Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chassany, J.Ph.; Paillard, R.; Meffre, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Marcoule (France). Centre de Production de Plutonium de Marcoule
1965-07-01
The activation of argon 40 present in the air (9.3 l/m{sup 3}) or in trace form in CO{sub 2} is particularly important. In G-1 the cooling is effected by atmospheric air which passes through the reactor and is expelled through a chimney. The activity due to argon 41 of the expelled air is about l0{sup -4} Ci/m{sup 3}. For the reactors G-2 and G-3 the cooling is effected using CO{sub 2} in a closed circuit at a pressure of 15 kg/cm{sup 2}. Although the argon content of industrial CO{sub 2} is practically constant, it can be influenced by that of the residual air left in the circuits during the start-up. The activity due to argon 41 of the neat-carrying fluid is about 10{sup -3} Ci/m{sup 3}. (authors) [French] L'activation de l'argon 40 present dans l'air (9,3 l par m{sup 3}) ou a l'etat de trace dans CO{sub 2} est particulierement importante. A G-1, le refroidissement est effectue par de l'air atmospherique traversant la pile et rejete par une cheminee. L'activite en argon 41 de l'air a la sortie est de l'ordre de 10{sup -4} Ci/m{sup 3}. Pour les piles G-2 et G-3, le refroidissement est assure par du CO{sub 2}, en circuit ferme, sous une pression de 15 kg/cm{sup 2}. Si la teneur en argon du CO{sub 2} industriel est pratiquement constante, elle peut etre influencee par celle de l'air residuel laisse dans les circuits au moment du gonflage. L'activite en argon 41 du fluide caloporteur est de l'ordre de 10{sup -3} Ci/m{sup 3}. (auteurs)
Catalyse électro-microbienne dans les piles à combustible
Dumas, Claire
2007-01-01
Les piles à combustible microbiennes (PACM) sont des systèmes qui assurent la conversion directe de matières organiques en énergie électrique en utilisant des biofilms bactériens comme catalyseur des réactions électrochimiques. Cette étude vise à améliorer la compréhension des mécanismes de transfert électronique entre les bactéries adhérées et les électrodes, ainsi qu'à optimiser la production électrique des PACMs en explorant et caractérisant différents matériaux d'électrodes. Les expérienc...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Furet, J.; Landauer, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1968-07-01
This catalogue consists of tables (one per reactor) giving the following information: number and type of detectors, range of the shutdown channels, nature of the associated electronics, thresholds setting off the alarms, fitted interlocks. These cards have been drawn up with a view to an examination of the reactors safety by the 'Reactor Safety Sub-Commission', they take into account the latest decisions. The reactors involved in this review are: Azur, Cabri, Castor-Pollux, Cesar-Marius-2, Edf-2, EL3, EL4, Eole, G1, G2-G3, Harmonie, Isis, Masurca, Melusine, Minerve, Osiris, Pegase, Peggy, PAT, Rapsodie, SENA, Siloe, Siloette, Triton-Nereide, and Ulysse. (authors) [French] Ce catalogue est compose d'un ensemble de tableaux (a raison de un tableau par pile) donnant les renseignements suivants: nombre et nature des detecteurs, dynamique des chaines, nature de l'electronique associee, seuils provoquant des actions de securite, verrouillages installes. Ces fiches ont ete etablies en vue de l'examen de la securite des piles par la 'Sous-Commission de Surete des Piles', et tiennent compte des decisions de celle-ci. Les reacteurs concernes sont: Azur, Cabri, Cator-Pollux, Cesar-Marius-2, Edf-2, EL3, EL4, Eole, G1, G2-G3, Harmonie, Isis, Masurca, Melusine, Minerve, Osiris, Pegase, Peggy, PAT, Rapsodie, SENA, Siloe, Siloette, Triton-Nereide, et Ulysse. (auteurs)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Breelle Y.
2006-11-01
Full Text Available Cet article fait le point, sous forme résumée, des travaux de recherches et de développement menés par l'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP depuis vingt ans dans le domaine des piles à combustible : sélection des filières directes conduisant au choix de la pile hydrogène-air basse température à électrolyte basique, mise au point des générateurs à hydrogène alimentés en méthanol. On présente les résultats obtenus et les conclusions des enquêtes effectués dans le domaine des groupes électrogènes et des applications spéciales, dans celui de la traction automobile et dans celui de la production massive d'électricité. This article reviews and sums up the research and development done by Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP in the last 20 years in the field of fuel cells, including the selection of direct methods leading to the choice of low-temperature basic-electrolyte hydrogen/air cells and the development of methanol-powered hydrogen generators. The results obtained are desceibed along with the conclusions of surveys made in the field of electric generators and special applications in the fields of automotive traction and massive electricity production.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nauroy J. F.
2006-11-01
Full Text Available Les formations carbonatées rencontrées en de nombreuses zones d'activités pétrolières en mer posent de difficiles problèmes de dimensionnement et de mise en place des pieux. Sur plusieurs sites de sable carbonaté, la capacité portante des pieux battus se révèle beaucoup plus faible que prévu et des techniques de réparation doivent être étudiées. Dans ce contexte, l'ARGEMA (Association de Recherche en Géotechnique Marine, groupement français d'organismes de recherche, de compagnies pétrolières et de contracteurs offshore, a expérimenté une réparation d'un pieu expérimental de 30 cm de diamètre et 23 m de long battu dans un sable carbonaté. Le frottement latéral de ce pieu mobilisé juste après battage était très faible. La réparation a consisté à injecter du coulis de ciment à partir d'un forage situé à 40 cm du pieu. Cet article décrit les procédures et les caractéristiques des injections réalisées et leurs conséquences sur la capacité portante du pieu. Le frottement entre le pieu et le terrain s'accroît avec le volume de ciment injecté; les valeurs maximales obtenues sont du même ordre de grandeur que celles observées avec un pieu foré-cimenté. The calcareous formations encountered in many zones of offshore petroleum activity raise difficult problems for designing and installing foundation piles. On several sites with calcareous sands, the bearing capacity of driven piles proves to be much less than had been planned, and repair techniques have to be examined. Within this context, ARGEMA (Association de Recherche en Géotechnique Marine, a french group of research organizations, oil companies and offshore contractors, has tested a repair of an experimental pile 30 cm in diameter and 23 m long driven into a calcareous sand. The skin friction of this pile, mobilized just after driving, was found to be very low. The repair-job consisted in injecting grout from a drilled borehole located at some tens
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roguin, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1965-07-01
Can-rupture detection (DRG) is one important aspect of pile safety, more particularly so in the case of gas-cooled reactors. A rapid and sure detection constitutes also an improvement as far as the efficiency of electricity-producing nuclear power stations are concerned. Among the numerous can-rupture detection methods, that based on the measurement of the concentration of short-lived fission gases in the heat-carrying fluid has proved to be the most sensitive and the most rapid. A systematic study of detectors based on the electrostatic collection of the daughter products of fission gases has been undertaken with a view to equip the reactors EL 2, G 3, EDF 1, EDF 2 and EDF 3, the gas loops of PEGASE and EL 4. The different parameters are studied in detail in order to obtain a maximum sensitivity and to make it possible to construct detection devices having the maximum operational reliability and requiring the minimum maintenance. The primary applications of these devices are examined in the case of the above-mentioned reactors. (author) [French] La Detection des Ruptures de Gaines (D. R. G.) est un aspect important de la securite des piles et plus particulierement des piles refroidies par un gaz. Une detection rapide et sure constitue aussi un element d'amelioration du rendement des centrales nucleaires productrices d'energie electrique. Parmi les nombreuses methodes de detection des ruptures de gaines, la mesure de la concentration dans le fluide caloporteur des gaz de fission a vie courte s'est revelee comme la plus sensible et la plus rapide. Une etude systematique des detecteurs a collection electrostatique des descendants des gaz de fission a ete entreprise en vue d'equiper les piles EL 2, G 3, EDF 1, EDF 2 et EDF 3, les boucles a gaz de la pile Pegase et la pile EL 4. Les divers parametres sont etudies en detail pour obtenir une sensibilite maximum et permettre la realisation de dispositifs de detection ayant le maximum de securite de
Reactor G1: high power experiments; Experiences a forte puissance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Laage, F. de; Teste du Baillet, A.; Veyssiere, A.; Wanner, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Retel, H. [Societe Rateau, D.E.A. (France)
1957-07-01
therefore comprise four distinct parts: 1- 34 T. pile. Study of principal effects at high temperatures. Measurement of power. 2- 100 T. pile. Measurement of power. Thermodynamic study. Temperature distribution. 3- 34 T. pile. Flux charts at high temperatures. 4- Brief study of the cooling system. Experimental installation. (1) See report on reheating. (author) [French] Les experiences effectuees dans le cadre du programme de demarrage du reacteur G1, ont comporte une serie d'essais a forte puissance, qui ont permis d'etudier les points suivants: 1- Effet d'empoisonnement par le Xenon (valeur absolue, evolution). 2- Coefficients de temperature de l'uranium et du graphite pour une distribution des temperatures correspondant a l'echauffement par fission. 3- Effet de pression (d au soufflage) sur la reactivite. 4- Etalonnage des barres de securite en fonction de leur position dans la pile (1). 5- Distribution des temperatures du graphite, des gaines, de l'uranium et de l'air a la sortie des canaux, dans la pile en regime stable a puissance elevee. 6- Distribution du flux de neutrons dans la pile en regime stable a puissance elevee. 7- Determination de la puissance par methode nucleaire et thermodynamique. Ces experiences ont ete faits sur deux etats de pile tres differents. Du 1 au 15 aout 1956, une serie de montees en puissances et de stabilisations ont ete faites sur une pile a uranium seul, chargee a 457 canaux, soit environ 34 tonnes de combustible. La connaissance de l'efficacite des barres de controle sur une telle pile a permis de mesurer avec une bonne precision les principaux effets a chaud, c'est-a-dire de repondre aux points 1, 2, 3, 5. Des cartes de flux donnant des renseignements sur les variations du laplacien matiere et des longueurs d'extrapolation dans le reflecteur ont ete dressees. Enfin la puissance thermodynamique a ete mesuree dans de bonnes conditions, en depit de quelques difficultes d
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Robert, J.; Raievski, V. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Paris (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Hainzelin, J. [Chantiers de l' Atlantique (Penhoet-Loire), 75 - Paris (France)
1959-07-01
The programme of the high flux laboratory pile EL3 was laid down in october 1954. It is a heavy-water moderated and cooled pile. The fuel rods are of uranium metal with 1.6 per cent - 2 per cent of molybdenum, with aluminium canning. The maximum thermal flux in the moderator is 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}/s. Studies began in january 1955, construction in may 1955, and the first divergence took place in July 1957. This report gives a general description of the pile and its adjacent buildings, the physical study of the pile, and certain technological studies carried out for the construction of EL3. (author) [French] Le programme de la pile laboratoire a haut flux EL3, a ete fixe en octobre 1954. C'est une pile moderee et refroidie a l'eau lourde. Les barres de combustible sont en uranium metal a 1,6 pour cent - 2 pour cent de molybdene, gainees a l'aluminium. Le flux thermique maximum dans le moderateur est de 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}/s. Les etudes ont commence en janvier 1955, la construction en mai 1955, la premiere divergence a eu lieu en juillet 1957. On trouvera dans ce rapport, une description generale de la pile et de ses batiments annexes, l'etude physique de la pile et un certain nombre d'etudes technologiques executees pour la construction d'EL3. (auteur)
Fondations au rocher : influence des fractures sur les tassements au pied des piles d'un viaduc
Alfonsi, P.; FOUCHE, O
2004-01-01
La structure complexe et mal connue d'un massif rocheux rend difficile l'étude de son comportement sous la charge des ouvrages. Ici, une reconstitution statistique du réseau des discontinuités est proposée à partir des forages d'un projet de viaduc, afin de déterminer numériquement les différences dans les déformations autour d'une fondation entre les modèles 2D intégrant la fracturation et les modèles continus 3D et 2D équivalents. The complex geometry of the fracture network in a rock ma...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goupil, J.; Grenon, M.; Raffailhac, J.; Roguin, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1959-07-01
electrostatic collecting method. A scintillator and an electronic system provide a specific signal of the fission products which is then marked on a recorder. In a case where the activity threshold is exceeded, the cell involved is isolated from the prospection system and taker, over by a 'follow-up' detector which follows the evolution of the crack. A year of working on the pile G{sub 1}, which is cooled by air at atmospheric pressure, has made it possible to obtain results on the operation of the canning-burst detection appliance, which has led us to perfect the original device by installing an 'evolution-meter' of the type described above for G{sub 3}. The reactor EL{sub 3}, cooled by heavy water, uses a detection system based on the measurement by GM counters of the activity of the fission gases carried by diluted helium into the heavy water, then extracted by hydro-cyclones. The selectivity of the system gives it a low sensitivity to parasite activities, and an excellent performance. (author) [French] Dans les piles refroidies par gaz carbonique sous pression, du type G{sub 3}, la radioactivite principale du gaz est celle de l'azote 16 creee par reaction {sup 16}O(n, p) {sup 16}N des neutrons rapides sur l'oxygene. Cette activite, de vie courte et de forte energie {beta}, masque l'activite des gaz de fission s'echappant par une fissure de gaine dans le gaz carbonique et oblige a utiliser une methode de separation materielle des produits de fission solides avant la detection proprement dite. Cette detection est faite par une chaine electronique speciale dont l'entree est un scintillateur associe a un photomultiplicateur. Un systeme de mesure d'evolution de fissure avec compensation des variations de puissance permet de suivre la vitesse d'evolution d'une fissure. Cet appareil, baptise evolumetre, est destine a ramener a une methode de zero la mesure de l'activite du gaz de refroidissement des canaux, il permet
Branca, Mario; Quidacciolu, Rossana G.; Soletta, Isabella
2013-01-01
The construction of a voltaic pile (battery) is a simple laboratory activity that commemorates the invention of this important device and is of great help in teaching physics. The voltaic pile is often seen as a scientific toy, with the "pile" being constructed from fruit. These toys use some strips of copper and zinc inserted in a piece…
1987-01-01
Machine-oriented structural engineering firm TERA, Inc. is engaged in a project to evaluate the reliability of offshore pile driving prediction methods to eventually predict the best pile driving technique for each new offshore oil platform. Phase I Pile driving records of 48 offshore platforms including such information as blow counts, soil composition and pertinent construction details were digitized. In Phase II, pile driving records were statistically compared with current methods of prediction. Result was development of modular software, the CRIPS80 Software Design Analyzer System, that companies can use to evaluate other prediction procedures or other data bases.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brisbois, J.; Vergnaud, T.; Oceraies, Y
1967-12-01
disposition des protections inferieures et laterales de ces piles. Cet empilement est alimente par les neutrons thermiques provenant de la pile a eau legere Nereide. Des mesures de flux de neutrons intermediaires ont ete faites dans cet empilement, afin d'etablir un formulaire de calcul des flux de neutrons en ralentissement dans un ensemble coeur-reflecteur lateral, a partir de la repartition du flux de neutrons thermiques dans le coeur. Le calcul du flux est fait par une theorie de l'age a 3 dimensions, dans deux milieux homogenes, separes par un plan, semi-infinis axialement et finis lateralement. L'un de ces milieux comporte une repartition de sources. Les constantes sont modifiees afin de tenir compte de la presence de canaux vides dans l'empilement. Ces calculs sont effectues a l'aide du programme Malaga. La verification du formulaire n'a pu se faire que dans une geometrie beaucoup plus complexe que celle des piles, ce qui introduit un facteur d'incertitude dans la comparaison des resultats. On peut cependant dire que l'on estime correctement la variation du flux de neutrons intermediaires dans le coeur, ainsi que sa decroissance dans un reflecteur lateral troue. Le rapport entre le calcul et l'experience est inferieur a 2 ou 3. La plupart du temps a un facteur 2. (auteurs)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Furet, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1962-07-01
We have been led to study the problem of safety in atomic pile control as a result of our participation on the one hand in the planning of C.E.A. atomic piles, and on the other hand in the pile safety sub omission considering atomic pile safety of operational or planned C.E.A. piles. We have thus had to consider the wishes occurring in piles during their operation and also their behaviour in the dynamic state The present work deals mainly with the importance of intrinsic safety devices, with the influence of reactivity variations on the power fluctuations during accidental operation, and with the development of robust and reliable safety appliances. The starting p accident has been especially studied both for low-flux piles where a compromise is necessary between the response time of the safety appliances and the statistical fluctuations and for high lux piles where xenon poisoning has an effect on the lower limit of the velocity of reactivity liberation. The desirability has been stressed of automation as a safety factor in atomic pile control. The details required for an understanding of the diagrams of the apparatus are given. (author) [French] Nous avons aborde le probleme de la securite dans le controle des piles atomiques a la suite de notre participation d'une part aux avant rojets de piles atomiques du CE.A. et d'autre part a l'examen au sein de la sous ommission de surete des piles, de la securite des piles du CE.A. en fonctionnement ou en projet. Nous avons ete amenes a nous interesser alors aux risques encourus par les piles pendant leur fonctionnement et par la meme a leur comportement en regime dynamique. Ce travail traite principalement de l'importance des securites intrinseques, de l'influence des variations de reactivite sur les evolutions de puissance en regime d'accident et du developpement d'appareillages de securite robustes et de fonctionnement tres sur. L'accident de demarrage a ete particulierement
Alfonsi, P.; FOUCHE, O
2003-01-01
La structure complexe et mal connue d'un massif rocheux permet difficilement de déterminer son comportement sous l'effet du chargement des ouvrages. Après avoir effectué une reconstitution statistique des discontinuités à partir des forages d'un projet de viaduc, on étudie les différences des déformations d'une fondation calculées numériquement, entre les modèles 2D intégrant la fracturation et les modèles continus 3D et 2D équivalents. The complex geometry of fractures in rock masses make...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rodier, J.; Chassany, J.; Guillermin, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Production de Plutonium, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1965-07-01
During this work and its preparation, which took place first at G. 2 and then at G. 3 over a period of 11 months, 15000 measurement results were obtained. Their analysis, together with a consideration of the organisation on the site and of the conclusions drawn from the experiment, shows the various factors which determine the importance of the radio-active dangers. (authors) [French] Au cours de ces travaux et de leur preparation, qui ont eu lieu successivement a G. 3 puis a G. 2, pendant 11 mois, 15 000 resultats de mesures ont ete obtenus. Leur etude, mise en parallele avec l'organisation du chantier et les enseignements tires de l'experience, met en evidence les divers facteurs conditionnant les niveaux de risques radioactifs. (auteurs)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chassany, J.; Roux, J.M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Chusclan (France). Centre de Production de Plutonium de Marcoule
1969-07-01
A review is made, after one year operation, of the protection against tritium in a heavy-water reactor: - nature of the tritium risk, particular to this type of installation; - detection and measurement equipment; - working method; - results obtained concerning the supervision of the personnel, the installation, and the servicing operations. (authors) [French] Le bilan de la protection contre le tritium dans une pile a eau lourde, a l'issue d'une annee de fonctionnement, est presente: - nature du risque tritium specifique d'une telle installation; - moyens de detection et de mesure; - methode de travail; - resultats obtenus quant a la surveillance du personnel, de l'installation et des interventions. (auteurs)
The reactor Cabri; La pile cabri
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ailloud, J.; Millot, J.P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1964-07-01
exceptional circumstances... - experimental investigations on power excursions linked with precise initial conditions: the aim of this work is to define the basis for theoretical research, and the limits beyond which the risks of explosion cease to be negligible. The research work will be done so as to enable checking with outside reactor experiments and to continue them in the explosion field. - studies of the behaviour of the reactor control-instrumentation. - experimental investigations related with transient operation with initial short life (study of boiling, temperature measurements, vacuum pressure and fraction...) with the aim of defining the hypotheses of a theory on swimming-pool reactor kinetics related to heat transfer phenomena, - investigations of the behaviour of fuels in reactors (these experiments are planned to be carried out in loops) Preliminary experimental results. CABRI went critical on the 21 December 1963. The first transient experiments are expected for March 1964. (authors) [French] II devenait necessaire de construire en France une pile qui permette d'etudier les conditions de fonctionnement des installations futures, de choisir, tester et mettre au point les dispositifs de securite a adopter. On a choisi une pile a eau, type de pile qui correspond aux constructions les plus nouvelles du CEA en matiere de piles laboratoire ou d'universite; il importe en effet de pouvoir evaluer les risques presentes et d'etudier les possibilites d'augmentation de puissance constamment demandees par les utilisateurs: il est particulierement interessant d'eclaircir les phenomenes d'oscillation de puissance et les risques de calefaction (burn out). Les programmes de travaux sur CABRI seront harmonises avec les travaux effectues sur les Spert americains de meme type; lors de sa construction des contacts fructueux ont ete etablis avec les specialistes americains qui ont defini les premiers de ces reacteurs. La communication donne une
Hsu, Shu-Wei
2010-01-01
We present a method for directly modeling piles of objects in multi-body simulations. Piles of objects represent some of the more interesting, but also most time-consuming portion of simulation. We propose a method for reducing computation in many of these situations by explicitly modeling the piles that the objects may form into. By modeling pile behavior rather than the behavior of all individual objects, we can achieve realistic results in less time, and without directly modeling the frictional component that leads to desired pile shapes. Our method is simple to implement and can be easily integrated with existing rigid body simulations. We observe notable speedups in several rigid body examples, and generate a wider variety of piled structures than possible with strict impulse-based simulation. © 2010 ACM.
Basal Reinforced Piled Embankments
Van Eekelen, S.J.M.
2015-01-01
A basal reinforced piled embankment consists of a reinforced embankment on a pile foundation. The reinforcement consists of one or more horizontal layers of geosynthetic reinforcement (GR) installed at the base of the embankment. The design of the GR is the subject of this thesis. A basal
Basal Reinforced Piled Embankments
Van Eekelen, S.J.M.
2015-01-01
A basal reinforced piled embankment consists of a reinforced embankment on a pile foundation. The reinforcement consists of one or more horizontal layers of geosynthetic reinforcement (GR) installed at the base of the embankment. The design of the GR is the subject of this thesis. A basal reinforce
Basal Reinforced Piled Embankments
Van Eekelen, S.J.M.
2015-01-01
A basal reinforced piled embankment consists of a reinforced embankment on a pile foundation. The reinforcement consists of one or more horizontal layers of geosynthetic reinforcement (GR) installed at the base of the embankment. The design of the GR is the subject of this thesis. A basal reinforce
DePino, Andrew, Jr.
1994-01-01
Describes the relationships a high school built with neighborhood industry, a national laboratory, a national museum, and a large university while trying to build a scale model of the original atomic pile. Provides suggestions for teachers. (MVL)
Numerical analysis of pile lateral behavior of pile supported embankment
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
荆志东; 刘力; 郑刚; 姜岩
2008-01-01
A finite difference numerical method was adopted to evaluate the pile lateral behavior of pile supported embankment. A published case history was used to verify the proposed methodology. By simulating the case history, the determination of parameters needed were verified. Then three embankments constructed on different ground conditions with different soil-pile relative stiffnesses were analyzed to study pile lateral behaviors including pile deflection and bending moment. The results show that pile deflections and bending moments induced by soil lateral deformation and embankment vertical load are different for piles at different positions under the same embankment. The relative stiffness between pile and soil affected by the properties of different reinforcing piles such as concrete pile and deep mixing method pile exert important effects on the pile lateral behavior and the pile’s failure modes. Consequently, it is necessary to consider the different piles lateral behaviors and possible failure modes at different positions and the different piles proprieties with different reinforcing methods in the embankment stability analysis.
Soil-Pile Interaction in the Pile Vertical Vibration Based on Fictitious Soil-Pile Model
Guodong Deng; Jiasheng Zhang; Wenbing Wu; Xiong Shi; Fei Meng
2014-01-01
By introducing the fictitious soil-pile model, the soil-pile interaction in the pile vertical vibration is investigated. Firstly, assuming the surrounding soil of pile to be viscoelastic material and considering its vertical wave effect, the governing equations of soil-pile system subjected to arbitrary harmonic dynamic force are founded based on the Euler-Bernoulli rod theory. Secondly, the analytical solution of velocity response in frequency domain and its corresponding semianalytical solu...
A simplified analysis method for piled raft and pile group foundations with batter piles
Kitiyodom, Pastsakorn; Matsumoto, Tatsunori
2002-11-01
A simplified method of numerical analysis has been developed to estimate the deformation and load distribution of piled raft foundations subjected to vertical, lateral, and moment loads, using a hybrid model in which the flexible raft is modelled as thin plates and the piles as elastic beams and the soil is treated as springs. Both the vertical and lateral resistances of the piles as well as the raft base are incorporated into the model. Pile-soil-pile, pile-soil-raft and raft-soil-raft interactions are taken into account based on Mindlin's solutions for both vertical and lateral forces. The validity of the proposed method is verified through comparisons with several existing methods for single piles, pile groups and piled rafts. Workable design charts are given for the estimation of the lateral displacement and the load distribution of piled rafts from the stiffnesses of the raft alone and the pile group alone. Additionally, parametric studies were carried out concerning batter pile foundations. It was found that the use of batter piles can efficiently improve the deformation characteristics of pile foundations subjected to lateral loads.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goldschmidt, B.; Regnaut, P.; Prevot, I. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1955-07-01
Description of the conditions of plutonium, fission products and of uranium separation by selective extraction of the nitrates by organic solvent, containing a simultaneous extraction of plutonium and uranium, followed by a plutonium re-extraction after reduction, and an uranium re-extraction. The rates of decontamination being insufficient in this first stage, we also describes the processes of decontamination permitting separately to get the rates wanted for uranium and plutonium. Finally, we describes the beginning of the operation that consists in a nitric dissolution of the active uranium while capturing the products of gaseous fission, as well as the final concentration of the products of fission in a concentrated solution. (authors) [French] Description des conditions de separation du plutonium, des produits de fission et de l'uranium au moyen d'une extraction selective des nitrates par solvant organique, comprenant une extraction simultanee du plutonium et de l'uranium, suivie d'une reextraction du plutonium apres reduction, et d'une reextraction de l'uranium. Les taux de decontamination etant insuffisants dans ce premier stade, on decrit egalement les processus de decontamination permettant separement d'obtenir les taux desires pour l'uranium et le plutonium. Enfin, on decrit aussi le debut de l'operation qui consiste en une dissolution nitrique de l'uranium actif en captant les produits de fission gazeux, ainsi que la concentration finale des produits de fission sous forme de solution concentree. (auteurs)
Flexible pile thermal barrier insulator
Anderson, G. E.; Fell, D. M.; Tesinsky, J. S. (Inventor)
1978-01-01
A flexible pile thermal barrier insulator included a plurality of upstanding pile yarns. A generally planar backing section supported the upstanding pile yarns. The backing section included a plurality of filler yarns forming a mesh in a first direction. A plurality of warp yarns were looped around said filler yarns and pile yarns in the backing section and formed a mesh in a second direction. A binder prevented separation of the yarns in the backing section.
Laterally Loaded Piles in Clay
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Helle; Niewald, Gitte
1992-01-01
The ultimate lateral resistance of a pile element moved horizontally can be analyzed by the theory of plasticity. At a certain depth the movements around the pile are purely horizontal and upper bound solutions can be estimated theoretically under undrained circumstances. Model tests...... in the laboratory show ultimate resistances close to the estimated limits and p - y curves close to curves based on test results from full-scale piles. Rough and smooth piles with circular and square cross sections are investigated....
Fermi, Enrico
The Patent contains an extremely detailed description of an atomic pile employing natural uranium as fissile material and graphite as moderator. It starts with the discussion of the theory of the intervening phenomena, in particular the evaluation of the reproduction or multiplication factor, K, that is the ratio of the number of fast neutrons produced in one generation by the fissions to the original number of fast neutrons, in a system of infinite size. The possibility of having a self-maintaining chain reaction in a system of finite size depends both on the facts that K is greater than unity and the overall size of the system is sufficiently large to minimize the percentage of neutrons escaping from the system. After the description of a possible realization of such a pile (with many detailed drawings), the various kinds of neutron losses in a pile are depicted. Particularly relevant is the reported "invention" of the exponential experiment: since theoretical calculations can determine whether or not a chain reaction will occur in a give system, but can be invalidated by uncertainties in the parameters of the problem, an experimental test of the pile is proposed, aimed at ascertaining if the pile under construction would be divergent (i.e. with a neutron multiplication factor K greater than 1) by making measurements on a smaller pile. The idea is to measure, by a detector containing an indium foil, the exponential decrease of the neutron density along the length of a column of uranium-graphite lattice, where a neutron source is placed near its base. Such an exponential decrease is greater or less than that expected due to leakage, according to whether the K factor is less or greater than 1, so that this experiment is able to test the criticality of the pile, its accuracy increasing with the size of the column. In order to perform this measure a mathematical description of the effect of neutron production, diffusion, and absorption on the neutron density in the
Soil-Pile Interaction in the Pile Vertical Vibration Based on Fictitious Soil-Pile Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guodong Deng
2014-01-01
Full Text Available By introducing the fictitious soil-pile model, the soil-pile interaction in the pile vertical vibration is investigated. Firstly, assuming the surrounding soil of pile to be viscoelastic material and considering its vertical wave effect, the governing equations of soil-pile system subjected to arbitrary harmonic dynamic force are founded based on the Euler-Bernoulli rod theory. Secondly, the analytical solution of velocity response in frequency domain and its corresponding semianalytical solution of velocity response in time domain are derived by means of Laplace transform technique and separation of variables technique. Based on the obtained solutions, the influence of parameters of pile end soil on the dynamic response is studied in detail for different designing parameters of pile. Lastly, the fictitious soil-pile model and other pile end soil supporting models are compared. It is shown that the dynamic response obtained by the fictitious soil-pile model is among the dynamic responses obtained by other existing models if there are appropriate material parameters and thickness of pile end soil for the fictitious soil-pile model.
Richardson, D. C.; Leinhardt, Z. M.; Quinn, T.
1999-09-01
There is increasing evidence that many km-sized bodies in the Solar System may be rubble piles, gravitationally bound collections of solid material (Richardson, Bottke, & Love 1998, Icarus 134, 47). If true, then collisions may occur in free space between rubble piles. Here we present results from a project to map the parameter space of collisions between km-sized spherical rubble piles. The results will assist in parameterization of collision outcomes for Solar System formation models and may give insight into catastrophic disruption scaling laws. We use a direct numerical method (Richardson, Quinn, Stadel, & Lake 1999, Icarus, in press) to evolve the positions and velocities of the rubble pile particles under the constraints of gravity and physical collisions. We test the dependence of the collision outcomes on impact speed and angle, spin, mass ratio, and dissipation parameter. Speeds are kept low so that the maximum strain on the component material does not exceed the crushing strength, appropriate for dynamically cool systems such as the primordial disk during early planet formation. We compare our results with analytic estimates, laboratory experiments, hydrocode simulations, and stellar system collision models. We find that net accretion dominates the outcomes in head-on, slow encounters while net erosion dominates for off-axis, fast encounters. The dependence on impact angle is almost equally as important as the dependence on impact speed. Off-axis encounters can result in fast-spinning elongated remnants or contact binaries while fast encounters result in smaller fragments overall. Reaccumulation of debris escaping from the remnant can occur, leading to the formation of smaller rubble piles. Less than 2% of the system mass ends up in orbit around the remnant. Initial spin can reduce or enhance collision outcomes, depending on the relative orientation of the spin and orbital angular momenta. We derive a relationship between impact speed and angle for
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vincent Denis
2013-11-01
Full Text Available La récupération du platine contenu dans la couche catalytique des piles à combustible est nécessaire pour viabiliser cette technologie vers le secteur industriel. Dans cette étude la voie purement hydrométallurgique a été privilégiée au procédé de récupération pyrométallurgique, évitant la destruction des autres constituants de la pile (membrane, … et limitant la formation de gaz toxique. Le procédé mise en œuvre est constitué d'une étape de lixiviation à partir d'un mélange HCl/HNO3, suivie par la précipitation d'un sel de platine (NH42PtCl6 pouvant soit servir à la synthèse d'un nouveau catalyseur soit à l'obtention de platine métallique. Sur l'ensemble de la chaîne un rendement de récupération de plus de 80 % a pu être obtenu mettant en avant le potentiel de cette stratégie. The recovery of platinum in the catalyst layers of PEMFCs (proton exchange membrane fuel cells is required to allow a transfer in industry. In this study, hydrometallurgical route was preferred to pyrometallurgical process, reducing both the destruction of the other components of the cell (membrane, … and the formation of hazardous gas. In this work, the process includes a leaching step from a diluted aqua regia solution, followed by a precipitation step of platinum under the (NH42PtCl6 form. This salt can be used either for the synthesis of a new catalyst or to obtain a metallic platinum. Considering these steps the recovery efficiency has been found to be over 80 %, which bring out the potential of this strategy.
Mono pile foundation. Final report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lyngesen, S.; Brendstrup, C.
1997-02-01
The use of mono piles as foundations for maritime structures has been developed during the last decades. The installation requirements within the offshore sector have resulted in equipment enabling driving of piles up to 3-4 m to large penetration depths. The availability of this equipment has made the use of large mono piles feasible as foundations for structures like wind turbines. The mono pile foundations consists of three parts; the bare pile, a conical transition and a boat landing. All parts are prefitted at the yard in order to minimise the installation work that has to be carried out offshore. The study of a mono pile foundations for a 1.5 MW wind turbine has been conducted for two locations, Horns Rev and Roedsand. Three different water depths: 5, 8 and 11 m have been investigated in the study. The on-site welding between pile and conical transition is performed by an automatic welding machine. Final testing and eventually repair of the weld are conducted at least 16 hours after welding. This is followed by final installation of J-tube, tie-in to subsea cables and installation of the impressed current system for corrosive protection of the mono pile. The total cost for procurement and installation of the mono pile using the welded connection is estimated. The price does not include procurement and installation of access platform and boat landing. These costs are estimated to 250.000 DKK. Depending on water depth the cost of the pile ranges from 2,2 to 2,7 million DKK. Procurement and fabrication of the pile are approx. 75% of the total costs. The remaining 25% are due to installation. The total costs are very sensitive to the unit price of pile steel. During the project it became obvious that ice load has a very large influence on the dimensions of the mono pile. (EG)
Use of geothermal piles combined with pile foundations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ivan Kuzytskyi
2016-07-01
Full Text Available The possibility of use of geothermal piles in conditions of cold climate is considered. Full-scale experiment is conducted for using this technology in Kiev. Obtained results testify about a possibility for using the system in conditions of Ukraine, but this technology requires more detailed study and simulation of multiannual cycle of use of geothermal piles
Experimental study on pile-end post-grouting piles for super large bridge pile foundations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Weiming GONG; Guoliang DAI; Haowen ZHANG
2009-01-01
The application of pile-end post-grouting piles for super-large bridge pile foundations in some important projects was introduced in this paper. There are totally 21 test piles. The maximum pile diameter varies from 2.5 m to 3 m, and the maximum length is 125m; the bearing capacity of the post-grouting piles is over ten thousands tons. Based on the test results, the bearing capacity,displacement, and beating characteristics before and after grouting were analyzed. The results show that the beating capacity of the piles is increased in different degrees after grouting although the technical parameters, including the patterns of grouting pipes, pressure, dosages of cement, duration of grouting lasting time, are different. However,the obtained values are very discrete. In addition, the calculation formula for the post-grouting piles under specified grouting condition was deduced based on the statistics analysis results of 57 test piles. The research results have been applied in the design of bridge foundation.
Pressured Grouting Method (PGM) in Pile Engineering
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
吴兴序; 于志强; 王旭
2002-01-01
Application of pressured grouting method (PGM) in pile engineering can tackle problems encountered during construction of bored piles. Bearing capacity of piles can be increased through compaction of subsoils around piles. This paper reports research efforts of this technique by the pile research team in Southwest Jiaotong University in last decade with respect to the construction process, test findings, and primary research conclusions. The social-economical benefits of this method and application market in pile engineering are also analyzed.
Grouting for Pile Foundation Improvement
Van der Stoel, A.E.C.
2001-01-01
The aim of this research was to examine the use of grouting methods for pile foundation improvement, a generic term that is used here to define both foundation renovation (increasing the bearing capacity of a pile foundation that has insufficient bearing capacity) and foundation protection (safeguar
Introduction to Single Piles under Lateral Loading
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Augustesen, Anders; Ibsen, Lars Bo
The purpose of this chapter is to give a short introduction to single piles subjected to lateral loading. First, the observed behaviour of laterally loaded piles is described, i.e. the effects of loading conditions, installation procedure, pile type etc. on pile behaviour are presented (section 1...
Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion of Pilings
2014-03-04
reported in all climatic conditions on unprotectej suJ pilings m contact with saline water (ie scawater and hrackisli ’.vater’’ tliat is siibj^ct... Pilings 6. AUTHOR(S) Brenda J. Little and Richard I. Ray 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Research Laboratory...ACRONYM(S) ONR 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S| 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Ao/£/o/3lz<l 14. ABSTRACT Sheet piles , used as retaining walls
Grouted Pile and Its Bearing Capacity
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
The grouting method applied in bored pile is an improvement to the conventional bored pile. Load tests have proved that grouting under the bored pile tip is an effective method to enhance the bearing capacity of the pile and to reduce the pile settlement. In this paper, the grouting technology is described and pile-load test results are discussed. In order to put the grouting method into design practice, the authors analyze the working mechanism of soil compaction. And, based on the theory of cavities expansion in soil mass, approximate formulae are proposed for estimating the bearing capacity of the grouted pile. The theoretical prediction agrees well with the load test results.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Furet, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1962-07-01
A brief survey is first given of the general theorems of Boodle's algebra and of sequence systems using D.A. Huffmans theory. Some indications are then given concerning the setting-up and the operation of digital computers and also of the principal codes used in digital techniques. It is then shown how digitalisation in atomic pile control makes it possible to use new techniques having the following advantages in particular: greater working safety, a higher degree of centralisation, and suppression of the linear elements. A few examples are given of the application of these techniques to control, particularly with respect to the measurement of the neutronic power and of the period and also of course, to the treatment of the data and the sequence automatisms. The advantage of using digital techniques in the shutdown channels is also examined. Finally a review is given of the technology and the viability of the control devices used. (author) [French] On rappelle d'abord ici les theoremes generaux de l'algebre de Boole et des systemes a sequences en s'appuyant sur la theorie de D.A. Huffmann. On donne ensuite quelques indications sur l'agencement et le fonctionnement des calculateurs digitaux ainsi que les principaux codes utilises dans les techniques digitales. On montre alors comment la digitalisation dans le controle des piles atomiques permet d'utiliser de nouvelles techniques presentant principalement les avantages suivants: securite de fonctionnement plus grande, centralisation plus elevee et suppression des elements lineaires. Un certain nombre d'exemples sont donnes sur l'application de ces techniques au controle, particulierement en ce qui concerne la mesure de la puissance neutronique, de la periode et aussi bien entendu du traitement des informations et des automatismes a sequences. On analyse aussi l'avantage de l'utilisation des techniques digitales dans les chaines de securite. Enfin, un apercu est donne
Viscoelastic behavior of concrete pile
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
丁科; 唐小弟
2008-01-01
Based on constitutive theory of viscoelasticity,the viscoelastic behaviour of concrete pile was investigated.The influence of viscosity coefficient on the stress,displacement and velocity response was discussed.With the increase of viscosity coefficient,the amplitude of stress wave decreases,and the maximum value of the stress wave shifts to deeper position of the pile.In other words,the viscosity coefficient behaves as lag effect to stress wave.
DETERMINING DRIVING RESISTANCE WITH REBOUND OF PILE-TOP DURING PILE DRIVING
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈仁朋; 胡亚元; 陈云敏
2001-01-01
This paper presents a method to determine driving resistance with rebound of pile-top during pile driving. The soil around the pile shaft is assumed to be rigid-plastic, while that under the pile-tip is assumed to be ideally elastoplastic. The driving force acting on the pile-top is simplified to a triangular impact force. The kinematic equation of the pile-tip is established. From the one-dimensional wave equation, the movements of the pile-tip and pile-top are determined. The rebound at the pile-top can be written in a very concise form. It is shown that the shaft resistance makes the rebound at the pile-top decrease. In particular, when the pile is very long or the soil around the pile is very stiff, the decrease is very obvious.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chassany, J.Ph.; Estournel, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Production de Plutonium, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1964-07-01
The results are given of numerous radiation measurements: - for the various working sites - for the various zones (circuit room,etc) - during the discharging operations - far various active materials (CO{sub 2}, plugs etc). They show that in general the protection has been suitably designed and that the majority of radio-protection problems are due to the elements activated in the pile and transported outside the vessel. (authors) [French] Les resultats de nombreuses mesures d'irradiation sont donnes - pour les differents lieux de travail - pour diverses zones (salle de tuyauteries, etc.) - pendant les operations de dechargement - pour differents materiaux actives (CO{sub 2}, bouchons, etc.) Ils montrent que les protections ont ete en general correctement dimensionnees et que la majorite des problemes de radioprotection est constituee par les elements actives dans la pile, transportes a l'exterieur du caisson. (auteurs)
Simulation analysis for O-cell test of pile and the interaction of upper pile and lower pile
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHENG Ying-jie; ZHANG Ke-xu; ZHANG Er-qi
2009-01-01
In this paper, the soil-pile system of O-cell test of pile is simplified as an axi-symmetrie problem.By using aggregation of quadrilateral isoparametrie elements to simulate pile and soil, setting Goodman' s elements between pile and soils, a method of numerical simulation analysis on O-cell test of pile is presented with the consideration of nonlinear mechanical behavior of soils and pile-soil interface.The method is applied to the a-nalysis of a case of O-cell test of pile.The load-displacement curves and axial force curves of upper pile and lower pile obtained from the O-cell test of pile are fitted, and parameters of the mechanical model of soils and interface are determined.Analysis results validate that the numerical simulation analysis method put forward in this paper is applicable.Furthermore, the interaction and influence of upper pile and lower pile in the O-cell test are also studied with the method.The result shows that if load box is located in a soil layer with fine me-chanical behavior, the interaction of upper pile and lower pile in O-cell test can be ignored generally.
Effect of Passive Pile on 3D Ground Deformation and on Active Pile Response
Bingxiang Yuan; Rui Chen; Jun Teng; Tao Peng; Zhongwen Feng
2014-01-01
Using a series of model tests, this study investigated the effect of a passive pile on 3D ground deformation around a laterally loaded pile and on that laterally loaded pile’s response in sand. The active pile head was subjected to lateral loads, and the passive pile was arranged in front of the active pile. In the model tests, the distance between the two pile centers was set to zero (i.e., a single pile test), 2.5, 4, and 6 times the pile width (B). The 3D ground surface deformations around...
Analysis of Interaction Factors Between Two Piles
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CAO Ming; CHEN Long-zhu
2008-01-01
A rigorous analytical method is presented for calculating the interaction factor between two identical piles subjected to vertical loads. Following the technique proposed by Muki and Sternberg, the problem is decomposed into an extended soil mass and two fictitious piles characterized respectively by Young's modulus of the soil and that of the difference between the pile and soil. The unknown axial forces along fictitious piles are determined by solving a Fredholm integral equation of the second kind, which imposes the compatibility condition that the axial strains of the fictitious piles are equal to those corresponding to the centroidal axes of the extended soil. The real pile forces and displacements can subequally be calculated based on the determined fictitious pile forces, and finally, the desired pile interaction factors may be obtained. Results confirm the validity of the proposed approach and portray the influence of the governing parameters on the pile interaction.
Kikutani, Yoshikuni; Hibara, Akihide; Uchiyama, Kenji; Hisamoto, Hideaki; Tokeshi, Manabu; Kitamori, Takehiko
2002-11-01
We made a 'pile-up' microreactor in which ten levels of microchannel circuits were integrated to form a single glass entity. Solutions were distributed to each layer via cylindrical holes with a diameter much larger than that of the microchannel. Fabrication of the pile-up reactor was completed using only conventional photolithography, wet etching and thermal bonding techniques, and no special facilities or instruments were required. An amide formation reaction between amine in aqueous solution and acid chloride in organic solution was carried out using the pile-up reactor. The yield of the amide formation reaction is dependent on the size of the specific surface area between the two solutions, and the small space inside the microchannels is good for acquiring a large specific surface area without any stirring processes. The maximum throughput for the ten-layered pile-up reactor was ten times larger than that of a single-layered one, yet the reaction yield was still high. Productivity of the pile-up reactor for the reaction was as high as on a gram per hour scale. This value suggests that many conventional plants producing fine chemicals can be replaced by microreactors through the numbering-up technology.
Energy piles. A fundamental energy pile; Energiepfaehle. Eine fundamentale Energiequelle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaiser, Holger; Beldermann, Nico [GF-Tec GmbH, Roedermark (Germany)
2013-03-01
The Maintower, the new airport in Berlin/Brandenburg, a lot of Ikea buildings, and also small office buildings or residential buildings may exchange energy with the underground by means of pile fundaments. At the correct planning and execution, energy piles are low-cost geothermal power plants which sustainable generate heating and cooling for the buildings standing on them. Even more energy can be generated safely under compliance with the groundwater protection by means of a new development of the material and the transfer.
Fuel cells in Japan; Les piles a combustible au Japon
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nataf, J.M.
2000-06-01
The government R and D effort for the development of fuel cells in Japan reaches 7 billions of yen for the year 2000. R and D on molted carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) has reached its maturity with real scale tests performed on plants with a power of about 1 MW, but some problems remain to be solved. R and D on polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC) is very active, motivated by applications for transportation systems but also for stationary power generation units. The budget devoted to PEFC R and D has been multiplied by five for the year 2000. The R and D on solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) is still active but encounters problems and remains a long term program. R and D on PEFC is achieved and the cells are at the marketing stage and represent the essential part of the installed units. NEDO is the organization responsible for the fuel cell R and D program and the active members are the gas and power companies. The main goal is to reach a 2 GW capacity in 2010. (J.S.)
Displacement and deformation analysis for uplift piles
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2008-01-01
On the assumptions that the shear resistance increases linearly with increasing shear displacement between the uplift pile and surrounding soil,that the axis force is distributed as parabola along the pile length,that elastic distortion occurs when the pile is loaded,that the displacement of pile is in accord with that of the soil,and that the uplift pile failure is regarded as the soil failure,arational calculation method was proposed for calculating the deformation,ultimate displacement and shear resistance of piles.The distributions of frictional resistance and the shear displacement along the pile length were obtained with the method.The comparisons were made between the measurement results and the present results.The present theoretical results agree well with the measurement results,with the average difference being less than 12% before failure.The comparisons show that the proposed method is reasonable for uplift design and engineering construction of piles.
DRIVEN POLYSTRONG REINFORCED CONCRETE PILES AND NEW DESIGN OF PILE CAPS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. I. Bekbasarov
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The paper presents constructional and technological features for manufacturing driven piles with variable strength of pile shaft. Economical efficiency of their production has been shown in the paper. The paper provides a pile cap design that ensures perception of hammer impacts with the help of lateral edges of the pile cap. Driven reinforced concrete piles which are manufactured from three shaft sections having various strength have been proposed in the paper. Material strength (concrete grade and diameter of bars and length of shaft sections are given on a case by case basis in accordance with nature and rate of stresses in piles during their driving process. Manufacturing of polystrong piles provides an opportunity to select them for a particular construction site with due account of their preservation during driving process.A pile cap has been developed that as opposed to existing analogous designs makes it possible to transmit impact efforts from a hammer to the pile through lateral surface of its head part. The pile cap provides the possibility to increase an area for perception of hammer impact efforts by the pile and in doing so it is possible significantly to reduce a damage risk and destruction of pile concrete during its driving. Application of polystrong piles and their driving with the help of new pile cap are considered as a basis for defect-free and resource-saving technology for pile foundations in the construction.
Pullout capacity of batter pile in sand.
Nazir, Ashraf; Nasr, Ahmed
2013-03-01
Many offshore structures are subjected to overturning moments due to wind load, wave pressure, and ship impacts. Also most of retaining walls are subjected to horizontal forces and bending moments, these forces are due to earth pressure. For foundations in such structures, usually a combination of vertical and batter piles is used. Little information is available in the literature about estimating the capacity of piles under uplift. In cases where these supporting piles are not vertical, the behavior under axial pullout is not well established. In order to delineate the significant variables affecting the ultimate uplift shaft resistance of batter pile in dry sand, a testing program comprising 62 pullout tests was conducted. The tests are conducted on model steel pile installed in loose, medium, and dense sand to an embedded depth ratio, L/d, vary from 7.5 to 30 and with various batter angles of 0°, 10°, 20°, and 30°. Results indicate that the pullout capacity of a batter pile constructed in dense and/or medium density sand increases with the increase of batter angle attains maximum value and then decreases, the maximum value of Pα occurs at batter angle approximately equal to 20°, and it is about 21-31% more than the vertical pile capacity, while the pullout capacity for batter pile that constructed in loose sand decreases with the increase of pile inclination. The results also indicated that the circular pile is more resistant to pullout forces than the square and rectangular pile shape. The rough model piles tested is experienced 18-75% increase in capacity compared with the smooth model piles. The suggested relations for the pullout capacity of batter pile regarding the vertical pile capacity are well predicted.
Pullout capacity of batter pile in sand
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ashraf Nazir
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Many offshore structures are subjected to overturning moments due to wind load, wave pressure, and ship impacts. Also most of retaining walls are subjected to horizontal forces and bending moments, these forces are due to earth pressure. For foundations in such structures, usually a combination of vertical and batter piles is used. Little information is available in the literature about estimating the capacity of piles under uplift. In cases where these supporting piles are not vertical, the behavior under axial pullout is not well established. In order to delineate the significant variables affecting the ultimate uplift shaft resistance of batter pile in dry sand, a testing program comprising 62 pullout tests was conducted. The tests are conducted on model steel pile installed in loose, medium, and dense sand to an embedded depth ratio, L/d, vary from 7.5 to 30 and with various batter angles of 0°, 10°, 20°, and 30°. Results indicate that the pullout capacity of a batter pile constructed in dense and/or medium density sand increases with the increase of batter angle attains maximum value and then decreases, the maximum value of Pα occurs at batter angle approximately equal to 20°, and it is about 21–31% more than the vertical pile capacity, while the pullout capacity for batter pile that constructed in loose sand decreases with the increase of pile inclination. The results also indicated that the circular pile is more resistant to pullout forces than the square and rectangular pile shape. The rough model piles tested is experienced 18–75% increase in capacity compared with the smooth model piles. The suggested relations for the pullout capacity of batter pile regarding the vertical pile capacity are well predicted.
Pile Load Capacity – Calculation Methods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wrana Bogumił
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The article is a review of the current problems of the foundation pile capacity calculations. The article considers the main principles of pile capacity calculations presented in Eurocode 7 and other methods with adequate explanations. Two main methods are presented: α – method used to calculate the short-term load capacity of piles in cohesive soils and β – method used to calculate the long-term load capacity of piles in both cohesive and cohesionless soils. Moreover, methods based on cone CPTu result are presented as well as the pile capacity problem based on static tests.
Erective Sea Embankment with PCC Piles
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Han-long; FEI Kang; DENG An; ZHANG Ting
2005-01-01
The sea embankment is a critical civil works in marine and coastal engineering. In this study, an innovative technique is proposed for constructing erective sea embankments. In the construction of sea embankments, this technique integrates PCC pile installation, PVDs drainage systems, and geotextile reinforcements, resulting in sea embankments with PCC piles. In the application of a sea embankment with PCC piles, PCC piles are employed as the retaining structures;the soft sea ground inside PCC piles is drained and improved by PVDs and vacuum-surcharge combined preloading; geotextile-reinforced backfills lying over the improved soft ground form the embankment body. Brief descrptions of the fundamentals, design and construction of the sea embankment with PCC piles are presented. A case study on the stability of sea embankment with PCC piles is presented as well.
Modeling of Batter Pile Behavior under Lateral Soil Movement
Chen, C. Y.; Hsu, H. Q.
2017-06-01
Pile foundation is frequently used when structures are located on weak sublayers or are at risk from lateral loadings such as earthquakes. The design of pile foundations has recently become crucial to stop slope movement. To understand the behavior of pile foundations subjected to lateral soil movement, the three-dimensional Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua (FLAC3D) program was used to perform numerical simulations, which can reduce the cost of field testing. Vertical piles and batter piles were combined into 3 × 3 pile groups, and the response of batter piles to soil movement was analyzed. The outer batter piles led to an increased bending moment in the middle, vertical pile row. Increasing the pile spacing and the presence of battered piles reduced the pile group’s displacement. The batter pile group’s maximum bending moment was smaller than the vertical pile group’s in sand soil, but 5-8 times higher in clay soil.
Optimization Mathematical Model of Pile Forces for Offshore Piled Breasting Dolphins
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周锡礽; 王东芹; 王晖; 朱福明
2004-01-01
An optimization mathematical model of the pile forces for piled breasting dolphins in the open sea under various loading conditions is presented. The optimum layout with the well distributed pile forces and the least number of piles is achieved by the multiplier penalty function method. Several engineering cases have been calculated and compared with the result of the conventional design method. It is shown that the number of piles can be reduced at least by 10% ～ 20%and the piles' bearing state is improved greatly.
Thermal Conductivity Of Rubble Piles
Luan, Jing
2015-01-01
Rubble piles are a common feature of solar system bodies. They are composed of monolithic elements of ice or rock bound by gravity. Voids occupy a significant fraction of the volume of a rubble pile. They can exist up to pressure $P\\approx \\epsy\\mu$, where $\\epsy$ is the monolithic material's yield strain and $\\mu$ its rigidity. At low $P$, contacts between neighboring elements are confined to a small fraction of their surface areas. As a result, the effective thermal conductivity of a rubble pile, $\\kcon\\approx k(P/(\\epsy\\mu))^{1/2}$, can be orders of magnitude smaller than, $k$, the thermal conductivity of its monolithic elements. In a fluid-free environment, only radiation can transfer energy across voids. It contributes an additional component, $\\krad=16\\ell\\sigma T^3/3$, to the total effective conductivity, $\\keff=\\kcon +\\krad$. Here $\\ell$, the inverse of the opacity per unit volume, is of order the size of the elements and voids. An important distinction between $\\kcon$ and $\\krad$ is that the former i...
Experimental Investigations on the Efficiency Coefficient of Pile Groups
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sara Darsi
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Several factors influence on behavior of piles group such as type of soil, number of piles in the group and the distance between piles. In this paper, using a small laboratory model, the influence of these factors on the behavior of piles group has been examined.For this purpose a group of piles in different distances and variable number of piles was allocated in sand under anpressure axial load. The piles are preferably metal; thus to reduce weight a hollow type has been selected.In order to calculate the coefficient of piles group efficiency, a single pile has been experimented. Experimental observations show that the number of piles in the group and the distances between piles in sand have considerable effect on bearing capacity and the coefficient of pile group efficiency and the coefficient of efficiency in this type of soil have constantly been more than 1 and limited to 1 by increasing the distance between piles.
Angé, Caroline; Bigey, Magali; Broudoux, Évelyne; Candel, Étienne; Chapelain, Brigitte; Couleau, Christèle; Deseilligny, Oriane; di Rosario, Giovanna; Escolin-Contensou, Isabelle; Gefen, Alexandre; Hellégouarc’h, Pascale; Jeanne-Perrier, Valérie; Labbé, Mathilde; Massip, Bernard; Paloque-Berges, Camille
2014-01-01
Parler de genre à propos des blogs, c’est moins chercher à découvrir une espèce littéraire nouvelle dans ce corpus hétérogène et massif que tenter de définir, au-delà des spécifications techniques et fonctionnelles, un objet esthétique. Le blog s’écrit contre les genres existants, mais en porte l’empreinte autant qu’il en déplace les lignes. Il invente aussi ses usages, ses communautés, ses configurations poétiques – autant de caractéristiques par lesquelles il fait genre. Les déclinaisons mu...
Test Setup for Axially Loaded Piles in Sand
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thomassen, Kristina
The test setup for testing axially static and cyclic loaded piles in sand is described in the following. The purpose for the tests is to examine the tensile capacity of axially loaded piles in dense fully saturated sand. The pile dimensions are chosen to resemble full scale dimension of piles used...... in offshore pile foundations today....
Static Tension Tests on Axially Loaded Pile Segments in Sand
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thomassen, Kristina; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Ibsen, Lars Bo
This paper provides laboratory test results of static axially loaded piles in sand. With a newly developed test setup, the pile-soil interface friction was investigated by using an open-ended steel pile segment with a diameter of 0.5 m. Use of a pile length of 1 m enabled the pile-soil interface...
Experiments of Multi-element Composite Foundation with Steel Pipe Pile and Gravel Pile
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Xian-zhi; ZHENG Jun-jie
2008-01-01
A set of self-developed apparatus for foundation physical model were utilized to conduct model tests of the multi-element composite foundation with a steel pipe pile and several gravel piles. Some load-bearing characteristics of the multi-element composite foundation, including the curves of foundation settlement, stresses of piles, pile-soil stress ratio, and load-sharing ratio of piles and soil, were obtained to study its working performances in silty sand soil. The experimental results revealed that the multi-element composite foundation with steel pipe pile and gravel pile contributed more than the gravel pile composite foundation in improving the bearing capacity of the silty fine sand.
Les aciers inoxydables dans les fixations
CETIM
2010-01-01
Cet ouvrage, qui fait la synthèse de plusieurs travaux menés par le Cetim, propose une vue d'ensemble sur les aciers inoxydables utilisés pour les fixations. Au sommaire : les normes EN, ISO et ATSM qui s'y rapportent , les désignations symboliques , les nuances et caractéristiques mécaniques , les différentes formes de corrosion, les méthodes pour les détecter , les règles du métier , les mises en oeuvre. L'ouvrage comprend plusieurs fiches matériaux et des tableaux qui présentent les équivalences entre les désignations.
Global and local scour at pile groups
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sumer, B. Mutlu; Bundgaard, Klavs; Fredsøe, Jørgen
2005-01-01
This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on scour around pile groups with different configurations exposed to steady current. Two kinds of tests were carried out: rigid-bed tests and actual scour tests. In these, the mean and turbulence properties of the flow were measured...... across the pile groups. The pile-group configurations were such that the global scour was distinguished from the local scour. The results show that the global scour can be quite substantial....
Global and local scour at pile groups
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sumer, B. Mutlu; Bundgaard, Klavs; Fredsøe, Jørgen
2005-01-01
This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on scour around pile groups with different configurations exposed to steady current. Two kinds of tests were carried out: (1) Rigid-bed tests, and (2) Actual scour tests. In the former tests, the mean and turbulence properties...... of the flow were measured across the pile groups. The pile group configurations were such that the global scour was distinguished from the local scour. The results show that the global scour can be quite substantial....
Suro, S. M.; Bakar, I.; Sulaeman, A.
2016-07-01
Short Piled Raft is a modified piled raft foundation system, which represents combination between raft foundation and pile foundation, but the length of pile is relatively shorter. The basic concept of the Short Piled Raft foundation system considers the passive soil pressure creating a stiff condition of slab-pile system. This means that the thin concrete slab floats on the supporting soil, while the piles serve as stiffeners concrete slab and also to reduce settlement of the foundation. Slab to pile ratio of such system has been mentioned by several researchers, however the optimum pile spacing of stability performance for obtaining minimum settlement on peat haven't been clearly discussed. In this study, finite element method to simulate the stability performance related to settlement of Short Piled Raft foundation system was used. Short Piled Raft foundation system with concrete slab of 7.0 m x 7.0 m square was assumed to be built on peat with the thickness of 3.5 m. The material properties of pile and raft were constant. The outer diameter of galvanized steel pipe as pile was 0.30 m; raft thickness was considered to be constant of 0.15 m and the length of pile was 3.0 m, while the pile spacing varied from 0.50 to 3.00 m. Point load varied from 0 to 100 kN with increment of 20 kN was also considered as a static load, acted on the centre of the concrete slab. Optimization was done by comparing each numerical result of simulations, thus conclusion can easily be drawn. The optimum pile spacing was 1.00 m which produced minimum settlement of 30.11 mm under the load of 100 kN.
Influence of reaction piles on test pile response in a static load test
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Qian-qing ZHANG; Shu-cai LI; Zhong-miao ZHANG
2013-01-01
This work presents a new analytical method to analyze the influence of reaction piles on the test pile response in a static load test.In our method,the interactive effect between soil and pile is simulated using independent springs and the shear displacement method is adopted to analyze the influence of reaction piles on test pile response.Moreover,the influence of the sheltering effect between reaction piles and test pile on the test pile response is taken into account.Two cases are analyzed to verify the rationality and efficiency of the present method.This method can be easily extended to a nonlinear response of an influenced test pile embedded in a multilayered soil,and the validity is also demonstrated using centrifuge model tests and a computer program presented in the literature.The present analyses indicate that the proposed method will lead to an underestimation of the test pile settlement in a static load test if the influence of the presence of reaction piles on the test pile response is neglected.
Effect of pile-cap connection on behavior of torsionally loaded pile groups
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ling-gang KONG; Li-min ZHANG
2008-01-01
To evaluate the respouses of fixed and pinned pile groups under torsiun, a method is presented to analyze the nonlinear behavior of free-standing pile groups with rigid pile caps. The method is capable of simulating the nonlinear soil response in the near field usingp-y and τ-θ curves, the far-field interactions through Mindlin's and Randolph's elastic solutions, and the coupling effect of lateral resistance on torsional resistance of the individual piles using an empirical factor. Based on comparisons of the solutions for fixedand pinned-head, 1×2, 2×2, and 3×3 pile groups subjected to torsion, it was found that pile-cap connection significantly influences the torsional capacity of pile groups and the assignment of applied torques in the pile groups. In this study, the applied torques for the pinned-head pile groups are only 44%～64% of those for the corresponding fixed-head pile groups at a twist angle of 2°. Such a difference is mainly due to the change of the lateral resistances of individual piles in the groups.
Tension Tests On Bored Piles In Sand
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krabbenhøft, Sven; Clausen, Johan; Damkilde, Lars
2006-01-01
The lengths of the bored piles varied from 2 m to 6 m and all were of a diameter of 140 mm. The piles were tested to failure in tension and the load-displacement relations were recorded. The investigation has shown pronounced differences between the load bearing capacities obtained by different...
Steel Sheet Pile Walls in Soft Soil
Kort, D.A.
2002-01-01
For almost a century, steel sheet pile walls are applied worldwide as earth retaining structures for excavations and quay walls. Within the framework of the development of European structural codes for Civil Engineering works, the Eurocodes, Eurocode 3 Part 5 for design of steel sheet pile walls was
Analysis of pile load-transfer under pile-side softening
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘杰; 张可能
2003-01-01
A set of analytical equations for the variation of the axial force along depth and the pile-top load-settle-ment curve were established, using tri-linear softening model to pile-side soil and bilinear hardening model to pile-end soil . Influences of the pile-side and pile-end soil behavior on the load-settlement curve were discussed, indica-ting that the lowering reason for the variation step degree of the axial force along depth is the softening of the pile-side soil to result in the side friction lowering when the pile-top load is increased. To verify the reliability of thismethod, the parameters used in calculation are obtained from the test in Zhuzhou area. The obtained results are thencompared with the tested results. Contrast shows that the calculated results and the tested values are very close,which illustrates that the proposed method is reliable.
26 CFR 1.149(g)-1 - Hedge bonds.
2010-04-01
... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hedge bonds. 1.149(g)-1 Section 1.149(g)-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Tax Exemption Requirements for State and Local Bonds § 1.149(g)-1 Hedge bonds... of replacement proceeds (other than amounts in a bona fide debt service fund or a reasonably...
26 CFR 1.475(g)-1 - Effective dates.
2010-04-01
... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates. 1.475(g)-1 Section 1.475(g)-1...) INCOME TAXES Inventories § 1.475(g)-1 Effective dates. (a)-(b) (c) Section 1.475(a)-3 (concerning... to apply to the security solely because of the effective dates in this paragraph (d) (rather...
Model Tests of Pile Defect Detection
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
The pile, as an important foundation style, is being used in engineering practice. Defects of different types and damages of different degrees easily occur during the process of pile construction. So,dietecting defects of the pile is very important. As so far, there are some difficult problems in pile defect detection. Based on stress wave theory, some of these typical difficult problems were studied through model tests. The analyses of the test results are carried out and some significant results of the low-strain method are obtained, when a pile has a gradually-decreasing crosssection part, the amplitude of the reflective signal originating from the defect is dependent on the decreasing value of the rate of crosssection β. No apparent signal reflected from the necking appeares on the velocity response curve when the value of β is less than about 3.5 %.
Vertical vibration of a large diameter pipe pile considering transverse inertia effect of pile
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
郑长杰; 刘汉龙; 丁选明; 周航
2016-01-01
Considering the transverse inertia effect of pile, the vertical dynamic response of a large diameter pipe pile in viscoelastic soil layer is studied. The wave propagations in the outer and inner soil are simulated by three-dimensional elastodynamic theory and those in the pile are simulated by Rayleigh-Love rod theory. The vertical and radial displacements of the outer and inner soil are obtained by utilizing Laplace transform technique and differentiation on the governing equations of soils. Then, based on the continuous conditions between the pile and soils, the displacements of the pile are derived. The frequency domain velocity admittance and time domain velocity response of the pile top are also presented. The solution is compared to a classical rod model solution to verify the validity. The influences of the radii and Poisson ratio of pile on the transverse inertia effect of pile are analyzed. The parametric study shows that Poisson ratio and outer radius of pile have significant influence on the transverse inertia effect of large diameter pipe piles, while the inner radius has little effect.
3D finite element analysis on pile-soil interaction of passive pile group
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHAO Ming-hua; LIU Dun-ping; ZHANG Ling; JIANG Chong
2008-01-01
The interaction between pile and soft soil of the passive pile group subjected to soil movement was analyzed with three-dimensional finite element model by using ANSYS software. The soil was assumed to be elastic-plastic complying with the Drucker-Prager yield criterion in the analysis. The large displacement of soil was considered and contact elements were used to evaluate the interaction between pile and soil. The influences of soil depth of layer and number of piles on the lateral pressure of the pile were investigated, and the lateral pressure distributions on the (2×1) pile group and on the (2×2) pile group were compared. The results show that the adjacent surcharge may result in significant lateral movement of the soft soil and cousiderable pressure on the pile. The pressure acting on the row near the surcharge is higher than that on the other row, due to the "barrier" and arching effects in pile groups. The passive load and its distribution should be taken into account in the design of the passive piles.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Feng ZHANG; Katsunori OKAWA; Makoto KIMURA
2008-01-01
In this paper, dynamic behavior of a grouppile foundation with inclined piles in loose sand has been investigated with centrifuge model tests. The test results are also simulated with elastoplastic dynamic finite ele-ment method, in which, not only sectional force of piles, stress of ground, but also deformation of piles are calcu-lated using a three-dimensional elastoplastic dynamic finite element analysis (Code name: DGPILE-3D). The numerical analyses are conducted with a full system in which a superstructure, a pile foundation and surround-ing ground are considered together so that interaction between pile foundation and soils can be properly simu-lated because the nonlinearities of both the pile and the ground are described with suitable constitutive models. Different types of piles, vertical pile or inclined pile, are considered in order to verify the different characteristics of a group pile foundation with inclined piles. The validity of the calculation is verified by the model tests.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHOU Hongbo; CHEN Zhuchang
2007-01-01
Based on the comparative analysis of end effect on skin friction of displacement-pile (driven pile),the end effect on skin friction of bored pile is studied.The end effect on skin friction between driven pile and bored pile is different and the end effect on skin friction of bored pile is reduce of skin friction in the soil layer adjacent to the pile end.The degradation degree of skin friction is deduced with the increase of the distance from pile end.The concept of additional mud cake formed by the effect of cushion at the bottom of borehole during pouring concrete is introduced to explain the mechanism of end effect on skin friction of the bored pile.The test results of post-grouting piles indicate that the post-grouting technique is an effective way to improve the end effect on skin friction of bored pile.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pierre Curie
2012-05-01
Full Text Available Dans la culture tant des Monuments historiques que de l’Université française, le monumental a longtemps prévalu sur l’objet, peinture, sculpture ou objet d’art qui, lui, dans l’inconscient collectif, relevait tout naturellement du musée. Dans la pensée et dans les goûts d’André Chastel, les catégories n’étaient pas aussi manichéennes et à l’Inventaire, malgré une certaine prééminence de l’architecture, l’objet - au sens large - tint, dès le début de l’aventure, une place non négligeable. Le premier des Vocabulaires parus, en 1969, fut consacré à la tapisserie, suivi, en une vingtaine d’années, par la sculpture, les objets et le mobilier civil domestique, le vitrail…In the culture of France’s historic monuments, as in French universities, the monumental has long been considered as more important than sculptures or works of art, generally seen as more to do with museums. In the writings and tastes of André Chastel, however, the categories were not so clear-cut and, at the French Inventory, although architecture has enjoyed a certain pre-eminence, the object, in the broadest sense of the term, has been taken into consideration form the outset. Over 17,000 items now feature in the national database Palissy, on moveable objects. The first scientific vocabulary, published by the Inventory services in 1969, was devoted to tapestry and, over the last twenty years, other vocabularies have dealt with sculpture, domestic civil furniture and stained glass.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stohr, J.A.; Caillat, R.; Gauthron, M.; Montagne, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1958-07-01
EL3 was designed essentially for the study, under irradiation conditions, of materials used in the construction of atomic reactors. The study schedule allocates considerable time and effort to new types of fuel slugs. The present report described the various types of slug being tested or scheduled for tests. After laboratory study, each slug is tested in an experimental cell in the pile. The best are retained and used to charge the reactor (the present charge is purely provisional to permit first criticality and power rise tests)ren. [French] La pile EL3 est essentiellement destinee a l'etude sous irradiation des materiaux utilises dans la construction des reacteurs atomiques. Dans ce programme, une tres large part est reservee a l'etude de nouveaux elements combustibles. Le present rapport decrit les differentes solutions de cartouches dont l'essai est envisage ou en cours. Apres etude en laboratoire, chacune de ces solutions est testee dans une cellule experimentale en pile. Les meilleures seront retenues pour constituer le chargement normal de la pile (le chargement actuel etant essentiellement une solution provisoire qui a permis la divergence de la pile et les premiers essais de montee en puissance). (auteur)
30 CFR 77.214 - Refuse piles; general.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; general. 77.214 Section 77.214... Installations § 77.214 Refuse piles; general. (a) Refuse piles constructed on or after July 1, 1971, shall be..., tipples, or other surface installations and such piles shall not be located over abandoned openings...
30 CFR 77.215-4 - Refuse piles; abandonment.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; abandonment. 77.215-4 Section 77... MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-4 Refuse piles; abandonment. When a refuse pile is to be abandoned... refuse pile shall be abandoned in accordance with a plan submitted by the operator and approved by...
Numerical Analysis of Piles in Layered Soils: A Parametric Study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ravi Kumar Reddy C
2015-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper, numerical analysis of a pile-soil interaction problem is presented considering the parameters influencing the axial load-deformation behavior of the pile embedded in a layered soil medium. The analysis is demonstrated with parametric solutions of a pile with underlain model soil strata under the axial force. An attempt is made to ascertain the extent of influence of elastic properties of the pile, geometry of the pile, end conditions of the pile and the elastic properties of the underlain soil strata on the response of the piles under axial loads lying in a model soil layers in terms of the settlement of the pile and the internal deformation of the pile. The study revealed that the increase in modulus of elasticity of pile improves the settlement resistance of the pile, increase in the ratio of cross sectional dimensions causes decrease in the top deformations of the pile, the settlement of the pile reduced to a great extent when the cross section of the pile adopted is non circular instead of circular and increase in the elastic modulii of top and bottom layers of soil has decreased the settlement of the pile to a great extent, but elastic modulus of soil layers other than top and bottom has got negligible influence on the settlement of the pile.
Reliability-Based Design and Quality Control of Bored Piles
Bach, D.
2014-01-01
Bored piles are a type of deep foundations which have been and are being widely used in construction engineering such as high-rise buildings, bridges, jetties, and so on. Although bored piles have remarkable advantages over driven piles, the quality of bored piles is frequently affected by many caus
Reliability-Based Design and Quality Control of Bored Piles
Bach, D.
2014-01-01
Bored piles are a type of deep foundations which have been and are being widely used in construction engineering such as high-rise buildings, bridges, jetties, and so on. Although bored piles have remarkable advantages over driven piles, the quality of bored piles is frequently affected by many
Efficient stock piling of 40mm shells
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. N. Nanda
1958-10-01
Full Text Available A problem was posed as to discuss efficient stock-piling of 40mm shells. There is, in fact no data from which emergency requirements can be deduced. A figure has been quoted by Army authorities that E rounds per month are required during an emergency. The size of the emergency stock pile will depend upon the difference of the normal peace time production, and also on the time taken for the crash programme of emergency production to come into fulfillment. In addition the delivery time from factories to the stock piles is also kept in view.
Houdart, Sophie
2015-01-01
Le Large Hadron Collider, ou grand collisionneur de hadrons, est l'accélérateur de particules le plus grand et le plus puissant du monde. Prenant la forme d'un anneau de 26,659 kilomètres de circonférence, lové 100 mètres sous terre et officiellement domicilié à Meyrin, à la frontière de la France et de la Suisse, il est constitué d'aimants supraconducteurs et de structures accélératrices qui augmentent l'énergie des particules qui y circulent. Chaque jour, à l'intérieur de l'accélérateur, deux faisceaux de particules qui circulent en sens contraire à des énergies très élevées avant de rentrer en collision l'un avec l'autre. Les particules, lancées à 99,9999991 % de la vitesse de la lumière, effectuent 11245 fois le tour de l'accélérateur par seconde et entrent en collision quelque 600 millions de fois par seconde. Les Incommensurables est une minutieuse enquête de terrain sur cette "cathédrale" enfouie qui offre la possibilité de se connecter à l'immensité et aux mystères de...
Research on method of pressure grouting piling of driven tube
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Dianqi PAN; Zupei ZHANG; Diancai PAN; Yong CHEN; Maosen TAN
2006-01-01
The pressure grouting pile of driven tube can improve the load bearing capacity of the single pile from the mechanism of pressure grouting pile of driven tube. On the basis of analyzing the mechanism, the authors designed the machines and tools of pressure grouting, determined the operating manufacture and technology parameter on the pressure grouting secondly. The result shows that the pressure grouting pile of driven tube not only changes the pile type but also reduce the length of the pile and its engineering cost, it enhances the load bearing capacity of single pile an the same time.
G1 Continuity Conditions of B－spline Surfaces
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
车翔玖; 梁学章
2002-01-01
According to the B-spline theory and Boehm algorithm,this paper presents several necessary and sufficient G1 continuity conditions betwwen two adjacent B-spline surfaces,In Order to meet the need of application,a kind of sufficient conditions of G1 continuity are developed,and a kind of sufficient conditions of G1 continuity among N(N>2) patch B-shline surfaces meeting at a common corner are given at the end.
Ground vibrations due to pile and sheet pile driving : prediction models of today
Deckner, Fanny; Viking, Kenneth; Hintze, Staffan
2012-01-01
As part of aconstruction work pile and sheet pile driving unavoidably generates vibrations.As of today construction works are often located in urban areas and along withsociety’s increasing concern of environmental impact the need for vibrationprediction prior to construction is of immediate interest. This study presents a review of the predictionmodels existing today. For prediction of ground vibrations from pile and sheetpile driving there are roughly three different types of models; empiri...
The Effect of Soil-Pile Interface Behaviour on Laterally Loaded Piles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zania, Varvara; Hededal, Ole
2011-01-01
In current practice it is either the p – y curve concept, or analytical solutions assuming different formulations for ultimate soil resistance that are being used to evaluate the lateral pile response. The adequacy of the p – y curves or of the assumed pressure distribution and ultimate soil...... resistance have been questioned. In this study the lateral capacity of three-dimensional numerical models of rigid piles embedded in cohesionless soil was estimated. The potential variability of the friction properties along the perimeter of the pile was considered. The interface properties affect...... the ultimate soil resistance and the stiffness of the soil–pile response....
Introduction of effective piles in a base structure
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
В.Б. Кашка
2005-03-01
Full Text Available Design features of effective piles such as СВ and their advantages in use are considered at the device of the pile bases in comparison with widely widespread types of piles. From results of comparative tests of piles under static pressing loading in different earth conditions the tendency of redistribution of bearing (carrying ability between a trunk and expansions an effective pile such as СВ was determined on earth conditions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tazelaar E.
2012-08-01
à combustible et construit à des fins de démonstration, sert de base à l’étude de l’effet de la taille de la pile (kW et de la batterie (kW, kWh sur la consommation d’hydrogène du véhicule. Trois cycles de vitesse définissent les conditions spécifiques de conduite du véhicule : le NEDC pour les véhicules de faible puissance, le CSC et le cycle JE05. L’ECMS (Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy est utilisée pour déterminer les consignes pour la pile à combustible et la batterie. Cette stratégie de commande permet d’atteindre une consommation proche du minimum global, obtenu par la programmation dynamique (DP. Le problème de dimensionnement peut être résolu en utilisant la programmation dynamique et l’ECMS a l’avantage, par rapport à la programmation dynamique, de pouvoir être mise en oeuvre en temps réel. Pour le véhicule et matériels considérés, les trois cycles de conduite permettent d’obtenir les puissances nominales optimales pour la pile à combustible à savoir environ trois fois la puissance moyenne demandée par le conducteur. Cela montre que le dimensionnement de la pile à combustible pour la puissance moyenne ou maximale, n’est pas nécessairement optimale vis-à-vis de la sobriété en carburant. La batterie est dimensionnée pour fournir la différence entre la puissance nominale de la pile à combustible et le pic de puissance dans la demande totale en puissance électrique. Le dimensionnement de la batterie est dominée par ses capacités de tenue en puissance. Par conséquent, un taux plus haut entre kW et kWh cause une diminution du poids de la batterie qui à son tour conduit à une consommation d’hydrogène plus basse. La capacité de stockage d’énergie de la batterie ne devient un problème que pour les taux de C-ratio supérieurs à 30. Par rapport à un prolongateur d’autonomie (RE où la taille de la pile est comparable à la puissance moyenne et où la pile est exploitée sur un niveau
ATLAS Pile-up and Overlay Simulation
Novak, Tadej; The ATLAS collaboration
2017-01-01
The high luminosity of the LHC results in a significant background to interesting physics events known as pile-up. ATLAS uses several methods for simulating the effects of pile-up. The mostly used method is a direct simulation of background events where multiple simulated background events are combined for each physics event. For some physics processes, a more accurate simulation can be achieved by overlaying real proton-proton collisions on a simulated hard-scatter process. Overlay is also being investigated for a premixed pile-up background to reduce CPU usage and I/O stress during the simulation. Embedding replaces the muons found in Z→mumu decays in data with simulated taus at the same 4-momenta, thus preserving the underlying event and pileup from the original data event. This talk compares the pile-up simulation methods used at the ATLAS experiment pointing their benefits and drawbacks.
Local Scour Around Piles Under Wave Action
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈国平; 左其华; 黄海龙
2004-01-01
The model tests are performed with regular waves, and the effect of wave height, wave period, water depth, scdiment size and pile diameter is evaluated. The shape and size of local scour around piles are studied. There are three typical scour patterns due to wave action. It is found that a relationship exists between the erosion depth and the wave number. An empirical formula of the maximum local scour is thus derived.
2016-01-01
Liré Musée Joachim Du Bellay. Jeux et divertissements à la Renaissance Depuis le vernissage du samedi 26 avril 2008 et jusqu’au 31 octobre 2008, l’exposition Jeux et divertissements à la Renaissance a été proposée au public par le Musée. Des panneaux expliquaient et illustraient les amusements de la Renaissance : danses, théâtre, jeux de sociétés, fêtes, tournois, jeu de paume… Des jeux étaient à disposition pour tester ses connaissances, s’essayer aux jeux de sociétés ou d’adresse de l’époqu...
Reduced hepatic tumor incidence in cyclin G1-deficient mice
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Michael Rugaard; Factor, Valentina M; Fantozzi, Anna
2003-01-01
Cyclin G1 is a transcriptional target of the tumor suppressor p53, and its expression is increased after DNA damage. Recent data show that cyclin G1 can regulate the levels of p53 by a mechanism that involves dephosphorylation of Mdm2 by protein phosphatase 2A. To understand the biologic role of ...
Nonlinear calculating method of pile settlement
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
贺炜; 王桂尧; 王泓华
2008-01-01
To study calculating method of settlement on top of extra-long large-diameter pile, the relevant research results were summarized. The hyperbola model, a nonlinear load transfer function, was introduced to establish the basic differential equation with load transfer method. Assumed that the displacement of pile shaft was the high order power series of buried depth, through merging the same orthometric items and arranging the relevant coefficients, the solution which could take the nonlinear pile-soil interaction and stratum properties of soil into account was solved by power series. On the basis of the solution, by determining the load transfer depth with criterion of settlement on pile tip, the method by making boundary conditions compatible was advised to solve the load-settlement curve of pile. The relevant flow chart and mathematic expressions of boundary conditions were also listed. Lastly, the load transfer methods based on both two-broken-line model and hyperbola model were applied to analyzing a real project. The related coefficients of fitting curves by hyperbola were not less than 0.96, which shows that the hyperbola model is truthfulness, and is propitious to avoid personal error. The calculating value of load-settlement curve agrees well with the measured one, which indicates that it can be applied in engineering practice and making the theory that limits the design bearing capacity by settlement on pile top comes true.
Pope, Patricia A; Pryciak, Peter M
2013-12-01
In budding yeast, mating pheromones arrest the cell cycle in G1 phase via a pheromone-activated Cdk-inhibitor (CKI) protein, Far1. Alternate pathways must also exist, however, because deleting the cyclin CLN2 restores pheromone arrest to far1 cells. Here we probe whether these alternate pathways require the G1/S transcriptional repressors Whi5 and Stb1 or the CKI protein Sic1, whose metazoan analogues (Rb or p27) antagonize cell cycle entry. Removing Whi5 and Stb1 allows partial escape from G1 arrest in far1 cln2 cells, along with partial derepression of G1/S genes, which implies a repressor-independent route for inhibiting G1/S transcription. This route likely involves pheromone-induced degradation of Tec1, a transcriptional activator of the cyclin CLN1, because Tec1 stabilization also causes partial G1 escape in far1 cln2 cells, and this is additive with Whi5/Stb1 removal. Deleting SIC1 alone strongly disrupts Far1-independent G1 arrest, revealing that inhibition of B-type cyclin-Cdk activity can empower weak arrest pathways. Of interest, although far1 cln2 sic1 cells escaped G1 arrest, they lost viability during pheromone exposure, indicating that G1 exit is deleterious if the arrest signal remains active. Overall our findings illustrate how multiple distinct G1/S-braking mechanisms help to prevent premature cell cycle commitment and ensure a robust signal-induced G1 arrest.
Rapid biodegradation of organophosphorus pesticides by Stenotrophomonas sp. G1
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deng, Shuyan; Chen, Yao [Key Laboratory of Agri-food Safety of Anhui Province, Lab of Quality & Safety and Risk Assessment for Agro-products on Storage and Preservation (Hefei), Ministry of Agriculture, School of Resource and Environment, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); Wang, Daosheng [School of Life Science, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); Shi, Taozhong; Wu, Xiangwei; Ma, Xin; Li, Xiangqiong [Key Laboratory of Agri-food Safety of Anhui Province, Lab of Quality & Safety and Risk Assessment for Agro-products on Storage and Preservation (Hefei), Ministry of Agriculture, School of Resource and Environment, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); Hua, Rimao, E-mail: rimaohua@ahau.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Agri-food Safety of Anhui Province, Lab of Quality & Safety and Risk Assessment for Agro-products on Storage and Preservation (Hefei), Ministry of Agriculture, School of Resource and Environment, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); Tang, Xinyun [School of Life Science, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); Li, Qing X. [Department of Molecular Biosciences and Bioengineering, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1955 East–West Road, Honolulu, HI 957822 (United States)
2015-10-30
Highlights: • Stenotrophomonas sp. G1 was isolated from chlorpyrifos contaminated sludge. • Strain G1 is closest to Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila. • Strain G1 can efficiently degrade 8 organophosphorus pesticides (OPs). • Intracellular methyl parathion hydrolase is responsible for the OP degradation. • Three factors were orthogonally optimized for degradation of methyl parathion. - Abstract: Organophosphorus insecticides have been widely used, which are highly poisonous and cause serious concerns over food safety and environmental pollution. A bacterial strain being capable of degrading O,O-dialkyl phosphorothioate and O,O-dialkyl phosphate insecticides, designated as G1, was isolated from sludge collected at the drain outlet of a chlorpyrifos manufacture plant. Physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis suggested that strain G1 belongs to the genus Stenotrophomonas. At an initial concentration of 50 mg/L, strain G1 degraded 100% of methyl parathion, methyl paraoxon, diazinon, and phoxim, 95% of parathion, 63% of chlorpyrifos, 38% of profenofos, and 34% of triazophos in 24 h. Orthogonal experiments showed that the optimum conditions were an inoculum volume of 20% (v/v), a substrate concentration of 50 mg/L, and an incubation temperature in 40 °C. p-Nitrophenol was detected as the metabolite of methyl parathion, for which intracellular methyl parathion hydrolase was responsible. Strain G1 can efficiently degrade eight organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) and is a very excellent candidate for applications in OP pollution remediation.
Study on pile drivability with one dimensional wave propagation theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈仁朋; 王仕方; 陈云敏
2003-01-01
Pile drivability is a key problem during the stage of design and construction installation of pile foundations. The solution to the one dimensional wave equation was used to determine the impact force at the top of a concrete pile for a given ram mass, cushion stiffness, and pile impedance. The kinematic equation of pile toe was established and solved based on wave equation theory. The movements of the pile top and pile toe were presented, which clearly showed the dynamic displacement, including rebound and penetration of pile top and toe. A parametric study was made with a full range of practical values of ram weight, cushion stiffness, dropheight, and pile impedance. Suggestions for optimizing the parameters were also presented. Comparisons between the results obtained by the present solution and in-situ measurements indicated the reliability and validity of the method.
The Effect of the Propeller Jet on Pile Groups
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Kubilay Cihan
2014-01-01
The objective of this study is to determine the effect of jet propeller on the damage of berthing structures combined of armoured slope with pile groups. For this purpose, scour measurements were performed for four types berthing structures, which were armoured slope with tandem arrangements of piles for two and three piles and with side by side arrangements of piles for two and three piles. The effect of gap between piles on damage was investigated. The damage level induced by propeller jet between piles was determined. The gaps were 1, 2, 3, and 4 times the pile diameter. Three different values of Rpm (690, 820, and 950) were chosen for the tests. The diameter of circular piles is 40 mm. The slope ratio was 1/3 and the diameter of propeller was 10 cm.
2016-11-01
Ebeling1 investigated the minimum required depth of embedment for an example vertical pile bent system founded in a cohesionless sandy soil with two...vertical to 1 horizontal (4V:1H), angled toward shore . Prior to pile driving, the river bottom was dredged, or filled if needed, to elevation 650 ft
Test Procedure for Axially Loaded Piles in Sand
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thomassen, Kristina
The test procedure described in the following is used when examining the effects of static or cyclic loading on the skin friction of an axially loaded pile in dense sand. The pile specimen is only loaded in tension to avoid any contribution from the base resistance. The pile dimensions are chosen...... to resemble full scale dimension of piles used in offshore pile foundations today. In this report is given a detailed description of the soil preparation and pile installation procedures as well data acquisition methods....
Wavelet analyses for stress wave detection of piles
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG; Jingtao; (王靖涛)
2003-01-01
The theoretical foundation for application of wavelet analysis to pile integrity detection has been presented. The mechanism of spectral variations of reflected pulse from various defects in piles is explained by using the wave scattering theory. The theoretical analyses have been verified through the tests of model piles and a lot of engineering piles. A quantitative evaluation method for estimating damage degree of piles is proposed. The characteristic indexes describing spectrum variations of reflected signals and their critical values are given. They can be used not only to evaluate the damage degree but also to identify the kinds of pile defects.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chassany, J.Ph.; Rodier, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Service de Protection contre les Radiations, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1961-07-01
While the pile was shut down after a three-month run at full power, the secondary circuit was cleaned and some alterations were carried out. The pile contained 100 tons of uranium, half of which made up the periphery and was irradiated uranium. The possibility of carrying on work inside the pressure tank was not considered at the time of construction. Because of the heat and the irradiation it was only possible to remain in the pressure tank for a limited period of time, and several operators received doses of the order of 1.5 rem. Cotton clothing gave satisfactory protection against contamination and was more comfortable than the vinyl equipment. The work lasted for 17 days and involved 881 incursions into the pressure tank. (author) [French] Un nettoyage et des modifications ont ete realises dans le circuit secondaire pendant l'arret de la pile apres un fonctionnement de trois mois a pleine puissance. La pile contenait 100 tonnes d'uranium dont la moitie, composant la peripherie, etait de l'uranium irradie. La possibilite d'entreprendre un travail a l'interieur du caisson n'avait pas ete envisage lors de la construction. Le temps de sejour dans le caisson etait a la fois limite par l'irradiation et la chaleur, plusieurs operateurs, ont integre une dose de l'ordre de 1,5 rem. Les vetements de coton ont apporte une protection contre la contamination satisfaisante et un confort relatif par rapport aux equipements de vinyle. L'intervention a dure 17 jours, a comporte 881 entrees dans le caisson. (auteur)
Riedl, C; Akopov, Z; Amarian, M; Ammosov, V V; Andrus, A; Aschenauer, E C; Augustyniak, W; Avakian, R; Avetisian, A; Avetissian, E; Bailey, P; Baturin, V; Baumgarten, C; Beckmann, M; Belostotskii, S; Bernreuther, S; Bianchi, N; Blok, H P; Böttcher, Helmut B; Borisov, A; Bouwhuis, M; Brack, J; Brüll, A; Bryzgalov, V V; Capitani, G P; Chiang, H C; Ciullo, G; Contalbrigo, M; Dalpiaz, P F; De Leo, R; De Nardo, L; De Sanctis, E; Devitsin, E G; Di Nezza, P; Düren, M; Ehrenfried, M; Elalaoui-Moulay, A; Elbakian, G M; Ellinghaus, F; Elschenbroich, U; Ely, J; Fabbri, R; Fantoni, A; Feshchenko, A; Felawka, L; Fox, B; Franz, J; Frullani, S; Gärber, Y; Gapienko, G; Gapienko, V; Garibaldi, F; Garrow, K; Garutti, E; Gaskell, D; Gavrilov, G E; Karibian, V; Graw, G; Grebenyuk, O; Greeniaus, L G; Hafidi, K; Hartig, M; Hasch, D; Heesbeen, D; Henoch, M; Hertenberger, R; Hesselink, W H A; Hillenbrand, A; Hoek, M; Holler, Y; Hommez, B; Iarygin, G; Ivanilov, A; Izotov, A; Jackson, H E; Jgoun, A; Kaiser, R; Kinney, E; Kiselev, A; Königsmann, K C; Kopytin, M; Korotkov, V A; Kozlov, V; Krauss, B; Krivokhizhin, V G; Lagamba, L; Lapikas, L; Laziev, A; Lenisa, P; Liebing, P; Lindemann, T; Lipka, K; Lorenzon, W; Lü, J; Maiheu, B; Makins, N C R; Marianski, B; Marukyan, H O; Masoli, F; Mexner, V; Meyners, N; Miklukho, O; Miller, C A; Miyachi, Y; Muccifora, V; Nagaitsev, A; Nappi, E; Naryshkin, Yu; Nass, A; Negodaev, M A; Nowak, Wolf-Dieter; Oganessyan, K; Ohsuga, H; Orlandi, G; Pickert, N; Potashov, S Yu; Potterveld, D H; Raithel, M; Reggiani, D; Reimer, P E; Reischl, A; Reolon, A R; Rith, K; Airapetian, A; Rosner, G; Rostomyan, A; Rubacek, L; Ryckbosch, D; Salomatin, Yu I; Sanjiev, I; Savin, I; Scarlett, C; Schäfer, A; Schill, C; Schnell, G; Schüler, K P; Schwind, A; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Seitz, B; Shanidze, R G; Shearer, C; Shibata, T A; Shutov, V B; Simani, M C; Sinram, K; Stancari, M D; Statera, M; Steffens, E; Steijger, J J M; Stewart, J; Stösslein, U; Tait, P; Tanaka, H; Taroian, S P; Tchuiko, B; Terkulov, A R; Tkabladze, A V; Trzcinski, A; Tytgat, M; Vandenbroucke, A; Van der Nat, P B; van der Steenhoven, G; Vetterli, Martin C; Vikhrov, V; Vincter, M G; Visser, J; Vogel, C; Vogt, M; Volmer, J; Weiskopf, C; Wendland, J; Wilbert, J; Ybeles-Smit, G V; Yen, S; Zihlmann, B; Zohrabyan, H G; Zupranski, P; Riedl, Caroline
2005-01-01
Final HERMES results on the proton, deuteron and neutron structure function g1 are presented in the kinematic range 0.0021
EL3 reactor description and safety analysis report; Pile EL3, rapport descriptif et de surete
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1969-02-01
). Elle est concue pour fonctionner a une puissance thermique maximale de 20 mW. Elle fournit un flux maximal thermique de 10{sup 14} neutrons/cm{sup 2}/sec. Elle dispose de nombreux dispositifs experimentaux. La pile EL-3 est contenue, avec ses auxiliaires des circuits des fluides, dans une enceinte etanche, en legere depression. Le circuit d'eau lourde de refroidissement primaire est entierement contenu dans cette enceinte. Son refroidissement est assure, par l'intermediaire d'un circuit secondaire en eau legere, par des refrigerants atmospheriques. Les circuits de ventilation de l'enceinte etanche et du bloc pile ne rejettent l'air a l'exterieur, en fonctionnement normal, par une cheminee particulierement etudiee, qu'apres filtrage et eventuellement dilution. La contamination eventuelle de l'eau legere, ou de l 'air, par des produits actifs, est controlee en permanence, pour permettre l'arret du reacteur et eviter le rejet a l'atmosphere de produits dangereux. La pile El3, mise en chantier en mai 1955, a diverge en juillet 1957, effectue sa premiere montee en puissance en decembre 1957 et a atteint sa pleine puissance en avril 1958. La mise en place du combustible actuel (cristal de Neige) s'est effectue durant l'ete 1964. Pile a vocation experimentale, elle est utilisee pour des etudes theoriques et technologiques par irradiation de materiel dans les canaux experimentaux et dans les cellules memes du coeur, avec possibilites de constituer des boucles independantes (en ce qui concerne les fluides de refroidissement). Trente canaux verticaux sont reserves a la fabrication de radioelements artificiels. (auteur)
Influence of pile inclination on the lateral capacity of batter piles in clays
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rao, S.N.; Veeresh, C. [Indian Inst. of Tech., Madras (India)
1994-12-31
In many coastal and offshore areas, there are several soft clay deposits and in such soils pile foundations are used to support structures. The foundations of these structures are usually subjected to large amounts of lateral loads. In such cases, inclined piles or batter piles are better suited to resist lateral loads as a part of lateral load is converted into axial load. This paper refers to an experimental investigation carried out on model piles installed in soft clayey soils. Tests were conducted on model aluminum pile of diameter 12mm embedded in soft clay bed with batter angle (angle of inclination with vertical varying from {minus}30 to +30) and at each of these inclinations piles were tested for embedment ratios of 30, 40 and 50. The results indicate that the lateral capacity of pile is influenced by angle of inclination and the direction of the load application, and depth of embedment. A method is proposed to predict the load deflection behavior with different inclinations using the results of load tests conducted at a particular inclination.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Catia Caetano
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Expression of a G1/S regulon of genes that are required for DNA replication is a ubiquitous mechanism for controlling cell proliferation; moreover, the pathological deregulated expression of E2F-regulated G1/S genes is found in every type of cancer. Cellular tolerance of deregulated G1/S transcription is surprising because this regulon includes many dosage-sensitive proteins. Here, we used the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe to investigate this issue. We report that deregulating the MBF G1/S regulon by eliminating the Nrm1 corepressor increases replication errors. Homology-directed repair proteins, including MBF-regulated Ctp1CtIP, are essential to prevent catastrophic genome instability. Surprisingly, the normally inconsequential MBF-regulated S-phase cyclin Cig2 also becomes essential in the absence of Nrm1. This requirement was traced to cyclin-dependent kinase inhibition of the MBF-regulated Cdc18Cdc6 replication origin-licensing factor. Collectively, these results establish that, although deregulation of G1/S transcription is well tolerated by cells, nonessential G1/S target genes become crucial for preventing catastrophic genome instability.
Picking up Clues from the Discard Pile
2008-01-01
As NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander excavates trenches, it also builds piles with most of the material scooped from the holes. The piles, like this one called 'Caterpillar,' provide researchers some information about the soil. On Aug. 24, 2008, during the late afternoon of the 88th Martian day after landing, Phoenix's Surface Stereo Imager took separate exposures through red, green and blue filters that have been combined into this approximately true-color image. This conical pile of soil is about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall. The sources of material that the robotic arm has dropped onto the Caterpillar pile have included the 'Dodo' and ''Upper Cupboard' trenches and, more recently, the deeper 'Stone Soup' trench. Observations of the pile provide information, such as the slope of the cone and the textures of the soil, that helps scientists understand properties of material excavated from the trenches. For the Stone Soup trench in particular, which is about 18 centimeters (7 inches) deep, the bottom of the trench is in shadow and more difficult to observe than other trenches that Phoenix has dug. The Phoenix team obtained spectral clues about the composition of material from the bottom of Stone Soup by photographing Caterpillar through 15 different filters of the Surface Stereo Imager when the pile was covered in freshly excavated material from the trench. The spectral observation did not produce any sign of water-ice, just typical soil for the site. However, the bigger clumps do show a platy texture that could be consistent with elevated concentration of salts in the soil from deep in Stone Soup. The team chose that location as the source for a soil sample to be analyzed in the lander's wet chemistry laboratory, which can identify soluble salts in the soil. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed
Transient response of piles-bridge under horizontal excitation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
朱斌; 陈仁朋; 陈云敏
2003-01-01
Moving ships and other objects drifting on water often impact a bridge's pile foundations. The mechanical model of the piles-bridge structure under horizontal forcing was established, and a time-domain approach based on Finite-difference Method was developed for analyzing the dynamic response of the piles-bridge structure. For a single pile, good agreement between two computed results validated the present approach. The slenderness ratio of the pile, the pile-soil stiffness ratio and the type of the structure influence the dynamic response of the piles-bridge structure. The computed results showed that the stiffness of the structure determines the dynamic response of the piles-bridge structure under horizontal forcing.
Transient response of piles-bridge under horizontal excitation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
朱斌; 陈仁朋; 陈云敏
2003-01-01
Moving ships and other objects drifting on water often impact a bridge' s pile foundations. The mechanical model of the piles-bridge structure under horizontal forcing was established, and a time-domain approach based on Finite-difference Method was developed for analyzing the dynamic response of the piles-bridge structure. For a single pile, good agreement between two computed results validated the present approach.The slenderness ratio of the pile, the pile-soil stiffness ratio and the type of the structure influence the dynamic response of the piles-bridge structure. The computed results showed that the stiffness of the structure determines the dynamic response of the piles-bridge structure under horizontal forcing.
Baskov, V A; Kim, V; Polyansky, V V; Verdi, A; Verdi, A.
1999-01-01
99-014 In this article we propose to use a dedicated pile-up detector --- 180 degree Cherenkov calorimeter which measures energies of gamma-quanta being produced in ppinteractions by the Cherenkov radiation intensity --- to ensure the conditions which will allow LHCb to work with luminosity 4--5 10 32 cm -2 s -1 . The calorimeter consists of a multiplicator with the width corresponding to the maximum of particles in an electromagnetic shower, behind which a quartz plate is situated where shower particles produce Cherenkov radiation. The pile-up detector is situated at the 180 degree angle relative to the LHCb spectrometer.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Benjamin Pfeuty
Full Text Available Transitions between consecutive phases of the eukaryotic cell cycle are driven by the catalytic activity of selected sets of cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks. Yet, their occurrence and precise timing is tightly scheduled by a variety of means including Cdk association with inhibitory/adaptor proteins (CKIs. Here we focus on the regulation of G1-phase duration by the end of which cells of multicelled organisms must decide whether to enter S phase or halt, and eventually then, differentiate, senesce or die to obey the homeostatic rules of their host. In mammalian cells, entry in and progression through G1 phase involve sequential phosphorylation and inactivation of the retinoblastoma Rb proteins, first, by cyclin D-Cdk4,6 with the help of CKIs of the Cip/Kip family and, next, by the cyclin E-Cdk2 complexes that are negatively regulated by Cip/Kip proteins. Using a dynamical modeling approach, we show that the very way how the Rb and Cip/Kip regulatory modules interact differentially with cyclin D-Cdk4,6 and cyclin E-Cdk2 provides to mammalian cells a powerful means to achieve an exquisitely-sensitive control of G1-phase duration and fully reversible G1 arrests. Consistently, corruption of either one of these two modules precludes G1 phase elongation and is able to convert G1 arrests from reversible to irreversible. This study unveils fundamental design principles of mammalian G1-phase regulation that are likely to confer to mammalian cells the ability to faithfully control the occurrence and timing of their division process in various conditions.
30 CFR 77.215-3 - Refuse piles: certification.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles: certification. 77.215-3 Section... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-3 Refuse piles: certification. (a) Within 180 days following written notification by the District Manager that a refuse pile can present a hazard, the person...
30 CFR 77.215-1 - Refuse piles; identification.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; identification. 77.215-1 Section... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-1 Refuse piles; identification. A permanent identification marker, at least six feet high and showing the refuse pile identification number as assigned by...
30 CFR 77.215-2 - Refuse piles; reporting requirements.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; reporting requirements. 77.215-2... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-2 Refuse piles; reporting requirements. (a) The proposed location of a new refuse pile shall be reported to and acknowledged in writing by the District...
30 CFR 77.215 - Refuse piles; construction requirements.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; construction requirements. 77.215... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.215 Refuse piles; construction requirements. (a) Refuse deposited on a pile shall be spread in layers and compacted in such a manner so as to minimize the flow of...
29 CFR 1926.603 - Pile driving equipment.
2010-07-01
... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pile driving equipment. 1926.603 Section 1926.603 Labor... Operations § 1926.603 Pile driving equipment. (a) General requirements. (1) Boilers and piping systems which are a part of, or used with, pile driving equipment shall meet the applicable requirements of...
30 CFR 77.209 - Surge and storage piles.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surge and storage piles. 77.209 Section 77.209... Installations § 77.209 Surge and storage piles. No person shall be permitted to walk or stand immediately above a reclaiming area or in any other area at or near a surge or storage pile where the...
Stress wave propagation in reinforced concrete piles during driving
Zorn, N.F.
1983-01-01
The aim of this report is to give an insight into what happens in a reinforced concrete pile during driving, and to contribute to design requirements for the loading case pile driving. Since the behaviour of stress waves in piles is influenced by a various number of parameters, the fewest of which r
Stress wave propagation in reinforced concrete piles during driving
Zorn, N.F.
1983-01-01
The aim of this report is to give an insight into what happens in a reinforced concrete pile during driving, and to contribute to design requirements for the loading case pile driving. Since the behaviour of stress waves in piles is influenced by a various number of parameters, the fewest of which
The Tensile Capacity Of Bored Piles In Frictional Soils
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krabbenhøft, Sven; Andersen, Allan; Damkilde, Lars
2008-01-01
Three series of 10 piles each were installed in two different locations. The length of the piles varied from 2 to 6 m and the diameters were 14 and 25 cm. The piles were constructed above the groundwater table using continuous flight augers and the concrete was placed by gravity free fall. The pi...
Design Optimization of Piles for Offshore Wind Turbine Jacket Foundations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sandal, Kasper; Zania, Varvara
Numerical methods can optimize the pile design. The aim of this study is to automatically design optimal piles for offshore wind turbine jacket foundations (Figure 1). Pile mass is minimized with constraints on axial and lateral capacity. Results indicate that accurate knowledge about soil...
Design Optimization of Piles for Offshore Wind Turbine Jacket Foundations
Sandal, Kasper; Zania, Varvara
2016-01-01
Numerical methods can optimize the pile design. The aim of this study is to automatically design optimal piles for offshore wind turbine jacket foundations (Figure 1). Pile mass is minimized with constraints on axial and lateral capacity. Results indicate that accurate knowledge about soil characteristics can translate into significant cost reductions.
Comment les jeunes gens utilisent les cartes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Sandford
1990-09-01
Full Text Available Des recherches sur l’utilisation des cartes dans les collèges et les lycées révèlent une hiérarchie de procédés qui met au jour des lacunes dans la formation au niveau secondaire.
On the Modelling of Pile Installation
Dijkstra, J.
2009-01-01
This thesis introduces two different types of physical model tests to investigate the stress and density change in the soil during installation of a jacked pile as well as two numerical modelling approaches to model the same process in a finite element code capable of large deformations.
Full size testing of sheet pile walls
Kuilen, J.W.G. van de; Linden, M.L.R. van der; Katsma, H.; Stolle, P.
1996-01-01
Azobé (Lophira alata) is widely used in timber sheet pile walls in the Netherlands. The boards in these walls are coupled and therefore load-sharing can be expected. A simulation model based on the finite element method DIANA (DIANA, 1992) was developed and load-sharing could be calculated. To check
Displacement pile installation effects in sand
Beijer-Lundberg, A.
2015-01-01
Installation effects govern the post-installation behaviour of displacement piles in sand. These effects are currently not completely understood. Suitable experimental techniques to model these installation effects include field, laboratory and experimental models. In the current thesis a small-scal
Underwater noise generated by offshore pile driving
Tsouvalas, A.
2015-01-01
Anthropogenic noise emission in the marine environment has always been an environmental issue of serious concern. In particular, the noise generated during the installation of foundation piles is considered to be one of the most significant sources of underwater noise pollution. This is mainly attri
Spin-Dependent Structure Function $g_1$ at Small x
Ermolaev, B I; Troyan, S I
2004-01-01
Accounting for double-logarithms of x and running QCD coupling leads to expressions for both the non-singlet and singlet components of $g_1$. These expressions manifest the Regge asymptotics when x ->0 and differ considerably from the DGLAP expressions at small values of x.
26 CFR 1.514(g)-1 - Business lease indebtedness.
2010-04-01
... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Business lease indebtedness. 1.514(g)-1 Section 1... Business lease indebtedness. (a) Definition. The term business lease indebtedness means, with respect to... subsidiary corporations. (b) Examples. The rules of section 514(g) respecting business leases also...
SNAILs promote G1 phase in selected cancer cells.
Wu, Ya-Lan; Xue, Jian-Xin; Zhou, Lin; Deng, Lei; Shang, Yan-Na; Liu, Fang; Mo, Xian-Ming; Lu, You
2015-11-01
Cells can acquire a stem-like cell phenotype through epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, it is not known which of the stem-like cancer cells are generated by these phenotype transitions. We studied the EMT-inducing roles of SNAILs (the key inducers for the onset of EMT) in selected cancer cells (lung cancer cell line with relatively stable genome), in order to provide more implications for the investigation of EMT-related phenotype transitions in cancer. However, SNAILs fail to induce completed EMT. In addition, we proved that Snail accelerates the early G1 phase whereas Slug accelerates the late G1 phase. Blocking G1 phase is one of the basic conditions for the onset of EMT-related phenotype transitions (e.g., metastasis, acquiring stemness). The discovery of this unexpected phenomenon (promoting G1 phase) typically reveals the heterogeneity of cancer cells. The onset of EMT-related phenotype transitions in cancer needs not only the induction and activation of SNAILs, but also some particular heredity alterations (genetic or epigenetic alterations, which cause heterogeneity). The new connection between heredity alteration (heterogeneity) and phenotype transition suggests a novel treatment strategy, the heredity alteration-directed specific target therapy. Further investigations need to be conducted to study the relevant heredity alterations.
Nonparametric inference from the M/G/1 workload
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Martin Bøgsted; Pitts, Susan M.
2006-01-01
Consider an M/G/1 queue with unknown service-time distribution and unknown traffic intensity ρ. Given systematically sampled observations of the workload, we construct estimators of ρ and of the service-time distribution function, and we study asymptotoic properties of these estimators....
Rapid biodegradation of organophosphorus pesticides by Stenotrophomonas sp. G1.
Deng, Shuyan; Chen, Yao; Wang, Daosheng; Shi, Taozhong; Wu, Xiangwei; Ma, Xin; Li, Xiangqiong; Hua, Rimao; Tang, Xinyun; Li, Qing X
2015-10-30
Organophosphorus insecticides have been widely used, which are highly poisonous and cause serious concerns over food safety and environmental pollution. A bacterial strain being capable of degrading O,O-dialkyl phosphorothioate and O,O-dialkyl phosphate insecticides, designated as G1, was isolated from sludge collected at the drain outlet of a chlorpyrifos manufacture plant. Physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis suggested that strain G1 belongs to the genus Stenotrophomonas. At an initial concentration of 50 mg/L, strain G1 degraded 100% of methyl parathion, methyl paraoxon, diazinon, and phoxim, 95% of parathion, 63% of chlorpyrifos, 38% of profenofos, and 34% of triazophos in 24 h. Orthogonal experiments showed that the optimum conditions were an inoculum volume of 20% (v/v), a substrate concentration of 50 mg/L, and an incubation temperature in 40 °C. p-Nitrophenol was detected as the metabolite of methyl parathion, for which intracellular methyl parathion hydrolase was responsible. Strain G1 can efficiently degrade eight organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) and is a very excellent candidate for applications in OP pollution remediation.
26 CFR 1.167(g)-1 - Basis for depreciation.
2010-04-01
... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Basis for depreciation. 1.167(g)-1 Section 1.167... for depreciation. The basis upon which the allowance for depreciation is to be computed with respect... property at that time, is the basis for computing depreciation....
Huy, N.Q.
2010-01-01
Pile testing, which plays an importance role in the field of deep foundation design, is performed by static and non-static methods to provide information about the following issues: (Poulos, 1998) - The ultimate capacity of a single pile. - The load-displacement behavior of a pile. - The performance
Huy, N.Q.
2010-01-01
Pile testing, which plays an importance role in the field of deep foundation design, is performed by static and non-static methods to provide information about the following issues: (Poulos, 1998) - The ultimate capacity of a single pile. - The load-displacement behavior of a pile. - The performance
Identification of waiting time distribution of M/G/1, Mx/G/1, GIr/M/1 queueing systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Ghosal
1988-01-01
Full Text Available This paper brings out relations among the moments of various orders of the waiting time of the 1st customer and a randomly selected customer of an arrival group for bulk arrivals queueing models, and as well as moments of the waiting time (in queue for M/G/1 queueing system. A numerical study of these relations has been developed in order to find the (β1,β2 measures of waiting time distribution in a comutable form. On the basis of these measures one can look into the nature of waiting time distribution of bulk arrival queues and the single server M/G/1 queue.
Seismic Response Analysis of Portal Water Injection Sheet Pile
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Yuanbin; GUO Haiyan; ZHANG Chunhui
2007-01-01
To further the study on the newly developed portal water injection sheet pile under static loads, in this paper, by adopting the nonlinear calculation module of FEM software ANSYS, a model for the interaction between the soil and the sheet piles is set up,and the seismic response analysis for this type of space-retaining structure is performed. The effects of the embedded depth and the distance between the front pile and the back pile on the dynamic characteristics of the portal water injection sheet pile are studied.
NONLINEAR DYNAMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PILES UNDER HORIZONTAL VIBRATION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HU Yu-jia; CHENG Chang-jun; YANG Xiao
2005-01-01
The pile-soil system is regarded as a visco-elastic half-space embedded pile. Based on the method of continuum mechanics, a nonlinear mathematical model of pilesoil interaction was established-a coupling nonlinear boundary value problem. Under the case of horizontal vibration, the nonlinearly dynamical characteristics of pile applying the axis force were studied in horizontal direction in frequency domain. The effects of parameters, especially the axis force on the stiffness were studied in detail. The numerical results suggest that it is possible that the pile applying an axis force will lose its stability. So, the effect of the axis force on the pile is considered.
Friction effects on lateral loading behavior of rigid piles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zania, Varvara; Hededal, Ole
2012-01-01
The adequacy of the p -y curves used in the current practice for the design of rigid pile foundations with large diameter, like in the case of monopile foundations of offshore wind turbines, has been widely questioned. The current study aims at analyzing the lateral behavior of rigid piles, while...... taking into account the shear frictional resistance along the pile. For this purpose efficient three dimensional finite element models of different diameter have been developed. The increase of the side friction and of the diameter of the pile is shown to alter the failure pattern and increase...... the lateral capacity of the pile. The obtained p - y curves demonstrate the importance of the aforementioned parameters in the design of rigid piles, as the reduction of friction along the interface reduces not only the ultimate load but also the stiffness of the soil-pile response. Read More: http...
Laboratory Test Setup for Cyclic Axially Loaded Piles in Sand
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thomassen, Kristina; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard
2017-01-01
conditions for all tests. For verifications purposes six static tension tests conducted at three different vertical effective stress levels of 0, 35 and 70 kPa. The load-displacement curves showed that the test setup provides repeatable test results. A preliminary comparison between the unit shaft friction......This paper presents a comprehensive description and the considerations regarding the design of a new laboratory test setup for testing cyclic axially loaded piles in sand. The test setup aims at analysing the effect of axial one-way cyclic loading on pile capacity and accumulated displacements....... Another aim was to test a large diameter pile segment with dimensions resembling full-scale piles to model the interface properties between pile and sand correctly. The pile segment was an open-ended steel pipe pile with a diameter of 0.5 m and a length of 1 m. The sand conditions resembled the dense sand...
Les classiques, les modernes et nous
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
François Hartog
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Quelle est la place des études classiques aujourd'hui, qu'a-t-elle été, que peut-elle être encore? Dans la longue durée de l'histoire européenne, nous nous arrêterons sur les opérations que le recours aux anciens possible. Quels gestes ont-ils suscité? Quelles configurations ont été incessamment reprises, scrutées, investies et réinvesties au cours des siècles: le couple formé par les ancients et les modernes, mais aussi dans leur sillage les sauvages ou les barbares face aux civilisés, les classiques, face aux romantiquesavec des préclassiques et pui des néoclassiques...A travers leurs interrelations et leurs oppositions, se dessine, en fait, le mouvement continué de production de la culture moderne de l'Europe , où le couple des anciens et des modernes a longtemps tenus un des premiers ròles, avec sa longue histoire de "querelles"
A semi-analytical method for the analysis of pile-supported embankments
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wan-huan ZHOU; Ren-peng CHEN; Lin-shuang ZHAO; Zheng-zhong XU; Yun-min CHEN
2012-01-01
In this paper,a semi-analytical method for the analysis of pile-supported embankments is proposed.The mathematic model describes the cooperative behavior of pile,pile cap,foundation soil,and embankment fills.Based on Terzaghi's ID consolidation theory of saturated soil,the consolidation of foundation soil is calculated.The embankments with two different types of piles:floating piles and end-bearing piles are investigated and discussed.The results of axial force and skin friction distributions along the pile and the settlements of pile-supported embankments are presented.It is found that it takes a longer time for soil consolidation in the embankment with floating piles,compared with the case using end-bearing piles.The differential settlement between the pile and surrounding soil at the pile top is larger for the embankment with end-bearing piles,compared with the case of floating piles.
Thébaud-Mony, Annie
2015-01-01
Depuis les années 1990, les conditions de travail se sont peu à peu imposées dans le débat social. Néanmoins, la situation reste critique. Les risques traditionnels n'ont pas disparu : les manutentions lourdes, l'exposition professionnelle aux cancérogènes, au bruit ou aux vibrations demeurent répandues... De plus, certaines " améliorations " n'ont fait que déplacer et dissimuler les problèmes, telle l'externalisation des risques grâce à la sous-traitance. Dans le même temps, les transformations du travail et des modalités de gestion de la main-d'œuvre ont fragilisé les collectifs et accru l'isolement des salariés, conduisant à une montée visible de la souffrance psychique. Face à ces évolutions, il est plus que jamais nécessaire que tous les acteurs concernés, en particulier les salariés eux-mêmes et leurs représentants, s'approprient les connaissances indispensables pour améliorer la protection de la santé sur les lieux du travail. Tel est le but de ce livre, qui renouvelle int�...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
朱峰; 徐卫亚; 王环玲
2014-01-01
The pile-soil interaction under wave loads is an extremely complex and difficult issue in engineering. In this study, a physical model test is designed based on the principle of the gravity similarity to obtain time histories of wave forces of unsteady regular waves, and to measure the magnitude and the distribution of wave forces acting on the piles. A numerical model and relevant numerical methods for the pile-soil contact surface are adopted based on the principles of elastic dynamics. For a practical project, the time histories of wave forces on the piles are obtained through physical model tests. The deformations of the piles in the pile-soil interactions and the distribution of the bending moment on the piles are studied. It is shown that, with the increase of the period of wave pressures, the absolute value of the horizontal displacement of the piles increases, the embedment depth of the piles increases, and the scope of influence of soils increases. The change of the bending moment on the piles is consistent with that of its theoretical results, and the proposed numerical method can very well simulate the properties of the piles.
Are cometary nuclei primordial rubble piles?
Weissman, P. R.
1986-01-01
Whipple's icy conglomerate model for the cometary nucleus has had considerable sucess in explaining a variety of cometary phenomena such as gas production rates and nongravitational forces. However, as discussed here, both observational evidence and theoretical considerations suggest that the cometary nucleus may not be a well-consolidated single body, but may instead be a loosely bound agglomeration of smaller fragments, weakly bonded and subject to occasional or even frequent disruptive events. The proposed model is analogous to the 'rubble pile' model suggested for the larger main-belt asteroids, although the larger cometary fragments are expected to be primordial condensations rather than collisionally derived debris as in the asteroid case. The concept of cometary nuclei as primordial rubble piles is proposed as a modification of the basic Whipple model, not as a replacement for it.
Behavior of instrumented model batter piles in clay
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Narasimha Rao, S.; Veeresh, C. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Madras (India). Ocean Engineering Centre
1995-12-31
Pile foundations in several coastal and offshore structures are subjected to significant amounts of lateral loads due to wave action. Usually batter piles are adopted to resist large lateral loads. In this investigation an attempt has been made to study the behavior of batter pile in clayey soils through an experimental program carried out on instrumented model aluminium piles of 26 mm diameter in a test tank of size, 1,200 mm x 800mm x 1,100 mm. The pile was instrumented with electrical resistance type strain gauges to determine the bending moment variations along the depth of embedment of pile. Bending moment vis depth relationships were used to determine the Soil reaction (p) and lateral displacement (y) along the length of the pile for the applied load. From the bending moment vs depth curves it is found that depth of maximum bending moment is greater for negative batter pile than for vertical and positive batter pile. The data of soil reaction and lateral displacement against depth can be used to develop p-y relationships which are useful in the design of laterally loaded piles.
Bearing Behaviors of Stiffened Deep Cement Mixed Pile
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WU Mai; ZHAO Xin
2006-01-01
A series of investigations were conducted to study the bearing capacity and load transfer mechanism of stiffened deep cement mixed (SDCM) pile.Laboratory tests including six specimens were conducted to investigate the frictional resistance between the concrete core and the cementsoil.Two model piles and twenty-four full-scale piles were tested to examine the bearing behavior of single pile.Laboratory and model tests results indicate that the cohesive strength is large enough to ensure the interaction between core pile and the outer cement-soil.The full-scale test results show that the SDCM piles exhibit similar bearing behavior to bored and cast-in-place concrete piles.In general, with the rational composite structure the SDCM piles can transmit the applied load effectively, and due to the addition of the stiffer core, the SDCM piles possess high bearing capacity.Based on the findings of these experimental investigations and theoretical analysis, a practical design method is developed to predict the vertical bearing capacity of SDCM pile.
FORECASTING PILE SETTLEMENT ON CLAYSTONE USING NUMERICAL AND ANALYTICAL METHODS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ponomarev Andrey Budimirovich
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In the article the problem of designing pile foundations on claystones is reviewed. The purpose of this paper is comparative analysis of the analytical and numerical methods for forecasting the settlement of piles on claystones. The following tasks were solved during the study: 1 The existing researches of pile settlement are analyzed; 2 The characteristics of experimental studies and the parameters for numerical modeling are presented, methods of field research of single piles’ operation are described; 3 Calculation of single pile settlement is performed using numerical methods in the software package Plaxis 2D and analytical method according to the requirements SP 24.13330.2011; 4 Experimental data is compared with the results of analytical and numerical calculations; 5 Basing on these results recommendations for forecasting pile settlement on claystone are presented. Much attention is paid to the calculation of pile settlement considering the impacted areas in ground space beside pile and the comparison with the results of field experiments. Basing on the obtained results, for the prediction of settlement of single pile on claystone the authors recommend using the analytical method considered in SP 24.13330.2011 with account for the impacted areas in ground space beside driven pile. In the case of forecasting the settlement of single pile on claystone by numerical methods in Plaxis 2D the authors recommend using the Hardening Soil model considering the impacted areas in ground space beside the driven pile. The analyses of the results and calculations are presented for examination and verification; therefore it is necessary to continue the research work of deep foundation at another experimental sites to improve the reliability of the calculation of pile foundation settlement. The work is of great interest for geotechnical engineers engaged in research, design and construction of pile foundations.
Design principles of the yeast G1/S switch.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaojing Yang
2013-10-01
Full Text Available A hallmark of the G1/S transition in budding yeast cell cycle is the proteolytic degradation of the B-type cyclin-Cdk stoichiometric inhibitor Sic1. Deleting SIC1 or altering Sic1 degradation dynamics increases genomic instability. Certain key facts about the parts of the G1/S circuitry are established: phosphorylation of Sic1 on multiple sites is necessary for its destruction, and both the upstream kinase Cln1/2-Cdk1 and the downstream kinase Clb5/6-Cdk1 can phosphorylate Sic1 in vitro with varied specificity, cooperativity, and processivity. However, how the system works as a whole is still controversial due to discrepancies between in vitro, in vivo, and theoretical studies. Here, by monitoring Sic1 destruction in real time in individual cells under various perturbations to the system, we provide a clear picture of how the circuitry functions as a switch in vivo. We show that Cln1/2-Cdk1 sets the proper timing of Sic1 destruction, but does not contribute to its destruction speed; thus, it acts only as a trigger. Sic1's inhibition target Clb5/6-Cdk1 controls the speed of Sic1 destruction through a double-negative feedback loop, ensuring a robust all-or-none transition for Clb5/6-Cdk1 activity. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the degradation of a single-phosphosite mutant of Sic1 is rapid and switch-like, just as the wild-type form. Our mathematical model confirms our understanding of the circuit and demonstrates that the substrate sharing between the two kinases is not a redundancy but a part of the design to overcome the trade-off between the timing and sharpness of Sic1 degradation. Our study provides direct mechanistic insight into the design features underlying the yeast G1/S switch.
Hydrodynamic Behavior of Curtainwall-Pile Breakwaters
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
O.Nejadkazem; A.R.M.Gharabaghi
2012-01-01
A numerical model is developed that can predict the interaction of regular waves normally incident upon a curtainwall-pile breakwater; the upper part of which is a vertical wall and the lower part consists of an array of vertical piles.The numerical model is based on an eigenfunetion expansion method,and utilizes a boundary condition nearby the vertical piles that accounts for wave energy dissipation.Numerical solution comprises a finite number of terms,which is a superposition of propagating waves and a series of evanescent waves.The modeling is validated by comparison with previous experimental studies and overall agreement between measurement and calculation is fairly good.The numerical results are related to reflection,transmission,and dissipation coefficient; wave run-up,wave force,and wave overturning moment are also presented.Effect of porosity,relative draft,and relative water depth are discussed; the choice of suitable range of them is described.The relative draft is more effective for shallow water waves.Model shows decrease in relative draft and leads to reduction of relative wave force,overturning moment,and nunup.It is shown that curtainwallpile breakwaters can operate both effectively and efficiently in the range of relative draft between 0.15 and 0.75.The range 0.5 to 0.2 is also recommended for porosity.
Morphological clues to wet granular pile stability
Scheel, M.; Seemann, R.; Brinkmann, M.; di Michiel, M.; Sheppard, A.; Breidenbach, B.; Herminghaus, S.
2008-03-01
When a granular material such as sand is mixed with a certain amount of liquid, the surface tension of the latter bestows considerable stiffness to the material, which enables, for example, sand castles to be sculpted. The geometry of the liquid interface within the granular pile is of extraordinary complexity and strongly varies with the liquid content. Surprisingly, the mechanical properties of the pile are largely independent of the amount of liquid over a wide range. We resolve this puzzle with the help of X-ray microtomography, showing that the remarkable insensitivity of the mechanical properties to the liquid content is due to the particular organization of the liquid in the pile into open structures. For spherical grains, a simple geometric rule is established, which relates the macroscopic properties to the internal liquid morphologies. We present evidence that this concept is also valid for systems with non-spherical grains. Hence, our results provide new insight towards understanding the complex physics of a large variety of wet granular systems including land slides, as well as mixing and agglomeration problems.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Run; YAN Shu-wang; LI Zhi-hua
2009-01-01
Long steel piles with large diameters have been more widely used in the field of ocean engineering.Owing to the pile with a large diameter,soil plug development during pile driving has great influences on pile driveability and beating capacity.The response of soil plug developed inside the open-ended pipe pile during the dynamic condition of pile-driving is different from the response under the static condition of loading during service.This paper addresses the former aspect.A numerical procedure for soil plng effect prediction and pile driveability analysis is proposed and described.By taking into consideration of the pile dimension effect on side and tip resistance,this approach introduces a dimensional coefficient to the conventional static equilibrium equations for the plug differential unit and proposes an improved static equity method for the plug effect prediction.At the same time,this approach introduces a simplified model by use of one-dimensional stress wave equation to simulate the interaction between soft ping and pile inner wall.The proposed approach has been applied in practical engineering analyses.Results show that the calculated plug effect and pile driveability based on the proposed approach agree well with the observed data.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Admin
les littératures économique et gestionnaire, mais souvent dans ces travaux, l'effet de ... chiffre d'affaires du nouvel ensemble résultant de la vente des produits mieux .... syndicalisme, droit de grève), fiscales (différents taux d'imposition, etc.) .... nouvel ensemble et aussi, les différentes relations avec les alliances verticales ...
1999-01-01
C'est le plus grand centre mondial de recherche en physique des particules. Les outils du Laboratoire, accélérateurs et détecteurs de particules, figurent parmi les instruments scientifiques les plus complexes au monde. Des prix Nobels ont d'ailleurs été attribués aux physiciens du CERN pour leurs développements.
2012-03-14
... pile bent arrangement consisting of 10 steel pipe piles. Each foundation pile will have a 76-centimeter... will be located in an area with up to 12 m (40 ft) of marine clay and some thin layers of glacial till... pile will be two m (six ft) in diameter, or consist of an array of three piles not greater than 76 cm...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chassany, J.; Pouthier, J.; Delmar, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Chusclan (France). Centre de Production de Plutonium de Marcoule
1967-07-01
The results of numerous evaluations of the contamination are given: - Reactors in operation during maintenance operations. - Reactors shut-down during typical repair operations (coolants, exchangers, interior of the vessel, etc. ) - Following incidents on the cooling circuit and can-rupture. They show that, except in particular cases, it is the activation products which dominate. Furthermore, after ten years operation, the points at which contamination liable to emit strong doses accumulates are very localized and the individual protective equipment has not had to be reinforced. (authors) [French] Les resultats de nombreuses evaluations de la contamination sont donnes: - Piles en marche pendant les operations d'entretien - Piles a l'arret au cours des chantiers caracteristiques (refrigerants, echangeurs, interieur du caisson, etc.) - A la suite d'incidents sur le circuit de refroidissement et de rupture de gaine. Ils montrent que, sauf cas particulier, ce sont essentiellement les produits d'activation qui dominent. Par ailleurs apres 10 ans de fonctionnement, les points d'accumulation de la contamination susceptibles de delivrer des debits de dose importants restent tres localises et les moyens de protection individuels utilises n'ont pas du etre renforces. (auteurs)
The Effects of Time on Soil Behaviour and Pile Capacity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Augustesen, Anders
this into account. This implies that the design methods used today do not in general make use of the full capacity of piles. This thesis is based on a number of scientific papers and reports that deal with elements of pile design and time effects in soils in general. With regard to pile design, focus is placed...... foundations. Further, design methods that take no account of time will be subject to considerable error unless they consider a tightly specified age range. Time functions (relation between time after installation and capacity), which have been offered for quantifying set-up for piles in clay, are investigated....... Therefore, the design of piles has remained a constant source of attention, especially with regard to the methodology for predicting the capacity. Three very different design methods for piles in both clay and sand are assessed by comparing predicted capacities with measured capacities from established...
SCOUR MITIGATION AT BRIDGE PIERS USING SACRIFICIAL PILES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
M. Anisul HAQUE; Md. Munsur RAHMAN; G.M. Tarekul ISLAM; M. Asad HUSSAIN
2007-01-01
To mitigate scour around bridge piers, sacrificial piles are economic method where natural processes are involved. The arrangement should be such that scoured materials from the sacrificial piles should have enough volume to fill the scour hole created upstream of the pier in such a way that sediments are trapped inside the scour hole. This concept differs from earlier study made with sacrificial piles that mainly deals to reduce the strength of horseshoe vortex. To determine the effect of sacrificial piles for scour mitigation, alternative arrangements of piles were tested in front of a rectangular pier under clear-water condition and found that when the group of piles is placed at a distance of twice the projected width of the pier, for which percentage of blockage of the pier width is 60%, the scour volume can be reduced upto 61% while the maximum scour depth can be reduced upto 50%.
Settlement calculation for long-short composite piled raft foundation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHAO Ming-hua; ZHANG Ling; YANG Ming-hui
2006-01-01
The mechanism of long-short composite piled raft foundation was discussed. Assuming the relationship between shear stress and shear strain of the surrounding soil was elasto-plastic, shear displacement method was employed to establish the different explicit relational equations between the load and the displacement at the top of pile in either elastic or elasto-plastic period. Then Mylonakis & Gazetas model was introduced to simulate the interaction between two piles or between piles and soil. Considering the effect of cushion, the flexible coefficients of interaction were provided. With the addition of a relevant program, the settlement calculation for long-short composite piled raft foundation was developed which could be used to account for the interaction of piles,soil and cushion. Finally, the calculation method was used to analyze an engineering example. The calculated value of settlement is 10.2 mm, which is close to the observed value 8.8 mm.
Vertical bearing capacity of pile based on load transfer model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHAO Ming-hua; YANG Ming-hui; ZOU Xin-jun
2005-01-01
The load transfer analytical method is applied to study the bearing mechanism of piles with vertical load in this paper. According to the different hardening rules of soil or rock around the pile shaft, such as work-softening, ideal elasto-plastic and work-hardening, a universal tri-linear load transfer model is suggested for the development of side and tip resistance by various types of soil (rock) with the consideration of sediment at the bottom of the pile. Based on the model, a formula is derived for the relationship between the settlement and load on the pile top to determine the vertical bearing capacity, taking into account such factors as the characteristics of the stratum, the side resistance along the shaft, and tip resistance under the pile tip. A close agreement of the calculated results with the measured data from a field test pile lends confidence to the future application of the present approach in engineering practice.
Assessment of Time Functions for Piles Driven in Clay
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Augustesen, Anders; Andersen, Lars; Sørensen, Carsten Steen
The vertical bearing capacity of piles situated in clay is studied with regard to the long-term set-up. A statistical analysis is carried out on the basis of data from numerous static loading tests. The database covers a wide range of both soil and pile properties, which ensures a general....... Hence, it is suggested that a constant set-up factor should be applied for the prediction of pile capacities at a given time after initial driving....
Bearing Capacity of Mixed Pile with Stiffness Core
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YUE Jianwei; JIANG Xinliang; LING Guangrong
2006-01-01
To study load transfer mechanism and bearing capacity of a mixed pile with stiffness core (MPSC), which is formed by inserting a precast reinforced concrete pile (PRCP), in-situ tests involving MPSCs with different lengths, diameters, water cement ratios and PRCPs, cement mixed piles, and drilling hole piles, were carried out.Limit bearing capacities, load-settlement curves and stress distribution of MPSCs and mixed piles were obtained.The load transfer between cement soil and PRCP was analyzed by finite element method (FEM).Test results and FEM analysis show that an MPSC has fully utilized the big friction from a cement mixed pile and the high compressive strength from a PRCP which transfers outer top load into the inner cement soil, and that inserting a PRCP into a mixed pile changes the stress distribution of a mixed pile and improves frictional resistance between a mixed pile and soil.The length and the section area on PRCP of an MPSC both have an optimum value.Adopting MPSC is effective in improving the bearing capacity of soft soil ground.
Bearing capacity and mechanical behavior of CFG pile composite foundation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈秋南; 赵明华; 周国华; 张主华
2008-01-01
CFG pile (i.e., pile constructed by granular materials of cement, fly-ash and gravel) composite foundation is applied in subsoil treatment widely and successfully. In order to have a further study of this kind of subsoil treatment technology, the influencing factors and calculation methods of the vertical bearing capacity of single CFG pile and the CFG pile composite foundation were discussed respectively. And based on the obtained solutions, effects by the cushion and measurements to reduce negative friction area were analyzed. Moreover, the developing law of settlement and bearing capacity eigenvalue controlled by the material strength with the increase of load were given for the CFG composite foundation. The in-situ static load test was tested for CFG pile. The results of test show that the maximum test load or half of the ultimate load is used from all the points of test, the average bearing capacity eigenvalue of single pile is 390 kN, and slightly greater than the design value of bearing capacity. The bearing capacity eigenvalues of composite foundation for 3 piles are greater than 300 kPa, and the mechanical properties of CFG pile composite foundation are almost identical in the case of the same load and cushion thickness. The pile-soil stress ratio and the load-sharing ratio can be adjusted through setting up cushion thickness.
Vertical Dynamic Impedance of Tapered Pile considering Compacting Effect
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wenbing Wu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Based on complex stiffness transfer model, the vertical vibration of tapered pile embedded in layered soil is theoretically investigated by considering the compacting effect of the soil layer surrounding the tapered pile in the piling process. Allowing for the stratification of the surrounding soil and variable crosssection of the tapered pile, the pile-soil system is discretized into finite segments. By virtue of the complex stiffness transfer model to simulate the compacting effect, the complex stiffness of different soil segments surrounding the tapered pile is obtained. Then, substituting the complex stiffness into the vertical dynamic governing equation of tapered pile, the analytical solution of vertical dynamic impedance of tapered pile under vertical exciting force is derived by means of the Laplace technique and impedance function transfer method. Based on the presented solutions, the influence of compacting effect of surrounding soil on vertical dynamic impedance at the pile head is investigated within the low frequency range concerned in the design of dynamic foundation.
ATP6V1G1 is a subunit of vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase), a multisubunit enzyme. V-ATPase is an enzyme transporter that functions to acidify intracellular compartments in eukaryotic cells. This acidification process is necessary for such intracellular processes as protein sorting, zymogen activation, receptor-mediated endocytosis, and synaptic vesicle proton gradient generation. V-ATPase is ubiquitously expressed and is present in endomembrane organelles such as vacuoles, lysosomes, endosomes, the Golgi apparatus, chromaffin granules and coated vesicles, as well as in the plasma membrane. V-ATPase is composed of a cytosolic V1 domain and a transmembrane V0 domain. The V1 domain consists of three A, three B, and two G subunits, as well as a C, D, E, F, and H subunit. The V1 domain contains the ATP catalytic site.
Les Nymphes dans les rites du mariage
2013-01-01
Le champ du mariage (où l’on rencontre à la fois les Nymphes puissances surnaturelles et les numphai humaines) peut se révéler intéressant pour croiser des données littéraires, archéologiques et épigraphiques sur le culte des Nymphes. Lors des préliminaires, ces puissances peuvent être l’objet des protéléia (sacrifices prénuptiaux) ou être associées avec la loutrophorie et le bain prénuptial. Les Nymphes n’interviennent guère pendant la journée de célébration du mariage, sauf dans des textes ...
Ioli, Elena
2016-01-01
L'univers est peuplé par des étoiles, des planètes, des galaxies, des astéroïdes, des comètes, mais les trous noirs en sont certainement les habitants les plus mystérieux et les plus fascinants ! Grâce à cette merveilleuse histoire racontée par papy Gino, professeur d'astronomie, les trous noirs n auront plus de secrets pour vous ! C est l'été, le soleil illumine le ciel, la plage est en feu : une journée à la plage pleine de jeux et de plongée qui va se transformer pour Bernardo, Gregorio et leurs deux amis en une aventure inattendue. Ils découvriront les secrets des trous noirs, d étranges objets célestes que personne n'a jamais vus mais qui existent bel et bien ! Grand-père Gino, un professeur d astronomie à la retraite, emmènera les enfants à l'intérieur d'un trou noir, leur expliquera pourquoi ils sont noirs, comment ils sont nés et comment les scientifiques pensent qu'ils vont mourir. Et Gino leur racontera même ce qui se trouve de l'autre côté d'un trou noir...
Experimental Study on Post Grouting Bearing Capacity of Large Diameter Bored Piles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wang Duanduan
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Post grouting can improve the inherent defects such as the formation of the mud cake at pile side and the sediment at pile end in the process of bored pile construction. Thus post grouting has been widely used in Engineering. The purpose of this paper is to research the influences of post grouting to pile bearing capacity more systematically and intuitively. Combined with the static load test of four test piles in Weihe River Bridge test area of new airport highway in Xi’an, the bearing capacity and settlement of routine piles and post grouting piles are comparatively analyzed. The test results show that under the same geological condition, post grouting can improve the properties of pile tip and pile shaft soil of bored piles significantly, enhance the ultimate resistance, improve the ultimate bearing capacity and reduce the pile tip settlement. Then post grouting can aim to optimize pile foundation.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Lü Shu-hui; WANG Kui-hua; WU Wen-bing; C. J. LEO
2015-01-01
The dynamic response of pile in layered soil is theoretically investigated when considering the transverse inertia effect. Firstly, the fictitious soil-pile model is employed to simulate the dynamic interaction between the pile and the soil layers beneath pile toe. The dynamic interactions of adjacent soil layers along the vertical direction are simplified as distributed Voigt models. Meanwhile, the pile and fictitious soil-pile are assumed to be viscoelastic Rayleigh-Love rods, and both the radial and vertical displacement continuity conditions at the soil-pile interface are taken into consideration. On this basis, the analytical solution for dynamic response at the pile head is derived in the frequency domain and the corresponding quasi-analytical solution in the time domain is then obtained by means of the convolution theorem. Following this, the accuracy and parameter value of the hypothetical boundaries for soil-layer interfaces are discussed. Comparisons with published solution and measured data are carried out to verify the rationality of the present solution. Parametric analyses are further conducted by using the present solution to investigate the relationships between the transverse inertia effects and soil-pile parameters.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
丰土根; 宋海洋; 王路博; 陈阳; 胡松
2015-01-01
Using Abaqus numerical analysis method,double equal piles,one equal pile and one squeezed branch pile,double squeezed branch piles models were built. Through lots of numerical simulation,analysis of the pile interaction coefficient under different situations,including pile load,pile spacing,soil Poisson's ratio and analysis of the influence to different double piles in surrounding load were carried out. Result shows that the pile-pile influence coefficient is approximately constant value in liner elastic deformation of loading piles ,and irrelevant to the load level and piles characters,but it decreased gradually until close to 0 in plase state,with the Poisson's ratio becomes large. The interaction coefficient gradually decreases,under the same conditions,the surrounding load have a greater impact on double equal piles than double squeezed branch piles and gradually decreases with the increase of poisson's ratio. The study provides a reference in practical engineering between different piles.%采用Abaqus数值分析方法,建立双等径桩、一等径桩一支盘桩、双挤扩支盘桩模型,通过大量的数值模拟计算,分析在不同桩顶荷载、不同桩间距、不同土体泊松比条件下桩的相互影响系数以及在桩周荷载条件下对不同双桩的影响,分析表明,在线弹性变形阶段,桩与桩的影响系数近似为恒定值,与荷载水平及桩的性状无关,进入塑性阶段后,则逐渐减小最后趋于0,随着泊松比的变大,桩之间的相互作用系数逐渐减小,在相同条件下,桩周荷载对双支盘桩的影响大于双等径桩且随泊松比的增大而减小. 研究结果为实际工程中桩之间的影响情况提供参考.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hug, F.; Mermillod, N.; Millet, C.; Pinget, A.
2000-05-01
This document is a mission report on stationary applications of fuel cells in Japan. This mission was organized by the Science and Technology Service of the French embassy in Japan in December 1999. The organizations shown were: NEDO, Osaka Gas, Tokyo Gas, Sanyo, the Kawagoe facility, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, CRIEPI and Toto. Since the year 2000, the public effort made on fuel cells development has shot up and reaches 7 billions of yen among which more than a half is devoted to polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC). Applications of PEFCs are various, from stationary cogeneration to transportation systems. (J.S.)
Early evolution of disrupted asteroid P/2016 G1 (PANSTARRS)
Moreno, Fernando; Cabrera-Lavers, Antonio; Pozuelos, Francisco J
2016-01-01
We present deep imaging observations of activated asteroid P/2016 G1 (PANSTARRS) using the 10.4m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) from late April to early June 2016. The images are best interpreted as the result of a relatively short-duration event with onset about $\\mathop{350}_{-30}^{+10}$ days before perihelion (i.e., around 10th February, 2016), starting sharply and decreasing with a $\\mathop{24}_{-7}^{+10}$ days (Half-width at half-maximum, HWHM). The results of the modeling imply the emission of $\\sim$1.7$\\times$10$^7$ kg of dust, if composed of particles of 1 micrometer to 1 cm in radius, distributed following a power-law of index --3, and having a geometric albedo of 0.15. A detailed fitting of a conspicuous westward feature in the head of the comet-like object indicates that a significant fraction of the dust was ejected along a privileged direction right at the beginning of the event, which suggests that the parent body has possibly suffered an impact followed by a partial or total disruption. From th...
The homogenisation of bulk material in blending piles.
Gerstel, A.W.
1979-01-01
In this thesis the homogenisation of bulk material in three types of piles is dealt with. The homogenisation implies that the fluctuations of a material proprety in the input flow of the pile are transformed into output fluctuations, whereby the latter ones are evened out. Analyses are presented con
Effect of piles on the seismic response of mosques minarets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohamed Ahmed Abdel-Motaal
2014-03-01
Minaret (60.0-m height was studied to investigate the effects of soil stiffness, pile length, diameter, and arrangement, on the minaret and pile dynamic behavior. Comparison between study results and conventional analysis method is illustrated. Study results, discussion, and conclusion are given.
Visualization of soil arching in flexible piled embankments
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Tuğba Eskışar
2015-10-01
Piled embankments rely on soil arching, but, when geogrid reinforcements are used, membrane action within the reinforcement contributes to load distribution. The arching of soil in unreinforced and reinforced piled embankments is evaluated in this study. A small-scale test apparatus is used to model the settlement up to 5 mm in an embankment with four pile elements. Visual inspection of the soil settlement and soil-reinforcement interaction is important to explain the mechanism of arching. In this study, X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) method was used as a non-destructive technique. The arching of soil between the piles was observed in the case of rigid piles and in the case of flexible piles with grid type of reinforcement. The load carrying capacity increased up to 33% in the case of geogrid reinforcement, and the differential settlement decreased around 35%, proving the efficiency of piled embankments with geogrid reinforcements. It is also shown that, using X-ray CT method and visualization techniques provides a better understanding of soil behavior in a reinforced embankment with the flexible pile foundation system.
Cause Analysis of Wuhan Tianheng Building Pile Accident
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
The geological condition and the original structure feature and foundation design of Wuhan Tianheng building are described. The accident appearance of pile foundation in the construction execution of work is illustrated. The generating source of this pile foundation accident is analyzed in great details.``
Optimization of pile design for offshore wind turbine jacket foundations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sandal, Kasper; Zania, Varvara
The aim of this study is to use numerical methods of structural design optimization to design piles for offshore wind turbine jacket foundations. Pile mass is minimized with constraints on axial and lateral capacity. Results indicate that accurate knowledge about soil characteristics can translate...
Optimization of pile design for offshore wind turbine jacket foundations
Sandal, Kasper; Zania, Varvara
2016-01-01
The aim of this study is to use numerical methods of structural design optimization to design piles for offshore wind turbine jacket foundations. Pile mass is minimized with constraints on axial and lateral capacity. Results indicate that accurate knowledge about soil characteristics can translate into significant cost reductions.
Perturbation analysis on post-buckling behavior of pile
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
The nonlinear large deflection differential equation, based on the assumption that the subsoil coefficient is the 2nd root of the depth, was established by energy method. The perturbation parameter was introduced to transform the equation to a series of linear differential equations to be solved, and the deflection function according with the boundary condition was considered. Then,the nonlinear higher-order asymptotic solution of post-buckling behavior of a pile was obtained by parameter-substituting. The influencing factors such as bury-depth ratio and stiffness ratio of soil to pile, slenderness ratio on the post-buckling behavior of a pile were analyzed. The results show that the pile is more unstable when the bury-depth ratio and stiffness ratio of soil to pile increase,and although the buckling load increases with the stiffness of soil, the pile may ruin for its brittleness. Thus, in the region where buckling behavior of pile must be taken into account, the high grade concrete is supposed to be applied, and the dynamic buckling behavior of pile needs to be further studied.
Assessment of timber piles in Clallam County, Washington
Pandey, Arun K.; Tyler, Ross; Arnette, Clyde G.; Anthony, Ronald W.
1998-03-01
Timber bridges are very common in state and rural highway systems. According to the National Bridge Inventory (NBI), there are 41,743 timber bridges in the United States and another 42,102 bridges with timber decks as a part of the superstructure. As these bridges age, there is a critical need for reliable inspection and assessment methods for evaluating timber members. Under an FHWA mandate, these bridges also need to be evaluated for scour susceptibility. Knowledge of the length of timber piles supporting the bridge is a vital component in calculating scour resistance of a bridge. However, records of timber pile lengths are often nonexistent or incomplete due to the construction practices for timber piles. This paper presents nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques used for assessing timber piles on 10 bridges in Clallam County, Washington. Stress wave velocity and resistance drilling techniques were used to determine the presence of and quantify the extent of decay in the piles. A longitudinal stress wave technique was used for determining the length of timber piles. Determination of piles with decay aided in establishing maintenance and repair needs on the bridge substructures. Pile length estimates enabled Clallam County Road Department to determine the scour-susceptibility of these bridges.
Physical Modelling of Cyclic Laterally Loaded Pile in Cohesionless Soil
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Mette; Wolf, Torben K.; Rasmussen, Kristian L.
Offshore wind turbines are normally founded with large diameter monopiles and placed in rough environments subjected to variable lateral loads from wind and waves. A long-term lateral loading may create rotation (tilt) of the pile by change in the pile-soil system which is critical in the service...
The Settlement Behavior of Piled Raft Interaction in Undrained Soil
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ghalesari, Abbasali Taghavi; Barari, Amin; Amini, Pedram Fardad
2013-01-01
Offshore piled raft foundations are one of the most commonly used foundations in offshore structures. When a raft foundation alone does not satisfy the design requirements, the addition of piles may improve both the ultimate load capacity and the settlement performance of the raft. In this paper,...
The Analysis of Soil Resistance During Screw Displacement Pile Installation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Krasinski Adam
2015-02-01
Full Text Available The application of screw displacement piles (SDP is still increasing due to their high efficiency and many advantages. However, one technological problem is a serious disadvantage of those piles. It relates to the generation of very high soil resistance during screw auger penetration, especially when piles are installed in non-cohesive soils. In many situations this problem causes difficulties in creating piles of designed length and diameter. It is necessary to find a proper method for prediction of soil resistance during screw pile installation. The analysis of screw resistances based on model and field tests is presented in the paper. The investigations were carried out as part of research project, financed by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education. As a result of tests and analyses the empirical method for prediction of rotation resistance (torque during screw auger penetration in non-cohesive subsoil based on CPT is proposed.
Method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile
Yavorsky, Paul M.
1991-01-01
A method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile comprises soaking the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution and distributing an oxygen-containing gas throughout the coal refuse pile for a time period sufficient to effect oxidation of coal contained in the coal refuse pile. The method further comprises leaching the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution to solubilize and extract the oxidized coal as alkali salts of humic acids and collecting the resulting solution containing the alkali salts of humic acids. Calcium hydroxide may be added to the solution of alkali salts of humic acid to form precipitated humates useable as a low-ash, low-sulfur solid fuel.
Distributed fibre optic strain measurements on a driven pile
Woschitz, Helmut; Monsberger, Christoph; Hayden, Martin
2016-05-01
In civil engineering pile systems are used in unstable areas as a foundation of buildings or other structures. Among other parameters, the load capacity of the piles depends on their length. A better understanding of the mechanism of load-transfer to the soil would allow selective optimisation of the system. Thereby, the strain variations along the loaded pile are of major interest. In this paper, we report about a field trial using an optical backscatter reflectometer for distributed fibre-optic strain measurements along a driven pile. The most significant results gathered in a field trial with artificial pile loadings are presented. Calibration results show the performance of the fibre-optic system with variations in the strain-optic coefficient.
Pre-Stressed Rope Reinforced Anti-Sliding Pile
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XU Jun; WANG Chenghua
2006-01-01
Pre-stressed rope reinforced anti-sliding pile is a composite anti-sliding structure. It is made up of pre-stressed rope and general anti-sliding pile. It can bring traditional anti-sliding pile's retaining performance into full play, and to treat with landslide fast and economically. The difference between them is that the pre-stressed rope will transfix the whole anti-sliding pile through a prearranged pipe in this structure. The working mechanics, the design method and economic benefit are studied. The results show that the pre-stressed rope reinforced anti-sliding pile can treat with the small and middle landslides or high slopes well and possess the notable advantage of technology and economic.
The Analysis of Soil Resistance During Screw Displacement Pile Installation
Krasinski, Adam
2015-02-01
The application of screw displacement piles (SDP) is still increasing due to their high efficiency and many advantages. However, one technological problem is a serious disadvantage of those piles. It relates to the generation of very high soil resistance during screw auger penetration, especially when piles are installed in non-cohesive soils. In many situations this problem causes difficulties in creating piles of designed length and diameter. It is necessary to find a proper method for prediction of soil resistance during screw pile installation. The analysis of screw resistances based on model and field tests is presented in the paper. The investigations were carried out as part of research project, financed by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education. As a result of tests and analyses the empirical method for prediction of rotation resistance (torque) during screw auger penetration in non-cohesive subsoil based on CPT is proposed.
Application of PCC pile in soil improvement of highway
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘芝平; 刘汉龙; 谭慧明
2008-01-01
The construction process and load-bearing behaviors of Cast-in-place concrete thin-wall pipe piles are analyzed based on its application on Yantong Expressway Project. The low strain test, static load test and field excavation were also carried out, and the bearing capacity of the new pile can meet the requirements of design. With the increase of pile diameter, the bearing capacity is increased. The settlement of composite foundation is decreased, when the replacement ratio of pile is increased. The test results also show that the load carried by inner soils is neglectable. According to the tests and application, it can be concluded that the new type of pile is convenient to construction with high bearing capacity and reliable quality, which has great potential in practical engineering.
Optimum design methodologies for pile foundations in London
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christos Letsios
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Given the importance of pile foundations in geotechnical engineering for supporting high-significance structures such as bridges, high-rise buildings, power plant stations, offshore platforms and museums, it becomes a necessity to find the best pile foundation design in terms of performance and economy. The number of piles required might exceed several hundreds or even thousands while the pile foundation cost might exceed 20% of the construction cost of the superstructure. In this work the problem of finding optimized designs of pile foundations is examined and is performed in accordance to two design code recommendations, namely Eurocode 7 and DIN 4014. The proposed structural optimization procedure is implemented in two real-world cases both located in London, UK in order to assess the efficiency of the proposed design formulation.
Centrifuge modelling of drained lateral pile - soil response
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Klinkvort, Rasmus Tofte
of rigid piles. The tests have been performed in homogeneously dense dry or saturated Fontainebleau sand in order to mimic simplified drained offshore soil conditions. Approximately half of the tests have been carried out to investigate the centrifuge procedure in order to create a methodology of testing...... for monopiles today. Therefore it appears that the methodology for monopiles lacks scientific justification and a better understanding of rigid piles is needed. More than 70 centrifuge tests on laterally loaded rigid model piles have been carried out in connection with this thesis to get a better understanding...... that enables the transformation of result from tests in model scale to prototype scale. The grain size to pile diameter ratio, the non-linear stress distribution and the pile installation was identified from this investigation as important parameters in reliable scaling of centrifuge results. The remaining...
Influence of space of double row piles on soil arching effect
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhao bo
2015-02-01
Full Text Available FLAC3d software, based on continuous theory, is used to analysis influence of space of double row piles on soil arching effect. The result shows that different from single row pile, double row piles will produce soil arching effect at front pile and rear pile severally, this phenomenon is called multiple soil arching effect; the residual load of front of front row pile will increase,the soil arch zone and the soil arching effect will decrease with the continuous increase of double row pile spacing.At the same time the soil arching effect of rear pile decreases, while the soil arching effect of front pile increases and finally the soil arching effect between front pile and rear pile will be equal.
The influence of connecting pile cap-column in the mechanisms of break in the two pile caps
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. C. MESQUITA
Full Text Available Abstract The paper analyzes the two pile caps with partially embedded socket and subject a center load. Three models were experimentally tested, varying the type of conformation of the column and walls of the socket, with a smooth, the other rough, and a monolithic two pile cap, used for reference. The roughening of the column-socket interface was examined with the aim of verifying the difference of the distribution of compressive and tensile stresses in the strut an tie model used for design. The experimental test to show that the two pile caps with conformation rough of the column and walls of the socket, support more load in comparison with two pile caps with smooth of the column and walls of the socket. Both however underperformed the monolithic two pile cap, with values of 66% and 36% respectively.
Analysis of Wave Fields induced by Offshore Pile Driving
Ruhnau, M.; Heitmann, K.; Lippert, T.; Lippert, S.; von Estorff, O.
2015-12-01
Impact pile driving is the common technique to install foundations for offshore wind turbines. With each hammer strike the steel pile - often exceeding 6 m in diameter and 80 m in length - radiates energy into the surrounding water and soil, until reaching its targeted penetration depth. Several European authorities introduced limitations regarding hydroacoustic emissions during the construction process to protect marine wildlife. Satisfying these regulations made the development and application of sound mitigation systems (e.g. bubble curtains or insulation screens) inevitable, which are commonly installed within the water column surrounding the pile or even the complete construction site. Last years' advances have led to a point, where the seismic energy tunneling the sound mitigation systems through the soil and radiating back towards the water column gains importance, as it confines the maximum achievable sound mitigation. From an engineering point of view, the challenge of deciding on an effective noise mitigation layout arises, which especially requires a good understanding of the soil-dependent wave field. From a geophysical point of view, the pile acts like a very unique line source, generating a characteristic wave field dominated by inclined wave fronts, diving as well as head waves. Monitoring the seismic arrivals while the pile penetration steadily increases enables to perform quasi-vertical seismic profiling. This work is based on datasets that have been collected within the frame of three comprehensive offshore measurement campaigns during pile driving and demonstrates the potential of seismic arrivals induced by pile driving for further soil characterization.
Three-dimensional analysis of slopes reinforced with piles
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
高玉峰; 叶茂; 张飞
2015-01-01
Based on the upper bound of limit analysis, the plane-strain analysis of the slopes reinforced with a row of piles to the 3D case was extended. A 3D rotational failure mechanism was adopted to yield the upper bound of the factor of safety. Parametric studies were carried out to explore the end effects of the slope failures and the effects of the pile location and diameter on the safety of the reinforced slopes. The results demonstrate that the end effects nearly have no effects on the most suitable location of the installed piles but have significant influence on the safety of the slopes. For a slope constrained to a narrow width, the slope becomes more stable owing to the contribution of the end effects. When the slope is reinforced with a row of piles in small space between piles, the effects of group piles are significant for evaluating the safety of slopes. The presented method is more appropriate for assessing the stability of slopes reinforced with piles and can be also utilized in the design of plies stabilizing the unstable slopes.
26 CFR 1.904(g)-1 - Overall domestic loss and the overall domestic loss account.
2010-04-01
... loss account. 1.904(g)-1 Section 1.904(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... States § 1.904(g)-1 Overall domestic loss and the overall domestic loss account. For further guidance, see § 1.904(g)-1T....
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
孙晓晨; 朱杰江
2016-01-01
The bearing capacity of residue pile should be reassessed and then the internal relations and differences between the new pile and the residue one should be analyzed in soft soil area. Load⁃settlement relationship is expected to be obtained from above research. A three dimensional elastic⁃plastic finite element model is established by ABAQUS, old and new pile effect and the corresponding differential settlement are studied, and the load influencing factors of old and new piles are discussed. Research results show that with the increase of length to diameter ratio, the old and new pile settlement difference is slightly decreasing. With the increase of new pile diameter, pile of old and new different settlement are substantially reduced. With the increase of pile spacing and diameter ratio, the old pile settlement decreases sharply.%软土地区旧桩重新利用时须重新评估其承载能力，计算明确旧桩承载力与新桩承载力之间的内在联系与差异。采用ABAQUS软件构建新旧桩共同作用的三维弹塑性有限元分析模型，研究了新旧桩共同作用效应及相应的差异沉降，并对影响新旧桩荷载⁃沉桩关系的影响因素进行讨论。研究成果表明：随着长径比的增加，新旧桩的沉降差小幅减小；随着新桩桩径的增加，新旧桩的沉降差大幅减小；随着桩距与直径比值的增加，旧桩沉降大幅减小。
Analysis of static and dynamic pile-soil-jacket behaviour
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Azadi, Mohammad Reza Emami
1998-12-31
In the offshore industry, recent extreme storms, severe earthquakes and subsidence of the foundation of jacket platforms have shown that new models and methods must take into account the jacket- pile-soil foundation interaction as well as the non-linear dynamic performance/loading effects. This thesis begins with a review of the state of art pile-soil interaction model, recognizing that most existing pile-soil models have been established based on large diameter pile tests on specific sites. The need for site independent and mechanistic pile-soil interaction models led to the development of new (t-z) and (p-y) disk models. These are validated using the available database from recent large diameter pile tests in the North Sea and Gulf of Mexico. The established static disk models are applied for non-linear static analysis of the jacket-pile-soil system under extreme wave loading. Dynamic pile-soil interaction is studied and a new disk-cone model is developed for the non-linear and non-homogeneous soils. This model is applied to both surface and embedded disks in a soil layer with non-linear properties. Simplified non-linear as well as more complex analysis methods are used to study the dynamic response of the jacket platform under extreme sea and seismic loading. Ductility spectra analysis is introduced and used to study the dynamic performance of the jacket systems near collapse. Case studies are used to illustrate the effects of structural, foundation failure characteristics as well as dynamic loading effects on the overall performance of the jacket-pile-soil systems near ultimate collapse. 175 refs., 429 figs., 70 tabs.
Fuel cells flows study; Etude des ecoulements dans les piles a combustible
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Riva, R.; Bador, B. [CEA Grenoble, Dept. de Thermohydraulique et de Physique (DTP/SETEX), 38 (France); Marchand, M. [Altran Technologies Renault, 75 - Paris (France); Lebaigue, O. [CEA Grenoble, Dept. de Thermohydraulique et de Physique (DTP/SMTH), 38 (France)
1999-07-01
Fuel cells are energy converters, which directly and continuously produce electricity from paired oxidation reduction-reactions: In most cases, the reactants are oxygen and hydrogen with water as residue. There are several types of fuel cells using various electrolytes and working at different temperatures. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells are, in particular, studied in the GESTEAU facility. PEMFC performance is chiefly limited by two thermal-hydraulic phenomena: the drying of membranes and the flooding of gas distributors. Up to now, work has been focused on water flooding of gas channels. This has showed the influence of flow type on the electrical behaviour of the cells and the results obtained have led to proposals for new duct geometries. (authors)
The effect of loading rate on pile bearing capacity of saturated sand
Archeewa, E.
2005-01-01
Pile load tests are commonly used by engineers to determine its bearing capacity. At present, there are three methods of pile load tests: the static, the dynamic and the quasi-static test. The static pile load test is done by applying an axial load on the pile with a long duration. The dynamic and q
40 CFR 761.347 - First level sampling-waste from existing piles.
2010-07-01
... existing piles. 761.347 Section 761.347 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... from existing piles. (a) General. Sample piles that are either specifically configured for sampling... alternate sampling plan in accordance with § 761.62(c). (b) Specifically configured piles. A...
Pile mixing increases greenhouse gas emissions during composting of dairy manure
The effect of pile mixing on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from stored dairy manure was determined using large flux chambers designed to completely cover pilot-scale manure piles. GHG emissions from piles that were mixed four times during the 80 day trial were about 20% higher than unmixed piles. ...
The effect of loading rate on pile bearing capacity of saturated sand
Archeewa, E.
2005-01-01
Pile load tests are commonly used by engineers to determine its bearing capacity. At present, there are three methods of pile load tests: the static, the dynamic and the quasi-static test. The static pile load test is done by applying an axial load on the pile with a long duration. The dynamic and q
Laboratory Testing of Cyclic Laterally Loaded Pile in Cohesionless Soil
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Roesen, Hanne Ravn; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Hansen, Mette;
2013-01-01
Offshore wind turbines are normally founded with large diameter monopiles and placed in rough environments subjected to variable lateral loads from wind and waves. A long-term lateral loading may create rotation (tilt) of the pile by change in the pile-soil system which is critical...... in the serviceability limit state. In this paper small-scale testing of a pile subjected to cyclic, lateral loading is treated in order to investigate the effect of cyclic loading. The test setup, which is an improvement of a previous setup, is described and the first results of testing are compared with previous...
Discrimination of pile up in a fission fragment detection experiment
Dematte, L; Bax, H
2002-01-01
In this work the problem introduced in a fission experiment by the pile-up due to a strong alpha-background has been addressed. A novel scheme has been developed, able to reject more than 90% of pile-up affected pulses in a plutonium sample with an activity of approx 1 MBq. This procedure is necessary in order to improve the resolution to an acceptable level. With a proper calibration, however, the global mean energy and mass of the fragments are correctly reproduced both with and without pile-up rejection.
Numerical Simulation for the Soil-Pile-Structure Interaction under Seismic Loading
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lifeng Luan
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Piles are widely used as reinforcement structures in geotechnical engineering designs. If the settlement of the soil is greater than the pile, the pile is pulled down by the soil, and negative friction force is produced. Previous studies have mainly focused on the interaction of pile-soil under static condition. However, many pile projects are located in earthquake-prone areas, which indicate the importance of determining the response of the pile-soil structure under seismic load. In this paper, the nonlinear, explicit, and finite difference program FLAC3D, which considers the mechanical behavior of soil-pile interaction, is used to establish an underconsolidated soil-pile mode. The response processes of the pile side friction force, the pile axial force, and the soil response under seismic load are also analyzed.
G1 Continuity Conditions of B-spline Surfaces%B样条曲面间的G1连续条件
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
车翔玖; 梁学章
2002-01-01
According to the B-spline theory and Boehm algorithm, this paper presents severalnecessary and sufficient G1 continuity conditions between two adjacent B-spline surfaces. In orderto meet the need of application, a kind of sufficient conditions of G1 continuity are developed, anda kind of sufficient conditions of G1 continuity among N(N ＞ 2) patch B-spline surfaces meetingat a common corner are given at the end.
The Influence of Time on Bearing Capacity of Driven Piles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, J. Lysebjerg; Augustesen, A.; Sørensen, Carsten S.
2004-01-01
In Danish engineering practice, one of the ways to determine the ultimate bearing capacity of an axially loaded pile is by means of geostatic formulas. In the equation describing the contribution from the shaft friction to the total bearing capacity for piles located entirely or partly in clay......, a regeneration factor appears. The regeneration factor accounts for effects of dissipation of pore pressure due to pile driving and true time effects such as ageing on the ultimate bearing capacity. Normally the factor is 0.4 but in this paper, the influence of the undrained shear strength and time...... on the regeneration factor is investigated. A relation between the quantities is proposed, which in the end may imply an economical benefit in the design of pile foundations....
Residual settlement calculation of geocell cushion over gravel piles
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈昌富; 杨宇; 肖淑君; 周志军
2008-01-01
The calculation of residual settlement of bidirectional reinforced composite foundation, which is composed of geocell cushion over gravel piles, was studied. The geocell cushion was modeled as a thin flexible plate with large deflection. Based on the Kirchhoff hypothesis, the governing differential equations and boundary conditions of the deformation of geocell cushion under working load were founded using von Karman method and solved by Galerkin method. On theses bases, the gravel piles and inter-pile soils were assumed as Winkler ground with variable spring stiffness so as to execute the approximate calculation of the residual settlement of the bidirectional reinforced composite foundation. The calculation method was verified by two laboratory experiments concerning settlement of embankments. One experiment was with just geocell cushion installed to treat the soft clay under embankments; another one was with both geocell cushion and gravel piles installed. The results show that the calculated settlement curve and the maximum settlement are closed to the observed ones.
Airborne thermography of temperature patterns in sugar beet piles
Moore, D. G.; Bichsel, S.
1975-01-01
An investigation was conducted to evaluate the use of thermography for locating spoilage areas (chimneys) within storage piles and to subsequently use the information for the scheduling of their processing. Thermal-infrared quantitative scanner data were acquired initially on January 16, 1975, over the storage piles at Moorhead, Minnesota, both during the day and predawn. Photographic data were acquired during the day mission to evaluate the effect of uneven snow cover on the thermal emittance, and the predawn thermography was used to locate potential chimneys. The piles were examined the day prior for indications of spoilage areas, and the ground crew indicated that no spoilage areas were located using their existing methods. Nine spoilage areas were interpreted from the thermography. The piles were rechecked by ground methods three days following the flights. Six of the nine areas delineated by thermography were actual spoilage areas.
Lateral response of pile foundations in liquefiable soils
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Asskar Janalizadeh
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Liquefaction has been a main cause of damage to civil engineering structures in seismically active areas. The effects of damage of liquefaction on deep foundations are very destructive. Seismic behavior of pile foundations is widely discussed by many researchers for safer and more economic design purposes. This paper presents a pseudo-static method for analysis of piles in liquefiable soil under seismic loads. A free-field site response analysis using three-dimensional (3D numerical modeling was performed to determine kinematic loads from lateral ground displacements and inertial loads from vibration of the superstructure. The effects of various parameters, such as soil layering, kinematic and inertial forces, boundary condition of pile head and ground slope, on pile response were studied. By comparing the numerical results with the centrifuge test results, it can be concluded that the use of the p-y curves with various degradation factors in liquefiable sand gives reasonable results.
Computerised analysis of sulphate action on model concrete piles
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Deshmukh, A.M.; Balasubramanian, S.; Venugopal, C.
Sulphate action severely affects the durability of marine structures. It is imperative to study precisely the effects of magnesium sulphate on pile foundations in the marine environment. In the present paper an attempt is made to assess and analyse...
As Traffic Piles Up, So Does Air Pollution
... 160914.html As Traffic Piles Up, So Does Air Pollution To minimize exposure, researchers recommend shutting windows and ... Doing so can reduce your exposure to toxic air pollution from a traffic jam by up to 76 ...
New Mathematical Modelling of Stabilizing Pile with Prestressed Tieback Anchors
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Cheng Huang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a novel mathematical modelling for analyzing stabilizing piles with prestressed tieback anchors. The new differential equations governing the mechanical response of the stabilizing pile are formulated and the boundary conditions considering the tie-back anchors are mathematically specified. Then, the system of differential equations is numerically solved by the high-accuracy Runge-Kutta finite difference method. A simple computer program has been written on the platform of MATLAB to run the procedure of the proposed algorithm. This approach is entirely different from the traditional finite element method used to design the anchored piles. The FEM is employed to verify the feasibility of the developed method. The comparative case study indicates that the proposed method has more higher modeling and computing efficiency than the FEM and can be an alternative method for designing the anchored pile used for slope stabilization.
Improved Design Basis for Laterally Loaded Large Diameter Pile
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Leth, Caspar Thrane
in dry sand by use of centrifuge modelling and to compare the findings with the standard p-y curves. It has been chosen to apply piles with an embedment length of 6 to 10 times the diameter of the applied piles. The general static behaviour of monopiles in dry sand has based on centrifuge tests been...... in sand by use of physical modelling and comparison of the findings with standard p-y curves. The present research is based on use of the centrifuge facilities at Danish Technical University (DTU), the sole geotechnical centrifuge in Scandinavia. It became evident in the initial phase of the research...... that the available centrifuge facilities at DTU was outdated and the focus was changed to establish up-to-date centrifuge facilities for medium to large diameter piles, and to initiate the research on the behaviour of large diameter piles in sand under static and cyclic loading. Key elements in the establishment...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marta Mariasole Raimondi
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Ce film propose des scènes de vie des Tarahumaras, une ethnie originaire du Mexique installée dans le territoire de l'Etat de Chiuahua, dans un milieu montagneux très sauvage. La caméra reprend les danses et les rites de ces mangeurs de peyotl d'un regard rapide et saccadé primant des cadrages de détail où prédominent les pieds, pour nous montrer ces corps d'homme et de femme en mouvement, courant, dansant, bondissant au milieu des leurs éléments naturels : rocailles, rivières, rochers, sans...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paul Bonnenfant
1999-08-01
Full Text Available Je voudrais présenter ici des notes concernant les quartiers de Zabîd, ville située dans la plaine côtière de la Tihâma, à une centaine de kilomètres au sud-est d'al-Hudayda. Elles ont été rassemblées au cours d'une étude portant sur l'architecture domestique de Zabîd, dont les résultats seront publiés dans un livre ultérieur. J'ai étudié la genèse d'habitations exceptionnelles qui, avec les monuments religieux et militaires, ont valu à Zabîd d'être classée sur la liste du Patrimoine mondial ...
LES INFECTIONS NOSOCOMIALES NEONATALEj
BELHOCINE, Meryem; BELGAID, Hanane
2013-01-01
introduction: Les infections nosocomiales représentent un réel problème dans les unités de néonatologie. Elles ont vu leur incidence croitre en raison de l'extension des procédures invasives de diagnostics et thérapeutiques. Objectif: déterminer l'épidémiologie des infections nosocomiales dans le sente de néonatologie a i'EHS Mère-Enfant de Tlemcen. Matériel et méthodes: Il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective de type cas —témoin incluant tous les nouveau-nés admis en 2011 e...
LES INFECTIONS NOSOCOMIALES NEONATALEj
BELHOCINE, Meryem; BELGAID, Hanane
2013-01-01
introduction: Les infections nosocomiales représentent un réel problème dans les unités de néonatologie. Elles ont vu leur incidence croitre en raison de l'extension des procédures invasives de diagnostics et thérapeutiques. Objectif: déterminer l'épidémiologie des infections nosocomiales dans le sente de néonatologie a i'EHS Mère-Enfant de Tlemcen. Matériel et méthodes: Il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective de type cas —témoin incluant tous les nouveau-nés admis en 2011 e...
Processing Satellite Imagery To Detect Waste Tire Piles
Skiles, Joseph; Schmidt, Cynthia; Wuinlan, Becky; Huybrechts, Catherine
2007-01-01
A methodology for processing commercially available satellite spectral imagery has been developed to enable identification and mapping of waste tire piles in California. The California Integrated Waste Management Board initiated the project and provided funding for the method s development. The methodology includes the use of a combination of previously commercially available image-processing and georeferencing software used to develop a model that specifically distinguishes between tire piles and other objects. The methodology reduces the time that must be spent to initially survey a region for tire sites, thereby increasing inspectors and managers time available for remediation of the sites. Remediation is needed because millions of used tires are discarded every year, waste tire piles pose fire hazards, and mosquitoes often breed in water trapped in tires. It should be possible to adapt the methodology to regions outside California by modifying some of the algorithms implemented in the software to account for geographic differences in spectral characteristics associated with terrain and climate. The task of identifying tire piles in satellite imagery is uniquely challenging because of their low reflectance levels: Tires tend to be spectrally confused with shadows and deep water, both of which reflect little light to satellite-borne imaging systems. In this methodology, the challenge is met, in part, by use of software that implements the Tire Identification from Reflectance (TIRe) model. The development of the TIRe model included incorporation of lessons learned in previous research on the detection and mapping of tire piles by use of manual/ visual and/or computational analysis of aerial and satellite imagery. The TIRe model is a computational model for identifying tire piles and discriminating between tire piles and other objects. The input to the TIRe model is the georeferenced but otherwise raw satellite spectral images of a geographic region to be surveyed
THE NEW STRUCTURE OF A PLATE-PILE FOUNDATION
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SAMORODOV О. V.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Raising of problem. In the construction of high-rise buildings with significant loads on foundations and bedding at the base of not rocky soils tend to use the most common pile foundation to reduce the deformation and correspond to regulations [1] on the maximum permissible deformation. Monitoring of the stress-strain state (SSS pile foundations constructed buildings shows the existing reserves of bearing capacity on the one hand - soil bases of the second group of limit states, on the other - the foundation of the first group of limit states by regulating the SSS foundation during construction and exploitation. Therefore, are increasingly using more progressive structure of foundations consisting of piles and of plate, as well as methods for their construction [2 - 10], however, in their design there are a number of disadvantages associated with the ambiguity of the application of methods for the calculation of such structures, which allows to do only partial conclusions and recommendations. Purpose. Is proposing the new structure of a plate-pile foundation, which overcomes the drawbacks of the existing design solutions and methods of consruction their, as well as is proposing an engineering method of a determination of basic parameters. Conclusion. Is proposes the new structure of a plate-pile foundation and the method of a determination of basic parameters his in the design of a soil base to the maximum permissible deformation Su buildings. Efficiency of application this type plate-pile foundation obtained by rational distribution resistance between a plate and piles, when under load from the building to the first work fully incorporated plate that allows maximum deformed for plate, and then the piles - due to of the hinge connection with the plate. Thus, depending on the maximum permissible deformation for buildings resistance of plate part of a full load of more than 50%, that significantly reduces the consumption of concrete.
20051655 - Petronas, Capacity of Driven Piles Offshore Malaysia
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Augustesen, Anders
This document is the second of four notes concerning the effects of time (in this case ageing) on the vertical capacity of piles. It includes a critical review of the relevant publications described in note a.......This document is the second of four notes concerning the effects of time (in this case ageing) on the vertical capacity of piles. It includes a critical review of the relevant publications described in note a....
20051655 - Petronas, Capacity of Driven Piles Offshore Malaysia
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Augustesen, Anders; Andersen, Lars
This document is the third of four notes concerning the vertical capacity of piles. It includes an assessment of the effect of previous static load testing upon the measured capacity, i.e. preshearing effects.......This document is the third of four notes concerning the vertical capacity of piles. It includes an assessment of the effect of previous static load testing upon the measured capacity, i.e. preshearing effects....
Pile Structure Program, Projected Start Date : January 1, 2010 (Implementation).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Collins, Chris; Corbett, Catherine [Lower Columbia River Estuary Partnership; Ebberts, Blaine [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
2009-07-27
The 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion includes Reasonable and Prudent Alternative 38-Piling and Piling Dike Removal Program. This RPA directs the Action Agencies to work with the Estuary Partnership to develop and implement a piling and pile dike removal program. The program has since evolved to include modifying pile structures to enhance their habitat value and complexity by adding large woody debris. The geographic extent of the Pile Structure Program (PSP) includes all tidally-influenced portions of the lower Columbia River below Bonneville Dam; however, it will focus on the mainstem. The overarching goal of the PSP is to enhance and restore ecosystem structure and function for the recovery of federally listed salmonids through the active management of pile structures. To attain this goal, the program team developed the following objectives: (1) Develop a plan to remove or modify pile structures that have lower value to navigation channel maintenance, and in which removal or modification will present low-risk to adjacent land use, is cost-effective, and would result in increased ecosystem function. (2) Determine program benefits for juvenile salmonids and the ecosystem through a series of intensively monitored pilot projects. (3) Incorporate best available science and pilot project results into an adaptive management framework that will guide future management by prioritizing projects with the highest benefits. The PSP's hypotheses, which form the basis of the pilot project experiments, are organized into five categories: Sediment and Habitat-forming Processes, Habitat Conditions and Food Web, Piscivorous Fish, Piscivorous Birds, and Toxic Contaminant Reduction. These hypotheses are based on the effects listed in the Estuary Module (NOAA Fisheries in press) and others that emerged during literature reviews, discussions with scientists, and field visits. Using pilot project findings, future implementation will be adaptively managed
Review of the literature on leachates from coal storage piles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Davis, E.C.; Boegly, W.J. Jr.
1978-01-01
Runoff from coal storage piles associated with coal conversion or combustion facilities may represent a potential source of environmental pollution. This report is an assessment of existing information on coal pile leachate. The assessment indicates that few detailed studies have been conducted to date, and these are limited and the results are highly variable. More detailed long-range studies using various types of coal are recommended. These studies should be carried out both in the laboratory and in field-scale experiments.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pierlot, R.
2007-01-01
Full Text Available To Reafforest in the Tropics. Le sanctuaire de gorilles de Lossi constitue une expérience sur la synergie entre la recherche scientifique et la conservation de la nature. Trois parties prenantes sont impliquées dans un processus de gestion participative: l'Etat congolais, la communauté autochtone représentée par l'association des ayants droits des terres de Lossi et le programme européen sur les écosystèmes forestiers d'Afrique centrale. Une enquête de terrain a été effectuée sur le site de Lossi en 2003; elle avait comme objectif d'étudier les effets générés par la gestion participative et d'identifier les contraintes liées à l'exécution de cette approche participative en milieu réel. Les travaux de recherche sur la primatologie ont abouti à l'habituation des gorilles à la présence humaine, ce qui a conduit à la création d'un tourisme de vision de gorilles de plaine de l'Ouest. Un camp de touristes a été construit, ainsi que l'ouverture de la route d'accès au sanctuaire. Le tourisme a généré des emplois en faveur de la population locale qui est aussi prestataire de contrats sur les travaux de réfection des routes. Une partie des revenus a permis la construction d'un centre de santé intégré. Cependant, les travaux de recherche scientifique et le tourisme ont été ralentis pendant l'apparition de la fièvre hémorragique d'Ebola et pendant les trois épisodes de la guerre civile. La consolidation et le long terme de cette entreprise de cogestion du patrimoine naturel de Lossi consiste en l'établissement d'un plan d'aménagement et de gestion, qui concilie la conservation, le développement rural et la recherche scientifique tout en garantissant une répartition équitable des revenus entre les trois partenaires.
Numerical modeling of centrifuge cyclic lateral pile load experiments
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Nikos Gerolymos; Sandra Escoffer; George Gazetas; Jacques Gamier
2009-01-01
To gain insight into the inelastic behavior of piles, the response of a vertical pile embedded in dry sand and subjected to cyclic lateral loading was studied experimentally in centrifuge tests conducted in Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussees. Three types of cyclic loading were applied, two asymmetric and one symmetric with respect to the unloaded pile. An approximately square-root variation of soil stiffness with depth was obtained from indirect in-flight density measurements, laboratory tests on reconstituted samples, and well-established empirical correlations. The tests were simulated using a cyclic nonlinear Winkler spring model, which describes the full range of inelastic phenomena, including separation and re-attachment of the pile from and to the soil. The model consists of three mathematical expressions capable of reproducing a wide variety of monotonic and cyclic experimental p-y curves. The physical meaning of key model parameters is graphically explained and related to soil behavior. Comparisons with the centrifuge test results demonstrate the general validity of the model and its ability to capture several features of pile-soil interaction, including: soil plastification at an early stage of loading, "pinching" behavior due to the formation of a relaxation zone around the upper part of the pile, and stiffness and strength changes due to cyclic loading. A comparison of the p-y curves derived from the test results and the proposed model, as well as those from the classical curves of Reese et al. (1974) for sand, is also presented.
Emissions from prescribed burning of timber slash piles in Oregon
Aurell, Johanna; Gullett, Brian K.; Tabor, Dennis; Yonker, Nick
2017-02-01
Emissions from burning piles of post-harvest timber slash (Douglas-fir) in Grande Ronde, Oregon were sampled using an instrument platform lofted into the plume using a tether-controlled aerostat or balloon. Emissions of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon, ultraviolet absorbing PM, elemental/organic carbon, filter-based metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were sampled to determine emission factors, the amount of pollutant formed per amount of biomass burned. The effect on emissions from covering the piles with polyethylene (PE) sheets to prevent fuel wetting versus uncovered piles was also determined. Results showed that the uncovered ("wet") piles burned with lower combustion efficiency and higher emission factors for VOCs, PM2.5, PCDD/PCDF, and PAHs. Removal of the PE prior to ignition, variation of PE size, and changing PE thickness resulted in no statistical distinction between emissions. Results suggest that dry piles, whether covered with PE or not, exhibited statistically significant lower emissions than wet piles due to better combustion efficiency.
Slime thickness evaluation of bored piles by electrical resistivity probe
Chun, Ok-Hyun; Yoon, Hyung-Koo; Park, Min-Chul; Lee, Jong-Sub
2014-09-01
The bottoms of bored piles are generally stacked with soil particles, both while boreholes are being drilled, and afterward. The stacked soils are called slime, and when loads are applied on the pile, increase the pile settlement. Thus to guarantee the end bearing capacity of bored piles, the slime thickness should be precisely detected. The objective of this study is to suggest a new method for evaluating the slime thickness, using temperature compensated electrical resistivity. Laboratory studies are performed in advance, to estimate and compare the resolution of the electrical resistivity probe (ERP) and time domain reflectometry (TDR). The electrical properties of the ERP and TDR are measured using coaxial type electrodes and parallel type two-wire electrodes, respectively. Penetration tests, conducted in the fully saturated sand-clay mixtures, demonstrate that the ERP produces a better resolution of layer detection than TDR. Thus, field application tests using the ERP with a diameter of 35.7 mm are conducted for the investigation of slime thickness in large diameter bored piles. Field tests show that the slime layers are clearly identified by the ERP: the electrical resistivity dramatically increases at the interface between the slurry and slime layer. The electrical resistivity in the slurry layer inversely correlates with the amount of circulated water. This study suggests that the new electrical resistivity method may be a useful method for the investigation of the slime thickness in bored piles.
PROCESS DIAGRAMS FOR INSTALLATION OF DRIVEN PILES IN PENETRATED WELLS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kovalev Vladimir Aleksandrovich
2017-03-01
Full Text Available This article presents the main options of improved and newly devised designs and process diagrams for installation of foundations made of driven, or jack, piles in the penetrated wells with expanded shoe, mainly in weak wet (waterlogged and water-saturated soils. The article presents six options of process diagrams for installation of driven piles in penetrated wells, listing the main procedures: for well-compacted weak soils, for the case when the water ingress is excluded, for the case when it is necessary to increase the load-bearing capacity of pile's bearing face in the waterlogged soils, for the case when the load-bearing capacity of the pile shall be increased both for the end and for the sides, for the case when peat or other biogenous water-saturated soils are present at the bottom of the well, and for the case when there is no contracted zone nor practical possibility to ensure the stability of the walls. The proposed six options of process diagrams for installation of the driven piles in penetrated wells provide expansion of their area of application regarding the soil conditions, increase of load-bearing capacity, and possibility of using jack systems for driving the piles under conditions of dense urban development.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ning Zhuang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We report test results from an experimental study to investigate the effectiveness of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP against reinforcing steel bar corrosion. Twelve reinforced-concrete pile specimens of 180 mm square by 1,600 mm long were cast. Three pile specimens were corroded to 5% steel mass loss and then strengthened with CFRP sheets; four specimens were strengthened by using CFRP sheets, whereas the remaining five specimens were not strengthened. The specimens were placed in a simulated marine environment, and corrosion was induced by an impressed current technique. At different theoretical corrosion degrees, nondestructive tests were performed to investigate the corrosion activity of the pile specimens, and destructive tests were performed to determine reinforcing steel bar mass loss. Based on the findings, the effectiveness of the CFRP-strengthened RC piles under aggressive marine environmental conditions was established.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)
1997-04-28
Coal storage piles, their associated coal pile runoff basins and ash basins could potentially have adverse environmental impacts, especially on groundwater. This report presents and summarizes SRS groundwater and soil data that have been compiled. Also, a result of research conducted on the subject topics, discussions from noted experts in the field are cited. Recommendations are made for additional monitor wells to be installed and site assessments to be conducted.
The Supercritical Pile Model for GRBs
Kazanas, Demos
2006-01-01
We present the spectral and temporal radiative signatures expected within the Supercritical Pile model of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB). This model is motivated by the need for a process that provides the dissipation necessary in GRB and presents a well defined scheme for converting the energy stored in the relativistic protons of the Relativistic Blast Waves (RBW) associated with GRB into radiation; at the same time it leads to spectra which exhibit a peak in the burst nuF(sub nu) distribution at an energy E(sub p) approximately equal to 1 MeV in the observer s frame, in agreement with observation and largely independent of the Lorentz factor GAMMA of the associated relativistic outflow. Furthermore, this scheme does not require (but does not preclude) acceleration of particles at the shock other than that provided by the isotropization of the flow bulk kinetic energy on the RBW frame. In the present paper we model in detail the evolution of protons, electrons and photons from a RBW to produce detailed spectra of the prompt GRB phase as a function of time from across a very broad range spanning roughly 4 log10 GAMMA decades in frequency. The model spectra are in general agreement with observations and provide a means for the delineating of the model parameters through direct comparison with trends observed in GRB properties.
Aminfar, Ali; Ahmadi, Hamid; Aminfar, Mohammad Hossein
2016-06-01
Offshore jacket-type platforms are attached to the seabed by long batter piles. In this paper, results from a finite element analysis, verified against experimental data, are used to study the effect of the pile's inclination angle, and its interaction with the geometrical properties of the pile and the geotechnical characteristics of the surrounding soil on the behavior of the inclined piles supporting the jacket platforms. Results show that the inclination angle is one of the main parameters affecting the behavior of an offshore pile. We investigated the effect of the inclination angle on the maximum von Mises stress, maximum von Mises elastic strain, maximum displacement vector sum, maximum displacement in the horizontal direction, and maximum displacement in the vertical direction. The pile seems to have an operationally optimal degree of inclination of approximately 5°. By exceeding this value, the instability in the surrounding soil under applied loads grows extensively in all the geotechnical properties considered. Cohesive soils tend to display poorer results compared to grained soils.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Admin
C'est dans un climat de crise économique où les pouvoirs publics perdent la capacité de ... d'offres d'emploi et permettre aux usagers d'accéder aux ressources offertes par la ville, ...... «Croissance urbaine, mobilité et transport urbain.
Regteren, van C.O.
1964-01-01
9. DESCRIPTION D'UNE NOUVELLE ESPÈ CE DE DEROCERAS DES ENVIRONS DE GRENADE 1) Même pour celui qui ne dispose pas d'une voiture, la ville de Grenade est un magnifique centre d'excursions. Les trams et autobus permettent au naturaliste de sortir de la ville en toutes directions et de commencer ses pro
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michel Maffesoli
2004-12-01
Full Text Available Il n'est pas vrai que la nature a horreur du vide. Peut-être même s'y complait-elle. Le creux est aussi une modalité de l'être. Il est possible de s'y nicher, de s'y lover paresseusement et, ainsi, de se protéger contre l'angoisse du temps qui passe. Le creux des apparences est, à certains moments, une des formes d'expression de la vie sociale. Encore faut-il savoir le reconnaître. Certes, nous avons tous une existence personnelle, mais nous sommes, également, les représentants, parfois même les victimes, d'un "esprit commun", peut-être même d'un "inconscient collectif" qui s'est constitué de siècle en siècle. Et, très souvent, là où nous croyons exprimer nos propres idées, nous ne sommes que les porte-voix, les figurants d'un vaste "theatrum mundi" aux dimensions infinies.
Regteren, van C.O.
1964-01-01
9. DESCRIPTION D'UNE NOUVELLE ESPÈ CE DE DEROCERAS DES ENVIRONS DE GRENADE 1) Même pour celui qui ne dispose pas d'une voiture, la ville de Grenade est un magnifique centre d'excursions. Les trams et autobus permettent au naturaliste de sortir de la ville en toutes directions et de commencer ses
Running coupling effects for the singlet structure function g_1 at small x
Ermolaev, B I; Troyan, S I
2004-01-01
The running of the QCD coupling is incorporated into the infrared evolution equations for the flavour singlet component, g_1^S of g_1. The explicit expressions for g_1^S including the total resummation of the double-logarithmic contributions and accounting for the running coupling are obtained. We predict that asymptotically g_1^S ~ x^{- \\Delta_S}, with the intercept \\Delta_S = 0.8, which is a factor of 2 larger than the non-singlet intercept.
Experimental Investigations of Tension Piles in Sand Subjected to Static and Cyclic Loading
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thomassen, Kristina
The present thesis regards the behavior of the piles in jacket pile foundations used for offshore wind turbines. The piles are often loaded in tension because of the combination of wind and wave conditions and the low self-weight of the wind turbine. The repeated cyclic loading can lead...... to accumulated upwards displacement of the piles and, thus, undesired deflection of the wind turbine structure. This study concerns the effect of cyclic loading on a pile installed in dense sand and loaded in tension. A new laboratory test setup was constructed to make these pile load tests. The thesis discusses...... the advantages and disadvantages of the test setup. The results of cyclic loading tests showed that the loading conditions are very important for the behavior of piles. Some wind and wave conditions can be beneficial and increase the pile capacity while other conditions can be damaging and reduce the pile...
Numerical Analysis of the Stability of Embankment Slope Reinforced with Piles
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CUI Wei; ZHANG Zhigeng; YAN Shuwang
2007-01-01
The effects of stabilizing piles on the stability of an embankment slope are analyzed by numerical simulation. The shear strength reduction method is used for the analysis, and the soil - pile interaction is simulated with zero-thickness elasto-plastic interface elements. Effects of pile spacing and pile position on the safety factor of slope and the behavior of piles under these conditions are given. The numerical analysis indicates that the positions of the pile have significant influence on the stability of the slope, and the pile needs to be installed in the middle of the slope for maximum safety factors. In the end, the soil arching effect closely associated with the space between stabilizing piles is analyzed. The results are helpful for design and construction of stabilizing piles.
Seismic response of tall building considering soil-pile-structure interaction
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
The seismic behavior of tall buildings can be greatly affected by non-linear soil-pile interaction during strongearthquakes. In this study a 20-storey building is examined as a typical structure supported on a pile foundation for differentconditions: (1) rigid base, i.e. no deformation in the foundation: (2) linear soil-pile system; and (3) nonlinear soil-pile system.The effects of pile foundation displacements on the behavior of tall building are investigated, and compared with the behavior ofbuildings supported on shallow foundation. With a model of non-reflective boundary between the near field and far field,Novak's method of soil-pile interaction is improved. The computation method for vibration of pile foundations and DYNANcomputer program are introduced comprehensively. A series of dynamic experiments have been done on full-scale piles,including single pile and group, linear vibration and nonlinear vibration, to verify the validity of boundary zone model.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘汉龙; 陈育民; 赵楠
2008-01-01
Pile foundation is widely used in the offshore engineering. The pile can be seriously destroyed by the soil liquefaction during strong earthquakes. The potentials of liquefaction and damages of pile foundation due to the liquefaction can be reduced by the implementation of the drainage in the liquefiable foundation. A patented pile technology, named rigidity-drain pile, was introduced. The partial section of the pile body was filled by materials with higher penetrability which forms some effective drainage channels in the pile. The principles and construction methods were presented. 3D models for both rigidity-drain pile and ordinary pile were built in FLAC3D code. The dynamic loadings were applied on the bottom of the model. According to the numerical results, in the case of the rigidity-drain pile, the water in the relevant distance range around the pile flows toward the pile drainage, the contour of the pore pressure shows a funnel form. Contrast to the ordinary pile, the rigidity-drain pile can dissipate the accumulated excess pore water, maintain effective stress and obviously reduce the possibility of surrounding soil liquefaction.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ning WANG; Kui-hua WANG; Wen-bing WU
2013-01-01
In this paper,a model named fictitious soil pile was introduced to solve the boundary coupled problem at the pile tip.In the model,the soil column between pile tip and bedrock was treated as a fictitious pile,which has the same properties as the local soil.The tip of the fictitious soil pile was assumed to rest on a rigid rock and no tip movement was allowed.In combination with the plane strain theory,the analytical solutions of vertical vibration response of piles in a frequency domain and the corresponding semi-analytical solutions in a time domain were obtained using the Laplace transforms and inverse Fourier transforms.A parametric study of pile response at the pile tip and head showed that the thickness and layering of the stratum between pile tip and bedrock have a significant influence on the complex impedances.Finally,two applications of the analytical model were presented.One is to identify the defects of the pile shaft,in which the proposed model was proved to be accurate to identify the location as well as the length of pile defects.Another application of the model is to identify the sediment thickness under the pile tip.The results showed that the sediment can lead to the decrease of the pile stiffness and increase of the damping,especially when the pile is under a low frequency load.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HE Ben; WANG LiZhong; HONG Yi
2016-01-01
This study presents the results of field and numerical investigations of lateral stiffness,capacity,and failure mechanisms for plain piles and reinforced concrete piles in soft clay.A plastic-damage model is used to simulate concrete piles and jet-grouting in the numerical analyses.The field study and numerical investigations show that by applying jet-grouting surrounding the upper 7.5D (D =pile diameter) of a pile,lateral stiffness and bearing capacity of the pile are increased by about 110％ and 100％,respectively.This is partially because the jet-grouting increases the apparent diameter of the pile,so as to enlarge the extent of failure wedge and hence passive resistance in front of the reinforced pile.Moreover,the jet-grouting provides a circumferential confinement to the concrete pile,which suppresses development of tensile stress in the pile.Correspondingly,tension-induced plastic damage in the concrete pile is reduced,causing less degradation of stiffness and strength of the pile than that of a plain pile.Effectiveness of the circumferential confinement provided by the jet-grouting,however,diminishes once the grouting cracks because of the significant vertical and circumferential tensile stress near its mid-depth.The lateral capacity of the jet-grouting reinforced pile is,therefore,governed by mobilized passive resistance of soil and plastic damage of jet-grouting.
Recruitment of Cdc28 by Whi3 restricts nuclear accumulation of the G1 cyclin-Cdk complex to late G1.
Wang, Hongyin; Garí, Eloi; Vergés, Emili; Gallego, Carme; Aldea, Martí
2004-01-14
The G1 cyclin Cln3 is a key activator of cell-cycle entry in budding yeast. Here we show that Whi3, a negative G1 regulator of Cln3, interacts in vivo with the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdc28 and regulates its localization in the cell. Efficient interaction with Cdc28 depends on an N-terminal domain of Whi3 that is also required for cytoplasmic localization of Cdc28, and for proper regulation of G1 length and filamentous growth. On the other hand, nuclear accumulation of Cdc28 requires the nuclear localization signal of Cln3, which is also found in Whi3 complexes. Both Cln3 and Cdc28 are mainly cytoplasmic during early G1, and become nuclear in late G1. However, Whi3-deficient cells show a distinct nuclear accumulation of Cln3 and Cdc28 already in early G1. We propose that Whi3 constitutes a cytoplasmic retention device for Cln3-Cdc28 complexes, thus defining a key G1 event in yeast cells.
Seismic Demands for Pile-Supported Wharf Structures with Batter Piles
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Rouhollah Amirabadi
2012-09-01
Full Text Available This study develops an optimal Probabilistic Seismic Demand Model (PSDM for pile-supported wharves whit batter plies. Four bins with twenty non-near-field ground motions and three typical pile-supported wharf structures from western United States ports are used to determine an optimal PSDM by using Probabilistic Seismic Demand Analysis (PSDA. PSDA is used to compute the relationship between Engineering Demand Parameters (EDPs and earthquake Intensity Measures (IMs. An optimal PSDM should be practical, sufficient, effective and efficient-all tested through several IM-EDP pairs. It has been found that for these types of structures, the optimal model comprises a spectral IM, such as spectral acceleration and one of several EDPs. These EDPs are considered for local (moment curvature ductility factor, intermediate (displacement ductility factor and horizontal displacement of embankment and global (differential settlement between deck and behind land response quantities. The considered PSDMs are a critical component in performance-based seismic design and seismic risk assessment. Results can be used in probabilistic framework for performance-based design developed by Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research (PEER center.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhao Feng
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The slurry wall bored grouting has some defects. The pile-base post grouting technique can efficiently make up these defects and greatly improve the bearing capacity. Based on the pile-base post grouting technique and its process analysis, this paper carries out a detailed analysis about the improvement of mechanism of bearing capacity and mechanism of spherical expansion by the use of pile-base post grouting technique, as well as the estimation method of the bearing capacity of pile-base post grouting pile, which has a certain reference value for theoretical research and technical application of the technique.
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Ter-Martirosyan Zaven Grigor'evich
2012-07-01
The authors provide their solution to the problem of interaction of a long compressible pile that has a double-layer linear deformable base. The paper demonstrates that taking account of compressible properties of the pile material leads to qualitatively new distribution of shearing stresses over the surface of a cylindrical pile. It is noteworthy that increase of the pile length and stiffness of the upper section of the base raise the share of the load perceived by the surface of the pile. Besides, in particular conditions of the soil environment, the load perceived by the lower section of the base may reach approximately 20-30 % of the total load.
WAVE CURRENT FORCES ON THE PILE GROUP OF BASE FOUNDATION FOR THE EAST SEA BRIDGE, CHINA
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
On the basis of the two structures of the bridge foundation designed for the East Sea Bridge, the wave current forces on four types of oblique piles, the pile group and the single piles at different positions in the pile group considering the effect of the super structures were experimentally investigated. The relationship between the wave current forces and the associated wave parameters, and the comparison of the wave current forces on the pile groups and the single piles were systematically analyzed. The group effectiveness and the reduction coefficient for the wave current forces on the group were examined for engineering design.
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Alain Marnezy
2009-03-01
Full Text Available Les barrages-réservoirs de montagne ont été réalisés initialement dans les Alpes pour répondre à la demande d’énergie en période hivernale. Une certaine diversification des usages de l’eau s’est ensuite progressivement développée, en relation avec le développement touristique des collectivités locales. Aujourd’hui, la participation des ouvrages d’Électricité De France à la production de neige de culture représente une nouvelle étape. Dans les régions où les aménagements hydroélectriques sont nombreux, les besoins en eau pour la production de neige peuvent être résolus par prélèvements à partir des adductions EDF. Les gestionnaires de stations échappent ainsi aux inconvénients liés à la construction et à la gestion des « retenues collinaires ». Cette évolution, qui concerne déjà quelques régions alpines comme la haute Maurienne ou le Beaufortin, apparaît comme une forme renouvelée d’intégration territoriale de la ressource en eau.Mountain reservoirs were initially built in the Alps to meet energy needs in the winter. A certain diversification in the uses of water then gradually developed, related to tourism development in the local communities. Today, the use of facilities belonging to EDF (French Electricity Authority to provide water for winter resorts to make artificial snow represents a new phase. By taking water from EDF resources to supply snow-making equipment, resort managers are thus able to avoid the problems related to the construction and management of small headwater dams. This new orientation in the use of mountain water resources already affects a number of alpine regions such as the Upper Maurienne valley and Beaufortain massif and represents a renewed form of the territorial integration of water resources.
LES APPROCHES PSYCHOSOCIOLOGIQUES DES ORGANISATIONS
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Deaconu Alecxandrina
2008-05-01
Full Text Available Les préoccupations pour bien comprendre la complexité des organisations sont bien connues dans la théorie et la pratique du management. La motivation la plus fréquente pour toutes les recherches et les investigationes faites a été fondée sur le besoin de savoir gérer les situations diverses en vue de maximiser la performance organisationnelle. En ce qui nous concerne, pour enrichir les informations disponibles, nous voulons élargir, dans notre communication, les approches traditionelles, focaliser l’attention sur la dimension psychologiques des organisations et présenter les mécanismes qui favorisent l’implication des salariés.
Anthony, P L; Averett, T; Band, H R; Berisso, M C; Borel, H; Bosted, P E; Bültmann, S; Buénerd, M; Chupp, T E; Churchwell, S; Court, G R; Crabb, D; Day, D; Decowski, P; De Pietro, P; Erbacher, R D; Erickson, R; Feltham, A; Fonvieille, H; Frlez, E; Gearhart, R A; Ghazikhanian, V; Gómez, J; Griffioen, K A; Harris, C; Houlden, M A; Hughes, E W; Hyde-Wright, C E; Igo, G; Incerti, S; Jensen, J; Johnson, J R; King, P M; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kuhn, S E; Lindgren, R; Lombard-Nelsen, R M; Marroncle, J; McCarthy, J; McKee, P M; Meyer, Werner T; Mitchell, G S; Mitchell, J; Olson, M N; Penttilä, S; Peterson, G A; Petratos, G G; Pitthan, R; Pocanic, D; Prepost, R; Prescott, C; Qin, L M; Raue, B A; Reyna, D; Rochester, L S; Rock, S E; Rondon-Aramayo, O A; Sabatié, F; Sick, I; Smith, T; Sorrell, L; Staley, F; Saint-Lorant, S; Stuart, L M; Szalata, Z M; Terrien, Y; Tobias, A; Todor, L; Toole, T; Trentalange, S; Walz, D; Welsh, R C; Wesselmann, F R; Wright, T R; Young, C C; Zeier, M; Zhu, H; Zihlmann, B
2000-01-01
The structure functions g1p and g1n have been measured over the range 0.014 < x < 0.9 and 1 < Q2 < 40 GeV2 using deep-inelastic scattering of 48 GeV longitudinally polarized electrons from polarized protons and deuterons. We find that the Q2 dependence of g1p (g1n) at fixed x is very similar to that of the spin-averaged structure function F1p (F1n). From a NLO QCD fit to all available data we find $\\Gamma_1^p - \\Gamma_1^n =0.176 \\pm 0.003 \\pm 0.007$ at Q2=5 GeV2, in agreement with the Bjorken sum rule prediction of 0.182 \\pm 0.005.
Effect of PKC pathway on G1/S progression control in HeLa cells
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
The effect of PKC activity on G1/S progression in HeLa cells has been studied.The result shows that (ⅰ) PKC activity alteration in G1 phase affects G1/S progression in HeLa cells.It has been observed that G1/S progression is stimulated by PKC agonist TPA and inhibited by PKC inhibitor GF-109203X.(ⅱ) The expression of c-myc and c-jun is stimulated by TPA and inhibited by GF-109203X treatment in early G1 phase.(ⅲ) During G1/S progression,the expression of CyclinD1 is stimulated by TPA treatment and inhibited by GF-109203X treatment.There is no effect on the expression of CDK4.It is likely that PKC pathway regulates G1/S progression through regulating the expression of some early response genes and engine molecules in HeLa cells.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jacobberger James W
2010-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytometric measurements of DNA content and chromatin-bound Mcm2 have demonstrated bimodal patterns of expression in G1. These patterns, the replication licensing function of Mcm proteins, and a correlation between Mcm loading and cell cycle commitment for cells re-entering the cell cycle, led us to test the idea that cells expressing a defined high level of chromatin-bound Mcm6 in G1 are committed - i.e., past the G1 restriction point. We developed a cell-based assay for tightly-bound PCNA (PCNA* and Mcm6 (Mcm6*, DNA content, and a mitotic marker to clearly define G1, S, G2, and M phases of the cell cycle. hTERT-BJ1, hTERT-RPE-1, and Molt4 cells were extracted with Triton X-100 followed by methanol fixation, stained with antibodies and DAPI, then measured by cytometry. Results Bivariate analysis of cytometric data demonstrated complex patterns with distinct clustering for all combinations of the 4 variables. In G1, cells clustered in two groups characterized by low and high Mcm6* expression. Serum starvation and release experiments showed that residence in the high group was in late G1, just prior to S phase. Kinetic experiments, employing serum withdrawal, and stathmokinetic analysis with aphidicolin, mimosine or nocodazole demonstrated that cells with high levels of Mcm6* cycled with the committed phases of the cell cycle (S, G2, and M. Conclusions A multivariate assay for Mcm6*, PCNA*, DNA content, and a mitotic marker provides analysis capable of estimating the fraction of pre and post-restriction point G1 cells and supports the idea that there are at least two states in G1 defined by levels of chromatin bound Mcm proteins.
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V. A. Sernov
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In recent time piled foundations are extensively applied due to an increase of storeys in buildings constructed in Minsk and load increment on the soil. Preference is given to this approach even in the case when relatively firm soil occurs in the top part of the foundation bed. In this case maximum usage of the foundation bed bearing capacity and reduction of foundation cost are considered as top-priority tasks for designers. One of the ways to increase the bearing capacity of piled foundations is the necessity to take into account resistance of foundation bed soil located under raft bottom. The raft as well as a shallow foundation is capable to transfer a significant part of building load into the soil. Such approach makes it possible to reduce a number of piles in the foundation or shorten their length. Then it results in shortening of the construction period and significant reduction in zero cycle. However up to the present moment reliable calculation methods that permit to take into account soil resistance in the raft base. An analysis of previous investigations on the matter executed by various researchers and a number of field investigations have been carried out with the purpose to develop the proposed methods.The paper presents results of field investigations on foundations consisting of short stamped tapered piles which are joined together with the help of the raft fragment. Strength and deformation characteristics of the bases are increasing while making such foundations in the fill-up soil. In this case the filled-up ground layer becomes a bearing layer both for piles and rafts as well. Improvement of high-plastic clay-bearing soil properties is ensured by ramming dry concrete mix under pile foot. The paper describes an experience on application of the piled-raft foundation in complicated engineering and geological conditions while constructing the Orthodox Church in Minsk.
Contribution to Estimating Bearing Capacity of Pile in Clayey Soils
Drusa, Marián; Gago, Filip; Vlček, Jozef
2016-12-01
The estimation of real geotechnical parameters is key factor for safe and economic design of geotechnical structures. One of these are pile foundations, which require proper design and evaluation due to accessing more deep foundation soil and because remediation work of not bearable piles or broken piles is a crucial operation. For this reason, geotechnical field testing like cone penetration test (CPT), standard penetration (SPT) or dynamic penetration test (DP) are realized in order to receive continuous information about soil strata. Comparing with rotary core drilling type of survey with sampling, these methods are more progressive. From engineering geologist point of view, it is more important to know geological characterization of locality but geotechnical engineers have more interest above the real geotechnical parameters of foundation soils. The role of engineering geologist cannot be underestimated because important geological processes in origin or during history can explain behaviour of a geological environment. In effort to streamline the survey, investigation by penetration tests is done as it is able to provide enough information for designers. This paper deals with actual trends in pile foundation design; because there are no new standards and usable standards are very old. Estimation of the bearing capacity of a single pile can be demonstrated on the example of determination of the cone factor Nk from CPT testing. Then results were compared with other common methods.
Contribution to Estimating Bearing Capacity of Pile in Clayey Soils
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Drusa Marián
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The estimation of real geotechnical parameters is key factor for safe and economic design of geotechnical structures. One of these are pile foundations, which require proper design and evaluation due to accessing more deep foundation soil and because remediation work of not bearable piles or broken piles is a crucial operation. For this reason, geotechnical field testing like cone penetration test (CPT, standard penetration (SPT or dynamic penetration test (DP are realized in order to receive continuous information about soil strata. Comparing with rotary core drilling type of survey with sampling, these methods are more progressive. From engineering geologist point of view, it is more important to know geological characterization of locality but geotechnical engineers have more interest above the real geotechnical parameters of foundation soils. The role of engineering geologist cannot be underestimated because important geological processes in origin or during history can explain behaviour of a geological environment. In effort to streamline the survey, investigation by penetration tests is done as it is able to provide enough information for designers. This paper deals with actual trends in pile foundation design; because there are no new standards and usable standards are very old. Estimation of the bearing capacity of a single pile can be demonstrated on the example of determination of the cone factor Nk from CPT testing. Then results were compared with other common methods.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alain Mothu
2007-10-01
Full Text Available « Car il sera grand devant le Seigneur. Il ne boira ni vin, ni liqueur enivrante, et il sera rempli de l’Esprit-Saint dès le sein de sa mère »(Luc, I, 15Cyrano dédie sa lettre à la gloire de l’aqueduc d’Arcueil et des fontaines parisiennes qu’il alimentait, à « (ses amis les buveurs d’eau ». Cette dédicace abrite peut-être une fine allusion au fait que la construction de l’« acqueduc Médicis », entamée en 1612, fut financée en partie par un droit d’entrée à Paris imposé sur les vins, comme ...
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Boris Jeanne
2008-04-01
Full Text Available Le film de zombie a toujours été politique. Marxiste même, associant dans une lecture rapide du Capital les morts-vivants et le Lumpenproletariat, et s’en prenant vivement à la société de consommation, que ce soit chez les fondateurs (George Romero ou leurs épigones (L’armée des morts de Zack Snyder se passe dans un centre commercial. En contexte post-11 septembre, ce sont Bush et Fox News qui en deviennent la cible, et le film de zombie réalisé par Joe Dante pour la première saison de la ...
Schlegel, H.
1880-01-01
Les Tinamous forment une tribu d’oiseaux parfaitement isolée et circonscrite, et bornée à la partie de l’Amérique comprise entre le Mexico méridional et la Patagonie. Ils se rattachent, toutefois, naturellement à l’ordre des Gallinae, tout en offrant certaines affinités avec l’ordre des Autruches. I
Sereme, Moustapha; Tarnagda, Souleymane; Guiguimde, Patrice; Gyebre, Yvette Marie Chantal; Ouedraogo, Bertin; Céline, Bambara; Ouattara, Maimouna; Ouoba, Kampadilemba
2016-01-01
Affections gravissimes à pronostic très réservé particulièrement dans notre contexte de sous médicalisation et de pauvreté. Notre but en initiant ce travail est de déterminer les étiologies de ces urgences et discuter de leur prise en charge thérapeutique. Étude de type rétrospective et descriptive sur 05 ans, au total 52 dossiers cliniques ont été inclus. Ces infections ont représenté 0,33% de nos consultations. La moyenne d'âge de nos patients a été 23 ans. Le jeune âge, les traitements inappropriés et certaines affections ORL ont été retrouvés comme facteurs favorisants. Les motifs de consultation ont été variés en fonction du siège de l'infection, cependant deux signes cliniques ont été constants: la douleur et la fièvre. L'adénophlegmon, le phlegmon péri-amygdalien, les cellulites ont été nos principales étiologies avec le streptocoque et le staphylocoque comme principaux germes en cause. L'antibiothérapie probabiliste a été utilisée en première intention notamment l'association céphalosporine de 3ème génération + aminoside + imidazolé. L'évolution clinique de nos patients a été marquée par la survenue de complications locales et générales. Urgence diagnostic et thérapeutique leur évolution reste encore émaillée de complication en raison de la consultation tardive de nos patients. PMID:28154719
African Journals Online (AJOL)
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l'apprentissage implicite ou explicite qui fonctionne comme un système de schèmes générateurs, est générateur de stratégie qui peuvent être objectivement conformes ..... passe mais il a une idée de toutes les nouvelles technologies utilisées, de ..... ction dans une situation de dépendance épistémique, de problème.
Ground Vibration Isolation of Multiple Scattering by Using Rows of Tubular Piles as Barriers
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Miao-miao Sun
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A new formal solution for the multiple scattering of plane harmonic waves by a group of arbitrary configuration tubular piles in an elastic total space is derived. Each order of scattering satisfies prescribed boundary conditions at the interface of tubular piles, which is delivered as the sum of incident and scattering waves. The first order performs the scattering wave by each scattered pile and the subsequent orders resulted from the excitation of each pile of first order of scattering from the remaining tubular piles. Advanced scattering orders can be regarded as the same manners. Several series of scattering coefficients are figured out with the aids of addition theorem so that the exact steady-state solution for the scattered displacement and stress is obtained. Particularly, when internal diameter of tubular piles tends to be infinitely small, it degenerates to a solid pile problem. By imposing the normalized displacement amplitudes and transmissibility indices, the influences of specific parameters such as scattering orders, internal and external diameter ratio of piles, pile material rigidity, position and distances between tubular pile and pile rows, and pile numbers are discussed. Certain recommended conclusions have been drawn as the guidelines of practical engineering design for discontinuous barrier of tubular piles.
Klein, Etienne
2009-01-01
Nous ne doutons pas de l'existence du temps, qui demeure pourtant un objet introuvable. Nous voyons, entendons, goûtons, touchons dans le temps, mais non le temps lui-même. Il concerne toute chose, contraint tout, mais de quelle façon ? Est-il apparu en même temps que l'univers ou l'a t-il précédé ? Est-il dans le monde ou le contient-il ? S'écoule-t-il en sens unique ? Serait-ce la mort qui nous obligerait à penser le temps ? Au XXe siècle, la physique a bouleversé notre conception du temps et en vient à effleurer des questions jusque la façon dont l'homme choisit de vivre et de se vivre. Quelles sont les convergences et les différence entre le temps physique et le temps sensible, existentiel ? Pour éclairer les paradoxes, répondre aux questions, Etienne Klein puise, en contrepoint de la physique, dans la philosophie, la psychologie, la littérature, ma poésie... et le sport.
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Sophie François
2012-04-01
Full Text Available Sur le Maroni, fleuve frontière entre la Guyane française et le Surinam, les pirogues amarrées le long des berges se comptent par centaines. Elles représentent le seul moyen de transport pour les milliers de personnes vivant sur les rives du Maroni. Les différentes formes de pirogues sont révélatrices de la diversité géographique du Maroni et de la diversité culturelle des populations. Les Amérindiens du littoral naviguent uniquement dans l’estuaire du fleuve. Ils construisent des pirogues larges, hautes et terminées à la poupe par une haute étrave qui fend les vagues. Ces pirogues sont construites à partir d’une coque monoxyle expansée et rehaussée d’un ou de deux bordages. En chauffant la grume évidée, le bois acquiert une certaine plasticité qui permet d’écarter les flancs et d’obtenir une coque très large à partir d’un arbre de faible diamètre. Les Bushinenge, populations d’origine africaine qui ont déserté les grandes plantations de la Guyane hollandaise dès le début du XVIIe siècle et se sont installées sur les deux rives du Maroni, ont développé des formes de pirogues adaptées au passage des sauts. Leurs pirogues, construites également en expansant la coque au feu, sont étroites et longues et possèdent des extrémités curvilignes qui dépassent largement au–dessus du bordage. Les longues pirogues à moteur comme les canots–pagaies sont ornés de motifs d’entrelacs appelés tembé ; et de décors d’inspiration contemporaine. L’inventaire des pirogues du Maroni a mis en évidence la richesse et la vitalité du patrimoine nautique de cette région au début du XXIe siècle, tant au niveau des formes des embarcations que des décors et des pratiques de navigation.On the Maroni river, natural border between French Guyana and the Surinam, canoes tied to the river banks can be counted by the hundreds. They are the only mean of transportation for thousands of people living along the
ESTIMATION OF AGING EFFECTS OF PILES IN MALAYSIAN OFFSHORE LOCATIONS
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JERIN M. GEORGE
2017-04-01
Full Text Available An increasing demand for extending life and subsequently higher loading requirements of offshore jacket platforms are among the key problems faced by the offshore industry. The Aging effect has been proved to increase the axial capacity of piles, but proper methods to estimate and quantify these effects have not been developed. Borehole data from ten different Malaysian offshore locations have been analysed and they were employed to estimate the setup factor for different locations using AAU method. The setup factors found were used in the Skov and Denver equation to calculate capacity ratios of the offshore piles. The study showed that there will be an average improvement in the axial capacity of offshore piles by 42.2% and 34.9% for clayey and mixed soils respectively after a time equal to the normal design life (25 years of a jacket platform.
Design of Jetty Piles Using Artificial Neural Networks
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Yongjei Lee
2014-01-01
Full Text Available To overcome the complication of jetty pile design process, artificial neural networks (ANN are adopted. To generate the training samples for training ANN, finite element (FE analysis was performed 50 times for 50 different design cases. The trained ANN was verified with another FE analysis case and then used as a structural analyzer. The multilayer neural network (MBPNN with two hidden layers was used for ANN. The framework of MBPNN was defined as the input with the lateral forces on the jetty structure and the type of piles and the output with the stress ratio of the piles. The results from the MBPNN agree well with those from FE analysis. Particularly for more complex modes with hundreds of different design cases, the MBPNN would possibly substitute parametric studies with FE analysis saving design time and cost.
Probabilistic Assessment for Seismic Performance of Pile-Supported Wharves
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Hamid Heidary Torkamani
2013-03-01
Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to investigate the influence of uncertainties associated with the material properties on the seismic performance of pile-supported wharves. For this purpose a two-dimensional finite difference model, representing typical pile-supported wharf structures from western United States has been constructed using software FLAC2D. Incremental dynamic analysis has been applied to evaluate the response of wharf structure under different levels of seismic loading. The uncertainties at both structural and geotechnical parameters have been investigated using a tornado diagram and a ﬁrst-Order Second-Moment (FOSM analysis. It has been found that the uncertainties at the dead load of structure, friction angle of rock fill and the porosity of rock fill contribute most to the variability of the displacement ductility factor of the pile-supported wharf structures. Based on the results, design considerations have been provided.
Testing of Laterally Loaded Rigid Piles with Applied Overburden Pressure
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Søren Peder Hyldal; Foglia, Aligi; Ibsen, Lars Bo
2012-01-01
Small-scale tests have been conducted for the purpose of investigating the quasi-static behaviour of laterally loaded, non-slender piles installed in cohesionless soil. For that purpose, a new and innovative test setup has been developed. The tests have been conducted in a pressure tank such that......Small-scale tests have been conducted for the purpose of investigating the quasi-static behaviour of laterally loaded, non-slender piles installed in cohesionless soil. For that purpose, a new and innovative test setup has been developed. The tests have been conducted in a pressure tank...... such that it was possible to apply an overburden pressure to the soil. Hereby, the traditional uncertainties related to low effective stresses for small-scale tests has been avoided. A scaling law for laterally loaded piles has been proposed based on dimensional analysis. The novel testing method has been validated against...
A Simple Pile-up Model for Time Series Analysis
Sevilla, Diego J. R.
2017-07-01
In this paper, a simple pile-up model is presented. This model calculates the probability P(n| N) of having n counts if N particles collide with a sensor during an exposure time. Through some approximations, an analytic expression depending on only one parameter is obtained. This parameter characterizes the pile-up magnitude, and depends on features of the instrument and the source. The statistical model obtained permits the determination of probability distributions of measured counts from the probability distributions of incoming particles, which is valuable for time series analysis. Applicability limits are discussed, and an example of the improvement that can be achieved in the statistical analysis considering the proposed pile-up model is shown by analyzing real data.
Improved Design Basis for Laterally Loaded Large Diameter Pile
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Leth, Caspar Thrane
. The expected development of offshore wind farms is towards larger farms, larger turbines and larger water depths. Monopiles have been applied widely and it is of interest to investigate the possibilities to further optimize the design and in particular the modelling of the soil-structure interaction...... on the structure and the productivity of the turbine. Current design practice for monopiles are based on p-y curves developed for slender piles with a diameter of 0.6 m. The focus on the structure stiffness has entailed a significant research on the soil-structure interaction for large diameter monopiles...... in dry sand by use of centrifuge modelling and to compare the findings with the standard p-y curves. It has been chosen to apply piles with an embedment length of 6 to 10 times the diameter of the applied piles. The general static behaviour of monopiles in dry sand has based on centrifuge tests been...
The Pressure Limitations on Flux Pile-Up Magnetic Reconnection
Litvinenko, Y. E.
1999-05-01
Flux pile-up magnetic reconnection was thought to be able to provide fast energy dissipation a strongly magnetized plasma, for example, in solar flares. We examine the problem of the plasma pressure limitations on the rapidity of flux pile-up reconnection. It is shown that for a two-dimensional stagnation point flow with nonzero vorticity the magnetic merging rate cannot exceed the Sweet-Parker scaling in a low-beta plasma, which is too slow to explain flares. Moreover, the solution has some undesireable properties such as a diffusion layer at the external boundary and the massively increasing inflow speed. The pressure limitation appears to be somewhat less restrictive for three-dimensional flux pile-up. This work was supported by NSF grant ATM-9813933.
Grouting Control for Deep-Water Jacket Skirt Pile
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Qing; ZHANG Jianxin; XU Lianjiang
2006-01-01
Deep-water jacket skirt pile grouting is a critical step in ocean platform construction. Because of the complexity of the skirt pile structure and grouting pipeline, the calculation of grouting pressure and the control of output pressure are involved. Beginning with the jacket skirt pile grouting construction scheme, grouting pressure is estimated on the basis of engineering fluid mechanics theory and variable frequency control technique. Programmable logic controller is the center of grouting pressure control system, which accomplishes the flow control of cement buffer tank water buffer tank, additive buffer tank, cement metering tank, water metering tank, additive metering tank, mixer and agitator. Based on PROFIBUS-DP network, the output pressure of the slurry pump is controlled by the inverter. This method has been applied successfully in JZ20-2 Nor. high spot jacket platform construction.
Improved Design Basis for Laterally Loaded Large Diameter Pile
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Leth, Caspar Thrane
of up-to-date facilities has been: Equipment for controlling centrifuge tests, data acquisition, preparation of test samples and equipment for and making of lateral load tests. The present research has been narrowed to investigate the static and cyclic behaviour of stiff piles with a diameter of 1-3 m...... on the structure and the productivity of the turbine. Current design practice for monopiles are based on p-y curves developed for slender piles with a diameter of 0.6 m. The focus on the structure stiffness has entailed a significant research on the soil-structure interaction for large diameter monopiles....... Comparison of the different approaches shows some discrepancy and conflicting statements, but the main findings can be summarized as: • The standard p-y curves are inadequate to describe the behaviour of lateral loaded large diameter rigid piles. • Initial stiffness of the p-y curves is depended...
X-ray spectroscopy around the pile-up region
Sharma, Gaurav; Kumar, Basu; Puri, Nitin Kumar; Nandi, Tapan
2015-01-01
We report a pile-up rejection technique based on X-ray absorption concept of Beer-Lambert law for measuring true events in the pile-up region. We have detected a four orders times weaker peak in the pile-up region. This technique also enables one to resolve the weak peaks adjacent to an intense peak provided the latter lies in the lower energy side, and the peaks are at least theoretically resolvable by the detector used. We have resolved such peaks by reducing the intensity ratios in our experiment. The technique allows us to obtain the actual intensities of the observed peaks to have been measured without any attenuator. The possible applications of this technique can be to study the physics of two electron one-photon transition as well as the properties of projectile-like or target-like ions.
Cumulative Damage in Strength-Dominated Collisions of Rocky Asteroids: Rubble Piles and Brick Piles
Housen, Kevin
2009-01-01
Laboratory impact experiments were performed to investigate the conditions that produce large-scale damage in rock targets. Aluminum cylinders (6.3 mm diameter) impacted basalt cylinders (69 mm diameter) at speeds ranging from 0.7 to 2.0 km/s. Diagnostics included measurements of the largest fragment mass, velocities of the largest remnant and large fragments ejected from the periphery of the target, and X-ray computed tomography imaging to inspect some of the impacted targets for internal damage. Significant damage to the target occurred when the kinetic energy per unit target mass exceeded roughly 1/4 of the energy required for catastrophic shattering (where the target is reduced to one-half its original mass). Scaling laws based on a rate-dependent strength were developed that provide a basis for extrapolating the results to larger strength-dominated collisions. The threshold specific energy for widespread damage was found to scale with event size in the same manner as that for catastrophic shattering. Therefore, the factor of four difference between the two thresholds observed in the lab also applies to larger collisions. The scaling laws showed that for a sequence of collisions that are similar in that they produce the same ratio of largest fragment mass to original target mass, the fragment velocities decrease with increasing event size. As a result, rocky asteroids a couple hundred meters in diameter should retain their large ejecta fragments in a jumbled rubble-pile state. For somewhat larger bodies, the ejection velocities are sufficiently low that large fragments are essentially retained in place, possibly forming ordered "brick-pile" structures.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José Luis Rodríguez Illera
2005-01-01
Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza el concepto de alfabetizaciones digitales, enfatizando los cambios en la idea de alfabetización y los efectos sobre las denominadas «nuevas alfabetizaciones». Se proponen los ejes principales para analizarlo, considerando con más detalle lo que suponen las nuevas prácticas de escritura en el caso de la multimedialidad. Finalmente, se apunta que las alfabetizaciones digitales requieren ser tomadas como un campo de investigación educativa y no únicamente como capacitación en el uso de los medios digitales. _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Cet article analyse le concept d’alphabétisation digitale, en mettant l’accent sur les changements de l’idée même d’alphabétisation ainsi que sur les effets quant aux «nouvelles alphabétisations». Il pose les axes principaux permettant d’analyser ce concept, en envisageant plus en détail ce qu’impliquent les nouvelles pratiques d’écriture dans un environnement multimédia. Enfi n, il insiste sur le fait que les alphabétisations digitales doivent être considérées comme un domaine de recherche et pas seulement comme une capacitation dans l’usage des moyens digitaux.This paper analyses the concept of digital literacies, underlining the changes in the idea of literacy and the effects on the socalled “new literacies”. The main focus points are proposed for the analysis, taking a closer look at what new writing practices suppose in the case of multimediality. Last of all, it is pointed out that digital literacies need to be treated as a fi eld of educational research and not only as an enabling factor in the use of digital media.En este artículo se analiza el concepto de alfabetizaciones digitales, enfatizando los cambios en la idea de alfabetización y los efectos sobre las denominadas «nuevas alfabetizaciones». Se proponen los ejes principales para
Target reliability index for serviceability limit state of single piles
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
边晓亚; 郑俊杰; 徐志军; 章荣军
2015-01-01
The objective is to develop an approach for the determination of the target reliability index for serviceability limit state (SLS) of single piles. This contributes to conducting the SLS reliability-based design (RBD) of piles. Based on a two-parameter, hyperbolic curve-fitting equation describing the load−settlement relation of piles, the SLS model factor is defined. Then, taking into account the uncertainties of load−settlement model, load and bearing capacity of piles, the formula for computing the SLS reliability index (βsls) is obtained using the mean value first order second moment (MVFOSM) method. Meanwhile, the limit state function for conducting the SLS reliability analysis by the Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) method is established. These two methods are finally applied to determine the SLS target reliability index. Herein, the limiting tolerable settlement (slt) is treated as a random variable. For illustration, four load test databases from South Africa are compiled again to conduct reliability analysis and present the recommended target reliability indices. The results indicate that the MVFOSM method overestimatesβsls compared to that computed by the MCS method. Besides, both factor of safety (FS) and slt are key factors influencingβsls, so the combination of FS andβsls is welcome to be used for the SLS reliability analysis of piles when slt is determined. For smaller slt, pile types and soils conditions have significant influence on the SLS target reliability indices; for larger slt, slt is the major factor having influence on the SLS target reliability indices. This proves that slt is the most key parameter for the determination of the SLS target reliability index.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Teng; Wang Kuihua; Xie Kanghe
2001-01-01
The vibration problem of a pile of arbitrary segments with variable modulus under exciting force is established, in which the influence of the soil under pile toe and the surroundings is taken into account. With Laplace transforms, the transmit functions for velocity and displacement of pile are derived. Furthermore, in terms of the convolution theorem and inversed Laplace transform, an analytical solution for the time domain response of a pile subjected to a semi-sine impulse is developed,which is the theoretical basis of the sonic method in pile integrity testing. Based on the solution, the vibration properties of pile with sharp or continuous modulus are studied. The validity of this approach is verified through fidd dynamic tests on some engineering piles. It shows that the theoretical prediction and the response of the pile are in good agreement.
Experimental study on DX pile performance in frozen soils under lateral loading
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XiaoBing Liu; LiHong Chen; ZhongYang Yu; JianXiao Hu; Wen Peng
2013-01-01
Experiments about working mechanism and mechanical characteristics of the DX model pile foundation under lateral dynamic and static loading were conducted by using a model system of the dynamic frozen soil-pile interaction. The horizontal displacement-force relationship of the pile head and bending moment distribution along the body in frozen soils of different temperatures were discussed. According to test results, both the horizontal displacement-force relationship of the DX pile head and bending moment distribution of the DX pile body are smaller than that of equal-diameter piles under same lateral loads. The piles with different plate positions show different displacements and bending moments. This phenomenon is mainly related to the soil temperature and bearing plates locations. Thus, dynamic response analysis of the pile foundation should be taken into account.
Numerical Analysis of Interaction Between Pile-Supported Pier and Bank Slope
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王年香
2001-01-01
Two- and three-dimensional finite element analysis programs for pile-soil interaction are compiled. Duncan-Chang's Model is used. The construction sequence of the pier is modeled. The pile-soil interface element is used. The influence of the combination type of piles on the deformation of bank slope and pile behaviour is analyzed. Different designs of a pile-supported pier are compared thoroughly. Calculation results show that the stresses and displacements of the pile are directly related to the distance from the bank slope and the direction of inclination. An inclined prop pile set in the rear platform would remarkably reduce the stresses of piles and the displacement of the pier.
Wave Run-up on Slender Piles in Design Conditions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Frigaard, Peter; Damsgaard, M. L.;
2011-01-01
in the design of Horns Reef 1. As a consequence damage was observed on the platforms. This has been the situation for several sites and design tools for platform loads are lacking. As a consequence a physical model test study was initiated at Aalborg University to clarify wave run-up on cylindrical piles...... to the pile an empirical factor is included on the velocity head. The evaluation of the calculation model shows that an accurate design rule can be established even in breaking wave conditions. However, calibration of a load model showed that it was necessary to increase the run-up factor on the velocity head...
Experimental Investigations of Ice Rubble: Shear Box and Pile Testing
Astrup, Oda Skog
2012-01-01
The largest part of an ice ridge consists of unconsolidated ice rubble, whose material properties decide the load from ridges on ships and structures. Material resistance is attributed to the initial freeze-bonds and the friction and interlocking between blocks. The objective of the thesis was to investigate rubble behaviour by two tests: shear box test at NTNU and pile test at HSVA. The shear box test was aimed at investigating freeze-bond mechanisms in rubble. The pile test was aimed at sug...
Testing of Laterally Loaded Rigid Piles with Applied Overburden Pressure
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Søren Peder Hyldal; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Foglia, Aligi
2015-01-01
Small-scale tests have been conducted to investigate the quasi-static behaviour of laterally loaded, non-slender piles installed in cohesionless soil. For that purpose, a new and innovative test setup has been developed. The tests have been conducted in a pressure tank such that it was possible...... to apply an overburden pressure to the soil. As a result of that, the traditional uncertainties related to low effective stresses for small-scale tests have been avoided. A normalisation criterion for laterally loaded piles has been proposed based on dimensional analysis. The test results using the novel...
Constituent-level pile-up mitigation techniques in ATLAS
The ATLAS collaboration
2017-01-01
Pile-up of simultaneous proton-proton collisions at the LHC has a significant impact on jet reconstruction. In this note the performance of several pile-up mitigation techniques is evaluated in detailed simulations of the ATLAS experiment. Four algorithms that act on the jet-constituent level are evaluated: SoftKiller, the cluster vertex fraction algorithm and Voronoi and constituent subtraction. We find that application of these constituent-level algorithms improves the resolution of low-transverse-momentum jets. The improvement is significant for collisions with 80-200 simultaneous proton-proton collisions envisaged in future runs of the LHC.
Centrifuge modelling of a laterally cyclic loaded pile
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Klinkvort, Rasmus Tofte; Leth, Caspar Thrane; Hededal, Ole
2010-01-01
A total number of 9 static and 6 cyclic centrifuge tests on laterally loaded piles in very dense, dry sand was erformed. The prototype dimensions of the piles were 1 meter in diameter and penetration depths varying from 6 to 10 meters. The static tests were used to investigate the initial subgrade...... reaction modulus and as a reference for cyclic tests. For the cyclic tests the accumulation of deflections and the change in secant stiffness of the soil from repetitive loading were investigated. From all the tests carried out accumulations of deflections were seen. rom the centrifuge tests it was seen...
Effects of Impulsive Pile-Driving Exposure on Fishes.
Casper, Brandon M; Carlson, Thomas J; Halvorsen, Michele B; Popper, Arthur N
2016-01-01
Six species of fishes were tested under aquatic far-field, plane-wave acoustic conditions to answer several key questions regarding the effects of exposure to impulsive pile driving. The issues addressed included which sound levels lead to the onset of barotrauma injuries, how these levels differ between fishes with different types of swim bladders, the recovery from barotrauma injuries, and the potential effects exposure might have on the auditory system. The results demonstrate that the current interim criteria for pile-driving sound exposures are 20 dB or more below the actual sound levels that result in the onset of physiological effects on fishes.
Diversity of VP7 genes of G1 rotaviruses isolated in Iran, 2009-2013.
Jalilvand, Somayeh; Afchangi, Atefeh; Mohajel, Nasir; Roohvand, Farzin; Shoja, Zabihollah
2016-01-01
Genotype G1 of rotaviruses (RVs) is the most prevalent strain in human RV infections around the world. The present study evaluated genetic variations in the VP7 gene of RV G1 genotype isolates from Iran. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses indicated that RV strains from Iran clustered with G1 lineages IA, IC, and IIC, showing highest average of similarity versus reference sequences of the G1 lineages I and II. This study highlights the genetic pattern of G1 RV on the basis of distinct lineages and sublineages and indicates the importance of continuous monitoring on genetic variation and evolution pattern of G1 RV strains across the Iranian population for the final aim of RV vaccine introduction.
Sounguet, Guy-Philippe
2002-01-01
Les populations de Cétacés qui vivent au Sud et qui atteignent les côtes du Gabon, quittent la région antarctique à la fin de l'été austral. Lorsque la banquise s'étend vers le nord, ils remontent vers les côtes occidentales africaines en empruntant le courant froid antarctique qui les portent jusqu'à l'équateur. Cette migration saisonnière Sud-Nord s'effectue durant l'hiver austral. Les animaux font leur apparition dans les régions équatoriales en juin pour repartir à partir de septembre. Bi...
Seismic Dynamic Damage Characteristics of Vertical and Batter Pile-supported Wharf Structure Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li Jiren
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Considering a typical steel pipe pile-supported wharf as the research object, finite element analytical models of batter and vertical pile structures were established under the same construction site, service, and geological conditions to investigate the seismic dynamic damage characteristics of vertical and batter pile-supported wharf structures. By the numerical simulation and the nonlinear time history response analysis of structure system and the moment–axial force relation curve, we analyzed the dynamic damage characteristics of the two different structures of batter and vertical piles under different seismic ground motions to provide reasonable basis and reference for designing and selecting a pile-supported wharf structure. Results showed that the axial force of batter piles was dominant in the batter pile structure and that batter piles could effectively bear and share seismic load. Under the seismic ground motion with peak ground acceleration (PGA of 350 Gal and in consideration of the factors of the design requirement of horizontal displacement, the seismic performance of the batter pile structure was better than that of the vertical pile structure. Under the seismic ground motion with a PGA of 1000 Gal, plastic failure occurred in two different structures. The contrastive analysis of the development of plastic damage and the absorption and dissipation for seismic energy indicated that the seismic performance of the vertical pile structure was better than that of the batter pile structure.
16 CFR 300.26 - Pile fabrics and products composed thereof.
2010-01-01
... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pile fabrics and products composed thereof... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling § 300.26 Pile fabrics and products composed thereof. The fiber content of pile fabrics or products made thereof may...
Bending behavior of double-row stabilizing piles with constructional time delay
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yang YU; Yue-quan SHANG; Hong-yue SUN
2012-01-01
The bending behavior of double-row stabilizing plies is associated with the constructional time delay (CTD),which can be defined as the time interval between the installations of the front stabilizing pile and the rear stabilizing pile.This paper investigates the effect of CTD on the bending moments of double-row stabilizing piles and a method for determining the optimal CTD is proposed.The stabilizing pile is modeled as a cantilever pile embedded in the Winkler elastic foundation.A triangular distributed earth pressure is assumed on the pile segment in the sliding layer.The front stabilizing pile and the rear stabilizing pile are connected by a beam with pinned joints.The analytical solutions of bending moments on the front and the rear stabilizing piles are derived and the accuracy of bending moment solutions is validated by comparing the tensile strain measured from the Hongyan landslide project,Taizhou,Zhejiang,China.It is concluded that CTD has a significant influence on the bending moments of double-row stabilizing piles.An optimal CTD can be obtained when the maximum tensile stress in the front stabilizing pile is equal to that in the rear stabilizing pile,which is 1.4 months for the Hongyan landslide project.
Centrifuge modeling of rapid load tests with open-ended piles
Nguyen, T.C.; Van Lottum, H.; Holscher, P.; Van Tol, A.F.
2012-01-01
Rapid and static load tests were conducted on open-ended and close-ended piles in the Deltares GeoCentriflige. hi flight, a pile was driven into the soil. Both fme-grained sand and silt beds were tested. Both the rapid and static soil resistances o f a close-ended pile were higher than the soil resi
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
Two full-scale experiments using controlled blasting were conducted in the Port of Tokachi on Hokkaido Island,Japan, to assess the behavior of piles and pipelines subjected to lateral spreading. Test specimens were extensively instrumented with strain gauges to measure the distribution of moment during lateral spreading. This allowed us to compute the loading condition, as well as to conduct damage and performance assessments on the piles and pipelines. This paper presents the test results and discussions on the response of single piles and pipelines observed from the full-scale experiments. Based on the test results, it can be concluded that using controlled blasting successfully liquefied the soil, and subsequently induced lateral spreading. The movements of the single pile, as well as the transverse pipelines, were approximately the same as the free field soil movement. Observed moment distribution of the single pile indicated that global translation of the liquefied soil layer provided insignificant force to the pile. In addition, the degree of fixity at the pile tip significantly affected the moment along the pile as well as the pile head displacement. The pile with a higher degree of fixity at the pile tip had smaller pile head displacement but larger maximum moment.
16 CFR 303.24 - Pile fabrics and products composed thereof.
2010-01-01
... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pile fabrics and products composed thereof... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.24 Pile fabrics and products composed thereof. The fiber content of pile fabrics or products composed thereof may...
New method of designing anti-slide piles-the strength reduction FEM
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zheng Yingren; Zhao Shangyi; Lei Wenjie; Tang Xiaosong
2010-01-01
At present,the thrust of an anti-slide pile can be worked out with some calculation methods.However,the resistance in front of the pile,the distributions of resistance and thrust,and appropriate pile length cannot be easily obtained.In this paper,the authors applied the strength-reduction finite element method(FEM)to several design cases of anti-slide piles.Using this method,it is possible to take the pile-soil interactions into consideration,obtain reasonable resistance in front of pile and the distributions of thrust and resistance,and reasonable lengths of anti-slide piles.In particular,the thrust and resistance imposed on embedded anti-slide piles can be calculated and composite anti-slide pile structures such as anchored piles and braced piles can be optimized.It is proved through the calculation examples that this method is more reliable and economical in the design of anti-slide pile.
30 CFR 57.16002 - Bins, hoppers, silos, tanks, and surge piles.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bins, hoppers, silos, tanks, and surge piles... NONMETAL MINES Materials Storage and Handling § 57.16002 Bins, hoppers, silos, tanks, and surge piles. (a) Bins, hoppers, silos, tanks, and surge piles, where loose unconsolidated materials are stored,...
30 CFR 56.16002 - Bins, hoppers, silos, tanks, and surge piles.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bins, hoppers, silos, tanks, and surge piles... MINES Materials Storage and Handling § 56.16002 Bins, hoppers, silos, tanks, and surge piles. (a) Bins, hoppers, silos, tanks, and surge piles, where loose unconsolidated materials are stored, handled...
The effect of the timing of pile mixing on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during dairy manure composting was determined using large flux chambers designed to completely cover replicate pilot-scale compost piles. GHG emissions from compost piles that were mixed at 2, 3, 4, or 5 weeks after initial c...
Recovery of small pile burn scars in conifer forests of the Colorado Front Range
Charles C. Rhoades; Paula J. Fornwalt; Mark W. Paschke; Amber Shanklin; Jayne L. Jonas
2015-01-01
The ecological consequences of slash pile burning are a concern for land managers charged with maintaining forest soil productivity and native plant diversity. Fuel reduction and forest health management projects have created nearly 150,000 slash piles scheduled for burning on US Forest Service land in northern Colorado. The vast majority of these are small piles (
The Underwater Sound Field from Impact Pile Driving and Its Potential Effects on Marine Life
Dahl, P.H.; Jong, C.A.F. de; Popper, A.N.
2015-01-01
Impact pile driving is a method used to install piles for marine and inland water construction projects using high-energy impact hammers. The installation of hollow steel piles in this manner can produce extremely high sound levels in the surrounding waters (as well as in the air). Given the large-
Jansen, H.W.; Jong, C.A.F. de; Jung, B.
2012-01-01
Because of the concern about potential effects on marine pile driving, the industry is developing silent marine pile driving concepts. One of the new concepts, which has been engineered by IHC Hydrohammer in the Netherlands, is the application of a steel Noise Mitigation Screen (NMS) around the pile
Finite Element Investigations on the Interaction between a Pile and Swelling Clay
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kaufmann, Kristine Lee; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Augustesen, Anders Hust
. For the investigated case study, the influence of the pile is observed in a radius of approximately 3 pile diameters from the pile centre creating a weak zone inside this radius. The maximum heave of the excavation level inside this radius decreases polynomially with increasing interface strength. The swelling...
Ramírez León, Vanessa
2012-01-01
Memòria del Projecte Final de Màster "Vídeo a les aules", consistent en una plataforma col·laborativa online per potenciar l'ús didàctic del vídeo a l'aula. "Video in the classroom" is an online collaborative platform to promote the educational use of video in the classroom. Memoria del Proyecto Final de Máster "Video en las aulas", consistente en una plataforma colaborativa online para potenciar el uso didáctico del vídeo en el aula.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lei Gao
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Compared with conventional piles such as the circle pile, the cast-in-place large-diameter pile (PCC pile has many advantages: the lateral area of PCC pile is larger and the bearing capacity of PCC pile is higher. It is more cost-effective than other piles such as square pile under the same condition. The deformation of the PCC pile is very important for its application. In order to obtain the deformation of the PCC pile, a new type of quasi-distributed optical fiber sensing technology named a fiber Bragg grating (FBG is used to monitor the deformation of the PCC pile. The PCC model pile is made, the packaging process of the PCC model pile and the layout of fiber sensors are designed, and the strains of the PCC model pile based on FBG sensors are monitored. The strain of the PCC pile is analyzed by the static load test. The results show that FBG technology is successfully applied for monitoring the deformation of the PCC pile, the monitoring data is more useful for the PCC pile. It will provide a reference for the engineering applications.
Aerial sampling of emissions from biomass pile burns in Oregon
Emissions from burning piles of post-harvest timber slash in Grande Ronde, Oregon were sampled using an instrument platform lofted into the plume using a tether-controlled aerostat or balloon. Emissions of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, particulate matter (PM2.5 µm), ...
Numerical experiments with rubble piles : equilibrium shapes and spins
Richardson, Derek C.; Elankumaran, Pradeep; Sanderson, Robyn E.
2005-01-01
We present numerical experiments investigating the shape and spin limits of self-gravitating "perfect" rubble piles that consist of identical, smooth, rigid, spherical particles with configurable normal coefficient of restitution and no sliding friction. Such constructs are currently employed in a v
20051655 - Petronas, Capacity of Driven Piles Offshore Malaysia
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Augustesen, Anders
This document is one of four notes concerning the effects of time (in this case ageing) on the vertical capacity of piles. It includes summaries of relevant publications related to the topic. Further, focus has been paid to publications that deal with quantification of setup and not the mechanisms...
Assessment of Cumulative Sound Exposure Levels for Marine Piling Events
Lepper, P.A.; Robinson, S.P.; Ainslie, M.A.; Theobald, P.D.; Jong, C.A.F. de
2012-01-01
The installation of offshore wind farms in European waters and the scale of the planned activity have led to concern over the generation of noise and its potential impact on marine life. Much of this concern is centered around the noise generated by pile driving, which is used for the installation o
30 CFR 816.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.
2010-07-01
.... Critical construction periods shall include at a minimum: (i) Foundation preparation including the removal... revegetated upon completion of construction. (c) Placement. (1) All vegetative and organic materials shall be... professional engineer, shall inspect the refuse pile during construction. The professional engineer...
30 CFR 817.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.
2010-07-01
.... Critical construction periods shall include at a minimum: (i) Foundation preparation including the removal... revegetated upon completion of construction. (c) Placement. (1) All vegetative and organic materials shall be... professional engineer, shall inspect the refuse pile during construction. The professional engineer...
Centrifuge modelling of rigid piles in soft clay
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Klinkvort, R.T.; Poder, M.; Truong, P.
2016-01-01
of this study is to employ centrifuge modelling in order to derive experimental p-y curves for rigid piles embedded in over-consolidated soft clay. A kaolin clay sample was prepared and pre-consolidated by applying a constant pressure at the soil surface, while different over-consolidation ratios were achieved...
Testing of Laterally Loaded Rigid Piles with Applied Overburden Pressure
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Søren Peder Hyldal; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Foglia, Aligi
2015-01-01
to apply an overburden pressure to the soil. As a result of that, the traditional uncertainties related to low effective stresses for small-scale tests have been avoided. A normalisation criterion for laterally loaded piles has been proposed based on dimensional analysis. The test results using the novel...
Airborne sound propagation over sea during offshore wind farm piling.
Van Renterghem, T; Botteldooren, D; Dekoninck, L
2014-02-01
Offshore piling for wind farm construction has attracted a lot of attention in recent years due to the extremely high noise emission levels associated with such operations. While underwater noise levels were shown to be harmful for the marine biology, the propagation of airborne piling noise over sea has not been studied in detail before. In this study, detailed numerical calculations have been performed with the Green's Function Parabolic Equation (GFPE) method to estimate noise levels up to a distance of 10 km. Measured noise emission levels during piling of pinpiles for a jacket-foundation wind turbine were assessed and used together with combinations of the sea surface state and idealized vertical sound speed profiles (downwind sound propagation). Effective impedances were found and used to represent non-flat sea surfaces at low-wind sea states 2, 3, and 4. Calculations show that scattering by a rough sea surface, which decreases sound pressure levels, exceeds refractive effects, which increase sound pressure levels under downwind conditions. This suggests that the presence of wind, even when blowing downwind to potential receivers, is beneficial to increase the attenuation of piling sound over the sea. A fully flat sea surface therefore represents a worst-case scenario.
Aerial sampling of emissions from biomass pile burns in ...
Emissions from burning piles of post-harvest timber slash in Grande Ronde, Oregon were sampled using an instrument platform lofted into the plume using a tether-controlled aerostat or balloon. Emissions of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, particulate matter (PM2.5 µm), black carbon, ultraviolet absorbing PM, elemental/organic carbon, semi-volatile organics (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans), filter-based metals, and volatile organics were sampled for determination of emission factors. The effect on emissions from covering or not covering piles with polyethylene sheets to prevent fuel wetting was determined. Results showed that the uncovered (“wet”) piles burned with lower combustion efficiency and higher emissions of volatile organic compounds. Results for other pollutants will also be discussed. This work determined the emissions from open burning of forest slash wood, with and without plastic sheeting. The foresters advocate the use of plastic to keep the slash wood dry and aid in the controlled combustion of the slash to reduce fuel loading. Concerns about the emissions from the burning plastic prompted this work which conducted an extensive characterization of dry, wet, and dry with plastic slash pile emissions.
20051655 - Petronas, Capacity of Driven Piles Offshore Malaysia
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Augustesen, Anders
This report presents the results of work carried out by Aalborg Univesity for NGI related to the effects of ageing on the axial capacity of piles in clay and sand. The document is the fourth of four notes regarding the subject and it includes a recommended approach to account for ageing effects...
Rapid pile load tests in the geotechnical centrifuge
Holscher, P.; Van Tol, A.F.; Huy, N.Q.
2012-01-01
Centrifiige experiments were carried out to gain insight into the factors that affect the mobilized resistance during rapid load testing on piles in sand. The influence of generated pore water pressure during rapid load tests is shidied, and its effect on the commonly used unloadmg point method to d
Assessment of Cumulative Sound Exposure Levels for Marine Piling Events
Lepper, P.A.; Robinson, S.P.; Ainslie, M.A.; Theobald, P.D.; Jong, C.A.F. de
2012-01-01
The installation of offshore wind farms in European waters and the scale of the planned activity have led to concern over the generation of noise and its potential impact on marine life. Much of this concern is centered around the noise generated by pile driving, which is used for the installation
Rapid pile load tests in the geotechnical centrifuge
Holscher, P.; Van Tol, A.F.; Huy, N.Q.
2012-01-01
Centrifiige experiments were carried out to gain insight into the factors that affect the mobilized resistance during rapid load testing on piles in sand. The influence of generated pore water pressure during rapid load tests is shidied, and its effect on the commonly used unloadmg point method to d
The impact of wind energy turbine piles on ocean dynamics
Grashorn, Sebastian; Stanev, Emil V.
2016-04-01
The small- and meso-scale ocean response to wind parks has not been investigated in the southern North Sea until now with the help of high-resolution numerical modelling. Obstacles such as e.g. wind turbine piles may influence the ocean current system and produce turbulent kinetic energy which could affect sediment dynamics in the surrounding area. Two setups of the unstructured-grid model SCHISM (Semi-implicit Cross-scale Hydroscience Integrated System Model) have been developed for an idealized channel including a surface piercing cylindrical obstacle representing the pile and a more realistic test case including four exemplary piles. Experiments using a constant flow around the obstacles and a rotating M2 tidal wave are carried out. The resulting current and turbulence patterns are investigated to estimate the influence of the obstacles on the surrounding ocean dynamics. We demonstrate that using an unstructured ocean model provides the opportunity to embed a high-resolution representation of a wind park turbine pile system into a coarser North Sea setup, which is needed in order to perform a seamless investigation of the resulting geophysical processes.
Calibration of Partial Factors for Basal Reinforced Piled Embankments
Van Duijnen, P.G.; Schweckendiek, T.; Calle, E.O.F.; Van Eekelen, S.J.M.
2015-01-01
In the Netherlands, the design guideline for basal reinforced piled embankments has been revised (CUR226:2015) adopting a new analytical design model (The Concentric Arches (CA) model, Van Eekelen et al., 2013; 2015). The CA model provides geosynthetic reinforcement (GR) strains which were compared
Beta1 integrins regulate chondrocyte rotation, G1 progression, and cytokinesis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aszodi, Attila; Hunziker, Ernst B; Brakebusch, Cord;
2003-01-01
-actin organization. In addition, mutant chondrocytes show decreased proliferation caused by a defect in G1/S transition and cytokinesis. The G1/S defect is, at least partially, caused by overexpression of Fgfr3, nuclear translocation of Stat1/Stat5a, and up-regulation of the cell cycle inhibitors p16 and p21...
16 CFR Appendix G1 to Part 305 - Furnaces-Gas
2010-01-01
... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Furnaces-Gas G1 Appendix G1 to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING... Part 305—Furnaces—Gas Manufacturer's rated heating capacities (Btu's/hr.) Range of annual fuel...
A hyperactive transcriptional state marks genome reactivation at the mitosis-G1 transition.
Hsiung, Chris C-S; Bartman, Caroline R; Huang, Peng; Ginart, Paul; Stonestrom, Aaron J; Keller, Cheryl A; Face, Carolyne; Jahn, Kristen S; Evans, Perry; Sankaranarayanan, Laavanya; Giardine, Belinda; Hardison, Ross C; Raj, Arjun; Blobel, Gerd A
2016-06-15
During mitosis, RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and many transcription factors dissociate from chromatin, and transcription ceases globally. Transcription is known to restart in bulk by telophase, but whether de novo transcription at the mitosis-G1 transition is in any way distinct from later in interphase remains unknown. We tracked Pol II occupancy genome-wide in mammalian cells progressing from mitosis through late G1. Unexpectedly, during the earliest rounds of transcription at the mitosis-G1 transition, ∼50% of active genes and distal enhancers exhibit a spike in transcription, exceeding levels observed later in G1 phase. Enhancer-promoter chromatin contacts are depleted during mitosis and restored rapidly upon G1 entry but do not spike. Of the chromatin-associated features examined, histone H3 Lys27 acetylation levels at individual loci in mitosis best predict the mitosis-G1 transcriptional spike. Single-molecule RNA imaging supports that the mitosis-G1 transcriptional spike can constitute the maximum transcriptional activity per DNA copy throughout the cell division cycle. The transcriptional spike occurs heterogeneously and propagates to cell-to-cell differences in mature mRNA expression. Our results raise the possibility that passage through the mitosis-G1 transition might predispose cells to diverge in gene expression states.
Asymptotical small-x behaviour of the spin structure functions $g_1$ and $g_2$
Ermolaev, B I
1997-01-01
We show that for small x and in the double logarithmic approximation (DLA) g_2 can be expressed through derivative of g_1 with respect to logarithm of the QCD coupling. Therefore the small-x behavior of the both structure functions is similar. The analytical expression for flavor nonsinglet structure function g_1 is presented and its asymptotical behaviour is calculated.
26 CFR 1.45G-1 - Railroad track maintenance credit.
2010-04-01
... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Railroad track maintenance credit. 1.45G-1... TAXES Rules for Computing Credit for Investment in Certain Depreciable Property § 1.45G-1 Railroad track maintenance credit. (a) In general. For purposes of section 38, the railroad track maintenance credit (RTMC...
Enhanced HIV-1 neutralization by a CD4-VH3-IgG1 fusion protein
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meyuhas, Ronit; Noy, Hava; Fishman, Sigal [Laboratory of Immunology, MIGAL, P.O. Box 831, Kiryat Shmona 11016 (Israel); Margalit, Alon [Laboratory of Immunology, MIGAL, P.O. Box 831, Kiryat Shmona 11016 (Israel); Department of Biotechnology, Tel-Hai Academic College, Upper Galilee 12210 (Israel); Montefiori, David C. [Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Gross, Gideon, E-mail: gidi@migal.org.il [Laboratory of Immunology, MIGAL, P.O. Box 831, Kiryat Shmona 11016 (Israel); Department of Biotechnology, Tel-Hai Academic College, Upper Galilee 12210 (Israel)
2009-08-21
HIV-1 gp120 is an alleged B cell superantigen, binding certain VH3+ human antibodies. We reasoned that a CD4-VH3 fusion protein could possess higher affinity for gp120 and improved HIV-1 inhibitory capacity. To test this we produced several human IgG1 immunoligands harboring VH3. Unlike VH3-IgG1 or VH3-CD4-IgG1, CD4-VH3-IgG1 bound gp120 considerably stronger than CD4-IgG1. CD4-VH3-IgG1 exhibited {approx}1.5-2.5-fold increase in neutralization of two T-cell laboratory-adapted strains when compared to CD4-IgG1. CD4-VH3-IgG1 improved neutralization of 7/10 clade B primary isolates or pseudoviruses, exceeding 20-fold for JR-FL and 13-fold for Ba-L. It enhanced neutralization of 4/8 clade C viruses, and had negligible effect on 1/4 clade A pseudoviruses. We attribute this improvement to possible pairing of VH3 with CD4 D1 and stabilization of an Ig Fv-like structure, rather than to superantigen interactions. These novel findings support the current notion that CD4 fusion proteins can act as better HIV-1 entry inhibitors with potential clinical implications.
And Others; Cotton, James E.
1973-01-01
Analysis of venous blood samples from 24 mothers of G1-trisomy-affected (Down's Syndrome) children and 23 mothers of chromosomally normal children indicated that mothers of G1-trisomy-affected children had a greater than expected involvement of the G-chromosomes in associations of acrocentric satellited (chromosome configuration) chromosomes.…
26 CFR 1.665(g)-1A - Capital gain distribution.
2010-04-01
... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Capital gain distribution. 1.665(g)-1A Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Treatment of Excess Distributions of Trusts Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning on Or After January 1, 1969 § 1.665(g)-1A Capital gain distribution. For any taxable year of a...
Effect of sediment on vertical dynamic impedance of rock-socketed pile with large diameter
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
俞缙; 蔡燕燕; 吴文兵
2013-01-01
Based on the fictitious soil pile model, the effect of sediment on the vertical dynamic impedance of rock-socketed pile with large diameter was theoretically studied by means of Laplace transform technique and impedance function transfer method. Firstly, the sediment under rock-socketed pile was assumed to be fictitious soil pile with the same sectional area. The Rayleigh-Love rode model was used to simulate the rock-socketed pile and the fictitious soil pile with the consideration of the lateral inertial effect of large-diameter pile. The layered surrounding soils and bedrock were modeled by the plane strain model. Then, by virtue of the initial conditions and boundary conditions of the soil pile system, the analytical solution of the vertical dynamic impedance at the head of rock-socketed pile was derived for the arbitrary excitation acting on the pile head. Lastly, based on the presented analytical solution, the effect of sediment properties, bedrock property and lateral inertial effect on the vertical dynamic impedance at rock-socketed pile head were investigated in detail. It is shown that the sediment properties have significant effect on the vertical dynamic impedance at the rock-socketed pile head. The ability of soil-pile system to resist dynamic vertical deformation is weakened with the increase of sediment thickness, but amplified with the increase of shear wave velocity of sediment. The ability of soil pile system to resist dynamic vertical deformation is amplified with the bedrock property improving, but the ability of soil-pile system to resist vertical vibration is weakened with the improvement of bedrock property.
Behavior of Pile Group with Elevated Cap Subjected to Cyclic Lateral Loads
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈云敏; 顾明; 陈仁朋; 孔令刚; 张浙杭; 边学成
2015-01-01
The pile group with elevated cap is widely used as foundation of offshore structures such as turbines, power transmission towers and bridge piers, and understanding its behavior under cyclic lateral loads induced by waves, tide water and winds, is of great importance to designing. A large-scale model test on 3×3 pile group with elevated cap subjected to cyclic lateral loads was performed in saturated silts. The preparation and implementation of the test is presented. Steel pipes with the outer diameter of 114 mm, thickness of 4.5 mm, and length of 6 m were employed as model piles. The pile group was cyclic loaded in a multi-stage sequence with the lateral displacement controlled. In addition, a single pile test was also conducted at the same site for comparison. The displacement of the pile cap, the internal forces of individual piles, and the horizontal stiffness of the pile group are presented and discussed in detail. The results indicate that the lateral cyclic loads have a greater impact on pile group than that on a single pile, and give rise to the significant plastic strain in the soil around piles. The lateral loads carried by each row of piles within the group would be redistributed with loading cycles. The lateral stiffness of the pile group decreases gradually with cycles and broadly presents three different degradation patterns in the test. Significant axial forces were measured out in some piles within the group, owing to the strong restraint provided by the cap, and finally lead to a large settlement of the pile group. These findings can be referred for foundation designing of offshore structures.
Behavior of pile group with elevated cap subjected to cyclic lateral loads
Chen, Yun-min; Gu, Ming; Chen, Ren-peng; Kong, Ling-gang; Zhang, Zhe-hang; Bian, Xue-cheng
2015-06-01
The pile group with elevated cap is widely used as foundation of offshore structures such as turbines, power transmission towers and bridge piers, and understanding its behavior under cyclic lateral loads induced by waves, tide water and winds, is of great importance to designing. A large-scale model test on 3×3 pile group with elevated cap subjected to cyclic lateral loads was performed in saturated silts. The preparation and implementation of the test is presented. Steel pipes with the outer diameter of 114 mm, thickness of 4.5 mm, and length of 6 m were employed as model piles. The pile group was cyclic loaded in a multi-stage sequence with the lateral displacement controlled. In addition, a single pile test was also conducted at the same site for comparison. The displacement of the pile cap, the internal forces of individual piles, and the horizontal stiffness of the pile group are presented and discussed in detail. The results indicate that the lateral cyclic loads have a greater impact on pile group than that on a single pile, and give rise to the significant plastic strain in the soil around piles. The lateral loads carried by each row of piles within the group would be redistributed with loading cycles. The lateral stiffness of the pile group decreases gradually with cycles and broadly presents three different degradation patterns in the test. Significant axial forces were measured out in some piles within the group, owing to the strong restraint provided by the cap, and finally lead to a large settlement of the pile group. These findings can be referred for foundation designing of offshore structures.
Enhanced mixing downstream of a pile in an estuarine flow
Lass, H. U.; Mohrholz, V.; Knoll, M.; Prandke, H.
2008-11-01
We studied the impact on stratification and mixing of a bridge pile in a stratified shear flow at the Western Bridge of the Great Belt Fixed Link, Denmark, in January and April 2006. Stratification was measured with high horizontal resolution by towed CTD chains and dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy was measured by a free-falling MSS 90 microstructure profiler equipped with shear probes. Background stratification and current were measured by standard CTD and a bottom-mounted ADCP, respectively. The spatial and temporal variability of the flow field close behind a single pile was measured by an ADCP mounted on a small catamaran tethered to this pile. A shear background flow of varying strength was observed with an inflow of up to 80 cm s - 1 in the surface layer and an outflow of 10 cm s - 1 in the bottom layer. The brackish surface layer was separated from the saline Kattegat water in the bottom layer by an intermediate layer resulting in a Brunt-Väisälä frequency of up to 100 cycles per hour (cph). The maximum Reynolds number ( Re) and internal Froude number ( Fr) were 4.6 × 10 6 and 1.3, respectively. Eddies occurred downstream of a pile with a characteristic diameter of the pile and a frequency corresponding to a von Kármán vortex street when near-surface Fr > 0.7. Enhanced mixing was observed in the von Kármán vortex streets, which caused an increase in salinity by a few psu in the surface mixed layer of the eddy up to 400 m downstream of the piles. Differential advection by cross-channel circulation smeared out laterally from the wakes' salinity anomalies and turbulence. The dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy in the intermediate layer increased by an order of magnitude downstream of the piles as a function of Fr when Fr > 0.7. This enhanced mixing reduced the mean potential energy anomaly downstream by some 10 Jm - 3 in the upper 15 m depth and caused an upstream-directed baroclinic pressure gradient of the same order as the barotropic
Nucleon spin structure II: Spin structure function $g_1^p$ at small $x$
Zhu, Wei
2015-01-01
The spin structure function $g_1^p$ of the proton is studied in a two component framework, where the perturbative evolution of parton distributions and nonperturbative vector meson dominance model are used. We predict the $g_1^p$ asymmetric behavior at small $x$ from lower $Q^2$ to higher $Q^2$. We find that the contribution of the large gluon helicity dominates $g_1^p$ at $x>10^{-3}$ but mixed with nonperturbative component which complicates the asymptomatic behavior of $g_1^p$ at $x<10^{-3}$. The results are compatible with the data including the HERA early estimations and COMPASS new results. The predicted strong $Q^2$- and $x$-dependence of $g_1^p$ at $0.01
Les perspectives nutritionnelles offertes par les OGM en alimentation humaine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pascal Gérard
2004-03-01
Full Text Available Une étude des brevets récents, des publications scientifiques ainsi que des documents présentant les projets des firmes de biotechnologie constituent la base de cet article qui présente les perspectives de développement en alimentation humaine des organismes génétiquement modifiés (OGM présentant un intérêt nutritionnel. Si l’on trouve dans les brevets et les publications scientifiques des applications qui concernent l’amélioration ou l’enrichissement de la composition en macro- et micronutriments, ces applications restent curieusement à l’état de projets, très loin de la mise sur le marché. Les critiques aussi bien que les louanges dont sont l’objet les rares cas dont on pourrait envisager une mise en œuvre à moyen terme, comme le « riz doré », sont aussi injustifiées et excessives les unes que les autres. Les violentes polémiques autour des OGM risquent de handicaper le développement d’une technique puissante, qui n’est certes pas indispensable pour apporter une solution à l’éradication de la faim dans le monde, mais qui peut apporter des améliorations à la nutrition des populations, aussi bien des populations des pays en développement que des pays développés.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shawna Miles
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Yeast that naturally exhaust their glucose source can enter a quiescent state that is characterized by reduced cell size, and high cell density, stress tolerance and longevity. The transition to quiescence involves highly asymmetric cell divisions, dramatic reprogramming of transcription and global changes in chromatin structure and chromosome topology. Cells enter quiescence from G1 and we find that there is a positive correlation between the length of G1 and the yield of quiescent cells. The Swi4 and Swi6 transcription factors, which form the SBF transcription complex and promote the G1 to S transition in cycling cells, are also critical for the transition to quiescence. Swi6 forms a second complex with Mbp1 (MBF, which is not required for quiescence. These are the functional analogues of the E2F complexes of higher eukaryotes. Loss of the RB analogue, Whi5, and the related protein Srl3/Whi7, delays G1 arrest, but it also delays recovery from quiescence. Two MBF- and SBF-Associated proteins have been identified that have little effect on SBF or MBF activity in cycling cells. We show that these two related proteins, Msa1 and Msa2, are specifically required for the transition to quiescence. Like the E2F complexes that are quiescence-specific, Msa1 and Msa2 are required to repress the transcription of many SBF target genes, including SWI4, the CLN2 cyclin and histones, specifically after glucose is exhausted from the media. They also activate transcription of many MBF target genes. msa1msa2 cells fail to G1 arrest and rapidly lose viability upon glucose exhaustion. msa1msa2 mutants that survive this transition are very large, but they attain the same thermo-tolerance and longevity of wild type quiescent cells. This indicates that Msa1 and Msa2 are required for successful transition to quiescence, but not for the maintenance of that state.
Role of HLA-G1 in trophoblast cell proliferation, adhesion and invasion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jiang, Feng, E-mail: jiangfeng1161@163.com [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, 569 Xinsi Road, Baqiao District, Xi' an 710038 (China); Zhao, Hongxi [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, 569 Xinsi Road, Baqiao District, Xi' an 710038 (China); Wang, Li [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100853 (China); Guo, Xinyu [Assisted Reproductive Center, General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command, Guangzhou 510010 (China); Wang, Xiaohong; Yin, Guowu [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, 569 Xinsi Road, Baqiao District, Xi' an 710038 (China); Hu, Yunsheng [Department of Orthopedics, Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710038 (China); Li, Yi [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, 569 Xinsi Road, Baqiao District, Xi' an 710038 (China); Yao, Yuanqing, E-mail: yuanqingyaoxa@163.com [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100853 (China)
2015-02-27
Trophoblast cells are important in embryo implantation and fetomaternal tolerance. HLA-G is specifically expressed at the maternal–fetal interface and is a regulator in pregnancy. The aim of the present study was to detect the effect of HLA-G1 on trophoblast cell proliferation, adhesion, and invasion. Human trophoblast cell lines (JAR and HTR-8/SVneo cells) were infected with HLA-G1-expressing lentivirus. After infection, HLA-G1 expression of the cells was detected by western blotting. Cell proliferation was detected by the BrdU assay. The cell cycle and apoptosis of JAR and HTR-8/SVneo cells was measured by flow cytometry (FCM). The invasion of the cells under different conditions was detected by the transwell invasion chamber assay. HLA-G1 didn't show any significant influence on the proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion, and invasion of trophocytes in normal culture conditions. However, HLA-G1 inhibited JAR and HTR-8/SVneo cells invasion induced by hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) under normal oxygen conditions. In conditions of hypoxia, HLA-G1 couldn't inhibit the induction of cell invasion by HGF. HLA-G1 is not an independent factor for regulating the trophocytes. It may play an indirect role in embryo implantation and formation of the placenta. - Highlights: • HLA-G1 could not influence trophocytes under normal conditions. • HLA-G1 inhibited cell invasion induced by HGF under normal oxygen condition. • HLA-G1 could not influence cell invasion under hypoxia conditions.
Reliability Analysis of Bearing Capacity of Large-Diameter Piles under Osterberg Test
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lei Nie
2013-05-01
Full Text Available This study gives the reliability analysis of bearing capacity of large-diameter piles under osterberg test. The limit state equation of dimensionless random variables is utilized in the reliability analysis of vertical bearing capacity of large-diameter piles based on Osterberg loading tests. And the reliability index and the resistance partial coefficient under the current specifications are calculated using calibration method. The results show: the reliable index of large-diameter piles is correlated with the load effect ratio and is smaller than the ordinary piles; resistance partial coefficient of 1.53 is proper in design of large-diameter piles.
Bearing Capacity Estimation of Bridge Piles Using the Impulse Transient Response Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Meng Ma
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A bearing capacity estimation method for bridge piles was developed. In this method, the pulse echo test was used to select the intact piles; the dynamic stiffness was obtained by the impulse transient response test. A total of 680 bridge piles were tested, and their capacities were estimated. Finally, core drilling analysis was used to check the reliability of this method. The results show that, for intact piles, an obvious positive correlation exits between the dynamic stiffness and bearing capacity of the piles. The core drilling analysis proved that the estimation method was reliable.
Experimental Research on Large Diameter Cast-in-Place Piles Embedded in Rock
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
衡朝阳; 何满潮; 姚爱军
2001-01-01
This paper expatiated the field test of large diameter cast-in-place piles embedded in soft rock, including static loading test, high or low strain dynamic test, measurement of stresses and strains of pile body, and pressure measurements between pile tip and soft rock. The relative in-situ test problems are discussed. Based on the limit equilibrium theory and the load transfer equation, a synthesis method of analyzing the ultimate carrying capacity of single large diameter pile is put forward. The research results show that the key to determining the ultimate carrying capacity of single pile with a large diameter is the analysis of the intensity of soft rock.
Analysis of Negative Skin Friction on Single Pile above a Tunnel
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王志亮; 刘学庆
2003-01-01
A finite element program with two different soil models is adopted to study the negative skin friction of an unloaded single pile embedded in the settlement trough of a tunnel. The results show that it is necessary to consider the nonlinear property of soil and to set interface elements between piles and soil in analysis of the negative skin friction of piles. Among a pile group, the pile located above the tunnel centerline bears larger downdrag than the ones far away from tunnel centerline.
GABLS3-LES Intercomparison Study
Basu, S.; Holtslag, A.A.M.; Bosveld, F.C.
2012-01-01
Recently, a large-eddy simulation (LES) intercomparison study was organized under the auspices of the GEWEX Atmospheric Boundary Layer Study (GABLS). Eleven LES modelling groups around the world participated in this study to model a baroclinic, mid-latitude nighttime stable boundary layer utilizing
Field Tests to Investigate the Penetration Rate of Piles Driven by Vibratory Installation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhaohui Qin
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Factors directly affecting the penetration rate of piles installed by vibratory driving technique are summarized and classified into seven aspects which are driving force, resistance, vibratory amplitude, energy consumption, speeding up at the beginning, pile plumbness keeping, and slowing down at the end, from the mechanism and engineering practice of the vibratory pile driving. In order to find out how these factors affect the penetration rate of the pile in three major actors of vibratory pile driving: (i the pile to be driven, (ii the selected driving system, and (iii the imposed soil conditions, field tests on steel sheet piles driven by vibratory driving technique in different soil conditions are conducted. The penetration rates of three different sheet pile types having up to four different lengths installed using two different vibratory driving systems are documented. Piles with different lengths and types driven with or without clutch have different penetration rates. The working parameters of vibratory hammer, such as driving force and vibratory amplitude, have great influences on the penetration rate of the pile, especially at the later stages of the sinking process. Penetration rate of piles driven in different soil conditions is uniform because of the different penetration resistance including shaft friction and toe resistance.
Bending Moment Calculations for Piles Based on the Finite Element Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu-xin Jie
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Using the finite element analysis program ABAQUS, a series of calculations on a cantilever beam, pile, and sheet pile wall were made to investigate the bending moment computational methods. The analyses demonstrated that the shear locking is not significant for the passive pile embedded in soil. Therefore, higher-order elements are not always necessary in the computation. The number of grids across the pile section is important for bending moment calculated with stress and less significant for that calculated with displacement. Although computing bending moment with displacement requires fewer grid numbers across the pile section, it sometimes results in variation of the results. For displacement calculation, a pile row can be suitably represented by an equivalent sheet pile wall, whereas the resulting bending moments may be different. Calculated results of bending moment may differ greatly with different grid partitions and computational methods. Therefore, a comparison of results is necessary when performing the analysis.
Nonlinear analysis of pile load-settlement behavior in layered soil
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
吕述晖; 王奎华; 张鹏; C. J. LEO3
2015-01-01
A simplified approach is presented to analyze the single pile settlement in multilayered soil. First, a fictitious soil−pile model is employed to consider the effect of layered soil beneath pile toe on pile settlement behavior. Two approximation methods are proposed to simplify the nonlinear load transfer function and simulate the nonlinear compression of fictitious soil−pile, respectively. On this basis, an efficient program is developed. The procedures for determining the main parameters of mathematical model are discussed. Comparisons with two well-documented field experimental pile loading tests are conducted to verify the rationality of the present method. Further studies are also made to evaluate the practicability of the proposed approach when a soft substratum exists, and the results suggest that the proposed method can provide a constructive means for assessing the settlement of a single pile for use in engineering design.
Quarter variation and correlations of colostrum albumin, immunoglobulin G1 and G2 in dairy cows.
Samarütel, Jaak; Baumrucker, Craig R; Gross, Josef J; Dechow, Chad D; Bruckmaier, Rupert M
2016-05-01
A high variation in immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) concentration in first milked quarter colostrum has been reported, but BSA quarter colostrum variation is not known. The occurrence of serum albumin in milk has been attributed to increased blood-milk barrier penetration. Reports of serum albumin binding to the Fc Receptor of the neonate, the receptor thought to be responsible for IgG1 transcytosis, suggested that a correlation with the appearance of IgG1 in colostrum of dairy cows was likely. The objective of the study was to establish the quarter colostrum concentration and mass of immunoglobulins and serum albumin. First colostrum was quarter collected within 4 h of parturition from healthy udders of 31 multiparous dairy cows. Individual quarter colostrum weight was determined and a sample of each was frozen for subsequent analysis. Concentrations of immunoglobulin G1, G2, and BSA were measured by ELISA and total mass of components was calculated. In addition, colostrum was also analysed for L-lactate dehydrogenase activity. Analysis of concentration and mass of BSA, immunoglobulin G1, G2 established that the quarter variations were different by cow, quarter and quarter within cow. Partial correlations corrected for colostrum weight indicated that BSA and IgG2 concentration and mass are closely correlated while that of BSA and IgG1 concentration and mass exhibited no correlation suggesting that BSA and IgG1 may have different transport mechanisms. Interestingly, immunoglobulin G1 and G2 concentration and mass exhibited strong correlations suggesting that also some unknown mechanism of immunoglobulin G2 appearance in colostrum is occurring. Finally, no measured protein exhibited any correlation with the activity of lactate dehydrogenase in colostrum.
AMMOLR, Naima; ZEKRI, DjaIeI; Lazreg, Mohammed
2006-01-01
L'infection hospitalière est un phénomène grave et coûteux pour la société et pour le malade; • elle prolonge la durée de séjours; • augmente la consommation thérapeutique ( antibiotique, antalgique...); • entraîne une mobilisation excessive du personnel; • nuit la réputation du personnel soignant et de l'établissement; • multiplie l'évaluation du coût de prise en charge; • induit des séquelles neurologiques irréversibles. Mieux vaut investir dans les mesures de préven...
AMMOLR, Naima; ZEKRI, DjaIeI; Lazreg, Mohammed
2006-01-01
L'infection hospitalière est un phénomène grave et coûteux pour la société et pour le malade; • elle prolonge la durée de séjours; • augmente la consommation thérapeutique ( antibiotique, antalgique...); • entraîne une mobilisation excessive du personnel; • nuit la réputation du personnel soignant et de l'établissement; • multiplie l'évaluation du coût de prise en charge; • induit des séquelles neurologiques irréversibles. Mieux vaut investir dans les mesures de préven...
Les lueurs des sables
2013-01-01
Two CERN ladies are getting ready for the “Trophée Roses des Sables” rally adventure: Julie and Laetitia are finalizing the last details before setting off on Monday 7th October 2013. Julie from EN-MEF group and Laetitia from DGS-SEE group, met at the CERN Rugby club. This year, they are participating in the 100 % female rally which will take place in Morocco from 10 to 20 October. They will be carrying along 100 kg of humanitarian donation for children such as some clothes, books and medical material. Do not hesitate to show your support at their farewell party to be held on Monday 7 October, from 4 to 6 pm in front of the St Genis-Pouilly Mairie (city Hall). Follow their exciting adventure on the blog leslueursdessables.trophee-roses-des-sables.org and on their association’s Facebook page Les Lueurs des Sables.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kjaerulff, Søren; Andersen, Nicoline Resen; Borup, Mia Trolle;
2007-01-01
Eukaryotic cells normally differentiate from G(1); here we investigate the mechanism preventing expression of differentiation-specific genes outside G(1). In fission yeast, induction of the transcription factor Ste11 triggers sexual differentiation. We find that Ste11 is only active in G(1) when...... S phase. When we mutated T82 to aspartic acid, mimicking constant phosphorylation, cells no longer underwent differentiation. Conversely, changing T82 to alanine rendered Ste11-controlled transcription constitutive through the cell cycle, and allowed mating from S phase with increased frequency...
Description of the spin structure function g_1 at arbitrary $x$ and arbitrary Q^2
Ermolaev, B I; Troyan, S I
2007-01-01
The explicit expressions describing the structure function g_1 at arbitrary x and Q^2 are obtained. In the first place, they combine the well-known DGLAP expressions for g_1 with the total resummation of leading logarithms of x, which makes possible to cover the kinematic region of arbitrary x and large Q^2. In order to cover the small-Q^2 region the shift Q^2 -> Q^2 + mu^2 in the large-Q^2 expressions for g_1 is suggested and values of mu are estimated. The expressions obtained do not require singular factors x^{-a} in the fits for initial parton densities.
Singlet structure function g_1 at small x and small Q^2
Ermolaev, B I; Troyan, S I
2006-01-01
Explicit expressions for the singlet g_1 at small x and small Q^2 are obtained with the total resummation of the leading logarithmic contributions. It is shown that g_1 practically does not depend on Q^2 in this kinematic region. In contrast, it would be interesting to investigate its dependence on the invariant energy 2pq because, being g_1 positive at small 2pq, it can turn negative at greater values of this variable. The position of the turning point is sensitive to the ratio between the initial quark and gluon densities, so its experimental detection would enable to estimate this ratio
Small -x behavior of the non-singlet and singlet structure functions g_1
Ermolaev, B I; Troyan, S I
2003-01-01
Explicit expressions for the non-singlet and singlet structure functions g_1 at the small $x$-region are obtained. They include the total resummation of double-logarithmic contributions and accounting for the running QCD coupling effects. We predict that both the non-singlet and singlet g_1 asymptotically ~ x^{- \\Delta}, with the singlet intercept = 0.86 and being more than twice larger than the non-singlet intercept = 0.4. The impact of the initial quark and gluon densities on the sign of g_1 at x << 1 is discussed.
M/G/1 Subject to an Initial Quorum of Customers.
1986-11-01
is the maximal queue size (and system size) while the server idles or vacations. The modified model is designated as M/G/I1(m). When m=O we have the... designate this model as M/G/1/(m). Thus, when m = 0 we have the regular M/G/1. In a prior report (Krakowski, 1986) we dealt with the process "queue...size" for : i M/G/1(m). (Note: In that prior report m stands for the current m+1. The change simplifies somewhat the typography of many formulas.) We
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Omid Louie
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Supramolecule self-assembly polyamidoamine (PAMAM dendrimer refers to the chemical sys-tems made up of a discrete number of assembled molecular subunits or components. These strat-egies involve the covalent assembly of hierarchical components reactive monomers, branch cells or dendrons around atomic or molecular cores according to divergent/convergent dendritic branching principles, systematic filling of space around a core with shells (layers of branch cells. The polydispersity index (PDI for the supramolecule megamer are pretty closed to one, are in agreement with the Poisson probability distribution. Polyamidoamine (PAMAM den-drimer G1-G1 that it was PAMAM Megamer NH2, COOH end groupsynthesized and character-ized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMRspectra and GelPermeation Chromatography (GPC.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schallert, Matthias [Gesellschaft fuer Schwingungsuntersuchungen und Dynamische Pruefmethoden (GSP) mbH, Mannheim (Germany); Hofmann, Detlef; Habel, Wolfgang R. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany)
2008-07-01
Reinforced concrete piles are often used for structures on non-sufficiently bearing soil areas. Assessment of bearing capacity and bearing behaviour of large concrete piles remains a difficult task under specific soil conditions and pile geometries. Usually static and dynamic pile tests are carried out for quality assurance. From dynamic measurements taken only from the pile head, the bearing behaviour and structural integrity can be derived using the one-dimensional theory of wave propagation. More precise information about the pile features can be achieved by highly resolving fibre-optic sensors based on Fabry-Perot technology, distributed over several locations along the pile length. Small scale piles and real driven piles have been tested. This paper describes the sensor, the sensor installation, and experimental results of tests in laboratory as well as test results for recording the wave propagation in the small scale piles. (orig.)
Les plans de gestion de crises dans les pays francophones
Barkaoui, Houssem; Guinet, Alain; Tao, Wang; Meskens, Nadine
2016-01-01
International audience; La gestion des catastrophes, appelée plus communément gestion des situations d'urgences ou encore gestion de crises, est la discipline qui s'intéresse à l'évaluation des menaces et de leurs risques relatifs ainsi qu'aux stratégies mises en oeuvre afin d'en limiter l'occurrence ou les conséquences en cas de survenue. Dans ce papier, nous allons étudier le cadre réglementaire et les mesures prises par les gouvernements pour gérer des situations exceptionnelles de crises ...
Moments of the Spin Structure Functions g_1^p and g_1^d for 0.05 < Q^2 < 3.0 GeV^2
Prok, Y; Burkert, V D; Deur, A; Dharmawardane, K V; Dodge, G E; Griffioen, K A; Kuhn, S E; Minehart, R; Adams, G; Amaryan, M J; Anghinolfi, M; Asryan, G; Audit, G; Avakian, H; Bagdasaryan, H; Baillie, N; Ball, J P; Baltzell, N A; Barrow, S; Battaglieri, M; Beard, K; Bedlinskiy, I; Bektasoglu, M; Bellis, M; Benmouna, N; Berman, B L; Biselli, A S; Blaszczyk, L; Boiarinov, S; Bonner, B E; Bouchigny, S; Bradford, R; Branford, D; Briscoe, W J; Brooks, W K; Bültmann, S; Butuceanu, C; Calarco, J R; Careccia, S L; Carman, D S; Casey, L; Cazes, A; Chen, S; Cheng, L; Cole, P L; Collins, P; Coltharp, P; Cords, D; Corvisiero, P; Crabb, D; Credé, V; Cummings, J P; Dale, D; Dashyan, N; De Masi, R; De Vita, R; De Sanctis, E; Degtyarenko, P V; Denizli, H; Dennis, L; Dhuga, K S; Dickson, R; Djalali, C; Doughty, D; Dugger, M; Dytman, S; Dzyubak, O P; Egiyan, H; Egiyan, K S; El Fassi, L; Elouadrhiri, L; Eugenio, P; Fatemi, R; Fedotov, G; Feldman, G; Fersh, R G; Feuerbach, R J; Forest, T A; Fradi, A; Funsten, H; Garçon, M; Gavalian, G; Gevorgyan, N; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Girod, F X; Goetz, J T; Golovatch, E; Gothe, R W; Guidal, M; Guillo, M; Guler, N; Guo, L; Gyurjyan, V; Hadjidakis, C; Hafidi, K; Hakobyan, H; Hanretty, C; Hardie, J; Hassall, N; Heddle, D; Hersman, F W; Hicks, K; Hleiqawi, I; Holtrop, M; Huertas, M; Hyde-Wright, C E; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, D G; Ishkhanov, B S; Isupov, E L; Ito, M M; Jenkins, D; Jo, H S; Johnstone, J R; Joo, K; Jüngst, H G; Kalantarians, N; Keith, C D; Kellie, J D; Khandaker, M; Kim, K Y; Kim, K; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Klusman, M; Kossov, M; Krahn, Z; Kramer, L H; Kubarovski, V; Kühn, J; Kuleshov, S V; Kuznetsov, V; Lachniet, J; Laget, J M; Langheinrich, J; Lawrence, D; Ji Li; Lima, A C S; Livingston, K; Lu, H Y; Lukashin, K; MacCormick, M; Marchand, C; Markov, N; Mattione, P; McAleer, S; McKinnon, B; McNabb, J W C; Mecking, B A; Mestayer, M D; Meyer, C A; Mibe, T; Mikhailov, K; Mirazita, M; Miskimen, R; Mokeev, V; Morand, L; Moreno, B; Moriya, K; Morrow, S A; Moteabbed, M; Müller, J; Munevar, E; Mutchler, G S; Nadel-Turonski, P; Nasseripour, R; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Niczyporuk, B B; Niroula, M R; Niyazov, R A; Nozar, M; O'Rielly, G V; Osipenko, M; Ostrovidov, A I; Park, K; Pasyuk, E; Paterson, C; Anefalos Pereira, S; Philips, S A; Pierce, J; Pivnyuk, N; Pocanic, D; Pogorelko, O; Popa, I; Pozdniakov, S; Preedom, B M; Price, J W; Procureur, S; Protopopescu, D; Qin, L M; Raue, B A; Riccardi, G; Ricco, G; Ripani, M; Ritchie, B G; Rosner, G; Rossi, P; Rowntree, D; Rubin, P D; Sabati, F; Salamanca, J; Salgado, C; Santoro, e J P; Sapunenko, V; Schumacher, R A; Seely, M L; Serov, V S; Sharabyan, Yu G; Sharov, D; Shaw, J; Shvedunov, N V; Skabelin, A V; Smith, E S; Smith, L C; Sober, D I; Sokhan, D; Stavinsky, A; Stepanyan, S S; Stepanyan, S; Stokes, B E; Stoler, P; Strakovsky, I I; Strauch, S; Suleiman, R; Taiuti, M; Tedeschi, D J; Tkabladze, A; Tkachenko, S; Todor, L; Ungaro, M; Vineyard, M F; Vlassov, A V; Watts, D P; Weinstein, L B; Weygand, D P; Williams, M; Wolin, E; Wood, M H; Yegneswaran, A; Yun, J; Zana, L; Zhang, J; Zhao, B; Zhao, Z W
2008-01-01
The spin structure functions g_1 for the proton and the deuteron have been measured over a wide kinematic range in x and Q2 using 1.6 and 5.7 GeV longitudinally polarized electrons incident upon polarized NH_3 and ND_3 targets at Jefferson Lab. Scattered electrons were detected in the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer, for 0.05 < Q^2 < 5 GeV^2 and W < 3 GeV. The first moments of g_1 for the proton and deuteron are presented -- both have a negative slope at low Q2, as predicted by the extended Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn sum rule. The first result for the generalized forward spin polarizability of the proton gamma_0^p is also reported, and shows evidence of scaling above Q^2 = 1.5 GeV^2. Although the first moments of g_1 are consistent with Chiral Perturbation Theory (ChPT) calculations up to approximately Q^2 = 0.06 GeV^2, a significant discrepancy is observed between the \\gamma_0^p data and ChPT for gamma_0^p,even at the lowest Q2.
Moments of the Spin Structure Functions g1p and g1d for 0.05 < Q2 < 3.0 GeV2
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prok, Yelena; Bosted, Peter; Burkert, Volker; Deur, Alexandre; Dharmawardane, Kahanawita; Dodge, Gail; Griffioen, Keith; Kuhn, Sebastian; Minehart, Ralph; Adams, Gary; Amaryan, Moscov; Amaryan, Moskov; Anghinolfi, Marco; Asryan, G.; Audit, Gerard; Avagyan, Harutyun; Baghdasaryan, Hovhannes; Baillie, Nathan; Ball, J.P.; Ball, Jacques; Baltzell, Nathan; Barrow, Steve; Battaglieri, Marco; Beard, Kevin; Bedlinskiy, Ivan; Bektasoglu, Mehmet; Bellis, Matthew; Benmouna, Nawal; Berman, Barry; Biselli, Angela; Blaszczyk, Lukasz; Boyarinov, Sergey; Bonner, Billy; Bouchigny, Sylvain; Bradford, Robert; Branford, Derek; Briscoe, William; Brooks, William; Bultmann, S.; Bueltmann, Stephen; Butuceanu, Cornel; Calarco, John; Careccia, Sharon; Carman, Daniel; Casey, Liam; Cazes, Antoine; Chen, Shifeng; Cheng, Lu; Cole, Philip; Collins, Patrick; Coltharp, Philip; Cords, Dieter; Corvisiero, Pietro; Crabb, Donald; Crede, Volker; Cummings, John; Dale, Daniel; Dashyan, Natalya; De Masi, Rita; De Vita, Raffaella; De Sanctis, Enzo; Degtiarenko, Pavel; Denizli, Haluk; Dennis, Lawrence; Dhuga, Kalvir; Dickson, Richard; Djalali, Chaden; Doughty, David; Dugger, Michael; Dytman, Steven; Dzyubak, Oleksandr; Egiyan, Hovanes; Egiyan, Kim; Elfassi, Lamiaa; Elouadrhiri, Latifa; Eugenio, Paul; Fatemi, Renee; Fedotov, Gleb; Feldman, Gerald; Fersch, Robert; Feuerbach, Robert; Forest, Tony; Fradi, Ahmed; Funsten, Herbert; Garcon, Michel; Gavalian, Gagik; Gevorgyan, Nerses; Gilfoyle, Gerard; Giovanetti, Kevin; Girod, Francois-Xavier; Goetz, John; Golovach, Evgeny; Gothe, Ralf; Guidal, Michel; Guillo, Matthieu; Guler, Nevzat; Guo, Lei; Gyurjyan, Vardan; Hadjidakis, Cynthia; Hafidi, Kawtar; Hakobyan, Hayk; Hanretty, Charles; Hardie, John; Hassall, Neil; Heddle, David; Hersman, F.; Hicks, Kenneth; Hleiqawi, Ishaq; Holtrop, Maurik; Huertas, Marco; Hyde, Charles; Ilieva, Yordanka; Ireland, David; Ishkhanov, Boris; Isupov, Evgeny; Ito, Mark; Jenkins, David; Jo, Hyon-Suk; Johnstone, John; Joo, Kyungseon; Juengst, Henry; Kalantarians, Narbe; Keith, Christopher; Kellie, James; Khandaker, Mahbubul; Kim, Kui; Kim, Kyungmo; Kim, Wooyoung; Klein, Andreas; Klein, Franz; Klusman, Mike; Kossov, Mikhail; Krahn, Zebulun; Kramer, Laird; Kubarovsky, Valery; Kuhn, Joachim; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuznetsov, Viacheslav; Lachniet, Jeff; Laget, Jean; Langheinrich, Jorn; Lawrence, Dave; Lima, Ana; Livingston, Kenneth; Lu, Haiyun; Lukashin, K.; MacCormick, Marion; Marchand, Claude; Markov, Nikolai; Mattione, Paul; McAleer, Simeon; McKinnon, Bryan; McNabb, John; Mecking, Bernhard; Mestayer, Mac; Meyer, Curtis; Mibe, Tsutomu; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Mirazita, Marco; Miskimen, Rory; Mokeev, Viktor; Morand, Ludyvine; Moreno, Brahim; Moriya, Kei; Morrow, Steven; Moteabbed, Maryam; Mueller, James; Munevar Espitia, Edwin; Mutchler, Gordon; Nadel-Turonski, Pawel; Nasseripour, Rakhsha; Niccolai, Silvia; Niculescu, Gabriel; Niculescu, Maria-Ioana; Niczyporuk, Bogdan; Niroula, Megh; Niyazov, Rustam; Nozar, Mina; O' Rielly, Grant; Osipenko, Mikhail; Ostrovidov, Alexander; Park, Kijun; Pasyuk, Evgueni; Paterson, Craig; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Philips, Sasha; Pierce, J.; Pivnyuk, Nikolay; Pocanic, Dinko; Pogorelko, Oleg; Popa, Iulian; Pozdnyakov, Sergey; Preedom, Barry; Price, John; Procureur, Sebastien; Protopopescu, Dan; Qin, Liming; Raue, Brian; Riccardi, Gregory; Ricco, Giovanni; Ripani, Marco; Ritchie, Barry; Rosner, Guenther; Rossi, Patrizia; Rowntree, David; Rubin, Philip; Sabatie, Franck; Salamanca, Julian; Salgado, Carlos; Santoro, Joseph; Sapunenko, Vladimir; Schumacher, Reinhard; Seely, Mikell; Serov, Vladimir; Sharabian, Youri; Sharov, Dmitri; Shaw, Jeffrey; Shvedunov, Nikolay; Skabelin, Alexander; Smith, Elton; Smith, Lee; Sober, Daniel; Sokhan, Daria; Stavinskiy, Aleksey; Stepanyan, Samuel; Stepanyan, Stepan; Stokes, Burnham; Stoler, Paul; Strakovski, Igor; Strauch, Steffen; Suleiman, Riad; Taiuti, Mauro; Tedeschi, David; Tkabladze, Avtandil; Tkachenko, Svyatoslav; Todor, Luminita; Ungaro, Maurizio; V
2009-02-01
The spin structure functions $g_1$ for the proton and the deuteron have been measured over a wide kinematic range in $x$ and \\Q2 using 1.6 and 5.7 GeV longitudinally polarized electrons incident upon polarized NH$_3$ and ND$_3$ targets at Jefferson Lab. Scattered electrons were detected in the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer, for $0.05 < Q^2 < 5 $\\ GeV$^2$ and $W < 3$ GeV. The first moments of $g_1$ for the proton and deuteron are presented -- both have a negative slope at low \\Q2, as predicted by the extended Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn sum rule. The first result for the generalized forward spin polarizability of the proton $\\gamma_0^p$ is also reported, and shows evidence of scaling above $Q^2$ = 1.5 GeV$^2$. Although the first moments of $g_1$ are consistent with Chiral Perturbation Theory (\\ChPT) calculations up to approximately $Q^2 = 0.06$ GeV$^2$, a significant discrepancy is observed between the $\\gamma_0^p$ data and \\ChPT\\ for $\\gamma_0^p$,even at the lowest \\Q2.
Pachla, Henryk
2016-12-01
The formation of a pile in the existing foundation and soil creates a new foundation construction which has a structure of foundation-pile-soil. This construction must be able to transfer loads from the foundation to the pile and from the pile to the soil. The pile structure has to transfer an imposed load. From the point of view of continuum mechanics determination of the capacity of such a system is preceded by the analysis of contact problem of three contact surfaces. Each of these surfaces is determined by different pairs of materials. The pair which creates a pile anchorage is a material from which the foundation is built (structure of stone and grout, brick and grout, concrete or reinforced concrete and grout. The pile structure is formed by grout and steel rebar. The pile formed in soil is created by a pair of grout and soil. What is important is that on contact surfaces the materials adhering to one another are subjected to different deformation types that are controlled by mechanical properties and geometry of these surfaces. In the paper, additional conditions that should be fulfilled for the foundation-pile-soil system to make load transfer from foundation to soil possible and safe are presented. The results of research done by the author on foundation-pile contact surface are discussed. The tests were targeted at verifying the bearing capacity of anchorage and deformation of piles made of grout and other materials from which foundations are built. The specimens were tested in tension and compression. The experiments were conducted on the amount specimens which is regarded as small sample to enable the statistical analysis of the results.
Picking up Clues from the Discard Pile (Stereo)
2008-01-01
As NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander excavates trenches, it also builds piles with most of the material scooped from the holes. The piles, like this one called 'Caterpillar,' provide researchers some information about the soil. On Aug. 24, 2008, during the late afternoon of the 88th Martian day after landing, Phoenix's Surface Stereo Imager took separate exposures through its left eye and right eye that have been combined into this stereo view. The image appears three dimensional when seen through red-blue glasses. This conical pile of soil is about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall. The sources of material that the robotic arm has dropped onto the Caterpillar pile have included the 'Dodo' and ''Upper Cupboard' trenches and, more recently, the deeper 'Stone Soup' trench. Observations of the pile provide information, such as the slope of the cone and the textures of the soil, that helps scientists understand properties of material excavated from the trenches. For the Stone Soup trench in particular, which is about 18 centimeters (7 inches) deep, the bottom of the trench is in shadow and more difficult to observe than other trenches that Phoenix has dug. The Phoenix team obtained spectral clues about the composition of material from the bottom of Stone Soup by photographing Caterpillar through 15 different filters of the Surface Stereo Imager when the pile was covered in freshly excavated material from the trench. The spectral observation did not produce any sign of water-ice, just typical soil for the site. However, the bigger clumps do show a platy texture that could be consistent with elevated concentration of salts in the soil from deep in Stone Soup. The team chose that location as the source for a soil sample to be analyzed in the lander's wet chemistry laboratory, which can identify soluble salts in the soil. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Allemand, Luc
2017-01-01
À l'écart du monde, loin des laboratoires, en contact avec la nature, des savants réputés du monde entier viennent enseigner les grands sujets de la physique et partager les dernières avancées avec de nombreux élèves. À l'écart du monde, loin des laboratoires, en contact avec la nature, des savants réputés du monde entier viennent enseigner les grands sujets de la physique et partager les dernières avancées avec de nombreux élèves. Ces hauts-lieux sont propices à la méditation et procurent autant d'opportunités de rencontres et d'échanges. La liberté de pensée qui y règne permet d'explorer de nouvelles pistes pour la physique de demain. Car les grandes découvertes surviennent rarement comme des illuminations : elles résultent plutôt de lentes maturations, accompagnées de travail acharné et de discussions suivies. De tels lieux existent depuis les années 1950 en France : l'Institut d'Études scientifiques de Cargèse, en Corse, et l'École de Physique des Houches, dans les Alpes, ...
Redox-mediated bypass of restriction point via skipping of G1pm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Greene James J
2006-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that cancer cells bypass the restriction point, R, and undergo uncontrolled cell proliferation. Hypothesis and evidence We suggest here that fibrosarcoma cells enter G1ps directly from M, skipping G1pm, hence bypassing R, in response to redox modulation. Evidence is presented from the published literature that demonstrate a shortening of the cycle period of transformed fibroblasts (SV-3T3 compared to the nontransformed 3T3 fibroblasts, corresponding to the duration of G1pm in the 3T3 fibroblasts. Evidence is also presented that demonstrate that redox modulation can induce the CUA-4 fibroblasts to bypass R, resulting in a cycle period closely corresponding to the cycle period of fibrosarcoma cells (HT1080. Conclusion The evidence supports our hypothesis that a low internal redox potential can cause fibrosarcoma cells to skip the G1pm phase of the cell cycle.
IgG1 variations in the colostrum of Holstein dairy cows.
Le Cozler, Y; Guatteo, R; Le Dréan, E; Turban, H; Leboeuf, F; Pecceu, K; Guinard-Flament, J
2016-02-01
High-immune quality colostrum (IgG1 concentration ⩾50 g/l) is crucial for the health and development of the young calf. Studies on colostrum quality tend to focus on external factors such as breed, parity or dry period length, but few have focused on within-cow variations. Here we ran experiments to gain a deeper insight into within-cow variation in IgG1 concentrations in dairy cow colostrum. Trials were performed in an experimental farm, located in the Western part of France. Colostrum from each quarter and a composite sample (mix of four quarters) were concomitantly collected on 77 Holstein dairy cows just after calving to assess the influence of sample type on IgG1 concentrations. Variation in IgG1 concentrations during the first milking was studied on samples from nine cows collected every minute from the start of milking. Repeatability of colostral IgG1 concentration was estimated from 2009 and 2010 data on 16 healthy cows. IgG1 concentrations were tested using a radial immunodiffusion method. Sensitivity and specificity were similar regardless of sample type tested (individual quarter or composite milk). Mean average IgG1 concentration was 54.1 g/l in composite colostrum, and was significantly higher in hind quarter teats (56.2 g/l) than front quarter teats (53.1 g/l). Average IgG1 concentration did not change significantly during colostrum milking, and the variations observed (15% or less) were likely due to the laboratory method (CV 15%). IgG1 concentrations in dam colostrum increased slightly from 2009 to 2010 due to BW and parity effects. In 56% of cases, colostrum quality could have been assessed on either individual or composite colostrum samples collected at any time during the first milking without affecting the reliability of the measurement. However, in other cases, differences were significant enough to mean that estimates of average IgG1 concentration in colostrum from any one quarter would not be reliable. It is concluded that colostrum quality
Molecular basis for the dissociation dynamics of protein A-immunoglobulin G1 complex.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fu-Feng Liu
Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus protein A (SpA is the most popular affinity ligand for immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1. However, the molecular basis for the dissociation dynamics of SpA-IgG1 complex is unclear. Herein, coarse-grained (CG molecular dynamics (MD simulations with the Martini force field were used to study the dissociation dynamics of the complex. The CG-MD simulations were first verified by the agreement in the structural and interactional properties of SpA and human IgG1 (hIgG1 in the association process between the CG-MD and all-atom MD at different NaCl concentrations. Then, the CG-MD simulation studies focused on the molecular insight into the dissociation dynamics of SpA-hIgG1 complex at pH 3.0. It is found that there are four steps in the dissociation process of the complex. First, there is a slight conformational adjustment of helix II in SpA. This is followed by the phenomena that the electrostatic interactions provided by the three hot spots (Glu143, Arg146 and Lys154 of helix II of SpA break up, leading to the dissociation of helix II from the binding site of hIgG1. Subsequently, breakup of the hydrophobic interactions between helix I (Phe132, Tyr133 and His137 in SpA and hIgG1 occurs, resulting in the disengagement of helix I from its binding site of hIgG1. Finally, the non-specific interactions between SpA and hIgG1 decrease slowly till disappearance, leading to the complete dissociation of the SpA-hIgG1 complex. This work has revealed that CG-MD coupled with the Martini force field is an effective method for studying the dissociation dynamics of protein-protein complex.
Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi; Yoshinari, Tomoya; Shams-Ghahfarokhi, Masoomeh; Rezaee, Mohammad-Bagher; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Sakuda, Shohei
2007-09-01
Dillapiol was isolated from the essential oil of dill as a specific inhibitor of aflatoxin G1 production. It inhibited aflatoxin G1 production by Aspergillus parasiticus with an IC50 value of 0.15 microM without inhibiting aflatoxin B1 production or fungal growth. Apiol and myristicin, congeners of dillapiol, showed similar activity with IC50 values of 0.24 and 3.5 microM, respectively.
Les incentives dans les enquêtes en ligne
Solène Guillemot
2013-01-01
Ce mémoire présente les recherches antérieures d'auteurs s'intéressant aux incentives dans les études marketing et une expérimentation cherchant à vérifier les impacts, à la fois positifs et négatifs, des incentives dans les enquêtes quantitatives en ligne. Ainsi, un questionnaire a été administré par emailing à deux groupes, l'un recevant la possibilité de participer à un tirage au sort (incentive de l'étude), et l'autre n'ayant pas cette possibilité. Il s'agissait dans un premier temps de v...
Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) generates soluble HLA-G1 by cell surface proteolytic shedding.
Rizzo, Roberta; Trentini, Alessandro; Bortolotti, Daria; Manfrinato, Maria C; Rotola, Antonella; Castellazzi, Massimiliano; Melchiorri, Loredana; Di Luca, Dario; Dallocchio, Franco; Fainardi, Enrico; Bellini, Tiziana
2013-09-01
Human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) molecules are non-classical HLA class I antigens with an important role in pregnancy immune regulation and inflammation control. Soluble HLA-G proteins can be generated through two mechanisms: alternative splicing and proteolytic release, which is known to be metalloprotease mediated. Among this class of enzymes, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) might be involved in the HLA-G1 membrane cleavage. Of particular interest are MMP-2 and MMP-9, which regulate the inflammatory process by cytokine and chemokine modulation. We evaluated the effect of MMP-9 and MMP-2 on HLA-G1 membrane shedding. In particular, we analyzed the in vitro effect of these two gelatinases on the secretion of HLA-G1 via proteolytic cleavage in 221-G1-transfected cell line, in JEG3 cell line, and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The results obtained by both cell lines showed the role of MMP-2 in HLA-G1 shedding. On the contrary, MMP-9 was not involved in this process. In addition, we identified three possible highly specific cleavage sites for MMP-2, whereas none were detected for MMP-9. This study suggests an effective link between MMP-2 and HLA-G1 shedding, increasing our knowledge on the regulatory machinery beyond HLA-G regulation in physiological and pathological conditions.
The amrG1 gene is involved in the activation of acetate in Corynebacterium glutamicum
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
RUAN; Hong; R.; Gerstmeir; S.; Schnicke; B.J.; Eikmanns
2005-01-01
During growth of Corynebacterium glutamicum on acetate as its carbon and energy source, the expression of the pta-ack operon is induced, coding for the acetate-activating enzymes, which are phosphotransacetylase (PTA) and acetate kinase (AK). By transposon rescue, we identified the two genes amrG1 and amrG2 found in the deregulated transposon mutant C. glutamicum G25. The amrG1 gene (NCBI-accession: AF532964) has a size of 732 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 243 amino acids and apparently is partially responsible for the regulation of acetate metabolism in C. glutamicum. We constructed an in-frame deletion mutant and an overexpressing strain of amrG1 in the C. glutamicum ATCC13032 wildtype. The strains were then analyzed with respect to their enzyme activities of PTA and AK during growth on glucose, acetate and glucose or acetate alone as carbon sources. Compared to the parental strain, the amrG1 deletion mutant showed higher specific AK and PTA activities during growth on glucose but showed the same high specific activities of AK and PTA on medium containing acetate plus glucose and on medium containing acetate. In contrast to the gene deletion, overexpression of the amrG1 gene in C. glutamicum 13032 had the adverse regulatory effect. These results indicate that the amrG1 gene encodes a repressor or co-repressor of the pta-ack operon.
Les chercheurs inquiets malgre les promesses de Claudie Haignere
2003-01-01
"Le 9 avril, lors d'un colloque sur l'innovation, la ministre deleguee a la recherche et aux nouvelles technologies a annonce, "en plein accord, dit-elle, avec le premier ministre", que "les etablissements publics a caractere scientifique et technologique (EPST) ne connaitront en 2003 aucune nouvelle annulation de credits de paiement et d'autorisations de programme" et que "les reserves de precaution sont entierement levees" (1 page).
Piles, Tabs and Overlaps in Navigation among Documents
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jakobsen, Mikkel Rønne; Hornbæk, Kasper Anders Søren
2010-01-01
documents worked well for tasks that involved visual features of the documents, but the utility of recency or stable ordering of documents was task dependent. Based on the results, we discuss the effects of spatial arrangement, visibility, and task-dependency, and suggest areas for future research......Navigation among documents is a frequent, but ill supported activity. Overlapping or tabbed documents are widespread, but they offer limited visibility of their content. We explore variations on navigation support: arranging documents with tabs, as overlapping windows, and in piles....... In an experiment we compared 11 participants’ navigation with these variations and found strong task effects. Overall, overlapping windows were preferred and their structured layout worked well with some tasks. Surprisingly, tabbed documents were efficient in tasks requiring simply finding a document. Piled...
The Pressure Limitations on Flux Pile-up Reconnection
Litvinenko, Yuri E.
1999-05-01
The problem of the plasma pressure limitations on the rapidity of flux pile-up magnetic reconnection is re-examined, following the claim made by Jardine and Allen (1998) that the limitations can be removed by relaxing the assumption of zero-vorticity two-dimensional plasma flows. It is shown that for a two-dimensional stagnation point flow with nonzero vorticity the magnetic merging rate cannot exceed the Sweet-Parker scaling in a low-beta plasma. The pressure limitation appears to be much less restrictive for weak three-dimensional flux pile-up, provided the perturbation length scale in the third dimension is much less than the global length scale. The actual reconnection rate in the latter case, however, is much lower than this upper estimate unless the current sheet width is also much less than the global scale.
The Supercritical Pile Model: Prompt Emission Across the Electromagnetic Spectrum
Kazanas, Demos; Mastichiadis, A.
2008-01-01
The "Supercritical Pile" GRB model is an economical model that provides the dissipation necessary to convert explosively the energy stored in relativistic protons in the blast wave of a GRB into radiation; at the same time it produces spectra whose luminosity peaks at 1 MeV in the lab frame, the result of the kinematics of the proton-photon - pair production reaction that effects the conversion of proton energy to radiation. We outline the fundamental notions behind the "Supercritical Pile" model and discuss the resulting spectra of the prompt emission from optical to gamma-ray energies of order Gamma^2 m_ec^2, (Gamma is the Lorentz factor of the blast wave) present even in the absence of an accelerated particle distribution and compare our results to bursts that cover this entire energy range. Particular emphasis is given on the emission at the GLAST energy range both in the prompt and the afterglow stages of the burst.
ESTIMATION OF SCOUR HOLE PROPERTIES AROUND VERTICAL PILE USING ANNs
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
A.KHOSRONEJAD; G. A. MONTAZER; M. GHODSIAN
2003-01-01
Correct estimation of the scour around vertical piles in the field exposed to oscillatory waves is very important for many offshore structures and coastal engineering projects. Conventional predictive formulas for the geometric properties of scour hole, however, are not able to provide sufficiently accurate results. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are simplified mathematical representation of the human brain. Three-layer normal feed-forward ANN is a powerful tool for input-output mapping and has been widely used in civil engineering problems. In this article the ANNs approach is used to predict the geometric properties of the scour around vertical pile. Two different ANNs including multilayer perceptron (with four different learning rules) and radial basis functions neural networks are used for this purpose. The results show that a three-layer normal feed-forward multilayer perceptron with quick propagation (QP) learning rule can predict the scour hole properties successfully.
The Supercritical Pile Model: Prompt Emission Across the Electromagnetic Spectrum
Kazanas, Demos; Mastichiadis, A.
2008-01-01
The "Supercritical Pile" GRB model is an economical model that provides the dissipation necessary to convert explosively the energy stored in relativistic protons in the blast wave of a GRB into radiation; at the same time it produces spectra whose luminosity peaks at 1 MeV in the lab frame, the result of the kinematics of the proton-photon - pair production reaction that effects the conversion of proton energy to radiation. We outline the fundamental notions behind the "Supercritical Pile" model and discuss the resulting spectra of the prompt emission from optical to gamma-ray energies of order Gamma^2 m_ec^2, (Gamma is the Lorentz factor of the blast wave) present even in the absence of an accelerated particle distribution and compare our results to bursts that cover this entire energy range. Particular emphasis is given on the emission at the GLAST energy range both in the prompt and the afterglow stages of the burst.
Probability distributions for Poisson processes with pile-up
Sevilla, Diego J R
2013-01-01
In this paper, two parametric probability distributions capable to describe the statistics of X-ray photon detection by a CCD are presented. They are formulated from simple models that account for the pile-up phenomenon, in which two or more photons are counted as one. These models are based on the Poisson process, but they have an extra parameter which includes all the detailed mechanisms of the pile-up process that must be fitted to the data statistics simultaneously with the rate parameter. The new probability distributions, one for number of counts per time bins (Poisson-like), and the other for waiting times (exponential-like) are tested fitting them to statistics of real data, and between them through numerical simulations, and their results are analyzed and compared. The probability distributions presented here can be used as background statistical models to derive likelihood functions for statistical methods in signal analysis.
Resolution of Identity Crisis of Events in Pile-up
Deshpande, Avinash A
2012-01-01
Mutually uncorrelated random discrete events, manifesting a common basic process, are examined often in terms of their occurrence rate as a function of one or more of their distinguishing attributes, such as measurements of photon spectrum as a function of energy. Such rate distributions obtained from the observed attribute values for an ensemble of events will correspond to the "true" distribution only if the event occurrence were {\\it mutually exclusive}. However, due to finite resolution in such measurements, the problem of event {\\it pile-up} is not only unavoidable, but also increases with event rate. Although extensive simulations to estimate the distortion due to pile-up in the observed rate distribution are available, no restoration procedure has yet been suggested. Here we present an elegant analytical solution to recover the underlying {\\it true} distribution. Our method, based on Poisson statistics and Fourier transforms, is shown to perform as desired even when applied to distributions that are si...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
顾长存; 洪昌地; 马文彬; 李雪平
2008-01-01
Grouting pile is a new soft soil foundation treatment method with characteristics such as no vibration, no noise, no soil compaction, light construction machines and quick construction velocity and so on. At present, study on reinforcement mechanism and design calculation method of composite foundation of grouting pile is initially started without design specifications, so it is usually required to draw on design specifications of stump pile when designing composite foundation of grouting pile while grouting pile has its characteristics and difference although reinforcement mechanisms and construction processes of two types of piles are similar. Sedimentation formula of composite foundation of grouting pile with cover plate is educed and a suitable deformation mode is proposed by aiming to deformation characteristics of composite foundation of grouting pile with cover plate under embankment load on basis of relevant sedimentation theories of composite foundation by combination of characteristics of composite foundation of grouting pile. The sedimentation calculation formula of grouting pile with cover plate under embankment load is educed according to balance relation of force and displacement coordination conditions by elastic theory and sedimentation calculation model established is validated by sedimentation monitoring documents of one expressway in China.
New Analysis Techniques for Avalanches in a Conical Bead Pile with Cohesion
Tieman, Catherine; Lehman, Susan
2015-03-01
Avalanche statistics and pile geometry for 3 mm steel spheres dropped on a conical bead pile were studied at different drop heights and different cohesion strengths. The pile is initially built on a circular base and is subsequently slowly driven by adding one bead at a time to the apex of the pile. We investigate the dynamic response of the pile by recording avalanches off the pile over the course of tens of thousands of bead drops. The level of cohesion is tuned through use of an applied uniform magnetic field. Changes in the pile mass and geometry were investigated to determine the effect of cohesion and drop height on the angle of repose. The angle of repose increased with cohesion strength, and decreased somewhat for higher drop heights. The packing density of beads is expected to decrease as magnetic cohesion increases, but for our 20 000-bead pile, this effect has not been observed. The proportion of beads removed from the pile by different avalanche sizes was also calculated. Although larger avalanches are much rarer occurrences, they carry away a larger fraction of the total avalanched mass than small avalanches. As the pile cohesion increases, the number of small and medium avalanches decreases so that this mass loss distribution shifts more strongly to large sizes.
Collapse mechanisms and strength prediction of reinforced concrete pile caps
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Uffe G.; Hoang, Linh Cao
2012-01-01
This paper describes an upper bound plasticity approach for strength prediction of reinforced concrete pile caps. A number of collapse mechanisms are identified and analysed. The procedure leads to an estimate of the load-carrying capacity and an identification of the critical collapse mechanism....... It is argued that the upper bound approach may be a useful complement to the widely used lower bound strut-and-tie method. Especially when dealing with strength assessment of existing structures....
Chestnut Ridge Borrow Area Waste Pile work plan
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johnson, R. (Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (United States))
1991-08-01
The US Department of Energy (DOE), through its contractor Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., has constructed a storage facility, the Chestnut Ridge Borrow Area Waste Pile (CRBAWP), for mercury-contaminated soil excavated from the Oak Ridge Civic Center properties and the Oak Ridge Sewer Line Beltway. Excavation of the soil from the Civic Center began in September 1984 and was completed in early 1985. Similar soils from other areas of the city were added to the pile until 1987. Approximately 3000 yd{sup 3} are stored at the present time. An Interim Status RCRA permit was initially sought for this facility. Samples from the waste pile passed the Extraction Procedure Toxicity Test (EP Tox). The Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (now the Tennessee Department of Conservation-TDC) denied the permit based on their conclusion that the waste was not a RCRA-regulated waste. On September 25, 1990 the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) superseded the EP Tox test. TCLP tests are not proposed to satisfy a request by TDC and to make a final determination of the nature of the soils in order to close the CRBAWP as a solid waste disposal facility under Tennessee State rule 1200-1-7-.04. The objectives of this work are to summarize existing site information and detail actions necessary to sample and characterize soils from the waste pile as hazardous or nonhazardous per the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). Within the scope of this plan, a site investigation will be discussed; a field sampling plan will be described in terms of sampling locations, procedures, and quality assurance; and ancillary activities such as waste management, data management, and health and safety will be outlines. 15 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.
CFG Pile Quality Investigation and Production of Pile-cutting Equipment%CFG桩头质量调查及截桩设备的制作
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘红峰
2013-01-01
本文在总结钻孔桩桩头超灌高度的基础上，通过试验，提出CFG桩超灌高度为0.5m以上，制作并使用特制截桩设备大大减小了截桩对CFG桩的扰动，此外还对桩间土的开挖进行了详细论述。%Based on the summary of extra filling height of bored pile, through experiment, the paper points out the extra filling height of CFG pile is above 0.5m. The special pile-cutting equipment greatly reduced the disturbance of CFG pile. Additionally, it describes the excavation of soil between piles in detail.
NEET In-Pile Ultrasonic Sensor Enablement-Final Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
J. Daw; J. Rempe; J. Palmer; P. Ramuhalli; R. Montgomery; H.T. Chien; B. Tittmann; B. Reinhardt; P. Keller
2014-09-01
Ultrasonic technologies offer the potential to measure a range of parameters during irradiation of fuels and materials, including geometry changes, temperature, crack initiation and growth, gas pressure and composition, and microstructural changes under harsh irradiation test conditions. There are two primary issues that currently limit in-pile deployment of ultrasonic sensors. The first is transducer survivability. The ability of ultrasonic transducer materials to maintain their useful properties during an irradiation must be demonstrated. The second issue is signal processing. Ultrasonic testing is typically performed in a lab or field environment, where the sensor and sample are accessible. The harsh nature of in-pile testing and the variety of desired measurements demand that an enhanced signal processing capability be developed to make in-pile ultrasonic sensors viable. To address these issues, the NEET ASI program funded a three year Ultrasonic Transducer Irradiation and Signal Processing Enhancements project, which is a collaborative effort between the Idaho National Laboratory, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the Argonne National Laboratory, and the Pennsylvania State University. The objective of this report is to document the objectives and accomplishments from this three year project. As summarized within this document, significant work has been accomplished during this three year project.
Radiocarbon from Pile Graphite; Chemical Methods for Its Concentrations
Arnold, J. R.; Libby, W. F.
1946-10-10
Samples of pile graphite, irradiated in a test-hole at Hanford for 15 months, have been assayed for radioactive C{sup 14} yielding 0.38 ± 0.04 microcuries per gram. At this level of activity, the pile graphite contains very valuable amounts of C{sup14}. The relation between the above assay and the probable average assay of pile graphite is discussed, and it is concluded that the latter is almost certainly above 0.3 microcuries/gram. Controlled oxidation of this graphite, either with oxygen at ~750ºC, or with chromic acid "cleaning solution" at room temperature, yields early fractions which are highly enriched in C{sup 14}. Concentrations of 5-fold with oxygen, and 50-fold with CrO{sub 3}, have been observed. The relation between the observed enrichment and the Wigner effect is discussed, and a mechanism accounting for the observations put forward. According to this, about 25% of the stable carbon atoms in the lattice have been displaced by Wigner effect, a large fraction of which have healed by migrating to crystal edges. All the C{sup 14} atoms have been displaced, and the same fraction of these migrate to the edges. The enrichment then results from surface oxidation, in the oxygen case. Predictions are made on the basis of this hypothesis. A technique of counting radioactive CO{sub 2} in the gas phase is described.
Avalanche Structure in the Kadanoff Sand Pile Model
Perrot, Kevin
2011-01-01
Sand pile models are dynamical systems emphasizing the phenomenon of Self Organized Criticality (SOC). From N stacked grains, iterating evolution rules leads to some critical configuration where a small disturbance has deep consequences on the system, involving numerous steps of grain fall. Physicists L. Kadanoff et al. inspire KSPM, a model presenting a sharp SOC behavior, extending the well known Sand Pile Model. In KSPM with parameter D we start from a pile of N stacked grains and apply the rule: D-1 grains can fall from column i onto the D-1 adjacent columns to the right if the difference of height between columns i and i+1 is greater or equal to D. We propose an iterative study of KSPM evolution where one single grain addition is repeated on a heap of sand. The sequence of grain falls following a single grain addition is called an avalanche. From a certain column precisely studied for D=3, we provide a plain process describing avalanches.
Cost analysis of continuous flight auger piles construction in Egypt
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hossam E. Hosny
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Continuous Flight Auger (CFA piling is widely used in the Egyptian construction industry. There is a dramatic fluctuation in pricing of executing this work package within short periods as a result of unsteady changes in supply-demand equilibrium. Consequently, there is an urgent need for the use of a scientific approach in estimating construction costs. Accordingly, it is crucial to consider the different cost elements of CFA piling construction as a step to reach an accurate and realistic cost estimate to be used by contractors in tendering. This research aims to study these cost elements based on an expert judgment, site observations and statistical analysis in order to develop an effective tool to estimate the total construction cost of the CFA piles in any future project. Expert survey was performed to draw detailed information to construct a cost breakdown structure (CBS that was used as a basis for developing the proposed cost model. The developed cost model is then validated through the application on fifty two projects. Such projects were carefully selected in different sizes, purposes and locations. Then the collected data were exposed to statistical analysis techniques. An average percentage error of 4.1% was observed upon comparing the estimated costs with the actual costs of these projects. A sensitivity analysis was then performed to recognize the most effective cost factors. The developed recommended model was used by some experienced contractors in the Egyptian market who expressed their satisfaction with the model.
Enhanced in-pile instrumentation at the advanced test reactor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rempe, J. L.; Knudson, D. L.; Daw, J. E.; Unruh, T.; Chase, B. M.; Palmer, J.; Condie, K. G.; Davis, K. L. [Idaho National Laboratory, MS 3840, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)
2011-07-01
Many of the sensors deployed at materials and test reactors cannot withstand the high flux/high temperature test conditions often requested by users at U.S. test reactors, such as the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory. To address this issue, an instrumentation development effort was initiated as part of the ATR National Scientific User Facility in 2007 to support the development and deployment of enhanced in-pile sensors. This paper reports results from this effort. Specifically, this paper identifies the types of sensors currently available to support in-pile irradiations and those sensors currently available to ATR users. Accomplishments from new sensor technology deployment efforts are highlighted by describing new temperature and thermal conductivity sensors now available to ATR users. Efforts to deploy enhanced in-pile sensors for detecting elongation and realtime flux detectors are also reported, and recently-initiated research to evaluate the viability of advanced technologies to provide enhanced accuracy for measuring key parameters during irradiation testing are noted. (authors)
SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS OF PERFORMANCEFOR M/G/1 QUEUEING SYSTEMS%M/G/1排队系统的性能灵敏度分析
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
殷保群; 奚宏生; 周亚平
2001-01-01
The queueing system which is not Markov-type is often used as amodel to study some practical engineering problems,for example,communication networks.In this paper,the problems of sensitivity analysis of the steady-state performance for an M/G/1 queueing system are discussed by studying its embedded Markov chain.The sensitivity formulas of the steady-state performance are given by the potentials of the embedded Markov chain.Since the embedded Markov chain is much simpler than the semi-Markov process that is used to describe the system states,the results in this paper will be very convenient for simulating computation of performance sensitivity and optimization of the system.%非Markov型排队系统经常被用来作为某些实际工程问题(如通讯网络)的研究模型.对于一般的M/G/1排队系统，本文通过研究其嵌入Markov链，讨论了系统的稳态性能灵敏度分析问题，并给出用嵌入Markov链的势能表示的稳态性能灵敏度公式.由于嵌入Markov链要比描述其系统状态的半Markov过程简单得多，故本文的结果对M/G/1排队系统的性能灵敏度仿真计算及系统的优化，都将带来极大的方便.
双三次B样条曲面的G1连续条件%G1 Continuity Conditions of Bicubic B-Spline Surfaces
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
施锡泉; 赵岩
2002-01-01
讨论并得到关于两个双三次非均匀内部单节点B样条曲面片G1连续的充分必要条件,以及在公共边界线上控制向量的本征条件.这些条件直接由两个非均匀B样条曲面的控制向量表示.并证明了用单节点双三次非均匀B样条不能构造出具有局部性质的曲面模型.
Les êtres collectifs en question
Angeletti, T.; Berlan, A.
2015-01-01
Dans quelles situations les individus se retrouvent-ils confrontés à des êtres, des institutions ou des systèmes qui les dépassent ? Comment y font-ils référence ? Quelles solutions théoriques les sciences sociales mobilisent-elles pour en parler ? Ce numéro regroupe des contributions empiriques et théoriques proposant d’étudier et d’expliciter les modes d’existence et d’apparition des êtres collectifs, quand ils sont envisagés comme des vecteurs d’action. Ce faisant, il s’agit de reposer la ...
Chassany, Chloé
2010-01-01
Les stalles sont un rare exemple de siège liturgique. On les trouve dans le chœur des sanctuaires où se réunissaient les communautés pour célébrer collectivement l’office. Les stalles datées du début du XVIe siècle, conservées dans l’église d’Entremont en Haute Savoie, n’ont jamais fait l’objet d’une étude approfondie. La première partie du mémoire réunit le bilan des recherches de première année de master, une synthèse historiographique du mobilier liturgique savoyard ainsi que l’histoire co...
Information sur les technologies nucleaires
2002-01-01
"La base Inis (International Nuclear Information System) de l'Agence Internationale d'Energie Atomique (IAEA) dispose desormais de liens vers les textes complets de documents internationaux" (1 paragraph).
26 CFR 6a.6652(g)-1 - Failure to make return or furnish statement required under section 6039C.
2010-04-01
... required under section 6039C. 6a.6652(g)-1 Section 6a.6652(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... OMNIBUS RECONCILIATION ACT OF 1980 § 6a.6652(g)-1 Failure to make return or furnish statement required... limitation under § 6a.6652(g)-1(b)(3) with respect to failure to meet the requirements of section 6039C(c),...
de Rougemont, P.
2011-01-01
Fin 2008, un mouvement de déstockage massif et mondial contribue à la forte contraction de l’activité et du commerce international. Ce mouvement est sans doute accentué par les contraintes financières sur les entreprises et par la transmission du choc le long de chaînes de production mondialisées. En sens inverse, mi-2009, le ralentissement du déstockage contribue à une reprise en « V ».
Lannoo, Michel; Bastard, Gérald; Voos, Michel; Boccara, Nino
1986-01-01
The Winter School held in Les Houches on March 12-21, 1985 was devoted to Semiconductor Heterojunctions and Superlattices, a topic which is recognized as being now one of the most interesting and active fields in semiconductor physics. In fact, following the pioneering work of Esaki and Tsu in 1970, the study of these two-dimensional semiconductor heterostructures has developed rapidly, both from the point of view of basic physics and of applications. For instance, modulation-doped heterojunctions are nowadays currently used to investigate the quantum Hall effect and to make very fast transistors. This book contains the lectures presented at this Winter School, showing in particular that many aspects of semiconductor heterojunctions and super lattices were treated, extending from the fabrication of these two-dimensional systems to their basic properties and applications in micro-and opto-electron ics. Among the subjects which were covered, one can quote as examples: molecular beam epitaxy and metallorgani...
Response of carrying capacity of piles induced by adjacent Metro tunneling
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YANG Xiao-jie; DENG Fei-huang; WU Jia-jia; LIU Jian; WANG Fu-qiang
2009-01-01
Construction of tunnels in urban areas requires assessment of the impact of tunneling on the stability and integrity of existing pile foundations. We have focused our attention to the analysis of the carrying capacity of pile foundations provided by the impact of construction of urban tunnels on adjacent pile foundations, under the engineering background of the construction of the # 2 Line of the Guangzhou subway. It is carried out using a fast Lagrangian analysis of a continuum in a 3D numerical code, which is an elastoplastic three-dimensional finite difference model, to simulate the response of piles under the entire process of metro tun-neling (deactivation of soil element and activation of the lining). The adjacent stratum around the tunnel is classified into three re-gions: Zone Ⅰ(upper adjacent stratum of tunnel), Zone Ⅱ (45°-upper-lateral adjacent stratum of tunnel) and Zone Ⅲ (lateral adjacent stratum of tunnel). In each region one typical pile is chosen to be calculated and analyzed in detail. Numerical simulations are mainly conducted at three points of each pile shaft: the side-friction force of the pile, the tip resistance of the pile and the axial loading of the pile. A contrasting analysis has been conducted both in the response of typical piles in different regions and from computer calculated values with site monitoring values. The results of numerical simulations show that the impact on carrying ca-pacity of the piles lies mainly in the impact of construction of urban tunnels on the side-friction forces and the tip resistance of piles. The impact differs considerably among the different strata zones where the pile tips are located. The complicated rules of side-friction force and tip resistance of piles has resulted in complicated rules of pile axial loading thus, in the end, it impacts the carrying capacity of pile-foundations. It is necessary to take positive measures, such as stratum grouting stabilization or foundation underpinning, ete
"Les Hollande" de Whistler chez Proust
M. van Montfrans
2011-01-01
Le rôle que les portraits mondains et les marines de Whistler, l’un des modèles d’Elstir, ont joué dans la Recherche, a fait l’objet de nombreux commentaires. Il n’en est pas de même pour « les Hollande », fruit des séjours fréquents du peintre aux Pays-Bas. Les rares références aux voyages en Holla
Human pancreatic β-cell G1/S molecule cell cycle atlas.
Fiaschi-Taesch, Nathalie M; Kleinberger, Jeffrey W; Salim, Fatimah G; Troxell, Ronnie; Wills, Rachel; Tanwir, Mansoor; Casinelli, Gabriella; Cox, Amy E; Takane, Karen K; Scott, Donald K; Stewart, Andrew F
2013-07-01
Expansion of pancreatic β-cells is a key goal of diabetes research, yet induction of adult human β-cell replication has proven frustratingly difficult. In part, this reflects a lack of understanding of cell cycle control in the human β-cell. Here, we provide a comprehensive immunocytochemical "atlas" of G1/S control molecules in the human β-cell. This atlas reveals that the majority of these molecules, previously known to be present in islets, are actually present in the β-cell. More importantly, and in contrast to anticipated results, the human β-cell G1/S atlas reveals that almost all of the critical G1/S cell cycle control molecules are located in the cytoplasm of the quiescent human β-cell. Indeed, the only nuclear G1/S molecules are the cell cycle inhibitors, pRb, p57, and variably, p21: none of the cyclins or cdks necessary to drive human β-cell proliferation are present in the nuclear compartment. This observation may provide an explanation for the refractoriness of human β-cells to proliferation. Thus, in addition to known obstacles to human β-cell proliferation, restriction of G1/S molecules to the cytoplasm of the human β-cell represents an unanticipated obstacle to therapeutic human β-cell expansion.
A comparative genomic analysis of the alkalitolerant soil bacterium Bacillus lehensis G1.
Noor, Yusuf Muhammad; Samsulrizal, Nurul Hidayah; Jema'on, Noor Azah; Low, Kheng Oon; Ramli, Aizi Nor Mazila; Alias, Noor Izawati; Damis, Siti Intan Rosdianah; Fuzi, Siti Fatimah Zaharah Mohd; Isa, Mohd Noor Mat; Murad, Abdul Munir Abdul; Raih, Mohd Firdaus Mohd; Bakar, Farah Diba Abu; Najimudin, Nazalan; Mahadi, Nor Muhammad; Illias, Rosli Md
2014-07-25
Bacillus lehensis G1 is a Gram-positive, moderately alkalitolerant bacterium isolated from soil samples. B. lehensis produces cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase), an enzyme that has enabled the extensive use of cyclodextrin in foodstuffs, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals. The genome sequence of B. lehensis G1 consists of a single circular 3.99 Mb chromosome containing 4017 protein-coding sequences (CDSs), of which 2818 (70.15%) have assigned biological roles, 936 (23.30%) have conserved domains with unknown functions, and 263 (6.55%) have no match with any protein database. Bacillus clausii KSM-K16 was established as the closest relative to B. lehensis G1 based on gene content similarity and 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis. A total of 2820 proteins from B. lehensis G1 were found to have orthologues in B. clausii, including sodium-proton antiporters, transport proteins, and proteins involved in ATP synthesis. A comparative analysis of these proteins and those in B. clausii and other alkaliphilic Bacillus species was carried out to investigate their contributions towards the alkalitolerance of the microorganism. The similarities and differences in alkalitolerance-related genes among alkalitolerant/alkaliphilic Bacillus species highlight the complex mechanism of pH homeostasis. The B. lehensis G1 genome was also mined for proteins and enzymes with potential viability for industrial and commercial purposes.
The Shielding Effect of Multi-Pile Structures on Ice Force
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
史庆增; 黄焱; 宋安
2004-01-01
The shielding effect of the front pile-row on the ice force acting on the back pile-row is studied by ice force model tests. In the tests, the front pile-row is designed to model jacket legs and the back pile-row to model the water resisting pipe-phalanx within the jacket. The shielding factor for ice force corresponding to different conditions are given in this paper. The research indicates that there are many factors, including the longitudinal and lateral spacing between the front and back pile-row, ice attacking angle and the ratio of pile diameter to ice thickness, that influence the shielding effect on ice force.
Mechanical response of bridge piles in high-steep slopes and sensitivity study
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
赵衡; 尹平保; 李夕兵
2015-01-01
The bridge piles located in high-steep slopes not only endure the loads from superstructure, but also the residual sliding force as well as the resistance from the slope. By introducing the Winkler foundation theory, the mechanical model of piles−soils−slopes system was established, and the equilibrium differential equations of pile were derived. Moreover, an analytic solution for identifying the model parameters was provided by means of power series method. A project with field measurement was compared with the proposed method. It is indicated that the lateral loads have great influences on the pile, the steep slope effect is indispensable, and reasonable diameter of the pile could enhance the bending ability. The internal force and displacements of pile are largely based upon the horizontal loads applied on pile, especially in upper part.
Non-probabilistic fuzzy reliability analysis of pile foundation stability by interval theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
Randomness and fuzziness are among the attributes of the influential factors for stability assessment of pile foundation.According to these two characteristics, the triangular fuzzy number analysis approach was introduced to determine the probability-distributed function of mechanical parameters. Then the functional function of reliability analysis was constructed based on the study of bearing mechanism of pile foundation, and the way to calculate interval values of the functional function was developed by using improved interval-truncation approach and operation rules of interval numbers. Afterwards, the non-probabilistic fuzzy reliability analysis method was applied to assessing the pile foundation, from which a method was presented for nonprobabilistic fuzzy reliability analysis of pile foundation stability by interval theory. Finally, the probability distribution curve of nonprobabilistic fuzzy reliability indexes of practical pile foundation was concluded. Its failure possibility is 0.91%, which shows that the pile foundation is stable and reliable.
Case Study of CPT-based Design Methods for Axial Capacity of Driven Piles in Sand
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thomassen, Kristina; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard
2012-01-01
Today the design of onshore axially loaded driven piles in cohesionless soil is commonly made on basis of CPT-based methods because field investigations have shown strong correlation between the local shaft friction and the CPT cone resistance. However, the recommended design method for axially....... Thus, several CPT-based methods have been proposed for the design of offshore driven piles in cohesionless soil such as the UWA-05, ICP-05, and NGI-99 methods. This article treats a case study where the API-method as well as the UWA-05 and NGI-99 methods are compared using CPT-data from an offshore...... location with dense to very dense sand. The design of the piles in the jacket foundation shows that API-00 for both the tension and the compression loads predicted much longer piles than the CPT-based methods. Variation of the pile length and pile diameter shows that NGI-99 and UWA-05 predicts almost...
EURIPIDES, load tests on large driven piles in dense silica sands
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zuidberg, H.M.; Vergobbi, P.
1996-12-31
In 1995 an extensive load testing program was conducted on 30 inch pipe piles in dense silica sands similar to those found in the southern North Sea. A highly instrumented pile was driven at one location, extracted and redriven at a second location. A total of twelve static compression and tension load tests were performed at three penetration depths between 30 and 47 meters. Test objectives included acquiring reliable data on capacity of offshore type piles in sands which hitherto were hardly available and to understand the failure mechanisms in order to improve current foundation design. The paper describes the design of the testing program and project organization and funding. Details of the test pile and instrumentation to measure the loads in the pile and the pile-sand interaction are highlighted with an emphasis on quality of the measurements. The field-work and innovative testing facilities are also described.
Field study of plastic tube cast-in-place concrete pile
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈永辉; 曹德洪; 王新泉; 杜海伟; 张霆
2008-01-01
The compositions, technical principles and construction equipments of a new piling method used for ground improvement plastic tube cast-in-place concrete pile were introduced. The results from static load tests on single piles with different forms of pile shoes and on their composite foundations were analyzed. The distribution patterns of axial force, shaft friction and toe resistance were studied based on the measurements taken from buried strain gauges. From the point of engineering application, the pile has merits in convenient quality control, high bearing capacity and reliable quality, showing higher reasonability, advancement and suitability than other ground improvement methods. The pile can be adopted properly to take place of ordinary ground improvement method, achieving greater economical and social benefits.
Numerical Simulations of Pile Supported Protective System Subjected to Ship Impact
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SUN Zhen; WANG Junjie
2006-01-01
The head-on collision process between ship and concrete pile supported protective system is simulated by software LS-DYNA.The influences of pile non-linearity and soil non-linearity on impact force,ship crush depth and the cap displacement of pile supported protective system are discussed.It's shown that for both severe impact case and non-severe impact case,the non-linearity of pile material influence the impact force history,ship crush depth.The non-linearity of pile material and soil has remarkable influence on the cap displacement especially for severe impact case.These issues should not be ignored in the analysis of pile supported protective system subjected to ship impact.
Comprehensive Detection and Analysis of Defects in Foundation Pile of Bridge
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Qi-ren; HE Ji-shan; YANG Tian-chun
2003-01-01
In the process of piling ,there are many various defects in foundation pile of bridge such as mud-bearing,sediment-bearing, isolation, honeycomb, broken piles, and so on, showing physical and mechanical features of low-density and low-intensity. In fact, by using the comprehensive detection of acoustic transmission method, the reflected wave method as well as drill coring sample method, and the rational utilization of engineering geological condition in field, the characteristics, size and location of common defects of foundation pile of bridge can be accurately detected and judged and the integrity of piles and the quality of concrete can be impersonally estimated.comprehensive detecting and analyzing methods on this kind of piles are introduced briefly. The physical characters of defects and basic features of detecting curves and their corresponding relation are emphasized, and causes are analyzed in in detail in this paper.
Numerical modeling of Thermal Response Tests in Energy Piles
Franco, A.; Toledo, M.; Moffat, R.; Herrera, P. A.
2013-05-01
Nowadays, thermal response tests (TRT) are used as the main tools for the evaluation of low enthalpy geothermal systems such as heat exchangers. The results of TRT are used for estimating thermal conductivity and thermal resistance values of those systems. We present results of synthetic TRT simulations that model the behavior observed in an experimental energy pile system, which was installed at the new building of the Faculty of Engineering of Universidad de Chile. Moreover, we also present a parametric study to identify the most influent parameters in the performance of this type of tests. The modeling was developed using the finite element software COMSOL Multiphysics, which allows the incorporation of flow and heat transport processes. The modeled system consists on a concrete pile with 1 m diameter and 28 m deep, which contains a 28 mm diameter PEX pipe arranged in a closed circuit. Three configurations were analyzed: a U pipe, a triple U and a helicoid shape implemented at the experimental site. All simulations were run considering transient response in a three-dimensional domain. The simulation results provided the temperature distribution on the pile for a set of different geometry and physical properties of the materials. These results were compared with analytical solutions which are commonly used to interpret TRT data. This analysis demonstrated that there are several parameters that affect the system response in a synthetic TRT. For example, the diameter of the simulated pile affects the estimated effective thermal conductivity of the system. Moreover, the simulation results show that the estimated thermal conductivity for a 1 m diameter pile did not stabilize even after 100 hours since the beginning of the test, when it reached a value 30% below value used to set up the material properties in the simulation. Furthermore, we observed different behaviors depending on the thermal properties of concrete and soil. According to the simulations, the thermal
Controverses sur les sucres [Controversies about sugars
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Malika BOUCHENAK
2016-12-01
Full Text Available La surconsommation de sucres ajoutés et leurs effets putatifs sur diverses pathologies cardiométaboliques continuent de susciter des controverses. Dans les années 1950, le taux élevé de maladies cardiovasculaires (MCV, chez les hommes Américains a conduit à des études sur le rôle des facteurs alimentaires, tels que le cholestérol, les phytostérols, l'excès de calories, les acides aminés, les graisses, les glucides, les vitamines et les minéraux, à influencer le risque de MCV. Dans les années 60, deux éminents physiologistes, plaidant pour des hypothèses causales divergentes de MCV, John Yudkin a identifié les sucres ajoutés comme agent primaire, tandis que Ancel Keys identifiait les graisses totales, les graisses saturées et le cholestérol alimentaire. Cependant, dans les années 80, peu de scientifiques croyaient que les sucres ajoutés jouaient un rôle important dans la maladie coronarienne, et les premiers conseils nutritionnels de 1980 (1980 Dietary Guidelines for americans étaient axés sur la réduction des graisses totales, des graisses saturées et du cholestérol alimentaire pour la prévention des MCV.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mathot, P.; Bauzit, J.; Cante, R.; Hebrard, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1960-07-01
The aim of the present report is to present certain observations and to give the results obtained during the period from july the 1{sup st} 1958 to july the 1{sup st} 1960. The main operations carried out during this period were, chronologically: - From july the 5{sup th} to october the 18{sup th} 1958: preparation and execution of the first annealing of the graphite. - From dec. the 15{sup th} 1958 to july the 15{sup th} 1959: a discharging campaign which resulted in the complete renewal of the fuel elements. During the monthly stoppages of this campaign, it was possible to make certain observations concerning the packing of the graphite, while at the same time measurements of the temperature of the element cans were made at an increased number of points. - From september the 25{sup th} 1959 to december the 9{sup th} 1959: preparation and execution of the second annealing. At the end of the annealing, the thorium lattice was modified and extra thermocouples were installed for measuring the temperature of the body of the graphite. An apparatus was built for measuring the radial flux. - From december the 9{sup th} 1959 to july 1960: a continuous operation campaign, with a minimum of stoppages. The experimental results are re-assembled, independently of their chronological order, under three main headings which describe the reactors history: - continuous operation, - discharges, - annealing of the reactor. (author) [French] Le but du present rapport est d'exposer certaines observations faites et les resultats obtenus au cours de la periode du 1{sup er} juillet 1958 au 1{sup er} juillet 1960. Cette periode a ete marquee chronologiquement par les operations essentielles suivantes: - du 5 juillet au 18 octobre 1958: preparation et execution du premier recuit du graphite. - du 15 decembre 1958 au 15 juillet 1959: campagne de dechargement entrainant un renouvellement total des cartouches de combustibles. Au cours des arrets mensuels de cette campagne, certaines
Influence of axial load on the lateral pile groups response in cohesionless and cohesive soil
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jasim M. ABBASA[1; Zamri CHIK[2; Mohd Raihan TAHA[2
2015-01-01
The lateral response of single and group of piles under simultaneous vertical and lateral loads has been analyzed using a 3D finite element approach. The response in this assessment considered lateral pile displacement and lateral soil resistance and corresponding p-y curve. As a result, modified p-y curves for lateral single pile response were improved with respect to the influence of increasing axial load intensities. The improved plots can be used for lateral loaded pile design and to produce the group action design p-multiplier curves and equations. The effect of load combination on the lateral pile group response was performed on three pile group configurations （i.e., 2 × 1, 2 × 2 and 3 × 2） with four pile spacings （i.e., s = 2D, 4D, 6D and 8D）. As a result, design curves were developed and applied on the actual case studies and similar expected cases for assessment of pile group behavior using improved p-multiplier. A design equation was derived from predicted design curves to be used in the evaluation of the lateral pile group action taking into account the effect of axial load intensities. It was found that the group interaction effect led to reduced lateral resistance for the pile in the group relative to that for the single pile in case of pure lateral load. While, in case of simultaneous combined loads, large axial load intensities （i.e., more than 6H, where H is lateral load values） will have an increase inp-multiplier by approximately 100% and will consequently contribute to greater group piles capacities.
State of the Art for Design and Construction of Sand Compaction Piles
1987-11-01
Wire Vibrator Hopper Casing Pipe Air Line Power Line Sand Skip Bucket Front End Loader Figure 2. Typical equipment used to construct a sand...varying from 200 to 300 psf that have been reinforced with sand compaction piles. 78. Sand compaction piles are constructed by driving a steel casing ... pipe ) filled with sand to the desired elevation using a heavy vertical vibrator placed at the top of the pile. The casing is then gradually
Overview of the spin structure function g_1 at arbitrary x and Q^2
Ermolaev, B I; Troyan, S I
2009-01-01
In the present paper we summarize our results on the structure function g_1 and present explicit expressions for the non-singlet and singlet components of g_1 which can be used at arbitrary x and Q^2. These expressions combine the well-known DGLAP-results for the anomalous dimensions and coefficient functions with the total resummation of the leading logarithmic contributions and the shift of Q^2 -> Q^2 + \\mu^2, with \\mu/\\Lambda_{QCD} approx 10 (approx 55) for the non-singlet (singlet) components of g_1 respectively. In contrast to DGLAP, these expressions do not require the introduction of singular parameterizations for the initial parton densities. We also apply our results to describe the experimental data in the kinematic regions beyond the reach of DGLAP.
Nonuniform expansion and brightening of the youngest Galactic SNR G1.9+0.3
Borkowski, Kazimierz
2014-09-01
We propose a 400-ks observation of the youngest Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) G1.9+0.3, to study its nonuniform expansion and monitor increase in brightness. Expansion along the major axis of G1.9+0.3 has been found to decrease with radius. The longer time baseline should help in understanding these surprising variations in expansion. No other Galactic SNR is brightening. The X-rays are mainly produced as synchrotron radiation from 10 -- 100 TeV electrons, so the magnitude and spatial dependence of the brightening rate have important implications for the physics of particle acceleration and magnetic-field amplification in fast shock waves. G1.9+0.3 is a unique SNR whose continued monitoring should greatly advance our understanding of Type Ia supernovae and nonthermal shock physics.
Asymmetric High-Velocity Ejecta in the Youngest Galactic SNR G1.9+0.3
Borkowski, Kazimierz
2014-11-01
Chandra has revealed highly asymmetric supernova ejecta in G1.9+0.3. Iron dominates thermal emission in the radio-bright northern rim, while only intermediate-mass elements are found along the SE-NW axis. The measured X-ray expansion rates decrease radially by about 60% along this axis from 0.84% yr^{-1) to 0.52% yr^{-1}. This corresponds to undecelerated ages of 120 - 190 yr, confirming the young age of G1.9+0.3, and implying that the blast wave is much more decelerated than the reverse shock. Only the outermost ejecta with very high (>18,000 km s^{-1}) free-expansion velocities have been shocked so far. We discuss G1.9+0.3 in the framework of recent asymmetric 3D delayed-detonation Type Ia explosions from Seitenzahl et al. (2013). Their N3 model provides the best match.
Extraction of monoclonal antibodies (IgG1) using anionic and anionic/nonionic reverse micelles.
George, Daliya A; Stuckey, David C
2010-01-01
Purification schemes for antibody production based on affinity chromatography are trying to keep pace with increases in cell culture expression levels and many current research initiatives are focused on finding alternatives to chromatography for the purification of Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). In this article, we have investigated an alternative separation technique based on liquid-liquid extraction called the reverse micellar extraction. We extracted MAb (IgG1) using reverse micelles of an anionic surfactant, sodium bis 2-ethyl-hexyl sulfosuccinate (AOT) and a combination of anionic (AOT) and nonionic surfactants (Brij-30, Tween-85, Span-85) using isooctane as the solvent system. The extraction efficiency of IgG1 was studied by varying parameters, such as pH of the aqueous phase, cation concentration, and type and surfactant concentration. Using the AOT/Isooctane reverse micellar system, we could achieve good overall extraction of IgG1 (between 80 and 90%), but only 30% of the bioactivity of IgG1 could be recovered at the end of the extraction by using its binding to affinity chromatography columns as a surrogate measure of activity. As anionic surfactants were suspected as being one of the reasons for the reduced activity, we decided to combine a nonionic surfactant with an anionic surfactant and then study its effect on the extraction efficiency and bioactivity. The best results were obtained using an AOT/Brij-30/Isooctane reverse micellar system, which gave an overall extraction above 90 and 59% overall activity recovery. An AOT/Tween-85/Isooctane reverse micellar system gave an overall extraction of between 75 and 80% and overall activity recovery of around 40-45%. The results showed that the activity recovery of IgG1 can be significantly enhanced using different surfactant combination systems, and if the recovery of IgG1 can be further enhanced, the technique shows considerable promise for the downstream purification of MAbs.
On the first $G_1$ stiff fluid spike solution in General Relativity
Coley, Alan; Lim, Woei Chet
2016-01-01
Using the Geroch transformation we obtain the first example of a stiff fluid solution to the Einstein field equations in a closed form exhibiting a spacelike $G_1$ group of symmetries (i.e., with a single isometry). This new solution can be interpreted as an exact example of a close-to-Friedmann-Lemaitre (perturbative) solution. The exact solution is the first (non-null) $G_1$ solution found, and exhibits a spike crossing which persists to the past, which allows us to better understand spike crossings in the context of structure formation.
Amino acids and mTOR mediate distinct metabolic checkpoints in mammalian G1 cell cycle.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mahesh Saqcena
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In multicellular organisms, cell division is regulated by growth factors (GFs. In the absence of GFs, cells exit the cell cycle at a site in G1 referred to as the restriction point (R and enter a state of quiescence known as G0. Additionally, nutrient availability impacts on G1 cell cycle progression. While there is a vast literature on G1 cell cycle progression, confusion remains - especially with regard to the temporal location of R relative to nutrient-mediated checkpoints. In this report, we have investigated the relationship between R and a series of metabolic cell cycle checkpoints that regulate passage into S-phase. METHODS: We used double-block experiments to order G1 checkpoints that monitor the presence of GFs, essential amino acids (EEAs, the conditionally essential amino acid glutamine, and inhibition of mTOR. Cell cycle progression was monitored by uptake of [(3H]-thymidine and flow cytometry, and analysis of cell cycle regulatory proteins was by Western-blot. RESULTS: We report here that the GF-mediated R can be temporally distinguished from a series of late G1 metabolic checkpoints mediated by EAAs, glutamine, and mTOR - the mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin. R is clearly upstream from an EAA checkpoint, which is upstream from a glutamine checkpoint. mTOR is downstream from both the amino acid checkpoints, close to S-phase. Significantly, in addition to GF autonomy, we find human cancer cells also have dysregulated metabolic checkpoints. CONCLUSION: The data provided here are consistent with a GF-dependent mid-G1 R where cells determine whether it is appropriate to divide, followed by a series of late-G1 metabolic checkpoints mediated by amino acids and mTOR where cells determine whether they have sufficient nutrients to accomplish the task. Since mTOR inhibition arrests cells the latest in G1, it is likely the final arbiter for nutrient sufficiency prior to committing to replicating the genome.
Brill-Noether locus of rank 1 and degree g-1 on a nodal curve
Coelho, Juliana
2011-01-01
In this paper we consider the Brill-Noether locus $W_{\\underline d}(C)$ of line bundles of multidegree $\\underline d$ of total degree $g-1$ having a nonzero section on a nodal reducible curve $C$ of genus $g\\geq2$. We give an explicit description of the irreducible components of $W_{\\underline d}(C)$ for a semistable multidegre $\\underline d$. As a consequence we show that, if two semistable multidegrees of total degre $g-1$ on a curve with no rational components differ by a twister, then the respective Brill-Noether loci have isomorphic components.
Control of floor heaves with steel pile in gob-side entry retaining
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xu Ying; Chen Jin; Bai Jianbiao
2016-01-01
A new approach named as steel pile method is innovatively proposed in this study to control severe floor heaves in gob-side entry retaining. It is required that the steel piles be installed in the floor corners with a certain interval before the influence of the dynamic pressure induced by current panel extraction. Using numerical simulation and theoretical analysis, this study investigated the interaction between the steel piles and the floor rocks during the service life of the steel piles, and revealed the mechanism of the steel piles in controlling floor heaves. The effect of the steel pile parameters on the control of floor heaves was presented and elaborated. It is found that the effectiveness of the steel piles in controlling floor heaves can be enhanced with greater installed dip angle, longer length and smaller interval of the steel piles. Compared with traditional methods, e.g., using floor anchor bolts and floor restoration, the advantages using steel pile were successfully defined in terms of controlling effect and economic benefits. It is hoped that the proposed method can contribute to the development of gob-side entry retaining technique.
Optimal Pile Arrangement for Minimizing Excess Pore Water Pressure Build-Up
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barari, Amin; Saadati, Meysam; Ibsen, Lars Bo
2013-01-01
Numerical analysis of pile group in a liquefiable soil was considered to investigate the influence of pile spacing on excess pore pressure distribution and liquefaction potential. The analysis is conducted using a two-dimensional plain strain finite difference program considering a nonlinear...... constitutive model for sandy soil, strength and stiffness reduction, and pile-soil interaction. The Mohr-Coulomb constitutive model coupled with Byrne pore pressure build-up model have been employed in the analysis. Numerical analysis results show that pile groups have significant influence on the dynamic...... response of sandy soil as they reduce the amount of excess pore pressure development during seismic shaking and may even prevent liquefaction....
Reduction Rate of Dragload and Downdrag of Piles by Taper Angles
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
孔纲强; 周立朵; 彭怀风; 顾红伟
2016-01-01
Taper angle is one of the effective methods to reduce the dragload and downdrag of piles under the surcharge load. The model tests on the tapered pile and uniform cross-section pile embedded in sand were carried out under the surcharge load. The values of dragload and downdrag of piles versus the surcharge loads were meas-ured. Based on the concentric cylinder shearing theory, a simplified theoretical model for calculating the dragload and downdrag of tapered piles with small taper angles under the surcharge load was proposed considering the angle effect. The correctness of the developed theoretical model was validated through comparing with the model test results obtained in this study and previous literature. Then the parametric studies of the taper angle, surcharge, strength and modulus of soil were discussed. It is shown that the tapered pile with the taper angle of 3° can reduce approximately 65% of the maximum dragload value and 30% of the downdrag value compared with a uniform cross-section pile. The value of downdrag can be decreased by approximately 50% compared with a uniform cross-section pile in the same average pile diameter.
Optimal Pile Arrangement for Minimizing Excess Pore Water Pressure Build-Up
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barari, Amin; Saadati, Meysam; Ibsen, Lars Bo
2013-01-01
Numerical analysis of pile group in a liquefiable soil was considered to investigate the influence of pile spacing on excess pore pressure distribution and liquefaction potential. The analysis is conducted using a two-dimensional plain strain finite difference program considering a nonlinear...... constitutive model for sandy soil, strength and stiffness reduction, and pile-soil interaction. The Mohr-Coulomb constitutive model coupled with Byrne pore pressure build-up model have been employed in the analysis. Numerical analysis results show that pile groups have significant influence on the dynamic...... response of sandy soil as they reduce the amount of excess pore pressure development during seismic shaking and may even prevent liquefaction....
Design of anti-slide piles for slope stabilization in Wanzhou city, Three Gorges Area, China
Zhou, Chunmei; van Westen, Cees
2013-04-01
This study is related to the design of anti-slide piles for several landslides in Wanzhou city located in the Three Gorges area. Due to the construction of the Three Gorges Reservoir the hydro-geological conditions in this area have deteriorated significantly, leading to larger instability problems. China has invested a lot of money in slope stabilization measures for the treatment of landslides in the Three Gorges area. One of the methods for the stabilization of large landslides is the design of anti-sliding piles. This paper focuses on extensive slope stability analysis and modeling of the mechanical behavior of the landslide masses, and the parameters required for designing the number, size and dimensions of reinforced concrete stabilization piles. The study focuses on determining the rock parameters, anchor depth, and the pile and soil interaction coefficient. The study aims to provide guidelines for anti-slide pile stabilization works for landslides in the Wanzhou area. The research work contains a number of aspects. First a study is carried out on the distribution of pressures expected on the piles, using two different methods that take into account the expected pore water pressure and seismic acceleration. For the Ercengyan landslide , the Limit Equilibrium Method and Strength Reduction Method of FEM are compared through the results of the landslide pressure distributions on the piles and stress fields in the piles. The second component is the study of the required anchor depth of antislide piles, which is carried out using a statistical analysis with data from 20 landslides that have been controlled with anti-sliding piles. The rock characteristics of the anchor locations were obtained using laboratory tests, and a classification of rock mass quality is made for the anchors of antislide piles. The relationship between the critical anchor height and the angle of the landslide slip surface is determined. Two different methods are presented for the length
Comparative Model Tests of SDP and CFA Pile Groups in Non-Cohesive Soil
Krasiński, Adam; Kusio, Tomasz
2015-02-01
The research topic relates to the subject of deep foundations supported on continuous flight auger (CFA) piles and screw displacement piles (SDP). The authors have decided to conduct model tests of foundations supported on the group of piles mentioned above and also the tests of the same piles working as a single. The tests are ongoing in Geotechnical Laboratory of Gdaňsk University of Technology. The description of test procedure, interpretation and analysis of the preliminary testing series results are presented in the paper.
Theoretical study on setup of expanded-base pile considering cavity contraction
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
齐昌广; 刘干斌; 王艳; 邓岳保
2015-01-01
When an expanded-base pile is installed into ground, the cavity expansion associated with penetration of the enlarged pile base is followed by cavity contraction along the smaller-diameter pile shaft. In order to account for the influence of cavity contraction on the change of bearing capacity of expanded-base pile, a theoretical calculation methodology, predicting the setup of expanded-base pile, was established by employing the cavity contraction theory to estimate the shaft resistance of expanded-base pile, and horizontal consolidation theory to predict the dissipation of excess pore pressure. Finally, the numerical solutions for the setup of expanded-base pile were obtained. The parametric study about the influence of cavity contraction on setup of expanded-base pile was carried out, while a field test was introduced. The parametric study shows that the decrements in radial pressure and the maximum pore water pressure after considering cavity contraction are increased as the expanded ratio (base diameter/shaft diameter) and rigidity index of soil are raised. The comparison between calculated and measured values shows that the calculated results of ultimate bearing capacity for expanded-base pile considering cavity contraction agree well with the measured values; however, the computations ignoring cavity contraction are 2.5−3.0 times the measured values.
Theoretical study on setup of expanded-base pile considering cavity contraction
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
齐昌广; 刘干斌; 王艳; 邓岳保
2015-01-01
When an expanded-base pile is installed into ground, the cavity expansion associated with penetration of the enlarged pile base is followed by cavity contraction along the smaller-diameter pile shaft. In order to account for the influence of cavity contraction on the change of bearing capacity of expanded-base pile, a theoretical calculation methodology, predicting the setup of expanded-base pile, was established by employing the cavity contraction theory to estimate the shaft resistance of expanded-base pile, and horizontal consolidation theory to predict the dissipation of excess pore pressure. Finally, the numerical solutions for the setup of expanded-base pile were obtained. The parametric study about the influence of cavity contraction on setup of expanded-base pile was carried out, while a field test was introduced. The parametric study shows that the decrements in radial pressure and the maximum pore water pressure after considering cavity contraction are increased as the expanded ratio(base diameter/shaft diameter) and rigidity index of soil are raised. The comparison between calculated and measured values shows that the calculated results of ultimate bearing capacity for expanded-base pile considering cavity contraction agree well with the measured values; however, the computations ignoring cavity contraction are 2.5-3.0 times the measured values.
Force analysis of pile foundation in rock slope based on upper-bound theorem of limit
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHAO Ming-hua; LIU Jian-hua; LIU Dai-quan; WANG You
2008-01-01
Based on the characteristic that the potential sliding surfaces of rock slope are commonly in the shape of either line or fold line, analysis thought of conventional pile foundation in the flat ground under complex load condition was applied and the upper-bound theorem of limit analysis was used to compute thrust of rock layers with all possible distribution shapes. The interaction of slope and pile was considered design load in terms of slope thrust, and the finite difference method was derived to calculate inner-force and displacement of bridge pile foundation in rock slope under complex load condition. The result of example shows that the distribution model of slope thrust has certain impact on displacement and inner-force of bridge pile foundation. The maximum displacement growth rate reaches 54% and the maximum moment and shear growth rates reach only 15% and 20%, respectively, but the trends of inner-force and displacement of bridge pile foundation are basically the same as those of the conventional pile foundation in the flat ground. When the piles bear the same level lateral thrust, the distribution shapes of slope thrust have different influence on inner-force of pile foundation, especially the rectangle distribution, and the triangle thrust has the smallest displacement and inner-force of pile foundation.
Multifield coupling model and its applications for pile foundation in permafrost
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WU; Yaping; ZHU; Yuanlin; GUO; Chunxiang; SU; Qiang; MA; We
2005-01-01
Importing the interface element which links the frozen soil base with concrete piles and considering the couplings of stress field, temperature field and moisture field, this paper establishes the nonlinear visco-elastic plastic finite element model of pile-soil. For a practical bridge structure the stress field and displacement field of single pile in freezing process are calculated.This paper emphatically studies the process of the tangential frost heave stress field, freezing stress field and displacement field varying with time, and ulteriorly studies time variation process of single pile carrying capacity in freezing process.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
邹新军; 杨眉; 赵明华; 杨小礼
2008-01-01
To discuss the soil arching effect on the load transferring model and sharing ratios by the piles and inter-pile subsoil in the bidirectionally reinforced composite ground, the forming mechanism, mechanical behavior and its effect factors were discussed in detail. Then, the unified strength theory was introduced to set up the elastoplastic equilibrium differential equation of the subsoil under the limit equilibrium state. And from the equation, the solutions were derived with the corresponding formulas presented to calculate the earth pressure over and beneath the horizontal reinforced cushion or pillow, the stress of inter-pile subsoil and the pile-soil stress ratio. Based on the obtained solutions and measured data from an engineering project, the influence rules by the soil property parameters (i.e., the cohesion c and internal friction angle φ) and pile spacing on the pile-soil stress ratio n were discussed respectively. The results show that to improve the load sharing ratio by the piles, the more effective means for filling materials with a larger value of φ is to increase the ratio of pile cap size to spacing, while to reduce the pile spacing properly and increase the value of cohesion c is advisable for those filling materials with a smaller value of φ.
Comparative Model Tests of SDP and CFA Pile Groups in Non-Cohesive Soil
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Krasiński Adam
2015-02-01
Full Text Available The research topic relates to the subject of deep foundations supported on continuous flight auger (CFA piles and screw displacement piles (SDP. The authors have decided to conduct model tests of foundations supported on the group of piles mentioned above and also the tests of the same piles working as a single. The tests are ongoing in Geotechnical Laboratory of Gdaňsk University of Technology. The description of test procedure, interpretation and analysis of the preliminary testing series results are presented in the paper.
Estimate of the residual loads obtained in the end of piles driven in porous soils
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David de Carvalho
2005-02-01
Full Text Available In the geotechnical engineering the study about the quantification of the residual loads in the pile end, after the end of the first loading of the load test attempt, highlighted some works on its interpretation in the curve load versus pile settlement. The construction of a mathematical model to study such a phenomenon is based on the Relations of Cambefort Precast-concrete piles were specially built for this research. They have special elements installed all along their length where the residual loads inlaid in the pile end region could be measured by means of deformation strain gauges.
Une vie active saine pour les enfants et les adolescents
2002-01-01
De mauvais modes de vie, comme une alimentation malsaine et l’inactivité physique, sont d'importants facteurs contributifs à une augmentation de la morbidité et de la mortalité secondaires à des maladies chroniques à l’âge adulte. Depuis dix ans, on remarque une augmentation du mode de vie sédentaire et de l’obésité chez les enfants et les adolescents, tant en Amérique du Nord qu’ailleurs dans le monde. Les médecins doivent être conscients de l’importance du problème, fournir des conseils de prévention aux familles et promouvoir une vie active saine dans leur pratique.
["Les Impatients": expression through art].
Lamontagne, Céline; Palardy, Lorraine
2015-01-01
The organization called "Les Impatients" was founded in 1992. Using a unique model, Les Impatients welcomes those with mental health issues who would like to express themselves through art. Les Impatients offers free creative workshops and encourages exchanges with the community through the sharing of its participants' creations. The name Les Impatients reinforces the idea that the organization does not consider those attending its workshops as patients, but rather creators who are eager to heal, develop their craft and find their place in society. The participants contribute to the collective objective of breaking down the stigma that surrounds mental illness.Les Impatients collaborates with various mental health organizations in Quebec, such as the Institut universitaire en santé mentale de Montréal (IUSMM) affiliated to the Université de Montréal, Douglas Mental Health University Institute (DMHUI), the Centre de santé et services sociaux Drummond (CSSS Drummond) and the Centre de santé et services sociaux Pierre-Boucher (CSSS Pierre-Boucher). Les Impatients offers more than 48 workshops in eight different locations to around 450 participants each week.Dissemination activities, remarkable events, original projects: Les Impatients stands out through its realizations. Examples are exhibitions, collections of love letters, comic books, CD, concerts, and reading nights. The organization's originality resides in the exploration of the links between the work of the participants and that of professional artists. An illustration of this interest is the annual Parle-moi d'amour auction-exhibition, which has been one of Les Impatients' major events since 1999.As part of its mission, Les Impatients conserves the works of art created by the participants during the workshops. Its collection includes more than 15,000 works of art from Les Impatients as well as pieces donated by collectors of unconventional art, commonly known as "art brut" or "outsider art". The
Data of evolutionary structure change: 1N32G-1IQVA [Confc[Archive
Lifescience Database Archive (English)
Full Text Available ain>G 1N32G INKIM---RDGKK e>HHHH --- H...Chain> 1IQVA INKVMRSGGSSKK ...>HHHHH H> ATOM 293 CA ILE A 71 40.019 9.985 12....in> 1N32G QRPER---RAAVR > --- HHHH... 1IQVA AKCYRTKMSFAEA >HHHHH HHHH
Nonparametric estimation of the stationary M/G/1 workload distribution function
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Martin Bøgsted
2005-01-01
In this paper it is demonstrated how a nonparametric estimator of the stationary workload distribution function of the M/G/1-queue can be obtained by systematic sampling the workload process. Weak convergence results and bootstrap methods for empirical distribution functions for stationary associ...
Differential regulation of the cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks in G1
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barlow, Jacqueline H; Lisby, Michael; Rothstein, Rodney
2008-01-01
Double-strand breaks (DSBs) are potentially lethal DNA lesions that can be repaired by either homologous recombination (HR) or nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ). We show that DSBs induced by ionizing radiation (IR) are efficiently processed for HR and bound by Rfa1 during G1, while endonuclease-in...
Learning Progression of Ecological System Reasoning for Lower Elementary (G1-4) Students
Hokayem, Hayat Al
2012-01-01
In this study, I utilized a learning progression framework to investigate lower elementary students (G1-4) systemic reasoning in ecology and I related students reasoning to their sources of knowledge. I used semi-structured interviews with 44 students from first through fourth grade, four teachers, and eight parents. The results revealed that a…
Generalization of the DGLAP for the structure function g_1 to the region of small x
Ermolaev, B I; Troyan, S I
2005-01-01
The explicit expressions for the non-singlet and singlet components of the DIS structure function g_1 comprising the DGLAP -expressions for the coefficient functions and the anomalous dimensions, and accounting for the total resummation of the most singular contributions to those are obtained.
Comment on the recent COMPASS data on the spin structure function g_1
Ermolaev, B I; Troyan, S I
2008-01-01
We examine the recent COMPASS data on the spin structure function g_1 singlet. We show that it is rather difficult to use the data in the present form in order to draw conclusions on the initial parton densities. However, our tentative estimate is that the data better agree with positive rather than negative initial gluon densities.
ON THE TRANSIENT DEPARTURE PROCESS OF Mx/G/1 QUEUEING SYSTEM WITH SINGLE SERVER VACATION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yinghui TANG
2007-01-01
This paper studies the transient departure process of Mx/G/1 queueing system with single server vacation. We present a simple probability decomposition method to derive the expected number of departures occurring in finite time interval from any initial state and the asymptotic expansion of the expected number. Especially, we derive some more practical results for some special cases.
Disruption of Netrin G1 by a balanced chromosome translocation in a girl with Rett syndrome
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borg, Isabella; Freude, Kristine; Kübart, Sabine;
2005-01-01
hybridisations, utilizing probes derived from breakpoint spanning BACs, detected several aberrant fragments specific for the patient. Sequence analysis of the cloned junction fragment indicated that on chromosome 1 the predominantly brain-expressed Netrin G1 (NTNG1) gene is disrupted, whereas on chromosome 7...
17 CFR 240.12g-1 - Exemption from section 12(g).
2010-04-01
... pursuant to section 12(g)(1) if on the last day of its most recent fiscal year the issuer had total assets... quoted in an automated inter-dealer quotation system. (Secs. 6, 7, 8, 10, 19(a), 48 Stat. 78, 79, 81,...
Solid-phase synthesis and biological activity of a thioether analogue of conotoxin G1
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bondebjerg, Jon; Grunnet, Morten; Jespersen, Thomas;
2003-01-01
of two isomers, which were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the muscular nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The two isomers were found to have IC(50) values (inhibitory activities) of 144 microM and 48 microM, compared to 0.18 microM for native conotoxin G1....
Bayesian Inference and Prediction in an M/G/1 with Optional Second Service
Mohammadi, A.; Salehi-Rad, M. R.
2012-01-01
In this article, we exploit the Bayesian inference and prediction for an M/G/1 queuing model with optional second re-service. In this model, a service unit attends customers arriving following a Poisson process and demanding service according to a general distribution and some of customers need to r
Phosphate-Activated Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Stabilizes G1 Cyclin To Trigger Cell Cycle Entry
Menoyo, S.; Ricco, N.; Bru, S.; Hernández-Ortega, S.; Escoté, X.; Aldea, M.
2013-01-01
G1 cyclins, in association with a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK), are universal activators of the transcriptional G1-S machinery during entry into the cell cycle. Regulation of cyclin degradation is crucial for coordinating progression through the cell cycle, but the mechanisms that modulate cyclin stability to control cell cycle entry are still unknown. Here, we show that a lack of phosphate downregulates Cln3 cyclin and leads to G1 arrest in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The stability of Cln3 protein is diminished in strains with low activity of Pho85, a phosphate-sensing CDK. Cln3 is an in vitro substrate of Pho85, and both proteins interact in vivo. More interestingly, cells that carry a CLN3 allele encoding aspartic acid substitutions at the sites of Pho85 phosphorylation maintain high levels of Cln3 independently of Pho85 activity. Moreover, these cells do not properly arrest in G1 in the absence of phosphate and they die prematurely. Finally, the activity of Pho85 is essential for accumulating Cln3 and for reentering the cell cycle after phosphate refeeding. Taken together, our data indicate that Cln3 is a molecular target of the Pho85 kinase that is required to modulate cell cycle entry in response to environmental changes in nutrient availability. PMID:23339867
Boudenot, Jean-Claude
2016-01-01
« Les atomes, dit Jean Perrin en 1913, ne sont pas ces éléments éternels et insécables dont l'irréductible simplicité donnait au possible une borne, et, dans leur inimaginable petitesse, nous commençons à pressentir un fourmillement prodigieux de mondes nouveaux ». C'est bien dans un monde totalement nouveau, le monde quantique, que nous a fait pénétrer la découverte des quanta par Max Planck. Son article de 1900 est le déclencheur de l'une des plus grandes révolutions scientifiques de tous les temps. Les trente années qui suivent sont les plus riches de la physique ; Planck, Einstein, Bohr, Sommerfeld, de Broglie, Schrödinger, Heisenberg, Dirac, Born, Pauli… reconstruisent la physique sur de nouvelles bases sur fond de conflit des générations. Le monde est par ailleurs secoué par la guerre, Max Planck est tourmenté et vit des épreuves personnelles dramatiques. C'est l'homme, aussi bien que l'oeuvre, que les auteurs ont tenté de dépeindre dans cet ouvrage. Ils ont également souhait�...
Effects of pile driving by high frequency hammers on adjacent piles%高频振动打桩对邻近基桩影响分析
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨祁; 陈福全; 刘建鹏
2014-01-01
The stress waves caused by pile driving will disturb surrounding buildings and affect the normal serv-ice of underground facilities. The technique of high frequency hydraulic vibratory pile driving has been widely ap-plied to solve this problem. The effects of pile driving on adjacent piles are investigated by numerical analysis meth-od using software package ABAQUS. A 1. 0 mm radius rigid tube is modeled along the axis of penetration. At the beginning of the analysis this tube is in frictionless contact with the surrounding soils. During pile penetration the pile slides over the tube and the soil separates from the tube to establish the contact between the penetrating pile and the surrounding soil. The driven pile and the tube are simulated with rigid body,and the soils with Mohr-Cou-lomb model. Then the three-dimensional model of high frequency hydraulic vibratory pile driving is established. Tn this way,a numerical analysis for the effects of the full process of pile driving by using high frequency hammers on the adjacent piles are performed. The numerical simulation analysis of pile penetration process shows that the stress concentration occurred around the pile tip. The effect on existing piles is smaller with the larger distance from the driven pile. The analysis also shows the high frequency vibratory pile driving has small effect on adjacent piles.%为解决在城市里桩基施工引起的环境问题，国外开发并推广应用了高频液压振动锤技术。通过有限元软件Abaqus对高频振动打桩对邻近桩基影响进行模拟。模拟中桩轴线处建立半径为1mm的管，管土接触设为光滑，打桩时土管分离，桩随着管向下贯入，形成打入桩和周围土体之间的接触关系。打入桩和圆管采用刚体模拟，土体单元则采用摩尔库伦本构模型，建立高频打桩的三维模型，很好的实现高频液压振动沉桩整个过程的数值分析。贯入模拟过程表明打入桩桩尖深度
OPAL Cold Neutron Guide In-Pile Replacement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rownes, T.; Eltobaji, A.; Bell, M.; Klose, F. [Nuclear Operations, Baitain (Australia)
2013-07-01
The 20 MW{sub th} OPAL research reactor has five neutron beam assemblies. These provide cold and thermal neutrons to various neutron guides and associated neutron beam instruments. In 2010 a project was initiated to install a new cold neutron guide, CG2, in one of the assemblies. This installation would allow up to four new neutron beam instruments to be built, significantly expanding the reactor's capabilities. The project concluded in December 2012 with the successful installation of CG2. Each neutron beam assembly has an in-pile plug, a primary shutter and a front cover. Together these constitute the neutron guide's in-pile components, with a total mass of over 12 tonnes. The CG2 installation required the complete replacement of the existing components. This replacement was scheduled to coincide with OPAL's first major shutdown. With a budget of $2.3 million and an expected dose of 50 man.mSv, the CG2 installation was a large and complex task. Work during the shutdown involved over 40 ANSTO personnel and radiation fields approached 1 Sv/h in some areas. Despite this, the installation team received a collective dose of only 10 man.mSv, and the project was completed to budget and within schedule. This paper will outline the details of the project, focusing on lessons learned and recommended practices. Each OPAL in-pile plug has a design life of 10 years at full power operation, and similar replacements will be performed regularly as the reactor ages. It is hoped that this information will be useful for other research reactors planning large capital engineering projects.
Pile-Up Discrimination Algorithms for the HOLMES Experiment
Ferri, E.; Alpert, B.; Bennett, D.; Faverzani, M.; Fowler, J.; Giachero, A.; Hays-Wehle, J.; Maino, M.; Nucciotti, A.; Puiu, A.; Ullom, J.
2016-07-01
The HOLMES experiment is a new large-scale experiment for the electron neutrino mass determination by means of the electron capture decay of ^{163}Ho. In such an experiment, random coincidence events are one of the main sources of background which impair the ability to identify the effect of a non-vanishing neutrino mass. In order to resolve these spurious events, detectors characterized by a fast response are needed as well as pile-up recognition algorithms. For that reason, we have developed a code for testing the discrimination efficiency of various algorithms in recognizing pile up events in dependence of the time separation between two pulses. The tests are performed on simulated realistic TES signals and noise. Indeed, the pulse profile is obtained by solving the two coupled differential equations which describe the response of the TES according to the Irwin-Hilton model. To these pulses, a noise waveform which takes into account all the noise sources regularly present in a real TES is added. The amplitude of the generated pulses is distributed as the ^{163}Ho calorimetric spectrum. Furthermore, the rise time of these pulses has been chosen taking into account the constraints given by both the bandwidth of the microwave multiplexing read out with a flux ramp demodulation and the bandwidth of the ADC boards currently available for ROACH2. Among the different rejection techniques evaluated, the Wiener Filter technique, a digital filter to gain time resolution, has shown an excellent pile-up rejection efficiency. The obtained time resolution closely matches the baseline specifications of the HOLMES experiment. We report here a description of our simulation code and a comparison of the different rejection techniques.
Old stellar population synthesis: new age and mass estimates for Mayall Ⅱ = G1
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jun Ma; Richard de Grijs; Zhou Fan; Soo-Chang Rey; Zhen-Yu Wu; Xu Zhou; Jiang-Hua Wu; Zhao-Ji Jiang; Jian-Sheng Chen; Kyungsook Lee; Sangmo Tony Sohn
2009-01-01
Mayall Ⅱ = G1 is one of the most luminous globular clusters (GCs) in M31. Here, we determine its age and mass by comparing multicolor photometry with theo-retical stellar population synthesis models. Based on far- and near-ultraviolet GALEX photometry, broad-band UBV RI, and infrared JHK8 2MASS data, we construct the most extensive spectral energy distribution of G1 to date, spanning the wavelength range from 1538 to 20000A. A quantitative comparison with a variety of simple stellar pop-ulation (SSP) models yields a mean age which is consistent with G1 being among the oldest building blocks of M31 and having formed within ～1.7Gyr after the Big Bang. Irrespective of the SSP model or stellar initial mass function adopted, the resulting mass estimates (of order 107M⊙) indicate that G1 is one of the most massive GCs in the Local Group. However, we speculate that the cluster's exceptionally high mass suggests that it may not be a genuine GC. Our results also suggest that G1 may contain, on average, (1.65±0.63) × 102L⊙ far-ultraviolet-bright, hot, extreme horizontal-branch stars, depend-ing on the adopted SSP model. In addition, we demonstrate that extensive multi-passband photometry coupled with SSP analysis enables one to obtain age estimates for old SSPs that have similar accuracies as those from integrated spectroscopy or resolved stellar pho-tometry, provided that some of the free parameters can be constrained independently.
Identification of G1-regulated genes in normally cycling human cells.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maroun J Beyrouthy
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obtaining synchronous cell populations is essential for cell-cycle studies. Methods such as serum withdrawal or use of drugs which block cells at specific points in the cell cycle alter cellular events upon re-entry into the cell cycle. Regulatory events occurring in early G1 phase of a new cell cycle could have been overlooked. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: We used a robotic mitotic shake-off apparatus to select cells in late mitosis for genome-wide gene expression studies. Two separate microarray experiments were conducted, one which involved isolation of RNA hourly for several hours from synchronous cell populations, and one experiment which examined gene activity every 15 minutes from late telophase of mitosis into G1 phase. To verify synchrony of the cell populations under study, we utilized methods including BrdU uptake, FACS, and microarray analyses of histone gene activity. We also examined stress response gene activity. Our analysis enabled identification of 200 early G1-regulated genes, many of which currently have unknown functions. We also confirmed the expression of a set of genes candidates (fos, atf3 and tceb by qPCR to further validate the newly identified genes. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: Genome-scale expression analyses of the first two hours of G1 in naturally cycling cells enabled the discovery of a unique set of G1-regulated genes, many of which currently have unknown functions, in cells progressing normally through the cell division cycle. This group of genes may contain future targets for drug development and treatment of human disease.
Field test study of DX piles%DX桩群桩现场试验研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈立宏; 唐松涛; 贺德新
2011-01-01
DX桩(三岔双向挤扩灌注桩)作为一种新型的变截面桩型在承载力和沉降方面比普通直孔灌注桩具有明显的优势.但对于DX桩的承载机制和沉降特性的研究,特别是DX桩群桩的研究还不充分.主要通过现场的模型桩试验,对DX桩单桩和群桩的承载力和沉降特性进行了研究.分析了相同条件下单桩和群桩的特性,同时比较了相同桩长、桩径以及相同承载力条件下DX桩和直孔桩的差异,为DX桩的设计提供了参考.%Cast-in-place pile with expanded branches and bells by 3-way extruding arms (DX pile), a new variable cross-section pile,has obvious advantages in bearing capacity and settlement control compared to conventional pile.However, studies of bearing mechanism and settlement characteristic.especially group DX piles.are not sufficient.The bearing capacity and settlement characteristics of single DX pilc and group DX piles are analyzed via in-situ model test.Special attention is paid on single and group DX piles comparison under same conditions; at the meantime, the single DX pile and conventional pile with the same pile length,diameter, and the same bearing capacity are compared so as to provide the theoretical references for the bearing capacity design of the DX piles in the engineering practice.
Method and apparatus for analog pulse pile-up rejection
De Geronimo, Gianluigi
2013-12-31
A method and apparatus for pulse pile-up rejection are disclosed. The apparatus comprises a delay value application constituent configured to receive a threshold-crossing time value, and provide an adjustable value according to a delay value and the threshold-crossing time value; and a comparison constituent configured to receive a peak-occurrence time value and the adjustable value, compare the peak-occurrence time value with the adjustable value, indicate pulse acceptance if the peak-occurrence time value is less than or equal to the adjustable value, and indicate pulse rejection if the peak-occurrence time value is greater than the adjustable value.
Dislocation Pile-Ups, Material Strength Levels, and Thermal Activation
Armstrong, Ronald W.
2016-12-01
A review dedicated to James C.M. Li is given of dislocation pile-ups and their connection to the Hall-Petch dependence of polycrystalline strength and fracture mechanics properties on an inverse square root of grain size basis, with such grain size dependence now very importantly extended to nanopolycrystalline material behaviors. An analogous H-P dependence is described for the inverse activation volume parameter obtained from the strain rate (and thermal) dependencies contained in the model dislocation thermal activation-strain rate analysis, also relating to pioneering contributions of Li to the topic of thermally activated dislocation dynamics.
Gautier, Henri
2015-01-01
Voici un livre très utile pour les béotiens qui voudraient aborder la thématique des énergies renouvelables comme introduction, mais également pour les analystes travaillant dans ce domaine comme manuel de référence. En effet, écrit par un praticien de l’énergie et un pédagogue des sciences physiques, cet ouvrage balaie le panel des énergies renouvelables actuellement disponibles en fournissant des indications techniques indispensables sur chaque solution énergétique et des repères utiles sur...
Les enseignements de la catastrophe
Grünewald, François
2011-01-01
Avant le séisme, divers mécanismes de coordination internationale impliquant différentes parties prenantes (donateurs, ONG internationales et nationales, agences des Nations unies, acteurs multilatéraux, Gouvernement d’Haïti, etc.), détentrices de mandats différents avaient été mis sur pied. Même si le dialogue entre les groupes de la société civile haïtienne et les différents fora de coordination internationale ont souvent été difficiles, face à des risques naturels nombreux, des efforts ava...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chalmet, E.; Maridet, R.
2001-07-01
The cell using the hydrogen seems to be an attractive alternative energy source. Useful for the portable telephones, the automobiles or in the houses, it may cover a market of 60 milliards of dollars in 2010. (A.L.B.)
2012-06-04
... piles' strength. Vibratory and impact pile driving may result in anticipated hydroacoustic levels... range-finder) in order to determine if animals have entered into the exclusion zone or Level...
In-pile and out-of-pile testing of a molybdenum-uranium dioxide cermet fueled themionic diode
Diianni, D. C.
1972-01-01
The behavior of Mo-UO2 cermet fuel in a diode for thermionic reactor application was studied. The diode had a Mo-0.5 Ti emitter and niobium collector. Output power ranged from 1.4 to 2.8 W/cm squared at emitter and collector temperatures of 1500 deg and 540 C. Thermionic performance was stable within the limits of the instrumentation sensitivity. Through 1000 hours of in-pile operation the emitter was dimensionally stable. However, some fission gases (15 percent) leaked through an inner clad imperfection that occurred during fuel fabrication.
A performance case study of energy pile foundation at Rosborg Gymnasium (Denmark)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pagola, Maria Alberdi; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Poulsen, Søren Erbs
2016-01-01
The Rosborg Gymnasium building in Vejle (Denmark) is partially founded on 200 foundation pile heat exchangers (energy piles). The thermo-active foundation has supplemented the heating and free cooling needs of the building since 2011 (4,000 m2 living area). Operational data from the ground source...
Time scale of scour around a pile in combined waves and current
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petersen, Thor Ugelvig; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen
The time scale of the scour process around a circular vertical pile is studied in combined waves and current. A series of tests were carried out in a flume with pile diameters 40 mm and 75 mm, in both steady current, waves and combined waves and current. In the combined wave and current flow regime...
Effect of Welding Methods on the Structure and Mechanical Properties of Welded Joints of Screw Piles
Golikov, N. I.; Sidorov, M. M.; Stepanova, K. V.
2016-11-01
Mechanical properties and characteristics of the structure of welded joints of screw piles are studied. It is shown that cast tips from steel 25L do not meet the performance specifications for operation in the Northern climatic zone. Quality welded joints of screw piles can be obtained by semiautomatic welding in an environment of CO2 with Sv-08G2S welding wire.
Influences of Family Management and Spousal Perceptions on Stressor Pile-up.
Imig, David R.; Imig, Gail L.
1986-01-01
Describes the contingent influence of family managerial efficacy and related spousal perceptions on the relationship between stressor pile-up and family cohesion. Perceived loss of managerial efficacy in conjunction with discrepant spousal perceptions of such change substantially increased the family's vulnerability to stressor pile-up. A…
Kastelein, R.A.; Hoek, L.; Gransier, R.; Jong, C.A.F. de
2013-01-01
Pile driving is presently the most common method used to attach wind turbines to the sea bed. To assess the impact of pile driving sounds on harbor porpoises, it is important to know at what distance these sounds can be detected. Using a psychophysical technique, a male porpoise’s hearing thresholds
An efficient model for prediction of underwater noise due to pile driving at large ranges
Nijhof, M.J.J.; Binnerts, B.; Jong, C.A.F. de; Ainslie, M.A.
2014-01-01
Modelling the sound levels in the water column due to pile driving operations nearby and out to large distances from the pile is crucial in assessing the likely impact on marine life. Standard numerical techniques for modelling the sound radiation from mechanical structures such as the finite elemen
2012-07-24
... Specified Activities; Pile Driving for Honolulu Seawater Air Conditioning Project AGENCY: National Marine... Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to pile driving offshore... for the take, by Level B harassment, of small numbers of 17 marine mammal species incidental to...
40 CFR 411.30 - Applicability; description of the materials storage piles runoff subcategory.
2010-07-01
... runoff of rainfall which derives from the storage of materials including raw materials, intermediate... materials storage piles runoff subcategory. 411.30 Section 411.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Materials Storage Piles Runoff Subcategory § 411.30 Applicability; description of the materials...
Formation and remediation of drill-cutting piles in the North Sea
Eames, I.; de Leeuw, B.; Conniff, P.
2002-01-01
Drill cuttings generated during borehole excavation have been routinely dumped into the North Sea, where they now represent a significant environmental hazard owing to contamination by oil residues and heavy metals. In-situ measurements of the structure of drill-cutting piles are relatively poor owing to the difficulty of accessing water depths of 60-180 m. In an effort to understand how drill-cutting piles are formed, laboratory-scale experiments were undertaken to investigate how granular material, poured into a tank of water, spreads along a rigid horizontal wall. The laboratory study examined how the pile radius varied as a function of particle size (90 µm to 3 mm), source height above the wall, particle volume flux and volume deposited. A model of drill-cutting pile formation is developed by combining descriptions of descent as a plume and propagation along the wall as a gravity current. Satisfactory agreement is obtained between experimental measurements and model predictions, which are applied to interpret available field data. The implications of this research for drill-cutting pile remediation are discussed. The model indicates that when natural bioremediation has broken down a 5-cm layer of a drill-cutting pile, only 50-100% of the pile area (or 75-95% of the pile volume) requires treatment.
Behaviour of Single Pile in Reinforced Slope Subjected to Inclined Load
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dr. A. I. Dhatrak
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Deep foundations, including driven piles, are used to support vertical loads of structures and lateral forces. Typical structures subjected to lateral loads include bridge abutments, transmission tower, sand offshore platforms. Traffic, wind, wave, and seismic forces are common types of lateral loads subjected to pile foundations. The present work is focused on understanding the lateral load capacity of vertical piles located near crest of the slope and subjected to the lateral and inclined loads. The experimental investigation was carried out to study the effect of reinforcing an earth slope on the inclined loading behavior of a single vertical pile located near the slope. Layers of geogrid were used to reinforce a sandy slope of 1V:2H. The parametric studies were performed by varying the length of pile(L, angle of inclination of load (θ, number of geogrid reinforcement (Nr and crest distance. It was observed that the lateral load capacity of pile depends upon these parameters. The lateral load capacity of pile increases with increase in inclination of load, length of pile(L, number of geogrid reinforcement (Nr and crest distance.
Pile-up correction by Genetic Algorithm and Artificial Neural Network
Kafaee, M.; Saramad, S.
2009-08-01
Pile-up distortion is a common problem for high counting rates radiation spectroscopy in many fields such as industrial, nuclear and medical applications. It is possible to reduce pulse pile-up using hardware-based pile-up rejections. However, this phenomenon may not be eliminated completely by this approach and the spectrum distortion caused by pile-up rejection can be increased as well. In addition, inaccurate correction or rejection of pile-up artifacts in applications such as energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrometers can lead to losses of counts, will give poor quantitative results and even false element identification. Therefore, it is highly desirable to use software-based models to predict and correct any recognized pile-up signals in data acquisition systems. The present paper describes two new intelligent approaches for pile-up correction; the Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). The validation and testing results of these new methods have been compared, which shows excellent agreement with the measured data with 60Co source and NaI detector. The Monte Carlo simulation of these new intelligent algorithms also shows their advantages over hardware-based pulse pile-up rejection methods.
In-situ grouting of uranium-mill-tailings piles: an assessment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tamura, T.; Boegly, W.J. Jr.
1983-05-01
Passage in 1978 of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) initiated a program of remedial action for 22 existing mill tailings piles generated in the period 1940 to 1970 as part of the nation's defense and nuclear power programs. The presence of these piles poses potential health and environmental contamination concerns. Possible remedial actions proposed include multilayer covers over the piles to reduce water infiltration, reduce radon gas releases, and reduce airborne transport of tailings fines. In addition, suggested remedial actions include (1) the use of liners to prevent groundwater contamination by leachates from the piles and (2) chemical stabilization of the tailings to retain the radioactive and nonradioactive sources of contamination. Lining of the piles would normally be applicable only to piles that are to be moved from their present location such that the liner could be placed between the tailings and the groundwater. However, by using civil engineering techniques developed for grouting rocks and soils for strength and water control, it may be possible to produce an in situ liner for piles that are not to be relocated. The Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project Office requested that ORNL assess the potential application of grouting as a remedial action. This report examines the types of grouts, the equipment available, and the costs, and assesses the possibility of applying grouting technology as a remedial action alternative for uranium mill tailings piles.
Pile-up corrections in laser-driven pulsed x-ray sources
Hernández, Guillermo
2016-01-01
A formalism for treating the pile-up produced in laser-driven pulsed x-ray sources has been developed. It allows the direct use of x-ray spectroscopy without artificially decreasing the number of counts in the detector. The influence of the pile-up on the overestimation of temperature parameters is shown up.
In-Situ Test and Numerical Analysis of Bore Pressure on Sheet-Pile Groin
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XU Chang-jie; CAI Yuan-qiang; XUAN Wei-li; CHEN Hai-jun; SONG Yang
2006-01-01
An in-situ test of bore pressure on a sheet-pile groin is carried out to investigate the characteristics of the bore pressure of tide in the Qian-tang River. The histories of bore pressure and the rule of the distribution of bore pressure on the sheet-pile groin are obtained through the test, which shows that the bore pressure on the sheet-pile groin are varies with time and space. The peak value of bore pressure on sheet-pile groin at different heights occurs almost at the same time. The vertical distribution of bore pressure on the sheet-pile groin is linear above the still water level. The maximum bore pressure on the sheet-pile groin occurs at the still water level. Then a numerical method is also used to further study the characteristics of bore pressure. The standard κ-ε turbulence model and VOF (volume of fluid) method for surface tracking are used to simulate the bore against the sheet-pile groin. The numerical results show flow fields, the position of free surface and time history and spatial distribution of bore pressure on the sheet-pile groin. The numerical and test results show good agreement.
Pile-up correction method for fission work with active targets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leroux, B.; Caitucoli, F.; Audouard, P.; Asghar, M.; Barreau, G.; Doan, T.P.; Sicre, A. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan, 33 - Gradignan (France))
1983-02-15
A method which forms a part of a multiparametric set-up for fission work on very ..cap alpha..-particle active fissile targets is presented here. It helps to identify a piled-up fission event and to correct off-line for the amount of pile-up present. Some results are presented for the spontaneous fission of /sup 244/Cm.
Small-Scale Cyclic Tests on Nonslender Piles Situated in Sand
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Søren Peder Hyldal; Ibsen, Lars Bo
In the period from August 2011 till October 2011 a series of small-scale tests on pile foundations has been conducted at Aalborg University. In all the tests, the piles have been exposed to cyclic loading consisting of 20-25 load cycles and all the tests have been conducted in a pressure tank...
Small-Scale Quasi-Static Tests on Non-Slender Piles Situated in Sand
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Søren Peder Hyldal; Ibsen, Lars Bo
In the period from February 2009 till March 2011 a series of small-scale tests on pile foundations has been conducted at Aalborg University. In all the tests the piles have been exposed to quasi-static loading and all the tests have been conducted in a pressure tank. The objective of the tests has...
An efficient model for prediction of underwater noise due to pile driving at large ranges
Nijhof, M.J.J.; Binnerts, B.; Jong, C.A.F. de; Ainslie, M.A.
2014-01-01
Modelling the sound levels in the water column due to pile driving operations nearby and out to large distances from the pile is crucial in assessing the likely impact on marine life. Standard numerical techniques for modelling the sound radiation from mechanical structures such as the finite elemen
Study on the squeezing effect of open-ended pipe piles
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yan-er Lu; Jun-jie Zheng; Jian-hua Yin
2009-01-01
During the installation of a pipe pile, the soil around the pile will be squeezed out. This paper deals with this squeezing effect of open-ended pipe piles using the cylindrical cavity expansion theory. The characteristics of soil with different tension and compression modnli and dilation are involved by applying the elastic theory with different moduli and logarithmic strain. The closed-form solutions of the radius of the plastic region, the displacement of the boundary between the plastic region and the elastic region and the expansion pressure on the external surface of the pipe piles are obtained. When obtaining these solutions, the soil ping in the open-ended pipe pile is considered by employing an incremental filling ratio to quantify the degree of soil plugging. Moreover, the effects of the ratio of tension and compression moduli, angle of dilation and incremental filling ratio on the radius of the plastic region and the expansion pressure on the external surface of the pipe pile are investigated. The parametric analyses show that it is necessary and important to consider the difference between the tension modulus and compression modulus, dilation angle and incremental filling ratio for studying the squeezing effect of open-ended pipe pile installation. It is concluded that the analytical solutions presented in this paper are suitable for studying the squeezing effect of open-ended pipe piles.
Response of stiff piles in sand to long-term cyclic lateral loading
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bakmar, Christian LeBlanc; Houlsby, Guy T.; Byrne, Byron W.
2010-01-01
and loading ranges were realistic. A complete non-dimensional framework for stiff piles in sand is presented and applied to interpret the test results. The accumulated rotation was found to be dependent on relative density and was strongly affected by the characteristics of the applied cyclic load. The pile...
Effect of relative pile’s stiffness on lateral pile response under loading of large eccentricity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zania, Varvara; Hededal, Ole; Klinkvort, R.T.
2015-01-01
of the relative pile’s stiffness, when it is subjected to lateral load of large eccentricity. Employing centrifuge experiments, a hollow steel pile well instrumented with strain gauge pairs has been subjected to lateral load. The bending moment distribution of the model pile embedded in uniform, dense, dry sand...
Comment diffuser les savoirs à travers les Alpes ?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wolfgang Pfefferkorn
2009-03-01
Full Text Available CIPRA’s Future in the Alps Project aims at showcasing examples of successful implementation and successful projects in the Alps, and making available to others the extensive pool of experience and practical knowledge that lies in these projects. But how to transfer knowledge in an area of some 14 million inhabitants with several linguistic and cultural regions in which thousands of projects are carried out each year, that all kinds of players who work and life in completely different contexts are able to learn and benefit from one another? How do you go about something like that?Le projet « Avenir dans les Alpes » de la CIPRA (Commission Internationale pour la Protection des Alpes a pour objectif de présenter des exemples de réalisations et de projets réussis dans les Alpes, et de mettre à disposition du public l’ensemble de l’expérience et des connaissances pratiques acquises dans le cadre de ces projets. Cependant, comment transférer les savoirs dans une zone comptant quelque 14 millions d’habitants, composée de plusieurs régions linguistiques et culturelles dans lesquelles des milliers de projets sont menés à bien chaque année, et dont tous les acteurs, qui travaillent et vivent dans des contextes complètement différents, sont capables d’apprendre et de tirer profit les uns des autres ? Comment aborder ce genre de cas ?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. A. Lisnevskyi
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Purpose. Taking into consideration that the bearing capacity of the foundation may be insufficient, in the study it is assumed that pile foundation can be used to reduce the impact of the construction of new retaining structures on roads and railways near the existing buildings or in areas of dense urban development and ensure the stability of the foundation. To reduce the volume of excavation it is necessary to choose the economic structure of the retaining wall. To do this, one should explore stress-strain state (SSS of the retaining walls, to develop methods to improve their strength and stability, as well as to choose the most appropriate method of their analysis. Methodology. In the design of retaining walls foundation mat and piles are considered as independent elements. Since the combined effect of the retaining wall, piles and foundation mat as well as the effect of soil or rock foundation on the structure are considered not fully, so there are some limitations in the existing design techniques. To achieve the purpose the box tests of retaining walls models without piles and with piles for studying their interaction with the surrounding soil massif were conducted. Findings. Laboratory simulation of complex systems «surrounding soil – retaining wall – pile» was carried out and on the basis of the box test results were analyzed strains and its main parameters of the stress-strain state. Analysis of the results showed that the structure of a retaining wall with piles is steady and stable. Originality. So far, in Ukraine has not been carried out similar experimental box tests with models of retaining walls in such combinations. In the article has been presented unique photos and test results, as well as their analysis. Practical value. Using the methodology of experimental tests of the retaining wall models with piles and without them gives a wider opportunity to study stress-strain state of such structures.
Les charniers en Bosnie-Herzégovine. Les crimes contre les survivants
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amor Masovic
2005-04-01
Full Text Available Amor Masovic, responsable de la commission de recherche des disparus en Bosnie-Herzégovine et ancien responsable de la commission pour l’échange des prisonniers pendant la guerre de 1992-1995, nous présente ensuite un tableau accablant des disparitions dans les guerres récentes en ex-Yougoslavie, et des pratiques pour faire en sorte que ceux-ci ne soient ni retrouvés ni, encore moins, identifiés (d’où des fosses communes de deux types : « primaires » – où les corps furent enterrés initialement – et « secondaires » – où ces mêmes corps furent ré-enterrés, souvent démembrés, après avoir été déterrés pour être dispersés et moins aisés à repérer. 28 000 des 40 000 disparus ex-Yougoslaves relèvent du conflit en Bosnie et sont à 95 % des civils protégés par les conventions de Genève. Sur les 280 charniers identifiés la plupart se trouvaient à l’arrière et non sur le front et les disparitions sont datables à des périodes de non-combat. Le but de la commission est donc d’abord de retrouver et identifier les morts pour « faire savoir » et permettre le deuil (puisque la barbarisation qui a été exercée est double : contre les victimes et contre leurs familles qui ne peuvent « vivre » tant qu’elles n’ont pas de certitude. En outre, faute de disposition légale et d’une absence de droit spécifique des disparus personne ne peut être incriminé pour une disparition devant le TPIY où les « disparus » ne sont donc pas représentés. Amor Masovic tire quatre conclusions de son exposé : 1 la barbarie exprimée aujourd’hui est pour partie un résultat des manques de la justice à l’égard des crimes de guerre de la seconde guerre mondiale ; 2 la guerre contre les civils augmente en même temps qu’augmentent les dispositions internationales contre ces exactions qui restent donc purement formelles ; 3 en Bosnie, la barbarisation s’est exercée sur les corps des
"Les actants, les acteurs et les figures”, de A. J. Greimas
Baquero Velásquez Julia Marlén
1991-01-01
"Les actants, les acteurs et les figures" es un artículo de carácter teórico en el cual Greimas intenta responder los siguientes interrogantes: ¿Qué se entiende por actantes, actores y figuras? ¿Cómo se diferencian unos de otros? ¿, Cómo se relacionan estos tres conceptos? ¿Qué ubicación tiene cada uno en el marco de la teoría semiótica general? No se puede decir, sin embargo, que tal información se pueda obtener en forma precisa a partir de este texto, quizá debido, por un lado, a que el art...
UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE USE FOR WOOD CHIPS PILE VOLUME ESTIMATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Mokroš
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The rapid development of unmanned aerial vehicles is a challenge for applied research. Many technologies are developed and then researcher are looking up for their application in different sectors. Therefore, we decided to verify the use of the unmanned aerial vehicle for wood chips pile monitoring. We compared the use of GNSS device and unmanned aerial vehicle for volume estimation of four wood chips piles. We used DJI Phantom 3 Professional with the built-in camera and GNSS device (geoexplorer 6000. We used Agisoft photoscan for processing photos and ArcGIS for processing points. Volumes calculated from pictures were not statistically significantly different from amounts calculated from GNSS data and high correlation between them was found (p = 0.9993. We conclude that the use of unmanned aerial vehicle instead of the GNSS device does not lead to significantly different results. Tthe data collection consumed from almost 12 to 20 times less time with the use of UAV. Additionally, UAV provides documentation trough orthomosaic.
Evaluation of Candidate In-Pile Thermal Conductivity Techniques
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
B. Fox; H. Ban; J. Daw; K. Condie; D. Knudson; J. Rempe
2009-05-01
Thermophysical properties of materials must be known for proper design, test, and application of new fuels and structural properties in nuclear reactors. In the case of nuclear fuels during irradiation, the physical structure and chemical composition change as a function of time and position within the rod. Typically, thermal conductivity changes, as well as other thermophysical properties being evaluated during irradiation in a materials and test reactor, are measured out-of-pile in “hot-cells.” Repeatedly removing samples from a test reactor to make out-of-pile measurements is expensive, has the potential to disturb phenomena of interest, and only provide understanding of the sample's end state at the time each measurement is made. There are also limited thermophysical property data for advanced fuels. Such data are needed for the development of next generation reactors and advanced fuels for existing nuclear plants. Having the capacity to effectively and quickly characterize fuels and material properties during irradiation has the potential to improve the fidelity of nuclear fuel data and reduce irradiation testing costs.
Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Use for Wood Chips Pile Volume Estimation
Mokroš, M.; Tabačák, M.; Lieskovský, M.; Fabrika, M.
2016-06-01
The rapid development of unmanned aerial vehicles is a challenge for applied research. Many technologies are developed and then researcher are looking up for their application in different sectors. Therefore, we decided to verify the use of the unmanned aerial vehicle for wood chips pile monitoring. We compared the use of GNSS device and unmanned aerial vehicle for volume estimation of four wood chips piles. We used DJI Phantom 3 Professional with the built-in camera and GNSS device (geoexplorer 6000). We used Agisoft photoscan for processing photos and ArcGIS for processing points. Volumes calculated from pictures were not statistically significantly different from amounts calculated from GNSS data and high correlation between them was found (p = 0.9993). We conclude that the use of unmanned aerial vehicle instead of the GNSS device does not lead to significantly different results. Tthe data collection consumed from almost 12 to 20 times less time with the use of UAV. Additionally, UAV provides documentation trough orthomosaic.
In-Pile Thermal Conductivity Measurement Method for Nuclear Fuels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Joy L. Rempe; Brandon Fox; Heng Ban; Joshua E. Daw; Darrell L. Knudson; Keith G. Condie
2009-08-01
Thermophysical properties of advanced nuclear fuels and materials during irradiation must be known prior to their use in existing, advanced, or next generation reactors. Thermal conductivity is one of the most important properties for predicting fuel and material performance. A joint Utah State University (USU) / Idaho National Laboratory (INL) project, which is being conducted with assistance from the Institute for Energy Technology at the Norway Halden Reactor Project, is investigating in-pile fuel thermal conductivity measurement methods. This paper focuses on one of these methods – a multiple thermocouple method. This two-thermocouple method uses a surrogate fuel rod with Joule heating to simulate volumetric heat generation to gain insights about in-pile detection of thermal conductivity. Preliminary results indicated that this method can measure thermal conductivity over a specific temperature range. This paper reports the thermal conductivity values obtained by this technique and compares these values with thermal property data obtained from standard thermal property measurement techniques available at INL’s High Test Temperature Laboratory. Experimental results and material properties data are also compared to finite element analysis results.
Economic evaluation of recirculation as a method of pile cooling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carson, A.B.; Purcell, R.H.; McEwen, L.H.
1954-04-07
Reductions in irradiation costs and increases in production rate have provided a continuing incentive for more efficient operation of the Hanford Piles. These improvements have been obtained by means of higher specific powers, greater water flow rates, and better water utilization. However, the extent of the improvements which can be made in this manner may be limited by such factors as tube and slug corrosion, slug stability, and graphite damage rates at higher operating temperatures. Water purification and pumping costs are also factors to be considered. New slug designs are being developed which may be capable of much higher specific power operation. Higher graphite temperatures may also prove feasible, but the water plant performance limitations for the present single pass cooling systems may prove much more expensive to relieve. The use of recirculating cooling water as a means of attaining higher temperature, higher power operation has received preliminary study. A preliminary economic evaluation of an operating area equipped for recirculation versus single pass cooling is needed to better determine the relative merits of the two cooling methods. This report presents the results of such an evaluation and discusses the direction of future development work in the field of pile cooling.
The existence of inflection points for generalized log-aesthetic curves satisfying G1 data
Karpagavalli, R.; Gobithaasan, R. U.; Miura, K. T.; Shanmugavel, Madhavan
2015-12-01
Log-Aesthetic (LA) curves have been implemented in a CAD/CAM system for various design feats. LA curves possess linear Logarithmic Curvature Graph (LCG) with gradient (shape parameter) denoted as α. In 2009, a generalized form of LA curves called Generalized Log-Aesthetic Curves (GLAC) has been proposed which has an extra shape parameter as ν compared to LA curves. Recently, G1 continuous GLAC algorithm has been proposed which utilizes the extra shape parameter using four control points. This paper discusses on the existence of inflection points in a GLAC segment satisfying G1 Hermite data and the effect of inflection point on convex hull property. It is found that the existence of inflection point can be avoided by manipulating the value of α. Numerical experiments show that the increase of α may remove the inflection point (if any) in a GLAC segment.
Rare Coumarins Induce Apoptosis, G1 Cell Block and Reduce RNA Content in HL60 Cells
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Widelski Jarosław
2017-02-01
Full Text Available The rare coumarins stenocarpin, stenocarpin isobutyrate, oficinalin, oficinalin isobutyrate, 8-methoxypeucedanin and the known xanthotoxin, isoimperatorin, bergapten, peucedanin and 8–methoxyisoimperatorin were isolated from Peucedanum luxurians Tamamsch. (Apiaceae and identified by means of spectral data (1D and 2D NMR. Their immunomodulating activity was evaluated by flow cytometry and their influence on HL60 cells as well as on PHA-stimulated PBLs was tested. All tested coumarins induce apoptosis (maximal in the 48 h culture and decrease cell proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner, especially in HL60 cells. They also induce partial G1 block, but only in HL60 cells (at 100 µM concentrations. Dose-dependent reduction of RNA content was also found in G1 cells treated by the coumarins. All of the tested coumarins also possessed immunomodulatory activities. Bergapten and xanthotoxin were found to be the best candidates for further evaluation as anti-cancer drugs.
The MAP, M/G1,G2/1 queue with preemptive priority
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bong Dae Choi
1997-01-01
Full Text Available We consider the MAP, M/G1,G2/1 queue with preemptive resume priority, where low priority customers arrive to the system according to a Markovian arrival process (MAP and high priority customers according to a Poisson process. The service time density function of low (respectively: high priority customers is g1(x (respectively: g2(x. We use the supplementary variable method with Extended Laplace Transforms to obtain the joint transform of the number of customers in each priority queue, as well as the remaining service time for the customer in service in the steady state. We also derive the probability generating function for the number of customers of low (respectively, high priority in the system just after the service completion epochs for customers of low (respectively, high priority.