression increases risk of adverse perinatal outcomes, and recent evidence suggests that body image may play an important role in depression. This systematic review identifies studies of body image and perinatal depression with the goal of elucidating the complex role that body image plays in prenatal and postpartum depression, improving measurement, and informing next steps in research. We conducted a literature search of the PubMed database (1996-2014) for English language studies of (1) depression, (2) body image, and (3) pregnancy or postpartum. In total, 19 studies matched these criteria. Cross-sectional studies consistently found a positive association between body image dissatisfaction and perinatal depression. Prospective cohort studies found that body image dissatisfaction predicted incident prenatal and postpartum depression; findings were consistent across different aspects of body image and various pregnancy and postpartum time periods. Prospective studies that examined the reverse association found that depression influenced the onset of some aspects of body image dissatisfaction during pregnancy, but few evaluated the postpartum onset of body image dissatisfaction. The majority of studies found that body image dissatisfaction is consistently but weakly associated with the onset of prenatal and postpartum depression. Findings were less consistent for the association between perinatal depression and subsequent body image dissatisfaction. While published studies provide a foundation for understanding these issues, methodologically rigorous studies that capture the perinatal variation in depression and body image via instruments validated in pregnant women, consistently adjust for important confounders, and include ethnically diverse populations will further elucidate this association.

  4. Crash Lethality Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-05

    26,800 400 Ethyl Benzene 0.121 40,900 4,900 Ethyl Ether 0.094 33,800 3,200 Gasoline 0.055 43,700 2,400 Hexane 0.074 44,700 3,300 Heptane 0.101...the product of projectile diameter and target weight. The animal lethality data were entered into MATLAB© and the function cftool() was used to...generate a logistic function. The x-axis represents a ratio of kinetic energy to the product of projectile diameter and target weight as defined by

  5. Risk evaluation of the Arctic environmental POP exposure based on critical body residue and critical daily dose using captive Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) as surrogate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonne, Christian; Gustavson, Kim; Eulaers, Igor; Desforges, Jean-Pierre; Letcher, Robert J; Rigét, Frank F; Styrishave, Bjarne; Dietz, Rune

    2016-03-01

    The risk from POP (persistent organic pollutant) exposure and subsequent reproductive, immunotoxic and liver histopathological effects was evaluated in a classical parallel trial on Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) fed contaminated minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) blubber. First the critical body residues (CBRs) were estimated using the physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for seven POP compounds based on rat critical daily doses (CDDs). These were then compared with the actual daily oral POP doses (DD) and body residues (BR) in the sledge dogs by calculating risk quotients (RQDD: DD/CDD; RQBR: BR/CBR; ≥1 indicates risk). The results showed that risk quotients for reproductive, immunotoxic and liver histopathological effects were significantly lowest in the control group (pPOP exposure negatively impacts steroid hormones, various immune parameters, as well as liver histopathology in sledge dogs. It is also clear that RQBR is the best reflector of health effects from POP exposure and that it is especially accurate in predicting immune and reproductive effects. We recommend that PBPK modelled (CBR) and RQBR should be used in the assessment of POP exposure and health effects in Arctic top predators. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Derivation of Human Lethal Doses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-19

    Hardman, JG; Limbird, LE; Goodman Gilman , A, (editors). (2001) Goodman and Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. New York, NY: McGraw... Goodman and Gilman’s N/A No LDLo, MLD, or lethal dose for humans; no LD50 for rat or mouse NIOSH N/A No LDLo, MLD, or lethal dose for humans; no LD50...Basis of Therapeutics– Goodman and Gilman’s N/A No LDLo, MLD, or lethal dose for humans; no LD50 for rat or mouse NIOSH N/A No LDLo, MLD, or lethal

  7. A critical analysis of the human body and nursing praxis in Intensive Therapy Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelios Parissopoulos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The human body does not constitute an independent and comprehensive unit but instead it is a framework through which the individual perceives and receives information from the outside world.Aim: The purpose of this article was the review of literature relating to the concept of body of both the patient and nurse.Material and method: the methodology applied included search of review and research papers via the electronic databases of “SCOPUS” and “JSTOR” that referred to the theoretical approaches of the human body and clinical decision making. The data collection took place in the period of 2010-2011.Results: According to the literature, the hospital converts into a space for observation and knowledge transfer for the discipline of medicine and new methods for controlling individuals and society appear, while the patient is subjected to technologies and practices that gradually bring about the alienation from his own body. At the same time, the science of medicine, through innovative ways of examining the human body, led to a new understanding of life, death and disease. Intensive Therapy Unit (ITU as a workplace present increasing ethical and communication complexities for nurses, on one hand because the patient’s body destabilises through the applications of technology and the medical file, on the other hand because nurses are invited to adopt communication strategies in order to participate to clinical decision making. The traditional roles of healthcare professionals are challenged while they try to provide high-level care in ITU, where the transition from life to death has become quite vague and difficult to discern.Conclusions: The study of the social dimensions in ITU will allow further investigation of the body techniques of nurses, and will highlight ways of strengthening nursing identity and contribution to clinical decision making.

  8. Critical analysis of the maximum non inhibitory concentration (MNIC) method in quantifying sub-lethal injury in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells exposed to either thermal or pulsed electric field treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kethireddy, V; Oey, I; Jowett, Tim; Bremer, P

    2016-09-16

    Sub-lethal injury within a microbial population, due to processing treatments or environmental stress, is often assessed as the difference in the number of cells recovered on non-selective media compared to numbers recovered on a "selective media" containing a predetermined maximum non-inhibitory concentration (MNIC) of a selective agent. However, as knowledge of cell metabolic response to injury, population diversity and dynamics increased, the rationale behind the conventional approach of quantifying sub-lethal injury must be scrutinized further. This study reassessed the methodology used to quantify sub-lethal injury for Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells (≈ 4.75 Log CFU/mL) exposed to either a mild thermal (45°C for 0, 10 and 20min) or a mild pulsed electric field treatment (field strengths of 8.0-9.0kV/cm and energy levels of 8, 14 and 21kJ/kg). Treated cells were plated onto either Yeast Malt agar (YM) or YM containing NaCl, as a selective agent at 5-15% in 1% increments. The impact of sub-lethal stress due to initial processing, the stress due to selective agents in the plating media, and the subsequent variation of inhibition following the treatments was assessed based on the CFU count (cell numbers). ANOVA and a generalised least squares model indicated significant effects of media, treatments, and their interaction effects (P<0.05) on cell numbers. It was shown that the concentration of the selective agent used dictated the extent of sub-lethal injury recorded owing to the interaction effects of the selective component (NaCl) in the recovery media. Our findings highlight a potential common misunderstanding on how culture conditions impact on sub-lethal injury. Interestingly for S. cerevisiae cells the number of cells recovered at different NaCl concentrations in the media appears to provide valuable information about the mode of injury, the comparative efficacy of different processing regimes and the inherent degree of resistance within a population. This

  9. Body mass index is associated with hospital mortality in critically ill patients: an observational cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pickkers, P.; Keizer, N. de; Dusseljee, J.; Weerheijm, D.; Hoeven, J.G. van der; Peek, N.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Obesity is associated with a variety of diseases, which results in a decreased overall life expectancy. Nevertheless, some studies suggest that being overweight may reduce hospital mortality of certain patient groups, referred to as obesity paradox. Conflicting results for critically ill

  10. Lethal entanglement in baleen whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassoff, Rachel M; Moore, Kathleen M; McLellan, William A; Barco, Susan G; Rotsteins, David S; Moore, Michael J

    2011-10-06

    Understanding the scenarios whereby fishing gear entanglement of large whales induces mortality is important for the development of mitigation strategies. Here we present a series of 21 cases involving 4 species of baleen whales in the NW Atlantic, describing the available sighting history, necropsy observations, and subsequent data analyses that enabled the compilation of the manners in which entanglement can be lethal. The single acute cause of entanglement mortality identified was drowning from entanglement involving multiple body parts, with the animal's inability to surface. More protracted causes of death included impaired foraging during entanglement, resulting in starvation after many months; systemic infection arising from open, unresolved entanglement wounds; and hemorrhage or debilitation due to severe gear-related damage to tissues. Serious gear-induced injury can include laceration of large vessels, occlusion of the nares, embedding of line in growing bone, and massive periosteal proliferation of new bone in an attempt to wall off constricting, encircling lines. These data show that baleen whale entanglement is not only a major issue for the conservation of some baleen whale populations, but is also a major concern for the welfare of each affected individual.

  11. CoR-MAC: Contention over Reservation MAC Protocol for Time-Critical Services in Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jeongseok; Park, Laihyuk; Park, Junho; Cho, Sungrae; Keum, Changsup

    2016-05-09

    Reserving time slots for urgent data, such as life-critical information, seems to be very attractive to guarantee their deadline requirements in wireless body area sensor networks (WBASNs). On the other hand, this reservation imposes a negative impact on performance for the utilization of a channel. This paper proposes a new channel access scheme referred to as the contention over reservation MAC (CoR-MAC) protocol for time-critical services in wireless body area sensor networks. CoR-MAC uses the dual reservation; if the reserved time slots are known to be vacant, other nodes can access the time slots by contention-based reservation to maximize the utilization of a channel and decrease the delay of the data. To measure the effectiveness of the proposed scheme against IEEE 802.15.4 and IEEE 802.15.6, we evaluated their performances with various performance indexes. The CoR-MAC showed 50% to 850% performance improvement in terms of the delay of urgent and time-critical data according to the number of nodes.

  12. Anomalous Thouless energy and critical statistics on the metallic side of the many-body localization transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Corentin L.; García-García, Antonio M.

    2016-10-01

    We study a one-dimensional XXZ spin chain in a random field on the metallic side of the many-body localization transition by level statistics. For a fixed interaction, and intermediate disorder below the many-body localization transition, we find that, asymptotically, the number variance grows faster than linear with a disorder-dependent exponent. This is consistent with the existence of an anomalous Thouless energy in the spectrum. In noninteracting disordered metals, this is an energy scale related to the typical time for a particle to diffuse across the sample. In the interacting case, it seems related to a more intricate anomalous diffusion process. This interpretation is not fully consistent with recent claims that for intermediate disorder, level statistics are described by a plasma model with power-law decaying interactions whose number variance grows slower than linear. As disorder is further increased, still on the metallic side, the Thouless energy is gradually washed out. In the range of sizes we can explore, level statistics are scale invariant and approach Poisson statistics at the many-body localization transition. Slightly below the many-body localization transition, spectral correlations, well described by critical statistics, are quantitatively similar to those of a high-dimensional, noninteracting, disordered conductor at the Anderson transition.

  13. Lethal interpersonal violence in the Middle Pleistocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Nohemi; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Pantoja-Pérez, Ana; Pablos, Adrián; Martínez, Ignacio; Quam, Rolf M; Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Carbonell, Eudald

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of interpersonal violence has been documented previously in Pleistocene members of the genus Homo, but only very rarely has this been posited as the possible manner of death. Here we report the earliest evidence of lethal interpersonal violence in the hominin fossil record. Cranium 17 recovered from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site shows two clear perimortem depression fractures on the frontal bone, interpreted as being produced by two episodes of localized blunt force trauma. The type of injuries, their location, the strong similarity of the fractures in shape and size, and the different orientations and implied trajectories of the two fractures suggest they were produced with the same object in face-to-face interpersonal conflict. Given that either of the two traumatic events was likely lethal, the presence of multiple blows implies an intention to kill. This finding shows that the lethal interpersonal violence is an ancient human behavior and has important implications for the accumulation of bodies at the site, supporting an anthropic origin.

  14. Lethal interpersonal violence in the Middle Pleistocene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nohemi Sala

    Full Text Available Evidence of interpersonal violence has been documented previously in Pleistocene members of the genus Homo, but only very rarely has this been posited as the possible manner of death. Here we report the earliest evidence of lethal interpersonal violence in the hominin fossil record. Cranium 17 recovered from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site shows two clear perimortem depression fractures on the frontal bone, interpreted as being produced by two episodes of localized blunt force trauma. The type of injuries, their location, the strong similarity of the fractures in shape and size, and the different orientations and implied trajectories of the two fractures suggest they were produced with the same object in face-to-face interpersonal conflict. Given that either of the two traumatic events was likely lethal, the presence of multiple blows implies an intention to kill. This finding shows that the lethal interpersonal violence is an ancient human behavior and has important implications for the accumulation of bodies at the site, supporting an anthropic origin.

  15. A whole-body model for glycogen regulation reveals a critical role for substrate cycling in maintaining blood glucose homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Xu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Timely, and sometimes rapid, metabolic adaptation to changes in food supply is critical for survival as an organism moves from the fasted to the fed state, and vice versa. These transitions necessitate major metabolic changes to maintain energy homeostasis as the source of blood glucose moves away from ingested carbohydrates, through hepatic glycogen stores, towards gluconeogenesis. The integration of hepatic glycogen regulation with extra-hepatic energetics is a key aspect of these adaptive mechanisms. Here we use computational modeling to explore hepatic glycogen regulation under fed and fasting conditions in the context of a whole-body model. The model was validated against previous experimental results concerning glycogen phosphorylase a (active and glycogen synthase a dynamics. The model qualitatively reproduced physiological changes that occur during transition from the fed to the fasted state. Analysis of the model reveals a critical role for the inhibition of glycogen synthase phosphatase by glycogen phosphorylase a. This negative regulation leads to high levels of glycogen synthase activity during fasting conditions, which in turn increases substrate (futile cycling, priming the system for a rapid response once an external source of glucose is restored. This work demonstrates that a mechanistic understanding of the design principles used by metabolic control circuits to maintain homeostasis can benefit from the incorporation of mathematical descriptions of these networks into "whole-body" contextual models that mimic in vivo conditions.

  16. Determining high-quality critical body residues for multiple species and chemicals by applying improved experimental design and data interpretation concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Stephan A; Hermens, Joop L M; Sinnige, Theo L; Mayer, Philipp; Gilbert, Dorothea; Jonker, Michiel T O

    2015-01-01

    Ecotoxicological effect data are generally expressed as effective concentrations in the external exposure medium and do thus not account for differences in chemical uptake, bioavailability, and metabolism, which can introduce substantial data variation. The Critical Body Residue (CBR) concept provid

  17. Determining high-quality critical body residues for multiple species and chemicals by applying improved experimental design and data interpretation concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Stephan A; Hermens, Joop L M; Sinnige, Theo L; Mayer, Philipp; Gilbert, Dorothea; Jonker, Michiel T O

    2015-01-01

    Ecotoxicological effect data are generally expressed as effective concentrations in the external exposure medium and do thus not account for differences in chemical uptake, bioavailability, and metabolism, which can introduce substantial data variation. The Critical Body Residue (CBR) concept

  18. Effects of IV Acetaminophen on Core Body Temperature and Hemodynamic Responses in Febrile Critically Ill Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell-Chaple, Hildy M; Liu, Kathleen D; Matthay, Michael A; Sessler, Daniel I; Puntillo, Kathleen A

    2017-07-01

    To determine the effects of IV acetaminophen on core body temperature, blood pressure, and heart rate in febrile critically ill patients. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Three adult ICUs at a large, urban, academic medical center. Forty critically ill adults with fever (core temperature, ≥ 38.3°C). An infusion of acetaminophen 1 g or saline placebo over 15 minutes. Core temperature and vital signs were measured at baseline and at 5-15-minute intervals for 4 hours after infusion of study drug. The primary outcome was time-weighted average core temperature adjusted for baseline temperature. Secondary outcomes included adjusted time-weighted average heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory rate, along with changes-over-time for each. Baseline patient characteristics were similar in those given acetaminophen and placebo. Patients given acetaminophen had an adjusted time-weighted average temperature that was 0.47°C less than those given placebo (95% CI, -0.76 to -0.18; p = 0.002). The acetaminophen group had significantly lower adjusted time-weighted average systolic blood pressure (-17 mm Hg; 95% CI, -25 to -8; p acetaminophen decreased temperature, blood pressure, and heart rate. IV acetaminophen thus produces modest fever reduction in critical care patients, along with clinically important reductions in blood pressure.

  19. Actual versus ideal body weight for acute kidney injury diagnosis and classification in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongprayoon, Charat; Cheungpasitporn, Wisit; Akhoundi, Abbasali; Ahmed, Adil H; Kashani, Kianoush B

    2014-11-15

    In the current acute kidney injury (AKI) definition, the urine output (UO) criterion does not specify which body weights (BW), i.e. actual (ABW) versus ideal (IBW), should be used to diagnose and stage AKI, leading to heterogeneity across research studies. This is a single center, retrospective, observational study conducted at a tertiary referral hospital. All adult patients who were admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) at our institution for a minimum of 6 continuous hours between January and March 2010 and had a urinary catheter for hourly urine output monitoring were eligible for this study. Patients' AKI stages, based on UO criterion, were assessed by calculating each milliliter of urine per kilogram per hour, using ABW versus IBW. A total of 493 ICU patients were included in the analysis. The median ABW and IBW were 82 (IQR 68-96) and 70 (IQR 60-77) kg, respectively. Using the IBW criterion, 154 patients (31.2%) were diagnosed with AKI, while 204 (41.4%) were diagnosed using the ABW measurement (P-valueABW but not IBW had no significant increase in the risk of 90-day mortality, adjusted OR 0.76; (95% CI 0.25-1.91), compared to patients who had no AKI. Using ABW to diagnose and stage AKI by UO criterion is more sensitive and less specific than IBW. Based on the application of the definition, different BW types could be utilized.

  20. Body Image and the Appearance Culture Among Adolescent Girls and Boys: An Examination of Friend Conversations, Peer Criticism, Appearance Magazines, and the Internalization of Appearance Ideals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Diane Carlson; Vigfusdottir, Thorbjorg Helga; Lee, Yoonsun

    2004-01-01

    This research evaluates the contributions of three dimensions of appearance culture (appearance magazine exposure, appearance conversations with friends, and peer appearance criticism) and body mass index (BMI) to internalization of appearance ideals and body image dissatisfaction. Four hundred thirty-three girls and 347 boys in Grades 7 through…

  1. Body Image and the Appearance Culture Among Adolescent Girls and Boys: An Examination of Friend Conversations, Peer Criticism, Appearance Magazines, and the Internalization of Appearance Ideals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Diane Carlson; Vigfusdottir, Thorbjorg Helga; Lee, Yoonsun

    2004-01-01

    This research evaluates the contributions of three dimensions of appearance culture (appearance magazine exposure, appearance conversations with friends, and peer appearance criticism) and body mass index (BMI) to internalization of appearance ideals and body image dissatisfaction. Four hundred thirty-three girls and 347 boys in Grades 7 through…

  2. A multivariate model of stakeholder preference for lethal cat management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Dara M; Jacobson, Susan K

    2014-01-01

    Identifying stakeholder beliefs and attitudes is critical for resolving management conflicts. Debate over outdoor cat management is often described as a conflict between two groups, environmental advocates and animal welfare advocates, but little is known about the variables predicting differences among these critical stakeholder groups. We administered a mail survey to randomly selected stakeholders representing both of these groups (n=1,596) in Florida, where contention over the management of outdoor cats has been widespread. We used a structural equation model to evaluate stakeholder intention to support non-lethal management. The cognitive hierarchy model predicted that values influenced beliefs, which predicted general and specific attitudes, which in turn, influenced behavioral intentions. We posited that specific attitudes would mediate the effect of general attitudes, beliefs, and values on management support. Model fit statistics suggested that the final model fit the data well (CFI=0.94, RMSEA=0.062). The final model explained 74% of the variance in management support, and positive attitudes toward lethal management (humaneness) had the largest direct effect on management support. Specific attitudes toward lethal management and general attitudes toward outdoor cats mediated the relationship between positive (pstakeholder intention to support non-lethal cat management. Our findings suggest that stakeholders can simultaneously perceive both positive and negative beliefs about outdoor cats, which influence attitudes toward and support for non-lethal management.

  3. [The "lethal white foal" syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blendinger, C; Müller, G; Bostedt, H

    1994-06-01

    The lethal white foal syndrome (congenital intestinal aganglionosis) was diagnosed by history, clinical signs and pathological findings in a female foal, born in March 1992, that was an offspring of two overo-spotted paint horses. The syndrome is a congenital innervation defect of the gastrointestinal tract. A literature review of this condition, relatively unknown in Germany, is given.

  4. Letter to the editor: Generation of self organized critical connectivity network map (SOCCNM) of randomly situated water bodies during flooding process

    OpenAIRE

    B. S. Daya Sagar

    2001-01-01

    This letter presents a brief framework based on nonlinear morphological transformations to generate a self organized critical connectivity network map (SOCCNM) in 2-dimensional space. This simple and elegant framework is implemented on a section that contains a few simulated water bodies to generate SOCCNM. This is based on a postulate that the randomly situated surface water bodies of various sizes and shapes self organize during flooding process.

  5. Letter to the editor: Generation of self organized critical connectivity network map (SOCCNM of randomly situated water bodies during flooding process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Daya Sagar

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This letter presents a brief framework based on nonlinear morphological transformations to generate a self organized critical connectivity network map (SOCCNM in 2-dimensional space. This simple and elegant framework is implemented on a section that contains a few simulated water bodies to generate SOCCNM. This is based on a postulate that the randomly situated surface water bodies of various sizes and shapes self organize during flooding process.

  6. A New Critical Value Concerning the Genealogy of Long Period Families at L4 in the Restricted Three-body Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-Yun Hou; Lin Liu

    2008-01-01

    We found another critical mass ratio value μ between μ4 and μ5 concerning the genealogy of the long period family around the equilateral equilibrium point L4 in the re-stricted three-body problem. This value has not been pointed out before. We used numerical computations to show how the long period family evolves around this critical value. The case is similar to that of the critical values between μ2 and μ4, with slight difference in evolution details.

  7. Alleged lethal sorcery in East Timor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollanen, Michael S

    2004-01-01

    A wide range of cultural and social perspectives exists on the concept of sudden and unexpected death. In countries, without a formal system of death investigation, sudden death is shrouded in mysticism often based on traditional belief systems. This cultural perspective on sudden death is often at variance with medical and forensic concepts and may include explanations such as sorcery, magic, and voodoo. In this case report, the postmortem findings in an alleged victim of lethal 'black magic', known as ema halo by the indigenous people of East Timor, is described. The alleged victim died suddenly in front of witnesses. At autopsy, marked dilation of a bicuspid aortic valve with annuloaortic ectasia and a sinus of Valsalva aneurysm was found after exhumation of the body. The findings mitigated the local belief in witchcraft and established a natural manner of death.

  8. Non-lethal weapons and their characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    DAMJANOVIC DRAGAN Z.

    2015-01-01

    Non-lethal weapons, also called less-lethal weapons, less-than lethal weapons, non-deadly weapons, compliance weapons, or pain-inducing weapons are weapons intended to be less likely to kill a living target than conventional weapons. It is often understood that accidental, incidental, and correlative casualties are risked wherever force is applied, but non-lethal weapons try to minimise the risk as much as possible. Non-lethal weapons are used in combat situations to limit the escalation of c...

  9. NON-LETHAL WEAPONS AND THEIR CHARACTERISTICS

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Non-lethal weapons, also called less-lethal weapons, less-than lethal weapons, non-deadly weapons, compliance weapons, or pain-inducing weapons are weapons intended to be less likely to kill a living target than conventional weapons. It is often understood that accidental, incidental, and correlative casualties are risked wherever force is applied, but non-lethal weapons try to minimise the risk as much as possible. Non-lethal weapons are used in combat situations to limit the escalation of c...

  10. The Gottingen Minipig Is a Model of the Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome: G-Colony Stimulating Factor Stimulates Hematopoiesis and Enhances Survival From Lethal Total-Body γ-Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moroni, Maria, E-mail: maria.moroni@usuhs.edu [Radiation Countermeasures Program, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Ngudiankama, Barbara F. [Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Christensen, Christine [Division of Comparative Pathology, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Olsen, Cara H. [Biostatistics Consulting Center, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Owens, Rossitsa [Radiation Countermeasures Program, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Lombardini, Eric D. [Veterinary Medicine Department, Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangkok (Thailand); Holt, Rebecca K. [Veterinary Science Department, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Whitnall, Mark H. [Radiation Countermeasures Program, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: We are characterizing the Gottingen minipig as an additional large animal model for advanced drug testing for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS) to enhance the discovery and development of novel radiation countermeasures. Among the advantages provided by this model, the similarities to human hematologic parameters and dynamics of cell loss/recovery after irradiation provide a convenient means to compare the efficacy of drugs known to affect bone marrow cellularity and hematopoiesis. Methods and Materials: Male Gottingen minipigs, 4 to 5 months old and weighing 9 to 11 kg, were used for this study. We tested the standard off-label treatment for ARS, rhG-CSF (Neupogen, 10 μg/kg/day for 17 days), at the estimated LD70/30 total-body γ-irradiation (TBI) radiation dose for the hematopoietic syndrome, starting 24 hours after irradiation. Results: The results indicated that granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) enhanced survival, stimulated recovery from neutropenia, and induced mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells. In addition, the administration of G-CSF resulted in maturation of monocytes/macrophages. Conclusions: These results support continuing efforts toward validation of the minipig as a large animal model for advanced testing of radiation countermeasures and characterization of the pathophysiology of ARS, and they suggest that the efficacy of G-CSF in improving survival after total body irradiation may involve mechanisms other than increasing the numbers of circulating granulocytes.

  11. Developmental regulation of body size in the solitary bee, Osmia lignaria: An alternative to the critical weight paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Body size influences nearly every aspect of organismal performance. Adult body size in holometabolous insects is determined by the size of the insect at metamorphosis. Thus, the mechanisms regulating the onset of metamorphosis have occupied insect physiologists for almost a century. Much of this res...

  12. Evaluation of an in vivo prompt gamma neutron activation facility for body composition studies in critically ill intensive care patients: results on 41 normals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beddoe, A.H.; Streat, S.J.; Hill, G.L.

    1984-03-01

    A programme of metabolic and nutritional research is being undertaken in critically ill patients requiring intensive care. Central to this research is the measurement of the three nutritionally important compartments of body composition, protein, fat, and water by a combination of tritium dilution and prompt gamma in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA). In this paper a calibration technique is presented that enables absolute estimates of total body nitrogen (TBN) to be made using prompt gamma IVNAA in critically ill patients with gross abnormalities in body composition, especially in their state of hydration. This technique, which is independent of skinfold anthropometry and does not make a priori assumptions about the ratios of major body compartments, has been applied to 41 normal volunteers and the derived values for nitrogen compared with values obtained by applying three currently used calibration methods to the same experimental data. The empirical equations relate TBN in normal people to age, height, weight and sex. The mean ratios of experimental to predicted TBN (with SEMs) are 1.013 +/- 0.017 and 1.002 +/- 0.014, respectively. Mean values of the ratio of TBN to fat-free mass (0.0340 +/- 0.0004) and of total body water to fat-free mass (0.716 +/- 0.002) agree closely with values reported elsewhere for normals by a variety of techniques including chemical analysis. Finally, TBN results based on the four different calibration methods are presented for five surgical patients, demonstrating the importance of the calibration method on estimates of TBN in patients with abnormal body composition. It is concluded that this technique will provide accurate estimates of the total body content of protein, water, and fat in intensive care patients.

  13. Body image and its relation to obesity for Pacific minority ethnic groups in New Zealand: a critical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teevale, Tasileta

    2011-03-01

    The stimulus behind most of the early investigations into Pacific or Polynesian peoples' body image, particularly those that looked to compare with Western or Westernised groups, is the assumption that Pacific peoples valued and therefore desired very large bodies, and in relation to obesity-risk, this is a problematic cultural feature to have. This may be driven by popular anecdotes which are captured in the title of one such study "Do Polynesians still believe that big is beautiful?" To the author's knowledge, no research in Pacific peoples' body image has been conducted in the New Zealand (NZ) context by Pacific researchers. This study makes a contribution to the literature gap and more importantly through an emic viewpoint. A critique of the current literature is provided below which calls into question the initial catalyst behind earlier investigations which have led to the perpetuation of particular types of body image research for Pacific groups. Using mixed-methods, the specific objective of this study was to describe the behaviours, beliefs and values of Pacific adolescents and their parents, that are related to body image. A self-completion questionnaire was administered to 2495 Pacific students who participated in the New Zealand arm of the Obesity Prevention In Communities (OPIC) project. Sixty-eight people (33 adolescents and 35 parents) from 30 Pacific households were interviewed in the qualitative phase of the study. This study found Pacific adolescents and their parents did not desire obesity-sized bodies but desired a range of average-sized bodies that met their Pacific-defined view of health. It is not clear whether body image research makes any meaningful contribution to obesity prevention for Pacific people, given the cultural-bounded nature of the concept "body image" which sits communication and understanding between obesity interventionists and all healthcare workers generally and Pacific communities. For obesity interventions to be

  14. Co-lethality studied as an asset against viral drug escape: the HIV protease case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ollivier Emmanuelle

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Co-lethality, or synthetic lethality is the documented genetic situation where two, separately non-lethal mutations, become lethal when combined in one genome. Each mutation is called a "synthetic lethal" (SL or a co-lethal. Like invariant positions, SL sets (SL linked couples are choice targets for drug design against fast-escaping RNA viruses: mutational viral escape by loss of affinity to the drug may induce (synthetic lethality. Results From an amino acid sequence alignment of the HIV protease, we detected the potential SL couples, potential SL sets, and invariant positions. From the 3D structure of the same protein we focused on the ones that were close to each other and accessible on the protein surface, to possibly bind putative drugs. We aligned 24,155 HIV protease amino acid sequences and identified 290 potential SL couples and 25 invariant positions. After applying the distance and accessibility filter, three candidate drug design targets of respectively 7 (under the flap, 4 (in the cantilever and 5 (in the fulcrum amino acid positions were found. Conclusions These three replication-critical targets, located outside of the active site, are key to our anti-escape strategy. Indeed, biological evidence shows that 2/3 of those target positions perform essential biological functions. Their mutational variations to escape antiviral medication could be lethal, thus limiting the apparition of drug-resistant strains. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Arcady Mushegian, Shamil Sunyaev and Claus Wilke.

  15. A randomized controlled trial of tea tree oil (5% body wash versus standard body wash to prevent colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in critically ill adults: research protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavery Gavin G

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past ten years MRSA has become endemic in hospitals and is associated with increased healthcare costs. Critically ill patients are most at risk, in part because of the number of invasive therapies that they require in the intensive care unit (ICU. Washing with 5% tea tree oil (TTO has been shown to be effective in removing MRSA on the skin. However, to date, no trials have evaluated the potential of TTO body wash to prevent MRSA colonization or infection. In addition, detecting MRSA by usual culture methods is slow. A faster method using a PCR assay has been developed in the laboratory, but requires evaluation in a large number of patients. Methods/Design This study protocol describes the design of a multicentre, phase II/III prospective open-label randomized controlled clinical trial to evaluate whether a concentration of 5% TTO is effective in preventing MRSA colonization in comparison with a standard body wash (Johnsons Baby Softwash in the ICU. In addition we will evaluate the cost-effectiveness of TTO body wash and assess the effectiveness of the PCR assay in detecting MRSA in critically ill patients. On admission to intensive care, swabs from the nose and groin will be taken to screen for MRSA as per current practice. Patients will be randomly assigned to be washed with the standard body wash or TTO body wash. On discharge from the unit, swabs will be taken again to identify whether there is a difference in MRSA colonization between the two groups. Discussion If TTO body wash is found to be effective, widespread implementation of such a simple colonization prevention tool has the potential to impact on patient outcomes, healthcare resource use and patient confidence both nationally and internationally. Trial Registration [ISRCTN65190967

  16. Thermodynamics of the Classical Planar Ferromagnet Close to the Zero-Temperature Critical Point: A Many-Body Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Campana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We explore the low-temperature thermodynamic properties and crossovers of a d-dimensional classical planar Heisenberg ferromagnet in a longitudinal magnetic field close to its field-induced zero-temperature critical point by employing the two-time Green’s function formalism in classical statistical mechanics. By means of a classical Callen-like method for the magnetization and the Tyablikov-like decoupling procedure, we obtain, for any d, a low-temperature critical scenario which is quite similar to the one found for the quantum counterpart. Remarkably, for d>2 the discrimination between the two cases is found to be related to the different values of the shift exponent which governs the behavior of the critical line in the vicinity of the zero-temperature critical point. The observation of different values of the shift-exponent and of the related critical exponents along thermodynamic paths within the typical V-shaped region in the phase diagram may be interpreted as a signature of emerging quantum critical fluctuations.

  17. Lifestyle and dietary factors in the prevention of lethal prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kathryn M; Giovannucci, Edward L; Mucci, Lorelei A

    2012-01-01

    The prevention of lethal prostate cancer is a critical public health challenge that would improve health and reduce suffering from this disease. In this review, we discuss the evidence surrounding specific lifestyle and dietary factors in the prevention of lethal prostate cancer. We present a summary of evidence for the following selected behavioral risk factors: obesity and weight change, physical activity, smoking, antioxidant intake, vitamin D and calcium, and coffee intake. PMID:22504869

  18. Lifestyle and dietary factors in the prevention of lethal prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kathryn M Wilson; Edward L Giovannucci; Lorelei A Mucci

    2012-01-01

    The prevention of lethal prostate cancer is a critical public health challenge that would improve health and reduce suffering from this disease.In this review,we discuss the evidence surrounding specific lifestyle and dietary factors in the prevention of lethal prostate cancer.We present a summary of evidence for the following selected behavioral risk factors:obesity and weight change,physical activity,smoking,antioxidant intake,vitamin D and calcium,and coffee intake.

  19. The suppressor of cytokine signalling 3, SOCS3, may be one critical modulator of seasonal body weight changes in the Siberian hamster, Phodopus sungorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tups, A; Barrett, P; Ross, A W; Morgan, P J; Klingenspor, M; Mercer, J G

    2006-02-01

    The Siberian hamster, Phodopus sungorus, exhibits a remarkable cycle of body weight, reproduction and leptin sensitivity in response to a seasonal change in photoperiod. In the present study, we investigated the hypothesis that the suppressor of cytokine signalling 3 (SOCS3) plays a critical role in the regulation of the seasonal body weight cycle. We analysed arcuate nucleus SOCS3 gene expression in short day length (SD; 8 : 16 h light/dark) acclimated Siberian hamsters that were transferred back to long day length (LD; 16 : 8 h light/dark) and in hamsters that spontaneously became photorefractory to SD induced by prolonged exposure. SD acclimated hamsters that were transferred back to LD for 1, 2, 3, 4 or 6 weeks, increased arcuate nucleus SOCS3 gene expression to the LD level within 2 weeks, and maintained this higher level thereafter. The early increase of SOCS3 gene expression preceded the LD-induced rise in body weight by approximately 3 weeks. Hamsters kept in SD for an extended period (25 weeks), began to become refractory to SD and to increase body weight. By this time, there was no difference in level of SOCS3 gene expression between LD and SD photoperiods, although body weight was still suppressed in SD hamsters. Finally, we addressed whether SOCS3 gene expression is related to SD-induced gonadal regression or to body weight decrease by comparing Siberian hamsters with Syrian hamsters. The latter exhibited substantial SD-induced gonadal regression but only limited seasonal changes in body weight. Acclimation to either LD or SD for 14 weeks had no effect on SOCS3 gene expression. This implies that arcuate nucleus SOCS3 gene expression is unlikely to be related to seasonal cycles in reproductive activity. Taken together, the findings further strengthen our hypothesis that SOCS3 may be one molecular trigger of seasonal cycles in body weight.

  20. American Immigrant Girls' Understanding of Female Body Image in Disney: A Critical Analysis of Young Korean Girls' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lena

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses young Korean immigrant girls' understanding of American popular culture in a small-scale qualitative study in order to disclose young American immigrant girls' perspectives on such culture. In particular, this paper explores how these Korean girls (age five to eight) perceive female body images in American popular culture -…

  1. American Immigrant Girls' Understanding of Female Body Image in Disney: A Critical Analysis of Young Korean Girls' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lena

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses young Korean immigrant girls' understanding of American popular culture in a small-scale qualitative study in order to disclose young American immigrant girls' perspectives on such culture. In particular, this paper explores how these Korean girls (age five to eight) perceive female body images in American popular culture -…

  2. The Politics of Body Capital within Neoliberal Social Reproduction Systems: Freirean Critical Pedagogy Principles in Brazilian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Antonio Jose; Rossatto, César Augusto

    2016-01-01

    Sports in our society are a source of enthusiasm for many people, reflecting their cultural values and at times social tensions. Body capital development in different countries follow the local culture and politics. Since schools tend to reproduce the culture at large, sports are also one intrinsic representation replicated. Physical education or…

  3. Critical body residues linked to octanol-water partitioning, organism composition, and LC50 QSARs: Meta-analysis and model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, A.J.; Traas, T.P.; Huijbregts, M.A.J.

    2005-01-01

    To protect thousands of species from thousands of chemicals released in the environment, various risk assessment tools have been developed. Here, we link quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for response concentrations in water (LC50) to critical concentrations in organisms (C-50) b

  4. Many-body localization and new critical phenomena in regular random graphs and constrained Erd\\H{o}s-Renyi networks

    CERN Document Server

    Avetisov, V; Nechaev, S; Valba, O

    2016-01-01

    We consider from the localization perspective the new critical behavior discovered recently for the regular random graphs (RRG) and constrained Erd\\H{o}s-Renyi networks (CERN). The diagonal disorder for standard models, we replace by the fugacity $\\mu$ of triads in the RRG and CERN. At some critical value of $\\mu$ the network decays into the maximally possible number of almost full graphs, and the adjacency matrix acquires the two-gapped structure. We find that the eigenvalue statistics corresponds to delocalized states in the central zone, and to the localized states in the side one. The mobility edge lies between zones. We apply these findings to the many-body localization assuming the approximation of the hierarchical structure of the Fock space (for some interacting many-body system) by the RGG and by CERN with some vertex degree. We allow the 3-cycles in the Fock space and identify particles in the many-body system above the phase transition with clusters in the RRG. We discuss the controversial issue of...

  5. 身体意识与身体美学的批判性%Body Consciousness and the Criticism of Somaesthetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟凡生

    2016-01-01

    身体美学的基本出发点是“身心一体”的一元论哲学,它要在根本上破除传统的身、心二元论。身体不是外在于心灵的对象客体而是身心交融的身心一体。身体意识是身体美学的核心要素,同时也是身体美学的批判性所在,它不仅具有现实的针对性和批判性,更是对传统身、心二分观念的一种有力反驳。身体美学还通过付诸实践活动来践行其基本的理念,旨在通过身体训练来改善身体意识、身体感知,从而更好地促进身心和谐,实现自我改善之最终目的。%The monistic philosophy that insists the unity of body and heart is the basic starting point of Somaesthetics ,which fundamentally breaks the traditional dualism that separates the body and heart .The body is not the external object of the mind but the unity of mind and body .Body con‐sciousness is not only the core element of Somaesthetics ,but also the criticism of the Somaesthetics . Somaesthetics also embraced their fundamental ideas by putting it into practice ,aiming to achieve the ultimate goal of self‐improvement and promote the harmony of body and mind through physical train‐ing .

  6. A study of the critical properties of the Ising model on body-centered cubic lattice taking into account the interaction of next behind nearest neighbors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtazaev, A. K.; Ramazanov, M. K.; Kurbanova, D. R.; Badiev, M. K.; Abuev, Ya. K.

    2017-06-01

    The replica Monte Carlo method has been used to investigate the critical behavior of a threedimensional antiferromagnetic Ising model on a body-centered cubic lattice, taking into account interactions of the adjacent behind neighbors. Investigations are carried out for the ratios of the values of exchange interactions behind the nearest and next nearest neighbors k = J 2/ J 1 in the range of k ∈ [0.0, 1.0] with the step Δ k = 0.1. In the framework of the theory of finite-dimensional scaling the static critical indices of heat capacity α, susceptibility γ, of the order parameter β, correlation radius ν, and also the Fisher index η are calculated. It is shown that the universality class of the critical behavior of this model is kept in the interval of k ∈ [0.0, 0.6]. It is established that a nonuniversal critical behavior is observed in the range k ∈ [0.8, 1.0].

  7. Factors affecting the course of body and kidney growth in infants with urolithiasis: A critical long-term evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Sarica

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the possible effects of dietary, patient and stone related factors on the clinical course of the stone disease as well as the body and renal growth status of the infants. Patients and Methods: A total of 50 children with an history of stone disease during infancy period were studied. Patient (anatomical abnormalities, urinary tract infection - UTI, associated morbidities, stone (obstruction, UTI and required interventions and lastly dietary (duration of sole breast feeding, formula feeding related factors which may affect the clinical course of the disease were all evaluated for their effects on the body and renal growth during long-term follow-up. Results: Mean age of the children was 2.40 ± 2.65 years. Our findings demonstrated that infants receiving longer period of breast feeding without formula addition seemed to have a higher rate of normal growth percentile values when compared with the other children. Again, higher frequency of UTI and stone attacks affected the growth status of the infants in a remarkable manner than the other cases. Our findings also demonstrated that thorough a close follow-up and appropriately taken measures; the possible growth retardation as well as renal growth problems could be avoided in children beginning to suffer from stone disease during infancy period. Conclusions: Duration of breast feeding, frequency of UTI, number of stone attacks and stone removal procedures are crucial factors for the clinical course of stone disease in infants that may affect the body as well as kidney growth during long-term follow-up.

  8. SMED-TLX-1 (NR2E1) is critical for tissue and body plan maintenance in Schmidtea mediterranea in fasting/feeding cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raška, O; Kostrouchová, V; Behenský, F; Yilma, P; Saudek, V; Kostrouch, Z; Kostrouchová, M

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs), or nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs), are transcription factors that regulate development and metabolism of most if not all animal species. Their regulatory networks include conserved mechanisms that are shared in-between species as well as mechanisms that are restricted to certain phyla or even species. In search for conserved members of the NHR family in Schmidtea mediterranea, we identified a molecular signature of a class of NRs, NR2E1, in the S. mediterranea genome and cloned its complete cDNA coding sequence. The derived amino acid sequence shows a high degree of conservation of both DNA-binding domain and ligand- binding domain and a remarkably high homology to vertebrate NR2E1 and C. elegans NHR-67. Quantitative PCR detected approximately ten-fold higher expression of Smed-tlx-1 in the proximal part of the head compared to the tail region. The expression of Smed-tlx-1 is higher during fed state than during fasting. Smed-tlx-1 down-regulation by RNA interference affects the ability of the animals to maintain body plan and induces defects of brain, eyes and body shape during fasting and re-growing cycles. These results suggest that SMED-TLX-1 is critical for tissue and body plan maintenance in planaria.

  9. Radiation lethality in the opossum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, N.; Bushong, S.C.; North, L.B.; Thornby, J.

    1976-12-01

    Groups of male opossum (Didelphis virginiana) at 6 months of age were exposed to 350, 500, 550, 600, 650, 700, and 750 rad of whole-body /sup 60/Co radiation at a midline dose rate of 125 rad/min. The 30-day LD/sub 50/ was 511 rad with 95% confidence limits of 454 to 576 rad. The overall mean survival time was 17.9 days and the highest incidence of death occurred on the 16th day.

  10. Determining High-Quality Critical Body Residues for Multiple Species and Chemicals by Applying Improved Experimental Design and Data Interpretation Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Heijden, Stephan A.; Hermens, Joop L. M.; Sinnige, Theo L.

    2015-01-01

    Ecotoxicological effect data are generally expressed as effective concentrations in the external exposure medium and do thus not account for differences in chemical uptake, bioavailability, and metabolism, which can introduce substantial data variation. The Critical Body Residue (CBR) concept...... provides clear advantages, because it links effects directly to the internal exposure. Using CBRs instead of external concentrations should therefore reduce variability. For compounds that act via narcosis even a constant CBR has been proposed. Despite the expected uniformity, CBR values......-defined test protocol for accurately and precisely measuring CBR data, involving improved (passive) dosing, sampling, and processing of organisms. The chemicals 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene, 2,3,4-trichloroaniline, 2,3,5,6-tetrachloroaniline, 4-chloro-3-methylphenol, pentylbenzene, pyrene...

  11. Lethality Index 2008-2014: Less shootings, same lethality, more opacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Silva Forné

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates the use of lethal force by Mexican federal security forces during shootings with presumed members of organized crime from 2008-2014. The authors use official data and press reports on deaths and wounded in shootings to construct indicators such as the number of dead civilians over the number of dead officials from the federal security forces and the number of dead civilians over the number of wounded civilians. In a context where certain factors that contribute to an excessive use of force become more common, the results of the study show a growing use of lethal force. This raises questions over the possible excessive use of lethal force as a normal or systematic practice. The study also shows a growing context of opacity in the infor­mation available to evaluate the use of lethal force and the general lack of a legal framework to regulate the use of lethal force in Mexico.

  12. Monoclonal Antibodies for Dengue Virus prM Glycoprotein Protect Mice against Lethal Dengue Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-15

    Nile virus and a prelysozomal endosome prM glycoprotein of dengue virus can also be required for viral replication . PrM Mabs 2H2 protective against...tech- bodies can prevent lethal alphavirus encepha- niques to preserve immunogenicity, to deter- litis. Nature 297: 70-72. UI:82173237 mine whether

  13. Survival of Primates in Lethal Septic Shock Following Delayed Treatment with Steroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-26

    TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 142 SURVIVAL OF PRIMATES IN LETHAL SEPTIC SHOCK FOLLOWING DELAYED TREAMENT WIn STEROID L. B. Hinshaw, L. T. Archer, B. K. Belier...controlled-temperature heating pads positioned abovd and beneath the body and a temperature probe placed in the rectum. A tracheal cannula was orally

  14. The bureaucratization of war: moral challenges exemplified by the covert lethal drone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Adams

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article interrogates the bureaucratization of war, incarnate in the covert lethal drone. Bureaucracies are criticized typically for their complexity, inefficiency, and inflexibility. This article is concerned with their moral indifference. It explores killing, which is so highly administered, so morally remote, and of such scale, that we acknowledge a covert lethal program. This is a bureaucratized program of assassination in contravention of critical human rights. In this article, this program is seen to compromise the advance of global justice. Moreover, the bureaucratization of lethal force is seen to dissolve democratic ideals from within. The bureaucracy isolates the citizens from lethal force applied in their name. People are killed, in the name of the State, but without conspicuous justification, or judicial review, and without informed public debate. This article gives an account of the risk associated with the bureaucratization of the State's lethal power. Exemplified by the covert drone, this is power with formidable reach. It is power as well, which requires great moral sensitivity. Considering the drone program, this article identifies challenges, which will become more prominent and pressing, as technology advances.

  15. [Above and beyond BMI : Alternative methods of measuring body fat and muscle mass in critically ill patients and their clinical significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weig, T; Irlbeck, T; Frey, L; Paprottka, P; Irlbeck, M

    2016-09-01

    Obesity leads to better survival in critically ill patients. Although there are several studies confirming this thesis, the "obesity paradox" is still surprising from the clinician's perspective. One explanation for the "obesity paradox" is the fact that the body mass index (BMI), which is used in almost all clinical evaluations to determine weight categories, is not an appropriate measure of fat and skeletal muscle mass and its distribution in critically ill patients. In addition, height and weight are frequently estimated rather than measured. Central obesity has been identified in many disorders as an independent risk factor for an unfavourable outcome. The first clues are to be found in intensive care. Along with obesity, an individual's entire muscle mass is a variable that has an influence on outcome. Central obesity can be measured relatively easily with an abdominal calliper, but the calculation of muscle mass is more complex. A valid and detailed measurement of this can be obtained using computed tomography (CT) images, acquired during routine care. For future clinical observation or interventional studies, single cross-sectional CT is a more sophisticated tool for measuring patients' anthropometry than a measuring tape and callipers. Patients with sarcopenic obesity, for example, who may be at a particular risk, can only be identified using imaging procedures such as single cross-sectional CT. Thus, BMI should take a back seat as an anthropometric tool, both in the clinic and in research.

  16. {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography combined with whole-body computed tomographic angiography in critically ill patients with suspected severe sepsis with no definite diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandry, Damien [CHU Nancy, Pole d' imagerie, Nancy (France); University of Lorraine, Faculty of Medicine, Nancy (France); INSERM, UMR 947, Nancy (France); Tatopoulos, Alexis; Lemarie, Jeremie; Bollaert, Pierre-Edouard; Gibot, Sebastien [University of Lorraine, Faculty of Medicine, Nancy (France); CHU de Nancy - Hopital Central, Service de Reanimation Medicale, Nancy (France); INSERM, UMR 1116, Nancy (France); Chevalier-Mathias, Elodie [CHU Nancy, Pole d' imagerie, Nancy (France); INSERM, UMR 947, Nancy (France); Nancyclotep, Experimental Imaging Platform, Nancy (France); Roch, Veronique [CHU Nancy, Pole d' imagerie, Nancy (France); Nancyclotep, Experimental Imaging Platform, Nancy (France); Olivier, Pierre [CHU Nancy, Pole d' imagerie, Nancy (France); University of Lorraine, Faculty of Medicine, Nancy (France); Nancyclotep, Experimental Imaging Platform, Nancy (France); Marie, Pierre-Yves [CHU Nancy, Pole d' imagerie, Nancy (France); University of Lorraine, Faculty of Medicine, Nancy (France); INSERM, UMR 1116, Nancy (France); Nancyclotep, Experimental Imaging Platform, Nancy (France)

    2014-10-15

    Timely identification of septic foci is critical in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock of unknown origin. This prospective pilot study aimed to assess {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), combined with whole-body computed tomographic angiography (CTA), in patients with suspected severe sepsis and for whom the prior diagnostic workup had been inconclusive. Patients hospitalized in an intensive care unit with a suspected severe sepsis but no definite diagnosis after 48 h of extensive investigations were prospectively included and referred for a whole body FDG-PET/CTA. Results from FDG-PET/CTA were assessed according to the final diagnosis obtained after follow-up and additional diagnostic workup. Seventeen patients were prospectively included, all on mechanical ventilation and 14 under vasopressor drugs. The FDG-PET/CTA exam 1) was responsible for only one desaturation and one hypotension, both quickly reversible under treatment; 2) led to suspect 16 infectious sites among which 13 (81 %) could be confirmed by further diagnostic procedures; and 3) triggered beneficial changes in the medical management of 12 of the 17 study patients (71 %). The FDG-PET/CTA images showed a single or predominant infectious focus in two cases where CTA was negative and in three cases where CTA exhibited multiple possible foci. Whole-body FDG-PET/CTA appears to be feasible, relatively safe, and provides reliable and useful information, when prospectively planned in patients with suspected severe sepsis and for whom prior diagnostic workup had been inconclusive. The FDG-PET images are particularly helpful when CTA exhibits no or multiple possible sites. (orig.)

  17. Effect of a non lethal whole-body gamma irradiation on the spontaneous and evoked electroencephalographic activities of the adult rabbit; Effets d'une irradiation gamma globale non letale sur les activites electroencephalograpiques spontanees et evoquees du lapin adulte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Court, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    The whole of the experimental methods described (animal preparation, achievement of a precise physiological technique, dosimetry, biological information processing) allowed us to follow the changes for 15 days in the spontaneous and evoked electroencephalogram activities of rabbits submitted to a non-lethal 400 rads whole-body gamma-irradiation. Behavioural troubles, changes in the arousal state and the spontaneous electrical activity of the neo-cortex and hippocampus were noticed constantly together with an enhanced cortical excitability, and the appearance of elements of the paroxystic series sometimes in contrast with a general decrease in amplitude. After a visual stimulus the general morphology of evoked activities at the level of the primary visual areas and hippocampus was unchanged, but enhanced latencies and delays, less systematic modifications in amplitudes seemed to show out a direct effect of radiations on the nervous system and sensorial activities; these troubles seemed to occur independently from the basic electrical activity. As a whole, the changes observed were usually transitory and varied with each individual. Finally an assumption is made to explain the mechanism of arousal troubles and the general evolution of spontaneous electrical activity in the brain. (author) [French] 'L'ensemble des methodes experimentales decrites (preparation des animaux, mise au point d'une technique physiologique precise, dosimetrie, traitement de l'information biologique) a permis de suivre, pendant 15 jours, chez le lapin soumis a une irradiation gamma globale non letale de 400 rads, les modifications des activites electroencephaliques spontanees et evoquees. De facon constante, on note des troubles du comportement, des modifications de la vigilance et de l'activite electrique spontanee du neo-cortex et de l'hippocampe, ainsi qu'une augmentation de l'excitabilite corticale, l'apparition d'elements de la serie

  18. Guidebook for non-lethal experimentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulissen, J.J.M.; Rahimi, R.

    2011-01-01

    In the 2009-2011 timeframe, NATO conducts a capability based assessment of Non-Lethal Weapon (NLW) systems. The work, performed by the RTO study team SAS-078, involves the development of NLW requirement descriptions, which are put against a set of NLW systems. Gaps are likely to occur, indicating th

  19. Disruption of G-protein γ5 subtype causes embryonic lethality in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M Moon

    Full Text Available Heterotrimeric G-proteins modulate many processes essential for embryonic development including cellular proliferation, migration, differentiation, and survival. Although most research has focused on identifying the roles of the various αsubtypes, there is growing recognition that similarly divergent βγ dimers also regulate these processes. In this paper, we show that targeted disruption of the mouse Gng5 gene encoding the γ5 subtype produces embryonic lethality associated with severe head and heart defects. Collectively, these results add to a growing body of data that identify critical roles for the γ subunits in directing the assembly of functionally distinct G-αβγ trimers that are responsible for regulating diverse biological processes. Specifically, the finding that loss of the G-γ5 subtype is associated with a reduced number of cardiac precursor cells not only provides a causal basis for the mouse phenotype but also raises the possibility that G-βγ5 dependent signaling contributes to the pathogenesis of human congenital heart problems.

  20. Cholesterol Metabolism and Prostate Cancer Lethality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopsack, Konrad H; Gerke, Travis A; Sinnott, Jennifer A; Penney, Kathryn L; Tyekucheva, Svitlana; Sesso, Howard D; Andersson, Swen-Olof; Andrén, Ove; Cerhan, James R; Giovannucci, Edward L; Mucci, Lorelei A; Rider, Jennifer R

    2016-08-15

    Cholesterol metabolism has been implicated in prostate cancer pathogenesis. Here, we assessed the association of intratumoral mRNA expression of cholesterol synthesis enzymes, transporters, and regulators in tumor specimen at diagnosis and lethal prostate cancer, defined as mortality or metastases from prostate cancer in contrast to nonlethal disease without evidence of metastases after at least 8 years of follow-up. We analyzed the prospective prostate cancer cohorts within the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (n = 249) and the Physicians' Health Study (n = 153) as well as expectantly managed patients in the Swedish Watchful Waiting Study (n = 338). The expression of squalene monooxygenase (SQLE) was associated with lethal cancer in all three cohorts. Men with high SQLE expression (>1 standard deviation above the mean) were 8.3 times (95% confidence interval, 3.5 to 19.7) more likely to have lethal cancer despite therapy compared with men with the mean level of SQLE expression. Absolute SQLE expression was associated with lethal cancer independently from Gleason grade and stage, as was a SQLE expression ratio in tumor versus surrounding benign prostate tissue. Higher SQLE expression was tightly associated with increased histologic markers of angiogenesis. Collectively, this study establishes the prognostic value of intratumoral cholesterol synthesis as measured via SQLE, its second rate-limiting enzyme. SQLE expression at cancer diagnosis is prognostic for lethal prostate cancer both after curative-intent prostatectomy and in a watchful waiting setting, possibly by facilitating micrometastatic disease. Cancer Res; 76(16); 4785-90. ©2016 AACR.

  1. An outbreak of lethal adenovirus infection among different otariid species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoshima, Yasuo; Murakami, Tomoaki; Ishiguro, Naotaka; Hasegawa, Kazuhiro; Kasamatsu, Masahiko

    2013-08-30

    An outbreak of fatal fulminant hepatitis at a Japanese aquarium involved 3 otariids: a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus), a South African fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus) and a South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens). In a span of about a week in February 2012, 3 otariids showed diarrhea and were acutely low-spirited; subsequently, all three animals died within a period of 3 days. Markedly increased aspartate amino transferase and alanine amino transferase activities were observed. Necrotic hepatitis and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in liver hepatocytes and intestinal epithelial cells were observed in the South American sea lion on histological examination. Otarine adenovirus DNA was detected from the livers of all three animals by polymerase chain reaction and determination of the sequences showed that all were identical. These results suggest that a single otarine adenovirus strain may have been the etiological agent of this outbreak of fatal fulminant hepatitis among the different otariid species, and it may be a lethal threat to wild and captive otariids. This is the first evidence of an outbreak of lethal adenovirus infection among different otariid species.

  2. Marrow Stromal Cell Infusion Rescues Hematopoiesis in Lethally Irradiated Mice despite Rapid Clearance after Infusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Marrow stromal cells (MSCs, also termed mesenchymal stem cells have been proposed as a promising cellular therapy for tissue injury including radiation-induced marrow failure, but evidence for a direct effect is lacking. To assess the effects of MSCs on survival after lethal irradiation, we infused syngeneic MSCs (either as immortalized MSCs clones or primary MSCs intravenously into wild-type C57/Bl6 mice within 24 hours of lethal total body irradiation (TBI. Mice receiving either of the MSC preparations had significantly improved survival when compared to controls. In vivo imaging, immune histochemistry, and RT-PCR employed to detect MSCs indicated that the infused MSCs were predominantly localized to the lungs and rapidly cleared following infusion. Our results suggest that a single infusion of MSCs can improve survival after otherwise lethal TBI but the effect is not due to a direct interaction with, or contribution to, the damaged marrow by MSCs.

  3. Lethal infection thresholds of Paenibacillus larvae for honeybee drone and worker larvae (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Dieter; Forsgren, Eva; Fries, Ingemar; Moritz, Robin F A

    2010-10-01

    We compared the mortality of honeybee (Apis mellifera) drone and worker larvae from a single queen under controlled in vitro conditions following infection with Paenibacillus larvae, a bacterium causing the brood disease American Foulbrood (AFB). We also determined absolute P. larvae cell numbers and lethal titres in deceased individuals of both sexes up to 8 days post infection using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Our results show that in drones the onset of infection induced mortality is delayed by 1 day, the cumulative mortality is reduced by 10% and P. larvae cell numbers are higher than in worker larvae. Since differences in bacterial cell titres between sexes can be explained by differences in body size, larval size appears to be a key parameter for a lethal threshold in AFB tolerance. Both means and variances for lethal thresholds are similar for drone and worker larvae suggesting that drone resistance phenotypes resemble those of related workers.

  4. Nonlethal Fraction of Virus Population in Evolution Models with Lethal Mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakushkina, Tatiana; Saakian, David B.

    2017-03-01

    Lethal mutations are very common in asexual evolution, both in RNA viruses and in the clonal evolution of cancer cells. In a special case of lethal mutations (truncated selection), after a critical total number of mutations the replicator (the virus or the cell) has no offspring. We consider the Eigen and Crow-Kimura models with truncated fitness landscapes, and calculate the fraction of viable replicators (that do have offspring) in the population. We derive a formula for the fraction of the population with nonlethal replicators for the case of a uniform distribution of lethal sequences in the sequence space. We assume that our results can be applied to the origin of life and cancer biology.

  5. Mining of lethal recessive genetic variation in Danish cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    in fertility. The primary objective of this PhD projekt was to identify recessive lethal gentic variants in the main Danish dairy cattle breed. Holstein-Friesian utilzing next generation sequencing (NGS) data. This study shows a potential for the use of the NGS-based reverse genetic approach in identifying...... lethal or semi-lethal recessive gentic variation...

  6. Lethal midline granuloma syndrome: a diagnostic dilemma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Bruno Niemeyer de Freitas; Bahia, Paulo Roberto Valle [Radiology, Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho - Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (HUCFF-UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Oliveira, Ana Luiza Vianna Sobral de Magalhaes [Resident of Medical Practice, Hospital Federal da Lagoa, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Marchon Junior, Joao Luiz [Unit of Computed Tomography, Hospital Federal da Lagoa, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-11-15

    The rare lethal midline granuloma syndrome is difficult to diagnose because of the wide array of related diseases and lack of knowledge by the majority of physicians. In the present report, the authors describe the case of a patient with this disease, caused by squamous cell carcinoma, drawing attention to differential diagnoses and to clinical and radiological findings that may be useful to define the diagnosis. (author)

  7. Brine shrimp lethality assay of Bacopa monnieri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Prashanth; Deepak, Mundkinajeddu; Rani, Padmaja; Kadamboor, Sandhya; Mathew, Anjana; Chandrashekar, Arun P; Agarwal, Amit

    2002-03-01

    Successive petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water extracts, a saponin rich fraction (SRF) and bacoside A isolated from Bacopa monnieri were tested for brine shrimp lethality. Successive ethanol extracts and SRF showed potent activity. Bacoside A showed the maximum activity with a LC(50) of 38.3 microg/mL. The results confirmed the previous reports of an anticancer effect of Bacopa monnieri and suggest bacoside A as the active constituent.

  8. Lethal Interpersonal Violence in the Middle Pleistocene

    OpenAIRE

    Nohemi Sala; Juan Luis Arsuaga; Ana Pantoja-Pérez; Adrián Pablos; Ignacio Martínez; Quam, Rolf M.; Asier Gómez-Olivencia; José María Bermúdez de Castro; Eudald Carbonell

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of interpersonal violence has been documented previously in Pleistocene members of the genus Homo, but only very rarely has this been posited as the possible manner of death. Here we report the earliest evidence of lethal interpersonal violence in the hominin fossil record. Cranium 17 recovered from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site shows two clear perimortem depression fractures on the frontal bone, interpreted as being produced by two episodes of localized blunt force ...

  9. Lethality in Desbuquois dysplasia: three new cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, B.D. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Three new cases of Desbuquois syndrome in two brothers and a sporadic male, all of whom died in early infancy, are presented to emphasize the high rate (33 %) of lethality in this variable, but serious skeletal dysplasia. Including the three presented patients and 10 of the 36 cases in the literature who died, most did so between birth and 7 months and from respiratory-related problems. Neonatal and infancy survivors should be monitored closely, particularly relative to their pulmonary status. (orig.)

  10. Complement component 5 promotes lethal thrombosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Tomohiro; Yoshioka, Kengo; Mizuno, Masashi; Shimizu, Mie; Nagano, Fumihiko; Okuda, Tomoyuki; Tsuboi, Naotake; Maruyama, Shoichi; Nagamatsu, Tadashi; Imai, Masaki

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular histones promote platelet aggregation and thrombosis; this is followed by induction of coagulation disorder, which results in exhaustion of coagulation factors. Complement component 5 (C5) is known to be associated with platelet aggregation and coagulation system activation. To date, the pathological mechanism underlying liver injury has remained unclear. Here, we investigated whether C5 promotes liver injury associated with histone-induced lethal thrombosis. C5-sufficient and C5-deficient mice received single tail vein injections of purified, unfractionated histones obtained from calf thymus (45–75 μg/g). Subsequently, the mice were monitored for survival for up to 72 h. Based on the survival data, the 45 μg/g dose was used for analysis of blood cell count, liver function, blood coagulation ability, and promotion of platelet aggregation and platelet/leukocyte aggregate (PLA) production by extracellular histones. C5-deficient mice were protected from lethal thrombosis and had milder thrombocytopenia, consumptive coagulopathy, and liver injury with embolism and lower PLA production than C5-sufficient mice. These results indicate that C5 is associated with coagulation disorders, PLA production, and embolism-induced liver injury. In conclusion, C5 promotes liver injury associated with histone-induced lethal thrombosis. PMID:28205538

  11. Mutation induced extinction in finite populations: lethal mutagenesis and lethal isolation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Scott Wylie

    Full Text Available Reproduction is inherently risky, in part because genomic replication can introduce new mutations that are usually deleterious toward fitness. This risk is especially severe for organisms whose genomes replicate "semi-conservatively," e.g. viruses and bacteria, where no master copy of the genome is preserved. Lethal mutagenesis refers to extinction of populations due to an unbearably high mutation rate (U, and is important both theoretically and clinically, where drugs can extinguish pathogens by increasing their mutation rate. Previous theoretical models of lethal mutagenesis assume infinite population size (N. However, in addition to high U, small N can accelerate extinction by strengthening genetic drift and relaxing selection. Here, we examine how the time until extinction depends jointly on N and U. We first analytically compute the mean time until extinction (τ in a simplistic model where all mutations are either lethal or neutral. The solution motivates the definition of two distinct regimes: a survival phase and an extinction phase, which differ dramatically in both how τ scales with N and in the coefficient of variation in time until extinction. Next, we perform stochastic population-genetics simulations on a realistic fitness landscape that both (i features an epistatic distribution of fitness effects that agrees with experimental data on viruses and (ii is based on the biophysics of protein folding. More specifically, we assume that mutations inflict fitness penalties proportional to the extent that they unfold proteins. We find that decreasing N can cause phase transition-like behavior from survival to extinction, which motivates the concept of "lethal isolation." Furthermore, we find that lethal mutagenesis and lethal isolation interact synergistically, which may have clinical implications for treating infections. Broadly, we conclude that stably folded proteins are only possible in ecological settings that support sufficiently

  12. Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin reduces human alveolar epithelial barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Marybeth; Duggan, Elizabeth Stewart; Booth, John Leland; Patel, Vineet Indrajit; Zander, Ryan A; Silasi-Mansat, Robert; Ramani, Vijay; Veres, Tibor Zoltan; Prenzler, Frauke; Sewald, Katherina; Williams, Daniel M; Coggeshall, Kenneth Mark; Awasthi, Shanjana; Lupu, Florea; Burian, Dennis; Ballard, Jimmy Dale; Braun, Armin; Metcalf, Jordan Patrick

    2012-12-01

    The lung is the site of entry for Bacillus anthracis in inhalation anthrax, the deadliest form of the disease. Bacillus anthracis produces virulence toxins required for disease. Alveolar macrophages were considered the primary target of the Bacillus anthracis virulence factor lethal toxin because lethal toxin inhibits mouse macrophages through cleavage of MEK signaling pathway components, but we have reported that human alveolar macrophages are not a target of lethal toxin. Our current results suggest that, unlike human alveolar macrophages, the cells lining the respiratory units of the lung, alveolar epithelial cells, are a target of lethal toxin in humans. Alveolar epithelial cells expressed lethal toxin receptor protein, bound the protective antigen component of lethal toxin, and were subject to lethal-toxin-induced cleavage of multiple MEKs. These findings suggest that human alveolar epithelial cells are a target of Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin. Further, no reduction in alveolar epithelial cell viability was observed, but lethal toxin caused actin rearrangement and impaired desmosome formation, consistent with impaired barrier function as well as reduced surfactant production. Therefore, by compromising epithelial barrier function, lethal toxin may play a role in the pathogenesis of inhalation anthrax by facilitating the dissemination of Bacillus anthracis from the lung in early disease and promoting edema in late stages of the illness.

  13. Suicide Intent and Accurate Expectations of Lethality: Predictors of Medical Lethality of Suicide Attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gregory K.; Henriques, Gregg R.; Sosdjan, Daniella; Beck, Aaron T.

    2004-01-01

    The degree of intent to commit suicide and the severity of self-injury were examined in individuals (N = 180) who had recently attempted suicide. Although a minimal association was found between the degree of suicide intent and the degree of lethality of the attempt, the accuracy of expectations about the likelihood of dying was found to moderate…

  14. Synthetic lethal approaches for assessing combinatorial efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Rebecca A; Chen, Ee Sin

    2016-06-01

    The recent advances in pharmacogenomics have made personalized medicine no longer a pipedream but a precise and powerful way to tailor individualized cancer treatment strategies. Cancer is a devastating disease, and contemporary chemotherapeutic strategies now integrate several agents in the treatment of some types of cancer, with the intent to block more than one target simultaneously. This constitutes the premise of synthetic lethality, an attractive therapeutic strategy already demonstrating clinical success in patients with breast and ovarian cancers. Synthetic lethal combinations offer the potential to also target the hitherto "undruggable" mutations that have challenged the cancer field for decades. However, synthetic lethality in clinical cancer therapy is very much still in its infancy, and selecting the most appropriate combinations-or synthetic lethal pairs-is not always an intuitive process. Here, we review some of the recent progress in identifying synthetic lethal combinations and their potential for therapy and highlight some of the tools through which synthetic lethal pairs are identified.

  15. Adult onset global loss of the fto gene alters body composition and metabolism in the mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona McMurray

    Full Text Available The strongest BMI-associated GWAS locus in humans is the FTO gene. Rodent studies demonstrate a role for FTO in energy homeostasis and body composition. The phenotypes observed in loss of expression studies are complex with perinatal lethality, stunted growth from weaning, and significant alterations in body composition. Thus understanding how and where Fto regulates food intake, energy expenditure, and body composition is a challenge. To address this we generated a series of mice with distinct temporal and spatial loss of Fto expression. Global germline loss of Fto resulted in high perinatal lethality and a reduction in body length, fat mass, and lean mass. When ratio corrected for lean mass, mice had a significant increase in energy expenditure, but more appropriate multiple linear regression normalisation showed no difference in energy expenditure. Global deletion of Fto after the in utero and perinatal period, at 6 weeks of age, removed the high lethality of germline loss. However, there was a reduction in weight by 9 weeks, primarily as loss of lean mass. Over the subsequent 10 weeks, weight converged, driven by an increase in fat mass. There was a switch to a lower RER with no overall change in food intake or energy expenditure. To test if the phenotype can be explained by loss of Fto in the mediobasal hypothalamus, we sterotactically injected adeno-associated viral vectors encoding Cre recombinase to cause regional deletion. We observed a small reduction in food intake and weight gain with no effect on energy expenditure or body composition. Thus, although hypothalamic Fto can impact feeding, the effect of loss of Fto on body composition is brought about by its actions at sites elsewhere. Our data suggest that Fto may have a critical role in the control of lean mass, independent of its effect on food intake.

  16. Lethal photosensitization of biofilm-grown bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael

    1997-12-01

    Antibacterial agents are increasingly being used for the prophylaxis and treatment of oral diseases. As these agents can be rendered ineffective by resistance development in the target organisms there is a need to develop alternative antimicrobial approaches. Light-activated antimicrobial agents release singlet oxygen and free radicals which can kill adjacent bacteria and a wide range of cariogenic and periodontopathogenic bacteria has been shown to be susceptible to such agents. In the oral cavity these organisms are present as biofilms (dental plaques) which are less susceptible to traditional antimicrobial agents than bacterial suspensions. The results of these studies have shown that biofilm-grown oral bacteria are also susceptible to lethal photosensitization although the light energy doses required are grater than those needed to kill the organisms when they are grown as aqueous suspensions.

  17. Drug facilitated sexual assault with lethal outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehling, Lena-Maria; Johansen, Sys Stybe; Wang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    A very serious case of DFSA (drug facilitated sexual assault) is presented, in which a six-year-old girl died following sedation with γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). She had been sexually abused by a relative. Samples of cardiac blood, bile, vitreous humour, liver, kidney, brain tissues and hair were...... segments of hair - up to 12 cm distant from the hair scalp - GHB concentrations were higher than the overall found endogenous range of 2-3 ng/mg. Police investigations revealed that the uncle had also administered GHB to the older half-sister. Therefore, a sample of her hair was analysed accordingly......, but unremarkable results were obtained. Comparing our toxicological results with police investigations and the offender's statements it can be assumed that the 6-year-old girl had ingested GHB. By exclusion of other causes of death a lethal intoxication with GHB could be confirmed....

  18. Differentiation of lethal and non lethal prostate cancer:PSA and PSA isoforms and kinetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H Ballentine Carter

    2012-01-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing for the early diagnosis of prostate cancer has led to a decrease in cancer mortality.However,the high prevalence of low-grade prostate cancer and its long natural history,competing causes of death in older men and treatment patterns of prostate cancer,have led to dramatic overtreatment of the disease.Improved markers of prostate cancer lethality are needed to reduce the overtreatment of prostate cancer that leads to a reduced quality of life without extending life for a high proportion of men.The PSA level prior to treatment is routinely used in multivariable models to predict prostate cancer aggressiveness.PSA isoforms and PSA kinetics have been associated with more aggressive phenotypes,but are not routinely employed as part of prediction tools prior to treatment.PSA kinetics is a valuable marker of lethality post treatment and routinely used in determining the need for salvage therapy.

  19. Effects of lethal and non-lethal malaria on the mononuclear phagocyte system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Tosta

    1983-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects ofone non-lethal species ofmalarialparasite, Plasmodium yoelii, and one lethal species, P. berghei, on the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS of BALB/c mice were studied. P. yoelii caused a greater and more sustained expansion and activation of the MPS, and the two major populations of spleen phagocytic cells-red pulp and marginal zone macrophages - exhibited a greater increase in numbers in this infection. During the course of P. berghei mataria, the spleen was progressively occupied by haematopoietic tissue and, at the terminal stage of infection, an extensive depletion of lymphocytes and macrophages was apparent. The possibility was suggested that the outcome of mataria may be inftuenced by the particular way the parasite interacts with the MPS.

  20. Mutation Induced Extinction in Finite Populations: Lethal Mutagenesis and Lethal Isolation

    OpenAIRE

    C Scott Wylie; Shakhnovich, Eugene I.

    2012-01-01

    Reproduction is inherently risky, in part because genomic replication can introduce new mutations that are usually deleterious toward fitness. This risk is especially severe for organisms whose genomes replicate “semi-conservatively,” e.g. viruses and bacteria, where no master copy of the genome is preserved. Lethal mutagenesis refers to extinction of populations due to an unbearably high mutation rate (U), and is important both theoretically and clinically, where drugs can extinguish pathoge...

  1. Syn-lethality: an integrative knowledge base of synthetic lethality towards discovery of selective anticancer therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue-juan; Mishra, Shital K; Wu, Min; Zhang, Fan; Zheng, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic lethality (SL) is a novel strategy for anticancer therapies, whereby mutations of two genes will kill a cell but mutation of a single gene will not. Therefore, a cancer-specific mutation combined with a drug-induced mutation, if they have SL interactions, will selectively kill cancer cells. While numerous SL interactions have been identified in yeast, only a few have been known in human. There is a pressing need to systematically discover and understand SL interactions specific to human cancer. In this paper, we present Syn-Lethality, the first integrative knowledge base of SL that is dedicated to human cancer. It integrates experimentally discovered and verified human SL gene pairs into a network, associated with annotations of gene function, pathway, and molecular mechanisms. It also includes yeast SL genes from high-throughput screenings which are mapped to orthologous human genes. Such an integrative knowledge base, organized as a relational database with user interface for searching and network visualization, will greatly expedite the discovery of novel anticancer drug targets based on synthetic lethality interactions. The database can be downloaded as a stand-alone Java application.

  2. Assessing Improvement in Quality of Life and Patient Satisfaction following Body Contouring Surgery in Patients with Massive Weight Loss: A Critical Review of Outcome Measures Employed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shehab Jabir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Body contouring following massive weight loss is a rapidly expanding field in plastic surgery. However, healthcare payers are reluctant to fund such procedures, viewing them as purely cosmetic. This has resulted in a flurry of studies assessing quality of life (QoL and patient satisfaction following body contouring surgery in this cohort of patients to establish an evidence base to support the idea that body contouring is as much (or even more a functional procedure as it is cosmetic. However, the methods employed in these studies are seldom ideal, and hence the conclusions are unreliable. The gold standard to assess QoL and patient satisfaction is to use patient specific psychometrically validated patient reported outcome (PRO measures. Developing such measures consists of a three-step process which includes a review of the current literature, qualitative patient interviews to determine what patients consider the most important, and expert opinion. This study aims to appraise the currently available literature on assessment of QoL and patient satisfaction in body contouring surgery patients. This will hopefully provide an understanding of methodological weaknesses in current studies and inform future investigators of the design of ideal instruments for assessing QoL and patient satisfaction in body contouring patients.

  3. Experimental aerosolized guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) causes lethal pneumonia in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenhafel, N A; Shaia, C I; Bunton, T E; Shamblin, J D; Wollen, S E; Pitt, L M; Sizemore, D R; Ogg, M M; Johnston, S C

    2015-01-01

    Eight guinea pigs were aerosolized with guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) and developed lethal interstitial pneumonia that was distinct from lesions described in guinea pigs challenged subcutaneously, nonhuman primates challenged by the aerosol route, and natural infection in humans. Guinea pigs succumbed with significant pathologic changes primarily restricted to the lungs. Intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were observed in many alveolar macrophages. Perivasculitis was noted within the lungs. These changes are unlike those of documented subcutaneously challenged guinea pigs and aerosolized filoviral infections in nonhuman primates and human cases. Similar to findings in subcutaneously challenged guinea pigs, there were only mild lesions in the liver and spleen. To our knowledge, this is the first report of aerosol challenge of guinea pigs with guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga). Before choosing this model for use in aerosolized ebolavirus studies, scientists and pathologists should be aware that aerosolized guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) causes lethal pneumonia in guinea pigs.

  4. 40 CFR 798.5450 - Rodent dominant lethal assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Rodent dominant lethal assay. 798.5450 Section 798.5450 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES... lethality, high pregnancy frequency and high implant numbers are recommended. (ii) Age. Healthy,...

  5. Anthrax toxin receptor 2-dependent lethal toxin killing in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather M Scobie

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Anthrax toxin receptors 1 and 2 (ANTXR1 and ANTXR2 have a related integrin-like inserted (I domain which interacts with a metal cation that is coordinated by residue D683 of the protective antigen (PA subunit of anthrax toxin. The receptor-bound metal ion and PA residue D683 are critical for ANTXR1-PA binding. Since PA can bind to ANTXR2 with reduced affinity in the absence of metal ions, we reasoned that D683 mutant forms of PA might specifically interact with ANTXR2. We show here that this is the case. The differential ability of ANTXR1 and ANTXR2 to bind D683 mutant PA proteins was mapped to nonconserved receptor residues at the binding interface with PA domain 2. Moreover, a D683K mutant form of PA that bound specifically to human and rat ANTXR2 mediated killing of rats by anthrax lethal toxin, providing strong evidence for the physiological importance of ANTXR2 in anthrax disease pathogenesis.

  6. Antidotes to anthrax lethal factor intoxication. Part 1: Discovery of potent lethal factor inhibitors with in vivo efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Guan-Sheng; Kim, Seongjin; Moayeri, Mahtab; Cregar-Hernandez, Lynne; McKasson, Linda; Margosiak, Stephen A; Leppla, Stephen H; Johnson, Alan T

    2010-11-15

    Sub-nanomolar small molecule inhibitors of anthrax lethal factor have been identified using SAR and Merck L915 (4) as a model compound. One of these compounds (16) provided 100% protection in a rat lethal toxin model of anthrax disease.

  7. Lethal and sub-lethal effects of five pesticides used in rice farming on the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rico, Andreu; Sabater, Consuelo; Castillo, María Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    The toxicity of five pesticides typically used in rice farming (trichlorfon, dimethoate, carbendazim, tebuconazole and prochloraz) was evaluated on different lethal and sub-lethal endpoints of the earthworm Eisenia fetida. The evaluated endpoints included: avoidance behaviour after an exposure pe

  8. Comparative influence of dose rate and radiation nature, on lethality after big mammals irradiation; Influence, a dose egale, du debit de dose et de la nature du rayonnement sur la mortalite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Destombe, C.; Le Fleche, Ph.; Grasseau, A.; Reynal, A. [Etablissement Technique Central de l`Armement (ETCA), 94 - Arcueil (France)

    1997-12-31

    For the same dose and the 30 days lethality as biological criterion, the dose rate influence is more important than the radiation nature on the results of an big mammals total body irradiation. (authors)

  9. Tumor clone dynamics in lethal prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreira, Suzanne; Romanel, Alessandro; Goodall, Jane; Grist, Emily; Ferraldeschi, Roberta; Miranda, Susana; Prandi, Davide; Lorente, David; Frenel, Jean-Sebastien; Pezaro, Carmel; Omlin, Aurelius; Rodrigues, Daniel Nava; Flohr, Penelope; Tunariu, Nina; S de Bono, Johann; Demichelis, Francesca; Attard, Gerhardt

    2014-09-17

    It is unclear whether a single clone metastasizes and remains dominant over the course of lethal prostate cancer. We describe the clonal architectural heterogeneity at different stages of disease progression by sequencing serial plasma and tumor samples from 16 ERG-positive patients. By characterizing the clonality of commonly occurring deletions at 21q22, 8p21, and 10q23, we identified multiple independent clones in metastatic disease that are differentially represented in tissue and circulation. To exemplify the clinical utility of our studies, we then showed a temporal association between clinical progression and emergence of androgen receptor (AR) mutations activated by glucocorticoids in about 20% of patients progressing on abiraterone and prednisolone or dexamethasone. Resistant clones showed a complex dynamic with temporal and spatial heterogeneity, suggesting distinct mechanisms of resistance at different sites that emerged and regressed depending on treatment selection pressure. This introduces a management paradigm requiring sequential monitoring of advanced prostate cancer patients with plasma and tumor biopsies to ensure early discontinuation of agents when they become potential disease drivers.

  10. Presence of virus neutralizing antibodies in cerebral spinal fluid correlates with non-lethal rabies in dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement W Gnanadurai

    Full Text Available Rabies is traditionally considered a uniformly fatal disease after onset of clinical manifestations. However, increasing evidence indicates that non-lethal infection as well as recovery from flaccid paralysis and encephalitis occurs in laboratory animals as well as humans.Non-lethal rabies infection in dogs experimentally infected with wild type dog rabies virus (RABV, wt DRV-Mexico correlates with the presence of high level of virus neutralizing antibodies (VNA in the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF and mild immune cell accumulation in the central nervous system (CNS. By contrast, dogs that succumbed to rabies showed only little or no VNA in the serum or in the CSF and severe inflammation in the CNS. Dogs vaccinated with a rabies vaccine showed no clinical signs of rabies and survived challenge with a lethal dose of wild-type DRV. VNA was detected in the serum, but not in the CSF of immunized dogs. Thus the presence of VNA is critical for inhibiting virus spread within the CNS and eventually clearing the virus from the CNS.Non-lethal infection with wt RABV correlates with the presence of VNA in the CNS. Therefore production of VNA within the CNS or invasion of VNA from the periphery into the CNS via compromised blood-brain barrier is important for clearing the virus infection from CNS, thereby preventing an otherwise lethal rabies virus infection.

  11. Key tissue targets responsible for anthrax toxin-induced-lethality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shihui; Zhang, Yi; Moayeri, Mahtab; Liu, Jie; Crown, Devorah; Fattah, Rasem; Wein, Alexander N.; Yu, Zu-Xi; Finkel, Toren; Leppla, Stephen H.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax disease, is lethal due to the actions of two exotoxins, anthrax lethal toxin (LT) and edema toxin (ET). The key tissue targets responsible for the lethal effects of these toxins are unknown. Here we generated cell-type specific anthrax toxin receptor capillary morphogenesis protein-2 (CMG2)-null mice and cell-type specific CMG2-expressing mice and challenged them with the toxins. Our results show that lethality induced by LT and ET occur through damage to distinct cell-types; while targeting cardiomyocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells is required for LT-induced mortality, ET-induced lethality occurs mainly through its action in hepatocytes. Surprisingly, and in contradiction to what has been previously postulated, targeting of endothelial cells by either toxin does not appear to contribute significantly to lethality. Our findings demonstrate that B. anthracis has evolved to use LT and ET to induce host lethality by coordinately damaging two distinct vital systems. PMID:23995686

  12. Lethal and sub lethal effects of the biocide chlorhexidine on aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, Fátima T; Oliveira, Rhaul; Silva, Andreia; Catarino, Ana L; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Nogueira, António J A; Domingues, Inês

    2013-11-01

    Chlorhexidine is among the most used biocides in Europe, however its toxicity to aquatic organisms is scarcely known. The main objective of this study was to assess the lethal and sub lethal effects of chlorhexidine digluconate (ChD) on four aquatic model organisms: the bacteria Vibrio fischeri, the algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, the crustacean Daphnia magna and the embryos of the fish Danio rerio. ChD was very toxic to algae and crustaceans, with a 72 h-EC50 of 62.2 μg/l and a 48 h-EC50 of 45.0 μg/l, respectively. Toxicity to fish embryos and the bacteria was lower, with a 96 h-EC50 of 804.0 μg/l and a 15 min-EC50 of 1,694.0 μg/l, respectively. Concerning sub lethal effects on D. magna (feeding inhibition) a 6 h-EC50 of 503.7 μg/l was obtained. In fish, ChD caused developmental abnormalities, namely alterations in the amniotic fluid (48 h-EC20 of 753.6 μg/l) and early hatching. Moreover, enzymatic biomarkers on fish embryos showed an induction of cholinesterase activity in all ChD tested concentrations (80-900 μg/l). The catalase activity was also induced at the highest concentration tested (900 μg/l) whereas no changes were observed for glutathione-S-transferase and lactate dehydrogenase activities. The toxicity of ChD to the algae and crustacean raises concerns about its potential effects in aquatic food webs, since these organisms are in the base of trophic chains, and highlights the need for further studies on ChD toxicity to aquatic organisms.

  13. Cognitive Inhibition in Elderly High-Lethality Suicide Attempters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard-Devantoy, Stéphane; Szanto, Katalin; Butters, Meryl A.; Kalkus, Jan; Dombrovski, Alexandre Y.

    2014-01-01

    Background People who attempt suicide often display cognitive impairments, particularly poor cognitive control. Could poor cognitive control contribute to high suicide rates in old age? A component of cognitive control, cognitive inhibition – active suppression of task-irrelevant processing – is very sensitive to aging and has been linked to attempted suicide. We investigated cognitive inhibition in older high-lethality suicide attempters, closely resembling suicide victims, as well as low-lethality attempters, and control groups with and without depression and suicidal ideation. Methods 102 participants aged 60+ (17 psychiatrically healthy control subjects, 38 depressed control subjects, 16 suicide ideators, 14 low-lethality suicide attempters, and 17 high-lethality suicide attempters) underwent comprehensive clinical and cognitive assessments. They completed the Delis–Kaplan Executive Function System Color-Word Interference Test, a validated modification of the Stroop test. Results High-lethality suicide attempters demonstrated a distinct pattern of cognitive inhibition deficits. Compared to psychiatrically healthy control subjects and suicide ideators, high-lethality attempters took longer to complete inhibition trials, even after accounting for potential confounding factors (age, education, MMSE score, information processing speed, and accuracy). Compared to non-suicidal depressed and healthy control subjects, low-lethality suicide attempters committed more uncorrected errors; however, this difference was not specific to the inhibition condition. Conclusions Older suicide attempters are a cognitively heterogeneous group. Poor cognitive control in high-lethality attempters may undermine their ability to solve real-life problems, precipitating a catastrophic accumulation of stressors. Meanwhile, low-lethality attempters' poor performance may reflect a careless approach to the task or faulty monitoring. PMID:24816626

  14. Art Criticism and Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Edmund Burke; Woods, Don

    1981-01-01

    The authors review a body of theory and accumulating evidence which suggests that critical study of the arts facilitates the development of cognitive skills, including those essential to reading. (Author/SJL)

  15. Lethal and sub-lethal responses of native freshwater mussels exposed to granular Bayluscide®, a sea lamprey larvicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Teresa; Boogaard, Michael A.; Gray, Brian R.; Hubert, Terrance D.; Schloesser, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    The invasive sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) poses a substantial threat to fish communities in the Great Lakes. Efforts to control sea lamprey populations typically involve treating tributary streams with lampricides on a recurring cycle. The presence of a substantial population of larval sea lampreys in the aquatic corridor between Lakes Huron and Erie prompted managers to propose a treatment using the granular formulation of Bayluscide® that targets larval sea lampreys that reside in sediments. However, these treatments could cause adverse effects on native freshwater mussels—imperiled animals that also reside in sediments. We estimated the risk of mortality and sub-lethal effects among eight species of adult and sub-adult mussels exposed to Bayluscide® for durations up to 8 h to mimic field applications. Mortality was appreciable in some species, especially in sub-adults (range, 23–51%). The lethal and sub-lethal effects were positively associated with the duration of exposure in most species and life stage combinations. Estimates of the median time of exposure that resulted in lethal and sub-lethal effects suggest that sub-adults were often affected by Bayluscide® earlier than adults. Siphoning activity and burrowing position of mussels during exposure may have moderated the uptake of Bayluscide® and may have influenced lethal and sub-lethal responses. Given that the various species and life stages were differentially affected, it will be difficult to predict the effects of Bayluscide® treatments on mussels.

  16. Overexpression of dilp2 causes nutrient-dependent semi-lethality in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukiko eSato-Miyata

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF plays an important role as a systemic regulator of metabolism in multicellular organisms. Hyperinsulinemia, a high level of blood insulin, is often associated with impaired physiological conditions such as hypoglycemia, insulin resistance, and diabetes. However, due to the complex pathophysiology of hyperinsulinemia, the causative role of excess insulin/IGF signaling has remained elusive. To investigate the biological effects of a high level of insulin in metabolic homeostasis and physiology, we generated flies overexpressing Drosophila insulin-like peptide 2 (Dilp2, which has the highest potential of promoting tissue growth among the Ilp genes in Drosophila. In this model, a UAS-Dilp2 transgene was overexpressed under control of sd-Gal4 that drives expression predominantly in developing imaginal wing discs. Overexpression of Dilp2 caused semi-lethality, which was partially suppressed by mutations in the insulin receptor (InR or Akt1, suggesting that dilp2-induced semi-lethality is mediated by the PI3K/Akt1 signaling. We found that dilp2-overexpressing flies exhibited intensive autophagy in fat body cells. Interestingly, the dilp2-induced autophagy as well as the semi-lethality was partially rescued by increasing the protein content relative to glucose in the media. Our results suggest that excess insulin/IGF signaling impairs the physiology of animals, which can be ameliorated by controlling the nutritional balance between proteins and carbohydrates, at least in flies.

  17. On the biophysical interpretation of lethal DNA lesions induced by ionizing radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Kundrát, P; Kundr\\'{a}t, Pavel; Stewart, Robert D.

    2005-01-01

    Although DNA damage is widely viewed as a critical target for the induction of cell killing by ionizing radiation, the exact nature of DNA damage responsible for these effects is unknown. To address this issue, the probability of forming lethal damage by single proton tracks, derived from published survival data for Chinese hamster V79 cells irradiated by protons with energies from 0.57 to 5.01 MeV, has been compared to estimated yields of complex DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) calculated by Monte Carlo models. The reported studies indicate that total DSB yields and the yields of other classes of clustered DNA damage do not correlate well with trends in the expected number of lethal events for protons with increasing linear energy transfer (LET). However, a good correlation was found between the number of lethal events and the yields of DSBs consisting of 8 or more elementary DNA lesions. These results indicate that differences in the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of radiations of diverse quality c...

  18. GAME AS EXPRESSION OF CULTURE BODY MOTION IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION SCHOOL: the three dimensions of content and the development of critical thinking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Teixeira Maldonado

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The physical education (PE contributes, through their content and working techniques, with the integral development of the child. This paper describes an educational experiment carried out with students from the 7th grade of elementary school to a public school of the east side of São Paulo where the games were themed on the three dimensions of content in view of the proposed political pedagogical project of the school. Students were encouraged to reflect, analyze and discuss the games experienced and his lines showed the presence of critical thinking on the subject.

  19. Lethal herpesvirosis in 16 captive horned vipers (Vipera ammodytes ammodytes): pathological and ultrastructural findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catoi, C; Gal, A F; Taulescu, M A; Palmieri, C; Catoi, A F

    2014-01-01

    Sixteen captive adult horned vipers (Vipera ammodytes ammodytes) were submitted for necropsy examination following a 2-week history of lethargy, anorexia and dyspnoea. Gross lesions included widespread haemorrhage, serosanguineous effusions in the body cavities and multiple pinpoint white to yellow foci in the liver. Microscopically, there was multifocal hepatic coagulative necrosis associated with intranuclear acidophilic inclusion bodies in sinusoidal endothelial cells. Similar endothelial lesions were observed in the myocardium, fat bodies, kidneys and spleen. Transmission electron microscopy revealed numerous virions (100-110 nm) in the nuclei of endothelial cells and intracytoplasmic enveloped virions (140-150 nm) were also found. The gross and histological findings and the ultrastructural features of the intranuclear inclusions and viral particles were consistent with herpesviral infection. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first reported cases of a lethal herpesvirosis in horned vipers and the second report in snakes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fentanyl-Laced 'Norco' Is Lethal, Report Warns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160158.html Fentanyl-Laced 'Norco' Is Lethal, Report Warns New street ... study involving the drug. The street drug combines fentanyl -- the synthetic opioid painkiller linked to the death ...

  1. New type of lethal short-limbed dwarfism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nairn, E.R.; Chapman, S.

    1989-05-01

    Details are presented of a most unusual osteo-chondrodysplasia which presents with lethal neonatal short-limbed dwarfism, defective ossification and nodular calcification with cartilage. The features resemble one case previously described in the literature.

  2. Trigemino-cardiac reflex as lethal mechanism in a suicidal fire death case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Riccardo; Lodise, Maria; Lancia, Massimo; Bacci, Mauro; De-Giorgio, Fabio; Cascini, Fidelia

    2014-05-01

    In the vast majority of immediate fire deaths, the mechanism of death is inhalation of toxic gases (especially carbon monoxide), direct thermal injury, or neurogenic shock due to the redistribution of the body's blood volume produced by surface heat on the skin. We present a suicidal case that is unusual because the mechanism of immediate fire death could arguably be explained in terms of a primitive autonomic reflex/the trigemino-cardiac reflex. Although this reflex is well known to surgeons and anesthetists, with possible lethal consequences in the course of invasive surgical procedures on the head and neck region, it is much less familiar to forensic pathologists.

  3. Influence of limited feeding on metabolic changes in lipids after single lethal irradiation of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toropila, M.; Alers, I.; Alersova, E.; Dyatelinka, I.; Praslichka, M. (Univerzita P.J. Safarika, Kosice (Czechoslovakia))

    A study was made of the influence of adaptation of rats to limited feeding (2 h a day during 3 weeks) and the response of the adapted animals to whole body X-irradiation with a lethal dose of 14.35 Gy. The concentration of unesterified fatty acids in the blood and the total cholesterol content were shown to decrease between the 1st and 24th hours following irradiation: the content of phospholipids decreased 60 min after irradiation. In the bone marrow of rats adapted to limited feeding, a more pronounced accumulation of triacylglycerols was noted as late as 72 h after irradiation.

  4. Perinatal-lethal Gaucher disease presenting as hydrops fetalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BenHamida, Emira; Ayadi, Imene; Ouertani, Ines; Chammem, Maroua; Bezzine, Ahlem; BenTmime, Riadh; Attia, Leila; Mrad, Ridha; Marrakchi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Perinatal-lethal Gaucher disease is very rare and is considered a variant of type 2 Gaucher disease that occurs in the neonatal period. The most distinct features of perinatal-lethal Gaucher disease are non-immune hydrops fetalis. Less common signs of the disease are hepatosplenomegaly, ichthyosis and arthrogryposis. We report a case of Gaucher's disease (type 2) diagnosed in a newborn who presented with Hydrops Fetalis.

  5. Testicular trauma secondary to less-lethal kinetic energy munitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavoussi, Parviz K; Hermans, Michael R

    2006-06-01

    Many cases of testicular trauma secondary to munitions have been reported. We report a case of a 37-year-old man who suffered testicular trauma as a result of a less-lethal munition projectile. With the advent, and increased use, of less-lethal munitions by the military and law enforcement agencies, more of these new subsets of genitourinary trauma patients who will require care are sure to result.

  6. Furthering critical institutionalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleaver, Frances; Koning, De Jessica

    2015-01-01

    This special issue furthers the study of natural resource management from a critical institutional perspective. Critical institutionalism (CI) is a contemporary body of thought that explores how institutions dynamically mediate relationships between people, natural resources and society. It focus

  7. Lethal combat and sex ratio evolution in a parasitoid wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocent, Tabitha M; Savage, Joanna; West, Stuart A; Reece, Sarah E

    2007-07-01

    Sex allocation theory provides excellent opportunities for testing how behavior and life histories are adjusted in response to environmental variation. One of the most successful areas from this respect is Hamilton's local mate competition theory. As predicted by theory, a large number of animal species have been shown to adjust their offspring sex ratios (proportion male) conditionally, laying less female-biased sex ratios as the number of females that lay eggs on a patch increases. However, recent studies have shown that this predicted pattern is not followed by 2 parasitoid species in the genus Melittobia, which always produce extremely female-biased sex ratios. A possible explanation for this is that males fight fatally and that males produced by the first female to lay eggs on a patch have a competitive advantage over later emerging males. This scenario would negate the advantage of later females producing a less female-biased sex ratio. Here we examine fatal fighting and sex ratio evolution in another species, Melittobia acasta. We show that females of this species also fail to adjust their offspring sex ratio in response to the number of females laying eggs on a patch. We then show that although earlier emerging males do have an advantage in winning fights, this advantage 1) can be reduced by an interaction with body size, with larger males more likely to win fights and 2) only holds for a brief period around the time at which the younger males emerge from their pupae. This suggests that lethal male combat cannot fully explain the lack of sex ratio shift observed in Melittobia species. We discuss alternative explanations.

  8. CriticalEd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellberg, Caspar Mølholt; Meredith, David

    2014-01-01

    The best text method is commonly applied among music scholars engaged in producing critical editions. In this method, a comment list is compiled, consisting of variant readings and editorial emendations. This list is maintained by inserting the comments into a document as the changes are made....... Since the comments are not input sequentially, with regard to position, but in arbitrary order, this list must be sorted by copy/pasting the rows into place—an error-prone and time-consuming process. Scholars who produce critical editions typically use off-the-shelf music notation software...... such as Sibelius or Finale. It was hypothesized that it would be possible to develop a Sibelius plug-in, written in Manuscript 6, that would improve the critical editing work flow, but it was found that the capabilities of this scripting language were insufficient. Instead, a 3-part system was designed and built...

  9. What Is a Pediatric Critical Care Specialist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size Email Print Share What is a Pediatric Critical Care Specialist? Page Content Article Body If ... in the PICU. What Kind of Training Do Pediatric Critical Care Specialists Have? Pediatric critical care specialists ...

  10. Development of a non-lethal method for evaluating transcriptomic endpoints in Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhoen, Nik; Beckerton, Jean E; Mackenzie-Grieve, Jody; Stevenson, Mitchel R; Truelson, Robert L; Helbing, Caren C

    2014-07-01

    With increases in active mining and continued discharge associated with former mine operations, evaluating the health of watersheds in the Canadian Yukon Territory is warranted. Current environmental assessment approaches often employ guidelines established using sentinel species not relevant to Arctic monitoring programs. The present study focused on the successful development of a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay directed towards the indigenous Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) and examines the feasibility of using non-lethal sampling from the caudal fin as a means for evaluation of mRNA abundance profiles reflective of environmental conditions. In a proof of concept study performed blind, qPCR results from animals in an area with elevated water concentrations of cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) and higher body burdens of Cd, Zn, and lead (Pb) were compared to a reference location in the Yukon Territory. Lower condition factor and a higher abundance of hepatic and caudal fin gene transcripts encoding the metallothionein isoforms (mta/mtb), in addition to elevated heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) and catalase (cat) mRNAs in liver, were observed in fish from the test site. The strong positive correlation between metal body burden and caudal fin mta/mtb mRNA abundance demonstrates a high potential for use of the Arctic grayling assay in non-lethal environmental monitoring programs.

  11. Lethal neuroleptic malignant syndrome due to amisulpride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musshoff, Frank; Doberentz, Elke; Madea, Burkhard

    2013-06-01

    A 42-year old-man was found lying in his bed having seizures. Later he became unconscious and hypotonic developing mydriasis as well as rigidity. The body core temperature (rectal temperature) was above 42 °C. Blood pH was decreased during treatment, and his general condition deteriorated. The patient developed gasping respiration, ventricular fibrillation, and died. During autopsy and histological investigation cerebral and pulmonary edema were noted together with general congestion of the internal organs. Further observations included contraction bands of myocytes, a contracted spleen, fibrosis of the liver, and gall stones. Toxicological analyses of peripheral blood revealed the following results: amisulpride 4.65 mg/l, biperiden 0.12 mg/l, imipramine 0.33 mg/l, and desipramine 0.68 mg/l. An amisulpride-induced neuroleptic malignant syndrome was therefore diagnosed as the patho-physiological mechanism leading to death.

  12. Effects of lethal and non-lethal malaria on the mononuclear phagocyte system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Tosta

    1983-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects ofone non-lethal species ofmalarialparasite, Plasmodium yoelii, and one lethal species, P. berghei, on the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS of BALB/c mice were studied. P. yoelii caused a greater and more sustained expansion and activation of the MPS, and the two major populations of spleen phagocytic cells-red pulp and marginal zone macrophages - exhibited a greater increase in numbers in this infection. During the course of P. berghei mataria, the spleen was progressively occupied by haematopoietic tissue and, at the terminal stage of infection, an extensive depletion of lymphocytes and macrophages was apparent. The possibility was suggested that the outcome of mataria may be inftuenced by the particular way the parasite interacts with the MPS.Estudou-se o efeito da infecção causada por espécie letal (Plasmodium berghei e não- letal (P. yoelii de plasmódio sobre o sistema de fagócitos mononucleares de camundongo BALB/c. O P. yoelii causou maior e mais prolongada expansão e ativação do sistema de macrófagos. As duas mais importantes populações de fagócitos esplênicos - macrófagos de polpa vermelha e da zona marginal - exibiam maior aumento do número de células nesta infecção. Durante a evolução da malária por P. berghei, o baço foi progressivamente ocupado por tecido hematopoiético e, na fase terminal da infecção, observou-se significativa depleção dos linfócitos e macrófagos esplênicos. Os dados apresentados indicam que a evolução da malária depende do tipo de interação entre o plasmódio e o sistema de fagócitos mononucleares.

  13. Body and Hope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teglbjærg, Johanne Stubbe

    In this book, Johanne Stubbe Teglbjærg Kristensen analyses the relationship between body and hope. She critically investigates the eschatologies of Paul Tillich, Jürgen Moltmann and Wolfhart Pannenberg from the perspective of the phenomenology of the body represented by Maurice Merleau-Ponty...

  14. Evaluation of lethal and non-lethal sampling methods for the detection of white sturgeon iridovirus infection in white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus (Richardson).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drennan, J D; Lapatra, S E; Samson, C A; Ireland, S; Eversman, K F; Cain, K D

    2007-06-01

    Pectoral fin tissue of white sturgeon was investigated as a potential non-lethal sample source for the detection of white sturgeon iridovirus (WSIV) infection. Histopathology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results using fin tissue were compared with the standard lethal histopathology sampling method that utilizes head tissue. Tissues for each of the three sampling methods were collected weekly for 8 weeks from individual sturgeon undergoing an experimental cohabitation challenge with fish infected with the Abernathy isolate of WSIV. Non-lethal fin histopathological evaluation did not reveal infection during the first 3 weeks of sampling, while non-lethal PCR and the lethal method were variable. However, all three sampling methods were equally capable of identifying infection from 4 to 8 weeks post-exposure. Of the survivors tested, all were negative by PCR and the lethal method, and only one fish was identified as being positive by non-lethal fin histopathology. In another experiment, all three sampling methods were applied to asymptomatic WSIV carriers in a case study conducted at the Kootenai Tribal Sturgeon Conservation Hatchery. Results showed that both lethal and non-lethal fin histopathology were equally effective in detecting infection, but PCR was unable to identify this strain of WSIV. Depending on the virus isolate, these results suggest that non-lethal sampling of fin tissue (histopathology or PCR) is comparable with the lethal sampling method at identifying WSIV infection once infection is established, and under certain circumstances may provide an alternative to lethal sampling.

  15. Crossover suppressors and balanced recessive lethals in Caenorhabditis elegans. [Nematode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, R.K.

    1978-01-01

    Two dominant suppressors of crossing over have been identified following x-ray treatment of the small nematode C. elegans. They suppress crossing over in linkage group II (LGII) about 100-fold and 50-fold and are both tightly linked to LGII markers. One, called C1, segregates independently of all other linkage groups and is homozygous fertile. The other is a translocation involving LGII and X. The translocation also suppresses crossing over along the right half of X and is homozygous lethal. C1 has been used as a balancer of LGII recessive lethal and sterile mutations induced by EMS. The frequencies of occurrence of lethals and steriles were approximately equal. Fourteen mutations were assigned to complementation groups and mapped. They tended to map in the same region where LGII visibles are clustered.

  16. Lethal effects of short-wavelength visible light on insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Masatoshi; Shibuya, Kazuki; Sato, Mitsunari; Saito, Yoshino

    2014-12-09

    We investigated the lethal effects of visible light on insects by using light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The toxic effects of ultraviolet (UV) light, particularly shortwave (i.e., UVB and UVC) light, on organisms are well known. However, the effects of irradiation with visible light remain unclear, although shorter wavelengths are known to be more lethal. Irradiation with visible light is not thought to cause mortality in complex animals including insects. Here, however, we found that irradiation with short-wavelength visible (blue) light killed eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults of Drosophila melanogaster. Blue light was also lethal to mosquitoes and flour beetles, but the effective wavelength at which mortality occurred differed among the insect species. Our findings suggest that highly toxic wavelengths of visible light are species-specific in insects, and that shorter wavelengths are not always more toxic. For some animals, such as insects, blue light is more harmful than UV light.

  17. Impact of acute alcohol consumption on lethality of suicide methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, C Hyung Keun; Yoo, Seong Ho; Lee, Jaewon; Cho, Sung Joon; Shin, Min-Sup; Kim, Eun Young; Kim, Se Hyun; Ham, Keunsoo; Ahn, Yong Min

    2017-05-01

    The influence of acute alcohol consumption on the factors related to suicide remains understudied. Thus, the present study investigated the relationship between blood alcohol content (BAC) and the lethality of suicide methods. Autopsy data on 315 South Korean suicide completers with a positive BAC were collected from a nationwide pool between May 2015 and November 2015, and the methods were dichotomised as suicide methods of low lethality (SMLL; drug/chemical overdose and sharp objects, n=67) and suicide methods of high lethality (SMHL; everything else, n=243). BAC at the time of autopsy and various suicide-related factors of these two groups were compared with logistic regression analyses. Compared to suicide completers with a BAC in the lowest range of 0.011-0.049%, suicide completers with a BAC in the range of 0.150-0.199% were more likely to use SMHL (odds ratio [OR]: 3.644, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.221-10.874). Additionally, the adoption of SMHL was significantly associated with the absence of a psychiatric illness (OR: 0.433, 95% CI: 0.222-0.843) and a younger age; the OR for high BAC among subjects in their 40s was 0.266 (95% CI: 0.083-0.856); in their 50s, 0.183 (95% CI: 0.055-0.615); and in their 60s, 0.057 (95% CI: 0.015-0.216). The relationship between BAC and suicide method lethality was represented by a bell-shaped pattern in which suicide methods of high lethality were more likely to be used by suicide completers with mid-range BAC levels. The increased impulsivity and impairments in particular executive functions, including planning and organization, associated with acute alcohol use may influence the selection of a particular suicide method based on its lethality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Prenatal diagnosis of lethal osteogenesis imperfecta in twin pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, L R; Herlicoviez, M; Loisel, J C; Jacob, B; Feuilly, C; Stanescu, V

    1991-06-01

    Lethal osteogenesis imperfecta was diagnosed at 27 weeks amenorrea in one fetus of a bichorial twin pregnancy. Sonographic findings included: short-limb dwarfism, hypotrophy and hypoechoic bones. The affected fetus was so translucent that only the normal fetus could be seen on plain in utero radiography. The affected fetus died immediately after birth. Postmortem radiography and histology were typical of lethal osteogenesis imperfecta of type IIA. Aids to the etiological diagnosis of in utero dwarfism are presented. Sonographic features correlated with neonatal death are described.

  19. Development of non-lethal methods for investigation of actinide uptake by wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, M.; Child, D.; Davis, E.; Harrison, J.; Hotchkis, M.; Payne, T.; Thiruvoth, S. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Org. (Australia); Wood, M. [University of Salford (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    There is growing interest in the use of non-lethal methods in radioecology and an International Union of Radioecology Task Group has been established to facilitate international cooperation in this field (http://iur-uir.org/en/task-groups/id-19-non-lethal-methods-in-radioecology). In this paper, we evaluate the use of lethally-, and non-lethally obtained samples (various body tissues, excreta and blood withdrawals as well as parasites and found bones) as indicators of contamination. Samples of mammals and reptiles were collected from the semi-arid former weapons test site at Maralinga, Australia and analysed for thorium, plutonium, and uranium isotopes by accelerator mass spectrometry and alpha-spectrometry. Most samples were of low mass and presented analytical challenges as a result. The plutonium concentrations in blood withdrawn from the marginal ear veins of Oryctolagus cuniculus (European rabbit) were successfully analysed using small samples (0.2 -7.9 ml, below the ∼10 ml threshold for safe extraction of blood from these rabbits). The results demonstrate that small-volume blood samples can serve as indicators of the presence of plutonium absorbed within other tissues (e.g., muscle, bone). However, the magnitude of the blood plutonium masses were poorly correlated with those in muscle and bone due to the presence of a small number of outliers (without the outliers, correlations improved to r = +0.66 and r = +0.51 for muscle and bone respectively). The activity concentrations in parasitic ticks were relatively high compared with those of their hosts Pseudomys hermannsburgensis (sandy inland mouse) and Ctenophorus cristatus (crested dragon lizard). Successful measurement of tick samples indicates a potential for use of parasites as general indicators of contamination within host organisms. The concentrations of actinides in found bones of Macropus rufus (red kangaroo) and O. cuniculus demonstrated potential for their use as indicators of the areal extent of

  20. Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Body Image Developing a positive body image and a healthy mental attitude is crucial to ... on for tips to have a healthy body image. Topics About body image When you look in ...

  1. How closely do acute lethal concentration estimates predict effects of toxicants on populations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, John D

    2005-04-01

    Acute lethal dose/concentration estimates are the most widely used measure of toxicity and these data often are used in ecological risk assessment. However, the value of the lethal concentration (LC50) as a toxicological endpoint for use in ecological risk assessment recently has been criticized. A question that has been asked frequently is how accurate is the LC50 for prediction of longer-term effects of toxicants on populations of organisms? To answer this question, Daphnia pulex populations were exposed to nominal concentrations equal to the 48-h acute LC50 of 6 insecticides, Actara, Aphistar diazinon, pymetrozine, Neemix, and Spinosad; and 8 agricultural adjuvants, Bond, Kinetic, Plyac, R-11, Silwet, Sylgard 309, Water Maxx, and X-77; for 10 d. None of the D. pulex populations exposed to the acute LC50 of these insecticides were 50% lower than the control populations at the end of the study; exposure to diazinon resulted in populations that were higher than expected (91% of the control). Exposure to Actara and Aphistar resulted in populations that were < 1 and 29% of the control, respectively. Exposure to Fulfill, Neemix, and Spinosad resulted in extinction. Extinction occurred after exposure to all of the adjuvants, except Silwet L-77 where the population was 31% of the control. These results corroborate other studies that indicate that the LC50 is not a good predictor of effects on population growth. Although lethal concentration estimates have their place in toxicology, namely to compare intrinsic toxicity of chemicals among species or susceptibility of a species to different chemicals over short time periods, population growth and growth-rate studies are necessary to predict toxicant effects on populations.

  2. Acute toxicity, critical body residues, Michaelis-Menten analysis of bioaccumulation, and ionoregulatory disturbance in response to waterborne nickel in four invertebrates: Chironomus riparius, Lymnaea stagnalis, Lumbriculus variegatus and Daphnia pulex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Erin M; Wood, Chris M

    2013-06-01

    We investigated the bioaccumulation and acute toxicity (48 h or 96 h) of Ni in four freshwater invertebrate species in two waters with hardness of 40 (soft water) and 140 mg L(-1) as CaCO(3) (hard water). Sensitivity order (most to least) was Lymnaea stagnalis > Daphnia pulex > Lumbriculus variegatus > Chironomus riparius. In all cases water hardness was protective against acute Ni toxicity with LC(50) values 3-3.5× higher in the hard water vs. soft water. In addition, higher water hardness significantly reduced Ni bioaccumulation in these organisms suggesting that competition by Ca and Mg for uptake at the biotic ligand may contribute to higher metal resistance. CBR50 values (Critical Body Residues) were less dependent on water chemistry (i.e. more consistent) than LC(50) values within and across species by ~2 fold. These data support one of the main advantages of the Tissue Residue Approach (TRA) where tissue concentrations are generally less variable than exposure concentrations with respect to toxicity. Whole body Ni bioaccumulation followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics in all organisms, with greater hardness tending to decrease B(max) with no consistent effect on K(d). Across species, acute Ni LC(50) values tended to increase with both K(d) and B(max) values - i.e. more sensitive species exhibited higher binding affinity and lower binding capacity for Ni, but there was no correlation with body size. With respect to biotic ligand modeling, log K(NiBL) values derived from Ni bioaccumulation correlated well with log K(NiBL) values derived from toxicity testing. Both whole body Na and Mg levels were disturbed, suggesting that disruption of ionoregulatory homeostasis is a mechanism of acute Ni toxicity. In L. stagnalis, Na depletion was a more sensitive endpoint than mortality, however, the opposite was true for the other organisms. This is the first study to show the relationship between Na and Ni. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The "Lethal Chamber": Further Evidence of the Euthanasia Option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elks, Martin A.

    1993-01-01

    Historical discussions of the euthanasia or "lethal chamber" option in relation to people with mental retardation are presented. The paper concludes that eugenic beliefs in the primacy of heredity over environment and the positive role of natural selection may have condoned the poor conditions characteristic of large, segregated institutions and…

  4. Dominant-lethal mutations and heritable translocations in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Generoso, W.M.

    1983-01-01

    Chromosome aberrations are a major component of radiation or chemically induced genetic damage in mammalian germ cells. The types of aberration produced are dependent upon the mutagen used and the germ-cell stage treated. For example, in male meiotic and postmeiotic germ cells certain alkylating chemicals induce both dominant-lethal mutations and heritable translocations while others induce primarily dominant-lethal mutations. Production of these two endpoints appears to be determined by the stability of alkylation products with the chromosomes. If the reaction products are intact in the male chromosomes at the time of sperm entry, they may be repaired in fertilized eggs. If repair is not effected and the alkylation products persist to the time of pronuclear chromosome replication, they lead to chromatid-type aberrations and eventually to dominant-lethality. The production of heritable translocations, on the other hand, requires a transformation of unstable alkylation products into suitable intermediate lesions. The process by which these lesions are converted into chromosome exchange within the male genome takes place after sperm enters the egg but prior to the time of pronuclear chromosome replication (i.e., chromosome-type). Thus, dominant-lethal mutations result from both chromatid- and chromosome-type aberrations while heritable translocations result primarily from the latter type. DNA target sites associated with the production of these two endpoints are discussed.

  5. Evaluation of lethality estimates for combustion gases in military scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S M; Stuhmiller, J H; Januszkiewicz, A J

    1996-12-31

    To meet the military objective of determining criteria for incapacitation and lethality from toxic gas exposures, a series of small animal tests and data analyses were conducted. Carbon monoxide (CO), a narcotic gas and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), an irritant gas, along with carbon dioxide (CO2) were tested individually and in the following mixtures: (CO + CO2), (NO2 + CO2) and (NO2 + CO + CO2). A group of six animals was exposed to each of the gases and their combinations, lethality and biophysical data were collected. We conclude that our observations of lethality from single toxic gases can be correlated with a fractional effective dose (FED) description, in which external concentrations are corrected for minute volume changes. Multiple gas exposures clearly demonstrate synergistic effects because lethality rates greatly exceed those expected from statistically independent causes. Simple addition of the FED values, however, overstates the effect and implies a competition between the narcotic and irritant gas effects. The N-Gas model, while being an additive FED model, does not appear to be in a form that could guide the setting of military exposure standards.

  6. The Lethal "Femme Fatale" in the Noir Tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boozer, Jack

    2000-01-01

    Traces the lethal seductress through Hollywood's "noir" history from "Double Indemnity" (1944) to "The Last Seduction" (1996). Examines how this figure largely abjures traditional romance and passive domesticity, choosing instead to apply her sexuality to homicidal plots toward greed. Argues that her narrative positioning serves as a barometer of…

  7. Papaya Lethal Yellowing Virus (PLYV) Infects Vasconcellea cauliflora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amaral, P.P.R.; Resende, de R.O.; Souza, M.T.

    2006-01-01

    Papaya lethal yellowing virus (PLYV) é um dos três vírus descritos infectando mamoeiros (Carica papaya L.) no Brasil. Vasconcellea cauliflora (Jacq.) A. DC., antes denominada de Carica cauliflora (Jacq.), é uma reconhecida fonte de resistência natural ao Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), causador da "Ma

  8. The Lethal "Femme Fatale" in the Noir Tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boozer, Jack

    2000-01-01

    Traces the lethal seductress through Hollywood's "noir" history from "Double Indemnity" (1944) to "The Last Seduction" (1996). Examines how this figure largely abjures traditional romance and passive domesticity, choosing instead to apply her sexuality to homicidal plots toward greed. Argues that her narrative…

  9. An overview of the future of non-lethal weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, J B

    2001-01-01

    During the past decade, vast changes have occurred in the geopolitical landscape and the nature of the types of conflicts in which technologically developed countries have been involved. While the threat of conventional war remains, forces have been more frequently deployed in situations that require great restraint. Adversaries are often likely to be elusive and commingled with noncombatants. There has been some shift in public opinion away from tolerance of collateral casualties. Therefore there is a need to be able to apply force while limiting casualties. Non-lethal weapons provide part of the solution. Among the changes that will influence the future have been studies by the US and NATO concerning the use of non-lethal weapons, coincidental with increased funding for their development and testing. New concepts and policies have recently been formalized. Surprisingly, the most strident objections to the implementation of non-lethal weapons have come from organizations that are ostensibly designed to protect non-combatants. These arguments are specious and, while technically and academically challenging, actually serve to foster an environment that will result in the deaths of many more innocent civilians. They misconstrue technology with human intent. The reasons for use of force will not abate. Alternatives to bombs, missiles, tanks and artillery must therefore be found. Non-lethal weapons are not a panacea but do offer the best hope of minimizing casualties while allowing nations or alliances the means to use force in protection of national or regional interests.

  10. The Prevalence, Lethality and Intent of Suicide Attempts among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Judy A.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    Although suicide is the second leading cause of death among adolescents in the United States, little is known about the prevalence or characteristics of suicide attempts among adolescents. Data from 1,710 adolescents attending 9 high schools in 5 communities were examined to determine the prevalence of suicide attempts and the lethality and intent…

  11. Conditional lethality strains for the biological control of Anastrepha species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pro-apoptotic cell death genes are promising candidates for biologically-based autocidal control of pest insects as demonstrated by tetracycline (tet)-suppressible systems for conditional embryonic lethality in Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) and the medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Cc). However, for medfly...

  12. The "Lethal Chamber": Further Evidence of the Euthanasia Option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elks, Martin A.

    1993-01-01

    Historical discussions of the euthanasia or "lethal chamber" option in relation to people with mental retardation are presented. The paper concludes that eugenic beliefs in the primacy of heredity over environment and the positive role of natural selection may have condoned the poor conditions characteristic of large, segregated institutions and…

  13. Activated protein C ameliorates Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin-induced lethal pathogenesis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kau Jyh-Hwa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lethal toxin (LT is a major virulence factor of Bacillus anthracis. Sprague Dawley rats manifest pronounced lung edema and shock after LT treatments, resulting in high mortality. The heart failure that is induced by LT has been suggested to be a principal mechanism of lung edema and mortality in rodents. Since LT-induced death occurs more rapidly in rats than in mice, suggesting that other mechanisms in addition to the heart dysfunction may be contributed to the fast progression of LT-induced pathogenesis in rats. Coagulopathy may contribute to circulatory failure and lung injury. However, the effect of LT on coagulation-induced lung dysfunction is unclear. Methods To investigate the involvement of coagulopathy in LT-mediated pathogenesis, the mortality, lung histology and coagulant levels of LT-treated rats were examined. The effects of activated protein C (aPC on LT-mediated pathogenesis were also evaluated. Results Fibrin depositions were detected in the lungs of LT-treated rats, indicating that coagulation was activated. Increased levels of plasma D-dimer and thrombomodulin, and the ameliorative effect of aPC further suggested that the activation of coagulation-fibrinolysis pathways plays a role in LT-mediated pathogenesis in rats. Reduced mortality was associated with decreased plasma levels of D-dimer and thrombomodulin following aPC treatments in rats with LT-mediated pathogenesis. Conclusions These findings suggest that the activation of coagulation in lung tissue contributes to mortality in LT-mediated pathogenesis in rats. In addition, anticoagulant aPC may help to develop a feasible therapeutic strategy.

  14. Systemic Analysis of Atg5-Null Mice Rescued from Neonatal Lethality by Transgenic ATG5 Expression in Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshii, Saori R; Kuma, Akiko; Akashi, Takumi; Hara, Taichi; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Kurikawa, Yoshitaka; Itakura, Eisuke; Tsukamoto, Satoshi; Shitara, Hiroshi; Eishi, Yoshinobu; Mizushima, Noboru

    2016-10-10

    Autophagy is a cytoplasmic degradation system that is important for starvation adaptation and cellular quality control. Previously, we reported that Atg5-null mice are neonatal lethal; however, the exact cause of their death remains unknown. Here, we show that restoration of ATG5 in the brain is sufficient to rescue Atg5-null mice from neonatal lethality. This suggests that neuronal dysfunction, including suckling failure, is the primary cause of the death of Atg5-null neonates, which would further be accelerated by nutrient insufficiency due to a systemic failure in autophagy. The rescued Atg5-null mouse model, as a resource, allows us to investigate the physiological roles of autophagy in the whole body after the neonatal period. These rescued mice demonstrate previously unappreciated abnormalities such as hypogonadism and iron-deficiency anemia. These observations provide new insights into the physiological roles of the autophagy factor ATG5.

  15. Diagnostics in critical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SadchikovD.V.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research: improvement of quality of diagnostics at the patients in a critical condition in intensive care unit. Material and methods. In total have analyzed 1957 medical cards of the patients who have died in ICU»s. At the first stage studied the factors influencing on diagnostics of critically ill patients (medical cards of 1557 patients; at the second stage investigated influence of the diagnostic standards in ICU»s practice on improvement of quality of diag- nostics of critically ill patients (400 medical cards of the patients who have died. Entry criterions were standards and algorithm of diagnostics. Techniques of research: average bed-day in groups, first-day lethality, quantity of the carried out laboratory tests and tool methods of research, level of consciousness of the patients (Glasgow come score, severity of disease by ICU»s patients (APACHE II scores. Results. Quality of diagnostics depend on carried out laboratory tests and tool methods of research, level of consciousness of the patients (Glasgow come score, severity of disease by ICU»s patients (APACHE II score. The conclusion. The laboratory tests and tool methods of research conforming to the standards of diagnostics are necessary for improvement of quality of diagnostics, it is necessary to take into account an altered level of consciousness (Glasgow come score and severity of disease by ICU»s patients (APACHE II scores

  16. Annotating novel genes by integrating synthetic lethals and genomic information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faty Mahamadou

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large scale screening for synthetic lethality serves as a common tool in yeast genetics to systematically search for genes that play a role in specific biological processes. Often the amounts of data resulting from a single large scale screen far exceed the capacities of experimental characterization of every identified target. Thus, there is need for computational tools that select promising candidate genes in order to reduce the number of follow-up experiments to a manageable size. Results We analyze synthetic lethality data for arp1 and jnm1, two spindle migration genes, in order to identify novel members in this process. To this end, we use an unsupervised statistical method that integrates additional information from biological data sources, such as gene expression, phenotypic profiling, RNA degradation and sequence similarity. Different from existing methods that require large amounts of synthetic lethal data, our method merely relies on synthetic lethality information from two single screens. Using a Multivariate Gaussian Mixture Model, we determine the best subset of features that assign the target genes to two groups. The approach identifies a small group of genes as candidates involved in spindle migration. Experimental testing confirms the majority of our candidates and we present she1 (YBL031W as a novel gene involved in spindle migration. We applied the statistical methodology also to TOR2 signaling as another example. Conclusion We demonstrate the general use of Multivariate Gaussian Mixture Modeling for selecting candidate genes for experimental characterization from synthetic lethality data sets. For the given example, integration of different data sources contributes to the identification of genetic interaction partners of arp1 and jnm1 that play a role in the same biological process.

  17. Cutaneous bacteria of the redback salamander prevent morbidity associated with a lethal disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew H Becker

    Full Text Available Chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd, is an infectious disease that causes population declines of many amphibians. Cutaneous bacteria isolated from redback salamanders, Plethodon cinereus, and mountain yellow-legged frogs, Rana muscosa, inhibit the growth of Bd in vitro. In this study, the bacterial community present on the skin of P. cinereus individuals was investigated to determine if it provides protection to salamanders from the lethal and sub-lethal effects of chytridiomycosis. When the cutaneous bacterial community was reduced prior to Bd exposure, salamanders experienced a significantly greater decrease in body mass, which is a symptom of the disease, when compared to infected individuals with a normal bacterial community. In addition, a greater proportion of infected individuals with a reduced bacterial community experienced limb-lifting, a behavior seen only in infected individuals. Overall, these results demonstrate that the cutaneous bacterial community of P. cinereus provides protection to the salamander from Bd and that alteration of this community can change disease resistance. Therefore, symbiotic microbes associated with this species appear to be an important component of its innate skin defenses.

  18. Relationship between lethal toxicity in oral administration and injection to mice: effect of exposure routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Ning, Zhong H; Tai, Hong W; Long, Shuang; Qin, Wei C; Su, Li M; Zhao, Yuan H

    2015-03-01

    The lethal toxicity (LD₅₀) in oral administration, intravenous, intraperitoneal, intramuscular and subcutaneous injections were used to investigate relationships of log 1/LD₅₀ from different exposure routes. Regression analysis showed that log 1/LD₅₀ in oral route was related to the toxicity in injection route. This relationship in lethality between the two routes is apparently due to the same mechanisms of the compounds to the same species. However, the scatter in the correlation curve indicates that exposure route is an important factor that influences the relationship. Some compounds with low intestinal absorption exhibit much less toxicity in oral administration than that in the injection route. A systemic bias of log 1/LD₅₀ between oral and injection routes indicates that tissue distribution of compounds between blood and target site is a very rapid process, leading to log 1/LD₅₀ in injection greater than those in oral administration. Although compounds can be metabolized in the body both from oral and injection routes, first-pass metabolism occurs in oral route but not in injection route. This will result in decrease of toxicity in oral route for most compounds as compared with injection route. In addition, experimental uncertainty, differences in gender, and species can also affect relationships of log1/LD₅₀ between exposure routes.

  19. Ecology meets cancer biology: the cancer swamp promotes the lethal cancer phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amend, Sarah R; Pienta, Kenneth J

    2015-01-01

    As they grow, tumors fundamentally alter their microenvironment, disrupting the homeostasis of the host organ and eventually the patient as a whole. Lethality is the ultimate result of deregulated cell signaling and regulatory mechanisms as well as inappropriate host cell recruitment and activity that lead to the death of the patient. These processes have striking parallels to the framework of ecological biology: multiple interacting ecosystems (organ systems) within a larger biosphere (body), alterations in species stoichiometry (host cell types), resource cycling (cellular metabolism and cell-cell signaling), and ecosystem collapse (organ failure and death). In particular, as cancer cells generate their own niche within the tumor ecosystem, ecological engineering and autoeutrophication displace normal cell function and result in the creation of a hypoxic, acidic, and nutrient-poor environment. This "cancer swamp" has genetic and epigenetic effects at the local ecosystem level to promote metastasis and at the systemic host level to induce cytokine-mediated lethal syndromes, a major cause of death of cancer patients.

  20. Siganus oramin recombinant L-amino acid oxidase is lethal to Cryptocaryon irritans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruijun; Dan, Xueming; Li, Anxing

    2013-12-01

    A novel antimicrobial and antiparasitic protein (APP/SR-LAAO) isolated from serum of the rabbitfish (Siganus oramin) was confirmed to be lethal to Cryptocaryon irritans, an important marine parasitic ciliate that causes marine white spot disease in a variety of wild and cultured fish. In this study, a recombinant SR-LAAO (rSR-LAAO) was expressed on a large scale in Escherichia coli Rosetta-gami™(DE3)pLysS cells. rSR-LAAO was expressed as an inactive form in the inclusion bodies. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay showed that after purification, refolding and ultrafiltration, rSR-LAAO had a significantly cytotoxic effect on C. irritans theronts. Using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy, we found that theronts rapidly became weakly motile, cilia became detached, cells became rounded, membranes eventually lysed in different cell positions and cytoplasmic contents leaked out of the cell. These results suggested the recombinant SR-LAAO was significantly lethal to C. irritans and the death process of the parasite incubated with rSR-LAAO was remarkably similar compared to the SR-LAAO group as reported earlier.

  1. Cutaneous bacteria of the redback salamander prevent morbidity associated with a lethal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Matthew H; Harris, Reid N

    2010-06-04

    Chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is an infectious disease that causes population declines of many amphibians. Cutaneous bacteria isolated from redback salamanders, Plethodon cinereus, and mountain yellow-legged frogs, Rana muscosa, inhibit the growth of Bd in vitro. In this study, the bacterial community present on the skin of P. cinereus individuals was investigated to determine if it provides protection to salamanders from the lethal and sub-lethal effects of chytridiomycosis. When the cutaneous bacterial community was reduced prior to Bd exposure, salamanders experienced a significantly greater decrease in body mass, which is a symptom of the disease, when compared to infected individuals with a normal bacterial community. In addition, a greater proportion of infected individuals with a reduced bacterial community experienced limb-lifting, a behavior seen only in infected individuals. Overall, these results demonstrate that the cutaneous bacterial community of P. cinereus provides protection to the salamander from Bd and that alteration of this community can change disease resistance. Therefore, symbiotic microbes associated with this species appear to be an important component of its innate skin defenses.

  2. In vivo dynamics of active edema and lethal factors during anthrax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougeaux, Clémence; Becher, François; Ezan, Eric; Tournier, Jean-Nicolas; Goossens, Pierre L.

    2016-01-01

    Lethal and edema toxins are critical virulence factors of Bacillus anthracis. However, little is known about their in vivo dynamics of production during anthrax. In this study, we unraveled for the first time the in vivo kinetics of production of the toxin components EF (edema factor) and LF (lethal factor) during cutaneous infection with a wild-type toxinogenic encapsulated strain in immuno-competent mice. We stratified the asynchronous infection process into defined stages through bioluminescence imaging (BLI), while exploiting sensitive quantitative methods by measuring the enzymatic activity of LF and EF. LF was produced in high amounts, while EF amounts steadily increased during the infectious process. This led to high LF/EF ratios throughout the infection, with variations between 50 to a few thousands. In the bloodstream, the early detection of active LF and EF despite the absence of bacteria suggests that they may exert long distance effects. Infection with a strain deficient in the protective antigen toxin component enabled to address its role in the diffusion of LF and EF within the host. Our data provide a picture of the in vivo complexity of the infectious process. PMID:26996161

  3. Antibodies against recombinant catalytic domain of lethal toxin of Clostridium sordellii neutralize lethal toxin toxicity in HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Preetika; Ponmariappan, S; Singh, Lokendra; Prasad, G B K S

    2013-02-01

    Lethal toxin of Clostridium sordellii (MLD 150 ng/kg) is one of the most potent Clostridial toxins and is responsible for most of the diseases including sudden death syndrome in cattle, sheep and toxic shock syndrome, necrotizing faciitis, neonatal omphalitis and gangrene in humans. Lethal toxin (TcsL) is a single chain protein of about 270 kDa. In the present study, 1.6 kb DNA fragment encoding for the catalytic domain of TcsL was PCR amplified, cloned in pQE30 UA vector and expressed in E. coli SG 13009. The expression of recombinant lethal toxin protein (rTcsL) was optimized and it was purified under native conditions using a single step Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The purified recombinant protein was used for the production of polyclonal antibodies in mice and rabbit. The raised antibodies reacted specifically with the purified rTcsL and intact native lethal toxin on Western blot. The biological activity of the recombinant protein was tested in HeLa cells where it showed the cytotoxicity. Further, the polyclonal antibodies were used for in-vitro neutralization of purified rTcsL, acid precipitated C. sordellii and C. difficile native toxins in HeLa cells. Mice and rabbit anti-rTcsL sera effectively neutralized the cytotoxicity of rTcsL and C. sordellii native toxin but it did not neutralize the cytotoxicity of C. difficile toxin in HeLa cells.

  4. Failure of rats to escape from a potentially lethal microwave field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, D.R.; Levinson, D.M.; Justesen, D.R.; Clarke, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    Ocularly pigmented rats, all mature females of the Long-Evans strain, were repeatedly presented an opportunity to escape from an intense 918-MHz field (whole-body dose rate . 60 mW/g) to a field of lower intensity (40, 30, 20, or 2 mW/g) by performing a simple locomotor response. Other rats could escape 800-microamperemeter faradic shock to the feet and tail by performing the same response in the same milieu, a multimode cavity. None of 20 irradiated rats learned to associate entry into a visually well-demarcated area of the cavity with immediate reduction of dose rate, in spite of field-induced elevations of body temperature to levels that exceeded 41 degrees C and would have been lethal but for a limit on durations of irradiation. In contrast, all of ten rats motivated by faradic shock rapidly learned to escape. The failure of escape learning by irradiated animals probably arose from deficiencies of motivation and, especially, sensory feedback. Whole-body hyperthermia induced by a multipath field may lack the painful or directional sensory properties that optimally promote the motive to escape. Moreover, a decline of body temperature after an escape-response-contingent reduction of field strength will be relatively slow because of the large thermal time constants of mammalian tissues. Without timely sensory feedback, which is an essential element of negative reinforcement, stimulus-response associability would be imparied, which could retard or preclude learning of an escape response.

  5. Thinking Critically about Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulnix, Jennifer Wilson

    2012-01-01

    As a philosophy professor, one of my central goals is to teach students to think critically. However, one difficulty with determining whether critical thinking can be taught, or even measured, is that there is widespread disagreement over what critical thinking actually is. Here, I reflect on several conceptions of critical thinking, subjecting…

  6. Early Diet and Later Cancer Risk: Prospective Associations of Dietary Patterns During Critical Periods of Childhood with the GH-IGF Axis, Insulin Resistance and Body Fatness in Younger Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Anke L B; Schulze, Matthias B; Kroke, Anja; Diethelm, Katharina; Joslowski, Gesa; Krupp, Danika; Wudy, Stefan; Buyken, Anette E

    2015-01-01

    Early life, adiposity rebound, and puberty represent critical growth periods when food choices could have long-term relevance for cancer risk. We aimed to relate dietary patterns during these periods to the growth hormone-insulin-like-growth-factor (GH-IGF) axis, insulin resistance, and body fatness in adulthood. Data from the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) Study participants with outcome data at 18-37 years, and ≥2 dietary records during early life (1-2 yr; n = 128), adiposity rebound (4-6 years, n = 179), or puberty (girls 9-14, boys 10-15 yr; n = 213) were used. Dietary patterns at these ages were derived by 1) reduced rank regression (RRR) to explain variation in adult IGF-I, IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), homoeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and fat-mass index; 2) principal component analysis (PCA). Regarding RRR, the patterns "cake/canned fruit/cheese & eggs" (early life), "sweets & dairy" (adiposity rebound) and "high-fat foods" (pubertal boys) were independently associated with higher adult HOMA-IR. Furthermore, the patterns "favorable carbohydrate sources" (early life), "snack & convenience foods" (adiposity rebound), and "traditional & convenience carbohydrates" (pubertal boys) were related to adult IGFBP-3 (P trend 0.1). In conclusion, dietary patterns during sensitive growth periods may be of long-term relevance for adult insulin resistance and IGFBP-3.

  7. Parents’ Experiences With Ultrasound During Pregnancy With a Lethal Fetal Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin M. Denney-Koelsch

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This longitudinal naturalistic study sought to describe parent experiences of ultrasounds during pregnancies with lethal fetal diagnoses (LFDs. We interviewed 16 mothers and 14 partners twice during pregnancy and twice after birth and death of their infant. Parents reported that ultrasound providers had a profound impact on their experiences with LFDs. Within three stages of pregnancy (pre-diagnosis, learning the diagnosis, and living with the diagnosis, themes of optimistic expectation, hearing bad news, need to know, and time with baby emerged. The dynamics of interactions with ultrasound providers included differing goals and expectations, and compatibility of interactions. These interactions were either satisfying or added to parents’ burden. Ultrasound providers have the opportunity to share valuable knowledge and facilitate understanding and precious time with the baby. Providers of obstetrical care can improve communication with parents with LFDs at critical time periods by matching their interaction to parents’ needs.

  8. Ewing Sarcoma/Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of the Kidney: A Rare and Lethal Entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celli, Romulo; Cai, Guoping

    2016-03-01

    Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor represents a spectrum of undifferentiated tumors with similar biology that together represent the second most common sarcoma in the pediatric-young adult age range. Very rarely, this tumor presents as a primary neoplasm of the kidney. The clinical presentation of this tumor is not specific, and other renal tumors may present with a similar histologic appearance. Establishing the correct diagnosis is critical because renal Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor carries a strikingly dismal prognosis and thus dictates a specific treatment strategy. A low threshold for the use of ancillary molecular tests is recommended, particularly in diagnostically problematic cases. Important considerations with regards to morphology, immunohistochemistry, and molecular alterations will be reviewed here and should be taken into account before rendering this rare and lethal diagnosis.

  9. Antibody to the E3 Glycoprotein Protects Mice against Lethal Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Infection▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Michael D.; Buckley, Marilyn J.; Melanson, Vanessa R.; Glass, Pamela J.; Norwood, David; Hart, Mary Kate

    2010-01-01

    Six monoclonal antibodies were isolated that exhibited specificity for a furin cleavage site deletion mutant (V3526) of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV). These antibodies comprise a single competition group and bound the E3 glycoprotein of VEEV subtype I viruses but failed to bind the E3 glycoprotein of other alphaviruses. These antibodies neutralized V3526 virus infectivity but did not neutralize the parental strain of Trinidad donkey (TrD) VEEV. However, the E3-specific antibodies did inhibit the production of virus from VEEV TrD-infected cells. In addition, passive immunization of mice demonstrated that antibody to the E3 glycoprotein provided protection against lethal VEEV TrD challenge. This is the first recognition of a protective epitope in the E3 glycoprotein. Furthermore, these results indicate that E3 plays a critical role late in the morphogenesis of progeny virus after E3 appears on the surfaces of infected cells. PMID:20926570

  10. Critical Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critical care helps people with life-threatening injuries and illnesses. It might treat problems such as complications ... a team of specially-trained health care providers. Critical care usually takes place in an intensive care ...

  11. An improved brine shrimp larvae lethality microwell test method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Mu, Jun; Han, Jinyuan; Gu, Xiaojie

    2012-01-01

    This article described an improved brine shrimp larvae lethality microwell test method. A simply designed connecting vessel with alternative photoperiod was used to culture and collect high yield of active Artemia parthenogenetica nauplii for brine shrimp larvae lethality microwell test. Using this method, pure A. parthenogenetica nauplii suspension was easily cultured and harvested with high density about 100-150 larvae per milliliter and the natural mortality was reduced to near zero by elimination of unnecessary artificial disturbance. And its sensitivity was validated by determination of LC(50)-24 h of different reference toxicants including five antitumor agents, two pesticides, three organic pollutants, and four heavy metals salts, most of which exhibited LC(50)-24 h between 0.07 and 58.43 mg/L except for bleomycin and mitomycin C with LC(50)-24 h over 300 mg/L.

  12. Neonatal lethal dwarfism with distinct skeletal malformations - a separate entity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosendahl, K.; Maurseth, K.; Olsen, Oe.E. [Dept. of Paediatric Radiology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Halvorsen, O.J. [Dept. of Pathology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Gjelland, K. [Dept. of Gynaecology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Engebretsen, L. [Dept. of Genetics, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway)

    2001-09-01

    We describe a case of neonatal lethal dwarfism characterised by short trunk, short, stick-like tubular bones, deficient ossification of the axial skeleton and broad, sclerotic horizontal ribs. Two similar cases have previously been reported as examples of the Neu-Laxova syndrome. However, the radiological findings of the Neu-Laxova syndrome, as reported in 16 out of 40 documented cases, show a heterogeneous pattern of minor features, which differ distinctively from those found in the previous two cases and by us. A literature research did not reveal similar cases, and we therefore suggest that our case, together with the two previous cases, may represent a new distinctive form of neonatal lethal dwarfism. (orig.)

  13. Synthetic lethality between PAXX and XLF in mammalian development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmus, Gabriel; Barros, Ana C.; Wijnhoven, Paul W.G.; Lescale, Chloé; Hasse, Hélène Lenden; Boroviak, Katharina; le Sage, Carlos; Doe, Brendan; Speak, Anneliese O.; Galli, Antonella; Jacobsen, Matt; Deriano, Ludovic; Adams, David J.; Jackson, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    PAXX was identified recently as a novel nonhomologous end-joining DNA repair factor in human cells. To characterize its physiological roles, we generated Paxx-deficient mice. Like Xlf−/− mice, Paxx−/− mice are viable, grow normally, and are fertile but show mild radiosensitivity. Strikingly, while Paxx loss is epistatic with Ku80, Lig4, and Atm deficiency, Paxx/Xlf double-knockout mice display embryonic lethality associated with genomic instability, cell death in the central nervous system, and an almost complete block in lymphogenesis, phenotypes that closely resemble those of Xrcc4−/− and Lig4−/− mice. Thus, combined loss of Paxx and Xlf is synthetic-lethal in mammals. PMID:27798842

  14. Collateral Lethality: A new therapeutic strategy in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Florian L; Aquilanti, Elisa A; DePinho, Ronald A

    2015-11-01

    Genomic deletion of tumor suppressor genes (TSG) is a rite of passage for virtually all human cancers. The synthetic lethal paradigm has provided a framework for the development of molecular targeted therapeutics that are functionally linked to the loss of specific TSG functions. In the course of genomic events that delete TSGs, a large number of genes with no apparent direct role in tumor promotion also sustain deletion as a result of chromosomal proximity to the target TSG. In this perspective, we review the novel concept of "collateral lethality", which has served to identify cancer-specific therapeutic vulnerabilities resulting from co-deletion of passenger genes neighboring TSG. The large number of collaterally deleted genes, playing diverse functions in cell homeostasis, offers a rich repertoire of pharmacologically targetable vulnerabilities presenting novel opportunities for the development of personalized anti-neoplastic therapies.

  15. CLEC5A regulates Japanese encephalitis virus-induced neuroinflammation and lethality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-Ting Chen

    Full Text Available CLEC5A/MDL-1, a member of the myeloid C-type lectin family expressed on macrophages and neutrophils, is critical for dengue virus (DV-induced hemorrhagic fever and shock syndrome in Stat1⁻/⁻ mice and ConA-treated wild type mice. However, whether CLEC5A is involved in the pathogenesis of viral encephalitis has not yet been investigated. To investigate the role of CLEC5A to regulate JEV-induced neuroinflammation, antagonistic anti-CLEC5A mAb and CLEC5A-deficient mice were generated. We find that Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV directly interacts with CLEC5A and induces DAP12 phosphorylation in macrophages. In addition, JEV activates macrophages to secrete proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which are dramatically reduced in JEV-infected Clec5a⁻/⁻ macrophages. Although blockade of CLEC5A cannot inhibit JEV infection of neurons and astrocytes, anti-CLEC5A mAb inhibits JEV-induced proinflammatory cytokine release from microglia and prevents bystander damage to neuronal cells. Moreover, JEV causes blood-brain barrier (BBB disintegrity and lethality in STAT1-deficient (Stat1⁻/⁻ mice, whereas peripheral administration of anti-CLEC5A mAb reduces infiltration of virus-harboring leukocytes into the central nervous system (CNS, restores BBB integrity, attenuates neuroinflammation, and protects mice from JEV-induced lethality. Moreover, all surviving mice develop protective humoral and cellular immunity against JEV infection. These observations demonstrate the critical role of CLEC5A in the pathogenesis of Japanese encephalitis, and identify CLEC5A as a target for the development of new treatments to reduce virus-induced brain damage.

  16. 28 CFR 552.25 - Use of chemical agents or non-lethal weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of chemical agents or non-lethal weapons. 552.25 Section 552.25 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... agents or non-lethal weapons. The Warden may authorize the use of chemical agents or non-lethal weapons...

  17. Archetypal Criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesebro, James W.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Argues that archetypal criticism is a useful way of examining universal, historical, and cross-cultural symbols in classrooms. Identifies essential features of an archetype; outlines operational and critical procedures; illustrates archetypal criticism as applied to the cross as a symbol; and provides a synoptic placement for archetypal criticism…

  18. Meckel-Gruber syndrome: A rare and lethal anomaly

    OpenAIRE

    Kheir, Abdelmoneim E.M.; Imam, Abdelmutalab; Omer, Ilham M.; Hassan, Ibtsama M.A.; Elamin, Sara A.; Awadalla, Esra A.; Gadalla, Mohammed H.; Hamdoon, Tagwa A.

    2012-01-01

    Meckel-Gruber syndrome is a rare and lethal autosomal recessive disorder characterized by occipital encephalocele, postaxial polydactyly and bilateral dysplastic cystic kidneys. It can be associated with many other conditions. Antenatal ultrasound examination establishes the diagnosis by identifying at least two of the major features described. We describe a female baby who had the typical triad of Meckel-Gruber syndrome and died shortly after birth.

  19. Merging Hyperspectural Imagery and Multi Scale Modeling for Laser Lethality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-24

    field, to be submitted Combustion Theory and Modeling, 2016. Changes in research objectives (if any): Change in AFOSR Program Manager, if any...Extensions granted or milestones slipped, if any: AFOSR LRIR Number LRIR Title Reporting Period Laboratory Task Manager Program Officer Research Objectives ...AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0088 MERGING HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGERY AND MULTI -SCALE MODELING FOR LASER LETHALITY Leonid Zhigilei UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA Final

  20. [Lethal intravenous infusion of a wound antiseptic containing polyhexanide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehner, Frank; Wehner, Heinz-Dieter; Schulz, Martin Manfred

    2009-01-01

    Polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) is considered to be highly histocompatible and is one of the most frequently used wound antiseptics. Only one case of intoxication has been reported so far. The present case of a lethal intoxication is the first fatal incident described where causality is substantiated by a temporal coincidence between application and ascertainable organ damage. The laboratory-chemical and histological investigations verified the toxicity of this substance after intravenous application with the main findings being severe hepatic and pancreatic damage.

  1. Meckel-Gruber syndrome: A rare and lethal anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheir, Abdelmoneim E M; Imam, Abdelmutalab; Omer, Ilham M; Hassan, Ibtsama M A; Elamin, Sara A; Awadalla, Esra A; Gadalla, Mohammed H; Hamdoon, Tagwa A

    2012-01-01

    Meckel-Gruber syndrome is a rare and lethal autosomal recessive disorder characterized by occipital encephalocele, postaxial polydactyly and bilateral dysplastic cystic kidneys. It can be associated with many other conditions. Antenatal ultrasound examination establishes the diagnosis by identifying at least two of the major features described. We describe a female baby who had the typical triad of Meckel-Gruber syndrome and died shortly after birth.

  2. A lethal syndrome resembling branchio-oculo-facial syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, A V; Torack, R; Dowton, S B

    1992-02-01

    Branchio-oculo-facial syndrome, a recently delineated autosomal dominant condition, is characterized by branchial cleft sinuses, ocular anomalies, and unusual facial appearance. A patient with branchial cleft fistulae, microphthalmia, nasomaxillary dysplasia, in addition to cardiac and CNS malformation (holoprosencephaly and meningo-encephalocele), is described. Although many features of this lethal malformation complex resemble those seen in the branchio-oculo-facial syndrome, the complex may represent a new multiple malformation syndrome.

  3. The characteristic of lethality as an indicator of combinad infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Nechaev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Combined Socially Important Infections (CSII in St. Petersburg are result of accumulation of chroniogenic potential of HIV infection, tuberculosis and chronic viral hepatitis B and C. The analysis of a lethality from the combined infection (CI for the long-term period in dynamics by years, showed to age and sexual groups and other signs that it exceeds that from tuberculosis by 2,4 times, from chronic hepatitis by 7,5 times. High level of a lethality of persons of young age, sharp growth of tuberculosis of intra chest, intra belly lymph nodes, frequent generalization of process with involvement in process of a liver, a spleen, kidneys testifies to the leading role of HIV infection in failures of diseases. The system and algorithm of proofs about the reasons of lethal outcomes of SI have to be based on representative selections. For this purpose it is necessary to carry out registration of HIV infection not only in the AIDS centers, but also regional in the form of the uniform register SI (HIV+TB+HIC or HIB for the purpose of complex impact on epidemic process.

  4. Mouse model of sublethal and lethal intraperitoneal glanders (Burkholderia mallei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, D L; Vogel, P; Brown, D R; Deshazer, D; Waag, D M

    2000-11-01

    Sixty male BALB/c mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with either a sublethal or a lethal dose of Burkholderia mallei China 7 strain, then killed at multiple time points postinoculation. Histopathologic changes were qualitatively similar in both groups and consisted of pyogranulomatous inflammation. In sublethal study mice, changes were first seen at 6 hours in mediastinal lymph nodes, then in spleen, liver, peripheral lymph nodes, and bone marrow at day 3. These changes generally reached maximal incidence and severity by day 4 but decreased by comparison in all tissues except the liver. Changes were first seen in lethal study mice also at 6 hours in mediastinal lymph nodes and in spleens. At day 1, changes were present in liver, peripheral lymph nodes, and bone marrow. The incidence and severity of these changes were maximal at day 2. In contrast to sublethal study mice, the incidence and severity of the changes did not decrease through the remainder of the study. The most significant difference between the two groups was the rapid involvement of the spleen in the lethal study mice. Changes indicative of impaired vascular perfusion were more frequently seen in the sublethal study mice. Our findings indicate that mice are susceptible to B. mallei infection and may serve as an appropriate model for glanders infection in a resistant host such as human beings. Additionally, by immunoelectron microscopy, we showed the presence of type I O-antigenic polysaccharide (capsular) antigen surrounding B. mallei.

  5. Effects of Whole-Body VX Vapor Exposure on Lethality in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    17 2.6 Decontamination with Reactive Skin Decontaminant Lotion ( RSDL ) ..... 17 2.7 Experimental Design...palpation 2.6 Decontamination with Reactive Skin Decontaminant Lotion ( RSDL ) The chemical name for RSDL is 2,3-butanedione monoximate in a...polyethyleneglycol monomethylether vehicle. All exposed rats in Part I of this study (see Section 2.7) were decontaminated with RSDL within 20 to 60 min post-exposure

  6. The Effects of Posture, Body Armor and Other Equipment on Rifleman Lethality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    shooter’s Probability of Hit for the target. The Hosmer-Lemeshow Test p-value is 8.5%. Whole Model Test Model -LogLikelihood DF ChiSquare Prob...Of Fit Source DF -LogLikelihood ChiSquare Lack Of Fit 61 110.3015 220.603 Saturated 71 1714.2758 Prob>ChiSq Fitted 10 1824.5773 <.0001...Parameter Estimates Term Estimate Std Error ChiSquare Prob>ChiSq Intercept -3.4796629 0.3933345 78.26 <.0001 MILS -0.0817126 0.0261329 9.78 0.0018

  7. Introduction of the RTA-Bddsx gene induces female-specific lethal effects in transformed Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Yen; Dai, Shu-Mei; Chang, Cheng

    2016-06-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), can reduce fruit production and quality and is considered to be a major insect pest in many Asian countries. A system combining the toxicity of ricin and the alternative RNA splicing properties of doublesex (RTA-Bddsx) has been proposed that results in differential sexual processing in vitro. A transgenic approach was used in this study to confirm the existence of female-specific lethal effects in vivo. The piggyBac-based vector PB-Acp-CF21-26, which carries the actin 5C promoter and RTA-Bddsx, was used to establish transgenic lines. Five surviving male flies (F1) demonstrated the presence of selection marker Ds-Red((+)) throughout their entire bodies following single-pair mating with wild-type females, indicating germline transmission. A high percentage of males (59.6-100%) were observed in transformed F3 offspring, and this skewed sex ratio indicated that the female-lethal effects of the RTA-Bddsx system were heritable and functioned well in B. dorsalis. Some transformed female flies were observed, and these unexpected results were attributed to the loss of the intact transgene after genomic PCR analyses. This transgenic study provides direct evidence for the female-specific lethal effects of RTA-Bddsx in B. dorsalis and offers a novel and promising approach for the control of B. dorsalis in the future. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Lack of dominant lethality in mice following 1-bromopropane treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wook-Joon; Kim, Jong-Choon; Chung, Moon-Koo

    2008-03-29

    1-Bromopropane (1-BP) is widely used in spray adhesives, precision cleaner, and degreaser. This study was conducted to investigate the potential of 1-BP to induce dominant lethality in mice. 1-BP was orally administered to males at doses of 300 and 600 mg/kg for 10 days before mating. Cyclophosphamide was used as a positive control (PC), which was administered intraperitoneally to males at 40 mg/kg for 5 days. The vehicle control (VC) group received corn oil only. Thereafter, males were mated with untreated females during six sequential mating periods of a week each. Males were sacrificed at the end of mating and so were the pregnant females on days 15-17 of gestation. Clinical signs, gross findings, mating index, gestation index, the numbers of corpora lutea, implantations, live fetuses, resorptions and dead fetuses, pre- and post-implantation losses, and dominant lethal mutation rate were examined. There were no treatment-related changes in clinical signs, gross findings, mating index, gestation index, number of corpora lutea and implantations, pre-implantation loss, live fetuses, resorptions, dead fetuses, post-implantation loss at any 1-BP doses tested. In the PC group, there were no treatment-related changes in mating index, gestation index, number of corpora lutea, and dead fetuses. However, a decrease in the number of implantations and an increase in pre-implantation loss were observed during the first 2 weeks as compared to those of the VC group. No treatment-related changes were observed in the third to sixth weeks. Increases in resorptions, fetal deaths and post-implantation loss, and a decrease in the number of live fetuses were observed in the first 3 weeks of the PC group compared to those of the VC group. However, no treatment-related changes were observed during the forth to sixth weeks. An increase in dominant lethal mutation rate was observed in 1-3 weeks of mating of the PC group, but there was no significant difference in 1-6 weeks of mating of

  9. How Critical Is Critical Thinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Ryan D.

    2014-01-01

    Recent educational discourse is full of references to the value of critical thinking as a 21st-century skill. In music education, critical thinking has been discussed in relation to problem solving and music listening, and some researchers suggest that training in critical thinking can improve students' responses to music. But what exactly is…

  10. LETHAL EFFECTS OF 2,2-DICHLOROVINYL DIMETHYL PHOSPHATE (DDVP ON FINGERLING AND JUVENILE Clarias gariepinus (BURCHELL, 1822

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Tunde Omoniyi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the lethal toxicity of 2,2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate (DDVP on African mud catfish, Clarias gariepinus fingerlings (mean weight 7.02 ± 2.56 g and juveniles (mean weight 13.54 ± 1.46 g in a static renewable bioassay. DDVP, also known as Dichlorvos is an organophosphate pesticide. Each treatment in the lethal test was in triplicates with bioassay media concentrations (fingerlings: 0, 250, 275, 300, 325 µgL-1 and (juveniles: 0, 400, 450, 500, 600 µgL-1. Data on fish mortality as well as the physico-chemical parameters (temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen and electrical conductivity, EC of water were collected and subsequently subjected to a one way analysis of variance (ANOVA at 5% probability level. Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT was used to separate differences between means. The median lethal concentration (LC50 and median lethal time (LT50 were determined by probit analysis. The water quality parameters of the treatment tanks showed no significant difference with those of the control except for conductivity and pH. Behavioural responses in the fishes included erratic and uncoordinated swimming which were observed to be more pronounced in the juveniles. Bleached body was the only external change observed and this was more pronounced in the fingerlings. The 96-hr LC50 for fingerlings and juveniles were 275.2 and 492.0 µgL-1 respectively. The LT50 values for fingerlings were 48.10 and 7.77 hrs for concentrations 250 and 325 µgL-1 respectively; while those of juveniles were 25.54 and 5.34 hrs for 400 and 600 µgL-1 respectively. The results indicated that DDVP was 1.79 times more toxic to the fingerlings than the juveniles.

  11. Gene expression profiling of prostate tissue identifies chromatin regulation as a potential link between obesity and lethal prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebot, Ericka M; Gerke, Travis; Labbé, David P; Sinnott, Jennifer A; Zadra, Giorgia; Rider, Jennifer R; Tyekucheva, Svitlana; Wilson, Kathryn M; Kelly, Rachel S; Shui, Irene M; Loda, Massimo; Kantoff, Philip W; Finn, Stephen; Vander Heiden, Matthew G; Brown, Myles; Giovannucci, Edward L; Mucci, Lorelei A

    2017-07-12

    Obese men are at higher risk of advanced prostate cancer and cancer-specific mortality; however, the biology underlying this association remains unclear. This study examined gene expression profiles of prostate tissue to identify biological processes differentially expressed by obesity status and lethal prostate cancer. Gene expression profiling was performed on tumor (n = 402) and adjacent normal (n = 200) prostate tissue from participants in 2 prospective cohorts who had been diagnosed with prostate cancer from 1982 to 2005. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from the questionnaire immediately preceding cancer diagnosis. Men were followed for metastases or prostate cancer-specific death (lethal disease) through 2011. Gene Ontology biological processes differentially expressed by BMI were identified using gene set enrichment analysis. Pathway scores were computed by averaging the signal intensities of member genes. Odds ratios (ORs) for lethal prostate cancer were estimated with logistic regression. Among 402 men, 48% were healthy weight, 31% were overweight, and 21% were very overweight/obese. Fifteen gene sets were enriched in tumor tissue, but not normal tissue, of very overweight/obese men versus healthy-weight men; 5 of these were related to chromatin modification and remodeling (false-discovery rate 7, 41% vs 17%; P = 2 × 10(-4) ) and an increased risk of lethal disease that was independent of grade and stage (OR, 5.26; 95% confidence interval, 2.37-12.25). This study improves our understanding of the biology of aggressive prostate cancer and identifies a potential mechanistic link between obesity and prostate cancer death that warrants further study. Cancer 2017. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  12. [Bladder tumor lethality. Results in the autonomous community of Rioja between 1975-1991].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Fernández, A; Gil Fabra, J; Fernández Ruíz, M; Angulo Castellanos, M G; Blanco Martín, E; Otero Mauricio, G

    1998-01-01

    Between 1975-1991, a total of 557 cases of bladder carcinoma were identified in the Autonomous Community of La Rioja (CAR) which were followed up to December 1994. The overall lethality was 21.9%. 492 cases with 22.35% lethality were identified in males. In females, however, there was 65 cases with 18.46% lethality. The comparison of males and females lethality resulted in p = 0.525. Lethality between cases diagnosed within each 5-year period analyzed is: 1975-1981: 177 cases, lethality 23.72%. 1982-1986: 168 cases, lethality 30.95%. 1987-1991: 212 cases, lethality 13.20%. Between the first and the second 5-year periods, p = 0.132; between the first and third 5-year periods p = 0.007 and between the second and third 5-year periods p CAR for a 22.35% lethality. Lethality is higher in males that in females but the difference is not statistically significant. In the last 5-year period assessed, 1987-1991, a reduction of lethality from bladder neoplasms has been documented.

  13. Critical Jostling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pippin Barr

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Games can serve a critical function in many different ways, from serious games about real world subjects to self-reflexive commentaries on the nature of games themselves. In this essay we discuss critical possibilities stemming from the area of critical design, and more specifically Carl DiSalvo’s adversarial design and its concept of reconfiguring the remainder. To illustrate such an approach, we present the design and outcomes of two games, Jostle Bastard and Jostle Parent. We show how the games specifically engage with two previous games, Hotline Miami and Octodad: Dadliest Catch, reconfiguring elements of those games to create interactive critical experiences and extensions of the source material. Through the presentation of specific design concerns and decisions, we provide a grounded illustration of a particular critical function of videogames and hope to highlight this form as another valuable approach in the larger area of videogame criticism.

  14. Criticality Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Alsaed

    2004-09-14

    The ''Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' (YMP 2003) presents the methodology for evaluating potential criticality situations in the monitored geologic repository. As stated in the referenced Topical Report, the detailed methodology for performing the disposal criticality analyses will be documented in model reports. Many of the models developed in support of the Topical Report differ from the definition of models as given in the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management procedure AP-SIII.10Q, ''Models'', in that they are procedural, rather than mathematical. These model reports document the detailed methodology necessary to implement the approach presented in the Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report and provide calculations utilizing the methodology. Thus, the governing procedure for this type of report is AP-3.12Q, ''Design Calculations and Analyses''. The ''Criticality Model'' is of this latter type, providing a process evaluating the criticality potential of in-package and external configurations. The purpose of this analysis is to layout the process for calculating the criticality potential for various in-package and external configurations and to calculate lower-bound tolerance limit (LBTL) values and determine range of applicability (ROA) parameters. The LBTL calculations and the ROA determinations are performed using selected benchmark experiments that are applicable to various waste forms and various in-package and external configurations. The waste forms considered in this calculation are pressurized water reactor (PWR), boiling water reactor (BWR), Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), Training Research Isotope General Atomic (TRIGA), Enrico Fermi, Shippingport pressurized water reactor, Shippingport light water breeder reactor (LWBR), N-Reactor, Melt and Dilute, and Fort Saint Vrain Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The scope of

  15. Complications and lethality rate in the surgery of cerebral aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roganović Zoran

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To establish the risk factors for complications and fatal outcome after the operative occlusion of cerebral aneurysms. Methods. Retrospective study on 91 (lethality rate and on 72 operated patients (complications. For survived and dead patients, as well as for patients with and without complications, following parameters were compared: gender, age, clinical condition, preoperative interval, use of temporary clips, vasospasm, outcome, as well as localization, size and intraoperative rupture of the aneurysm. Results. Complications existed: in 54.5% of aneurysms of middle cerebral and 13.6% of aneurysms of internal carotid artery (p<0.01; in 18.2% of patients in the first and 45.8% of patients in the third clinical Hunt and Hess group (p<0.05; in 57.9% of patients with and 20.5% of patients without intraoperative rupture (p<0.01; in 50% of patients with and 18.7% of patients without vasospasm (p<0.05. Average aneurysmal size was 18 mm in group with complications and 10.8 mm in patients with no complications (p<0.05, while average preoperative intervals in these two groups were 20 and 8.7 days (p<0.05. Lethality rate was 25% for the third and 83.3% for the fourth and fifth clinical group (p<0.01, and the existence of complications significantly increased mortality (from 15.7% to 50%, p<0.01. Good outcome existed in 19.2% of operated patients with complications and in 78.3% of those without complications (p<0.01. Conclusions. Incidence of complications depended significantly on preoperative clinical condition, duration of preoperative interval, size, localization and intraoperative rupture of aneurysm. Complications significantly minimized the surgical treatment outcome and increased the lethality rate mortality.

  16. 5-Lipoxygenase Deficiency Reduces Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Lethality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam S. N. Hohmann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO converts arachidonic acid into leukotrienes (LTs and is involved in inflammation. At present, the participation of 5-LO in acetaminophen (APAP-induced hepatotoxicity and liver damage has not been addressed. 5-LO deficient (5-LO-/- mice and background wild type mice were challenged with APAP (0.3–6 g/kg or saline. The lethality, liver damage, neutrophil and macrophage recruitment, LTB4, cytokine production, and oxidative stress were assessed. APAP induced a dose-dependent mortality, and the dose of 3 g/kg was selected for next experiments. APAP induced LTB4 production in the liver, the primary target organ in APAP toxicity. Histopathological analysis revealed that 5-LO-/- mice presented reduced APAP-induced liver necrosis and inflammation compared with WT mice. APAP-induced lethality, increase of plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, liver cytokine (IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-10, superoxide anion, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances production, myeloperoxidase and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase activity, Nrf2 and gp91phox mRNA expression, and decrease of reduced glutathione and antioxidant capacity measured by 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline 6-sulfonate assay were prevented in 5-LO-/- mice compared to WT mice. Therefore, 5-LO deficiency resulted in reduced mortality due to reduced liver inflammatory and oxidative damage, suggesting 5-LO is a promising target to reduce APAP-induced lethality and liver inflammatory/oxidative damage.

  17. Lethal subarachnoid bleeding under immunosuppressive therapy due to mycotic arteritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigel, S.; Kloska, S.; Freund, M. [Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Univ. Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Kehl, H.G. [Dept. of Pediatric Cardiology, Univ. Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany)

    2003-12-01

    A subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) occurred 67 days after cardiac transplantation in 10-year-old girl with consecutive immunocompromising therapy. Neither digital subtraction angiography (DSA) nor computed tomographic angiography showed signs of intracranial vascular malformations. One month before the lethal SAH occurred, she had developed arterial hypertension and attacks of severe headache with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis while CT scans showed an infarct of the left thalamus. Pathologic findings established the rare diagnosis of SAH due to aspergillosis-related mycotic arteritis. Imaging characteristics are presented. (orig.)

  18. Perinatal lethal type II osteogenesis imperfecta: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayadi, Imene Dahmane; Hamida, Emira Ben; Rebeh, Rania Ben; Chaouachi, Sihem; Marrakchi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    We report a new case of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type II which is a perinatal lethal form. First trimester ultrasound didn't identified abnormalities. Second trimester ultrasound showed incurved limbs, narrow chest, with hypomineralization and multiple fractures of ribs and long bones. Parents refused pregnancy termination; they felt that the diagnosis was late. At birth, the newborn presented immediate respiratory distress. Postnatal examination and bone radiography confirmed the diagnosis of OI type IIA. Death occurred on day 25 of life related to respiratory failure.

  19. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (112). Perinatal lethal hypophosphatasia (PLH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsaneepaiboon, S; Jaruratanasirikul, S; Dissaneevate, S

    2006-11-01

    A two-hour-old female infant presented with respiratory distress and short limbs. Neonatal radiographs showed micromelic dwarfism and generalised demineralisation, especially at the ribs, long bones of both forearms and both fibulae. The spine showed a flattened shape. All long bones showed metaphyseal irregularities and flaring. Normal serum calcium and elevated serum phosphorus were found, while serum alkaline phosphatase was markedly reduced. A diagnosis of perinatal lethal hypophosphatasia was made. The aetiology, clinical manifestations, radiographical findings, laboratory assays, prenatal diagnosis and treatment of hypophosphatasia are discussed.

  20. Critical Muralism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosette, Arturo

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on the development and practices of Critical Muralists--community-educator-artist-leader-activists--and situates these specifically in relation to the Mexican mural tradition of los Tres Grandes and in relation to the history of public art more generally. The study examines how Critical Muralists address artistic and…

  1. Chloroquine Improves Survival and Hematopoietic Recovery After Lethal Low-Dose-Rate Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim Yiting [Department of Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Hedayati, Mohammad; Merchant, Akil A.; Zhang Yonggang; Yu, Hsiang-Hsuan M. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Kastan, Michael B. [Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Matsui, William, E-mail: matsuwi@jhmi.edu [Department of Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); DeWeese, Theodore L., E-mail: deweete@jhmi.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: We have previously shown that the antimalarial agent chloroquine can abrogate the lethal cellular effects of low-dose-rate (LDR) radiation in vitro, most likely by activating the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein. Here, we demonstrate that chloroquine treatment also protects against lethal doses of LDR radiation in vivo. Methods and Materials: C57BL/6 mice were irradiated with a total of 12.8 Gy delivered at 9.4 cGy/hour. ATM null mice from the same background were used to determine the influence of ATM. Chloroquine was administered by two intraperitoneal injections of 59.4 {mu}g per 17 g of body weight, 24 hours and 4 hours before irradiation. Bone marrow cells isolated from tibia, fibula, and vertebral bones were transplanted into lethally irradiated CD45 congenic recipient mice by retroorbital injection. Chimerism was assessed by flow cytometry. In vitro methylcellulose colony-forming assay of whole bone marrow cells and fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis of lineage depleted cells were used to assess the effect of chloroquine on progenitor cells. Results: Mice pretreated with chloroquine before radiation exhibited a significantly higher survival rate than did mice treated with radiation alone (80% vs. 31%, p = 0.0026). Chloroquine administration before radiation did not affect the survival of ATM null mice (p = 0.86). Chloroquine also had a significant effect on the early engraftment of bone marrow cells from the irradiated donor mice 6 weeks after transplantation (4.2% vs. 0.4%, p = 0.015). Conclusion: Chloroquine administration before radiation had a significant effect on the survival of normal but not ATM null mice, strongly suggesting that the in vivo effect, like the in vitro effect, is also ATM dependent. Chloroquine improved the early engraftment of bone marrow cells from LDR-irradiated mice, presumably by protecting the progenitor cells from radiation injury. Chloroquine thus could serve as a very useful drug for protection

  2. Modification of the association between obesity and lethal prostate cancer by TMPRSS2:ERG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Andreas; Lis, Rosina T; Meisner, Allison; Flavin, Richard; Stack, Edward C; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Finn, Stephen; Graff, Rebecca E; Penney, Kathryn L; Rider, Jennifer R; Nuttall, Elizabeth J; Martin, Neil E; Sesso, Howard D; Pollak, Michael; Stampfer, Meir J; Kantoff, Philip W; Giovannucci, Edward L; Loda, Massimo; Mucci, Lorelei A

    2013-12-18

    TMPRSS2:ERG is a hormonally regulated gene fusion present in about half of prostate tumors. We investigated whether obesity, which deregulates several hormonal pathways, interacts with TMPRSS2:ERG to impact prostate cancer outcomes. The study included 1243 participants in the prospective Physicians' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study diagnosed with prostate cancer between 1982 and 2005. ERG overexpression (a TMPRSS2:ERG marker) was assessed by immunohistochemistry of tumor tissue from radical prostatectomy or transurethral resection of the prostate. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference, measured on average 1.3 years and 5.3 years before diagnosis, respectively, were available from questionnaires. Data on BMI at baseline was also available. We used Cox regression to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). All statistical tests were two-sided. During a mean follow-up of 12.8 years, 119 men developed lethal disease (distant metastases or prostate cancer death). Among men with ERG-positive tumors, the multivariable hazard ratio for lethal prostate cancer was 1.48 (95% CI = 0.98 to 2.23) per 5-unit increase in BMI before diagnosis, 2.51 (95% CI = 1.26 to 4.99) per 8-inch increase in waist circumference before diagnosis, and 2.22 (95% CI = 1.35 to 3.63) per 5-unit increase in BMI at baseline. The corresponding hazard ratios among men with ERG-negative tumors were 1.10 (95% CI = 0.76 to1.59; P interaction = .24), 1.14 (95% CI = 0.62 to 2.10; P interaction = .09), and 0.78 (95% CI = 0.52 to 1.19; P interaction = .001). These results suggest that obesity is linked with poorer prostate cancer prognosis primarily in men with tumors harboring the gene fusion TMPRSS2:ERG.

  3. Lethal phenotype in conditional late-onset arginase 1 deficiency in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasten, Jennifer; Hu, Chuhong; Bhargava, Ragini; Park, Hana; Tai, Denise; Byrne, James A; Marescau, Bart; De Deyn, Peter P; Schlichting, Lisa; Grody, Wayne W; Cederbaum, Stephen D; Lipshutz, Gerald S

    2013-11-01

    Human arginase deficiency is characterized by hyperargininemia and infrequent episodes of hyperammonemia, which lead to neurological impairment with spasticity, loss of ambulation, seizures, and severe mental and growth retardation; uncommonly, patients suffer early death from this disorder. In a murine targeted knockout model, onset of the phenotypic abnormality is heralded by weight loss at around day 15, and death occurs typically by postnatal day 17 with hyperargininemia and markedly elevated ammonia. This discrepancy between the more attenuated juvenile-onset human disease and the lethal neonatal murine model has remained suboptimal for studying and developing therapy for the more common presentation of arginase deficiency. These investigations aimed to address this issue by creating an adult conditional knockout mouse to determine whether later onset of arginase deficiency also resulted in lethality. Animal survival and ammonia levels, body weight, circulating amino acids, and tissue arginase levels were examined as outcome parameters after widespread Cre-recombinase activation in a conditional knockout model of arginase 1 deficiency. One hundred percent of adult female and 70% of adult male mice died an average of 21.0 and 21.6 days, respectively, after the initiation of tamoxifen administration. Animals demonstrated elevated circulating ammonia and arginine at the onset of phenotypic abnormalities. In addition, brain and liver amino acids demonstrated abnormalities. These studies demonstrate that (a) the absence of arginase in adult animals results in a disease profile (leading to death) similar to that of the targeted knockout and (b) the phenotypic abnormalities seen in the juvenile-onset model are not exclusive to the age of the animal but instead to the biochemistry of the disorder. This adult model will be useful for developing gene- and cell-based therapies for this disorder that will not be limited by the small animal size of neonatal therapy and for

  4. Lethal mutants and truncated selection together solve a paradox of the origin of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saakian, David B; Biebricher, Christof K; Hu, Chin-Kun

    2011-01-01

    Many attempts have been made to describe the origin of life, one of which is Eigen's cycle of autocatalytic reactions [Eigen M (1971) Naturwissenschaften 58, 465-523], in which primordial life molecules are replicated with limited accuracy through autocatalytic reactions. For successful evolution, the information carrier (either RNA or DNA or their precursor) must be transmitted to the next generation with a minimal number of misprints. In Eigen's theory, the maximum chain length that could be maintained is restricted to 100-1000 nucleotides, while for the most primitive genome the length is around 7000-20,000. This is the famous error catastrophe paradox. How to solve this puzzle is an interesting and important problem in the theory of the origin of life. We use methods of statistical physics to solve this paradox by carefully analyzing the implications of neutral and lethal mutants, and truncated selection (i.e., when fitness is zero after a certain Hamming distance from the master sequence) for the critical chain length. While neutral mutants play an important role in evolution, they do not provide a solution to the paradox. We have found that lethal mutants and truncated selection together can solve the error catastrophe paradox. There is a principal difference between prebiotic molecule self-replication and proto-cell self-replication stages in the origin of life. We have applied methods of statistical physics to make an important breakthrough in the molecular theory of the origin of life. Our results will inspire further studies on the molecular theory of the origin of life and biological evolution.

  5. Lethal mutants and truncated selection together solve a paradox of the origin of life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B Saakian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many attempts have been made to describe the origin of life, one of which is Eigen's cycle of autocatalytic reactions [Eigen M (1971 Naturwissenschaften 58, 465-523], in which primordial life molecules are replicated with limited accuracy through autocatalytic reactions. For successful evolution, the information carrier (either RNA or DNA or their precursor must be transmitted to the next generation with a minimal number of misprints. In Eigen's theory, the maximum chain length that could be maintained is restricted to 100-1000 nucleotides, while for the most primitive genome the length is around 7000-20,000. This is the famous error catastrophe paradox. How to solve this puzzle is an interesting and important problem in the theory of the origin of life. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We use methods of statistical physics to solve this paradox by carefully analyzing the implications of neutral and lethal mutants, and truncated selection (i.e., when fitness is zero after a certain Hamming distance from the master sequence for the critical chain length. While neutral mutants play an important role in evolution, they do not provide a solution to the paradox. We have found that lethal mutants and truncated selection together can solve the error catastrophe paradox. There is a principal difference between prebiotic molecule self-replication and proto-cell self-replication stages in the origin of life. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have applied methods of statistical physics to make an important breakthrough in the molecular theory of the origin of life. Our results will inspire further studies on the molecular theory of the origin of life and biological evolution.

  6. The role of protein interactions in mediating essentiality and synthetic lethality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talavera, David; Robertson, David L; Lovell, Simon C

    2013-01-01

    Genes are characterized as essential if their knockout is associated with a lethal phenotype, and these "essential genes" play a central role in biological function. In addition, some genes are only essential when deleted in pairs, a phenomenon known as synthetic lethality. Here we consider genes displaying synthetic lethality as "essential pairs" of genes, and analyze the properties of yeast essential genes and synthetic lethal pairs together. As gene duplication initially produces an identical pair or sets of genes, it is often invoked as an explanation for synthetic lethality. However, we find that duplication explains only a minority of cases of synthetic lethality. Similarly, disruption of metabolic pathways leads to relatively few examples of synthetic lethality. By contrast, the vast majority of synthetic lethal gene pairs code for proteins with related functions that share interaction partners. We also find that essential genes and synthetic lethal pairs cluster in the protein-protein interaction network. These results suggest that synthetic lethality is strongly dependent on the formation of protein-protein interactions. Compensation by duplicates does not usually occur mainly because the genes involved are recent duplicates, but is more commonly due to functional similarity that permits preservation of essential protein complexes. This unified view, combining genes that are individually essential with those that form essential pairs, suggests that essentiality is a feature of physical interactions between proteins protein-protein interactions, rather than being inherent in gene and protein products themselves.

  7. The role of protein interactions in mediating essentiality and synthetic lethality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Talavera

    Full Text Available Genes are characterized as essential if their knockout is associated with a lethal phenotype, and these "essential genes" play a central role in biological function. In addition, some genes are only essential when deleted in pairs, a phenomenon known as synthetic lethality. Here we consider genes displaying synthetic lethality as "essential pairs" of genes, and analyze the properties of yeast essential genes and synthetic lethal pairs together. As gene duplication initially produces an identical pair or sets of genes, it is often invoked as an explanation for synthetic lethality. However, we find that duplication explains only a minority of cases of synthetic lethality. Similarly, disruption of metabolic pathways leads to relatively few examples of synthetic lethality. By contrast, the vast majority of synthetic lethal gene pairs code for proteins with related functions that share interaction partners. We also find that essential genes and synthetic lethal pairs cluster in the protein-protein interaction network. These results suggest that synthetic lethality is strongly dependent on the formation of protein-protein interactions. Compensation by duplicates does not usually occur mainly because the genes involved are recent duplicates, but is more commonly due to functional similarity that permits preservation of essential protein complexes. This unified view, combining genes that are individually essential with those that form essential pairs, suggests that essentiality is a feature of physical interactions between proteins protein-protein interactions, rather than being inherent in gene and protein products themselves.

  8. Body Clock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪毓

    2000-01-01

    Body clocks” are biological methods of controling body activities.Every living thing has one. In humans, a body clock controls normal periods of sleeping and waking. It controls the time swhen you are most likely to feel pain.Eating, sleeping and exercising at about the same time each day will help keep body activities normal. But changes in your life, a new job, for example, destroy the balance and thus cause health problems.

  9. Lethal and sub-lethal effects of elevated CO2 concentrations on marine benthic invertebrates and fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Changkeun; Hong, Seongjin; Kwon, Bong-Oh; Lee, Jung-Ho; Ryu, Jongseong; Park, Young-Gyu; Kang, Seong-Gil; Khim, Jong Seong

    2016-08-01

    Concern about leakage of carbon dioxide (CO2) from deep-sea storage in geological reservoirs is increasing because of its possible adverse effects on marine organisms locally or at nearby coastal areas both in sediment and water column. In the present study, we examined how elevated CO2 affects various intertidal epibenthic (benthic copepod), intertidal endobenthic (Manila clam and Venus clam), sub-tidal benthic (brittle starfish), and free-living (marine medaka) organisms in areas expected to be impacted by leakage. Acute lethal and sub-lethal effects were detected in the adult stage of all test organisms exposed to varying concentrations of CO2, due to the associated decline in pH (8.3 to 5.2) during 96-h exposure. However, intertidal organisms (such as benthic copepods and clams) showed remarkable resistance to elevated CO2, with the Venus clam being the most tolerant (LpH50 = 5.45). Sub-tidal species (such as brittle starfish [LpH50 = 6.16] and marine medaka [LpH50 = 5.91]) were more sensitive to elevated CO2 compared to intertidal species, possibly because they have fewer defensive capabilities. Of note, the exposure duration might regulate the degree of acute sub-lethal effects, as evidenced by the Venus clam, which showed a time-dependent effect to elevated CO2. Finally, copper was chosen as a model toxic element to find out the synergistic or antagonistic effects between ocean acidification and metal pollution. Combination of CO2 and Cu exposure enhances the adverse effects to organisms, generally supporting a synergistic effect scenario. Overall, the significant variation in the degree to which CO2 adversely affected organisms (viz., working range and strength) was clearly observed, supporting the general concept of species-dependent effects of elevated CO2.

  10. Comparing biomarker responses during thermal acclimation: A lethal vs non-lethal approach in a tropical reef clownfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Carolina; Madeira, Diana; Diniz, Mário S; Cabral, Henrique N; Vinagre, Catarina

    2017-02-01

    Knowledge of thermal stress biology for most tropical fish species in reef ecosystems under climate change is still quite limited. Thus, the objective of this study was to measure the time-course changes of thermal stress biomarkers in the commercially exploited coral reef fish Amphiprion ocellaris, during a laboratory simulated event of increased temperature. Heat shock protein 70kDa (Hsp70) and total ubiquitin (Ub) were determined in the muscle (lethal method) and in the fin (non-lethal alternative method) under two temperature treatments (control - 26°C and elevated temperature - 30°C) throughout one month with weekly samplings. Results suggest that biomarker basal levels are tissue-specific and influence the degree of response under temperature exposure. Responses were highly inducible in the muscle but not in fin tissue, indicating that the latter is not reliable for monitoring purposes. Thermal stress was observed in the muscle after one week of exposure (both biomarkers increased significantly) and Ub levels then decreased, suggesting the animals were able to acclimate by maintaining high levels of Hsp70 and through an effective protein turnover. In addition, the results show that mortality rates did not differ between treatments. This indicates that A. ocellaris is capable of displaying a plastic response to elevated temperature by adjusting the protein quality control system to protect cell functions, without decreasing survival. Thus, this coral reef fish species presents a significant acclimation potential under ocean warming scenarios of +4°C. Monitoring of thermal stress through a non-lethal method, fin-clipping, although desirable proved to be inadequate for this species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Lethal and sub-lethal chronic effects of the herbicide diuron on seagrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Andrew P; Flores, Florita; Mercurio, Phil; Mueller, Jochen F; Collier, Catherine J

    2015-08-01

    Photosystem II herbicides from agricultural sources have been detected throughout nearshore tropical habitats including seagrass meadows. While PSII herbicides have been shown to inhibit growth in microalgae at low concentrations, the potential impacts of chronic low concentration exposures to seagrass health and growth have not been investigated. Here we exposed two tropical seagrass species Halodule uninervis and Zostera muelleri to elevated diuron concentrations (from 0.3 to 7.2μgl(-1)) over a 79-day period followed by a 2-week recovery period in uncontaminated seawater. PAM fluorometry demonstrated rapid effect of diuron on photosystem II (PSII) in both seagrass species at 0.3μgl(-1). This effect included significant inhibition of photosynthetic efficiency (ΔF/Fm') and inactivation of PSII (Fv/Fm) over the 11 week exposure period. Significant mortality and reductions in growth was only observed at the highest exposure concentration of 7.2μgl(-1) diuron. However, biochemical indicators demonstrated that the health of seagrass after this prolonged exposure was significantly compromised at lower concentrations. For example, the drop in C:N ratios (0.6μgl(-1)) and reduced δ(13)C (1.7μgl(-1)) in seagrass leaves indicated reduced C-assimilation from photosynthesis. Critically, the energetic reserves of the plants (as measured by starch content in the root-rhizome complex) were approximately halved following diuron exposure at and above 1.7μgl(-1). During the 2-week recovery period, the photosynthetic capacity of the seagrass improved with only plants from the highest diuron treatment still exhibiting chronic damage to PSII. This study shows that, although seagrass may survive prolonged herbicide exposures, concentrations ≥0.6μgl(-1) diuron equivalents cause measureable impacts on energetic status that may leave the plants vulnerable to other simultaneous stressors. For example, tropical seagrasses have been heavily impacted by reduced light from coastal

  12. Effectiveness of lethal, directed wolf-depredation control in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, E.K.; Paul, W.J.; Mech, L.D.; Weisberg, S.

    2008-01-01

    Wolf (Canis lupus) depredations on livestock in Minnesota, USA, are an economic problem for many livestock producers, and depredating wolves are lethally controlled. We sought to determine the effectiveness of lethal control through the analysis of data from 923 government-verified wolf depredations from 1979 to 1998. We analyzed the data by 1) assessing the correlations between the number of wolves killed in response to depredations with number of depredations the following year at state and local levels, and 2) the time to the next depredation. No analysis indicated that trapping wolves substantially reduced the following year's depredations at state or local levels. However, more specific analyses indicated that in certain situations, killing wolves was more effective than no action (i.e., not trapping). For example, trapping and killing adult males decreased the re-depredation risk. At sheep farms, killing wolves was generally effective. Attempting to trap, regardless of the results, seemed more effective at reducing depredations than not trapping, suggesting that mere human activity near depredation sites might deter future depredations.

  13. Suppressive effects of anthrax lethal toxin on megakaryopoiesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Kong Chen

    Full Text Available Anthrax lethal toxin (LT is a major virulence factor of Bacillus anthracis. LT challenge suppresses platelet counts and platelet function in mice, however, the mechanism responsible for thrombocytopenia remains unclear. LT inhibits cellular mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs, which are vital pathways responsible for cell survival, differentiation, and maturation. One of the MAPKs, the MEK1/2-extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway, is particularly important in megakaryopoiesis. This study evaluates the hypothesis that LT may suppress the progenitor cells of platelets, thereby inducing thrombocytopenic responses. Using cord blood-derived CD34(+ cells and mouse bone marrow mononuclear cells to perform in vitro differentiation, this work shows that LT suppresses megakaryopoiesis by reducing the survival of megakaryocytes. Thrombopoietin treatments can reduce thrombocytopenia, megakaryocytic suppression, and the quick onset of lethality in LT-challenged mice. These results suggest that megakaryocytic suppression is one of the mechanisms by which LT induces thrombocytopenia. These findings may provide new insights for developing feasible approaches against anthrax.

  14. Engineered female-specific lethality for control of pest Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Li; Walker, Adam S; Fu, Guoliang; Harvey-Samuel, Timothy; Dafa'alla, Tarig; Miles, Andrea; Marubbi, Thea; Granville, Deborah; Humphrey-Jones, Nerys; O'Connell, Sinead; Morrison, Neil I; Alphey, Luke

    2013-03-15

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a pest control strategy involving the mass release of radiation-sterilized insects, which reduce the target population through nonviable matings. In Lepidoptera, SIT could be more broadly applicable if the deleterious effects of sterilization by irradiation could be avoided. Moreover, male-only release can improve the efficacy of SIT. Adequate methods of male-only production in Lepidoptera are currently lacking, in contrast to some Diptera. We describe a synthetic genetic system that allows male-only moth production for SIT and also replaces radiation sterilization with inherited female-specific lethality. We sequenced and characterized the doublesex (dsx) gene from the pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella). Sex-alternate splicing from dsx was used to develop a conditional lethal genetic sexing system in two pest moths: the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) and pink bollworm. This system shows promise for enhancing existing pink bollworm SIT, as well as broadening SIT-type control to diamondback moth and other Lepidoptera.

  15. Lethal Mutagenesis of Hepatitis C Virus Induced by Favipiravir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ávila, Ana I; Gallego, Isabel; Soria, Maria Eugenia; Gregori, Josep; Quer, Josep; Esteban, Juan Ignacio; Rice, Charles M; Domingo, Esteban; Perales, Celia

    2016-01-01

    Lethal mutagenesis is an antiviral approach that consists in extinguishing a virus by an excess of mutations acquired during replication in the presence of a mutagen. Here we show that favipiravir (T-705) is a potent mutagenic agent for hepatitis C virus (HCV) during its replication in human hepatoma cells. T-705 leads to an excess of G → A and C → U transitions in the mutant spectrum of preextinction HCV populations. Infectivity decreased significantly in the presence of concentrations of T-705 which are 2- to 8-fold lower than its cytotoxic concentration 50 (CC50). Passaging the virus five times in the presence of 400 μM T-705 resulted in virus extinction. Since T-705 has undergone advanced clinical trials for approval for human use, the results open a new approach based on lethal mutagenesis to treat hepatitis C virus infections. If proven effective for HCV in vivo, this new anti-HCV agent may be useful in patient groups that fail current therapeutic regimens.

  16. Killing Range: Explaining Lethality Variance within a Terrorist Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asal, Victor; Gill, Paul; Rethemeyer, R Karl; Horgan, John

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the Provisional Irish Republican Army's (PIRA) brigade level behavior during the Northern Ireland Conflict (1970-1998) and identifies the organizational factors that impact a brigade's lethality as measured via terrorist attacks. Key independent variables include levels of technical expertise, cadre age, counter-terrorism policies experienced, brigade size, and IED components and delivery methods. We find that technical expertise within a brigade allows for careful IED usage, which significantly minimizes civilian casualties (a specific strategic goal of PIRA) while increasing the ability to kill more high value targets with IEDs. Lethal counter-terrorism events also significantly affect a brigade's likelihood of killing both civilians and high-value targets but in different ways. Killing PIRA members significantly decreases IED fatalities but also significantly decreases the possibility of zero civilian IED-related deaths in a given year. Killing innocent Catholics in a Brigade's county significantly increases total and civilian IED fatalities. Together the results suggest the necessity to analyze dynamic situational variables that impact terrorist group behavior at the sub-unit level.

  17. Novel neutralizing monoclonal antibodies protect rodents against lethal filovirus challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caleb D. Marceau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Filoviruses are the causative agents of lethal hemorrhagic fever in human and non-human primates (NHP. The family of Filoviridae is composed of three genera, Ebolavirus, Marburgvirus and Cuevavirus. There are currently no approved vaccines or antiviral therapeutics for the treatment of filovirus infections in humans. Passive transfer of neutralizing antibodies targeting the Ebola virus (EBOV glycoprotein (GP has proven effective in protecting mice, guinea pigs and NHP from lethal challenges with EBOV. In this study, we generated two neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs, termed S9 and M4 that recognize the GP of EBOV or multiple strains of Marburg virus (MARV, respectively. We characterized the putative binding site of S9 as a linear epitope on the glycan cap of the GP1 subunit of the EBOV-GP. The M4 antibody recognizes an unknown conformational epitope on MARV-GP. Additionally, we demonstrated the post-exposure protection potential of these antibodies in both the mouse and guinea pig models of filovirus infection. These data indicate that MAbs S9 and M4 would be good candidates for inclusion in an antibody cocktail for the treatment of filovirus infections.

  18. Experimental evaluation of the relationship between lethal or non-lethal virulence and transmission success in malaria parasite infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nithiuthai S

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolutionary theory suggests that the selection pressure on parasites to maximize their transmission determines their optimal host exploitation strategies and thus their virulence. Establishing the adaptive basis to parasite life history traits has important consequences for predicting parasite responses to public health interventions. In this study we examine the extent to which malaria parasites conform to the predicted adaptive trade-off between transmission and virulence, as defined by mortality. The majority of natural infections, however, result in sub-lethal virulent effects (e.g. anaemia and are often composed of many strains. Both sub-lethal effects and pathogen population structure have been theoretically shown to have important consequences for virulence evolution. Thus, we additionally examine the relationship between anaemia and transmission in single and mixed clone infections. Results Whereas there was a trade-off between transmission success and virulence as defined by host mortality, contradictory clone-specific patterns occurred when defining virulence by anaemia. A negative relationship between anaemia and transmission success was found for one of the parasite clones, whereas there was no relationship for the other. Notably the two parasite clones also differed in a transmission phenotype (gametocyte sex ratio that has previously been shown to respond adaptively to a changing blood environment. In addition, as predicted by evolutionary theory, mixed infections resulted in increased anaemia. The increased anaemia was, however, not correlated with any discernable parasite trait (e.g. parasite density or with increased transmission. Conclusions We found some evidence supporting the hypothesis that there is an adaptive basis correlating virulence (as defined by host mortality and transmission success in malaria parasites. This confirms the validity of applying evolutionary virulence theory to biomedical

  19. The lethal(1)optomotor-blind gene of Drosophila melanogaster is a major organizer of optic lobe development: isolation and characterization of the gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflugfelder, G O; Roth, H; Poeck, B; Kerscher, S; Schwarz, H; Jonschker, B; Heisenberg, M

    1992-01-01

    The X-chromosomal complementation unit lethal(1)optomotor-blind [l(1)omb] is defined by lack of complementation among over a dozen recessive lethal mutations that map to the omb gene locus. Mutations in l(1)omb also fail to complement viable mutations of three seemingly unrelated functions in this region: bifid (bi), manifesting defective wings, Quadroon (Qd), a semi-dominant mutation expressing abnormal tergite pigmentation, and In(1)ombH31, giving rise to a normal external morphology but with discrete defects in the optic lobes and behavior. The locus encodes a 70-kilobase primary transcript that is spliced into a 6-kilobase mature RNA. cDNAs for this transcript were isolated and sequenced and the derived amino acid sequence was analyzed. Certain features of this sequence suggest that the l(1)omb gene product is a nuclear regulatory protein. The lethal phase of various apparent null mutants was determined and found to occur mainly in the pupal stage. A large proportion of all hemizygous mutant males develop to pharate adults that eclose only rarely but can be rescued from the pupal case. These animals show a severe maldevelopment of the optic lobes. In addition they have only rudimentary wings as well as a Quadroon-like abdominal pigmentation. Thus, in the lethal mutants those parts of the body are affected for which independent viable mutations have been previously described in the omb locus, such as optomotor-blind, bifid, and Quadroon. Images PMID:1741374

  20. Binding of superantigen toxins into the CD28 homodimer interface is essential for induction of cytokine genes that mediate lethal shock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gila Arad

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial superantigens, a diverse family of toxins, induce an inflammatory cytokine storm that can lead to lethal shock. CD28 is a homodimer expressed on T cells that functions as the principal costimulatory ligand in the immune response through an interaction with its B7 coligands, yet we show here that to elicit inflammatory cytokine gene expression and toxicity, superantigens must bind directly into the dimer interface of CD28. Preventing access of the superantigen to CD28 suffices to block its lethality. Mice were protected from lethal superantigen challenge by short peptide mimetics of the CD28 dimer interface and by peptides selected to compete with the superantigen for its binding site in CD28. Superantigens use a conserved β-strand/hinge/α-helix domain of hitherto unknown function to engage CD28. Mutation of this superantigen domain abolished inflammatory cytokine gene induction and lethality. Structural analysis showed that when a superantigen binds to the T cell receptor on the T cell and major histocompatibility class II molecule on the antigen-presenting cell, CD28 can be accommodated readily as third superantigen receptor in the quaternary complex, with the CD28 dimer interface oriented towards the β-strand/hinge/α-helix domain in the superantigen. Our findings identify the CD28 homodimer interface as a critical receptor target for superantigens. The novel role of CD28 as receptor for a class of microbial pathogens, the superantigen toxins, broadens the scope of pathogen recognition mechanisms.

  1. Lethal and sub-lethal chronic effects of the herbicide diuron on seagrass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negri, Andrew P., E-mail: a.negri@aims.gov.au [Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, Queensland 4810 (Australia); Flores, Florita [Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, Queensland 4810 (Australia); Mercurio, Phil [Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, Queensland 4810 (Australia); University of Queensland and National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, Coopers Plains, Queensland 4108 (Australia); Mueller, Jochen F. [University of Queensland and National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, Coopers Plains, Queensland 4108 (Australia); Collier, Catherine J. [Centre for Tropical Water & Aquatic Ecosystem Research (TropWATER), James Cook University, Cairns, Queensland 4870 (Australia)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • We performed chronic exposures of two seagrass species to the herbicide diuron. • Diuron affected photosystem II (PSII) at 0.3 μg l{sup −1} and growth at 7.2 μg l{sup −1}. • Biomarkers indicated that carbon-assimilation from photosynthesis dropped following 0.6 μg l{sup −1} diuron exposure. • Energetic reserves in the seagrass were halved at 1.7 μg l{sup −1} after 11 weeks. • Chronic exposure to diuron is likely to enhance the impacts of low light stress during flood plumes - Abstract: Photosystem II herbicides from agricultural sources have been detected throughout nearshore tropical habitats including seagrass meadows. While PSII herbicides have been shown to inhibit growth in microalgae at low concentrations, the potential impacts of chronic low concentration exposures to seagrass health and growth have not been investigated. Here we exposed two tropical seagrass species Halodule uninervis and Zostera muelleri to elevated diuron concentrations (from 0.3 to 7.2 μg l{sup −1}) over a 79-day period followed by a 2-week recovery period in uncontaminated seawater. PAM fluorometry demonstrated rapid effect of diuron on photosystem II (PSII) in both seagrass species at 0.3 μg l{sup −1}. This effect included significant inhibition of photosynthetic efficiency (ΔF/F{sub m}′) and inactivation of PSII (F{sub v}/F{sub m}) over the 11 week exposure period. Significant mortality and reductions in growth was only observed at the highest exposure concentration of 7.2 μg l{sup −1} diuron. However, biochemical indicators demonstrated that the health of seagrass after this prolonged exposure was significantly compromised at lower concentrations. For example, the drop in C:N ratios (0.6 μg l{sup −1}) and reduced δ{sup 13}C (1.7 μg l{sup −1}) in seagrass leaves indicated reduced C-assimilation from photosynthesis. Critically, the energetic reserves of the plants (as measured by starch content in the root-rhizome complex) were

  2. Critical proximity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay considers how written language frames visual objects. Drawing on Michel Foucault’s response to Raymond Roussel’s obsessive description, the essay proposes a model of criticism where description might press up against its objects. This critical closeness is then mapped across the conceptual art practice and art criticism of Ian Burn. Burn attends to the differences between seeing and reading, and considers the conditions which frame how we look at images, including how we look at, and through words. The essay goes on to consider Meaghan Morris’s writing on Lynn Silverman’s photographs. Both Morris and Burn offer an alternative to a parasitic model of criticism and enact a patient way of looking across and through visual landscapes.

  3. Critical Proximity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Simon

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This essay considers how written language frames visual objects. Drawing on Michel Foucault’s response to Raymond Roussel’s obsessive description, the essay proposes a model of criticism where description might press up against its objects. This critical closeness is then mapped across the conceptual art practice and art criticism of Ian Burn. Burn attends to the differences between seeing and reading, and considers the conditions which frame how we look at images, including how we look at, and through words. The essay goes on to consider Meaghan Morris’s writing on Lynn Silverman’s photographs. Both Morris and Burn offer an alternative to a parasitic model of criticism and enact a patient way of looking across and through visual landscapes.

  4. Furthering critical institutionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Dalton Cleaver

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This special issue furthers the study of natural resource management from a critical institutional perspective. Critical institutionalism (CI is a contemporary body of thought that explores how institutions dynamically mediate relationships between people, natural resources and society. It focuses on the complexity of institutions entwined in everyday social life, their historical formation, the interplay between formal and informal, traditional and modern arrangements, and the power relations that animate them. In such perspectives a social justice lens is often used to scrutinise the outcomes of institutional processes. We argue here that critical institutional approaches have potentially much to offer commons scholarship, particularly through the explanatory power of the concept of bricolage for better understanding institutional change.  Critical institutional approaches, gathering momentum over the past 15 years or so, have excited considerable interest but the insights generated from different disciplinary perspectives remain insufficiently synthesised. Analyses emphasising complexity can be relatively illegible to policy-makers, a fact which lessens their reach. This special issue therefore aims to synthesise critical institutional ideas and so to lay the foundation for moving beyond the emergent stage to make meaningful academic and policy impact. In bringing together papers here we define and synthesise key themes of critical institutionalism, outline the concept of institutional bricolage and identity some key challenges facing this school of thought.

  5. [Phenomenology of abnormal body perceptions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, M L

    1983-01-01

    The present paper deals with the problematic nature of the phenomenological grasping of the consciousness of the body and its pathological modifications. The reasoning is oriented by the doctrine of Husserl of the so-called sentiments as the fundamentals of the experience of the own body. This basic approach does not only seem to be basically for a psychology of the consciousness of the body, but also to give the theoretical-conceptual structure for a great number of psychopathological modifications. Subsequent to a criticism of the conventional use of the term 'hallucination of the body' we attempt to chart elements of a scheme of the abnormal consciousness of the body.

  6. Body contact and body language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Helle Dagmar

    2008-01-01

    Body contact and body language are unique and existential and, although culturally dependent and socially embodied, they are also universal communication forms. For small children all over the world, warm, close and nourishing body contact is fundamental to their embodied experi­ence of themselve...

  7. Lethal and sub-lethal effects of five pesticides used in rice farming on the earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, Andreu; Sabater, Consuelo; Castillo, María-Ángeles

    2016-05-01

    The toxicity of five pesticides typically used in rice farming (trichlorfon, dimethoate, carbendazim, tebuconazole and prochloraz) was evaluated on different lethal and sub-lethal endpoints of the earthworm Eisenia fetida. The evaluated endpoints included: avoidance behaviour after an exposure period of 2 days; and mortality, weight loss, enzymatic activities (cholinesterase, lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase) and histopathological effects after an exposure period of 14 days. Carbendazim was found to be highly toxic to E. fetida (LC50=2mg/kg d.w.), significantly reducing earthworm weight and showing an avoidance response at soil concentrations that are close to those predicted in rice-fields and in surrounding ecosystems. The insecticide dimethoate showed a moderate acute toxicity (LC50=28mg/kg d.w.), whereas the rest of tested pesticides showed low toxicity potential (LC50 values above 100mg/kg d.w.). For these pesticides, however, weight loss was identified as a sensitive endpoint, with NOEC values approximately 2 times or lower than the calculated LC10 values. The investigated effects on the enzymatic activities of E. fetida and the observed histopathological alterations (longitudinal and circular muscle lesions, edematous tissues, endothelial degeneration and necrosis) proved to be sensitive biomarkers to monitor pesticide contamination and are proposed as alternative measures to evaluate pesticide risks on agro-ecosystems.

  8. Lethality and histopathological alterations caused by Phoneutria nigriventer spider venom from Argentina: Neutralization of lethality by experimental and therapeutic antivenoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Roodt, Adolfo Rafael; Lago, Néstor Rubén; Lanari, Laura Cecilia; Laskowicz, Rodrigo Daniel; Costa de Oliveira, Vanessa; Neder de Román, Estela; de Titto, Ernesto Horacio; Damin, Carlos Fabián

    2017-01-01

    Although the spiders of the genus Phoneutria cause envenomation and their presence has been described in several provinces of the north of Argentina, they are not as common as other spiders of sanitary importance. In the present work, we studied the toxicity of samples of venom of Phoneutria spiders from the provinces of Misiones (where severe envenomation and deaths by Phoneutria have been recorded) and Jujuy (where no deaths have been recorded and severe envenomations are not frequent). To this end, we assessed the lethal potency in mice and guinea pigs and the histopathological alterations caused by both venoms, as well as the neutralization by the commonly used therapeutic antivenom produced by the Butantan Institute in Brazil and by an experimental antivenom developed with venom of P. nigriventer from Misiones. There were no differences in the lethality of the venoms of spiders from both regions. Post mortem examination showed that the heart and lungs were the most affected organs, while important pulmonary edema was seen macroscopically. Histological analysis showed edema, atelectasis, emphysema and cardiac lesion in both experimental models. The antivenoms assayed showed good neutralization of the venoms in the two experimental models. Despite the different geographic origins, the venoms showed similar toxicity and both the experimental antivenom and therapeutic antivenmos were able to neutralize the venoms of Argentinean P. nigriventer.

  9. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Glyphosate (Roundup® Active to Embryos of Colombian Anurans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teófila María Triana Velásquez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate is an herbicide widely used in agriculture, which may affect non-target species. The aim of this study was to determine the lethal (Median lethal concentration - LC50 and sublethal effects (changes on body size and development of glyphosate (Roundup® Active to embryos of four anuran species, exposed during 96 hours under laboratory and microcosm tests. Under laboratory conditions, Engystomops pustulosus was the most tolerant species (LC50 = 3033,18 μg a.e./L and Rhinella marina was the most sensitive (LC50 = 1421,46 μg a.e./L, which also showed a delayed development and significantly reduced body size. The other species had an intermediate LC50 (Rhinella humboldti = 2899,54 μg a.e./L; Hypsiboas crepitans = 2151,88 μg a.e./L. In all cases, the laboratory LC50 was lower than the concentration used in field (5392,92 μg a.e./L, indicating a high toxic effect. In the microcosm tests, embryos of E. pustulosus were the most tolerant (LC50 = 19,41 kg a.e./ha, while R. humboldti were the most sensitive (LC50 = 10,61 kg a.e./ha. In this case, all four study species had a higher LC50 than the concentration sprayed in field (3,69 kg a.e./ ha, so a lower lethal effect, and there were no significant differences in body size and development. This result shows that the glyphosate, as the commercial presentation Roundup® Active, produce a moderate mortality on anuran embryos.EFECTOS LETALES Y SUBLETALES DEL GLIFOSATO (ROUNDUP® ACTIVO EN EMBRIONES DE ANUROS COLOMBIANOS.El glifosato es un herbicida usado en la agricultura que puede afectar especies no blanco. El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar los efectos letales (concentración letal media - CL50 y subletales (cambios en el tamaño corporal y desarrollo del glifosato (Roundup® Activo sobre embriones de cuatro especies de anuros expuestos durante 96 horas en pruebas de laboratorio y microcosmos. En laboratorio, la especie más tolerante fue Engystomops pustulosus (CL50 = 3033,18 μg a

  10. A Methodology to Assess Lethality and Collateral Damage for Nonfragmenting Precision-Guided Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    date, guidelines to determine lethality, based on mannequin test data, have not been articulated for nonfragmenting warheads such as FLM. Medical and...the impact on lethality. To date, guidelines to determine lethality, based on mannequin data have not been articulated for nonfragmenting warheads such...circumference of the cylinder at midheight represent the pressure felt on the chest, right side, left side, and back of a human thorax . Each measurement is

  11. EFIKASI INSEKTISIDA BERBAHAN AKTIF CYPERMETHRIN DENGAN METODE LETHAL OVITRAP TERHADAP Aedes aegypti DI LABORATORIUM

    OpenAIRE

    Zumrotus Sholichah; Tri Ramadhani; Adil Ustiawan

    2012-01-01

    Various vector control efforts have been done but dengue hemorrhagic fever still tends to increase. Lethal Ovitrap (LO) was modification from ovitrap where in lethal ovitrap installed ovistrip contain insecticide. The aim of this research was to determine efficacy Cypermethrin and determine the residual effect with lethal ovitrap method on Ae. aegypti at laboratory. This research was laboratory experiment with postest only control group design. Research was done in August-December 2009 at Lok...

  12. How and When Do Insects Rely on Endogenous Protein and Lipid Resources during Lethal Bouts of Starvation? A New Application for 13C-Breath testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall D McCue

    Full Text Available Most of our understanding about the physiology of fasting and starvation comes from studies of vertebrates; however, for ethical reasons, studies that monitor vertebrates through the lethal endpoint are scant. Insects are convenient models to characterize the comparative strategies used to cope with starvation because they have diverse life histories and have evolved under the omnipresent challenge of food limitation. Moreover, we can study the physiology of starvation through its natural endpoint. In this study we raised populations of five species of insects (adult grasshoppers, crickets, cockroaches, and larval beetles and moths on diets labeled with either 13C-palmitic acid or 13C-leucine to isotopically enrich the lipids or the proteins in their bodies, respectively. The insects were allowed to become postabsorptive and then starved. We periodically measured the δ13C of the exhaled breath to characterize how each species adjusted their reliance on endogenous lipids and proteins as energy sources. We found that starving insects employ a wide range of strategies for regulating lipid and protein oxidation. All of the insects except for the beetle larvae were capable of sharply reducing reliance on protein oxidation; however, this protein sparing strategy was usually unsustainable during the entire starvation period. All insects increased their reliance on lipid oxidation, but while some species (grasshoppers, cockroaches, and beetle larvae were still relying extensively on lipids at the time of death, other species (crickets and moth larvae allowed rates of lipid oxidation to return to prestarvation levels. Although lipids and proteins are critical metabolic fuels for both vertebrates and insects, insects apparently exhibit a much wider range of strategies for rationing these limited resources during starvation.

  13. How and When Do Insects Rely on Endogenous Protein and Lipid Resources during Lethal Bouts of Starvation? A New Application for 13C-Breath testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Marshall D; Guzman, R Marena; Passement, Celeste A; Davidowitz, Goggy

    2015-01-01

    Most of our understanding about the physiology of fasting and starvation comes from studies of vertebrates; however, for ethical reasons, studies that monitor vertebrates through the lethal endpoint are scant. Insects are convenient models to characterize the comparative strategies used to cope with starvation because they have diverse life histories and have evolved under the omnipresent challenge of food limitation. Moreover, we can study the physiology of starvation through its natural endpoint. In this study we raised populations of five species of insects (adult grasshoppers, crickets, cockroaches, and larval beetles and moths) on diets labeled with either 13C-palmitic acid or 13C-leucine to isotopically enrich the lipids or the proteins in their bodies, respectively. The insects were allowed to become postabsorptive and then starved. We periodically measured the δ13C of the exhaled breath to characterize how each species adjusted their reliance on endogenous lipids and proteins as energy sources. We found that starving insects employ a wide range of strategies for regulating lipid and protein oxidation. All of the insects except for the beetle larvae were capable of sharply reducing reliance on protein oxidation; however, this protein sparing strategy was usually unsustainable during the entire starvation period. All insects increased their reliance on lipid oxidation, but while some species (grasshoppers, cockroaches, and beetle larvae) were still relying extensively on lipids at the time of death, other species (crickets and moth larvae) allowed rates of lipid oxidation to return to prestarvation levels. Although lipids and proteins are critical metabolic fuels for both vertebrates and insects, insects apparently exhibit a much wider range of strategies for rationing these limited resources during starvation.

  14. Defective kernel mutants of maize. I. Genetic and lethality studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuffer, M G; Sheridan, W F

    1980-08-01

    A planting of 3,919 M(1) kernels from normal ears crossed by EMS-treated pollen produced 3,461 M(1) plants and 3,172 selfed ears. These plants yielded 2,477 (72%) total heritable changes; the selfed ears yielded 2,457 (78%) recessive mutants, including 855 (27%) recessive kernel mutants and 8 (0.23%) viable dominant mutants. The ratio of recessive to dominant mutants was 201:1. The average mutation frequency for four known loci was three per 3,172 genomes analyzed. The estimated total number of loci mutated was 535 and the estimated number of kernel mutant loci mutated was 285. Among the 855 kernel mutants, 432 had a nonviable embryo, and 59 germinated but had a lethal seedling. A sample of 194 of the latter two types was tested for heritability, lethality, chromosome arm location and endosperm-embryo interaction between mutant and nonmutant tissues in special hyper-hypoploid combinations produced by manipulation of B-A translocations. The selected 194 mutants were characterized and catalogued according to endosperm phenotype and investigated to determine their effects on the morphology and development of the associated embryo. The possibility of rescuing some of the lethal mutants by covering the mutant embryo with a normal endosperm was investigated. Ninety of these 194 mutants were located on 17 of the 18 chromosome arms tested. Nineteen of the located mutants were examined to determine the effect of having a normal embryo in the same kernel with a mutant endosperm, and vice versa, as compared to the expression observed in kernels with both embryo and endosperm in a mutant condition. In the first situation, for three of the 19 mutants, the mutant endosperm was less extreme (the embryo helped); for seven cases, the mutant endosperm was more extreme (the embryo hindered); and for nine cases, there was no change. In the reverse situation, for four cases the normal endosperm helped the mutant embryo; for 14 cases there was no change and one case was inconclusive.

  15. Synthetic lethality-based targets for discovery of new cancer therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidle, Ulrich H; Maisel, Daniela; Eick, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic lethality is based on the incompatibility of cell survival with the loss of function of two or more genes, not with loss of function of a single gene. If targets of synthetic lethality are deregulated or mutated in cancer cells, the strategy of synthetic lethality can result in significant increase of therapeutic efficacy and a favourable therapeutic window. In this review, we discuss synthetic lethality based on deficient DNA repair mechanisms, activating mutations of RAS, loss of function mutations of the tumor suppressor genes p53, Rb and von Hippel-Lindau, and disruption of interactive protein kinase networks in the context of development of new anticancer agents.

  16. Impulsivity, aggression and brain structure in high and low lethality suicide attempters with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloff, Paul; White, Richard; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A

    2014-06-30

    Impulsivity and aggressiveness are trait dispositions associated with the vulnerability to suicidal behavior across diagnoses. They are associated with structural and functional abnormalities in brain networks involved in regulation of mood, impulse and behavior. They are also core characteristics of borderline personality disorder (BPD), a disorder defined, in part, by recurrent suicidal behavior. We assessed the relationships between personality traits, brain structure and lethality of suicide attempts in 51 BPD attempters using multiple regression analyses on structural MRI data. BPD was diagnosed by the Diagnostic Interview for Borderline Patients-revised, impulsivity by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS), aggression by the Brown-Goodwin Lifetime History of Aggression (LHA), and high lethality by a score of 4 or more on the Lethality Rating Scale (LRS). Sixteen High Lethality attempters were compared to 35 Low Lethality attempters, with no significant differences noted in gender, co-morbidity, childhood abuse, BIS or LHA scores. Degree of medical lethality (LRS) was negatively related to gray matter volumes across multiple fronto-temporal-limbic regions. Effects of impulsivity and aggression on gray matter volumes discriminated High from Low Lethality attempters and differed markedly within lethality groups. Lethality of suicide attempts in BPD may be related to the mediation of these personality traits by specific neural networks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Studying survivors of near-lethal suicide attempts as a proxy for completed suicide in prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivlin, Adrienne; Fazel, Seena; Marzano, Lisa; Hawton, Keith

    2012-07-10

    Suicides in prisons are common. There is a pressing need to understand more about the causes and prevention of prisoner suicides. A particularly informative approach is through studying survivors of near-lethal suicide attempts. However, the extent to which this approach is a good proxy for completed suicide requires verification. In this article we aimed to assess (1) the extent to which male and female prisoners who made near-lethal suicide attempts in prison are similar to prisoners who die by suicide; (2) the suicidal intent of those making near-lethal suicide attempts; and (3) the applicability of the Suicide Intent Scale in prisons. Survivors of near-lethal suicide attempts and prisoners who died by suicide were compared on sociodemographic and criminological characteristics. The suicidal intent of prisoners engaging in near-lethal self-harm was assessed using Beck's Suicide Intent Scale. There were no significant differences when the sociodemographic and criminological profiles of prisoners who made near-lethal suicide attempts and those who died by suicide were compared, except that male prisoners who made near-lethal suicide attempts were somewhat younger. Most prisoners carrying out near-lethal acts had high suicidal intent. However, some questions in the Suicide Intent Scale were inappropriate for assessing intent in prisoners. Prisoners who survive near-lethal self-harm would appear to be a valid proxy for those who die by suicide in prison. The Suicide Intent Scale requires some modifications for use in prisons.

  18. Evaluation of Lethal Giant Larvae as a Schistosomiasis Vaccine Candidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yufan; Qiao, Hongbin; Shi, Yanli; Han, Yu; Liu, Jinming; Li, Hao; Lu, Ke; Lin, Jiaojiao

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease of humans, and it is considered to be the second most devastating parasitic disease after malaria. Eggs produced by normally developed female worms are important in the transmission of the parasite, and they responsible for the pathogenesis of schistosomiasis. The tumor suppressor gene lethal giant larvae (lgl) has an essential function in establishing apical-basal cell polarity, cell proliferation, differentiation, and tissue organization. In our earlier study, downregulation of the lgl gene induced a significant reduction in the egg hatching rate of Schistosoma japonicum (Sj) eggs. In this study, the Sjlgl gene was used as a vaccine candidate against schistosomiasis, and vaccination achieved and maintained a stable reduction of the egg hatching rate, which is consistent with previous studies, in addition to reducing the worm burden and liver egg burden in some trials. PMID:27957496

  19. Radiosensitivity Parameters For Lethal Mutagenesis In Caenorhabditis Elegans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cucinotta, F.A.; Wilson, J.W.; Katz, R.

    1994-01-01

    For the first time track structure theory has been applied to radiobiological effects in a living organism. Data for lethal mutagenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans, obtained after irradiation with nine different types of ions of atomic number 1-57 and gamma rays have yielded radiosensitivity parameters (E{sub 0}, sigma{sub 0}, Kappa, m = 68 Gy, 2.5 x 10(exp {minus}9) cm (exp 2), 750, 2) comparable with those found for the transformation of C3HT10 1/2 cells (180 Gy, 1.15 x 10(exp {minus}10) cm(exp 2), 750, 2) but remote from those (E{sub 0} and sigma{sub 0} = approx. 2 Gy, approx. 5 x 10(exp {minus}7) cm(exp 2)) for mammalian cell survival.

  20. Evaluation of Lethal Giant Larvae as a Schistosomiasis Vaccine Candidate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufan Cao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease of humans, and it is considered to be the second most devastating parasitic disease after malaria. Eggs produced by normally developed female worms are important in the transmission of the parasite, and they responsible for the pathogenesis of schistosomiasis. The tumor suppressor gene lethal giant larvae (lgl has an essential function in establishing apical-basal cell polarity, cell proliferation, differentiation, and tissue organization. In our earlier study, downregulation of the lgl gene induced a significant reduction in the egg hatching rate of Schistosoma japonicum (Sj eggs. In this study, the Sjlgl gene was used as a vaccine candidate against schistosomiasis, and vaccination achieved and maintained a stable reduction of the egg hatching rate, which is consistent with previous studies, in addition to reducing the worm burden and liver egg burden in some trials.

  1. Double lethal coconut crab (Birgus latro L.) poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillaud, C; Lefebvre, S; Sebat, C; Barguil, Y; Cabalion, P; Cheze, M; Hnawia, E; Nour, M; Durand, F

    2010-01-01

    We report a double lethal coconut crab Birgus latro L. poisoning in New Caledonia. Both patients died after showing gastro-intestinal symptoms, major bradycardia with marked low blood pressure, and finally asystolia. Both had significative hyperkaliemia, suggesting a digitaline-like substance intoxication. Traditional knowledge in the Loyalty Islands relates coconut crab toxicity to the consumption of the Cerbera manghas fruit by the crustacean. Elsewhere previous descriptions of human poisoning with the kernel of fruits of trees belonging to the genus Cerbera, known to contain cardiotoxic cardenolides, appear to be very similar to our cases. Cardenolides assays were performed on patient's serum samples, fruit kernel and on the crustacean guts, which lead us to suppose these two fatal cases were the result of a neriifolin intoxication, this toxin having been transmitted through the coconut crab.

  2. Radiation-induced mutagenicity and lethality in Salmonella typhimurium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isildar, M.; Bakale, G.

    1983-01-01

    The mutagenic and lethal effects of ionizing radiation on histidine-deficient auxotrophs of Salmonella typhimurium were studied to improve the understanding of radiation damage to DNA. The auxotrophs were divided into two groups - one which is sensitive to base-pair substitutions and another sensitive to frameshifts. These groups were composed of parent-daughter pairs in which the chemical mutagenicity enhancing plasmid, pKM101, is absent in the parent strain and present in the daughter. Co-60 ..gamma..-radiation and 250 kV x-rays were used to irradiate the bacteria. Irradiation of the frameshift - sensitive strains which carry the pKm101 plasmid doubled the absolute number of induced revertants whereas irradiation of the base-pair substitution sensitive strain which also carries the pKm101 plasmid produced nearly no change in the number of induced revertants. A nearly negligible effect on the mutation rate was observed for all parent strains. (ACR)

  3. [Medical aspects of common non-lethal weapons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Sebastian Niko; Grove, Christina; Monticelli, Fabio

    2014-03-01

    The development and provision of non-lethal weapons (NLW) allow military and law enforcement personnel to exploit gradual engagement in countering potentially hazardous threats. Chemical, kinetic and electrical weapons systems are used to curb violence in civilian crowds. With inappropriate usage, these technologies can cause potentially fatal injuries that are not only of clinical, but also of legal relevance. In this context, the practicing physician is faced with treatment as well as assessment issues of new forms of injuries. In order to assure medical care and to be able to draw competent expert's conclusions, a detailed knowledge of the medical effects of these NLW is necessary. The review at hand presents today's most popular NLW and gives an overview of their possible injury potential and required treatments.

  4. Cocaethylene is more potent than cocaine in mediating lethality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, W L; Rose, S; Wagner, J; Ciarleglio, A; Mash, D C

    1991-06-01

    Cocaethylene is a pharmacologically active cocaine metabolite that is formed in the presence of ethanol by the activity of liver enzymes. The pharmacology of cocaethylene has not been extensively investigated and its acute toxicity is unknown. The acute toxicity of cocaethylene was compared to cocaine in Swiss-Webster mice. The LD50 of cocaethylene was 60.7 mg/kg and 63.8 mg/kg in female and male mice, respectively. In comparison, the LD50 of cocaine was 93.0 mg/kg in both female and male mice. These studies demonstrate that the cocaine-alcohol metabolite, cocathylene, is more potent in mediating lethality than the parent drug.

  5. In vitro cell culture lethal dose submitted to gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Carolina S.; Rogero, Sizue O.; Rogero, Jose Roberto [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: carolina_sm@hotmail.com; Ikeda, Tamiko I.; Cruz, Aurea S. [Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro effect of gamma radiation in cell culture of mouse connective tissue exposed to different doses of gamma radiation and under several conditions. The cell viability was analyzed by neutral red uptake methodology. This assay was developed for establish a methodology to be used in the future in the study of resveratrol radioprotection. Resveratrol (3,4',5- trihydroxystilbene), a phenolic phytoalexin that occurs naturally in some spermatophytes, such as grapevines, in response to injury as fungal infections and exposure to ultraviolet light. In the wines this compound is found at high levels and is considered one of the highest antioxidant constituents. The intense antioxidant potential of resveratrol provides many pharmacological activities including cardioprotection, chemoprevention and anti-tumor effects. Our results demonstrated that {sup 60}Co gamma radiation lethal dose (LD50) on NCTC clone 929 cells was about 340Gy. (author)

  6. Preliminary results on epidemiology of Coconut Lethal Yellowing in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnot François

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies are of major importance in understanding the determinants of plant diseases in order to control the risks of their spreading. A research programme on the epidemiology of coconut lethal yellowing, or Cape Saint Paul Wilt Disease (CSPWD, in Ghana was launched in March 2007. The objective was to characterize the distribution and spread of the disease in space and time at various scales, and their relation with the environment. This article presents the general strategy used to evaluate the incidence of CSPWD along with the environmental, ecological and agronomical variables at regional level. A survey was undertaken on 1,166 plots of Coconut Sector Development Project (CSDP planted with Malayan Yellow Dwarf (MYD × Vanuatu Tall (VTT hybrids in Western Region and Central Region. Preliminary results on the distribution of CSPWD and outside variables at regional scale, along with their relations, are given.

  7. The Receptors that Mediate the Direct Lethality of Anthrax Toxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen H. Leppla

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Tumor endothelium marker-8 (TEM8 and capillary morphogenesis protein-2 (CMG2 are the two well-characterized anthrax toxin receptors, each containing a von Willebrand factor A (vWA domain responsible for anthrax protective antigen (PA binding. Recently, a cell-based analysis was used to implicate another vWA domain-containing protein, integrin β1 as a third anthrax toxin receptor. To explore whether proteins other than TEM8 and CMG2 function as anthrax toxin receptors in vivo, we challenged mice lacking TEM8 and/or CMG2. Specifically, we used as an effector protein the fusion protein FP59, a fusion between the PA-binding domain of anthrax lethal factor (LF and the catalytic domain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A. FP59 is at least 50-fold more potent than LF in the presence of PA, with 2 μg PA + 2 μg FP59 being sufficient to kill a mouse. While TEM8−/− and wild type control mice succumbed to a 5 μg PA + 5 μg FP59 challenge, CMG2−/− mice were completely resistant to this dose, confirming that CMG2 is the major anthrax toxin receptor in vivo. To detect whether any toxic effects are mediated by TEM8 or other putative receptors such as integrin β1, CMG2−/−/TEM8−/− mice were challenged with as many as five doses of 50 μg PA + 50 μg FP59. Strikingly, the CMG2−/−/TEM8−/− mice were completely resistant to the 5-dose challenge. These results strongly suggest that TEM8 is the only minor anthrax toxin receptor mediating direct lethality in vivo and that other proteins implicated as receptors do not play this role.

  8. Evaluating the lethal and pre-lethal effects of a range of fungi against adult Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanford Simon

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insecticide resistance is seriously undermining efforts to eliminate malaria. In response, research on alternatives to the use of chemical insecticides against adult mosquito vectors has been increasing. Fungal entomopathogens formulated as biopesticides have received much attention and have shown considerable potential. This research has necessarily focused on relatively few fungal isolates in order to ‘prove concept’. Further, most attention has been paid to examining fungal virulence (lethality and not the other properties of fungal infection that might also contribute to reducing transmission potential. Here, a range of fungal isolates were screened to examine variation in virulence and how this relates to additional pre-lethal reductions in feeding propensity. Methods The Asian malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi was exposed to 17 different isolates of entomopathogenic fungi belonging to species of Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, Metarhizium acridum and Isaria farinosus. Each isolate was applied to a test substrate at a standard dose rate of 1×109 spores ml-1 and the mosquitoes exposed for six hours. Subsequently the insects were removed to mesh cages where survival was monitored over the next 14 days. During this incubation period the mosquitoes’ propensity to feed was assayed for each isolate by offering a feeding stimulant at the side of the cage and recording the number probing. Results and conclusions Fungal isolates showed a range of virulence to A. stephensi with some causing >80% mortality within 7 days, while others caused little increase in mortality relative to controls over the study period. Similarly, some isolates had a large impact on feeding propensity, causing >50% pre-lethal reductions in feeding rate, whereas other isolates had very little impact. There was clear correlation between fungal virulence and feeding reduction with virulence explaining nearly 70% of the variation in

  9. The Application of Flow Cytometry to Examine Damage Clearance in Stem Cells From Whole-Body Irradiated Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marples, Brian; Kovalchuk, Olga; McGonagle, Michele; Martinez, Alvaro; Wilson, George, D.

    2010-02-26

    The bone marrow contains many types of cells. Approximately 1-2% of these cells are critical for life, these are the so-called ‘bone marrow stem cells’ which divide indefinitely to produce platelets, red blood cells and white blood cells. Death of the bone marrow stem cells results in a diminished ability of the organism to make new blood cell components and can be fatal without medical intervention, such as a bone marrow transplant. Bone marrow stem cells are considered to be particularly sensitive to radiation injury. Therefore, it is important to understand how these cells response to total body radiation exposure and how these cells can be protected from radiation damage. The aim of this project was to determine if these critical cells in the bone marrow are susceptible to short-term and long-term injury after a whole-body exposure to a sub-lethal low dose of ionizing radiation. The overall aims were to determine if the extent of injury produced by the sub-lethal radiation exposure would be cleared from the stem cells and therefore present no long- term genetic risk to the organism, or if the radiation injury persisted and had an adverse long-term consequences for the cell genome. This research question is of interest in order to define the risks to exposed persons after occupational, accidental or terrorism-related sub-lethal low-dose radiation exposures. The novel aspect of this project was the methodology used to obtain the bone marrow stem cell-like cells and examining the outcomes of sub-lethal low-dose radiation in a mammalian animal model. Four radiation treatments were used: single treatments of 0.01Gy, 0.1 Gy, 1 Gy and ten treatments of 0.1 Gy given over 10 days. Bone marrow stem cell-like cells were then harvested 6 hours, 24 hours and 24 days later. The levels of radiation-induced cell death, damage to DNA and permanent changes to cellular DNA were measured in the isolated stem cell-like cells after each radiation treatment and time point and

  10. DNA damage-processing in E. coli: on-going protein synthesis is required for fixation of UV-induced lethality and mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Amanda; Raymer, Jenny; Bockrath, R

    2002-10-01

    UV irradiation of E. coli produces photoproducts in the DNA genome. In consequence, some bacteria lose viability (colony-forming ability) or remain viable as mutant cells. However, the end-points of viability inactivation (lethality) or mutation are determined by cellular processes that act on the UV-damaged DNA. We have investigated the in vivo time course for processes that deal with cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) which can be specifically removed by photoreactivation (PR). At different times during post-UV incubation, samples were challenged with PR and assayed for viability or mutation. We used excision-defective E. coli B/r cells and worked under yellow light to avoid background PR. During post-UV incubation (0-100min) in fully supplemented defined medium, inactivation and mutation were initially significantly reversed by PR but the extent of this reversal decreased during continued incubation defining "fixation" of lethality or mutation, respectively. In contrast, if protein synthesis was restricted during the post-UV incubation, no fixation developed. When chloramphenicol was added to inhibit protein synthesis after 30min of supplemented post-UV incubation, at a time sufficient for expression of UV-induced protein(s), fixation of lethality or mutation was still annulled (no change in the effectiveness of PR developed). Lethality fixation did progress when protein synthesis was restricted and the cells were incubated in the presence of puromycin or were either clpP or clpX defective. We discuss these and related results to suggest (1) on-going protein synthesis is required in the fixation process for lethality and mutation to sustain an effective level of a hypothetical protein sensitive to ClpXP proteolysis and (2) this protein plays a critical role in the process leading to exchange between Pol III activity and alternative polymerase activities required as each cell deals with damage in template DNA.

  11. Fast-SL: an efficient algorithm to identify synthetic lethal sets in metabolic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratapa, Aditya; Balachandran, Shankar; Raman, Karthik

    2015-10-15

    Synthetic lethal sets are sets of reactions/genes where only the simultaneous removal of all reactions/genes in the set abolishes growth of an organism. Previous approaches to identify synthetic lethal genes in genome-scale metabolic networks have built on the framework of flux balance analysis (FBA), extending it either to exhaustively analyze all possible combinations of genes or formulate the problem as a bi-level mixed integer linear programming (MILP) problem. We here propose an algorithm, Fast-SL, which surmounts the computational complexity of previous approaches by iteratively reducing the search space for synthetic lethals, resulting in a substantial reduction in running time, even for higher order synthetic lethals. We performed synthetic reaction and gene lethality analysis, using Fast-SL, for genome-scale metabolic networks of Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica Typhimurium and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Fast-SL also rigorously identifies synthetic lethal gene deletions, uncovering synthetic lethal triplets that were not reported previously. We confirm that the triple lethal gene sets obtained for the three organisms have a precise match with the results obtained through exhaustive enumeration of lethals performed on a computer cluster. We also parallelized our algorithm, enabling the identification of synthetic lethal gene quadruplets for all three organisms in under 6 h. Overall, Fast-SL enables an efficient enumeration of higher order synthetic lethals in metabolic networks, which may help uncover previously unknown genetic interactions and combinatorial drug targets. The MATLAB implementation of the algorithm, compatible with COBRA toolbox v2.0, is available at https://github.com/RamanLab/FastSL CONTACT: kraman@iitm.ac.in Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. The Toll-Like Receptor 5 Agonist Entolimod Mitigates Lethal Acute Radiation Syndrome in Non-Human Primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim I Krivokrysenko

    Full Text Available There are currently no approved medical radiation countermeasures (MRC to reduce the lethality of high-dose total body ionizing irradiation expected in nuclear emergencies. An ideal MRC would be effective even when administered well after radiation exposure and would counteract the effects of irradiation on the hematopoietic system and gastrointestinal tract that contribute to its lethality. Entolimod is a Toll-like receptor 5 agonist with demonstrated radioprotective/mitigative activity in rodents and radioprotective activity in non-human primates. Here, we report data from several exploratory studies conducted in lethally irradiated non-human primates (rhesus macaques treated with a single intramuscular injection of entolimod (in the absence of intensive individualized supportive care administered in a mitigative regimen, 1-48 hours after irradiation. Following exposure to LD50-70/40 of radiation, injection of efficacious doses of entolimod administered as late as 25 hours thereafter reduced the risk of mortality 2-3-fold, providing a statistically significant (P<0.01 absolute survival advantage of 40-60% compared to vehicle treatment. Similar magnitude of survival improvement was also achieved with drug delivered 48 hours after irradiation. Improved survival was accompanied by predominantly significant (P<0.05 effects of entolimod administration on accelerated morphological recovery of hematopoietic and immune system organs, decreased severity and duration of thrombocytopenia, anemia and neutropenia, and increased clonogenic potential of the bone marrow compared to control irradiated animals. Entolimod treatment also led to reduced apoptosis and accelerated crypt regeneration in the gastrointestinal tract. Together, these data indicate that entolimod is a highly promising potential life-saving treatment for victims of radiation disasters.

  13. Critical Vidders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svegaard, Robin Sebastian Kaszmarczyk

    2015-01-01

    This article will introduce and take a look at a specific subset of the fan created remix videos known as vids, namely those that deal with feminist based critique of media. Through examples, it will show how fans construct and present their critique, and finally broach the topic of the critical ...

  14. Critical Vidders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svegaard, Robin Sebastian Kaszmarczyk

    2015-01-01

    This article will introduce and take a look at a specific subset of the fan created remix videos known as vids, namely those that deal with feminist based critique of media. Through examples, it will show how fans construct and present their critique, and finally broach the topic of the critical...

  15. Quantum Criticality

    OpenAIRE

    Keimer, Bernhard; Sachdev, Subir

    2011-01-01

    This is a review of the basic theoretical ideas of quantum criticality, and of their connection to numerous experiments on correlated electron compounds. A shortened, modified, and edited version appeared in Physics Today. This arxiv version has additional citations to the literature.

  16. Early regulation of viral infection reduces inflammation and rescues mx-positive mice from lethal avian influenza infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Min-Suk; Cho, Young-Hun; Park, Su-Jin; Pascua, Philippe Noriel Q; Baek, Yun Hee; Kwon, Hyeok-Il; Lee, Ok-Jun; Kong, Byung-Whi; Kim, Hyunggee; Shin, Eui-Cheol; Kim, Chul-Joong; Choi, Young Ki

    2013-04-01

    Differing sensitivity of influenza A viruses to antiviral effects of the Myxovirus resistance (Mx) protein implies varying global gene expression profiles in the host. The role of Mx protein during lethal avian influenza (AI) virus infection was examined using Mx1-deficient C57BL/6 (B6-Mx1(-/-)) and congenic Mx1-expressing (B6-Mx1(+/+)) mice infected with a virulent, mouse-adapted avian H5N2 Ab/Korea/ma81/07 (Av/ma81) virus. After infection, B6-Mx1(+/+) mice were completely protected from lethal AI-induced mortality, and exhibited attenuated clinical disease and reduced viral titers and pathology in the lungs, compared with B6-Mx1(-/-) mice. Transcriptional profiling of lung tissues revealed that most of the genes up-regulated after infection are involved in activation of the immune response and host defense. Notably, more abundant and sustained expression of cytokine/chemokine genes was observed up to 3 dpi in B6-Mx1(-/-) mice, and this was associated with excessive induction of cytokines and chemokines. Consequently, massive infiltration of macrophages/monocytes and granulocytes into lung resulted in severe viral pneumonia and potentially contributed to decreased survival of B6-Mx1(-/-) mice. Taken together, our data show that dysregulated gene transcriptional activity corresponded to persistent induction of cytokine/chemokines and recruitment of cytokine-producing cells that promote inflammation in B6-Mx1(-/-) mouse lungs. Thus, we provide additional evidence of the interplay of genetic, molecular, and cellular correlates governed by the Mx1 protein that critically determine disease outcome during lethal AI virus infection.

  17. Bog bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    the bog bodies have been studied using medical and natural scientific methods, and recently many bog bodies have been re-examined using especially modern, medical imaging techniques. Because of the preservation of soft tissue, especially the skin, it has been possible to determine lesions and trauma...

  18. Body punk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kevin

    BODYPUNK - A Treatise on male body builders and the meaning of the body in the shadow of an Anti Doping Campaign Based on a qualitative study, the thesis investigates the visual representation of the male bodybuilder found in the national anti doping campaign: ‗ "The hunt has begun" along...

  19. Body Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of the body don't function properly. Blood Bones, Muscles, and Joints Brain and Nervous System Digestive System Endocrine System Eyes Female Reproductive System Heart and Circulatory System Immune ...

  20. Body Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JosephDeVeto

    2004-01-01

    When we speak,we use much more than just words. We also communicate with our face. our hands,and even our own body. This Kind of communication ean be called “body language” or “non-verbal eommunieation”. Non-verbal

  1. The effects of sub-lethal doses of smokeless tobacco (snuff on certain hematological and hemostatic parameters in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Maduka

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We investigated the effect of sub-lethal concentrations of orogastrically-administered tobacco on some hematological and hemostatic parameters of Wistar rats. Methods: Twenty young male Wistar rats with weights between 170-220 g were used for the study. The oral LD50 for the tobacco snuff concentration was determined as 10 mg per 200 g rat body weight. The control group A was given 1 ml of distilled water, while the experimental groups (B, C, D were administered with tobacco snuff concentrations of 4 mg, 6 mg, and 8mg per 200 g body weight, respectively, through an oral route with the aid of orogastric tube for 6 weeks. Blood samples were collected to estimate hematocrit; red blood cell (RBC, white blood cell (WBC, and platelet counts; bleeding time and blood clotting time. Results: When compared with the control group, our data indicated significantly higher total WBC in groups C and D (P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively; lower RBC in group D (P<0.05; lower platelet counts in all the experimental groups (P<0.001; and higher blood clotting time in groups C and D (P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively. However, no significant effects of snuff consumption were observed on the experimental groups with regard to hematocrit and bleeding time. Conclusion: Our findings indicated that chronic tobacco consumption at higher sub-lethal levels may put the body at some risk of adverse hematological and hemostatic conditions. [J Exp Integr Med 2012; 2(3.000: 225-230

  2. Foal with Overo lethal white syndrome born to a registered quarter horse mare

    OpenAIRE

    Lightbody, Tamara

    2002-01-01

    A 16-hour-old white foal, born to a registered quarter horse mare, was examined for signs of colic. The foal had Overo lethal white syndrome, which causes ileocolonic agangliosis. This was confirmed by DNA testing. Since there is no treatment for Overo lethal white syndrome, the foal was euthanized.

  3. Antidotes to anthrax lethal factor intoxication. Part 2: structural modifications leading to improved in vivo efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seongjin; Jiao, Guan-Sheng; Moayeri, Mahtab; Crown, Devorah; Cregar-Hernandez, Lynne; McKasson, Linda; Margosiak, Stephen A; Leppla, Stephen H; Johnson, Alan T

    2011-04-01

    New anthrax lethal factor inhibitors (LFIs) were designed based upon previously identified potent inhibitors 1a and 2. Combining the new core structures with modifications to the C2-side chain yielded analogs with improved efficacy in the rat lethal toxin model.

  4. Indirect effects of non-lethal predation on bivalve activity and sediment reworking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maire, O.; Merchant, J.N.; Bulling, M.; Teal, L.R.; Gremare, A.; Duchene, J.C.; Solan, M.

    2010-01-01

    Deposit-feeders are the dominant bioturbators of aquatic sediments, where they profoundly impact biogeochemical processes, but they are also vulnerable to both lethal and non-lethal predation by a large variety of predators. In this study, we performed a series of experiments to test the effects of

  5. Indirect effects of non-lethal predation on bivalve activity and sediment reworking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maire, O.; Merchant, J.N.; Bulling, M.; Teal, L.R.; Gremare, A.; Duchene, J.C.; Solan, M.

    2010-01-01

    Deposit-feeders are the dominant bioturbators of aquatic sediments, where they profoundly impact biogeochemical processes, but they are also vulnerable to both lethal and non-lethal predation by a large variety of predators. In this study, we performed a series of experiments to test the effects of

  6. Acceptability of Lethal Control of Wildlife that Damage Agriculture in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsma, M.T.J.; Vaske, J.J.; Jacobs, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    The use of lethal control of wildlife is controversial. We examined the acceptability of using lethal control to minimize the impacts of geese and deer on agricultural crops in the Netherlands. Two sets of predictors were examined: wildlife value orientations (WVOs) and demographics. The two

  7. Minding the Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Ioanna Kayiatos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Fall of 2013 we team-taught a disability studies course for a small group of first-year students. The course, Minding the Body, integrated scholarship from disability studies, feminist/queer studies, psychology, and Russian Studies. Originally envisioned and taught independently in the Fall of 2012 by Joan Ostrove and focused entirely on the U.S., Anastasia Kayiatos's arrival in the Department of German and Russian Studies at Macalester College afforded us an opportunity for collaboration and co-instruction that we found invigorating, compelling, and transformative. Grounded from the outset in disability studies, the course asked students to interrogate such questions as: What is a "normal" body? A "beautiful" body? Why do we feel the way we do about our bodies? How are bodies objectified, exploited, and regulated? How and why do we discriminate against people with non-normative bodies? How do people represent the experience of having a disabled body? How can we think critically about the various ways in which people change, regulate, and enhance their bodies? How do sexism, racism, classism, colonialism, homophobia, transphobia and other forms of oppression influence how different bodies are viewed, treated, educated, and experienced? The integration of Russian Studies importantly allowed us to ask how these questions and ideas change when we travel across time and geographical space. In our paper we will reflect on our experience of co-authoring the syllabus (we will include both the solo-taught and co-taught versions of the syllabus in an appendix; outline some of our techniques for team-teaching; and analyze an exemplary assignment and class meeting. We will conclude with a final word about the unique forms of teaching and learning that happened in our class as a consequence of its collaborative and interdisciplinary approach, which opened up new perspectives in disability studies not only for our students but also for us.

  8. The ability of filgrastim to mitigate mortality following LD50/60 total-body irradiation is administration time-dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farese, Ann M; Brown, Cassandra R; Smith, Cassandra P; Gibbs, Allison M; Katz, Barry P; Johnson, Cynthia S; Prado, Karl L; MacVittie, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    The identification of the optimal administration schedule for an effective medical countermeasure is critical for the effective treatment of individuals exposed to potentially lethal doses of radiation. The efficacy of filgrastim (Neupogen®), a potential medical countermeasure, to improve survival when initiated at 48 h following total body irradiation in a non-human primate model of the hematopoietic syndrome of the acute radiation syndrome was investigated. Animals were exposed to total body irradiation, antero-posterior exposure, total midline tissue dose of 7.5 Gy, (target lethal dose 50/60) delivered at 0.80 Gy min, using linear accelerator-derived 6 MV photons. All animals were administered medical management. Following irradiation on day 0, filgrastim (10 μg kg d) or the control (5% dextrose in water) was administered subcutaneously daily through effect (absolute neutrophil count ≥ 1,000 cells μL for three consecutive days). The study (n = 80) was powered to demonstrate a 25% improvement in survival following the administration of filgrastim or control beginning at 48 ± 4 h post-irradiation. Survival analysis was conducted on the intention-to-treat population using a two-tailed null hypothesis at a 5% significance level. Filgrastim, initiated 48 h after irradiation, did not improve survival (2.5% increase, p = 0.8230). These data demonstrate that efficacy of a countermeasure to mitigate lethality in the hematopoietic syndrome of the acute radiation syndrome can be dependent on the interval between irradiation and administration of the medical countermeasure.

  9. Critical reading and critical thinking Critical reading and critical thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loni Kreis Taglieber

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide, for L1 and L2 reading and writing teachers, a brief overview of the literature about critical reading and higher level thinking skills. The teaching of these skills is still neglected in some language classes in Brazil, be it in L1 or in L2 classes. Thus, this paper may also serve as a resource guide for L1 and/or L2 reading and writing teachers who want to incorporate critical reading and thinking into their classes. In modern society, even in everyday life people frequently need to deal with complicated public and political issues, make decisions, and solve problems. In order to do this efficiently and effectively, citizens must be able to evaluate critically what they see, hear, and read. Also, with the huge amount of printed material available in all areas in this age of “information explosion” it is easy to feel overwhelmed. But often the information piled up on people’s desks and in their minds is of no use due to the enormous amount of it. The purpose of this paper is to provide, for L1 and L2 reading and writing teachers, a brief overview of the literature about critical reading and higher level thinking skills. The teaching of these skills is still neglected in some language classes in Brazil, be it in L1 or in L2 classes. Thus, this paper may also serve as a resource guide for L1 and/or L2 reading and writing teachers who want to incorporate critical reading and thinking into their classes. In modern society, even in everyday life people frequently need to deal with complicated public and political issues, make decisions, and solve problems. In order to do this efficiently and effectively, citizens must be able to evaluate critically what they see, hear, and read. Also, with the huge amount of printed material available in all areas in this age of “information explosion” it is easy to feel overwhelmed. But often the information piled up on people’s desks and in their minds is of

  10. Treatment of irradiated mice with high-dose ascorbic acid reduced lethality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohito Sato

    Full Text Available Ascorbic acid is an effective antioxidant and free radical scavenger. Therefore, it is expected that ascorbic acid should act as a radioprotectant. We investigated the effects of post-radiation treatment with ascorbic acid on mouse survival. Mice received whole body irradiation (WBI followed by intraperitoneal administration of ascorbic acid. Administration of 3 g/kg of ascorbic acid immediately after exposure significantly increased mouse survival after WBI at 7 to 8 Gy. However, administration of less than 3 g/kg of ascorbic acid was ineffective, and 4 or more g/kg was harmful to the mice. Post-exposure treatment with 3 g/kg of ascorbic acid reduced radiation-induced apoptosis in bone marrow cells and restored hematopoietic function. Treatment with ascorbic acid (3 g/kg up to 24 h (1, 6, 12, or 24 h after WBI at 7.5 Gy effectively improved mouse survival; however, treatments beyond 36 h were ineffective. Two treatments with ascorbic acid (1.5 g/kg × 2, immediately and 24 h after radiation, 3 g/kg in total also improved mouse survival after WBI at 7.5 Gy, accompanied with suppression of radiation-induced free radical metabolites. In conclusion, administration of high-dose ascorbic acid might reduce radiation lethality in mice even after exposure.

  11. Deadly hairs, lethal feathers--convergent evolution of poisonous integument in mammals and birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plikus, Maksim V; Astrowski, Aliaksandr A

    2014-07-01

    Hairs and feathers are textbook examples of the convergent evolution of the follicular appendage structure between mammals and birds. While broadly recognized for their convergent thermoregulatory, camouflage and sexual display functions, hairs and feathers are rarely thought of as deadly defence tools. Several recent studies, however, show that in some species of mammals and birds, the integument can, in fact, be a de facto lethal weapon. One mammalian example is provided by African crested rats, which seek for and chew on the bark of plants containing the highly potent toxin, ouabain. These rats then coat their fur with ouabain-containing saliva. For efficient toxin retention, the rodents have evolved highly specialized fenestrated and mostly hollow hair shafts that soak up liquids, which essentially function as wicks. On the avian side of the vertebrate integumental variety spectrum, several species of birds of New Guinea have evolved resistance to highly potent batrachotoxins, which they acquire from their insect diet. While the mechanism of bird toxicity remains obscure, in a recently published issue of the journal, Dumbacher and Menon explore the intriguing idea that to achieve efficient storage of batrachotoxins in their skin, some birds exploit the basic permeability barrier function of their epidermis. Batrachotoxins become preferentially sequestered in their epidermis and are then transferred to feathers, likely through the exploitation of specialized avian lipid-storing multigranular body organelles. Here, we discuss wider implications of this intriguing concept.

  12. Treatment of irradiated mice with high-dose ascorbic acid reduced lethality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tomohito; Kinoshita, Manabu; Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Ito, Masataka; Nishida, Takafumi; Takeuchi, Masaru; Saitoh, Daizoh; Seki, Shuhji; Mukai, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Ascorbic acid is an effective antioxidant and free radical scavenger. Therefore, it is expected that ascorbic acid should act as a radioprotectant. We investigated the effects of post-radiation treatment with ascorbic acid on mouse survival. Mice received whole body irradiation (WBI) followed by intraperitoneal administration of ascorbic acid. Administration of 3 g/kg of ascorbic acid immediately after exposure significantly increased mouse survival after WBI at 7 to 8 Gy. However, administration of less than 3 g/kg of ascorbic acid was ineffective, and 4 or more g/kg was harmful to the mice. Post-exposure treatment with 3 g/kg of ascorbic acid reduced radiation-induced apoptosis in bone marrow cells and restored hematopoietic function. Treatment with ascorbic acid (3 g/kg) up to 24 h (1, 6, 12, or 24 h) after WBI at 7.5 Gy effectively improved mouse survival; however, treatments beyond 36 h were ineffective. Two treatments with ascorbic acid (1.5 g/kg × 2, immediately and 24 h after radiation, 3 g/kg in total) also improved mouse survival after WBI at 7.5 Gy, accompanied with suppression of radiation-induced free radical metabolites. In conclusion, administration of high-dose ascorbic acid might reduce radiation lethality in mice even after exposure.

  13. Korean Monozygotic Twins with Lethal Acantholytic Epidermolysis Bullosa Caused by Two Novel DSP Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se Jin; Ko, Jung Min; Shin, Seung Han; Kim, Ee-Kyung; Kim, Han-Suk; Lee, Kyung-A

    2017-03-01

    Desmoplakin is an essential cytoplasmic plaque protein in desmosomes, and it is the major linker between intercellular junctions in the skin and heart. The role of desmoplakin is anchoring transmembrane cadherins to cytoplasmic intermediate filaments. The desmoplakin gene (DSP) is located on chromosome 6, and six common allelic disorders are associated with this gene, including autosomal-dominant or -recessive disorders that affect the skin, heart, hair, and nails. In particular, lethal acantholytic epidermolysis bullosa (LAEB) is an autosomal recessively inherited and extremely rare genetic skin disorder, and only three molecularly confirmed families with LAEB have been reported previously. Generalized oozing erosion of the entire skin is the main clinical feature, which leads to excessive transcutaneous fluid loss and neonatal death. Histopathologically, this disorder is classified as a suprabasal subtype of epidermolysis bullosa simplex. In this study, we report for the first time in Korea on monozygotic twins with LAEB caused by two novel nonsense mutations in the DSP gene. Both of the twins exhibited severe and rapid progressive whole body skin erosion, and they died shortly after birth because of multiorgan failure followed by excessive fluid loss. © 2017 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  14. Lethal control of an apex predator has unintended cascading effects on forest mammal assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, N J; Gordon, C E; Crowther, M S; Letnic, M

    2014-05-07

    Disruption to species-interaction networks caused by irruptions of herbivores and mesopredators following extirpation of apex predators is a global driver of ecosystem reorganization and biodiversity loss. Most studies of apex predators' ecological roles focus on effects arising from their interactions with herbivores or mesopredators in isolation, but rarely consider how the effects of herbivores and mesopredators interact. Here, we provide evidence that multiple cascade pathways induced by lethal control of an apex predator, the dingo, drive unintended shifts in forest ecosystem structure. We compared mammal assemblages and understorey structure at seven sites in southern Australia. Each site comprised an area where dingoes were poisoned and an area without control. The effects of dingo control on mammals scaled with body size. Activity of herbivorous macropods, arboreal mammals and a mesopredator, the red fox, were greater, but understorey vegetation sparser and abundances of small mammals lower, where dingoes were controlled. Structural equation modelling suggested that both predation by foxes and depletion of understorey vegetation by macropods were related to small mammal decline at poisoned sites. Our study suggests that apex predators' suppressive effects on herbivores and mesopredators occur simultaneously and should be considered in tandem in order to appreciate the extent of apex predators' indirect effects.

  15. Toxicity assessment of sodium fluoride in Drosophila melanogaster after chronic sub-lethal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Moumita; Rajak, Prem; Khatun, Salma; Roy, Sumedha

    2017-01-01

    Sodium fluoride (NaF), one of the most frequently used fluoride compound is composed of Na(+) and F(-). Apart from its use in water fluoridation, NaF also acts as a major component for different dental products like toothpastes, gels and mouth rinses etc. The present study was carried out to explore the toxic impact of chronic NaF exposure on a non-target organism, Drosophila melanogaster. The larvae exposed to different concentrations of NaF through food showed a significant increase in HSP70 expression both qualitatively and quantitatively. The altered tail length and tail intensity in Comet assay validate the increased DNA damage in treated larvae. The activity of AChE, oxidative stress marker enzymes, phase I and phase II detoxifying enzymes were found to be significantly inhibited in the treated larvae when compared to control though there was no evidence of dose dependent change in each case. The alterations in the mentioned parameters can be due to increased body Fluoride ion (F(-)) concentration since the analysis with ion electrode analyzer revealed that F(-) concentration increased significantly with NaF treatment. Hence, the results suggest that D. melanogaster manifest prominent toxic response when subjected to chronic exposure to sub-lethal NaF concentrations.

  16. Endothelin receptor B polymorphism associated with lethal white foal syndrome in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santschi, E M; Purdy, A K; Valberg, S J; Vrotsos, P D; Kaese, H; Mickelson, J R

    1998-04-01

    Overo lethal white syndrome (OLWS) is an inherited syndrome of foals born to American Paint Horse parents of the overo coat-pattern lineage. Affected foals are totally or almost totally white and die within days from complications due to intestinal aganglionosis. Related conditions occur in humans and rodents in which mutations in the endothelin receptor B (EDNRB) gene are responsible. EDNRB is known to be involved in the developmental regulation of neural crest cells that become enteric ganglia and melanocytes. In this report we identify a polymorphism in the equine EDNRB gene closely associated with OLWS. This Ile to Lys substitution at codon 118 is located within the first transmembrane domain of this seven-transmembrane domain G-protein-coupled receptor protein. All 22 OLWS-affected foals examined were homozygous for the Lys118 EDNRB allele, while all available parents of affected foals were heterozygous. All but one of the parents also had an overo white body-spot phenotype. Solid-colored control horses of other breeds were homozygous for the Ile118 EDNRB allele. Molecular definition of the basis for OLWS in Paint Horses provides a genetic test for the presence of the Lys118 EDNRB allele and adds to our understanding of the basis for coat color patterns in the horse.

  17. Effects of DDE on experimentally poisoned free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis): Lethal brain concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R.; Kroll, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    Adult female free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) were collected at Bracken Cave, Texas, and shipped to the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. Treated mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) containing 107 ppm DDE were fed to 17 bats; five other bats were fed untreated mealworms. After 40 days on dosage, during which one dosed bat was killed accidentally, four dosed bats were frozen and the remaining 17 were starved to death. The objective was to elevate brain levels of DDE to lethality and measure these concentrations. After the feeding period, dosed bats weighed less than controls. After starvation, the body condition of dosed bats was poorer than that of controls even though there was no difference in the amounts of carcass fat. During starvation, dosed bats lost weight faster than controls. Also, four dosed bats exhibited the prolonged tremoring that characterizes DDE poisoning. DDE increased in brains of starving bats as fat was metabolized. The estimated mean brain concentration of DDE diagnostic of death was 519 ppm with a range of 458-564 ppm. These values resemble diagnostic levels known for two species of passerine birds, but they exceed published levels for two free-tailed bats from Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico.

  18. Loss of p53 Ser18 and Atm results in embryonic lethality without cooperation in tumorigenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather L Armata

    Full Text Available Phosphorylation at murine Serine 18 (human Serine 15 is a critical regulatory process for the tumor suppressor function of p53. p53Ser18 residue is a substrate for ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM and ATM-related (ATR protein kinases. Studies of mice with a germ-line mutation that replaces Ser18 with Ala (p53(S18A mice have demonstrated that loss of phosphorylation of p53Ser18 leads to the development of tumors, including lymphomas, fibrosarcomas, leukemia and leiomyosarcomas. The predominant lymphoma is B-cell lymphoma, which is in contrast to the lymphomas observed in Atm(-/- animals. This observation and the fact that multiple kinases phosphorylate p53Ser18 suggest Atm-independent tumor suppressive functions of p53Ser18. Therefore, in order to examine p53Ser18 function in relationship to ATM, we analyzed the lifespan and tumorigenesis of mice with combined mutations in p53Ser18 and Atm. Surprisingly, we observed no cooperation in survival and tumorigenesis in compound p53(S18A and Atm(-/- animals. However, we observed embryonic lethality in the compound mutant animals. In addition, the homozygous p53Ser18 mutant allele impacted the weight of Atm(-/- animals. These studies examine the genetic interaction of p53Ser18 and Atm in vivo. Furthermore, these studies demonstrate a role of p53Ser18 in regulating embryonic survival and motor coordination.

  19. Terrorist attacks escalate in frequency and fatalities preceding highly lethal attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Andy; Sainudiin, Raazesh; Sibley, Chris G; Schimel, Jeff; Webber, David

    2014-01-01

    Highly lethal terrorist attacks, which we define as those killing 21 or more people, account for 50% of the total number of people killed in all terrorist attacks combined, yet comprise only 3.5% of terrorist attacks. Given the disproportionate influence of these incidents, uncovering systematic patterns in attacks that precede and anticipate these highly lethal attacks may be of value for understanding attacks that exact a heavy toll on life. Here we examined whether the activity of terrorist groups escalates--both in the number of people killed per attack and in the frequency of attacks--leading up to highly lethal attacks. Analyses of terrorist attacks drawn from a state-of-the-art international terrorism database (The Global Terrorism Database) showed evidence for both types of escalation leading up to highly lethal attacks, though complexities to the patterns emerged as well. These patterns of escalation do not emerge among terrorist groups that never commit a highly lethal attack.

  20. Influence Analysis of Shell Material and Charge on Shrapnel Lethal Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To compare the shrapnel lethal power with different shell material and charge, LS-DYNA was used to numerically simulate four kinds of shrapnel lethal power. The shell material was 58SiMn, 50SiMnVB or 40Cr, whereas the charge was RL-F. And the shell material was 58SiMn, whereas the charge was TNT. The shell rupture process and lethal power test were analyzed. The results show that, the lethal power of RL-F charge increase by 25%, 45%, 14% compared with the TNT charge, whereas the shell material was 58SiMn, 50SiMnVB, 40Cr. And then the guarantee range and lethal power can be improved by using the high explosive and changing shell material, whereas the projectile shape coefficient is invariable.

  1. Depressed Hypoxic and Hypercapnic Ventilatory Responses at Early Stage of Lethal Avian Influenza A Virus Infection in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo Zhuang

    Full Text Available H5N1 virus infection results in ~60% mortality in patients primarily due to respiratory failure, but the underlying causes of mortality are unclear. The goal of this study is to reveal respiratory disorders occurring at the early stage of infection that may be responsible for subsequent respiratory failure and death. BALB/c mice were intranasally infected with one of two H5N1 virus strains: HK483 (lethal or HK486 (non-lethal virus. Pulmonary ventilation and the responses to hypoxia (HVR; 7% O2 for 3 min and hypercapnia (HCVR; 7% CO2 for 5 min were measured daily at 2 days prior and 1, 2, and 3 days postinfection (dpi and compared to mortality typically by 8 dpi. At 1, 2, and 3 dpi, immunoreactivities (IR of substance P (SP-IR in the nodose ganglion or tyrosine hydroxylase (TH-IR in the carotid body coupled with the nucleoprotein of influenza A (NP-IR was examined in some mice, while arterial blood was collected in others. Our results showed that at 2 and 3 dpi: 1 both viral infections failed to alter body temperature and weight, [Formula: see text], or induce viremia while producing similarly high lung viral titers; 2 HK483, but not HK486, virus induced tachypnea and depressed HVR and HCVR without changes in arterial blood pH and gases; and 3 only HK483 virus led to NP-IR in vagal SP-IR neurons, but not in the carotid body, and increased density of vagal SP-IR neurons. In addition, all HK483, rather than HK486, mice died at 6 to 8 dpi and the earlier death was correlated with more severe depression of HVR and HCVR. Our data suggest that tachypnea and depressed HVR/HCVR occur at the early stage of lethal H5N1 viral infection associated with viral replication and increased SP-IR density in vagal neurons, which may contribute to the respiratory failure and death.

  2. Non-Lethal Ionizing Radiation Promotes Aging-Like Phenotypic Changes of Human Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells in Humanized Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changshan Wang

    Full Text Available Precise understanding of radiation effects is critical to develop new modalities for the prevention and treatment of radiation-induced damage. We previously reported that non-lethal doses of X-ray irradiation induce DNA damage in human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs reconstituted in NOD/Shi-scid IL2rγnull (NOG immunodeficient mice and severely compromise their repopulating capacity. In this study, we analyzed in detail the functional changes in human HSPCs in NOG mice following non-lethal radiation. We transplanted cord blood CD34+ HSPCs into NOG mice. At 12 weeks post-transplantation, the recipients were irradiated with 0, 0.5, or 1.0 Gy. At 2 weeks post-irradiation, human CD34+ HSPCs recovered from the primary recipient mice were transplanted into secondary recipients. CD34+ HSPCs from irradiated mice showed severely impaired reconstitution capacity in the secondary recipient mice. Of interest, non-lethal radiation compromised contribution of HSPCs to the peripheral blood cells, particularly to CD19+ B lymphocytes, which resulted in myeloid-biased repopulation. Co-culture of limiting numbers of CD34+ HSPCs with stromal cells revealed that the frequency of B cell-producing CD34+ HSPCs at 2 weeks post-irradiation was reduced more than 10-fold. Furthermore, the key B-cell regulator genes such as IL-7R and EBF1 were downregulated in HSPCs upon 0.5 Gy irradiation. Given that compromised repopulating capacity and myeloid-biased differentiation are representative phenotypes of aged HSCs, our findings indicate that non-lethal ionizing radiation is one of the critical external stresses that promote aging of human HSPCs in the bone marrow niche.

  3. Critical scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stirling, W.G. [Liverpool Univ., Dep. of Physics, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Perry, S.C. [Keele Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics

    1996-12-31

    We outline the theoretical and experimental background to neutron scattering studies of critical phenomena at magnetic and structural phase transitions. The displacive phase transition of SrTiO{sub 3} is discussed, along with examples from recent work on magnetic materials from the rare-earth (Ho, Dy) and actinide (NpAs, NpSb, USb) classes. The impact of synchrotron X-ray scattering is discussed in conclusion. (author) 13 figs., 18 refs.

  4. Cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of leptin receptors causes lethal heart failure in Cre-recombinase-mediated cardiotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Michael E; Smith, Grant; Hall, John E; Stec, David E

    2012-12-15

    Although disruption of leptin signaling is associated with obesity as well as cardiac lipid accumulation and dysfunction, it has been difficult to separate the direct effects of leptin on the heart from those associated with the effects of leptin on body weight and fat mass. Using Cre-loxP recombinase technology, we developed tamoxifen-inducible, cardiomyocyte-specific leptin receptor-deficient mice to assess the role of leptin in regulating cardiac function. Cre recombinase activation in the heart resulted in transient reduction in left ventricular systolic function which recovered to normal levels by day 10. However, when cardiomyocyte leptin receptors were deleted in the setting of Cre recombinase-induced left ventricular dysfunction, irreversible lethal heart failure was observed in less than 10 days in all mice. Heart failure after leptin receptor deletion was associated with marked decreases of cardiac mitochondrial ATP, phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and AMP-activated kinase (pAMPK). Our results demonstrate that specific deletion of cardiomyocyte leptin receptors, in the presence of increased Cre recombinase expression, causes lethal heart failure associated with decreased cardiac energy production. These observations indicate that leptin plays an important role in regulating cardiac function in the setting of cardiac stress caused by Cre-recombinase expression, likely through actions on cardiomyocyte energy metabolism.

  5. Delayed Time-to-Treatment of an Antisense Morpholino Oligomer Is Effective against Lethal Marburg Virus Infection in Cynomolgus Macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Travis K; Whitehouse, Chris A; Wells, Jay; Welch, Lisa; Charleston, Jay S; Heald, Alison; Nichols, Donald K; Mattix, Marc E; Palacios, Gustavo; Kugleman, Jeffrey R; Iversen, Patrick L; Bavari, Sina

    2016-02-01

    Marburg virus (MARV) is an Ebola-like virus in the family Filovirdae that causes sporadic outbreaks of severe hemorrhagic fever with a case fatality rate as high as 90%. AVI-7288, a positively charged antisense phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer (PMOplus) targeting the viral nucleoprotein gene, was evaluated as a potential therapeutic intervention for MARV infection following delayed treatment of 1, 24, 48, and 96 h post-infection (PI) in a nonhuman primate lethal challenge model. A total of 30 cynomolgus macaques were divided into 5 groups of 6 and infected with 1,830 plaque forming units of MARV subcutaneously. AVI-7288 was administered by bolus infusion daily for 14 days at 15 mg/kg body weight. Survival was the primary endpoint of the study. While none (0 of 6) of the saline group survived, 83-100% of infected monkeys survived when treatment was initiated 1, 24, 48, or 96 h post-infection (PI). The antisense treatment also reduced serum viremia and inflammatory cytokines in all treatment groups compared to vehicle controls. The antibody immune response to virus was preserved and tissue viral antigen was cleared in AVI-7288 treated animals. These data show that AVI-7288 protects NHPs against an otherwise lethal MARV infection when treatment is initiated up to 96 h PI.

  6. Delayed Time-to-Treatment of an Antisense Morpholino Oligomer Is Effective against Lethal Marburg Virus Infection in Cynomolgus Macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis K Warren

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Marburg virus (MARV is an Ebola-like virus in the family Filovirdae that causes sporadic outbreaks of severe hemorrhagic fever with a case fatality rate as high as 90%. AVI-7288, a positively charged antisense phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer (PMOplus targeting the viral nucleoprotein gene, was evaluated as a potential therapeutic intervention for MARV infection following delayed treatment of 1, 24, 48, and 96 h post-infection (PI in a nonhuman primate lethal challenge model. A total of 30 cynomolgus macaques were divided into 5 groups of 6 and infected with 1,830 plaque forming units of MARV subcutaneously. AVI-7288 was administered by bolus infusion daily for 14 days at 15 mg/kg body weight. Survival was the primary endpoint of the study. While none (0 of 6 of the saline group survived, 83-100% of infected monkeys survived when treatment was initiated 1, 24, 48, or 96 h post-infection (PI. The antisense treatment also reduced serum viremia and inflammatory cytokines in all treatment groups compared to vehicle controls. The antibody immune response to virus was preserved and tissue viral antigen was cleared in AVI-7288 treated animals. These data show that AVI-7288 protects NHPs against an otherwise lethal MARV infection when treatment is initiated up to 96 h PI.

  7. Acute infection with venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particles catalyzes a systemic antiviral state and protects from lethal virus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopka, Jennifer L; Thompson, Joseph M; Whitmore, Alan C; Webb, Drue L; Johnston, Robert E

    2009-12-01

    The host innate immune response provides a critical first line of defense against invading pathogens, inducing an antiviral state to impede the spread of infection. While numerous studies have documented antiviral responses within actively infected tissues, few have described the earliest innate response induced systemically by infection. Here, utilizing Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) replicon particles (VRP) to limit infection to the initially infected cells in vivo, a rapid activation of the antiviral response was demonstrated not only within the murine draining lymph node, where replication was confined, but also within distal tissues. In the liver and brain, expression of interferon-stimulated genes was detected by 1 to 3 h following VRP footpad inoculation, reaching peak expression of >100-fold over that in mock-infected animals. Moreover, mice receiving a VRP footpad inoculation 6, 12, or 24 h prior to an otherwise lethal VEE footpad challenge were completely protected from death, including a drastic reduction in challenge virus titers. VRP pretreatment also provided protection from intranasal VEE challenge and extended the average survival time following intracranial challenge. Signaling through the interferon receptor was necessary for antiviral gene induction and protection from VEE challenge. However, VRP pretreatment failed to protect mice from a heterologous, lethal challenge with vesicular stomatitis virus, yet conferred protection following challenge with influenza virus. Collectively, these results document a rapid modulation of the host innate response within hours of infection, capable of rapidly alerting the entire animal to pathogen invasion and leading to protection from viral disease.

  8. Recombinant thrombomodulin protects mice against histone-induced lethal thromboembolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayumi Nakahara

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Recent studies have shown that histones, the chief protein component of chromatin, are released into the extracellular space during sepsis, trauma, and ischemia-reperfusion injury, and act as major mediators of the death of an organism. This study was designed to elucidate the cellular and molecular basis of histone-induced lethality and to assess the protective effects of recombinant thrombomodulin (rTM. rTM has been approved for the treatment of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC in Japan, and is currently undergoing a phase III clinical trial in the United States. METHODS: Histone H3 levels in plasma of healthy volunteers and patients with sepsis and DIC were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Male C57BL/6 mice were injected intravenously with purified histones, and pathological examinations were performed. The protective effects of rTM against histone toxicity were analyzed both in vitro and in mice. RESULTS: Histone H3 was not detectable in plasma of healthy volunteers, but significant levels were observed in patients with sepsis and DIC. These levels were higher in non-survivors than in survivors. Extracellular histones triggered platelet aggregation, leading to thrombotic occlusion of pulmonary capillaries and subsequent right-sided heart failure in mice. These mice displayed symptoms of DIC, including thrombocytopenia, prolonged prothrombin time, decreased fibrinogen, fibrin deposition in capillaries, and bleeding. Platelet depletion protected mice from histone-induced death in the first 30 minutes, suggesting that vessel occlusion by platelet-rich thrombi might be responsible for death during the early phase. Furthermore, rTM bound to extracellular histones, suppressed histone-induced platelet aggregation, thrombotic occlusion of pulmonary capillaries, and dilatation of the right ventricle, and rescued mice from lethal thromboembolism. CONCLUSIONS: Extracellular histones cause massive

  9. Laboratory testing of a lethal ovitrap for Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeichner, B C; Perich, M J

    1999-07-01

    Laboratory tests were conducted to determine the feasibility of making the mosquito ovitrap lethal to Aedes aegypti (L.) when they attempt to oviposit in the trap. Heavy-weight velour paper strips (2.54 x 11 cm) were used as an alternative to the wooden paddle normally provided as a substrate for mosquito oviposition. The paper strips were pretreated with insecticide solutions and allowed to dry before being used in oviposition cups of 473 ml capacity, filled with water initially to within 2.5 cm of the brim. Insecticides chosen for their quick knock-down efficacy were bendiocarb 76% WP (1.06 mg a.i./strip) and four pyrethroids: permethrin 25% WP (0.16 mg a.i./strip), deltamethin 4.75% SC (0.87 mg a.i./strip), cypermethrin 40% WP (2.81 mg a.i./strip), and cyfluthrin 20% WP (0.57 mg a.i./ strip). For experimental evaluation, two oviposition cups (one with an insecticide-treated strip and one with an untreated strip) were placed in cages (cubic 30 cm) with gravid female Ae. aegypti mosquitoes (aged 6-8 days) from a susceptible laboratory strain. Mortality-rates of female mosquitoes were 45% for bendiocarb, 47% for permethrin, 98% for deltamethrin, 100% for cypermethrin, and 100% for cyfluthrin. Young instar larvae added to the treated cups died within 2h. After water evaporation from the cups for 38 days, fresh mosquito females had access to previously submerged portions of the velour paper paddle, and mortality rates of 59% or more occurred. Cups that had water (360 ml) dripped into them, to simulate rain, produced female mosquito mortality rates of > 50% and all larvae died within 3 h of being added. These tests demonstrate that the ovitrap can be made lethal to both adults and larvae by insecticidal treatment of the ovistrip. Field efficacy trials are underway in Brazil to access the impact of this simple, low-cost, environmentally benign approach on populations of the dengue vector Ae. aegypti.

  10. Body Piercing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most common body piercing. Other common places to pierce include the eyebrow, nose, tongue, lip, belly button, nipples, and genitals. Some people also pierce their ear cartilage (the hard part of the ...

  11. BODY CONDITION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Andrew Taylor

    seasonal variation that could be used in management decisions. ... To assess muscle and fat content, the leg was completely separated into meat, bone, ..... The seasonal variation in body condition of mountain reedbuck can be explained by ...

  12. Body Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2008-01-01

    @@ For Teachers: The Wordless Language Spoken by Everyone by Pamela Osment An old saying goes:"Actions speak louder than words."That's true according to communication experts.Some studies show that up to 90 percent of communication is nonverbal.Though you might say one thing,your body movements may indicate something entirely different.This nonverbal way of communicating is called body language.The Universal(通用的)Language

  13. Critical Approaches to Security in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Malksoo, Maria; C.A.S.E. Collective

    2006-01-01

    In the last decade, critical approaches have substantially reshaped the\\ud theoretical landscape of security studies in Europe. Yet, despite an\\ud impressive body of literature, there remains fundamental disagreement\\ud as to what counts as critical in this context. Scholars are still\\ud arguing in terms of ‘schools’, while there has been an increasing and\\ud sustained cross-fertilization among critical approaches. Finally, the\\ud boundaries between critical and traditional approaches to secu...

  14. Lethal Lullabies: A History of Opium Use in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obladen, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Poppy extract accompanied the human infant for more than 3 millenia. Motives for its use included excessive crying, suspected pain, and diarrhea. In antiquity, infantile sleeplessness was regarded as a disease. When treatment with opium was recommended by Galen, Rhazes, and Avicenna, baby sedation made its way into early medical treatises and pediatric instructions. Dabbing maternal nipples with bitter substances and drugging the infant with opium were used to hasten weaning. A freerider of gum lancing, opiates joined the treatment of difficult teething in the 17th century. Foundling hospitals and wet-nurses used them extensively. With industrialization, private use was rampant among the working class. In German-speaking countries, poppy extracts were administered in soups and pacifiers. In English-speaking countries, proprietary drugs containing opium were marketed under names such as soothers, nostrums, anodynes, cordials, preservatives, and specifics and sold at the doorstep or in grocery stores. Opium's toxicity for infants was common knowledge; thousands of cases of lethal intoxication had been reported from antiquity. What is remarkable is that the willingness to use it in infants persisted and that physicians continued to prescribe it for babies. Unregulated trade, and even that protected by governments, led to greatly increased private use of opiates during the 19th century. Intoxication became a significant factor in infant mortality. As late as 1912, the International Hague Convention forced governments to implement legislation that effectively curtailed access to opium and broke the dangerous habit of sedating infants.

  15. Lethal altruists: itineraries along the dark outskirts of moralistic prosociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobeña, Adolf

    2009-06-01

    Suicide bombers are the most spectacular example of an impregnable morality toward one's own group that co-exists alongside a radical amorality toward members of another group. Suicide bombers carry out massacres with the utter conviction that they are acting in accordance with values associated with the greatest good. Suicidal attacks are conceived as a form of lethal altruism, a damaging drift from human cooperative tendencies and one that requires a detailed understanding. Strong altruism is a main component of a cluster of temperamental traits that may distinguish individuals with propensities to put themselves at the threshold of major progroupal sacrifices. Among all populations there will be pockets of extreme moralizing altruists willing to make high investments in others, investments involving great personal risk. A research framework is outlined to study other constitutionally based traits (dominance, boldness, aggressiveness, machiavellianism, narcissism, messianism, credulity/religiosity) that may also contribute to the different roles played by self-recruited members in combative cells that in turn are crucial for the ties they establish and the tactics employed. Individually oriented research may reveal profiles distinguishing between potential inducers and performers of martyrdom. As a rule, machiavellistic leaders do not usually squander their personal choices on group commitments; on the contrary, their gift for simulating altruism is used for individual gains. Potential martyrs, on the other hand, are by definition squanderers. Evidence accrued in recent years in fields going from behavioral economics to cognitive neuroimaging makes such an endeavor feasible.

  16. Rescue of progeria in trichothiodystrophy by homozygous lethal Xpd alleles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaan-Olle Andressoo

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Although compound heterozygosity, or the presence of two different mutant alleles of the same gene, is common in human recessive disease, its potential to impact disease outcome has not been well documented. This is most likely because of the inherent difficulty in distinguishing specific biallelic effects from differences in environment or genetic background. We addressed the potential of different recessive alleles to contribute to the enigmatic pleiotropy associated with XPD recessive disorders in compound heterozygous mouse models. Alterations in this essential helicase, with functions in both DNA repair and basal transcription, result in diverse pathologies ranging from elevated UV sensitivity and cancer predisposition to accelerated segmental progeria. We report a variety of biallelic effects on organismal phenotype attributable to combinations of recessive Xpd alleles, including the following: (i the ability of homozygous lethal Xpd alleles to ameliorate a variety of disease symptoms when their essential basal transcription function is supplied by a different disease-causing allele, (ii differential developmental and tissue-specific functions of distinct Xpd allele products, and (iii interallelic complementation, a phenomenon rarely reported at clinically relevant loci in mammals. Our data suggest a re-evaluation of the contribution of "null" alleles to XPD disorders and highlight the potential of combinations of recessive alleles to affect both normal and pathological phenotypic plasticity in mammals.

  17. Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy: Endemic Viruses and Lethal Brain Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Sheila A; Atwood, Walter J

    2017-06-21

    In 1971, the first human polyomavirus was isolated from the brain of a patient who died from a rapidly progressing demyelinating disease known as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The virus was named JC virus after the initials of the patient. In that same year a second human polyomavirus was discovered in the urine of a kidney transplant patient and named BK virus. In the intervening years it became clear that both viruses were widespread in the human population but only rarely caused disease. The past decade has witnessed the discovery of eleven new human polyomaviruses, two of which cause unusual and rare cancers. We present an overview of the history of these viruses and the evolution of JC polyomavirus-induced progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy over three different epochs.Wereview what is currently known about JC polyomavirus, what is suspected, and what remains to be done to understand the biology of how this mostly harmless endemic virus gives rise to lethal disease. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Virology Volume 4 is September 29, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  18. Lethal melanoma in children: a clinicopathological study of 12 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Granada, Carlos N; Lezcano, Cecilia; Scolyer, Richard A; Mihm, Martin C; Piris, Adriano

    2016-12-01

    Melanoma in children is rare, representing 3% of paediatric malignancies and melanomas. Very few detailed descriptions of bona fide lethal childhood melanomas exist in the literature. We performed a retrospective clinicopathological review of 12 paediatric (≤16 years) melanoma patients who died of metastatic disease, including detailed assessment of architectural and cytomorphological features. There were nine prepubertal patients (median age 7 years old) and three postpubertal cases (median age 15 years old). The patients died on average 45.7 months after diagnosis with the prepubertal subcohort showing a relatively longer time from diagnosis to death. The tumours were bulky (average tumour thickness=10mm), showed brisk mitotic activity (average mitotic count per mm(2)=7), and were formed by large expansile nodules with sheet-like growth pattern and infiltrative borders in the majority of cases (83%). Cytologically, large grossly pleomorphic epithelioid cells with massive eosinophilic macronucleoli were present in most cases (75%). In this cohort, we did not identify specific features of melanoma that were unique to children. Although melanomas are extremely rarely encountered in childhood, the above-cited unequivocal malignant features should prompt an outright diagnosis of melanoma even in a paediatric patient. Copyright © 2016 Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The complete genome of the tospovirus Zucchini lethal chlorosis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, R N; De Oliveira, A S; Leastro, M O; Blawid, R; Nagata, T; Resende, R O; Melo, F L

    2016-07-07

    Zucchini lethal chlorosis virus (ZLCV) causes significant losses in the production of cucurbits in Brazil. This virus belongs to the genus Tospovirus (family Bunyaviridae) and seems to be exclusively transmitted by Frankliniella zucchini (Thysanoptera). Tospoviruses have a tripartite and single-stranded RNA genome classified as S (Small), M (Medium) and L (Large) RNAS. Although ZLCV was identified as a member of the genus Tospovirus in 1999, its complete genome had not been sequenced until now. We sequenced the full-length genome of two ZLCV isolates named ZLCV-SP and ZLCV-DF. The phylogenetic analysis showed that ZLCV-SP and ZLCV-DF clustered with the previously reported isolate ZLCV-BR09. Their proteins were closely related, except the non-structural protein (NSm), which was highly divergent (approximately 90 % identity). All viral proteins clustered similarly in our phylogenetic analysis, excluding that these ZLCV isolates have originated from reassortment events of different tospovirus species. Here we report for the first time the complete genome of two ZLCV isolates that were found in the field infecting zucchini and cucumber.

  20. Immunohistochemical expression of BRCA1 and lethal prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Judson, Gregory; Penney, Kathryn; Flavin, Richard; Stark, Jennifer; Fiore, Christopher; Fall, Katja; Martin, Neil; Ma, Jing; Sinnott, Jennifer; Giovannucci, Edward; Stampfer, Meir; Sesso, Howard D.; Kantoff, Philip W.; Finn, Stephen; Loda, Massimo; Mucci, Lorelei

    2011-01-01

    BRCA1 functions as a tumor suppressor; recent work suggests that BRCA1 may also induce cell-cycle arrest to allow for DNA repair. We hypothesized that BRCA1 expression in prostate tumor tissue may be associated with prostate cancer progression through regulation of the cell-cycle. We used immunohistochemistry to evaluate BRCA1 protein expression in archival tumors samples from 393 prostate cancer cases in the Physicians' Health Study. The men were followed prospectively from diagnosis to development of metastases and mortality. Fifteen percent of tumors stained positive for BRCA1. BRCA1 positive tumors had substantially increased tumor proliferation index compared to negative tumors (47.0 Ki67 positive nuclei vs. 10.3, p=0.0016), and were more likely to develop lethal cancer compared to BRCA1 negative tumors (Hazard ratio=4.6; 95% Confidence interval: 2.4, 8.7). These findings strengthen the hypothesis that BRCA1 plays a role in cell-cycle control and demonstrate that BRCA1 is a marker of clinical prostate cancer prognosis. PMID:20388772

  1. Hemolysis-induced lethality involves inflammasome activation by heme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Fabianno F; Alves, Letícia S; Rodrigues, Danielle; Fernandez, Patricia L; de Oliveira, Rosane B; Golenbock, Douglas T; Zamboni, Dario S; Bozza, Marcelo T

    2014-09-30

    The increase of extracellular heme is a hallmark of hemolysis or extensive cell damage. Heme has prooxidant, cytotoxic, and inflammatory effects, playing a central role in the pathogenesis of malaria, sepsis, and sickle cell disease. However, the mechanisms by which heme is sensed by innate immune cells contributing to these diseases are not fully characterized. We found that heme, but not porphyrins without iron, activated LPS-primed macrophages promoting the processing of IL-1β dependent on nucleotide-binding domain and leucine rich repeat containing family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3). The activation of NLRP3 by heme required spleen tyrosine kinase, NADPH oxidase-2, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, and K(+) efflux, whereas it was independent of heme internalization, lysosomal damage, ATP release, the purinergic receptor P2X7, and cell death. Importantly, our results indicated the participation of macrophages, NLRP3 inflammasome components, and IL-1R in the lethality caused by sterile hemolysis. Thus, understanding the molecular pathways affected by heme in innate immune cells might prove useful to identify new therapeutic targets for diseases that have heme release.

  2. Following the Rules Set by Accreditation Agencies and Governing Bodies to Maintain In-Compliance Status: Applying Critical Thinking Skills When Evaluating the Need for Change in the Clinical Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Karen M; Levy, Kimberly Y; Reese, Erika M

    2016-05-01

    Maintaining an in-compliance clinical laboratory takes continuous awareness and review of standards, regulations, and best practices. A strong quality assurance program and well informed leaders who maintain professional networks can aid in this necessary task. This article will discuss a process that laboratories can follow to interpret, understand, and comply with the rules and standards set by laboratory accreditation bodies.

  3. Critical cyberculture studies

    CERN Document Server

    Silver, David; Jones, Steve

    2006-01-01

    Starting in the early 1990s, journalists and scholars began responding to and trying to take account of new technologies and their impact on our lives. By the end of the decade, the full-fledged study of cyberculture had arrived. Today, there exists a large body of critical work on the subject, with cutting-edge studies probing beyond the mere existence of virtual communities and online identities to examine the social, cultural, and economic relationships that take place online. Taking stock of the exciting work that is being done and positing what cyberculture's future might look like, Criti

  4. How Critical Is Critical Infrastructure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    to Examine Critical Issues Underlying the Planned Rebuilding at the World Trade Center Site. 178 HVS Global Hospitality Services, 2012 Manhattan...Hotel Market Overview (Mineola, NY: HVS Global Hospitality Services, 2012, http://www.hvs.com/Content/3268.pdf. 179 “Key Office Properties,” accessed...premier real estate, luxury shopping, world class hotels, destination dining, and tourism , into an area that produces cumulative consumer spending of

  5. [Critical incidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidegger, D

    2005-03-01

    In medicine real severe mishaps are rare. On the other hand critical incidents are frequent. Anonymous critical incident reporting systems allow us to learn from these mishaps. This learning process will make our daily clinical work safer Unfortunately, before these systems can be used efficiently our professional culture has to be changed. Everyone in medicine has to admit that errors do occur to see the need for an open discussion. If we really want to learn from errors, we cannot punish the individual, who reported his or her mistake. The interest is primarily in what has happened and why it has happened and not who has committed this mistake. The cause for critical incidents in medicine is in over 80% the human factor Poor communication, work under enormous stress, conflicts and hierarchies are the main cause. This has been known for many years, therefore have already 15 years ago high-tech industries, like e.g. aviation, started to invest in special courses on team training. Medicine is a typical profession were until now only the individual performance decided about the professional career Communication, conflict management, stress management, decision making, risk management, team and team resource management were subjects that have never been taught during our preor postgraduate education. These points are the most important ones for an optimal teamwork. A multimodular course designed together with Swissair (Human Aspect Development medical, HADmedical) helps to cover, as in aviation, the soft factor and behavioural education in medicine and to prepare professionals in health care to work as a real team.

  6. Critical reading and critical thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loni Kreis Taglieber

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide, for L1 and L2 reading and writing teachers, a brief overview of the literature about critical reading and higher level thinking skills. The teaching of these skills is still neglected in some language classes in Brazil, be it in L1 or in L2 classes. Thus, this paper may also serve as a resource guide for L1 and/or L2 reading and writing teachers who want to incorporate critical reading and thinking into their classes. In modern society, even in everyday life people frequently need to deal with complicated public and political issues, make decisions, and solve problems. In order to do this efficiently and effectively, citizens must be able to evaluate critically what they see, hear, and read. Also, with the huge amount of printed material available in all areas in this age of “information explosion” it is easy to feel overwhelmed. But often the information piled up on people’s desks and in their minds is of no use due to the enormous amount of it.

  7. Critical Mass

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2070299

    2017-01-01

    Critical Mass is a cycling event typically held on the last Friday of every month; its purpose is not usually formalized beyond the direct action of meeting at a set location and time and traveling as a group through city or town streets on bikes. The event originated in 1992 in San Francisco; by the end of 2003, the event was being held in over 300 cities around the world. At CERN it is held once a year in conjunction with the national Swiss campaing "Bike to work".

  8. Dominant lethal study in CD-1 mice following inhalation exposure to 1,3-butadiene: Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackett, P.L.; Mast, T.J.; Brown, M.G.; Clark, M.L.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rowe, S.E.; McClanahan, B.J.; Buschbom, R.L.; Decker, J.R.; Rommereim, R.L.; Westerberg, R.B.

    1988-04-01

    The effects of whole-body inhalation exposures to 1,3-butadiene on the reproductive system was evaluated. The results of dominant lethality in CD-1 male mice that were exposed to 1,3-butadiene are described. Subsequent to exposure, males were mated with two unexposed females. Mating was continued for 8 weeks with replacement of two females each week. Gravid uteri were removed, and the total number, position and status of implantations were determined. The mice were weighed prior to exposure and at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 weeks after exposure and at sacrifice. The animals were observed for mortality, morbidity and signs of toxicity throughout the study. 19 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  9. Lethality of Rendang packaged in multilayer retortable pouch with sterilization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praharasti, A. S.; Kusumaningrum, A.; Frediansyah, A.; Nurhikmat, A.; Khasanah, Y.; Suprapedi

    2017-01-01

    Retort Pouch had become a choice to preserve foods nowadays, besides the used of the can. Both had their own advantages, and Retort Pouch became more popular for the reason of cheaper and easier to recycle. General Method usually used to estimate the lethality of commercial heat sterilization process. Lethality value wa s used for evaluating the efficacy of the thermal process. This study aimed to find whether different layers of pouch materials affect the lethality value and to find differences lethality in two types of multilayer retort pouch, PET/Aluminum Foil/Nylon/RCPP and PET/Nylon/Modified Aluminum/CPP. The result showed that the different layer arrangement was resulted different Sterilization Value (SV). PET/Nylon/Modified Aluminum/CPP had better heat penetration, implied by the higher value of lethality. PET/Nylon/Modified Aluminum/CPP had the lethality value of 6,24 minutes, whereas the lethality value of PET/Aluminum Foil/Nylon/RCPP was 3,54 minutes.

  10. Effect of acute alcohol use on the lethality of suicide attempts in patients with mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Leo; Oquendo, Maria A; Richardson-Vejlgaard, Randall; Makhija, Nita M; Posner, Kelly; Mann, J John; Stanley, Barbara H

    2009-07-01

    Acute alcohol use is an important risk factor for attempted and completed suicide. We evaluated the effect of acute alcohol intake on the lethality of suicide attempts to test the hypothesis that acute alcohol intoxication is associated with more lethal suicide attempts. This retrospective study included 317 suicide attempters enrolled in mood disorders protocols. Demographic and clinical parameters were assessed. The use of alcohol at the time of the most lethal suicide attempt was determined. On the basis of their responses participants were classified into three groups: participants who reported "Enough alcohol intake to impair judgment, reality testing and diminish responsibility" or "Intentional intake of alcohol in order to facilitate implementation of attempt" were included in the group "Alcohol" (A); participants who reported "Some alcohol intake prior to but not related to attempt, reportedly not enough to impair judgment, reality testing" were included in the group "Some Alcohol" (SA); and participants who reported "No alcohol intake immediately prior to attempt" were included in the group "No Alcohol" (NA). Lethality of the most lethal suicide attempts was higher in the A group compared to the SA and NA groups. Prevalence of patients with alcohol use disorders was higher in the A group compared to the SA and NA groups. SA participants reported more reasons for living and lower suicide intent scores at the time of their most lethal suicide attempt compared to the A and NA groups. Acute alcohol use increases the lethality of suicide attempts in individuals with mood disorders.

  11. Connectivity Homology Enables Inter-Species Network Models of Synthetic Lethality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacunski, Alexandra; Dixon, Scott J.; Tatonetti, Nicholas P.

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic lethality is a genetic interaction wherein two otherwise nonessential genes cause cellular inviability when knocked out simultaneously. Drugs can mimic genetic knock-out effects; therefore, our understanding of promiscuous drugs, polypharmacology-related adverse drug reactions, and multi-drug therapies, especially cancer combination therapy, may be informed by a deeper understanding of synthetic lethality. However, the colossal experimental burden in humans necessitates in silico methods to guide the identification of synthetic lethal pairs. Here, we present SINaTRA (Species-INdependent TRAnslation), a network-based methodology that discovers genome-wide synthetic lethality in translation between species. SINaTRA uses connectivity homology, defined as biological connectivity patterns that persist across species, to identify synthetic lethal pairs. Importantly, our approach does not rely on genetic homology or structural and functional similarity, and it significantly outperforms models utilizing these data. We validate SINaTRA by predicting synthetic lethality in S. pombe using S. cerevisiae data, then identify over one million putative human synthetic lethal pairs to guide experimental approaches. We highlight the translational applications of our algorithm for drug discovery by identifying clusters of genes significantly enriched for single- and multi-drug cancer therapies. PMID:26451775

  12. Does the declining lethality of gunshot injuries mask a rising epidemic of gun violence in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Anupam B; Sun, Eric C; Prasad, Vinay

    2014-07-01

    Recent mass shootings in the U.S. have reignited the important public health debate concerning measures to decrease the epidemic of gun violence. Editorialists and gun lobbyists have criticized the recent focus on gun violence, arguing that gun-related homicide rates have been stable in the last decade. While true, data from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention also demonstrate that although gun-related homicide rates were stable between 2002 and 2011, rates of violent gunshot injuries increased. These seemingly paradoxical trends may reflect the declining lethality of gunshot injuries brought about by surgical advances in the care of the patient with penetrating trauma. Focusing on gun-related homicide rates as a summary statistic of gun violence, rather than total violent gunshot injuries, can therefore misrepresent the rising epidemic of gun violence in the U.S.

  13. Body Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The high-tech art of digital signal processing (DSP) was pioneered at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in the mid-1960s for use in the Apollo Lunar Landing Program. Designed to computer enhance pictures of the Moon, this technology became the basis for the Landsat Earth resources satellites and subsequently has been incorporated into a broad range of Earthbound medical and diagnostic tools. DSP is employed in advanced body imaging techniques including Computer-Aided Tomography, also known as CT and CATScan, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). CT images are collected by irradiating a thin slice of the body with a fan-shaped x-ray beam from a number of directions around the body's perimeter. A tomographic (slice-like) picture is reconstructed from these multiple views by a computer. MRI employs a magnetic field and radio waves, rather than x-rays, to create images.

  14. Signifying Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

     In our everyday lives we strive to stay healthy and happy, while we live as our selves, engage with each other, and discover an infinite world of possibilities. Health arises and diminishes as human beings draw on a vibrant ecology of actions, interactions and coactions. Intricate processes...... of biosemiosis connect signifying bodies with their natural surroundings, cultural activities and subjective experiences. Health stretches all the way from the ecosocial surroundings, through the skin and into the self-organizing processes of every living cell. Signifying Bodies lays out a new approach to health...... and health care. Eschewing all forms of dualism, the authors emphasise the interdependency of how we act, think, feel and function. They advocate a relational turn in health care, in which bodies live and learn from suffering and care. In this view, health is inseparable from both living beings...

  15. The timing of the human circadian clock is accurately represented by the core body temperature rhythm following phase shifts to a three-cycle light stimulus near the critical zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewett, M. E.; Duffy, J. F.; Czeisler, C. A.

    2000-01-01

    A double-stimulus experiment was conducted to evaluate the phase of the underlying circadian clock following light-induced phase shifts of the human circadian system. Circadian phase was assayed by constant routine from the rhythm in core body temperature before and after a three-cycle bright-light stimulus applied near the estimated minimum of the core body temperature rhythm. An identical, consecutive three-cycle light stimulus was then applied, and phase was reassessed. Phase shifts to these consecutive stimuli were no different from those obtained in a previous study following light stimuli applied under steady-state conditions over a range of circadian phases similar to those at which the consecutive stimuli were applied. These data suggest that circadian phase shifts of the core body temperature rhythm in response to a three-cycle stimulus occur within 24 h following the end of the 3-day light stimulus and that this poststimulus temperature rhythm accurately reflects the timing of the underlying circadian clock.

  16. 身体语言的革命性实践--法国女性主义批评的语言维度探寻%A Revolutionary Practice of Body Language:An exploration of the Linguistic Dimension of French Feminist Criticism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄柏刚

    2015-01-01

    The French feminist criticism proposes such theories asécriture feminine,parler femme and semiotic.It emphasizes the connection between language and feminine body,instincts,irrationalism and highlights the importance of language in gender construction.Through the revolutionary language practice of body writing,the French feminist intends to subvert patriarchal historical and cultural traditions and en-dows the function of gender politics to female body.Thus the understanding of language began to turn gradually from tool to ontology,a completion of the linguistic turn of feminist criticism and a great contri-bution to the deepening of language theory and theoretical criticism.%法国女性主义批评提出了女性写作、女人腔、符号学等理论,强调语言与女性身体、本能、非理性之间的联系,突出语言在性别主体建构中的重要作用,意图通过身体写作的革命性语言实践,颠覆父权制历史文化传统,赋予女性身体以性别政治的功能,对语言的认识开始由工具论逐渐转向本体论,完成了女性主义批评的语言学转向,在语言理论的深化及批评的学理性方面取得了巨大的成绩。

  17. Body Rainbow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Phubu did not know how long hehad walked after leaving Baxoi, buthe did know that he was halfwaybetween home and Lhasa. Feelingthe weight of the sack containingPhumo's body on his back, Fhubuhad calmed down from the grief anddesperation. He had just one wish:to carry Phumo to Lhasa. He knewthat Phumo had gone, and her soulwas no longer in this body. But hewas determined to finish the trip, notonly because he had promised so, butalso that he believed that it would beredemption for him.

  18. Body parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayiter, Elif

    2010-01-01

    In this project, the artist wishes to examine corporeality in the virtual realm, through the usage of the (non)-physical body of the avatar. An art installation created in the virtual world of Second Life, which is meant to be accessed with site specific avatars, will provide the creative platform whereby this investigation is undertaken. Thus, "body parts" seeks to challenge the residents of virtual environments into connecting with the virtual manifestations, i.e., avatars of others in an emotionally expressive/intimate manner.

  19. Recombinant raccoon pox vaccine protects mice against lethal plague

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, J.E.; Powell, T.D.; Frank, R.S.; Moss, K.; Haanes, E.J.; Smith, S.R.; Rocke, T.E.; Stinchcomb, D.T.

    2003-01-01

    Using a raccoon poxvirus (RCN) expression system, we have developed new recombinant vaccines that can protect mice against lethal plague infection. We tested the effects of a translation enhancer (EMCV-IRES) in combination with a secretory (tPA) signal or secretory (tPA) and membrane anchoring (CHV-gG) signals on in vitro antigen expression of F1 antigen in tissue culture and the induction of antibody responses and protection against Yersinia pestis challenge in mice. The RCN vector successfully expressed the F1 protein of Y. pestis in vitro. In addition, the level of expression was increased by the insertion of the EMCV-IRES and combinations of this and the secretory signal or secretory and anchoring signals. These recombinant viruses generated protective immune responses that resulted in survival of 80% of vaccinated mice upon challenge with Y. pestis. Of the RCN-based vaccines we tested, the RCN-IRES-tPA-YpF1 recombinant construct was the most efficacious. Mice vaccinated with this construct withstood challenge with as many as 1.5 million colony forming units of Y. pestis (7.7??104LD50). Interestingly, vaccination with F1 fused to the anchoring signal (RCN-IRES-tPA-YpF1-gG) elicited significant anti-F1 antibody titers, but failed to protect mice from plague challenge. Our studies demonstrate, in vitro and in vivo, the potential importance of the EMCV-IRES and secretory signals in vaccine design. These molecular tools provide a new approach for improving the efficacy of vaccines. In addition, these novel recombinant vaccines could have human, veterinary, and wildlife applications in the prevention of plague. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Radiation rescue: mesenchymal stromal cells protect from lethal irradiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Lange

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Successful treatment of acute radiation syndromes relies on immediate supportive care. In patients with limited hematopoietic recovery potential, hematopoietic stem cell (HSC transplantation is the only curative treatment option. Because of time consuming donor search and uncertain outcome we propose MSC treatment as an alternative treatment for severely radiation-affected individuals. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Mouse mesenchymal stromal cells (mMSCs were expanded from bone marrow, retrovirally labeled with eGFP (bulk cultures and cloned. Bulk and five selected clonal mMSCs populations were characterized in vitro for their multilineage differentiation potential and phenotype showing no contamination with hematopoietic cells. Lethally irradiated recipients were i.v. transplanted with bulk or clonal mMSCs. We found a long-term survival of recipients with fast hematopoietic recovery after the transplantation of MSCs exclusively without support by HSCs. Quantitative PCR based chimerism analysis detected eGFP-positive donor cells in peripheral blood immediately after injection and in lungs within 24 hours. However, no donor cells in any investigated tissue remained long-term. Despite the rapidly disappearing donor cells, microarray and quantitative RT-PCR gene expression analysis in the bone marrow of MSC-transplanted animals displayed enhanced regenerative features characterized by (i decreased proinflammatory, ECM formation and adhesion properties and (ii boosted anti-inflammation, detoxification, cell cycle and anti-oxidative stress control as compared to HSC-transplanted animals. CONCLUSIONS: Our data revealed that systemically administered MSCs provoke a protective mechanism counteracting the inflammatory events and also supporting detoxification and stress management after radiation exposure. Further our results suggest that MSCs, their release of trophic factors and their HSC-niche modulating activity rescue endogenous hematopoiesis

  1. Analyzing temporal variation in the lethality of ETA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Cuenca, Ignacio

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes time variation in the lethal violence of the terrorist organization ETA. Given the dynamic structure of the time series of fatalities, I look at the effect of a number of independent variables (the celebration of different types of elections, anti-ETA activity by extreme right-wing organizations and the GAL, police arrests, and other relevant events, such as the referendums on the Constitution and the Statute of Autonomy of Guernica. To do so, I have estimated several ARIMA models using the time series of fatalities between 1968 and 2007. Moreover, the results obtained are complemented by a historical-political analysis of the period of maximum violence, which took place during the Spanish transition to democracy.

    Este artículo analiza la variación temporal en la violencia letal de la organización terrorista ETA. Dada la estructura dinámica de la serie temporal de víctimas mortales, se estudia el efecto de una serie de variables independientes (celebración de distintos tipos de elecciones, actividad anti-ETA de la extrema derecha y del GAL, detenciones policiales y sucesos especiales como los referendos sobre la Constitución o el Estatuto de Autonomía de Guernica. Para ello, se estiman diversos modelos ARIMA con la serie trimestral de víctimas mortales entre 1968 y 2007. Además, se completan los resultados obtenidos con un análisis histórico-político del periodo de máxima violencia durante la transición a la democracia.

  2. Increased Radioresistance to Lethal Doses of Gamma Rays in Mice and Rats after Exposure to Microwave Radiation Emitted by a GSM Mobile Phone Simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Smj; Mosleh-Shirazi, Ma; Tavassoli, Ar; Taheri, M; Mehdizadeh, Ar; Namazi, Sas; Jamali, A; Ghalandari, R; Bonyadi, S; Haghani, M; Shafie, M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pre-irradiation with microwaves on the induction of radioadaptive response. In the 1(st) phase of the study, 110 male mice were divided into 8 groups. The animals in these groups were exposed/sham-exposed to microwave, low dose rate gamma or both for 5 days. On day six, the animals were exposed to a lethal dose (LD). In the 2(nd) phase, 30 male rats were divided into 2 groups of 15 animals. The 1(st) group received microwave exposure. The 2(nd) group (controls) received the same LD but there was no treatment before the LD. On day 5, all animals were whole-body irradiated with the LD. Statistically significant differences between the survival rate of the mice only exposed to lethal dose of gamma radiation before irradiation with a lethal dose of gamma radiation with those of the animals pre-exposed to either microwave (p=0.02), low dose rate gamma (p=0.001) or both of these physical adapting doses (p=0.003) were observed. Likewise, a statistically significant difference between survival rates of the rats in control and test groups was observed. Altogether, these experiments showed that exposure to microwave radiation may induce a significant survival adaptive response.

  3. Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated and Rad3 Related (ATR) Protein Kinase Inhibition Is Synthetically Lethal in XRCC1 Deficient Ovarian Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Rebeka; Abdel-Fatah, Tarek; Perry, Christina; Moseley, Paul; Albarakti, Nada; Mohan, Vivek; Seedhouse, Claire; Chan, Stephen; Madhusudan, Srinivasan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Ataxia telangiectasia mutated and Rad3 Related (ATR) protein kinase is a key sensor of single-stranded DNA associated with stalled replication forks and repair intermediates generated during DNA repair. XRCC1 is a critical enzyme in single strand break repair and base excision repair. XRCC1-LIG3 complex is also an important contributor to the ligation step of the nucleotide excision repair response. Methods In the current study, we investigated synthetic lethality in XRCC1 deficient and XRCC1 proficient Chinese Hamster ovary (CHO) and human ovarian cancer cells using ATR inhibitors (NU6027). In addition, we also investigated the ability of ATR inhibitors to potentiate cisplatin cytotoxicity in XRCC1 deficient and XRCC1 proficient CHO and human cancer cells. Clonogenic assays, alkaline COMET assays, γH2AX immunocytochemistry, FACS for cell cycle as well as FITC-annexin V flow cytometric analysis were performed. Results ATR inhibition is synthetically lethal in XRCC1 deficient cells as evidenced by increased cytotoxicity, accumulation of double strand DNA breaks, G2/M cell cycle arrest and increased apoptosis. Compared to cisplatin alone, combination of cisplatin and ATR inhibitor results in enhanced cytotoxicity in XRCC1 deficient cells compared to XRCC1 proficient cells. Conclusions Our data provides evidence that ATR inhibition is suitable for synthetic lethality application and cisplatin chemopotentiation in XRCC1 deficient ovarian cancer cells. PMID:23451157

  4. Ataxia telangiectasia mutated and Rad3 related (ATR protein kinase inhibition is synthetically lethal in XRCC1 deficient ovarian cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeka Sultana

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Ataxia telangiectasia mutated and Rad3 Related (ATR protein kinase is a key sensor of single-stranded DNA associated with stalled replication forks and repair intermediates generated during DNA repair. XRCC1 is a critical enzyme in single strand break repair and base excision repair. XRCC1-LIG3 complex is also an important contributor to the ligation step of the nucleotide excision repair response. METHODS: In the current study, we investigated synthetic lethality in XRCC1 deficient and XRCC1 proficient Chinese Hamster ovary (CHO and human ovarian cancer cells using ATR inhibitors (NU6027. In addition, we also investigated the ability of ATR inhibitors to potentiate cisplatin cytotoxicity in XRCC1 deficient and XRCC1 proficient CHO and human cancer cells. Clonogenic assays, alkaline COMET assays, γH2AX immunocytochemistry, FACS for cell cycle as well as FITC-annexin V flow cytometric analysis were performed. RESULTS: ATR inhibition is synthetically lethal in XRCC1 deficient cells as evidenced by increased cytotoxicity, accumulation of double strand DNA breaks, G2/M cell cycle arrest and increased apoptosis. Compared to cisplatin alone, combination of cisplatin and ATR inhibitor results in enhanced cytotoxicity in XRCC1 deficient cells compared to XRCC1 proficient cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our data provides evidence that ATR inhibition is suitable for synthetic lethality application and cisplatin chemopotentiation in XRCC1 deficient ovarian cancer cells.

  5. Body Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, David E.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses how the use of body language in Chinese fiction strikes most Westerners as unusual, if not strange. Considers that, although this may be the result of differences in gestures or different conventions in fiction, it is a problem for translators, who handle the differences by various strategies, e.g., omission or expansion. (NKA)

  6. Critical anthropometry for menarche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, G F; Villena, A

    1996-08-01

    The objective of the study was to determine if any anthropometric measurements, including weight, height, and upper arm circumference, or the calculated body mass index observed at the time of menarche may be used as a threshold for menarche. The sample was randomly selected from 1133 girls aged 10-18 years from two groups, one residing in Lima, Peru, at 150 m above sea level, and the second in Cerro de Pasco, Peru, at 4340 m above sea level. For the purpose of this study, all girls who reached menarche at least 1 month before the study (n = 93) were considered as cases (girls at menarche); 88 girls without menarche at the time of the study were randomly matched by age and place of residence, and designated as controls. All subjects came from the same low socioeconomic status. Body weight at menarche was 44.6 +/- 5.09 kg (mean +/- SD; coefficient of variation [CV], 11.4%). Height at menarche was 151.6 +/- 5.5 cm (CV, 3.7%). Body mass index, defined as weight/height2.15, was 18.26 +/- 1.96 kg/m2.15 at menarche (CV, 10.7%). Upper arm circumference at menarche was 21.8 +/- 1.6 cm (CV, 7.3%). The logistic regression analysis showed that any of the four anthropometric measurements analyzed were critical for menarche; i.e., any of the four could be used as a threshold for menarche. Data from the present study do not support the hypothesis that there are anthropometric markers that are critical for menarche.

  7. Lethal effects of Helianthemum lippii (L.) on Acanthamoeba castellanii cysts in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badria, F A; Hetta, M H; Sarhan, Rania M; Ezz El-Din, M H

    2014-06-01

    Acanthamoeba spp. commonly cause Acanthamoeba keratitis which is typically associated with the wear of contact lenses. Therefore, finding an economic, efficient, and safe therapy of natural origin is of outmost importance. This study examined the in vitro lethal potential of ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Helianthemum lippii (L.) (sun roses) against Acanthamoeba castellanii cysts isolated from patients with amoebic keratitis. Both extracts proved to be potent as regard to their lethal effects on A. castellanii cysts with comparable results to chlorhexidine. The ethyl acetate was more promising with cumulative lethality. It showed a highly significant lethal percentage along the duration of treatment. The analysis of the more potent ethyl acetate extract revealed the presence of 2.96 mg/100 g of total phenolics, 0.289 mg/100 ml of total flavonoids and 37 mg/100 mg of total tannins which highlighted their phytomedicinal role.

  8. Risks of non-lethal weapon use: case studies of three French victims of stinger grenades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolan, V; Herry, C; Carreta, M; Stahl, C; Barret, L; Romanet, J P; Paysant, F

    2012-11-30

    The development of non-lethal weapons started in the 1960s. In France, they have been used by the police for about 10 years. We relate the cases of three French women, victims of stinger grenades, non-lethal weapons recently adopted by the French law enforcement to distract and disperse crowds. The three victims presented serious injuries requiring emergency surgical care. One lost her eye. Based on these cases, we discuss the lethal character of these weapons and propose measures to be taken to prevent their dramatic consequences. Although the danger is obviously less than for firearms, stinger grenades are nonetheless potentially lethal and cause serious physical injuries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Crystal Structure of Protein Reveals Target for Drugs Against Lethal MERS Virus | FNLCR Staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    A research team of scientists from the National Cancer Institute and the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research recently identified the structure of a key protein of the virus that causes the highly lethal Middle East Respiratory Syndrome.

  10. The flap by flap dissection in terminal ballistic applied to less lethal weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freminville, Humbert; Rongieras, Fréderic; Prat, Nicolas; Voiglio, Eric J

    2011-06-01

    Medical examiners often have to solve questions such as firing distance and bullet trajectory for lethal weapons. Knowledge in the field of terminal ballistics has increased during the last 30 years and layer by layer dissection reveals superficial wounds that can be linked with the permanent cavity. At the end of the 1990s, terminal ballistics also focused on less lethal weapons and their wounds. Here, 2 different less lethal weapons with single bullets were tested on nonembalmed and undressed cadavers (N = 26) at different ranges and speeds. We have developed a technique for dissection which we call flap by flap dissection that reveals the advantage of the bullet-skin-bone entity, the absence of wounds linking its components and range of less lethal weapons.

  11. Variability in mutational fitness effects prevents full lethal transitions in large quasispecies populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardanyés, Josep; Simó, Carles; Martínez, Regina; Solé, Ricard V.; Elena, Santiago F.

    2014-04-01

    The distribution of mutational fitness effects (DMFE) is crucial to the evolutionary fate of quasispecies. In this article we analyze the effect of the DMFE on the dynamics of a large quasispecies by means of a phenotypic version of the classic Eigen's model that incorporates beneficial, neutral, deleterious, and lethal mutations. By parameterizing the model with available experimental data on the DMFE of Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and Tobacco etch virus (TEV), we found that increasing mutation does not totally push the entire viral quasispecies towards deleterious or lethal regions of the phenotypic sequence space. The probability of finding regions in the parameter space of the general model that results in a quasispecies only composed by lethal phenotypes is extremely small at equilibrium and in transient times. The implications of our findings can be extended to other scenarios, such as lethal mutagenesis or genomically unstable cancer, where increased mutagenesis has been suggested as a potential therapy.

  12. Recurrent late cardiac tamponade following cardiac surgery : a deceiving and potentially lethal complication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harskamp, Ralf E.; Meuzelaar, Jacobus J.

    2010-01-01

    Background - Cardiac tamponade, characterized by inflow obstruction of the heart chambers by extracardiac compression, is a potentially lethal complication following cardiac surgery. Case report - We present a case of recurrent cardiac tamponade following valve surgery. At first presentation, diagno

  13. Recurrent late cardiac tamponade following cardiac surgery : a deceiving and potentially lethal complication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harskamp, Ralf E.; Meuzelaar, Jacobus J.

    2010-01-01

    Background - Cardiac tamponade, characterized by inflow obstruction of the heart chambers by extracardiac compression, is a potentially lethal complication following cardiac surgery. Case report - We present a case of recurrent cardiac tamponade following valve surgery. At first presentation,

  14. Recurrent late cardiac tamponade following cardiac surgery : a deceiving and potentially lethal complication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harskamp, Ralf E.; Meuzelaar, Jacobus J.

    2010-01-01

    Background - Cardiac tamponade, characterized by inflow obstruction of the heart chambers by extracardiac compression, is a potentially lethal complication following cardiac surgery. Case report - We present a case of recurrent cardiac tamponade following valve surgery. At first presentation, diagno

  15. Lethal mutations in the major homology region and their suppressors act by modulating the dimerization of the rous sarcoma virus capsid protein C-terminal domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalessio, Paula M; Craven, Rebecca C; Lokhandwala, Parvez M; Ropson, Ira J

    2013-02-01

    An infective retrovirus requires a mature capsid shell around the viral replication complex. This shell is formed by about 1500 capsid protein monomers, organized into hexamer and pentamer rings that are linked to each other by the dimerization of the C-terminal domain (CTD). The major homology region (MHR), the most highly conserved protein sequence across retroviral genomes, is part of the CTD. Several mutations in the MHR appear to block infectivity by preventing capsid formation. Suppressor mutations have been identified that are distant in sequence and structure from the MHR and restore capsid formation. The effects of two lethal and two suppressor mutations on the stability and function of the CTD were examined. No correlation with infectivity was found for the stability of the lethal mutations (D155Y-CTD, F167Y-CTD) and suppressor mutations (R185W-CTD, I190V-CTD). The stabilities of three double mutant proteins (D155Y/R185W-CTD, F167Y/R185W-CTD, and F167Y/I190V-CTD) were additive. However, the dimerization affinity of the mutant proteins correlated strongly with biological function. The CTD proteins with lethal mutations did not dimerize, while those with suppressor mutations had greater dimerization affinity than WT-CTD. The suppressor mutations were able to partially correct the dimerization defect caused by the lethal MHR mutations in double mutant proteins. Despite their dramatic effects on dimerization, none of these residues participate directly in the proposed dimerization interface in a mature capsid. These findings suggest that the conserved sequence of the MHR has critical roles in the conformation(s) of the CTD that are required for dimerization and correct capsid maturation. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Relative Critical Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Lewis

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Relative equilibria of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian systems with symmetry are critical points of appropriate scalar functions parametrized by the Lie algebra (or its dual of the symmetry group. Setting aside the structures – symplectic, Poisson, or variational – generating dynamical systems from such functions highlights the common features of their construction and analysis, and supports the construction of analogous functions in non-Hamiltonian settings. If the symmetry group is nonabelian, the functions are invariant only with respect to the isotropy subgroup of the given parameter value. Replacing the parametrized family of functions with a single function on the product manifold and extending the action using the (coadjoint action on the algebra or its dual yields a fully invariant function. An invariant map can be used to reverse the usual perspective: rather than selecting a parametrized family of functions and finding their critical points, conditions under which functions will be critical on specific orbits, typically distinguished by isotropy class, can be derived. This strategy is illustrated using several well-known mechanical systems – the Lagrange top, the double spherical pendulum, the free rigid body, and the Riemann ellipsoids – and generalizations of these systems.

  17. Relative Critical Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Debra

    2013-05-01

    Relative equilibria of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian systems with symmetry are critical points of appropriate scalar functions parametrized by the Lie algebra (or its dual) of the symmetry group. Setting aside the structures - symplectic, Poisson, or variational - generating dynamical systems from such functions highlights the common features of their construction and analysis, and supports the construction of analogous functions in non-Hamiltonian settings. If the symmetry group is nonabelian, the functions are invariant only with respect to the isotropy subgroup of the given parameter value. Replacing the parametrized family of functions with a single function on the product manifold and extending the action using the (co)adjoint action on the algebra or its dual yields a fully invariant function. An invariant map can be used to reverse the usual perspective: rather than selecting a parametrized family of functions and finding their critical points, conditions under which functions will be critical on specific orbits, typically distinguished by isotropy class, can be derived. This strategy is illustrated using several well-known mechanical systems - the Lagrange top, the double spherical pendulum, the free rigid body, and the Riemann ellipsoids - and generalizations of these systems.

  18. Lethality of patients with rheumatoid arthritis depending on adalimumab administration: imitation modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D V Goryachev

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Lethality of pts with rheumatoid arthritis (RA exceeds mortality values in general population. Possibility of disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARD influence on RA pts lethality has been widely discussed lately in scientific works. Objective. To determine possible lethality diminishment in Russian population of RA pts with one of biological drugs TNFα antagonist adalimumab. Material and methods. Model construction is based on the fact of lethality dependence on pt functional state assessed by HAQ. Model simulating progression of functional disability in pts with RA visiting medical institutions of Russia was made (RAISER study. 3 model variants for imitation of consecutive change of DMARDs including adalimumab were done. First consecution assessed DMARD change in the next chain: adalimumab-methotrexate-sulfasalazine-leflunomide-azathioprine-cyclosporine-palliative therapy. Second consecution: adalimumab administration after failure of first 3 DMARDs. Third consecution considered only change of synthetic DMARDs without adalimumab inclusion. Model imitated participation of 3000 pts in every consecution. Prognosis horizon was 12 years. Age of pts and initial HAQ distribution were get from results of epidemiological RAISER study. Calculation was done on the base of elevation of standardized lethality level (SLL in population of RA pts in average from 135% to 300%. SLL values from 80 to 320% were used depending on functional disability degree with converting to Russian values of age-specific lethality coefficient for 1999. Results. Lethality in treatment consecutions including adalimumab was significantly lower. To the end of 12th year in group not using adalimumab, using it at once and using it after 376 DMARDs respectively 65,1%, 71,6% and 71,1% of pts were still alive. Conclusion. Significant decrease of lethality with adalimumab inclusion in consecution of DMARD change during treatment of RA pts was demonstrated with imitation modeling

  19. Improving Lethal Action: Learning and Adapting in U.S. Counterterrorism Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    25  Figure 8.   Maximum and Minimum Combatant Casualties ( KIA ) from Lethal Action Operations with Different Target Types...aka IS, ISIS) JCOA Joint and Coalition Operational Analysis Division/Joint Center for Operational Analysis KIA Killed in action NAF New...Casualties ( KIA ) from Lethal Action Operations with Different Target Types   In Figure 8, the average combatant numbers of killed in action ( KIA ) are about

  20. Genetic synthetic lethality screen at the single gene level in cultured human cells

    OpenAIRE

    Simons, Arnold H.; Dafni, Naomi; Dotan, Iris; Oron, Yoram; Canaani, Dan

    2001-01-01

    Recently, we demonstrated the feasibility of a chemical synthetic lethality screen in cultured human cells. We now demonstrate the principles for a genetic synthetic lethality screen. The technology employs both an immortalized human cell line deficient in the gene of interest, which is complemented by an episomal survival plasmid expressing the wild-type cDNA for the gene of interest, and the use of a novel GFP-based double-label fluorescence system. Dominant negative genetic suppressor elem...

  1. Mice lacking functional STAT1 are highly susceptible to lethal infection with Lassa virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Nadezhda E; Seregin, Alexey V; Walker, David H; Popov, Vsevolod L; Walker, Aida G; Smith, Jeanon N; Miller, Milagros; de la Torre, Juan C; Smith, Jennifer K; Borisevich, Viktoriya; Fair, Joseph N; Wauquier, Nadia; Grant, Donald S; Bockarie, Bayon; Bente, Dennis; Paessler, Slobodan

    2013-10-01

    Lassa fever (LF) is a potentially lethal human disease that is caused by the arenavirus Lassa virus (LASV). Annually, around 300,000 infections with up to 10,000 deaths occur in regions of Lassa fever endemicity in West Africa. Here we demonstrate that mice lacking a functional STAT1 pathway are highly susceptible to infection with LASV and develop lethal disease with pathology similar to that reported in humans.

  2. Effects of different doses of dexamethasone plus flunixin meglumine on survival rate in lethal endotoxemia

    OpenAIRE

    Er A.; Uney K.; Altan F.; Cetin G.; Yazar E.; Elmas M.

    2009-01-01

    Effects of different doses of dexamethasone plus flunixin meglumine on survival rate were investigated in lethal endotoxemia. A total of 60 Balb/C female mice were divided into 4 equal groups. Lethal endotoxemia (80-100%) was induced by lipopolysaccharide injection (Group 1, 1 mg, intraperinoneally). At 4 hours after the lipopolysaccharide injection; low-dose dexamethasone (0.6 mg/kg, SID, 5 days, intramuscularly) + flunixin meglumine (2 mg/kg, SID, 5 days, subcutaneously), normal-dose dexame...

  3. Effectiveness Testing and Evaluation of Non-Lethal Weapons for Crowd Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Weapons”) • Participants were recruited from the general population to participate in an investigation on “ Crowd Movement ” • Fifty-two healthy men...U.S. Army Armament Research, Development, and Engineering Center EFFECTIVENESS TESTING AND EVALUATION OF NON-LETHAL WEAPONS FOR CROWD MANAGEMENT...SUBTITLE EFFECTIVENESS TESTING AND EVALUATION OF NON-LETHAL WEAPONS FOR CROWD MANAGEMENT Presented at the Virtual 82nd Military Operations Research

  4. The effect of lethal doses of X-rays on chilled and thyroidectomized animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hempelmann, L.H.; Trujillo, T.T.; Knowlton, N.P. Jr.

    1949-04-19

    The chilling of animals has been shown to offer some protection from the lethal effects of radiation. An effort has been made to extend the study of the effects of chilling on the lethal effects of x radiation and to determine whether or not the lowering of the basal metabolic rate by thyroidectomy will give similar protection. Five experiments were carried out using mice and rats as the experimental animals.

  5. Neutralisation of lethality, myotoxicity and toxic enzymes of Naja kaouthia venom by Mimosa pudica root extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanta, M; Mukherjee, A K

    2001-04-01

    Aqueous and alcoholic extracts of dried roots of Mimosa pudica were tested for their inhibitory activity on lethality, myotoxicity and toxic enzymes of Naja kaouthia venom. The aqueous extract, particularly the normal water extract, displayed a significant inhibitory effect on the lethality, myotoxicity and tested enzyme activities of venom compared with alcoholic extracts. The present finding suggests that aqueous extracts of M. pudica root possess compound(s), which inhibit the activity of cobra venom.

  6. Generation of reactive oxygen species by lethal attacks from competing microbes

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Tao G.; Dong, Shiqi; Catalano, Christy; Moore, Richard; Liang, Xiaoye; Mekalanos, John J.

    2015-01-01

    How microbes respond to lethal attacks from competing species is not fully understood. Here, we investigated the response of Escherichia coli to attacks from the type VI secretion system (T6SS), bacteriophage P1vir, and polymyxin B. We report that generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a general outcome of potentially lethal activities mediated by contact-dependent or contact-independent interactions of aggressive competing bacterial species and phage. An ROS response gene, soxS, is h...

  7. Materials Applications for Non-Lethal: Aqueous Foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GOOLSBY,TOMMY D.; SCOTT,STEVEN H.

    1999-09-15

    High expansion aqueous foam is an aggregation of bubbles that has the appearance of soap suds and is used to isolate individuals both visually and acoustically. It was developed in the 1920's in England to fight coal mine fires and has been widely used since for fire fighting and dust suppression. It was developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in the 1970's for nuclear safeguards and security applications. In the mid-1990s, the National Institute of Justice (NIJ), the research arm of the Department of Justice, began a project with SNL to determine the applicability of high expansion aqueous foam for correctional applications. NIJ funded the project as part of its search for new and better less-than-lethal weapons for responding to violent and dangerous individuals, where other means of force could lead to serious injuries. The phase one objectives of the project were to select a low-to-no toxicity foam concentrate (foaming agent) with physical characteristics suited for use in a single cell or large prison disturbances, and to determine if the selected foam concentrate could serve as a carrier for Oleoresin Capsicum (OC) irritant. The phase two objectives were to conduct an extensive toxicology review of the selected foam concentrate and OC irritant, and to conduct respiration simulation experiments in the selected high expansion aqueous foam. The phase three objectives were to build a prototype individual cell aqueous foam system and to study the feasibility of aqueous foams for large prison facility disturbances. The phase four and five objectives were to use the prototype system to do large scale foam physical characteristics testing of the selected foam concentrate, and to have the prototype single cell system further evaluated by correctional representatives. Prison rather than street scenarios were evaluated as the first and most likely place for using the aqueous foam since prisons have recurrent incidents where officers and inmates might

  8. Exposure-dependent variation in cryolite induced lethality in the non-target insect, Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podder, Sayanti; Roy, Sumedha

    2014-03-01

    The starting point of toxicity testing of any chemical in an organism is the determination of its Lethal Concentration 50 (LC50). In the present study, LC50 of a fluorinated insecticide cryolite is determined in a non-target insect model, Drosophila melanogaster. Interestingly, the result shows that acute LC50 of cryolite was much greater in comparison to the chronic one in case of Drosophila larvae. Larvae which were exposed to 65,000 to 70,000 µg/ml cryolite through food showed 50% mortality after 18 hours of acute exposure, whereas only 150 to 160 µg/ml cryolite was sufficient to cause 50% mortality in case of chronic exposure. Thus cryolite in a small amount when applied once cannot produce noticeable changes in Drosophila, whereas the same amount when used continuously can be fatal. The non-feeding pupal stage was also seen to be affected by chemical treatment. This suggests that the test chemical affects the developmental fate and results in failure of adult emergence. Absence of chemical-induced mortality in adults assumes that the toxicity of cryolite might be restricted to the preimaginal stages of the organism. Reduction in body size of larvae after ingestion of cryolite (with food) in acute treatment schedule is another interesting finding of this study. Some individuals consuming cryolite containing food cannot survive whereas the few survivors manifest a significant growth retardation which might be due to a tendency of refusal in feeding. Hence the present findings provide a scope of assessment of risk of other similar non-target groups.

  9. Ataxin-1 fusion partners alter polyQ lethality and aggregation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Rich

    Full Text Available Intranuclear inclusion bodies (IBs are the histopathologic markers of multiple protein folding diseases. IB formation has been extensively studied using fluorescent fusion products of pathogenic polyglutamine (polyQ expressing proteins. These studies have been informative in determining the cellular targets of expanded polyQ protein as well as the methods by which cells rid themselves of IBs. The experimental thrust has been to intervene in the process of polyQ aggregation in an attempt to alleviate cytotoxicity. However new data argues against the notion that polyQ aggregation and cytotoxicity are inextricably linked processes. We reasoned that changing the protein context of a disease causing polyQ protein could accelerate its precipitation as an IB, potentially reducing its cytotoxicity. Our experimental strategy simply exploited the fact that conjoined proteins influence each others folding and aggregation properties. We fused a full-length pathogenic ataxin-1 construct to fluorescent tags (GFP and DsRed1-E5 that exist at different oligomeric states. The spectral properties of the DsRed1-E5-ataxin-1 transfectants had the additional advantage of allowing us to correlate fluorochrome maturation with cytotoxicity. Each fusion protein expressed a distinct cytotoxicity and IB morphology. Flow cytometric analyses of transfectants expressing the greatest fluorescent signals revealed that the DsRed1-E5-ataxin-1 fusion was more toxic than GFP fused ataxin-1 (31.8+/-4.5% cell death versus 12.85+/-3%, although co-transfection with the GFP fusion inhibited maturation of the DsRed1-E5 fluorochrome and diminished the toxicity of the DsRed1-E5-ataxin-1 fusion. These data show that polyQ driven aggregation can be influenced by fusion partners to generate species with different toxic properties and provide new opportunities to study IB aggregation, maturation and lethality.

  10. Burkholderia pseudomallei known siderophores and hemin uptake are dispensable for lethal murine melioidosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian H Kvitko

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei is a mostly saprophytic bacterium, but can infect humans where it causes the difficult-to-manage disease melioidosis. Even with proper diagnosis and prompt therapeutic interventions mortality rates still range from >20% in Northern Australia to over 40% in Thailand. Surprisingly little is yet known about how B. pseudomallei infects, invades and survives within its hosts, and virtually nothing is known about the contribution of critical nutrients such as iron to the bacterium's pathogenesis. It was previously assumed that B. pseudomallei used iron-acquisition systems commonly found in other bacteria, for example siderophores. However, our previous discovery of a clinical isolate carrying a large chromosomal deletion missing the entire malleobactin gene cluster encoding the bacterium's major high-affinity siderophore while still being fully virulent in a murine melioidosis model suggested that other iron-acquisition systems might make contributions to virulence. Here, we deleted the major siderophore malleobactin (mba and pyochelin (pch gene clusters in strain 1710b and revealed a residual siderophore activity which was unrelated to other known Burkholderia siderophores such as cepabactin and cepaciachelin, and not due to increased secretion of chelators such as citrate. Deletion of the two hemin uptake loci, hmu and hem, showed that Hmu is required for utilization of hemin and hemoglobin and that Hem cannot complement a Hmu deficiency. Prolonged incubation of a hmu hem mutant in hemoglobin-containing minimal medium yielded variants able to utilize hemoglobin and hemin suggesting alternate pathways for utilization of these two host iron sources. Lactoferrin utilization was dependent on malleobactin, but not pyochelin synthesis and/or uptake. A mba pch hmu hem quadruple mutant could use ferritin as an iron source and upon intranasal infection was lethal in an acute murine melioidosis model. These data suggest that B

  11. The maternally expressed WRKY transcription factor TTG2 controls lethality in interploidy crosses of Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian P Dilkes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms underlying lethality of F1 hybrids between diverged parents are one target of speciation research. Crosses between diploid and tetraploid individuals of the same genotype can result in F1 lethality, and this dosage-sensitive incompatibility plays a role in polyploid speciation. We have identified variation in F1 lethality in interploidy crosses of Arabidopsis thaliana and determined the genetic architecture of the maternally expressed variation via QTL mapping. A single large-effect QTL, DR. STRANGELOVE 1 (DSL1, was identified as well as two QTL with epistatic relationships to DSL1. DSL1 affects the rate of postzygotic lethality via expression in the maternal sporophyte. Fine mapping placed DSL1 in an interval encoding the maternal effect transcription factor TTG2. Maternal parents carrying loss-of-function mutations in TTG2 suppressed the F1 lethality caused by paternal excess interploidy crosses. The frequency of cellularization in the endosperm was similarly affected by both natural variation and ttg2 loss-of-function mutants. The simple genetic basis of the natural variation and effects of single-gene mutations suggests that F1 lethality in polyploids could evolve rapidly. Furthermore, the role of the sporophytically active TTG2 gene in interploidy crosses indicates that the developmental programming of the mother regulates the viability of interploidy hybrid offspring.

  12. Non-lethal freezing effects on seed degreening in Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonham-Smith, P C; Gilmer, S; Zhou, R; Galka, M; Abrams, S R

    2006-06-01

    The effects of a non-lethal freezing stress on chlorophyll content, moisture level and distribution, and abscisic acid (ABA) levels were examined in siliques and seeds of Brassica napus (canola). A non-lethal freezing stress resulted in the retention of chlorophyll in seed at harvest that was most pronounced for seeds 28, 32 and 36 days after flowering (DAF). This increase was primarily due to an increased retention of chlorophyll a relative to chlorophyll b. Chlorophyll retention in seeds exposed to a non-lethal freezing stress correlated with an increased ABA catabolism, as measured 1, 3 or 7 days after the stress treatment. Although the non-lethal freezing stress had no significant effect on moisture content in seeds of siliques stressed at 28-44 DAF, moisture distribution, as viewed by magnetic resonance imaging, showed an uneven drying of 32 and 40 DAF siliques after exposure to the non-lethal freezing stress. Moisture was initially lost more rapidly from the silique wall between seeds, than in control non-stressed siliques. Increased moisture loss was not due to structural changes in the vasculature of the silique/seed of stressed tissues. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that a non-lethal freezing stress-induced decrease in ABA level, during seed maturation, effects an inhibition of normal chlorophyll a catabolism resulting in mature but green B. napus seed.

  13. Penggunaan Lethal Ovitrap Dengan Berbagai Jenis Attractant Untuk Pengendalian Nyamuk Aedes Sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aries Prasetyo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever, up to now been a problem for public health, as well as causing social impact, in terms of the number of people year after year tend to increase and expand the endemic area. One of the Aedes sp control methods is the use of lethal ovitrap This study to analyze the effectiveness (larvae of Aedes sp caught the use of lethal ovitrap with various types of attractant to control Aedes sp. This study involves the quasi experiment and post test only control group design. Subject of the study is Aedes sp in nature. Data are analyzed descriptively and analytically by using One Way Anova statistical methods. The number of trapped- larvae of Aedes sp by lethal ovitrap without attractant between 13-15. the number of trapped larvae Aedes sp by lethal ovitrap with various attractant average ranges between 30-95 in door and the average range 9 – 44 out door. There are significant differences amount Aedes sp larvae were caught between treatment both indoor and outdoor ( p = 0.008 and p = 0.007 . There are significant differences amount Aedes larvae were caught between treatment both indoor and outdoor, and lethal ovitrap with shrimp shells attractant water immersion is the most effective way to control Aedes sp mosquitoes Keywords: Lethal Ovitrap, Aedes sp, attractant

  14. Sacralising Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur, Ravinder

    2010-01-01

    In post-revolution Iran, the sacred notion of martyrdom has been transformed into a routine act of government – a moral sign of order and state sovereignty. Moving beyond the debates of the secularisation of the sacred and the making sacred of the secular, this article argues that the moment...... of sacralisation is realised through co-production within a social setting when the object of sacralisation is recognised as such by others. In contemporary Iran, however, the moment of sacralising bodies by the state is also the moment of its own subversion as the political-theological field of martyrdom......-sacrifice became central to the mass mobilisation against the monarchy. Once the revolutionary government came into existence, this sacred tradition was regulated to create ‘martyrs’ as a fixed category, in order to consolidate the legacy of the revolution. In this political theatre, the dead body is a site...

  15. Non-Lethal Weapons: Setting Our Phasers on Stun? Potential Stratetgic Blessings and Curses of Non-Lethal Weapons on the Battlefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-01

    Fluorescent Invisible – UV light visible Paint ball guns NON-LETHAL CASINGS ENCAPSULANTS TAGGERS – ACTIVE Italicized text signifies existing...preliminary legal review include gastrointestinal convulsives , calmative agents, sticky foam, aqueous foam, adhesives, malodorous agents, Oleoresin... convulsives , if classified as riot control agents (and not used on combatants), can be acceptable within the context of the Biological Weapons

  16. Effects of feeding lactobacillus GG on lethal irradiation in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, M.Y.; Chang, T.W.; Gorbach, S.L.

    1987-05-01

    Mice exposed to 1400 rads of total body irradiation experienced 80%-100% mortality in 2 wk. Bacteremia was demonstrated in all dead animals. Feeding Lactobacillus GG strain reduced Pseudomonas bacteremia and prolonged survival time in animals colonized with this organism. In animals not colonized with Pseudomonas, feeding Lactobacillus GG also produced some reduction in early deaths, and there was less Gram-negative bacteremia in these animals compared with controls.

  17. Lethal and Legal The Ethics of Drone Strikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    is also reported to be a factor in the ac- celerating dropout rate of drone pilots. It is also likely that the inappropriate language al- legedly...i The United States Army War College U.S. ARMY WAR COLLEGE CENTER for STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP The United States Army War College educates and develops...Army War College is to produce graduates who are skilled critical thinkers and complex problem solvers. Concurrently, it is our duty to the U.S. Army

  18. 'Jamaican Stone': A potentially lethal remedy for delaying ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Antón, Belén; Alonso-Deniz, Guillermo; Perez-Vela, Jose Luis; Molina-Martín de Nicolás, Javier; Rubio-Alonso, Belen; Jurado-Román, Alfonso; Miguel-Gutierrez, Ana; Martin-Asenjo, Roberto

    2017-02-01

    Poisoning by ingestion of 'Jamaican Stone', a kind of cardioactive steroid, is extremely rare. However, mortality is very high. For this reason, when it occurs, an early and accurate diagnosis represents a critical challenge for clinicians. We present an unusual case of electrical storm caused by this substance. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Butler's sophisticated constructivism: A critical assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasterling, V.L.M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate whether and in what respects the conceptions of the body and of agency that Judith Butler develops in Bodies That Matter are useful contributions to feminist theory. The discussion focuses on the clarification and critical assessment of the arguments Butler presents to

  20. Body contact and body language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Helle Dagmar

    2008-01-01

    and the boundaries between self and world. In western societies, the modern premises for contact are in some ways developing from close contact to virtual communication. With this breadth of perspective in mind, the ques­tion is whether conscious and experimental work with body contact and body language in move......­ment psychology and education provide potential for intense personal develop­ment as well as for social and cultural learning processes. This performative research project originates from the research project entitled, Movement Psy­chol­ogy: The Language of the Body and the Psy­chol­ogy of Movement based...... on the Dance Therapy Form Dansergia. The author, who is a practi­tioner-researcher, is methodologically inspir­ed by phenomenology, performative methods and a narrative and auto-ethnographic approach. The project will be presented in an organic, cre­at­ive and performative way. Through a moving dia...

  1. Critical Pedagogy for Critical Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutak, Fatma Aslan; Bondy, Elizabeth; Adams, Thomasenia L.

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a brief introduction to critical pedagogy and further discussion on critical mathematics education. Critical mathematics education enables students to read the world with mathematics. Three emerging domains of mathematics education related to critical mathematics education are discussed in this manuscript: ethnomathematics,…

  2. Critical Pedagogy for Critical Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutak, Fatma Aslan; Bondy, Elizabeth; Adams, Thomasenia L.

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a brief introduction to critical pedagogy and further discussion on critical mathematics education. Critical mathematics education enables students to read the world with mathematics. Three emerging domains of mathematics education related to critical mathematics education are discussed in this manuscript: ethnomathematics,…

  3. Changes in Behavior and Brain Acetylcholinesterase Activity in Mosquito Fish, Gambusia affinis in Response to the Sub-Lethal Exposure to Chlorpyrifos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nageswara Rao

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Sub-lethal studies of chlorpyrifos, O,O-diethyl-O-(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl phosphorothioate on mosquito fish, Gambusia affinis were carried out in vivo, for 20 days to assess the locomotor behavior in relation to bioaccumulation and interaction with a targeted enzyme, acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC: 3.1.1.7. Fish exposed to sub-lethal concentration of 60 Ag/L (1/5 of LC50 were under stress, and reduced their locomotor behavior like distance travelled per unit time (m/min and swimming speed (cm/sec with respect to the length of exposure. The alteration in locomotor behavior of fish may be due to an accumulation of acetylcholine (ACh, a neurotransmitter at synaptic junctions, due to the inhibition of AChE enzyme activity (40 to 55% in brain and also bioaccumulation of the toxicant in different parts of fish. The bioaccumulation values indicated that the accumulation of chlorpyrifos was maximum in viscera followed by head and body. The average bioconcentration values are 0.109, 0.009 and 0.004 Ag/g for viscera, head and body with depuration rates of 2.24, 1.69 and 0.39 ng/h respectively. It is evident from the results that the sub-lethal concentration [1/5 of LC50; equivalent to Lowest Observed Effect Concentration (LOEC] of chlorpyrifos can able to alter the locomotor behavior of G. affinis in relation to the length of exposure. The findings revealed that the locomotor activity of test organism could be considered as a suitable marker to evaluate the affect of toxicant even at LOEC levels.

  4. Fine Mapping and Transcriptome Analysis Reveal Candidate Genes Associated with Hybrid Lethality in Cabbage (Brassica Oleracea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhiliang; Hu, Yang; Zhang, Xiaoli; Xue, Yuqian; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhang, Yangyong; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Liu, Xing; Liu, Zezhou; Lv, Honghao; Zhuang, Mu

    2017-06-05

    Hybrid lethality is a deleterious phenotype that is vital to species evolution. We previously reported hybrid lethality in cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and performed preliminary mapping of related genes. In the present study, the fine mapping of hybrid lethal genes revealed that BoHL1 was located on chromosome C1 between BoHLTO124 and BoHLTO130, with an interval of 101 kb. BoHL2 was confirmed to be between insertion-deletion (InDels) markers HL234 and HL235 on C4, with a marker interval of 70 kb. Twenty-eight and nine annotated genes were found within the two intervals of BoHL1 and BoHL2, respectively. We also applied RNA-Seq to analyze hybrid lethality in cabbage. In the region of BoHL1, seven differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and five resistance (R)-related genes (two in common, i.e., Bo1g153320 and Bo1g153380) were found, whereas in the region of BoHL2, two DEGs and four R-related genes (two in common, i.e., Bo4g173780 and Bo4g173810) were found. Along with studies in which R genes were frequently involved in hybrid lethality in other plants, these interesting R-DEGs may be good candidates associated with hybrid lethality. We also used SNP/InDel analyses and quantitative real-time PCR to confirm the results. This work provides new insight into the mechanisms of hybrid lethality in cabbage.

  5. Putting the Critical Back in Critical Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    CRITICAL BACK IN CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE by Bradford C. Mason December 2015 Thesis Advisor: Rudolph P. Darken Second Reader: Thomas Mackin...COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE PUTTING THE CRITICAL BACK IN CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Bradford C. Mason...12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE A 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) In the context of national critical infrastructure security and resilience doctrine

  6. Uji Efektifitas Atraktan pada Lethal Ovitrap terhadap Jumlah dan Daya Tetas Telur Nyamuk Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milana Salim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractControl of Aedes aegypti mosquito as dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF vector can be conducted by using the ovitrap modified into a lethal ovitrap. The addition of attractant substances to the ovitrap can attract more mosquitoes to come in to the trap, and prevent the mosquitoes to lay eggs in other places. The aim of this research was to compare the percentage of the number of eggs trapped, the number of eggs that hatched and the percentage of larval mortality in lethal ovitrap modified with the addition of two types of attractant. This research was an experiment research with a complete random design. The samples used were female bloodfed Ae. aegypti mosquito. The insecticide used was water extract of Annona squamosa seed, and the attractants used were hay infus at water with concentration of 20% and larval rearing water of the Ae. aegypti. Aquades used as control. The results showed that hay infusion was more effective than larval rearing water in attracting female Ae. aegypti mosquito to lay eggs. The highest mortality was found in the combination of lethal ovitrap and hay infusion. The combination could be an alternative controlling strategy for DHF management program in order to reduce the density of Ae. aegypti mosquito and minimize the dengue transmission in a region.Keywords : Lethal Ovitrap, attractant, Aedes aegyptiAbstrakPengendalian nyamuk Aedes aegypti sebagai vektor demam berdarah dengue (DBD dapat dilakukan dengan menggunaan ovitrap yang dimodifikasi menjadi lethal ovitrap. Penambahan zat atraktanpada ovitrap dapat menarik lebih banyak nyamuk untuk datang ke perangkap yang dipasang dan mencegah nyamuk bertelur di tempat lain. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membandingkan persentase jumlah telur terperangkap, jumlah telur menetas dan mortalitas larva pada lethal ovitrap yang diberi tambahan dua jenis atraktan. Insektisida yang digunakan adalah ekstrak air biji srikaya (Annona squamosa, sedangkan atraktan yang digunakan adalah

  7. Uji Efektifitas Atraktan pada Lethal Ovitrap terhadap Jumlah dan Daya Tetas Telur Nyamuk Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milana Salim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractControl of Aedes aegypti mosquito as dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF vector can be conducted by using the ovitrap modified into a lethal ovitrap. The addition of attractant substances to the ovitrap can attract more mosquitoes to come in to the trap, and prevent the mosquitoes to lay eggs in other places. The aim of this research was to compare the percentage of the number of eggs trapped, the number of eggs that hatched and the percentage of larval mortality in lethal ovitrap modified with the addition of two types of attractant. This research was an experiment research with a complete random design. The samples used were female bloodfed Ae. aegypti mosquito. The insecticide used was water extract of Annona squamosa seed, and the attractants used were hay infus at water with concentration of 20% and larval rearing water of the Ae. aegypti. Aquades used as control. The results showed that hay infusion was more effective than larval rearing water in attracting female Ae. aegypti mosquito to lay eggs. The highest mortality was found in the combination of lethal ovitrap and hay infusion. The combination could be an alternative controlling strategy for DHF management program in order to reduce the density of Ae. aegypti mosquito and minimize the dengue transmission in a region.Keywords : Lethal Ovitrap, attractant, Aedes aegyptiAbstrakPengendalian nyamuk Aedes aegypti sebagai vektor demam berdarah dengue (DBD dapat dilakukan dengan menggunaan ovitrap yang dimodifikasi menjadi lethal ovitrap. Penambahan zat atraktanpada ovitrap dapat menarik lebih banyak nyamuk untuk datang ke perangkap yang dipasang dan mencegah nyamuk bertelur di tempat lain. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membandingkan persentase jumlah telur terperangkap, jumlah telur menetas dan mortalitas larva pada lethal ovitrap yang diberi tambahan dua jenis atraktan. Insektisida yang digunakan adalah ekstrak air biji srikaya (Annona squamosa, sedangkan atraktan yang digunakan adalah

  8. Contribution of the C-terminal region within the catalytic core domain of HIV-1 integrase to yeast lethality, chromatin binding and viral replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belhumeur Pierre

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-1 integrase (IN is a key viral enzymatic molecule required for the integration of the viral cDNA into the genome. Additionally, HIV-1 IN has been shown to play important roles in several other steps during the viral life cycle, including reverse transcription, nuclear import and chromatin targeting. Interestingly, previous studies have demonstrated that the expression of HIV-1 IN induces the lethal phenotype in some strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, we performed mutagenic analyses of the C-terminal region of the catalytic core domain of HIV-1 IN in order to delineate the critical amino acid(s and/or motif(s required for the induction of the lethal phenotype in the yeast strain HP16, and to further elucidate the molecular mechanism which causes this phenotype. Results Our study identified three HIV-1 IN mutants, V165A, A179P and KR186,7AA, located in the C-terminal region of the catalytic core domain of IN that do not induce the lethal phenotype in yeast. Chromatin binding assays in yeast and mammalian cells demonstrated that these IN mutants were impaired for the ability to bind chromatin. Additionally, we determined that while these IN mutants failed to interact with LEDGF/p75, they retained the ability to bind Integrase interactor 1. Furthermore, we observed that VSV-G-pseudotyped HIV-1 containing these IN mutants was unable to replicate in the C8166 T cell line and this defect was partially rescued by complementation with the catalytically inactive D64E IN mutant. Conclusion Overall, this study demonstrates that three mutations located in the C-terminal region of the catalytic core domain of HIV-1 IN inhibit the IN-induced lethal phenotype in yeast by inhibiting the binding of IN to the host chromatin. These results demonstrate that the C-terminal region of the catalytic core domain of HIV-1 IN is important for binding to host chromatin and is crucial for both viral replication and the promotion of

  9. Signifying Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

     In our everyday lives we strive to stay healthy and happy, while we live as our selves, engage with each other, and discover an infinite world of possibilities. Health arises and diminishes as human beings draw on a vibrant ecology of actions, interactions and coactions. Intricate processes...... and health care. Eschewing all forms of dualism, the authors emphasise the interdependency of how we act, think, feel and function. They advocate a relational turn in health care, in which bodies live and learn from suffering and care. In this view, health is inseparable from both living beings...... of, for example, how rheumatoid arthritis sufferers view their treatment, how decisions are made in simulated emergencies, and how therapists and homeopaths use distributed language and cognition with their clients....

  10. Rational Drug Designing Strategies and Inhibitor Optimization: Anthrax Lethal Toxin Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Kumar Jayaswal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthrax toxin protein protective antigen, edema factor and lethal factor are secreted by Bacillus anthracis bacteria causes several adverse effects on human as well as on ruminant animals and considered as serious biological weapons. Lethal toxin protein (combination of lethal factor and protective antigen is highly lethal to the host and responsible for the disruption of signalling pathways, cell destruction, and circulatory shock. 1YQY is one of the crystal structures of lethal toxin protein. It has two domains - Anthrax_M_tox and ATLF where the hydroxymate as well as Zn cofactor are attached. Known inhibitor of the protein 1YQY was identified and downloaded from pubchem. Interaction of the inhibitors with the protein was examined through in silico docking approach with AutoDock 3.0.5 and Hex. Some of the inhibitors apparently interact with several-conserved residue in the cofactor-binding site. The docking work suggests virtual derivatives of the predicted inhibitor that can improve hydrogen bond interaction between inhibitor and protein. From structural and docking analyses, it is hypothesized that 1YQY protein interacts with azelastine molecule shows the lowest docking energy in AutoDock software.

  11. The organisational structure of protein networks: revisiting the centrality-lethality hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Karthik; Damaraju, Nandita; Joshi, Govind Krishna

    2014-03-01

    Protein networks, describing physical interactions as well as functional associations between proteins, have been unravelled for many organisms in the recent past. Databases such as the STRING provide excellent resources for the analysis of such networks. In this contribution, we revisit the organisation of protein networks, particularly the centrality-lethality hypothesis, which hypothesises that nodes with higher centrality in a network are more likely to produce lethal phenotypes on removal, compared to nodes with lower centrality. We consider the protein networks of a diverse set of 20 organisms, with essentiality information available in the Database of Essential Genes and assess the relationship between centrality measures and lethality. For each of these organisms, we obtained networks of high-confidence interactions from the STRING database, and computed network parameters such as degree, betweenness centrality, closeness centrality and pairwise disconnectivity indices. We observe that the networks considered here are predominantly disassortative. Further, we observe that essential nodes in a network have a significantly higher average degree and betweenness centrality, compared to the network average. Most previous studies have evaluated the centrality-lethality hypothesis for Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli; we here observe that the centrality-lethality hypothesis hold goods for a large number of organisms, with certain limitations. Betweenness centrality may also be a useful measure to identify essential nodes, but measures like closeness centrality and pairwise disconnectivity are not significantly higher for essential nodes.

  12. Lethal ovitrap deployment for Aedes aegypti control: potential implications for non-target organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Sharron A; Jacups, Susan P; Ritchie, Scott A

    2015-06-01

    In Australia, dengue control combines source reduction with lethal ovitraps to reduce Aedes aegypti populations during outbreaks. Lethal ovitraps are considered a sustainable and environmentally friendly method of controlling container-inhabiting mosquitoes, however, to-date, this claim has not been quantified. This study assesses the potential impact of lethal ovitraps on non-target organisms when used to control Ae. aegypti in tropical Australia. For retention of specimens, we substituted standard sticky ovitraps for lethal ovitraps. We collected 988 Ae. aegypti and 44,132 non-target specimens over 13 months from 16 sites. Although Ae. aegypti comprised only 2.2% of the total collection, they were were the eighth most dominant taxa collected, on the 93(rd) percentile. Of the non-target organisms, Collembola were the dominant taxa, 44.2%, with 36.8% and 10.5% Diptera and Hymenoptera, respectively. Of the Dipterans, 61% were family Phoridae. Lethal ovitraps were visited by 90 insect or invertebrate families in total. Ovitraps are attractive to Collembola, Phoridae, Sciaridae, Formicidae, and Culicidae, with minimal attraction by Apidae and other commonly monitored non-target organisms. For container-inhabiting mosquitoes, LOs are cost effective operationally, requiring minimal staff resources for placement and retrieval.

  13. Conditional embryonic lethality to improve the sterile insect technique in Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Gerald

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sterile insect technique (SIT is an environment-friendly method used in area-wide pest management of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann; Diptera: Tephritidae. Ionizing radiation used to generate reproductive sterility in the mass-reared populations before release leads to reduction of competitiveness. Results Here, we present a first alternative reproductive sterility system for medfly based on transgenic embryonic lethality. This system is dependent on newly isolated medfly promoter/enhancer elements of cellularization-specifically-expressed genes. These elements act differently in expression strength and their ability to drive lethal effector gene activation. Moreover, position effects strongly influence the efficiency of the system. Out of 60 combinations of driver and effector construct integrations, several lines resulted in larval and pupal lethality with one line showing complete embryonic lethality. This line was highly competitive to wildtype medfly in laboratory and field cage tests. Conclusion The high competitiveness of the transgenic lines and the achieved 100% embryonic lethality causing reproductive sterility without the need of irradiation can improve the efficacy of operational medfly SIT programs.

  14. Terrorist attacks escalate in frequency and fatalities preceding highly lethal attacks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Martens

    Full Text Available Highly lethal terrorist attacks, which we define as those killing 21 or more people, account for 50% of the total number of people killed in all terrorist attacks combined, yet comprise only 3.5% of terrorist attacks. Given the disproportionate influence of these incidents, uncovering systematic patterns in attacks that precede and anticipate these highly lethal attacks may be of value for understanding attacks that exact a heavy toll on life. Here we examined whether the activity of terrorist groups escalates--both in the number of people killed per attack and in the frequency of attacks--leading up to highly lethal attacks. Analyses of terrorist attacks drawn from a state-of-the-art international terrorism database (The Global Terrorism Database showed evidence for both types of escalation leading up to highly lethal attacks, though complexities to the patterns emerged as well. These patterns of escalation do not emerge among terrorist groups that never commit a highly lethal attack.

  15. Terrorist Attacks Escalate in Frequency and Fatalities Preceding Highly Lethal Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Andy; Sainudiin, Raazesh; Sibley, Chris G.; Schimel, Jeff; Webber, David

    2014-01-01

    Highly lethal terrorist attacks, which we define as those killing 21 or more people, account for 50% of the total number of people killed in all terrorist attacks combined, yet comprise only 3.5% of terrorist attacks. Given the disproportionate influence of these incidents, uncovering systematic patterns in attacks that precede and anticipate these highly lethal attacks may be of value for understanding attacks that exact a heavy toll on life. Here we examined whether the activity of terrorist groups escalates–both in the number of people killed per attack and in the frequency of attacks–leading up to highly lethal attacks. Analyses of terrorist attacks drawn from a state-of-the-art international terrorism database (The Global Terrorism Database) showed evidence for both types of escalation leading up to highly lethal attacks, though complexities to the patterns emerged as well. These patterns of escalation do not emerge among terrorist groups that never commit a highly lethal attack. PMID:24755753

  16. Plasma microRNA profiles distinguish lethal injury in acetaminophen toxicity: A research study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeanine Ward; Shashi Bala; Jan Petrasek; Gyongyi Szabo

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate plasma microRNA (miRNA) profiles indicative of hepatotoxicity in the setting of lethal acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity in mice.METHODS:Using plasma from APAP poisoned mice,either lethally (500 mg/kg) or sublethally (150 mg/kg) dosed,we screened commercially available murine microRNA libraries (SABiosciences,Qiagen Sciences,MD) to evaluate for unique miRNA profiles between these two dosing parameters.RESULTS:We distinguished numerous,unique plasma miRNAs both up- and downregulated in lethally compared to sublethally dosed mice.Of note,many of the greatest up- and downregulated miRNAs,namely 574-5p,466g,466f-3p,375,29c,and 148a,have been shown to be associated with asthma in prior studies.Interestingly,a relationship between APAP and asthma has been previously well described in the literature,with an as yet unknown mechanism of pathology.There was a statistically significant increase in alanine aminotransferase levels in the lethal compared to sublethal APAP dosing groups at the 12 h time point (P <0.001).There was 90% mortality in the lethally compared to sublethally dosed mice at the 48 h time point (P =0.011).CONCLUSION:We identified unique plasma miRNAs both up- and downregulated in APAP poisoning which are correlated to asthma development.

  17. The mechanism of ROS regulation of antibiotic resistance and antimicrobial lethality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lina, Ma; Hongfei, Mi; Yunxin, Xue; Dai, Wang; Xilin, Zhao

    2016-10-20

    Misuse and overuse of antibiotics have led to serious resistance problems that pose a grave threat to human health. How to solve the increasing antibiotic resistance problem is a huge challenge. Besides the traditional strategy of developing novel antimicrobial agents, exploring ways to enhance the lethal activity of antibiotics currently available is another feasible approach to fight against resistance. Recent studies showed that ROS plays an important role in regulating both antibiotic resistance and antimicrobial lethality. ROS produced by sublethal levels of antibiotic induces antibiotic resistance through activating drug efflux pumps via MarR(Multiple antibiotic resistance repressor)-MarA(Multiple antibiotic resistance activator), triggers the protective function against stress via SoxR (Superoxide response transcriptional regulator)-SoxS (Superoxide response transcription factor), and promotes mutagenesis by induction of SOS system. On the contrary, ROS triggered by lethal levels of antibiotic promotes bacterial killing and suppresses resistance. In addition to the concentration of antibiotic, the role of ROS in mediating antimicrobial resistance and bacterial killing is also regulated by a series of genetic regulators (e.g. MazEF, Cpx, SoxR, MarRAB). Thus, how ROS contribute to antimicrobial resistance and bacterial killing is complex. In this review, we summarized the mechanism of ROS in regulating antibiotic resistance and antimicrobial lethality, which may provide references and guidance for finding new ways to enhance antimicrobial lethality of currently available antimicrobials and battling antibiotic resistance.

  18. Characteristics and Lethality of a Novel Recombinant Dermonecrotic Venom Phospholipase D from Hemiscorpius lepturus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabi, Elham; Behdani, Mahdi; Hosseininejad Chafi, Mohammad; Moazzami, Reza; Sabatier, Jean-Marc; Khalaj, Vahid; Shahbazzadeh, Delavar; Pooshang Bagheri, Kamran

    2017-01-01

    Hemoscorpius lepturus is the most medically important scorpion in Iran. The clinical signs of H. lepturus envenomation are remarkably similar to those reported for brown spiders, including dermonecrosis, hematuria, renal failure and even death. The lethality and toxicity of brown spiders’ venom have been attributed to its phospholipase D activity. This study aims to identify a phospholipase D with possible lethality and dermonecrotic activity in H. lepturus venom. In this study, a cDNA library of the venom glands was generated by Illumina RNA sequencing. Phospholipase D (PLD) from H. lepturus was characterized according to its significant similarity with PLDs from brown spiders. The main chain designated as Hl-RecPLD1 (the first recombinant isoform of H. lepturus PLD) was cloned, expressed and purified. Sphingomyelinase, dermonecrotic and lethal activities were examined. Hl-PLD1 showed remarkable sequence similarity and structural homology with PLDs of brown spiders. The conformation of Hl-PLD1 was predicted as a “TIM beta/alpha-barrel”. The lethal dose 50 (LD50) and dermonecrotic activities of Hl-RecPLD1 were determined as 3.1 µg/mouse and 0.7 cm2 at 1 µg respectively. It is the first report indicating that a similar molecular evolutionary mechanism has occurred in both American brown spiders and this Iranian scorpion. In conclusion, Hl-RecPLD1 is a highly active phospholipase D, which would be considered as the lethal dermonecrotic toxin in H. lepturus venom. PMID:28335389

  19. Prediction of Protein-Peptide Interactions: Application of the XPairIT to Anthrax Lethal Factor and Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Prediction of Protein-Peptide Interactions: Application of the XPairIt API to Anthrax Lethal Factor and Substrates by Margaret M. Hurley and...Peptide Interactions: Application of the XPairIt API to Anthrax Lethal Factor and Substrates Margaret M. Hurley and Michael S. Sellers Weapons and...Prediction of Protein-Peptide Interactions: Application of the XPairIt API to Anthrax Lethal Factor and Substrates 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER ORAUW911QX-04-C

  20. Uncovering the post-embryonic functions of gametophytic- and embryonic-lethal genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Héctor; Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel; Micol, José Luis

    2011-06-01

    An estimated 500-1 000 Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genes mutate to embryonic lethality. In addition, several hundred mutations have been identified that cause gametophytic lethality. Thus, a significant fraction of the ∼25,000 protein-coding genes in Arabidopsis are indispensable to the early stages of the diploid phase or to the haploid gametophytic phase. The expression patterns of many of these genes indicate that they also act later in development but, because the mutants die at such early stages, conventional methods limit the study of their roles in adult diploid plants. Here, we describe the toolset that allows researchers to assess the post-embryonic functions of plant genes for which only gametophytic- and embryonic-lethal alleles have been isolated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Prothrombin complex concentrate use in coagulopathy of lethal brain injuries increases organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Bellal; Aziz, Hassan; Pandit, Viraj; Hays, Daniel; Kulvatunyou, Narong; Tang, Andrew; Wynne, Julie; O' Keeffe, Terence; Green, Donald J; Friese, Randall S; Gruessner, Rainer; Rhee, Peter

    2014-04-01

    Coagulopathy is a defined barrier for organ donation in patients with lethal traumatic brain injuries. The purpose of this study was to document our experience with the use of prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) to facilitate organ donation in patients with lethal traumatic brain injuries. We performed a 4-year retrospective analysis of all patients with devastating gunshot wounds to the brain. The data were analyzed for demographics, change in international normalized ratio (INR), and subsequent organ donation. The primary end point was organ donation. Eighty-eight patients with lethal traumatic brain injury were identified from the trauma registry of whom 13 were coagulopathic at the time of admission (mean INR 2.2 ± 0.8). Of these 13 patients, 10 patients received PCC in an effort to reverse their coagulopathy. Mean INR before PCC administration was 2.01 ± 0.7 and 1.1 ± 0.7 after administration (P brain injuries.

  2. A system to efficiently maintain embryonic lethal mutations in the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghammer, A; Bucher, G; Maderspacher, F; Klingler, M

    1999-06-01

    Due to its small size, short life cycle, and easy maintenance, the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum is well suited for the genetic analysis of development. One drawback of Tribolium as a genetic system is, however, the difficulty of keeping embryonic lethal lines. Presently, only few lethal mutations can be kept as balanced stocks. Therefore, heterozygous carriers must be identified anew in every generation in order to maintain a recessive embryonic mutation. To alleviate this problem we have devised a block system that allows the simultaneous processing of many mutant lines or test crosses for visual inspection of larval cuticle phenotypes. Using this technique, one person can maintain about 100 embryonic lethal stocks, which makes feasible the thorough genetic analysis of embryogenesis in this species.

  3. EFIKASI INSEKTISIDA BERBAHAN AKTIF CYPERMETHRIN DENGAN METODE LETHAL OVITRAP TERHADAP Aedes aegypti DI LABORATORIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zumrotus Sholichah

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Various vector control efforts have been done but dengue hemorrhagic fever still tends to increase. Lethal Ovitrap (LO was modification from ovitrap where in lethal ovitrap installed ovistrip contain insecticide. The aim of this research was to determine efficacy Cypermethrin and determine the residual effect with lethal ovitrap method on Ae. aegypti at laboratory. This research was laboratory experiment with postest only control group design. Research was done in August-December 2009 at Loka Litbang P2B2 Banjarnegara laboratory. Activity that had been done i.e: colonization of A e. aegypti, making ovitrap, making ovistrip with active ingredient Cypermethrin, then pretest had been done and determine the residual effect. Efficacy analysis used WHO criteria, i.e death of the mosquito >70% after raising for 24 hour.

  4. Female rats are less susceptible during puberty to the lethal effects of percutaneous exposure to VX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linnzi K.M. Wright

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nerve agents with low volatility such as VX are primarily absorbed through the skin when released during combat or a terrorist attack. The barrier function of the stratum corneum may be compromised during certain stages of development, allowing VX to more easily penetrate through the skin. However, age-related differences in the lethal potency of VX have yet to be evaluated using the percutaneous (pc route of exposure. Thus, we estimated the 24 and 48 h median lethal dose for pc exposure to VX in male and female rats during puberty and early adulthood. Pubescent, female rats were less susceptible than both their male and adult counterparts to the lethal effects associated with pc exposure to VX possibly because of hormonal changes during that stage of development. This study emphasizes the need to control for both age and sex when evaluating the toxicological effects associated with nerve agent exposure in the rat model.

  5. Infection-Mediated Priming of Phagocytes Protects against Lethal Secondary Aspergillus fumigatus Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savers, Amélie; Rasid, Orhan; Parlato, Marianna; Brock, Matthias; Jouvion, Gregory; Ryffel, Bernhard; Cavaillon, Jean-Marc; Eberl, Gerard; Ibrahim-Granet, Oumaïma

    2016-01-01

    Phagocytes restrict the germination of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia and prevent the establishment of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in immunecompetent mice. Here we report that immunecompetent mice recovering from a primary A. fumigatus challenge are protected against a secondary lethal challenge. Using RAGγc knock-out mice we show that this protection is independent of T, B and NK cells. In protected mice, lung phagocytes are recruited more rapidly and are more efficient in conidial phagocytosis and killing. Protection was also associated with an enhanced expression of CXCR2 and Dectin-1 on bone marrow phagocytes. We also show that protective lung cytokine and chemokine responses are induced more rapidly and with enhanced dynamics in protected mice. Our findings support the hypothesis that following a first encounter with a non-lethal dose of A. fumigatus conidia, the innate immune system is primed and can mediate protection against a secondary lethal infection. PMID:27078879

  6. A lethal ovitrap-based mass trapping scheme for dengue control in Australia: I. Public acceptability and performance of lethal ovitraps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, S A; Rapley, L P; Williams, C; Johnson, P H; Larkman, M; Silcock, R M; Long, S A; Russell, R C

    2009-12-01

    We report on the first field evaluation of the public acceptability and performance of two types of lethal ovitrap (LO) in three separate trials in Cairns, Australia. Health workers were able to set standard lethal ovitraps (SLOs) in 75 and 71% of premise yards in the wet and dry season, respectively, and biodegradable lethal ovitraps (BLOs) in 93% of yards. Public acceptance, measured as retention of traps by residents, was high for both trap types, with <9% of traps missing after 4 weeks. Traps retaining water after 4 weeks were 78 and 34% for the two SLO trials and 58% for the BLOs. The 'failure rate' in the 535 BLOs set in the field for 4 weeks was 47%, of which 19% were lost, 51% had holes from probable insect chewing, 23% were knocked over, 7% had dried by evaporation and 1% were split. There was no significant difference in the failure rate of BLOs set on porous (grass, soil and mulch) versus solid (tiles, concrete, wood and stone) substrates. The SLOs and the BLOs were readily acceptable to ovipositing Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae); the mean number of eggs/trap was 6 and 15, for the dry season and wet season SLO trial, respectively, and 15 for the BLO wet season trial. Indeed, 84-94% of premise yards had egg positive SLOs or BLOs. A high percentage of both wet and dry season SLOs (29 and 70%, respectively) and BLOs (62%) that were dry after 4 weeks were egg positive, indicating the traps had functioned. Lethal strips from SLOs and BLOs that had been exposed for 4 weeks killed 83 and 74%, respectively, of gravid Ae. aegypti in laboratory assays. These results indicate that mass trapping schemes using SLOs and BLOs are not rejected by the public and effectively target gravid Ae. aegypti. The impact of the interventions on mosquito populations is described in a companion paper.

  7. Improved method for triacylglycerol-derived fatty acid profiling by various non-lethal and lethal sampling techniques in Atlantic salmon

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Rolf Erik; Taranger, Geir Lasse; SVÅSAND, Terje; Skilbrei, Ove

    2013-01-01

    The current paper compares the use of adipose fin and muscle biopsies as non-lethal sampling procedures, and the suitability of triacylglycerol (TAG) versus total lipid (TOT) fatty acid composition (fatty acid methyl esters, FAME) to estimate dietary history in farmed and wild maturing Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. TAG FAME gives best resemblance to dietary history. Fatty acid composition differs between tissues, and sample series should preferably be from 1 tissue only. TOT FAME supplies info...

  8. Molecular analysis of two mouse dilute locus deletion mutations: Spontaneous dilute lethal20J and radiation-induced dilute prenatal lethal Aa2 alleles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strobel, M.C.; Seperack, P.K.; Copeland, N.G.; Jenkins, N.A. (National Cancer Institute-Frederick Cancer Research Facility, MD (USA))

    1990-02-01

    The dilute (d) coat color locus of mouse chromosome 9 has been identified by more than 200 spontaneous and mutagen-induced recessive mutations. With the advent of molecular probes for this locus, the molecular lesion associated with different dilute alleles can be recognized and precisely defined. In this study, two dilute mutations, dilute-lethal20J (dl20J) and dilute prenatal lethal Aa2, have been examined. Using a dilute locus genomic probe in Southern blot analysis, we detected unique restriction fragments in dl20J and Aa2 DNA. Subsequent analysis of these fragments showed that they represented deletion breakpoint fusion fragments. DNA sequence analysis of each mutation-associated deletion breakpoint fusion fragment suggests that both genomic deletions were generated by nonhomologous recombination events. The spontaneous dl20J mutation is caused by an interstitial deletion that removes a single coding exon of the dilute gene. The correlation between this discrete deletion and the expression of all dilute-associated phenotypes in dl20J homozygotes defines the dl20J mutation as a functional null allele of the dilute gene. The radiation-induced Aa2 allele is a multilocus deletion that, by complementation analysis, affects both the dilute locus and the proximal prenatal lethal-3 (pl-3) functional unit. Molecular analysis of the Aa2 deletion breakpoint fusion fragment has provided access to a previously undefined gene proximal to d. Initial characterization of this new gene suggests that it may represent the genetically defined pl-3 functional unit.

  9. [Multifaceted body. I. The bodies of medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraga, M; Bourquin, C; Wykretowicz, H; Stiefel, F

    2015-02-11

    The human body is the object upon which medicine is acting, but also lived reality, image, symbol, representation and the object of elaboration and theory. All these elements which constitute the body influence the way medicine is treating it. In this series of three articles, we address the human body from various perspectives: medical (1), phenomenological (2), psychosomatic and socio-anthropological (3). This first article discusses four distinct types of representation of the body within medicine, each related to a specific epistemology and shaping a distinct kind of clinical legitimacy: the body-object of anatomy, the body-machine of physiology, the cybernetic body of biology, the statistical body of epidemiology.

  10. Stabilization of lethal and hemolytic activities of box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comis, A; Hartwick, R F; Howden, M E

    1989-01-01

    The stability of both the lethal and hemolytic activities of box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) tentacle extract was assessed after various extraction procedures. Both activities were higher when no buffers or water were used during the initial extraction. Also, when the extract was first filtered through a Sep-pak C18 cartridge, the residual lethal titre, after incubation for 24 hr at room temperature, was increased 16-fold and hemolysis was increased 2.6-fold. Evidence for proteolytic activity in the extract was also obtained and monitored by size exclusion HPLC.

  11. Female rats are less susceptible during puberty to the lethal effects of percutaneous exposure to VX

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Linnzi K.M.; Lee, Robyn B.; Clarkson, Edward D.; Lumley, Lucille A

    2016-01-01

    Nerve agents with low volatility such as VX are primarily absorbed through the skin when released during combat or a terrorist attack. The barrier function of the stratum corneum may be compromised during certain stages of development, allowing VX to more easily penetrate through the skin. However, age-related differences in the lethal potency of VX have yet to be evaluated using the percutaneous (pc) route of exposure. Thus, we estimated the 24 and 48 h median lethal dose for pc exposure to ...

  12. A novel plant glutathione S-transferase/peroxidase suppresses Bax lethality in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampranis, S C; Damianova, R; Atallah, M

    2000-01-01

    for the identification of plant genes, which inhibit either directly or indirectly the lethal phenotype of Bax. Using this method a number of cDNA clones were isolated, the more potent of which encodes a protein homologous to the class theta glutathione S-transferases. This Bax-inhibiting (BI) protein was expressed......The mammalian inducer of apoptosis Bax is lethal when expressed in yeast and plant cells. To identify potential inhibitors of Bax in plants we transformed yeast cells expressing Bax with a tomato cDNA library and we selected for cells surviving after the induction of Bax. This genetic screen allows...

  13. The lethal injection quandary: how medicine has dismantled the death penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denno, Deborah W

    2007-10-01

    On February 20, 2006, Michael Morales was hours away from execution in California when two anesthesiologists declined to participate in his lethal injection procedure, thereby halting all state executions. The events brought to the surface the long-running schism between law and medicine, raising the question of whether any beneficial connection between the professions ever existed in the execution context. History shows it seldom did. Decades of botched executions prove it. This Article examines how states ended up with such constitutionally vulnerable lethal injection procedures, suggesting that physician participation in executions, though looked upon with disdain, is more prevalent--and perhaps more necessary--than many would like to believe. The Article also reports the results of this author's unique nationwide study of lethal injection protocols and medical participation. The study demonstrates that states have continued to produce grossly inadequate protocols that severely restrict sufficient understanding of how executions are performed and heighten the likelihood of unconstitutionality. The analysis emphasizes in particular the utter lack of medical or scientific testing of lethal injection despite the early and continuous involvement of doctors but ongoing detachment of medical societies. Lastly, the Article discusses the legal developments that led up to the current rush of lethal injection lawsuits as well as the strong and rapid reverberations that followed, particularly with respect to medical involvement. This Article concludes with two recommendations. First, much like what occurred in this country when the first state switched to electrocution, there should be a nationwide study of proper lethal injection protocols. An independent commission consisting of a diverse group of qualified individuals, including medical personnel, should conduct a thorough assessment of lethal injection, especially the extent of physician participation. Second, this

  14. Assaults against U.S. law enforcement officers in the line-of-duty: situational context and predictors of lethality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crifasi, Cassandra K; Pollack, Keshia M; Webster, Daniel W

    2016-12-01

    Research on occupational safety of law enforcement officers (LEOs) has primarily focused on fatal assaults. Nonfatal assaults, however, have received little attention. The goal of this study was to describe the situational contexts in which LEOs are assaulted, and compare these contexts and risks between fatal and nonfatal assaults in the U.S. Analyzing both types of assaults provides a more complete understanding of occupational safety and opportunities for intervention. This study includes a descriptive epidemiology of fatal and nonfatal assaults of LEOs in the U.S. and a pooled cross-sectional analysis of risk factors contributing to the odds of lethal assault. Data were collected from the Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted database. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize fatal and nonfatal assaults. Odds ratios were generated to understand the odds that an assault would result in a fatality. Between 1998 and 2013, there were 791 fatal assaults and 2,022 nonfatal assaults of LEOs. Nearly 60% of primary wounds in fatal assaults were received to the head, neck, or throat while nearly 50% of primary wounds in nonfatal assaults were received to the arms/hands or below the waist. The odds that an assault resulted in a fatality decreased by 57% (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.58) when a LEO was wearing body armor. LEOs experiencing an ambush or unprovoked attack had significantly increased odds of an assault resulting in a fatality (OR 3.27, 95% CI 1.83 to 5.85 and OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.44 to 3.47 respectively). LEOs that were disarmed during an encounter with a suspect had more than 2-fold increased odds of an assault resulting in a fatality (OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.48 to 3.38). There are specific situational and encounter characteristics that influence the lethality of an assault, which suggest strategies for prevention. Mandatory wear policies for the use of body armor could significantly reduce mortality among assaulted LEOs.

  15. Insecticide transfer efficiency and lethal load in Argentine ants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper-Bui, L.M. [Department of Environmental Science, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Kwok, E.S.C. [Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Buchholz, B.A., E-mail: buchholz2@llnl.gov [Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Rust, M.K. [Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Eastmond, D.A. [Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Vogel, J.S. [Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Trophallaxis between individual worker ants and the toxicant load in dead and live Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) in colonies exposed to fipronil and hydramethylnon experimental baits were examined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). About 50% of the content of the crop containing trace levels of {sup 14}C-sucrose, {sup 14}C-hydramethylnon, and {sup 14}C-fipronil was shared between single donor and recipient ants. Dead workers and queens contained significantly more hydramethylnon (122.7 and 22.4 amol/μg ant, respectively) than did live workers and queens (96.3 and 10.4 amol/μg ant, respectively). Dead workers had significantly more fipronil (420.3 amol/μg ant) than did live workers (208.5 amol/μg ant), but dead and live queens had equal fipronil levels (59.5 and 54.3 amol/μg ant, respectively). The distribution of fipronil differed within the bodies of dead and live queens; the highest amounts of fipronil were recovered in the thorax of dead queens whereas live queens had the highest levels in the head. Resurgence of polygynous ant colonies treated with hydramethylnon baits may be explained by queen survival resulting from sublethal doses due to a slowing of trophallaxis throughout the colony. Bait strategies and dose levels for controlling insect pests need to be based on the specific toxicant properties and trophic strategies for targeting the entire colony.

  16. Insecticide transfer efficiency and lethal load in Argentine ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper-Bui, L. M.; Kwok, E. S. C.; Buchholz, B. A.; Rust, M. K.; Eastmond, D. A.; Vogel, J. S.

    2015-10-01

    Trophallaxis between individual worker ants and the toxicant load in dead and live Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) in colonies exposed to fipronil and hydramethylnon experimental baits were examined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). About 50% of the content of the crop containing trace levels of 14C-sucrose, 14C-hydramethylnon, and 14C-fipronil was shared between single donor and recipient ants. Dead workers and queens contained significantly more hydramethylnon (122.7 and 22.4 amol/μg ant, respectively) than did live workers and queens (96.3 and 10.4 amol/μg ant, respectively). Dead workers had significantly more fipronil (420.3 amol/μg ant) than did live workers (208.5 amol/μg ant), but dead and live queens had equal fipronil levels (59.5 and 54.3 amol/μg ant, respectively). The distribution of fipronil differed within the bodies of dead and live queens; the highest amounts of fipronil were recovered in the thorax of dead queens whereas live queens had the highest levels in the head. Resurgence of polygynous ant colonies treated with hydramethylnon baits may be explained by queen survival resulting from sublethal doses due to a slowing of trophallaxis throughout the colony. Bait strategies and dose levels for controlling insect pests need to be based on the specific toxicant properties and trophic strategies for targeting the entire colony.

  17. Body Image and Body Contouring Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwer, David B; Polonsky, Heather M

    2016-10-01

    Dissatisfaction with physical appearance and body image is a common psychological phenomena in Western society. Body image dissatisfaction is frequently reported by those who have excess body weight, but also is seen in those of normal body weight. For both groups of individuals, this dissatisfaction impacts self-esteem and quality of life. Furthermore, it is believed to be the motivational catalyst to a range of appearance-enhancing behaviors, including weight loss efforts and physical activity. Body image dissatisfaction is also believed to play a role in the decision to seek the wide range of body contouring procedures offered by aesthetic physicians. Individuals who seek these procedures typically report increased body image dissatisfaction, focus on the feature they wish to alter with treatment, and often experience improvement in body image following treatment. At the same time, extreme body image dissatisfaction is a symptom of a number of recognized psychiatric disorders. These include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), all of which can contraindicate aesthetic treatment. This special topic review paper provides an overview of the relationship between body image dissatisfaction and aesthetic procedures designed to improve body contouring. The review specifically focuses on the relationship of body image and body weight, as well as the presentation of body image psychopathology that would contraindicate aesthetic surgery. The overall goal of the paper is to highlight the clinical implications of the existing research and provide suggestions for future research on the psychological aspects of body contouring procedures.

  18. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... percent of foreign body ingestions occur among children. Most foreign bodies pass through the gastrointestinal tract without ... fainting and shock. Foreign bodies in the airway: Most foreign bodies in the airway are usually expelled ...

  19. Lethal and pre-lethal effects of a fungal biopesticide contribute to substantial and rapid control of malaria vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Blanford

    Full Text Available Rapidly emerging insecticide resistance is creating an urgent need for new active ingredients to control the adult mosquitoes that vector malaria. Biopesticides based on the spores of entomopathogenic fungi have shown considerable promise by causing very substantial mortality within 7-14 days of exposure. This mortality will generate excellent malaria control if there is a high likelihood that mosquitoes contact fungi early in their adult lives. However, where contact rates are lower, as might result from poor pesticide coverage, some mosquitoes will contact fungi one or more feeding cycles after they acquire malaria, and so risk transmitting malaria before the fungus kills them. Critics have argued that 'slow acting' fungal biopesticides are, therefore, incapable of delivering malaria control in real-world contexts. Here, utilizing standard WHO laboratory protocols, we demonstrate effective action of a biopesticide much faster than previously reported. Specifically, we show that transient exposure to clay tiles sprayed with a candidate biopesticide comprising spores of a natural isolate of Beauveria bassiana, could reduce malaria transmission potential to zero within a feeding cycle. The effect resulted from a combination of high mortality and rapid fungal-induced reduction in feeding and flight capacity. Additionally, multiple insecticide-resistant lines from three key African malaria vector species were completely susceptible to fungus. Thus, fungal biopesticides can block transmission on a par with chemical insecticides, and can achieve this where chemical insecticides have little impact. These results support broadening the current vector control paradigm beyond fast-acting chemical toxins.

  20. Lethality of mice bearing a knockout of the Ngly1-gene is partially rescued by the additional deletion of the Engase gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruhiko Fujihira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The cytoplasmic peptide:N-glycanase (Ngly1 in mammals is a de-N-glycosylating enzyme that is highly conserved among eukaryotes. It was recently reported that subjects harboring mutations in the NGLY1 gene exhibited severe systemic symptoms (NGLY1-deficiency. While the enzyme obviously has a critical role in mammals, its precise function remains unclear. In this study, we analyzed Ngly1-deficient mice and found that they are embryonic lethal in C57BL/6 background. Surprisingly, the additional deletion of the gene encoding endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase (Engase, which is another de-N-glycosylating enzyme but leaves a single GlcNAc at glycosylated Asn residues, resulted in the partial rescue of the lethality of the Ngly1-deficient mice. Additionally, we also found that a change in the genetic background of C57BL/6 mice, produced by crossing the mice with an outbred mouse strain (ICR could partially rescue the embryonic lethality of Ngly1-deficient mice. Viable Ngly1-deficient mice in a C57BL/6 and ICR mixed background, however, showed a very severe phenotype reminiscent of the symptoms of NGLY1-deficiency subjects. Again, many of those defects were strongly suppressed by the additional deletion of Engase in the C57BL/6 and ICR mixed background. The defects observed in Ngly1/Engase-deficient mice (C57BL/6 background and Ngly1-deficient mice (C57BL/6 and ICR mixed background closely resembled some of the symptoms of patients with an NGLY1-deficiency. These observations strongly suggest that the Ngly1- or Ngly1/Engase-deficient mice could serve as a valuable animal model for studies related to the pathogenesis of the NGLY1-deficiency, and that cytoplasmic ENGase represents one of the potential therapeutic targets for this genetic disorder.

  1. [Body composition at menarche. Estimation of total body weight, total body water, lean and fat body weight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurlo de Mirotti, S M; Lesa, A M; Barrón de Carbonetti, M; Roitter, H; Villagra de Lacuara, S

    1995-01-01

    Our aim was to confirm in our environment what has been observed and described by other writers about the importance of achieving a "critical body weight'' and an adequate "fat percentage'' -on the basis of the calculation of total body water- for the initiation and development of pubertal events. This study included 92 girls, healthy, well nourished, belonging to upper middle class from a high school of The National University of Cordoba. The longitudinal method of control was used every 6 months and at the precise moment of menarche. Out of 20 antropometrical variables observed height, weight and height, TBW as percentage of body weight, lean body and fat weight, fat percentage and skin folds ppercentiles for each girl at menarche. A regression between fat percentage and skin folds was done. Percentiles 5 to 95 of fat percentage in relation to body water percentage were estimated. At menarche the average for the different variables are: Heigth 155.6 cm +/- 0.469; Weight 45.8 Kg +/- 0,5; TBW 25.216 lit. +/- 0.318; lean body weigth 35.02 Kg (S.D.2.98); fat weigth 10.86 Kg (S. D. 3.17). The addition of skin folds was correlated fat percentage, thus, an equation was obtained for the average calculation of such percentage %F= 12.16 + (0.313 x fold addition). The minium percentage for the onset of menstrual cycles is 17.3% and corresponds to percentile 10. However, there is a 5% of girls who start to menstruate with a 15.5% of fat and none of them is below that value. The reasons mentioned above suggest that is necessary to obtain a "critical body weigth'' as well as a "fat percentage'' minimum for the onset and maintenance of menstrual cycles, among our girls, similar o what has been obtained by doctor Frisch.

  2. 76 FR 6054 - Use of Less-Than-Lethal Force: Delegation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... language of the proposed regulation stating that the Warden could delegate authority to use less-than... may delegate the authority under this regulation to one or more supervisors on duty and physically... authority of the Warden to authorize the use of chemical agents or other less-than-lethal weapons may not be...

  3. Using a lethality index to assess susceptibility of Tribolium confusum and Oryzaephilus surinamensis to insecticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the knockdown effect caused by four insecticides: alpha-cypermethrin, chlorfenapyr, pirimiphos-methyl and fipronil against Tribolium confusum and Oryzaephilus surinamensis adults. Furthermore, for the same species and insecticides, we developed a “lethality index”, to assess knockdown p...

  4. Acute-lethal toxicity (LC50) effect of Moringa oleifera (Lam.) Fresh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SH

    Acute-lethal toxicity is a tool used in piscicide bio-safety assessment in fish farming prior to its proper application in ... assessment because of their effects on non-target aquatic species in fish pond. ... food fish from aquaculture for human.

  5. The Vf gene for scrab resistance in apple is linked to sub-lethal genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, Z.S.; Weg, van de W.E.

    2006-01-01

    V f is the most widely used resistance gene in the breeding for scab resistant apple cultivars. Distorted segregation ratios for V f -resistance have frequently been reported. Here we revealed that sub-lethal genes caused the distorted segregation. The inheritance of V f was examined in six progenie

  6. Loss of ATM kinase activity leads to embryonic lethality in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daniel, J.A.; Pellegrini, M.; Filsuf, D.

    2012-01-01

    whether the functions of ATM are mediated solely by its kinase activity, we generated two mouse models containing single, catalytically inactivating point mutations in Atm. In this paper, we show that, in contrast to Atm-null mice, both D2899A and Q2740P mutations cause early embryonic lethality in mice...

  7. An Immature Myeloid/Myeloid-Suppressor Cell Response Associated with Necrotizing Inflammation Mediates Lethal Pulmonary Tularemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periasamy, Sivakumar; Avram, Dorina; McCabe, Amanda; MacNamara, Katherine C; Sellati, Timothy J; Harton, Jonathan A

    2016-03-01

    Inhalation of Francisella tularensis (Ft) causes acute and fatal pneumonia. The lung cytokine milieu favors exponential Ft replication, but the mechanisms underlying acute pathogenesis and death remain unknown. Evaluation of the sequential and systemic host immune response in pulmonary tularemia reveals that in contrast to overwhelming bacterial burden or cytokine production, an overt innate cellular response to Ft drives tissue pathology and host mortality. Lethal infection with Ft elicits medullary and extra-medullary myelopoiesis supporting recruitment of large numbers of immature myeloid cells and MDSC to the lungs. These cells fail to mature and die, leading to subsequent necrotic lung damage, loss of pulmonary function, and host death that is partially dependent upon immature Ly6G+ cells. Acceleration of this process may account for the rapid lethality seen with Ft SchuS4. In contrast, during sub-lethal infection with Ft LVS the pulmonary cellular response is characterized by a predominance of mature neutrophils and monocytes required for protection, suggesting a required threshold for lethal bacterial infection. Further, eliciting a mature phagocyte response provides transient, but dramatic, innate protection against Ft SchuS4. This study reveals that the nature of the myeloid cell response may be the primary determinant of host mortality versus survival following Francisella infection.

  8. Improving on army field gauze for lethal vascular injuries: a progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uncontrolled hemorrhage is the leading cause of death on the battlefield and second leading cause of death in civilian trauma. Recent animal testing using a lethal arterial injury model compared a variety of woven and non woven products with granular products, and found only one product (WoundStat)...

  9. [Maternal mortality in the IMSS: an analysis from the perspective of mortality and lethality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Murillo, Vitelio; Navarrete-Hernández, Eduardo

    2006-01-01

    To assess the incidence of hospital maternal mortality in the population covered by the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) from 2000 to 2003, utilizing the rates of the main causes of morbidity and lethality, in order to gain a better understanding of this epidemiological picture. We collected information from 3,357,346 hospital deliveries and 832 maternal deaths that occurred in the medical units of the IMSS during the above-mentioned years. For the specific analysis of mortality, morbidity and lethality, deliveries and deaths with diagnoses of mild preeclampsia, severe preeclampsia, eclampsia, placenta previa, postpartum hemorrhage, chorioamnionitis and puerperal sepsis were selected, based on the criteria of International Diseases Classification, Tenth Revision. For statistical differences we used the chi(2). Maternal mortality registered a reduction of 25.1% (39 x 100,000 live births in 2000 and 29.2% in 2003). Morbidity increased by 6.6%. Morbidity and lethality caused by preeclampsia, obstetrical hemorrhages and puerperal sepsis (56.7% of the total deaths) showed a significant decrease in most cases. Specific morbidity showed no changes. We observed a decrease in the rate of hospital maternal mortality during the years of the study, linked to a reduction in lethality of these three main causes. This epidemiological picture may demonstrate the optimal quality in obstetrical care, because no reported changes in morbidity levels were registered.

  10. ATR pathway inhibition is synthetically lethal in cancer cells with ERCC1 deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohni, Kareem N.; Kavanaugh, Gina M.; Cortez, David

    2014-01-01

    The DNA damage response kinase ATR and its effector kinase CHEK1 are required for cancer cells to survive oncogene-induced replication stress. ATR inhibitors exhibit synthetic lethal interactions with deficiencies in the DNA damage response enzymes ATM and XRCC1 and with overexpression of the cell cycle kinase Cyclin E. Here we report a systematic screen to identify synthetic lethal interactions with ATR-pathway targeted drugs, rationalized by their predicted therapeutic utility in the oncology clinic. We found that reduced function in the ATR pathway itself provided the strongest synthetic lethal interaction. In addition, we found that loss of the structure specific-endonuclease ERCC1-XPF (ERCC4) is synthetic lethal with ATR pathway inhibitors. ERCC1-deficient cells exhibited elevated levels of DNA damage, which was increased further by ATR inhibition. When treated with ATR or CHEK1 inhibitors, ERCC1-deficient cells arrested in S phase and failed to complete cell cycle transit even after drug removal. Notably, triple-negative breast cancer cells and non-small cell lung cancer cells depleted of ERCC1 exhibited increased sensitivity to ATR-pathway targeted drugs. Overall, we concluded that ATR pathway-targeted drugs may offer particular utility in cancers with reduced ATR pathway function or reduced levels of ERCC4 activity. PMID:24662920

  11. Lethal and behavioural impacts of diesel and fuel oil on the Antarctic amphipod Paramoera walkeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kathryn E; King, Catherine K; Harrison, Peter L

    2017-03-03

    Toxicity testing with Antarctic species is required for risk assessment of fuel spills in Antarctic coastal waters. The lethal and sub-lethal (movement behaviour) sensitivity of adults and juveniles of the Antarctic amphipod Paramoera walkeri to the water accommodated fractions (WAF) of three fuels were estimated in extended duration tests at -1°C to 21 d. Response of P. walkeri for lethal hydrocarbon concentrations was slow, with LC50s first able to be estimated at 7 d for adults exposed to Special Antarctic Blend diesel (SAB), which had the highest hydrocarbon concentrations of the three fuel WAFs. Juveniles showed greater response to marine gas oil (MGO) and intermediate residual fuel oil (IFO 180) at longer exposure durations and were most sensitive at 21 d to IFO 180 (LC50 = 12 µg/L). Adults were initially more sensitive than juveniles; however, at 21 d juveniles were more than twice as sensitive as adults to SAB (LC50 = 153 µg/L and 377 µg/L respectively). Significant effects on movement behaviour were evident at earlier time points and lower concentrations than was mortality in all three fuel WAFs, and juveniles were highly sensitive to sub-lethal effects of MGO. These first estimates of Antarctic amphipod sensitivity to diesel and fuel oils in seawater contribute to development of ecologically relevant water quality guidelines for management of hydrocarbon contamination in the region. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Tetracycline-suppressible female lethality and sterility in the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) involves the mass release of sterile males to suppress insect pest populations, which has been improved for larval pests by development of strains for female-specific tetracycline-suppressible (Tet-off) embryonic lethal systems for male-only populations. Here we de...

  13. Lethal and sublethal effects of cyantraniliprole on Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendle) (Diptera: Tephiritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is one of the most important and damaging fruit pests in the world. Studies were conducted with a novel anthranilic diamide insecticide (i.e. DuPontTM CyazypyrTM) cyantraniliprole to determine its lethal and sublethal effects on B. dorsalis. An in...

  14. Test and injury assessment methods for less-lethal kinetic energy projectiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, M.J. van der; Philippens, M.M.G.M.; Paulissen, J.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    As is the case for all armed forces, the Netherlands’ MoD requires new weapons and munitions to be qualified according to existing rules and regulations. However, to date no generally accepted qualification process for Non-Lethal Weapons (NLW) exists, and suitable test and assessment protocols for d

  15. Test and injury assessment methods for less-lethal kinetic energy projectiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, M.J. van der; Philippens, M.M.G.M.; Paulissen, J.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    As is the case for all armed forces, the Netherlands’ MoD requires new weapons and munitions to be qualified according to existing rules and regulations. However, to date no generally accepted qualification process for Non-Lethal Weapons (NLW) exists, and suitable test and assessment protocols for

  16. Role of CD59 in T cell activation induced by non-lethal complement attack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Gen-cheng; BAI Yun; JIANG Man; LI Wan-ling; ZHU Xi-hua

    2001-01-01

    To study the mechanism ofT-cell activation induced by non-lethal complement attack and the role of CD59 in this process. Methods: Human CD59 and its transmembrane counterpart CD59TM cDNA were transfected into murine thymoma EL-4 cells. Activation and proliferation of EL-4 transfectants were observed with MTT assay.Results: Both CD59 and CD59 TM cDNA expressed on EL-4 cells effectively inhibited complement-mediated membrane damage. Cross-linking of CD59 with antibody induced activation of CD59/EL-4 cells but not CD59TM/EL-4cells. This effect was inhibited by Herbimycin A, a special protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitor. Non-lethal complement attack induced CD59/EL-4 but not CD59TM/EL-4 cell to proliferate, and this reaction was not blocked by Herbimycin A. Conclusion: CD59 takes part in T cell activation induced by non-lethal complement attack. The mechanisms of T cell activation induced by non-lethal complement attack are different from those by cross-linking of CD59.

  17. Beliefs and attitudes toward lethal management of deer in Cuyahoga Valley National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, D.C.; Skerl, K.; Shank, E.M.; Lime, D.W.

    2004-01-01

    We used the theory of reasoned action to help understand attitudes and beliefs about lethal management of deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Cuyahoga Valley National Park (CVNP), Ohio. We used a mail-back survey to collect data from Ohio residents in the surrounding 9-county area. Two strata were defined: residents action to reduce deer populations was unacceptable (near 75%??4.5%, far 72%??5.1%). Beliefs about outcomes of lethal control and evaluation of those outcomes proved to be strong predictors of the acceptability of lethal control of deer in CVNP. Lethal control was more acceptable if it was done to prevent severe consequences for humans (e.g., spread of disease, car collisions) or the natural environment (e.g., maintain a healthy deer herd) than to prevent negative aesthetic impacts or personal property damage. Results from the study can be used to assist managers at CVNP as they make decisions regarding alternatives for deer management in the park and to inform others managing abundant deer populations of socially relevant impacts of management actions.

  18. An Immature Myeloid/Myeloid-Suppressor Cell Response Associated with Necrotizing Inflammation Mediates Lethal Pulmonary Tularemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periasamy, Sivakumar; Avram, Dorina; McCabe, Amanda; MacNamara, Katherine C.; Sellati, Timothy J.; Harton, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Inhalation of Francisella tularensis (Ft) causes acute and fatal pneumonia. The lung cytokine milieu favors exponential Ft replication, but the mechanisms underlying acute pathogenesis and death remain unknown. Evaluation of the sequential and systemic host immune response in pulmonary tularemia reveals that in contrast to overwhelming bacterial burden or cytokine production, an overt innate cellular response to Ft drives tissue pathology and host mortality. Lethal infection with Ft elicits medullary and extra-medullary myelopoiesis supporting recruitment of large numbers of immature myeloid cells and MDSC to the lungs. These cells fail to mature and die, leading to subsequent necrotic lung damage, loss of pulmonary function, and host death that is partially dependent upon immature Ly6G+ cells. Acceleration of this process may account for the rapid lethality seen with Ft SchuS4. In contrast, during sub-lethal infection with Ft LVS the pulmonary cellular response is characterized by a predominance of mature neutrophils and monocytes required for protection, suggesting a required threshold for lethal bacterial infection. Further, eliciting a mature phagocyte response provides transient, but dramatic, innate protection against Ft SchuS4. This study reveals that the nature of the myeloid cell response may be the primary determinant of host mortality versus survival following Francisella infection. PMID:27015566

  19. An Immature Myeloid/Myeloid-Suppressor Cell Response Associated with Necrotizing Inflammation Mediates Lethal Pulmonary Tularemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakumar Periasamy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Inhalation of Francisella tularensis (Ft causes acute and fatal pneumonia. The lung cytokine milieu favors exponential Ft replication, but the mechanisms underlying acute pathogenesis and death remain unknown. Evaluation of the sequential and systemic host immune response in pulmonary tularemia reveals that in contrast to overwhelming bacterial burden or cytokine production, an overt innate cellular response to Ft drives tissue pathology and host mortality. Lethal infection with Ft elicits medullary and extra-medullary myelopoiesis supporting recruitment of large numbers of immature myeloid cells and MDSC to the lungs. These cells fail to mature and die, leading to subsequent necrotic lung damage, loss of pulmonary function, and host death that is partially dependent upon immature Ly6G+ cells. Acceleration of this process may account for the rapid lethality seen with Ft SchuS4. In contrast, during sub-lethal infection with Ft LVS the pulmonary cellular response is characterized by a predominance of mature neutrophils and monocytes required for protection, suggesting a required threshold for lethal bacterial infection. Further, eliciting a mature phagocyte response provides transient, but dramatic, innate protection against Ft SchuS4. This study reveals that the nature of the myeloid cell response may be the primary determinant of host mortality versus survival following Francisella infection.

  20. Surfactant-induced non-lethal release of anthraquinones from suspension culture of Morinda citrifolia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bassetti, L.; Hagendoorn, M.J.M.; Tramper, J.

    1995-01-01

    A new approach based on the use of the surfactant Pluronic F-68 to obtain non-lethal release of plant cell intracellular products was investigated. Suspension cultures of Morinda citrifolia (Rubiaceae), producing anthraquinones as secondary metabolites, were selected as model system. By supplementin

  1. Evolutionary demography of iteroparous plants: incorporating non-lethal costs of reproduction into integral projection models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Tom E X; Williams, Jennifer L; Jongejans, Eelke; Brys, Rein; Jacquemyn, Hans

    2012-07-22

    Understanding the selective forces that shape reproductive strategies is a central goal of evolutionary ecology. Selection on the timing of reproduction is well studied in semelparous organisms because the cost of reproduction (death) can be easily incorporated into demographic models. Iteroparous organisms also exhibit delayed reproduction and experience reproductive costs, although these are not necessarily lethal. How non-lethal costs shape iteroparous life histories remains unresolved. We analysed long-term demographic data for the iteroparous orchid Orchis purpurea from two habitat types (light and shade). In both the habitats, flowering plants had lower growth rates and this cost was greater for smaller plants. We detected an additional growth cost of fruit production in the light habitat. We incorporated these non-lethal costs into integral projection models to identify the flowering size that maximizes fitness. In both habitats, observed flowering sizes were well predicted by the models. We also estimated optimal parameters for size-dependent flowering effort, but found a strong mismatch with the observed flower production. Our study highlights the role of context-dependent non-lethal reproductive costs as selective forces in the evolution of iteroparous life histories, and provides a novel and broadly applicable approach to studying the evolutionary demography of iteroparous organisms.

  2. More than fear: role of emotions in acceptability of lethal control of wolves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, M.H.; Vaske, J.J.; Dubois, S.; Fehres, P.

    2014-01-01

    Wolf populations have increased in Western Europe and North America. Lethal control of problem wolves is controversial and support varies among stakeholder groups. Knowing why people support or oppose policies can assist managers in dealing with the public. We examined the influence of emotions

  3. Control of lethal browning by using ascorbic acid on shoot tip ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-04-16

    Apr 16, 2014 ... from fungi, viruses and bacteria when injured ... surface of plant tissues due to the oxidation of phenolic compounds ... Author(s) agree that this article remain permanently open access under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 ... Control of lethal browning in tissue culture of banana.

  4. Lethal congenital muscular dystrophy with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita : three new cases and review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sombekke, B H; Molenaar, W M; Essen, A J van; Schoots, C J

    1994-01-01

    Congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD) comprises a heterogeneous group of muscle disorders. We report on two stillborn sibs with early lethal CMD and a prematurely born boy who died within minutes after birth. The pregnancies were complicated by polyhydramnios. All presented with arthrogryposis

  5. [Effect of lethal ovitrap on the longevity of females of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Renata Antonaci; Eiras, Alvaro Eduardo; Resende, Marcelo Carvalho de

    2007-01-01

    Oviposition traps with added insecticide may work as a new method for controlling the females of the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Females of Aedes aegypti were placed in contact with lethal ovitraps with aging. The mortality rate ranged from 60.3% to 100%. The effect of aging the slats impregnated with deltamethrin was significant in relation to the percentage mortality among Aedes aegypti females.

  6. Meckel-Gruber syndrome: A rare and lethal anomaly with review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parelkar, Sandesh V; Kapadnis, Satish P; Sanghvi, Beejal V; Joshi, Prashant B; Mundada, Dinesh; Oak, Sanjay N

    2013-05-01

    Meckel-Gruber syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive lethal malformation characterized by typical manifestations of occipital encephalocele, bilateral polycystic kidneys and post axial polydactyly. The worldwide incidence varies from 1 in 13,250 to 1 in 140,000 live births. Highest incidence was reported in Gujarati Indians. We report a rare case of Meckel-Gruber syndrome and review of literature.

  7. Myxoma virus M130R is a novel virulence factor required for lethal myxomatosis in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, John W; Werden, Steven J; Wang, Fuan; McKillop, William M; Jimenez, June; Villeneuve, Danielle; McFadden, Grant; Dekaban, Gregory A

    2009-09-01

    Myxoma virus (MV) is a highly lethal, rabbit-specific poxvirus that induces a disease called myxomatosis in European rabbits. In an effort to understand the function of predicted immunomodulatory genes we have deleted various viral genes from MV and tested the ability of these knockout viruses to induce lethal myxomatosis. MV encodes a unique 15 kD cytoplasmic protein (M130R) that is expressed late (12h post infection) during infection. M130R is a non-essential gene for MV replication in rabbit, monkey or human cell lines. Construction of a targeted gene knockout virus (vMyx130KO) and infection of susceptible rabbits demonstrate that the M130R knockout virus is attenuated and that loss of M130R expression allows the rabbit host immune system to effectively respond to and control the lethal effects of MV. M130R expression is a bona fide poxviral virulence factor necessary for full and lethal development of myxomatosis.

  8. More than fear: role of emotions in acceptability of lethal control of wolves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, M.H.; Vaske, J.J.; Dubois, S.; Fehres, P.

    2014-01-01

    Wolf populations have increased in Western Europe and North America. Lethal control of problem wolves is controversial and support varies among stakeholder groups. Knowing why people support or oppose policies can assist managers in dealing with the public. We examined the influence of emotions towa

  9. Metagenomic Analysis of Cucumber RNA from East Timor Reveals an Aphid lethal paralysis virus Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, Solomon; Edwards, Owain R.; de Almeida, Luis; Ximenes, Abel

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We present here the first complete genomic Aphid lethal paralysis virus (ALPV) sequence isolated from cucumber plant RNA from East Timor. We compare it with two complete ALPV genome sequences from China, and one each from Israel, South Africa, and the United States. It most closely resembled the Chinese isolate LGH genome. PMID:28082492

  10. Surfactant-induced non-lethal release of anthraquinones from suspension culture of Morinda citrifolia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bassetti, L.; Hagendoorn, M.J.M.; Tramper, J.

    1995-01-01

    A new approach based on the use of the surfactant Pluronic F-68 to obtain non-lethal release of plant cell intracellular products was investigated. Suspension cultures of Morinda citrifolia (Rubiaceae), producing anthraquinones as secondary metabolites, were selected as model system. By

  11. Influence of copper exposure on whole-body sodium levels in larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Genderen, Eric J; Tomasso, Joseph R; Klaine, Stephen J

    2008-06-01

    Because metals such as Cu inhibit ionoregulation, the increased energy requirement to counter passive diffusive losses in soft water may translate into increased sensitivity to metal exposure. We developed a method to determine whole-body Na concentrations of larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) as a physiological indicator of health. This method was used to characterize net rates of Na flux from fish exposed to Cu in the presence of varying levels of hardness and alkalinity. In extremely soft waters (hardness, hardness (>10 mg/L as CaCO(3)), however, decreased the apparent kinetics of Na loss caused by Cu exposure, which suggests the process was related to uncompetitive inhibition of Cu by hardness cations. Although the percentage of Na loss associated with mortality in larval fish was similar to that in juvenile and adult fish (30% loss of exchangeable Na pool), larvae reached this level within 12 h of exposure, and it was not representative of the onset of mortality. These results suggested that ionoregulatory measures by themselves are not a conclusive metric for Cu regulation using larval fish. To account for increased sensitivity in low-hardness waters in the development of biotic ligand models, the critical amount of Cu associated with the gill to cause mortality (i.e., the median lethal accumulation value) should be characterized more appropriately as a function of hardness below 20 mg/L as CaCO(3).

  12. Nuclear criticality safety guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruvost, N.L.; Paxton, H.C. [eds.

    1996-09-01

    This technical reference document cites information related to nuclear criticality safety principles, experience, and practice. The document also provides general guidance for criticality safety personnel and regulators.

  13. Comparison of Staphylococcus aureus strains for ability to cause infective endocarditis and lethal sepsis in rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Adam R.; Satterwhite, Erin A.; Lin, Ying-Chi; Chuang-Smith, Olivia N.; Frank, Kristi L.; Merriman, Joseph A.; Schaefers, Matthew M.; Yarwood, Jeremy M.; Peterson, Marnie L.; Schlievert, Patrick M.

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of infective endocarditis (IE) and sepsis. Both methicillin-resistant (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive (MSSA) strains cause these illnesses. Common S. aureus strains include pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) types USA200, 300, and 400 types where we hypothesize that secreted virulence factors contribute to both IE and sepsis. Rabbit cardiac physiology is considered similar to humans, and rabbits exhibit susceptibility to S. aureus superantigens (SAgs) and cytolysins. As such, rabbits are an excellent model for studying IE and sepsis, which over the course of four days develop IE vegetations and/or fatal septicemia. We examined the ability of MRSA and MSSA strains (4 USA200, 2 USA300, 2 USA400, and three additional common strains, FRI1169, Newman, and COL) to cause vegetations and lethal sepsis in rabbits. USA200, TSST-1+ strains that produce only low amounts of α-toxin, exhibited modest LD50 in sepsis (1 × 108 – 5 × 108) colony-forming units (CFUs), and 3/4 caused significant IE. USA200 strain MNPE, which produces high-levels of α-toxin, was both highly lethal (LD50 5 × 106 CFUs) and effective in causing IE. In contrast, USA300 strains were highly effective in causing lethal sepsis (LD50s 1 × 106 and 5 × 107 CFUs) but were minimally capable of causing IE. Strain Newman, which is phylogenetically related to USA300 strains, was not highly lethal (LD50 of 2 × 109 CFUs) and was effective in causing IE. USA400 strains were both highly lethal (LD50s of 1 × 107 and 5 × 107 CFUs) and highly effective causes of IE. The menstrual TSS isolate FRI1169, that is TSST-1+, produces high-levels of α-toxin, but is not USA200, was both highly lethal and effective in causing IE. Additional studies showed that phenol soluble modulins (PSMs) produced by FRI1169 were important for sepsis but did not contribute to IE. Our studies show that these clonal groups of S. aureus differ in abilities to cause IE and lethal sepsis and

  14. Experimental Salmonella typhimurium infections in rats. II. Active and passive immunization as protection against a lethal bacterial dose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougen, H P; Jensen, E T; Klausen, B

    1990-01-01

    Immunization against a lethal dose of Salmonella typhimurium was studied in athymic and thymus-bearing LEW rats. Active immunization was performed with formalin-killed whole cell vaccine or sublethal infection prior to the lethal infection. After vaccination with killed bacteria the euthymic anim...

  15. Dendritic Cell Targeting of Bacillus anthracis Protective Antigen Expressed by Lactobacillus acidophilus Protects Mice from Lethal Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-28

    Dendritic cell targeting of Bacillus anthracis protective antigen expressed by Lactobacillus acidophilus protects mice from lethal challenge M...lethal chal- lenge. A vaccine strategy was established by using Lactobacillus acidophilus to deliver Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA) via...include species of Lactobacillus , Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Pedio- coccus, and Streptococcus. It is widely accepted that Lactobacillus species play a

  16. CRTAP mutations in lethal and severe osteogenesis imperfecta: the importance of combining biochemical and molecular genetic analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, F.S. Van; Nesbitt, I.M.; Nikkels, P.G.J.; Dalton, A.; Bongers, E.M.H.F.; Kamp, J.M. van de; Hilhorst-Hofstee, Y.; Hollander, N.S. den; Lachmeijer, A.M.; Marcelis, C.L.M.; Tan-Sindhunata, G.M.; Rijn, R.R. van; Meijers-Heijboer, H.; Cobben, J.M.; Pals, G.

    2009-01-01

    Autosomal recessive lethal and severe osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is caused by the deficiency of cartilage-associated protein (CRTAP) and prolyl-3-hydroxylase 1 (P3H1) because of CRTAP and LEPRE1 mutations. We analyzed five families in which 10 individuals had a clinical diagnosis of lethal and sev

  17. CRTAP mutations in lethal and severe osteogenesis imperfecta : the importance of combining biochemical and molecular genetic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, Fleur S.; Nesbitt, Isabel M.; Nikkels, Peter G. J.; Dalton, Ann; Bongers, Ernie M. H. F.; de Kamp, Jiddeke M. van; Hilhorst-Hofstee, Yvonne; Den Hollander, Nicolette S.; Lachmeijer, Augusta M. A.; Marcelis, Carlo L.; Tan-Sindhunata, Gita M. B.; van Rijn, Rick R.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Cobben, Jan M.; Pals, Gerard

    2009-01-01

    Autosomal recessive lethal and severe osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is caused by the deficiency of cartilage-associated protein (CRTAP) and prolyl-3-hydroxylase 1 (P3H1) because of CRTAP and LEPRE1 mutations. We analyzed five families in which 10 individuals had a clinical diagnosis of lethal and sev

  18. Two different forms of lethal chondrodysplasias caused by COL2A1 gene mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winterpacht, A.; Hilbert, K.; Schwarze, U. [Univ. of Mainz (Germany)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Two bone dysplasia families seem to be due to mutations in the type II procollagen gene (COL2A1): the so-called spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita (SEDC) group with achondrogenesis II, hypochondrogenesis, SEDC, osteoarthrosis and the Stickler-Kniest pattern that include different forms of Kniest and Stickler dysplasia. Both groups comprise a clinical spectrum ranging from lethal to mild. COL2A1-mutations have been identified in lethal forms of the SEDC family but not in lethal forms of the Stickler/Kniest group. We now report a COL2A-1 mutation in an additional case of hypochondrogenesis (patient S) and in a lethal case of Kniest dysplasia (patient B). We amplified all 54 exons of the COL2A1 gene in both patients and screened the PCR products for mutations by SSCP analysis and sequencing. In patient B, we identified an 18 bp deletion in exon 34 which removes 6 amino acids from the mature protein. In patient S, we were able to identify a two base pair exchange (GG to AT) in exon 31, which leads to the very unusual conversion of Gly to Ile. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a Gly to Ile conversion in the COL2A1 gene, and the first report of a COL2A1 gene mutation in a lethal form of Kniest dysplasia. On the basis of the known COL2A1 gene mutations and the genotype-phenotype correlations established so far, we provide molecular data (an in frame deletion in patient B and a Gly conversion in patient S) that support their clinical classification as Kniest dysplasia and hypochondrogenesis, respectively.

  19. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Insecticides on the Egg Parasitoid Telenomus podisi (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchen, L M; Golin, V; Butnariu, A R; Guedes, R N C; Pereira, M J B

    2016-02-01

    Insecticide use remains controversial, and subjected to increasing environmental and health concerns, even when recent insecticide groups are considered. Neonicotinoids and even bioinsecticides are in the forefront of discussions regarding their nontarget safety. The ubiquitous focus on the lethal effects of insecticides on nontarget species has been expanding to sublethal effects, as sublethal exposure extends for a longer time and affects a broader range of (nontarget) species. Here we explored the lethal and sublethal effects of a lambda-cyhalothrin + thiamethoxan mixture, the neonicotinoid imidacloprid, and the bioinsecticide azadirachtin on the egg parasitoid Telenomus podisi Ashmead, an important parasitoid of stink bug Euschistus heros (F.), a key soybean pest in neotropical America. Contact with dry insecticide residue on glass surface and (parasitized and healthy) host egg immersion exposure bioassays were performed, assessing their acute lethal effects, and their potential sublethal impairment of parasitism, adult emergence, and fertility of the egg parasitoid. Both imidacloprid and the insecticide mixture exhibited high acute lethal activity toward the parasitoid under contact with dry insecticide residue. These insecticides compromised parasitism and wasp emergence when exposure took place before parasitism. In contrast, azadirachtin did not affect adult survival. However, this bioinsecticide compromised parasitism and progeny production, impairing the female parasitoid reproductive potential. Our results indicate strong negative effects of imidacloprid, and specially of the mixture lambda-cyhalthrin + thiamethoxan. However, even azadirachtin, which exhibited low acute lethality, exhibited significant negative sublethal effects on parasitism and population growth of egg parasitoid, cautioning against their use and the need of semifield and field assessments to confirm such an impact. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of

  20. Bacterial Factors Associated with Lethal Outcome of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Infection: Genomic Case-Control Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Donnenberg

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Typical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (tEPEC strains were associated with mortality in the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS. Genetic differences in tEPEC strains could underlie some of the variability in clinical outcome.We produced draft genome sequences of all available tEPEC strains from GEMS lethal infections (LIs and of closely matched EPEC strains from GEMS subjects with non-lethal symptomatic infections (NSIs and asymptomatic infections (AIs to identify gene clusters (potential protein encoding sequences sharing ≥90% nucleotide sequence identity associated with lethality.Among 14,412 gene clusters identified, the presence or absence of 392 was associated with clinical outcome. As expected, more gene clusters were associated with LI versus AI than LI versus NSI. The gene clusters more prevalent in strains from LI than those from NSI and AI included those encoding proteins involved in O-antigen biogenesis, while clusters encoding type 3 secretion effectors EspJ and OspB were among those more prevalent in strains from non-lethal infections. One gene cluster encoding a variant of an NleG ubiquitin ligase was associated with LI versus AI, while two other nleG clusters had the opposite association. Similar associations were found for two nleG gene clusters in an additional, larger sample of NSI and AI GEMS strains.Particular genes are associated with lethal tEPEC infections. Further study of these factors holds potential to unravel the mechanisms underlying severe disease and to prevent adverse outcomes.

  1. A comparison of the sublethal and lethal toxicity of four pesticides in Hyalella azteca and Chironomus dilutus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenbein, Simone; Connon, Richard E; Lawler, Sharon P; Geist, Juergen

    2015-08-01

    Laboratory toxicity testing is the primary tool used for surface water environmental risk assessment; however, there are critical information gaps regarding the sublethal effects of pesticides. In 10-day exposures, we assessed the lethal and sublethal (motility and growth) toxicities of four commonly used pesticides, bifenthrin, permethrin, cyfluthrin, and chlorpyrifos, on two freshwater invertebrates, Chironomus dilutus and Hyalella azteca. Pyrethroids were more toxic than the organophosphate chlorpyrifos in both species. Bifenthrin was most toxic to H. azteca survival and growth. Cyfluthrin was most toxic to C. dilutus. However, cyfluthrin had the greatest effect on motility on both H. azteca and C. dilutus. The evaluated concentrations of chlorpyrifos did not affect C. dilutus motility or growth, but significantly impacted H. azteca growth. Motility served as the most sensitive endpoint in assessing sublethal effects at low concentrations for both species, while growth was a good indicator of toxicity for all four pesticides for H. azteca. The integration of sublethal endpoints in ambient water monitoring and pesticide regulation efforts could improve identification of low-level pesticide concentrations that may eventually cause negative effects on food webs and community structure in aquatic environments.

  2. Loss of vps54 function leads to vesicle traffic impairment, protein mis-sorting and embryonic lethality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Páll; Droce, Aida; Moser, Jakob M; Cuhlmann, Simon; Padilla, Carolina Ortiz; Heimann, Peter; Bartsch, Jörg W; Füchtbauer, Annette; Füchtbauer, Ernst-Martin; Schmitt-John, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The identification of the mutation causing the phenotype of the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) model mouse, wobbler, has linked motor neuron degeneration with retrograde vesicle traffic. The wobbler mutation affects protein stability of Vps54, a ubiquitously expressed vesicle-tethering factor and leads to partial loss of Vps54 function. Moreover, the Vps54 null mutation causes embryonic lethality, which is associated with extensive membrane blebbing in the neural tube and is most likely a consequence of impaired vesicle transport. Investigation of cells derived from wobbler and Vps54 null mutant embryos demonstrates impaired retrograde transport of the Cholera-toxin B subunit to the trans-Golgi network and mis-sorting of mannose-6-phosphate receptors and cargo proteins dependent on retrograde vesicle transport. Endocytosis assays demonstrate no difference between wobbler and wild type cells, indicating that the retrograde vesicle traffic to the trans-Golgi network, but not endocytosis, is affected in Vps54 mutant cells. The results obtained on wobbler cells were extended to test the use of cultured skin fibroblasts from human ALS patients to investigate the retrograde vesicle traffic. Analysis of skin fibroblasts of ALS patients will support the investigation of the critical role of the retrograde vesicle transport in ALS pathogenesis and might yield a diagnostic prospect.

  3. Immunization with Cytomegalovirus Envelope Glycoprotein M and Glycoprotein N DNA Vaccines can Provide Mice with Complete Protection against a Lethal Murine Cytomegalovirus Challenge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huadong Wang; Yanfeng Yao; Chaoyang Huang; Quanjiao Chen; Jianjun Chen; Ze Chen

    2013-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus virions contain three major glycoprotein complexes (gC Ⅰ,Ⅱ,Ⅲ),all of which are required for CMV infectivity.These complexes also represent major antigenic targets for anti-viral immune responses.The gC Ⅱ complex consists of two glycoproteins,gM and gN.In the current study,DNA vaccines expressing the murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) homologs of the gM and gN proteins were evaluated for protection against lethal MCMV infection in a mouse model.Humoral and cellular immune responses,spleen viral titers,and mice survival and body-weight changes were examined.The results showed that immunization with gM or gN DNA vaccine alone was not able to offer good protection,whereas co-immunization with both gM and gN induced an effective neutralizing antibody response and cellular immune response,and provided mice with complete protection against a lethal MCMV challenge.This study provides the first in vivo evidence that the gC Ⅱ (gM-gN) complex may be able to serve as a protective subunit antigen for future HCMV vaccine development.

  4. Role of marrow architecture and stromal cells in the recovery process of aplastic marrow of lethally irradiated rats parabiosed with healthy litter mates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, K.; Kagawa, K.; Awai, M.; Irino, S.

    1986-01-01

    Bone marrow aplasia was induced in rats by whole body lethal irradiation (1,000 rads by x-ray), and rats died of irradiation injury within 7 days. Correlative studies at light (LM), transmission (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) demonstrated swelling of endothelial and reticular cells and hemorrhage due to detachment of sinus endothelial cells on days 1 and 2. With time, structural recovery occurred without hemopoietic recovery. Reticular cells developed small intracytoplasmic lipid droplets on days 3 and 4. This resulted in fatty aplastic marrow within 7 days. On the other hand, in the marrow of irradiated rats parabiosed with healthy mates by aortic anastomosis, hemopoiesis was initiated by adhesion of nucleated blood cells to fine cytoplasmic pseudopods of fat-stored cells on days 1 and 2 after parabiosis. On days 3 to 5, reticular cells with large lipid droplets and fine pseudopods increased, then hemopoietic foci became clear and extensive. On day 8 after parabiosis, the aplastic bone marrow recovered completely both its structure and hemopoietic activity. Thus, hemopoietic recovery in lethally irradiated marrow begins with recovery of vascular endothelial cells, re-establishment of sinusoidal structure, and morphological and functional recoveries of reticular cells from fat-storage cells by releasing intracytoplasmic lipid droplets. Marrow stromal cells, namely reticular, fat-storage and fibroblastoid cells, share a common cellular origin, and regain their structure and function when fat-storage cells and fibroid cells are placed in contact with hemopoietic precursor cells.

  5. Zfp148 deficiency causes lung maturation defects and lethality in newborn mice that are rescued by deletion of p53 or antioxidant treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan I Sayin

    Full Text Available The transcription factor Zfp148 (Zbp-89, BFCOL, BERF1, htβ interacts physically with the tumor suppressor p53 and is implicated in cell cycle control, but the physiological role of Zfp148 remains unknown. Here we show that Zfp148 deficiency leads to respiratory distress and lethality in newborn mice. Zfp148 deficiency prevented structural maturation of the prenatal lung without affecting type II cell differentiation or surfactant production. BrdU analyses revealed that Zfp148 deficiency caused proliferation arrest of pulmonary cells at E18.5-19.5. Similarly, Zfp148-deficient fibroblasts exhibited proliferative arrest that was dependent on p53, raising the possibility that cell stress is part of the underlying mechanism. Indeed, Zfp148 deficiency lowered the threshold for activation of p53 under oxidative conditions. Moreover, both in vivo and cellular phenotypes were rescued on Trp53(+/- or Trp53(-/- backgrounds and by antioxidant treatment. Thus, Zfp148 prevents respiratory distress and lethality in newborn mice by attenuating oxidative stress-dependent p53-activity during the saccular stage of lung development. Our results establish Zfp148 as a novel player in mammalian lung maturation and demonstrate that Zfp148 is critical for cell cycle progression in vivo.

  6. Long-term passage of Vif-null HIV-1 in CD4(+) T cells expressing sub-lethal levels of APOBEC proteins fails to develop APOBEC resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi, Eri; Kao, Sandra; Fumitaka, Miyoshi; Buckler-White, Alicia; Plishka, Ron; Strebel, Klaus

    2017-04-01

    APOBEC3G (A3G) is a cytidine deaminase with potent antiviral activity that is antagonized by Vif. A3G is expressed in a cell type-specific manner and some semi-permissive cells, including A3.01, express A3G but fail to block replication of Vif-null HIV-1. Here we explored the semi-permissive nature of A3.01 cells and found it to be defined exclusively by the levels of A3G. Indeed, minor changes in A3G levels rendered A3.01 cells either fully permissive or non-permissive for Vif-null HIV-1. Our data indicate that A3.01 cells express sub-lethal levels of catalytically active A3G that affects Vif-null HIV-1 at the proviral level but does not completely block virus replication due to purifying selection. Attempts to use the selective pressure exerted by such sub-lethal levels of A3G to select for APOBEC-resistant Vif-null virus capable of replicating in H9 cells failed despite passaging virus for five months, demonstrating that Vif is a critical viral accessory protein.

  7. Endocrine expression of the active form of TGF-beta1 in the TGF-beta1 null mice fails to ameliorate lethal phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longenecker, Glenn; Thyagarajan, Tamizchelvi; Nagineni, Chandrasekharam N; Flanders, Kathleen C; Factor, Valentina; Miller, Georgina; Ward, Jerrold M; Nalca, Aysegul; Rangnekar, Vivek M; Thorgeirsson, Snorri; Kulkarni, Ashok B

    2002-04-01

    TGF-beta1 null mice die by 3 to 4 weeks of age due to a severe autoimmune-mediated multifocal inflammation resulting in multi-organ failure. To assess the therapeutic potential of circulating levels of active TGF-beta1, we generated mice with endocrine expression of active TGF-beta1 on a TGF-beta1 null background (TGF-beta1 (-/-/TG)) by crossing TGF-beta1(+/-) mice with transgenic mice (TG) that express recombinant TGF-beta1 specifically in the liver and secrete it in the blood. The TGF-beta1 (-/-/TG) mice exhibit a survival profile similar to the TGF-beta1 (-/-) mice indicating a failure to rescue the lethal phenotype. However, serum TGF-beta1 levels in the TGF-beta1 (-/-/TG) mice were restored to near normal levels with expression in all the tissues, notably in the kidney and spleen. Histopathology showed reduced inflammation in the target tissues, especially in the heart. Interestingly, unlike TGF-beta1 (-/-) mice, the TGF-beta1 (-/-/TG) mice have glomerulonephritis in their kidneys similar to the TG mice. Thus, the phenotype of TGF-beta1 (-/-/TG) animal model indicates the potential role of circulating active-TGF-beta1 in reducing inflammation, but its failure to rescue lethality in TGF-beta1 null mice indicates a critical autocrine role of TGF-beta1.

  8. Non-lethal approach identifies variability of δ15N values in the fin rays of Atlantic Goliath Grouper, Epinephelus itajara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orian E. Tzadik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic Goliath Grouper, Epinephelus itajara, is critically endangered throughout its range but has begun to show initial signs of recovery in Florida state waters. As the population continues to rebound, researchers face a pressing need to fill the knowledge gaps about this iconic species. Here, we examined the δ15N isotopic records in fin rays collected from Atlantic Goliath Grouper, and related changes of isotopic ratios over time to life history characteristics. Fin-ray analysis was used as a non-lethal technique to sample individuals from two locations at similar latitudes from the west and east coasts of Florida, USA. δ15N data were acquired by mechanically separating the annuli of each fin ray and then analyzing the material in an Irradiance Elemental Analyzer Mass Spectrometer. The δ15N values were consistent among individuals within populations from each coast of Florida, and mirrored the expected changes over the lives of the fish. Overall, differences were found between δ15N values at juvenile life history phases versus adult phases, but the patterns associated with these differences were unique to each coastal group. We demonstrated, for the first time, that δ15N values from fin rays can be used to assess the life histories of Atlantic Goliath Grouper. The non-lethal strategies outlined here can be used to acquire information essential to the management of species of concern, such as those that are threatened or endangered.

  9. Non-lethal approach identifies variability of δ15N values in the fin rays of Atlantic Goliath Grouper, Epinephelus itajara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Ethan A.; Hollander, David J.; Koenig, Christopher C.; Stallings, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    The Atlantic Goliath Grouper, Epinephelus itajara, is critically endangered throughout its range but has begun to show initial signs of recovery in Florida state waters. As the population continues to rebound, researchers face a pressing need to fill the knowledge gaps about this iconic species. Here, we examined the δ15N isotopic records in fin rays collected from Atlantic Goliath Grouper, and related changes of isotopic ratios over time to life history characteristics. Fin-ray analysis was used as a non-lethal technique to sample individuals from two locations at similar latitudes from the west and east coasts of Florida, USA. δ15N data were acquired by mechanically separating the annuli of each fin ray and then analyzing the material in an Irradiance Elemental Analyzer Mass Spectrometer. The δ15N values were consistent among individuals within populations from each coast of Florida, and mirrored the expected changes over the lives of the fish. Overall, differences were found between δ15N values at juvenile life history phases versus adult phases, but the patterns associated with these differences were unique to each coastal group. We demonstrated, for the first time, that δ15N values from fin rays can be used to assess the life histories of Atlantic Goliath Grouper. The non-lethal strategies outlined here can be used to acquire information essential to the management of species of concern, such as those that are threatened or endangered. PMID:26082864

  10. [Multifaceted body. 2. The lived body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wykretowicz, H; Saraga, M; Bourquin, C; Stiefel, F

    2015-02-11

    The human body is the object upon which medicine is acting, but also lived reality, image, symbol, representation and the object of elaboration and theory. All these elements which constitute the body influence the way medicine is treating it. In this series of three articles, we address the human body from various perspectives: medical (1), phenomenological (2), psychosomatic and socio-anthropological (3). This second article distinguishes between the body as an object of knowledge or representation and the way the body is lived. This distinction which originates in phenomenological psychiatry aims to understand how the patient experiences his body and to surpass the classical somatic and psychiatric classifications.

  11. Critical endpoint behavior: A Wang Landau study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, D. P.; Wang, Fugao; Tsai, Shan-Ho

    2008-07-01

    We study the critical endpoint behavior using an asymmetric Ising model with two- and three-body interactions on a triangular lattice, in the presence of an external field. The simulation method we use is Wang-Landau sampling in a two-dimensional parameter space. We observe a clear divergence of the curvature of the spectator phase boundary and of the magnetization coexistence diameter derivative at the critical endpoint, and the exponents for both divergences agree well with previous theoretical predictions.

  12. A Critical Humanist Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magill, Kevin; Rodriguez, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    This essay is a critical humanist discussion of curriculum; a departure from the technicist view of education [education meant to support a global capitalist economy] and an analysis of curriculum considering critical humanism, political economy and critical race theory among other modes of critical analysis and inquiry. Our discussion supports a…

  13. Effects of sub-lethal neurite outgrowth inhibitory concentrations of chlorpyrifos oxon on cytoskeletal proteins and acetylcholinesterase in differentiating N2a cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaskos, J., E-mail: flaskos@vet.auth.gr [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Toxicology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Nikolaidis, E. [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Toxicology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Harris, W. [School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University, Clifton Lane, Nottingham NG11 8NS (United Kingdom); Sachana, M. [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Toxicology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Hargreaves, A.J., E-mail: alan.hargreaves@ntu.ac.uk [School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University, Clifton Lane, Nottingham NG11 8NS (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Previous work in our laboratory has shown that sub-lethal concentrations (1-10 {mu}M) of chlorpyrifos (CPF), diazinon (DZ) and diazinon oxon (DZO) inhibit the outgrowth of axon-like neurites in differentiating mouse N2a neuroblastoma cells concomitant with altered levels and/or phosphorylation state of axonal cytoskeleton and growth-associated proteins. The aim of the present work was to determine whether chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) was capable of inhibiting N2a cell differentiation in a similar manner. Using experimental conditions similar to our previous work, sub-lethal concentrations (1-10 {mu}M) of CPO were found to inhibit N2a cell differentiation. However, unlike previous studies with DZ and DZO, there was a high level of sustained inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in CPO treated cells. Impairment of neurite outgrowth was also associated with reduced levels of growth associated protein-43 and neurofilament heavy chain (NFH), and the distribution of NFH in cells stained by indirect immunofluorescence was disrupted. However, in contrast to previous findings for DZO, the absolute level of phosphorylated NFH was unaffected by CPO exposure. Taken together, the findings suggest that sub-lethal concentrations of CPO inhibit axon outgrowth in differentiating N2a cells and that this effect involves reduced levels of two proteins that play key roles in axon outgrowth and maintenance. Although the inhibition of neurite outgrowth is unlikely to involve AChE inhibition directly, further work will help to determine whether the persistent inhibition of AChE by CPO can account for the different effects induced by CPO and DZO on the levels of total and phosphorylated NFH. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sub-lethal levels of chlorpyrifos oxon inhibit neurite outgrowth in N2a cells Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acetylcholinesterase exhibits sustained inhibition throughout exposure Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The levels of neurofilament heavy chain and GAP-43

  14. Mitigation of Lethal Radiation Syndrome in Mice by Intramuscular Injection of 3D Cultured Adherent Human Placental Stromal Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gaberman

    Full Text Available Exposure to high lethal dose of ionizing radiation results in acute radiation syndrome with deleterious systemic effects to different organs. A primary target is the highly sensitive bone marrow and the hematopoietic system. In the current study C3H/HeN mice were total body irradiated by 7.7 Gy. Twenty four hrs and 5 days after irradiation 2×10(6 cells from different preparations of human derived 3D expanded adherent placental stromal cells (PLX were injected intramuscularly. Treatment with batches consisting of pure maternal cell preparations (PLX-Mat increased the survival of the irradiated mice from ∼27% to 68% (P<0.001, while cell preparations with a mixture of maternal and fetal derived cells (PLX-RAD increased the survival to ∼98% (P<0.0001. The dose modifying factor of this treatment for both 50% and 37% survival (DMF50 and DMF37 was∼1.23. Initiation of the more effective treatment with PLX-RAD injection could be delayed for up to 48 hrs after irradiation with similar effect. A delayed treatment by 72 hrs had lower, but still significantly effect (p<0.05. A faster recovery of the BM and improved reconstitution of all blood cell lineages in the PLX-RAD treated mice during the follow-up explains the increased survival of the cells treated irradiated mice. The number of CD45+/SCA1+ hematopoietic progenitor cells within the fast recovering population of nucleated BM cells in the irradiated mice was also elevated in the PLX-RAD treated mice. Our study suggests that IM treatment with PLX-RAD cells may serve as a highly effective "off the shelf" therapy to treat BM failure following total body exposure to high doses of radiation. The results suggest that similar treatments may be beneficial also for clinical conditions associated with severe BM aplasia and pancytopenia.

  15. [Critical comments on reports of fatalities in hereditary fructose intolerance in adulthood from the viewpoint of neuroanesthesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panning, B; Piepenbrock, S

    1988-08-01

    In view of repeated communications in recent years reporting on lethal infusions of fructose or sorbitol in adults with hereditary fructose intolerance, the known statements on the incidence of 1:20,000 are critically analysed. The validity is relativated. The special indication for sorbitol as an osmotherapeutic preparation for lowering intracranial pressure is pointed out. A modified intravenous fructose tolerance test is suggested.

  16. Criticality Analysis of GTPPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asis Sarkar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper is concerned with the study of criticality analysis of components of Gas Turbine Power Plant Systems (GTPPS and the failures occurring in the plant. Failure mode and effect and criticality analysis (FMECA is carried out to estimate the criticality number for different components and failure modes. In addition the failure effects, higher effects and end effectsare incorporated in the final FMECA sheet. The criticality resultscompensating provision will highlight possible ways to tackle thefailures economically. The findings in this Paper are (1 criticality index of the components (2 Critical failures (3 compensating provision of critical failure.

  17. Reprodaetion of an animal model of multiple intestinal injuries mimicking "lethal triad" caused by severe penetrating abdominal trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-fei WANG

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To reproduce an animal model of multi-intestinal injuries with "lethal triad" characterized by low body temperature,acidosis and coagulopathy.Methods Six female domestic outbred pigs were anesthetized,and the carotid artery and jugular vein were cannulated for monitoring the blood pressure and heart rate and for infusion of fluid.The animals were shot with a gun to create a severe penetrating abdominal trauma.Immediately after the shooting,50% of total blood volume(35ml/kg hemorrhage was drawn from the carotid artery in 20min.After a 40min shock period,4h of pre-hospital phase was mimicked by normal saline(NS resuscitation to maintain systolic blood pressure(SBP > 80mmHg or mean arterial pressure(MAP > 60mmHg.When SBP > 80mmHg or MAP > 60mmHg,no fluid infusion or additional bleeding was given.Hemodynamic parameters were recorded,and pathology of myocardium,lung,small intestine and liver was observed.Results There were multiple intestinal perforations(8-10 site injuries/pig leading to intra-abdominal contamination,mesenteric injury(1-2 site injuries/pig resulted in partial intestinal ischemia and intra-abdominal hemorrhage,and no large colon and mesenteric vascular injury.One pig died before the completion of the model establishment(at the end of pre-hospital resuscitation.The typical symptoms of trauma-induced hemorrhagic shock were observed in survival animals.Low temperature(33.3±0.5℃,acidosis(pH=7.242±0.064,and coagulopathy(protrombin time and activated partial thromboplasting time prolonged were observed after pre-hospital resuscitation.Pathology showed that myocardium,lung,small intestine and liver were severely injured.Conclusions A new model,simulating three stages of "traumatic hemorrhagic shock,pre-hospital recovery and hospital treatment" and inducing the "lethal triad" accompanied with abdominal pollution,has been successfully established.This model has good stability and high reproducibility.The survival animals can be

  18. A Critical Look into Critical Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishghadam, Reza; Meidani, Elham Naji

    2012-01-01

    In line with postmodern philosophy, critical pedagogy has gained considerable importance and has become a valuable educational goal. The purpose of this study is to dig into the effects of critical pedagogy in a modernist educational system. To this aim, 15 Iranian university students were asked to write down their feelings at the end of a course…

  19. A Critical Look into Critical Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishghadam, Reza; Meidani, Elham Naji

    2012-01-01

    In line with postmodern philosophy, critical pedagogy has gained considerable importance and has become a valuable educational goal. The purpose of this study is to dig into the effects of critical pedagogy in a modernist educational system. To this aim, 15 Iranian university students were asked to write down their feelings at the end of a course…

  20. Critical Approaches to Critical Pedagogy in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grollios, George; Liambas, Anastassios

    2015-01-01

    This paper is an initial review of the presentations and uses of critical pedagogy in Greek educational literature since the mid-1980s. These have appeared in the form of three books and an edited volume (translated in Greek), all written by American critical educators, as well as in texts produced by Greek educators who have either written the…