WorldWideScience

Sample records for lessons pharmaceutical calculations

  1. Pharmaceutical policy reform in Canada: lessons from history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothe, Katherine

    2018-07-01

    Canada is the only country with a broad public health system that does not include universal, nationwide coverage for pharmaceuticals. This omission causes real hardship to those Canadians who are not well-served by the existing patchwork of limited provincial plans and private insurance. It also represents significant forgone benefits in terms of governments' ability to negotiate drug prices, make expensive new drugs available to patients on an equitable basis, and provide integrated health services regardless of therapy type or location. This paper examines Canada's historical failure to adopt universal pharmaceutical insurance on a national basis, with particular emphasis on the role of public and elite ideas about its supposed lack of affordability. This legacy provides novel lessons about the barriers to reform and potential methods for overcoming them. The paper argues that reform is most likely to be successful if it explicitly addresses entrenched ideas about pharmacare's affordability and its place in the health system. Reform is also more likely to achieve universal coverage if it is radical, addressing various components of an effective pharmaceutical program simultaneously. In this case, an incremental approach is likely to fail because it will not allow governments to contain costs and realize the social benefits that come along with a universal program, and because it means forgoing the current promising conditions for achieving real change.

  2. Impact of a required pharmaceutical calculations course on mathematics ability and knowledge retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegener, Michael A; Buring, Shauna M; Papas, Elizabeth

    2013-08-12

    To assess doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students' mathematics ability by content area before and after completing a required pharmaceutical calculations course and to analyze changes in scores. A mathematics skills assessment was administered to 2 cohorts of pharmacy students (class of 2013 and 2014) before and after completing a pharmaceutical calculations course. The posttest was administered to the second cohort 6 months after completing the course to assess knowledge retention. Both cohorts performed significantly better on the posttest (cohort 1, 13% higher scores; cohort 2, 15.9% higher scores). Significant improvement on posttest scores was observed in 6 of the 10 content areas for cohorts 1 and 2. Both cohorts scored lower in percentage calculations on the posttest than on the pretest. A required, 1-credit-hour pharmaceutical calculations course improved PharmD students' overall ability to perform fundamental and application-based calculations.

  3. Use of condensed videos in a flipped classroom for pharmaceutical calculations: Student perceptions and academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloudeman, Mark W; Shah-Manek, Bijal; Wong, Terri H; Vo, Christina; Ip, Eric J

    2018-02-01

    The flipped teaching method was implemented through a series of multiple condensed videos for pharmaceutical calculations with student perceptions and academic performance assessed post-intervention. Student perceptions from the intervention group were assessed via an online survey. Pharmaceutical exam scores of the intervention group were compared to the control group. The intervention group spent a greater amount of class time on active learning. The majority of students (68.2%) thought that the flipped teaching method was more effective to learn pharmaceutical calculations than the traditional method. The mean exam scores of the intervention group were not significantly different than the control group (80.5 ± 15.8% vs 77.8 ± 16.8%; p = 0.253). Previous studies on the flipped teaching method have shown mixed results in regards to student perceptions and exam scores, where either student satisfaction increased or exam scores improved, but rarely both. The flipped teaching method was rated favorably by a majority of students. The flipped teaching method resulted in similar outcomes in pharmaceutical calculations exam scores, and it appears to be an acceptable and effective option to deliver pharmaceutical calculations in a Doctor of Pharmacy program. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Food and pharmaceuticals. Lessons learned from global contaminations with melamine/cyanuric acid and diethylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C A; Brown, S A

    2010-01-01

    Recently, contamination of pharmaceuticals with diethylene glycol (DEG) and food with melamine and cyanuric acid has demonstrated the impact of globalization on drug and food safety. By examining the details of these outbreaks, some important lessons can be learned. Toxicoses from contaminated food and drugs are often identified only when large numbers of people or animals are affected and numerous deaths result. Populations most at risk are those repeatedly exposed to a single product. Toxicoses may be complex, involving synergism among relatively nontoxic co-contaminants. Although some contamination may occur inadvertently, practices of deliberate contamination of food and drug ingredients may be widespread but escape detection in poorly regulated markets. If this deliberate contamination is motivated by personal financial gain, it is likely to recur and be concealed. The contaminated raw material produced in a poorly regulated market may cross national boundaries and be used in manufacturing processes for numerous products, sometimes in more well-regulated markets. Once in the production chain, contaminated raw materials may be widely disseminated. It is not clear that regulatory organizations have the capacity to identify significant contaminations despite their best efforts. The veterinary and medical communities, in cooperation with regulatory agencies, should develop cooperative programs designed to detect and limit these global outbreaks. Although addressing regional or national outbreaks remains an important role for regulatory agencies, the veterinary and medical communities must develop proactive global approaches to this global problem.

  5. Comparison of Pharmaceutical Calculations Learning Outcomes Achieved Within a Traditional Lecture or Flipped Classroom Andragogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Lisa; Anderson, Stephanie L.; Stanton, Robert; Gillette, Chris; Broedel-Zaugg, Kim; Yingling, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To compare learning outcomes achieved from a pharmaceutical calculations course taught in a traditional lecture (lecture model) and a flipped classroom (flipped model). Methods. Students were randomly assigned to the lecture model and the flipped model. Course instructors, content, assessments, and instructional time for both models were equivalent. Overall group performance and pass rates on a standardized assessment (Pcalc OSCE) were compared at six weeks and at six months post-course completion. Results. Student mean exam scores in the flipped model were higher than those in the lecture model at six weeks and six months later. Significantly more students passed the OSCE the first time in the flipped model at six weeks; however, this effect was not maintained at six months. Conclusion. Within a 6 week course of study, use of a flipped classroom improves student pharmacy calculation skill achievement relative to a traditional lecture andragogy. Further study is needed to determine if the effect is maintained over time. PMID:28630511

  6. Comparison of Pharmaceutical Calculations Learning Outcomes Achieved Within a Traditional Lecture or Flipped Classroom Andragogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, H Glenn; Frazier, Lisa; Anderson, Stephanie L; Stanton, Robert; Gillette, Chris; Broedel-Zaugg, Kim; Yingling, Kevin

    2017-05-01

    Objective. To compare learning outcomes achieved from a pharmaceutical calculations course taught in a traditional lecture (lecture model) and a flipped classroom (flipped model). Methods. Students were randomly assigned to the lecture model and the flipped model. Course instructors, content, assessments, and instructional time for both models were equivalent. Overall group performance and pass rates on a standardized assessment (Pcalc OSCE) were compared at six weeks and at six months post-course completion. Results. Student mean exam scores in the flipped model were higher than those in the lecture model at six weeks and six months later. Significantly more students passed the OSCE the first time in the flipped model at six weeks; however, this effect was not maintained at six months. Conclusion. Within a 6 week course of study, use of a flipped classroom improves student pharmacy calculation skill achievement relative to a traditional lecture andragogy. Further study is needed to determine if the effect is maintained over time.

  7. A lesson from Japan: research and development efficiency is a key element of pharmaceutical industry consolidation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimura, Hirohisa; Masuda, Sachiko; Kimura, Hiromichi

    2014-02-01

    Scholarly attention to pharmaceutical companies' ability to sustain research and development (R&D) productivity has increased as they increasingly handle business challenges. Furthermore, the deterioration of R&D productivity has long been considered a major cause of mergers and acquisitions (M&As). This study attempts to investigate quantitatively the possible causes of the deterioration and the relationship between the deterioration and M&As by examining the Japanese pharmaceutical industry. Japan from 1980 to 1997 is an ideal case because of the availability of official data, but more importantly the significant changes in its business environment at the time. Using the Malmquist Index and data envelopment analysis, we measured the deterioration of R&D productivity from 1980 to 1997 based on a sample of 15 Japanese companies. Two lessons can be learned from Japan's case. First, to sustain R&D productivity over the long term, companies should use licensing activities and focus on the dominant therapeutic franchises. Second, if a company fails significantly to catch up with the benchmark, it is likely to pursue an M&A or seek an alternative way to improve R&D productivity. These findings appear similar to the current situation of the global pharmaceutical industry, although Japan pursued more licensing activities than M&A to improve R&D productivity.

  8. Expanding Canadian Medicare to include a national pharmaceutical benefit while controlling expenditures: possible lessons from Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Bruce

    2018-02-05

    In Canada, there is an ongoing debate about whether to expand Medicare to include a national pharmaceutical benefit on a universal basis. The potential health benefits are understood to be significant, but there are ongoing concerns about affordability. In Israel, the National Health Insurance benefits package includes a comprehensive pharmaceutical benefit. Nonetheless, per capita pharmaceutical spending is well below that of Canada and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development average. This paper highlights seven strategies that Israel has employed to constrain pharmaceutical spending: (1) prioritizing new technologies, subject to a global budget constraint; (2) using regulations and market power to secure fair and reasonable prices; (3) establishing an efficient pharmaceutical distribution system; (4) promoting effective prescribing behavior; (5) avoiding artificial inflation of consumer demand; (6) striking an appropriate balance between respect for IP rights, access and cost containment; and (7) developing a shared societal understanding about the value and limits of pharmaceutical spending. Some of these strategies are already in place in some parts of Canada. Others could be introduced into Canada, and might contribute to the affordability of a national pharmaceutical benefit, but substantial adaptation would be needed. For example, in Israel the health maintenance organizations (HMOs) play a central role in promoting effective prescribing behavior, whereas in HMO-free Canada other mechanisms are needed to advance this important goal.

  9. Balancing health and industrial policy objectives in the pharmaceutical sector: lessons from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Steve; McMahon, Meghan; Greyson, Devon

    2008-08-01

    Policy-makers worldwide struggle to balance health with industrial policy objectives in the pharmaceutical sector. Tensions arise over pricing and reimbursement in particular. What health plans view as necessary to maintain equitable access to medicines, industry views as inimical to R&D and innovation. Australia has grappled with this issue for years, even incorporating the goal of "maintaining a responsible and viable medicines industry" into its National Medicines Policy. This case study was conducted via a narrative review that examined Australia's experiences balancing health and industrial policy objectives in the pharmaceutical sector. The review included electronic databases, grey literature and government publications for reports on relevant Australian policy published over the period 1985-2007. While pharmaceutical companies claim that Australia's pricing and reimbursement policies suppress drug prices and reduce profits, national policy audits indicate these claims are misguided. Australia appears to have secured relatively low prices for generics and "me-too drugs" while paying internationally competitive prices for "breakthrough" medicines. Simultaneously, Australia has focused efforts on local pharmaceutical investment through a variety of industry-targeted R&D incentive policies. Despite the fact that policy reviews suggest that Australia has achieved balance between health and industrial policy objectives, the country continues to face criticism from industry that its health goals harm innovation and R&D. Recent reforms raise the question whether Australia can sustain the apparent balance.

  10. From maturity to value-added innovation: lessons from the pharmaceutical and agro-biotechnology industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittra, James; Tait, Joyce; Wield, David

    2011-03-01

    The pharmaceutical and agro-biotechnology industries have been confronted by dwindling product pipelines and rapid developments in life sciences, thus demanding a strategic rethink of conventional research and development. Despite offering both industries a solution to the pipeline problem, the life sciences have also brought complex regulatory challenges for firms. In this paper, we comment on the response of these industries to the life science trajectory, in the context of maturing conventional small-molecule product pipelines and routes to market. The challenges of managing transition from maturity to new high-value-added innovation models are addressed. Furthermore, we argue that regulation plays a crucial role in shaping the innovation systems of both industries, and as such, we suggest potentially useful changes to the current regulatory system. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Show us the money: lessons in transparency from state pharmaceutical marketing disclosure laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimonas, Susan; Rozario, Natassia M; Rothman, David J

    2010-02-01

    To assess legislation requiring drug companies to report gifts to providers, and to evaluate the information obtained. Data included legislation in Vermont, Minnesota, Maine, Massachusetts, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia, and company disclosure data from Vermont. We evaluated the strengths and weaknesses of state legislation. We also analyzed 4 years of company disclosures from Vermont, assessing the value and distribution of industry-provider exchanges and identifying emerging trends in companies' practices. State legislation is publically available. We obtained Vermont's data through requests to the state's Attorney General's office. Of the state laws, only Vermont's yielded robust, publically available data. These data show gifting was dominated by a few major corporations, and Companies were especially generous to specialists in psychiatry, endocrinology/diabetes/metabolism, internal medicine, and neurology. Companies increasingly used loopholes in the law to avoid public scrutiny. Disclosure laws are an important first step in bringing greater transparency to physician-industry relationships. But flaws and weaknesses limit the states' ability to render physician-industry exchanges fully transparent. Future efforts should build on these lessons to render physician-industry relationships fully transparent.

  12. Lessons for a national pharmaceuticals strategy in Canada from Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeLorier, Jacques; Rawson, Nugek S B

    2007-07-01

    The provincial formulary review processes in Canada lead to the slow and inequitable availability of new products. In 2004, the exploration of a national pharmaceuticals strategy (NPS) was announced. The pricing policies of New Zealand and Australia have been suggested as possible models for the NPS. To compare health care indexes and health care use information from Canada, Australia and New Zealand. The 2006 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development health data were used to compare health and health care indexes from Canada, Australia and New Zealand between 1994 and 2002 to 2004. The principal focus of the evaluation was cardiovascular and respiratory disorders. Although the mortality rate from acute myocardial infarction decreased in each country from 1994, it levelled off in New Zealand in 1997, 1998 and 1999. Between 1994 and 2003, the average length of hospital stay for any cause and for cardiovascular disorders was stable in Australia and Canada, but increased in New Zealand, while the rate of hospital discharges for cardiovascular diseases decreased in Canada and Australia, but strongly increased in New Zealand. Over the same period, sales of cardiovascular drugs decreased in New Zealand, while sharply increasing in Canada and Australia. Although only circumstantial, our results suggest an association between decreasing cardiovascular drug sales and markers of declining cardiovascular health in New Zealand. Careful consideration must be given to the potential consequences of any model for an NPS in Canada, as well as to opportunities provided for discussion and input from health care professionals and patients.

  13. Pharmaceutical properties of two ethenzamide-gentisic acid cocrystal polymorphs: Drug release profiles, spectroscopic studies and theoretical calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokal, Agnieszka; Pindelska, Edyta; Szeleszczuk, Lukasz; Kolodziejski, Waclaw

    2017-04-30

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability and solubility of the polymorphic forms of the ethenzamide (ET) - gentisic acid (GA) cocrystals during standard technological processes leading to tablet formation, such as compression and excipient addition. In this work two polymorphic forms of pharmaceutical cocrystals (ETGA) were characterized by 13 C and 15 N solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. Spectroscopic studies were supported by gauge including projector augmented wave (GIPAW) calculations of chemical shielding constants.Polymorphs of cocrystals were easily identified and characterized on the basis of solid-state spectroscopic studies. ETGA cocrystals behaviour during direct compressionand tabletting with excipient addition were tested. In order to choose the best tablet composition with suitable properties for the pharmaceutical industry dissolution profile studies of tablets containing polymorphic forms of cocrystals with selected excipients were carried out. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Case study: Findings and lessons learned from investigating a uranium intake and the corresponding dose calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeslaar, Frik; Niekerk, Santie van; Steenkamp, Harry; Visagie, Abrie

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Purpose: To discuss the findings of an investigation into uranium intake and to discuss the lessons learned from the subsequent bioassay monitoring and dose calculations. Method: An investigation was held to determine direct and root causes after elevated air concentration levels were reported during the execution of an ad-hoc task. A programme of bioassay monitoring (urine sampling and lung counts) was implemented for the involved staff and committed effective doses were calculated. Major findings of the investigation: a) Inadequate pre-task assessment led to hazards not being identified and subsequently proper control measures were not implemented; b) Inadequate localised control of contamination led to contamination of worker's clothes and faces and contamination of rest of area; c) Workers were complacent which led to a lapse in safety awareness and subsequently they removed their face masks during the task. Problems experienced with bioassay monitoring and dose calculations: a) Some bioassay samples were not taken or were given incorrectly; b) Calculating doses were difficult due to lack of information regarding date of intake; whether there were other possible intakes; and the physiochemical nature of the uranium; c) Weak correlation between predicted and actual bioassay data; d) Period between starting bioassay monitoring and the actual event was too long. Conclusions: a) Shortcomings in the control of contamination with protective clothing and during the execution of ad-hoc tasks; b) Identifying hazards and assessing it is extremely dependant on the skill and capabilities if the Radiation Protection Officers; c) Instructions to workers regarding sampling of urine and arrangements around the sampling should be very specific with only one person responsible for managing the process; d) Be aware of the psychological impact on the affected workers; e) 2 nd Independent dose calculation important for verifying doses; f) Detection capabilities and

  15. Occurrence and fate of pharmaceutically active compounds in the largest municipal wastewater treatment plant in Southwest China: mass balance analysis and consumption back-calculated model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qing; Gao, Xu; Huang, Lei; Gan, Xiu-Mei; Zhang, Yi-Xin; Chen, You-Peng; Peng, Xu-Ya; Guo, Jin-Song

    2014-03-01

    The occurrence and fate of twenty-one pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) were investigated in different steps of the largest wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Southwest China. Concentrations of these PhACs were determined in both wastewater and sludge phases by a high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Results showed that 21 target PhACs were present in wastewater and 18 in sludge. The calculated total mass load of PhACs per capita to the influent, the receiving water and sludge were 4.95mgd(-1)person(-1), 889.94μgd(-1)person(-1) and 78.57μgd(-1)person(-1), respectively. The overall removal efficiency of the individual PhACs ranged from "negative removal" to almost complete removal. Mass balance analysis revealed that biodegradation is believed to be the predominant removal mechanism, and sorption onto sludge was a relevant removal pathway for quinolone antibiotics, azithromycin and simvastatin, accounting for 9.35-26.96% of the initial loadings. However, the sorption of the other selected PhACs was negligible. The overall pharmaceutical consumption in Chongqing, China, was back-calculated based on influent concentration by considering the pharmacokinetics of PhACs in humans. The back-estimated usage was in good agreement with usage of ofloxacin (agreement ratio: 72.5%). However, the back-estimated usage of PhACs requires further verification. Generally, the average influent mass loads and back-calculated annual per capita consumption of the selected antibiotics were comparable to or higher than those reported in developed countries, while the case of other target PhACs was opposite. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The power of r - pharmaceutical sales decomposition in Cyprus public healthcare sector and determinants of drug expenditure evolution: any lessons learned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrou, Panagiotis

    2014-04-01

    The pharmaceutical sector has been established as the primary cost driver in health. The scope of this paper is to explore the drivers of pharmaceutical expenditure in Cyprus by decomposing sales and assessing impact of prices, volumes and substitution effect. We used a statistical approach to decompose the growth of public pharmaceutical expenditure during 2005-2011 into three elements: 1) substitution effect; 2) price effect; and 3) increase of consumption. We further decomposed consumption into: 1) prescription/visits; 2) visits/beneficiaries; and 3) beneficiaries. Pharmaceutical expenditure grew by 31.4 % and volume of medicines dispensed increased by 55%. Prices declined by 11% and product-mix residual was -5.5%, indicating that Cyprus experienced a switch to cheaper medicines (generics) without compromising access of patients to innovative medicines. This was enhanced by guidelines, monitoring of prescribing behavior, generic substitution and efficient tendering. The increasing number of products per prescriptions should be monitored with caution.

  17. Implementation of Collaborative Learning during the Applied Pharmaceutical Calculations Laboratory at the School of Pharmacy from the Universidad de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Mora Román

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The School of Pharmacy is currently facing a problem due to little or no communication among students of the same class or same academic level. Collaborative learning is a methodological strategy that goes beyond just working in groups. Small groups are formed and, after receiving instructions from the professor, group members exchange knowledge and work on an assignment until every person in the group has understood and completed the task, thus learning through collaboration. The main elements of this learning technique include: intentional design through the use of activities prepared by the teacher, collaboration through the active commitment of all the members of the work team, and significant learning through the increase of individual and collective in-depth knowledge on a given topic. Due to the foregoing, this learning experience was conducted during three sessions of the Applied Pharmaceutical Calculations Laboratory (FA-2023 during the second semester of 2012.  During these sessions, students were paired and assigned specific tasks that had to be completed before, during and after each lab session. In order to determine the result of the strategy used, the grades obtained by all the groups (24 students in quizzes and reports during those sessions were compared against the grades obtained in both items during the sessions where no collaborative learning approach was used. In addition, a survey in the form of a questionnaire was used to know the students’ opinion regarding this methodological strategy. Data was examined using a sociodemographic analysis for age and gender, and a descriptive analysis with frequency distribution for the rest of the items in the questionnaire. Results obtained show an enriching experience from the perspective of both the professor and the students. Consequently, the implementation of this strategy is necessary and advisable for the education processes of all learning levels in Costa Rica.

  18. How can a policy foster local pharmaceutical production and still protect public health? Lessons from the health-industry complex in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Fonseca, Elize Massard

    2018-04-01

    The global health community is increasingly advocating for the local production of pharmaceuticals in developing countries as a way to promote technology transfer, capacity building and improve access to medicines. However, efforts to advance drug manufacturing in these countries revive an old dilemma of fostering technological development versus granting access to social services, such as healthcare. This paper explores the case of Brazil, a country that has developed large-scale health-inspired industrial policies, but is, yet, little understood. Brazil's experience suggests that progressive healthcare bureaucrats can create innovative practices for technology and knowledge transfers. It also demonstrates that highly competitive pharmaceutical firms can collaborate with each other, if a government provides them the right incentives. Reforming regulatory policies is crucial for guaranteeing high-quality products in developing countries, but governments must play a crucial role in supporting local firms to adapt to these regulations. These findings send a strong message to global health policymakers and practitioners on the conditions to create a suitable environment for local production of medical products.

  19. Pharmaceutical Cocrystals

    OpenAIRE

    Korotkova, Elena I.; Kratochvíl, B.

    2014-01-01

    Cocrystals are very interesting and useful product. In this paper the main information about cocrystals is presented. It is shown that cocrystals are solid substances, which consist of few components mixed together. There are a lot of ways of cocrystals production and application. It is shown that cocrystals can be applied in medicine and pharmaceutical industry for improving different properties such as dissolution rate, melting point, solubility, chemical stability etc. Another way of cocry...

  20. Pharmaceutical virtue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Emily

    2006-06-01

    In the early history of psychopharmacology, the prospect of developing technologically sophisticated drugs to alleviate human ills was surrounded with a fervor that could be described as religious. This paper explores the subsequent history of the development of psychopharmacological agents, focusing on the ambivalent position of both the industry and its employees. Based on interviews with retired pharmaceutical employees who were active in the industry in the 1950s and 1960s when the major breakthroughs were made in the development of MAOIs and SSRIs, the paper explores the initial development of educational materials for use in sales campaigns. In addition, based on interviews with current employees in pharmaceutical sales and marketing, the paper describes the complex perspective of contemporary pharmaceutical employees who must live surrounded by the growing public vilification of the industry as rapacious and profit hungry and yet find ways to make their jobs meaningful and dignified. The paper will contribute to the understudied problem of how individuals function in positions that require them to be part of processes that on one description constitute a social evil, but on another, constitute a social good.

  1. Pharmaceutical powder compaction technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Çelik, Metin

    2011-01-01

    "Revised to reflect modern pharmaceutical compacting techniques, this Second Edition guides pharmaceutical engineers, formulation scientists, and product development and quality assurance personnel...

  2. Regulation of Pharmaceutical Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Mendez, Susan J.; Rønde, Thomas

    On April 1, 2005, Denmark changed the way references prices, a main determinant of reimbursements for pharmaceutical purchases, are calculated. The previous reference prices, which were based on average EU prices, were substituted to minimum domestic prices. Novel to the literature, we estimate...... the joint eects of this reform on prices and quantities. Prices decreased more than 26 percent due to the reform, which reduced patient and government expenditures by 3.0 percent and 5.6 percent, respectively, and producer revenues by 5.0 percent. The prices of expensive products decreased more than...

  3. Basic pharmaceutical technology

    OpenAIRE

    Angelovska, Bistra; Drakalska, Elena

    2017-01-01

    The lecture deals with basics of pharmaceutical technology as applied discipline of pharmaceutical science, whose main subject of study is formulation and manufacture of drugs. In a broad sense, pharmaceutical technology is science of formulation, preparation, stabilization and determination of the quality of medicines prepared in the pharmacy or in pharmaceutical industry

  4. 'Linkage' pharmaceutical evergreening in Canada and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunce, Thomas A; Lexchin, Joel

    2007-01-01

    'Evergreening' is not a formal concept of patent law. It is best understood as a social idea used to refer to the myriad ways in which pharmaceutical patent owners utilise the law and related regulatory processes to extend their high rent-earning intellectual monopoly privileges, particularly over highly profitable (either in total sales volume or price per unit) 'blockbuster' drugs. Thus, while the courts are an instrument frequently used by pharmaceutical brand name manufacturers to prolong their patent royalties, 'evergreening' is rarely mentioned explicitly by judges in patent protection cases. The term usually refers to threats made to competitors about a brand-name manufacturer's tactical use of pharmaceutical patents (including over uses, delivery systems and even packaging), not to extension of any particular patent over an active product ingredient. This article focuses in particular on the 'evergreening' potential of so-called 'linkage' provisions, imposed on the regulatory (safety, quality and efficacy) approval systems for generic pharmaceuticals of Canada and Australia, by specific articles in trade agreements with the US. These 'linkage' provisions have also recently appeared in the Korea-US Free Trade Agreement (KORUSFTA). They require such drug regulators to facilitate notification of, or even prevent, any potential patent infringement by a generic pharmaceutical manufacturer. This article explores the regulatory lessons to be learnt from Canada's and Australia's shared experience in terms of minimizing potential adverse impacts of such 'linkage evergreening' provisions on drug costs and thereby potentially on citizen's access to affordable, essential medicines. PMID:17543113

  5. Pharmaceutical care in Kuwait: hospital pharmacists' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoue, Maram G; Awad, Abdelmoneim I; Schwinghammer, Terry L; Kombian, Samuel B

    2014-12-01

    Pharmaceutical care practice has been championed as the primary mission of the pharmacy profession, but its implementation has been suboptimal in many developing countries including Kuwait. Pharmacists must have sufficient knowledge, skills, and positive attitudes to practise pharmaceutical care, and barriers in the pharmacy practice model must be overcome before pharmaceutical care can be broadly implemented in a given healthcare system. To investigate hospital pharmacists' attitudes towards pharmaceutical care, perceptions of their preparedness to provide pharmaceutical care, and the barriers to its implementation in Kuwait. Six general hospitals, eight specialized hospitals and seven specialized health centers in Kuwait. A descriptive, cross-sectional survey was distributed to all pharmacists working in the governmental hospitals in Kuwait (385 pharmacists). Data were collected via a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics including percentages, medians and means Likert scale rating (standard deviations) were calculated and compared using statistical package for social sciences, version 20. Statistical significance was accepted at a p value of Kuwait. Completed surveys were received from 250 (64.9%) of the 385 pharmacists. Pharmacists expressed overall positive attitudes towards pharmaceutical care. They felt well prepared to implement the various aspects of pharmaceutical care, with the least preparedness in the administrative/management aspects. Pharmacists with more practice experience expressed significantly more positive attitudes towards pharmaceutical care (p = 0.001) and they felt better prepared to provide pharmaceutical care competencies (p Kuwait advocate implementation of pharmaceutical care while also appreciating the organizational, technical and professional barriers to its widespread adoption. Collaborative efforts between health authorities and educational institutions, and the integration of innovative approaches in

  6. Does brand differentiate pharmaceuticals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarik, Josef

    2005-12-01

    Role of marketing in pharmaceutical industry is increasing and inspiration by successful brands known from consumer goods market influenced pharmaceutical companies enough to switch their attention to branding initiatives. Still there is little evidence that pharmaceutical brands represent anything more than product only. This study aims to explore the area of branding in pharmaceutical industry. Central hypothesis of the research has been that brand and its emotional content differentiate pharmaceuticals as well as rational data derived from clinical studies. It has been tested by extensive review of available literature as well as by primary research focused on drivers of physicians' attitudes towards products and their influence on prescribing behavior. The research has been conducted in the sample of psychiatrists in the Czech Republic. No evidence about pharmaceutical brand exceeding value of product has been found in reviewed literature. Nevertheless, the primary research conducted in the sample of Czech psychiatrists indicates that emotional brand in pharmaceutical industry exists and enables author to draw a model of Customer/product life cycle that describes likely impact of functional, emotional and self-expressive benefits throughout pharmaceutical product's market presence. Pharmaceutical brand is likely to develop differently than the same of consumer goods products--it seems to be built predominantly on long-term positive experience. Marketing role in this process should lie in finding relevant product position and building brand identity compliant with real product capabilities.

  7. Create a translational medicine knowledge repository--research downsizing, mergers and increased outsourcing have reduced the depth of in-house translational medicine expertise and institutional memory at many pharmaceutical and biotech companies: how will they avoid relearning old lessons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Bruce H; Marincola, Francesco M

    2011-05-10

    Pharmaceutical industry consolidation and overall research downsizing threatens the ability of companies to benefit from their previous investments in translational research as key leaders with the most knowledge of the successful use of biomarkers and translational pharmacology models are laid off or accept their severance packages. Two recently published books may help to preserve this type of knowledge but much of this type of information is not in the public domain. Here we propose the creation of a translational medicine knowledge repository where companies can submit their translational research data and access similar data from other companies in a precompetitive environment. This searchable repository would become an invaluable resource for translational scientists and drug developers that could speed and reduce the cost of new drug development.

  8. Create a translational medicine knowledge repository - Research downsizing, mergers and increased outsourcing have reduced the depth of in-house translational medicine expertise and institutional memory at many pharmaceutical and biotech companies: how will they avoid relearning old lessons?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marincola Francesco M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pharmaceutical industry consolidation and overall research downsizing threatens the ability of companies to benefit from their previous investments in translational research as key leaders with the most knowledge of the successful use of biomarkers and translational pharmacology models are laid off or accept their severance packages. Two recently published books may help to preserve this type of knowledge but much of this type of information is not in the public domain. Here we propose the creation of a translational medicine knowledge repository where companies can submit their translational research data and access similar data from other companies in a precompetitive environment. This searchable repository would become an invaluable resource for translational scientists and drug developers that could speed and reduce the cost of new drug development.

  9. Pharmaceutical cocrystals: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Ning; Li, Mingzhong; Schlindwein, Walkiria; Malek, Nazneen; Davies, Angela; Trappitt, Gary

    2011-10-31

    Pharmaceutical cocrystals are emerging as a new class of solid drugs with improved physicochemical properties, which has attracted increased interests from both industrial and academic researchers. In this paper a brief and systematic overview of pharmaceutical cocrystals is provided, with particular focus on cocrystal design strategies, formation methods, physicochemical property studies, characterisation techniques, and recent theoretical developments in cocrystal screening and mechanisms of cocrystal formations. Examples of pharmaceutical cocrystals are also summarised in this paper. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. EU pharmaceutical expenditure forecast

    OpenAIRE

    Urbinati, Duccio; Rémuzat, Cécile; Kornfeld, Åsa; Vataire, Anne-Lise; Cetinsoy, Laurent; Aballéa, Samuel; Mzoughi, Olfa; Toumi, Mondher

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: With constant incentives for healthcare payers to contain their pharmaceutical budgets, forecasting has become critically important. Some countries have, for instance, developed pharmaceutical horizon scanning units. The objective of this project was to build a model to assess the net effect of the entrance of new patented medicinal products versus medicinal products going off-patent, with a defined forecast horizon, on selected European Union (EU) Member States’ ph...

  11. A Study of Comparative Advantage and Intra-Industry Trade in the Pharmaceutical Industry of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusefzadeh, Hassan; Rezapour, Aziz; Lotfi, Farhad; Ebadifard Azar, Farbod; Nabilo, Bahram; Abolghasem Gorji, Hassan; Hadian, Mohammad; Shahidisadeghi, Niusha; Karami, Atiyeh

    2015-04-23

    Drug costs in Iran accounts for about 30% of the total health care expenditure. Moreover, pharmaceutical business lies among the world's greatest businesses. The aim of this study was to analyze Iran's comparative advantage and intra-industry trade in pharmaceuticals so that suitable policies can be developed and implemented in order to boost Iran's trade in this field. To identify Iran's comparative advantage in pharmaceuticals, trade specialization, export propensity, import penetration and Balassa and Vollrath indexes were calculated and the results were compared with other pharmaceutical exporting countries. The extent and growth of Iran's intra-industry trade in pharmaceuticals were measured and evaluated using the Grubel-Lloyd and Menon-Dixon indexes. The required data was obtained from Iran's Customs Administration, Iran's pharmaceutical Statistics, World Bank and International Trade Center. The results showed that among pharmaceutical exporting countries, Iran has a high level of comparative disadvantage in pharmaceutical products because it holds a small share in world's total pharmaceutical exports. Also, the low extent of bilateral intra-industry trade between Iran and its trading partners in pharmaceuticals shows the trading model of Iran's pharmaceutical industry is mostly inter-industry trade rather than intra-industry trade. In addition, the growth of Iran's intra-industry trade in pharmaceuticals is due to its shares of imports from pharmaceutical exporting countries to Iran and exports from Iran to its neighboring countries. The results of the analysis can play a valuable role in helping pharmaceutical companies and policy makers to boost pharmaceutical trade.

  12. [Fourcroy and pharmaceutical journals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnemain, Bruno

    2011-04-01

    Cadet de Gassicourt wrote a brief Eloge of Fourcroy in January 1810 as he died in December of 1809. Fourcroy had a major role concerning the new ideas on the place of pharmacy at the beginning of the 19th century. Fourcroy has had a key influence for the start of several pharmaceutical journals that wanted to emphasize the link between the new chemistry and pharmacy. None of these journals created with him will survive and one has to wait for 1909 to see the creation, without Fourcroy, of a new pharmaceutical journal, the "Journal de Pharmacie" that will become "Journal de Pharmacie et des Sciences accessoires", then "Journal de Pharmacie et de Chimie", before taking the name of"Annales Pharmaceutiques Françaises", the present official journal of the French Academy of Pharmacy. In spite of the essential role of Fourcroy at the start of pharmaceutical journals, Cadet did not even mention it in his Eloge of 1810.

  13. Rheology in Pharmaceutical Sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aho, Johanna; Hvidt, Søren; Baldursdottir, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Rheology is the science of flow and deformation of matter. Particularly gels and non-Newtonian fluids, which exhibit complex flow behavior, are frequently encountered in pharmaceutical engineering and manufacturing, or when dealing with various in vivo fluids. Therefore understanding rheology......, together with the common measurement techniques and their practical applications. Examples of the use of rheological techniques in the pharmaceutical field, as well as other closely related fields such as food and polymer science, are also given....... is important, and the ability to use rheological characterization tools is of great importance for any pharmaceutical scientist involved in the field. Flow can be generated by shear or extensional deformations, or a combination of both. This chapter introduces the basics of both shear and extensional rheology...

  14. Conceptualizing Pharmaceutical Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bent Dalgaard; Jensen, Klaes Ladeby; Gjøl, Mikkel

    2006-01-01

    In the conceptual design phase of pharmaceutical plants as much as 80%-90% of the total cost of a project is committed. It is therefore essential that the chosen concept is viable. In this design process configuration and 3D models can help validate the decisions made. Designing 3D models...... is a complex task and requires skilled users. We demonstrate that a simple 2D/3D configuration tool can support conceptualizing of pharmaceutical plants. Present paper reports on preliminary results from a full scale implementation project at a Danish engineering company....

  15. Pharmaceutical packaging handbook

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bauer, Edward J

    2009-01-01

    ... of the modern world. Pharmaceutical products and health care in developing countries and remote parts of the world seems like magic. Diseases that were once fatal and chronic conditions that destroyed lives have slowly been conquered by modern medicine. Views of the body, unimaginable for most of the last century with X rays, are now possible with new i...

  16. Doctors and pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Roy G

    2009-09-01

    The pharmaceutical industry is seen as seducing doctors by providing expensive gifts, subsidising travel and underwriting practice expenses in return for those doctors prescribing products that otherwise they would not use. This paints doctors in a very negative light; suggests doctors are available to the highest bidder; implies doctors do not adequately act as independent agents; and that doctors are driven more by self-interest than by patient needs. Similar practices, in other industries, are accepted as normal business behaviour but it is automatically assumed to be improper if the pharmaceutical industry supports doctors. Should the pharmaceutical industry withdraw educational grants then there would be: fewer scientific meetings; reduced attendance at conferences; limited post graduate education; and a depreciated level of maintenance of professional standards. To suggest that doctors prescribe inappropriately in return for largesse maligns their integrity but where there is no scientific reason to choose between different treatments then there can be little argument against selecting the product manufactured by a company that has invested in the doctor and the question arises as to whether this represents bad medicine? This paper will examine what constitutes non-professional conduct in response to inducements by the pharmaceutical industry. It will review: conflict of interest; relationships between doctors and pharma and the consequences for patients; and the need for critical appraisal before automatically decrying this relationship while accepting that there remain those who do not practice ethical medicine.

  17. The Effectiveness of Pharmaceutical Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.R. Kappe

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPharmaceutical marketing effectiveness comprises the measurement of marketing efforts of pharmaceutical firms towards doctors and patients. These firms spend billions of dollars yearly to promote their prescription drugs. This dissertation provides empirical analyses and methods to

  18. Globalization of the pharmaceutical industry and the growing dependency of developing countries: the case of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semin, Semih; Güldal, Dilek

    2008-01-01

    In developing countries, the effect of globalization on the pharmaceutical sector has resulted in a decrease in exportation and domestic production, accompanied by an increase in importation of pharmaceuticals and a rise in prices and expenditures. As an example of a developing country, Turkey has been facing the long-standing and increasing pressure of global regulations placed on its pharmaceutical sector. This has led to an increasing dependency on multinational companies and a gradual deterioration of an already weakened domestic pharmaceutical sector. This case study of Turkey offers points to consider in the world of increasing globalization, as it offers lessons on ways of examining the effects of globalization on the pharmaceutical industry of developing countries.

  19. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Homepage Image. We seek to encourage pharmaceutical and allied research of tropical and international relevance and to foster multidisciplinary research and collaboration among scientists, the pharmaceutical industry and the healthcare professionals. We publish articles in pharmaceutical sciences and related ...

  20. Pharmaceutical care education in Kuwait: pharmacy students’ perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katoue MG

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pharmaceutical care is defined as the responsible provision of medication therapy to achieve definite outcomes that improve patients’ quality of life. Pharmacy education should equip students with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes they need to practise pharmaceutical care competently. Objective: To investigate pharmacy students’ attitudes towards pharmaceutical care, perceptions of their preparedness to perform pharmaceutical care competencies, opinions about the importance of the various pharmaceutical care activities, and the barriers to its implementation in Kuwait. Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional survey of pharmacy students (n=126 was conducted at Faculty of Pharmacy, Kuwait University. Data were collected via a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics including percentages, medians and means Likert scale rating (SD were calculated and compared using SPSS, version 19. Statistical significance was accepted at a p value of 0.05 or lower. Results: The response rate was 99.2%. Pharmacy students expressed overall positive attitudes towards pharmaceutical care. They felt prepared to implement the various aspects of pharmaceutical care, with the least preparedness in the administrative/management aspects. Perceived pharmaceutical care competencies grew as students progressed through the curriculum. The students also appreciated the importance of the various pharmaceutical care competencies. They agreed/strongly agreed that the major barriers to the integration of pharmaceutical care into practice were lack of private counseling areas or inappropriate pharmacy layout (95.2%, lack of pharmacist time (83.3%, organizational obstacles (82.6%, and pharmacists’ physical separation from patient care areas (82.6%. Conclusion: Pharmacy students’ attitudes and perceived preparedness can serve as needs assessment tools to guide curricular change and improvement. Student pharmacists at Kuwait University

  1. Pharmaceutical care education in Kuwait: pharmacy students' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoue, Maram G; Awad, Abdelmoneim I; Schwinghammer, Terry L; Kombian, Samuel B

    2014-07-01

    Pharmaceutical care is defined as the responsible provision of medication therapy to achieve definite outcomes that improve patients' quality of life. Pharmacy education should equip students with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes they need to practise pharmaceutical care competently. To investigate pharmacy students' attitudes towards pharmaceutical care, perceptions of their preparedness to perform pharmaceutical care competencies, opinions about the importance of the various pharmaceutical care activities, and the barriers to its implementation in Kuwait. A descriptive, cross-sectional survey of pharmacy students (n=126) was conducted at Faculty of Pharmacy, Kuwait University. Data were collected via a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics including percentages, medians and means Likert scale rating (SD) were calculated and compared using SPSS, version 19. Statistical significance was accepted at a p value of 0.05 or lower. The response rate was 99.2%. Pharmacy students expressed overall positive attitudes towards pharmaceutical care. They felt prepared to implement the various aspects of pharmaceutical care, with the least preparedness in the administrative/management aspects. Perceived pharmaceutical care competencies grew as students progressed through the curriculum. The students also appreciated the importance of the various pharmaceutical care competencies. They agreed/strongly agreed that the major barriers to the integration of pharmaceutical care into practice were lack of private counseling areas or inappropriate pharmacy layout (95.2%), lack of pharmacist time (83.3%), organizational obstacles (82.6%), and pharmacists' physical separation from patient care areas (82.6%). Pharmacy students' attitudes and perceived preparedness can serve as needs assessment tools to guide curricular change and improvement. Student pharmacists at Kuwait University understand and advocate implementation of pharmaceutical care while also

  2. EU pharmaceutical expenditure forecast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbinati, Duccio; Rémuzat, Cécile; Kornfeld, Åsa; Vataire, Anne-Lise; Cetinsoy, Laurent; Aballéa, Samuel; Mzoughi, Olfa; Toumi, Mondher

    2014-01-01

    With constant incentives for healthcare payers to contain their pharmaceutical budgets, forecasting has become critically important. Some countries have, for instance, developed pharmaceutical horizon scanning units. The objective of this project was to build a model to assess the net effect of the entrance of new patented medicinal products versus medicinal products going off-patent, with a defined forecast horizon, on selected European Union (EU) Member States' pharmaceutical budgets. This model took into account population ageing, as well as current and future country-specific pricing, reimbursement, and market access policies (the project was performed for the European Commission; see http://ec.europa.eu/health/healthcare/key_documents/index_en.htm). In order to have a representative heterogeneity of EU Member States, the following countries were selected for the analysis: France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Poland, Portugal, and the United Kingdom. A forecasting period of 5 years (2012-2016) was chosen to assess the net pharmaceutical budget impact. A model for generics and biosimilars was developed for each country. The model estimated a separate and combined effect of the direct and indirect impacts of the patent cliff. A second model, estimating the sales development and the risk of development failure, was developed for new drugs. New drugs were reviewed individually to assess their clinical potential and translate it into commercial potential. The forecast was carried out according to three perspectives (healthcare public payer, society, and manufacturer), and several types of distribution chains (retail, hospital, and combined retail and hospital). Probabilistic and deterministic sensitivity analyses were carried out. According to the model, all countries experienced drug budget reductions except Poland (+€41 million). Savings were expected to be the highest in the United Kingdom (-€9,367 million), France (-€5,589 million), and, far behind them

  3. Lesson Learning at JPL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhettinger, David

    2011-01-01

    A lessons learned system is a hallmark of a mature engineering organization A formal lessons learned process can help assure that valuable lessons get written and published, that they are well-written, and that the essential information is "infused" into institutional practice. Requires high-level institutional commitment, and everyone's participation in gathering, disseminating, and using the lessons

  4. Pharmaceutical market in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselin Tima Dickov

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Marketing concept formed around the focus on the consumers, their needs, wants and demands, evolves in the case of pharmaceutical into a care of the complex interest of constituents generating demand on this market and #8211; pres scribers whose role is to select therapies, pharmacists who dispense drugs within a specialized distribution channel to the final consumer -patient, alongside the payers and #8211; the state and or insurance companies refund a part of or total costs of the pharmaceutical product. A special challenge that the subject raises is the existence of controversy generated from two sources. Marketing controversy stems from criticism leveled at the effectiveness and efficiency of marketing activities and the debatable ethical code of conduct. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2012; 1(1.000: 44-51

  5. Pharmaceutical Research Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Phlippen, Sandra; Vermeersch, Ad

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis study analyses 1400 research projects of the top 20 R&D-spending pharmaceuticals to identify the determinants of successful research projects. We provide clear evidence that externally sourced projects and projects involving biotechnologies perform better than internal projects and chemical projects, respectively. Controlling for these effects, we find that big pharma should either build a critical mass of disease area knowledge or diversify projects over different DA’s in or...

  6. The pharmaceutical quality revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Botet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical products are patient-oriented. If they had a deficient quality they might put live at risk. Ensuring their quality is not, however, a straightforward task and this is why different approaches have been used along the way. This article analyzes them and shows how our present approach, if well implemented, is very effective in ensuring quality.Methods. This article analyzes the current pharmaceutical quality system as described by international guidances in the light of practical experience gathered by the author as an international GMP-consultant.Result. Nowadays we have come to understand that as quality is a global concept in terms of time and of requirements, it has to be assured in a global way too. This is why quality assurance is a permanent process that starts during the development of a product and goes on during its manufacturing life. Manufacturing should be performed within a pharmaceutical quality system which ensures GMP compliance. Decisions should be science and risk-based. Products and processes are monitored by means of critical variables.Conclusions. The approach followed in the 21st century for ensuring quality is very effective and allows for a progressive reduction of the level of quality risk. However, this quality system is either comprehensive or there is no quality

  7. The argument for pharmaceutical policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traulsen, Janine Morgall; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna

    2005-02-01

    Pharmaceutical policy is a global concern. It has become a hot political topic in most countries--developed as well as developing--and can be found on the agenda of international organizations such as WHO, OECD, EU, WTO and even the World Bank. Pharmaceutical policy affects everyone in the world of pharmacy and it is therefore imperative that it be understood, discussed and debated within the pharmacy profession and included in the curriculum of schools of pharmacy. This, the first article in a series, argues for the importance of the academic discipline of pharmaceutical policy analysis and the involvement of pharmacists in this endeavour. The aim of the authors is to stimulate an informed and critical appreciation of this field. The authors begin with an introduction to the field of pharmaceutical policy, introducing several important concepts and current trends including: medicines regulation; how pharmaceutical policy is made; pharmaceutical policy as a dynamic process; and the new public health as a global issue. The article ends with a short description of the remaining five articles in the series which will deal with important aspects of pharmaceutical policy. The topics include: economic pressures on health care systems; drug utilization from the clinical viewpoint (rational use of medicines); the impact of pharmaceutical policy on patients and the patient impact on pharmaceutical policy; the professional perspective; and finally the last article which deals with studying and evaluating pharmaceutical policy.

  8. [Logistics in the pharmaceutical service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanko, P; Fulmeková, M

    2005-11-01

    The conception of the field of pharmaceutical service defines pharmaceutical service as the basic part of pharmacy, the principal task of which is to provide pharmaceutical care as an inseparable part of providing health care. It represents a set of professional activities of the pharmacist oriented to securing human and veterinary pharmaceutical products and health care products and to optimising effective, safe and quality pharmacotherapy. Technically, pharmaceutical service is an applied discipline, as it makes use of knowledge gained in other pharmaceutical, medical, psychological, social, and economic sciences. Because of its interdisciplinary character it is necessary to extend the theory of pharmaceutical service in such a way so that it may reflect all aspects of its sphere of activity. One of the possibilities is to define the pharmacy premises as an independent functional unit which operates on the basis of valid legal standards in such a way that on the one hand it secures the provision of health (pharmaceutical) care, and on the other hand it maintains its cost-effectiveness. To keep the quality of care of the patient and the economic aspect in balance, it is necessary to define the term pharmaceutical logistics also under the conditions of Slovak (Czech) pharmacy as early satisfaction of the requirements of the patient (client) in the pharmacy premises, which means that the appropriate pharmaceutical product or health care product and the appropriate information must be at the right time in the required amount and required quality in the right place.

  9. Popsicle Sticks, Computers, and Calculators: Important Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Jean; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Three lessons on division for grade 4 are presented, the first using manipulative materials; the second, the computer; and the third, the calculator. Advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed. (MNS)

  10. 3. Radioactive pharmaceutical medications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    In the chapter common definitions of for radio-pharmacy are given. Radio-pharmacy medications are pharmacy medications which contain minor amount of one or several radionuclides (radioactive tracers), those radiation ability is applying in diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. At the same time radionuclides with more short life time, which are ether gamma-radiators or beta-radiators are applying. The following items for such radioisotopes production; radionuclides applying in nuclear medicine; radio-pharmaceutics; radio-toxicity; quality insurance; order for 18 F-PDG production; radionuclide analysis are considered

  11. Electrochemical biosensors in pharmaceutical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gil, Eric de Souza; Melo, Giselle Rodrigues de

    2010-01-01

    Given the increasing demand for practical and low-cost analytical techniques, biosensors have attracted attention for use in the quality analysis of drugs, medicines, and other analytes of interest in the pharmaceutical area. Biosensors allow quantification not only of the active component in pharmaceutical formulations, but also the analysis of degradation products and metabolites in biological fluids. Thus, this article presents a brief review of biosensor use in pharmaceutical analysis, fo...

  12. Pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumbiegel, P.

    1986-11-01

    The relatively new field of pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes is reviewed. Scientific, juridical, and ethical questions are discussed concerning the application of these pharmaceuticals in human medicine. 13 C, 15 N, and 2 H are the stable isotopes mainly utilized in metabolic function tests. Methodical contributions are given to the application of 2 H, 13 C, and 15 N pharmaceuticals showing new aspects and different states of development in the field under discussion. (author)

  13. Bioremediation Kinetics of Pharmaceutical Industrial Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Šabić

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, concerns about the occurrence and fate of pharmaceuticals that could be present in water and wastewater has gained increasing attention. With the public’s enhanced awareness of eco-safety, environmentally benign methods based on microorganisms have become more accepted methods of removing pollutants from aquatic systems. This study investigates bioremediation of pharmaceutical wastewater from pharmaceutical company Pliva Hrvatska d.o.o., using activated sludge and bioaugmented activated sludge with isolated mixed bacterial culture. The experiments were conducted in a batch reactor in submerged conditions, at initial concentration of organic matter in pharmaceutical wastewater, expressed as COD, 5.01 g dm–3 and different initial concentrations of activated sludge, which ranged from 1.16 to 3.54 g dm–3. During the experiments, the COD, pH, concentrations of dissolved oxygen and biomass were monitored. Microscopic analyses were performed to monitor the quality of activated sludge. Before starting with the bioremediation in the batch reactor, toxicity of the pharmaceutical wastewater was determined by toxicity test using bacteria Vibrio fischeri. The obtained results showed that the effective concentration of the pharmaceutical wastewater was EC50 = 17 % and toxicity impact index was TII50 = 5.9, meaning that the untreated pharmaceutical industrial effluent must not be discharged into the environment before treatment. The results of the pharmaceutical wastewater bioremediation process in the batch reactor are presented in Table 1. The ratio γXv ⁄ γX maintained high values throughout all experiments and ranged from 0.90 and 0.95, suggesting that the concentrations of biomass remained unchanged during the experiments. The important kinetic parameters required for performance of the biological removal process, namely μmax, Ks, Ki, Y and kd were calculated from batch experiments (Table 2. Figs. 1 and 2 show the experimental

  14. Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Phelan BNS, MSc, PhD

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The public health nurses’ scope of practice explicitly includes child protection within their role, which places them in a prime position to identify child protection concerns. This role compliments that of other professions and voluntary agenices who work with children. Public health nurses are in a privileged position as they form a relationship with the child’s parent(s/guardian(s and are able to see the child in its own environment, which many professionals cannot. Child protection in Ireland, while influenced by other countries, has progressed through a distinct pathway that streamlined protocols and procedures. However, despite the above serious failures have occurred in the Irish system, and inquiries over the past 20 years persistently present similar contributing factors, namely, the lack of standardized and comprehensive service responses. Moreover, poor practice is compounded by the lack of recognition of the various interactional processes taking place within and between the different agencies of child protection, leading to psychological barriers in communication. This article will explore the lessons learned for public health nurses practice in safeguarding children in the Republic of Ireland.

  15. NMR imaging and pharmaceutical sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beall, P.T.; Good, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    Described is the technique of NMR-imaging in diagnostic medicine. Proton and phosphorus NMR in diagnosis of abnormal tissue pathology. Discussed is the value of NMR to the pharmaceutical sciences. NMR may play an important role in monitoring the response of tissues to drugs, determining the localization of drugs, performing real time pharmacokinetics and testing the use of NMR contrast pharmaceuticals

  16. PSE in Pharmaceutical Process Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Cervera Padrell, Albert Emili; Woodley, John

    2011-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry is under growing pressure to increase efficiency, both in production and in process development. This paper will discuss the use of Process Systems Engineering (PSE) methods in pharmaceutical process development, and searches for answers to questions such as: Which PSE...

  17. A Study of Comparative Advantage and Intra-Industry Trade in the Pharmaceutical Industry of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusefzadeh, Hassan; Rezapour, Aziz; Lotfi, Farhad; Azar, Farbod Ebadifard; Nabilo, Bahram; Gorji, Hassan Abolghasem; Hadian, Mohammad; Shahidisadeghi, Niusha; Karami, Atiyeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Drug costs in Iran accounts for about 30% of the total health care expenditure. Moreover, pharmaceutical business lies among the world’s greatest businesses. The aim of this study was to analyze Iran’s comparative advantage and intra-industry trade in pharmaceuticals so that suitable policies can be developed and implemented in order to boost Iran’s trade in this field. Methods: To identify Iran’s comparative advantage in pharmaceuticals, trade specialization, export propensity, import penetration and Balassa and Vollrath indexes were calculated and the results were compared with other pharmaceutical exporting countries. The extent and growth of Iran’s intra-industry trade in pharmaceuticals were measured and evaluated using the Grubel-Lloyd and Menon-Dixon indexes. The required data was obtained from Iran’s Customs Administration, Iran’s pharmaceutical Statistics, World Bank and International Trade Center. Results: The results showed that among pharmaceutical exporting countries, Iran has a high level of comparative disadvantage in pharmaceutical products because it holds a small share in world’s total pharmaceutical exports. Also, the low extent of bilateral intra-industry trade between Iran and its trading partners in pharmaceuticals shows the trading model of Iran’s pharmaceutical industry is mostly inter-industry trade rather than intra-industry trade. In addition, the growth of Iran’s intra-industry trade in pharmaceuticals is due to its shares of imports from pharmaceutical exporting countries to Iran and exports from Iran to its neighboring countries. Conclusions: The results of the analysis can play a valuable role in helping pharmaceutical companies and policy makers to boost pharmaceutical trade. PMID:26153184

  18. The Knitting Lesson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Pamela

    1987-01-01

    Based on Jean-Francois Millet's 1869 painting, "The Knitting Lesson," this lesson's goal is to introduce students in grades seven through nine to genre (everyday life) painting the nineteenth century. The lesson is also designed to show that some aspects of genre may be timeless. (BSR)

  19. Horizon Scanning for Pharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lepage-Nefkens, Isabelle; Douw, Karla; Mantjes, GertJan

    for a joint horizon scanning system (HSS).  We propose to create a central “horizon scanning unit” to perform the joint HS activities (a newly established unit, an existing HS unit, or a third party commissioned and financed by the collaborating countries). The unit will be responsible for the identification...... and filtration of new and emerging pharmaceutical products. It will maintain and update the HS database, organise company pipeline meetings, and disseminate the HSS’s outputs.  The HS unit works closely together with the designated national HS experts in each collaborating country. The national HS experts...... will collect country-specific information, liaise between the central HS unit and country-specific clinical and other experts, coordinate the national prioritization process (to select products for early assessment), and communicate the output of the HSS to national decision makers.  The outputs of the joint...

  20. Pharmaceutical advertising in emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Catherine A

    2004-04-01

    Promotion of prescription drugs represents a growing source of pharmaceutical marketing expenditures. This study was undertaken to identify the frequency of items containing pharmaceutical advertising in clinical emergency departments (EDs). In this observational study, emergency physician on-site investigators quantified a variety of items containing pharmaceutical advertising present at specified representative times and days, in clinical EDs. Measurements were obtained by 65 on-site investigators, representing 22 states. Most EDs in this study were community EDs (87% community and 14% university or university affiliate), and most were in urban settings (50% urban, 38% suburban, and 13% rural). Investigators measured 42 items per ED (mean = 42; median = 31; interquartile range of 14-55) containing pharmaceutical advertising in the clinical area. The most commonly observed items included pens (mean 15 per ED; median 10), product brochures (mean 5; median 3), stethoscope labels (mean 4; median 2), drug samples (mean 3; median 0), books (mean 3.4), mugs (mean 2.4), and published literature (mean 3.1). EDs with a policy restricting pharmaceutical representatives in the ED had significantly fewer items containing pharmaceutical advertising (median 7.5; 95% CI = 0 to 27) than EDs without such a policy (median 35; 95% CI = 27 to 47, p = 0.005, nonparametric Wilcoxon two-sample test). There were no differences in quantities of pharmaceutical advertising for EDs in community compared with university settings (p = 0.5), rural compared with urban settings (p = 0.3), or annual ED volumes (p = 0.9). Numerous items containing pharmaceutical advertising are frequently observed in EDs. Policies restricting pharmaceutical representatives in the ED are associated with reduced pharmaceutical advertising.

  1. [Pharmaceutical logistic in turnover of pharmaceutical products of Azerbaijan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhalilova, K I

    2009-11-01

    Development of pharmaceutical logistic system model promotes optimal strategy for pharmaceutical functioning. The goal of such systems is organization of pharmaceutical product's turnover in required quantity and assortment, at preset time and place, at a highest possible degree of consumption readiness with minimal expenses and qualitative service. Organization of the optimal turnover chain in the region is offered to start from approximate classification of medicaments by logistic characteristics. Supplier selection was performed by evaluation of timeliness of delivery, quality of delivered products (according to the minimum acceptable level of quality) and time-keeping of time spending for orders delivery.

  2. [Hospital pharmaceutical practice in prison].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcouët, L

    2010-09-01

    Since 1994, hospital pharmaceutical teams have been in charge of pharmaceutical tasks in "unités de consultation et de soins ambulatoires" (UCSA), which are hospital consulting care units in French prisons. In 2008, pharmaceutical team in Parisian prisons received 6500 prescriptions and prepared 85,000 nominative bags containing drugs. Prisoners were 1.3% to receive treatments against HIV, 8.2% cardiovascular drugs, 7.2% opioid substitution treatments, and 52.9% psychoactive drugs, including 39.3% hypnotics, 40.5% anxiolytics, 11.3% antidepressants and 12.2% neuroleptics. In prison, the dichotomy between somatic and mental care is marked, attitudes of prisoners about their medicines are complex (important claims, embezzlement, etc.) and it is difficult for law defendants to maintain treatment confidentiality and to prepare prison outing in terms of health. To attenuate the heterogeneity of drug distribution systems in French prisons, we propose pharmaceutical analysis of prescriptions and nominative dispensation, computerization in UCSA in coordination with hospitals, a better contribution of prison medical and pharmaceutical staff in hospital "drug committees" and the redaction of pharmaceutical guidelines. Acting in concert with multidisciplinary medical staff in UCSA, pharmaceutical teams have to develop epidemiological studies to improve knowledge in prisoner's health and also prevention and health care in prison. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Lessons learned bulletin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    During the past four years, the Department of Energy -- Savannah River Operations Office and the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) Environmental Restoration (ER) Program completed various activities ranging from waste site investigations to closure and post closure projects. Critiques for lessons learned regarding project activities are performed at the completion of each project milestone, and this critique interval allows for frequent recognition of lessons learned. In addition to project related lessons learned, ER also performs lessons learned critiques. T'he Savannah River Site (SRS) also obtains lessons learned information from general industry, commercial nuclear industry, naval nuclear programs, and other DOE sites within the complex. Procedures are approved to administer the lessons learned program, and a database is available to catalog applicable lessons learned regarding environmental remediation, restoration, and administrative activities. ER will continue to use this database as a source of information available to SRS personnel

  4. [The pharmaceutical market in Mexico: size, value, and concentration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Guerra, Sandra; Gutiérrez, Juan Pablo

    2009-07-01

    To describe the pharmaceutical drug market in Mexico in terms of its size, structure, business' market power, and consumer negotiating power. A descriptive study based on data from the 2004 Economics Census and the reports of IMS Health, Inc. (Norwalk, Connecticut, United States of America). Sales amounts and volumes of Mexico's pharmaceutical companies from 2002-2005 were obtained and the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) and its inverse were calculated as indicators of the market's degree of concentration; also, price elasticity was determined by a product index. The total value of the products manufactured by the pharmaceutical sector was 115 billion in 2006 Mexican pesos, of which 99% pertained to companies categorized as large. This amount constituted 1.2% of the national gross domestic product that year (20.0% of the health sector's portion, estimated to be 6.0%) and 3.9% of the total value of manufactured goods. The HHI of Mexico's pharmaceutical market during the study period was about 0.04, albeit with a steady decline, and its inverse decreased from 23 to 26. The price elasticity of pharmaceutical products was minimal (0.007, 0.003, and -0.002). This study constitutes a preliminary description of Mexico's pharmaceutical market, one of the country's most dynamic economic sectors. It confirmed that the market is a rigid oligopoly, and thus supports enactment of firmer regulatory tools to reduce the power of the manufacturers in favor of that of the consumers.

  5. Biricodar. Vertex Pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Saibal

    2002-05-01

    Vertex is developing biricodar as a chemosensitizing agent designed to restore the effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents in tumor multidrug resistance. By November 1998, phase II trials had commenced for biricodar, in combination with chemotherapy, for five common cancer indications: breast, ovarian, soft-tissue sarcomas, small cell lung cancer and prostate cancer. Phase II trials were ongoing in January 2002. By March 2000, Vertex was the sole developer of biricodar, as an agreement made in 1996 with BioChem Pharma (now Shire Pharmaceuticals), for the development and marketing of biricodar in Canada was terminated. Biricodar is the free base compound, which also has a citrate salt analog known as VX-710-3. Vertex has published three patents, WO-09615101, WO-09636630 and WO-09736869, disclosing derivatives of biricodar that are claimed for the treatment of multidrug resistant protein and P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistant tumors. In January 2002, a Banc of America analyst report forecast that biricodar had a 30% chance of reaching the market with a launch date in the second half of 2005, with peak sales estimated at $250 million.

  6. Pharmaceutical applications of graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Żwawiak

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, dynamic development in nanotechnological sciences is observed. Nanoparticles are frequently used in medicine and pharmacy as delivery systems for different kinds of active substances. One of the latest developed substances, with an unusually wide scope of utility, is graphene. The ways of its use in different fields of industry, not only pharmaceutical and medical, have been a subject of study for many research groups since the moment of its development in 2004. Graphene in pure form is highly hydrophobic. However, the presence of defects on its surface allows chemical modifications to be made, e.g. introduction of oxygen groups by covalent bonding. Also, non-covalent modifications are extensively used, including van der Waals forces, hydrogen bonding, coordination bonds, electrostatic and π-π stacking interactions. Due to the large surface area, graphene can be used in combination therapy, consisting in simultaneous administration of two or more pharmacologically active agents. Another interesting approach is gene therapy. Application of the PEI-graphene oxide system increased the efficacy of transfection. Possibilities of graphene and graphene oxide are not limited to their use as active substance delivery systems. These compounds by themselves were also found to be bacteriostatic and antibacterial agents.

  7. Modeling the Phase Behavior in Mixtures of Pharmaceuticals with Liquid or Supercritical Solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsivintzelis, Ioannis; Economou, Ioannis; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2009-01-01

    of the studied pharmaceuticals in liquid solvents was calculated. The average root-mean-square deviation between experimental and calculated solubilities is 0.190 and 0.037 in log10 units for prediction (calculations without a binary interaction parameter adjustment) and for correlation (calculations using one...

  8. Recognizing misleading pharmaceutical marketing online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Freitas, Julian; Falls, Brian A; Haque, Omar S; Bursztajn, Harold J

    2014-01-01

    In light of decision-making psychology, this article details how drug marketing operates across established and novel web domains and identifies some common misleading trends and influences on prescribing and patient-initiated medication requests. The Internet has allowed pharmaceutical marketing to become more salient than ever before. Although the Internet's growth has improved the dissemination of pharmaceutical information, it has also led to the increased influence of misleading pharmaceutical marketing. Such mismarketing is of concern, especially in psychiatry, since psychotropics generate considerable revenue for drug companies. In a climate of resource-limited drug regulation and time-strapped physicians, we recommend improving both independent monitoring and consumer awareness of Internet-enabled, potentially misleading, pharmaceutical marketing influences. © 2014 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  9. [PICS: pharmaceutical inspection cooperation scheme].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morénas, J

    2009-01-01

    The pharmaceutical inspection cooperation scheme (PICS) is a structure containing 34 participating authorities located worldwide (October 2008). It has been created in 1995 on the basis of the pharmaceutical inspection convention (PIC) settled by the European free trade association (EFTA) in1970. This scheme has different goals as to be an international recognised body in the field of good manufacturing practices (GMP), for training inspectors (by the way of an annual seminar and experts circles related notably to active pharmaceutical ingredients [API], quality risk management, computerized systems, useful for the writing of inspection's aide-memoires). PICS is also leading to high standards for GMP inspectorates (through regular crossed audits) and being a room for exchanges on technical matters between inspectors but also between inspectors and pharmaceutical industry.

  10. Marketing orientation in pharmaceutical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prošić Danica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical companies are major stakeholders in the global health agenda Virtually all drugs used by patients in Europe reach markets through the promotion tactics of a small number of corporations with a tremendous impact on global health. The sector is both fast growing and highly profitable. Effective marketing strategies are a crucial ingredient in making sure pharmaceutical products and profits flow in a virtuous cycle. At first glance, the relationship between doctors and drug companies, as well as advertising practices for over-the-counter medication, appears tightly regulated. According to many consumer organizations, drug promotion in Europe today can be characterized as nice and friendly marketing. This refers to the creation of a false sense of trust that consumers associate with branded pharmaceutical products, as a result of pharmaceutical marketing efforts disguised as genuine corporate responsibility.

  11. in Leafy Vegetable and Pharmaceutical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    successfully employed for the determination of copper (II) in leafy vegetable and pharmaceutical samples. ... Our previous studies of transition metal ions such as zinc, cobalt and ..... A new method for extractive photometric determination of.

  12. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 12, No 6 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. Nanocrystals Technology for Pharmaceutical Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhongyao; Lian, Yumei; Kamal, Zul; Ma, Xin; Chen, Jianjun; Zhou, Xinbo; Su, Jing; Qiu, Mingfeng

    2018-05-17

    Nanocrystals technology is a promising method for improving the dissolution rate and enhancing the bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. In recent years, it has been developing rapidly and applied to drug research and engineering. Nanocrystal drugs can be formulated into various dosage forms. This review mainly focused on the nanocrystals technology and its application in pharmaceutical science. Firstly, different preparation methods of nanocrystal technology and the characterization of nanocrystal drugs are briefly described. Secondly, the application of nanocrystals technology in pharmaceutical science is mainly discussed followed by the introduction of sustained release formulations. Then, the scaling up process, marketed nanocrystal drug products and regulatory aspects about nanodrugs are summarized. Finally, the specific challenges and opportunities of nanocrystals technology for pharmaceutical science are summarized and discussed. This review will provide a comprehensive guide for scientists and engineers in the field of pharmaceutical science and biochemical engineering. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Salvia officinalis used in pharmaceutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemle, K. L.

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents some pharmaceutical properties of Salvia officinalis, a plant belonging the Lamiaceae family, one of the oldest medicinal plants, which play an important role in improving the state of health.

  15. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We seek to encourage pharmaceutical and allied research of tropical and ... and related disciplines (including biotechnology, cell and molecular biology, drug ... with ibrutinib reduces proliferation, migration and invasion of lung cancer cells ...

  16. PARTICULARITIES OF MODERN PHARMACEUTICAL PROMOTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юрий Владимирович Тарасов

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical products market is one of the most saturated consumers’ markets. Characteristic features of it are: high competition, fierce struggle for the customer, specific technologies of promotion. In conditions of globalization and increase in competition both in world pharmaceutical market and in the market of medicines and goods of medical purpose in Russia modern marketing techniques of promotion of the products to the end consumers are the key tools for strengthening market positions – both of producers of pharmaceutical goods and their suppliers, distributors, big whole-sale companies. Among main tools of promotion are: advertising, public relations, stimulation of sales on the market of medicines, personal sales, computer technologies. The article describes different technologies of promotion of medicines: indoor-advertising, hot lines, pharmaceutical exhibitions, packing. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-12-1

  17. Pharmaceutical compounds in drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Chander

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical products and their wastes play a major role in the degradation of environment. These drugs have positive as well as negative consequences on different environmental components including biota in different ways. Many types of pharmaceutical substances have been detected with significant concentrations through various advanced instrumental techniques in surface water, subsurface water, ground water, domestic waste water, municipal waste water and industrial effluents. The central as well as state governments in India are providing supports by creating excise duty free zones to promote the pharmaceutical manufacturers for their production. As a result, pharmaceutical companies are producing different types of pharmaceutical products at large scale and also producing complex non-biodegradable toxic wastes byproducts and releasing untreated or partially treated wastes in the environment in absence of strong regulations. These waste pollutants are contaminating all types of drinking water sources. The present paper focuses on water quality pollution by pharmaceutical pollutants, their occurrences, nature, metabolites and their fate in the environment.

  18. [Bioequivalence studies of pharmaceutical preparations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetchý, D; Frýbortová, K; Rabisková, M; Danecková, H

    2007-01-01

    Bioequivalence studies are very important for the development of a pharmaceutical preparation in the pharmaceutical industry. Their rationale is the monitoring of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters after the administration of tested drugs. The target of such study is to evaluate the therapeutic compatibility of tested drugs (pharmaceutical equivalents or pharmaceutical alternatives). The importance of bioequivalence studies is increasing also due to the large growth of the production and consumption of generic products. Generic products represent approximately 50 % of the whole consumption in many European countries and USA. The search output of bioequivalence study is together with the pharmaceutical quality data of medical product one of the main part of the registration file submitted to a national regulatory authorities. The registration of generic products does not demand complicated and expensive clinical study contrary to original product. The comparison of the original and the generic product via bioequivalence study is suggested as sufficient. The aim of this article is to provide to a medical public a summary about the types of bioequivalence studies, their range, rules of their practise and let them gain their own attitude to this question.

  19. Pharmaceutical policies in European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Pedro Pita

    2010-01-01

    Pharmaceutical expenditures have an important role in Europe. The attempts to control expenditure have used a wide range of policy measures. We reviewed the main measures adopted by the European Union countries, especially in countries where governments are the largest third-party payers. To complement a literature review on the topic, data was gathered from national reviews of health systems and direct inquiries to several government bodies. Almost all countries regulate prices of pharmaceutical products. Popular policy measures include international referencing to set prices (using as benchmark countries that have set lower prices), internal reference pricing systems to promote price competition in domestic markets, and positive lists for reimbursement to promote consumption of generics (including in some cases substitution by pharmacists of drugs prescribed by physicians). Despite the wide range of policy measures, it is not possible to identify a "silver bullet" to control pharmaceutical expenditures. We also identified two main policy challenges: policy coordination among countries within the European Union to maintain incentives for R&D at the global level, and the development of new relationships with the pharmaceutical industry; namely, the so-called risk-sharing agreements between the pharmaceutical industry and governments/regulators (or large third-party payers).

  20. ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiana Daniela Minculete Piko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of the financial crisis, most industries witnessed an economic downturn also boosted by the austerity measures imposed by the state. The pharmaceutical sector is one of the few sectors that followed an upward trend. Although the economic and financial crisis has long taken hold of the entire world, the domino theory did not apply to this industry; instead, the “butterfly effect” became evident. The phrase refers to the fact that the wings of a butterfly create small changes that may finally alter the route of certain elements. In the pharmaceutical industry, minor changes in research and development finally led to spectacular innovations. At present, there are no such big investments in research and development in Romania as there are in Europe; yet, due to mergers and acquisitions between Romanian and foreign companies, the pharmaceutical sector in Romania significantly contributes to the creation of added value in terms of economic development. The added value of the pharmaceutical industry in our country has increased significantly in recent years. The purpose of this article is to highlight the financial and economic significance of the pharmaceutical industry in Romania. This industry is one with an average degree of concentration; thus, the average liquidity and solvency indicators in this sector were calculated with a view to emphasizing its financial independence. The findings of this research indicate a high level of financial independence in this industry, as pharmaceutical companies are able to meet payment deadlines. This study highlights the importance of such an industry in times of economic crisis, the financial stability of the pharmaceutical sector reinforcing the need for massive investment in research and development.

  1. The Pharmaceutical Industry Beamline of Pharmaceutical Consortium for Protein Structure Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishijima, Kazumi; Katsuya, Yoshio

    2002-01-01

    The Pharmaceutical Industry Beamline was constructed by the Pharmaceutical Consortium for Protein Structure Analysis which was established in April 2001. The consortium is composed of 22 pharmaceutical companies affiliating with the Japan Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association. The beamline is the first exclusive on that is owned by pharmaceutical enterprises at SPring-8. The specification and equipments of the Pharmaceutical Industry Beamline is almost same as that of RIKEN Structural Genomics Beamline I and II. (author)

  2. Pharmaceutical Public-Private Partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagley, Constance; Tvarnø, Christina D.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a game theory and law-and-management analysis of for- profit pharmaceutical public-private partnerships, a complex type of legal arrangement in the highly regulated pharmaceutical industry. A pharmaceutical public-private partnership (PPPP) agreement is a legally binding...... and a practical perspective on how properly crafted PPPP arrangements can promote innovation more efficiently than traditional self-optimizing contracts. In particular, a properly framed binding contract, coupled with respect for positive incentives, can move the parties away from an inefficient prisoners...... systems to build and share innovation. When coupled with appropriate attention to the difficult task of coordinating the actions of interdependent actors, a PPPP arrangement can enhance the likelihood of successful commercialization of pharmacological discoveries by flipping the par- ties’ incentives...

  3. Lesson study i Danmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Arne

    2009-01-01

    Der beskrives et japansk lesson study forløb, og det diskuteres i hvilket omfang, de gode japanske erfaringer kan overføres til dansk matematikundervisning.......Der beskrives et japansk lesson study forløb, og det diskuteres i hvilket omfang, de gode japanske erfaringer kan overføres til dansk matematikundervisning....

  4. "Frankenstein." [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Melanie

    Based on Mary Shelley's novel "Frankenstein," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that active readers interpret a novel (its characters, plot, setting, and theme) in different ways; and the great literature can be and has been adapted in many ways over time. The main activity of the lesson involves students…

  5. The history of a lesson

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mikkel Vedby

    2003-01-01

    and emphasises the need to study the history of lessons rather than the lessons of history. This approach shows that Munich is the end point of a constitutive history that begins in the failure of the Versailles treaty to create a durable European order following the First World War. The Munich lesson is thus......The article investigates the concept of lessons in IR. By means of a constructivist critique of the 'lessons literature', the article analyses one of the most important of IR lessons: that of Munich. Examining how the Munich lesson came about, the article shows the praxeological nature of lessons...... one element of the lesson of Versailles, which is a praxeology that defines how the West is to make peace, and against whom peace must be defended. The lesson of Versailles has been, at least in part, constitutive of the outbreak of the Cold War, and it continues to define the Western conception...

  6. Pharmaceutical care in smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín Armero, Alicia; Calleja Hernandez, Miguel A; Perez-Vicente, Sabina; Martinez-Martinez, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    As a determining factor in various diseases and the leading known cause of preventable mortality and morbidity, tobacco use is the number one public health problem in developed countries. Facing this health problem requires authorities and health professionals to promote, via specific programs, health campaigns that improve patients' access to smoking cessation services. Pharmaceutical care has a number of specific characteristics that enable the pharmacist, as a health professional, to play an active role in dealing with smoking and deliver positive smoking cessation interventions. The objectives of the study were to assess the efficacy of a smoking cessation campaign carried out at a pharmaceutical care center and to evaluate the effects of pharmaceutical care on patients who decide to try to stop smoking. The methodology was an open, analytical, pre-post intervention, quasi-experimental clinical study performed with one patient cohort. The results of the study were that the promotional campaign for the smoking cessation program increased the number of patients from one to 22, and after 12 months into the study, 43.48% of the total number of patients achieved total smoking cessation. We can conclude that advertising of a smoking cessation program in a pharmacy increases the number of patients who use the pharmacy's smoking cessation services, and pharmaceutical care is an effective means of achieving smoking cessation.

  7. Financing pharmaceuticals in transition economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanavos, P

    1999-06-01

    This paper (a) provides a methodological taxonomy of pricing, financing, reimbursement, and cost containment methodologies for pharmaceuticals; (b) analyzes complex agency relationships and the health versus industrial policy tradeoff; (c) pinpoints financing measures to balance safety and effectiveness of medicines and their affordability by publicly funded systems in transition; and (d) highlights viable options for policy-makers for the financing of pharmaceuticals in transition. Three categories of measures and their implications for pharmaceutical policy cost containing are analyzed: supply-side measures, targeting manufacturers, proxy demand-side measures, targeting physicians and pharmacists, and demand-side measures, targeting patients. In pursuing supply side measures, we explore free pricing for pharmaceuticals, direct price controls, cost-plus and cost pricing, average pricing and international price comparisons, profit control, reference pricing, the introduction of a fourth hurdle, positive and negative lists, and other price control measures. The analysis of proxy-demand measures includes budgets for physicians, generic policies, practice guidelines, monitoring the authorizing behavior of physicians, and disease management schemes. Demand-side measures explore the effectiveness of patient co-payments, the impact of allowing products over-the-counter and health promotion programs. Global policies should operate simultaneously on the supply, the proxy demand, and the demand-side. Policy-making needs to have a continuous long-term planning. The importation of policies into transition economy may require extensive and expensive adaptation, and/or lead to sub-optimal policy outcomes.

  8. The argument for pharmaceutical policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traulsen, Janine Morgall; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna

    2005-01-01

    and the involvement of pharmacists in this endeavour. The aim of the authors is to stimulate an informed and critical appreciation of this field. The authors begin with an introduction to the field of pharmaceutical policy, introducing several important concepts and current trends including: medicines regulation; how...

  9. Probing Pharmaceutical Mixtures during Milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walker, Greg; Römann, Philipp; Poller, Bettina

    2017-01-01

    interpret the spectral changes. Overall, this study demonstrates the potential of low-frequency Raman spectroscopy, which has several practical advantages over XRPD, for probing (dis-)order during pharmaceutical processing, showcasing its potential for future development, and implementation as an in...

  10. UV imaging in pharmaceutical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jesper

    2018-01-01

    UV imaging provides spatially and temporally resolved absorbance measurements, which are highly useful in pharmaceutical analysis. Commercial UV imaging instrumentation was originally developed as a detector for separation sciences, but the main use is in the area of in vitro dissolution...

  11. Patrick Couvreur: inspiring pharmaceutical innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanwix, Hannah

    2014-05-01

    Patrick Couvreur speaks to Hannah Stanwix, Managing Comissioning Editor: Professor Patrick Couvreur received his pharmacy degree from the Université Catholique de Louvain (Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium) in 1972. He holds a PhD in pharmaceutical technology from the same university and completed a postdoctoral fellowship at the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (Zürich, Switzerland). Since 1984, Professor Couvreur has been Full Professor of Pharmacy at the Paris-Sud University (Paris, France) and was holder of the Chair of Innovation Technologique at the prestigious Collège de France (Paris, France). He has published more than 450 peer-reviewed articles and has an H-index of 73, with over 19,000 citations. Professor Coureur has been recognized by numerous national and international awards, including the 2004 Pharmaceutical Sciences World Congress Award, the prestigious Host Madsen Medal, the Prix Galien, the European Pharmaceutical Scientist Award 2011 from the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Sciences, the Médaille de l'Innovation from the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, and recently the European Inventor Award 2013 from the European Patent Office.

  12. Archives: Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 97 ... Archives: Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. Journal Home > Archives: Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. Quality Systems Implementation in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nafiisah

    quality standards imposed on local pharmaceutical manufacturers. Keywords: Quality/ .... GMP is concerned with both production and quality control. It is aimed ... in the European pharmaceutical industry in designing their quality systems:.

  14. Archives: Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 9 of 9 ... Archives: Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. Journal Home > Archives: Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  15. Toward a Regional Research Agenda on Pharmaceutical ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    African policymakers are pushing for local pharmaceutical manufacturing as a ... Africa Development Community Pharmaceutical Business Plan (2007-2013) and ... IDRC congratulates first cohort of Women in Climate Change Science Fellows.

  16. Pharmaceutical and Medicine Manufacturing Sector (NAICS 3254)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find environmental regulatory and compliance information for the pharmaceutical manufacturing sector, including essential uses of CFCs, NESHAP for pharmaceutical production, effluent guidelines for wastewater and management of hazardous waste.

  17. Declination Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Declination is calculated using the current International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) model. Declination is calculated using the current World Magnetic Model...

  18. Pharmaceutical care in smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marín Armero A

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alicia Marín Armero,1 Miguel A Calleja Hernandez,2 Sabina Perez-Vicente,3 Fernando Martinez-Martinez4 1Community Pharmacy, Murcia, Spain; 2Hospital Pharmacy, University Hospital Virgen de las Nieves, Granada, Spain; 3Result Evaluation Unit, Institute of Biomedicine, Sevilla, Spain; 4Research Unit in Pharmaceutical Care, University of Granada, Granada, Spain Abstract: As a determining factor in various diseases and the leading known cause of preventable mortality and morbidity, tobacco use is the number one public health problem in developed countries. Facing this health problem requires authorities and health professionals to promote, via specific programs, health campaigns that improve patients’ access to smoking cessation services. Pharmaceutical care has a number of specific characteristics that enable the pharmacist, as a health professional, to play an active role in dealing with smoking and deliver positive smoking cessation interventions. The objectives of the study were to assess the efficacy of a smoking cessation campaign carried out at a pharmaceutical care center and to evaluate the effects of pharmaceutical care on patients who decide to try to stop smoking. The methodology was an open, analytical, pre–post intervention, quasi-experimental clinical study performed with one patient cohort. The results of the study were that the promotional campaign for the smoking cessation program increased the number of patients from one to 22, and after 12 months into the study, 43.48% of the total number of patients achieved total smoking cessation. We can conclude that advertising of a smoking cessation program in a pharmacy increases the number of patients who use the pharmacy’s smoking cessation services, and pharmaceutical care is an effective means of achieving smoking cessation. Keywords: community pharmacy, health campaign, tobacco cessation, nicotine replacement therapy

  19. Pharmaceutical Particle Engineering via Spray Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    This review covers recent developments in the area of particle engineering via spray drying. The last decade has seen a shift from empirical formulation efforts to an engineering approach based on a better understanding of particle formation in the spray drying process. Microparticles with nanoscale substructures can now be designed and their functionality has contributed significantly to stability and efficacy of the particulate dosage form. The review provides concepts and a theoretical framework for particle design calculations. It reviews experimental research into parameters that influence particle formation. A classification based on dimensionless numbers is presented that can be used to estimate how excipient properties in combination with process parameters influence the morphology of the engineered particles. A wide range of pharmaceutical application examples—low density particles, composite particles, microencapsulation, and glass stabilization—is discussed, with specific emphasis on the underlying particle formation mechanisms and design concepts. PMID:18040761

  20. Pharmaceuticals: pharmaceutical cost controls--2005. End of Year Issue Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seay, Melicia; Varma, Priya

    2005-12-31

    The enactment of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990 (OBRA '90) gave states the option of offering pharmaceutical benefits within their Medicaid programs. But the law placed restrictions on states' flexibility to control what prescriptions they would cover and required the states to reimburse outpatient prescription drugs from manufacturers that signed rebate agreements with the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Forty-nine states--Arizona is excluded, based on its program structure--and the District of Columbia currently offer prescription drug coverage under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program. During the past four years, states all over the country have been plagued with revenue shortfalls in their state Medicaid budgets. While the fiscal situation improved for most states in the 2004 legislative session, many states still face budget pressures in 2005. Compounding existing budget pressures are threats from the Bush Administration to shift increased costs of the Medicaid program on to the states. All things considered, the economic pressure of funding Medicaid is at the top of legislative agendas in 2005. As in previous years, states are attempting to reduce costs to their Medicaid programs by seeking savings in their pharmaceutical programs. Prescription drug costs are highly attributed as a contributing factor to the fiscal climate of state Medicaid programs. Currently, prescription drug spending outpaces that of every other category of health care and drug prices are rising faster than inflation. In response, states are instituting a variety of pharmaceutical cost control measures such as creating preferred drug lists (PDLs), negotiating supplemental rebates, forming bulk purchasing pools, promoting generic drug substitution and implementing price controls. As prescription drug cost containment tools have gained acceptance and momentum, they continue to be controversial. This issue brief explores the debate, history, methodology, utilization

  1. The role of cocrystals in pharmaceutical science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Ning; Zaworotko, Michael J

    2008-05-01

    Pharmaceutical cocrystals, a subset of a long known but little-studied class of compounds, represent an emerging class of crystal forms in the context of pharmaceutical science. They are attractive to pharmaceutical scientists because they can significantly diversify the number of crystal forms that exist for a particular active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), and they can lead to improvements in physical properties of clinical relevance. In this article we address pharmaceutical cocrystals from the perspective of design (crystal engineering) and present a series of case studies that demonstrate how they can enhance the solubility, bioavailability, and/or stability of API crystal forms.

  2. Probabilistic environmental risk characterization of pharmaceuticals in sewage treatment plant discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Anne Munch; Markussen, Bo; Baun, Anders; Halling-Sørensen, Bent

    2009-10-01

    The occurrence of pharmaceuticals in different water bodies and the findings of effects on aquatic organisms in ecotoxicity tests have raised concerns about environmental risks of pharmaceuticals in receiving waters. Due to the fact that the amount of ecotoxicological studies has increased significantly during the last decade, probabilistic approaches for risk characterization of these compounds may be feasible. This approach was evaluated by applying it to 22 human-used pharmaceuticals covering both pharmaceuticals with a high volume and high ecotoxicity, using ecotoxicological effect data from laboratory studies and comparing these to monitoring data on the effluents from sewage treatment plants in Europe and pharmaceutical sales quantities. We found that for 19 of the 22 selected pharmaceuticals the existing data were sufficient for probabilistic risk characterizations. The subsequently modeled ratios between monitored concentrations and low-effect concentrations were mostly above a factor of 100. Compared to the current paradigm for EU environmental risk assessment where a safety factor of 10 or 100 might have been used it seems that for the modeled compounds there's a low environmental risk. However, similarly calculated ratios for five pharmaceuticals (propranolol, ibuprofen, furosemide, ofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin) were below 100, while ibuprofen and ciprofloxacin are considered to be of high concern due to lack of ecotoxicity studies. This paper shows that by applying probabilistic approaches, existing data can be used to execute a comprehensive study on probability of impacts, thereby contributing to a more comprehensive environmental risk assessment of pharmaceuticals.

  3. International research networks in pharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantner, Uwe; Rake, Bastian

    2014-01-01

    of scientific publications related to pharmaceutical research and applying social network analysis, we find that both the number of countries and their connectivity increase in almost all disease group specific networks. The cores of the networks consist of high income OECD countries and remain rather stable......Knowledge production and scientific research have become increasingly more collaborative and international, particularly in pharmaceuticals. We analyze this tendency in general and tie formation in international research networks on the country level in particular. Based on a unique dataset...... over time. Using network regression techniques to analyze the network dynamics our results indicate that accumulative advantages based on connectedness and multi-connectivity are positively related to changes in the countries' collaboration intensity whereas various indicators on similarity between...

  4. Phytoremediation of Pharmaceuticals - Preliminary Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kotyza, J. (Jan); Soudek, P. (Petr); Kafka, Z.; Vaněk, T. (Tomáš)

    2010-01-01

    Phytoremediation of selected pharmaceuticals (diclofenac, ibuprofen, and acetaminophen) using Armoracia rusticana and Linum usitatissimum cell cultures and by hydroponically cultivated Lupinus albus, Hordeum vulgaris, and Phragmites australis plants in laboratory conditions is described. During in vitro experiments, the best results for acetaminophen were achieved using Armoracia rusticana hairy root cultures, where 100% of the starting amount was removed from the media during eight days. To...

  5. Pharmaceutical cocrystals: walking the talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolla, Geetha; Nangia, Ashwini

    2016-06-28

    Pharmaceutical cocrystals belong to a sub-class of cocrystals wherein one of the components is a drug molecule (or an active pharmaceutical ingredient, API) and the second is a benign food or drug grade additive (generally regarded as safe, GRAS). The two components are hydrogen-bonded in a fixed stoichiometric ratio in the crystal lattice. In the past decade, pharmaceutical cocrystals have demonstrated significant promise in their ability to modify the physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties of drug substances, such as the solubility and dissolution rate, bioavailability, particle morphology and size, tableting and compaction, melting point, physical form, biochemical and hydration stability, and permeability. In this feature review, we highlight some prominent examples of drug cocrystals which exhibit variable hardness/softness and elasticity/plasticity depending on coformer selection, improvement of solubility and permeability in the same cocrystal, increase of the melting point for solid formulation, enhanced color performance, photostability and hydration stability, and a longer half-life. Cocrystals of flavanoids and polyphenols can make improved pharmaceuticals and also extend to the larger class of nutraceuticals. The application of crystal engineering to assemble ternary cocrystals expands this field to drug-drug cocrystals which may be useful in multi-drug resistance, mitigating side effects of drugs, or attenuating/enhancing drug action synergistically by rational selection. The advent of new techniques for structural characterization beyond the standard X-ray diffraction will provide a better understanding of drug phases which are at the borderline of crystalline-amorphous nature and even newer opportunities in the future.

  6. Pharmaceutical microparticle engineering with electrospraying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Adam; Wan, Feng; Kristensen, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Microparticles of Celecoxib, dispersed in a matrix of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), were prepared by electrospraying using different solvent mixtures to investigate the influence upon particle formation and the resulting particle characteristics. Mixtures consisting of a good solvent, ace...... demonstrated by the increasingly higher drug release rates. The results demonstrate the importance of solvent composition in particle preparation and indicate potential for exploiting this dependence to improve pharmaceutical particle design and performance....

  7. Health risks of counterfeit pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Ham, Martijn

    2003-01-01

    Pharmaceutical products are not exempt from the practice of counterfeiting. In recent years, many reports have become available demonstrating the presence of fake medicines on the market. Several studies have demonstrated that they are quite often of bad quality. It is estimated that 5% of all world trade in branded goods is counterfeit, leading to huge financial losses for the pharmaceutical industry. But much more important, from a public health point of view, is that history has shown that such products may lead to a great health risk. The essence of counterfeit products and the reason they are so dangerous is the complete absence of quality control, since they are often indistinguishable from the genuine product. The existence of counterfeit drugs has long been ignored both by the pharmaceutical industry and by drug regulatory authorities. At present initiatives are being taken, nationally and internationally, to curb counterfeiting. It is now realised that a strong regulatory agency is essential, but the initiatives can only be successful if all parties concerned actively co-operate.

  8. PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modern sanitary practices result in large volumes of human waste, as well as domestic and industrial sewage, being collected and treated at common collection points, wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). In recognition of the growing use of sewage sludges as a fertilizers and as soilamendments, and the scarcity of current data regarding the chemical constituents in sewage sludges, the United States National Research Council (NRC) in 2002 produced a report on sewage sludges. Among the NRC's recommendations was the need for investigating the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in sewage sludges. PPCPsare a diverse array of non-regulated contaminants that had not been studied in previous sewage sludges surveys but which are likely to be present. The focus of this paper will be to review the current analytical methodologies available for investigating whether pharmaceuticals are present in WWTP-produced sewage sludges, to summarize current regulatory practices regarding sewage sludges, and to report on the presence of pharmaceuticals in sewage sludges. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subta

  9. [E-commerce of pharmaceuticals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shani, Segev

    2003-05-01

    The emergence of the Internet as a new communications and information technology caused major social and cultural changes. The dramatic increase in accessibility and availability of information empowered the consumer by closing the information gap between the consumer and different suppliers. The objective of this article is to review many new internet-supported applications related to the pharmaceutical market. E-commerce is divided into two major components: Business to Consumer (B to C), and Business to Business (B to B). The main applications in B to C are dissemination of medical and drug information, and the sale of drugs through the Internet. Medical information on the Internet is vast and very helpful for patients, however, its reliability is not guaranteed. Online pharmacies increase the accessibility and availability of drugs. Nevertheless, several obstacles such as security of the data provided (both financial and clinical) prevent the widespread use of online pharmacies. Another risk is the health authorities' inability to regulate Internet sites effectively. Therefore, unregulated sale of prescription drugs, fake or substandard, often occurs on the Internet. B to B relates to physicians, clinics, hospitals, HMO's and pharmaceutical companies. There is a vast number of applications ranging from clinical research, marketing and sales promotion, to drug distribution and logistics. In conclusion, the Internet is dynamic and has contributed to the development of numerous new applications in the field of pharmaceuticals. Regulatory authorities should be active in developing new policies that will deal with those new Internet-based applications.

  10. Stability of Pharmaceuticals in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Y-Uyen

    2009-01-01

    Stability testing is a tool used to access shelf life and effects of storage conditions for pharmaceutical formulations. Early research from the International Space Station (ISS) revealed that some medications may have degraded while in space. This potential loss of medication efficacy would be very dangerous to Crew health. The aim of this research project, Stability of Pharmacotherapeutic Compounds, is to study how the stability of pharmaceutical compounds is affected by environmental conditions in space. Four identical pharmaceutical payload kits containing medications in different dosage forms (liquid for injection, tablet, capsule, ointment and suppository) were transported to the ISS aboard a Space Shuttle. One of the four kits was stored on that Shuttle and the other three were stored on the ISS for return to Earth at various time intervals aboard a pre-designated Shuttle flight. The Pharmacotherapeutics laboratory used stability test as defined by the United States Pharmacopeia (USP), to access the degree of degradation to the Payload kit medications that may have occurred during space flight. Once these medications returned, the results of stability test performed on them were compared to those from the matching ground controls stored on Earth. Analyses of the results obtained from physical and chemical stability assessments on these payload medications will provide researchers additional tools to promote safe and efficacious medications for space exploration.

  11. Breathing Life into Engineering: A Lesson Study Life Science Lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Maria; Yang, Li-Ling; Briggs, May; Hession, Alicia; Koussa, Anita; Wagoner, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    A fifth grade life science lesson was implemented through a lesson study approach in two fifth grade classrooms. The research lesson was designed by a team of four elementary school teachers with the goal of emphasizing engineering practices consistent with the "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS) (Achieve Inc. 2013). The fifth…

  12. BROMATOMATRIC ASSAY OF GATIFLOXACIN IN PHARMACEUTICALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KALSANG THARPA

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Three new, simple, and cost-effective visible spectrophotometric methods are proposed for determination of gatifloxacin (GTF using bromate-bromide mixture, and three dyes, methyl orange, indigocarmine and thymol blue, as reagents.The methods engross the addition of a known excess of bromate-bromide mixture to GTF in hydrochloric acid medium followed by determination of residual bromine by reacting with a fixed amount of either methyl orange andmeasuring the absorbance at 520 nm (method A or indigo carmine and measuring the absorbance at 610 nm (method B or thymol blue and measuring the absorbance at 550 nm (method C. In all the methods, the amount of brominereacted corresponds to the amount of GTF, and the absorbance is found to increase linearly with the concentration of GTF. Under the optimum conditions, GTF could be assayed in the concentration range 0.25-1.5, 0.5-6.0, and 0.5-10μg/mL by method A, method B and method C, respectively. The apparent molar absorptivities are calculated to be 1.6x105, 4.0x104 and 3.2x104 L mol-1 cm-1 for the method A, method B and method C, respectively, and the corresponding Sandell sensitivity values are 0.0025, 0.010 and 0.012 μg/cm2. The intra-day and inter-day precision, and the accuracy of the methods were evaluated as per the current ICH guidelines. The methods were successfully applied to the determination of GTF in pharmaceutical preparations without the interference from any of the pharmaceutical adjuvants.

  13. CONTAIN calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholtyssek, W.

    1995-01-01

    In the first phase of a benchmark comparison, the CONTAIN code was used to calculate an assumed EPR accident 'medium-sized leak in the cold leg', especially for the first two days after initiation of the accident. The results for global characteristics compare well with those of FIPLOC, MELCOR and WAVCO calculations, if the same materials data are used as input. However, significant differences show up for local quantities such as flows through leakages. (orig.)

  14. Lessons learned: wrong intraocular lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Oliver D; Banta, James T; Chen, Teresa C; Pritzker, Scott; Schachat, Andrew P

    2012-10-01

    To report cases involving the placement of the wrong intraocular lens (IOL) at the time of cataract surgery where human error occurred. Retrospective small case series, convenience sample. Seven surgical cases. Institutional review of errors committed and subsequent improvements to clinical protocols. Lessons learned and changes in procedures adapted. The pathways to a wrong IOL are many but largely reflect some combination of poor surgical team communication, transcription error, lack of preoperative clarity in surgical planning or failure to match the patient, and IOL calculation sheet with 2 unique identifiers. Safety in surgery involving IOLs is enhanced both by strict procedures, such as an IOL-specific "time-out," and the fostering of a surgical team culture in which all members are encouraged to voice questions and concerns. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Lessons for Teaching Art Criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Terry, Ed.; Clark, Gilbert, Ed.

    This collection of lessons is meant to be a practical guide to help teachers engage children in art criticism. The lessons generally follow a similar format. Most suggest an age group but may be modified for use with younger or older students. Several authors suggest variations and extensions for lessons that include studio activities. A broad…

  16. Lesson Planning the Kodaly Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshkoff, Ruth

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the contribution of Zoltan Kodaly to music lesson planning. Emphasizes preparation, presentation, and practice as the three important strategies in teaching concepts and skills to be included in a lesson plan. Includes a sample lesson plan covering a semester and advice on choosing song material. (DK)

  17. Electrochemical biosensors in pharmaceutical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric de Souza Gil

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Given the increasing demand for practical and low-cost analytical techniques, biosensors have attracted attention for use in the quality analysis of drugs, medicines, and other analytes of interest in the pharmaceutical area. Biosensors allow quantification not only of the active component in pharmaceutical formulations, but also the analysis of degradation products and metabolites in biological fluids. Thus, this article presents a brief review of biosensor use in pharmaceutical analysis, focusing on enzymatic electrochemical sensors.Em virtude do aumento da demanda por técnicas analíticas simples e de baixo custo, os biossensores têm atraído a atenção para a análise de fármacos, medicamentos e outros analitos de interesse em controle de qualidade de medicamentos. Os biossensores permitem a quantificação não somente de princípio ativo em formulações farmacêuticas, mas também de produtos de degradação e metabólitos em fluídos biológicos, bem como análise de amostras de interesse clínico e industrial, além de possibilitar a determinação de enantiômeros. Desta forma, este artigo objetiva fazer uma breve revisão a respeito do emprego de biossensores em análise farmacêutica, com ênfase em sensores eletroquímicos enzimáticos.

  18. Introduction: Institutional corruption and the pharmaceutical policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodwin, Marc A

    2013-01-01

    Today, the goals of pharmaceutical policy and medical practice are often undermined due to institutional corruption - that is, widespread or systemic practices, usually legal, that undermine an institution's objectives or integrity. In this symposium, 16 articles investigate the corruption of pharmaceutical policy, each taking a different look at the sources of corruption, how it occurs, and what is corrupted. We will see that the pharmaceutical industry's own purposes are often undermined. Furthermore, pharmaceutical industry funding of election campaigns and lobbying skews the legislative process that sets pharmaceutical policy. Moreover, certain practices have corrupted medical research, the production of medical knowledge, the practice of medicine, drug safety, the Food and Drug Administration's oversight of the pharmaceutical market, and the trustworthiness of patient advocacy organizations. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  19. Tria Pharmaceuticals in the Baltics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kratochvil, Renate; Nell, Phillip C.

    2016-01-01

    Linda, a management consultant, had to solve a tricky problem regarding difficulties with the 'Baltic region subsidiary' of a global pharmaceutical company. She was hired by their Regional Headquarters (RHQ) for Central and Eastern Europe to disentangle this multifaceted challenge (eg sales down...... on the topic were the cultural misunderstandings between the employees of the various countries, or the company’s outdated products. Linda was challenged to, first, get a clear and comprehensive picture of the situation, and, second, propose a well-conceived solution to the RHQ. This case is written as a two...

  20. Biocatalytic Synthesis of Chiral Pharmaceutical Intermediates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh N. Patel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of single enantiomers of drug intermediates has become increasingly important in the pharmaceutical industry. Chiral intermediates and fine chemicals are in high demand from both the pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries for the preparation of bulk drug substances and agricultural products. The enormous potential of microorganisms and enzymes for the transformation of synthetic chemicals with high chemo-, regio- and enantioselectivities has been demonstrated. In this article, biocatalytic processes are described for the synthesis of chiral pharmaceutical intermediates.

  1. Novel methodology for pharmaceutical expenditure forecast

    OpenAIRE

    Vataire, Anne-Lise; Cetinsoy, Laurent; Aball?a, Samuel; R?muzat, C?cile; Urbinati, Duccio; Kornfeld, ?sa; Mzoughi, Olfa; Toumi, Mondher

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective: The value appreciation of new drugs across countries today features a disruption that is making the historical data that are used for forecasting pharmaceutical expenditure poorly reliable. Forecasting methods rarely addressed uncertainty. The objective of this project was to propose a methodology to perform pharmaceutical expenditure forecasting that integrates expected policy changes and uncertainty (developed for the European Commission as the ‘EU Pharmaceutical e...

  2. Bioremediation Kinetics of Pharmaceutical Industrial Effluent

    OpenAIRE

    M. Šabić; M. Vuković Domanovac; Z. Findrik Blažević; E. Meštrović

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, concerns about the occurrence and fate of pharmaceuticals that could be present in water and wastewater has gained increasing attention. With the public’s enhanced awareness of eco-safety, environmentally benign methods based on microorganisms have become more accepted methods of removing pollutants from aquatic systems. This study investigates bioremediation of pharmaceutical wastewater from pharmaceutical company Pliva Hrvatska d.o.o., using activated sludge and bioaugmente...

  3. Supply Chain Management in Zhendong Pharmaceutical Company

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yan

    2011-01-01

    Medicines are special commodity related to people’s lives and health, therefore, pharmaceutical distribution is an industry affecting the national economy and the people's livelihood. With health care reform, changeable pharmaceutical policy and fiercely increasing competition in the medical industry, pharmaceutical distribution companies should improve their level of logistics operations and reduce overall logistics management costs in order to gain a leading position in the competition. In ...

  4. Nanotechnology tools in pharmaceutical R&D

    OpenAIRE

    Challa S.S.R. Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a new approach to problem solving and can be considered as a collection of tools and ideas which can be applied in pharmaceutical industry. Application of nanotechnology tools in pharmaceutical R&D is likely to result in moving the industry from ‘blockbuster drug’ model to ‘personalized medicine’. There are compelling applications in pharmaceutical industry where inexpensive nanotechnology tools can be utilized. The review explores the possibility of categorizing various nan...

  5. Evaluation of P-Listed Pharmaceutical Residues in Empty Pharmaceutical Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), some pharmaceuticals are considered acute hazardous wastes because their sole active pharmaceutical ingredients are P-listed commercial chemical products (40 CFR 261.33). Hospitals and other healthcare facilities have stru...

  6. Entrepreneurial patent management in pharmaceutical startups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holgersson, Marcus; Phan, Tai; Hedner, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Startups fill an increasingly important role as innovators in the pharmaceutical industry, and patenting is typically central to their success. This article aims to explore patent management in pharmaceutical startups. The results show that startups need to deal with several challenges related to patenting and an 'entrepreneurial' approach to patent management is called for. Resource constraints, venture capital provision, exits and other conditions and events must be readily considered in the patent management process to build a successful pharmaceutical venture, something that could benefit the pharmaceutical industry as a whole. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Organic Colouring Agents in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šuleková M.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Food dyes are largely used in the process of manufacturing pharmaceutical products. The aim of such a procedure is not only to increase the attractiveness of products, but also to help patients distinguish between pharmaceuticals. Various dyes, especially organic colouring agents, may in some cases have a negative impact on the human body. They are incorporated into pharmaceutical products including tablets, hard gelatine capsules or soft gelatine capsules, lozenges, syrups, etc. This article provides an overview of the most widely used colouring agents in pharmaceuticals, their characteristics and the EU legislation which regulates their use.

  8. A Critical Analysis of Concentration and Competition in the Indian Pharmaceutical Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Aashna; Hasan Farooqui, Habib; Selvaraj, Sakthivel

    2016-01-01

    It can be argued that with several players marketing a large number of brands, the pharmaceutical market in India is competitive. However, the pharmaceutical market should not be studied as a single market but, as a sum total of a large number of individual sub-markets. This paper examines the methodological issues with respect to defining the relevant market involved in studying concentration in the pharmaceutical market in India. Further, we have examined whether the Indian pharmaceutical market is competitive. Indian pharmaceutical market was studied using PharmaTrac, the sales audit data from AIOCD-AWACS, that organises formulations into 5 levels of therapeutic classification based on the EphMRA system. The Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) was used as the indicator of market concentration. We calculated HHI for the entire pharmaceutical market studied as a single market as well as at the five different levels of therapeutic classification. Whereas the entire pharmaceutical market taken together as a single market displayed low concentration (HHI = 226.63), it was observed that if each formulation is defined as an individual sub-market, about 69 percent of the total market in terms of market value displayed at least moderate concentration. Market should be defined taking into account the ease of substitutability. Since, patients cannot themselves substitute the formulation prescribed by the doctor with another formulation with the same indication and therapeutic effect, owing to information asymmetry, it is appropriate to study market concentration at the narrower levels of therapeutic classification.

  9. Cyclodextrins and their pharmaceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftsson, Thorsteinn; Duchêne, Dominique

    2007-02-01

    Cyclodextrins were first described by Villiers in 1891. Schardinger laid the foundation of the cyclodextrin chemistry in 1903-1911 and identified both alpha- and beta-cyclodextrin. In the 1930s, Freudenberg identified gamma-cyclodextrin and suggested that larger cyclodextrins could exist. Freudenberg and co-workers showed that cyclodextrins were cyclic oligosaccharides formed by glucose units and somewhat later Cramer and co-workers described their ability to form inclusion complexes. By the early 1950s the basic physicochemical characteristics of cyclodextrins had been discovered, including their ability to solubilize and stabilize drugs. The first cyclodextrin-related patent was issued in 1953 to Freudenberg, Cramer and Plieninger. However, pure cyclodextrins that were suitable for pharmaceutical applications did not come available until about 25 years later and at the same time the first cyclodextrin-containing pharmaceutical product was marketed in Japan. Later cyclodextrin-containing products appeared on the European market and in 1997 also in the US. New cyclodextrin-based technologies are constantly being developed and, thus, 100 years after their discovery cyclodextrins are still regarded as novel excipients of unexplored potential.

  10. MARKETING STRATEGIES OF PHARMACEUTICAL ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Sergeeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategy of pharmaceutical goods (PG promotion is a working out of methods of goods realization stimulation. To make PG promotion maximum effective, and to receive a sufficient result for pharmaceutical organization (PO it is necessary to conduct marketing studies (MS, to work out a marketing plan for PG promotion and to offer marketing strategies for goods promotion. To resolve these problems we have formed a concept of marketing promotion of PG system for one of big retail PO of Kursk and Kursk oblast (code name “A”. With this purpose we have identified a problem of PG promotion organization, studied an influence of external and internal environment on the PO “A” activity, determined strong and weak sides of PO activity. We have systematized the results in SWOT-analysis, and formed the strategies of PO for the improvement of work efficiency on the market. On the basis of the results received we have worked out the recommendations for the marketing strategies of PG promotion for the certain PO.

  11. Why the MDGs need good governance in pharmaceutical systems to promote global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Jillian Clare; Mackey, Tim Ken; Ovtcharenko, Natalia

    2014-01-21

    Corruption in the health sector can hurt health outcomes. Improving good governance can in turn help prevent health-related corruption. We understand good governance as having the following characteristics: it is consensus-oriented, accountable, transparent, responsive, equitable and inclusive, effective and efficient, follows the rule of law, is participatory and should in theory be less vulnerable to corruption. By focusing on the pharmaceutical system, we explore some of the key lessons learned from existing initiatives in good governance. As the development community begins to identify post-2015 Millennium Development Goals targets, it is essential to evaluate programs in good governance in order to build on these results and establish sustainable strategies. This discussion on the pharmaceutical system illuminates why. Considering pharmaceutical governance initiatives such as those launched by the World Bank, World Health Organization, and the Global Fund, we argue that country ownership of good governance initiatives is essential but also any initiative must include the participation of impartial stakeholders. Understanding the political context of any initiative is also vital so that potential obstacles are identified and the design of any initiative is flexible enough to make adjustments in programming as needed. Finally, the inherent challenge which all initiatives face is adequately measuring outcomes from any effort. However in fairness, determining the precise relationship between good governance and health outcomes is rarely straightforward. Challenges identified in pharmaceutical governance initiatives manifest in different forms depending on the nature and structure of the initiative, but their regular occurrence and impact on population-based health demonstrates growing importance of addressing pharmaceutical governance as a key component of the post-2015 Millennium Development Goals. Specifically, these challenges need to be acknowledged and

  12. Cost benefit of investment on quality in pharmaceutical manufacturing: WHO GMP pre- and post-certification of a Nigerian pharmaceutical manufacturer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyakora, Chimezie; Ekwunife, Obinna; Alozie, Faith; Esuga, Mopa; Ukwuru, Jonathan; Onya, Steve; Nwokike, Jude

    2017-09-18

    Pharmaceutical companies in Africa need to invest in both facilities and quality management systems to achieve good manufacturing practice (GMP) compliance. Compliance to international GMP standards is important to the attainment of World Health Organization (WHO) prequalification. However, most of the local pharmaceutical manufacturing companies may be deterred from investing in quality because of many reasons, ranging from financial constraints to technical capacity. This paper primarily evaluates benefits against the cost of investing in GMP, using a Nigerian pharmaceutical company, Chi Pharmaceuticals Limited, as a case study. This paper also discusses how to drive more local manufacturers to invest in quality to attain GMP compliance; and proffers practical recommendations for local manufacturers who would want to invest in quality to meet ethical and regulatory obligations. The cost benefit of improving the quality of Chi Pharmaceuticals Limited's facilities and system to attain WHO GMP certification for the production of zinc sulfate 20-mg dispersible tablets was calculated by dividing the annual benefits derived from quality improvement interventions by the annual costs of implementing quality improvement interventions, referred to as a benefit-cost ratio (BCR). Cost benefit of obtaining WHO GMP certification for the production of zinc sulfate 20-mg dispersible tablets was 5.3 (95% confidence interval of 5.0-5.5). Investment in quality improvement intervention is cost-beneficial for local manufacturing companies. Governments and regulators in African countries should support pharmaceutical companies striving to invest in quality. Collaboration of local manufacturing companies with global companies will further improve quality. Local pharmaceutical companies should be encouraged to key into development opportunities available for pharmaceutical companies in Africa.

  13. Brothers Grimm. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    Based on Grimm's fairy tales, this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that fairy tales connect them to earlier generations, help them think about present situations, that magic figures prominently in fairy tales, and that fairy tales can inspire readers to create original works of art. The main activity in the…

  14. DSCOVR Contamination Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziani, Larissa

    2015-01-01

    The Triana observatory was built at NASA GSFC in the late 1990's, then placed into storage. After approximately ten years it was removed from storage and repurposed as the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR). This presentation outlines the contamination control program lessons learned during the integration, test and launch of DSCOVR.

  15. Phagocytosis: history's lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Manish; Chandawarkar, Rajiv Y

    2013-01-01

    The assimilation of lessons from the past is an essential component of education for scientists of tomorrow. These lessons are not easy to find. History books on science are few and usually highly dramatized and biographies of scientists tend to exaggerate the pomp of scientific discovery. Both underplay the hard and laborious work that is integral to any scientific pursuit. Here we illustrate one such example. A century ago, the Nobel Prize in Medicine was awarded to two scientists: Ilya Metchnikoff, a Russian zoologist, for the discovery ofphagocytosis-a cell-mediated ingestion ofmicrobes; and Paul Ehrlich, a distinguished physician-scientist, for discovering a highly antigen-specific serum-derived antibody-based immune defense. These two diametrically opposing views of the host-pathogen interaction set the stage for a strife that led to seminal advancements in immunology. Mirrored in this journey are important lessons for scientists today--ubiquitously as applicable to modern scientific life as they were a century ago. This commentaryhighlights these lessons--a fitting centenary to a well-deserved recognition.

  16. Recycling Lesson Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okaz, Abeer Ali

    2013-01-01

    This lesson plan designed for grade 2 students has the goal of teaching students about the environmental practice of recycling. Children will learn language words related to recycling such as: "we can recycle"/"we can't recycle" and how to avoid littering with such words as: "recycle paper" and/or "don't throw…

  17. Smart Consumer Lesson Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Jersey Consortium for Consumer Education, Newark.

    Lesson plans are provided for use with different populations of pre-K through senior high school students in four different areas of consumer education. Eight units in advertising are included: A First Look at Ads (pre-K-Grade 3), Don't Judge a Book by Its Cover (Grades 1-3), Fatal Distraction (Junior High), Package Labeling (Junior High), Product…

  18. Methods for the comparative evaluation of pharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busse, Reinhard

    2005-11-01

    preferred to surrogate parameters. Following the concept of community effectiveness, drug review institutions also explicitly favour RCT in a "natural" design, i.e. in daily routine and country specific care settings. The countries' requirements for pharmacoeconomic studies are similar despite some methodological inconsistencies, e.g. concerning cost calculation. Outcomes of clinical and pharmacoeconomic analyses are largely determined by the choice of comparator. Selecting an appropriate comparative treatment is therefore crucial. In theory, the best or most cost effective therapy is regarded as appropriate comparator for clinical and economic studies. Pragmatically however, institutions accept that the drug is compared to the treatment of daily routine or to the least expensive therapy. If a pharmaceutical offers several approved indications, in some countries all of them are assessed. Others only evaluate a drug's main indication. Canada is the only country which also considers a medicine's off-label use. It is well known that clinical trials and pharmacoeconomic studies directly comparing a drug with adequate competitors are lacking - in quantitative as well as in qualitative terms. This is specifically the case before or shortly after marketing authorisation. Yet there is the need to support reimbursement or pricing decisions by scientific evidence. In this situation review bodies are often forced to rely on observational studies or on other internally less valid data (including expert and consensus opinions. As a second option they use statistical approaches like indirect adjusted comparisons (in Australia and the United Kingdom and, commonly, economic modelling. However, there is consensus that results provided by these techniques need to be verified by valid head-to-head comparisons as soon as possible.ConclusionsIn the majority of countries reimbursement and pricing decisions are based on systematic and evidence-based evaluation comparing a drug's clinical and

  19. Methods for the comparative evaluation of pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentner, Annette; Velasco-Garrido, Marcial; Busse, Reinhard

    2005-11-15

    of community effectiveness, drug review institutions also explicitly favour RCT in a "natural" design, i.e. in daily routine and country specific care settings. The countries' requirements for pharmacoeconomic studies are similar despite some methodological inconsistencies, e.g. concerning cost calculation. Outcomes of clinical and pharmacoeconomic analyses are largely determined by the choice of comparator. Selecting an appropriate comparative treatment is therefore crucial. In theory, the best or most cost effective therapy is regarded as appropriate comparator for clinical and economic studies. Pragmatically however, institutions accept that the drug is compared to the treatment of daily routine or to the least expensive therapy. If a pharmaceutical offers several approved indications, in some countries all of them are assessed. Others only evaluate a drug's main indication. Canada is the only country which also considers a medicine's off-label use. It is well known that clinical trials and pharmacoeconomic studies directly comparing a drug with adequate competitors are lacking - in quantitative as well as in qualitative terms. This is specifically the case before or shortly after marketing authorisation. Yet there is the need to support reimbursement or pricing decisions by scientific evidence. In this situation review bodies are often forced to rely on observational studies or on other internally less valid data (including expert and consensus opinions). As a second option they use statistical approaches like indirect adjusted comparisons (in Australia and the United Kingdom) and, commonly, economic modelling. However, there is consensus that results provided by these techniques need to be verified by valid head-to-head comparisons as soon as possible. In the majority of countries reimbursement and pricing decisions are based on systematic and evidence-based evaluation comparing a drug's clinical and economic characteristics to daily treatment routine. However

  20. Synthetic biology advances for pharmaceutical production

    OpenAIRE

    Breitling, Rainer; Takano, Eriko

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology enables a new generation of microbial engineering for the biotechnological production of pharmaceuticals and other high-value chemicals. This review presents an overview of recent advances in the field, describing new computational and experimental tools for the discovery, optimization and production of bioactive molecules, and outlining progress towards the application of these tools to pharmaceutical production systems.

  1. Synthetic biology advances for pharmaceutical production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitling, Rainer; Takano, Eriko

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology enables a new generation of microbial engineering for the biotechnological production of pharmaceuticals and other high-value chemicals. This review presents an overview of recent advances in the field, describing new computational and experimental tools for the discovery, optimization and production of bioactive molecules, and outlining progress towards the application of these tools to pharmaceutical production systems. PMID:25744872

  2. The Impact of Biotechnology on Pharmaceutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Lawrence H.

    1990-01-01

    The emergence of bioactive peptides and proteins as new drug species poses formidable problems for the pharmaceutical scientist. Implications for revision or change in undergraduate and graduate pharmaceutics curricula derive from the biopharmaceutical, pharmacokinetic, and physiochemical aspects of the new drug species, which differ from…

  3. Information sources and utilization patterns of pharmaceutical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the adequacy of pharmaceutical scientists' information environment in feeding their occupational activities. Data was collected through observation and through questionnaire administration to all the twenty-seven scientists in two large pharmaceutical companies in Lagos, Nigeria. Findings revealed ...

  4. Drivers of peak sales for pharmaceutical brands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Marc; Leeflang, Peter S. H.; Verhoef, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    Peak sales are an important metric in the pharmaceutical industry. Specifically, managers are focused on the height-of-peak-sales and the time required achieving peak sales. We analyze how order of entry and quality affect the level of peak sales and the time-to-peak-sales of pharmaceutical brands.

  5. National transparency assessment of Kuwait's pharmaceutical sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawi, Dalia A; Alkhamis, Yousif; Qaddoumi, Mohammad; Behbehani, Kazem

    2015-09-01

    Corruption is one of several factors that may hinder the access to pharmaceuticals. Since Kuwait has the highest per-capita spending on pharmaceuticals in the region, we wanted to evaluate the level of transparency in its pharmaceutical sector using an established assessment tool adapted by the World Health Organization. Standardized questionnaires were conducted via semi-structured interviews with key informants to measure the level of transparency in eight functions of the public pharmaceutical sector. The scores for the degree of vulnerability to corruption reflected marginal to moderate venerability to corruption for most pharmaceutical sectors. The perceived strengths included availability of appropriate laws, the presence of clear standard operating procedures, and the use of an efficient registration/distribution system. Weaknesses included lack of conflict of interest guidelines and written terms of reference, absence of pharmacoeconomic studies, and inconsistencies in law enforcement. Findings reveal that few functions of Kuwait pharmaceutical sector remain fairly vulnerable to corruption. However, the willingness of Kuwait Ministry of Health to adopt the assessment study and the acknowledgement of the weaknesses of current processes of the pharmaceutical sector may assist to achieve a transparent pharmaceutical system in the near future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pharmacoligaclly Active: Clinical Trials and the Pharmaceuticals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multinational pharmaceutical companies ('pharmas') import and produce pharmaceuticals and also conduct clinical trials which are an important aspect of research and development (R&D). This may raise the question: Is South Africa a guinea pig for the pharmas? The Department of Trade and Industry National Industrial ...

  7. Burnout calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D.

    1980-01-01

    Reviewed is the effect of heat flux of different system parameters on critical density in order to give an initial view on the value of several parameters. A thorough analysis of different equations is carried out to calculate burnout is steam-water flows in uniformly heated tubes, annular, and rectangular channels and rod bundles. Effect of heat flux density distribution and flux twisting on burnout and storage determination according to burnout are commended [ru

  8. Bangladesh pharmaceutical policy and politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, M R

    1994-06-01

    An analysis of the politics of Bangladesh pharmaceutical policy in the 1980s shows how significant health policy reforms in developing countries depend on political conditions both inside and outside the country. Bangladesh's drug policy of 1982 illustrates that governments can sometimes change public policy in ways unfavourable to multinational corporations, while the failed health policy reform of 1990 shows that reforms unfavourable to powerful domestic interest groups can be more difficult to achieve, even contributing to a government's downfall. The case provides evidence of basic changes in how the international agenda for health policy is set, especially the growing role of non-governmental organizations in international agencies and national policy debates. Understanding the political patterns of policy reform in Bangladesh has important implications for strategies to affect health policy in developing countries.

  9. Integrating systems Approaches into Pharmaceutical Sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerhoff, H.V.; Mosekilde, Erik; Noe, C. R.

    2008-01-01

    During the first week of December 2007, the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences (EUFEPS) and BioSim, the major European Network of Excellence on Systems Biology, held a challenging conference on the use of mathematical models in the drug development process. More precisely, the purpose...... of the conference was to promote the ‘Integration of Systems Approaches into Pharmaceutical Sciences’ in view of optimising the development of new effective drugs. And a challenge this is, considering both the high attrition rates in the pharmaceutical industry and the failure of finding definitive drug solutions...... for many of the diseases that plague mankind today. The conference was co-sponsored by the American College of Clinical Pharmacology, the European Center for Pharmaceutical Medicine, and the Swiss Society of Pharmaceutical Sciences and, besides representatives from the European Regulatory Agencies and FDA...

  10. Reliability calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, K.E.

    1986-03-01

    Risk and reliability analysis is increasingly being used in evaluations of plant safety and plant reliability. The analysis can be performed either during the design process or during the operation time, with the purpose to improve the safety or the reliability. Due to plant complexity and safety and availability requirements, sophisticated tools, which are flexible and efficient, are needed. Such tools have been developed in the last 20 years and they have to be continuously refined to meet the growing requirements. Two different areas of application were analysed. In structural reliability probabilistic approaches have been introduced in some cases for the calculation of the reliability of structures or components. A new computer program has been developed based upon numerical integration in several variables. In systems reliability Monte Carlo simulation programs are used especially in analysis of very complex systems. In order to increase the applicability of the programs variance reduction techniques can be applied to speed up the calculation process. Variance reduction techniques have been studied and procedures for implementation of importance sampling are suggested. (author)

  11. Calculator calculus

    CERN Document Server

    McCarty, George

    1982-01-01

    How THIS BOOK DIFFERS This book is about the calculus. What distinguishes it, however, from other books is that it uses the pocket calculator to illustrate the theory. A computation that requires hours of labor when done by hand with tables is quite inappropriate as an example or exercise in a beginning calculus course. But that same computation can become a delicate illustration of the theory when the student does it in seconds on his calculator. t Furthermore, the student's own personal involvement and easy accomplishment give hi~ reassurance and en­ couragement. The machine is like a microscope, and its magnification is a hundred millionfold. We shall be interested in limits, and no stage of numerical approximation proves anything about the limit. However, the derivative of fex) = 67.SgX, for instance, acquires real meaning when a student first appreciates its values as numbers, as limits of 10 100 1000 t A quick example is 1.1 , 1.01 , 1.001 , •••• Another example is t = 0.1, 0.01, in the functio...

  12. Vulnerabilities to misinformation in online pharmaceutical marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Freitas, Julian; Falls, Brian A; Haque, Omar S; Bursztajn, Harold J

    2013-01-01

    Given the large percentage of Internet users who search for health information online, pharmaceutical companies have invested significantly in online marketing of their products. Although online pharmaceutical marketing can potentially benefit both physicians and patients, it can also harm these groups by misleading them. Indeed, some pharmaceutical companies have been guilty of undue influence, which has threatened public health and trust. We conducted a review of the available literature on online pharmaceutical marketing, undue influence and the psychology of decision-making, in order to identify factors that contribute to Internet users’ vulnerability to online pharmaceutical misinformation. We find five converging factors: Internet dependence, excessive trust in the veracity of online information, unawareness of pharmaceutical company influence, social isolation and detail fixation. As the Internet continues to change, it is important that regulators keep in mind not only misinformation that surrounds new web technologies and their contents, but also the factors that make Internet users vulnerable to misinformation in the first place. Psychological components are a critical, although often neglected, risk factor for Internet users becoming misinformed upon exposure to online pharmaceutical marketing. Awareness of these psychological factors may help Internet users attentively and safely navigate an evolving web terrain. PMID:23761527

  13. Strategic Management of Innovations at Pharmaceutical Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honcharova Svіtlana Yu.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to theoretical and practical issues of the use of the concept of strategic management of innovations at pharmaceutical enterprises. It studies main barriers, which restrict development of Ukrainian pharmaceutical enterprises. It analyses the state and tendencies of development of innovation activity of pharmaceutical enterprises and studies foreign experience of innovation activity. It marks out specific features of strategic management of innovation development in pharmaceutical industry. It specifies the role and advantages of methods of strategic analysis in the system of management of a pharmaceutical enterprise. It considers the essence of “innovation development” and “innovation model of development” notions and analyses their organisational and legal provision. It justifies strategic tasks of the pharmaceutical filed to focus on in order to achieve a breakthrough when building an innovation model of economic development. The article proves that the most important factors that ensure growth of efficiency of pharmaceutical production are: wide application of the concept of strategic management and creation of innovations.

  14. Vulnerabilities to misinformation in online pharmaceutical marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Freitas, Julian; Falls, Brian A; Haque, Omar S; Bursztajn, Harold J

    2013-05-01

    Given the large percentage of Internet users who search for health information online, pharmaceutical companies have invested significantly in online marketing of their products. Although online pharmaceutical marketing can potentially benefit both physicians and patients, it can also harm these groups by misleading them. Indeed, some pharmaceutical companies have been guilty of undue influence, which has threatened public health and trust. We conducted a review of the available literature on online pharmaceutical marketing, undue influence and the psychology of decision-making, in order to identify factors that contribute to Internet users' vulnerability to online pharmaceutical misinformation. We find five converging factors: Internet dependence, excessive trust in the veracity of online information, unawareness of pharmaceutical company influence, social isolation and detail fixation. As the Internet continues to change, it is important that regulators keep in mind not only misinformation that surrounds new web technologies and their contents, but also the factors that make Internet users vulnerable to misinformation in the first place. Psychological components are a critical, although often neglected, risk factor for Internet users becoming misinformed upon exposure to online pharmaceutical marketing. Awareness of these psychological factors may help Internet users attentively and safely navigate an evolving web terrain.

  15. Gamma radiodecontamination of natural products uses in Cuban pharmaceutical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, M.; Lopez, M.; Guerra, M.; Lastra, H.; Prieto, E.; Padron, E.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the present paper was to carry out the gamma radiodecontamination of industrial productions from there medicinal plant species (C. officinalis, P. incarta and M. recuttia) and two pharmaceuticals forms (S. platensis and bee pollen tabs) which presented high levels of microbiological count. Adequate irradiation doses calculated for each product were used in decontamination. The results obtained showed the effectiveness of the process in the elimination of microbial contamination from theses natural products. No changes in nutritional constituents or physico-chemical properties were observed

  16. Lessons from Goiania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazari Alves, R.

    2000-01-01

    The lessons learned from the radiological accident of Goiania in 1987 derived from the observations from the Regulatory Agency which was in charge of the decontamination tasks may be consolidated into four classes: Preventive Actions, characterised as those that aim to minimise the probability of occurrence of a radiological accident; Minimisation of time between the moment of the accident occurrence and the beginning of intervention, in case a radiological accident does occur, despite all preventive measures; Intervention, which is correlated to the type of installation, its geographical location, the social classes involved and their contamination vectors; and Follow up, for which well established rules to allow continuing monitoring of the victims and rebuilding of homes are necessary. The greatest lesson of all was the need for integration of the professionals involved, from all organizations. (author)

  17. Reliability Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kurt Erling

    1986-01-01

    Risk and reliability analysis is increasingly being used in evaluations of plant safety and plant reliability. The analysis can be performed either during the design process or during the operation time, with the purpose to improve the safety or the reliability. Due to plant complexity and safety...... and availability requirements, sophisticated tools, which are flexible and efficient, are needed. Such tools have been developed in the last 20 years and they have to be continuously refined to meet the growing requirements. Two different areas of application were analysed. In structural reliability probabilistic...... approaches have been introduced in some cases for the calculation of the reliability of structures or components. A new computer program has been developed based upon numerical integration in several variables. In systems reliability Monte Carlo simulation programs are used especially in analysis of very...

  18. Supramolecular Pharmaceutical Sciences: A Novel Concept Combining Pharmaceutical Sciences and Supramolecular Chemistry with a Focus on Cyclodextrin-Based Supermolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Taishi; Iohara, Daisuke; Motoyama, Keiichi; Arima, Hidetoshi

    2018-01-01

    Supramolecular chemistry is an extremely useful and important domain for understanding pharmaceutical sciences because various physiological reactions and drug activities are based on supramolecular chemistry. However, it is not a major domain in the pharmaceutical field. In this review, we propose a new concept in pharmaceutical sciences termed "supramolecular pharmaceutical sciences," which combines pharmaceutical sciences and supramolecular chemistry. This concept could be useful for developing new ideas, methods, hypotheses, strategies, materials, and mechanisms in pharmaceutical sciences. Herein, we focus on cyclodextrin (CyD)-based supermolecules, because CyDs have been used not only as pharmaceutical excipients or active pharmaceutical ingredients but also as components of supermolecules.

  19. Radiation sterilization of pharmaceuticals and biomedical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, R.; Iddon, B.; Moore, J.S.; Phillips, G.O.; Power, D.M.; Woodward, T.W.

    1975-01-01

    Sterilization of pharmaceuticals by radiation is accompanied by chemical degradation which must be eliminated or minimised if the method is to be successfully applied. In order to devise ways in which the pharmaceutical can be protected it is necessary to know the yield and nature of the decomposition products, the mechanisms by which degradation occurs, and the rate constants for the reactions involved. We have obtained such data for a variety of pharmaceutical compounds, viz. vitamin B12, benzyl penicillin, sulphonamides, indoles, heparin, alginates and phenylmercurics, both in the solid state and in aqueous solution. The scope and limitations of radiation sterilization are discussed in the light of these results. (author)

  20. Metrology in Pharmaceutical Industry - A Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuvamoto, Priscila D.; Fermam, Ricardo K. S.; Nascimento, Elizabeth S.

    2016-01-01

    Metrology is recognized by improving production process, increasing the productivity, giving more reliability to the measurements and consequently, it impacts in the economy of a country. Pharmaceutical area developed GMP (Good Manufacture Practice) requeriments, with no introduction of metrological concepts. However, due to Nanomedicines, it is expected this approach and the consequent positive results. The aim of this work is to verify the level of metrology implementation in a Brazilian pharmaceutical industry, using a case study. The purpose is a better mutual comprehension by both areas, acting together and governmental support to robustness of Brazilian pharmaceutical area. (paper)

  1. WATER QUALITY MONITORING OF PHARMACEUTICALS ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The demand on freshwater to sustain the needs of the growing population is of worldwide concern. Often this water is used, treated, and released for reuse by other communities. The anthropogenic contaminants present in this water may include complex mixtures of pesticides, prescription and nonprescription drugs, personal care and common consumer products, industrial and domestic-use materials and degradation products of these compounds. Although, the fate of these pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in wastewater treatment facilities is largely unknown, the limited data that does exist suggests that many of these chemicals survive treatment and some others are returned to their biologically active form via deconjugation of metabolites.Traditional water sampling methods (i.e., grab or composite samples) often require the concentration of large amounts of water to detect trace levels of PPCPs. A passive sampler, the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS), has been developed to integratively concentrate the trace levels of these chemicals, determine the time-weighted average water concentrations, and provide a method of estimating the potential exposure of aquatic organisms to these complex mixtures of waterborne contaminants. The POCIS (U.S. Patent number 6,478,961) consists of a hydrophilic microporous membrane, acting as a semipermeable barrier, enveloping various solid-phase sorbents that retain the sampled chemicals. Sampling rates f

  2. ORIGINS AND RAMIFICATIONS OF PHARMACEUTICALS & ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-soluble pharmaceuticals in source waters at levels that could be environmentally significant (at concentrations less than parts per billion, ppb). IAG with USGS ends in FY05. APM 20 due in FY05.Subtask 2: Coordination of interagency research and public outreach activities for PPCPs. Participate on NSTC Health and Environment subcommittee working group on PPCPs. Web site maintenance and expansion, invited technical presentations, invited articles for peer-reviewed journals, interviews for media, responding to public inquiries. S

  3. ORIGINS AND RAMIFICATIONS OF PHARMACEUTICALS ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perhaps more so than with any other class of pollutants, the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPS) in the environment highlights the immediate, intimate, and inseparable connection between the personal activities of individual citizens and their environment. PPCPS, in contrast to other types of pollutants, owe their origins in the environment directly to their worldwide, universal, frequent, highly dispersed, and individually small but cumulative usage by multitudes of individuals - as opposed to the larger, highly delineated, and more controllable industrial manufacturing/usage of most high- volume synthetic chemicals. Many PPCPs (as well as their metabolites and transformation products) can enter the environment following ingestion or application by the user or administration to domestic animals. Disposal of unused/expired PPCPs in landfills and in domestic sewage is another route to the environment. The aquatic environment serves as the major, ultimate receptacle for these chemicals, for which little is known with respect to actual or potential adverse effects. Domestic sewage treatment plants are not designed to remove PPCPS, and the efficiencies with which they are removed vary from nearly complete to ineffective. While PPCPs in the environment (or domestic drinking water) are not regulated, and even though their concentrations are extremely low (ng/L-@Lg/L), the consequences of exposure to multiple compounds having different as w

  4. Mixed Reality Meets Pharmaceutical Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, William P; Mackey, Megan A; Shah, Vivek M; Hassell, Kerry M; Shah, Prashant; Wylie, Jennifer L; Gopinath, Janakiraman; Balderhaar, Henning; Li, Li; Wuelfing, W Peter; Helmy, Roy

    2017-12-01

    As science evolves, the need for more efficient and innovative knowledge transfer capabilities becomes evident. Advances in drug discovery and delivery sciences have directly impacted the pharmaceutical industry, though the added complexities have not shortened the development process. These added complexities also make it difficult for scientists to rapidly and effectively transfer knowledge to offset the lengthened drug development timelines. While webcams, camera phones, and iPads have been explored as potential new methods of real-time information sharing, the non-"hands-free" nature and lack of viewer and observer point-of-view render them unsuitable for the R&D laboratory or manufacturing setting. As an alternative solution, the Microsoft HoloLens mixed-reality headset was evaluated as a more efficient, hands-free method of knowledge transfer and information sharing. After completing a traditional method transfer between 3 R&D sites (Rahway, NJ; West Point, PA and Schnachen, Switzerland), a retrospective analysis of efficiency gain was performed through the comparison of a mock method transfer between NJ and PA sites using the HoloLens. The results demonstrated a minimum 10-fold gain in efficiency, weighing in from a savings in time, cost, and the ability to have real-time data analysis and discussion. In addition, other use cases were evaluated involving vendor and contract research/manufacturing organizations. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Emerging pharmaceutical therapies for COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, Sowmya P; Reddy, Aravind T; Reddy, Raju C

    2017-01-01

    COPD, for which cigarette smoking is the major risk factor, remains a worldwide burden. Current therapies provide only limited short-term benefit and fail to halt progression. A variety of potential therapeutic targets are currently being investigated, including COPD-related proinflammatory mediators and signaling pathways. Other investigational compounds target specific aspects or complications of COPD such as mucus hypersecretion and pulmonary hypertension. Although many candidate therapies have shown no significant effects, other emerging therapies have improved lung function, pulmonary hypertension, glucocorticoid sensitivity, and/or the frequency of exacerbations. Among these are compounds that inhibit the CXCR2 receptor, mitogen-activated protein kinase/Src kinase, myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate, selectins, and the endothelin receptor. Activation of certain transcription factors may also be relevant, as a large retrospective cohort study of COPD patients with diabetes found that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonists rosiglitazone and pioglitazone were associated with reduced COPD exacerbation rate. Notably, several therapies have shown efficacy only in identifiable subgroups of COPD patients, suggesting that subgroup identification may become more important in future treatment strategies. This review summarizes the status of emerging therapeutic pharmaceuticals for COPD and highlights those that appear most promising. PMID:28790817

  6. PHARMACEUTICAL PARTNERSHIPS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEW PHARMACEUTICALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Bulgakov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the causes for creating alliances between manufacturers and drug developers. The attention has also been paid to the classification of such partnerships depending on the level of integration. The classification is necessary for further study of relations in the alliances. It is important to understand how economically effective and justified such partnerships are. The aim of the study is to determine the reasons for creating partnerships between drug developers and manufacturers, and to work out a classification of partnerships in the field of pharmacology. Materials and methods. The study analyzes existing alliances, partnerships of Big Pharma companies such as Bayer AG, Merck & Co, Pfizer. Results and discussion. The variety of forms of partnerships allows all participants in this market to get from cooperation the benefits they need. Some seek to reduce risk, others look forward to gaining access to new research opportunities, the third seek to share knowledge for greater productivity. However, there is always the opposite side, they have to sacrifice something to get a market advantage. For example, increased integration leads to a reduction in the risk of drug creation, but also leads to a decrease in the company’s independence. Conclusion. The results of this study can be used later in the study of the financial effectiveness of pharmaceutical partnerships, as well as in exploring the causes of alliances’ collapses. Any partnership has its value and can be considered as an intangible asset of the company. However, at the moment, there is no universal way of assessing this type of active assets, therefore, classification is a key step in creating a model for determining the value of a partnership. 

  7. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research is an international Open Access ... drug events, medical and other life sciences, and related engineering fields). ... Studies on synthesis of new compounds should only be considered if they ...

  8. Assessing the assessments: Pharmaceuticals in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enick, O.V.; Moore, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    The relatively new issue of pharmaceutical contamination of the environment offers the opportunity to explore the application of values to the construction, communication and management of risk. The still-developing regulatory policies regarding environmental contamination with pharmaceuticals provide fertile ground for the introduction of values into the definition and management of risk. In this report, we summarize the current knowledge regarding pharmaceutical contamination of the environment and discuss specific attributes of pharmaceuticals that require special consideration. We then present an analysis showing that if values are incorporated into assessing, characterizing and managing risk, the results of risk assessments will more accurately reflect the needs of various stakeholders. Originating from an acknowledgement of the inherent uncertainty and value-laden nature of risk assessment, the precautionary principle (and later, the multi-criteria, integrated risk assessment), provides a direction for further research and policy development

  9. Information flow in the pharmaceutical supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Nazila; Alibabaei, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Managing the supply chain plays an important role in creating competitive advantages for companies. Adequate information flow in supply chain is one of the most important issues in SCM. Therefore, using certain Information Systems can have a significant role in managing and integrating data and information within the supply chain. Pharmaceutical supply chain is more complex than many other supply chains, in the sense that it can affect social and political perspectives. On the other hand, managing the pharmaceutical supply chain is difficult because of its complexity and also government regulations in this field. Although, Iran has progressed a lot in pharmaceutical manufacturing, still there are many unsolved issues in managing the information flow in the pharmaceutical supply chain. In this study, we reviewed the benefits of using different levels of an integrated information system in the supply chain and the possible challenges ahead.

  10. Pharmaceutical Care Implementation: A Survey of Attitude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Health Research ... Purpose: To assess the attitude, perception and practice of pharmacists in Ogun State towards pharmaceutical care implementation. Methods: Pre-tested and validated structured questionnaire was ...

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL STEWARDSHIP OF PHARMACEUTICALS - THE GREEN PHARMACY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPS) as environmental pollutants is a multifaceted issue whose scope continues to become better delineated since the escalation of conceited attention beginning in the 1980s. PPCPs typically occur as trace environme...

  12. Pharmaceutical marketing research and the prescribing physician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Jeremy A

    2007-05-15

    Surveillance of physicians' prescribing patterns and the accumulation and sale of these data for pharmaceutical marketing are currently the subjects of legislation in several states and action by state and national medical associations. Contrary to common perception, the growth of the health care information organization industry has not been limited to the past decade but has been building slowly over the past 50 years, beginning in the 1940s when growth in the prescription drug market fueled industry interest in understanding and influencing prescribing patterns. The development of this surveillance system was not simply imposed on the medical profession by the pharmaceutical industry but was developed through the interactions of pharmaceutical salesmen, pharmaceutical marketers, academic researchers, individual physicians, and physician organizations. Examination of the role of physicians and physician organizations in the development of prescriber profiling is directly relevant to the contemporary policy debate surrounding this issue.

  13. Pharmaceutical and pharmacological approaches for bioavailability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-27

    Jan 27, 2014 ... Etoposide posses high plasma protein binding (97%) and is degraded via ... The present article gives insight on pharmaceutical and pharmacological .... caprolactone and were found efficient as drug delivery vehicles.

  14. Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Trials Pediatrics The Value Collaborative 340B Science x Science Today, cutting-edge medical science is transforming patients’ ... Prescription Medicines: Costs in Context SHARE THIS The Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America, PhRMA, represents the ...

  15. Pharmaceutical technology management--profitable business avenue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthli, Shivanand P

    2010-01-01

    Growing research expenditure, regulatory framework and generic erosion have forced pharmaceutical companies globally to resort to pharmaceutical technology management (PTM). Indeed, the pharmaceutical industry has witnessed the impact of innovative drug delivery and device technologies and their influence on business. PTM has given a new business insight with greater profits and enhancement of product franchise. Promising breakthrough technologies have not been able to reach a commercial platform largely owing to lack of capital at the preliminary stages of the product development program. Intellectual property plays a considerable role in protecting innovative technologies. Joint ventures and strategic alliances also become important for commercializing a new technology. The synergy of PTM with options of in-licensing is expected to infuse newer opportunities to the pharmaceutical business.

  16. Funding pharmaceutical innovation through direct tax credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lybecker, Kristina M; Freeman, Robert A

    2007-07-01

    Rising pharmaceutical prices, increasing demand for more effective innovative drugs and growing public outrage have heightened criticism of the pharmaceutical industry. The public debate has focused on drug prices and access. As a consequence, the patent system is being reexamined as an efficient mechanism for encouraging pharmaceutical innovation and drug development. We propose an alternative to the existing patent system, instead rewarding the innovating firm with direct tax credits in exchange for marginal cost pricing. This concept is based on the fundamental assumption that innovation that benefits society at large may be financed publicly. As an industry which produces a social good characterized by high fixed costs, high information and regulatory costs, and relatively low marginal costs of production, pharmaceuticals are well-suited to such a mechanism. Under this proposal, drug prices fall, consumer surplus increases, access is enhanced, and the incentives to innovate are preserved.

  17. A Simple Model of Pharmaceutical Price Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya, Jayanta; Vogt, William B

    2003-01-01

    Branded pharmaceutical firms use price and promotional strategy to manage public knowledge about their drugs. We propose a dynamic theory of pharmaceutical pricing and conduct an exploratory empirical analysis inspired by the theory. Our theory predicts a pattern of increasing prices and decreasing promotional activities over a drug's life cycle. Prices are kept low and advertising levels high early in the life cycle in order to build public knowledge about the drug. As knowledge grows, price...

  18. 'Linkage' pharmaceutical evergreening in Canada and Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Faunce, Thomas A; Lexchin, Joel

    2007-01-01

    'Evergreening' is not a formal concept of patent law. It is best understood as a social idea used to refer to the myriad ways in which pharmaceutical patent owners utilise the law and related regulatory processes to extend their high rent-earning intellectual monopoly privileges, particularly over highly profitable (either in total sales volume or price per unit) 'blockbuster' drugs. Thus, while the courts are an instrument frequently used by pharmaceutical brand name manufacturers to prolong...

  19. Pharmaceutical Distribution Market Channels in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Woś

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Distribution on the pharmaceutical market in Poland is interesting and the most difficult sphere to manage. Numerous varied and specialized companies operating on the market cause that the processes of choosing middlemen in distribution channels are very complex. The hereby article presents the role and location of the companies operating within distribution channels on the pharmaceutical market. It draws attention to the development of non-pharmacy and non-wholesale sales channels.

  20. Multifaceted role of clay minerals in pharmaceuticals

    OpenAIRE

    Khurana, Inderpreet Singh; Kaur, Satvinder; Kaur, Harpreet; Khurana, Rajneet Kaur

    2015-01-01

    The desirable physical and physiochemical properties of clay minerals have led them to play a substantial role in pharmaceutical formulations. Clay minerals like kaolin, smectite and palygorskite-sepiolite are among the world's most valuable industrial minerals and of considerable importance. The elemental features of clay minerals which caused them to be used in pharmaceutical formulations are high specific area, sorption capacity, favorable rheological properties, chemical inertness, swelli...

  1. Optimization of the pharmaceutical care system for diabetes patients using modern pharmaceutical informatics methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Андрій Ігорович Бойко

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Implementation of pharmaceutical informatics methods in the system of pharmaceutical care for diabetes patients in Ukraine.Methods. System method was used for the analysis of status and reforming the pharmaceutical care for patients with diabetes; program-oriented management at informatization project realization; pharmaceutical informatics in the creation of computer pharmaceutical knowledge bases; methods of data synthesis and summarizing.Results. System analysis of the basic directions of reforming the pharmaceutical care for patients with diabetes in Ukraine was carried out. Ways of it’s of optimization were processed: establishment of specialized pharmacies with implementation of modern information technologies and special postgraduate education for pharmacists. Structure and information providing of computer knowledge base “Pharmaceutical care for patients with diabetes” was substantiated.Conclusion. Based on the regional project “Informatization of prescription antidiabetic drugs circulation in Ukraine” realization, the necessity of establishment of specialized pharmacies providing pharmaceutical care for patients with diabetes was substantiated. Ways for optimization of postgraduate education for pharmacists of the specialized pharmacies by implementation of special thematic improvement cycles were proceed. Computer knowledge base as an effective tool for optimization of pharmaceutical care for patients with diabetes was realized

  2. Pharmaceutical manufacturing facility discharges can substantially increase the pharmaceutical load to U.S. wastewaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Tia-Marie; Phillips, Patrick J.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Colella, Kaitlyn M.; Furlong, Edward T.; Foreman, William T.; Gray, James L.

    2018-01-01

    Discharges from pharmaceutical manufacturing facilities (PMFs) previously have been identified as important sources of pharmaceuticals to the environment. Yet few studies are available to establish the influence of PMFs on the pharmaceutical source contribution to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and waterways at the national scale. Consequently, a national network of 13 WWTPs receiving PMF discharges, six WWTPs with no PMF input, and one WWTP that transitioned through a PMF closure were selected from across the United States to assess the influence of PMF inputs on pharmaceutical loading to WWTPs. Effluent samples were analyzed for 120 pharmaceuticals and pharmaceutical degradates. Of these, 33 pharmaceuticals had concentrations substantially higher in PMF-influenced effluent (maximum 555,000 ng/L) compared to effluent from control sites (maximum 175 ng/L). Concentrations in WWTP receiving PMF input are variable, as discharges from PMFs are episodic, indicating that production activities can vary substantially over relatively short (several months) periods and have the potential to rapidly transition to other pharmaceutical products. Results show that PMFs are an important, national-scale source of pharmaceuticals to the environment.

  3. THz spectroscopy: An emerging technology for pharmaceutical development and pharmaceutical Process Analytical Technology (PAT) applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huiquan; Khan, Mansoor

    2012-08-01

    As an emerging technology, THz spectroscopy has gained increasing attention in the pharmaceutical area during the last decade. This attention is due to the fact that (1) it provides a promising alternative approach for in-depth understanding of both intermolecular interaction among pharmaceutical molecules and pharmaceutical product quality attributes; (2) it provides a promising alternative approach for enhanced process understanding of certain pharmaceutical manufacturing processes; and (3) the FDA pharmaceutical quality initiatives, most noticeably, the Process Analytical Technology (PAT) initiative. In this work, the current status and progress made so far on using THz spectroscopy for pharmaceutical development and pharmaceutical PAT applications are reviewed. In the spirit of demonstrating the utility of first principles modeling approach for addressing model validation challenge and reducing unnecessary model validation "burden" for facilitating THz pharmaceutical PAT applications, two scientific case studies based on published THz spectroscopy measurement results are created and discussed. Furthermore, other technical challenges and opportunities associated with adapting THz spectroscopy as a pharmaceutical PAT tool are highlighted.

  4. Extraction and characterization of artocarpus integer gum as pharmaceutical excipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Uzma; Malviya, Rishabha; Sharma, Pramod Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Natural polymers are widely used as excipients in pharmaceutical formulations. They are easily available, cheap and less toxic as compared to synthetic polymers. This study involves the extraction and characterization of kathal (Artocarpus integer) gum as a pharmaceutical excipient. Water was used as a solvent for extraction of the natural polymer. Yield was calculated with an aim to evaluate the efficacy of the process. The product was screened for the presence of Micrometric properties, and swelling index, flow behavior, surface tension, and viscosity of natural polymers were calculated. Using a water based extraction method, the yield of gum was found to be 2.85%. Various parameters such as flow behavior, organoleptic properties, surface tension, viscosity, loss on drying, ash value and swelling index together with microscopic studies of particles were done to characterize the extracted gum. The result showed that extracted kathal gum exhibited excellent flow properties. The gum was investigated for purity by carrying out chemical tests for different phytochemical constituents and only carbohydrates were found to be present. It had a good swelling index (13 ± 1). The pH and surface tension of the 1% gum solution were found to be 6 ± 0.5 and 0.0627 J/m2, respectively. The ash values such as total ash, acid insoluble ash, and water soluble ash were found to be 18.9%, 0.67% and 4% respectively. Loss on drying was 6.61%. The extracted gum was soluble in warm water and insoluble in organic solvents. The scanning electron micrograph (SEM) revealed rough and irregular particles of the isolated polymer. The results of the evaluated properties showed that kathal-derived gum has acceptable pH and organoleptic properties and can be used as a pharmaceutical excipient to formulate solid oral dosage forms.

  5. Medical faculty members' attitude on lesson planning Semnan University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masomeh Saberian

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lesson planning has a distinct role in enhancing education quality, as well as maintaining the friendly and dynamic atmosphere of the academic environment and increasing student's initiatives for achieving better educational attainments. Lesson planning is a process for defining the goals, understanding the needs, and specifying available tools and possible limitations. Lesson planning is a written description of this process, which shows the materials, the route, the time, and the place of instructions, as well as a method for evaluating students. Purpose: to identify the attitudes of Semnan University of Medical Sciences (SUMS on lesson planning. Methods: Fifty-three faculty members of the SUMS participated in this study. A questionnaire was used, which contained 8 demographic questions, and 24 r questions for identification the faculty members' attitude. Questionnaires were distributed among the faculty members in sealed envelopes, without denoting their names. The questionnaires were gathered after being completed. Results were analyzed by calculating the mean, standard deviation, absolute and relative frequencies, and using Chi-square and Fischer exact test at the level of 5%. Results: II was shown that 88% of faculty members favoured lesson planning before the beginning of the semester. But they found lesson planning a difficult task, because of their heavy workload. Of the faculty members, 60.4% organized their teaching classes according to a designed lesson plan, and believed that it did affect the quality of their teaching, but 49.1% disagreed with distributing the designed lesson plan among the students. Discussion: Although professor favoured lesson planning and find it necessary to work according to such a plan, workload and lack of knowledge are defined as two main obstacles in doing so. It is believed that by decreasing the professor's workload and provision of lesson planning workshops, these problems could be solved

  6. Pharmaceutical regulation in 15 European countries review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panteli, Dimitra; Arickx, Francis; Cleemput, Irina; Dedet, Guillaume; Eckhardt, Helen; Fogarty, Emer; Gerkens, Sophie; Henschke, Cornelia; Hislop, Jennifer; Jommi, Claudio; Kaitelidou, Daphne; Kawalec, Pawel; Keskimaki, Ilmo; Kroneman, Madelon; Lopez Bastida, Julio; Pita Barros, Pedro; Ramsberg, Joakim; Schneider, Peter; Spillane, Susan; Vogler, Sabine; Vuorenkoski, Lauri; Wallach Kildemoes, Helle; Wouters, Olivier; Busse, Reinhard

    2016-10-01

    In the context of pharmaceutical care, policy-makers repeatedly face the challenge of balancing patient access to effective medicines with affordability and rising costs. With the aim of guiding the health policy discourse towards questions that are important to actual and potential patients, this study investigates a broad range of regulatory measures, spanning marketing authorization to generic substitution and resulting price levels in a sample of 16 European health systems (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, England, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Scotland, Spain and Sweden). All countries employ a mix of regulatory mechanisms to contain pharmaceutical expenditure and ensure quality and efficiency in pharmaceutical care, albeit with varying configurations and rigour. This variation also influences the extent of publicly financed pharmaceutical costs. Overall, observed differences in pharmaceutical expenditure should be interpreted in conjunction with the differing volume and composition of consumption and price levels, as well as dispensation practices and their impact on measurement of pharmaceutical costs. No definitive evidence has yet been produced on the effects of different cost-containment measures on patient outcomes. Depending on the foremost policy concerns in each country, different levers will have to be used to enable the delivery of appropriate care at affordable prices. World Health Organization 2016 (acting as the host organization for, and secretariat of, the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies).

  7. Pharmaceutical care education in Kuwait: pharmacy students’ perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Katoue, Maram G.; Awad, Abdelmoneim I.; Schwinghammer, Terry L.; Kombian, Samuel B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pharmaceutical care is defined as the responsible provision of medication therapy to achieve definite outcomes that improve patients’ quality of life. Pharmacy education should equip students with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes they need to practise pharmaceutical care competently. Objective: To investigate pharmacy students’ attitudes towards pharmaceutical care, perceptions of their preparedness to perform pharmaceutical care competencies, opinions about the importance...

  8. Pharmaceutical drug detailing in primary care: extent and methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Jesper

    The dimension and methods of pharmaceutical marketing towards 47 danish general practitioners is described. Conclusions: Pharmaceutical drug detailing possesses a huge potential to influence the prescription pattern of GP's.......The dimension and methods of pharmaceutical marketing towards 47 danish general practitioners is described. Conclusions: Pharmaceutical drug detailing possesses a huge potential to influence the prescription pattern of GP's....

  9. Masterwork Art Lesson: Kandinsky Watercolors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LiPira, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Presents an art lesson used with sixth-grade students which also can be used with other grade levels. Explains that the artwork of Wassily Kandinsky served as inspiration for this lesson. Explains that the students learned about abstract art and used watercolors to create their own paintings in the style of Kandinsky. (CMK)

  10. Bead Game Simulation. Lesson Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripp, Ken

    This lesson plan offers students the opportunity to participate in the three basic economic systems (market, command, and tradition). By working in each of the systems, students will internalize the fundamental values present in each system and will gain insights into the basic advantages and disadvantages of each system. The lesson plan provides…

  11. Simple and Practical Efficiency Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolpin, Van

    2018-01-01

    The derivation of conditions necessary for Pareto efficient production and exchange is a lesson frequently showcased in microeconomic theory textbooks. Traditional delivery of this lesson is, however, limited in its scope of application and can be unnecessarily convoluted. The author shows that the universe of application is greatly expanded and a…

  12. Keiko, Killer Whale. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    This lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that Keiko, the killer whale, lived for a long time in an aquarium and had to be taught to live independently; and that computer users can get updates on how Keiko is doing. The main activity of the lesson involves middle school students working in small groups to produce a…

  13. Lesson Study and History Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Anne-Lise; Kesler Lund, Alisa

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the experiences of a group of fifth-grade teachers who used lesson study, a teacher-driven form of professional development, to teach history in a project supported by a Teaching American History Grant. The project addressed the following questions: What does a lesson study cycle for history education look like? What…

  14. Colloids as a sink for certain pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskaoui, Khalid; Zhou, John L

    2010-05-01

    The occurrence and fate of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment is recognized as one of the emerging issues in environmental chemistry and as a matter of public concern. Existing data tend to focus on the concentrations of pharmaceuticals in the aqueous phase, with limited studies on their concentrations in particulate phase such as sediments. Furthermore, current water quality monitoring does not differentiate between soluble and colloidal phases in water samples, hindering our understanding of the bioavailability and bioaccumulation of pharmaceuticals in aquatic organisms. In this study, an investigation was conducted into the concentrations and phase association (soluble, colloidal, suspended particulate matter or SPM) of selected pharmaceuticals (propranolol, sulfamethoxazole, meberverine, thioridazine, carbamazepine, tamoxifen, indomethacine, diclofenac, and meclofenamic acid) in river water, effluents from sewage treatment works (STW), and groundwater in the UK. The occurrence and phase association of selected pharmaceuticals propranolol, sulfamethoxazole, meberverine, thioridazine, carbamazepine, tamoxifen, indomethacine, diclofenac, and meclofenamic acid in contrasting aquatic environments (river, sewage effluent, and groundwater) were studied. Colloids were isolated by cross-flow ultrafiltration (CFUF). Water samples were extracted by solid-phase extraction (SPE), while SPM was extracted by microwave. All sample extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in the multiple reaction monitoring. Five compounds propranolol, sulfamethoxazole, carbamazepine, indomethacine, and diclofenac were detected in all samples, with carbamazepine showing the highest concentrations in all phases. The highest concentrations of these compounds were detected in STW effluents, confirming STW as a key source of these compounds in the aquatic environments. The calculation of partition coefficients of pharmaceuticals between SPM and

  15. Emerging pharmaceutical therapies for COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi SP

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sowmya P Lakshmi,1,2 Aravind T Reddy,1,2 Raju C Reddy1,2 1Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 2Veterans Affairs Pittsburgh Healthcare System, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Abstract: COPD, for which cigarette smoking is the major risk factor, remains a worldwide burden. Current therapies provide only limited short-term benefit and fail to halt progression. A variety of potential therapeutic targets are currently being investigated, including COPD-related proinflammatory mediators and signaling pathways. Other investigational compounds target specific aspects or complications of COPD such as mucus hypersecretion and pulmonary hypertension. Although many candidate therapies have shown no significant effects, other emerging therapies have improved lung function, pulmonary hypertension, glucocorticoid sensitivity, and/or the frequency of exacerbations. Among these are compounds that inhibit the CXCR2 receptor, mitogen-activated protein kinase/Src kinase, myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate, selectins, and the endothelin receptor. Activation of certain transcription factors may also be relevant, as a large retrospective cohort study of COPD patients with diabetes found that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ agonists rosiglitazone and pioglitazone were associated with reduced COPD exacerbation rate. Notably, several therapies have shown efficacy only in identifiable subgroups of COPD patients, suggesting that subgroup identification may become more important in future treatment strategies. This review summarizes the status of emerging therapeutic pharmaceuticals for COPD and highlights those that appear most promising. Keywords: pulmonary, PPAR, phosphodiesterase, emphysema, cigarette, mucus 

  16. Stem cells in pharmaceutical biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuba-Surma, Ewa K; Józkowicz, Alicja; Dulak, Józef

    2011-11-01

    Multiple populations of stem cells have been indicated to potentially participate in regeneration of injured organs. Especially, embryonic stem cells (ESC) and recently inducible pluripotent stem cells (iPS) receive a marked attention from scientists and clinicians for regenerative medicine because of their high proliferative and differentiation capacities. Despite that ESC and iPS cells are expected to give rise into multiple regenerative applications when their side effects are overcame during appropriate preparation procedures, in fact their most recent application of human ESC may, however, reside in their use as a tool in drug development and disease modeling. This review focuses on the applications of stem cells in pharmaceutical biotechnology. We discuss possible relevance of pluripotent cell stem populations in developing physiological models for any human tissue cell type useful for pharmacological, metabolic and toxicity evaluation necessary in the earliest steps of drug development. The present models applied for preclinical drug testing consist of primary cells or immortalized cell lines that show limitations in terms of accessibility or relevance to their in vivo counterparts. The availability of renewable human cells with functional similarities to their in vivo counterparts is the first landmark for a new generation of cell-based assays. We discuss the approaches for using stem cells as valuable physiological targets of drug activity which may increase the strength of target validation and efficacy potentially resulting in introducing new safer remedies into clinical trials and the marketplace. Moreover, we discuss the possible applications of stem cells for elucidating mechanisms of disease pathogenesis. The knowledge about the mechanisms governing the development and progression of multitude disorders which would come from the cellular models established based on stem cells, may give rise to new therapeutical strategies for such diseases. All

  17. FORMATION AND FURTHER DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN PROMOTION OF PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юрий Владимирович Тарасов

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The articles addresses key notions and elements of marketing of pharmaceutical companies. Key stages and particularities of formation of pharmaceutical marketing are considered. It is proved that in general pharmaceutical market is developing under general marketing rules, however while developing strategy of promotion of pharmaceutical products specific features of the industry must be taken into consideration. The authors describes specific features of modern pharmaceutical market, which must be considered while developing policy of promotion of pharmaceutical products.The analysis is made of modern state of Russian pharmaceutical industry, its place in world pharmaceutical market. It is found that development of pharmaceutical market is directly influenced by the reform of pharmaceutical industry initiated by the Government of our country in 2008. Characteristic of current stage of market development is more strict conditions in marketing sphere and promotion of drugs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-12-2

  18. Pharmaceutical costs of assisted reproduction in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, Maria-Reyes; Hernández, Juana; Antoñanzas, Fernando

    2013-11-01

    Assisted reproduction is one of the health services currently being considered for possible limitation or exclusion from the public health services portfolio in Spain. One of the main reasons claimed for this is the impact on the budget for pharmaceutical expenditure. The objective of this study was to assess the significance of the pharmaceutical costs of assisted reproduction in Spain. This study focused on medical practice in Spain, and is based on the opinions of experts in assisted reproduction and the results provided by professional societies' publications. The reference year is 2012 and the setting was secondary care. We have included all existing pharmaceutical modalities for assisted reproduction, as well as the most common drug for each modality. We have considered the pharmaceutical cost per cycle for artificial insemination, in vitro fertilisation with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF_ICSI), and cryotransfer and donated fresh oocytes reception. In Spain, artificial insemination has a pharmaceutical cost per cycle of between €69.36 and €873.79. This amounts to an average cycle cost of €364.87 for partner's sperm and €327.10 for donor sperm. The pharmaceutical cost of IVF_ICSI ranges between €278.16 and €1,902.66, giving an average cost per cycle of €1,139.65. In the case of cryotransfer and donated fresh oocytes reception, the pharmaceutical cost per cycle is between €22.61 and €58.73, yielding an average cost of €40.67. The budgetary impact of pharmaceutical expenditure for assisted reproduction in Spain for the year 2012 was estimated at €98.7 million. In Spain, the total pharmaceutical cost of assisted reproduction is substantial. According to our results, we can say that about 29% of the total pharmaceutical expenditure for assisted reproduction techniques is funded by the National Health System and the rest represents 2.4% of the total annual out-of-pocket family expenditure on drugs.

  19. Classroom Management and Lesson Planning(4)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Lesson PlanningTask 1As teachers,we all need to plan our lessons before we teach.Make a list of things that you think need tobe included in a lesson plan.Then compare and discuss your list with another teacher.Also think about reasonswhy we need to plan our lessons.

  20. Classroom Management and Lesson Planning(4)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Lesson Planning Task 1 As teachers,we all need to plan our lessons before we teach.Make a list of things that you think need to be included in a lesson plan.Then compare and discuss your list with another teacher.Also think about reasons why we need to plan our lessons.

  1. Pharmaceutical Cocrystals: Regulatory and Strategic Aspects, Design and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Gadade, Dipak Dilip; Pekamwar, Sanjay Sudhakar

    2016-01-01

    Cocrystal is a concept of the supramolecular chemistry which is gaining the extensive interest of researchers from pharmaceutical and chemical sciences and of drug regulatory agencies. The prominent reason of which is its ability to modify physicochemical properties of active pharmaceutical ingredients. During the development of the pharmaceutical product, formulators have to optimize the physicochemical properties of active pharmaceutical ingredients. Pharmaceutical cocrystals can be employe...

  2. Shuttle Lesson Learned - Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2010-01-01

    This is a script for a video about toxicology and the space shuttle. The first segment is deals with dust in the space vehicle. The next segment will be about archival samples. Then we'll look at real time on-board analyzers that give us a lot of capability in terms of monitoring for combustion products and the ability to monitor volatile organics on the station. Finally we will look at other issues that are about setting limits and dealing with ground based lessons that pertain to toxicology.

  3. Business Ethics and CSR in Pharmaceutical Industry in the Czech Republic and Hungary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markéta Lőrinczy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available How do business ethics and CSR form part of pharmaceutical business in the Czech Republic and Hungary? The question was analyzed through empirical studies where surveys were the main tool. The research investigated business ethics, CSR, ethical code, ethical involvement of employees as factors that might be important to achieve ethical behaviour in the pharmaceutical industry. Results showed that, with 69.4% response rate, that Czech and Hungarian original companies are more towards ethical behaviour and the employees know more about the organization they work for. The data were compared with parametric statistical analysis based on Mann-Whitney U calculator.

  4. Supercritical fluid technology: concepts and pharmaceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Praful Balavant; Kumar, G Aravind; Kumar, Averineni Ranjith; Shavi, Gopal Venkatesh; Karthik, Arumugam; Reddy, Meka Sreenivasa; Udupa, Nayanabhirama

    2011-01-01

    In light of environmental apprehension, supercritical fluid technology (SFT) exhibits excellent opportunities to accomplish key objectives in the drug delivery sector. Supercritical fluid extraction using carbon dioxide (CO(2)) has been recognized as a green technology. It is a clean and versatile solvent with gas-like diffusivity and liquid-like density in the supercritical phase, which has provided an excellent alternative to the use of chemical solvents. The present commentary provides an overview of different techniques using supercritical fluids and their future opportunity for the drug delivery industry. Some of the emerging applications of SFT in pharmaceuticals, such as particle design, drug solubilization, inclusion complex, polymer impregnation, polymorphism, drug extraction process, and analysis, are also covered in this review. The data collection methods are based on the recent literature related to drug delivery systems using SFT platforms. SFT has become a much more versatile and environmentally attractive technology that can handle a variety of complicated problems in pharmaceuticals. This cutting-edge technology is growing predominantly to surrogate conventional unit operations in relevance to the pharmaceutical production process. Supercritical fluid technology has recently drawn attention in the field of pharmaceuticals. It is a distinct conception that utilizes the solvent properties of supercritical fluids above their critical temperature and pressure, where they exhibit both liquid-like and gas-like properties, which can enable many pharmaceutical applications. For example, the liquid-like properties provide benefits in extraction processes of organic solvents or impurities, drug solubilization, and polymer plasticization, and the gas-like features facilitate mass transfer processes. It has become a much more versatile and environmentally attractive technology that can handle a variety of complicated problems in pharmaceuticals. This review is

  5. Pharmaceutical Formulation Facilities as Sources of Opioids and Other Pharmaceuticals to Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Facilities involved in the manufacture of pharmaceutical products are an under-investigated source of pharmaceuticals to the environment. Between 2004 and 2009, 35 to 38 effluent samples were collected from each of three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in New York and analyzed for seven pharmaceuticals including opioids and muscle relaxants. Two WWTPs (NY2 and NY3) receive substantial flows (>20% of plant flow) from pharmaceutical formulation facilities (PFF) and one (NY1) receives no PFF flow. Samples of effluents from 23 WWTPs across the United States were analyzed once for these pharmaceuticals as part of a national survey. Maximum pharmaceutical effluent concentrations for the national survey and NY1 effluent samples were generally effluent had median concentrations ranging from 3.4 to >400 μg/L. Maximum concentrations of oxycodone (1700 μg/L) and metaxalone (3800 μg/L) in samples from NY3 effluent exceeded 1000 μg/L. Three pharmaceuticals (butalbital, carisoprodol, and oxycodone) in samples of NY2 effluent had median concentrations ranging from 2 to 11 μg/L. These findings suggest that current manufacturing practices at these PFFs can result in pharmaceuticals concentrations from 10 to 1000 times higher than those typically found in WWTP effluents. PMID:20521847

  6. Concept of the Ural pharmaceutical cluster formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Petrovich Petrov

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper substantiates the necessity of cluster organization of the pharmaceutical industry in the region. The estimation of the state and prospects of development of such structures in the domestic economy is given. Sverdlovsk region was chosen as the object of study on the possibility of forming a pharmaceutical cluster. Objective prerequisites for the organization of a cluster of pharmaceutical production in Sverdlovsk region are considered, among these were distinguished: capacious and fast-growing market for pharmaceutical products, availability of potential development of the pharmaceutical industry in the territory and the key success factors for enterprises - potential participants of the cluster. Indicated key success factors are: presence of a creative team and close interaction between business and government, high level of cooperation among the enterprises of the cluster and commercialization of products, implementation of research and development expenditures etc. Thus, it was substantiated that in there all references and resources for the formation of a pharmaceutical cluster. The concept of formation and development of the Ural pharmaceutical cluster was elaborated. Inside the concept, the goals, objectives, processing, product and organizational priorities for cluster formation are identified. Architecture of this structure with a justification of its members and certain forms of interaction between them is proposed. The stages of formation and development of the Ural pharmaceutical cluster on the basis of a ten-year settlement period for the full range of activities for this project are substantiated. At each stage, a set of key objectives and results of the cluster was defined. The choice of phases was carried out on the basis of investment programs of cluster's enterprises strategic position on the mastering of markets and infrastructure development. An assessment of socio-economic efficiency of the Ural pharmaceutical

  7. Case histories in pharmaceutical risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Cynthia G; Henningfield, Jack E; Haddox, J David; Varughese, Sajan; Lindholm, Anders; Rosen, Susan; Wissel, Janne; Waxman, Deborah; Carter, Lawrence P; Seeger, Vickie; Johnson, Rolley E

    2009-12-01

    The development and implementation of programs in the U.S. to minimize risks and assess unintended consequences of new medications has been increasingly required by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) since the mid 1990s. This paper provides four case histories of risk management and post-marketing surveillance programs utilized recently to address problems associated with possible abuse, dependence and diversion. The pharmaceutical sponsors of each of these drugs were invited to present their programs and followed a similar template for their summaries that are included in this article. The drugs and presenting companies were OxyContin, an analgesic marketed by Purdue Pharma L.P., Daytrana and Vyvanse, ADHD medications marketed by Shire Pharmaceuticals, Xyrem for narcolepsy marketed by Jazz Pharmaceuticals, and Subutex and Suboxone for opioid dependence marketed by Reckitt Benckiser Pharmaceuticals Inc. These case histories and subsequent discussions provide invaluable real-world examples and illustrate both the promise of risk management programs in providing a path to market and/or for keeping on the market drugs with serious potential risks. They also illustrate the limitations of such programs in actually controlling unintended consequences, as well as the challenge of finding the right balance of reducing risks without posing undue barriers to patient access. These experiences are highly relevant as the FDA increasingly requires pharmaceutical sponsors to develop and implement the more formalized and enforceable versions of the risk management term Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS).

  8. Pharmaceutical supply chain risks: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Supply of medicine as a strategic product in any health system is a top priority. Pharmaceutical companies, a major player of the drug supply chain, are subject to many risks. These risks disrupt the supply of medicine in many ways such as their quantity and quality and their delivery to the right place and customers and at the right time. Therefore risk identification in the supply process of pharmaceutical companies and mitigate them is highly recommended. Objective In this study it is attempted to investigate pharmaceutical supply chain risks with perspective of manufacturing companies. Methods Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science bibliographic databases and Google scholar scientific search engines were searched for pharmaceutical supply chain risk management studies with 6 different groups of keywords. All results found by keywords were reviewed and none-relevant articles were excluded by outcome of interests and researcher boundaries of study within 4 steps and through a systematic method. Results Nine articles were included in the systematic review and totally 50 main risks based on study outcome of interest extracted which classified in 7 categories. Most of reported risks were related to supply and supplier issues. Organization and strategy issues, financial, logistic, political, market and regulatory issues were in next level of importance. Conclusion It was shown that the majority of risks in pharmaceutical supply chain were internal risks due to processes, people and functions mismanagement which could be managed by suitable mitigation strategies. PMID:24355166

  9. Pharmaceutical policy and the pharmacy profession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traulsen, Janine Marie; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors look at the relationship between pharmaceutical policy and the pharmacy profession with focus on pharmacy practice and pharmacists in the health care sector. Pharmaceutical policy encompasses three major policy inputs: public health policy, health care policy and indu......In this article, the authors look at the relationship between pharmaceutical policy and the pharmacy profession with focus on pharmacy practice and pharmacists in the health care sector. Pharmaceutical policy encompasses three major policy inputs: public health policy, health care policy...... and industrial policy. In order to analyse and understand pharmaceutical policy, it is important to know how policymakers view pharmacy and pharmacists. The authors look at the issues that arise when policy regulates pharmacy as a business, and what this means for the profession. The perspective of pharmacy...... in managerialism, and how the division of labour with other health professionals such as physicians and pharmacy assistants is affecting the pharmacy profession's position in the labour market. Next the authors look at ways in which the pharmacy profession has affected policy. Pharmacists have been instrumental...

  10. Pharmaceutical supply chain risks: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaberidoost, Mona; Nikfar, Shekoufeh; Abdollahiasl, Akbar; Dinarvand, Rassoul

    2013-12-19

    Supply of medicine as a strategic product in any health system is a top priority. Pharmaceutical companies, a major player of the drug supply chain, are subject to many risks. These risks disrupt the supply of medicine in many ways such as their quantity and quality and their delivery to the right place and customers and at the right time. Therefore risk identification in the supply process of pharmaceutical companies and mitigate them is highly recommended. In this study it is attempted to investigate pharmaceutical supply chain risks with perspective of manufacturing companies. Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science bibliographic databases and Google scholar scientific search engines were searched for pharmaceutical supply chain risk management studies with 6 different groups of keywords. All results found by keywords were reviewed and none-relevant articles were excluded by outcome of interests and researcher boundaries of study within 4 steps and through a systematic method. Nine articles were included in the systematic review and totally 50 main risks based on study outcome of interest extracted which classified in 7 categories. Most of reported risks were related to supply and supplier issues. Organization and strategy issues, financial, logistic, political, market and regulatory issues were in next level of importance. It was shown that the majority of risks in pharmaceutical supply chain were internal risks due to processes, people and functions mismanagement which could be managed by suitable mitigation strategies.

  11. St. Louis FUSRAP Lessons Learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberlin, J.; Williams, D.; Mueller, D.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present lessons learned from fours years' experience conducting Remedial Investigation and Remedial Action activities at the St. Louis Downtown Site (SLDS) under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Many FUSRAP sites are experiencing challenges conducting Remedial Actions within forecasted volume and budget estimates. The St. Louis FUSRAP lessons learned provide insight to options for cost effective remediation at FUSRAP sites. The lessons learned are focused on project planning (budget and schedule), investigation, design, and construction

  12. Free Trade Agreements With The United States: 8 Lessons For Prospective Parties From Australia’s Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Tully Stephen R.

    2016-01-01

    This article identifies 8 key lessons for those States contemplating a free trade agreement with the United States (U.S.) arising from Australia’s experience. The standards of intellectual property protection under the Australia-U.S. Free Trade Agreement and their impact on pharmaceutical prices in Australia are a particular focus. Prospective parties must first conduct a national interest self-assessment which reviews the desired strength of intellectual property protection under national la...

  13. Thermodynamic Calculations for Systems Biocatalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abu, Rohana; Gundersen, Maria T.; Woodley, John M.

    2015-01-01

    the transamination of a pro-chiral ketone into a chiral amine (interesting in many pharmaceutical applications). Here, the products are often less energetically stable than the reactants, meaning that the reaction may be thermodynamically unfavourable. As in nature, such thermodynamically-challenged reactions can...... on the basis of kinetics. However, many of the most interesting non-natural chemical reactions which could potentially be catalysed by enzymes, are thermodynamically unfavourable and are thus limited by the equilibrium position of the reaction. A good example is the enzyme ω-transaminase, which catalyses...... be altered by coupling with other reactions. For instance, in the case of ω-transaminase, such a coupling could be with alanine dehydrogenase. Herein, the aim of this work is to identify thermodynamic bottlenecks within a multi-enzyme process, using group contribution method to calculate the Gibbs free...

  14. Calculating zeros: Non-equilibrium free energy calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oostenbrink, Chris; Gunsteren, Wilfred F. van

    2006-01-01

    Free energy calculations on three model processes with theoretically known free energy changes have been performed using short simulation times. A comparison between equilibrium (thermodynamic integration) and non-equilibrium (fast growth) methods has been made in order to assess the accuracy and precision of these methods. The three processes have been chosen to represent processes often observed in biomolecular free energy calculations. They involve a redistribution of charges, the creation and annihilation of neutral particles and conformational changes. At very short overall simulation times, the thermodynamic integration approach using discrete steps is most accurate. More importantly, reasonable accuracy can be obtained using this method which seems independent of the overall simulation time. In cases where slow conformational changes play a role, fast growth simulations might have an advantage over discrete thermodynamic integration where sufficient sampling needs to be obtained at every λ-point, but only if the initial conformations do properly represent an equilibrium ensemble. From these three test cases practical lessons can be learned that will be applicable to biomolecular free energy calculations

  15. Pharmaceutical strategy and innovation: an academics perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxendale, Ian R; Hayward, John J; Ley, Steven V; Tranmer, Geoffrey K

    2007-06-01

    The pharmaceutical industry is under increasing pressure on many fronts, from investors requiring larger returns to consumer groups and health authorities demanding cheaper and safer drugs. It is also feeling additional pressure from the infringement upon its profit margins by generic drug producers. Many companies are aggressively pursuing outsourcing contracts in an attempt to counter many of the financial pressures and streamline their operations. At the same time, the productivity of the pharmaceutical industry at its science base is being questioned in terms of the number of products and the timeframes required for each company to deliver them to market. This has generated uncertainties regarding the current corporate strategies that have been adopted and the levels of innovation being demonstrated. In this essay we discuss these topics in the context of the global pharmaceutical market, investigating the basis for many of these issues and highlighting the hurdles the industry needs to overcome, especially as they relate to the chemical sciences.

  16. PRINTING TECHNIQUES: RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamroz, Witold; Kurek, Mateusz; Lyszczarz, Ewelina; Brniak, Witold; Jachowicz, Renata

    2017-05-01

    In the last few years there has been a huge progress in a development of printing techniques and their application in pharmaceutical sciences and particularly in the pharmaceutical technology. The variety of printing methods makes it necessary to systemize them, explain the principles of operation, and specify the possibilities of their use in pharmaceutical technology. This paper aims to review the printing techniques used in a drug development process. The growing interest in 2D and 3D printing methods results in continuously increasing number of scientific papers. Introduction of the first printed drug Spritam@ to the market seems to be a milestone of the 3D printing development. Thus, a particular aim of this review is to show the latest achievements of the researchers in the field of the printing medicines.

  17. New Product Introduction in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Reinholdt Nyhuus

    Due to the limited time of the monopoly provided by patent protection that is used for recouping the R&D investment, pharmaceutical companies focus on keeping time-to-market for new products as short as possible. This process is however getting more uncertain, as the outcome of clinical trials...... is unknown and negotiations with authorities have become harder, making market introduction more difficult. This dissertation treats the new product introduction process in the pharmaceutical industry from an operations perspective. The overarching aim of this dissertation is to improve the planning...... uncertainty and several important industry characteristics. The model is used to gain several insights on the use of risk packaging and on keeping time-to-market short. As capacity in secondary pharmaceutical production is critical for product availability, a capacity planning model for a new drug delivery...

  18. In Defense of Pharmaceutically Enhancing Human Morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protopapadakis, Evangelos D

    2017-01-01

    I will discuss the prospect of pharmaceutically enhancing human morality and decision making in such a way as to eliminate morally unjustifiable choices and promote desirable ones. Our species in the relatively short period since it has emerged has enormously advanced in knowledge, science, and technical progress. When it comes to moral development, the distance it has covered is almost negligible. What if we could medically accelerate our moral development? What if we could once and for all render our species totally immune to certain vices? I will examine whether pharmaceutically intervening in human morality would compromise the autonomy of moral agents. I will argue that the argument from the autonomy of the moral agent is neither stable nor convincing. In the light of Kantian ethics we might consider moral enhancement by pharmaceutical means to be a perfect duty for moral agents.

  19. Marketing concepts for pharmaceutical service development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauer, D W

    1981-02-01

    Marketing concepts as a mechanism to help pharmacy develop, communicate, and sell future pharmaceutical services to consumers are discussed. Pharmacy as a profession must define itself broadly to take advantage of future growth opportunities. These growth opportunities will be realized from unmet health-care needs and changing consumer life style trends and values. New services must therefore be oriented toward consumers (i.e., patients, health professionals, and third-party agencies) to gain acceptance. Dispensing and drug-knowledge-distribution pharmaceutical services are reviewed by a product life cycle analysis of sales profits versus time. A marketing mix for new pharmaceutical services is developed consisting of service, price, distribution, and promotion strategies. Marketing can encompass those key elements necessary to meet the organizational goals of pharmacy and provide a systematic, disciplined approach for presenting a new service to consumers.

  20. On radiation treatment of pharmaceutical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zukov, V.; Mende, V.

    1976-01-01

    The progress made in the GDR over the past decade in the field of radiosterilization of products of the medical industry, has naturally raised the question of radiosterilization in pharmaceutics. However, because of the diversity and complicated nature of pharmaceutical products and, consequently, longer periods of time required for preliminary studies, their radiosterilization has not yet been applied on an industrial scale, in contrast to the situation in the medical industry. The studies carried out so far have been mainly concerned with ascertaining the permissibility and effectiveness of radiosterilization of individual products under particular conditions rather than with laying down a broad theoretical basis. Accordingly, the present paper does not describe results of special studies but presents a brief rewiev of some studies on radiation treatment of pharmaceutical products undertaken in the GDR. (author)

  1. Suspended solids moderate the degradation and sorption of waste water-derived pharmaceuticals in estuarine waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminot, Yann; Fuster, Laura; Pardon, Patrick; Le Menach, Karyn; Budzinski, Hélène

    2018-01-15

    This study focuses on the fate of pharmaceuticals discharged into an estuarine environment, particularly into the Turbidity Maximum Zone (TMZ). Batch experiments were set up to investigate the factors regulating the degradation of 53 selected pharmaceuticals. Treated effluents from Bordeaux city (France) were mixed with water from the estuarine Garonne River during 4weeks under 6 characterized conditions in order to assess the influence of suspended particulates, sterilization, untreated wastewater input and dilution on the degradation kinetics. Of the 53 pharmaceuticals monitored, 43 were quantified at the initial time. Only 7 exhibited a persistent behavior (e.g. carbamazepine, meprobamate) while biotic degradation was shown to be the main attenuation process for 38 molecules (e.g. abacavir, ibuprofen highly degradable). Degradation was significantly enhanced by increasing concentrations of suspended solids. A persistence index based on the half-lives of the compounds has been calculated for each of the 43 pharmaceuticals to provide a practical estimate of their relative stability. The stability of pharmaceuticals in estuarine environments is likely to be highly variable and attenuated primarily by changes in suspended solid concentration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. HYPNOTEACHING IN HISTORY LESSON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Budianto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Hypnoteaching in History Lesson. Historical learning is a science that can’t be separated in educating the younger generation. Through this lesson, teachers in secondary schools can provide the foundation of nationality through important events in the study of the social sciences. Many of the problems that occur in learning history, such as the boring and make sleepy. Everyone must have heard the term hypnosis, hypnotism, or hypnotherapy. Each person must also have a different view or understanding when hearing these terms. Hypnoteaching is one of the learning methods by using the art of communicating to influence learners. Hypnoteaching is a combination of five teaching-learning methods such as quantum learning, accelerate learning, power teaching, neuro-linguistic programming (NLP and hypnosis. Hypnoteaching can be done using informal hypnosis as well as formal hypnosis. Informal hypnosis is also called indirect hypnosis ie teachers can naturally make the Critical Area learners become no longer critical, through a very persuasive communication pattern. Here's what the teacher can do in Informal hypnosis: (1 get attention; (2 establishing Themes; (3 presenting the structure and regulations; (4 building relationships. If the learners are already comfortable and interested, the next step is to do a formal hypnosis before the lesson begins. Here are the steps that must be done: (1 Induction; (2 Deepening; (3 Deep level test; (4 Suggestion, and; (5 Termination.   Keywords: Historical learning, hypnoteaching, hypnosis, hypnotism, hypnotherapy, history Abstrak: Hipnoteaching dalam Pembelajaran Sejarah. Pelajaran sejarah tidak bisa dihilangkan dalam mendidik para generasi muda. Melalui pembelajaran ini, guru pada sekolah menengah pertama dapat memberikan pondasi rasa nasionalisme melalui peristiwa peristiwa penting dalam pelajaran ilmu pengetahuan social. Masalah yang sering muncul pada pembelajaran ini adalah kebosanan siswa dan

  3. Pharmaceutical care: the PCNE definition 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allemann, Samuel S; van Mil, J W Foppe; Botermann, Lea; Berger, Karin; Griese, Nina; Hersberger, Kurt E

    2014-06-01

    Twenty-three years after Hepler and Strand published their well-known definition of Pharmaceutical Care (PhC), confusion remains about what the term includes and how to differentiate it from other terms. The board of the Pharmaceutical Care Network Europe (PCNE) felt the need to redefine PhC and to answer the question: "What is Pharmaceutical Care in 2013". The aims of this paper were to review existing definitions of PhC and to describe the process of developing a redefined definition. A literature search was conducted in the MEDLINE database (1964-January 2013). Keywords included "Pharmaceutical Care", "Medication (Therapy) Management", "Medicine Management", and "Pharmacist Care" in the title or abstract together with the term "defin*". To ease comparison between definitions, we developed a standardised syntax to paraphrase the definitions. During a dedicated meeting, a moderated discussion about the definition of PhC was organised. The initial literature search produced 186 hits, with eight unique PhC definitions. Hand searching identified a further 11 unique definitions. These 19 definitions were paraphrased using the standardised syntax (provider, recipient, subject, outcome, activities). Fourteen members of PCNE and 10 additional experts attended the moderated discussion. Working groups of increasing size developed intermediate definitions, which had similarities and differences to those retrieved in the literature search. At the end of the session, participants reached a consensus on a "PCNE definition of Pharmaceutical Care" reading: "Pharmaceutical Care is the pharmacist's contribution to the care of individuals in order to optimize medicines use and improve health outcomes". It was possible to paraphrase definitions of PhC using a standardised syntax focusing on the provider, recipient, subject, outcomes, and activities included in PhC practice. During a one-day workshop, experts in PhC research agreed on a definition, intended to be applicable for the

  4. Pharmaceutical services cost analysis using time-driven activity-based costing: A contribution to improve community pharmacies' management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregório, João; Russo, Giuliano; Lapão, Luís Velez

    2016-01-01

    The current financial crisis is pressing health systems to reduce costs while looking to improve service standards. In this context, the necessity to optimize health care systems management has become an imperative. However, little research has been conducted on health care and pharmaceutical services cost management. Pharmaceutical services optimization requires a comprehensive understanding of resources usage and its costs. This study explores the development of a time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) model, with the objective of calculating the cost of pharmaceutical services to help inform policy-making. Pharmaceutical services supply patterns were studied in three pharmacies during a weekday through an observational study. Details of each activity's execution were recorded, including time spent per activity performed by pharmacists. Data on pharmacy costs was obtained through pharmacies' accounting records. The calculated cost of a dispensing service in these pharmacies ranged from €3.16 to €4.29. The cost of a counseling service when no medicine was supplied ranged from €1.24 to €1.46. The cost of health screening services ranged from €2.86 to €4.55. The presented TDABC model gives us new insights on management and costs of community pharmacies. This study shows the importance of cost analysis for health care services, specifically on pharmaceutical services, in order to better inform pharmacies' management and the elaboration of pharmaceutical policies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Diagnostic and therapeutic radio pharmaceutical capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haney, T.A.; Wedeking, P.W.; Morcos, N.A.

    1981-01-01

    An improved pharmaceutical radioactive capsule consisting of a non-toxic, water soluble material adapted to being ingested and rapidly disintegrating on contact with fluids of the gastro-intestinal tract is described. Each capsule is provided with filler material supporting a pharmaceutically useful radioactive compound absorbable from the gastro-intestinal tract. The capsule is preferably of gelatin, methyl cellulose or polyvinyl alcohol and the filler is a polyethylene glycol. The radioactive compound may be iodine e.g. sodium radioiodide I-131 or 123. The capsule may also contain a reducing agent e.g. sodium thiosulphate, sulphite, or bisulphite. (author)

  6. Higher Education ERP: Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Dave; Orgill, Ken

    2001-01-01

    Shares experiences and lessons learned by chief information officers of large universities about enterprise resource planning (ERP). Specifically, provides a framework for approaching an ERP that could save universities millions of dollars. (EV)

  7. lessons from tuberous sclerosis complex

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    intellectual disability, autism, specific learning disorders) and mental health disorders (e.g. depression, psychosis and anxiety disorders). The first lesson, therefore, is ... of an adolescent with TSC, facial angiofibromas and a presumed fat-poor ...

  8. Lessons of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collingridge, D.

    1984-01-01

    In an earlier article the author has argued that the turbulent history of nuclear power in Britain and the USA stems from the technology itself, and has little to do with the very different institutional arrangements made for the new technology in the two countries. Nuclear plant has various features which make its planning extraordinarily difficult. Its long lead time, large unit size, capital intensity and dependence on complex infrastructure combine to ensure that mistakes are likely to be made in planning the technology and that what mistakes do occur are expensive. This article aims to expand on the earlier one in two ways; by looking at the apparent success of the French nuclear programme which seems to run counter to the thesis of the earlier article, and by trying to draw lessons from the earlier analysis for the breeder reactor. (author)

  9. Lesson "Balance in Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapanova, V.

    2012-04-01

    Lesson "Balance in Nature" This simulation game-lesson (Balance in Nature) gives an opportunity for the students to show creativity, work independently, and to create models and ideas. It creates future-oriented thought connected to their experience, allowing them to propose solutions for global problems and personal responsibility for their activities. The class is divided in two teams. Each team chooses questions. 1. Question: Pollution in the environment. 2. Question: Care for nature and climate. The teams work on the chosen tasks. They make drafts, notes and formulate their solutions on small pieces of paper, explaining the impact on nature and society. They express their points of view using many different opinions. This generates alternative thoughts and results in creative solutions. With the new knowledge and positive behaviour defined, everybody realizes that they can do something positive towards nature and climate problems and the importance of individuals for solving global problems is evident. Our main goal is to recover the ecological balance, and everybody explains his or her own well-grounded opinions. In this work process the students obtain knowledge, skills and more responsible behaviour. This process, based on his or her own experience, dialogue and teamwork, helps the participant's self-development. Making the model "human↔ nature" expresses how human activities impact the natural Earth and how these impacts in turn affect society. Taking personal responsibility, we can reduce global warming and help the Earth. By helping nature we help ourselves. Teacher: Veselina Boycheva-Chapanova " Saint Patriarch Evtimii" Scholl Str. "Ivan Vazov"-19 Plovdiv Bulgaria

  10. Lessons learned in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodenough, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    The paper reviews aspects of the history of radiology with the goal of identifying lessons learned, particularly in the area of radiological protection of the patient in diagnostic and interventional radiology, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. It is pointed out that since the days of Roentgen there has been a need not only to control and quantify the amount of radiation reaching the patient but also to optimize the imaging process to offer the greatest diagnostic benefit within allowable levels of patient dose. To this end, in diagnostic radiology, one finds the development of better films, X rays tubes, grids, screens and processing techniques, while in fluoroscopy, one sees the increased luminance of calcium tungstate. In interventional radiology, one finds an improvement in catheterization techniques and contrast agents. In nuclear medicine, the development of tracer techniques into modern cameras and isotopes such as technetium can be followed. In radiotherapy, one sees the early superficial X rays and radium sources gradually replaced with radon seeds, supervoltage, 60 Co and today's linear accelerators. Along with the incredible advances in imaging and therapeutic technologies comes the growing realization of the potential danger of radiation and the need to protect the patient (as well as physicians, ancillary personnel and the general population) from unnecessary radiation. The important lesson learned is that we must walk a tightrope, balancing the benefits and risks of any technology utilizing radiation to produce the greatest benefits at the lowest acceptable risk. The alternative techniques using non-ionizing radiation will have to be considered as part of the general armamentarium for medical imaging whenever radiation consequences are unacceptable. (author)

  11. Lessons Learned from FUSRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Darina [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management; Carpenter, Cliff [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management; Miller, Michele [Navarro Research and Engineering

    2016-03-06

    The US DOE Office of Legacy Management (LM) is the long-term steward for 90 sites remediated under numerous regulatory regimes including the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) sites. In addition, LM holds considerable historical information, gathered in the 1970s, to determine site eligibility for remediation under FUSRAP. To date, 29 FUSRAP sites are in LM’s inventory of sites for long-term surveillance and maintenance (LTS&M), and 25 are with the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) for remediation or in the process of being transitioned to LM. It is forecasted that 13 FUSRAP sites will transfer from the USACE to LM over the next 10 years; however, the timing of the transfers is strongly dependent upon federal funding of the ongoing remedial actions. Historically, FUSRAP sites were generally cleaned up for “unrestricted” industrial use or remediated to the “cleanup standards” at that time, and their use remained unchanged. Today, these sites as well as the adjacent properties are now changing or envisioned to have changes in land use, typically from industrial to commercial or residential uses. The implication of land-use change affects DOE’s LTS&M responsibility for the sites under LM stewardship as well as the planning for the additional sites scheduled to transition in time. Coinciding with land-use changes at or near FUSRAP sites is an increased community awareness of these sites. As property development increases near FUSRAP sites, the general public and interested stakeholders regularly inquire about the sufficiency of cleanups that impact their neighborhoods and communities. LM has used this experience to address a series of lessons learned to improve our program management in light of the changing conditions of our sites. We describe these lessons learned as (1) improved stakeholder relations, (2) enhanced LTS&M requirements for the sites, and (3) greater involvement in the transition process.

  12. Lessons learned from accidents investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuniga-Bello, P. [Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT), Mexico City (Mexico); Croft, J. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Glenn, J

    1997-12-31

    Accidents from three main practices: medical applications, industrial radiography and industrial irradiators are used to illustrate some common causes of accidents and the main lessons to be learned. A brief description of some of these accidents is given. Lessons learned from the described accidents are approached by subjects covering: safety culture, quality assurance, human factors, good engineering practice, defence in depth, security of sources, safety assessment and monitoring and verification compliance. (author)

  13. Lessons learned from accident investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuniga-Bello, P.; Croft, J.R.; Glenn, J.

    1998-01-01

    Accidents in three main practices - medical applications, industrial radiography and industrial irradiators - are used to illustrate some common causes of accidents and the main lessons to be learned from them. A brief description of some of these accidents is given. Lessons learned from the accidents described are approached bearing in mind: safety culture, quality assurance, human factors, good engineering practice, defence in depth, security of sources, safety assessment and monitoring and verification compliance. (author)

  14. Analysis of pharmaceutical pellets: An approach using near-infrared chemical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabin, Guilherme P.; Breitkreitz, Marcia C.; Souza, Andre M. de; Fonseca, Patricia da; Calefe, Lupercio; Moffa, Mario; Poppi, Ronei J.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Near-Infrared Chemical Imaging was used for pellets analysis. → Distribution of the components throughout the coatings layers and core of the pellets was estimated. → Classical Least Squares (CLS) was used for calculation of the concentration maps. - Abstract: Pharmaceutical pellets are spherical or nearly spherical multi-unit dosage forms designed to optimize pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics features of drug release. The distribution of the pharmaceutical ingredients in the layers and core is a very important parameter for appropriate drug release, especially for pellets manufactured by the process of layer gain. Physical aspects of the sample are normally evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), but it is in many cases unsuitable to provide conclusive chemical information about the distribution of the pharmaceutical ingredients in both layers and core. On the other hand, methods based on spectroscopic imaging can be very promising for this purpose. In this work, a Near-Infrared Chemical Imaging (NIR-CI) method was developed and applied to the analysis of diclophenac sodium pellets. Since all the compounds present in the sample were known in advance, Classical Least Squares (CLS) was used for calculations. The results have shown that the method was capable of providing chemical information about the distribution of the active ingredient and excipients in the core and coating layers and therefore can be complementary to SEM for the pharmaceutical development of pellets.

  15. Analysis of pharmaceutical pellets: An approach using near-infrared chemical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabin, Guilherme P.; Breitkreitz, Marcia C.; Souza, Andre M. de [Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, P.O. Box 6154, 13084-971 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Fonseca, Patricia da; Calefe, Lupercio; Moffa, Mario [Zelus Servicos para Industria Farmaceutica Ltda., Av. Professor Lineu Prestes n. 2242, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Poppi, Ronei J., E-mail: ronei@iqm.unicamp.br [Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, P.O. Box 6154, 13084-971 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2011-11-07

    Highlights: {yields} Near-Infrared Chemical Imaging was used for pellets analysis. {yields} Distribution of the components throughout the coatings layers and core of the pellets was estimated. {yields} Classical Least Squares (CLS) was used for calculation of the concentration maps. - Abstract: Pharmaceutical pellets are spherical or nearly spherical multi-unit dosage forms designed to optimize pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics features of drug release. The distribution of the pharmaceutical ingredients in the layers and core is a very important parameter for appropriate drug release, especially for pellets manufactured by the process of layer gain. Physical aspects of the sample are normally evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), but it is in many cases unsuitable to provide conclusive chemical information about the distribution of the pharmaceutical ingredients in both layers and core. On the other hand, methods based on spectroscopic imaging can be very promising for this purpose. In this work, a Near-Infrared Chemical Imaging (NIR-CI) method was developed and applied to the analysis of diclophenac sodium pellets. Since all the compounds present in the sample were known in advance, Classical Least Squares (CLS) was used for calculations. The results have shown that the method was capable of providing chemical information about the distribution of the active ingredient and excipients in the core and coating layers and therefore can be complementary to SEM for the pharmaceutical development of pellets.

  16. Resumed Publication of Pharmaceuticals in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Kun Lin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available After a five year hiatus, we are pleased to announce the resumption of publication of the MDPI journal Pharmaceuticals (ISSN 1424-8247. First launched in 2004, few suitable papers were submitted and only one was published [1], before our limited editorial resources at the time led us to temporarily discontinue publication. Several things have changed since then. First, there has been an explosive growth in the number of manuscripts submitted and published in MDPI’s various current journals [2], whose topics clearly fall within the intended scope of Pharmaceuticals and we feel that these manuscripts merit a dedicated forum. Second, the expansion of MDPI, now with Editorial Offices and staff in Basel (Switzerland and Beijing (China, allows us to provide Pharmaceuticals’ authors with all the services they could desire and deserve: a simple manuscript submission process, rigorous peer review, quick revision turnaround, Open Access publication on a new and attractive platform and coverage by all the major abstracting services. In addition, a new Editorial Board comprised of noted academic and industry scientists has been set up for Pharmaceuticals. Finally, to better focus the subject matter published in Pharmaceuticals on molecular medicines, we have also set up a special section in International Journal of Molecular Sciences (IJMS, ISSN 1422-0067 for papers on nutraceuticals or chemopreventives. We look forward to receiving and publishing your papers and as always, we welcome your comments and suggestions.

  17. 1 Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology: Strategies and Techniques of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    toxic, new modes of drug delivery systems are necessary to transport them to the ... art of characterizing, manipulating and organizing matter systemically, at the ... diseases. There is another aspect for using pharmaceutical nanotechnology. ... fluids), and microarrays (different kind of biological assay e.g. DNA, protein,.

  18. Toward a Regional Research Agenda on Pharmaceutical ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Toward a Regional Research Agenda on Pharmaceutical Manufacturing and Access to Medicines in Sub-Saharan Africa. Africa continues to deal with an increasing disease burden, neglect of African disease problems (such as Ebola), and continued over-reliance on imported essential medicines. Policymakers are looking ...

  19. Assessment of pharmaceutical care practices of community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We undertook to assess the pharmaceutical care practices of community pharmacists in patients with co-morbidity of hypertension and diabetes in Delta State. A seventeen item questionnaire consisting of 5 points response scale was developed and administered to pharmacists in the community setting. The questionnaire ...

  20. Mergers and innovation in the pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comanor, William S; Scherer, F M

    2013-01-01

    Conflicting trends confound the pharmaceutical industry. The productivity of pharmaceutical innovation has declined in recent years. At the same time, the cohort of large companies who are the leading engines of pharmaceutical R&D has become increasingly concentrated. The concurrent presence of these trends is not sufficient to determine causation. In response to lagging innovation prospects, some companies have sought refuge in mergers and acquisitions to disguise their dwindling prospects or gain R&D synergies. On the other hand, the increased concentration brought on by recent mergers may have contributed to the declining rate of innovation. In this paper, we consider the second of these causal relationships: the likely impact of the recent merger wave among the largest pharmaceutical companies on the rate of innovation. In other words, have recent mergers, which may have been taken in response to lagging innovation, represented a self-defeating strategy that only made industry outcomes worse? Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Separation of Chiral Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaaban, Joussef Hussein

    is regarded as a first step towards a fully continuous PC process. The current knowledge of the importance of crystallization processes in the pharmaceutical industry and the complex thermodynamic and kinetic phenomena accompanied with the separation of chiral compounds are addressed. The experimental work...

  2. Deep pharma: psychiatry, anthropology, and pharmaceutical detox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldani, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Psychiatric medication, or psychotropics, are increasingly prescribed for people of all ages by both psychiatry and primary care doctors for a multitude of mental health and/or behavioral disorders, creating a sharp rise in polypharmacy (i.e., multiple medications). This paper explores the clinical reality of modern psychotropy at the level of the prescribing doctor and clinical exchanges with patients. Part I, Geographies of High Prescribing, documents the types of factors (pharmaceutical-promotional, historical, cultural, etc.) that can shape specific psychotropic landscapes. Ethnographic attention is focused on high prescribing in Japan in the 1990s and more recently in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, in the US. These examples help to identify factors that have converged over time to produce specific kinds of branded psychotropic profiles in specific locales. Part II, Pharmaceutical Detox, explores a new kind of clinical work being carried out by pharmaceutically conscious doctors, which reduces the number of medications being prescribed to patients while re-diagnosing their mental illnesses. A high-prescribing psychiatrist in southeast Wisconsin is highlighted to illustrate a kind of med-checking taking place at the level of individual patients. These various examples and cases call for a renewed emphasis by anthropology to critically examine the "total efficacies" of modern pharmaceuticals and to continue to disaggregate mental illness categories in the Boasian tradition. This type of detox will require a holistic approach, incorporating emergent fields such as neuroanthropology and other kinds of creative collaborations.

  3. [Written pharmaceutical advertising--still unreliable?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladsø, Kristin Haugen; Garberg, Hedda Rosland; Spigset, Olav; Slørdal, Lars

    2014-09-02

    Marketing by the pharmaceutical industry affects doctors' prescribing habits. All pharmaceutical advertising received by nine doctors in two GP offices over a period of three months was collected. The advertising material was sorted by compound. For each compound, the advert with the highest number of references was selected. The cited references were obtained, and the claims in the adverts were assessed in terms of their consistency with the source data based on the provisions in the Norwegian regulations on pharmaceuticals. The references were also assessed with regard to the incidence of conflicts of interest among authors. The doctors received a total of 270 shipments of advertising for 46 different compounds. Altogether 95% of the 173 references cited in the 46 selected adverts could be obtained. The adverts contained a total of 156 claims. Of these, 56% were assessed as correct when compared to the source data and as having clinical relevance. Altogether 75% of the journal articles reported relevant conflicts of interest for the authors. About half the claims in the adverts were found to be correct and clinically relevant. These results concur with those from a methodologically identical study based on advertising material collected in 2004. The cited literature was of varying quality and often funded by the pharmaceutical companies. The findings indicate that the target group should be sceptical of this type of marketing.

  4. Electrostatics of Pharmaceutical Aerosols for Pulmonary Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lip Kwok, Philip Chi

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a review on key research findings in the rapidly developing area of pharmaceutical aerosol electrostatics. Solids and liquids can become charged without electric fields, the former by contact or friction and the latter by flowing or spraying. Therefore, charged particles and droplets carrying net charges are produced from pharmaceutical inhalers (e.g. dry powder inhalers, metered dose inhalers, and nebulisers) due to the mechanical processes involved in aerosolisation. The charging depends on many physicochemical factors, such as formulation composition, solid state properties, inhaler material and design, and relative humidity. In silico, in vitro, and limited in vivo studies have shown that electrostatic charges may potentially influence particle deposition in the airways. However, the evidence is not yet conclusive. Furthermore, there are currently no regulatory requirements on the characterisation and control of the electrostatic properties of inhaled formulations. Besides the need for further investigations on the relationship between physicochemical factors and charging characteristics of the aerosols, controlled and detailed in vivo studies are also required to confirm whether charges can affect particle deposition in the airways. Since pharmaceutical aerosol electrostatics is a relatively new research area, much remains to be explored. Thus there is certainly potential for development. New findings in the future may contribute to the advancement of pharmaceutical aerosol formulations and respiratory drug delivery.

  5. Pharmaceutical and pharmacological approaches for bioavailability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Much research has been done to determine drug–drug and herb–drug interactions for improving the bioavailability of etoposide. The present article gives insight on pharmaceutical and pharmacological attempts made from time to time to overcome the erratic inter- and intra-patient variability for improving the bioavailability ...

  6. Taking Pharmaceutical Innovation to the Masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcham, Philip C

    2017-07-13

    General levels of "pharmaceuticals literacy" are not high in contemporary societies. To address this educational need, in 2012 the University of Western Australia introduced an innovative multidisciplinary course for undergraduates within any degree program entitled PHAR1101: Drugs that Changed the World . Now ranking among the largest courses at the institution, PHAR1101 enrollments will likely approach 1000 students in 2017.

  7. Postgraduate Courses in Pharmaceutical Medicine in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Criscuolo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Italy has a significant tradition of excellence in the area of clinical trials (CTRs: important achievements in the clinical development of rifampicin and adriamycin, the two most famous drugs discovered in the research laboratories of two Italian pharmaceutical companies, paved the way to the establishment of a culture of clinical development, mainly in the areas of antimicrobials and oncology. Despite the fact that now the Italian market of pharmaceuticals is largely dominated by multinational companies with headquarters outside Italy, the contribution of Italian studies to the clinical development of new drugs is still significant. Indeed, it largely exceeds the percentage of Italian inhabitants versus the ones living in the remaining EU countries, as Italy has about 12% of EU population, but has a 17% share of the EU CTRs. Education in Pharmaceutical Medicine is now a must for all professionals interested to work either in pharma companies or in contract research organizations: several Italian universities are offering high quality courses, and in the last 10 years, more than 1,200 professionals received a postgraduate education in pharmaceutical medicine. This result places Italy on top of countries concerned about the professional education of people involved in drug development and will represent an asset for a larger involvement of Italian clinical sites in the global process of clinical research.

  8. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research is an Open Access international ... Although primarily devoted to original research papers, the journal ... know so that we can keep the authors informed and, where necessary, find alternatives. ..... An example of how a search strategy should be presented can be seen in the ...

  9. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Allied Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Pharmaceutical and Allied Sciences (JOPHAS) publishes original scientific and technical research works carried out on drugs and drug-related products, within and outside Nigeria in the fields of pharmacy, microbiology, biochemistry, biotechnology, pharmacology, medical sciences and veterinary medicine.

  10. Bacteriological quality of some pharmaceutical products marketed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacteriological quality of some pharmaceutical products purchased from open markets, buses and drug stores in Uyo metropolis was studied in order to determine the level of contamination of the drugs. The drug samples examined were Tetracycline capsules, Paracetamol tablets, Ampicillin capsules, Chloroquine tablets, ...

  11. Nano spray drying for encapsulation of pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpagaus, Cordin; Collenberg, Andreas; Rütti, David; Assadpour, Elham; Jafari, Seid Mahdi

    2018-05-17

    Many pharmaceuticals such as pills, capsules, or tablets are prepared in a dried and powdered form. In this field, spray drying plays a critical role to convert liquid pharmaceutical formulations into powders. In addition, in many cases it is necessary to encapsulate bioactive drugs into wall materials to protect them against harsh process and environmental conditions, as well as to deliver the drug to the right place and at the correct time within the body. Thus, spray drying is a common process used for encapsulation of pharmaceuticals. In view of the rapid progress of nanoencapsulation techniques in pharmaceutics, nano spray drying is used to improve drug formulation and delivery. The nano spray dryer developed in the recent years provides ultrafine powders at nanoscale and high product yields. In this paper, after explaining the concept of nano spray drying and understanding the key elements of the equipment, the influence of the process parameters on the final powders properties, like particle size, morphology, encapsulation efficiency, drug loading and release, will be discussed. Then, numerous application examples are reviewed for nano spray drying and encapsulation of various drugs in the early stages of product development along with a brief overview of the obtained results and characterization techniques. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Pharmaceutical policy and the lay public

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traulsen, Janine Marie; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna

    2005-01-01

    Almost every national and supranational health policy document accords high importance to the need to listen to and 'empower' patients. The relationship between pharmaceutical policy and the lay public is not direct but mediated by several actors, including health care workers, patient organisati......Almost every national and supranational health policy document accords high importance to the need to listen to and 'empower' patients. The relationship between pharmaceutical policy and the lay public is not direct but mediated by several actors, including health care workers, patient...... organisations, industry and, most recently, the media. Although the overall aim of health and pharmaceutical policy is to address the needs of all citizens, there are only a few, well organised groups who are actually consulted and involved in the policymaking process, often with the support of the industry....... The reasons for this lack of citizen involvement in health and pharmaceutical policymaking are many, for example: there is no consensus about what public involvement means; there is a predominance of special interest groups with narrow, specific agendas; not all decision makers welcome lay participation...

  13. Quantification of the compactibility of pharmaceutical powders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnergaard, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate and to quantify the compactibility of pharmaceutical powders by a simple linear relationship between the diametral compressive strength of tablets and the applied compaction pressure. The mechanical strength of the tablets is characterized as the crushing...

  14. Electromembrane extraction for pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Seip, Knut Fredrik; Gjelstad, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    . The present paper discusses recent development of EME. The paper focuses on the principles of EME, and discusses how to optimize operational parameters. In addition, pharmaceutical and biomedical applications of EME are reviewed, with emphasis on basic drugs, acidic drugs, amino acids, and peptides. Finally...

  15. Application-oriented Crystallization of Pharmaceutical Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun Hansen, Thomas

    The purpose of this PhD thesis is to investigate various options for controlling the crystallization process of pharmaceutical products, both with regards to polymorphic control and crystal morphology. During this process, several model compounds were used, depending on the goal of the studies...

  16. Modeling the effects of pharmaceutical marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeflang, P.S.H.; Wieringa, J.E.

    Successful innovation of prescription drugs requires a substantial amount of marketing support. There is, however, much concern about the effects of marketing expenditures on the demand of pharmaceutical products (Manchanda et al., Market Lett 16(3/4):293-308, 2005). For example, excessive marketing

  17. PHARMACEUTICAL MANAGEMENT AND METHODS OF INNOVATIVE ENTREPRENEURSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Omelchenko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Activities of small business in the field of pharmaceutical sales including spread of drugs through pharmacy sales widely debated in recent professional publications are discussed. The theme is very relevant today for both medical professionals and top managers of entities engaged in the sale.

  18. Assessment of Human Pharmaceutical Products Registered in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in order to determine the most common routes of administration and type of dosage forms that are used. Registered pharmaceutical products were categorized by route of administration and then sub-categorized by the dosage form. Oral dosage forms were the most common accounting for 73% of all registered products.

  19. Patients Comprehension of Pharmaceutical Package Inserts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research December 2015; 14 (12): ... Available online at http://www.tjpr.org ... patients/consumers about PPI. ... the perception of outpatients of Karachi about ... Do you store the medication at the temperature specified in the package insert ... drugs available in local market of Pakistan was.

  20. Pharmaceutical biotechnology: drug discovery and clinical applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kayser, Oliver; Müller, Rainer H

    2004-01-01

    .... The biopharmaceutical industry has changed dramatically since the first recombinant ® protein (Humulin ) was approved for marketing in 1982. The range of resources required for the pharmaceutical industry has expanded from its traditional fields. Advances in the field of recombinant genetics allows scientists to routinely clone genes and create ge...

  1. Integrating systems approaches into pharmaceutical sciences.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhoff, H.V.; Mosekilde, E.; Noe, C.; Clemensen, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    During the first week of December 2007, the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences (EUFEPS) and BioSim, the major European Network of Excellence on Systems Biology, held a challenging conference on the use of mathematical models in the drug development process. More precisely, the purpose

  2. Tracing pharmaceuticals in a municipal plant for integrated wastewater and organic solid waste treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jelic, Aleksandra [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA), Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Fatone, Francesco; Di Fabio, Silvia [Department of Biotechnology, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, I-37134, Verona (Italy); Interuniversity Consortium ' Chemistry for the Environment' (INCA), Via delle Industrie, I-30135, Marghera-Venice (Italy); Petrovic, Mira, E-mail: mpetrovic@icra.cat [Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies (ICREA), Passeig Lluis Companys 23, 80010 Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), H2O Building, Scientific and Technological Park of the University of Girona, 101-E-17003 Girona (Spain); Cecchi, Franco [Department of Biotechnology, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, I-37134, Verona (Italy); Interuniversity Consortium ' Chemistry for the Environment' (INCA), Via delle Industrie, I-30135, Marghera-Venice (Italy); Barcelo, Damia [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA), Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), H2O Building, Scientific and Technological Park of the University of Girona, 101-E-17003 Girona (Spain)

    2012-09-01

    The occurrence and removal of 42 pharmaceuticals, belonging to different therapeutic groups (analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs, anti-ulcer agent, psychiatric drugs, antiepileptic drug, antibiotics, ss-blockers, diuretics, lipid regulator and cholesterol lowering statin drugs and anti-histamines), were studied in the wastewater and sewage sludge trains of a full scale integrated treatment plant. The plant employs a biological nutrient removal (BNR) process for the treatment of municipal wastewater, and a single-stage mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion for the treatment of wasted activated sludge mixed with the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), followed by a short-cut nitrification-denitrification of the anaerobic supernatant in a sequential batch reactor. Influent and effluent wastewater, as well as thickened, digested and treated sludge were sampled and analyzed for the selected pharmaceuticals in order to study their presence and fate during the treatment. Twenty three compounds were detected in influent and effluent wastewater and eleven in sludge. Infiltration of groundwater in the sewer system led to a dilution of raw sewage, resulting in lower concentrations in wastewater (up to 0.7 {mu}g/L in influent) and sludge (70 ng/g d.w.). Due to the dilution, overall risk quotient for the mixture of pharmaceuticals detected in effluent wastewater was less than one, indicating no direct risk for the aquatic environment. A wide range of removal efficiencies during the treatment was observed, i.e. < 20% to 90%. The influent concentrations of the target pharmaceuticals, as polar compounds, were undoubtedly mostly affected by BNR process in the wastewater train, and less by anaerobic-co-digestion. Mass balance calculations showed that less than 2% of the total mass load of the studied pharmaceuticals was removed by sorption. Experimentally estimated distribution coefficients (< 500 L/kg) also indicated that the selected pharmaceuticals preferably remain

  3. Tracing pharmaceuticals in a municipal plant for integrated wastewater and organic solid waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelic, Aleksandra; Fatone, Francesco; Di Fabio, Silvia; Petrovic, Mira; Cecchi, Franco; Barcelo, Damia

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence and removal of 42 pharmaceuticals, belonging to different therapeutic groups (analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs, anti-ulcer agent, psychiatric drugs, antiepileptic drug, antibiotics, ß-blockers, diuretics, lipid regulator and cholesterol lowering statin drugs and anti-histamines), were studied in the wastewater and sewage sludge trains of a full scale integrated treatment plant. The plant employs a biological nutrient removal (BNR) process for the treatment of municipal wastewater, and a single-stage mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion for the treatment of wasted activated sludge mixed with the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), followed by a short-cut nitrification–denitrification of the anaerobic supernatant in a sequential batch reactor. Influent and effluent wastewater, as well as thickened, digested and treated sludge were sampled and analyzed for the selected pharmaceuticals in order to study their presence and fate during the treatment. Twenty three compounds were detected in influent and effluent wastewater and eleven in sludge. Infiltration of groundwater in the sewer system led to a dilution of raw sewage, resulting in lower concentrations in wastewater (up to 0.7 μg/L in influent) and sludge (70 ng/g d.w.). Due to the dilution, overall risk quotient for the mixture of pharmaceuticals detected in effluent wastewater was less than one, indicating no direct risk for the aquatic environment. A wide range of removal efficiencies during the treatment was observed, i.e. < 20% to 90%. The influent concentrations of the target pharmaceuticals, as polar compounds, were undoubtedly mostly affected by BNR process in the wastewater train, and less by anaerobic-co-digestion. Mass balance calculations showed that less than 2% of the total mass load of the studied pharmaceuticals was removed by sorption. Experimentally estimated distribution coefficients (< 500 L/kg) also indicated that the selected pharmaceuticals preferably remain

  4. Pharmaceuticals as Groundwater Tracers - Applications and Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheytt, T. J.; Mersmann, P.; Heberer, T.

    2003-12-01

    Pharmaceutically active substances and metabolites are found at concentrations up to the microgram/L-level in groundwater samples from the Berlin (Germany) area and from several other places world wide. Among the compounds detected in groundwater are clofibric acid, propyphenazone, diclofenac, ibuprofen, and carbamazepine. Clofibric acid, the active metabolite of clofibrate and etofibrate (blood lipid regulators) is detected in groundwater at maximum concentrations of 7300 ng/L. Among the most important input paths of drugs are excretion and disposal into the sewage system. Groundwater contamination is likely to be due to leaky sewage systems, influent streams, bank filtration, and irrigation with effluent water from sewage treatment plants. There are no known natural sources of the above mentioned pharmaceuticals. The use of pharmaceuticals as tracers may include: (a) Quantification of infiltration from underground septic tanks (b) Detection of leaky sewage systems / leaky sewage pipes (c) Estimation of the effectiveness of sewage treatment plants (d) Identification of transport pathways of other organic compounds (e) Quantification of surface water / groundwater interaction (f) Characterization of the biodegradation potential. The use of pharmaceuticals as tracers is limited by variations in input. These variations depend on the amount of drugs prescribed and used in the study area, the social structure of the community, the amount of hospital discharge, and temporal concentration variations. Furthermore, the analysis of trace amounts of pharmaceuticals is sophisticated and expensive and may therefore limit the applicability of pharmaceuticals as tracers. Finally, the transport and degradation behavior of pharmaceuticals is not fully understood. Preliminary experiments in the laboratory were conducted using sediment material and groundwater from the Berlin area to evaluate the transport and sorption behavior of selected drugs. Results of the column experiments

  5. Pharmaceutical Logistics at the 121st General Hospital, Seoul, Korea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Giraud, Roger S

    2004-01-01

    ...). The sample consists of 122 days of pharmaceutical requisitions. Pharmaceutical logistics data are used to estimate a multiple regression model of OST for demand satisfaction and accommodation, requisition cost and volume and source of supply...

  6. influence of manufacturing practices on quality of pharmaceutical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2004-06-01

    Jun 1, 2004 ... PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS MANUFACTURED IN KENYA. J. A. ORWA, L. K. ... Design: Cross-sectional study. ... of good manufacturing practices has been used in the production of each pharmaceutical product by ...

  7. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: About this journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: About this journal. Journal Home > Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: About this journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: About this journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: About this journal. Journal Home > Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: About this journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  9. Pharmaceutical product cross-contamination: industrial and clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    problems. Pharmaceutical product cross-contamination is a serious problem which has been detected as an obstacle ... In the pharmaceutical care of patients in developed countries, cross-contamination ..... neonatal intensive care units.

  10. Cost-containment as part of pharmaceutical policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Traulsen, Janine Marie

    2005-01-01

    and profit controls; 2) reimbursement system charges; 3) other fiscal measures; 4) quality measures. Pharmaceuticals policy has suffered from the pervasive misunderstanding that drugs are like any other commodity; resulting in policy makers viewing pharmaceuticals expenditures without thinking about drugs...

  11. Teaching Pharmaceutical Biotechnology at the University of Illinois at Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Michael J.; Klegerman, Melvin E.

    1988-01-01

    The Department of Pharmaceutics at the University of Illinois at Chicago has been carrying out research in pharmaceutical biotechnology that has allowed unique student involvement and promises further interdisciplinary research and instructional activities. (MSE)

  12. Informed consent: Enforcing pharmaceutical companies' obligations abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stacey B

    2010-06-15

    The past several years have seen an evolution in the obligations of pharmaceutical companies conducting clinical trials abroad. Key players, such as international human rights organizations, multinational pharmaceutical companies, the United States government and courts, and the media, have played a significant role in defining these obligations. This article examines how such obligations have developed through the lens of past, present, and future recommendations for informed consent protections. In doing so, this article suggests that, no matter how robust obligations appear, they will continue to fall short of providing meaningful protection until they are accompanied by a substantive enforcement mechanism that holds multinational pharmaceutical companies accountable for their conduct. Issues of national sovereignty, particularly in the United States, will continue to prevent meaningful enforcement by an international tribunal or through one universally adopted code of ethics. This article argues that, rather than continuing to pursue an untenable international approach, the Alien Torts Statute (ATS) offers a viable enforcement mechanism, at least for US-based pharmaceutical companies. Recent federal appellate court precedent interpreting the ATS provides the mechanism for granting victims redress and enforcing accountability of sponsors (usually pharmaceutical companies and research and academic institutions) for informed consent misconduct. Substantive human rights protections are vital in order to ensure that every person can realize the "right to health." This article concludes that by building on the federal appellate court's ATS analysis, which grants foreign trial participants the right to pursue claims of human rights violations in US courts, a mechanism can be created for enforcing not only substantive informed consent, but also human rights protections.

  13. Effective executive management in the pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hoang; Kleiner, Brian H

    2005-01-01

    Along with the boom in information technology and vast development in genomic and proteomic discoveries, the pharmaceutical and biotech industries have been provided the means and tools to create a new page in medicinal history. They are now able to alter the classic ways to cure complex diseases thanks to the completion of the human genome project. To be able to compete in this industry, pharmaceutical management has to be effective not only internally but also externally in socially acceptable conduct. The first department that requires focus is marketing and sales. As the main driving force to increase revenues and profits, marketing and sales employees should be highly motivated by compensation. Also, customer relationships should be maintained for long-term gain. As important as marketing, research and development requires the financial support as well as the critical decision making to further expand the product pipeline. Similarly, finance and technologies should be adequately monitored and invested to provide support as well as prepare for future expansion. On top of that, manufacturing processes and operations are operated per quality systems and FDA guidelines to ensure high quality. Human Resources, on the other hand, should carry the managing and motivation from upper management through systematic recruitment, adequate training, and fair compensation. Moreover, effective management in a pharmaceutical would also require the social welfare and charity to help patients who cannot afford the treatment as well as improving the organization's image. Last but not least, the management should also prepare for the globalization of the industry. Inevitably, large pharmaceutical companies are merging with each other or acquiring smaller companies to enhance the competitive advantages as well as expand their product mix. For effectiveness in a pharmaceutical industry, management should focus more than just the daily routine tasks and short-term goals. Rather, they

  14. Modelling of drying processes of pharmaceutical granules. Pharmaceutical Sciences for the Future of Medicines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortier, S.T.F.C.; Vedantam, S.; De Beer, T.

    Tablets are conventionally produced via consecutive batch process steps. Recent introduction of continuous process equipment is gaining industrial importance in pharmaceutics. Transition to continuous production requires improved understanding of all operations, necessitating the development...... of mechanistic models of multi‐phase systems which in the end allow process control. This contribution focuses on continuous fluidized bed drying of pharmaceutical wet granules. A stepwise approach is used in model development, starting with the drying behaviour of single granules. Experiments to determine...

  15. Chemical mapping of pharmaceutical cocrystals using terahertz spectroscopic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charron, Danielle M; Ajito, Katsuhiro; Kim, Jae-Young; Ueno, Yuko

    2013-02-19

    Terahertz (THz) spectroscopic imaging is a promising technique for distinguishing pharmaceuticals of similar molecular composition but differing crystal structures. Physicochemical properties, for instance bioavailability, are manipulated by altering a drug's crystal structure through methods such as cocrystallization. Cocrystals are molecular complexes having crystal structures different from those of their pure components. A technique for identifying the two-dimensional distribution of these alternate forms is required. Here we present the first demonstration of THz spectroscopic imaging of cocrystals. THz spectra of caffeine-oxalic acid cocrystal measured at low temperature exhibit sharp peaks, enabling us to visualize the cocrystal distribution in nonuniform tablets. The cocrystal distribution was clearly identified using THz spectroscopic data, and the cocrystal concentration was calculated with 0.3-1.3% w/w error from the known total concentration. From this result, THz spectroscopy allows quantitative chemical mapping of cocrystals and offers researchers and drug developers a new analytical tool.

  16. The influence of complexing pharmaceutical compositions on alkaline phosphatase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atyaksheva, L. F.; Chukhrai, E. S.; Stepina, N. D.; Novikova, N. N.; Yur'eva, E. A.

    2011-06-01

    It is established that the pharmaceutical compositions xydiphon, medifon, succimer, and EDTA, which are used as complexing agents for accelerating the excretion of heavy metals from human organism, at certain concentrations inhibit enzyme alkaline phosphatase (AP). It is concluded that xydiphon and EDTA have a noticeable effect on AP activity at concentrations over 0.01 mM; medifon and succimer, at concentrations of over 0.3-0.5 mM. The enzyme's inhibition constants and type of inhibition are determined. Xydiphon is found to manifest the highest affinity to AP ( K I = 0.35 mM). It is shown by kinetic analysis that dissociative chemoinactivation of the enzyme takes place under the action of complexing agents. The corresponding kinetic parameters are calculated.

  17. Pharmaceutical health care and Inuit language communications in Nunavut, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Romain, Sandra J.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Pharmaceutical communication is an essential component of pharmaceutical health care, optimally ensuring patients understand the proper administration and side effects of their medications. Communication can often be complicated by language and culture, but with pharmaceuticals, misunderstandings can prove particularly harmful. In Nunavut, to ensure the preservation and revitalization of Inuit languages, the Inuit Language Protection Act and Official Languages Act were passed requ...

  18. Rational Use of Medicines in Relation to Pharmaceutical Supply ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmaceutical management involves a set of practices aiming at ensuring timely availability and appropriate use of safe, effective and quality pharmaceuticals and services in any health care setting. Rational use of medicines is often associated with efficiency of pharmaceutical supply system that operates in the health ...

  19. East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Approach to Effective Disinfection of Salon Items [clippers, combs and scissors]. O.S. OLONITOLA'*, P.F. OLURINOLA~ ... 2~epartment of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical. Sciences, Ahmadu Bello ... antimicrobial products with increased value over those currently available.

  20. Pharmaceutical care in the Netherlands. History, definition and projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mil, J.W F

    1996-01-01

    The evolving concept of Pharmaceutical Care knows different interpretations in a different countries. In the Netherlands community pharmacists already perform several functions which may be part of the Pharmaceutical Care concept. The Dutch concept of Pharmaceutical care is tested in the TOM and

  1. Pharmaceutical crystallography: is there a devil in the details?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bond, A. D.

    2012-01-01

    Modern instruments for small-molecule crystallography continue to become more sophisticated and more automated. This technical progress provides a basis for frontier research in chemical and pharmaceutical crystallography, but it also encourages analytical crystallographers to become more...... are presented for pharmaceutical compounds, and the potential importance of the "details" in pharmaceutical crystallography is discussed....

  2. Calculating ellipse area by the Monte Carlo method and analysing dice poker with Excel at high school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benacka, Jan

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports on lessons in which 18-19 years old high school students modelled random processes with Excel. In the first lesson, 26 students formulated a hypothesis on the area of ellipse by using the analogy between the areas of circle, square and rectangle. They verified the hypothesis by the Monte Carlo method with a spreadsheet model developed in the lesson. In the second lesson, 27 students analysed the dice poker game. First, they calculated the probability of the hands by combinatorial formulae. Then, they verified the result with a spreadsheet model developed in the lesson. The students were given a questionnaire to find out if they found the lesson interesting and contributing to their mathematical and technological knowledge.

  3. 77 FR 16264 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration; Johnson Matthey Pharmaceutical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ..., Notice of Registration; Johnson Matthey Pharmaceutical Materials Inc. By Notice dated November 18, 2011... Pharmaceutical Materials Inc., Pharmaceutical Service, 25 Patton Road, Devens, Massachusetts 01434, made... Matthey Pharmaceutical Materials Inc. to manufacture the listed basic classes of controlled substances is...

  4. Supporting teachers' technology integration in lesson plans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Noortje

    2017-01-01

    Lesson planning offers rich opportunities for teachers to consider and implement technology in the classroom. This dissertation investigated the design and effectiveness of supplementary information to assist pre-service teachers during the lesson planning process. Based on the Technological,

  5. Value pricing pilot program : lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    This "Lessons Learned Report" provides a summary of projects sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA's) Congestion and Value Pricing Pilot Programs from 1991 through 2006 and draws lessons from a sample of projects with the richest an...

  6. Calculating Puddle Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Megan; Mims, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Learning through meaningful problem solving is integral in any successful mathematics program (Carpenter et al. 1999). The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) promotes the use of problem solving as a means to deepen understanding of all content areas within mathematics (NCTM 2000). This article describes a first-grade lesson that…

  7. Lessons from independence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauptfuhrer, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    The recent history of Oryx provides invaluable lessons for those who plan future energy strategies, relates the author of this paper. When Oryx became an independent oil and gas company, its reserves were declining, its stock was selling below asset values, and the price of oil seemed stuck below $15 per barrel. The message from Oryx management to Oryx employees was: We are in charge of our own destiny. We are about to create our own future. Oryx had developed a new, positive corporate culture and the corporate credit required for growth. This paper points to two basic principles that have guided the metamorphosis in Oryx's performance. The first objective was to improve operational efficiency and to identify the right performance indicators to measure this improvement. It states that the most critical performance indicator for an exploration and production company must be replacement and expansion of reserves at a competitive replacement cost. Oryx has cut its finding costs from $12 to $5 per barrel, while the BP acquisition provided proven reserves at a cost of only $4 per barrel. Another performance indicator measures Oryx's standing in the financial markets

  8. Patient safety: lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagian, James P.

    2006-01-01

    The traditional approach to patient safety in health care has ranged from reticence to outward denial of serious flaws. This undermines the otherwise remarkable advances in technology and information that have characterized the specialty of medical practice. In addition, lessons learned in industries outside health care, such as in aviation, provide opportunities for improvements that successfully reduce mishaps and errors while maintaining a standard of excellence. This is precisely the call in medicine prompted by the 1999 Institute of Medicine report ''To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System.'' However, to effect these changes, key components of a successful safety system must include: (1) communication, (2) a shift from a posture of reliance on human infallibility (hence ''shame and blame'') to checklists that recognize the contribution of the system and account for human limitations, and (3) a cultivation of non-punitive open and/or de-identified/anonymous reporting of safety concerns, including close calls, in addition to adverse events. (orig.)

  9. INAA of polyacrylic hydrogels of pharmaceutical grade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponta, C.; Salagean, M.; Pantelica, A.; Georgescu, I.I.

    1998-01-01

    Polyacrylic acid (PA) and its salts are promising biomaterials used in the pharmaceutical industry. They could be used as pharmaceutical additives, as a burn dressing and also in the slow released implants or trans-derma patch formulations. Polyacrylic acid of pharmaceutical grade can be obtained by gamma irradiation polymerization. The influence of the raw materials and of the technological procedure on the final product purity has been investigated by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) method. The following materials have been analyzed by INAA: 1) acrylic acid of technical grade; 2) acrylic acid purified by double crystallisation; 3) NaOH of analytical grade; 4) CaCl-2·6H 2 O of pharmaceutical grade; 5) CaCl 2 ·2H 2 O of analytical grade; 6) granulated PANa; 7) ungranulated PANa; 8) ungranulated PANaCa; 9) PANaCa granulated by milling in IFIN-HH using the mill nr. 1; 10) PANaCa granulated by milling in Institute of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research (ICPR); 11) PANaCa granulated by milling in IFIN-HH using the mill nr. 2. The first five samples, marked from 1 to 5, are raw materials and the other six samples, marked from 6 to 11, are the final polyacrylic structures processed by various technological procedures. The samples together with the appropriate reference materials have been irradiated at WWR-S reactor in a neutron flux of 2.5·10 12 cm -2 s -1 and the induced radioactivity was registered by a HPGe detector (EG/G ORTEC) of 30% efficiency and 2.1 keV resolution. The concentrations of As, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Fe, La, Sb, Sc, Zn have been determined. For the final polyacrylic structures, except for granulated PANa (sample 6), only the elements Co, Cr, Fe, Sc, Zn were found at the following concentration levels: tens of ppm (Co), ppm (Zn), hundreds of ppb (Cr), tens of ppb (Co), ppb (Co, Sc), 10 -1 ppb (Sc). In the granulated PANa, in comparison with the other analyzed final products, similar concentration values were found for Fe, Sc and Zn

  10. Constellation Program Lessons Learned. Volume 2; Detailed Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhatigan, Jennifer; Neubek, Deborah J.; Thomas, L. Dale

    2011-01-01

    These lessons learned are part of a suite of hardware, software, test results, designs, knowledge base, and documentation that comprises the legacy of the Constellation Program. The context, summary information, and lessons learned are presented in a factual format, as known and described at the time. While our opinions might be discernable in the context, we have avoided all but factually sustainable statements. Statements should not be viewed as being either positive or negative; their value lies in what we did and what we learned that is worthy of passing on. The lessons include both "dos" and "don ts." In many cases, one person s "do" can be viewed as another person s "don t"; therefore, we have attempted to capture both perspectives when applicable and useful. While Volume I summarizes the views of those who managed the program, this Volume II encompasses the views at the working level, describing how the program challenges manifested in day-to-day activities. Here we see themes that were perhaps hinted at, but not completely addressed, in Volume I: unintended consequences of policies that worked well at higher levels but lacked proper implementation at the working level; long-term effects of the "generation gap" in human space flight development, the need to demonstrate early successes at the expense of thorough planning, and the consequences of problems and challenges not yet addressed because other problems and challenges were more immediate or manifest. Not all lessons learned have the benefit of being operationally vetted, since the program was cancelled shortly after Preliminary Design Review. We avoid making statements about operational consequences (with the exception of testing and test flights that did occur), but we do attempt to provide insight into how operational thinking influenced design and testing. The lessons have been formatted with a description, along with supporting information, a succinct statement of the lesson learned, and

  11. What Happens at the Lesson Start?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saloviita, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Transitional periods, such as lesson starts, are necessary steps from one activity to another, but they also compete with time for actual learning. The aim of the present study was to replicate a previous pilot study on lesson starts and explore possible disturbances. In total, 130 lesson starts in Finnish basic education in grades 1-9 were…

  12. [Pharmaceutical chemistry of drug-initiated photosensitivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rácz, Ákos; Tóth, Lívia

    2015-01-01

    The photosensitivity originated from drugs is a common problem in medical and pharmaceutical practice. It is of prominent importance in drug development and in regulatory issues. The photosensitizer effect of drug substances is determined by their chemical structures, and it mainly originates from aromatic chromophore systems and photo-dissociable bonds forming free radicals. The photodegradation may happen in many different types of chemical reaction pathways. Our aim is to demonstrate in this review the interrelations between structure and photodegradation. We show examples for the different reaction types, with drugs from different pharmacologic therapeutic classes. The in vivo chemical reactivity of photodegradates of pharmaceutical substances, the in vitro methods of investigation for testing photoreactivity and phototoxicity, and briefly the clinical tests for photosensitivity disorders are also discussed.

  13. Combating corruption in the pharmaceutical arena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lexchin, Joel; Kohler, Jillian Clare; Gagnon, Marc André; Crombie, James; Thacker, Paul; Shnier, Adrienne

    2018-03-15

    Corruption in healthcare generally and specifically in the pharmaceutical arena has recently been highlighted in reports by Transparency International. This article focuses on four areas of corruption: legislative/regulatory, financial, ideological/ethical, and communications. The problems identified and the solutions considered focus on structural considerations affecting how pharmaceuticals are discovered, developed, distributed, and ultimately used in clinical settings. These include recourse to user fees in the regulatory sphere, application of intellectual property rights to medical contexts (patents and access to research data), commercial sponsorship of ghost writing and guest authors, linkage/delinkage of the funding of research and overall health objectives to/from drug pricing and sales, transparency of payments to healthcare professionals and institutions, and credible regulatory sanctions. In general, financial and other incentives for all actors in the system should be structured to align with desired social outcomes - and to minimise conflicts of interest among researchers and clinicians.

  14. Combinatorial nanodiamond in pharmaceutical and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dae Gon; Prim, Racelly Ena; Kim, Ki Hyun; Kang, Eunah; Park, Kinam; Jeong, Seong Hoon

    2016-11-30

    One of the newly emerging carbon materials, nanodiamond (ND), has been exploited for use in traditional electric materials and this has extended into biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. Recently, NDs have attained significant interests as a multifunctional and combinational drug delivery system. ND studies have provided insights into granting new potentials with their wide ranging surface chemistry, complex formation with biopolymers, and combination with biomolecules. The studies that have proved ND inertness, biocompatibility, and low toxicity have made NDs much more feasible for use in real in vivo applications. This review gives an understanding of NDs in biomedical engineering and pharmaceuticals, focusing on the classified introduction of ND/drug complexes. In addition, the diverse potential applications that can be obtained with chemical modification are presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Radiation sterilization of pharmaceuticals and polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopal, N.G.S.

    1978-01-01

    Radiation, in the form of high energy electrons as well as gamma radiation, has featured in the last 15 yr as a promising sterilization agent for many heat sensitive and ethylene oxide incompatible pharmaceuticals and polymers of medical usage. This article deals with (i) a comparison of the various methods of sterilization and their shortcomings, (ii) modes of interaction of radiation with matter, (iii) the types of radiation sources in common use, (iv) dosimetry, (v) dose rate effect, (vi) a literature survey of the radiation effect on pharmaceuticals in solid form as well as in aqueous solution and on polymers in the form of plastic medical products and (vii) the evaluation of the irradiated products. The effect of dose rate on the stability of these materials is emphasized. Either very little work has been done on the dose rate effect or the published information is scanty. The literature survey covers the recent period of 5 to 6 years. (author)

  16. Pharmaceutical drugs, WWTP, and hydric bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quezia Bezerra Cass

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, special attention has been given to the presence of pharmaceutical compounds in the aquatic environment; once that the continuous supply and persistence of these substances can be severally prejudicial to the biota. Thus, the development and application of new technologies that allows the removal or diminishes these contaminants has been the focus of the environment sanitation area. However, the absence of specific monitoring programs at the waste water treatment plant (WWTP, unfeasibly the behaviour evaluation of pharmaceutical drugs in the installed plants. The aim work, based on the factors involved in the input of these contaminants in the environment, and take attention to the pathway in the implementation of adequate treatment systems to minimize the deterioration of the aquatic ecosystems.

  17. Chitosan Modification and Pharmaceutical/Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiali Zhang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan has received much attention as a functional biopolymer for diverse applications, especially in pharmaceutics and medicine. Our recent efforts focused on the chemical and biological modification of chitosan in order to increase its solubility in aqueous solutions and absorbability in the in vivo system, thus for a better use of chitosan. This review summarizes chitosan modification and its pharmaceutical/biomedical applications based on our achievements as well as the domestic and overseas developments: (1 enzymatic preparation of low molecular weight chitosans/chitooligosaccharides with their hypocholesterolemic and immuno-modulating effects; (2 the effects of chitin, chitosan and their derivatives on blood hemostasis; and (3 synthesis of a non-toxic ion ligand—D-Glucosaminic acid from Oxidation of D-Glucosamine for cancer and diabetes therapy.

  18. Raman spectroscopy in pharmaceutical product design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paudel, Amrit; Raijada, Dhara; Rantanen, Jukka

    2015-01-01

    Almost 100 years after the discovery of the Raman scattering phenomenon, related analytical techniques have emerged as important tools in biomedical sciences. Raman spectroscopy and microscopy are frontier, non-invasive analytical techniques amenable for diverse biomedical areas, ranging from...... molecular-based drug discovery, design of innovative drug delivery systems and quality control of finished products. This review presents concise accounts of various conventional and emerging Raman instrumentations including associated hyphenated tools of pharmaceutical interest. Moreover, relevant...... application cases of Raman spectroscopy in early and late phase pharmaceutical development, process analysis and micro-structural analysis of drug delivery systems are introduced. Finally, potential areas of future advancement and application of Raman spectroscopic techniques are discussed....

  19. Pharmaceutical Applications of Polymeric Nano materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, L.; Sun, L.

    2011-01-01

    With significant attention focused on nano science and nano technology in recent years, nano materials have been used in a wide variety of applications such as automotive, environmental, energy, catalysis, biomedical, drug delivery, and polymeric industries. Among those fields, the application of nano materials with pharmaceutical science is an emerging and rapidly growing field and has drawn increasing attention recently. Research and development in this field is mainly focused on several aspects such as the discoveries of novel functional nano materials, exploration on nanoparticles with controlled and targeted drug delivery characteristics, and investigation of bio functionalized and diagnostic nano materials. In this special issue, we have invited a few papers related to recent advances in pharmaceutical application of polymeric nano materials

  20. LEARNING ORGANISATION CHALLENGE FOR ROMANIAN PHARMACEUTICAL SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otilia-Maria BORDEIANU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the learning organization has gone through many changes both theoretically and also as practical implementation. Learning organizations do not appear automatically, they require a strong commitment for developing the skills needed in the workplace, and this commitment should start from the top of the organization. The learning process should be managed at different levels within the organization. Learning, therefore, is made up of several different components and requires a special management. Successful companies are the result of carefully cultivated attitudes, commitments and management processes. This paper investigates the learning organization dimensions analysed in case of pharmaceutical SMEs from Romania. The results obtained in this study allow us to draw relevant conclusions, constituting a practical starting point for businesses. The paper highlights the fact that SMEs pharmaceutical companies have taken important steps toward learning organization model, but reaching different levels from one key dimension to another.

  1. Pharmaceutical applications of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, J Craig; Bowtell, Richard W; Mäder, Karsten; Melia, Colin D

    2005-06-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful imaging modality that provides internal images of materials and living organisms on a microscopic and macroscopic scale. It is non-invasive and non-destructive, and one of very few techniques that can observe internal events inside undisturbed specimens in situ. It is versatile, as a wide range of NMR modalities can be accessed, and 2D and 3D imaging can be undertaken. Despite widespread use and major advances in clinical MRI, it has seen limited application in the pharmaceutical sciences. In vitro studies have focussed on drug release mechanisms in polymeric delivery systems, but isolated studies of bioadhesion, tablet properties, and extrusion and mixing processes illustrate the wider potential. Perhaps the greatest potential however, lies in investigations of pharmaceuticals in vivo, where pilot human and animal studies have demonstrated we can obtain unique insights into the behaviour of gastrointestinal, topical, colloidal, and targeted drug delivery systems.

  2. Operational Aspects of Continuous Pharmaceutical Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitic, Aleksandar

    Introduction of the Process Analytical Technolo gy (PAT) Initiative, the Quality by Design (QbD) approach and the Continuous Improvement (CI) methodology/philosophy is considered as a huge milestone in the modern pharmaceutical indust ry. The above concepts, when applied to a pharmaceutical...... satisfaction of the demands defined by the PA T Initiative. This approach could be considered as establishing a Lean Production System (LPS) whic h is usually supported with tools associated with Process Intensifaction (PI) a nd Process Optimization (PO). Development of continuous processes is often c onnected...... tools, such as microwave assisted organic synthesis (MAOS), ultrasounds, meso-scale flow chemistry and microprocess technology. Furthermore, developmen t of chemical catalysts and enzymes enabled further acceleration of some chemical reactions that were known as very slow or impossible to be performed...

  3. Lessons of nuclear robot history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oomichi, Takeo

    2014-01-01

    Severe accidents occurred at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station stirred up people's great expectation of nuclear robot's deployment. However unexpected nuclear disaster, especially rupture of reactor building caused by core meltdown and hydrogen explosion, made it quite difficult to introduce nuclear robot under high radiation environment to cease accidents and dispose damaged reactor. Robotics Society of Japan (RSJ) set up committee to look back upon lessons learned from 50 year's past experience of nuclear robot development and summarized 'Lessons of nuclear robot history', which was shown on the home page website of RSJ. This article outlined it with personal comment. History of nuclear robot developed for inspection and maintenance at normal operation and for specific required response at nuclear accidents was reviewed with many examples at home and abroad for TMI, Chernobyl and JCO accidents. Present state of Fukushima accident response robot's introduction and development was also described with some comments on nuclear robot development from academia based on lessons. (T. Tanaka)

  4. Pharmaceutical Cocrystals: Regulatory and Strategic Aspects, Design and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak Dilip Gadade

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cocrystal is a concept of the supramolecular chemistry which is gaining the extensive interest of researchers from pharmaceutical and chemical sciences and of drug regulatory agencies. The prominent reason of which is its ability to modify physicochemical properties of active pharmaceutical ingredients. During the development of the pharmaceutical product, formulators have to optimize the physicochemical properties of active pharmaceutical ingredients. Pharmaceutical cocrystals can be employed to improve vital physicochemical characteristics of a drug, including solubility, dissolution, bioavailability and stability of pharmaceutical compounds while maintaining its therapeutic activity. It is advantageous being a green synthesis approach for production of pharmaceutical compounds. The formation polymorphic forms, solvates, hydrates and salts of cocrystals during the synthesis reported in the literature which can be a potential issue in the development of pharmaceutical cocrystals. The approaches like hydrogen bonding rules, solubility parameters, screening through the CSD database or thermodynamic characteristics can be utilized for the rational design of cocrystals and selection of coformers for synthesis multi-component cocrystals. Considering the significance of pharmaceutical cocrystals pharmaceutical regulatory authorities in the United States and Europe issued guidance documents which may be helpful for pharmaceutical product registration in these regions. In this article, we deal with the design, synthesis, strategic aspects and characteristics of cocrystals along perspectives on its regulatory and intellectual property considerations.

  5. Pharmaceutical Cocrystals: Regulatory and Strategic Aspects, Design and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadade, Dipak Dilip; Pekamwar, Sanjay Sudhakar

    2016-12-01

    Cocrystal is a concept of the supramolecular chemistry which is gaining the extensive interest of researchers from pharmaceutical and chemical sciences and of drug regulatory agencies. The prominent reason of which is its ability to modify physicochemical properties of active pharmaceutical ingredients. During the development of the pharmaceutical product, formulators have to optimize the physicochemical properties of active pharmaceutical ingredients. Pharmaceutical cocrystals can be employed to improve vital physicochemical characteristics of a drug, including solubility, dissolution, bioavailability and stability of pharmaceutical compounds while maintaining its therapeutic activity. It is advantageous being a green synthesis approach for production of pharmaceutical compounds. The formation polymorphic forms, solvates, hydrates and salts of cocrystals during the synthesis reported in the literature which can be a potential issue in the development of pharmaceutical cocrystals. The approaches like hydrogen bonding rules, solubility parameters, screening through the CSD database or thermodynamic characteristics can be utilized for the rational design of cocrystals and selection of coformers for synthesis multi-component cocrystals. Considering the significance of pharmaceutical cocrystals pharmaceutical regulatory authorities in the United States and Europe issued guidance documents which may be helpful for pharmaceutical product registration in these regions. In this article, we deal with the design, synthesis, strategic aspects and characteristics of cocrystals along perspectives on its regulatory and intellectual property considerations.

  6. Patent indicators: a window to pharmaceutical market success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yang; Hu, Yuanjia; Zheng, Mingli; Wang, Yitao

    2013-07-01

    Pharmaceutical success in the market is the best reward for pharmaceutical investors undergoing the lengthy, costly and risky process of pharmaceutical Research and Development (R&D). Drugs with high market revenues trigger fierce competition between pharmaceutical enterprises, as is demonstrated by the increasing Mergers & Acquisitions (M&A) cases focusing on seizing the best-selling products. On the other hand, patents, as the best shield for innovative drugs against generic drugs, become a powerful weapon for pharmaceutical enterprises to win the substantial returns generated by market exclusivity. Patents seem to be directly responsible for the commercial success of new medicines. In this context, it is of great significance to find out the empirical associations between pharmaceutical commercial success and patents. By comprehensively analysing 127 drugs marketed in the USA and their 621 American patents, this article identifies the evidence to link various patent indicators with pharmaceutical sales in actual market.

  7. Using containerless methods to develop amorphous pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, J K R; Benmore, C J; Suthar, K J; Tamalonis, A J; Alderman, O L G; Sendelbach, S; Kondev, V; Yarger, J; Rey, C A; Byrn, S R

    2017-01-01

    Many pipeline drugs have low solubility in their crystalline state and require compounding in special dosage forms to increase bioavailability for oral administration. The use of amorphous formulations increases solubility and uptake of active pharmaceutical ingredients. These forms are rapidly gaining commercial importance for both pre-clinical and clinical use. Synthesis of amorphous drugs was performed using an acoustic levitation containerless processing method and spray drying. The structure of the products was investigated using in-situ high energy X-ray diffraction. Selected solvents for processing drugs were investigated using acoustic levitation. The stability of amorphous samples was measured using X-ray diffraction. Samples processed using both spray drying and containerless synthesis were compared. We review methods for making amorphous pharmaceuticals and present data on materials made by containerless processing and spray drying. It was shown that containerless processing using acoustic levitation can be used to make phase-pure forms of drugs that are known to be difficult to amorphize. The stability and structure of the materials was investigated in the context of developing and making clinically useful formulations. Amorphous compounds are emerging as an important component of drug development and for the oral delivery of drugs with low solubility. Containerless techniques can be used to efficiently synthesize small quantities of pure amorphous forms that are potentially useful in pre-clinical trials and for use in the optimization of clinical products. Developing new pharmaceutical products is an essential enterprise to improve patient outcomes. The development and application of amorphous pharmaceuticals to increase absorption is rapidly gaining importance and it provides opportunities for breakthrough research on new drugs. There is an urgent need to solve problems associated with making formulations that are both stable and that provide high

  8. Welfare Effects of Pharmaceutical Informative Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Paris Cleanthous

    2011-01-01

    Pharmaceutical markets are characterized by a high degree of innovation, complexity and uncertainty, especially markets of idiosyncratic symptomatolgy and response to treatment such as the antidepressant market. It may, therefore, be unreasonable to assume that consumers are aware of all antidepressants for sale at the time of purchase, as is the case in traditional models of consumer choice. Such an assumption will bias demand curves towards being more elastic and the evaluation of consumer ...

  9. Information flow in the pharmaceutical supply chain

    OpenAIRE

    Yousefi, Nazila; Alibabaei, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Managing the supply chain plays an important role in creating competitive advantages for companies. Adequate information flow in supply chain is one of the most important issues in SCM. Therefore, using certain Information Systems can have a significant role in managing and integrating data and information within the supply chain. Pharmaceutical supply chain is more complex than many other supply chains, in the sense that it can affect social and political perspectives. On the other hand, man...

  10. A Rhetorical Analysis of Pharmaceutical Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Chuang, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Rhetoric, commonly regarded as the art of persuasion, is a subject of study and fascination that can be traced back to the ancient Greeks. As many scholars have suggested, rhetoric is a quintessential part of communication itself. Studying rhetoric affords us an understanding of how texts and the messages within them come to encapsulate a society’s values and ideals. This is particularly true of advertisements and, specifically to my purpose, pharmaceutical ads. In this paper I draw on the th...

  11. Radiosterilization of medical products, pharmaceuticals and bioproducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    A Panel on the Radiosterilization of Medical Products, Pharmaceuticals and Bioproducts was convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency on 17-19 January 1966 at its headquarters in Vienna. The purpose of the meeting was to survey the activities of the Member States in this field with a view to preparing the way for an international code of practice for the radiosterilization of medical products, in conformity with existing legal international rules. Refs, figs and tabs

  12. Pharmaceutical drugs, WWTP, and hydric bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Quezia Bezerra Cass; Eny Maria Vieira; Juliana Cristina Barreiro; Ricardo Wagner Reis Filho

    2007-01-01

    In the last decade, special attention has been given to the presence of pharmaceutical compounds in the aquatic environment; once that the continuous supply and persistence of these substances can be severally prejudicial to the biota. Thus, the development and application of new technologies that allows the removal or diminishes these contaminants has been the focus of the environment sanitation area. However, the absence of specific monitoring programs at the waste water treatment plant (WW...

  13. Ecotoxicity and genotoxicity assessment of cytostatic pharmaceuticals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zounková, R.; Odráška, P.; Doležalová, L.; Hilscherová, Klára; Maršálek, Blahoslav; Bláha, Luděk

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 10 (2007), s. 2208-2214 ISSN 0730-7268 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) 2B06171; ECODIS(XE) 518043-1 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : cytostatic pharmaceuticals * genotoxicity * antineoplastics Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.309, year: 2007

  14. Electrostatics in pharmaceutical aerosols for inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jennifer; Chan, Hak-Kim; Kwok, Philip Chi Lip

    2013-08-01

    Electrostatics continues to play an important role in pharmaceutical aerosols for inhalation. Despite its ubiquitous nature, the charging process is complex and not well understood. Nonetheless, significant advances in the past few years continue to improve understanding and lead to better control of electrostatics. The purpose of this critical review is to present an overview of the literature, with an emphasis on how electrostatic charge can be useful in improving pulmonary drug delivery.

  15. Private versus social incentives for pharmaceutical innovation

    OpenAIRE

    González, Paula

    2016-01-01

    We provide a theoretical framework to contribute to the current debate regarding the tendency of pharmaceutical companies to direct their R&D toward marketing products that are follow-on drugs of already existing drugs, rather than toward the development of breakthrough drugs. We construct a model with a population of patients who can be treated with drugs that are horizontally and vertically differentiated. In addition to a pioneering drug, a new drug can be marketed as the result of an inno...

  16. Application of radioisotopes in pharmaceutical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khujaev, S.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: To use of radioisotopes in the processes of receiving radiopharmaceutical diagnostic means it is widely know [1]. Radioactivity labeled chemical compounds, pharmacological kinetics of which allows one solving a concrete diagnostic problem in an organism are used in radio pharmaceutics. In spite of this choice of the radioisotope, possessing the most favorable nuclei-physical characteristics for it to be detected and minimization of beam loadings, be of great importance. Development of a method of introduction of a radioisotope also has important value, as it is included into chemical structure of a radiopharmaceutical preparation. One more way of use of radioisotopes in pharmaceutics is their use as a radioactive mark at a stage of creation of a new medical product. And in this case, all those moments, which are listed above, take place. Preparations labeling by radioisotopes are used basically for their studying pharmacological kinetics. In Institute of nuclear physics AS RU, in recent years, works are done on studying pharmacological kinetics of some new medical products, which have been synthesized in the Tashkent pharmaceutical institute. These preparations are on the basis of microelements with a complex set of properties possessing expressed biological activity and have great value in pharmaceutical science of Republic of Uzbekistan. Reception of labeled compounds of all preparations was carried out by a method of introduction of a radioisotope at a stage of their synthesis. The work presents the results of researches on synthesis and study of pharmacological kinetics of radioactively labeled preparations - PIRACIN, labeled by radioisotope 69m Zn; FERAMED, labeled by radioisotope 59 Fe; COBAVIT, labeled by radioisotope 57 Co; VUC, labeled by radioisotope 57 Co

  17. Green chemistry: A tool in Pharmaceutical Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Smita Talaviya; Falguni Majumdar

    2012-01-01

    Green chemistry expresses an area of research developing from scientific discoveries about pollution awareness and it utilizes a set of principles that reduces or eliminates the use or generation of hazardous substances in all steps of particular synthesis or process. Chemists and medicinal scientists can greatly reduce the risk to human health and the environment by following all the valuable principles of green chemistry. The most simple and direct way to apply green chemistry in pharmaceut...

  18. Challenges in Translational Development of Pharmaceutical Cocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Dnyaneshwar P; Zode, Sandeep S; Bansal, Arvind K

    2017-02-01

    The last 2 decades have witnessed increased research in the area of cocrystals resulting in deeper scientific understanding, increase in intellectual property landscape, and evolution in the regulatory environment. Pharmaceutical cocrystals have received significant attention as a new solid form on account of their ability to modulate poor physicochemical properties of drug molecules. However, pharmaceutical development of cocrystals could be challenging, thus limiting their translation into viable drug products. In the present commentary, the role of cocrystals in the modulation of material properties and challenges involved in the pharmaceutical development of cocrystals have been discussed. The major hurdles encountered in the development of cocrystals such as safety of coformers, unpredictable performance during dissolution and solubility in different media, difficulties in establishing in vitro-in vivo correlation, and polymorphism have been extensively discussed. The influence of selecting appropriate formulation and process design on these challenges has been discussed. Finally, a brief outline of cocrystals that are undergoing clinical development has also been presented. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Corporate social responsibility: A pharmaceutical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Theron

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In the modern business environment organisations need to address two important aspects affecting their operations: the quality of management and the impact of their operations on the well-being of the society in which they operate. This dualism often results in economic, political and social dilemmas influencing the viability of organisations in general, and more specifically and recently, local and international pharmaceutical organisations operating in South Africa. This article considers the aspect of corporate social responsibility (CSR in general and attempts to identify the social-related issues impacting on the pharmaceutical industry by means of content analysis - a research technique for making replicable and valid inferences from data. It furthermore describes the re-action of pharmaceutical organisations when confronted with such social demands, and finally analyses the management of CSR against four criteria of CSR. The article confirms the importance of managers to manage CSR towards society in a proactive manner. It furthermore suggests that the "hard" factors of strategic management and financial performance should be balanced with "soft" social/people issues. It also recommends that the industry should consider - and if applicable - endorse the concept of Issues Management as an approach to the proactive management of CSR.

  20. Defining Patient Centric Pharmaceutical Drug Product Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemann, Sven; Ternik, Robert L; Onder, Graziano; Khan, Mansoor A; van Riet-Nales, Diana A

    2016-09-01

    The term "patient centered," "patient centric," or "patient centricity" is increasingly used in the scientific literature in a wide variety of contexts. Generally, patient centric medicines are recognized as an essential contributor to healthy aging and the overall patient's quality of life and life expectancy. Besides the selection of the appropriate type of drug substance and strength for a particular indication in a particular patient, due attention must be paid that the pharmaceutical drug product design is also adequately addressing the particular patient's needs, i.e., assuring adequate patient adherence and the anticipate drug safety and effectiveness. Relevant pharmaceutical design aspects may e.g., involve the selection of the route of administration, the tablet size and shape, the ease of opening the package, the ability to read the user instruction, or the ability to follow the recommended (in-use) storage conditions. Currently, a harmonized definition on patient centric drug development/design has not yet been established. To stimulate scientific research and discussions and the consistent interpretation of test results, it is essential that such a definition is established. We have developed a first draft definition through various rounds of discussions within an interdisciplinary AAPS focus group of experts. This publication summarizes the outcomes and is intended to stimulate further discussions with all stakeholders towards a common definition of patient centric pharmaceutical drug product design that is useable across all disciplines involved.

  1. Overview of lessons learnt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescatore, C.; Federline, M.; Duncan, A.

    2004-01-01

    During the Tarragona International Seminar the participating high-level specialists had very open and fruitful discussion concerning strategic decommissioning issues. The lessons learnt and possible solutions for future work issues can be found below. Although there appears to be a trend towards early dismantling, there seemed to be general agreement that technical solutions support a wide variety of safe decommissioning approaches. Thus, in terms of decommissioning strategy, it appears that no one size fits all. A flexible regulatory approach is needed in order to recognize the changing operational risks and physical conditions of facilities with time, and to optimise their dismantling. The NEA has released a comprehensive study on decommissioning strategies and costs that indicates world-wide progress. According to this report, over 50% of countries with nuclear facilities have a framework of decommissioning requirements and 60% have defined radioactive waste clearance levels. Up to about 70% of the costs of D and D are attributable to dismantling and waste management. The provisions for safety of the D and D process are closely linked to the availability of the necessary funds as and when required. A number of common factors were defined for successful implementation of decommissioning strategies: i.e. safety, technical feasibility of decommissioning options, risk-informed progression of D and D activities as project proceeds, maintenance of competency and corporate memory throughout project, waste management and disposal capability, financing that suits the scope of the project, a well-defined risk-informed and performance-based regulatory process, and establishment of effective communication with local and regional governments and key stakeholders, particularly personnel, at the earliest opportunity before decommissioning. (author)

  2. APPROACHES TO IMPLEMENTATION OF AN INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN THE PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY. GALENICAL PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ershova Elena Vladimirovna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the issues associated with development of an integrated quality management system and its implementation into a galenical pharmaceutical company. Recently, the Russian pharmaceutical industry has been developing extensively: pharmaceutical clusters are being formed, new and innovative technologies are being developed. For the enterprises producing galenical pharmaceutical products, which feature low prices and a high level of competition, development and implementation of management systems is a way to prove their competitiveness. The purpose of this article is to review the architecture and the key elements of integrated management systems for pharmaceutical enterprises, develop an integrated management system in terms of the upcoming revision of ISO 9001:2015, as well as to describe the benefits of implementation of such systems. The presented approach is the result of an educational project implemented within the framework of the MBA programme in "Master of Business Administration (MBA" in the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Continuing Professional Education Pastukhov State Academy of Industrial Management.

  3. [Economics] Introductory Lesson (Begin Day One). Lesson Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Roland

    This introductory lesson on teaching economics concepts contains sections on the following: purpose; objectives; time; materials needed; and step-by-step classroom procedures. The focus is on the economic problem of scarcity and opportunity costs. Attached is an original skit, "There's no such thing as a free lunch," and a chart that…

  4. Evaluation and Selection of Predicaments in Pharmaceutical Supply Chain using AHP under Fuzzy Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikhil, E. V. S.; Sai Ram, V.; Charan Yadav, V.; Kiran Kumar, Kalla; Nagaraju, Dega

    2017-05-01

    Pharmaceutical sector plays an important role in the medical and health system. Due to the globalization of the business, increasing demand and supply for drugs, growing regulatory requirements, all stages of the pharmaceutical supply chain (SC) are facing numerous predicaments. The traditional way of selection and evaluation of these predicaments is customarily done using technical information. This approach lacks the ability to project the burning issue that to be addressed first. Hence, a computing method of selecting the crucial issue from the existing issues is essential in a pharmaceutical supply chain. This paper considers seven different predicaments as criteria and five sub-criteria under each main predicament of a pharmaceutical supply chain. The intention of this project is to manifest the process of assessing and selecting the issue that to be addressed first by using multi-criteria decision making technique (MCDM), i.e., fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP). The criteria and sub-criteria weights are calculated and priority assessment of the predicaments is done by using FAHP. Finally, from the findings of this work, the predicaments are ranked from most important to least important. This gives information to the decision maker (DM) to solve the issue that is affecting the SC the most with respect to the others.

  5. Novel methodology for pharmaceutical expenditure forecast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vataire, Anne-Lise; Cetinsoy, Laurent; Aballéa, Samuel; Rémuzat, Cécile; Urbinati, Duccio; Kornfeld, Åsa; Mzoughi, Olfa; Toumi, Mondher

    2014-01-01

    The value appreciation of new drugs across countries today features a disruption that is making the historical data that are used for forecasting pharmaceutical expenditure poorly reliable. Forecasting methods rarely addressed uncertainty. The objective of this project was to propose a methodology to perform pharmaceutical expenditure forecasting that integrates expected policy changes and uncertainty (developed for the European Commission as the 'EU Pharmaceutical expenditure forecast'; see http://ec.europa.eu/health/healthcare/key_documents/index_en.htm). 1) Identification of all pharmaceuticals going off-patent and new branded medicinal products over a 5-year forecasting period in seven European Union (EU) Member States. 2) Development of a model to estimate direct and indirect impacts (based on health policies and clinical experts) on savings of generics and biosimilars. Inputs were originator sales value, patent expiry date, time to launch after marketing authorization, price discount, penetration rate, time to peak sales, and impact on brand price. 3) Development of a model for new drugs, which estimated sales progression in a competitive environment. Clinical expected benefits as well as commercial potential were assessed for each product by clinical experts. Inputs were development phase, marketing authorization dates, orphan condition, market size, and competitors. 4) Separate analysis of the budget impact of products going off-patent and new drugs according to several perspectives, distribution chains, and outcomes. 5) Addressing uncertainty surrounding estimations via deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis. This methodology has proven to be effective by 1) identifying the main parameters impacting the variations in pharmaceutical expenditure forecasting across countries: generics discounts and penetration, brand price after patent loss, reimbursement rate, the penetration of biosimilars and discount price, distribution chains, and the time

  6. Lessons learned related to packaging and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallen, C.

    1995-01-01

    The use of lessons learned as a tool for learning from past experiences is well established, especially by many organizations within the nuclear industry. Every person has, at some time, used the principles of lessons learned to adopt good work practices based on their own experiences or the experiences of others. Lessons learned can also help to avoid the recurrence of adverse practices, which is often an area that most lessons-learned programs tend to focus on. This paper will discuss how lessons learned relate to packaging and transportation issues and events experienced at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. It will also discuss the role performed by the Office of Nuclear and Facility Safety's Office of Operating Experience Analysis and Feedback in disseminating lessons learned and operating experience feedback to the DOE complex. The central concept of lessons learned is that any organization should be able to learn from its own experiences and events. In addition, organizations should implement methodologies to scan external environments for lessons learned, to analyze and determine the relevance of lessons learned, and to bring about the necessary changes learned from these experiences. With increased concerns toward facility safety, the importance of utilizing the lessons-learned principles and the establishment of lessons-learned programs can not be overstated

  7. The Korean Pharmaceutical Industry and the Expansion of the General Pharmaceuticals Market in the 1950-1960s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu-Hwan SIHN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available After the Liberation, the Korean economy was dependent on relief supplies and aid after the ruin of the colonial regime and war. The pharmaceutical business also searched for their share in the delivery of military supplies and the distribution of relief supplies. The supply-side pharmaceutical policy made the pharmaceutical market a wholesale business. The gravity of the situation led to an increased importation of medical supplies, and wholesalers took the lead in establishing the distribution structure, whereas consumers and pharmaceutical business were relatively intimidated. The aid provided by the International Cooperation Administration (ICA marked a turning point in the Korean pharmaceutical industry after the middle of the 1950s. ICA supplied raw materials and equipment funds, while the pharmaceutical business imported advanced technology and capital. The government invited the local production of medical substances, whereas pharmaceutical businesses replaced imported medical substances with locally produced antibiotics. After the 1960s, the production of antibiotics reached saturation. Pharmaceutical businesses needed new markets to break through the stalemate, so they turned their attention to vitamins and health tonics as general pharmaceuticals, as these were suitable for mass production and mass consumption. The modernized patent medicine market after the Opening of Korea was transformed into the contemporized general pharmaceuticals market equipped with the up-to-date facilities and technology in 1960s. Pharmaceutical businesses had to advertise these new products extensively and reform the distribution structure to achieve high profits. With the introduction of TV broadcasting, these businesses invested in TV advertising and generated sizable sales figures. They also established retail pharmacy and chain stores to reform the distribution structure. The end result was a dramatic expansion of the general pharmaceuticals market. The

  8. [The Korean Pharmaceutical Industry and the Expansion of the General Pharmaceuticals Market in the 1950-1960s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihn, Kyu-Hwan

    2015-12-01

    After the Liberation, the Korean economy was dependent on relief supplies and aid after the ruin of the colonial regime and war. The pharmaceutical business also searched for their share in the delivery of military supplies and the distribution of relief supplies. The supply-side pharmaceutical policy made the pharmaceutical market a wholesale business. The gravity of the situation led to an increased importation of medical supplies, and wholesalers took the lead in establishing the distribution structure, whereas consumers and pharmaceutical business were relatively intimidated. The aid provided by the International Cooperation Administration (ICA) marked a turning point in the Korean pharmaceutical industry after the middle of the 1950s. ICA supplied raw materials and equipment funds, while the pharmaceutical business imported advanced technology and capital. The government invited the local production of medical substances, whereas pharmaceutical businesses replaced imported medical substances with locally produced antibiotics. After the 1960s, the production of antibiotics reached saturation. Pharmaceutical businesses needed new markets to break through the stalemate, so they turned their attention to vitamins and health tonics as general pharmaceuticals, as these were suitable for mass production and mass consumption. The modernized patent medicine market after the Opening of Korea was transformed into the contemporized general pharmaceuticals market equipped with the up-to-date facilities and technology in 1960s. Pharmaceutical businesses had to advertise these new products extensively and reform the distribution structure to achieve high profits. With the introduction of TV broadcasting, these businesses invested in TV advertising and generated sizable sales figures. They also established retail pharmacy and chain stores to reform the distribution structure. The end result was a dramatic expansion of the general pharmaceuticals market. The market for

  9. Field observations and lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Joh B [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    This presentation outlines observations and lessons learned from the Megaports program. It provides: (1) details of field and technical observations collected during LANL field activities at ports around the world and details of observations collected during radiation detections system testing at Los Alamos National Laboratory; (2) provides suggestions for improvement and efficiency; and (3) discusses possible program execution changes for more effective operations.

  10. For Sale: Your Lesson Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Kim

    2016-01-01

    The last several years has seen an increasingly popular trend of teachers buying and selling their lesson plans and other self-created classroom materials in online marketplaces. The leader in this space is a website called Teachers Pay Teachers, which boasts 3.8 million active users. In this article, the author examines why these sites became…

  11. Children of War. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    This lesson plan presents activities in which students read, analyze, and discuss excerpts from children's war diaries; and create a storyboard for a public service announcement on children's rights in wartime. It includes objectives, materials, procedures, extension activities, excerpts of children's war diaries, suggested readings, and web…

  12. Lessons learned in crisis management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This paper will explore lessons learned following a series of natural and man-made disasters affecting the Massachusetts Mutual Life Insurance Company and/or its subsidiaries. The company employs a team of certified continuity professionals who are charged with overseeing resilience on behalf of the enterprise and leading recovery activities wherever and whenever necessary.

  13. "Pride and Prejudice". [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderquist, Alisa

    Based on Jane Austen's novel "Pride and Prejudice," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that classics are those pieces of literature that continue to be popular long after they were written; classics tend to have universal themes; and Austen's writing has been updated and dramatized and, most likely, will…

  14. Machiavelli's "The Prince." [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    Based on Machiavelli's book "The Prince," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that Machiavelli's enumeration of leadership qualities for a prince has always been controversial; and that leaders and followers may differ in what they identify as the qualities of a good leader. The main activity of the lesson…

  15. Basic safety principles: Lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erp, J.B. van [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The presentation reviews the following issues: basic safety principles and lessons learned; some conclusions from the Kemeny report on the accident at TMI; some recommendations from the Kemeny report on the accident at TMI; conclusions and recommendations from the Rogovin report on the accident on TMI; instrumentation deficiencies (from Rogovin report).

  16. Lessons from The Little Prince

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munakata, Mika

    2005-01-01

    To children, The Little Prince by Antoine de Saint-Exupery (1943) may be a mystical story about a traveler among planets. For adults, the story can be appreciated for the lessons it teaches us about what it is like to be a child--and how children may perceive the world of adults. And, for science educators, particularly, The Little Prince…

  17. Basic safety principles: Lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erp, J.B. van

    1997-01-01

    The presentation reviews the following issues: basic safety principles and lessons learned; some conclusions from the Kemeny report on the accident at TMI; some recommendations from the Kemeny report on the accident at TMI; conclusions and recommendations from the Rogovin report on the accident on TMI; instrumentation deficiencies (from Rogovin report)

  18. The 'Amistad' Case. Lesson Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC.

    Teaching about the Amistad case provides correlations to the National Standards for History, and Civics and Government. An overview of the events of 1839 is given in this lesson plan. Seven student activities include reading and using primary source documents, writing journal articles, viewing the movie "Amistad," and giving…

  19. Evaluating Eyewitness Reports [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    This lesson offers students experience in making historical meaning from eyewitness accounts that present a range of different perspectives. Students begin with a case study in working with alternative reports of a single event: the Great Chicago Fire of 1871. First, they compare two newspaper reports on the fire, then two memoirs of the fire…

  20. Lessons in Contingent, Recursive Humility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagle, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author argues that critical work in teacher education should begin with teacher educators turning a critical eye on their own practices. The author uses Lesko's conception of contingent, recursive growth and change to analyze a lesson he observed as part of a phenomenological study aimed at understanding more about what it is…

  1. The Great Gatsby. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelasko, Ken

    Based on F. Scott Fitzgerald's novel "The Great Gatsby," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that adapting part of a novel into a dramatic reading makes students more intimate with the author's intentions and craft; and that a part of a novel may lend itself to various oral interpretations. The main activity…

  2. Charismatic Leaders: A Lesson Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Robert W.

    1983-01-01

    Focusing upon Franklin D. Roosevelt and Adolf Hitler, these lessons for high school students in U.S. or world history courses deal with what charismatic leadership is, what circumstances and personality factors generate charismatic movements, and the role, results, and dangers of charismatic leadership. (RM)

  3. Multimedia Principle in Teaching Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kari Jabbour, Khayrazad

    2012-01-01

    Multimedia learning principle occurs when we create mental representations from combining text and relevant graphics into lessons. This article discusses the learning advantages that result from adding multimedia learning principle into instructions; and how to select graphics that support learning. There is a balance that instructional designers…

  4. Constellation Lessons Learned Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, L. Dale; Neubek, Deb

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the lessons learned from the Constellation Program (CxP) and identified several factors that contributed to the inability of the CxP to meet the cost and schedule commitments. The review includes a significant section on the context in which the CxP operated since new programs are likely to experience the same constraints.

  5. EMU Lessons Learned Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Kevin M., Jr.; Crocker, Lori; Cupples, J. Scott

    2011-01-01

    As manned space exploration takes on the task of traveling beyond low Earth orbit, many problems arise that must be solved in order to make the journey possible. One major task is protecting humans from the harsh space environment. The current method of protecting astronauts during Extravehicular Activity (EVA) is through use of the specially designed Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). As more rigorous EVA conditions need to be endured at new destinations, the suit will need to be tailored and improved in order to accommodate the astronaut. The Objective behind the EMU Lessons Learned Database(LLD) is to be able to create a tool which will assist in the development of next-generation EMUs, along with maintenance and improvement of the current EMU, by compiling data from Failure Investigation and Analysis Reports (FIARs) which have information on past suit failures. FIARs use a system of codes that give more information on the aspects of the failure, but if one is unfamiliar with the EMU they will be unable to decipher the information. A goal of the EMU LLD is to not only compile the information, but to present it in a user-friendly, organized, searchable database accessible to all familiarity levels with the EMU; both newcomers and veterans alike. The EMU LLD originally started as an Excel database, which allowed easy navigation and analysis of the data through pivot charts. Creating an entry requires access to the Problem Reporting And Corrective Action database (PRACA), which contains the original FIAR data for all hardware. FIAR data are then transferred to, defined, and formatted in the LLD. Work is being done to create a web-based version of the LLD in order to increase accessibility to all of Johnson Space Center (JSC), which includes converting entries from Excel to the HTML format. FIARs related to the EMU have been completed in the Excel version, and now focus has shifted to expanding FIAR data in the LLD to include EVA tools and support hardware such as

  6. The A Priori Design and Selection of Ionic Liquids as Solvents for Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunov-Kruse, Andreas Jonas; Weber, Cameron C.; Rogers, Robin D.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we derive a straightforward computational approach to predict the optimal ionic liquid (IL) solvent for a given compound, based on COSMO-RS calculations. These calculations were performed on 18 different active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) using a matrix of 210 hypothetical ILs...... on the N-alkylguanidinium cation were prepared and characterized. The solubility of the APIs in each of these classes was found to be qualitatively consistent with the predictions of the COSMO-RS model. The suitability of these novel guanidinium salts as crystallization solvents was demonstrated by the use...

  7. Pharmaceutical pricing in Japan: market evidence for rheumatoid arthritis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlich, Jörg; Kamae, Isao; Sruamsiri, Rosarin

    2018-06-01

    Drug price setting is one of the key challenges faced by the Japanese health care system. This study aims to identify the determinants of drug price in Japan using the example of the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatment market. In order to compare prices across different products, we calculated prices per defined daily dose using WHO methodology. Price determinants were calculated both at launch and over time using IMS quarterly data on medicines approved for RA treatment in Japan from 2012 to 2015. Pharmaceutical pricing was modeled as a function of clinical and economic variables using regression analysis. For prices at the launch we found that differences in efficacy are not reflected in price differentials. We also report that the number of products within a molecule class had a negative effect on prices while originator drugs maintained higher prices. Although the existing pricing rules in Japan are very comprehensive they do not necessarily capture differences in product characteristics. The findings here support the notion that competitive forces are weak in highly regulated markets such as Japan.

  8. Spectrophotometric determination of nicradipine and isradipine in pharmaceutical formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Al-Ghannam

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of some 1,4-dihydropyridine compounds namely, nicardipine and isradipine either in pure form or in pharmaceutical preparations. The method is based on the reduction of nicardipine and isradipine with zinc powder and calcium chloride followed by further reduction with sodium pentacyanoaminoferrate (II to give violet and red products having the absorbance maximum at 546 and 539 nm with nicardipine and isradipine, respectively. Beer’s law was obeyed over the concentration range 8.0–180 μg/ml with the detection limit of 1.67 μg/ml for nicardipine and 8.0–110 μg/ml with the detection limit of 1.748 μg/ml for isradipine. The analytical parameters and their effects on the reported methods were investigated. The molar absorptivity, quantization limit, standard deviation of intercept (Sa, standard deviation of slope (Sb and standard deviation of the residuals (Sy/x were calculated. The composition of the result compounds were found 1:1 for nicardipine and 1:2 for isradipine by Job’s method and the conditional stability constant (Kf and the free energy changes (ΔG were calculated for compounds formed. The proposed method was applied successfully for the determination of nicardipine and isradipine in their dosage forms. The results obtained were in good agreement with those obtained using the reference or official methods. A proposal of the reaction pathway was presented.

  9. UNLEARNED LESSONS OF CONTEMPORARY HISTORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А Н Данилов

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the complex geopolitical situation in the global world at the end of the second decade of the 21st century as determined by the consequences of the collapse of the Soviet Union and by the new world order. The author seeks to answer the questions who will define the current geopolitical situation, whose aims it will reflect, what will become the basis of new geopolitical realities, the basis of moral solidarity of humankind, and the spiritual basis of future civilizations. The new challenges give rise to a desperate struggle for different scenarios for building a happy life. Moreover, it is not clear which ideal of the future world will be widely supported as a development guideline. The recognition as such of the standard of living and development of the strongest ones becomes a real threat to the new civilization for it leads to the loss of national interests of sovereign states, and to the loss of an independent future. Today, there is an active search for new theories and concepts that will adequately explain con-temporary global processes. In this thematic context, the author identifies main lessons not learned by the world political elites. The first lesson: new states are not born in an empty place, their common history is a great advantage ensuring prospects for the further development of interstate cooperation. The second lesson: the widespread falsification of history has a negative impact on national, cultural and social-group identity in transforming societies. The third lesson: after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the post-war balance of power was destroyed together with the system of checks and balances in world politics (a bipolar model of the world. The fourth lesson: under radical social transformations, the moral system of the population devaluates with numerous crisis consequences.

  10. Coordinated research project on radiation sterilization and decontamination of pharmaceuticals and pharmaceutical raw materials. CRP report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Radiation processing is a very convenient tool for imparting desirable effects in materials and it has been an area of enormous interest in the last few decades. Radiation processing of synthetic and natural polymers for improving their characteristics is largely used in laboratory and industrial scale. Radiation sterilization is a well developed and established technology for many products. It is especially useful for the treatment of pharmaceuticals due to flexibility of radiation processing to be carried out at any desired temperature, sterilizability of mixed products in kits, offering simultaneous sterilization and modification of polymer based formulations. The success of radiation technology for processing of synthetic and natural polymers and treatment of pharmaceuticals has been based, to a large extent, on empirical knowledge. But now, the applications of natural polymers are being sought in knowledge-demanding areas such as pharmacy and biotechnology. Reliable analytical methods are being developed for controlling of degradation effects of radiation on polymers. Procedures and chemical formulations are being investigated enhancing or preventing degradation effects depending on the desired application of the process. The Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the use of radiation processing for sterilization or decontamination of pharmaceuticals and pharmaceutical raw materials has been completed in 2002. The overall objective of the CRP was to coordinate the research and development programmes carried out in different countries in use of radiation processing for sterilization or decontamination of pharmaceuticals and pharmaceutic raw materials. It has been concluded that in addition to well known advantages of radiation sterilization being a well developed and established technology requiring the control of only one parameter, dose, to achieve sterilization; it is especially useful for the treatment of pharmaceuticals due to flexibility of radiation

  11. Coordinated research project on radiation sterilization and decontamination of pharmaceuticals and pharmaceutical raw materials. CRP report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Radiation processing is a very convenient tool for imparting desirable effects in materials and it has been an area of enormous interest in the last few decades. Radiation processing of synthetic and natural polymers for improving their characteristics is largely used in laboratory and industrial scale. Radiation sterilization is a well developed and established technology for many products. It is especially useful for the treatment of pharmaceuticals due to flexibility of radiation processing to be carried out at any desired temperature, sterilizability of mixed products in kits, offering simultaneous sterilization and modification of polymer based formulations. The success of radiation technology for processing of synthetic and natural polymers and treatment of pharmaceuticals has been based, to a large extent, on empirical knowledge. But now, the applications of natural polymers are being sought in knowledge-demanding areas such as pharmacy and biotechnology. Reliable analytical methods are being developed for controlling of degradation effects of radiation on polymers. Procedures and chemical formulations are being investigated enhancing or preventing degradation effects depending on the desired application of the process. The Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the use of radiation processing for sterilization or decontamination of pharmaceuticals and pharmaceutical raw materials has been completed in 2002. The overall objective of the CRP was to coordinate the research and development programmes carried out in different countries in use of radiation processing for sterilization or decontamination of pharmaceuticals and pharmaceutic raw materials. It has been concluded that in addition to well known advantages of radiation sterilization being a well developed and established technology requiring the control of only one parameter, dose, to achieve sterilization; it is especially useful for the treatment of pharmaceuticals due to flexibility of radiation

  12. Magnetic Field Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Magnetic Field Calculator will calculate the total magnetic field, including components (declination, inclination, horizontal intensity, northerly intensity,...

  13. Salt forms of the pharmaceutical amide dihydrocarbamazepine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buist, Amanda R; Kennedy, Alan R

    2016-02-01

    Carbamazepine (CBZ) is well known as a model active pharmaceutical ingredient used in the study of polymorphism and the generation and comparison of cocrystal forms. The pharmaceutical amide dihydrocarbamazepine (DCBZ) is a less well known material and is largely of interest here as a structural congener of CBZ. Reaction of DCBZ with strong acids results in protonation of the amide functionality at the O atom and gives the salt forms dihydrocarbamazepine hydrochloride {systematic name: [(10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[b,f]azepin-5-yl)(hydroxy)methylidene]azanium chloride, C15H15N2O(+)·Cl(-)}, dihydrocarbamazepine hydrochloride monohydrate {systematic name: [(10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[b,f]azepin-5-yl)(hydroxy)methylidene]azanium chloride monohydrate, C15H15N2O(+)·Cl(-)·H2O} and dihydrocarbamazepine hydrobromide monohydrate {systematic name: [(10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[b,f]azepin-5-yl)(hydroxy)methylidene]azanium bromide monohydrate, C15H15N2O(+)·Br(-)·H2O}. The anhydrous hydrochloride has a structure with two crystallographically independent ion pairs (Z' = 2), wherein both cations adopt syn conformations, whilst the two hydrated species are mutually isostructural and have cations with anti conformations. Compared to neutral dihydrocarbamazepine structures, protonation of the amide group is shown to cause changes to both the molecular (C=O bond lengthening and C-N bond shortening) and the supramolecular structures. The amide-to-amide and dimeric hydrogen-bonding motifs seen for neutral polymorphs and cocrystalline species are replaced here by one-dimensional polymeric constructs with no direct amide-to-amide bonds. The structures are also compared with, and shown to be closely related to, those of the salt forms of the structurally similar pharmaceutical carbamazepine.

  14. [The aspects of pricing policy in Azerbaijan pharmaceutical sector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhalilova, K I; Alieva, K Ia

    2012-01-01

    The effect of macro-, middle- and microeconomic factors on price formation in Azerbaijan pharmaceutical market has been studied. Worldwide pharmaceutical leaders have the goals to become leader on the pharmaceutical market of Azerbaijan and maximize their market share. Non-leaders pharmaceutical companies use different strategies of price formation: prime cost plus markup, or price formation on the base of current prices. It was revealed that domestic pharmaceutical market has high demand elasticity. Future market development is related to stimulation of product development, and hard penetration to the market through realization of price formation strategy. Non-state pharmaceutical organizations to achieve the purpose of survive in conditions of high competition should take in to account the factor perceptions of assortment by customers.

  15. A new e-beam application in the pharmaceutical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadat, Theo; Malcolm, Fiona

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a new electron beam application in the pharmaceutical industry: an in-line self-shielded atropic transfer system using electron beam for surface decontamination of products entering a pharmaceutical filling line. The unit was developed by Linac Technologies in response to the specifications of a multi-national pharmaceutical company, to solve the risk of microbial contamination entering a filling line housed inside an isolator. In order to fit the sterilization unit inside the pharmaceutical plant, a 'miniature' low-energy (200 keV) electron beam accelerator and e-beam tunnel were designed, all conforming to the pharmaceutical good manufacturing practice (GMP) regulations. Process validation using biological indicators is described, with reference to the regulations governing the pharmaceutical industry. Other industrial applications of a small-sized self-shielded electron beam sterilization unit are mentioned

  16. Review on Physicochemical, Chemical, and Biological Processes for Pharmaceutical Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenchen; Yang, Ping

    2018-02-01

    Due to the needs of human life and health, pharmaceutical industry has made great progress in recent years, but it has also brought about severe environmental problems. The presence of pharmaceuticals in natural waters which might pose potential harm to the ecosystems and humans raised increasing concern worldwide. Pharmaceuticals cannot be effectively removed by conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) owing to the complex composition, high concentration of organic contaminants, high salinity and biological toxicity of pharmaceutical wastewater. Therefore, the development of efficient methods is needed to improve the removal effect of pharmaceuticals. This review provides an overview on three types of treatment technologies including physicochemical, chemical and biological processes and their advantages and disadvantages respectively. In addition, the future perspectives of pharmaceutical wastewater treatment are given.

  17. Grid computing in large pharmaceutical molecular modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, Brian L; Johnson, Stephen R

    2008-07-01

    Most major pharmaceutical companies have employed grid computing to expand their compute resources with the intention of minimizing additional financial expenditure. Historically, one of the issues restricting widespread utilization of the grid resources in molecular modeling is the limited set of suitable applications amenable to coarse-grained parallelization. Recent advances in grid infrastructure technology coupled with advances in application research and redesign will enable fine-grained parallel problems, such as quantum mechanics and molecular dynamics, which were previously inaccessible to the grid environment. This will enable new science as well as increase resource flexibility to load balance and schedule existing workloads.

  18. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging in pharmaceutical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, S.K.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging has important applications in pharmaceutical research since it allows specific tissue and disease characterization in animal models noninvasively with excellent anatomical resolution and therefore provides improved ability to monitor the efficacy of novel drugs. The utility of NMR imaging in renal studies to monitor the mechanism of drug action and renal function in rats is described. The extension of the resolution of an NMR image to microscopic domain at higher magnetic field strengths and the utility of NMR microimaging in cerebrovascular and tumour metastasis studies in mice are discussed. (author). 40 refs., 14 figs

  19. [Pharmaceutical marketers: professional and informative aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevia, A; López-Valpuesta, F J; Vázquez, J A; Castellanos, A

    1993-10-01

    This study tries to know the opinion of pharmaceutical detailers about their profession, as well as their pharmacological knowledge. 75 questionnaires were distributed to an equal number of detailers. The questionnaires were composed of two parts. In the first one, several questions about their profession were posed. In the second one, the questions were about Pharmacology. The main results were that most of them have got only lower degrees; however, they all have carried out training courses in their companies. With regard to pharmacological questions, percentage of success was 61%.

  20. The uncertainty budget in pharmaceutical industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj

    of their uncertainty, exactly as described in GUM [2]. Pharmaceutical industry has therefore over the last 5 years shown increasing interest in accreditation according to ISO 17025 [3], and today uncertainty budgets are being developed for all so-called critical measurements. The uncertainty of results obtained...... that the uncertainty of a particular result is independent of the method used for its estimation. Several examples of uncertainty budgets for critical parameters based on the bottom-up procedure will be discussed, and it will be shown how the top-down method is used as a means of verifying uncertainty budgets, based...

  1. THE STUDY FOR REGIONAL RETAIL PHARMACEUTICAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Sokolova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacy organizations are an element of regional pharmaceutical market infrastructure formation. They have different character and activity type, organizational and legal forms, types of properties. The revelation of the features of retail pharmaceutical market of Yaroslavl oblast was the purpose of the study. The analysis of the data of regional department of Federal Service on Surveillance in Healthcare and Social Development of Russian Federation  n Yaroslavl oblast in the beginning of 2014 showed that there are 137 acting commercial entities, which have licenses for pharmaceutical activity. The region has 487  pharmacy organizations which implement pharmaceutical activity of state (14.6%, municipal (7.4%, and private (78.0% forms of ownership. Some companies function in Yaroslavl (43.9% and Rybinsk (22.4% municipal district. The analysis of organization and legal forms revealed that 48.9% of pharmacy organizations are registered as ltd, 14.6% are state, and 14.2% are private entrepreneurs, public limited companies amount to 10.9%, the rest pharmacy organizations are included into municipal unitary enterprises and private limited companies – 7.39% and 4.1% correspondingly. The structure of retail market is represented by single pharmacy organizations (51.1% as well as organizations joined into pharmacy chains from two and more PO (48.9%. The share of commercial entities which include one PO amounted to 14.4% of all PO. Share of pharmacy chains (42.3% which include from 2 to 9 PO are 46.8% of all PO. Pharmacy chains, which have more than 9 retails spots amount to 6.6% of the total number of commercial entities. 38.8% of PO function within them. Pharmacy chains prevalence (42.3%, joined into 9 PO; pharmacy chains, which have more than 9 PO, and include state sector PO (14.6% are the features of the regional market.

  2. Radiation sterilization of pharmaceuticals (eg chloramphenicol)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeegers, F.; Tilquin, B.

    1991-01-01

    In connection with the ongoing world-wide application of irradiation as a new technology for sterilization, the identification of the drugs products is very important. Introduction of radiosterilization of pharmaceuticals is proceeding at a slower rate than that for disposable medical supplies; it is the responsibility of the manufacturer to prove that degradation of products is safe. Major advantages in the use of radiation as a sterilization procedure are high penetrating power, small temperature rise, ease of control and minimal degradation of irradiated solid drugs [fr

  3. Private versus Social Incentives for Pharmaceutical Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    González, Paula; Macho-Stadler, Ines; Pérez-Castrillo, David

    2015-01-01

    We provide a theoretical framework to contribute to the current debate regarding the tendency of pharmaceutical companies to direct their R&D toward marketing products that are “follow-on” drugs of already existing drugs, rather than toward the development of breakthrough drugs. We construct a model with a population of patients who can be treated with drugs that are horizontally and vertically differentiated. In addition to a pioneering drug, a new drug can be marketed as the result of an in...

  4. Globalization in the pharmaceutical industry, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadio Tarabusi, C; Vickery, G

    1998-01-01

    This is the second of a two-part report on the pharmaceutical industry. Part II begins with a discussion of foreign direct investment and inter-firm networks, which covers international mergers, acquisitions, and minority participation; market shares of foreign-controlled firms; international collaboration agreements (with a special note on agreements in biotechnology); and licensing agreements. The final section of the report covers governmental policies on health and safety regulation, price regulation, industry and technology, trade, foreign investment, protection of intellectual property, and competition.

  5. In silico toxicology for the pharmaceutical sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valerio, Luis G.

    2009-01-01

    The applied use of in silico technologies (a.k.a. computational toxicology, in silico toxicology, computer-assisted tox, e-tox, i-drug discovery, predictive ADME, etc.) for predicting preclinical toxicological endpoints, clinical adverse effects, and metabolism of pharmaceutical substances has become of high interest to the scientific community and the public. The increased accessibility of these technologies for scientists and recent regulations permitting their use for chemical risk assessment supports this notion. The scientific community is interested in the appropriate use of such technologies as a tool to enhance product development and safety of pharmaceuticals and other xenobiotics, while ensuring the reliability and accuracy of in silico approaches for the toxicological and pharmacological sciences. For pharmaceutical substances, this means active and impurity chemicals in the drug product may be screened using specialized software and databases designed to cover these substances through a chemical structure-based screening process and algorithm specific to a given software program. A major goal for use of these software programs is to enable industry scientists not only to enhance the discovery process but also to ensure the judicious use of in silico tools to support risk assessments of drug-induced toxicities and in safety evaluations. However, a great amount of applied research is still needed, and there are many limitations with these approaches which are described in this review. Currently, there is a wide range of endpoints available from predictive quantitative structure-activity relationship models driven by many different computational software programs and data sources, and this is only expected to grow. For example, there are models based on non-proprietary and/or proprietary information specific to assessing potential rodent carcinogenicity, in silico screens for ICH genetic toxicity assays, reproductive and developmental toxicity, theoretical

  6. Financial Times Global Pharmaceutical & Biotechnology Conference 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scattereggia, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The Financial Times Global Pharmaceutical & Biotechnology conference, held in London, included topics covering the current and future challenges confronting the pharma and biotech industry, and presented possible solutions to those challenges. This conference report highlights selected presentations on the industry challenges for big pharma companies, diversification as a solution to industry problems, overcoming challenges with collaborations and M&As, and the role of emerging markets in the pharma industry. Other subjects discussed included the expected impact of personalized medicine on the industry, the entry of big pharma into the generics market and the problems that are confronting the small pharma and biotech industry.

  7. Changing R&D models in research-based pharmaceutical companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhmacher, Alexander; Gassmann, Oliver; Hinder, Markus

    2016-04-27

    New drugs serving unmet medical needs are one of the key value drivers of research-based pharmaceutical companies. The efficiency of research and development (R&D), defined as the successful approval and launch of new medicines (output) in the rate of the monetary investments required for R&D (input), has declined since decades. We aimed to identify, analyze and describe the factors that impact the R&D efficiency. Based on publicly available information, we reviewed the R&D models of major research-based pharmaceutical companies and analyzed the key challenges and success factors of a sustainable R&D output. We calculated that the R&D efficiencies of major research-based pharmaceutical companies were in the range of USD 3.2-32.3 billion (2006-2014). As these numbers challenge the model of an innovation-driven pharmaceutical industry, we analyzed the concepts that companies are following to increase their R&D efficiencies: (A) Activities to reduce portfolio and project risk, (B) activities to reduce R&D costs, and (C) activities to increase the innovation potential. While category A comprises measures such as portfolio management and licensing, measures grouped in category B are outsourcing and risk-sharing in late-stage development. Companies made diverse steps to increase their innovation potential and open innovation, exemplified by open source, innovation centers, or crowdsourcing, plays a key role in doing so. In conclusion, research-based pharmaceutical companies need to be aware of the key factors, which impact the rate of innovation, R&D cost and probability of success. Depending on their company strategy and their R&D set-up they can opt for one of the following open innovators: knowledge creator, knowledge integrator or knowledge leverager.

  8. Preconditions of forming of loyalty management model in pharmaceutical institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Molodozhonova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The first stage of the mechanism for implementing of two-level model of efficient management of loyalty was justified. It is based on the fundamental value systems of the formation of consumer commitment and institutional commitment of pharmaceutical professionals. The stage involves recruitment, selection and adaptation period for pharmaceutical professionals and pre-use of axiological questioning of consumers of pharmaceutic goods.

  9. Microbiological testing of pharmaceuticals and cosmetics in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Zeitoun, Hend; Kassem, Mervat; Raafat, Dina; AbouShlieb, Hamida; Fanaki, Nourhan

    2015-01-01

    Background Microbial contamination of pharmaceuticals poses a great problem to the pharmaceutical manufacturing process, especially from a medical as well as an economic point of view. Depending upon the product and its intended use, the identification of isolates should not merely be limited to the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) indicator organisms. Results Eighty-five pre-used non-sterile pharmaceuticals collected from random consumers in Egypt were examined for the eventual presence of b...

  10. Pharmaceutical expenditure forecast model to support health policy decision making

    OpenAIRE

    R?muzat, C?cile; Urbinati, Duccio; Kornfeld, ?sa; Vataire, Anne-Lise; Cetinsoy, Laurent; Aball?a, Samuel; Mzoughi, Olfa; Toumi, Mondher

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective: With constant incentives for healthcare payers to contain their pharmaceutical budgets, modelling policy decision impact became critical. The objective of this project was to test the impact of various policy decisions on pharmaceutical budget (developed for the European Commission for the project ‘European Union (EU) Pharmaceutical expenditure forecast’ – http://ec.europa.eu/health/healthcare/key_documents/index_en.htm).Methods: A model was built to assess policy sc...

  11. FACTORS AFFECTING EMPLOYEE JOB SATISFACTION OF PHARMACEUTICAL SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Mosammod Mahamuda Parvin; M M Nurul Kabir

    2011-01-01

    The Pharmaceutical sector plays a vital role in underpinning the economic development of a country. This study attempts to evaluate job satisfaction of employees in different pharmaceutical companies. It focuses on the relative importance of job satisfaction factors and their impacts on the overall job satisfaction of employees. It also investigates the impacts of pharmaceutical type, work experience, age, and sex differences on the attitudes toward job Satisfaction. The result shows that sal...

  12. The pharmaceutical sector inquiry: 'Hamlet' in a nutshell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Exter, André

    2010-03-01

    In July 2009, the European Commission (DG Competition) published a Communication on the pharmaceutical sector. This inquiry was launched because there were some indications that competition in the pharmaceutical market in the European Union might not be working well. The report examines the reasons for the observed delay. This article analyses the outcomes from a critical standpoint, arguing in favour of enhanced 'soft law' accountability mechanisms in the pharmaceutical sector, defending conditional patenting and the introduction of a Community patent.

  13. Pricing and Reimbursement in U.S. Pharmaceutical Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Newhouse, Joseph Paul; Berndt, Ernst R.

    2010-01-01

    In this survey chapter on pricing and reimbursement in U.S. pharmaceutical markets, we first provide background information on important federal legislation, institutional details regarding distribution channel logistics, definitions of alternative price measures, related historical developments, and reasons why price discrimination is highly prevalent among branded pharmaceuticals. We then present a theoretical framework for the pricing of branded pharmaceuticals, without and then in the pre...

  14. New perspectives for visual characterization of pharmaceutical solids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laitinen, Niklas; Antikainen, Osmo; Rantanen, Jukka

    2004-01-01

    The utilization of descriptive image information in pharmaceutical powder technology is rather limited. Consequently, the development of this discipline is a challenge within physical characterization of pharmaceutical solids. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate an inventive visual...... in particle size analysis also enabling the evaluation of the further product quality in the end of the granulation process. The idea of characterization of bulk surface images opens new perspectives for characterization of pharmaceutical solids....

  15. Design of Continuous Crystallizers for Production of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capellades Mendez, Gerard; Christensen, Troels V.

    The production of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) is conducted primarily in batch processes. This manufacturing approach is reinforced by a patent-driven business model and the need to minimize the process development times for newly patented drugs. However, the regulatory and business...... environments are now changing. The increasing costs of drug development, combined with the strict regulations and the competition from generic manufacturers, have pushed pharmaceutical companies to seek cheaper and more sustainable production methods. Transition from batch to Continuous Pharmaceutical...

  16. Ozonation for degradation of pharmaceutical in hospital wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bester, Kai; Hansen, Kamilla S; Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini

    -pollutants (Antoniou et al., 2013). In the present work, ozonation of biological treated hospital wastewater spiked with pharmaceuticals were performed to determine the required ozone dose for 90 % removal of the investigated pharmaceuticals. Effluents with different DOC level were used to investigate the effect...... of DOC on the removal of the pharmaceuticals. Furthermore, the effect of pH on ozone decomposition was investigated in relevant pH range....

  17. The behaviour of pharmaceuticals in anaerobic digester sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals are biologically active compounds that may be consumed in hundreds of tonnes per year, and which are excreted into municipal sewerage systems. Many pharmaceuticals persist during sewage treatment, and significant environmental risk has been linked to incomplete removal of pharmaceuticals. Evaluation of this risk is important and should be as representative as possible, taking into consideration all significant exposure routes and removal processes. Sludge treatment processes a...

  18. Radiation dose calculations for orally administered radio-pharmaceuticals in upper gastrointestinal disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, R.K.; Malmud, L.S.; Knight, L.C.; Siegel, J.A.; Stern, H.; Zelac, R.

    1983-01-01

    Radiation burden estimates for upper gastrointestinal function studies employing the following orally administered radiopharmaceuticals are reported. Technetium 99m sulfur colloid (Tc-99m-SC) in water, Indium-111-DTPA in water, Tc-99m-DTPA in water, Indium-113m DTPA in water, Tc-99m Ovalbumin, Tc-99m sulfur colloid in a cooked egg, Tc-99m sulfur colloid in vivo labeled chicken liver, and Indium-111 colloid in vivo labeled chicken liver. Orally administered radiopharmaceuticals for upper gastrointestinal studies afford clinician and investigator valuable clinical and physiologic information not previously obtainable using other techniques. The radiation burden to the patient from single or sequential studies is acceptable in comparison to fluoroscopy which results in approximately 5000 millirem per minute of exposure. The variety of preparations listed above should make these types of studies available in any routinely equipped nuclear medicine radiopharmacy laboratory

  19. Interactions and incompatibilities of pharmaceutical excipients with active pharmaceutical ingredients: a comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonali S. Bharate

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies of active drug/excipient compatibility represent an important phase in the preformulation stage of the development of all dosage forms. The potential physical and chemical interactions between drugs and excipients can affect the chemical nature, the stability and bioavailability of drugs and, consequently, their therapeutic efficacy and safety. The present review covers the literature reports of interaction and incompatibilities of commonly used pharmaceutical excipients with different active pharmaceutical ingredients in solid dosage forms. Examples of active drug/excipient interactions, such as transacylation, the Maillard browning reaction, acid base reactions and physical changes are discussed for different active pharmaceutical ingredients belonging to different therapeutic categories viz antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, anti-convulsant, antibiotic, bronchodialator, antimalarial, antiemetic, antiamoebic, antipsychotic, antidepressant, anticancer, anticoagulant and sedative/hypnotic drugs and vitamins. Once the solid-state reactions of a pharmaceutical system are understood, the necessary steps can be taken to avoid reactivity and improve the stability of drug substances and products.

  20. [Chinese medicine industry 4.0:advancing digital pharmaceutical manufacture toward intelligent pharmaceutical manufacture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yi-Yu; Qu, Hai-Bin; Zhang, Bo-Li

    2016-01-01

    A perspective analysis on the technological innovation in pharmaceutical engineering of Chinese medicine unveils a vision on "Future Factory" of Chinese medicine industry in mind. The strategy as well as the technical roadmap of "Chinese medicine industry 4.0" is proposed, with the projection of related core technology system. It is clarified that the technical development path of Chinese medicine industry from digital manufacture to intelligent manufacture. On the basis of precisely defining technical terms such as process control, on-line detection and process quality monitoring for Chinese medicine manufacture, the technical concepts and characteristics of intelligent pharmaceutical manufacture as well as digital pharmaceutical manufacture are elaborated. Promoting wide applications of digital manufacturing technology of Chinese medicine is strongly recommended. Through completely informationized manufacturing processes and multi-discipline cluster innovation, intelligent manufacturing technology of Chinese medicine should be developed, which would provide a new driving force for Chinese medicine industry in technology upgrade, product quality enhancement and efficiency improvement. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  1. RFID in the pharmaceutical industry: addressing counterfeits with technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Douglas

    2014-11-01

    The use of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) in the pharmaceutical industry has grown in recent years. The technology has matured from its specialized tracking and retail uses to a systemic part of supply chain management in international pharmaceutical production and distribution. Counterfeit drugs, however, remain a significant challenge for governments, pharmaceutical companies, clinicians, and patients and the use of RFID to track these compounds represents an opportunity for development. This paper discusses the medical, technological, and economic factors that support widespread adoption of RFID technology in the pharmaceutical industry in an effort to prevent counterfeit medicines from harming patients and brand equity.

  2. Internet pharmaceutical sales: attributes, concerns, and future forecast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckel, Katy; Capozzoli, Ernest A

    2003-01-01

    Internet pharmaceutical sales continue to skyrocket as healthcare providers and consumers are increasingly relying on the efficiencies and convenience that is available via such transactions. Managed care companies, increasing demands to reduce healthcare inefficiencies while maximizing the quality of patient care is a significant contributing factor to the expanding utilization and success of online pharmaceutical sales. However, with the expansion of Internet pharmaceutical sales, healthcare providers, pharmacy benefit management and insurance companies, and consumers realize new opportunities and risks. This paper will review the attributes and concerns associated with online pharmaceutical sales, discussing current and pending legislation intended to more effectively manage these parameters.

  3. Wilson and Gisvold's textbook of organic medicinal and pharmaceutical chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Charles Owens; Beale, John Marlowe; Block, John H

    2011-01-01

    "For over half a century, Wilson and Gisvold's Textbook of Organic Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry has served the discipline of medicinal chemistry for both graduate and undergraduate pharmacy...

  4. Electrochemical treatment of pharmaceutical and industrial wastewater by anodic oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menapace, H. M.; Fellerer, M.; Treschnitzer, M.

    2009-01-01

    In modern medicine pharmaceuticals play a decisive role: because of an increased life expectancy and intensive care medicine an increasing amount of pharmaceuticals is produced. thus these substances are consumed in a mass of tons per year in industrialized countries. Wastewater effluents from sewage treatment plants (STP) are important point sources for residues of pharmaceuticals and complexing agents in the aquatic environment. For this reason a research project, which started in December 2006, was established to eliminate pharmaceutical substances and complexing agents found in wastewater as micropollutants. (Author)

  5. A perspective on PSE in pharmaceutical process development and innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Cervera Padrell, Albert Emili; Woodley, John

    2012-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry is under growing pressure to increase efficiency, both in production and in process development. This paper discusses the central role of Process Systems Engineering (PSE) methods and tools in pharmaceutical process development and innovation, and searches for answers...... to questions such as: Which PSE methods can be applied readily? Where is more method development needed? The paper covers key subjects for development of economically and environmentally sustainable pharmaceutical processes, including Process Analytical Technology in its broadest sense, continuous...... pharmaceutical manufacturing and green processes, and is illustrated with a series of short examples taken from the literature and ongoing research projects....

  6. New spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of nizatidine in bulk form and in pharmaceutical preparations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasakal, Ayça; Ulu, Sevgi Tatar

    2013-08-01

    A simple, accurate and highly sensitive spectrofluorimetric method has been developed for determination of nizatidine in pure form and in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The method is based on the reaction between nizatidine and 1-dimethylaminonaphthalene-5-sulphonyl chloride in carbonate buffer, pH 10.5, to yield a highly fluorescent derivative peaking at 513 nm after excitation at 367 nm. Various factors affecting the fluorescence intensity of nizatidin-dansyl derivative were studied and conditions were optimized. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines. The fluorescence concentration plot was rectilinear over the range of 25-300 ng/mL. Limit of detection and limit of quantification were calculated as 11.71 and 35.73 ng/mL, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to pharmaceutical preparations.

  7. Do large mergers increase or decrease the productivity of pharmaceutical R&D?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringel, Michael S; Choy, Michael K

    2017-12-01

    There is current uncertainty regarding the effects of mergers on pharmaceutical R&D productivity, with various mechanisms reported by which mergers could either help or harm R&D, and mixed empirical findings in prior analyses. Here, we present an analysis that is novel in several ways: we use downstream measures of R&D productivity, account for both inputs and outputs in our calculations, and use a self-controlled design. We find that recent large pharmaceutical mergers are associated with statistically significant increases in R&D productivity. These results are perhaps not surprising in light of the broader literature on R&D productivity that points to two factors as instrumental in driving higher R&D productivity (depth of scientific information, and objectivity of decision-making based on that information), both of which could be expected to increase because of a merger. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fluxes of 13 selected pharmaceuticals in the water cycle of Stockholm, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlberg, C; Björlenius, B; Paxéus, N

    2011-01-01

    Mass flows of 13 pharmaceutical active ingredients (APIS) found in drinking water were studied in the water cycle of Stockholm. Data were collected by analyzing samples of surface water, raw water and drinking water as well as influents, effluents and sludges from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) in Stockholm area. A mass balance was performed, based on sold amounts of pharmaceuticals and the measured concentrations in water and sludge. The selected APls were all present in WWTP effluents and the removal rates for many of them were poor. Mass balance calculations showed that the three studied WWTPs in Stockholm release considerable amounts of the selected APIs into the Baltic Sea while the portions ending up in WWTP sludge were significantly lower. The levels of APIs found in drinking water are low at present, but may increase in the future unless the releases from WWTPs in the catchment of Lake Mälären are mitigated.

  9. Old Yet New--Pharmaceuticals from Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Peter J.

    2001-02-01

    Plants or their crude extracts have been used since prehistory to treat human ailments. Plants are still used in this way in many parts of the world, but Western scientific medicine has tended to isolate active compounds, or make derivatives of them, for use as drugs. Compounds produced by the plant have been important pharmaceuticals since the isolation of morphine almost two hundred years ago and new naturally occurring compounds such as paclitaxel are continually being introduced commercially. Bioactive molecules may also be produced from chemicals found in plants by chemical modification using synthetic chemistry or microorganisms (as in the production of steroids). A third major contribution of plant chemicals to drugs is their utilization as templates for the design of new compounds made by synthesis (e.g. the discovery of aspirin and related compounds from substances in willow bark). New pharmaceuticals from plants are being discovered by examining traditional medicines and by large-scale bioassay screening processes. In addition, the chemical survival systems of plants that exist in hostile environments are receiving increasing attention as leads to discover active compounds. The knowledge of botanical relationships helps find new sources of known compounds of interest and novel compounds with similar structures from related species. Future prospects for the discovery of new compounds from plants are broadened by the new technologies of gene manipulation, tissue culture, and combinatorial chemistry, so it is very likely that natural products from plants will continue to play an important role in the fight against disease.

  10. Private versus social incentives for pharmaceutical innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Paula; Macho-Stadler, Inés; Pérez-Castrillo, David

    2016-12-01

    We provide a theoretical framework to contribute to the current debate regarding the tendency of pharmaceutical companies to direct their R&D toward marketing products that are "follow-on" drugs of already existing drugs, rather than toward the development of breakthrough drugs. We construct a model with a population of patients who can be treated with drugs that are horizontally and vertically differentiated. In addition to a pioneering drug, a new drug can be marketed as the result of an innovative process. We analyze physician prescription choices and the optimal pricing decision of an innovative firm. We also characterize the incentives of the innovative firm to conduct R&D activities, disentangling the quest for breakthrough drugs from the firm effort to develop follow-on drugs. Our results offer theoretical support for the conventional wisdom that pharmaceutical firms devote too many resources to conducting R&D activities that lead to incremental innovations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Patents for critical pharmaceuticals: the AZT case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackiron, E

    1991-01-01

    Patents and other statutory types of market protections are used in the United States to promote scientific research and innovation. This incentive is especially important in research intensive fields such as the pharmaceutical industry. Unfortunately, these same protections often result in higher monopoly pricing once a successful product is brought to market. Usually this consequence is viewed as the necessary evil of an incentive system that encourages costly research and development by promising large rewards to the successful inventor. However, in the case of the AIDS drug Zidovudine (AZT), the high prices charged by the pharmaceutical company owning the drug have led to public outcry and a re-examination of government incentive systems. This Note traces the evolution of these incentive programs--the patent system, and, to a lesser extent, the orphan drug program--and details the conflicting interests involved in their development. It then demonstrates how the AZT problem brings the interest of providing inventors with incentives for risky innovative efforts into a sharp collision with the ultimate goal of such systems: ensuring that the public has access to the resulting products at a reasonable price. Finally, the Note describes how Congress and the courts have attempted to resolve these problems in the past, and how they might best try to solve the AZT problem in the near future.

  12. Pharmaceutical advertising as a consumer empowerment device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, P H

    2001-01-01

    Pharmaceutical companies have greatly increased their level of "direct-to-consumer" (DTC) advertising in recent years. For 1998, estimates are that over $1.1 billion was spent on this form of advertising, increased from $850 million in 1997 and $600 million in 1996. In 1998, 84 separate drugs were advertised to consumers. The impetus was a decision in August of 1997 by the Food and Drug Administration to reduce the restrictions on DTC advertising on television. As a result, such ads have become very common on TV, and 32 products were advertised on TV in 1998. Pharmaceutical companies advertise because they think that advertising will make money for them. But how will this make money? It will make money by providing consumers with the information they need to make proper decisions about medication. That is, DTC advertising is profitable exactly because it empowers consumers and enables them to purchase useful drugs. The goals of advertising companies and consumers are both for consumers to have information about the most beneficial drug for particular conditions, and so advertising is beneficial both to manufacturers and to consumers. This article describes emerging trends in DTC within the context of the life sciences sector.

  13. Pharmaceutical wastewater treatment: a physicochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, M.

    2007-01-01

    A physicochemical study for the treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater was performed. Objective of the laboratory investigation was to study the removal of color, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), turbidity and phenol and bring them up to the allowable limits for reuse purposes. Efficiency of coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, sand filtration followed by activated carbon adsorption was determined. It was found that tested coagulants (alum, ferric chloride, and ferrous sulphate) are not much effective and required high dosage for the removal; of TSS, BOD, COD and turbidity. Alum was found to be more effective among tested coagulants and reduce TSS, BOD, COD and turbidity 79.6%, 34.8, 48.6% and 69.2% respectively. Sand filtration further reduced the studied parameters 97.7%, 95.7%, 93.9% and 76.9% respectively. As the concentration of phenol in the studied pharmaceutical wastewater was 100 mg/l, granular activated carbon was used to remove phenol up to the allowable limit for reuse purpose. Activated carbon adsorption further reduces phenol, TDS, TSS, BOD, and COD up to 99.9%, 99.1%, 21.4%, 81.3% and 71.1% respectively. High removal of color observed after activated carbon adsorption. It was concluded that the suggested treatment scheme is suitable to bring the effluent quality up to the water quality standards. (author)

  14. ASEAN GMP and pharmaceutical industries in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soesilo, S; Sitorus, U

    1995-01-01

    Indonesia was appointed by the ASEAN Technical Cooperation in Pharmaceutical as a focal point and to coordinate the development of practical guidelines for the implementation of GMP. The ASEAN GMP Guidelines were endorsed by the ASEAN Technical Cooperation in Pharmaceutical in 1988, which among others required separation of Beta-Lactam dedicated facilities and three degrees of cleanliness for production areas. As it was realised that drug manufacturers in developing countries need more detailed guidelines to be able to implement the GMP, an Operational Manual for GMP was also prepared for providing examples of SOPs lay-outs, documentation etc. It was agreed by the technical cooperation group to leave the implementation of GMP to each member country. However, the ASEAN Manual for Inspection of GMP was drafted and endorsed by the group and training of ASEAN Drug Inspectors was organized to support the implementation. The ASEAN GMP is being implemented in Indonesia through a five-year, stepwise implementation plan, starting in 1989.

  15. The precautionary principle and pharmaceutical risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callréus, Torbjörn

    2005-01-01

    Although it is often vigorously contested and has several different formulations, the precautionary principle has in recent decades guided environmental policy making in the face of scientific uncertainty. Originating from a criticism of traditional risk assessment, the key element of the precautionary principle is the justification for acting in the face of uncertain knowledge about risks. In the light of its growing invocation in various areas that are related to public health and recently in relation to drug safety issues, this article presents an introductory review of the main elements of the precautionary principle and some arguments conveyed by its advocates and opponents. A comparison of the characteristics of pharmaceutical risk management and environmental policy making (i.e. the setting within which the precautionary principle evolved), indicates that several important differences exist. If believed to be of relevance, in order to avoid arbitrary and unpredictable decision making, both the interpretation and possible application of the precautionary principle need to be adapted to the conditions of pharmaceutical risk management.

  16. Editorial Nano structures for Medicine and Pharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing-Jie, L.; Kumar, A.; Donglu, S.; Daxiang, C.

    2012-01-01

    The rapid developments in nano structured materials and nano technology will have profound impact in many areas of biomedical applications including delivery of drugs and biomolecules, tissue engineering, detection of bio markers, cancer diagnosis, cancer therapy, and imaging. This field is expanding quickly, and a lot of work is ongoing in the design, characterization, synthesis, and application of materials, for controlling shape and size at nanometer scale to develop highly advanced materials for biomedical application and even to design better pharmaceutical products. In recent years, novel nano structure with multi functionalities has been focused on the use of nano structures toward solving problems of biology and medicine. The main scope of this special issue is to demonstrate the latest achievement of nano technology and its application in nano medicine particularly in new approaches for drug delivery such as targeted drug delivery system, nano structure for drug storage, nano materials for tissue engineering, medical diagnosis and treatment, and generation of new kinds of materials from biological sources. Therefore, many critical issues in nano structured materials, particularly their applications in biomedicine, must be addressed before clinical applications. This special issue devotes several review and research articles encompassing various aspects of nano materials for medicine and pharmaceuticals.

  17. Pharmaceutical ethnobotany in Northern Navarra (Iberian Peninsula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavero, R Y; Akerreta, S; Calvo, M I

    2011-01-07

    This paper provides significant ethnobotanical information on pharmaceutical plant uses in Northern Navarra from an area known both for its high biological diversity and its cultural significance, suggesting the survival of uses lost elsewhere. Collect, analyze and evaluate the ethnobotanical knowledge about medicinal plants in Northern Navarra (Iberian Peninsula) with 4243 km(2) and 71,069 inhabitants. We performed semi-structured interviews with 253 informants (mean age 69; 61% women, 39% men) in 120 locations, identified the plant reported and analyzed the results, comparing them with those from other territories. The informants reported data on 174 medicinal plants belonging to 63 botanical families. This work is focused on human medicinal plant uses, which represent 98% of the pharmaceutical uses (1725 use reports). The species with the highest number of cites are Chamaemelum nobile, Sambucus nigra and Verbena officinalis, with a long tradition of use in The Mountain (Navarra). All different plant parts are used; aerial part is exploited more frequently than other plant parts. Most of the listed remedies use a single ingredient, typically soaked in water. Usually, the administration is primarily oral followed by topical applications. The main ailments treated are digestive troubles, wounds and dermatological problems, and respiratory affections. Informants reported 24 new or scarcely cited uses for 23 medicinal plants. For 35% of the species (8) we have not found bibliographical references in the scientific literature and 48% (11) have only one to three references. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pharmaceuticals and Their Impact on the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomić, S

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceuticals are a class of emerging environmental contaminants that are extensively and increasingly being used in human and veterinary medicine and are released continuously into the environment. A variety of pharmaceuticals have been detected in many environmental samples worldwide. The establishment of chemical analysis methods able to determine more polar compounds allow the determination and identification of trace quantities of drugs and their metabolites. Most regulatory agencies require that environmental risk assessment is performed as an integral part of their approval procedures for the marketing for medicinal products. Marketing approval for medicinal products in the European Union is regulated by the Directive 2001/83/EC. Based on the Directive, the European Medicines Agency (EMA has published guidelines describing the procedure for the environmental risk assessment for medicinal products marketed in the EU. The requirements for the Environmental risk assessment (ERA in Croatia are regulated by the Medicinal Products Act (Official Gazette No. 71/07 and the Ordinance on the Procedure and Method for Granting Marketing Authorisations for Medicinal Products (Official Gazette No. 113/08.

  19. The individual teacher in lesson study collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skott, Charlotte Krog; Møller, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    used in lesson study research. Design/methodology/approach The authors use collective case studies. By being participant observers the authors provide detailed descriptions of two selected teachers’ lived experiences of lesson study collaboration. In addition to gain first-hand insights, the authors...... in the participation of each of the two teachers during a two-year lesson study project. By comparing these shifts the authors identify significant conditions for their individual learning. Research limitations/implications Although the study is small scale, both the insights into the different ways in which teachers...... participated and the theoretical insights might be valuable for other lesson study research approaches. Practical implications This paper provides valuable insights into conditions that might influence teachers’ participation in lesson study activities, especially in cultures with little experience of lesson...

  20. Managing prices for hospital pharmaceuticals: a successful strategy for New Zealand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordoff, June M; Norris, Pauline T; Reith, David M

    2005-01-01

    In 2002, as part of a National Hospital Pharmaceutical Strategy, the New Zealand (NZ) government agency PHARMAC commenced a 3-year period of negotiating prices for 90% of hospital pharmaceuticals on behalf of all NZ public hospitals. The present study was undertaken to determine the effects of this first year of "pooled procurement." Using price changes and volume data for each of their top 150 pharmaceutical items, chief pharmacists at 11 public hospitals calculated projected cost savings for the financial year July 2003 to June 2004. Researchers calculated total projected savings for all 11 hospitals, and for three types of hospitals. Estimates of projected savings were made for all 29 major public hospitals by using savings per bed and savings per bed-day. A sensitivity analysis was undertaken. Items showing savings were categorized by using the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification system. For the 11 hospitals, the top 150 items comprised 612 different items. Projected savings for 2003 to 2004 were NZ dollar 2,652,814, NZ dollar 658,984, and NZ dollar 127,952 for tertiary, secondary, and rural/special hospitals, respectively. Percentage savings as a median (range) of the total top 150 expenditure were: tertiary 5.28% (3.09-16.05%), secondary 7.41% (4.67-12.85%), and rural/special 9.55% (6.27-10.09%). For all 29 hospitals, estimated projected savings were NZ dollar 5,234,919 (NZ dollar 3,304,606-NZ dollar 8,044,482) by savings per bed, and NZ dollar 5,255,781 (NZ dollar 2,936,850-NZ dollar 8,693,239) by savings per bed-day. The main contributors to savings were: agents for infections, the nervous system, musculoskeletal system, and blood/blood-forming organs. The first year of pooled procurement under the National Hospital Pharmaceutical Strategy (2002-2003) has resulted in moderate savings. For all 29 major public hospitals, savings of around NZ dollar 5.2 million (dollar 2.9 million-dollar 8.7 million) or 3.7% were projected for 2003 to 2004. Longer

  1. CO2 flowrate calculator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carossi, Jean-Claude

    1969-02-01

    A CO 2 flowrate calculator has been designed for measuring and recording the gas flow in the loops of Pegase reactor. The analog calculator applies, at every moment, Bernoulli's formula to the values that characterize the carbon dioxide flow through a nozzle. The calculator electronics is described (it includes a sampling calculator and a two-variable function generator), with its amplifiers, triggers, interpolator, multiplier, etc. Calculator operation and setting are presented

  2. The Employed Neurosurgeon: Essential Lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzil, Deborah L; Zusman, Edie E

    2017-04-01

    Neurosurgeons are highly specialized surgeons whose pride is mastery of the complexity of form and function that is the nervous system and then knowing when and how these require surgical intervention. Following years of arduous postgraduate education, neurosurgeons enter the world of practice that is not only daunting in its intricacies of regulations, mandates, and unknown business practices, but also changing at a meteoric pace. Overwhelmingly, graduating residents and fellows are choosing to practice as employed physicians, a trend that is new in its magnitude and also changed because of the rapid evolution of large health systems. Case studies of challenges other employed surgical specialists have faced can provide critical and important education for any neurosurgeon in this arena. As with the lessons of all case studies, the teachings are remarkably universal, but how those lessons apply to an individual's specific situation will require personalized adaptation. Copyright © 2016 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons.

  3. USING LITERATURE IN GEOGRAPHY LESSONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROXANA HOBAI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Including in a novel information about relief, climate, vegetation, fauna and various aspects of socio-economic life can make literature a real source of geographical information. Using realistic literary works in Geography lessons has multiple benefits, which are not limited only to geographical knowledge. In this paper there are some fragments from literature, suggestions of activities about how to integrate the fragments during Geography lessons and the results of these activities. The activities are from fifth to twelfth grade, passing through a first example of water pollution resulting from a Hercules labour, through the lyricism of the aurora borealis description, through the dramatic life of a refugee from Darfur, through the Dobrudgea winter landscape, through the grey urban landscape of Bucharest in the 90s and so on. Students were put into learning situations that stimulated their creativity, developed communication competencies and enriched their general knowledge.

  4. Lipids in pharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Rodríguez, María Luisa

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a review of the applications of lipids in the pharmaceutical field has been reported. In a first stage, different lipids used as excipients in cosmetics and medicines have been described. Many vegetable oils are used in this sense: almond oil, apricot oil, avocado oil, borage oil, coffee oil, safflower oil, etc.; from de animal source, fish oil and bird oil can be employed as excipients in cosmetical formulations. Fats and waxes may be also used for this purpose. A broad range of phospholipids are suitable for use in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and diagnosis. These substances are used as vehicle for therapeutic substances, such as liposomes. Finally, a study of lipids, as a function of their biological activity, as active substances for the elaboration of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics or nutritional supplements, was carried out. Carotenoids, retinoids, tocopherols are used for their antioxidant properties, that are important to health and diagnostic medicine.En el presente trabajo se ha llevado a cabo una revisión sobre las aplicaciones de los lípidos en el campo famacéutico. En un primer apartado, se describieron los diferentes lípidos utilizados como excipientes en cosmética y medicina. En este sentido, se utilizan muchos aceites vegetales, como el aceite de almendra, albaricoque, aguacate, borraja, café, cártamo, etc.; a partir de fuente animal, pueden emplearse como excipientes en formulaciones cosméticas los aceites de pescados y de aves. También se utilizan con este propósito las grasas y las ceras. Así mismo se revisan los fosfolípidos empleados en cosmética y en diagnosis, que actúan como vehículos transportadores de sustancias activas, como los liposomas. Finalmente, se llevó a cabo un estudio de los lípidos, en función de su actividad biológica, como sustancias activas que forman parte de la elaboración de formulaciones cosméticas, farmacéuticas o suplementos nutricionales. Los carotenoides, retinoides

  5. Anaerobic manganese- or iron-mediated pharmaceutical degradation in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Wenbo

    2018-01-01

    Pharmaceutical compounds, originating mainly from industrial production and public consumption, are detected at extremely low levels (ng·L-1 –µg·L-1) in groundwater, surface water, and wastewater. So far, the adverse effects of pharmaceuticals and their intermediates have been widely reported,

  6. Global risk of pharmaceutical contamination from highly populated developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Muhammad Saif Ur; Rashid, Naim; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Saif, Ameena; Ahmad, Nasir; Han, Jong-In

    2015-11-01

    Global pharmaceutical industry has relocated from the west to Asian countries to ensure competitive advantage. This industrial relocation has posed serious threats to the environment. The present study was carried out to assess the possible pharmaceutical contamination in the environment of emerging pharmaceutical manufacturing countries (Bangladesh, China, India and Pakistan). Although these countries have made tremendous progress in the pharmaceutical sector but most of their industrial units discharge wastewater into domestic sewage network without any treatment. The application of untreated wastewater (industrial and domestic) and biosolids (sewage sludge and manure) in agriculture causes the contamination of surface water, soil, groundwater, and the entire food web with pharmaceutical compounds (PCs), their metabolites and transformed products (TPs), and multidrug resistant microbes. This pharmaceutical contamination in Asian countries poses global risks via product export and international traveling. Several prospective research hypotheses including the development of new analytical methods to monitor these PCs/TPs and their metabolites, highly resistant microbial strains, and mixture toxicity as a consequence of pharmaceutical contamination in these emerging pharmaceutical exporters have also been proposed based on the available literature. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Biotechnology, nanotechnology, and pharmacogenomics and pharmaceutical compounding, Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Loyd V

    2015-01-01

    The world of pharmaceuticals is changing rapidly as biotechnology continues to grow and nanotechnology appears on the horizon. Biotechnology is gaining in importance in extemporaneous pharmaceutical compounding, and nanotechnology and pharmacogenomics could drastically change the practice of pharmacy. This article discusses biotechnology and the factors to consider when compounding biotechnology drugs.

  8. Adsorptive removal of selected pharmaceuticals by mesoporous silica SBA-15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui, Tung Xuan; Choi, Heechul

    2009-01-01

    The removal of five selected pharmaceuticals, viz., carbamazepine, clofibric acid, diclofenac, ibuprofen, and ketoprofen was examined by batch sorption experiments onto a synthesized mesoporous silica SBA-15. SBA-15 was synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N 2 adsorption-desorption measurement, and point of zero charge (PZC) measurement. Pharmaceutical adsorption kinetics was rapid and occurred on a scale of minutes, following a pseudo-second-order rate expression. Adsorption isotherms were best fitted by the Freundlich isotherm model. High removal rates of individual pharmaceuticals were achieved in acidic media (pH 3-5) and reached 85.2% for carbamazepine, 88.3% for diclofenac, 93.0% for ibuprofen, 94.3% for ketoprofen, and 49.0% for clofibric acid at pH 3 but decreased with increase in pH. SBA-15 also showed high efficiency for removal of a mixture of 5 pharmaceuticals. Except for clofibric acid (35.6%), the removal of pharmaceuticals in the mixture ranged from 75.2 to 89.3%. Based on adsorption and desorption results, the mechanism of the selected pharmaceuticals was found to be a hydrophilic interaction, providing valuable information for further studies to design materials for the purpose. The results of this study suggest that mesoporous-silica-based materials are promising adsorbents for removing pharmaceuticals from not only surface water but also wastewater of pharmaceutical industrial manufactures.

  9. East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 1. Vol. 8(2) 40 - 42. Constituents of the Stem Bark of Dombeya Rotundifolia Hochst. S.N. NDWIGAH*', G.N. THOITHI', J.W. MWANGI~ AND 1.0. KIBWAGE'. 'Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, University of Nairobi,. P. 0.

  10. Why regulatory indifference towards pharmaceutical pollution of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unlike other environmental contaminants, pharmaceutical pollutants are not yet regulated globally, simply because acute risk assessments show insignificant human health hazard. But the pitfalls of pharmaceutical pollutants extend beyond acute effects to delayed effects from bioaccumulation, amplified effects from ...

  11. Public awareness of Pharmaceutical care availability in community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furthermore, the awareness of availability of pharmaceutical care services in community pharmacies was 3% while 75% of the respondents believed a community pharmacy was just a place drugs can be obtained. As the profession and pharmacists endeavour to improve knowledge and skill to deliver pharmaceutical care ...

  12. Capacity to deliver pharmaceutical care by community pharmacies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmacy practice has transcended from largely a dispensary practice to pharmaceutical care practice. The capacity of community pharmacies to deliver pharmaceutical care was studied using pretested self survey methods. Ninety five percent (95%) of the respondents always educated customers on drug related needs, ...

  13. Adsorptive removal of selected pharmaceuticals by mesoporous silica SBA-15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bui, Tung Xuan, E-mail: bxtung@gist.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), 261 Cheomdan-gwagiro, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Heechul, E-mail: hcchoi@gist.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), 261 Cheomdan-gwagiro, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    The removal of five selected pharmaceuticals, viz., carbamazepine, clofibric acid, diclofenac, ibuprofen, and ketoprofen was examined by batch sorption experiments onto a synthesized mesoporous silica SBA-15. SBA-15 was synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption measurement, and point of zero charge (PZC) measurement. Pharmaceutical adsorption kinetics was rapid and occurred on a scale of minutes, following a pseudo-second-order rate expression. Adsorption isotherms were best fitted by the Freundlich isotherm model. High removal rates of individual pharmaceuticals were achieved in acidic media (pH 3-5) and reached 85.2% for carbamazepine, 88.3% for diclofenac, 93.0% for ibuprofen, 94.3% for ketoprofen, and 49.0% for clofibric acid at pH 3 but decreased with increase in pH. SBA-15 also showed high efficiency for removal of a mixture of 5 pharmaceuticals. Except for clofibric acid (35.6%), the removal of pharmaceuticals in the mixture ranged from 75.2 to 89.3%. Based on adsorption and desorption results, the mechanism of the selected pharmaceuticals was found to be a hydrophilic interaction, providing valuable information for further studies to design materials for the purpose. The results of this study suggest that mesoporous-silica-based materials are promising adsorbents for removing pharmaceuticals from not only surface water but also wastewater of pharmaceutical industrial manufactures.

  14. Regulating the Dutch pharmaceutical market: improving efficiency or controlling costs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, de P.; Brouwer, W.B.F.; Rutten, F.H.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the Dutch pharmaceutical market, which is heavily regulated by the government. Through the regulation of prices and promoting prudent use, the Dutch government tries to bring down the cost of pharmaceuticals, which increases every year at a higher rate than total health

  15. East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences is dedicated to all aspects of Pharmaceutical Sciences research and is published in English. The scientific papers published in the Journal fall into three main categories: review papers, original research papers and short communications. Review papers in ...

  16. Microbial Evaluation of Some Non-sterile Pharmaceutical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the type and incidence of predominant microorganisms in certain non-sterile pharmaceuticals immediately after collection and one year later. Methods: All pharmaceutical samples were subjected to the following examinations: total bacterial count and presence of microbial pathogens, using ...

  17. Interventions to curb rising pharmaceutical costs in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Grímsson, Almar; Björnsdóttir, Ingunn

    2003-01-01

    . The cancellation of reimbursement for antibiotics in 1991 resulted in a slight decrease in sales. The change in the list of "hospital only" medicines caused massive protests from pharmacists and physicians. The pharmaceutical policy in Iceland has been problematic in its formulations and implementations....... Recommendations in the light of the problems of Icelandic pharmaceutical policies have been provided in the article....

  18. The Pharmaceutical Sector of Kazakhstan's Economy: Trends and Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurpeisov, Borankul G.; Nabiev, Erboz N.; Mukashev, Temirbay A.; Daribekov, Serik S.; Raimbekov, Bagdat Kh.; Asanova, Maral K.; Bazarbaeva, Leila M.

    2016-01-01

    This research is devoted to the investigation of the general trends in the development of the pharmaceutical industry in the current conditions of economical socialization. The determination of the economic specificity of the modern operation of the pharmaceutical industry is the purpose of the research. It was found that pharmacy is a profitable…

  19. Approaches to education of pharmaceutical biotechnology in faculties of pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calis, S; Oner, F; Kas, S; Hincal, A A

    2001-06-01

    Pharmaceutical biotechnology is developing rapidly both in academic institutions and in the biopharmaceutical industry. For this reason, FIP Special Interest Group of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology decided to develop a questionnaire concerning pharmaceutical biotechnology education. After preliminary studies were completed, questionnaires were sent to the leading scientists in academia and research directors or senior managers of various Pharmaceutical Biotechnology Companies in order to gather their views about how to create a satisfactory program. The objectives of this study were as follows: -To review all of the graduate and undergraduate courses which are presently available worldwide on pharmaceutical biotechnology in Faculties of Pharmacy. -To review all of the text books, references and scientific sources available worldwide in the area of pharmaceutical biotechnology. When replying to the questionnaires, the respondents were asked to consider the present status of pharmaceutical biotechnology education in academia and future learning needs in collaboration with the biotechnology industry. The data from various pharmacy faculties and biotechnology industry representatives from Asia, Europe and America were evaluated and the outcome of the survey showed that educational efforts in training qualified staff in the rapidly growing field of pharmaceutical biotechnology is promising. Part of the results of this questionnaire study have already been presented at the 57th International Congress of FIP Vancouver, Canada in 1997.

  20. Introductory Level Problems Illustrating Concepts in Pharmaceutical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIver, Keith; Whitaker, Kathryn; De Delva, Vladimir; Farrell, Stephanie; Savelski, Mariano J.; Slater, C. Stewart

    2012-01-01

    Textbook style problems including detailed solutions introducing pharmaceutical topics at the level of an introductory chemical engineering course have been created. The problems illustrate and teach subjects which students would learn if they were to pursue a career in pharmaceutical engineering, including the unique terminology of the field,…

  1. Brentwood Lessons Learned Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivkin, Carl H. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Caton, Melanie C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ainscough, Christopher D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Marcinkoski, Jason [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States)

    2017-09-26

    The purpose of this report is to document lessons learned in the installation of the hydrogen fueling station at the National Park Service Brentwood site in Washington, D.C., to help further the deployment of hydrogen infrastructure required to support hydrogen and other fuel cell technologies. Hydrogen fueling is the most difficult infrastructure component to build and permit. Hydrogen fueling can include augmenting hydrogen fueling capability to existing conventional fuel fueling stations as well as building brand new hydrogen fueling stations. This report was produced as part of the Brentwood Lessons Learned project. The project consisted of transplanting an existing modular hydrogen fueling station from Connecticut to the National Park Service Brentwood site. This relocation required design and construction at the Brentwood site to accommodate the existing station design as well as installation and validation of the updated station. One of the most important lessons learned was that simply moving an existing modular station to an operating site was not necessarily straight-forward - performing the relocation required significant effort and cost. The station has to function at the selected operating site and this functionality requires a power supply, building supports connecting to an existing alarm system, electrical grounding and lighting, providing nitrogen for purging, and providing deionized water if an electrolyzer is part of the station package. Most importantly, the station has to fit into the existing site both spatially and operationally and not disrupt existing operations at the site. All of this coordination and integration requires logistical planning and project management. The idea that a hydrogen fueling station can be simply dropped onto a site and made immediately operational is generally not realistic. Other important lessons learned include that delineating the boundaries of the multiple jurisdictions that have authority over a project for

  2. Nonclinical statistics for pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book serves as a reference text for regulatory, industry and academic statisticians and also a handy manual for entry level Statisticians. Additionally it aims to stimulate academic interest in the field of Nonclinical Statistics and promote this as an important discipline in its own right. This text brings together for the first time in a single volume a comprehensive survey of methods important to the nonclinical science areas within the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. Specifically the Discovery and Translational sciences, the Safety/Toxiology sciences, and the Chemistry, Manufacturing and Controls sciences. Drug discovery and development is a long and costly process. Most decisions in the drug development process are made with incomplete information. The data is rife with uncertainties and hence risky by nature. This is therefore the purview of Statistics. As such, this book aims to introduce readers to important statistical thinking and its application in these nonclinical areas. The cha...

  3. The ethics and economics of pharmaceutical pricing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker-Lue, Sara; Santoro, Michael; Koski, Greg

    2015-01-01

    The cost of drugs is a major and rapidly rising component of health-care expenditures. We survey recent literature on the ethics and economics of skyrocketing pharmaceutical prices and find that advances in economic research have increased the sharpness and focus of the ethically based calls to increase access by modifying patent protection and reducing prices. In some cases, research supports ethical arguments for broader access. Other research suggests that efforts to broaden access result in unintended consequences for innovation and the medical needs of patients. Both ethicists and economists need to be more cognizant of the real clinical settings in which physicians practice medicine with real patients. Greater cross-disciplinary interaction among economists, ethicists, and physicians can help reduce the disjunction between innovation and access and improve access and patient care. This dialogue will impact private industry and may spur new multistakeholder paradigms for drug discovery, development, and pricing.

  4. Regulating pharmaceutical advertising: what will work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, M F

    1997-02-01

    As Dr. Joel Lexchin makes painfully obvious in this issue (see pages 351 to 356), regulatory processes governing pharmaceutical advertising in Canada and elsewhere are seriously compromised. However, the remedial measures Lexchin proposes are not sufficient. Financial sanctions against improper advertising are likely to be regarded by manufacturers as the cost of doing business, and any regulatory body that includes drug industry representatives or individuals receiving financial support from the drug industry cannot be genuinely independent. Moreover, manufacturers are now using promotional strategies that are particularly difficult to regulate. These include providing drugs at lower than the usual cost to ensure their inclusion in managed-care formularies, and using direct-to-consumer advertising to take advantage of the public's lack of sophistication in interpreting scientific evidence. Our best hope of counteracting the power and influence of the drug industry lies in regulation by government agencies, whose interest is the protection of the public.

  5. Can Microalgae Remove Pharmaceutical Contaminants from Water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jiu-Qiang; Kurade, Mayur B; Jeon, Byong-Hun

    2018-01-01

    The increase in worldwide water contamination with numerous pharmaceutical contaminants (PCs) has become an emerging environmental concern due to their considerable ecotoxicities and associated health issues. Microalgae-mediated bioremediation of PCs has recently gained scientific attention, as microalgal bioremediation is a solar-power driven, ecologically comprehensive, and sustainable reclamation strategy. In this review, we comprehensively describe the current research on the possible roles and applications of microalgae for removing PCs from aqueous media. We summarize several novel approaches including constructing microbial consortia, acclimation, and cometabolism for enhanced removal of PCs by microalgae, which would improve practical feasibility of these technologies. Some novel concepts for degrading PCs using integrated processes and genetic modifications to realize algal-based bioremediation technologies are also recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The pharmaceutical death-ride of dihydroartemisinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Frans Herwig

    2010-07-22

    In the 2010 second edition of WHO's guidelines for the treatment of malaria, the relatively new fixed dose combination dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine is included as one of the recommended artemisinin combination therapies. However, experimental testing demonstrates that, due to its intrinsic chemical instability, dihydroartemisinin is not suitable to be used in pharmaceutical formulations. In addition, data show that the currently available dihydroartemisinin preparations fail to meet the internationally accepted stability requirements. At a time when many efforts aim to ban counterfeit and substandard drugs from the malaria market, the obvious question rises how WHO and public-private partnerships, such as Medicine for Malaria venture (MMV), can support the production and marketing of anti-malarial drugs that do not even meet the International Pharmacopoeia requirements?

  7. The pharmaceutical death-ride of dihydroartemisinin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Frans

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the 2010 second edition of WHO's guidelines for the treatment of malaria, the relatively new fixed dose combination dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine is included as one of the recommended artemisinin combination therapies. However, experimental testing demonstrates that, due to its intrinsic chemical instability, dihydroartemisinin is not suitable to be used in pharmaceutical formulations. In addition, data show that the currently available dihydroartemisinin preparations fail to meet the internationally accepted stability requirements. At a time when many efforts aim to ban counterfeit and substandard drugs from the malaria market, the obvious question rises how WHO and public-private partnerships, such as Medicine for Malaria venture (MMV, can support the production and marketing of anti-malarial drugs that do not even meet the International Pharmacopoeia requirements?

  8. Pharmaceutical Advertising and Medicare Part D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakdawalla, Darius; Sood, Neeraj; Gu, Qian

    2013-01-01

    We explore how and to what extent prescription drug insurance expansions affects incentives for pharmaceutical advertising. When insurance expansions make markets more profitable, firms respond by boosting advertising. Theory suggests this effect will be magnified in the least competitive drug classes, where firms internalize a larger share of the benefits from advertising. Empirically, we find that the implementation of Part D coincides with a 14% to 19% increase in total advertising expenditures. This effect is indeed concentrated in the least competitive drug classes. The additional advertising raised utilization among non-elderly patients outside the Part D program by about 3.6%. This is roughly half of the direct utilization effect of Part D on elderly beneficiaries. The results suggest the presence of considerable spillover effects from publicly subsidized prescription drug insurance on the utilization and welfare of consumers outside the program. PMID:24308884

  9. The Future of Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rantanen, Jukka; Khinast, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The entire pharmaceutical sector is in an urgent need of both innovative technological solutions and fundamental scientific work, enabling the production of highly engineered drug products. Commercial-scale manufacturing of complex drug delivery systems (DDSs) using the existing technologies...... is challenging. This review covers important elements of manufacturing sciences, beginning with risk management strategies and design of experiments (DoE) techniques. Experimental techniques should, where possible, be supported by computational approaches. With that regard, state-of-art mechanistic process...... control solutions. Last part of the review addresses future manufacturing solutions, covering continuous processing and, specifically, hot-melt processing and printing-based technologies. Finally, challenges related to implementing these technologies as a part of future health care systems are discussed....

  10. Polymers for Pharmaceutical Packaging and Delivery Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Charlotte Juel

    materials of interest for pharmaceutical packaging and delivery systems. Confocal fluorescence microscopy studies and stability studies with insulin aspart (AspB28 insulin) were conducted to evaluate the impact of modified PP compared to unmodified PP. In contrast to PEEK, PP did not contain any functional....... In order to decrease the amount of catalyst residual in the modified materials, activator regenerated by electron transfer (ARGET) SI-ATRP was applied in the second experimental round. Two poly(ethylene glycol)methyl ether methacrylate (MPEGMA) monomers with 4 and 23 ethylene oxide units in the side chain......Selection of polymer materials which will be exposed to protein drugs in either containers or medical devices is often very challenging due to the demands on the polymers. Suitable polymer materials should comply with requirements like compatibility with proteins, sterilisability, good barrier...

  11. Pharmaceutical advertising and Medicare Part D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakdawalla, Darius; Sood, Neeraj; Gu, Qian

    2013-12-01

    We explore how and to what extent prescription drug insurance expansions affect incentives for pharmaceutical advertising. When insurance expansions make markets more profitable, firms respond by boosting advertising. Theory suggests this effect will be magnified in the least competitive drug classes, where firms internalize a larger share of the benefits from advertising. Empirically, we find that the implementation of Part D coincides with a 14-19% increase in total advertising expenditures. This effect is indeed concentrated in the least competitive drug classes. The additional advertising raised utilization among non-elderly patients outside the Part D program by about 3.6%. This is roughly half of the direct utilization effect of Part D on elderly beneficiaries. The results suggest the presence of considerable spillover effects from publicly subsidized prescription drug insurance on the utilization and welfare of consumers outside the program. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Healthcare systems, the State, and innovation in the pharmaceutical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio José Godinho Delgado

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article discusses the relations between healthcare systems and the pharmaceutical industry, focusing on state support for pharmaceutical innovation. The study highlights the experiences of the United States, United Kingdom, and Germany, developed countries and paradigms of modern health systems (liberal, universal, and corporatist, in addition to Japan, a case of successful catching up. The study also emphasizes the experiences of China, India, and Brazil, large developing countries that have tried different catching up strategies, with diverse histories and profiles in their healthcare systems and pharmaceutical industries. Finally, with a focus on state forms of support for health research, the article addresses the mechanisms for linkage between health systems and the pharmaceutical industry, evaluating the possibilities of Brazil strengthening a virtuous interaction, favoring the expansion and consolidation of the Brazilian health system - universal but segmented ‒ and the affirmation of the innovative national pharmaceutical industry.

  13. Membrane Bioprocesses for Pharmaceutical Micropollutant Removal from Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias de Cazes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review work is to give an overview of the research reported on bioprocesses for the treatment of domestic or industrial wastewaters (WW containing pharmaceuticals. Conventional WW treatment technologies are not efficient enough to completely remove all pharmaceuticals from water. Indeed, these compounds are becoming an actual public health problem, because they are more and more present in underground and even in potable waters. Different types of bioprocesses are described in this work: from classical activated sludge systems, which allow the depletion of pharmaceuticals by bio-degradation and adsorption, to enzymatic reactions, which are more focused on the treatment of WW containing a relatively high content of pharmaceuticals and less organic carbon pollution than classical WW. Different aspects concerning the advantages of membrane bioreactors for pharmaceuticals removal are discussed, as well as the more recent studies on enzymatic membrane reactors to the depletion of these recalcitrant compounds.

  14. Prioritizing veterinary pharmaceuticals for aquatic environment in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Younghee; Jung, Jinyong; Kim, Myunghyun; Park, Jeongim; Boxall, Alistair B A; Choi, Kyungho

    2008-09-01

    Pharmaceutical residues may have serious impacts on nontarget biological organisms in aquatic ecosystems, and have therefore precipitated numerous investigations worldwide. Many pharmaceutical compounds available on the market need to be prioritized based on their potential ecological and human health risks in order to develop sound management decisions. We prioritized veterinary pharmaceuticals in Korea by their usage, potential to enter the environment, and toxicological hazard. Twenty compounds were identified in the top priority class, most of which were antibiotics. Among these compounds, 8 were identified as deserving more immediate attention: amoxicillin, enramycin, fenbendazole, florfenicol, ivermectin, oxytetracycline, tylosin, and virginiamycin. A limitation of this study is that we initially screened veterinary pharmaceuticals by sales tonnage for veterinary use only. However, this is the first attempt to prioritize veterinary pharmaceuticals in Korea, and it provides important concepts for developing environmental risk management plans for such contaminants in aquatic systems. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. [Attitudes of general practitioners to pharmaceutical sales representatives in Sousse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Abdelaziz, A; Harrabi, I; Rahmani, S; Ghedira, A; Gaha, K; Ghannem, H

    2003-01-01

    The therapeutic knowledge of physicians is the corner stone to the rational use of medicines; however information about medicines is generally obtained from the pharmaceutical industry via their sales representatives (reps). We aimed to identify general practitioners' (GPs) attitudes to pharmaceutical reps and the information they provide. We surveyed 140 GPs using a self-administered questionnaire. The response rate was 78% (72 GPs from the public sector and 68 from the private sector). About 10% of the GPs said they received daily visits from pharmaceutical reps; 84% of GPs considered them an efficient source of information and 31% said they might change their therapeutic prescribing following visits from these reps. Because of their positive perception of pharmaceutical reps, GPs are susceptible to the information they provide. Controlling the validity of the therapeutic information imparted by the pharmaceutical industry is thus a fundamental component of the programme for the rational use of medicines.

  16. [New research on the significance of polymers in pharmaceutical formulations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amighi, K

    2001-01-01

    During these last few decades, a lot of work has been made in pharmaceutical area in order to control the drug delivery from various pharmaceutical dosage forms. The use of polymers in pharmaceutical technology have led to the development of the first drug delivery systems proposed in order to prolong or to delay the drug delivery, or to enhance drug release for drugs showing bioavailability shortcomings. The wide range of polymers available for pharmaceutical use, their low reactivity towards drugs and other formulation ingredients and their safe nature, have permitted a widespread use of polymers to improve manufacturing processes or for the formulation of pharmaceutical dosage forms for various administration routes. More over, the preparation of new polymeric materials by the synthesis of new polymers with unique properties or by the modification of available natural or synthetic polymers, offer to the formulator a wide range of applications in order to optimise the drug delivery for each specific case.

  17. Cleaner production at pharmaceutical industry: first steps assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilaine Conceição Rezende

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cleaner Production (CP is an environmental management system effective to comply the environmental obligations and promote sustainable development of enterprises. In this study, the implementing possibilities of CP practices were evaluated to pharmaceutical industry, through prior identification procedures for Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Practices. The study was conducted in a scientific and health care institution, which produces pharmaceutical drugs and makes assistance for public health. The production process was evaluated and made a survey of the main points of waste and sewage generations in each stage, in order to diagnose the measures of CP established and propose new actions. Thus, by using this tool, it was possible to demonstrate the reduction of environmental impacts associated with pharmaceutical production. The Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Practices also contributed to the implementation of measures CP, preserving the final product quality, and generating environmental and economic benefits.

  18. Musculoskeletal symptoms in pharmaceutical sales representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Katherine; Gyi, Diane; Haslam, Cheryl

    2010-03-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are a leading cause of work-related ill health. Existing literature indicates that pharmaceutical sales representatives (PSRs) report a high prevalence of MSDs, possibly exacerbated by the nature of work (prolonged driving and manual handling). In addition, they experience difficulty in accessing occupational health services. To assess the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms and associated risk factors among PSRs in order to assist their occupational health management through raising risk awareness. A self-completed questionnaire distributed to 205 PSRs within a UK pharmaceutical company was used to assess the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms, psychosocial factors, work tasks undertaken and company car use. To assist understanding of work tasks and organizational factors, semi-structured interviews were undertaken with a sample of 12 key personnel. The questionnaire response rate was 68%. PSRs reported high mileage and 100% reported working from the car in a typical day. Forty-seven per cent reported both manual handling for > or = 4 h/day and 'often' or 'sometimes' working from the car. Fifty-seven per cent reported low back symptoms in the last 12 months. Interview data revealed issues relating to car choice, storage in the boot and working from the car, which should be considered when developing priorities for preventive management of MSDs. Musculoskeletal symptoms appear to be a problem for PSRs, with risk factors reported as prolonged driving, sitting in the car, working from the car and manual handling. Interventions to facilitate their occupational health management should focus on raising awareness of the risks of prolonged driving and working from the car.

  19. A vision of the pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñio, S

    1998-01-01

    As the financial resources available for looking after the health of an aging population are limited, generic drugs (drugs that are no longer covered by a patent and marketed at a lower price) have come to be used in western countries as a means for meeting growing demand while leaving resources in the health budget for new drugs. In Spain, a law on product patents was introduced in 1992, which is much later than in other countries, and created difficulties in the definition and procedure for gaining approval for generic drugs. Circular 3/97 from the Ministry of Health finally resolved these issues. In this circular, generic pharmaceutical products (GPPs) are clearly defined and identified with a positive commitment towards guaranteeing the ability to interchange original drugs for other cheaper generic products and towards clarifying the Spanish vade mecum. The position of the pharmaceutical industry on generic drugs varies widely and consequently, it is impossible to make a general statement on the view of the industry. However, the commitment of Novartis, given the issues described above and in line with the company's global strategy, is to offer innovation and services to society. This is perfectly compatible with offering health professionals both innovative drugs and generic drugs of a high quality at a lower price, given that registering genetics requires less investment in research and development. In any case, GPPs face an uncertain future in Spain and market forecasts also differ widely, ranging from 15 billion to 80 billion pesetas in the year 2000. It will be necessary to get doctors and pharmacists positively involved, to set up fast structural measures, and to avoid rejection by patients through successful information and marketing.

  20. Heterogeneous Calculation of {epsilon}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, Alf

    1961-02-15

    A heterogeneous method of calculating the fast fission factor given by Naudet has been applied to the Carlvik - Pershagen definition of {epsilon}. An exact calculation of the collision probabilities is included in the programme developed for the Ferranti - Mercury computer.

  1. Heterogeneous Calculation of ε

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, Alf

    1961-02-01

    A heterogeneous method of calculating the fast fission factor given by Naudet has been applied to the Carlvik - Pershagen definition of ε. An exact calculation of the collision probabilities is included in the programme developed for the Ferranti - Mercury computer

  2. Microbial Removal of the Pharmaceutical Compounds Ibuprofen and Diclofenac from Wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langenhoff, A.A.M.; Inderfurth, N.S.; Veuskens, T.; Schraa, G.; Blokland, M.; Kujawa-Roeleveld, K.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    Studies on the occurrence of pharmaceuticals show that the widely used pharmaceuticals ibuprofen and diclofenac are present in relevant concentrations in the environment. A pilot plant treating hospital wastewater with relevant concentrations of these pharmaceuticals was evaluated for its

  3. 76 FR 38668 - Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ...] Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and... of Committee: Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology. General.... In response to feedback during the April 13, 2010, Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and...

  4. 76 FR 38188 - Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ...] Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and... of Committee: Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology. General..., 2011, the committee will discuss current strategies for FDA's Office of Pharmaceutical Science...

  5. 75 FR 11551 - Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ...] Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and... of Committee: Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology. General... Pharmaceutical Science (OPS) on the regulatory challenges of drug-induced phospholipidosis (excessive...

  6. 78 FR 58315 - Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ...] Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and... of Committee: Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology. General... continuous manufacturing for pharmaceutical products. Speakers from the Agency, academia, and industry will...

  7. 78 FR 26375 - Food and Drug Administration/International Society for Pharmaceutical Engineering Co-Sponsorship...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ...] Food and Drug Administration/International Society for Pharmaceutical Engineering Co-Sponsorship... Society of Pharmaceutical Engineering (ISPE), is announcing a conference entitled ``Redefining the `C' in CGMP: Creating, Implementing and Sustaining a Culture of Quality'' Pharmaceutical Quality System (ICH...

  8. 75 FR 33824 - Pharmaceutical Products and Chemical Intermediates, Fourth Review: Advice Concerning the Addition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 332-520] Pharmaceutical Products and Chemical Intermediates, Fourth Review: Advice Concerning the Addition of Certain Products to the Pharmaceutical Appendix..., Pharmaceutical Products and Chemical Intermediates, Fourth Review: Advice Concerning the Addition of Certain...

  9. 75 FR 54232 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Report of Covered Pharmaceutical Manufacturers and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... Report of Covered Pharmaceutical Manufacturers and Importers (Form-8947) AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service...)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning Form-8947, Report of Covered Pharmaceutical...: Title: Report of Covered Pharmaceutical Manufacturers and Importers. OMB Number: 1545-XXXX. Form Number...

  10. 78 FR 19017 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Johnson Matthey Pharmaceutical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Johnson Matthey Pharmaceutical Materials, Inc. Pursuant to Sec. 1301.33(a), Title... Matthey Pharmaceutical Materials, Inc., Pharmaceutical Service, 25 Patton Road, Devens, Massachusetts...

  11. Care ideologies reflected in 4 conceptions of pharmaceutical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkman, Ingeborg K; Bernsten, Cecilia B; Sanner, Margareta A

    2008-12-01

    Different ways to practice pharmaceutical care have been developed. One expression of this fact is the existence of many different classification systems to document drug-related problems (DRPs). Evidence suggests that classification systems have different characteristics and that these characteristics reflect different conceptions of pharmaceutical care. To increase the understanding of conceptions of pharmaceutical care, underlying values and beliefs (ideologies) can be explored. To explore various conceptions of pharmaceutical care to identify the care ideologies on which these conceptions are based. Representatives of 4 selected conceptions of pharmaceutical care were interviewed in face-to-face meetings. During the interviews, 4 basic questions were asked. Three were focused on pharmaceutical care and 1 on DRPs. Interview transcripts were analyzed by an inductive method inspired by grounded theory. The conceptions studied were Strand, Granada-II, PCNE v5.0, and Apoteket. In Strand, patients are given a more active role in the pharmaceutical care process, as compared to Granada-II, PCNE v5.0, and Apoteket. Pharmacists in all the conceptions of pharmaceutical care assume they have special knowledge that patients benefit from. However, they use their knowledge in different ways in the various pharmaceutical care conceptions. In Strand, individual goals of drug therapy are established together with the patient, whereas in Granada-II, PCNE, and Apoteket goals are not explicitly discussed. The identified differences correspond to different care ideologies. The pharmaceutical care conceptions are based on different care ideologies. The ideology is expressed in how therapy goals are set and patient needs defined. Strand is based on a patient-centered ideology; patient therapy goals and needs are defined by the patient together with the practitioners. Granada-II, PCNE, and Apoteket are based on an evidence-based medicine approach; patient therapy goals and needs are

  12. Studying and evaluating pharmaceutical policy--becoming a part of the policy and consultative process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Traulsen, Janine Marie

    2006-01-01

    In this last article in the series the authors focus on the issue of researching and evaluating pharmaceutical policy. The past five articles made an argument for why pharmaceutical policy is important and why it is different from health policy. The evidence base needed for pharmaceutical policym...... culture around pharmaceutical policy. They emphasize the importance of pharmaceutical specialists' (i.e., pharmacists') involvement in pharmaceutical policy analysis and the policy consultative process....

  13. Children's Satisfaction with Private Music Lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rife, Nora A.; Shnek, Zachary M.; Lauby, Jennifer L.; Lapidus, Leah Blumberg

    2001-01-01

    Determines the language children use to express their feelings of satisfaction with private music lessons. Offers a list of statements from children about private music lessons to be used to assess those feelings. Discusses the effects of age, gender, and musical instruments on satisfaction for music educators. Includes references. (DAJ)

  14. Pacemaker Primary Curriculum; Lesson Book Level B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Dorothea M.; Ross, Sheila A.

    This lesson book, which is the second in a four-level program for young children with learning difficulties, describes the purpose of and equipment and procedures for teaching lessons in the following subjects areas on the primary grade level: arithmetic, reading, vocabulary, listening, planning, problem solving, social behavior, art, music, and…

  15. Pacemaker Primary Curriculum; Lesson Book Level A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Dorothea M.; Ross, Sheila A.

    This lesson book, which is the first in a four-level program for young children with learning difficulties, describes the purpose of and equipment and procedures for teaching lessons in the following subject areas on the kindergarten level: arithmetic concepts, number concepts, reading readiness, vocabulary, language, listening, social behavior,…

  16. Pacemaker Primary Curriculum; Lesson Book Level C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Dorothea M.; Ross, Sheila A.

    This lesson book, which is the third in a four-level program for young children with learning difficulties, describes the purpose of and equipment and procedures for teaching lessons in the following subject areas on the primary grade level: arithmetic, reading, vocabulary, spelling, printing, listening, planning, problem solving, social behavior,…

  17. Pacemaker Primary Curriculum; Lesson Book Level D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Dorothea M.; Ross, Sheila A.

    This lesson book, which is the last in a four-level program for young children with learning difficulties, describes the purpose of and equipment and procedures for teaching lessons in the following subject areas on the primary level: arithmetic, reading, vocabulary, spelling, printing, listening, planning and problem solving, social behavior,…

  18. Lesson Planning with the Common Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Linda A.; McDuffie, Amy Roth; Tate, Cathie

    2014-01-01

    Planning a lesson can be similar to planning a road trip--a metaphor the authors use to describe how they applied research and theory to their lesson planning process. A map and mode of transportation, the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) and textbooks as resources, can lead to desired destinations, such as students engaging in…

  19. Leadership in American Indian Communities: Winter Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metoyer, Cheryl A.

    2010-01-01

    Winter lessons, or stories told in the winter, were one of the ways in which tribal elders instructed and directed young men and women in the proper ways to assume leadership responsibilities. Winter lessons stressed the appropriate relationship between the leader and the community. The intent was to remember the power and purpose of that…

  20. Professor's Page: Do Demonstration Lessons Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Doug

    2011-01-01

    As part of a large research and professional development project funded by the Catholic Education Office Melbourne (CEOM), called "Contemporary Teaching and Learning of Mathematics," the ACU team has been leading demonstration lessons. There is certainly not universal agreement on the worth of demonstration lessons in the mathematics…

  1. Human Spaceflight Conjunction Assessment: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jason T.

    2011-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the process of a human space flight conjunction assessment and lessons learned from the more than twelve years of International Space Station (ISS) operations. Also, the application of these lessons learned to a recent ISS conjunction assessment with object 84180 on July 16, 2009 is also presented.

  2. International price comparisons for pharmaceuticals. Measurement and policy issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzon, P M; Kim, J D

    1998-01-01

    Cross-national price comparisons for pharmaceuticals are commonly used for two purposes. Comparisons based on a sample of products are used to draw conclusions about differences in average price levels. Cross-national comparisons applied to individual products are also used by governments to set domestic prices. This paper examines the major methodological issues raised by international price comparisons, focusing on measurement of differences in average price levels and the validity of policy conclusions drawn from such price comparison studies. It argues that valid measures of average price levels can only be obtained from comparisons based on a comprehensive or representative sample of products, appropriately weighted, following standard index number methods. Comparisons of individual product prices should take into account the manufacturer's entire product portfolio over time rather than focus narrowly on a single product at a point in time. Because of the great variation across countries in both the range of drug compounds available and the dosage forms, strengths and pack sizes for each compound, obtaining a broadly comprehensive or representative sample is problematical. If products are required to match on all dimensions, including molecule, manufacturer, strength and pack, as is common in most international price comparisons, then only a very small and unrepresentative sample of the drugs available in each country can be included in the analysis. A trade-off between the desire to compare only identical products and the need to compare a truly representative sample of a country's pharmaceutical market is therefore necessary. A valid comparison of average drug prices should include generics and over-the-counter products that are good substitutes for branded prescription drugs, with all forms, strengths and packs. To achieve this broad representation, however, the requirements of same manufacturer, same brand, dosage form, strength and pack size must be

  3. Value of pharmaceuticals: ensuring the future of research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serajuddin, Hamida K; Serajuddin, Abu T M

    2006-01-01

    To analyze the current situation under which the pharmaceutical industry is criticized for the production of drugs with potential adverse effects, the high prices of medicines, and aggressive marketing practices, and to provide a proposal to rectify the situation. Published books, pharmaceutical journals, Web of Science database using the search terms pharmaceutical, research, development, marketing, cost, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Web site. Most breakthroughs in the treatment of diseases and prolongation of lives have come about through pharmaceuticals discovered and developed by the pharmaceutical industry. While the process of discovering and developing new pharmaceuticals is lengthy, costly, and lacking any assurance of success, investment in research and development by the U.S. pharmaceutical industry has increased progressively, reaching 51.3 billion dollars in 2005. Yet the annual number of FDA approvals of new molecular entities (NMEs) has gradually decreased over the past 10 years. Additionally, a large part of the patent life of a successful NME is consumed during this lengthy development phase. Few businesses, if any, have such long product gestation lives and risks. For these reasons, the pharmaceutical industry is often in a rush to recoup its investment before the product's patent expires, and this is the root cause of many criticisms against the pharmaceutical industry. To rectify the current situation, a new system is proposed under which innovator pharmaceutical companies would be allowed royalties for their products after the expiration of patents, in a manner similar to the way in which other intellectual properties (such as books, music, films) are protected by copyright. Such a system would allow pharmaceutical companies to continue research on new pharmaceutical products unimpeded by the patent clock. Given appropriate legislative or other facilitatory actions, a royalty-based system for the marketing of generic products after

  4. Spectrofluorimetric analysis of famotidine in pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids by derivatization with benzoin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Malik; Khuhawar, Muhammad Yar; Memon, Saima Q; Hayat, Amir; Zounr, Rizwan Ali

    2015-01-05

    A sensitive and simple spectrofluorimetric method has been developed for the analysis of famotidine, from pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids after derivatization with benzoin. The reaction was carried out in alkaline medium with measurement of fluorescence intensity at 446 nm with excitation wavelength at 286 nm. Linear calibration was obtained with 0.5-15 μg/ml with coefficient of determination (r(2)) 0.997. The factors affecting the fluorescence intensity were optimized. The pharmaceutical additives and amino acid did not interfere in the determination. The mean percentage recovery (n=4) calculated by standard addition from pharmaceutical preparation was 94.8-98.2% with relative standard deviation (RSD) 1.56-3.34% and recovery from deproteinized spiked serum and urine of healthy volunteers was 98.6-98.9% and 98.0-98.4% with RSD 0.34-0.84% and 0.29-0.87% respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Quality of pharmaceutical care at the pharmacy counter: patients' experiences versus video observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Ellen S; Blom, Lyda; Overbeeke, Marloes R; Philbert, Daphne; Vervloet, Marcia; Koopman, Laura; van Dijk, Liset

    2016-01-01

    Consumer Quality Index questionnaires are used to assess quality of care from patients' experiences. To provide insight into the agreement about quality of pharmaceutical care, measured both by a patient questionnaire and video observations. Pharmaceutical encounters in four pharmacies were video-recorded. Patients completed a questionnaire based upon the Consumer Quality Index Pharmaceutical Care after the encounter containing questions about patients' experiences regarding information provision, medication counseling, and pharmacy staff's communication style. An observation protocol was used to code the recorded encounters. Agreement between video observation and patients' experiences was calculated. In total, 109 encounters were included for analysis. For the domains "medication counseling" and "communication style", agreement between patients' experiences and observations was very high (>90%). Less agreement (45%) was found for "information provision", which was rated more positive by patients compared to the observations, especially for the topic, encouragement of patients' questioning behavior. A questionnaire is useful to assess the quality of medication counseling and pharmacy staff's communication style, but might be less suitable to evaluate information provision and pharmacy staff's encouragement of patients' questioning behavior. Although patients may believe that they have received all necessary information to use their new medicine, some information on specific instructions was not addressed during the encounter. When using questionnaires to get insight into information provision, observations of encounters are very informative to validate the patient questionnaires and make necessary adjustments.

  6. Quality of pharmaceutical care at the pharmacy counter: patients’ experiences versus video observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Ellen S; Blom, Lyda; Overbeeke, Marloes R; Philbert, Daphne; Vervloet, Marcia; Koopman, Laura; van Dijk, Liset

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Consumer Quality Index questionnaires are used to assess quality of care from patients’ experiences. Objective To provide insight into the agreement about quality of pharmaceutical care, measured both by a patient questionnaire and video observations. Methods Pharmaceutical encounters in four pharmacies were video-recorded. Patients completed a questionnaire based upon the Consumer Quality Index Pharmaceutical Care after the encounter containing questions about patients’ experiences regarding information provision, medication counseling, and pharmacy staff’s communication style. An observation protocol was used to code the recorded encounters. Agreement between video observation and patients’ experiences was calculated. Results In total, 109 encounters were included for analysis. For the domains “medication counseling” and “communication style”, agreement between patients’ experiences and observations was very high (>90%). Less agreement (45%) was found for “information provision”, which was rated more positive by patients compared to the observations, especially for the topic, encouragement of patients’ questioning behavior. Conclusion A questionnaire is useful to assess the quality of medication counseling and pharmacy staff’s communication style, but might be less suitable to evaluate information provision and pharmacy staff’s encouragement of patients’ questioning behavior. Although patients may believe that they have received all necessary information to use their new medicine, some information on specific instructions was not addressed during the encounter. When using questionnaires to get insight into information provision, observations of encounters are very informative to validate the patient questionnaires and make necessary adjustments. PMID:27042025

  7. Neutron activation analysis method to determination vitamine B_1_2 (sianokobalamin) in pharmaceutical product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titiek Martati; June Mellawati

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of vita mine 812 in pharmaceutical preparations can be done by neutron activation method, because one molecule of vita mine 812 contains one atom of Co (4.35 %). The aim of research to know the ability of neutron activation method to analyze pharmaceutical preparations of vitamine 812 by test the precision and accuracy methods. It is expected that the method of neutron activation analysis can be an alternative method in the determination of vitamine 812 in pharmaceutical preparations. Samples were irradiated using thermal neutrons in the reactor during 30 minutes Siwabessy GA, and based on n, gamma reaction, the "6"0CO isotope formed then be identified using Gamma Spectrometer at 1173.5 and 1332.4 keV energy. Vitamine 812 concentration was obtained by calculating the ratio of vitamine 812 molecule to molecule Co. The results showed that the neutron activation method is good for determining 8_1_2 vitamin in low concentration (≥ 200 mg), but not for high concentrations ( ≥ 5000 mg). This method has a 99.11 to 99.52 % accuracy, and 96.52 to 104.95 % precision with a detection limit measures of vita mine 812184.36 mg. Recovery test obtained ranged between 98.19 to 101.07 % of vitamine 812 compared to levels specified in the label, so that still recommend the requirements of British Pharmacopoeia 2009 and the United States Pharmacopoeia 29. (author)

  8. Solvent effects on the crystal growth structure and morphology of the pharmaceutical dirithromycin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Liang, Zuozhong

    2017-12-01

    Solvent effects on the crystal structure and morphology of pharmaceutical dirithromycin molecules were systematically investigated using both experimental crystallization and theoretical simulation. Dirithromycin is one of the new generation of macrolide antibiotics with two polymorphic forms (Form I and Form II) and many solvate forms. Herein, six solvates of the dirithromycin, including acetonitrile, acetonitrile/water, acetone, 1-propanol, N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and cyclohexane, were studied. Experimentally, we crystallized the dirithromycin molecules in different solvents by the solvent evaporating method and measured the crystal structures with the X-ray diffraction (XRD). We compared these crystal structures of dirithromycin solvates and analyzed the solvent property-determined structure evolution. The solvents have a strong interaction with the dirithromycin molecule due to the formation of inter-molecular interactions (such as the hydrogen bonding and close contacts (sum of vdW radii)). Theoretically, we calculated the ideal crystal habit based on the solvated structures with the attachment growth (AE) model. The predicted morphologies and aspect ratios of dirithromycin solvates agree well with the experimental results. This work could be helpful to better understand the structure and morphology evolution of solvates controlled by solvents and guide the crystallization of active pharmaceutical ingredients in the pharmaceutical industry.

  9. Pharmaceutical science faculty publication records at research-intensive pharmacy colleges and schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Dennis F; Nahata, Milap C

    2012-11-12

    To determine yearly (phase 1) and cumulative (phase 2) publication records of pharmaceutical science faculty members at research-intensive colleges and schools of pharmacy. The publication records of pharmaceutical science faculty members at research-intensive colleges and schools of pharmacy were searched on Web of Science. Fifty colleges and schools of pharmacy were randomly chosen for a search of 1,042 individual faculty members' publications per year from 2005 to 2009. A stratified random sample of 120 faculty members also was chosen, and cumulative publication counts were recorded and bibliometric indices calculated. The median number of publications per year was 2 (range, 0-34). Overall, 22% of faculty members had no publications in any given year, but the number was highly variable depending on the faculty members' colleges or schools of pharmacy. Bibliometric indices were higher for medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutics, with pharmacology ranking third and social and administrative sciences fourth. Higher bibliometric indices were also observed for institution status (ie, public vs private) and academic rank (discipline chairperson vs non-chairperson and professor vs junior faculty member) (ppharmaceutical science disciplines and academic ranks within research-intensive colleges and schools of pharmacy. These data may be important for benchmarking purposes.

  10. Prediction of the solubility of selected pharmaceuticals in water and alcohols with a group contribution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelczarska, Aleksandra; Ramjugernath, Deresh; Rarey, Jurgen; Domańska, Urszula

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The prediction of solubility of pharmaceuticals in water and alcohols was presented. ► Improved group contribution method UNIFAC was proposed for 42 binary mixtures. ► Infinite activity coefficients were used in a model. ► A semi-predictive model with one experimental point was proposed. ► This model qualitatively describes the temperature dependency of Pharms. -- Abstract: An improved group contribution approach using activity coefficients at infinite dilution, which has been proposed by our group, was used for the prediction of the solubility of selected pharmaceuticals in water and alcohols [B. Moller, Activity of complex multifunctional organic compounds in common solvents, PhD Thesis, Chemical Engineering, University of KwaZulu-Natal, 2009]. The solubility of 16 different pharmaceuticals in water, ethanol and octan-1-ol was predicted over a fairly wide range of temperature with this group contribution model. The predicted values, along with values computed with the Schroeder-van Laar equation, are compared to experimental results published by us previously for 42 binary mixtures. The predicted solubility values were lower than those from the experiments for most of the mixtures. In order to improve the prediction method, a semi-predictive calculation using one experimental solubility value was implemented. This one point prediction has given acceptable results when comparison is made to experimental values

  11. Physically active academic lessons in elementary children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, John B; Jowers, Esbelle M

    2011-06-01

    Although schools are an ideal location to conduct interventions that target children, the emphasis on standardized testing makes it difficult to implement interventions that do not directly support academic instruction. In response, physically active academic lessons have been developed as a strategy to increase physical activity while also addressing core educational goals. Texas I-CAN! is one incarnation of this approach. We will review the on-going research on the impact of these active lessons on: teacher implementation, child step count, child attention control, and academic performance. The collected studies support the impact of physically active academic lessons on each area of interest. If these data can be replicated, it suggests that teachers might find these lessons of benefit to their primary role as educators, which should ease dissemination of these and other physically active lessons in elementary schools. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A Relevant Lesson: Hitler Goes to the Mall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerwin, David

    2003-01-01

    A "Motivation" eliciting the "Aim" of each lesson initiates each lesson in the orthodox "developmental lesson-plan" that has dominated classroom instruction in NYC public schools for at least the past half-century. An action-research study of 38 lesson-plans (over 5 each from 5 teachers) drawn from student-teaching…

  13. Improving Mathematics Teaching as Deliberate Practice through Chinese Lesson Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rongjin; Prince, Kyle M.; Barlow, Angela T.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined how a ninth grade teacher improved an Algebra I lesson through a lesson study approach. We used multiple data sources to investigate the improvement of the lesson towards student-centered mathematics instruction, perceived benefits of the teacher, and factors associated with the improvement of teaching. The lesson group…

  14. A model of the prescription-pharmaceutical sales process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Stros

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine the factors in marketing most relevant to achieving pharmaceutical sales success and their interrelations, as well as providing a prescription-pharmaceuticals sales process model. This will enable scholars to obtain a better understanding of the marketing process for prescription pharmaceuticals, as well as enabling marketers to apply more efficient marketing approaches. The study uses a unique data set, combining primary data and secondary data from the Swiss prescription-pharmaceuticals market. The data is analysed using a multiple-regression based model. A multi-level data structure is found, suggesting that factors concerning the specific brand and also the pharmaceutical substance itself are relevant to sales success. It is revealed that the factors most relevant to sales success are: order of market entry, perceived product-quality, average price, and marketing expenditures, leading to practical recommendations for scholars and marketing professionals. The study focuses only on the Swiss prescription-pharmaceuticals market, investigating five medical drug classes. The assumption is made that these results can be generalised to similar markets and drug classes. The study develops a conceptual prescription-pharmaceuticals sales-process model; offers practical guidelines and a good basis for further scholarly research are provided; and identifies several research gaps by giving proposals for future research.

  15. Decomposition of persistent pharmaceuticals in wastewater by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Atsushi; Osawa, Misako; Taguchi, Mitsumasa

    2012-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals in wastewater were treated by the combined method of activated sludge and ionizing radiation in laboratory scale. Oseltamivir, aspirin, and ibuprofen at 5 μmol dm −3 in wastewater were decomposed by the activated sludge at reaction time for 4 h. Carbamazepine, ketoprofen, mefenamic acid, clofibric acid, and diclofenac were not biodegraded completely, but were eliminated by γ-ray irradiation at 2 kGy. The rate constants of the reactions of these pharmaceuticals with hydroxyl radicals were estimated by the competition reaction method to be 4.0–10×10 9 mol −1 dm 3 s −1 . Decompositions of the pharmaceuticals in wastewater by ionizing radiation were simulated by use of the rate constants and the amount of total organic carbon as parameters. Simulation curves of concentrations of these pharmaceuticals as a function of dose described the experimental data, and the required dose for the elimination of them in wastewater by ionizing radiation can be estimated by this simulation. - Highlights: ► We treat pharmaceuticals in wastewater by activated sludge and ionizing radiation. ► Activated sludge decreases the amounts of total organic carbons in wastewater. ► Pharmaceuticals were decomposed by γ-ray irradiation at 2 kGy. ► We construct simulation for treatment of pharmaceuticals by ionizing radiation.

  16. ETHICAL ASPECTS OF THE COOPERATION BETWEEN PHYSICIAN AND PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jože Drinovec

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is not possible to isolated ethical aspects and norms in the work of physician from the professional and scientific ones. The physician will not act contrary to ethical principles if he will work for the interests of the patient and in accordance with scientific knowledge.Present situation and possible solutions. Every physician, especially if working in university institution is co-operating with pharmaceutical industry, at least he is makes the prescriptions and chooses one drug of the possible ones. There are also other aspects of co-operation: clinical trials, writing expertise and lectures at scientific meetings, sponsored by pharmaceutical industry. There are guidelines and codex in Western countries for more than ten years, which regulate the relation between physician and pharmaceutical industry. The most important ones are those from World Health Organisation, European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries’ Associations’, and International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Associations’. Scientific independence of lecturers and writers is tried to be achieved by disclosure of relevant financial relation with pharmaceutical corporation in advance.Conclusions. Physician working with pharmaceutical industry has o follow the guidelines of international professional associations. He/she has to be independent relaying only upon scientific and professional principles seeing primary the benefit of the patient.

  17. Nurse practitioners' perceptions and participation in pharmaceutical marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crigger, Nancy; Barnes, Kristen; Junko, Autumn; Rahal, Sarah; Sheek, Casey

    2009-03-01

    This paper reports on a study conducted to describe family nurse practitioners' perceptions towards and participation in pharmaceutical marketing and to explore the relationships among related variables. The pharmaceutical industry's intense global marketing strategies have resulted in widespread concern in healthcare professionals and professional groups, sectors of the public in many countries, and in the World Health Organization. Research on healthcare providers' participation in pharmaceutical marketing indicates that these relationships are conflicts of interests and compromise healthcare providers' prescribing practices and trust. Nursing, as a discipline, appears to be slow to address the impact of pharmaceutical marketing on nursing practice. Questionnaires about perceptions and participation in pharmaceutical marketing were completed by a random sample of 84 licensed family nurse practitioners in the United States of America in 2007. Family nurse practitioners viewed pharmaceutical company marketing uncritically as educational and beneficial. They also perceived other providers but not themselves as influenced by pharmaceutical marketing. The findings supported those found in previous research with nurses and physicians. Lack of education, participation in marketing and psychological and social responses may impede family nurse practitioners' ability to respond critically and appropriately to marketing strategies and the conflict of interest it creates.

  18. Core calculations of JMTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, Yoshiharu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    In material testing reactors like the JMTR (Japan Material Testing Reactor) of 50 MW in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the neutron flux and neutron energy spectra of irradiated samples show complex distributions. It is necessary to assess the neutron flux and neutron energy spectra of an irradiation field by carrying out the nuclear calculation of the core for every operation cycle. In order to advance core calculation, in the JMTR, the application of MCNP to the assessment of core reactivity and neutron flux and spectra has been investigated. In this study, in order to reduce the time for calculation and variance, the comparison of the results of the calculations by the use of K code and fixed source and the use of Weight Window were investigated. As to the calculation method, the modeling of the total JMTR core, the conditions for calculation and the adopted variance reduction technique are explained. The results of calculation are shown. Significant difference was not observed in the results of neutron flux calculations according to the difference of the modeling of fuel region in the calculations by K code and fixed source. The method of assessing the results of neutron flux calculation is described. (K.I.)

  19. Chernobyl: lessons of the decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsaregorodtsev, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident led to a drastic increase the incidents of thyroid cancer in children living at territories contaminated with radionuclides. The incidents of hemoblastoses which are etiologically closely related to radiation did not change after the incident. The lessons of the decade that passed since the accident necessitate measures aimed at alleviation of the medical consequences of the accident which are to be implemented for many years. The program of such measures should be based on a strictly scientific evaluation of each factor, that will be conductive to a most adequate state financing of this work [ru

  20. Southwest Airlines: lessons in loyalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aurizio, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Southwest Airlines continues to garner accolades in the areas of customer service, workforce management, and profitability. Since both the health care and airlines industries deal with a service rather than a product, the customer experience depends on the people who deliver that experience. Employees' commitment or "loyalty" to their customers, their employer, and their work translates into millions of dollars of revenue. What employee wants to work for "the worst employer in town?" Nine loyalty lessons from Southwest can be carried over to the health care setting for the benefit of employees and patients.

  1. Quality of pharmaceutical care at the pharmacy counter: patients’ experiences versus video observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koster ES

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ellen S Koster,1 Lyda Blom,1 Marloes R Overbeeke,1 Daphne Philbert,1 Marcia Vervloet,2 Laura Koopman,2,3 Liset van Dijk2 1Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Clinical Pharmacology, Utrecht University, the Netherlands; 2Netherlands Institute of Health Services Research (NIVEL, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 3National Health Care Institute, Diemen, the Netherlands Introduction: Consumer Quality Index questionnaires are used to assess quality of care from patients’ experiences.Objective: To provide insight into the agreement about quality of pharmaceutical care, measured both by a patient questionnaire and video observations.Methods: Pharmaceutical encounters in four pharmacies were video-recorded. Patients completed a questionnaire based upon the Consumer Quality Index Pharmaceutical Care after the encounter containing questions about patients’ experiences regarding information provision, medication counseling, and pharmacy staff’s communication style. An observation protocol was used to code the recorded encounters. Agreement between video observation and patients’ experiences was calculated.Results: In total, 109 encounters were included for analysis. For the domains “medication counseling” and “communication style”, agreement between patients’ experiences and observations was very high (>90%. Less agreement (45% was found for “information provision”, which was rated more positive by patients compared to the observations, especially for the topic, encouragement of patients’ questioning behavior.Conclusion: A questionnaire is useful to assess the quality of medication counseling and pharmacy staff’s communication style, but might be less suitable to evaluate information provision and pharmacy staff’s encouragement of patients’ questioning behavior. Although patients may believe that they have received all necessary information to use their new medicine, some information on specific instructions was not addressed during

  2. Prioritization of pharmaceuticals based on risks to aquatic environments in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubakirova, Bakhyt; Beisenova, Raikhan; Boxall, Alistair Ba

    2017-09-01

    Over the last 20 years, there has been increasing interest in the occurrence, fate, effects, and risk of pharmaceuticals in the natural environment. However, we still have only limited or no data on ecotoxicological risks of many of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) currently in use. This is partly due to the fact that the environmental assessment of an API is an expensive, time-consuming, and complicated process. Prioritization methodologies, which aim to identify APIs of most concern in a particular situation, could therefore be invaluable in focusing experimental work on APIs that really matter. The majority of approaches for prioritizing APIs require annual pharmaceutical usage data. These methods cannot therefore be applied to countries, such as Kazakhstan, that have very limited data on API usage. The present paper therefore offers an approach for prioritizing APIs in surface waters in information-poor regions such as Kazakhstan. Initially data were collected on the number of products and active ingredients for different therapeutic classes in use in Kazakhstan and on the typical doses. These data were then used alongside simple exposure modeling approaches to estimate exposure indices for active ingredients (about 240 APIs) in surface waters in the country. Ecotoxicological effects data were obtained from the literature or predicted. Risk quotients were then calculated for each pharmaceutical based on the exposure and the substances were ranked in order of risk quotient. Highest exposure indices were obtained for benzylpenicillin, metronidazole, sulbactam, ceftriaxone, and sulfamethoxazole. The highest risk was estimated for amoxicillin, clarithromycin, azithromycin, ketoconazole, and benzylpenicillin. In the future, the approach could be employed in other regions where usage information is limited. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:832-839. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  3. Investigation of the Sensitivity of Transmission Raman Spectroscopy for Polymorph Detection in Pharmaceutical Tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hanzhou; Bondi, Robert W; Anderson, Carl A; Drennen, James K; Igne, Benoît

    2017-08-01

    Polymorph detection is critical for ensuring pharmaceutical product quality in drug substances exhibiting polymorphism. Conventional analytical techniques such as X-ray powder diffraction and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance are utilized primarily for characterizing the presence and identity of specific polymorphs in a sample. These techniques have encountered challenges in analyzing the constitution of polymorphs in the presence of other components commonly found in pharmaceutical dosage forms. Laborious sample preparation procedures are usually required to achieve satisfactory data interpretability. There is a need for alternative techniques capable of probing pharmaceutical dosage forms rapidly and nondestructively, which is dictated by the practical requirements of applications such as quality monitoring on production lines or when quantifying product shelf lifetime. The sensitivity of transmission Raman spectroscopy for detecting polymorphs in final tablet cores was investigated in this work. Carbamazepine was chosen as a model drug, polymorph form III is the commercial form, whereas form I is an undesired polymorph that requires effective detection. The concentration of form I in a direct compression tablet formulation containing 20% w/w of carbamazepine, 74.00% w/w of fillers (mannitol and microcrystalline cellulose), and 6% w/w of croscarmellose sodium, silicon dioxide, and magnesium stearate was estimated using transmission Raman spectroscopy. Quantitative models were generated and optimized using multivariate regression and data preprocessing. Prediction uncertainty was estimated for each validation sample by accounting for all the main variables contributing to the prediction. Multivariate detection limits were calculated based on statistical hypothesis testing. The transmission Raman spectroscopic model had an absolute prediction error of 0.241% w/w for the independent validation set. The method detection limit was estimated at 1.31% w/w. The

  4. Development of a Population Balance Model of a pharmaceutical drying process and testing of solution methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortier, Séverine Thérèse F.C.; Gernaey, Krist; De Beer, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Drying is frequently used in the production of pharmaceutical tablets. Simulation-based control strategy development for such a drying process requires a detailed model. First, the drying of wet granules is modelled using a Population Balance Model. A growth term based on a reduced model was used......, which describes the decrease of the moisture content, to follow the moisture content distribution for a batch of granules. Secondly, different solution methods for solving the PBM are compared. The effect of grid size (discretization methods) is analyzed in terms of accuracy and calculation time. All...

  5. PHARMACEUTICAL COMPANIES BETWEEN CRISIS AND COMPETITIVENESS - SECTORAL DIAGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela\tBÎRSAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the pharmaceutical industry was a positive constant with the indicators of industrial production even in years of crisis. Although the economic crisis in Romania decreased average growth rate of pharmaceutical companies, market value is expected to increase. The explanation comes from the fact that in order to boost productivity, pharmaceutical companies are turning to emerging countries with aging populations such as open new markets for future development. Add to this the recent health policies implemented by newly industrialized countries that are aimed at ensuring increased access to care. Analysts see the field phenomenon called "Farma-merger" a good chance for European pharmaceutical companies oriented to developing countries where drug sales should record a double-digit annual growth until 2017. In Erste Group reports stated that the impact of the crisis on the pharmaceutical industry should be limited markets for EU only their economic slowdown. This will be possible because the external indebtedness of pharmaceutical companies in the EU remains at a minimum, they are able to finance their investment plans without tapping financial markets, are not adversely affected by the current limited availability of credit resources. Therefore major pharmaceutical companies in the EU will remain a solid investment on the long term, the negative developments are limited due to high resistance to the crisis their business model segment "generic". The consequence of these developments is reflected in the recognition for the first time, the pharmaceutical sector as a strategic sector for the Romanian economy. In the context of public debate launching the National Strategy for Competitiveness 2014-2020, Generic Medicines Industry Association of Romania (APMGR local pharmaceutical industry reminds the Government proposals on correcting the current fiscal and operational regulatory framework, to allow unlocking investments in facilities

  6. Implementing US Department of Energy lessons learned programs. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The DOE Lessons Learned Handbook is a two-volume publication developed to supplement the DOE Lessons Learned Standard (DOE-STD-7501-95) with information that will organizations in developing or improving their lessons learned programs. Volume 1 includes greater detail than the Standard in areas such as identification and documentation of lessons learned; it also contains sections on specific processes such as training and performance measurement. Volume 2 (this document) contains examples of program documents developed by existing lessons learned programs as well as communications material, functional categories, transmittal documents, sources of professional and industry lessons learned, and frequently asked questions about the Lessons Learned List Service.

  7. Lessons learned from accidents in industrial irradiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Use of ionizing radiation in medicine, industry and research for technical development continues to increase throughout the world. One application with a high growth rate is irradiation suing high energy gamma photons and electron beams. There are currently more than 160 gamma irradiation facilities and over 600 electron beam facilities in operation in almost all IAEA Member States. The most common uses of these facilities are to sterilize medical and pharmaceutical products, to preserve foodstuffs, to synthesize polymers and to eradicate insects. Although this industry has a good safety record, there is a potential for accidents with serious consequences to human health because of the high dose rates produced by these sources. Fatal accidents have occurred at installations in both developed and developing countries. Such accidents have prompted a review of several accidents, including five with fatalities, by a team of manufacturers, regulatory authorities and operating organizations. Having looked closely at the circumstances of each accident and the apparent deficiencies in design, safety and regulatory systems and personnel performance, the team made a number of recommendations on the ways in which the safety of irradiators can be improved. The findings of extensive research pertaining to the lessons that can be learned from irradiator accidents are presented. This publication is intended for manufacturers, regulatory authorities and operating organizations dealing with industrial irradiators. It was drafted by J.E. Glen, United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, United States of America, and P. Zuniga-Bello, Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Technologia, Mexico

  8. Lessons from innovation in drug-device combination products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Daniela S; Perez-Breva, Luis; Saraiva, Pedro; Cooney, Charles L

    2012-01-01

    Drug-device combination products introduced a new dynamic on medical product development, regulatory approval, and corporate interaction that provide valuable lessons for the development of new generations of combination products. This paper examines the case studies of drug-eluting stents and transdermal patches to facilitate a detailed understanding of the challenges and opportunities introduced by combination products when compared to previous generations of traditional medical or drug delivery devices. Our analysis indicates that the largest barrier to introduce a new kind of combination products is the determination of the regulatory center that is to oversee its approval. The first product of a new class of combination products offers a learning opportunity for the regulator and the sponsor. Once that first product is approved, the leading regulatory center is determined, and the uncertainty about the entire class of combination products is drastically reduced. The sponsor pioneering a new class of combination products assumes a central role in reducing this uncertainty by advising the decision on the primary function of the combination product. Our analysis also suggests that this decision influences the nature (pharmaceutical, biotechnology, or medical devices) of the companies that will lead the introduction of these products into the market, and guide the structure of corporate interaction thereon. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Controlling Antimicrobial Resistance: Lessons from Scotland for India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchita Bhattacharyya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In India, antimicrobial resistance (AMR is a serious public health problem. While some official policies have been formulated, they are not comprehensive and their enforcement is not monitored or regulated. This paper discusses the success achieved by the Scottish Antimicrobial Prescribing Group (SAPG and derives lessons relevant for AMR policies in India. Methods This study involved secondary data review and discussions with SAPG representatives. Results India is the largest consumer of antibiotics for human health (10.7 units/person and this consumption is steadily increasing. Irrational use, fixed‐dose combinations and growing antibiotic use in livestock have resulted in newer drug‐resistant pathogens. In 2008, the Scottish government initiated the SAPG that has achieved nationwide success in AMR control. The enormous success achieved by SAPG has demonstrated that this delivery model is effective in addressing AMR and can also be used in India, with country‐specific modifications. Conclusions In India, strong political and stakeholder support is required for a pragmatic one‐health approach to antimicrobial governance that would involve the interplay between agriculture, livestock and pharmaceutical industries. Project management, quality improvement, information management and performance assessment through accountability measures are essential. These can be coordinated nationally and implemented locally through existing structures and institutes. This needs to be supported by a powerful clinical network and underpinned by robust educational support that is dynamic to meet the needs of local healthcare professionals and general population.

  10. Global gene mining and the pharmaceutical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    2005-01-01

    Worldwide efforts are ongoing in optimizing medical treatment by searching for the right medicine at the right dose for the individual. Metabolism is regulated by polymorphisms, which may be tested by relatively simple SNP analysis, however requiring DNA from the test individuals. Target genes for the efficiency of a given medicine or predisposition of a given disease are also subject to population studies, e.g., in Iceland, Estonia, Sweden, etc. For hypothesis testing and generation, several bio-banks with samples from patients and healthy persons within the pharmaceutical industry have been established during the past 10 years. Thus, more than 100,000 samples are stored in the freezers of either the pharmaceutical companies or their contractual partners at universities and test institutions. Ethical issues related to data protection of the individuals providing samples to bio-banks are several: nature and extent of information prior to consent, coverage of the consent given by the study person, labeling and storage of the sample and data (coded or anonymized). In general, genetic test data, once obtained, are permanent and cannot be changed. The test data may imply information that is not beneficial to the patient and his/her family (e.g., employment opportunities, insurance, etc.). Furthermore, there may be a long latency between the analysis of the genetic test and the clinical expression of the disease and wide differences in the disease patterns. Consequently, information about some genetic test data may stigmatize patients leading to poor quality of life. This has raised the issue of 'genetic exceptionalism' justifying specific regulation of use of genetic information. Discussions on how to handle sampling and data are ongoing within the industry and the regulatory sphere, the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products (EMEA) having issued a position paper, the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) having a working

  11. RECENT TRENDS IN PACKAGING SYSTEMS FOR PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Dobrucka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background:  In recent years, pharmaceutical packaging market was one of the fastest growing areas of the packaging industry. At the same time the packaging manufacturers put high demands on quality and safety. Methods: Review of innovations in packaging systems for pharmaceutical products was made including newest information of researches and achievements of recent years. Results and conclusion: Observed in recent years the development of pharmaceutical packaging market expanded due to with the huge technological advances that allow introduction of new packaging. Also, in this study presented intelligent packaging in pharmacy and innovation in child-resistance packaging.

  12. Cross-Linked Hydrogel for Pharmaceutical Applications: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabinarayan parhi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogels are promising biomaterials because of their important qualities such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, hydrophilicity and non-toxicity. These qualities make hydrogels suitable for application in medical and pharmaceutical field. Recently, a tremendous growth of hydrogel application is seen, especially as gel and patch form, in transdermal drug delivery. This review mainly focuses on the types of hydrogels based on cross-linking and; secondly to describe the possible synthesis methods to design hydrogels for different pharmaceutical applications. The synthesis and chemistry of these hydrogels are discussed using specific pharmaceutical examples. The structure and water content in a typical hydrogel have also been discussed.

  13. Authentication of gold nanoparticle encoded pharmaceutical tablets using polarimetric signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnicer, Artur; Arteaga, Oriol; Suñé-Negre, Josep M; Javidi, Bahram

    2016-10-01

    The counterfeiting of pharmaceutical products represents concerns for both industry and the safety of the general public. Falsification produces losses to companies and poses health risks for patients. In order to detect fake pharmaceutical tablets, we propose producing film-coated tablets with gold nanoparticle encoding. These coated tablets contain unique polarimetric signatures. We present experiments to show that ellipsometric optical techniques, in combination with machine learning algorithms, can be used to distinguish genuine and fake samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report using gold nanoparticles encoded with optical polarimetric classifiers to prevent the counterfeiting of pharmaceutical products.

  14. Radiation sterilization of pharmaceuticals: An overview of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razem, D.

    2008-01-01

    Radiation sterilization of pharmaceuticals has never stopped attracting the attention of researchers. In this first as yet unfinished decade of the twenty-first century, the number of relevant papers seems to be on the rise again. In developing radiation sterilization of pharmaceuticals and searching for innovative applications, it is important to understand the end users, i.e. the pharmaceutical and medical professions. Mutual understanding between professions has already resulted in a plethora of products for enhancing, preserving and curing health, and many more are waiting to be discovered

  15. Polymers in life sciences: Pharmaceutical and biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, Anna Angela; Dalmoro, Annalisa; d'Amore, Matteo; Lamberti, Gaetano; Cascone, Sara; Titomanlio, Giuseppe

    2015-12-01

    This paper deals with the work done by prof. Titomanlio and his group in the fields of pharmaceutical and biomedical applications of polymers. In particular, the main topics covered are: i) controlled drug release from pharmaceuticals based on hydrogel for oral delivery of drugs; ii) production and characterization of micro and nanoparticles based on stimuli-responsive polymers; iii) use of polymers for coronary stent gel-paving; iv) design and realization of novel methods (in-vitro and in-silico) to test polymer-based pharmaceuticals.

  16. Application of Incoherent Inelastic Neutron Scattering in Pharmaceutical Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordallo, Heloisa N.; A. Zakharov, Boris; Boidyreva, E.V.

    2012-01-01

    This study centers on the use of inelastic neutron scattering as an alternative tool for physical characterization of solid pharmaceutical drugs. On the basis of such approach, relaxation processes in the pharmaceutical compound phenacetin (p-ethoxyacetanilide, C(10)H(13)NO(2)) were evidenced...... contributes to understanding the relationships between intermolecular hydrogen bonds, intramolecular dynamics, and conformational flexibility in pharmaceuticals on a molecular level, which can help in evaluating phase stability with respect to temperature variations on processing or on storage, and is related...

  17. New opportunities for biocatalysis: making pharmaceutical processes greener

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woodley, John

    2008-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry requires synthetic routes to be environmentally compatible as well as to fulfill the demands of process economics and product specification and to continually reduce development times. Biocatalysis has the potential to deliver 'greener' chemical syntheses, and in this ......The pharmaceutical industry requires synthetic routes to be environmentally compatible as well as to fulfill the demands of process economics and product specification and to continually reduce development times. Biocatalysis has the potential to deliver 'greener' chemical syntheses...... of biocatalysis for making pharmaceutical processes greener....

  18. Process Analytical Technology for Crystallization of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malwade, Chandrakant Ramkrishna; Qu, Haiyan

    2018-01-01

    Background: Pharmaceutical industry is witnessing increased pressure to introduce innovative and efficient processes for manufacturing of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) in order to be competitive as well as to meet the stringent product quality requirements set by regulatory authorities...... parameters and their impact on quality of APIs and subsequently the drug products assume great significance for pharmaceutical industry. Methods: This review paper focuses on application of PAT tools, an integral part of Quality by Design (QbD) approach, for better understanding, control, and design...

  19. Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator (EEBC) was developed to assist organizations in estimating the environmental benefits of greening their purchase,...

  20. Electrical installation calculations basic

    CERN Document Server

    Kitcher, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    All the essential calculations required for basic electrical installation workThe Electrical Installation Calculations series has proved an invaluable reference for over forty years, for both apprentices and professional electrical installation engineers alike. The book provides a step-by-step guide to the successful application of electrical installation calculations required in day-to-day electrical engineering practice. A step-by-step guide to everyday calculations used on the job An essential aid to the City & Guilds certificates at Levels 2 and 3Fo