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Sample records for lepus europaeus pallas

  1. On gene pool divergence of the brown hare (Lepus europaeus, Pallas in Vojvodina

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    Đan Mihajla R.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Today it is widely accepted that a conservation of genetic diversity increases chances of animal survival. The aim of this study was investigation of gene pool divergence of the brown hare (Lepus europaeus in Vojvodina. Allozymic diversity of 60 brown hares from different localities in Vojvodina was studied by polyacrylamide and starch gel electrophoresis at 31 putative structural gene loci. Only five loci: Idh-2, Pgd, Pgm, Es-1 and Es-D were polymorphic, possessing 2 to 6 different alleles. The value of average heterozygosity (Ho was 0.0427, while polymorphism (P99% was 8.4%. Nei's values of genetic distance (ranged from 0.000 to 0.029 and modified Roger's distance (ranged from 0.030 to 0.181 were calculated among hare populations. Apart from the relatively high values of heterozygosity and polymorphism, the nuclear gene pool diversity of brown hare population in Vojvodina based on allozyme variation is low and corresponds to the data obtained for the populations in Austria and Central Europe.

  2. The Ash Content of the Main Muscle Groups and Edible Offal Collected From Hares (Lepus europaeus Pallas

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    Gabriela Tărnăuceanu Frunză

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The availability of hares (Lepus europaeus Pallas, unlike that of domestic rabbits, is restricted by hunting seasons. Rabbit meat, according to research from Spain, is a rich source of K, P, Fe and Mg, but poor in Na, being recommended for people with hypertension. The largest quantity of macro minerals studied in rabbit meat was determined for K and P, and the most abundant micro minerals were Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn. In hare meat, ash content is not sufficiently studied. The current low level of knowledge motivated the present study. The aim of this study was to establish the ash content for major muscle groups and edible offal of hares. The biological material used was collected from 49 hares with an average weight of 5.6 kg, at the age of reproductive maturity (adults: 11-12 months. Different muscle groups (the muscles Cervicalis, Intercostalis, Longissimus Dorsi, Psoas major, Triceps Brachi, Biceps femoris, Semimembranosus and the main edible offal (heart, liver, kidney were sampled. The ash was determined by calcination (in Supertherm C311 oven calcination at 5500C. The results obtained were interpreted statistically (arithmetic mean (X, standard deviation (s, variance (s2 and coefficient of variation (V% and the statistical significance of differences was tested using the ANOVA Single Factor algorithm (p>0.05; p<0.01; p<0.001. Ash content for the main muscle groups analysed varied from the lowest average values of 1.095% for the Intercostalis muscles, to the highest average values of 1.256%, for Triceps brachii muscles.

  3. Reproductive traits in the european Hare (Lepus europaeus Pallas: the typical or Brown and the Mountain haplotypes.

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    Charlotte Ragagli

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Four hundred and two pairs of hares belonging to the mountain and brown haplotypes of the European hare Lepus europaeus Pallas, 1778 were raised in a farm located in central Italy over 4 years (from 2003 to 2006. The birth date, total number of young born, and number of surviving and weaned leverets were recorded for each pair. The start of reproduction, birth-interval, length of the reproductive season, number of birth per pair per year, number of leverets per pair, number of weaned leverets per pair and number of weaned leverets per birth were analysed in relation to the different haplotypes and years; the incidence of superfetation and pseudogestation was also considered. Results showed that the brown hare produced young at the beginning of February, whilst the mountain hare started reproduction significantly later. Brown hares showed a longer reproductive period than mountain hares (192 days vs 156 days and a higher productivity. The most frequent gestation length was 37-41 days. The distribution of delivery intervals did not differ between the two haplotypes. Riassunto Caratteristiche riproduttive di due aplotipi della lepre (Lepus europaeus Pallas 1778. Lepri (Lepus europaeus Pallas 1778 appartenenti all’aplotipo di montagna e a quello bruno sono state monitorate per 4 anni (dal 2003 al 2006 in uno stesso allevamento situato in una zona dell’Italia centrale. Per ciascuna coppia di riproduttori allevata (N = 402 sono stati raccolti i dati relativi a: data del parto, numero totale di nati, numero totale di nati vivi e di leprotti svezzati. L’inizio del periodo riproduttivo, l’intervallo interparto, la durata della gestazione, la durata della stagione riproduttiva, il numero di parti per coppia per anno, il numero di nati per coppia, il numero di svezzati per coppia, il numero di svezzati per parto sono stati analizzati in relazione ai

  4. Introgression of mountain hare (Lepus timidus) mitochondrial DNA into wild brown hares (Lepus europaeus) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredsted, Tina; Wincentz, Trine; Villesen, Palle

    2006-01-01

    Background In Europe the mountain hare (Lepus timidus) exists in Great Britain, Norway, Sweden, Finland, parts of the Alps and in Eastern Europe, but not in Denmark. Interspecific hybridization has been demonstrated between native Swedish mountain hares and introduced brown hares (Lepus europaeus......). During the data collection in a study concerning Danish brown hares we identified 16 hares with a single very divergent haplotype. Results Phylogenetic analysis shows that the divergent Danish haplotype is most closely related to the Swedish mountain hare. The frequency of Lepus timidus mtDNA haplotype...

  5. Prevalence of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in farmed hares (Lepus europaeus).

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    Santaniello, Antonio; Dipineto, Ludovico; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Mariani, Ugo; Fioretti, Alessandro; Menna, Lucia Francesca

    2014-10-01

    Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 118/240 (49.2%) rectal swabs from commercially farmed hares (Lepus europaeus) in southern Italy. Using multiplex PCR, Campylobacter coli was identified in 118/118 (100%) positive samples, while 17/118 (14.4%) positive samples were also positive for Campylobacter jejuni. Adult hares had a higher prevalence of infection with Campylobacter spp. than juvenile hares.

  6. SNP Identification through Transcriptome Analysis of the European Brown Hare (Lepus europaeus): Cellular Energetics and Mother’s Curse

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    Moutou, Katerina A.; Psarra, Anna-Maria G.; Stamatis, Costas; Tsipourlianos, Andreas; Mamuris, Zissis

    2016-01-01

    The European brown hare (Lepus europaeus, Pallas 1778) is an important small game species in Europe. Due to its size and position in the food chain, as well as its life history, phenotypic variation and the relatively recent speciation events, brown hare plays an important role in the structure of various ecosystems and has emerged as an important species for population management and evolutionary studies. In order to identify informative SNPs for such studies, heart and liver tissues of three samples from the European lineage and a three-sample pool from the Anatolian lineage were subjected to RNA-Sequencing analysis. This effort resulted in 9496 well-assembled protein-coding sequences with close homology to human. After applying very stringent filtering criteria, 66185 polymorphic sites were identified in 7665 genes/cds and 2050 of those polymorphic sites are potentially capable of distinguishing the European from the Anatolian lineage. From these distinguishing mutations we focused on those in genes that are involved in cellular energy production, namely the glycolysis, Krebs cycle and the OXPHOS machinery. A selected set of SNPs was also validated by Sanger sequencing. By simulating the three European individuals as one pool, no substantial informative-SNP identification was lost, making it a cost-efficient approach. To our knowledge this is the first attempt to correlate the differentiation in both nuclear and mitochondrial genome between the two different lineages of L. europaeus with the observed spatial partitioning of the lineages of the species, proposing a possible mechanism that is maintaining the reproductive isolation of the lineages. PMID:27459096

  7. SNP Identification through Transcriptome Analysis of the European Brown Hare (Lepus europaeus): Cellular Energetics and Mother's Curse.

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    Amoutzias, Grigoris D; Giannoulis, Themistoklis; Moutou, Katerina A; Psarra, Anna-Maria G; Stamatis, Costas; Tsipourlianos, Andreas; Mamuris, Zissis

    2016-01-01

    The European brown hare (Lepus europaeus, Pallas 1778) is an important small game species in Europe. Due to its size and position in the food chain, as well as its life history, phenotypic variation and the relatively recent speciation events, brown hare plays an important role in the structure of various ecosystems and has emerged as an important species for population management and evolutionary studies. In order to identify informative SNPs for such studies, heart and liver tissues of three samples from the European lineage and a three-sample pool from the Anatolian lineage were subjected to RNA-Sequencing analysis. This effort resulted in 9496 well-assembled protein-coding sequences with close homology to human. After applying very stringent filtering criteria, 66185 polymorphic sites were identified in 7665 genes/cds and 2050 of those polymorphic sites are potentially capable of distinguishing the European from the Anatolian lineage. From these distinguishing mutations we focused on those in genes that are involved in cellular energy production, namely the glycolysis, Krebs cycle and the OXPHOS machinery. A selected set of SNPs was also validated by Sanger sequencing. By simulating the three European individuals as one pool, no substantial informative-SNP identification was lost, making it a cost-efficient approach. To our knowledge this is the first attempt to correlate the differentiation in both nuclear and mitochondrial genome between the two different lineages of L. europaeus with the observed spatial partitioning of the lineages of the species, proposing a possible mechanism that is maintaining the reproductive isolation of the lineages.

  8. SNP Identification through Transcriptome Analysis of the European Brown Hare (Lepus europaeus: Cellular Energetics and Mother's Curse.

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    Grigoris D Amoutzias

    Full Text Available The European brown hare (Lepus europaeus, Pallas 1778 is an important small game species in Europe. Due to its size and position in the food chain, as well as its life history, phenotypic variation and the relatively recent speciation events, brown hare plays an important role in the structure of various ecosystems and has emerged as an important species for population management and evolutionary studies. In order to identify informative SNPs for such studies, heart and liver tissues of three samples from the European lineage and a three-sample pool from the Anatolian lineage were subjected to RNA-Sequencing analysis. This effort resulted in 9496 well-assembled protein-coding sequences with close homology to human. After applying very stringent filtering criteria, 66185 polymorphic sites were identified in 7665 genes/cds and 2050 of those polymorphic sites are potentially capable of distinguishing the European from the Anatolian lineage. From these distinguishing mutations we focused on those in genes that are involved in cellular energy production, namely the glycolysis, Krebs cycle and the OXPHOS machinery. A selected set of SNPs was also validated by Sanger sequencing. By simulating the three European individuals as one pool, no substantial informative-SNP identification was lost, making it a cost-efficient approach. To our knowledge this is the first attempt to correlate the differentiation in both nuclear and mitochondrial genome between the two different lineages of L. europaeus with the observed spatial partitioning of the lineages of the species, proposing a possible mechanism that is maintaining the reproductive isolation of the lineages.

  9. European hare Lepus europaeus(Lagomorpha: Leporidae an invasive species in Peru

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    Horacio Zeballos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe the current distribution of the European hare, Lepus europaeus, in Peru which currently covers the highlands, Andean valleys, surrounding areas of the Titicaca Lake and coastal irrigations; in Arequipa, Cusco, Moquegua, Puno and Tacna departments. Based on its current distribution we developed models of potential distribution of this species, which would forecast this species in northern Peru. We make recommendations on the main issues that should be studied in Peru, and the possible consequences of their invasive process of in Peru.

  10. Dietas de Abrothrix andinus, Phyllotis xanthopygus (Rodentia y Lepus europaeus (Lagomorpha en un ambiente altoandino de Chile Feeding habits of Abrothrix andinus, Phyllotis xanthopygus (Rodentia and Lepus europaeus (Lagomorpha in an Andean environment of Chile

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    FRANCISCO LÓPEZ-CORTÉS

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Los roedores nativos Abrothrix andinus, Phyllotis xanthopygus y el lagomorfo introducido Lepus europaeus, coexisten en ambientes altoandinos del centro-norte de Chile, donde la disponibilidad de alimento es escasa y distribuida heterogéneamente en el paisaje. Propusimos que en estos ambientes las especies en estudio se comportarían como herbívoros generalistas y que existiría una alta sobreposición en la dieta entre la liebre y los roedores nativos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue documentar la composición de la dieta de las tres especies y determinar su amplitud, preferencia y sobreposición en la dieta a partir del análisis microhistológico de heces frescas. Los resultados indican que las tres especies se comportaron como herbívoros-folívoros, siendo la dieta de L. europaeus la de mayor amplitud trófica. Abrothrix andinus seleccionó todos los ítemes que consume, mientras que P. xanthopygus y L. europaeus realizaron un consumo más oportunista. La mayor sobreposición en la dieta se observó entre los roedores nativosThe native rodents Abrothrix andinus, Phyllotis xanthopygus and the introduced lagomorph Lepus europaeus coexist in the highlands of north-central Chile, where food availability is scarce. We hypothesized that in these environments, the studied species would behave as generalist herbivores and where the diet of native rodents would overlap that of hares greatly. The aim of this study was to quantify feeding habits, amplitude, diet preferences and overlap of these three species through microhistological analysis of fresh faeces. While all three species behaved as herbivore-folivores, L. europaeus showed the largest niche breath. Abrothrix andinus selected all consumed items, while P. xanthopygus and L. europaeus exhibited a more opportunistic consumption food items. The highest diet overlap was observed between native rodents

  11. Liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica) naturally infecting introduced European brown hare (Lepus europaeus) in northern Patagonia: phenotype, prevalence and potential risk.

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    Cuervo, Pablo F; Cataldo, Sophia Di; Fantozzi, M Cecilia; Deis, Erika; Isenrath, Gabriela Diaz; Viberti, Gabriela; Artigas, Patricio; Peixoto, Raquel; Valero, M Adela; Sierra, Roberto Mera Y; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2015-09-01

    Fascioliasis has recently been included in the WHO list of Neglected Zoonotic Diseases. Besides being a major veterinary health problem, fascioliasis has large underdeveloping effects on the human communities affected. Though scarcely considered in fascioliasis epidemiology, it is well recognized that both native and introduced wildlife species may play a significant role as reservoirs of the disease. The objectives are to study the morphological characteristics of Fasciola hepatica adults and eggs in a population of Lepus europaeus, to assess liver fluke prevalence, and to analyze the potential reservoir role of the European brown hare in northern Patagonia, Argentina, where fascioliasis is endemic. Measures of F. hepatica found in L. europaeus from northern Patagonia demonstrate that the liver fluke is able to fully develop in wild hares and to shed normal eggs through their faeces. Egg shedding to the environment is close to the lower limit obtained for pigs, a domestic animal whose epidemiological importance in endemic areas has already been highlighted. The former, combined with the high prevalence found (14.28%), suggest an even more important role in the transmission cycle than previously considered. The results obtained do not only remark the extraordinary plasticity and adaptability of this trematode species to different host species, but also highlight the role of the European brown hare, and other NIS, as reservoirs capable for parasite spillback to domestic and native cycle, representing a potentially important, but hitherto neglected, cause of disease emergence.

  12. Relationship between habitat, densities and metabolic profile in brown hares (Lepus europaeus Pallas

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    Marco Bagliacca

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Some habitat traits and haematic parameters were studied to understand the relationships between the hare densities, habitat characteristics and physiological and nutritional condition of the animals. A total of 33 protected areas, reserved for wild game reproduction, located in the Province of Florence (Central Italy, were monitored during a 2-year period. In each protected area the hares were submitted to census. The habitat features of the protected areas were studied and the following parameters were categorised: altitude; cleared-land/total-land ratio; main exposure; main ground composition; water availability; main slope; anthropogenic presence; predator presence; wooded borders; presence of trees and shrubs; surveillance against hunting; demographic predator control; kind of cultivation; unharvested crops for game. After the census the hares were captured for translocation outside in “free” hunting areas. During capture the hares were put in darkened, wooden capture-boxes and remained inside for a variable period of time (10min to 3h. A sample of 3 to 7 hares, captured per year and per each protected area, were removed from the boxes (physically restrained, with covered eyes for blood sample collection, sex, age and live weight determination. The following analyses were performed on frozen plasma samples: ALanine aminoTransferase (ALT, ASpartate aminoTransferase (AST, glucose, cholesterol, Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN, Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, and Cl concentrations. The relationship between hare density and habitat characteristics was analysed by single regressions analysis. Then the habitat characteristics were subjected to multivariate analysis in relationship to hare body condition. The haematic parameters were analysed by least square means considering habitat traits, animal density, age and sex, as main categorical factors, interaction sex*age, and “pregnant and non-reproducing” nested within sex. Results showed that the highest density and best body conditions can be found in highlands, open fields with low tree presence and wooded borders, medium mixture soils, scarce predator presence and limited anthropogenic presence and with abundant water availability and shrubbiness. The study of the absolute values of metabolic profile, indicator of the physiological and nutritional condition of the reared animals, did not show any nutritional winter deficiency in wild hares and, as census data, should be repeated for several years since, probably, only their variations can be used as indicators of preliminary problems.

  13. Survival and causes of death among released brown hares (Lepus europaeus Pallas, 1778) in Central Poland.

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    Misiorowska, Magdalena; Wasilewski, Michał

    2012-10-01

    We describe the results of our research on population dynamics among brown hares reared in enclosures and then released into suitable natural habitat. Radio-tracking was used to follow the fate of 60 released brown hares over a 4-year period, extending between November 2005 and November 2009. The survival rate among these animals after 12 months was estimated to be 37 %, with 22 tagged individuals surviving beyond 1 year post-release. The highest (40 %) level of mortality characterised the first month after release, while a second period of enhanced mortality coincided with the breeding season (altogether accounting for a 20 % mortality rate). There was no significant relationship between body mass and mortality rate in the first month following release. A natural cause of death was predation by mammals, which accounted for some 31 % of all losses. Remaining causes were poaching (13 %), hits by vehicles (7 %) and unidentified causes (9 %). However, in at least 40 % of cases, it was not possible to determine the date when a released animal died, to say nothing of the cause of death.

  14. Daytime habitat selection by introduced eastern cottontail Sylvilagus floridanus and native european hare Lepus europaeus in Northern Italy.

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    Bertolino, Sandro; Montezemolo, Nicola Cordero di; Perrone, Aurelio

    2011-06-01

    We used radiotelemetry to investigate resting sites habitat selection by introduced eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus) and native European hare (Lepus europaeus) under sympatric conditions. We tracked 24 hares and 34 cottontails in a protected area of northwestern Italy. Hares were found in different sites every week, while cottontails used the same site for two weeks, and occasionally for longer. It is supposed that this periodic nest switching reduces the risk of predation and parasitism. Hares and cottontails forms were located in different habitats and characterized by dense vegetation cover near the ground. This cover increased from winter to summer in both species, while in autumn it continued to increase in cottontails only, and decreased in hares. Cottontails selected shrubby habitats near the river, and avoided crop fields in all seasons. Hares were more adaptive in their search, using high herbs and shrubs all year round, wheat fields in spring, maize in spring and summer, and stubbles in winter. Arguably, partial niche differentiation is necessary to allow the coexistence of similar species. In our study area, hares and cottontails differentiated in the use of resting sites habitats, presumably so as not to compete in this part of their ecological niche.

  15. Is the large size of the pinna of the ear of the European hare (Lepus europaeus) due to its role in thermoregulation or in anterior capital shock absorption?

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    Stott, Philip; Jennings, Nancy; Harris, Stephen

    2010-06-01

    Large pinnae are characteristic of the Leporids, and the pinna is known to have a thermoregulatory role. Another role has been hypothesized for the pinna of Lepus spp., as a part of a suspensory system for the greater portion of the head, absorbing shock that might otherwise interfere with vision during high-speed locomotion. We compared the lengths of the pinnae of adult European hares Lepus europaeus from the source population in the cooler climate of England with those of the introduced population in the warmer climate of Australia, and we compared the lengths of the pinnae of hares that had grown in cooler weather with those that had grown in warmer weather. There were no significant differences between each of the comparisons, indicating that the size of the pinna is not determined by thermoregulatory requirements at rest. We compared the growth in length of the pinnae and the legs with growth in body mass, and growth in the mass of the pinnae with the masses of the head and the eyeballs, and found support for the suspension hypothesis. We suggest that the rapid growth of the pinna is because visual acuity is a function of absolute eye size, not relative eye size, yet juvenile hares are subject to the same predator pressure as adult hares, and equally need to maximize visual acuity while running at high speeds in dim light. We believe that the large size of the pinna is determined by its role in anterior capital suspension, not in thermoregulation.

  16. Modeling individual movement decisions of brown hare (Lepus europaeus) as a key concept for realistic spatial behavior and exposure: A population model for landscape-level risk assessment.

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    Kleinmann, Joachim U; Wang, Magnus

    2017-09-01

    Spatial behavior is of crucial importance for the risk assessment of pesticides and for the assessment of effects of agricultural practice or multiple stressors, because it determines field use, exposition, and recovery. Recently, population models have increasingly been used to understand the mechanisms driving risk and recovery or to conduct landscape-level risk assessments. To include spatial behavior appropriately in population models for use in risk assessments, a new method, "probabilistic walk," was developed, which simulates the detailed daily movement of individuals by taking into account food resources, vegetation cover, and the presence of conspecifics. At each movement step, animals decide where to move next based on probabilities being determined from this information. The model was parameterized to simulate populations of brown hares (Lepus europaeus). A detailed validation of the model demonstrated that it can realistically reproduce various natural patterns of brown hare ecology and behavior. Simulated proportions of time animals spent in fields (PT values) were also comparable to field observations. It is shown that these important parameters for the risk assessment may, however, vary in different landscapes. The results demonstrate the value of using population models to reduce uncertainties in risk assessment and to better understand which factors determine risk in a landscape context. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2299-2307. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  17. Sopravvivenza e dispersione della lepre comune (Lepus europaeus Pallas, 1778 in relazione alla densità di popolazione e alle caratteristiche ambientali

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    Francesca Pella

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available La presente ricerca è stata effettuata con lo scopo di valutare la sopravvivenza di lepri autoctone non traslocate in relazione alle caratteristiche ambientali e alla densità di popolazione. Inoltre è stata analizzata la capacità delle lepri di colonizzare territori a bassa densità, al di fuori delle aree protette, al fine di ricavare indicazioni utili per una gestione della lepre basata sulla corretta pianificazione delle aree protette. Lo studio è stato effettuato dal gennaio del 1999 al luglio del 2001 in due Zone di Ripopolamento e Cattura della Pianura Padana, caratterizzate da colture a seminativi irrigui una (Vistarino e colture a seminativi asciutti l?altra (Portalbera. Per determinare la densità di popolazione sono stati effettuati, in primavera ed autunno, censimenti notturni da autovettura, con proiettore alogeno orientabile manualmente. Per analizzare la sopravvivenza, l?uso dello spazio e la dispersione sono state catturate, con reti a tramaglio, valutate (peso, sesso, classe d?età e condizioni sanitarie e radiomarcate 16 lepri a Vistarino e 20 a Portalbera. I censimenti hanno evidenziato una differenza tra le due aree nelle densità che sono risultate comprese tra gli 11 ed i 20 individui per km² a Vistarino e tra i 29 e gli 83 a Portalbera. La sopravvivenza media delle lepri radiomarcate è stata di 295,5 giorni (ES=43,2, considerando le aree cumulate, e la probabilità di sopravvivenza nel periodo di studio è risultata pari a 0,36 (ES=0,094. Nell?area di studio di Vistarino la sopravvivenza media è stata di 426,4 giorni (ES=61,6 e la probabilità di sopravvivenza di 0,67 (ES=0,12 mentre a Portalbera la sopravvivenza media era di 142,2 giorni (ES=13,9 con una probabilità di sopravvivenza di 0,00 (ES=0,00. La dimensione media dell?area vitale per tutte le lepri catturate in entrambe le aree è stata pari a 47,9 ha (ES=6,08; minimo=0,01; massimo=171,1 se calcolata con il metodo del Minimo Poligono Convesso, mentre era di 63,7 ha (ES=8,09; minimo= 0,00; massimo=248,6 utilizzando la ?Kernel analysis? al 95%. La sopravvivenza delle lepri è risultata positivamente associata alla dimensione dell?area vitale e alla distanza tra il punto di cattura/rilascio e l?ultima localizzazione (rispettivamente: r di Pearson= 0.44 P=0.007; r di Pearson=0.34 P=0.046, mentre negativamente alla distanza media tra localizzazioni successive (r di Pearson=-0.39 P=0.02. Mentre i Modelli Lineari Generalizzati individuano anche un ruolo svolto dal sesso, dall?età degli animali e dall?area di studio, che in misura minore condizionano anche la dispersione.

  18. Variation of partial transferrin sequences and phylogenetic relationships among hares (Lepus capensis, Lagomorpha) from Tunisia.

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    Awadi, Asma; Suchentrunk, Franz; Makni, Mohamed; Ben Slimen, Hichem

    2016-10-01

    North African hares are currently included in cape hares, Lepus capensis sensu lato, a taxon that may be considered a superspecies or a complex of closely related species. The existing molecular data, however, are not unequivocal, with mtDNA control region sequences suggesting a separate species status and nuclear loci (allozymes, microsatellites) revealing conspecificity of L. capensis and L. europaeus. Here, we study sequence variation in the intron 6 (468 bp) of the transferrin nuclear gene, of 105 hares with different coat colour from different regions in Tunisia with respect to genetic diversity and differentiation, as well as their phylogenetic status. Forty-six haplotypes (alleles) were revealed and compared phylogenetically to all available TF haplotypes of various Lepus species retrieved from GenBank. Maximum Likelihood, neighbor joining and median joining network analyses concordantly grouped all currently obtained haplotypes together with haplotypes belonging to six different Chinese hare species and the African scrub hare L. saxatilis. Moreover, two Tunisian haploypes were shared with L. capensis, L timidus, L. sinensis, L. yarkandensis, and L. hainanus from China. These results indicated the evolutionary complexity of the genus Lepus with the mixing of nuclear gene haplotypes resulting from introgressive hybridization or/and shared ancestral polymorphism. We report the presence of shared ancestral polymorphism between North African and Chinese hares. This has not been detected earlier in the mtDNA sequences of the same individuals. Genetic diversity of the TF sequences from the Tunisian populations was relatively high compared to other hare populations. However, genetic differentiation and gene flow analyses (AMOVA, FST, Nm) indicated little divergence with the absence of geographically meaningful phylogroups and lack of clustering with coat colour types. These results confirm the presence of a single hare species in Tunisia, but a sound inference on

  19. The European Hare (Lepus europaeus: A Picky Herbivore Searching for Plant Parts Rich in Fat.

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    Stéphanie C Schai-Braun

    Full Text Available European hares of both sexes rely on fat reserves, particularly during the reproduc-tive season. Therefore, hares should select dietary plants rich in fat and energy. However, hares also require essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA such as linoleic acid (LA and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA to reproduce and survive. Although hares are able to absorb PUFA selectively in their gastrointestinal tract, it is unknown whether this mechanism is sufficient to guarantee PUFA supply. Thus, diet selection may involve a trade-off between a preference for energy versus a preference for crucial nutrients, namely PUFA. We compared plant and nutrient availability and use by hares in an arable landscape in Austria over three years. We found that European hares selected their diet for high energy content (crude fat and crude protein, and avoided crude fibre. There was no evidence of a preference for plants rich in LA and ALA. We conclude that fat is the limiting resource for this herbivorous mammal, whereas levels of LA and ALA in forage are sufficiently high to meet daily requirements, especially since their uptake is enhanced by physiological mechanisms. Animals selected several plant taxa all year round, and preferences did not simply correlate with crude fat content. Hence, European hares might not only select for plant taxa rich in fat, but also for high-fat parts of preferred plant taxa. As hares preferred weeds/grasses and various crop types while avoiding cereals, we suggest that promoting heterogeneous habitats with high crop diversity and set-asides may help stop the decline of European hares throughout Europe.

  20. La liebre europea, Lepus europaeus (Mammalia, Leporidae, especie invasora en el sur del Perú

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    Daniel Cossíos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La liebre europea fue introducida entre finales del siglo XIX y comienzos del siglo XX a Argentina y Chile, y desde entonces ha avanzado a través de América del Sur. En 1983 la liebre había alcanzado el sur de Brasil, el departamento de Tarija en el sur de Bolivia y el río Copiapó en Chile, encontrándose ausente en el Perú. En los años 2002 y 2004 se observó varios ejemplares de liebre en estado silvestre en los departamentos peruanos de Tacna y Arequipa, hasta una altitud de 4300 m. Según entrevistas hechas a pobladores de esas zonas, la liebre habría llegado al Perú entre los años 1995 y 1998, lo que significa una velocidad de dispersión mínima de 44,34 km/año partiendo de Tarija. Los entrevistados dijeron no dar uso a la liebre y que ésta les trae problemas al consumir la vegetación. La presente nota es una alerta sobre la llegada de la liebre europea al Perú y los posibles efectos de su presencia.

  1. Conservazione e gestione della Lepre italica (Lepus corsicanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Riga

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Il recente riconoscimento dello status specifico della Lepre italica (Lepus corsicanus e l?accertamento dell?areale distributivo rappresentano le azioni più importanti per la conservazione di un taxon endemico che si era creduto estinto. Nella penisola la specie presenta un areale discontinuo, il cui limite settentrionale è dato dal comune di Manciano (GR, sul versante tirrenico e da una linea che dalla provincia de L'Aquila arriva al Gargano. In Sicilia la distribuzione è relativamente continua anche in aree non protette. Dati genetici hanno permesso di confermare la presenza in Corsica. Al contrario, nell?Isola d'Elba, a seguito di estese ricerche, sono stati identificati solo esemplari di L. europaeus. Nell?Italia peninsulare L. corsicanus è spesso presente in simpatria con popolazioni di L. europaeus, mentre in Sicilia la lepre europea non ha originato popolazioni stabili, nonostante l?immissione di molte migliaia di individui. La distribuzione ecologica di L. corsicanus ed analisi ambientali specifiche, suggeriscono l?adattamento prevalente agli ambienti a clima mediterraneo, benché essa sia presente anche a quote elevate (> 1.500 m s.l.m.. Dati preliminari di abbondanza relativa hanno evidenziato una situazione diversificata tra la penisola e la Sicilia e tra aree a diverso regime di gestione; un confronto tra le aree protette ha evidenziato rispettivamente valori di 5,54 e 11,73 ind./km². La riduzione quali-quantitativa e la frammentazione dell?habitat delle lepri è un fenomeno potenzialmente pericoloso per la sopravvivenza delle popolazioni, determinando fenomeni di estinzione locale dovuti alle basse densità di popolazione, inducendo fenomeni di erosione della variabilità genetica e di riduzione della fitness degli individui. L?introduzione di L. europaeus può costituire un importante fattore limitante sia per la possibile competizione

  2. Automated Verification of Design Patterns with LePUS3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Jonathan; Gasparis, Epameinondas; Eden, Ammon H.; Kazman, Rick

    2009-01-01

    Specification and [visual] modelling languages are expected to combine strong abstraction mechanisms with rigour, scalability, and parsimony. LePUS3 is a visual, object-oriented design description language axiomatized in a decidable subset of the first-order predicate logic. We demonstrate how LePUS3 is used to formally specify a structural design pattern and prove ( verify ) whether any JavaTM 1.4 program satisfies that specification. We also show how LePUS3 specifications (charts) are composed and how they are verified fully automatically in the Two-Tier Programming Toolkit.

  3. Population fluctuations of lepus flavigularis at Tehuantepec Isthmus, Oaxaca, Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lorenzo, Consuelo; Rioja, Tamara M; Carrillo, Arturo; Cervantes, Fernando A

    2008-01-01

    Se analizaron datos sobre densidad poblacional de la liebre de Tehuantepec, Lepus flavigularis durante seis anos de monitoreo en las poblaciones de Montecillo Santa Cruz y San Francisco del Mar Viejo...

  4. Characterizing Cellulosic Fibers from Ulex europaeus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Celis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Information on the morphological and physical properties of biofibers is necessary to support the mechanical understanding of the biological design of plants, as well as for the development of new technology that adds value to non-traditional bioresources, such as those based on Ulex europaeus fibers. Ulex europaeus fibers were extracted through a chemical pulping process at 170 °C and with 40 g/L NaOH. The dimensions of the fibers produced were 0.97 ± 0.1 mm in length and 13 ± 2 μm in diameter. Pressed fiber paper sheets were made to evaluate their mechanical properties. Burst and tear indices of 1.2 mN/kg and 8.6 Nm2/kg, respectively, were recorded. The values obtained did not compare well to fiber paper sheets from Pinus radiata, presumably due to the significant amount of non-structural elements of wood present in the samples and the lower length of Ulex europaeus fibers, which resulted in lower tensile strength. Additionally, nanoindentation tests were conducted to assess the hardness and elastic modulus of the fibers, obtaining average values of 0.84 GPa and 9.23 GPa for the stem, respectively. These values were significantly lower than those of industrial biofiber, perhaps due to the lower morphogenic maturity of Ulex europaeus fibers compared to other traditional sources of fiber.

  5. Identifying causes for population decline of the brown hare (Lepus europaeus) in agricultural landscapes in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine-Lee Wincentz

    in relation to habitat and phenotype, and point transect counts are evaluated in assessing hare densities. High spatial variation in post-natal survival of offspring is observed. Some variation in the demographic and phenotypic (size, weight) parameters is attributable to habitat composition. The juvenile...... population are caused by reduced juvenile recruitment. Point transect counts are suitable and corrections for detection necessary, when monitoring hare populations, but work is still needed, before the effects of e.g. road avoidance on density estimates are fully clarified....

  6. Monitoring of Francisella tularensis and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in Danish hares (Lepus europaeus) by fluorescent in-situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Sif; Chriél, Mariann; Larsen, Gitte;

    . pseudotuberculosis has a wide host range and causes high mortality in hares. When it comes to zoonotic potential F. tularensis poses the major risk for humans, where it causes tularemia - a potentially deadly disease. FISH is an easy, cheap and not at least safe method for monitoring F. tularensis and Y...

  7. Cadmium and mercury accumulation in European hare (Lepus europaeus): age-dependent relationships in renal and hepatic tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Zoran; Teodorović, Vlado; Djurić, Spomenka; Milićević, Dragan; Vranić, Danijela; Lukić, Mirjana

    2014-12-01

    A total of 63 European hares have been collected from five Serbian agricultural regions. The hares assayed were divided into four age groups (3-6 months, 12 months, 12-24 months, and 24-36 months) and investigated upon presence at cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg) in the kidney and liver. The positive significant correlation (Ps-Pearson's coefficient) between Cd concentrations in the kidney and liver within age group the 3-6 months was found (Ps = 0.81, p 0.05). Statistically significant differences were registered between Hg content in the liver of the hares aged 24-36 and 12 months (p 0.05). The strong statistically significant associations were registered between Cd and Hg content in the liver (Cd L/Hg L) in the age group 3-6 and 12-24 months (Cd L/Hg L, Ps = 0.94; p < 0.001 and Ps = 0.91; p < 0.001, respectively). The polynomial regression model used for graphing the observed data seems to be a method for modeling the relationship between measured Cd and Hg concentrations in the liver and kidney as first approximation for bioaccumulation in hares.

  8. Secular obliquity variations of Ceres and Pallas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bills, Bruce G.; Scott, Bryan R.

    2017-03-01

    We examine variations in the orientations of the orbit poles and spin poles of Ceres and Pallas, on time scales of a few million years. We consider these two bodies together because they have similar orbits, but very different present states of knowledge concerning internal mass distribution and spin pole orientation. For Ceres, the Dawn mission has recently provided accurate estimates of the current spin pole orientation, and the degree 2 spherical harmonics of the gravitational potential. The polar moment of inertia is not as well constrained, but plausible bounds are known. For Pallas, we have estimates of the shape of the body, and spin pole orientation and angular rate, all derived from optical light curves. Using those input parameters, and the readily computed secular variations in the orbit pole, we can compute long term variations in the spin pole orientation. This provides information concerning long term variations in insolation, which controls stability of surface volatiles.

  9. Tartus taas kunstiühing "Pallas" / Enn Lillemets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lillemets, Enn, 1958-

    1999-01-01

    5. jaan. kanti Tartu Linnakohtus mittetulundusühingute ja sihtasutuste registrisse kunstiühing "Pallas", mis on 1998. a. asutatud Tartu Kunstiühingu uus nimi. "Pallase" kui huviühenduse eesmärgist, kõrgemas kunstikoolis "Pallas" õppinud ühingu liikmeid.

  10. The Pallas business case between dreams and reality; De Pallas business case tussen droom en werkelijkheid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Keur, H.

    2013-04-15

    This report provides an overview of government policies in Canada and the Netherlands and international policies for securing the supply of medical isotopes. LAKA comments these policies with findings from own research. LAKA also identifies production methods - accelerators or research reactor - for the short and longer term that show the most benefit for recovery and ensure continuity in the supply of medical isotopes. This report also is an attempt to restart the debate on the future of medical isotope production in the Netherlands. According to LAKA the business case for the Pallas reactor is based on unrealistic positive assumptions and concludes that the Pallas reactor should not secure the supply of medical isotopes but the future of nuclear energy in the Netherlands [Dutch] Dit rapport geeft een overzicht van zowel het overheidsbeleid in Canada als in Nederland, en het internationale beleid voor het veiligstellen van de aanvoer van medische isotopen. Het voorziet deze van commentaar met bevindingen uit eigen onderzoek en stelt vast welke productiemethode - versnellers of onderzoeksreactor - op de korte en de langere termijn het meeste profijt biedt voor herstel en waarborging van de continuïteit in de aanvoer van medische isotopen. Met dit rapport wil de stichting Laka een poging doen om alsnog een debat op gang te brengen over de toekomst van medische isotopenproductie in Nederland. Volgens Laka is de business case voor de Pallas reactor gebaseerd op onrealistische positieve aannames en concludeert dan ook dat de Pallas reactor niet de aanvoer van medische isotopen maar de toekomst van kernenergie in Nederland veilig moet stellen.

  11. Blagotvoritelnõi auktsion v podderzhku obshtshestva Pallas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Kunstiühingu "Pallas" toetuseks toimub 2. oktoobril Tartus "Werneri" kohvikus Vaal galerii korraldatud heategevuslik kunstioksjon. Loetletud enampakkumisele tulevate teoste autoreid. Näitus Vaal galeriis on avatud 29. septembrist 2. oktoobrini

  12. Interaction between digoxin and dronedarone in the PALLAS trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hohnloser, Stefan H; Halperin, Jonathan L; Camm, A John;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated serum digoxin concentration can cause toxicity, including death. Dronedarone increases digoxin concentration by P-glycoprotein interaction. In Permanent Atrial Fibrillation Outcome Study Using Dronedarone On Top Of Standard Therapy Trial (PALLAS), dronedarone was associated w...

  13. Ptentsõ shkolõ "Pallas" / Rene Bibikov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bibikov, Rene

    2008-01-01

    Näitus ѕPallaslaste maalikunst Rahvusraamatukogus" raamatukogu peanäitusesaalis. Ekspositsioon koosneb Rahvusraamatukogu kunstikogus leiduvatest kunstikoolis ѕPallasؤ õppinud maalikunstnike töödest. Nende seas on Eesti kunstiklassika vanameistrid Andrus Johani, Richard Sagrits, Richard Uutmaa, Silvia Leitu, Elmar Kits, Eerik Haamer jt. Näituse koostas kunstiteadlane Jüri Hain. Kujundas Andres Tolts. 4 ill

  14. First evidence of Leishmania infection in European brown hare (Lepus europaeus) in Greece: GIS analysis and phylogenetic position within the Leishmania spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsokana, C N; Sokos, C; Giannakopoulos, A; Mamuris, Z; Birtsas, P; Papaspyropoulos, K; Valiakos, G; Spyrou, V; Lefkaditis, M; Chatzopoulos, D C; Kantere, M; Manolakou, K; Touloudi, A; Burriel, A Rodi; Ferroglio, E; Hadjichristodoulou, C; Billinis, C

    2016-01-01

    Although the existence of a sylvatic transmission cycle of Leishmania spp., independent from the domestic cycle, has been proposed, data are scarce on Leishmania infection in wild mammals in Greece. In this study, we aimed to investigate the presence of Leishmania infection in the European brown hare in Greece, to infer the phylogenetic position of the Leishmania parasites detected in hares in Greece, and to identify any possible correlation between Leishmania infection in hares with environmental parameters, using the geographical information system (GIS). Spleen samples from 166 hares were tested by internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1)-nested PCR for the detection of Leishmania DNA. Phylogenetic analysis was performed on Leishmania sequences from hares in Greece in conjunction with Leishmania sequences from dogs in Greece and 46 Leishmania sequences retrieved from GenBank. The Leishmania DNA prevalence in hares was found to be 23.49 % (95 % confidence interval (CI) 17.27-30.69). The phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the Leishmania sequences from hares in Greece belong in the Leishmania donovani complex. The widespread Leishmania infection in hares should be taken into consideration because under specific circumstances, this species can act as a reservoir host. This study suggests that the role of wild animals, including hares, in the epidemiology of Leishmania spp. in Greece deserves further elucidation.

  15. In vitro study and comparison of caecal methanogenesis and fermentation pattern in the brown hare (Lepus europaeus and domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Miśta

    Full Text Available The brown hare and the domestic rabbit are mid-sized herbivorous mammals and hindgut fermenters, though their digestive physiologies differ in some traits. The objective of this study was to estimate and compare the caecal microbial activity in hares and rabbits via an analysis of the following end-products of in vitro caecal fermentation: methane, total gas production, short chain fatty acids and ammonia concentration. Hare caecal methanogenesis occurred at a much lower level (0.25 mmol/kg for samples incubated without substrate and 0.22 mmol/kg for samples incubated with substrate than that of the rabbit (15.49 and 11.73 mmol/kg, respectively (P<0.001. The impact of the substrate's presence on caecal methanogenesis was not significant, though its presence increased the total gas production during fermentation (P<0.001. Hare caecal microflora produced a lower short chain fatty acids concentration than did rabbit microorganisms (P<0.05. In unincubated hare samples, the short chain fatty acids concentration was 28.4 mmol/kg, whereas in unincubated rabbit samples, the short chain fatty acids concentration was 51.8 mmol/kg. The caecal fermentation pattern of the hare was characterised by higher propionate and isobutyrate molar proportions compared with those observed in rabbit caecum (P<0.01. No significant changes in the ammonia concentration in either rabbit or hare caecum were found. The results obtained indicate some differences in the activity of the microbial populations colonising the hare and rabbit caecum, particularly in regards to methanogenic Archaea.

  16. Angular Diameter of the Asteroids Vesta and Pallas Determined from Speckle Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-24

    Arizona 85721 19. IKY WORDS (Continue en reverse eid* 1 necessry’ and Identify by block number)I... Speckle interferometry Asteroids Vesta Pallas 20...applied to Vesta and Pallas, yielding diameters of 550±23 and 873*55 kin, respectivell The improved Vesta speckle diameter is in excellent agreement with...other measurements for Vesta . However, the derived Pallas diameter is slightly larger than other measurements. This is perhaps attributable to

  17. The shape and surface variation of 2 Pallas from the Hubble Space Telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, B E; Thomas, P C; Bauer, J M; Li, J-Y; McFadden, L A; Mutchler, M J; Radcliffe, S C; Rivkin, A S; Russell, C T; Parker, J Wm; Stern, S A

    2009-10-09

    We obtained Hubble Space Telescope images of 2 Pallas in September 2007 that reveal distinct color and albedo variations across the surface of this large asteroid. Pallas's shape is an ellipsoid with radii of 291 (+/-9), 278 (+/-9), and 250 (+/-9) kilometers, implying a density of 2400 (+/-250) kilograms per cubic meter-a value consistent with a body that formed from water-rich material. Our observations are consistent with the presence of an impact feature, 240 (+/-25) kilometers in diameter, within Pallas's ultraviolet-dark terrain. Our observations imply that Pallas is an intact protoplanet that has undergone impact excavation and probable internal alteration.

  18. Mortality due to polyomavirus infection in two nightjars (Caprimulgus europaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroube, Ana Sofia; Halami, Mohammad Yahya; Johne, Reimar; Dorrestein, Gerry M

    2009-06-01

    Two nightjars (Caprimulgus europaeus) from a bird park in the Netherlands died suddenly, with no clinical signs, within 1 month of each other. The main pathologic findings at necropsy were splenomegaly and hepatic necrosis. On histologic examination, intranuclear viral inclusion bodies consistent with avian polyomavirus were observed in the liver, spleen, and kidneys. Polymerase chain reaction testing of samples from the liver, spleen, and kidneys detected avian polyomaviral DNA, and sequence analysis showed that the virus had a sequence homology of 99% to psittacine avian polyomavirus strains. To our knowledge, this is the first report of avian polyomavirus infection in the order Caprimulgiformes. Lovebirds (Agapornis species), which were housed near the nightjars, were considered as the possible source of infection.

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-1404 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-1404 gb|ACR84298.1| duffy antigen/chemokine receptor [Lepus europaeus]... gb|ACR84299.1| duffy antigen/chemokine receptor [Lepus europaeus] gb|ACR84300.1| duffy antigen/chemokine receptor [Lepus europaeus] ACR84298.1 1e-146 84% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PCAP-01-1638 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PCAP-01-1638 gb|ACR84298.1| duffy antigen/chemokine receptor [Lepus europaeus]... gb|ACR84299.1| duffy antigen/chemokine receptor [Lepus europaeus] gb|ACR84300.1| duffy antigen/chemokine receptor [Lepus europaeus] ACR84298.1 1e-125 75% ...

  1. Genome sequences of the high-acetic acid-resistant bacteria Gluconacetobacter europaeus LMG 18890T and G. europaeus LMG 18494 (reference strains), G. europaeus 5P3, and Gluconacetobacter oboediens 174Bp2 (isolated from vinegar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés-Barrao, Cristina; Falquet, Laurent; Calderon-Copete, Sandra P; Descombes, Patrick; Ortega Pérez, Ruben; Barja, François

    2011-05-01

    Bacteria of the genus Gluconacetobacter are usually involved in the industrial production of vinegars with high acetic acid concentrations. We describe here the genome sequence of three Gluconacetobacter europaeus strains, a very common bacterial species from industrial fermentors, as well as of a Gluconacetobacter oboediens strain.

  2. Prima segnalazione di Saga pedo (Pallas, 1771) per la Toscana (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Vergari, Sebastiano; Vergari, Simone; Dondini, Gianna; Carotti, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    First record of Saga pedo (Pallas, 1771) for Tuscany (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae). The presence in Tuscany of the katydid Saga pedo (Pallas, 1771) is recorded for the first time. Saga pedo is considered a vulnerable species in the EU and it is included in Annex IV of Council Directive 92/43/EEC.

  3. Innovative environmental enrichment method for Pallas cat (Felis manul)

    OpenAIRE

    Rioldi, Emmanuela

    2010-01-01

    Due to the expansion of the human population we are an increasing threat to all wild animals. They are driven to exist in smaller areas and in the worst case scenario extinction. Zoos are being encouraged to improve the animal’s physical and social surroundings. Environmental enrichment is a term used for such improvements. In this behavioural study, the enrichment introduced to two Pallas cats (Felis manul) at Parken Zoo in Eskilstuna, Sweden, consisted of a fishing rod and a clothes peg wit...

  4. Toxoplasmosis in Pallas' cats (Otocolobus manul) raised in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, W; Edelhofer, R; Zenker, W; Möstl, K; Kübber-Heiss, A; Prosl, H

    2005-03-01

    Manuls or Pallas' cats (Felis manul, syn. Otocolobus manul) are endangered wild cats from Central Asia kept and bred in many zoos. Despite good breeding success young cats frequently die from acute toxoplasmosis. From 1998 to 2002, a breeding pair in the Schönbrunn Zoo in Vienna, Austria, gave birth to 24 kittens; 58 % of kittens died between the 2nd and the 14th week of life, mostly due to acute toxoplasmosis. The epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in Pallas' cats was examined and a control strategy to protect the kittens from fatal toxoplasmosis was developed. One 12-week-old kitten from a litter of 6 born in 2001 died of generalized toxoplasmosis. This kitten had shed T. gondii oocysts that were bioassayed in mice. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated in tissue culture inoculated with tissues of these mice. The surviving animals were immediately treated with clindamycin for 16 weeks; they acquired a natural infection and seroconverted by the end of this time without clinical signs.

  5. Macroparasites of Pallas's squirrels (Callosciurus erythraeus) introduced into Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozières, A; Pisanu, B; Gerriet, O; Lapeyre, C; Stuyck, J; Chapuis, J-L

    2010-08-27

    Introduced pets released in natura can lead to sanitary risks for native fauna and humans. We analysed the macroparasite fauna of a total of 49 Pallas's squirrels, Callosciurus erythraeus, from two populations introduced into urbanised areas in Europe (n=16 female symbol and 13 male symbol from Antibes, France, 43 degrees 33'N-7 degrees 7'E; n=11 female symbol and 9 male symbol in from Dadizele, Belgium, 50 degrees 52'N-3 degrees 5'E). Of the 185 identified ectoparasites from Antibes, 183 were sucking lice Enderleinellus kumadai, with male squirrels 10 times more intensely infested than females. The flea Nosopsyllus fasciatus was found on two hosts. No hard ticks were recovered. Of the 131 arthropods specimens from Dadizele, 45 belonged to E. kumadai, with male squirrels three times more intensely infested than females. Eighty-six arthropods belonged to another sucking louse, Hoplopleura erismata, with males infested twice as intensely as females. No fleas or hard ticks were found. We only found 12 immature Hymenolepis sp. cestodes in the small intestine of three squirrels from Antibes and two immature Mastophorus sp. female nematodes in the stomach of a squirrel from Dadizele. We found no other helminths in the body cavity, heart, lung, liver, kidney or bladder. The macroparasite fauna of these two squirrel populations is consistent with what is expected from an introduced host, i.e., a few species dominated by specialist taxa imported with founders. The scarcity of other rodent species in the urbanized areas where Pallas's squirrels were sampled may explain the low variety of newly acquired macroparasites. The discrepancy in sucking lice infestations between males and females could be due to differences in either behaviour or physiology in this non-sexually dimorphic host. Based on the macroparasites found in this study, we expect minimal sanitary risks for both native fauna and humans in urbanized habitats such as those in our study.

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of the Emerging Bivalve Pathogen Vibrio tubiashii subsp. europaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinard, Edward J; Dubert, Javier; Nelson, David R; Gomez-Chiarri, Marta; Barja, Juan L

    2016-07-28

    Vibrio tubiashii subsp. europaeus is a bivalve pathogen isolated during episodes of mortality affecting larval cultures in different shellfish hatcheries. Here, we announce the draft genome sequence of the type strain PP-638 and describe potential virulence factors, which may provide insight into the mechanism of pathogenicity.

  7. Investigations into the chemistry and insecticidal activity of euonymus europaeus seed oil and methanol extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euonymus europaeus seeds and seed oil were investigated for their volatiles using GC-MS-FID, Headspace-SPME/GC-MS-FID, and derivative GC-MS-FID for their volatiles and HPLC-DAD-CAD/MS for their non-volatile compounds. The seeds contain about 30% of fatty oil, mainly glyceryl trioleate, small amounts...

  8. [Peter Simon Pallas (1741-1811). The structure of the organic world and the notion of species. On the bicentenary of the death of P. S. Pallas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarczyk, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    An attempt has been made in the current paper to dispel two myths concerning Peter Simon Pallas, myths which have led historians of biology to distort the picture of some of the general biological ideas developed by that eminent naturalist of the Age of Enlightenment. The first point dealt with in the paper involves the myth that Pallas had allegedly drafted a 'tree of life' diagram, one of the many graphic representations of this kind to appear in later times, illustrating the structure of the organic world. The tree, of which Pallas merely left a short description (but not a depiction), took--in the articles of authors who wrote about it--a variety of graphic forms (largely dependent on the authors' pictorial inventiveness), with all the authors assuring the readers that they illustrated their reasoning with the help of Pallas's tree of life, but never mentioning that it was they themseIves who had drawn it. The current paper presents a juxtaposition of a number of such diagrams, drawn by different authors: the great diversity of the diagrams is sufficient proof that the existence of one, original 'Pallas tree' is just a myth. Another aspect of the myth has to do with the view that the tree supposedly illustrated phylogenetic dependencies - in fact, Pallas described affinity relationships between groups in the animal world. The present paper investigates how the 'tree of life' myth has developed, and reveals the mechanism that has most likely led to the myth being perpetuated in writings on the history of biology. The second issue discussed in the current paper relates to the myth of how Pallas's general views on biology allegedly evolved. The naturalist was supposed to have moved from transformism (characteristic of early stages of his work) to the idea of the immutability of species, formed in the period of his full scientific maturity. The current paper proves, inter alia on the basis of little known and not easily accessible writings by the scholar, that

  9. Apoptosis in Postovulatory Follicles of Chalcalburnus tarichi Pallas, 1811.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak Kaptaner

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available İnci kefali Chalcalburnus tarichi, Pallas, 1811 postovulasyon foliküllerinde apoptoz. Bu çalışmada, inci kefali (Chalcalburnus tarichi postovulasyon foliküllerinde apoptoz, TUNEL boyama ve agaroz jel elektroforez metodları ile araştırıldı ve plazma 17β-estradiol (E2 seviyesi ovulasyondan sonra 1., 3. ve 5. günlerde belirlendi. Postovulasyon foliküllerinde apoptotik hücreler, histolojik kesitlerde, ovulasyondan sonra 1. günde işaretlendi ve apoptozun çoğunlukla granuloza nadiren de teka hücrelerinde meydana geldiği belirlendi. Apoptozun işareti olan oligonükleozomal büyüklükteki DNA parçalanması ovulasyondan sonra 1., 3. ve 5. günlerde gözlendi. Ovulasyon anında oligonükleozomal DNA parçalanması gözlenmezken, 3. ve 5. günlerde bu parçalanmanın belirgin olduğu görüldü. Plazma E2 seviyesi ovulasyondan sonra dereceli olarak düştü. Bu düşüş 3. ve 5. günlerde önemliydi (P

  10. Home range dynamics of mountain hare (Lepus timidus in the Swiss Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Sophie Genini-Gamboni

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Little is known on the ecology and behaviour of alpine mountain hare (Lepus timidus. Between 1996 and 1997 we analysed by radiotracking the pattern of space use of 8 mountain hares from the Swiss Alps. We estimated home range size using both the kernel density estimator and the minimum convex polygon. We found smaller ranges (38 ha compared to those reported for the species in boreal or arctic habitats, but similar to ranges in Scotland. Hares did not use a centre of major activity (core area and showed high home range overlap, confirming their non-territorial behaviour. Smaller ranges were used during winter compared to the other seasons, whilst no difference in size was found between sexes. Riassunto Dinamica dell'uso dello spazio della lepre bianca (Lepus timidus nelle Alpi Svizzere Le informazioni relative all'ecologia e al comportamento della lepre alpina (Lepus timidus sono ad oggi scarse. In questo studio abbiamo analizzato l'utilizzo dello spazio di una popolazione di lepre bianca sulle Alpi Svizzere. Tra il 1996 e il 1997 sono stati marcati con redio collare 8 individui di lepre alpina. L'home range è stato calcolato utilizzando lo stimatore di densità kernel (KDE ed il metodo del minimo poligono convesso (MCP. L'ampiezza degli home range (38 ha è risultata inferiore a quella riportata per la specie in habitat boreali ed artici. ma simile a quella riscontrata in Scozia. All'interno dell home range non è stato rilevato alcun centro di maggiore attività (core area ed è stata evidenziata una notevole sovrapposizione tra gli stessi, confermando la non territorialità della specie. Le aree frequentate in inverno sono risultate più piccole rispetto alle altre stagioni e non sono state riscontrate differenze tra i sessi.

  11. Morphology, histochemistry and glycosylation of the placenta and associated tissues in the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Carolyn J P; Carter, A M; Allen, W R

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There are few descriptions of the placenta and associated tissues of the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) and here we present findings on a near-term pregnant specimen. METHODS: Tissues were examined grossly and then formalin fixed and wax-embedded for histology and immunocyt......INTRODUCTION: There are few descriptions of the placenta and associated tissues of the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) and here we present findings on a near-term pregnant specimen. METHODS: Tissues were examined grossly and then formalin fixed and wax-embedded for histology...... glycosylated. Yolk sac inner and outer endoderm expressed similar glycans except for N-acetylgalactosamine residues in endodermal acini. DISCUSSION: New features of near-term hedgehog placenta and associated tissues are presented, including their glycosylation, and novel yolk sac acinar structures...

  12. Genetic diversity in epichloid endophytes of Hordelymus europaeus suggests repeated host jumps and interspecific hybridizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhofer, Martina; Leuchtmann, Adrian

    2012-06-01

    Epichloid fungal endophytes (Epichloë and Neotyphodium spp.) are excellent model systems for studying speciation processes because of their variable life history traits that are linked to host grass fitness. Presumed jumps to new hosts and subsequent somatic hybridizations appear to be common among epichloid endophytes resulting in increased genetic variation upon which selection can act and speciation be initiated. In this study, we explored the endophyte diversity of a rare European native woodland grass species, Hordelymus europaeus, along a latitudinal transect covering the entire distribution range of H. europaeus. From 28 populations in six countries, isolates were sampled and molecularly characterized. Based on the sequences of tubB and tefA, six distinct epichloid taxa (interspecific hybrid or cryptic haploid species) were found, of which four were novel and two have been previously reported from this host. Of the novel endophytes, two were presumed to be interspecific hybrids and two of nonhybrid origin. While previously known endophytes of H. europaeus are seed-born and strictly asexual, one of the novel nonhybrid endophytes found in the glacial refugium of the Apennine peninsula reproduced sexually in cultured plants. This is the first case of a seed-borne, but sexually reproducing endophyte of this host. We discuss the origin, and possible ancestral species, of the six epichloid taxa using phylogenetic analyses. Repeated host jumps and somatic hybridizations characterize the diversity of the endophytes. To date, no other grass species is known to host a larger diversity of endophytes than H. europaeus.

  13. The European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus), as a reservoir for helminth parasites in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Naem, Soraya; Pourreza, Behzad; Gorgani-Firouzjaee, Tahmineh

    2015-01-01

    From April 2009 to December 2011, 44 dead hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) were collected incidentally from areas of Urmia, Iran. The overall prevalence of helminth infections was 95.0%. Specific parasites and their prevalences were: Physaloptera clausa (93.0%), Crenosoma striatum (61.0%), Capillaria aerophila (9.0%), Capillarias spp. (4.0%), Brachylaemus erinacei (2.0%) and Hymenolepis erinacei (16.0%). There were no significant differences in helminth occurrence between hedgehog sexes, eithe...

  14. The invasive species Ulex europaeus (Fabaceae) shows high dynamism in a fragmented landscape of south-central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamirano, Adison; Cely, Jenny Paola; Etter, Andrés; Miranda, Alejandro; Fuentes-Ramirez, Andres; Acevedo, Patricio; Salas, Christian; Vargas, Rodrigo

    2016-08-01

    Ulex europaeus (gorse) is an invasive shrub deemed as one of the most invasive species in the world. U. europaeus is widely distributed in the south-central area of Chile, which is considered a world hotspot for biodiversity conservation. In addition to its negative effects on the biodiversity of natural ecosystems, U. europaeus is one of the most severe pests for agriculture and forestry. Despite its importance as an invasive species, U. europaeus has been little studied. Although information exists on the potential distribution of the species, the interaction of the invasion process with the spatial dynamic of the landscape and the landscape-scale factors that control the presence or absence of the species is still lacking. We studied the spatial and temporal dynamics of the landscape and how these relate to U. europaeus invasion in south-central Chile. We used supervised classification of satellite images to determine the spatial distribution of the species and other land covers for the years 1986 and 2003, analysing the transitions between the different land covers. We used logistic regression for modelling the increase, decrease and permanence of U. europaeus invasion considering landscape variables. Results showed that the species covers only around 1 % of the study area and showed a 42 % reduction in area for the studied period. However, U. europaeus was the cover type which presented the greatest dynamism in the landscape. We found a strong relationship between changes in land cover and the invasion process, especially connected with forest plantations of exotic species, which promotes the displacement of U. europaeus. The model of gorse cover increase presented the best performance, and the most important predictors were distance to seed source and landscape complexity index. Our model predicted high spread potential of U. europaeus in areas of high conservation value. We conclude that proper management for this invasive species must take into account

  15. [Mycobacteria in the digestive tract of pink Flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber roseus, Pallas)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollin, P E; Rollin, D; Baylet, R; Johnson, A R

    1981-01-01

    Cloacal swabs were taken from 37 young wild Greater Flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber roseus, Pallas) in Camargue (South of France). Neither pathogenic strain, nor environmental one were found. The absence of the latter could be attributed to the high NaCl levels of the ecosystems.

  16. Pallas kuuvalgel ehk Lõpetamata peatükk eesti kunstis / Enn Lillemets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lillemets, Enn, 1958-

    2009-01-01

    Pallase kunstikooli 90. aastapäeva tähistav näitus "Lõpetamata Pallas" Tartu Linnamuuseumis 31. oktoobrini. Loetletud 19 osalejat. Väljapaneku autoritel jäi Pallase kool lõpetamata, näituse aines on valitud peamiselt Teise maailmasõja aastaist 1940-1945. Pikemalt Varmo Pirgi ja Herman Aunapuu töödest

  17. Phylogenetic position of Mexican jackrabbits within the genus Lepus (Mammalia: Lagomorpha: a molecular perspective Posición filogenética de las liebres mexicanas dentro del género Lepus (Mammalia: Lagomorpha: una perspectiva molecular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Ramírez-Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Although phylogenetic affinities of Mexican jackrabbits within the genus Lepus have been evaluated for a few species, no study has included all 5 species occurring in Mexico. In this study we assess the phylogenetic position of the Mexican species relative to other forms within the genus and evaluate evolutionary affinities among the Mexican forms. To do so, we analyzed 57 complete cytochrome b sequences belonging to the 5 Mexican jackrabbits and 18 species of Lepus distributed across Asia, Africa, Europe and America. We performed phylogenetic tree reconstruction with the neighbor-joining, maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood approaches. We also used a minimum spanning network to evaluate relationships among Mexican species. We found 5 main phylogenetic groups within Lepus, 4 of which corresponded to geographically well defined lineages. One group included L. americanus, 3 others corresponded to Mexican, African and European species, respectively. A fifth group included Asiatic, European and American forms. Our results suggest that Mexican species constitute a monophyletic entity that evolved independently of the other American species of Lepus. Within the Mexican forms, 2 main clades are apparent; 1 that includes L. alleni, L. callotis, and L. flavigularis, previously referred to as the white-sided jackrabbits, and a second one that groups together L. californicus and L. insularis, although L. californicus is a paraphyletic relative of L. insularis.Aunque la afinidad filogenética de las liebres mexicanas, dentro del género Lepus, ha sido evaluada para algunas especies, ningún estudio ha incluido las 5 especies que se presentan en México. En este trabajo estimamos la posición filogenética de las especies mexicanas de liebres en relación con otras formas dentro del género, y evaluamos las afinidades evolutivas entre ellas. Para ello analizamos 57 secuencias completas del citocromo b pertenecientes a las 5 especies mexicanas y 18

  18. Significance of Protected Areas for the Pallas's cat (Otocolobus manul: Felidae conservation in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna N. Barashkova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Pallas's cat, or Manul, Otocolobus manul, belongs to the small felines. In Russia this species is located at the northern periphery of its range. Potential habitats of this species within its Russian range's part have been highlighted on the base of remote sensing data, topographic maps and digital cartographic models. Maps of the Pallas's cat's records in Russia have been compiled using literature data, authors' own data and information provided by contributors of the online database «Small Wild Сats of Eurasia». We have shown the representation of potential habitats of the Pallas's cat and its actual registrations within Protected Areas of Russia. The total area of potential habitats for this species in Russia is assessed as 145,150 km2. The presence of Manul is confirmed for five regions of Russia: Republic of Altai, Republic of Tyva, Republic of Buryatia, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Trans-Baikal Krai. The registration of the species' records mainly corresponds to the location of its potential habitats. The main categories of both federal and regional Russian Protected Areas cover 10.8% (13.5% taken with the buffer zones of the total area of potential habitats for the Pallas's cat. The significance of each Protected Area for Manul conservation has been considered in detail. We have discussed whether the representativeness of the existing Protected Areas is sufficient for conservation of this species. We have identified the main territorial gaps that reduce the Pallas's cat protection in some parts of the Russian range.

  19. Occurrence of the lungworms Capillaria and Crenosoma spp. in British hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, S K; Morris, P A; Cooper, J E

    1989-01-01

    Fifty-three dead hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) were investigated histologically for evidence of lungworm infestation. The faeces of forty-two were examined microscopically for nematode eggs. Thirty-five animals showed parasitic lesions--fourteen Crenosoma only, five Capillaria only and sixteen both. Infestations were characterized by inflammatory changes in the trachea and lung and the presence of worms in other organs. There was some correlation between the finding of parasites in histological sections and the detection of eggs in faeces but, neither method appears completely reliable.

  20. Analysis of corynomycolic acids and other fatty acids produced by Corynebacterium lepus grown on kerosene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, D G; Zajic, J E; Gracey, D E

    1979-01-01

    The saponifiable carboxylic acids of the extracellular product of Corynebacterium lepus grown on kerosene have been isolated and characterized. About 25% of these acids were a mixture of simple, saturated fatty acids ranging from C13 to C24 and including both even and odd homologues. The distribution of these acids was bimodal, with maxima at C15 and C21. The other 75% of the acids was a mixture of corynomycolic acids [R1--CH(OH)--CH(R2)--COOH] ranging from C28 to C43. The R1 alkyl fragments varied from C16 to C25, and R2 fragments varied from C6 to C14. Both even and odd corynomycolic acid homologues were observed, and the distribution had a single pronounced maximum at C32 and C33. Bacterial utilization of the carboxylic oxidation products of the kerosene substrate is suggested to account for the wide distribution in chain length of these saturated fatty acids and for the observation of both even and odd homologues. PMID:422512

  1. Activity of Selected Antioxidant Enzymes, Selenium Content and Fatty Acid Composition in the Liver of the Brown Hare (Lepus europaeus L.) in Relation to the Season of the Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozd, Radosław; Pilarczyk, Renata; Pilarczyk, Bogumiła; Drozd, Arleta; Tomza-Marciniak, Agnieszka; Bombik, Teresa; Bąkowska, Małgorzata; Bombik, Elżbieta; Jankowiak, Dorota; Wasak, Agata

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of low concentrations of selenium in the environment on the activity of selected antioxidant enzymes: Se-GSHPx, total GSHPx, SOD, CAT, and GST as well as fatty acid profile in the livers of brown hares during winter and spring. Liver tissues obtained from 20 brown hares collected in the north-eastern Poland in the winter and spring season were analyzed. In the tissue analyzed, a significantly lower level of selenium was noticeable in the spring compared to winter; however, values measured in both seasons indicated a deficiency of this element in the analyzed population of brown hares. There were no differences found that could indicate the influence of Se deficiency on the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The determined activity of antioxidant enzymes and fatty acid composition suggest a negligible impact of the low concentration of Se on the analyzed biochemical parameters of brown hare livers.

  2. [Helminths of hedgehogs, Erinaceus europaeus and E. roumanicus from Poznań region, Poland--coprological study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizgajska-Wiktor, Hanna; Jarosz, Wojciech; Piłacińska, Barbara; Dziemian, Sylwia

    2010-01-01

    Fecal samples from the hedgehogs, Erinaceus europaeus (15 samples) and E. roumanicus (44 samples) collected in the Poznań region of Poland were examined. Endoparasites were isolated using Sheather's flotation technique. The prevalence of parasitic infections in all hedgehogs examined was 74.6% (E. europaeus--73.3%; E. roumanicus--75.0%). Two species of parasites occurred in both species of hosts: Aonchotheca erinacei (60% and 80%) and Eucoleus aerophilus (6.7% and 15.9%). Brachylaima erinacei was found only in E. europaeus (33.3%) while Physaloptera sp. (13.6%) and Crenosoma striatum (4.6%) only in E. roumanicus. The intensity of infection varied from 1 to 371 eggs/1g of feces in E. europaeus and from 1 to 194 eggs/1g of feces in E. roumanicus. In both sexes the majority of infections were of low intensity, high intensity infections occurring only sporadically. No zoonotic species of endoparasites were recorded in these samples.

  3. First Report of the Herb Field Mouse , Apodemus uralensis (Pallas, 1811 from Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setev Shar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The herb fi eld mouse, Apodemus uralensis (Pallas, 1811 is recorded for the fi rst time in Mongolia, from western part of the Mongolian Altai and the adjacent Mongolian part of the Dzungarian Gobi. In addition, we discovered several additional fi ndings of this species recorded as early as 1976 from diff erent scientifi c collections. Body and skull measurements are presented along with a molecular genetic analysis of one specimen.

  4. The hidden history of the snowshoe hare, Lepus americanus: extensive mitochondrial DNA introgression inferred from multilocus genetic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo-Ferreira, José; Seixas, Fernando A; Cheng, Ellen; Mills, L Scott; Alves, Paulo C

    2014-09-01

    Hybridization drives the evolutionary trajectory of many species or local populations, and assessing the geographic extent and genetic impact of interspecific gene flow may provide invaluable clues to understand population divergence or the adaptive relevance of admixture. In North America, hares (Lepus spp.) are key species for ecosystem dynamics and their evolutionary history may have been affected by hybridization. Here we reconstructed the speciation history of the three most widespread hares in North America - the snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus), the white-tailed jackrabbit (L. townsendii) and the black-tailed jackrabbit (L. californicus) - by analysing sequence variation at eight nuclear markers and one mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) locus (6240 bp; 94 specimens). A multilocus-multispecies coalescent-based phylogeny suggests that L. americanus diverged ~2.7 Ma and that L. californicus and L. townsendii split more recently (~1.2 Ma). Within L. americanus, a deep history of cryptic divergence (~2.0 Ma) was inferred, which coincides with major speciation events in other North American species. While the isolation-with-migration model suggested that nuclear gene flow was generally rare or absent among species or major genetic groups, coalescent simulations of mtDNA divergence revealed historical mtDNA introgression from L. californicus into the Pacific Northwest populations of L. americanus. This finding marks a history of past reticulation between these species, which may have affected other parts of the genome and influence the adaptive potential of hares during climate change.

  5. Cenurosis subcutánea en una liebre (Lepus spp, de la reserva ecológica “Nevado de Toluca”, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Herrera LE

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available ResumenSe describe un caso de cenurosis subcutánea en una liebre (Lepus spp, capturada por un halcón peregrino (Falco peregrinus, de cetrería en una área de la reserva ecológica: “Nevado de Toluca”, Estado de México.

  6. Streptococcus pyogenes Infection in a Free-Living European Hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklinos, Lydia H V; Efstratiou, Androulla; Macgregor, Shaheed K; John, Shinto K; Hopkins, Timothy; Cunningham, Andrew A; Lawson, Becki

    2015-12-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes, a common pathogen of humans, was isolated from the carcass of a free-living European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) found in northern England in June 2014. The animal had abscessation of the deep right cervical lymph node, mesenteric lymph nodes and liver. The S. pyogenes strain isolated from the lesions, peritoneal and pleural cavities was characterised as emm 28, which can be associated with invasive disease in humans. This is the first known report of S. pyogenes in a hedgehog and in any free-living wild animal that has been confirmed by gene sequencing. As close associations between wild hedgehogs and people in England are common, we hypothesise that this case might have resulted from anthroponotic infection.

  7. The European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus), as a reservoir for helminth parasites in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naem, Soraya; Pourreza, Behzad; Gorgani-Firouzjaee, Tahmineh

    2015-01-01

    From April 2009 to December 2011, 44 dead hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) were collected incidentally from areas of Urmia, Iran. The overall prevalence of helminth infections was 95.0%. Specific parasites and their prevalences were: Physaloptera clausa (93.0%), Crenosoma striatum (61.0%), Capillaria aerophila (9.0%), Capillarias spp. (4.0%), Brachylaemus erinacei (2.0%) and Hymenolepis erinacei (16.0%). There were no significant differences in helminth occurrence between hedgehog sexes, either in single or in mixed infections (p > 0.05). The mixed infection involving Crenosoma striatum and P. clausa occurred significantly more frequently than other mixed infection (p < 0.05). There were significant differences in prevalence among seasons, with the highest prevalence in summer and spring especially among P. clausa and C. striatum (p < 0.05).

  8. Erinaceus europaeus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ibrahim Eldaghayes

    2017-08-23

    Aug 23, 2017 ... data on the anatomy of physiology of the eye in this species (Dinopoulos et al., ... color vision (Peichl et al., 2000). Female hedgehogs produce ... evaluated by assessing pupillary light reflexes and behavioural responses to.

  9. A new brachycladiid species (Digenea) from Gervais' beaked whale Mesoplodon europaeus in north-western Atlantic waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraija-Fernández, Natalia; Aznar, Francisco J; Raga, Juan A; Gibson, David; Fernández, Mercedes

    2014-09-01

    A new species of the digenean family Brachycladiidae Odhner, 1905 is described from the bile ducts of a Gervais' beaked whale Mesoplodon europaeus Gervais (Ziphiidae) stranded on the North Atlantic coast of Florida. These parasites were assigned to Brachycladium Looss, 1899 and differed from other species of the genus in the relative size of the oral and ventral suckers, the form and size of the eggs and their extremely small body size. A canonical discriminant analysis was used to examine differences between these specimens and the smallest available individuals of B. atlanticum (Abril, Balbuena and Raga, 1991) Gibson, 2005, considered the morphologically closest species. The overall results exhibited significant differences between the two samples and a jack-knife classification showed that 96.2% of the specimens were correctly classified to their group. In view of evidence from morphological data, the specimens from M. europaeus are considered as new to science and are designated as Brachycladium parvulum n. sp.

  10. Serologic Survey of Snowshoe Hares (Lepus americanus) in the Greater Yellowstone Area for Brucellosis, Tularemia, and Snowshoe Hare Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyers, Dan; Zimmer, Jeremy; Lewandowski, Kristen; Hennager, Steve; Young, John; Pappert, Ryan; Panella, Amanda; Kosoy, Olga

    2015-07-01

    We examined sera from snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) livetrapped in the northern Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA), US, for antibodies to Brucella abortus, Francisella tularensis, and snowshoe hare virus (SSHV). Zero of 90, 0 of 67, and 40 of 100 samples were antibody positive for B. abortus, F. tularensis, and SSHV, respectively. Hares were trapped from 2009 to 2012, and of the six animals that were captured twice with at least 1 yr between captures, four developed antibody to SSHV, indicating active exposure to the agent. These findings suggest snowshoe hares in the GYA do not play a significant role as a reservoir of B. abortus, but do maintain the zoonotic, encephalitic SSHV in the population.

  11. Historical wildlife dynamics on Dugway Proving Ground: population and disease trends in jack rabbits over two decades. [Lepus californicus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhardt, L.E.; Van Voris, P.

    1986-08-01

    In an effort to determine whether US Army activities on the Dugway Proving Ground (DPG) have had an impact on resident wildlife, intensive studies have been conducted on the biology and ecology of the black-tailed jack rabbit (Lepus californicus) since 1965. in addition, the incidence of endemic diseases in several species of resident wildlife on the DPG have been studied from the late 1950s through the mid-1970s. The objectives of this report are to: (1) compile and summarize the jack rabbit data and some of the disease information that is presently contained only in annual reports; (2) compare the DPG jack rabbit data to data available on other jack rabbit populations; and (3) analyze the data for unusual or unexplained fluctuations in population densities or in incidence of disease.

  12. Evolution of viral sensing RIG-I-like receptor genes in Leporidae genera Oryctolagus, Sylvilagus, and Lepus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos de Matos, Ana; McFadden, Grant; Esteves, Pedro J

    2014-01-01

    One of the most severe European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) pathogens is myxoma virus (MYXV), a rabbit-specific leporipoxvirus that causes the highly lethal disease myxomatosis. Other leporid genera, Sylvilagus and Lepus, encompass species with variable susceptibilities to MYXV, but these do not develop the lethal form of the disease. The protective role of the retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I/DDX58) in sensing MYXV in nonpermissive human myeloid cells prompted the study of the RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) family evolution in the three leporid genera. This viral-sensor family also includes the melanoma differentiation-associated factor 5 (MDA5/IFIH1), and the laboratory of genetics and physiology 2 (LGP2/DHX58). Considering specifically the MYXV susceptible host (European rabbit) and one of the virus natural long-term hosts (Sylvilagus bachmani, brush rabbit), the amino acid differences of positively selected sites in RIG-I between the two species were located in the protein region responsible for viral RNA recognition and binding, the repressor domain. Such differences might play a determinant role in how MYXV is sensed. When looking for episodic selection on MDA5 and LGP2 of the eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus), we also uncovered evidence of selective pressures that might be exerted by a species-specific leporipoxvirus, the Shope fibroma virus. Finally, a putative alternative splicing case was identified in Oryctolagus and Lepus MDA5 isoforms, corresponding to the deletion of one specific exon. This study provided the first insights into the evolution of the leporid RLR gene family that helps illuminate the origins of the species-specific innate responses to pathogens and more specifically to MYXV.

  13. Detection of the new emerging rabbit haemorrhagic disease type 2 virus (RHDV2) in Sicily from rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and Italian hare (Lepus corsicanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarda, A; Pugliese, N; Cavadini, P; Circella, E; Capucci, L; Caroli, A; Legretto, M; Mallia, E; Lavazza, A

    2014-12-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), a member of the genus Lagovirus, causes rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD), a fatal hepatitis of rabbits, not previously reported in hares. Recently, a new RHDV-related virus emerged, called RHDV2. This lagovirus can cause RHD in rabbits and disease and mortality in Lepus capensis (Cape hare). Here we describe a case of RHDV2 infection in another hare species, Lepus corsicanus, during a concurrent RHD outbreak in a group of wild rabbits. The same RHDV2 strain infected rabbits and a hare, also causing a RHD-like syndrome in the latter. Our findings confirmed the capability of RHDV2 to infect hosts other than rabbits and improve the knowledge about the epidemiology and the host range of this new lagovirus.

  14. Ectoparasitic infestations of the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus in Urmia city, Iran: First report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahmineh Gorgani-Firouzjaee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Hedgehogs are small, nocturnal mammals that become popular in the world and have significant role in transmission of zoonotic agents. Some of the agents are transmitted by ticks and fleas such as rickettsial agents. For these reason, a survey on ectoparasites in European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus carried out between April 2006 and December 2007 from different parts of Urmia city, west Azerbaijan, Iran. After being euthanized external surface of body of animals was precisely considered for ectoparasites, and arthropods were collected and stored in 70% ethanol solution. Out of 34 hedgehogs 23 hedgehogs (67.70% were infested with ticks (Rhipicephalus turanicus. Fleas of the species Archaeopsylla erinacei were found on 19 hedgehogs of 34 hedgehogs (55.90%. There was no significant differences between sex of ticks (p > 0.05 but found in fleas (p 0.05. Highest occurrence of infestation in both tick and flea was in June. Among three seasons of hedgehog collection significant differences was observed (p < 0.05. The result of our survey revealed that infestation rate in hedgehog was high. According to zoonotic importance of this ectoparasite and ability to transmission of some pathogens, more studies are needed to investigate hedgehog parasites in different parts of Iran.

  15. Ectoparasitic infestations of the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) in Urmia city, Iran: First report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgani-Firouzjaee, Tahmineh; Pour-Reza, Behzad; Naem, Soraya; Tavassoli, Mousa

    2013-01-01

    Hedgehogs are small, nocturnal mammals that become popular in the world and have significant role in transmission of zoonotic agents. Some of the agents are transmitted by ticks and fleas such as rickettsial agents. For these reason, a survey on ectoparasites in European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) carried out between April 2006 and December 2007 from different parts of Urmia city, west Azerbaijan, Iran. After being euthanized external surface of body of animals was precisely considered for ectoparasites, and arthropods were collected and stored in 70% ethanol solution. Out of 34 hedgehogs 23 hedgehogs (67.70%) were infested with ticks (Rhipicephalus turanicus). Fleas of the species Archaeopsylla erinacei were found on 19 hedgehogs of 34 hedgehogs (55.90%). There was no significant differences between sex of ticks (p > 0.05) but found in fleas (p ticks and fleas did not show significant differences (p > 0.05). Highest occurrence of infestation in both tick and flea was in June. Among three seasons of hedgehog collection significant differences was observed (p importance of this ectoparasite and ability to transmission of some pathogens, more studies are needed to investigate hedgehog parasites in different parts of Iran.

  16. Alkaloid concentration of the invasive plant species Ulex europaeus in relation to geographic origin and herbivory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornoy, Benjamin; Atlan, Anne; Tarayre, Michèle; Dugravot, Sébastien; Wink, Michael

    2012-11-01

    In the study of plant defense evolution, invasive plant species can be very insightful because they are often introduced without their enemies, and traits linked to defense can be released from selective pressures and evolve. Further, studying plant defense evolution in invasive species is important for biological control and use of these species. In this study, we investigated the evolution of the defensive chemicals quinolizidine alkaloids (QAs) in the invasive species gorse, Ulex europaeus. Using a common garden experiment, our goals were to characterize the role of QAs relative to specialist enemies of gorse and to investigate if QA concentration evolved in invaded regions, where gorse was introduced without these enemies. Our results showed that pod infestation rate by the seed predator Exapion ulicis and infestation by the rust pathogen Uromyces genistae-tinctoriae were negatively correlated to concentration of the QA lupanine. Quinolizidine alkaloid concentration was very variable between individuals, both within and among populations, but it was not different between native and invaded regions, suggesting that no evolution of decreased resistance occurred after gorse lost its enemies. Our study also suggests that QA concentrations are traits integrated into seed predation avoidance strategies of gorse, with plants that mass-fruit in spring but do not escape pod infestation in time being richer in QAs.

  17. Accumulation of anticoagulant rodenticides in a non-target insectivore, the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowding, Claire V., E-mail: claire.dowding@naturalengland.org.u [School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Woodland Road, Bristol BS8 1UG (United Kingdom); Shore, Richard F.; Worgan, Andrew [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Baker, Philip J.; Harris, Stephen [School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Woodland Road, Bristol BS8 1UG (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-15

    Studies on exposure of non-targets to anticoagulant rodenticides have largely focussed on predatory birds and mammals; insectivores have rarely been studied. We investigated the exposure of 120 European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) from throughout Britain to first- and second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides (FGARs and SGARs) using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection (HPLC) and liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS). The proportion of hedgehogs with liver SGAR concentrations detected by HPLC was 3-13% per compound, 23% overall. LCMS identified much higher prevalence for difenacoum and bromadiolone, mainly because of greater ability to detect low-level contamination. The overall proportion of hedgehogs with LCMS-detected residues was 57.5% (SGARs alone) and 66.7% (FGARs and SGARs combined); 27 (22.5%) hedgehogs contained >1 rodenticide. Exposure of insectivores and predators to anticoagulant rodenticides appears to be similar. The greater sensitivity of LCMS suggests that hitherto exposure of non-targets is likely to have been under-estimated using HPLC techniques. - Exposure of insectivorous hedgehogs to anticoagulant rodenticides in Britain is similar to predatory birds and mammals that specialise in eating small mammals, and hitherto exposure levels have been under-estimated using HPLC techniques.

  18. Genetic variation in flowering phenology and avoidance of seed predation in native populations of Ulex europaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlan, A; Barat, M; Legionnet, A S; Parize, L; Tarayre, M

    2010-02-01

    The genetic variation in flowering phenology may be an important component of a species' capacity to colonize new environments. In native populations of the invasive species Ulex europaeus, flowering phenology has been shown to be bimodal and related to seed predation. The aim of the present study was to determine if this bimodality has a genetic basis, and to investigate whether the polymorphism in flowering phenology is genetically linked to seed predation, pod production and growth patterns. We set up an experiment raising maternal families in a common garden. Based on mixed analyses of variance and correlations among maternal family means, we found genetic differences between the two main flowering types and confirmed that they reduced seed predation in two different ways: escape in time or predator satiation. We suggest that this polymorphism in strategy may facilitate maintain high genetic diversity for flowering phenology and related life-history traits in native populations of this species, hence providing high evolutionary potential for these traits in invaded areas.

  19. The cost of mutualism: interactions between Trollius europaeus and its pollinating parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellmyr, Olle

    1989-01-01

    Pollination by seed parasites is unusual, and previously studied case involve plant species (figs, yuccas) that are pollinated mostly by one host-specific pollinator. Trollius europaeus (Ranunculaceae), however, is pollinated by four Chiastocheta species (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) that mate in the flowers, eat pollen and nectar, and complete larval development in the seeds. Strict resource partitioning is present between the fly species, in that different parts of the infructescence are used by larvae of each species, and fly species oviposit at different times in the life of a flower. The flies were shown to be the exclusive pollinators. Because the numbers of ovules fertilized per visit was a fixed proportion of remaining non-fertilized ovules, fly species differed in mean pollinator efficacy, with the last species contributing the fewest pollinations. Therefore, with larval consumption of seeds being fixed and seed initiation decreasing per visit, larvae from later ovipositions consumed more seeds than their mothers pollinated. The point at which costs and benefits were equal was found to be around 4-5 eggs; observed population means of eggs per flower varied between 2.3-7.25 during three years of study. The system is rather insensitive to variation in pollinator density, remaining mutualistic over a wide range. Small changes in pollinator efficacy, however, can tilt the equilibrium to a negative net effect for the plant. These data on Trollius/ Chiastocheta interactions provide the first extensive cost/ benefit analyses for mutualism based on seed parasites as pollinators.

  20. Citrobacter europaeus sp. nov., isolated from water and human faecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Teresa G; Clermont, Dominique; Branquinho, Raquel; Machado, Elisabete; Peixe, Luísa; Brisse, Sylvain

    2017-01-01

    Strains 97/79T and A121, recovered respectively from human faeces and well water, were compared to currently known species of the genus Citrobacter using genotypic and phenotypic approaches. Multilocus sequence analysis based on housekeeping genes fusA, leuS, pyrG, rpoB and recN, showed that the two strains formed a distinct phylogenetic lineage within the genus Citrobacter. Average nucleotide identity (ANI) between strains 97/79T and A121 was 99.2 %, whereas ANI values of strain 97/79T with the type strains of closely related species of the genus Citrobacter, C. werkmanii, C. braakii, C. freundii, C. youngae and C. pasteurii, were all below 93.0 %. The ability to metabolize different compounds also discriminated strains 97/79T and A121 from other species of the genus Citrobacter. Based on these results, strains 97/79T and A121 represent a novel species of the genus Citrobacter, for which the name Citrobacter europaeus sp. nov. is proposed, with strain 97/79T (=CIP 106467T=DSM 103031T) as the type strain. The DNA G+C content of strain 97/79T is 52.0 %.

  1. AN ANALYSIS OF RELATIVE FATNESS OF THE CAPE HARE(LEPUS CAPENSIS)%草兔的肥满度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢欣

    2001-01-01

    @@Body condition is one of the indicators of wildlife population status. Kidney fat index[1] and weight-length index (body weight against cube body length)[2] are two common indicators for species of lagomorph. The latter is more convenient to measure in game management practice. This paper analyzed relative fatness (RF) of the cape hare( Lepus capensis) one of the most important game animals in China.

  2. [Genetic passportization and identification of Siberian cranes (Grus leucogeranus Pallas) in captivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudrik, E A; Kashentseva, T A; Gamburg, E A; Politov, D V

    2014-01-01

    The genetic diversity of the founders of an artificial population of the Siberian crane Grus leucogeranus Pallas (rare species of cranes) was characterized using 10 microsatellite loci. It was established that the allelic diversity (on average, 5.9 alleles per locus) and genic (H(o) = 0.739) diversity of the Siberian crane is rather high and comparable with the estimations for natural populations of different crane species. Genetic passportization of the birds (119 individuals) from the register of the Siberian crane International Studbook was carried out at the initial stage. The efficiency of genetic passportization for individual identification, identification of the origin, paternity analysis, and exclusion of inbreeding was demonstrated in Siberian cranes under natural mating and artificial insemination. Cases of natural reproduction in pairs of Siberian cranes imprinted to the human and continuous storage of spermatozoa in the female reproductive ducts were registered.

  3. [Genetic structure of the populations of Pallas pine (Pinus pallasiana D. Don) reforested in extreme conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshikov, I I; Krasnoshtan, O V

    2010-01-01

    The paper reports on an intensive reforestation of Pallas pine (Pinus pallasiana D. Don) in post-fire sites in the native Mountainous Crimean populations and around the previously planted seed-producing trees in ore-mining dumps of the Krivoy Rog region. Self-sown progeny growing in the dump is characterized by a better growth and comes to the reproductive development phase earlier compared to that one growing in post-fire forest. Allele variability at 20 allozyme loci is less in self-sown progeny than in the native populations whereas its heterozygosity level is similar. Genetic distance (D(N)) among self-sown progenies in post-fire sites and ore-mining dump is comparable to that of the natural populations.

  4. FOREST DORMOUSE (DRYOMYS NITEDULA PALLAS 1779 DIET CHARACTERISTIC IN VARIOUS FORESTS OF FOOTHILL ZONE IN DAGHESTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sh. Magomedov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Revealed food items consumed by forest dormouse (Dryomys nitedula Pallas 1778 individuals in various forests in Daghestan; 18 in an oak forest and 19 in а hornbeam-beech forest. Diversity index of food items in the oak forest was 7.66 and in the hornbeambeech forest was 12.67. The food items diversity index distinction is not formed by quality of food items and caused by larger differences between shares of food items in diet of the species individuals in the oak forests. Seasonal dynamics of the main food types showed reducing of animal food type share from spring to autumn and growing of seed food type share in some period.

  5. INVASION OF ROUND GOBY NEOGOBIUS MELANOSTOMUS (PALLAS, 1814 – ECO-THREAT OR ENVIROMENTAL ENRICHMENT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Stepanowska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Round goby Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas, 1814 is a fish species of Ponto-Caspian basin origin. However, since the second part of the 80’s of the last century has observed spreading of this species in European waters, including in Polish waters. In the last two decades, from 1990 when it was first caught of round goby near the fishing port in Hel, takes a massive and rapid spread of this fish throughout the Gulf of Gdańsk, Vistula Lagoon, along the southern Baltic coastal zone and the Pomeranian Bay and also the River Odra estuary. In 2009, first round goby in commercial catches conducted in Lake Dąbie was recorded. In this situation the question is that invasion can be a eco-threat or even enrichment of the environment to the human being?

  6. Pseudogenization of the MCP-2/CCL8 chemokine gene in European rabbit (genus Oryctolagus), but not in species of Cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus) and Hare (Lepus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent studies in human have highlighted the importance of the monocyte chemotactic proteins (MCP) in leukocyte trafficking and their effects in inflammatory processes, tumor progression, and HIV-1 infection. In European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) one of the prime MCP targets, the chemokine receptor CCR5 underwent a unique structural alteration. Until now, no homologue of MCP-2/CCL8a, MCP-3/CCL7 or MCP-4/CCL13 genes have been reported for this species. This is interesting, because at least the first two genes are expressed in most, if not all, mammals studied, and appear to be implicated in a variety of important chemokine ligand-receptor interactions. By assessing the Rabbit Whole Genome Sequence (WGS) data we have searched for orthologs of the mammalian genes of the MCP-Eotaxin cluster. Results We have localized the orthologs of these chemokine genes in the genome of European rabbit and compared them to those of leporid genera which do (i.e. Oryctolagus and Bunolagus) or do not share the CCR5 alteration with European rabbit (i.e. Lepus and Sylvilagus). Of the Rabbit orthologs of the CCL8, CCL7, and CCL13 genes only the last two were potentially functional, although showing some structural anomalies at the protein level. The ortholog of MCP-2/CCL8 appeared to be pseudogenized by deleterious nucleotide substitutions affecting exon1 and exon2. By analyzing both genomic and cDNA products, these studies were extended to wild specimens of four genera of the Leporidae family: Oryctolagus, Bunolagus, Lepus, and Sylvilagus. It appeared that the anomalies of the MCP-3/CCL7 and MCP-4/CCL13 proteins are shared among the different species of leporids. In contrast, whereas MCP-2/CCL8 was pseudogenized in every studied specimen of the Oryctolagus - Bunolagus lineage, this gene was intact in species of the Lepus - Sylvilagus lineage, and was, at least in Lepus, correctly transcribed. Conclusion The biological function of a gene was often revealed in situations of

  7. Pseudogenization of the MCP-2/CCL8 chemokine gene in European rabbit (genus Oryctolagus, but not in species of Cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus and Hare (Lepus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Loo Wessel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies in human have highlighted the importance of the monocyte chemotactic proteins (MCP in leukocyte trafficking and their effects in inflammatory processes, tumor progression, and HIV-1 infection. In European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus one of the prime MCP targets, the chemokine receptor CCR5 underwent a unique structural alteration. Until now, no homologue of MCP-2/CCL8a, MCP-3/CCL7 or MCP-4/CCL13 genes have been reported for this species. This is interesting, because at least the first two genes are expressed in most, if not all, mammals studied, and appear to be implicated in a variety of important chemokine ligand-receptor interactions. By assessing the Rabbit Whole Genome Sequence (WGS data we have searched for orthologs of the mammalian genes of the MCP-Eotaxin cluster. Results We have localized the orthologs of these chemokine genes in the genome of European rabbit and compared them to those of leporid genera which do (i.e. Oryctolagus and Bunolagus or do not share the CCR5 alteration with European rabbit (i.e. Lepus and Sylvilagus. Of the Rabbit orthologs of the CCL8, CCL7, and CCL13 genes only the last two were potentially functional, although showing some structural anomalies at the protein level. The ortholog of MCP-2/CCL8 appeared to be pseudogenized by deleterious nucleotide substitutions affecting exon1 and exon2. By analyzing both genomic and cDNA products, these studies were extended to wild specimens of four genera of the Leporidae family: Oryctolagus, Bunolagus, Lepus, and Sylvilagus. It appeared that the anomalies of the MCP-3/CCL7 and MCP-4/CCL13 proteins are shared among the different species of leporids. In contrast, whereas MCP-2/CCL8 was pseudogenized in every studied specimen of the Oryctolagus - Bunolagus lineage, this gene was intact in species of the Lepus - Sylvilagus lineage, and was, at least in Lepus, correctly transcribed. Conclusion The biological function of a gene was often

  8. Kuidas muuta matemaatika õpilastele põnevaks / Helen Kaasik, Kadri Hiob, Kärt Toomel, Lembit Pallas ; intervjueeris Raivo Juurak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Vestlusringis osalesid Helen Kaasik Tallinna reaalkoolist, Kadri Hiob Rahumäe põhikoolist, Kärt Toomel Tallinna kunstigümnaasiumist („Noored kooli” programmist) ning Lembit Pallas Tabasalu ühisgümnaasiumist. Leiti, et vaja on senisest lihtsamalt sõnastatud õpikuid, eri raskusastmega ülesannete brošüüre ja tunduvalt väiksema mahuga ainekava

  9. Gli affari di messer Palla Strozzi (e di suo padre Nofri. Imprenditoria e mecenatismo nella Firenze del primo Rinascimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Tognetti

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Il saggio si propone di far luce sulle vicende economico-patrimoniali di messer Palla di Nofri Strozzi (Firenze 1372-Padova 1462, personaggio di spicco della Firenze del primo Rinascimento, sia come uomo politico ingiustamente travolto dalla purga medicea scatenata nel 1434 contro gli oppositori di Cosimo il Vecchio, sia come letterato, collezionista di codici librari, promotore degli studia humanitatis e committente di opere d’arte. Al centro di una frammentata serie di indagini da parte di storici dell’arte, della cultura e della politica, Palla Strozzi ha suscitato invece scarsa attenzione da parte degli storici dell’economia, nonostante un particolare non secondario: al catasto fiorentino del 1427 risultava essere il cittadino più ricco, ma dopo nemmeno cinque anni era già così oberato dai debiti da non riuscire più a pagare le tasse al fisco fiorentino. La vicenda di messer Palla, messa a confronto con quella del padre Nofri, infaticabile uomo d’affari capace di ammassare una gigantesca fortuna (poi parzialmente dissipata dal figlio, è analizzata nei dettagli grazie alla ricchissima serie archivistica delle carte strozziane: in particolare tramite lo spoglio di numerosi libri di conti intestati ad aziende e patrimoni di famiglia. Il confronto tra le differenti attitudini dei due personaggi fa emergere in tutta la sua originalità la figura di messer Palla: uomo coltissimo ma anche elitario, eppure dotato di un alto senso dello stato, capace di mostrare verso il denaro un’inclinazione che lo avvicina più all’aristocratico rentier dell’ancien régime e/o al raffinato signore padano del pieno rinascimento, piuttosto che al mondo dei grandi «mercatanti» che lo aveva generato.

  10. Clinical spectrum of infections due to the newly described Actinomyces species A. turicensis, A. radingae, and A. europaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbe, L J; Van De Merwe, D; Schouls, L; Bergmans, A; Vaneechoutte, M; Vandamme, P

    1999-01-01

    Over a 7-year period, we isolated 294 Actinomyces-like organisms (ALOs) which were not clearly identifiable. Using well-defined probes coding for sequences specific for recently described Actinomyces species (A. turicensis, A. radingae, and A. europaeus), we were able to identify 128 strains. The majority belonged to the A. turicensis species. A. radingae was found only in patients with skin-related pathologies. A. europaeus was also detected in patients with urinary tract infections. The main sources of A. turicensis were genital infections, followed by skin-related and urinary tract infections. Additional clinical pictures were appendicitis, cholecystitis, ear, nose, and throat infections, and bacteremia. In a small number of patients these ALOs were found as the only pathogen. Strains of the three species were tested by two widely used biochemical identification methods. A. turicensis was easily identifiable by both these methods. We conclude that these ALOs are not infrequent pathogens and are found in a wide range of human infections. At least A. turicensis is easily identifiable by clinical diagnostic laboratories.

  11. An immunocytochemical study of the germinal layer vasculature in the developing fetal brain using Ulex europaeus 1 lectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, S J; Howard, S

    1988-10-01

    The characteristics of the germinal matrix vasculature were studied in the developing fetal brain using immunocytochemical methods. A preliminary comparative immunocytochemical study was made on six fetal brains to compare endothelial staining by Ulex europaeus I lectin with that of antibody to Factor VIII related antigen. Ulex was found to stain germinal layer vessels better than Factor VIII related antigen. Subsequently, the germinal layers of a further 15 fetal and preterm infant brains ranging from 13 to 35 weeks' gestation were stained with Ulex europaeus I to demonstrate the vasculature. With increasing gestation, there was a gradual increase in vessel density, particularly of capillaries. This was not a uniform process. A plexus of capillaries was prominent immediately beneath the ependyma while the more central parts of the germinal matrix contained fewer, but often larger diameter, vessels. The variation in vessel density which was a feature of the later gestation brains may have implications for local blood flow and may be a factor in haemorrhage at this site.

  12. Aspergillus europaeus sp. nov., a widely distributed soil-borne species related to A. wentii (section Cremei)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubka, Vit; Nováková, Alena; Samson, Robert A.;

    2016-01-01

    A new species belonging to Aspergillus section Cremei is described, A. europaeus sp. nov. This species is most closely related to A. wentii, A. dimorphicus, and A. chrysellus and can be distinguished by an unique phenotype (colour of sporulation, production of yellow soluble pigment on MEA, shape...

  13. Non-destructive pollution exposure assessment in the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus): IV hair versus soil analysis in exposure and risk assessment of organochlorine compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havé, D' H.; Scheirs, J.; Covaci, A.; Brink, van den N.W.; Verhagen, R.; Coen, De W.

    2007-01-01

    Few ecotoxicological studies on mammals use non-destructive methodologies, despite the growing ethical concern over the use of destructive sampling methods. In the present study we assessed exposure of hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroet

  14. Relevance of hair and spines of the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) as biomonitoring tissues for arsenic and metals in relation to blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, F.; Havé, D' H.; Mubiana, V.K.; Brink, van den N.W.; Blust, R.; Bervoets, L.; Coen, De W.

    2009-01-01

    Hair has been proven to be suitable for non-destructive and non-invasive exposure assessments in human and mammal populations. A previous study with European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) showed that, for some metals, hair and spine metal concentrations were positively correlated to levels in liver

  15. Dutch hedgehogs Erinaceus europaeus are nowadays mainly found in urban areas, possibly due to the negative Effects of badgers Meles meles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, van de J.; Dekker, J.J.A.; Langevelde, van F.

    2015-01-01

    In several west European countries, the distribution of hedgehogs Erinaceus europaeus is declining. In the UK, predation by the European badger Meles meles is considered to be the main death cause of hedgehogs. In the Netherlands, badger density is rising, which suggests the same cause for the decli

  16. 10 years of cloud droplet activation data from Pallas, Northern Finland - preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivekäs, Niku; Asmi, Eija; Brus, David; Komppula, Mika; Lihavainen, Heikki

    2016-04-01

    Activation of atmospheric aerosol particles into cloud droplets has been studied in situ at Pallas measurement station in Finnish Lapland from year 2005 to present day. The site is located on a hill top, about 300 m above the surrounding lowlands, and it is inside a cloud for 15 % of time. Here in-cloud periods are defined as periods when visibility was below 1000 m. There are two parallel Differential Mobility Particle Sizers (DMPS) at the site, measuring the number concentration and dry size distribution of atmospheric aerosol particles. One DMPS is connected to a PM2.5 inlet, the other to a total air inlet with no cut-off diameter. After each inlet the particles are dried to evaporate any water in them. This way it is possible to measure simultaneously the dry number-size-distribution of all particles, and that of particles with wet diameter smaller than 2.5 m. As the latter does not include cloud droplets, the difference between the two measurements represents the number concentration and size distribution of those particles that have activated into cloud droplets. The number concentration of particles at Pallas has a clear seasonal cycle, being highest during summer and lowest during winter. The monthly mean number concentration of particles with diameter larger than 100 nm varied from 38 cm-3 in November to 270 cm-3 in July. During in-cloud periods the monthly mean number concentration of activated particles of this same size class showed a similar pattern, varying from 23 cm-3 (November) to 110 cm-3 in April. The monthly mean D50 activation diameter (diameter at which 50 % of particles activate) varied from 85 nm (February) to 189 nm (July), showing an average 0.1 nm increase for each added particle with diameter > 100 nm. The activated fraction of particles in all sizes decreased sharply when visibility exceeded 1000 m. The highest activated fractions of particles were not observed during the periods of the thickest clouds, but during clouds with in

  17. Detection of Plasmodium sp.-infested Anopheles hyrcanus (Pallas 1771) (Diptera: Culicidae) in Austria, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Bernhard; Silbermayr, Katja; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Indra, Alexander; Nowotny, Norbert; Allerberger, Franz

    2013-03-01

    On July 15, 2012, adult Anopheles hyrcanus (Pallas 1771) mosquitoes were caught next to a farm barn near Rust, Burgenland, close to Lake Neusiedl National Park in eastern Austria. Six weeks later, adults of this invasive species were also found in a sheep shelter outside the village of Oggau and another 2 weeks later, in a horse barn in Mörbisch. The morphological typing was confirmed genetically by amplification and sequencing of a 1,404-bp-long fragment within the 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene, the internal transcribed spacer 2, and the 28S ribosomal RNA gene. Out of two A. hyrcanus pools analyzed, one was found positive for Plasmodium sp. A 460-bp-long sequence within the mitochondrial cytochrome b region revealed 100 % identity to a sequence of a Plasmodium parasite identified in a New Zealand bellbird (Anthornis melanura). The Austrian finding sites are close to the Hungarian border. In Hungary, the occurrence of A. hyrcanus was already reported in 1963. A. hyrcanus is considered the most important potential vector of malaria in southern France today. In Austria, sporadic autochthonous malaria cases could emerge, caused by immigration from malaria-endemic countries and heavy tourism. However, the broad population coverage of the Austrian health care system makes the reestablishment of endemic areas for malaria unlikely.

  18. Seasonal movements and migration of Pallas's Gulls Larus ichthyaetus from Qinghai Lake, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaffar, S.B.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Prosser, D.J.; Douglas, D.C.; Yan, B.; Xing, Z.; Hou, Y.; Palm, E.C.; Newman, S.H.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the seasonal movements and migration often Pallas's Gulls Larus ichthyaetus trom Qinghai Lake to assess migratory routes and stopover areas. Each individual was captured and equipped with an 18 g solar-powered Platform Transmitter Terminal (PIT) to track its movements from September 2007 to May 2008. Six individuals remained near Qinghai Lake until the PTTs stopped transmitting. Three individuals flew 50-330 km from Qinghai Lake to nearby salt lakes. One individual departed on 8 December and flew over 1,700 km south-west to arrive at coastal Bangladesh on 9 January 2008. Two individuals flew in October to the Brahmaputra River in Assam, India, remaining in the area for at least one month until one stopped transmitting. The second individual travelled southwest to coastal Bangladesh. Of the two individuals overwintering in Bangladesh, one remained for 67 days before migrating north. The second bird departed after 96 days, and it returned to Qinghai on 10 May 2008 after 48 days in migration. Both individuals that overwintered in coastal Bangladesh arrived much later than the outbreaks of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HP AI H5N I) in poultry in 2007. This disparity in timing would tentatively suggest that this species was not involved in long-distance movements of the virus. Instead, the converse may be true: previous work demonstrates the potential for virus spill-over trom poultry into gulls and other wild bird species upon arrival into locations with widespread HPAI H5NI outbreaks and environmental contamination.

  19. Early investigations of Ceres and the discovery of Pallas historical studies in asteroid research

    CERN Document Server

    Cunningham, Clifford

    2016-01-01

    An asteroid scholar, Cunningham in this book picks up where his Discovery of the First Asteroid, Ceres left off in telling the story of the impact created by the discovery of this new class of object in the early 1800s. The best and brightest minds of mathematics, science, and philosophy were fascinated by Ceres, and figures as diverse as Gauss, Herschel, Brougham, Kant, and Laplace all contributed something to the conversation. The first few chapters deal with the mathematical and philosophical aspects of the discovery, and the rivalry between Germany and France that so affected science and astronomy of that era. The jockeying for glory over the discovery of Ceres by both Piazzi and Bode is examined in detail, as is the reception given to Herschel’s use of the word 'asteroid.' Archival research that reveals the creator of the word 'asteroid' is presented in this book. Astronomy was a truly cosmopolitan field at the time, spanning across various disciplines, and the discovery of Pallas, a story completely t...

  20. Skull Anatomy and Ontogeny of Legless Lizard Pseudopus apodus (Pallas, 1775): Heterochronic Influences on Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klembara, Jozef; Dobiašová, Karolína; Hain, Miroslav; Yaryhin, Oleksandr

    2017-03-01

    Pseudopus apodus (Pallas, 1775) is the largest extant legless species of the subfamily Anguinae (Anguimorpha, Anguidae) living mostly in the sub-arid territories ranging from the Balkan area in Europe to Kazakhstan in Asia. The species of other two genera live in North America, South-East Asia and North Africa (Ophisaurus) and Europe and South-West Asia (Anguis). The interrelationships of Anguinae are unresolved; this is in part the consequence of the insufficient knowledge of the cranial, postcranial and integumentary anatomy of the individual anguine species. The aim of this article is to fulfill this gap in our knowledge of the anguine anatomy. Now, in the first part of the project, the individual bones of the exocranium and visceral endocranium of the anguine legless lizard P. apodus are described in detail. In the present study, P. apodus is revealed to have autoapomorphic features of the skull which clearly distinguish it from Anguis and Ophisaurus. In addition, the study of posthatchling ontogeny of exocranium of P. apodus revealed some features, such as a nasal process of premaxilla being slightly widened in about its mid-length, that are also typical for adults of the Ophisaurus and Anguis species as well as extinct species of Pseudopus. This strongly indicates that peramorphic heterochronic process played role in the evolution of the P. apodus skull. Anat Rec, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Anat Rec, 300:460-502, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. New record of Neogobius fluviatilis (Pallas, 1814 (Gobiidae in the Danube river basin (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đikanović Vesna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the growing colonization of allochthonous organisms in the Serbian section of the Danube River and interconnected ecosystems was observed. Hydro-morphological changes, such as regulations of the watercourse, have made this sector suitable for bio-invasions. Two specimens of Neogobius fluviatilis (Pallas, 1814 (Piscea: Gobidae were collected on 10 August 2012 from the Zapadna Morava River, below the first dam on the river course. This is the first record of the sand goby in the watercourse in the central part of Serbia, as a tributary of the Danube River. Our findings show that the sand goby has thus far reached not only the main course of the Danube River but its tributary as well. This freshwater fish was observed for the first time in the Serbian part of the Danube River in 1986 in Begej locality (1.276 km. There are five Ponto-Caspian goby species in the waters of Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173045, br. 37009 i br. 31011

  2. The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771), in North America: impact on raw water users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Ronald W.; Kovalak, William P.; Schloesser, Donald W.

    1989-01-01

    The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas), is a small mollusc native to the Black, Caspian, and Azov Seas that was discovered in Lake Erie of the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America in 1988. Its presence there raises immediate concerns for users of raw water because it can become abundant enough to obstruct the flow of water through pipes, hoses, screens, and condensers. Biofouling attributed to this mussel was observed at several power plants, water treatment plants, and food processing and industrial facilities along Lake Erie in 1989. Estimated densities at one power plant intake canal were as high as 700,000 per m2. In addition, large numbers were found in main steam condensors and in the service water system, threatening the water supply for cooling, fire protection, and dust suppression systems. Municipal water intakes along the Canadian and United States shorelines have also been impaired. In one southeast Michigan city, drinking water withdrawal from Lake Erie was reduced 45% by the mussel. Routine checks of raw water supplies for free-floating zebra mussel veligers are reommended to determine if reproducing adult populations are present in local water bodies. After an early alert, raw water intakes could be protected to alleviate damage from the biofouling zebra mussel.

  3. Biogeographic variation of foliar n-alkanes of Juniperus communis var. saxatilis Pallas from the Balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajčević, Nemanja; Janaćković, Pedja; Dodoš, Tanja; Tešević, Vele; Marin, Petar D

    2014-12-01

    The composition of the epicuticular n-alkanes isolated from the leaves of ten populations of Juniperus communis L. var. saxatilis Pallas from central (continental) and western (coastal) areas of the Balkan Peninsula was characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In the leaf waxes, 14 n-alkane homologues with chain-lengths ranging from C22 to C35 were identified. All samples were dominated by n-tritriacontane (C33 ), but differences in two other dominant n-alkanes allowed separating the coastal from the continental populations. Several statistical methods (ANOVA, principal component, discriminant, and cluster analyses as well as the Mantel test) were deployed to analyze the diversity and variability of the epicuticular-leaf-n-alkane patterns of the ten natural populations of J. communis var. saxatilis and their relation to different geographic and bioclimatic parameters. Cluster analysis showed a high correlation of the leaf-n-alkane patterns with the geographical distribution of the investigated samples, differentiating the coastal from the continental populations of this taxon. Several bioclimatic parameters related to aridity were highly correlated with this differentiation. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  4. Phytoremediation of cadmium by the facultative halophyte plant Bolboschoenus maritimus (L.) Palla, at different salinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Márcia S S; Pedro, Carmen A; Gonçalves, Sílvia C; Ferreira, Susana M F

    2015-10-01

    The cadmium phytoremediation capacity of the halophyte plant Bolboschoenus maritimus (L.) Palla and the influence of water salinity were assessed in a greenhouse experiment, in order to better understand the bioremediation capacity of this plant. Three concentrations of cadmium (0, 50 and 100 μg l(-1)) and four salinity conditions (0, 5, 10 and 20) were chosen to evaluate the cadmium accumulation, in order to test these plants as a potential phytoremediation tool in brackish environments. The cadmium content in water and plants (underground organs, stems and leaves) was analysed with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. All the plants submitted to salinity 20 and in the three cadmium treatments died. The plants' survival was highest in the lowest salinities, where highest growth and biomasses were also obtained. The plants presented more cadmium content in the rhizomes, followed by stems and even less in leaves. The salt stress of the plants interfered with their cadmium accumulation capacity. The highest cadmium accumulation in the rhizomes occurred at salinity 0, while the salinities 0 and 5 were the most adequate for stems and leaves. The experiment pointed out that B. maritimus represents a good possible intervenient for cadmium bioremediation in freshwater and low salinity brackish water environments, but its use is limited in the habitats of higher salinity.

  5. PROPOSTE DI ALLENAMENTO MULTILATERALE CON PALLA IN DUE DISCIPLINE SPORTIVE: LA GINNASTICA RITMICA E LA PALLACANESTRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Caire

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available La specializzazione precoce non garantisce il successo nello sport d’élite, ma comporta numerosi rischi (Malina, 2010. Una delle strategie per contrastare questi rischi nell’allenamento giovanile è la proposta di un carico motorio che presenti carattere di polivalenza e multilateralità. La multilateralità nella metodologia dell’allenamento è considerata un aspetto chiave per la formazione giovanile (AA.VV., 1987; AA.VV., 1987; Sotgiu & Pellegrini, 1989; Starosta, 2006; Weinek, 2009. Proposte di lavoro multilaterale possono essere costruite ispirandosi a differenti discipline sportive che presentano similitudini quali, ad esempio, gesti ed attrezzi. Nella pratica sportiva alcuni allenatori, alla continua ricerca di idee innovative per ampliare le proprie proposte di lavoro sul campo, talvolta si ispirano ad altre discipline sportive. Ma due discipline sportive molto diverse tra loro possono realizzare proposte di lavoro traversali per una formazione multilaterale?Objectives: L’obiettivo dello studio è formulare proposte di lavoro con la palla adatte a due discipline molto diverse, quali la Ginnastica Ritmica e la Pallacanestro che possano contribuire all’allenamento multilaterale di entrambe nella fase di formazione sportiva giovanile.

  6. [The first report of Mulcticola hypoleucus (Denny, 1842) (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera) from nightjars (Caprimulgus europaeus L.) in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dik, Bilal

    2009-01-01

    In this study, two nightjars (Caprimulgus europaeus L.) were examined for ectoparasites. They were investigated macroscopically for lice. Then, they were placed into a plastic box and propoxur applied to their whole bodies. The ectoparasites which fell to the bottom of the box were collected and preserved in a vial with 70% of alcohol. No ectoparasite was observed on one nightjar while eleven lice specimens were collected from the other. The lice specimens were cleared in 10% of KOH until they were transparent. The lice were mounted on slides using by Canada balsam and dried in an incubater. They were examined under the light microscope and identified as Mulcticola hypoleucus (Denny, 1842). This is the first time the genus Mulcticola and the species M. hypoleucus has been reported from the nightjars in Turkey.

  7. The Apennine hare Lepus corsicanus in Latium, Central Italy: a habitat suitability model and comparison with its current range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Maria Angelici

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available La lepre appenninica Lepus corsicanus nel Lazio, Italia centrale: un modello di idoneità ambientale a confronto con la distribuzione attuale.
    La lepre appenninica (Lepus corsicanus è un endemismo italiano distribuito in Italia centro-meridionale, in Sicilia e in Corsica. Nel Lazio esistono piccole popolazioni, spesso isolate tra loro. Scopo di questo lavoro è la realizzazione di un modello di idoneità ambientale per questa specie. L’areale sinora conosciuto nel Lazio dimostra che il taxon è adattabile a diverse tipologie ambientali e a varie altitudini s.l.m. Il modello è stato elaborato su piattaforma GIS, attribuendo al tipo di uso del suolo (secondo la classificazione del progetto CLC e alla quota (categorie DTM un punteggio conforme alle preferenze ecologiche della specie. Il modello ottenuto è stato comparato con uno proposto precedentemente e confrontato con la distribuzione attuale della specie ottenuta a partire dai dati di presenza raccolti dal 1990 al 2009. Anche considerando la maggior mole di dati utilizzata nel presente studio, la differenza più evidente tra i due modelli è l’estensione maggiore delle aree ad alta idoneità ambientale da noi ottenuta. L’85.7% delle localizzazioni ricade nella classe di idoneità più elevata, suggerendo che il modello riflette le preferenze ecologiche della specie e può rappresentare un utile strumento gestionale.

  8. Description of Diorchis thracica n. sp. (Cestoda, Hymenolepididae) from the ruddy shelduck Tadorna ferruginea (Pallas) (Anseriformes, Anatidae) in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova, Margarita H; Georgiev, Boyko B; Vasileva, Gergana P

    2015-07-01

    Diorchis thracica n. sp. (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea, Hymenolepididae) is described from the ruddy shelduck Tadorna ferruginea (Pallas) (Aves, Anseriformes, Anatidae), collected in the vicinities of Radnevo, Stara Zagora Region, Bulgaria. The new species is differentiated from other members of Diorchis Clerc, 1903 by possessing rostellar hooks with length of 36 µm, a thick-walled cirrus-sac with strong longitudinal muscular fibres in its middle part and a copulatory vagina with two sphincters. Main morphological criteria for distinguishing species of the genus Diorchis are discussed.

  9. Crystal structure determination of basic phospholipase A2 from venom of Agkistrodon halys pallas by molecular replacement method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟五一; 林政炯; 周元聪

    1996-01-01

    Basic phospholipase A2 (BPLA2) from the venom of Agkistrodon halys pallas has a strong ability to hemolyze erythrocytes. The asymmetrical unit of P212121 crystal of BPLA2 contains two molecules. Self-rotation function was used to study the orientation relationship of these two molecules. Cross-rotation and translation functions were then used to determine the orientations and positions of the two molecules in the unit cell. The model building and preliminary structure refinement were carried out. The result shows that the two molecules in the asymmetrical unit of orthorhombic crystal are related by a non-crystallographic 2-fold symmetry axis.

  10. Self-grooming induced by sexual chemical signals in male root voles (Microtus oeconomus Pallas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Honghao; Yue, Pengpeng; Sun, Ping; Zhao, Xinquan

    2010-03-01

    Sniffing is one-way animals collect chemical signals, and many males self-groom when they encounter the odor of opposite-sex conspecifics. We tested the hypothesis that sexual chemical signals from females can induce self-grooming behavior in male root voles (Microtus oeconomus Pallas). Specifically, we investigated the sniffing pattern of male root voles in response to odors from the head, trunk, and tail areas of lactating and non-lactating females. The self-grooming behavior of males in response to female individual odorant stimuli was documented, and the relationship between self-grooming and sniffing of odors from the head, trunk, and tails areas were analyzed. Sniffing pattern results showed that males are most interested in odors from the head area, and more interested in odors from the tail as compared to the trunk area. Males displayed different sniffing and self-grooming behaviors when they were exposed to odors from lactating females as compared to non-lactating females. Males also spent more time sniffing and engaged in more sniffing behaviors in response to odors from the lactating females' tail area as compared to the same odors from non-lactating females. Similarly, males spent more time self-grooming and engaged in more self-grooming behaviors in the presence of individual odors from lactating females as compared to individual odors from non-lactating females. Partial correlation analyses revealed that the frequency of self-grooming was significantly correlated with the frequency of tail area sniffs. Results from this experiment suggest that sexual attractiveness of lactating females is stronger than that of non-lactating females. Furthermore, the partial correlation analysis demonstrated that self-grooming in males is induced by odors from the tail area of females. Collectively, these results support the hypothesis that sexual chemical signals from females can induce self-grooming behavior in male root voles. Self-grooming may also reflect the

  11. In vitro shoot proliferation and in vitro and ex vitro root formation of Pyrus elaeagrifolia Pallas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet eAygun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Shoot-tip cultures of Pyrus elaeagrifolia Pallas, an important gene source for drought and chlorosis resistance in pear rootstock breeding, were established from a wild mature tree originated from seed. Murashige and Skoog (MS basal medium supplemented with different concentrations of benzyladenine (BA singly or in combination with auxin was used in the study. In the initial culture, the highest percentages (> 80 % of shoot proliferation were obtained in the mediums supplemented with 9.0 µM BA x 0.5 µM auxin combination and 0.5 µM indole-3-acetic acid . In the subcultures, the highest shoot proliferation rates were obtained in the medium containing 4.5 and 9.0 µM BA. The shoot proliferation rates ranged from 91.1% to 96.4% in the second subculture and from 76.7 to 89.4% in the third subculture. In the second subculture, the shoots grown on 9.0 µM BA without auxin produced the best proliferation (10.6. For the in vitro rooting experiments, the highest rooting rate (54.2%, root length (10.5 mm and root number (2.5 were obtained from 10 days dark treatment on the medium containing half strength of macronutrients supplemented with 5 µM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA. For the ex vitro rooting experiments, shoot rooting was significantly influenced by 10 mM IBA applied as quick-dip method. The percentage of rooting was 55% and root number was 1.8 at this concentration.

  12. Abbondanza relativa del Riccio Erinaceus europaeus L. 1758 (Insectivora, Erinaceidae) in ambienti del sud e nord Italia

    OpenAIRE

    Gaetano Aloise; Dino Scaravelli; Massimo Bertozzi; Mara Cagnin

    2003-01-01

    Erinaceus europaeus L., specie comune e diffusa in tutta Italia, rappresenta una delle vittime animali più frequenti del traffico automobilistico. Il presente lavoro considera la comparazione tra tratti stradali del nord e del sud del Paese considerando come il conteggio degli individui investiti rappresenti un'efficace stima di abbondanza. Per un anno sono state effettuate le localizzazioni dei ricci uccisi su transetti stradali di 37 e 14,5 Km. I percorsi sono stati poi...

  13. Conversion factors in carnivore scat analysis: sources of bias

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferdinand Rühe; Michael Ksinsik; Christian Kiffner

    2008-01-01

    .... In our study, we aimed at: 1) presenting conversion factors (CFs) of roe deer Capreolus capreolus, European hare Lepus europaeus and house mice Mus musculus digested by wolf Canis lupus, Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx and red fox Vulpes vulpes, 2...

  14. Zoonoses and other findings in hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus): a survey of mortality and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keymer, I F; Gibson, E A; Reynolds, D J

    1991-03-16

    A survey of mortality in hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) was carried out between July 1976 and November 1986. Most were from Norfolk. Of the 74 examined, 35 (47.3 per cent) were road casualties, one of which yielded Salmonella typhimurium phage type (PT) 104. Of the remaining 39, 13 (33.3 per cent) had salmonellosis due to S enteritidis PT 11. This organism, which appears to be common and widespread in hedgehogs in England was found in 10 separate incidents. The only other zoonosis was ringworm (Trichophyton erinacei infection). Other findings included ectoparasitic infestations with mange mites (Caparinia tripilis), fleas (Archaeopsylla erinacei) and ticks (Ixodes hexagonus). Helminths comprised Crenosoma striatum lungworms (associated with Bordetella bronchiseptica infection in one animal), intestinal nematodes (Capillaria species), cestodes (Rodentolepis erinacei), trematodes (Brachylaemus erinacei) and acanthocephalans (Prosthoryhnchus species). Metaldehyde poisoning was diagnosed in three animals. Over a 10 year period 370 carcases were counted on a stretch of 18 miles of road in Norfolk. The major causes of mortality are probably road casualties and hypothermia during the winter months. In December 1988 S enteritidis PT 11 was isolated from three of four carcases examined in Berkshire and the zoonosis pseudotuberculosis (Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection) was diagnosed in two of them.

  15. Nondestructive pollution exposure assessment in the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus): III. Hair as an indicator of endogenous organochlorine compound concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Havé, Helga; Scheirs, Jan; Covaci, Adrian; Schepens, Paul; Verhagen, Ron; De Coen, Wim

    2006-01-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine persistent pollutants were investigated in tissues of the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus). Road kills and carcasses from wildlife rescue centers were used to characterize organochlorine compound tissue distribution and tissue profile dissimilarities (hair, liver, kidney, muscle, and adipose tissue). The most important contaminants were polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlordanes (CHLs), and DDTs, with median concentrations of 75, 5.1, and 1.4 ng/g liver wet weight, respectively. Median levels for the remaining compounds-hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), and octachlorostyrene-were less than 0.5 ng/g liver wet weight. Compared to results with other mammalian wildlife, the present results indicate that hedgehogs may accumulate considerable concentrations of organochlorine compounds. Polychlorinated biphenyls and HCB preferably accumulated in liver and muscle tissue. Concentrations of DDTs and HCHs were highest in muscle tissue and hair, respectively. Octachlorostyrene and CHL levels were predominant in liver. The observed positive relationships between concentrations in hair and internal tissues for PCBs, DDTs, HCB, HCHs, and CHLs (0.49 hedgehog hair as a nondestructive biomonitoring tool regarding pollution with organochlorine compounds and the promising role of the hedgehog as a mammalian indicator species of pollution in terrestrial environments.

  16. АНАЛИЗ КАРИОТИПА LYCOPUS EUROPAEUS L

    OpenAIRE

    КОЗАК М.Ф.; ТУРДУГУЛОВА Р.Т.

    2015-01-01

    Хромосомный набор Lycopus europaeus L. ( Lamiaceae) популяций Астраханской области характеризуется числом 2n=22, включает 4 пары (II, VI, VIII, X) субметацентриков и 7 пар (I, III-V, VII, IX, XI) метацентриков. Средняя суммарная абсолютная длина диплоидного набора хромосом составляет 39,1±1,72 мкм (C.V.= 18,2%).

  17. Effect of different diets on biology, reproductive variables and life and fertility tables of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Fediuk de Castro-Guedes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The biology, reproductive variables and population growth indicators of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773 (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae fed on three diets, namely Cinara atlantica (Wilson, 1919 (Hemiptera: Aphididae, Brevicoryne brassicae (Linnaeus, 1758 (Hemiptera: Aphididae, and frozen eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, were evaluated. With all three diets, birth rate was higher than mortality, resulting in positive rm values and thus indicating population growth. Under the conditions used in the experiments, H. axyridis was able to survive, develop and reproduce normally. This demonstrates that are different kind of food that can be essential for supporting the reproduction of some species of Coccinellidae, but not with the same optimization of preferred prey.

  18. First record of Pontian Monkey Goby, Neogobius fluviatilis (Pallas, 1814 in the Evros River (Greece; Is it an alien species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. ZOGARIS

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Pontian Monkey Goby,Neogobius fluviatilis (Pallas, 1814, was recorded for the first time in Greece in August 2011. Eight specimens were collected in the Greek-Turkish section of the Evros River, 65 kilometers upstream of its river-mouth. Although the species has been recently discovered in the Tundza, a tributary of the Evros in Bulgaria, it has never before been found in the Evros’ main stem.  Although the lower Evros has been poorly researched by ichthyologists, it is unlikely that a conspicuous medium-sized fish would go unnoticed in this river; and, it is therefore suggested to be a probable alien. However, since the Evros basin has had geological connections to the Marmara Sea and Black Sea in the past and it is immediately adjacent to native populations of N. fluviatilis, the species status is categorized as questionable until genetic and morphological studies are completed.

  19. First record of Pontian Monkey Goby, Neogobius fluviatilis (Pallas, 1814 in the Evros River (Greece; Is it an alien species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. ZOGARIS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Pontian Monkey Goby,Neogobius fluviatilis (Pallas, 1814, was recorded for the first time in Greece in August 2011. Eight specimens were collected in the Greek-Turkish section of the Evros River, 65 kilometers upstream of its river-mouth. Although the species has been recently discovered in the Tundza, a tributary of the Evros in Bulgaria, it has never before been found in the Evros’ main stem.  Although the lower Evros has been poorly researched by ichthyologists, it is unlikely that a conspicuous medium-sized fish would go unnoticed in this river; and, it is therefore suggested to be a probable alien. However, since the Evros basin has had geological connections to the Marmara Sea and Black Sea in the past and it is immediately adjacent to native populations of N. fluviatilis, the species status is categorized as questionable until genetic and morphological studies are completed.

  20. Primeiro registro de Harmonia axyridis (Pallas (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae: um coccinelídeo originário da região Paleártica First record of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae: a lady beetle native to the Palaearctic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Massutti de Almeida

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773 an asiatic species were caugth in Capão do Tigre, Curitiba, Paraná, South of Brazil, for the first time, feeding on Tinocallis kahawalnokani (Kirkaldy (Hemiptera, Aphididae on Lagerstroemia indica Linnaeus (Lythraceae.

  1. Effects of natural hybrid and non-hybrid Epichloë endophytes on the response of Hordelymus europaeus to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhofer, Martina; Güsewell, Sabine; Leuchtmann, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Interspecific hybrid endophytes of the genus Epichloë (Ascomycota, Clavicipitaceae) are prevalent in wild grass populations, possibly because of their larger gene variation, resulting in increased fitness benefits for host plants; however, the reasons are not yet known. We tested hypotheses regarding niche expansion mediated by hybrid endophytes, population-dependent interactions and local co-adaptation in the woodland grass Hordelymus europaeus, which naturally hosts both hybrid and non-hybrid endophyte taxa. Seedlings derived from seeds of four grass populations made endophyte free were re-inoculated with hybrid or non-hybrid endophyte strains, or left endophyte free. Plants were grown in the glasshouse with or without drought treatment. Endophyte infection increased plant biomass and tiller production by 10-15% in both treatments. Endophyte types had similar effects on growth, but opposite effects on reproduction: non-hybrid endophytes increased seed production, whereas hybrid endophytes reduced or prevented it completely. The results are consistent with the observation that non-hybrid endophytes in H. europaeus prevail at dry sites, but cannot explain the prevalence of hybrid endophytes. Thus, our results do not support the hypothesis of niche expansion of hybrid-infected plants. Moreover, plants inoculated with native relative to foreign endophytes yielded higher infections, but both showed similar growth and survival, suggesting weak co-adaptation.

  2. Parasites of Apollonia melanostoma (Pallas 1814) and Neogobius kessleri (Guenther 1861) (Osteichthyes, Gobiidae) from the Danube River in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlegger, J M; Jirsa, F; Konecny, R; Frank, C

    2010-03-01

    Two invasive fish species, the round goby Apollonia melanostoma syn. Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas 1814) and the bighead goby Neogobius kessleri (Günther, 1861), have established a firm population in Austrian waters during the past 15 years. As there have been no records of the parasite fauna from these populations, a total of 79 specimens of A. melanostoma and 12 specimens of N. kessleri were examined for parasites between May and October 2007 from three different sampling sites from the Danube River in Austria. In total 12 parasite taxa were recovered. The protozoans Trichodina sp. and Ichthyophthirius multifiliis from the gills and skin; two crustacean species, Paraergasilus brevidigitus and Ergasilus sieboldi, from the gills; and the two monogeneans Gyrodactylus sp. and Dactylogyrus sp., from the skin and gills respectively, all occurred at low prevalence and intensities. Furthermore, cystacanths of the acanthocephalan Acanthocephalus lucii were found in the body cavity. Metacercariae of the digeneans Diplostomum sp. and Tylodelphys clavata were found in the lens of the eye and the vitreous humour, respectively. Adults of two digeneans, Nicolla skrjabini and Bunodera nodulosa, were found in the intestine. In addition, during this survey metacercariae of the Holarctic digenean Bucephalus polymorphus, encysted in the skin and fins, with prevalence up to 78%, were recorded for the first time in Austria.

  3. Repellent activities of some Labiatae plant essential oils against the saltmarsh mosquito Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas, 1771) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Samed; Oz, Emre; Cetin, Huseyin

    2012-06-01

    The repellent activities of the essential oils of two Thymus (Thymus sipyleus Boiss. subsp. sipyleus and Thymus revolutus Celak) and two Mentha (Mentha spicata L. subsp. spicata and Mentha longifolia L.) species against Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas, 1771) (Diptera: Culicidae) are presented. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation of the aerial parts of the plants in flowering period and repellency tests were done with a Y-tube olfactometer. All essential oils showed repellency in varying degrees and exhibited no significant time-dependent repellent activities. When all test oils compared for repellent activities there was no significant activity detected within 15 min exposure period. Mentha essential oils had better activity than Thymus essential oils, producing high repellency (73.8-84.2%) at 30th min on Oc. caspius. Mentha longifolia has the best mosquito repellent activity among the plants tested at the 25th min. Th. sipyleus subsp. sipyleus essential oil produced >85% repellent activity at the 15th min, but the effect decreased noticeably to 63.1% and 68% at 25th and 30th min, respectively.

  4. Learning where to feed: the use of social information in flower-visiting Pallas' long-tongued bats (Glossophaga soricina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Andreas; Kolar, Miriam; Tschapka, Marco; Knörnschild, Mirjam

    2016-03-01

    Social learning is a widespread phenomenon among vertebrates that influences various patterns of behaviour and is often reported with respect to foraging behaviour. The use of social information by foraging bats was documented in insectivorous, carnivorous and frugivorous species, but there are little data whether flower-visiting nectarivorous bats (Phyllostomidae: Glossophaginae) can acquire information about food from other individuals. In this study, we conducted an experiment with a demonstrator-observer paradigm to investigate whether flower-visiting Pallas' long-tongued bats (Glossophaga soricina) are able to socially learn novel flower positions via observation of, or interaction with, knowledgeable conspecifics. The results demonstrate that flower-visiting G. soricina are able to use social information for the location of novel flower positions and can thereby reduce energy-costly search efforts. This social transmission is explainable as a result of local enhancement; learning bats might rely on both visual and echo-acoustical perception and are likely to eavesdrop on auditory cues that are emitted by feeding conspecifics. We additionally tested the spatial memory capacity of former demonstrator bats when retrieving a learned flower position, and the results indicate that flower-visiting bats remember a learned flower position after several weeks.

  5. Inhibitory effect of Paeonia lactiflora Pallas extract (PE) on poly (I:C)-induced immune response of epidermal keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Ra; Choi, Dae-Kyoung; Sohn, Kyung-Cheol; Lim, Seul Ki; Kim, Dong-Il; Lee, Young Ho; Im, Myung; Lee, Young; Seo, Young-Joon; Kim, Chang Deok; Lee, Jeung-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal keratinocytes provide protective role against external stimuli by barrier formation. In addition, kertinocytes exerts their role as the defense cells via activation of innate immunity. Disturbance of keratinocyte functions is related with skin disorders. Psoriasis is a common skin disease related with inflammatory reaction in epidermal cells. We attempted to find therapeutics for psoriasis, and found that Paeonia lactiflora Pallas extract (PE) has an inhibitory potential on poly (I:C)-induced inflammation of keratinocytes. PE significantly inhibited poly (I:C)-induced expression of crucial psoriatic cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-8, CCL20 and TNF-α, via down-regulation of NF-κB signaling pathway in human keratinocytes. In addition, PE significantly inhibited poly (I:C)-induced inflammasome activation, in terms of IL-1β and caspase-1 secretion. Finally, PE markedly inhibited poly (I:C)-increased NLRP3, an important component of inflammasome. These results indicate that PE has an inhibitory effect on poly (I:C)-induced inflammatory reaction of keratinocytes, suggesting that PE can be developed for the treatment of psoriasis.

  6. Food and Feeding Habits of the Mudskipper, Boleophthalmus boddarti (Pallas, 1770 from Pichavaram Mangroves, Southeast Coast of India

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    V. Ravi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The mudskipper, Boleophthalmus boddarti (Pallas (Order Perciformes: Family Gobiidae are found distributed along the mudflats of estuary and mangroves where they construct burrows. Being amphibious and locomotive in nature, mudskippers feed very actively in the mudflats during low tide. A total of 156 fishes (juveniles, males and females were randomly caught using cast net and hand nets and they were immediately preserved in formalin. In the present study, the food and feeding habits and feeding intensities of the mudskipper, B. boddarti from the Pichavaram mangroves were determined following points and volumetric methods. The results revealed that diatoms formed the major food item in the gut of B. boddarti and found around 55% of its diet throughout the year. Nematodes, polychaetes, algae and fish eggs were also found constituting lower percentage during the study period. Detritus and mud/sand particles were present in moderate percentages in all the seasons. Active feeding was noticed during January (post monsoon to May (summer but it was below 50% during June (summer to September (premonsoon, whereas during October and monsoon the feeding intensities were found very low. The poor feeding may be due to flood in the mudflats during monsoon season.

  7. Habitat diversity of the Multicolored Asian ladybeetle Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae in agricultural and arboreal ecosystems: a review

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    Vandereycken, A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Multicolored Asian ladybeetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, native to Asia, is an invasive species in many European and American countries. Initially introduced as a biological control agent against aphids and coccids in greenhouses, this alien species rapidly invaded many habitats such as forests, meadows, wetlands, and agricultural crops. This paper reviews the habitats (forests, crops, herbs, gardens and orchards where H. axyridis has been observed, either during insect samplings or as part of Integrated Pest Management (IPM programs. Studies have referenced H. axyridis on 106 plant taxa (35 arboreal species, 21 crop species, 27 herbaceous species, 11 ornamental species, and 12 orchard species and have identified 89 plant-prey relationships (34 arboreal species, 16 crop species, 13 herbaceous species, 10 ornamental species, and 16 orchard species in different countries. Harmonia axyridis is more abundant in forest areas, principally on Acer, Salix, Tilia and Quercus, than in agroecosystems. Some plant species, such as Urtica dioica L., which surround crops, contain large numbers of H. axyridis and could constitute important reserves of this alien species in advance of aphid invasions into crops. This review highlights the polyphagy and eurytopic aspect of H. axyridis.

  8. Heavy metal bioaccumulation and histopathological alterations in wild Arctic hares (Lepus arcticus) inhabiting a former lead-zinc mine in the Canadian high Arctic: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amuno, S; Niyogi, S; Amuno, M; Attitaq, J

    2016-06-15

    A preliminary study was undertaken to determine post-mining baseline accumulation of selected trace metals, and histopathological alterations in free-living arctic hares (Lepus arcticus) inhabiting the vicinity of a former lead-zinc mine located on North Baffin Island in the Canadian High Arctic. Trace metal analysis included measurement of As, Cd, Fe, Pb and Zn in tissues, and histopathological assessment comprised of evaluation and scoring the severity of metal-induced hepatic and renal lesions. Metal contents in hepatic and renal tissues from hares from the mine area compared with the reference locations did not differ significantly suggesting that the animals are not uniformly exposed to background levels of metals in the environment. However, relatively higher accumulation pattern of Pb and Cd were noted in liver tissues of hare from the mine area compared to the background area, but did not induce increased lesions. Surface soils near the mine area contained relatively higher levels of trace metals (Zn>Mn>Pb>Cd>As) compared to reference soils, and with soil levels of Cd showing strong correlation with Cd accumulation in kidney tissues. Generally, both case and reference animals showed similar but varying severities of hepatic and renal lesions at the sublethal level, notably vascular congestion, occasional large hepatocyte nuclei, binucleate hepatocytes, yellow-brown pigmentation in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes and clustering of lymphocytes. Only hares with relatively higher accumulation of Pb from the mine area showed evidence of renal edema and hemorrhage of the capsular surface. This study constitutes the first assessment of metal induced histopathological alterations in arctic hares exposed to a historical mining area in the high arctic.

  9. Nuclear organization of some immunohistochemically identifiable neural systems in two species of the Euarchontoglires: A Lagomorph, Lepus capensis, and a Scandentia, Tupaia belangeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvey, Tanya; Alagaili, Abdulaziz N; Bertelsen, Mads F; Bhagwandin, Adhil; Pettigrew, John D; Manger, Paul R

    2015-12-01

    The present study describes the organization of the nuclei of the cholinergic, catecholaminergic, serotonergic and orexinergic systems in the brains of two members of Euarchontoglires, Lepus capensis and Tupaia belangeri. The aim of the present study was to investigate the nuclear complement of these neural systems in comparison to previous studies on Euarchontoglires and generally with other mammalian species. Brains were coronally sectioned and immunohistochemically stained with antibodies against choline acetyltransferase, tyrosine hydroxylase, serotonin and orexin-A. The majority of nuclei revealed in the current study were similar between the species investigated and to mammals generally, but certain differences in the nuclear complement highlight potential phylogenetic interrelationships within the Euarchontoglires and across mammals. In the northern tree shrew the nucleus of the trapezoid body contained neurons immunoreactive to the choline acetyltransferase antibody with some of these neurons extending into the lamellae within the superior olivary nuclear complex (SON). The cholinergic nature of the neurons of this nucleus, and the extension of cholinergic neurons into the SON, has not been noted in any mammal studied to date. In addition, cholinergic neurons forming the medullary tegmental field were also present in the northern tree shrew. Regarding the catecholaminergic system, the cape hare presented with the rodent specific rostral dorsal midline medullary nucleus (C3), and the northern tree shrew lacked both the ventral and dorsal divisions of the anterior hypothalamic group (A15v and A15d). Both species were lacking the primate/megachiropteran specific compact portion of the locus coeruleus complex (A6c). The nuclei of the serotonergic and orexinergic systems of both species were similar to those seen across most Eutherian mammals. Our results lend support to the monophyly of the Glires, and more broadly suggest that the megachiropterans are more

  10. Endothelial markers in malignant vascular tumours of the liver: superiority of QB-END/10 over von Willebrand factor and Ulex europaeus agglutinin 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, P P; Ramani, P

    1991-01-01

    A new monoclonal antibody, QB-END/10, raised against the CD34 antigen in human endothelial cell membranes and haemopoietic progenitor cells, was studied for its usefulness as a marker of neoplastic vascular cells in 21 angiosarcomas and seven malignant haemangioendotheliomas of the liver. QB-END/10 was both more sensitive and more specific than Von Willebrand factor (VWF) and Ulex europaeus 1 agglutinin (UEA-1) in labelling endothelial cells and it did not cross react with epithelia as UEA-1 often does. Staining was uniformly strong and clear in all histological variants of these two tumours. QB-END/10 should prove particularly useful in the differential diagnosis of malignant vascular tumours of the liver. Images PMID:1705261

  11. Biotransformation of sweet lime pulp waste into high-quality nanocellulose with an excellent productivity using Komagataeibacter europaeus SGP37 under static intermittent fed-batch cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Swati; Singh, Jyoti; Singh, R P

    2017-09-15

    Herein, sweet lime pulp waste (SLPW) was utilized as a low- or no-cost feedstock for the production of bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) alone and in amalgamation with other nutritional supplements by the isolate K. europaeus SGP37 under static batch and static intermittent fed-batch cultivation. The highest yield (26.2±1.50gL(-1)) was obtained in the hot water extract of SLPW supplemented with the components of HS medium, which got further boosted to 38±0.85gL(-1) as the cultivation strategy was shifted from static batch to static intermittent fed-batch. BNC obtained from various SLPW medium was similar or even superior to that obtained with standard HS medium in terms of its physicochemical properties. The production yields of BNC thus obtained are significantly higher and fit well in terms of industrial scale production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Phenotypic Plasticity in Reproductive Traits of the Perennial Shrub Ulex europaeus in Response to Shading: A Multi-Year Monitoring of Cultivated Clones.

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    Anne Atlan

    Full Text Available Phenotypic plasticity may be advantageous for plants to be able to rapidly cope with new and changing environments associated with climate change or during biological invasions. This is especially true for perennial plants, as they may need a longer period to respond genetically to selective pressures than annuals, and also because they are more likely to experience environmental changes during their lifespan. However, few studies have explored the plasticity of the reproductive life history traits of woody perennial species. This study focuses on a woody shrub, Ulex europaeus (common gorse, and on the response of its reproductive traits to one important environmental factor, shading. The study was performed on clones originating from western France (within the native range of this invasive species and grown for seven years. We compared traits of plants grown in a shade treatment (with two successive shade levels vs. full natural light. The traits monitored included flowering onset, pod production and seed predation. All traits studied responded to shading, exhibiting various levels of plasticity. In particular, dense shade induced a radical but reversible decrease in flower and pod production, while moderate shade had little effect on reproductive traits. The magnitude of the response to dense shade depended on the genotype, showing a genetically based polymorphism of plasticity. The level of plasticity also showed substantial variations between years, and the effect of environmental variations was cumulative over time. This suggests that plasticity can influence the lifetime fitness of U. Europaeus and is involved in the capacity of the species to grow under contrasting environmental conditions.

  13. Morphological polymorphism in tapeworms: redescription of Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas, 1781) (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea) and characterisation of its morphotypes from different fish hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzelová, Vladimíra; Oros, Mikuláš; Barčák, Daniel; Miklisová, Dana; Kirin, Diana; Scholz, Tomáš

    2015-02-01

    Recent morphological and molecular data have shown that one of the most common parasites of freshwater fish in the Palaearctic Region, the cestode Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas, 1781) (Eucestoda: Caryophyllidea), is highly polymorphic. Five distinct morphotypes of C. laticeps, largely corresponding to different fish hosts and representing separate, yet closely related genetic lineages, have been recognised and they are characterised in the present paper. Morphotype 1 from breams, Abramis brama (L.) (type-host) and Ballerus spp., corresponds to the original Taenia laticeps Pallas, 1781 and its neotype (paragenophore ex A. brama in Russia) is designated. This morphotype is characterised by a slender body and flabellate scolex. Morphotype 2 was found in the Macedonian vimba Vimba melanops (Heckel) and the vimba bream V. vimba (L.); it is typified by a more robust body, with most anterior extent of the vitelline follicles near the scolex and the cirrus-sac situated more anteriorly than in other morphotypes. Morphotype 3 is represented by worms from the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. that possess a cuneicrispitate scolex (having the form of a wedge with shallow indentations on anterior margin). Morphotype 4 from the common nase Chondrostoma nasus (L.) has a large, robust body and a wide scolex with numerous superficial grooves (wrinkles) in its anterior part. Morphotype 5 is represented by worms from the white-eye bream Ballerus sapa (Pallas); its typical characteristics are a festoon-like anterior margin of the scolex, the absence of vitelline follicles posterior to the cirrus-sac and the absence of a well-developed internal seminal vesicle. Discriminant analysis of 15 morphometric variables readily separated Morphotypes 3, 4 and 5 and confirmed the key discriminating power of traits related to the reproductive system, especially the terminal reproductive organs. Morphological polymorphism and the genetic divergence of different morphotypes of C. laticeps correspond

  14. Estudio de la ecología de Ulmus laevis Pallas en la Península Ibérica

    OpenAIRE

    Venturas, Martin David

    2014-01-01

    Esta tesis doctoral pretende profundizar en el conocimiento de la ecología de Ulmus laevis Pallas, especie autóctona en peligro de extinción en la Península Ibérica, con el fin de proponer medidas adecuadas para su conservación. Se ha estudiado la distribución natural de la especie atendiendo a aspectos edáficos. Los resultados muestran que U. laevis presenta menor capacidad de acidificación de la rizosfera, menor actividad de la reductasa férrica y menor homeostasis que U. minor Mill. cuando...

  15. HYDRA VULGARIS PALLAS, 1766 (HYDROZOA: HYDRIDAE AS BIOINDICATOR OF THE WATER QUALITY OF THE RIVER CHILI, AREQUIPA, PERU

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    Ronald Huarachi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to use Hydra vulgaris Pallas, 1766 (Hydrozoa: Hydridae as a bioindicator of water quality of the Chili River, Arequipa, Peru. The freshwater hydra were collected in the spring "Ojo del Milagro", Characato District, Arequipa, Peru. H. vulgaris was cultivated under standardized conditions and were fed Artemia sp. K2Cr2O7 was used as a positive control and as a reference toxin. Acute toxicity and morphological changes of H. vulgaris were evaluated on Tiabaya and Tingo, sampling points of the Chili River. The LC50 (median lethal concentration showed: Tingo (LC50-96h = 135.95% classifying it as non-toxic and Tiabaya (LC50 -24h = 61.83%, classifying it as moderately toxic; LC50-48h = 44.19% and LC50 -72h = 38.28% classifying them as toxic; LC50 -96h = 21.44% rating it as very toxic. Significant differences in the morphological changes of H. vulgaris were observed with regard to different concentrations and exposure time in waters sampled from Tingo from 48 h to 96 h and in Tiabaya, significant differences in morphological changes from 24 h to 96 h exposure. The results of the physicochemical parameters of the Chili River were compared with the Peruvian National Standards for Environmental Quality (ECA for water (categories 3 and 4 and recorded high values of biochemical oxygen demand BOD5, NH4 and PO4, and low dissolved oxigen OD values for Tiabaya. In Tingo, NH4 and phosphate were high. In Tiabaya, water was considered more toxic than at Tingo.

  16. Features of the karyotypes of Pelophylax ridibundus Pallas, 1771 and Rana macrocnemis Boulenger, 1885 (Amphibia: Ranidae from Armenia

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    A Martirosyan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Сhromosomal complements of Pelophylax ridibundus Pallas, 1771 from 9 localities (Northern, Central and South Armenia and Rana macrocnemis Boulenger, 1885 from one locality (North-West Armenia have been analyzed. The chromosome sets of P. ridibundus collected from 8 localities showed 2n=26, (10m+12sm+4st; NF=52. A secondary constriction has been observed in all studied individuals on the 10-th chromosome pair showing NOR-positive reaction. C-positive heterochromatin blocks have been observed on long arms of the 2-nd and 10-th pairs of chromosomes (7 localities. In addition, C-heterochromatin blocks have been found on interstitial regions of short arms of the 12-th pairs, as well as in telomeric regions of long arms of the 9-th pairs and on short arms of the 5-th pair in the frogs from 2 localities. The karyotype of P. ridibundus from populations near Ejmiatsin differs from other populations (2n=26, 12m+10sm+4st. Diploid number of chromosomes of R. macrocnemis was also 26 (8m+12sm+6st, NF=52. Blocks of C-positive heterochromatin have been revealed in telomeric parts of the 1-st, 2-nd (p, 3-rd (q, 4-th (q, 6-th, 9-th (p, 10-th (p,q and 13-th (q pairs, as well as in interstitial regions of the 1-st and 2-nd pairs of chromosomes.  Intrapopulation and interpopulation geographic variations of karyotypes and C-heterochromatin banding patterns of P. ridibundus have been revealed. Karyotypically, morphotypes “macrocnemis” and “camerani” are closely related.

  17. Intracellular crystal-bearing vesicles in the epidermis of scleractinian corals, Astrangia danae (Agassiz) and Porites porites (Pallas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, R L; Goreau, N I

    1977-02-01

    Orthorhombic aragonitic crystals, embedded with a granular lipo-protein matrix and surrounded by a trilaminar membrane, are localized in the apical cytoplasm of epidermal cells of Scleractinian corals. Adult specimens of Astrangia danae (Agassiz) and settled planulae of Porites porites (Pallas) contain crystals averaging 0.7 mu by 0.1 mu by 0.3 mu within Golgi-derived vesicles. Short-term labelling with 45Ca reveals distribution of radioactivity amont a basic tissue fraction (92%) an acid tissue fraction (5%) and a skeletal fraction (3%). Identification of the primordial crystal population within membrane-bound visicles provides overwhelming evidence for the intracellular mode of calcification in Scleractinia. Moreover, it permits development of a novel concept of cellular regulation over these dynamic events. The membrane-bound vesicel is a miniature crystal fabrication station and a vehicle responsible for transportation of seed crystals and an organic matrix material to sites of discharge from the cell. The vesicle membrane becomes a probable locus of active transport and enzymatic activity as well as a physical barrier to be penetrated for release of vesicle contents into the extracellular milieu. Contact between the vesicle membrane and the plasmalemma would result in exocytosis and the onset of skeletogenesis. Principles governing crystal growth would prevail from then on. The released crystal becomes a nucleation catalyst and the organic matrix, a supply of ionic calcium for self-limiting crystallization. Crystals are produced by the organism spontaneously and continuously from shortly after larval attachment throughout the life of the polyp. Therefore, these membrane-bound vesicles signal the dynamic process by which initiation, differentiation, growth and limitation of the coral skeleton is regulated.

  18. Gonadogenesis and annual reproductive cycles of an endangered cyprinid fish, the lake minnow Eupallasella percnurus (Pallas, 1814).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hliwa, Piotr; Król, Jarosław; Sikorska, Justyna; Wolnicki, Jacek; Dietrich, Grzegorz J; Kamiński, Rafał; Stabińska, Agnieszka; Ciereszko, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    In this study, gonadogenesis, the effect of temperature (15, 20 and 25°C) on sex differentiation, and annual changes in the gonads of mature lake minnow Eupallasella percnurus (Pallas, 1814) were determined. The lake minnow was found to be a primary gonochoristic fish species, where gonads are formed directly in the ovaries or testes. The morphological differentiation of gonads was initiated 35days post hatch (DPH) when two types of gonadal anlages were visible: a pear-shaped gonad attached by a single mesentery string and a spindle-shaped gonad attached on both sides to the peritoneum. Gonadogenesis occurred faster in females than in males, with the first previtellogenic oocytes and ovarian lamellae being already observed in 45 DPH fish. In males, cytological differentiation occurred approximately 85 DPH, when the fish reached an average body weight of more than 400mg. No significant effect of rearing temperature on sex ratio in lake minnow juveniles was observed. The proportion of males and females was similar (close to 1:1) in all of the thermal-treated groups, although there were effects of temperature on the final sizes of fish. Histological examination of wild, mature lake minnow ovaries during the annual cycle (from May to February the following year) showed asynchronous oocyte maturation. The testes were characteristic of multi-batch spawning fish. Quantitative dominance of spermatids and mature spermatozoa in May was observed, while the presence of primary and secondary spermatocytes in all other periods was confirmed. These changes were also reflected in the seasonal variation in the gonado-somatic index in both sexes, with the highest mean values of 11.2% (females) and 4.0% (males) in May, which were found to be significantly different to all other periods. The data presented in this study provide an important contribution to our understanding of the biology and reproductive strategy of the endangered lake minnow.

  19. Relationship of Broodstock Weight and Hatching Yield of III. Generation (F3 Black Sea Trout (Salmo trutta labrax Pallas, 1814

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    Hakan Baki

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, this was the aimed to determine the reproduction and hatching yields in different weight groups in hatchery origin rootstocks (F3 Black Sea trout (Salmo trutta labrax Pallas, 1814. In this study, the female fishes which produced from natural rootstock were used average weight 1437±134.6 g (Group I 2737±210.2 g (Group II and 3785±162.3 g (Group III. After the stripping process; according to the groups, were determined respectively eggs absolute fecundity (number of eggs/broodfish is average 2353±205, 5361±506, 6603±491, relative fecundity (number of eggs/kg is average1687±166, 1968±194, 1744±114. The egg diameter (mm 4.89±0.16, 5.28±0.07, 5.31±0.06 egg weight (mg 77±6, 90±4, 96±3 groups I., II. and III. respectively was calculated. The fertilization ratio (% 95.49±1.23, 96.49±1.14, 98.39±0.52, browse rate (% 79.97±5.36, 84.20±5.23, 94.70±1.50, has been identified. The output rate (% 60.57±7.86, 67.66±6.42, 84.83±3.09, the hatchery efficiency (% 58.14±7.95, 69.77±6.25, 83.51±3.29 was found. relative fecundity average value 168±160, 1968±194, 1744±114.The existence of relationship among the weight of the brood-stock, absolute fecundity (0.0198, 0.0012, 0.3499, and relative egg fecundity (0.3415, 0.0494, 0.00 was tested by regression analysis and consequently the difference between groups were significant. This was determined that between fish weight and absolute fecundity relationship is weak directly proportional for each group, between fish weight and relative fecundity is weak inversely proportional in Group I and II, the Group III is weak for directly proportional.

  20. Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas, 1772) and Amblyomma ovale Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae): hosts, distribution and 16S rDNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmone, A A; Estrada-Peña, A; Mangold, A J; Barros-Battesti, D M; Labruna, M B; Martins, J R; Venzal, J M; Arzua, M; Keirans, J E

    2003-05-01

    DNA sequences of Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas, 1772) and Amblyomma ovale Koch, 1844 were obtained to determine genetic differences between these tick species. Collections of these species are discussed in relation to distribution and hosts. Seven ticks collections (four from Brazil, one from Argentina, one from Uruguay and one from USA) house a total of 1272 A. aureolatum (224 males, 251 females, 223 nymphs and 574 larvae) and 1164 A. ovale (535 males, 556 females, 66 nymphs and 7 larvae). The length of the sequenced mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene fragment for A. aureolatum was 370bp and for A. ovale was 373bp. The DNA sequence analysis showed a 13.1% difference between the two species. Apart from one male A. ovale found on a toad, all adult ticks were found on mammals. The majority of adult specimens of both tick species were removed from Carnivora (96.1 and 84.3% of A. aureolatum and A. ovale, respectively), especially from dogs (53.1% of A. aureolatum, and 46.4% of A. ovale). Collections on wild Canidae were higher for A. aureolatum (23.3%) than for A. ovale (7.1%). On the other hand, collections of A. ovale adults on wild Felidae were higher (18.3%) than findings of A. aureolatum (9.2%). The contribution of other mammalian orders as hosts for adults of A. aureolatum and A. ovale was irrelevant, with the exception of Perissodactyla because Tapiridae contributed with 13.0% of the total number of A. ovale adults. Adults of both tick species have been found occasionally on domestic hosts (apart of the dog) and humans. Most immature stages of A. aureolatum were found on Passeriformes birds, while rodents and carnivores were the most common hosts for nymphs and larvae of A. ovale. A. aureolatum has been found restricted to the Neotropical region, covering the eastern area of South America from Uruguay to Surinam, including northeastern Argentina, eastern Paraguay, southeastern Brazil and French Guiana. A. ovale showed a distribution that covers the Neotropical region

  1. COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF MORPHOMETRIC PARAMETERS OF MONKEY GOBY (NEOGOBIUS FLUVIATILIS PALLAS OF FRESH AND SALINE WATER RESERVOIRS IN UKRAINE

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    Onoprienko V.

    2014-04-01

    physiological processes. The result of this effect is the difference in weight, size and body parts. To clarify, as our model species was taken Cottus Sandpiper (Neogobius fluviatilis Pallas. The reason for this was the fact that this species, along with other Ponto- Caspian solonovato - freshwater gobies, the International Union for Conservation of Nature classified as species biology are poorly understood and require further research. This fact that deepened interest of ichthyologists in this group of fish, in this regard appeared in the literature as material for the bulls and in Sandpiper. Based on the above, the purpose of this paper is a comparative morphometric parameters characteristic of individuals of this species of fresh and salt water bodies of Ukraine. All this affects the absolute morphometric parameters, which decrease in the direction from sea to the river. However, it should be noted that in rivers with rich feeding grounds sheer size of some individuals close to the size and species of sea Kakhovskoe reservoir. This situation is observed in the Sandpiper Grouse River. Here are some specimens reach a length (TL 118-148 mm and a weight of 15-36 g, Kakhovskoe Reservoir: 106-150 mm 11-38 g, in the Sea of Azov: 115-174 mm 17-58 g. For relative parameters Sandpiper with these reservoirs are more similar, however, for some of them, there are differences. Among the latter is most clearly distinguished the ratio SL / N. This indicator podovzhenist (prohonystist body. As pointed out by VP Mitrofanov (1977, this indicator shows the hydrodynamic qualities of fish: the larger the index, the more active lifestyle is individual. When compared with individuals with a little water and a large stream, in the latter case, individuals are more elongated. This is confirmed by our material: the ratio SL / L for the smallest species of sea of Azov (4.96, slightly more for Kakhovsky reservoir (5.52 and even more for rivers Grouse, Trubizh, Desna, Ros (respectively 5, 86, 6.22 , 6

  2. COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF MORPHOMETRIC PARAMETERS OF MONKEY GOBY (NEOGOBIUS FLUVIATILIS PALLAS OF FRESH AND SALINE WATER RESERVOIRS IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Onoprienko

    2014-04-01

    physiological processes. The result of this effect is the difference in weight, size and body parts. To clarify, as our model species was taken Cottus Sandpiper (Neogobius fluviatilis Pallas. The reason for this was the fact that this species, along with other Ponto- Caspian solonovato - freshwater gobies, the International Union for Conservation of Nature classified as species biology are poorly understood and require further research. This fact that deepened interest of ichthyologists in this group of fish, in this regard appeared in the literature as material for the bulls and in Sandpiper. Based on the above, the purpose of this paper is a comparative morphometric parameters characteristic of individuals of this species of fresh and salt water bodies of Ukraine. All this affects the absolute morphometric parameters, which decrease in the direction from sea to the river. However, it should be noted that in rivers with rich feeding grounds sheer size of some individuals close to the size and species of sea Kakhovskoe reservoir. This situation is observed in the Sandpiper Grouse River. Here are some specimens reach a length (TL 118-148 mm and a weight of 15-36 g, Kakhovskoe Reservoir: 106-150 mm 11-38 g, in the Sea of ​​Azov: 115-174 mm 17-58 g. For relative parameters Sandpiper with these reservoirs are more similar, however, for some of them, there are differences. Among the latter is most clearly distinguished the ratio SL / N. This indicator podovzhenist (prohonystist body. As pointed out by VP Mitrofanov (1977, this indicator shows the hydrodynamic qualities of fish: the larger the index, the more active lifestyle is individual. When compared with individuals with a little water and a large stream, in the latter case, individuals are more elongated. This is confirmed by our material: the ratio SL / L for the smallest species of sea of ​​Azov (4.96, slightly more for Kakhovsky reservoir (5.52 and even more for rivers Grouse, Trubizh, Desna, Ros (respectively 5, 86

  3. Characterization of pathogenic vibrios isolated from bivalve hatcheries in Galicia, NW Atlantic coast of Spain. Description of Vibrio tubiashii subsp. europaeus [corrected] subsp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Susana; Dubert, Javier; Barja, Juan L

    2015-02-01

    The taxonomic position of the bivalve pathogen PP-638 was studied together with five similar isolates. The strains were isolated from flat oyster (Ostrea edulis) and Manila clam (Venerupis philippinarum) cultures during outbreaks of disease in two shellfish hatcheries (Galicia, NW Spain). The pathogenicity, previously established for PP-638, was demonstrated with all isolates and for several bivalve species, including the original hosts. On the basis of phenotypic characterization and 16S rRNA gene sequences, a tight group was defined within the genus Vibrio. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) based on concatenated sequences of the 16S rRNA gene and the five housekeeping genes recA, rpoA, pyrH, gyrB and ftsZ revealed that these strains form a cluster within the Orientalis clade, close to the species Vibrio tubiashii. The results of MLSA, the DDH rate and the phenotypic differences with the type strain of V. tubiashii supported the differentiation of the Galician isolates as a new subspecies within V. tubiashii, for which the name V. tubiashii subsp. europaeus [corrected] subsp. nov. is proposed (type strain PP-638(T)=CECT 8136(T)=DSM 7349(T)) The emended description of V. tubiashii is included. The pathogenicity assays widen the host range of V. tubiashii to add two unreported species, Venerupis decussata and Donax trunculus, and the described as relatively resistant species V. philippinarum.

  4. Non-destructive pollution exposure assessment in the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus): IV. Hair versus soil analysis in exposure and risk assessment of organochlorine compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Have, Helga [Department of Biology, Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)]. E-mail: helga.dhave@ua.ac.be; Scheirs, Jan [Department of Biology, Evolutionary Biology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Covaci, Adrian [Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Brink, Nico W. van den [Alterra, Wageningen UR, Box 47, NL-6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Verhagen, Ron [Department of Biology, Evolutionary Biology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Coen, Wim de [Department of Biology, Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2007-02-15

    Few ecotoxicological studies on mammals use non-destructive methodologies, despite the growing ethical concern over the use of destructive sampling methods. In the present study we assessed exposure of hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), by investigating concentrations of these compounds in soils and hedgehog hair from seven study sites around the urban area of Antwerp, Belgium. No relationships were observed between organochlorine compound concentrations in soils and hair from the different study areas. Furthermore, the individual variation of contamination levels in hair within study sites was high, especially for HCHs and HCB, and hair and soil had different relative profiles for PCBs, DDTs and HCHs. Our results show that concentrations of organochlorine compounds in soils alone are not predictive of the risk of these pollutants to hedgehogs and that tissue analyses are preferred to soil analyses in exposure and risk assessment studies. - Hair is better than soil for exposure and risk assessment of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in hedgehogs.

  5. Abundancia y distribución de la liebre ibérica (Lepus granatensis Rosenhauer, 1856 en el Parque Natural de la Sierra de Mariola (Alicante-Valencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belda, A.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Abundance and distribution of the Iberian hare (Lepus granatensis Rosenhauer, 1856 in the Sierra de Mariola Natural Park (Alicante-Valencia The Iberian hare (Lepus granatensis Rosenhauer, 1856 is a species of great value in Spanish Mediterranean ecosystems for several reasons, such as its interest to hunters, its contribution to soil fertility and plant diversity, and its role as prey. However, factors such as fragmentation, degradation and loss of habitat and diseases, predation and high pressure hunting are having a detrimental effect on the conservation of the species. It is therefore of interest to determine the abundance and distribution of the Iberian hare in areas of the peninsula where there are insufficient data to establish guidelines for conservation and sustainable management of hare populations in the peninsula. Our goal was to assess the abundance and distribution of the Iberian hare in the most widely used areas of a mountainous Mediterranean landscape in the Iberian peninsular (Mariola Mountain Park, located between the provinces of Alicante and Valencia. Data obtained from studies conducted in transects from 2008 to 2010 showed that intra-annual abundance was highest in spring (KIA half of 0.26 hares/km and lowest in winter (average 0.075 KIA hares/km. As to their preferences in relation to land use, abundance was highest in the matrix of dry groves (KIA half of 0.33 hares/km and irrigated groves (average 0.2 KIA hares/km. The matrix of natural vegetation and agricultural abandonment had low numbers of hares, with values of 0.083 and 0.033 hares/km, respectively.

  6. A morphological study of Diplodiscus subclavatus (Pallas, 1760) (Trematoda: Diplodiscidae) adults from the accidental host, Viviparus contectus (Millet, 1813) (Caenogastropoda: Viviparidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichy, Anna; Żbikowska, Elżbieta

    2016-12-01

    A phenomenon of switching of the parasite in the food chain to an accidental host is commonly observed in nature. However, there is little available data concerning the morphological descriptions of parasites that passively get into the atypical hosts and are capable, at least to some degree, of somatic growth and development of reproductive structures. A morphological survey of Diplodiscus subclavatus (Pallas, 1760) adults isolated from a digestive tract of an accidental host, Viviparus contectus (Millet, 1813), was carried out. Diplodiscus subclavatus individuals identified in prosobranch snails were morphologically similar to adult forms of the parasite described from amphibians, typical final hosts in the life cycle of this paramphistomid. The observed forms of D. subclavatus had a fully developed reproductive system, sperm in the seminal vesicle and oocytes in the ovary. The number of eggs in the uterus ranged from 3 to 17. Our research indicates that D. subclavatus individuals reach the sexual maturity in the accidental, invertebrate hosts.

  7. Slight genetic differentiation between western and eastern limits of Astroides calycularis (Pallas, 1776 (Anthozoa, Scleractinia, Dendrophylliidae distribution inferred from COI and ITS sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merino-Serrais, P.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding population genetic structure and differentiation among populations is useful for the elaboration of management and conservation plans of threatened species. In this study, we use nuclear and mitochondrial markers (internal transcribed spacers -ITS and cytochrome oxidase subunit one -COI for phylogenetics and nested clade analyses (NCA, thus providing the first assessment of the genetic structure of the threatened Mediterranean coral Astroides calycularis (Pallas, 1766, based on samples from 12 localities along its geographic distribution range. Overall, we found no population differentiation in the westernmost region of the Mediterranean; however, a slight differentiation was observed when comparing this region with the Tyrrhenian and Algerian basins.

    El estudio de la estructura de las poblaciones y su diferenciación a nivel genético es de gran utilidad para la elaboración de planes de manejo y conservación de especies amenazadas. En este estudio, utilizamos marcadores nucleares y mitocondriales (espaciadores internos de genes ribosomales -ITS y citocromo oxidasa, subunidad I -COI y métodos de análisis filogenéticos y de clados anidados (NCA, para realizar la primera valoración de la estructura genética del coral naranja Astroides calycularis (Pallas, 1766, una especie amenazada del Mediterráneo, a partir de muestras de 12 localidades a lo largo de su área de distribución. En las localidades situadas en la región más occidental del Mediterráneo se encontró cierta homogeneidad genética, mientras que al comparar estas localidades con las de las cuencas argelina y del mar Tirreno se observó una ligera diferenciación.

  8. Kirjad emale / Liis Pallas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pallas, Liis

    2006-01-01

    Kuressaare Linnateatri koostööprojekt Muhu muuseumiga : Koguva külas Tooma talu rehetoas Juhan Smuuli loomingu põhjal valminud luuleetendus "Kirjad emale". Koostanud ja lavastanud Garmen Tabor. Mängivad Tallinna Linnateatri näitlejad

  9. tragelaphus strepsiceros pallas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The essence of the data from all three areas can be briefly summarised as ... Present address: Department of Wildlife Science, Texas A & M University, ..... However, annual dry season concentrations of kudu around water points, especially in.

  10. Abundance of Conepatus chinga (Carnivora, Mephitidae and other medium-sized mammals in grasslands of southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos B. Kasper

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Between January 2007 and December 2010, the abundance of medium-sized mammals was studied, with special focus on the Molina's hog-nosed skunk, Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1782, at four locations in southern Brazil. In this study, transect line methodology was used to obtain data for Distance Analyses. Transects were traveled by car at night, searching with spotlights along the edges of secondary roads in agricultural landscapes. Along 1,811 km, we obtained 620 observations of 20 mammal species. The most common species was the exotic European hare, Lepus europaeus (Pallas, 1778; the highest abundance estimated for South America was observed in one of the study areas, where its density was estimated as 32 individuals/km². Carnivores were the most commonly recorded mammals, represented by 10 species and comprising 51% of all observations. Molina's hog-nosed skunk occurred in all study areas, but occurred in sufficient numbers to obtain density estimates in only two of the areas. We estimated 1.4 to 3.8 individuals/km², in the first density estimate made by the transect method for a member of Conepatus in the Neotropics. These values are similar to those estimated for North American species of Mephitidae. In Brazil, C. chinga is apparently more abundant in the Pampa biome than in the grasslands of the Atlantic Forest. For two other carnivores, Lycalopex gymnocercus (Fisher, 1814 and Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766, we estimated preliminary densities that were similar to those previously cited for different regions.

  11. Predatory Functional Response of Harmonias axyridis Pallas to Two Kinds of Aphids Damaging Apple Trees%异色瓢虫对两种苹果蚜虫的捕食作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙丽娟; 衣维贤; 顾耘; 董向丽

    2012-01-01

    为了明确异色瓢虫对两种常见苹果蚜虫绣线菊蚜(Aphis citricola Von der Goot)和苹果瘤蚜(Myzus malisuctus Matsumura)的控制作用,于.2010年6月,在青岛农业大学实验室内,研究异色瓢虫成虫和4龄幼虫对两种蚜虫的捕食功能反应,同时也研究异色瓢虫4龄幼虫对两种蚜虫的捕食选择性.结果表明,异色瓢虫成虫和4龄幼虫对两种苹果蚜虫的捕食功能反应类型均属于Holling Ⅱ型;异色瓢虫成虫对绣线菊蚜和苹果瘤蚜的最大捕食量分别为123.91和180.98头/d,瞬时攻击率分别为1.029 1和1.335 7;4龄幼虫对绣线菊蚜和苹果瘤蚜的最大捕食量分别为128.88和187.29头/d,瞬时攻击率分别为1.156 0和1.163 4.在两种蚜虫的混合种群中,异色瓢虫4龄幼虫对苹果瘤蚜的选择效应略大于绣线菊蚜,但这种选择性差异在两种蚜虫之间并不明显.%In order to make clear the controlling effect of Harmonias axyridis Pallas on aphids usually damaging apple trees, Aphis citricola Von der Goot and Myzus malisuctus Matsumura, predatory functional response of adult and 4th instars of H. Axyridis Pallas to the two kinds of aphids were studied in the laboratory of Qingdao Agricultural University, and selective efficiency of 4th instars of H. Axyridis Pallas to the two kinds of aphids was studied at the same time. The result showed that the predatory functional response of adult and 4th instars of H. Axyridis Pallas to two kinds of aphids all belonged to Holling Ⅱ. The largest amounts of caught per day of the adult of H. Axyridis Pallas to A. Citricola Von der Goot and M. Malisuctus Matsumura were 123. 91 and 180. 98 per day respectively, and the moment attack parameters were 1. 029 1 and 1. 335 7 respectively; and the Namax of 4th instars of H. Axyridis Pallas to A. Citricola Von der Goot and M. Malisuctus Matsumura were 128. 88 and 187. 29 respectively, and the moment attack parameters were 1. 156 0 and 1. 163 4 per day

  12. Nondestructive pollution exposure assessment in the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus): I. Relationships between concentrations of metals and arsenic in hair, spines, and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Havé, Helga; Scheirs, Jan; Mubiana, Valentine Kayawe; Verhagen, Ron; Blust, Ronny; De Coen, Wim

    2005-09-01

    Conventional metal exposure assessment in terrestrial mammals is generally based on organ analyses of sacrificed animals. Few studies on mammals use nondestructive methodologies despite the growing ethical concern over the use of destructive sampling. Nondestructive methods involve minimal stress to populations and permit successive biomonitoring of the same populations and individuals. In the present study we assessed metal exposure of hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) by investigating relationships between concentrations of metals (Ag, Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) and As in soil samples and in hair and spines of hedgehogs. Samples were collected in seven study sites along a metal pollution gradient, characterized by decreasing total soil Ag, As, Cd, Cu, Ni, and Pb concentrations with increasing distance from a nonferrous metallurgic factory. For a number of elements, soil contamination was related both to distance to the smelter and to habitat. Soil concentrations were positively related to levels in hair and spines for Ag, As, Cd, and Pb and thus to hedgehog exposure. Metal concentrations in soil did not relate to metal concentrations in hair and spines for essential elements (e.g., Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, and Zn), except Co in hair and soil. Our results demonstrate that, at least for nonessential elements, concentrations in soils can be used to predict contamination of these elements in hedgehogs or vice versa. Furthermore, hedgehog exposure increased toward the smelter and was higher for hedgehogs foraging in grasslands than for animals foraging in the forest. Moreover, we believe that hair and spines are promising tools in terrestrial wildlife exposure assessment studies of metals and As.

  13. Detection of mecC-positive Staphylococcus aureus (CC130-MRSA-XI in diseased European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus in Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Monecke

    Full Text Available Recently, a novel mec gene conferring beta-lactam resistance in Staphylococcus aureus has been discovered. This gene, mecC, is situated on a SCCmec XI element that has to date been identified in clonal complexes 49, 130, 425, 599 and 1943. Some of the currently known isolates have been identified from animals. This, and observations of mecA alleles that do not confer beta-lactam resistance, indicate that mec genes might have a reservoir in Staphylococcus species from animals. Thus it is important also to screen wildlife isolates for mec genes. Here, we describe mecC-positive Staphylococcus aureus (ST130-MRSA-XI and the lesions related to the infection in two diseased free-ranging European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus. One was found dead in 2003 in central Sweden, and suffered from S. aureus septicaemia. The other one, found on the island of Gotland in the Baltic Sea in 2011, showed a severe dermatitis and was euthanised. ST130-MRSA-XI isolates were isolated from lesions from both hedgehogs and were essentially identical to previously described isolates from humans. Both isolates carried the complete SCCmec XI element. They lacked the lukF-PV/lukS-PV and lukM/lukF-P83 genes, but harboured a gene for an exfoliative toxin homologue previously described from Staphylococcus hyicus, Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and other S. aureus of the CC130 lineage. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first reported cases of CC130-MRSA-XI in hedgehogs. Given that one of the samples was taken as early as 2003, this was the earliest detection of this strain and of mecC in Sweden. This and several other recent observations suggest that CC130 might be a zoonotic lineage of S. aureus and that SCCmec XI/mecC may have originated from animal pathogens.

  14. Abbondanza relativa del Riccio Erinaceus europaeus L. 1758 (Insectivora, Erinaceidae in ambienti del sud e nord Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Aloise

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Erinaceus europaeus L., specie comune e diffusa in tutta Italia, rappresenta una delle vittime animali più frequenti del traffico automobilistico. Il presente lavoro considera la comparazione tra tratti stradali del nord e del sud del Paese considerando come il conteggio degli individui investiti rappresenti un'efficace stima di abbondanza. Per un anno sono state effettuate le localizzazioni dei ricci uccisi su transetti stradali di 37 e 14,5 Km. I percorsi sono stati poi suddivisi in base alle tipologie ambientali presenti. Il confronto tra i due ambienti tipo, quello padano e quello di un transetto mediterrano- montano, ha mostrato come se da una parte il pattern generale può risultare simile, con una concentrazione degli investimenti nei pressi delle aree antropizzate con orti e giardini, si rileva come il tratto costiero calabrese mostri l?indice chilometrico di eventi maggiore d?Europa (7,27 ricci per chilometro per anno, poi decisamente più contenuto nell?area montana, dove l?insettivoro però non arriva al bosco a Fagus sylvatica e ha massimi altitudinali diversi relativamente ai versanti considerati: fino a 630 m s.l.m. del versante interno e a 530 m s.l.m. su quello costiero, con una asimmetria altimetrica della distribuzione che corrisponde a quella bioclimatica. In ambito padano la densità di eventi si attesta a 0,05 esemplari per chilometro per anno. La distribuzione stagionale è simile con un aumento delle presenze di giovani durante l?inizio dell?estate, ma che si prolunga in modo considerevole per il meridione con riscontri praticamente tutto l?anno. Rari sono al nord i contatti, sempre con giovani, tra novembre e marzo. Infine si auspica un ampliamento della base dati con un progetto di raccolta di informazioni su tutto il territorio nazionale.

  15. Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Arbutin from Leaves of Pyrus elaeagnifolia Pallas ssp. elaeagnifolia (Rosaceae by Response Surface Methodology Mehtap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DONMEZ SAHIN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrus elaeagnifolia Pallas. ssp. elaeagnifolia is a medicinal plant used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases in Turkey. The leaves of Pyrus elaeagnifolia ssp. elaeagnifolia are a rich source of arbutin, which is a naturally occurring derivative of hydroquinone. It is found in various plant species belonging to diverse families, such as Lamiaceae, Ericaceae, Saxifragaceae and Rosaceae. It inhibits tyrosinase and has been employed as a cosmetic skin whitening agent. In this study, Response Surface Methodology (RSM using a Box Behnken Design (BBD was employed to optimize the condition for extraction of arbutin from the leaves of Pyrus elaeagnifolia ssp. elaeagnifolia. Three influencing factors; methanol concentration, period of ultrasoundassisted extraction and extraction temperature were investigated in the ultrasonic aqueous extraction. The Response Surface Methodology was applied to optimize the extraction process focused on arbutin content with respect to the above influencing factors. The best combination of each significant factor was determined by RSM design and optimum pretreatment conditions for maximum arbutin content were established to be methanol concentration of 48.54 %, extraction time of 39.32 min. And extraction temperature of 43.71 0C. Under these conditions 5.37 % of arbutin content was observed experimentally, similar to the theoretical prediction of 5.30 %.

  16. The impact of nature-based tourism on bird communities: a case study in Pallas-Yllästunturi National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhta, Esa; Sulkava, Pekka

    2014-05-01

    Nature-based tourism and recreation within and close to protected areas may have negative environmental impacts on biodiversity due to urban development, landscape fragmentation, and increased disturbance. We conducted a 3-year study of disturbances of birds induced by nature-based tourism over a recreational gradient in the Pallas-Yllästunturi National Park and its surroundings in northern Finland. Bird assemblages were studied in highly disturbed areas close to the park (a ski resort, villages, and accommodation areas) and in campfire sites, along hiking routes (recreational areas) and in a forest (control area) within the park. Compared with the forest, the disturbed urbanized areas had higher abundances of human-associated species, corvid species, cavity and building nesters, and edge species. The abundances of managed forest species were higher in campfire sites than in the forest. Hiking trails and campfire sites did not have a negative impact on open-nesting bird species. The most likely reason for this outcome is that most campfire sites were situated at forest edges; this species group prefers managed forests and forest edge as a breeding habitat. The abundances of virgin forest species did not differ among the areas studied. The results of the study suggest that the current recreation pressure has not caused substantial changes in the forest bird communities within the National Park. We suggest that the abundances of urban exploiter species could be used as indicators to monitor the level and changes of urbanization and recreational pressure at tourist destinations.

  17. Identification of Development-Related Genes in the Ovaries of Adult Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) Lady Beetles Using a Time- Series Analysis by RNA-seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wenxiao; Zeng, Fanrong

    2016-12-14

    Adults of the lady beetle species Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) are bred artificially en masse for classic biological control, which requires egg-laying by the H. axyridis ovary. Development-related genes may impact the growth of the H. axyridis adult ovary but have not been reported. Here, we used integrative time-series RNA-seq analysis of the ovary in H. axyridis adults to detect development-related genes. A total of 28,558 unigenes were functionally annotated using seven types of databases to obtain an annotated unigene database for ovaries in H. axyridis adults. We also analysed differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between samples. Based on a combination of the results of this bioinformatics analysis with literature reports and gene expression level changes in four different stages, we focused on the development of oocyte reproductive stem cell and yolk formation process and identified 26 genes with high similarity to development-related genes. 20 DEGs were randomly chosen for quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to validate the accuracy of the RNA-seq results. This study establishes a robust pipeline for the discovery of key genes using high-throughput sequencing and the identification of a class of development-related genes for characterization.

  18. The mitochondrial genome of the multicolored Asian lady beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) and a phylogenetic analysis of the Polyphaga (Insecta: Coleoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Fang-Fang; Zhu, Liang; Wang, Su; Wei, Shu-Jun

    2016-07-01

    Here, we report the mitochondrial genome sequence of the multicolored Asian lady beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) (GenBank accession No. KR108208). This is the first species with sequenced mitochondrial genome from the genus Harmonia. The current length with partitial A + T-rich region of this mitochondrial genome is 16,387 bp. All the typical genes were sequenced except the trnI and trnQ. As in most other sequenced mitochondrial genomes of Coleoptera, there is no re-arrangement in the sequenced region compared with the pupative ancestral arrangement of insects. All protein-coding genes start with ATN codons. Five, five and three protein-coding genes stop with termination codon TAA, TA and T, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis using Bayesian method based on the first and second codon positions of the protein-coding genes supported that the Scirtidae is a basal lineage of Polyphaga. The Harmonia and the Coccinella form a sister lineage. The monophyly of Staphyliniformia, Scarabaeiformia and Cucujiformia was supported. The Buprestidae was found to be a sister group to the Bostrichiformia.

  19. [Mass-transfer, utilization, and diffusion of oxygen in skeletal muscles of the stenohaline goby Gobius cobitus Pallas under conditions of hypoosmotic medium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatov, A A

    2012-01-01

    Effect of hypoosmotic conditions of medium on oxygen regime of skeletal muscles of the stenohalin goby Gobius cobitus Pallas was studied under conditions of experiment. The control fish group was maintained at 12-14 %o, the experimental one - at 4.8-5.6 per thousand. Duration of the experiment - 44-45 days, water temperature - 15 +/- 1 degrees C, photoperiod - 12 day/12 night. It was established that under conditions of external hypoosmia there occurred hydration of the goby skeletal muscles and a decrease of their diffusion capability with respect to oxygen. The latter was accompanied by the tissue P(O2) decrease, which is indicated by low values of P(O2) in the venous blood outflowing from muscles. For the first 14-16 days of adaptation to the hypoosmotic medium there were restricted processes of mass transfer and oxygen utilization, which was associated with a decrease of the voluminous tissue blood flow and the blood oxygen concentration. These changes occurred on the background of the blood plasma hydration and a decrease of the number of circulated erythrocytes, and then they were completely compensated.

  20. The Impact of Nature-Based Tourism on Bird Communities: A Case Study in Pallas-Yllästunturi National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhta, Esa; Sulkava, Pekka

    2014-05-01

    Nature-based tourism and recreation within and close to protected areas may have negative environmental impacts on biodiversity due to urban development, landscape fragmentation, and increased disturbance. We conducted a 3-year study of disturbances of birds induced by nature-based tourism over a recreational gradient in the Pallas-Yllästunturi National Park and its surroundings in northern Finland. Bird assemblages were studied in highly disturbed areas close to the park (a ski resort, villages, and accommodation areas) and in campfire sites, along hiking routes (recreational areas) and in a forest (control area) within the park. Compared with the forest, the disturbed urbanized areas had higher abundances of human-associated species, corvid species, cavity and building nesters, and edge species. The abundances of managed forest species were higher in campfire sites than in the forest. Hiking trails and campfire sites did not have a negative impact on open-nesting bird species. The most likely reason for this outcome is that most campfire sites were situated at forest edges; this species group prefers managed forests and forest edge as a breeding habitat. The abundances of virgin forest species did not differ among the areas studied. The results of the study suggest that the current recreation pressure has not caused substantial changes in the forest bird communities within the National Park. We suggest that the abundances of urban exploiter species could be used as indicators to monitor the level and changes of urbanization and recreational pressure at tourist destinations.

  1. Seasonal fluctuation in the population of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773 (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae and co-occurrence with other Coccinellids in the Federal District of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Sevilha Harterreiten-Souza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773, was first recorded in Brazil in 2002 in Paraná state and subsequently observed in Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul and Minas Gerais. This species can spread to new areas and become dominant in the local community, reducing the density and diversity of native species, mainly Coccinellidae. The objective of this work was to record for the first time the occurrence of H. axyridis in the Federal District and its co-occurrence with other Coccinellidae species. The individuals were collected directly from plants at an organic farm in Taguatinga and in experimental fields of Embrapa Hortaliças, located in the Federal District, from August 2008 to January 2010. We collected 881 Coccinelids, and of these, 110 belong to the species H. axyridis. These were found exclusively on the following plants of the succinea group: maize, cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, kale, cucumber, cotton, tomato and coriander. We also observed its co-occurrence with the following lady beetle species: Cycloneda sanguine (Linnaeus, 1763, Hippodamia convergens (Guerin-Meneville 1842, Eriopis connexa (German, 1824, Scymnus sp., Nephaspis sp., Azya luteipes (Mulsant, 1850, Hyperaspis festiva (Mulsant, 1850, Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant, 1866, Psyllobora sp. and Coleomegilla maculata (De Geer, 1775. So far, we have not found any negative interactions between H. axyridis and these species. This is the northernmost H. axyridis record in Brazil. Moreover, the region was previously considered to have a low probability of occurrence for this species. Therefore, this record confirms that H. axyridis presents great adaptive plasticity to new habitats.

  2. Risks and Opportunities of Urbanization – Structure of Two Populations of the Balkan Wall Lizard Podarcis tauricus (Pallas, 1814 in the City of Plovdiv

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    Ivelin A. Mollov

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The current study analyzes the structure and some features of two urban metapopulations of the Balkan Wall Lizard (Podarcis tauricus (Pallas, 1814 from Nature Monument (NM “Mladezhki halm” and Nature Monument “Halm na osvoboditelite” in the city of Plovdiv (South Bulgaria. In both study sites, the Balkan Wall lizard inhabits exclusively the interior of the hills and prefers mainly open areas with rare grass and shrub vegetation. The recorded dominant plant species are not autochthonous for the hills, but gradually displaced with many decorative species, used widely in the gardening and thecity parks. The population abundance from both hills is relatively low, with higher values in NM “Mladezhki halm” and generally shows a decrease pattern for the two year period. In the hills of Plovdiv, the Balkan Wall lizard shows a bimodal diurnal and seasonal activity. Both metapopulations showed a sex ratio close to 1:1 with a slight superiority of the females (1:1.29, but with no statistically significant deviation. The age structure of both metapopulations is almost identical - the highest percentage takes the adults, followed by the subadults and juveniles, with no significant deviations from the normal ratio. The possible reasons for the contemporary distribution and population structure of the Balkan Wall lizard are discussed. Historic land use change and its effect on the populations are discussed as well. The main risks for this species in the city of Plovdiv are construction and forestation (destruction of open terrains. Nevertheless, the Balkan Wall lizard seems to have successfully overcome the risks of urbanization and its population seem stable and sustainable.

  3. Parasites of the round goby, Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas, 1811, an invasive species in the Polish fauna of the Vistula Lagoon ecosystem

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    Leszek Rolbiecki

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The round goby, Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas, 1811 was introducedinto southern Baltic waters (including the Vistula Lagoon fromthe Black Sea and Sea of Azov in the early 1990s. This studydescribes the parasites of the round goby in its new environment.In 2004, 486 round goby specimens from the Vistula Lagoon wereexamined for parasites. The following taxa were identified:Dermocystidiumsp.; Protozoa: Trichodina domerguei domerguei (Wallengren,1897; Digenea:Cryptocotyle concavum (Creplin, 1825,Diplostomum spp.,Tylodelphys clavata (Nordmann, 1831,Bunodera luciopercae (Müller, 1776;Cestoda:Bothriocephalus scorpii (Müller, 1776,Eubothrium crassum (Bloch, 1779,Paradilepis scolecina (Rudolphi, 1819,Proteocephalus filicollis (Rudolphi, 1802,P. gobiorum Dogel et Bychovsky, 1939,Proteocephalus sp.;Nematoda:Anguillicola crassus Kuwahara, Niimi et Itagaki, 1974,Camallanus truncatus (Rudolphi, 1814,Contracaecum spp.,Cystidicoloides ephemeridarum (Linstow, 1872,Dichelyne minutus (Rudolphi, 1819,Hysterothylacium aduncum (Rudolphi, 1802;Acanthocephala:Echinorhynchus gadi Müller, 1776,Pomphorhynchus laevis (Müller, 1776.The parasites found were all local species, already reported fromPoland. Except for Dermocystidium sp., C. concavum,P. gobiorum, and D. minutes, they have already been recorded inother fish species in the Vistula Lagoon. The prevalence andmean intensity of infection was low (18.3%; 4.0 indiv. - thisvalue does not include ciliates. The most frequent parasitesincluded H. aduncum (9.9%, 1.2 indiv. and A. crassus (9.1%,1.2 indiv.. In addition, Dermocystidium sp., B. luciopercae,E. crassum, P. scolecina, P. filicollis, C. truncatus and C. ephemeridarum are reported from the round goby for the first time. As the fishhas only recently appeared in the Vistula Lagoon, its parasitic fauna has not yet developed to the full.

  4. Monitoramento do maçarico-branco, Calidris alba (Pallas (Aves, Scolopacidae, através de recuperações de anilhas coloridas, na Coroa do Avião, Igarassu, Pernambuco, Brasil Monitoring of the sanderling, Calidris alba (Pallas (Aves, Scolopacidae, across recuperations of color band, in the Coroa do Avião, Pernambuco State, Brazil

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    Rachel M. de Lyra-Neves

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Programas de marcação de espécies migratórias vêm sendo desenvolvidos desde a década de 1980, dentre eles o PASP Pan-American Shorebirds Programs, o qual, consistia na marcação de aves migratórias neárticas com anéis e bandeirolas coloridas possibilitando formação de códigos individuais permitindo a observação das aves marcadas sem que necessitasse capturar. Esta pesquisa objetivou a recuperação de códigos do PASP de indivíduos de Calidris alba (Pallas 1764 entre os anos de 1993 a 1995 na Coroa do Avião. Essas recuperações visuais demonstraram a fidelidade de Calidris alba ao seu sítio de invernada, a Coroa do Avião. O alto percentual de recuperações de Calidris alba, bem como, as recuperações de indivíduos anilhados na Lagoa do Peixe e em algumas áreas de invernada nos Estados Unidos, demonstram a utilização da rota do Atlântico e reforça a idéia de que bandos provenientes da costa leste do Alaska migram por esta rota. A idade máxima estimada para Calidris alba durante esta pesquisa foi de 11 anos, nada se tem sobre a idade desta espécie em bibliografias específicas no estudo de Scolopacidae.Marking programs for migratory species have been developed since the 1980 decade, among them the PASP Pan-American Shorebirds Programs which consisted in the marking of nearctic migratory birds with color bands and flags, enabling the development of individual codes, allowing the observation of the marked birds without the need of capture. The purpose of this study was the recuperation of PASP codes of individuals of Calidris alba (Pallas, 1764 between 1993 and 1995 in the Coroa do Avião. These visual recuperations demonstrated the fidelity of this specie to its winter site, the Coroa do Avião. The high percentual of recuperations of Calidris alba, as well as the recuperations of marked individuals in the Lagoa do Peixe and in some wintering areas in the United States, demonstrated the use of the Atlantic route and

  5. Hábitos alimenticios de poblaciones periféricas de Zaedyus pichiy y Chaetophractus villosus (Cingulata, Chlamyphoridae en la Patagonia chilena

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    Aldo Arriagada

    Full Text Available RESUMEN En Chile los armadillos Zaedyus pichiy (Desmarest, 1804 y Chaetophractus villosus (Desmarest, 1804 tienen poblaciones periféricas restringidas a planicies de altura y estepa patagónica en la vertiente occidental de la Cordillera de los Andes, donde además han sido escasamente estudiadas. En este trabajo entregamos información sobre los hábitos alimenticios de ambas especies de armadillos, obtenida mediante el análisis de heces colectadas en dos áreas de la región de Aysén, Patagonia chilena. En 38 heces de Z. pichiy identificamos dos taxones de plantas, seis de invertebrados y cuatro de vertebrados, mientras que en 72 heces C. villosus identificamos tres, nueve y cuatro taxones de las mismas categorías. En ambas especies de armadillos los invertebrados fueron la categoría más diversa y con mayor frecuencia de ocurrencia, siendo Coleoptera, Orthoptera y Hemiptera los grupos mejor representados en términos de abundancia. Entre los vertebrados se observó mayor frecuencia de restos del camélido Lama guanicoe (Müller, 1776 y el lagomorfo Lepus europaeus (Pallas, 1778. El análisis de rarefacción muestra que la riqueza de taxones fue mayor en C. villosus que en Z. pichiy, y el índice de Pianka indica que no existió un solapamiento trófico significativo entre especies de armadillos. Nuestras observaciones indican que poblaciones periféricas de ambas especies de armadillos muestran dietas omnívoras oportunistas, con un mayor consumo de invertebrados y plantas; además, sugieren que C. villosus se desarrolla en un rango ambiental más amplio, con una dieta más diversa y mayor presencia de esta especie en ambas áreas de estudio.

  6. Evaluation préliminaire de l'activité larvicide des extraits aqueux des feuilles du ricin (Ricinus communis L. et du bois de thuya (Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl Mast. sur les larves de quatre moustiques culicidés : Culex pipiens (Linné, Aedes caspius (Pallas, Culiseta longiareolata (Aitken et Anopheles maculipennis (Meigen

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    Mahari S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary evaluation of larvicidal activity of aqueous extracts from leaves of Ricinus communis L. and from wood of Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl Mast. on the larvae of four mosquito species: Culex pipiens (Linné, Aedes caspius (Pallas, Culiseta longiareolata (Aitken and Anopheles maculipennis (Meigen. Aqueous extracts of Ricinus communis leaves and Tetraclinis articulata wood showed strong toxic activity against larvae of several mosquitoes. In this study, insecticide effects of these plant extracts have been investigated on 2nd and 4th instars larvae of Culicidae insects, Culex pipiens (Linné, Aedes caspius (Pallas, Culiseta longiareolata (Aitken and Anopheles maculipennis (Meigen. After 24 hours of exposition, bioassays revealed low lethal concentrations LC50. To control mosquitoes, these plant extracts might be used as natural biocides.

  7. Evaluation préliminaire de l'activité larvicide des extraits aqueux des feuilles du ricin (Ricinus communis L.) et du bois de thuya (Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Mast.) sur les larves de quatre moustiques culicidés : Culex pipiens (Linné), Aedes caspius (Pallas), Culiseta longiareolata (Aitken) et Anopheles maculipennis (Meigen)

    OpenAIRE

    Mahari S.; Mellouki F.; Oufara S.; Aouinty B.

    2006-01-01

    Preliminary evaluation of larvicidal activity of aqueous extracts from leaves of Ricinus communis L. and from wood of Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Mast. on the larvae of four mosquito species: Culex pipiens (Linné), Aedes caspius (Pallas), Culiseta longiareolata (Aitken) and Anopheles maculipennis (Meigen). Aqueous extracts of Ricinus communis leaves and Tetraclinis articulata wood showed strong toxic activity against larvae of several mosquitoes. In this study, insecticide effects of these ...

  8. 异色瓢虫对松大蚜和板栗大蚜选择效应研究%Study on the Selective Effect of Harmonia axyridis(Pallas) to Lachnus tropicalis and Cinara pinea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱强

    2014-01-01

    Harmonia axyridis(Pallas) is one of the important predators in the field. Its selective coefficient varies with the amount change of these two pest populations,Lachnus tropicalis and Cinara pinea in Forest Farm of Culai Mountain were measured under laboratory conditions. The results showed that when the two pest population numbers synchronous increased ,the ladybirds which were collected the previous habits and raised the same aphids would like to predate it. But when L. tropicalis or C. pinea increased,H. axyridis would obviously like to predate it.%异色瓢虫是徂徕山林场常见天敌之一,在实验室条件下,测定了异色瓢虫对徂徕山林场2种重要蚜虫板栗大蚜和松蚜的选择效应。结果表明,当2种蚜虫种群数量同步增加,则取决于瓢虫原来的生境和饲喂条件,当板栗大蚜或松蚜种群上升时,则喜好取食种群数量大的蚜虫。

  9. Purification, partial characterization, crystallization and structural determination of AHP-LAAO, a novel L-amino-acid oxidase with cell apoptosis-inducing activity from Agkistrodon halys pallas venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongmin; Teng, Maikun; Niu, Liwen; Wang, Yubao; Wang, Yuzhen; Liu, Qun; Huang, Qingqiu; Hao, Quan; Dong, Yuhui; Liu, Peng

    2004-05-01

    A snake-venom protein named AHP-LAAO has been purified from Agkistrodon halys pallas venom using four-stage chromatography. AHP-LAAO is a novel member of the snake-venom L-amino-acid oxidase family. Its amino-acid sequence shows high homology to other members of this family. For L-leucine, the values of k(cat) and K(M) are 31.1 s(-1) and 0.25 mM, respectively. The molecular weight of AHP-LAAO is about 60.7 kDa as determined by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. AHP-LAAO can also induce apoptosis of cultured Hela cells. Two sets of diffraction data with similar resolution limits (about 2.5 A) were collected independently at MacCHESS (Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, USA) and IHEP (Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing, China). The crystals belong to space group I2(1)3, with unit-cell parameter a = 169.31 A, corresponding to one molecule in the asymmetric unit and a volume-to-weight ratio of 3.33 A(3) Da(-1). The final structural model is similar to that of L-amino-acid oxidase from Calloselasma rhodostoma venom.

  10. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of AHP IX-bp, a zinc ion and pH-dependent coagulation factor IX binding protein from Agkistrodon halys Pallas venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Jianye; Teng, Maikun; Niu, Liwen

    2003-04-01

    A new coagulation factor IX binding protein, AHP IX-bp, has been purified from Agkistrodon halys Pallas venom and estimated to be an AB heterodimer of about 25 kDa consisting of two chains (an A chain of 15.5 kDa and a B chain of 15 kDa) linked by one or more disulfide bonds. The N-terminal sequence of AHP IX-bp has been determined and aligned with C-type lectin-like proteins. The protein has a high sequence similarity to some snake-venom C-type lectin-like proteins. AHP IX-bp binds to coagulation factor IX but not to coagulation factor X. Moreover, AHP IX-bp shows binding to coagulation factor IX in both zinc ion-dependent and pH-dependent manners. The affinity between AHP IX-bp and coagulation factor IX is higher under neutral or weakly alkaline conditions than under weakly acidic conditions. Single crystals of AHP IX-bp grown at pH 6.5 and 7.5 diffract X-rays to 2.0 and 1.8 A resolution, respectively. Both crystals are isomorphous and belong to the space group P1; only one AB heterodimer is present in the unit cell.

  11. 异色瓢虫热休克蛋白70基因的克隆与分析%Cloning and sequence analysis of heat shock protein 70 gene in Harmonia axyridis (Pallas)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨城欢; 庞虹; 张帆

    2009-01-01

    本研究通过RT-PCR和RACE方法,首次克隆了异色瓢虫Harmonia axyridis(Pallas)热休克蛋白70(HSP70)cDNA全序列(GenBank登录号:EF668009).获得的cDNA全长2200 bp,其中开放阅读框1956 bp,编码一个651氨基酸的蛋白,计算分子量为70 kDa,等电点(PI)为5.32.同源序列比对结果表明,异色瓢虫HSP70与其它真核生物的HSP/HSC70有着较高的序列同源性(85%~93%).其中与赤拟谷盗Tribolium castaneum热休克蛋白70(HSP70)同源性最高,达到93%.与其它真核生物HSP70一样,该序列包含真核生物HSP70高度保守的全部三个家族标签以及ATP/GTP结合位点、一个Bipartive nuclear localization signal和细胞核定位信号.

  12. Size-dependent activation of aerosols into cloud droplets at a subarctic background site during the second Pallas Cloud Experiment (2nd PaCE: method development and data evaluation

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    T. Anttila

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In situ measurements of aerosol water uptake and activation of aerosols into cloud droplets provide information on how aerosols influence the microphysical properties of clouds. Here we present a computational scheme that can be used in connection with such measurements to assess the influence of the particle chemical composition and mixing state (in terms of the water uptake on the cloud nucleating ability of particles. Additionally, it provides an estimate for the peak supersaturation of water vapour reached during the formation of the observed cloud(s. The method was applied in interpreting results of a measurement campaign that focused on aerosol-cloud interactions taking place at a subarctic background site located in northern Finland (second Pallas Cloud Experiment, 2nd PaCE. A set of case studies was conducted, and the observed activation behavior could be successfully explained by a maximum supersaturation that varied between 0.18 and 0.26% depending on the case. In these cases, the diameter corresponding to the activated fraction of 50% was in the range of 110–140 nm, and the particles were only moderately water soluble with hygroscopic growth factors varying between 1.1 and 1.4. The conducted analysis showed that the activated fractions and the total number of particles acting as CCN are expected to be highly sensitive to the particle hygroscopicity. For example, the latter quantity varied over a factor between 1.8 and 3.1, depending on the case, when the mean hygroscopic growth factors were varied by 10%. Another important conclusion is that size-dependent activation profiles carries information on the mixing state of particles.

  13. An invasive-native mammalian species replacement process captured by camera trap survey random encounter models

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Camera traps are used to estimate densities or abundances using capture-recapture and, more recently, random encounter models (REMs). We deploy REMs to describe an invasive-native species replacement process, and to demonstrate their wider application beyond abundance estimation. The Irish hare Lepus timidus hibernicus is a high priority endemic of conservation concern. It is threatened by an expanding population of non-native, European hares L. europaeus, an invasive species of global import...

  14. Regional Disease Vector Ecology Profile East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-01

    Shizuoka Prefecture suggest that C. burnetii may be a common cause of influenza -like symptoms in Japan. A 1994 study found that 48% of farmers and 40...Lepus europaeus, is a very good indicator of the presence of tularemia in natural foci and has been used routinely in surveillance for this zoonosis in...in the spread of S. mansoni infection. Schistosoma japonicum is a true zoonosis . Numerous hosts have been found infected with this parasite

  15. Occurrence, local extinction and conservation of Primates in the corridor of the Upper Paraná River, with notes on other mammals Ocorrência, extinção local e conservação dos primatas do corredor do Alto Rio Paraná, com notas sobre outros mamíferos

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    Lucas M. Aguiar

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The region of Porto Rico, on the Upper Paraná River, is a contact zone between the Atlantic Rainforest and the Cerrado, with elements of the Pantanal wetlands. During surveys from September 2003 to September to 2005, we recorded the presence of non-volant mammals on 14 islands and the adjacent riverbanks. Surveys were by foot and by boat, and we also interviewed local people about the mammals of the region. Sightings of three primate species - Cebus nigritus (Goldfuss, 1809 (left margin of the river, C. libidinosus Spix, 1823 (right margin and Alouatta caraya (Humboldt, 1812 (both margins and 12 islands - were plotted on a satellite image. Alouatta clamitans Cabrera, 1940 was not recorded. However, interviews indicated that this species has occurred in this region in the past. The survey of mammals revealed the occurrence of 32 native species, a native genus with one or more unidentified species, and two introduced species [Lepus europaeus Pallas, 1778 and Sus scrofa (Linnaeus, 1758]. The study discusses the permeability of the Paraná River to dispersal, as well as its potential as a geographical barrier to some species. Hypothesis on the local extinction of A. clamitans is also addressed. This study provides information that can be useful for promoting the conservation of this region.A região de Porto Rico, Alto Rio Paraná, é zona de contato entre a Mata Atlântica e o Cerrado, com influências do Pantanal. Este estudo levantou as espécies de primatas da região para a confecção de um mapa de ocorrências. Listou-se as ocorrências de mamíferos não-voadores, discriminando os registros entre os ambientes de ilhas e margens opostas. Para tanto, além do auxílio de entrevistas, as matas de 14 ilhas e das margens foram percorridas por terra e de barco durante setembro de 2003 a setembro de 2005. Pontos de avistamento dos primatas foram plotados em imagem de satélite. Três espécies de primatas foram registradas: Cebus nigritus somente

  16. Effects of Temperature on Maximum Metabolic Rate and Metabolic Scope of Juvenile Manchurian Trout, Brachymystax lenok (Pallas)%温度对细鳞鲑幼鱼最大代谢率和代谢范围的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐革锋; 尹家胜; 韩英; 刘洋; 牟振波

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of water temperature on the metabolic characteristics and aerobic exer-cise capacity of juvenile manchurian trout , Brachymystax lenok ( Pallas) .The resting metabolic rate ( RMR) ,maxi-mum metabolic rate (MMR), metabolic scope(MS)and critical swimming speed (UCrit) of juveniles were measured at different temperature (4, 8, 12, 16, 20℃).The results showed that both the RMR and the MMR increased sig-nificantly with the increasing of water temperature ( P<0 .05 ) .Compared with test group at 4℃, the RMR for 8℃, 12℃, 16℃ and 20℃increased by 62%, 165%, 390%, 411%,respectively, and the MMR increased by 3%, 34%, 111%, 115%, respectively .However , the MS decreased with the increasing of water temperature with the highest MS occurring at 4℃.UCrit was significantly affected by water temperature (P<0.05), but the varia-tions of UCrit didn′t follow certain pattern with temperature .In the test of aerobic exercise , the MMR for each tem-perature level occurred at the swimming speed of 70% UCrit , probably due to the start of anaerobic metabolism , which caused excessive creatine in body , consequently hindered the aerobic metabolism .%为了探究温度对细鳞鲑( Brachymystax lenok)幼鱼的代谢特征和有氧运动能力的影响,在不同温度(4℃、8℃、12℃、16℃、20℃)下测定了实验鱼的静止代谢率( RMR)、有氧运动过程中的最大代谢率( MMR)以及能量代谢范围(MS)和临界游泳速度(UCrit)。结果表明,随着温度的上升,RMR和MMR均显著提高(P<0.05),各温度下的RMR和MMR分别较4℃条件的提高了62%(8℃)、165%(12℃)、390%(16℃)、411%(20℃)和3%(8℃)、34%(12℃)、111%(16℃)、115%(20℃);MS随水温的升高呈现下降的趋势,且4℃条件具有最大的代谢范围。不同温度条件下UCrit存在显著性差异,但随着温度升高未表现出明显的变

  17. 异色瓢虫显明变种对白杨毛蚜和白毛蚜选择效应研究%Study on the Selective Effect of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) var.spectabilis to Chaitophorus populeti and C.populiabae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涛; 张悦; 孙玉刚; 王金秀; 韩军; 郭喜军; 张发明; 曲爱军

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探究异色瓢虫显明变种对杨树主要蚜虫白杨毛蚜和白毛蚜的捕食选择趋性.[方法]在实验室条件下,在特定空间内,测定异色瓢虫显明变种对2种蚜虫不同密度值下的捕食量.[结果]白杨毛蚜和白毛蚜种群数量同步增加时,EG-s值和EJ值变化为+1~0,EI值是在0~-1范围内依次减少,且数值变化幅度较少,表明异色瓢虫显明变种喜好捕食白毛蚜略高于白杨毛蚜;当白杨毛蚜数量不变、白毛蚜数量增加时,EG-s值和EJ值变化为+1~∞,EI值在O~+1范围内依次增加,表明异色瓢虫显明变种明显喜好捕食白毛蚜;当白毛蚜数量不变、白杨毛蚜数量增加时,EG-s值和EJ值变化为在+1~O范围内依次减少,EI值在0~-1范围内依次增加,表明异色瓢虫显明变种明显喜好捕食白杨毛蚜.捕食量结果同选择指数.[结论]异色瓢虫显现变种白杨毛蚜和白毛蚜的捕食选择趋性取决于2种蚜虫的种群数量.%[Objective] To explore the selective predation of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) var. Spectabilis, to Chaitophorus populeti (Panzer) and C. Populiabae (Boyer de Fonseolombe). [ Method ] Under the experimental conditions, the predation amount of the two aphids by Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) var. Spectabilis at different densities was detected. [ Result] When the number of the two pest populations increased synchronously, £c_s and Ej changed from +1 to 0,E, decreased gradually within the range of 0 to - 1 ,and the decrease extent was small,indicating that the ladybird preferred preying C. Populiabae to C. Populeti; when the quantity of C. Populeti stayed unchanged and the quantity of C. Populiabae increased,£c_s and Es changed from + 1 to oc ,E, increased gradually within the range of 0 to + 1 .indicating that the ladybird liked to prey C. Populiabae; when the quantity of C. Populiabae stayed unchanged and the quantity of C. Populeti increased,Ec_s and Et gradually decreased from + 1 to 0 ,E

  18. Mammalian genome projects reveal new growth hormone (GH) sequences. Characterization of the GH-encoding genes of armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus), bat (Myotis lucifugus), hyrax (Procavia capensis), shrew (Sorex araneus), ground squirrel (Spermophilus tridecemlineatus), elephant (Loxodonta africana), cat (Felis catus) and opossum (Monodelphis domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Michael

    2008-01-15

    Mammalian growth hormone (GH) sequences have been shown previously to display episodic evolution: the sequence is generally strongly conserved but on at least two occasions during mammalian evolution (on lineages leading to higher primates and ruminants) bursts of rapid evolution occurred. However, the number of mammalian orders studied previously has been relatively limited, and the availability of sequence data via mammalian genome projects provides the potential for extending the range of GH gene sequences examined. Complete or nearly complete GH gene sequences for six mammalian species for which no data were previously available have been extracted from the genome databases-Dasypus novemcinctus (nine-banded armadillo), Erinaceus europaeus (western European hedgehog), Myotis lucifugus (little brown bat), Procavia capensis (cape rock hyrax), Sorex araneus (European shrew), Spermophilus tridecemlineatus (13-lined ground squirrel). In addition incomplete data for several other species have been extended. Examination of the data in detail and comparison with previously available sequences has allowed assessment of the reliability of deduced sequences. Several of the new sequences differ substantially from the consensus sequence previously determined for eutherian GHs, indicating greater variability than previously recognised, and confirming the episodic pattern of evolution. The episodic pattern is not seen for signal sequences, 5' upstream sequence or synonymous substitutions-it is specific to the mature protein sequence, suggesting that it relates to the hormonal function. The substitutions accumulated during the course of GH evolution have occurred mainly on the side of the hormone facing away from the receptor, in a non-random fashion, and it is suggested that this may reflect interaction of the receptor-bound hormone with other proteins or small ligands.

  19. Kinetic studies of alkaline phosphatase extracted from rabbit (Lepus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    activity, and the kinetic constants-maximum enzyme velocity (Vmax) and Michealis-Menten ... at temperature greater than 44.95°C with corresponding catalytic energy of ..... potential biomarker for the intergrity of the hepatic drainage system.

  20. (Lepus europaea capturadas en el Corredor Verde del Guadiamar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Carrascal Moreno

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Tras muestrear individuos de liebre en diversas zonas del Corredor Verde del Guadiamar, se procede a procesar muestras de tejidos de hígado y músculo para analizar sus contenidos en As, Cd, Pb, Cu y Zn, elementos químicos de especial significado ambiental, sobre todo en una zona de tradición minera, que además fue afectada por una catástrofe ambiental de gran magnitud por la rotura de una balsa de estériles (donde se acumulaban los restos del procesado del mineral con altas concentraciones de metales pesados en forma de lodos y aguas contaminadas, en abril del año 1998. Los resultados muestran una situación de mejora ambiental y de normalidad si se comparan con los valores encontrados en bibliografía especializada y los animales empleados como control.

  1. 恒温和温室波动温度下异色瓢虫种群生命表%Life Tables of Harmonia axyridis Pallas Under Laboratory Constant and Greenhouse Fluctuating Temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵静; 肖达; 张帆; 王甦

    2015-01-01

    [Objective] The ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis Pallas is a well-known aphid predator and plays an important role as a biological control agent in its native regions. Life table can provide a comprehensive description of the development, survival, and fecundity of a population. The life history of H. axyridis has been studied using the traditional life table in controlled laboratory conditions. However, when released, H. axyridis were exposed to fluctuating temperatures which can significantly change the biological characteristics of insects. The objective of this study is to build life tables for H. axyridis both at constant temperature in the laboratory and at fluctuating temperatures in the greenhouse, and to facilitate the effective use of this species as a biological control agent.[Method]Developmental, survival, and fecundity rate data were analyzed by using the age-stage, two-sex life table under laboratory and greenhouse conditions and the significant differences were compared with t-tests at a 5%significance level by SPSS17.0. Means and standard errors of population parameters were calculated by using the bootstrap method and the significant differences were compared with t-tests by the TWOSEX-MSChart computer program.[Result]H. axyridis at constant temperature in the laboratory developed more quickly in the pre-adult stage and were longer-lived compared with those in the greenhouse. Moreover, significant reductions in survival and reproduction of H. axyridis under greenhouse conditions were observed in the curves of sxj, lx, fx and mx. The life expectancy of H. axyridis decreased gradually with age while the life expectancy were shorter and varied significantly at fluctuating temperatures in the greenhouse. The contribution of an individual to the future population was described by the reproductive value (vxj) which under greenhouse conditions was lower and more varied than that in the laboratory. According to the age-stage, two-sex life table, the

  2. Une réponse ovidienne à Asclépiade ? Hypothèse d’une allusion à l’épigramme sur la Lydé d’Antimaque (AP IX, 63 dans le certamen de Pallas et Arachné (Met. VI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Klein

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available La compétition artistique entre Pallas et Arachné au livre VI des Métamorphoses oppose une déesse, qui représente l’auguste noblesse divine (augusta grauitas, à une tisserande d’origine sociale fort modeste – précise Ovide – mais que son art a rendue célèbre dans toute la Lydie. Cette valorisation de son ars a d’ailleurs valu à cette dernière d’être apparentée par la critique à une figure callimachéenne. Cet article propose d’aller plus loin en ce sens, en suggérant que le passage contient une allusion à l’épigramme AP IX, 63 qui semble avoir été au cœur de la querelle opposant Callimaque aux « Telchines » : Asclépiade y faisait l’éloge de la σεµνότης de Lydé en jouant sur le double sens du terme, entre noblesse stylistique et noblesse sociale. L’hypothèse d’une « réponse ovidienne à Asclépiade » apporte alors un nouvel éclairage sur l’opposition esthétique qui est en jeu dans le certamen et, en particulier, sur son issue.  

  3. Identification of a Bitter-Taste Receptor Gene Repertoire in Different Lagomorphs Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ana M.; Marques, Andreia T.; Fontanesi, Luca; Thulin, Carl-Gustaf; Sales-Baptista, Elvira; Araújo, Susana S.; Almeida, André M.

    2016-01-01

    The repertoires of bitter-taste receptor (T2R) gene have been described for several animal species, but these data are still scarce for Lagomorphs. The aim of the present work is to identify potential repertoires of T2R in several Lagomorph species, covering a wide geographical distribution. We studied these genes in Lepus timidus, L. europaeus, Oryctolagus cuniculus algirus, Romerolagus diazi, and Sylvilagus floridanus, using O. cuniculus cuniculus as control species for PCR and DNA sequencing. We studied the identities of the DNA sequences and built the corresponding phylogenetic tree. Sequencing was successful for both subspecies of O. cuniculus for all T2R genes studied, for five genes in Lepus, and for three genes in R. diazi and S. floridanus. We describe for the first time the partial repertoires of T2R genes for Lagomorphs species, other than the common rabbit. Our phylogenetic analyses indicate that sequence proximity levels follow the established taxonomic classification. PMID:27092177

  4. 不同培养基的酵母发酵液对细菌纤维素产量的影响%Effects of Yeast Fermentation in Different Kinds of Media on Production of Bacterial Cellulose by Gluconacetobacter europaeus Y9

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晓磊; 刘四新; 邓健; 杨一冲; 毕继才; 刘龙祥; 郝婧; 李从发

    2016-01-01

    为了提高细菌纤维素(BC)产量,研究4种酵母菌在NCW、PDB、YPD和BS等4种不同培养基中的发酵液对Gluconacetobacter europaeus Y9 BC产量的影响,并与新鲜椰子水和自然发酵椰子水发酵生产BC的产量进行对比.结果表明:在YPD培养基制成的4种酵母菌发酵液中BC产量都是最高的,其中活性干酵母贝酵母、面包酵母和自行分离筛选的野生酵母威克克鲁维酵母、热带假丝酵母生产的BC产量分别为6.91、5.53、6.15、4.67g/L,都显著高于以新鲜椰子水发酵合成的BC产量,贝酵母和威克克鲁维酵母在不同培养基中对BC产量影响不同,可能高于或者是接近自然发酵椰子水中的BC产量.推测酵母菌发酵液促进BC合成的原因不仅由于产生了合适浓度的乙醇,应该还与酵母菌产生了其他代谢产物,并且提供了良好的缓冲能力等有关.另一方面,筛自自然发酵椰子水的、野生的威克克鲁维酵母在任何培养基中培养后BC产量都较高,推测该菌株可能是新鲜椰子水经自然发酵后能使BC产量大幅度提高的重要贡献菌种之一.

  5. A modelling approach to evaluating the effectiveness of Ecological Focus Areas: the case of the European brown hare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhammer, Maria; Grimm, Volker; Putz, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    and Man Simulation System (ALMaSS), an established simulation system that has been used to simulate a wide range of farmland species relevant to biodiversity. We analysed the benefits of seven greening scenarios for the European brown hare (Lepus europaeus), which has been in widespread decline throughout...... viability. Herbaceous field margins were the second best EFA type, leading to population viability in two landscapes. Our results indicate that overall, 5% coverage with Ecological Focus Area is insufficient to improve the living conditions of the brown hare to a necessary degree. Permanent set-asides seem...

  6. 异色瓢虫显明变种对荻草谷网蚜和禾谷缢管蚜捕食选择性研究%Selectivity of Harmonia axyridis(Pallas) Var.Spectabilis to Macrosiphum Avenae and Rhopalosiphum Padi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张悦; 井维霞; 王涛; 刘修堂; 曲爱军

    2012-01-01

    It was tested that predatory quantity of the ladybird,Harmonia axyridis(Pallas) Var.Spectabilis,to the two aphid,Macrosiphum avenae and Rhopalosiphum padi at different densities in the certain space in the laboratory.The results showed that the selective coefficient of the ladybird varied with these two aphid populations.When the two pest population numbers increased synchronously,the ladybird preferred M.avenae. But when only R.padi increased,H.axyridis would obviously like to predate it.On the contrary,when only M. avenae increased,the ladybird would like to predate it.The result of the predatory quantity of the ladybird was similar to the selective coefficient.%在实验室条件下,在特定空间内,测定异色瓢虫显明变种对两种蚜虫荻草谷网蚜和禾谷缢管蚜不同密度值下的捕食量。结果表明,荻草谷网蚜和禾谷缢管蚜种群数量同步增加时,EG-S值和EI值变化是从1到∞,EI值是在0到+1范围内依次增加,表明异色瓢虫显明变种喜好捕食荻草谷网蚜明显高于禾谷缢管蚜;荻草谷网蚜数量不变,禾谷缢管蚜数量增加时,EG-S值和EI值是从+1到0,EI值从-1到0范围内依次减少,表明异色瓢虫显明变种明显喜好捕食禾谷缢管蚜;禾谷缢管蚜数量不变,荻草谷网蚜数量增加时,EG-S值和EI值变化从+1到∞,EI值在0到+1范围内依次增加,表明异色瓢虫显明变种明显喜好捕食荻草谷网蚜。捕食量结果同选择指数。

  7. Patrones de colonización y ecología de poblaciones de dos bivalvos invasores (mejillón cebra Dreissena polymorpha Pallas, 1771 y almeja asiática Corbicula fluminea Müller, 1774 en un tramo lótico del Ebro medio (Castejón, Navarra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MORALES, J., FLECHOSO, F., LIZANA, M., NEGRO, A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Los bivalvos dulceacuícolas son un componente importante de la ecología fluvial, fundamentalmente por el papel que desempeñan como organismos filtradores y de remoción del sedimento. Además son un grupo zoológico diverso y amenazado a escala global, en el que se incluyen algunas de las especies invasoras más dañinas. El estudio de sus poblaciones es imprescindible para conocer el estado de conservación de las comunidades bentónicas. Para esto se prospectaron 17 parcelas vadeables y 7 escolleras a lo largo de 7,38 km de meandros del río Ebro en Castejón (Navarra, tanto el cauce principal como en brazos secundarios de corriente permanente y/o temporal. El mejillón cebra Dreissena polymorpha Pallas, 1771 se encontró en 7 escolleras y 6 parcelas. El sustrato preferente fueron rocas (85%, donde la densidad resultó 0,31-5,45 mejillones/m2; el 2,6% se hallaron sobre plásticos agrícolas abandonados. En las escolleras sólo el 3,6% de los ejemplares eran juveniles y un 33% tenían una edad > 4 años. La almeja asiática Corbicula fluminea Müller, 1774 se encontró en todas las parcelas. La densidad resultó muy diferente en los tres tipos de ambientes fluviales con valores máximos de 15.100 almejas/m2, lo que constituye un nuevo máximo fluvial en Europa. Se encontraron subpoblaciones de almeja asiática con diferentes estructuras de edad según los ambientes fluviales, además de poblaciones menos numerosas en el brazo principal del río que en los otros tipos. Los resultados muestran que junto a estas especies alóctonas en expansión, con altas tasas de reclutamiento, se encuentra una estructura poblacional muy precaria para las autóctonas, de las cuales únicamente se localizaron 12 náyades vivas y ningún esférido.

  8. 蝮蛇毒介导的小鼠急性肝损伤及血清p-选择素水平的表达%Acute liver injury and expression of P-selectin in serum of mice induced by agkistrodon halys pallas venom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟哲峰; 邓立普; 陈坤

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between pathological changes of liver,serum ALT,expression of P-selectin in serum of mice and different dose of venom,the poisoning time induced by Agkistrodon Halys Pallas venom.Methods Using two -factor factorial design,72 male Kunming mice of clean grade were randomly ( random number) divided into 9 groups (n =8).As per the different doses of snake venom injected and different lengths of time after venom injected,the 9 groups were 0-dose (0.0 mg/kg) 3 hours after saline given group,0-dose 8 hours after saline given group,0-dose 24 hours after saline given group,low-dose (0.5 mg/kg) 3 hours after venom given group,low-dose 8 hours after venom given group,low-dose 24 hours after venom given,high-dose ( 1.0 mg/kg) 3 hours after venom given group,high-dose 8 hours after venom given group and high-dose 24 hours after venom given group.The pathological change of liver tissue was determined,and ALT and expression of P-selectin in serum were detected.Results In the venom given groups,the liver histopathologic scores,serum ALT value and expression of Pselectin in serum were significantly higher than those in control group ( P < 0.05 ),and those in high-dose group were higher than those in low-dose group (P < 0.05 ),and those in 8h groups were higher than those in 3h groups (P<0.05),and those in 24 h groups were higher than those in 8 h groups (P <0.05).As the dose of venom increased and the length of time after venom given extended,the liver histopathologic scores,serum ALT and expression of P-selectin in serum were higher.A positive correlation between Pselectin expression and liver histopathologic scores was found after correlation analysis ( r =0.98,P <0.05 ).Conclusions Agkistrodon snake venom can cause acute liver injury with elevated ALT and Pselectin in mice.As higher dose of venom given and longer length of time after venom given extended,more serum ALT and P-selectin are produced.Between acute liver injury and high

  9. Pallas näitab teed Tartu skulptuurile / Ahti Seppet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Seppet, Ahti, 1953-

    2006-01-01

    Näitus "Pallase skulptuur" Tartu Kunstimuuseumis. Eksponeeritakse Ferdi Sannamehe, Eduard Wiiralti, Johannes Hirve, August Vommi, Martin Saksa, Roman Timotheuse, Herman Halliste, Lydia Laasi, Alfred Leiuse, Enn Roosi jt. kunstnike töid

  10. Age determination of eland Taurotragus oryx (pallas, 1766) in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    known dates of death enabling approximate ages to be ... Varying rates of accretion and calcification of cementoid tissue around the roots 0 f ungulate teeth are responsible ..... that half the yearlings in his study group of red deer (Cer-.

  11. The earliest figures of the Blaauwbok, Hippotragus Leucophaeus (Pallas, 1766) and of the Greater Kudu, Tragelaphus Strepsiceros (Pallas, 1766)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husson, A.M.; Holthuis, L.B.

    1975-01-01

    INTRODUCTION A recent study of the lectotype specimen of the Blaauwbok (Husson & Holthuis, 1969) had awakened our interest in this South African Antilope, which became extinct around 1800. One of us got the chance to procure a copy of the 1727 Dutch edition of Peter Kolb's account of Cape of Good

  12. Home-loving boreal hare mitochondria survived several invasions in Iberia: the relative roles of recurrent hybridisation and allele surfing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo-Ferreira, J; Farelo, L; Freitas, H; Suchentrunk, F; Boursot, P; Alves, P C

    2014-03-01

    Genetic introgression from a resident species into an invading close relative can result from repeated hybridisation along the invasion front and/or allele surfing on the expansion wave. Cases where the phenomenon is massive and systematic, such as for hares (genus Lepus) in Iberia, would be best explained by recurrent hybridisation but this is difficult to prove because the donor populations are generally extinct. In the Pyrenean foothills, Lepus europaeus presumably replaced Lepus granatensis recently and the present species border is parallel to the direction of invasion, so that populations of L. granatensis in the contact zone represent proxies of existing variation before the invasion. Among three pairs of populations sampled across this border, we find less differentiation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) across than along it, as predicted under recurrent hybridisation at the invasion front. Using autosomal microsatellite loci and X- and Y-linked diagnostic loci, we show that admixture across the border is quasi-absent, making it unlikely that lack of interspecific mtDNA differentiation results from ongoing gene flow. Furthermore, we find that the local species ranges are climatically contrasted, making it also unlikely that ongoing ecology-driven movement of the contact account for mtDNA introgression. The lack of mtDNA differentiation across the boundary is mostly due to sharing of mtDNA from a boreal species currently extinct in Iberia (Lepus timidus) whose mitochondria have thus remained in place since the last deglaciation despite successive invasions by two other species. Home-loving mitochondria thus witness past species distribution rather than ongoing exchanges across stabilised contact zones.

  13. Elemental composition of game meat from Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, Kathrin; Kitzer, Roland; Goessler, Walter

    2016-06-01

    Concentrations of 26 elements (B, Na, Mg, P, S, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sb, Ba, Hg, Pb, U) in wild game meat from Austria were analysed using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. All investigated animals were culled during the hunting season 2012/2013, including 10 chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra), 9 hare (Lepus europaeus), 10 pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), 10 red deer (Cervus elaphus), 12 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and 10 wild boar (Sus scrofa). In 19 out of 61 meat samples lead concentrations were higher than 0.1 mg/kg, the maximum limit in meat as set by the European Commission (Regulation EC No 1881/2006), which is most likely caused by ammunition residues. Especially, pellet shot animals and chamois show a high risk for lead contamination. Despite ammunition residues all investigated muscle samples show no further health risk with respect to metal contamination.

  14. A preliminary investigation into the endoparasite load of the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Haigh, Amy; O'Keeffe, Joanne; O' Riordan, Ruth M; Butler, Fidelma

    2013-01-01

    The European hedgehog is strictly protected in the Republic of Ireland but has been little studied. Carcasses, such as road kill casualties, can provide valuable information on population demographics, parasite load and general body condition. This study aimed to examine the species of endoparasites present in hedgehogs, their prevalence and intensities and whether differences occurred depending on the age and sex of the hedgehog. Carcasses were collected and examined from around Ireland, ove...

  15. Gorse (Ulex europaeus) as a possible source of xylans by hydrothermal treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligero, P.; Vega, de A.; Kolk, van der J.C.; Dam, van J.E.G.

    2011-01-01

    Autocatalytic hydrothermal process conditions were used to study Ulex europæus (Gorse) as a source of xylan compounds. The aim was to study the possibilities for using this unutilised biomass material to produce xylans. Ulex is an evergreen shrub that grows in the northwest of Spain and has no econo

  16. Morphological study of the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) tongue by SEM and LM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Ghasem; Babaei, Mohammad; Hassanzadeh, Belal

    2017-02-03

    The hedgehog tongue is a tactile and taste organ which carries out various functions. Detailed functional and morphological studies are required to clearly define the relationship of the hedgehog tongue with taste, food palatability, mastication and swallowing of food, as well as the production of sounds. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the morphological characteristics of the European hedgehog tongue and the lifestyle of this animal, as well as to compare findings with the results of studies on other vertebrates. Gross and micro-anatomical light and scanning electron microscopy studies revealed that the hedgehog tongue could be divided in three areas, namely the apex, body and root. A keratinized stratified squamous epithelium, which was smooth on the ventral surface but bore four types of papillae on the dorsal surface, lined the tongue. Three types of these papillae were found to have gustatory functions and to express their activity in close relation with the salivary glands. These simple conical filiform papillae were situated caudally and distributed one after the other without a break. The dome-shaped fungiform papillae on the apex, with the highest distribution rate on the apex edge, were small, but those on the body and root were large. The three circular vallate papillae were arranged in a triangular shape. The foliate papillae with a few tiny projections, found in a shallow furrow, were situated between the root and the body. Most of the nerve fibers observed in different sections of the tongue tissue were of the unmyelinated type, confirming that the main task of the hedgehog tongue was its gustatory function.

  17. Toxoplasma gondii infection in the mountain hare (Lepus timidus) and domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). II. Early immune reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, K.; Wattrang, E.; Fossum, C.

    1997-01-01

    of the acute phase reactant haptoglobin were raised in hares but not in rabbits one week post-infection (pi), probably reflecting the severe tissue damage present. No difference in the early humoral immune response of hares and rabbits was found, both species producing IgM and IgG antibodies to T. gondii one...... week pi. Lymphocyte stimulation tests performed before and one week after inoculation showed a high proliferative response to the parasite in blood cell cultures from rabbits but not hares. The fatal outcome of T. gondii infection in the hares is probably due, at least in part, to the lack of cellular...

  18. Population dynamics, movement and home range of black-tailed jackrabbits (Lepus californicus) in Curlew Valley, northern Utah. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoddart, L.C.

    1978-12-01

    The long-term objective of the jackrabbit study in Curlew Valley, Utah and on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory was to describe observed changes in rabbit density in terms of mortality and natality rates and to relate changes in these two population parameters to variation in environmental factors. Fall rabbit density in Curlew Valley has been observed to change by a factor of 17; changes appear to be largely determined by variation in mortality rates, as shown with K-factor analysis. Mortality of the population from fall--spring is correlated with the coyote/rabbit ratio. Spring--fall adult mortality and birth-fall loss of juveniles are correlated with coyote numbers. Coyote numbers in the relationships are modified to reflect variation in coyote feeding behavior with changes in rabbit and rodent numbers as indicated by coyote food habits studies in Curlew Valley. Coyote predation rates have varied markedly between years as a result of functional and numerical responses in the coyote population. Proposed coyote predation models, which account for the entire observed jackrabbit cycle, are consistent with existing predation theory.

  19. Cristallini e misurazioni biometriche nella Lepre bianca (Lepus timidus in Provincia di Sondrio

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    Maria Ferloni

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A partire dalla stagione venatoria 2000 è stato introdotto in Provincia di Sondrio il controllo di tutti i capi di Lepre bianca abbattuti, allo scopo di effettuare valutazioni accurate del sesso, dell'età e delle misurazioni biometriche degli animali. La valutazione dell'età è stata effettuata tramite pesatura del cristallino dell'occhio e tramite palpazione del tubercolo di Stroh. Per una valutazione dell'età è stata utilizzata come riferimento la curva dei pesi di Walhovd (1965. In totale, dal 2000 al 2002, sono stati analizzati 187 esemplari di Lepre bianca (84 maschi e 103 femmine. Dei 154 capi di cui è stata valutata l'età, 54 sono risultati piccoli dell'anno e 100 adulti, di cui 57 di 1 anno e 43 di oltre due anni. Il peso di cristallino rivelatosi discriminante per distinguere tra piccoli e adulti era compreso tra 220 e 240 mg, come rilevato anche da altri autori (Flux, 1970, Walhovd, 1965. È stata inoltre individuata una buona corrispondenza tra la valutazione dell'età tramite peso del cristallino e la palpazione del tubercolo di Stroh, tecnica che ha fornito una valutazione corretta della classe d'età nell'83% degli animali analizzati. Il peso del cristallino dei piccoli ha permesso anche di determinare approssimativamente la distribuzione delle nascite nel corso dell'anno. Le misurazioni biometriche rilevate sono state: lunghezza del corpo, lunghezza della coda, lunghezza dell'orecchio destro, lunghezza del piede posteriore, peso pieno e peso vuoto. I risultati ottenuti sono stati confrontati per le diverse classi di età e di sesso tramite Analisi della Varianza (One-Way ANOVA. Le differenze principali sono emerse tra giovani e adulti, relativamente al peso (sia peso pieno sia peso vuoto e, nel 2001, anche alla lunghezza totale, entrambi maggiori negli adulti. Tra gli adulti sono emerse differenze significative anche nel peso dei due sessi, con le femmine più pesanti dei maschi. Non sono invece state rilevate differenze tra le età o i sessi in merito alle altre misure rilevate.

  20. Coleoptera, Coccinellidae, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773: New record in Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil

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    Rezende, M. Q.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Harmonia axyridis is a voracious aphid predator, which has been used in biological control programs in severalcountries. Due to its fast spreading, H. axyridis is becoming widely distributed across the world. Recently, it was detectedin Viçosa, Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. This region shows climatic similarity to its native region and it may facilitatethe establishment of H. axyridis. The species was found in some home gardens feeding on aphids and psyllids. The presenceof the lady beetle in the state of Minas Gerais confirms its high spreading potential in Brazil, reinforcing the necessity forfurther studies on the possible impacts and control methods of its populations.

  1. Effects of starvation on the carbohydrate metabolism in Harmonia axyridis (Pallas

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    Zuo-Kun Shi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Trehalose plays an important role in energy storage, metabolism, and protection from extreme environmental conditions in insects. Trehalose is the main blood sugar in insects, and it can be rapidly used as an energy source in times of need. To elucidate the mechanisms of the starvation response, we observed the effects of starvation on trehalose and glycogen, trehalase activity, and the relative gene expression of genes in the trehalose and glycogen metabolic pathways in the invasive beetle Harmonia axyridis. Our results show that trehalose levels and the activities of two types of trehalases decreased significantly in the first 8 h of starvation, while the relative expression of HaTreh1-1 increased. While trehalose remained nearly constant at a relatively high level from 8 to 24 h, glycogen levels decreased significantly from 8 h to 24 h of starvation. Likewise, glycogen phosphorylase (HaGP expression was significantly higher at 12 to 24 h starvation than the first 8 h, while the expression of glycogen synthase (HaGS was relatively stable. Furthermore, trehalose decreased significantly from 24 h starvation to 72 h starvation, while trehalase activities and the relative expression of some HaTreh genes generally increased toward the end of the starvation period. The expression of trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (HaTPS increased significantly, supporting the increase in trehalose synthesis. These results show that trehalose plays a key role in the energy provided during the starvation process through the molecular and biochemical regulation of trehalose and glycogen metabolism.

  2. Effects of starvation on the carbohydrate metabolism in Harmonia axyridis (Pallas)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zuo-Kun Shi; Su Wang; Shi-Gui Wang; Lu Zhang; Yan-Xia Xu; Xiao-Jun Guo; Fan Zhang; Bin Tang

    2017-01-01

    ... and glycogen metabolic pathways in the invasive beetle Harmonia axyridis. Our results show that trehalose levels and the activities of two types of trehalases decreased significantly in the first 8...

  3. [Morphological variability of Microtus oeconomus pallas (Rodentia, Rrvicolidae) from Baikal region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozdniakov, A A; Litvinov, Iu N; Demidovich, P A

    2006-01-01

    The analysis of morphological variability of the ten samples of Microtus oeconomus from islands of Baikal and adjacent regions gas shown, that island samples differ from continental ones by complex of parameters, defining proportions of a skuul, mainly, proportions of an auditory region. Island samples also differ higher indexes of complexity and asymmetry of morphotypes of the third upper molar. An environment of the Baikal islands differ absence of the damp habitats preferred Microtus oeconomus, and also colder microclimate that has caused forming original morphological character of island micropopulations.

  4. Acute toxicity of alpha-cypermethrin to guppy (Poecilia reticulata, Pallas, 1859).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Mehmet; Gül, Ali; Erbaşli, Kazim

    2004-07-01

    Alpha-cypermethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide used to control pests in domestic, industrial and agricultural situations. Adult male guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata standard test species) were selected for the bioassay experiments. The experiments were performed in four series and the 96-h LC50 value was determined for guppies. The acute toxicity experiments were carried out by static method and behavioral changes in guppies were determined for each alpha-cypermethrin (98% technical grade) concentration. Data obtained from the alpha-cypermethrin investigation were evaluated by the use of probit analysis statistical method and the 96-h LC50 value for guppy was estimated as 9.43 microg/l.

  5. Development and population growth of Hydra viridissima Pallas, 1766 (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa in the laboratory

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    FC. Massaro

    Full Text Available Hydras, the most representative freshwater Cnidaria, are of common occurrence in bodies of water in every continent except Antarctica. This study was planned with the aim of maintaining a population of Hydra viridissima in laboratory culture to enable the determination of the individual and population growth-rates of this species, as well as its population doubling time and generation time, with a view to employing these common animals as test-organisms in ecotoxicological assays. The organisms were maintained in reconstituted water at 20 ± 2 °C, illuminated at 800 lux with a photoperiod of 12 hours light: 12 hours dark, and were fed on neonates of the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia silvestrii (3 or 4 neonates per hydra, 3 times a week. The individual growth-rate (k of the species was 0.43, the maximum length of the column 2.53 mm and the generation time 6.6 ± 1.5 days on average. The hydra population showed an intrinsic growth-rate (r of 0.0468, according to the fitted curve, and a doubling time of 14.8 ± 2.63 days. Hydra viridissima is easy to grow in the laboratory and performs well in the conditions used in this study. It is thus a promising candidate test-organism for ecotoxicological studies.

  6. Kärdla VIII b kangutas lahti kultuuriukse Leisi / Anu Pallas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pallas, Anu, 1960-

    2001-01-01

    Kärdla Keskkooli kaheksas b klass sõitis Leisi, et mängida kooliteatrite peapreemia saanud etendust "Oleme viieteistaastased ehk üks päev kaheksandas bees". Merle Karusoo lavaloo "Oleme kolmeteistkümne aastased" ja Kärdla kooli 8b klassi esseede põhjal oli tüki kokku ja lavale seadnud Koit Randus

  7. Eco-physiology, mass production and larvaebreeding potentialities of the fresh water rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus Pallas

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    Awaïss, A.

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available In veterinary medicine of african tradition in Kivu and Kibali-lturi (Zaire, we have identified 32 medicinal plants used alone or in association at the time of verminosis, diarrhea, coprostasis and meteorism. The parts of the plant intervene in the following proportions : leaves (59 %, fruits and seeds (12 %, whole plant (12 %, stems barks (9 %, roots, rhizoms and tubers (5 %, roots'barks (3 %. After maceration (51 % of cases, decoction (25 % or without modification (20 %, the way of administration is oral in 90 % of cases and anal in 10 % of cases. Our data led us to suggest that plants previously submitted to a pharmacological screening could be introduced and maintained by management technics of paturages before pharmacotechnical studies or industrial production of medicaments.

  8. Environmental regulation of mitochondria-rich cells in Chalcalburnus tarichi (Pallas, 1811) during reproductive migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oğuz, Ahmet R

    2013-03-01

    Chalcalburnus tarichi is an anadromous cyprinid fish that has adapted to extreme conditions (salinity 22 ‰, pH 9.8 and alkalinity 153 mEq × l⁻¹) in Lake Van in eastern Turkey. Changes in immunoreactivity of Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase in gill tissue and osmolarity and ion levels in plasma were investigated in C. tarichi during reproductive migration. Physicochemical characteristics and ion levels in Lake Van were high compared freshwater. Plasma osmolality and plasma ion concentrations ([Na⁺], [K⁺] and [Cl⁻]) increased after transfer from freshwater to Lake Van. The mitochondria-rich (MR) cells of the gill were stained in both filament and lamellar epithelia of C. tarichi by immunocytochemistry with a specific antiserum for Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase in river fish samples. Density and area of MR cells were decreased in lake-adapted fishes. These results indicated that freshwater acclimation capacity is correlated with the size and distribution of MR cells in C. tarichi, in contrast to many teleost fishes.

  9. Kärdla VIII b kangutas lahti kultuuriukse Leisi / Anu Pallas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pallas, Anu, 1960-

    2001-01-01

    Kärdla Keskkooli kaheksas b klass sõitis Leisi, et mängida kooliteatrite peapreemia saanud etendust "Oleme viieteistaastased ehk üks päev kaheksandas bees". Merle Karusoo lavaloo "Oleme kolmeteistkümne aastased" ja Kärdla kooli 8b klassi esseede põhjal oli tüki kokku ja lavale seadnud Koit Randus

  10. Development and population growth of Hydra viridissima Pallas, 1766 (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, F C; Rocha, O

    2008-05-01

    Hydras, the most representative freshwater Cnidaria, are of common occurrence in bodies of water in every continent except Antarctica. This study was planned with the aim of maintaining a population of Hydra viridissima in laboratory culture to enable the determination of the individual and population growth-rates of this species, as well as its population doubling time and generation time, with a view to employing these common animals as test-organisms in ecotoxicological assays. The organisms were maintained in reconstituted water at 20 +/- 2 degrees C, illuminated at 800 lux with a photoperiod of 12 hours light: 12 hours dark, and were fed on neonates of the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia silvestrii (3 or 4 neonates per hydra, 3 times a week). The individual growth-rate (k) of the species was 0.43, the maximum length of the column 2.53 mm and the generation time 6.6 +/- 1.5 days on average. The hydra population showed an intrinsic growth-rate (r) of 0.0468, according to the fitted curve, and a doubling time of 14.8 +/- 2.63 days. Hydra viridissima is easy to grow in the laboratory and performs well in the conditions used in this study. It is thus a promising candidate test-organism for ecotoxicological studies.

  11. Molecular and morphological characterization of the tapeworm Taenia hydatigena (Pallas, 1766) in sheep from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, S; Salavati, R; Beech, R N; Babaei, Z; Sharbatkhori, M; Baneshi, M R; Hajialilo, E; Shad, H; Harandi, M F

    2015-03-01

    Although Taenia hydatigena is one of the most prevalent taeniid species of livestock, very little molecular genetic information exists for this parasite. Up to 100 sheep isolates of T. hydatigena were collected from 19 abattoirs located in the provinces of Tehran, Alborz and Kerman. A calibrated microscope was used to measure the larval rostellar hook lengths. Following DNA extraction, fragments of cytochrome c oxidase 1 (CO1) and 12S rRNA genes were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction method and the amplicons were subjected to sequencing. The mean total length of large and small hooks was 203.4 μm and 135.9 μm, respectively. Forty CO1 and 39 12S rRNA sequence haplotypes were obtained in the study. The levels of pairwise nucleotide variation between individual haplotypes of CO1 and 12S rRNA genes were determined to be between 0.3-3.4% and 0.2-2.1%, respectively. The overall nucleotide variation among all the CO1 haplotypes was 9.7%, and for all the 12S rRNA haplotypes it was 10.1%. A significant difference was observed between rostellar hook morphometry and both CO1 and 12S rRNA sequence variability. A significantly high level of genetic variation was observed in the present study. The results showed that the 12S rRNA gene is more variable than CO1.

  12. Ten years of invasion: Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Helen E; Brown, Peter M J

    2015-08-01

    1. Harmonia axyridis was first recorded in Britain in 2004. Two subsequent earlier records were received from 2003. 2. The UK Ladybird Survey, a citizen science initiative involving online recording, was launched in 2005 to encourage people across Britain to track the spread of H. axyridis. Tens of thousands of people have provided records of H. axyridis and other species of ladybirds, creating an invaluable dataset for large-scale and long-term research. Declines in the distribution of seven (of eight assessed) native species of ladybird have been demonstrated, and correlated with the arrival of H. axyridis, using the records collated through the UK Ladybird Survey. 3. Experimental research and field surveys have also contributed to our understanding of the ecology of H. axyridis and particularly the process of invasion. Harmonia axyridis arrived in Britain through dispersal and introduction events from regions in which it was deliberately released as a biological control agent. The rapid spread of this species has been attributed to its high natural dispersal capability by means of both flight and anthropogenic transport. A number of factors have contributed to the successful establishment and indeed dominance of this polymorphic species within aphidophagous guilds, including high reproductive capacity, intra-guild predation, eurytopic nature, high resistance to natural enemies within the invaded range, and potentially phenotypic plasticity. 4. The global invasion by H. axyridis and subsequent research on this species has contributed to the general understanding of biological invasions.

  13. The potential of different fruit species as food for Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773 (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Fediuk de Castro Guedes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Harmonia axyridis was detected for the first time in Brazil in 2002. Since then, it has been recorded from the South to the Midwest of the country. Until now, almost all the registered cases were associated with the presence of aphids, its preferred source of food. Due to the occurrence of this species in areas of fruit growing in the South and Southeast of Brazil, the aim of this study was to analyze the preference and use of three different cultivars of fruit. The tests were set at 25ºC ± 1ºC, RH 70% ± 10%, and in a photophase of 12 h and with apples (Gala and Fuji, grapes (Niágara and Rubi, and pears (Williams and Asian. In the undamaged fruit experiment, the insects did not cause any noticeable damage. In the damaged and undamaged fruit experiment, a higher and statistically significant percentage of H. axyridis adults were found in the three damaged fruits. In the different cultivar experiment the Niágara grape, the Gala apple, and the Williams pear were significantly preferred by H. axyridis adults. These results may help in the management of this insect, preventing damage, which have been observed in other places where H. axyridis was introduced.

  14. Application of grain baits to control common vole Microtus arvalis (Pallas, 1778 in alfalfa crops, Serbia

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    Jokić G.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to compare the efficacies of conventional (cholecalciferol and bromadiolone and new (sodium selenite rodenticides, applied in the grain bait formulation on the whole-grain of wheat (Triticum aestivum and triticale (Triticasecale in alfalfa crops, experiments were conducted at two sites near Belgrade, Serbia, in the spring of 2009, using a standard EPPO method. The presence of rodent populations, their spatial distribution and density indices were evaluated by pretreatment census and rodenticide efficacy by counting active holes, 14 and 28 days after treatment. The average Microtus arvalis numbers of 158/ha and 184/ha were found to cause 7.4% and 9.6% alfalfa green biomass yield decreases, respectively. Twenty-eight days after treatment, the average efficacy of grain bait formulation (on wheat and triticale grains of sodium selenite and cholecalciferol was 81%, while bromadiolone which had a higher efficiency, 85%, in the control of the common vole in alfalfa crops. The analysis of variance (ANOVA showed that the origin of active substances, bases and associated interactions a.s x based on the efficacy-investigated grain baits did not have a statistically significant impact on the expression efficiency of the tested baits. Triticale grains can be used as carriers of active substances, sodium selenite, cholecalciferol or bromadiolone in preparation baits. Control of M. arvalis with the new rodenticide, sodium selenite, gave efficacy results about equal to that of cholecalciferol and bromadiolone and, therefore, provided a possible alternative rodenticide for vole control in alfalfa.

  15. Diplectanids (Monogenea) on the archerfish Toxotes jaculatrix (Pallas) (Toxotidae) off Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, L H S

    2006-05-01

    Two new and two previously described species of diplectanid monogeneans (Heteroplectanum flabelliforme n. sp., Diplectanum sumpit n. sp., D. jaculator Mizelle & Kritsky, 1969 and D. toxotes Mizelle & Kritsky, 1969) were collected from archerfish Toxotes jaculatrix off the Island of Langkawi, Kedah and off Perak, Malaysia. The reproductive systems and squamodiscs of D. jaculator and D. toxotes are described for the first time. D. sumpit n. sp. differs from D. toxotes and D. jaculator in a having a small curved copulatory tube with a distinct accessory piece, compared to the long, tubular copulatory tube of D. jaculator and the slender tube of D. toxotes. D. sumpit n. sp. also differs from D. toxotes in having a larger ventral bar and larger squamodiscs. H. flabelliforme n. sp. differs from all known Heteroplectanum species in the shape and size of the squamodiscs, the arrangement of the sclerites in the squamodiscs, the extremely large ventral bar and the short, curved, non-spinous copulatory tube.

  16. Complete mitochondrial genome of the amphidromous, red-tailed goby Sicyopterus lagocephalus (Pallas) (Teleostei, Gobiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Tzen-Yuh; Chen, I-Shiung; Lin, Hung-Du; Hsiao, Sheng-Tai; Ju, Yu-Min

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the complete mitogenome of the amphidromous, red-tailed goby, Sicyopterus lagocephalus has been amplified and sequenced by long polymerase chain reaction. This mitochondrial genome consists of 16,500 bp, with 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and a non-coding control region (CR), and its gene arrangement is identical to those of most vertebrates. The CR (841 bp) is located between tRNA(Pro) and tRNA(Phe). The overall base composition of the heavy strand is A, 28.9%; G, 16.4%; C, 28.3%; and T, 26.4%, with a slight AT bias of 55.3%. The complete mitogenomic data may provide more informative for phylogenetic approach for gobioid phylogeny especially for Sicydiine gobies.

  17. A molecular comparison of Alaskan and North East Atlantic Halicondria panicea (Pallas 1766) (Porifera: Demospongiae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erpenbeck, Dirk; Knowlton, Anne L.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Highsmith, Ray C.; van Soest, Rob W.M.

    2004-01-01

    The intraspecific relationships between populations of Alaskan Halichondria cf. panicea are the subjects of ongoing research. In this study we compare CO1 sequences of Alaskan Halichondria cf. panicea with North East Atlantic Halichondria panicea and its sister species Halichondria bowerbanki. Alaskan Halichondria cf. panicea form a well-supported sister group to the European Halichondria panicea/ H. bowerbanki species complex in the resulting gene tree and cluster distantly from their European conspecifics.

  18. 28. juunil pidas kunstiühing Pallas Tartu Kirjanduse Majas oma korralise peakoosoleku...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Uue juhatuse (esimees Enn Lillemets) ja revisjonikomisjoni koosseis. Auliikmeks valiti Leida Rüga, kinnitati kirjavahetajaliikmeks Anu-Leenu Uustalu, tegevliikmeiks Ülle Kruus, Kadri Siibak, Katrin Tukmann, Leili Voll

  19. On the presence of Rana ridibunda ridibunda Pallas in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.

    1975-01-01

    Since long there has been a dispute whether in the Netherlands there occur one or two species of green frogs of the genus Rana. There has never been any doubt concerning the presence of Rana esculenta Linnaeus, a species widely distributed throughout the country (Van de Bund, 1964, 1968). The first

  20. Osteologia e miologia cranianas de Eurypyga helias (Pallas, 1781) (Gruiformes: Eurypygidae) comparada com outros Gruiformes.

    OpenAIRE

    Marceliano, Maria Luiza Videira; Donatelli, Reginaldo José; POSSO,SÉRGIO ROBERTO

    2007-01-01

    O estudo da osteologia e da miologia do pavãozinho-do-pará pode dar uma idéia da possível relação entre os Eurypygidae e os demais Gruiformes. A análise foi realizada com base em 66 espécimes de aves pertencentes às famílias Aramidae ( Aramus guarauna), Psophiidae ( Psophia crepitans, Psophia leucoptera, Psophia viridis, Psophia viridis obscura) , Rallidae ( Laterallus exilis, Gallinula martinica), Heliornithidae ( Heliornis fulica) e Eurypygidae ( Eurypyga helias). As descrições ...

  1. Biology of Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas, 1772 (Acari: Ixodidae on some laboratory hosts in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Sobreira Rodrigues

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The ixodid Amblyomma aureolatum is suspected to play a role in the epidemiology of wild life-cycle hemoparasites, which frequently infect dogs in rural and hunting areas in Brazil. Little is known about its bionomics. The objective of the present study was to evaluate some bionomic aspects of A. aureolatum ticks in Brazil. One engorged female, collected from a dog (Canis familiaris in São Sebastião das Águas Claras, State of Minas Gerais, was used to establish a colony in the laboratory. Subsequently its parasitic stage progeny were fed on domestic dogs and laboratory animals. The free-living stages were incubated at 27ºC ± 2°C and minimum 70% relative humidity in a BOD incubator. The egg incubation period ranged from 31 to 34 days; the parasitic period of larvae ranged from 4 to 6 days and ecdysis to nymphs occurred from day 19 up to day 22. The parasitic period of nymphs ranged from 5 to 8 days and the period of ecdysis to adults from 31 to 33 days. The parasitic period of adults ranged from 11 to 15 days, the pre-oviposition period from 6 to 12 days, and the oviposition period from 9 to 38 days. The total duration of the life cycle ranged from 116 to 168 days.

  2. Streptomyces atlanticus sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from marine sponge Aplysina fulva (Pallas, 1766).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Fábio Sérgio Paulino; Souza, Danilo Tosta; Zucchi, Tiago Domingues; Pansa, Camila Cristiane; de Figueiredo Vasconcellos, Rafael Leandro; Crevelin, Eduardo José; de Moraes, Luiz Alberto Beraldo; Melo, Itamar Soares

    2016-11-01

    The taxonomic position of a novel marine actinomycete isolated from a marine sponge, Aplysina fulva, which had been collected in the Archipelago of Saint Peter and Saint Paul (Equatorial Atlantic Ocean), was determined by using a polyphasic approach. The organism showed a combination of morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics consistent with its classification in the genus Streptomyces and forms a distinct branch within the Streptomyces somaliensis 16S rRNA gene tree subclade. It is closely related to Streptomyces violascens ISP 5183(T) (97.27 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Streptomyces hydrogenans NBRC 13475(T) (97.15 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). The 16S rRNA gene similarities between the isolate and the remaining members of the subclade are lower than 96.77 %. The organism can be distinguished readily from other members of the S. violacens subclade using a combination of phenotypic properties. On the basis of these results, it is proposed that isolate 103(T) (=NRRL B-65309(T) = CMAA 1378(T)) merits recognition as the type strain of a new Streptomyces species, namely Streptomyces atlanticus sp. nov.

  3. Colony size, sex ratio and cohabitation in roosts of Phyllostomus hastatus (Pallas (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LM. Costa

    Full Text Available Phyllostomus hastatus bat is species broadly distributed over the Neotropical region, which uses as diurnal roosts caves, hollow trees, palm leaves and human buildings. Thirteen diurnal roosts of P. hastatus were analysed from 1990 to 2009 in several localities of Rio de Janeiro State, regarding environment (rural, urban or protected area, type of roost (hollow tree, basement or roof, sex ratio and cohabitation. A nocturnal roost was also analysed. Sex ratio of P. hastatus varied considerably among roosts what may be explained by the fact this species can roost alone, in couples, in harems or in groups of bachelor males. Phyllostomus hastatus was observed in cohabitation with three other species: Molossus rufus, Molossus molossus and Myotis nigricans. Due to the frequency of cohabitation observed between P. hastatus and species of the genus Molossus, one or more advantages for the members of this association may be expected. The simultaneous usage of a feeding roost by a group of bachelor males is unknown information in the literature, and may suggest that this kind of group may interact with each other even when away from their diurnal roosts.

  4. Effect of sea buckthorn and vitamin E on growth performance of Acipenser stellatus (Pallas 1771 juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Georgiana Dorojan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Addition of natural additives (prebiotics, probiotics, phytobiotics in fish feed is a benefic method because it leads to improved growth performance of fish reared in intensive production systems. Sea buckthorn is one of the most commonly phytobiotics used in aquaculture because of its antioxidant, antimicrobial, immunostimulant, anti-stress, cytoprotective, liver and tissue regeneration properties. Sea buckthorn berries are rich in vitamins (B, C, E and K, flavonoids, carotenoids, tocopherols and many volatile compounds. In this context the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary vitamin E (500 mg/kg diet and sea buckthorn on growth performance and survival of the A. stellatus juveniles reared in a recirculating aquaculture system. The experiment took place in the recirculating pilot system of “Dunărea de Jos” University of Galați. In order to emphasize the influence of the above mentioned immunostimulants on sevruga fingerlings with different genetic background, four experimental groups from different genitors (V1: ♀2 Danube x ♂1 Aquaculture, V2: ♀1 Danube x ♂1 Danube, V3: ♀1 Danube x ♂2 Aquaculture and V4: ♀2 Danube x ♂2 Danube have been used. At the end of the experiment no significant differences (p>0.05 were observed in terms of final mean weight, individual growth rate, SGR, FCR, PER, between the sevruga fingerlings obtained from wild genitors, comparing with those obtained from aquaculture genitors.

  5. Bioconcentration and localization of lead in the freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus Pallas 1677 (Rotifera: Monogononta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarado-Flores, Jesus, E-mail: jalvaflo@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Aguascalientes, Centro de Ciencias Basicas, Departamento de Quimica, Avenida Universidad 940, Aguascalientes, Ags., CP 20131 (Mexico); Rico-Martinez, Roberto, E-mail: rrico@correo.uaa.mx [Universidad Autonoma de Aguascalientes, Centro de Ciencias Basicas, Departamento de Quimica, Avenida Universidad 940, Aguascalientes, Ags., CP 20131 (Mexico); Ventura-Juarez, Javier, E-mail: jventur@correo.uaa.mx [Universidad Autonoma de Aguascalientes, Centro de Ciencias Basicas, Departamento de Morfologia, Avenida Universidad 940, Aguascalientes, Ags., CP 20131 (Mexico); Silva-Briano, Marcelo, E-mail: msilva@correo.uaa.mx [Universidad Autonoma de Aguascalientes, Centro de Ciencias Basicas, Departamento de Biologia, Avenida Universidad 940, Aguascalientes, Ags., CP 20131 (Mexico); Rubio-Franchini, Isidoro, E-mail: rubio_reyes@hotmail.com [Instituto de Servicios de Salud del Estado de Aguascalientes, Laboratorio Estatal de Salud Publica, Av. Siglo XXI 105, Ciudad Satelite Morelos, C.P. 20270, Aguascalientes, Ags. (Mexico)

    2012-03-15

    We studied how lead is bioconcentrated and distributed in the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus using metal histochemistry to locate lead granules, Leadmium Green{sup Registered-Sign} analysis to establish the route of uptake, atomic absorption to determined the bioconcentration factor (BCF), and detected the presence of microelements in the cuticle by X-ray microanalysis with scanning electron microscopy. Our results indicate: (a) the digestive system is the main route of lead uptake in the rotifer B. calyciflorus, (b) after 24-h lead is deposited in granules in the mastax and vitellarium, (c) our energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis indicates decalcification taking place in the cuticle of the rotifer after a 24-h lead exposure, and (d) we determined a BCF = 115 for lead after a 24 h exposure. However, the route of mobilization and storage of intracellular lead are still not fully understood in B. calyciflorus.

  6. Density and habitat requirements of sympatric hares and cottontails in northern Italy

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    Anna Vidus Rosin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract From 2005 to 2009, densities and habitat selection by the European hare (Lepus europaeus and Eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus were assessed during feeding activity in an intensively cultivated area in northern Italy. Hare average density (74 ind./km2 was comparable to the highest values reported for European farming areas. Preand post-breeding density fluctuated widely across the study years, probably as a consequence of changes in the carrying capacity of the study area. Cottontail population size progressively increased, as expected for a recently introduced species supported by high reproductive performances. Hares used both crops and spontaneous vegetation during their feeding activity. Conversely, cottontails avoided winter cereals and preferred to feed on alfalfa. Our results suggest that simplified agro-ecosystems cannot maintain high density hare populations even at a short time scale. Landscape heterogeneity could enhance the chances of coexistence between the two lagomorphs.
    Riassunto Densità ed esigenze ecologiche della lepre e del silvilago in condizioni di simpatria in Italia settentrionale Tra il 2005 e il 2009, la densità e l’uso del habitat durante l’attività di alimentazione da parte della Lepre europea (Lepus europaeus e del Silvilago (Sylvilagus floridanus sono stati indagati in un’area intensamente coltivata nell’Italia settentrionale. La densità media della lepre nell’area di studio (74 ind./km2 corrisponde ai valori maggiori riportati per le aree agricole europee. Le densità pre- e post riproduttive della lepre hanno mostrato sensibili fluttuazioni durante il periodo di studio, probabilmente dovute ai cambiamenti stagionali della capacità portante dell’area di studio. L’abbondanza del silvilago è aumentata durante gli ultimi tre anni di studio, come prevedibile per una

  7. Serological Evidence of Infection by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum (Synonym: Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi) in Free-Ranging Wild Mammals in a Nonendemic Region of the State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiz, Laís Moraes; Fornazari, Felipe; Menozzi, Benedito Donizete; Oliveira, Gabriela Capriogli; Coiro, Carla Janeiro; Teixeira, Carlos Roberto; da Silva, Valdinei Moraes Campanucci; Donalisio, Maria Rita; Langoni, Helio

    2015-11-01

    Concerns about the interface between wildlife, domestic animals, and humans in the transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) have been growing due to natural or anthropogenic environmental changes. In this context, investigations of the infection in wild mammals are important to assess their exposure to the vector and the parasite. A study of anti-Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum antibodies was carried out using the direct agglutination test (DAT) on 528 free-ranging wild mammals of 38 species from the region of Botucatu, state of São Paulo, Brazil, a municipality that has no records of the vector or of human or canine autochthony. Antibodies were detected, with a cutoff of 1:320, in 9/528 (1.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.6-2.8%) mammals of the species Callithrix jacchus, Lepus europaeus, Sphiggurus villosus, Nasua nasua, Eira barbara, and Galictis cuja, with high titers (≥1280) for the last three. These three are little-studied species, and previous records of the detection of anti-Leishmania spp. antibodies in Brazil exist only for coatis (N. nasua), whereas worldwide, infection by L. (L.) infantum has been confirmed only in hares (Le. europaeus). On the other hand, opossums and canids, the species most commonly reported to be naturally infected by L. (L.) infantum, were not seropositive. Fifty-eight (58/528; 10.9%) mammals were found to have antibody titers ranging from 20 to 160 and were not included among the seropositive animals due to the adopted cutoff. However, the possibility of infection in these animals should not be discarded, because there is no standard cutoff point for the different wild species. Our findings indicate the need for investigations into the exact role of the seropositive species in the epidemiology of VL and for effective epidemiological surveillance to prevent its expansion, because even in regions where there are no records of canine or human autochthonous cases, there may be parasite circulation among wild mammals.

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese hare [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pus_brachyurus_L.png Lepus_brachyurus_NL.png Lepus_brachyurus_S.png Lepus_brachyurus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Lepus+brachyurus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lepus...+brachyurus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lepus+brachyuru...s&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lepus+brachyurus&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=138 ...

  9. Molecular characterization of fossil organic matter in Glyptostrobus europaeus remains from the Orawa basin (Poland). Comparison of pyrolytic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almendros, G.; Dorado, J.; Gonzalez-Vila, F.J.; Martin, F.; Sanz, J.; Alvarez-Ramis, C.; Stuchlik, L. [CSIC, Madrid (Spain). Centro de Ciencias Medioambientales

    1999-05-01

    Pyrolytic methods (standard Curie-point pyrolysis and pyrolysis in the presence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH), followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry), were used to analyze the organic composition of Glyptostrobus (Taxodiaceae) remains from the Miocene deposits of Lipnica Mala (Poland), consisting of branches with their leaves. The pyrolytic analysis revealed a series of aromatic compounds with a large proportion of guaiacyl-type lignin markers (including intact C{sub 3}-methoxyphenols), and small quantities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The alkyl compounds included fatty acid series where the C{sub 14}-C{sub 18} homologues dominated as well as additional amounts of alkanes and alkenes (maximum ca. C{sub 21}). The results suggest that lignin as well as protective epicuticular lipid polymers (including cutin and other long chain-based polyalkyl structures) selectively show the greatest degree of molecular preservation in the Glyptostrobus remains. The comparison between pyrolytic methods shows that the lignin-derived aromatic assemblages predominate in the chromatograms after conventional pyrolysis whereas thermochemolysis with TMAH leads to an `aliphatic enhancement`. This latter technique was found to be the best for analysis of the lipid signature in fossil samples with condensed polymethylene networks. 44 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus as a Source of Ectoparasites in Urban-suburban Areas of Northwest of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Hajipour

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hedgehogs are small, nocturnal mammals which become popular in the world and have important role in transmission of zoonotic agents. Thus, the present study aimed to survey ectoparasite infestation from April 2010 to December 2011 in urban and suburban parts of Urmia and Tabriz Cities, Northwest of Iran.Methods: A total number of 84 hedgehogs (40 females and 44 males were examined. They have been carefully inspected for ectoparasites and collected arthropods were stored in 70% ethanol solution. The identification of arthropods was carried out using morphological diagnostic keys.Results: The occurrence of ticks on hedgehogs was 23 (67.7% with Rhipicephalus turanicus in Urmia and 11 (22% as well as 1(2% with Rh. turanicus and Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum in Tabriz, respectively. One flea species, Archaeopsylla erinacei, was found with prevalence of 19 (55.9% and 27 (54% in Urmia and Tabriz Cities, respectively. Prevalence of infestation with Rh. turanicus and A. erinacei were not different (P> 0.05 between sexes of hedgehogs in two study areas. Highest prevalence of tick and flea infestation was in June in Urmia, whereas it was observed in August in Tabriz. Both tick and flea parasitizing hedgehogs showed seasonal difference in prevalence (P< 0.05 in Urmia, but it was not detected in Tabriz (P> 0.05.Conclusion: The result showed the high occurrence of ectoparasites in hedgehog population and according to the zoonotic potential of these animals as vector of some agents further studies are needed to investigate in different parts of Iran.

  11. Spatio-temporal dynamics of tularemia in French wildlife: 2002-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moinet, Marie; Decors, Anouk; Mendy, Christiane; Faure, Eva; Durand, Benoit; Madani, Nora

    2016-08-01

    Tularemia, caused by Francisella tularensis, is endemic in France. The surveillance of this disease in wildlife is operated by the SAGIR Network and by the National Reference Laboratory for Tularemia. Wild animals found dead or dying collected by the SAGIR network are necropsied and when tularemia is suspected culture and/or PCR are performed to confirm the diagnosis. The aim of this study was to present the results of tularemia surveillance in wildlife and to investigate the spatial and temporal pattern of tularemia observed between the 2002-2003 and 2012-2013 hunting seasons in French wildlife. Fourty-one to 121 cases were collected each hunting season for a total of 693 confirmed cases and 46 additional suspected cases. The main species affected was the European Brown Hare (Lepus europaeus) but 4 rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), 2 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and one wild boar (Sus scrofa) were also found positive. The Standard Mortality Ratio was mapped and Kulldorff's retrospective space-time scan statistic was implemented and allowed the detection of several clusters: the nationwide outbreak of 2007-2008; 2 clusters in northern and central-western France in high hare-abundance areas and another in North-eastern France where the abundance of hares is low. Our results confirm the usefulness of brown hare as a sentinel of environmental risk.

  12. Bovine Tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) in Wildlife in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranaz, Alicia; de Juan, Lucía; Montero, Natalia; Sánchez, Celia; Galka, Margarita; Delso, Consuelo; Álvarez, Julio; Romero, Beatriz; Bezos, Javier; Vela, Ana I.; Briones, Victor; Mateos, Ana; Domínguez, Lucas

    2004-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis infection in wildlife and feral species is a potential source of infection for livestock and a threat to protected and endangered species. The aim of this study was to identify Spanish wild animal species infected with M. bovis through bacteriological culture and spacer oligonucleotide typing (spoligotyping) of isolates for epidemiological purposes. This study included samples from red deer (Cervus elaphus), fallow deer (Dama dama), wild boar (Sus scrofa), Iberian lynx (Lynx pardina), hare (Lepus europaeus), and cattle (Bos taurus). They were collected in several geographical areas that were selected for their unique ecological value and/or known relationships between wildlife and livestock. In the areas included in this survey, M. bovis strains with the same spoligotyping pattern were found infecting several wild species and livestock, which indicates an epidemiological link. A locally predominant spoligotype was found in these areas. Better understanding of the transmission and distribution of disease in these populations will permit more precise targeting of control measures. PMID:15184440

  13. Medium and large sized mammal assemblages in coastal dunes and adjacent marshes in southern Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i1.11705

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Resende Secchi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents data on species composition and use of habitat of medium and large sized mammal assemblages in a coastal dunes segment and adjacent marshes at Rio Grande municipality, southern Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Records were obtained through visualization of living animals and identification of footprints, feces and remains. From November 2007 to September 2008, nine 600 m long and 5 m wide linear transects were settled on coastal dunes segment (frontal and intermediate dunes and adjacent marshes, parallel to ocean shore on a 23 km section at Cassino Beach. Transects were settled in areas under high, medium and low levels of anthropic occupancy (A1, A2 and A3, respectively, being three transects on each area. Fourteen species were recorded, distributed in five orders and 10 families. Lepus europaeus was the most frequent species (81.9% of the transect walks, present in all areas and seasons, followed by Lycalopex gimnocercus (23.5% and Conepatus chinga (10.3%.  Five species were present on A1, seven on A2 and fourteen on A3. Seven species were recorded on frontal dunes, nine on intermediate dunes and 13 on adjacent marshes.  

  14. Conducta de forrajeo del gastrópodo Acanthina monodon Pallas, 1774 (Gastropoda: Muricidae en el intermareal rocoso de Chile central Foraging behavior of the gastropod Acanthina monodon Pallas, 1774 (Gastropoda: Muricidae in the intertidal rocky shores of central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUBÉN E. SOTO

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo investigamos aspectos de la ecología y conducta de forrajeo de Acanthina monodon, un gastrópodo murícido que habita en el intermareal rocoso de Chile central. En terreno, estudiamos las variaciones temporales en su distribución, densidad y dieta. En el laboratorio, cuantificamos la tasa de consumo, las preferencias alimentarias, el tiempo de ingestión y la rentabilidad energética obtenida con distintos tipos de presas mediante experimentos y registros en video. Las mayores densidades de individuos de A. monodon fueron observadas en la franja intermareal cercana al nivel cero de marea. En terreno, A. monodon realiza sus actividades de forrajeo principalmente durante la noche y su dieta consistió principalmente de mitílidos (95 % y cirripedios (5 %. La composición de la dieta de A. monodon en terreno presentó variaciones temporales las cuales dependerían principalmente de cambios en la oferta de los distintos tipos de mitílidos presentes en terreno durante los dos años de muestreo. En el laboratorio, los individuos de Acanthina presentaron preferencias alimentarias significativas por el mitílido Semimytilus algosus. En general, A. monodon bajo condiciones de laboratorio presentó una conducta de forrajeo en la cual maximizó la ganancia neta de energía, mediante la selección de las especies y tamaños de presas que le retribuyen la mayor rentabilidad energéticaWe investigated the ecology and foraging behavior of Acanthina monodon, a muricid gastropod that inhabits in the intertidal rocky shores of central Chile. In the field, we studied temporal variation of their spatial distribution, density, and diet composition. While in the laboratory, we quantified the consumption rate, alimentary preferences, ingestion times and energy profitability obtained with different types of prey using experiments and video recording. High densities of A. monodon individuals were observed in the intertidal fringe near at the level tide zero. In the field, A. monodon actively foraged at night preying mainly on mussels (95 % and barnacles (5 %. Temporal variation in diet composition of A. monodon was caused mostly by changes in the cover of different mussel species during the two years of sampling. In the laboratory, individual of A. monodon showed significant preference for the mussel Semimytilus algosus. In these experiments, A. monodon's foraging behavior maximized the net gain of energy by selecting species and sizes of prey that provided the greatest energy profitability

  15. Parasitic helminths of small mammals in Elba Island

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    Alexis Ribas

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the helminth fauna of small mammals (Rodentia and Insectivora in the mediterranean island of Elba (Italy. We first performed a survey of the parasitic helminths of Rattus rattus (L., 1758, Mus domesticus (Schwarz & Schwarz, 1943 (Rodentia, Murinae, Crocidura suaveolens (Pallas, 1811 (Insectivora, Soricidae and Erinaceus europaeus L., 1758 (Insectivora, Erinaceidae. An expedition was undertaken in January 2002 making an helminth faunistic study of: 14 R. rattus; 11 M. domesticus; 2 C. suaveolens and 1 E. europaeus. A total of 28 animals were trapped at seven stations and nine helminth species were detected: Corrigia vitta Dujardin, 1845 (Dicrocoelidae, Brachylaima erinacei Blanchard, 1847 (Brachylaimidae [Digenea]; Hymenolepis diminuta (Rudolphi, 1819; H. tiara (Dujardin, 1845 (Cestoda, Hymenolepididae; Aonchotheca erinacei Rudolphi, 1819; Capillaria hepatica Bancroft, 1893 (Trichuridae; Mastophorus muris (Gmelin, 1790 (Spirocercidae; Paracrenosoma kontrimavinchusi Guenov, 1978 (Metastrongylidae; Syphacia muris (Yamaguti, 1935 (Oxyuridae [Nematoda]. The house mice were not infected by helminths. In the black rat, five species were detected: C. vitta, H. diminuta, C. hepaticum, M. muris and S. muris. Insectivores hosts were parasitised by B. erinacei, A. erinacei (E. europaeus, H. tiara and P. kontrimavinchusi (C. suaveolens. All species were identified by morphological characteristics and in the cases of H. diminuta and M. muris isozyme electrophoresis were used to compare with continental and insular samples. Helminths found in these hosts in Elba Island (apart of P. kontrimavinchusi are the best colonisers of mediterranean islands. These species were

  16. A semiotic interpretation of national typology: the English, the Boers and ... the Russians (Ivan Goncharov’s Frigate Pallas

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    H. Mondry

    1991-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the text of renowned nineteenth century Russian travellers notes, The Frigate Pallada, by Ivan Goncharov, the author of Oblomov. Using the teachings of Victor Shklovsky, Yurij Tynianov and Yurij Lotman on the role of the genre of travellers notes in the history of Russian literature, the author examines the chapter on the Cape Province. She demonstrates that in his descriptions of the two nations of the Cape Province - the English and the Boers - Goncharov is applying that which is known to him - his own cultural model of the Russian society of the mid-nineteenth century. In his examination of differences between the English and the Boers Goncharov applies the ideological dichotomy between the Slavophiles and the Westernisers. Goncharov, by "inverting" the "dual model of Russian culture" (Lotman & Uspensky, 1984a draws comparisons between the Russians of the Oblomov Slavophile type on the one hand, and the English on the other hand as the model for the improvement of the industry of the economically backward Russian nation. To Goncharov the Boers resemble the Oblomov, old world side of dichotomy, which by inversions of the dual model can fluctuate between "the good" and "the bad" categories.

  17. EXPLORATORY PLASMA BIOCHEMISTRY REFERENCE INTERVALS FOR URAL OWLS (STRIX URALENSIS, PALLAS 1771) FROM THE AUSTRIAN REINTRODUCTION PROJECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scope, Alexandra; Schwendenwein, Ilse; Stanclova, Gabriela; Vobornik, Angela; Zink, Richard

    2016-06-01

    The Ural owl (Strix uralensis) is the biggest forest-living owl in Austria; however, it became extinct in Austria through poaching and habitat loss more than half a century ago. The birds examined in the present study were breeding pairs from the reintroduction project with the aim of determining exploratory plasma biochemistry reference intervals in Ural owls and evaluating the amount of biological variation between seasons, sexes, and ages. A total of 45 birds were sampled, including 13 adult males, 14 adult females, and 18 juvenile birds. Remarkably, almost all of the analytes showed significant differences between the subgroups, primarily between seasons, followed by age and sex. Only creatinkinase, glucose, lactatdehydrogenase, and triglycerides did not show any significant variations. Despite partitioning of reference values into subgroups according to biological variation diminishing the number of reference individuals in the respective groups, the resulting smaller reference intervals will improve medical assessment. The results of the present study once again demonstrate that significant seasonal fluctuations must be expected and considered in the interpretation. It can be assumed that these differences are probably even greater in free-range birds with considerable changes in food quantity and quality during and between years.

  18. Isamaaline tundmus : Eesti ja Soome kirjamees Jüri Tilk ehk Yrjö Virula / Anu Pallas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pallas, Anu, 1960-

    2010-01-01

    Avaliku elu tegelasest, ajakirjanikust ja karskuskirjanduse rajajast Jüri Tilgast, kes 19. sajandi lõpul töötas aktiivselt üldtuntud rahvajuhtide kõrval, olles ka Ado Grenzsteini lähim aatekaaslane

  19. Note on the distribution of Garveia franciscana (Torrey, 1902) and Cordylophora caspia (Pallas, 1771) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoort, W.

    1964-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In 1956 Kinne (1956, p. 257) published the description of a new athecate hydroid, Perigonimus megas, discovered by him in the Nordostseekanal, a canal connecting the North Sea with the Baltic. Kinne's new species resembles a well known and widely distributed fresh- and brackish-water hy

  20. [Phylogeography of mitochondrial DNA in South Asian Dolly Varden char Salvelinus curilus Pallas, 1814 (Salmoniformes, Salmonidae): mediated gene introgression?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shed'ko, S V; Ginatulina, L K; Miroshnichenko, I L; Nemkova, G A

    2007-02-01

    In 41 individuals of South Asian Dolly Varden char Salvelinus curilus, nucleotide sequences of tRNA-Pro gene fragment (27 bp) and mtDNA control region (483-484 bp) were analyzed. The fish were collected in 20 localities covering virtually the whole range of the species: Kuril Islands, Sakhalin Island. and Primorye. In addition, six individuals of three other char species (S. albus, S. malma, and S. leucomaenis), which are closely related to S. curilus and inhabit the Russian Far East, were examined. In all, we detected 12 different variants of mtDNA haplotypes that formed three distinct groups differing in 14--20 nucleotide positions. The first group consisted of six haplotypes found in S. curilus in Kuril Islands, Sakhalin, and Primorye (mtDNA phylogroup OKHOTSKIA). The second group comprised four haplotypes representing the mtDNA phylogroup BERING, which had been described earlier (Brunner et al, 2001); they were found in S. curilus in Kuril Islands and Sakhalin, as well as in S. albus and S. malma in Kamchatka and northern Kurils. The third group included two haplotypes detected in S. leucomaenis. The existence of two mtDNA lineages (OKHOTSKIA and BERING) in S. curilus from Kurils and Sakhalin was explained by hybridization and DNA transfer from S. malma to S. curilus. The absence of the BERING haplotypes in S. curilus from Primorye water reservoirs is related to the physical isolation of the Sea of Okhotsk and Sea of Japan basins in past epochs. On the basis of comparing phylogenetic trees, constructed from the data on allozyme and mtDNA variation, we suggest that in this case, an indirect transfer of mtDNA in Alpinoid chars--> S. malma-->S. curilus chain could occur.

  1. Observations on the delivered placenta and fetal membranes of the Aardvark, Orycteropus afér (Pallas, 1766)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taverne, M.A.M.; Bakker-Slotboom, M.F.

    1970-01-01

    A macroscopical description is given of the delivered placenta and foetal membranes of an Aardvark. Special attention is paid to the umbilical cord and the relative position of the foetal membranes at the places where these attach to the placenta. Amniotic pustules were found on the umbilical cord

  2. The biology and management of wild Helmeted guineafowl (Numida meleagris galeata Pallas) in the Waza Region of North Cameroon.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Njiforti, P.H.L.

    1997-01-01

    Criticisms have arisen with respect to the way protected areas in Africa are being managed in a top-down fashion, with the state as the sole owner. Such an approach has failed in a number of protected areas because of encroachment (mainly poaching and habitat destruction), socioeconomic instability,

  3. Kinematics of flight and the relationship to the vortex wake of a Pallas' long tongued bat (Glossophaga soricina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Marta; Johansson, L Christoffer; von Busse, Rhea; Winter, York; Hedenström, Anders

    2010-06-15

    To obtain a full understanding of the aerodynamics of animal flight, the movement of the wings, the kinematics, needs to be connected to the wake left behind the animal. Here the detailed 3D wingbeat kinematics of bats, Glossophaga soricina, flying in a wind tunnel over a range of flight speeds (1-7 m s(-1)) was determined from high-speed video. The results were compared with the wake geometry and quantitative wake measurements obtained simultaneously to the kinematics. The wingbeat kinematics varied gradually with flight speed and reflected the changes observed in the wake of the bats. In particular, several of the kinematic parameters reflected the differences in the function of the upstroke at low and high flight speeds. At lower flight speeds the bats use a pitch-up rotation to produce a backward flick which creates thrust and some weight support. At higher speeds this mechanism disappears and the upstroke generates weight support but no thrust. This is reflected by the changes in e.g. angle of attack, span ratio, camber and downstroke ratio. We also determined how different parameters vary throughout a wingbeat over the flight speeds studied. Both the camber and the angle of attack varied over the wingbeat differently at different speeds, suggesting active control of these parameters to adjust to the changing aerodynamic conditions. This study of the kinematics strongly indicates that the flight of bats is governed by an unsteady high-lift mechanism at low flight speeds and points to differences between birds and bats.

  4. Short notes and reviews Birds in the sales catalogue of Adriaan Vroeg described by Pallas and Vosmaer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rookmaaker, L.C.; Pieters, Florence F.J.M.

    2000-01-01

    On 6 October 1764, Adriaan Vroeg sold his collection of birds, insects and a few other animals by auction. The sales catalogue was published anonymously, but contained several scientific names of birds, which have nomenclatorial standing. Only three copies of this catalogue are known. The appendix e

  5. Physiological plasticity is key to the presence of the isopod Idotea baltica (Pallas) in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Hannah L.; Nylund, Göran; Eriksson, Susanne P.

    2014-01-01

    The low salinity of the Baltic Sea presents a physiological challenge to marine species. The marine isopod Idotea baltica is notably dominant among the shallow sublittoral of the Baltic Sea in association with Fucus vesiculosus, with permanent populations documented in salinities as low as 3 psu. To investigate the role of physiological plasticity in the successful colonisation of the Baltic by I. baltica three populations from the Swedish coast were here studied, one from the Kattegat (Malmö) and two from the Baltic Sea (Kalmar and Öregrund). These three sites cover the geographic range of this species within the Baltic Sea on the Swedish coast, and also the salinity range of this species within the Baltic Sea (10-5 psu). Individuals from these populations were exposed in the laboratory to a fully crossed experiment with the factors salinity and food source, to test for differences in the physiology of these populations under different conditions that may indicate local adaptation, or no differences that indicate physiological plasticity to differing salinity and food source. Metabolic rate, growth and thermal tolerance responses did not differ between the three populations across salinity treatments after a 12 week exposure. The results of this study indicate that the physiology of adult I. baltica is highly plastic with regard to salinity; this plasticity is likely to have facilitated their colonisation of the Baltic Sea.

  6. Seasonal change in body fat of the Hyrax Procavia capensis (Pallas, 1766 using a body fat ranking index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.J. Fourie

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the body fat content of the hyrax Procavia capensis were used as an indicator of physiological condition. Body fat rankings for the different sexes showed seasonal variations related to physiologically stressful periods (rutting, gestation and lactation. The subjective body fat rankings were correlated significantly with total body fat.

  7. Effects of temporal fluctuation in population processes of intertidal Lanice conchilega (Pallas, 1766) aggregations on its ecosystem engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Renata M. S.; Vanaverbeke, Jan; Bouma, Tjeerd J.; Guarini, Jean-Marc; Vincx, Magda; Van Colen, Carl

    2017-03-01

    Ecosystem engineers contribute to ecosystem functioning by regulating key environmental attributes, such as habitat availability and sediment biogeochemistry. While autogenic engineers can increase habitat complexity passively and provide physical protection to other species, allogenic engineers can regulate sediment oxygenation and biogeochemistry through bioturbation and/or bioirrigation. Their effects rely on the physical attributes of the engineer and/or its biogenic constructs, such as abundance and/or size. The present study focused on tube aggregations of a sessile, tube-building polychaete that engineers marine sediments, Lanice conchilega. Its tube aggregations modulate water flow by dissipating energy, influencing sedimentary processes and increasing particle retention. These effects can be influenced by temporal fluctuations in population demographic processes. Presently, we investigated the relationship between population processes and ecosystem engineering through an in-situ survey (1.5 years) of L. conchilega aggregations at the sandy beach of Boulogne-sur-Mer (France). We (1) evaluated temporal patterns in population structure, and (2) investigated how these are related to the ecosystem engineering of L. conchilega on marine sediments. During our survey, we assessed tube density, demographic structure, and sediment properties (surficial chl-a, EPS, TOM, median and mode grain size, sorting, and mud and water content) on a monthly basis for 12 intertidal aggregations. We found that the population was mainly composed by short-lived (6-10 months), small-medium individuals. Mass mortality severely reduced population density during winter. However the population persisted, likely due to recruits from other populations, which are associated to short- and long-term population dynamics. Two periods of recruitment were identified: spring/summer and autumn. Population density was highest during the spring recruitment and significantly affected several environmental properties (i.e. EPS, TOM, mode grain size, mud and water content), suggesting that demographic processes may be responsible for periods of pronounced ecosystem engineering with densities of approx. 30 000 ind·m-2.

  8. Structure, histochemistry and seasonal variations of the male reproductive accessory glands in the Pallas's mastiff bat, Molossus molossus (Chiroptera: Molossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christante, Caroline M; Beguelini, Mateus R; Puga, Cintia C I; Negrin, Ana C; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Vilamaior, Patrícia S L; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2015-01-01

    Due to their wide geographical distribution, bats suffer considerable influence from abiotic factors on their reproductive strategies, detected through behavioural or functional assessment of the gonads and accessory glands. The present study aimed to characterise anatomically and morphologically the reproductive accessory glands (RAGs) of Molossus molossus (Molossidae) and evaluate their seasonal variations. The RAGs were removed, fixed, sectioned after histological processing and submitted to the following stains: haematoxylin-eosin, periodic acid--Schiff (PAS) and Gömöri's reticulin. Our data demonstrated that the RAGs of M. molossus are composed of a semi-lobed prostatic complex associated with the urethra and a pair of inguinal bulbourethral glands. Histology and three-dimensional reconstruction of the prostatic complex demonstrated the existence of two regions: ventral and dorsal (named according to the position around the urethra). The two regions had distinctive morphological and histological differences, with the ventral region being the most prominent and the dorsal formed by four lobes. Considering the seasonal evaluation, we can infer that the prostatic complex of M. molossus is active throughout the seasons in São Paulo State (Brazil) and, although each of the prostatic regions has inherent characteristics, they synchronise to establish the main reproductive peak in spring (early rainy season).

  9. Contribuição ao conhecimento da biologia reprodutiva de Molossus molossus Pallas, 1766 (Chiroptera, Molossidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Elena Fabián

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of 179 specimens of Molossus molossus in Ceará, Brazil, showed morphological and functional ovarian asymmetry in adult females, with the right side more developed. Blastocyst implantation occurred also in the right uterine horn. Active male testicles were bigger (x = 5,38mm than inactive ones (x = 3,25mm. Pregnancy with subsequent offspring was found in March-April and November, during the wet season.

  10. Assessing the Heavy Metal Content in Forest Dormouse (Dryomys nitedula Pallas, 1778 from an Agricultural Region in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi G. Markov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The heavy metals load in the forest dormouse (Dryomys nitedula, inhabiting in forest shelter belts in the agricultural region was assessed. The concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn (expressed in mg/kg of dry tissue were established in the liver, using an atomic-absorption analysis. The fact that the highly toxic metals (Cd and Pb were found in considerable concentrations together with other metals with concentration dependent toxic effect (Cu, Ni, Zn and Co in the liver of forest dormice, suggests that it is necessary to carry out regular assessment and forecasting of accumulation of these metals in species, which are not direct targets of cultivation and control activities in agricultural ecosystems. The obtained values were used to create a baseline for estimation of heavy metal accumulation in the internal organs of the forest dormouse, both in anthropogenically transformed habitats and natural biotopes, as well as for using this species as a monitor of environmental status.

  11. PRESENCIA DEL MURCIÉLAGO CASERO (MOLOSSUS MOLOSSUS PALLAS, 1776 EN LA CIUDAD DE SINCELEJO, DEPARTAMENTO DE SUCRE, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAMPEDRO-MARÍN ALCIDES C.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuaron muestreos de Molossus molossus en el área urbana de Sincelejo, en el período comprendido entre abril de 2004 y diciembre de 2005, utilizando redes de niebla de 12 x 2. La abundancia relativa calculada a partir del número de individuos que cayeron en las redes y el número de redes utilizadas, fue de 65.4 %. Se visitaron 487 viviendas y otras edificaciones humanas y se anotó su localización y estado físico (buena, regular o mala así como la presencia- ausencia de esta especie. La proporción de edificaciones con presencia de M. molossus fue de 42.3 %. Las casas más infestadas fueron las que se hallaban en regular y mal estado. El estado de los techos de muchas de esas edificaciones era deplorable, con presencia de excremento, orina y numerosos organismos como cucarachas, roedores y otros. También se determinó que M. molossus ingiere 1.5 g de insectos nocturnos en una noche como promedio, lo que, considerando su gran abundancia, implica una cantidad importante de insectos consumidos anualmente. Una encuesta realizada a la población cuyas viviendas fueron visitadas arrojó que la mayoría desconoce los daños y beneficios que puede ocasionar esta especie a la población humana. Las condiciones de clima cálido, relativamente estable todo el año y la abundancia de refugios y alimento, hace que M. molossus pueda reproducirse todo el año, lo que unido a que no tiene muchos depredadores, la convierte en una especie de mucho éxito ecológico. Se recomienda tomar las medidas pertinentes para reducir su convivencia con el hombre, pero sin dañar sus poblaciones, teniendo en cuenta los beneficios que aporta

  12. Colonization history of Mallorca Island by the European rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus, and the Iberian hare, Lepus granatensis (Lagomorpha: Leporidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seixas, Fernando A.; Juste, Javier; Campos, Paula;

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean islands have a long history of human-mediated introductions resulting in frequent replacements of their fauna and flora. Although these histories are sometimes well documented or may be inferred from paleontological studies, the use of phylogenetic and population genetic reconst...... been originated both from Iberian and French populations. The molecular estimates of the timing of the colonization events of the Mallorcan lagomorphs are consistent with human-mediated introductions by early settlers on the islands....

  13. TAFONOMÍA DE RESTOS ÓSEOS PROVENIENTES DE EGAGRÓPILAS DE CORAGYPS ATRATUS (JOTE DE CABEZA NEGRA EN EL NOROESTE DE LA PATAGONIA ARGENTINA/Taphonomy of bones remains from pellets of Coragyps Atratus (black vulture in the northwest of the argentinian Patag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ballejo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Existen diversos estudios actualísticos en tafonomía sobre restos de presas de diferentes especies de aves raptoras. Sin embargo, este tipo de trabajos en aves carroñeras ha sido escasamente considerado hasta el momento en Argentina, a pesar que ellas cumplen un papel fundamental en la alteración y transporte de cadáveres. Coragyps atratus (jote de cabeza negra tiene la particularidad de formar posaderos comunales cercanos a áreas de actividades humanas y de alimentarse de animales de todos los tamaños, por lo que pueden interferir en la formación de sitios arqueológicos. El objetivo de este trabajo es realizar un análisis tafonómico sobre los restos óseos recuperados de egagrópilas de C. atratus en el Noroeste patagónico, con el fin de generar herramientas que permitan identificar a estas aves como posibles agentes acumuladores. Se recolectaron 469 egagrópilas distribuidas en tres posaderos del Noroeste patagónico. Se identificaron los elementos recuperados y se evaluaron los grados de alteraciones por ácidos gástricos. Lepus europaeus y Ovis aries dominaron las muestras. Los elementos más representativos pertenecen al autopodio, principalmente falanges. Todos ellos muestran signos de digestión, que van desde porosidades superficiales, perforaciones y fracturas, con la desaparición de la médula en el caso de varias falanges; denotando diferencias en relación al tamaño de la presa consumida. Abstract There are several actualistic taphonomic studies regarding different species of birds of prey. However, the studies focus on scavenger birds have been scarcely considered in Argentina, despite the fact that they play a fundamental role in the alteration and transportation of carcasses. A peculiar characteristic of Coragyps atratus (black vulture is that it builds communal roosts near places where human activities are developed and it feeds on animals of varying size, which may interfere with the formation of archaeological

  14. en el desierto del Monte, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Campos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Los bosques de Prosopis flexuosa proporcionan múltiples bienes y servicios. Actualmente, sufren una fuerte retracción debido a un uso histórico extractivistay se hace necesario promover la conservación y el manejo sostenible de los bosques como sistema. El objetivo del trabajo es sintetizarel conocimiento disponible acerca de las interacciones mutualistas y antagonistas entre mamíferos, frutos y semillas de P. flexuosa, comparandocon estudios realizados en otras especies de Prosopis de Argentina. Se considera a dos grupos de consumidores oportunistas de frutos: almacenadoresen cúmulos dispersos y frugívoros. Los roedores pequeños (como Eligmodontia typus y Microcavia australis son dispersores de semillasporque depredan pocas semillas y almacenan el resto en cúmulos sobre la superficie del suelo. Mamíferos frugívoros oportunistas silvestres (Dolichotispatagonum, Lepus europaeus, Lycalopex griseus, Lama guanicoe, etc. y domésticos (burro, caballo, vaca son dispersores endozoocóricosy proporcionan beneficios como el traslado de grandes cantidades de semillas, la eliminación de estructuras que mantienen la dormición y la desinfecciónde semillas atacadas por insectos. Sin embargo, la endozoocoria tiene costos sobre la viabilidad y la capacidad germinativa de las semillas.Ante un panorama de continuos cambios en el uso de la tierra y de cambio climático global, el conocimiento acerca del espectro diverso de animalesque proporcionan el beneficio de dispersión de semillas aporta bases científicas para considerar que la biodiversidad asociada a los bosques debeincluirse en la gestión y conservación de los mismos.

  15. Comparison of Two Spatial Optimization Techniques: A Framework to Solve Multiobjective Land Use Distribution Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Burghard Christian; Lescot, Jean-Marie; Laplana, Ramon

    2009-02-01

    Two spatial optimization approaches, developed from the opposing perspectives of ecological economics and landscape planning and aimed at the definition of new distributions of farming systems and of land use elements, are compared and integrated into a general framework. The first approach, applied to a small river catchment in southwestern France, uses SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) and a weighted goal programming model in combination with a geographical information system (GIS) for the determination of optimal farming system patterns, based on selected objective functions to minimize deviations from the goals of reducing nitrogen and maintaining income. The second approach, demonstrated in a suburban landscape near Leipzig, Germany, defines a GIS-based predictive habitat model for the search of unfragmented regions suitable for hare populations ( Lepus europaeus), followed by compromise optimization with the aim of planning a new habitat structure distribution for the hare. The multifunctional problem is solved by the integration of the three landscape functions (“production of cereals,” “resistance to soil erosion by water,” and “landscape water retention”). Through the comparison, we propose a framework for the definition of optimal land use patterns based on optimization techniques. The framework includes the main aspects to solve land use distribution problems with the aim of finding the optimal or best land use decisions. It integrates indicators, goals of spatial developments and stakeholders, including weighting, and model tools for the prediction of objective functions and risk assessments. Methodological limits of the uncertainty of data and model outcomes are stressed. The framework clarifies the use of optimization techniques in spatial planning.

  16. Comparison of bacterial culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica in wild animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sting, Reinhard; Runge, Martin; Eisenberg, Tobias; Braune, Silke; Müller, Wolfgang; Otto, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Detection of the zoonotic pathogen Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica (EF tularensis) in wild animals with culture techniques as well as polymerase chain reaction were compared and discussed on the basis of the investigation of 60 animals. The samples originated from 55 European brown hares (Lepus europaeus), two red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and one each from a wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), a European beaver (Castor fiber), and a lemur (Lemur catta). When comparing the growth of 28 F. tularensis isolates on the cysteine blood agar and the modified Martin-Lewis-agar used in this study, cultivation was successful for 26 isolates on both media, but for two isolates only on the cysteine blood agar. Out of 43 carcasses 19 tested positive in bacteriological culture and PCR. Two culture positive samples of tonsils originating from foxes could not be confirmed by PCR, although PCR was positive in 22 samples that missed growth of F. tularensis. Comparative studies on cultural detection of E. tularensis were performed on samples of 16 hares from lung, spleen, liver and gut and in one case with a peritoneal swab. In at least one of these localizations cultivation of the pathogen was successful. Detection rate was reduced to 94% (15 of 16 hares) considering only the results of the cultures of the lungs and spleens. For a sensitive and rapid detection of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica, the PCR is a suitable method thereby avoiding hazardous multiplying of the pathogen. However, cultivation of F. tularensis is often a prerequisite for further studies on antibiotic resistance patterns of the pathogen, molecular epidemiological and pathological analyses of tularaemia.

  17. Comparison of two spatial optimization techniques: a framework to solve multiobjective land use distribution problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Burghard Christian; Lescot, Jean-Marie; Laplana, Ramon

    2009-02-01

    Two spatial optimization approaches, developed from the opposing perspectives of ecological economics and landscape planning and aimed at the definition of new distributions of farming systems and of land use elements, are compared and integrated into a general framework. The first approach, applied to a small river catchment in southwestern France, uses SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) and a weighted goal programming model in combination with a geographical information system (GIS) for the determination of optimal farming system patterns, based on selected objective functions to minimize deviations from the goals of reducing nitrogen and maintaining income. The second approach, demonstrated in a suburban landscape near Leipzig, Germany, defines a GIS-based predictive habitat model for the search of unfragmented regions suitable for hare populations (Lepus europaeus), followed by compromise optimization with the aim of planning a new habitat structure distribution for the hare. The multifunctional problem is solved by the integration of the three landscape functions ("production of cereals," "resistance to soil erosion by water," and "landscape water retention"). Through the comparison, we propose a framework for the definition of optimal land use patterns based on optimization techniques. The framework includes the main aspects to solve land use distribution problems with the aim of finding the optimal or best land use decisions. It integrates indicators, goals of spatial developments and stakeholders, including weighting, and model tools for the prediction of objective functions and risk assessments. Methodological limits of the uncertainty of data and model outcomes are stressed. The framework clarifies the use of optimization techniques in spatial planning.

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-1404 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-1404 gb|ACR84303.1| duffy antigen/chemokine receptor [Lepus castroviej...oi] gb|ACR84305.1| duffy antigen/chemokine receptor [Lepus castroviejoi] gb|ACR84306.1| duffy antigen/chemokine receptor [Lepus castr...oviejoi] gb|ACR84307.1| duffy antigen/chemokine receptor [Lepus castroviejoi] gb|AC...R84308.1| duffy antigen/chemokine receptor [Lepus castroviejoi] ACR84303.1 1e-146 84% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PCAP-01-1638 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PCAP-01-1638 gb|ACR84303.1| duffy antigen/chemokine receptor [Lepus castroviej...oi] gb|ACR84305.1| duffy antigen/chemokine receptor [Lepus castroviejoi] gb|ACR84306.1| duffy antigen/chemokine receptor [Lepus castr...oviejoi] gb|ACR84307.1| duffy antigen/chemokine receptor [Lepus castroviejoi] gb|AC...R84308.1| duffy antigen/chemokine receptor [Lepus castroviejoi] ACR84303.1 1e-126 75% ...

  20. Immunohistochemical study of Ulex europaeus agglutinin 1 (UEA-1) binding of megakaryocytes in bone marrow biopsy specimens: demonstration of heterogeneity in staining pattern reflecting the stages of differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S M; Li, C Y

    1996-01-01

    During differentiation, megakaryocytes undergo nuclear endoreplication, an increase in cell size, cytoplasmic granulation, and release of platelets. The changes in highly lobulated nuclei with varying degree of polyploidy and increasing cell size are easily recognized morphologically. However, the actual cytoplasmic changes are more difficult to perceive morphologically. With the peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) method using UEA-1 as the binding protein to the alpha-L-fucose of glycoprotein synthesized by megakaryocytes, we observed significant variation in cytoplasmic staining of megakaryocytes in routinely processed bone marrow biopsy sections. A total of 3344 megakaryocytes in bone marrow sections from 10 patients with nonhematologic diseases and from 10 patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) was studied. According to the intensity and pattern of cytoplasmic staining, we divided megakaryocytes into at least six groups: (1) low granular (LG), (2) diffuse granular (DG), (3) diffuse dense granular (DDG), (4) marginal granular (MG), (5) denuded (DMK), and (6) endomitotic (EndoM). Most of the megakaryocytes were DG (mean, 42.75% +/- 19.21%) and DDG (mean, 50.25% +/- 21.23%). In correlation with nuclear morphology and cell size, it appears that substances binding to UEA-1 are located in the paranuclear region in early megakaryocytes and produce a low granular focal staining pattern (LG cells). Next, the granules spread throughout the cytoplasm (DG cells) and increase in quantity (DDG). This is followed by migration of granules to the periphery of the cytoplasm (MG cells) and is associated with the liberation of platelets and eventual formation of DMK megakaryocytes. Endomitosis, regulated by unknown factors, occurred in the MG stage. In comparing the group with nonhematologic disease (mean DG, 35.4% +/- 18.48%; DDG, 58.4% +/- 21.8%) and the group with ITP (mean DG, 50.1% +/- 17.82%; DDG, 42.1% +/- 18.12%), we found an increasing proportion of DG megakaryocytes in ITP, which suggests a left-shifted maturation of megakaryocytes. By understanding the staining pattern seen in the different stages of megakaryocytic differentiation, UEA-1 staining may be a practical method for studying megakaryocytopoiesis in routinely processed paraffin sections of bone marrow biopsy samples.

  1. Functionalization of biomineral reinforcement in crustacean cuticle: Calcite orientation in the partes incisivae of the mandibles of Porcellio scaber and the supralittoral species Tylos europaeus (Oniscidea, Isopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Julia; Griesshaber, Erika; Nindiyasari, Fitriana; Schmahl, Wolfgang W; Ziegler, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    In arthropods the cuticle forms an exoskeleton with its physical and chemical properties adapted to functions of distinct skeletal elements. The cuticle of the partes incisivae (PI) in mandibles of terrestrial isopods is a composite of chitin-protein fibrils/fibres and minerals. It consists of an unmineralized tip, a middle region with organic fibrils reinforced mainly with amorphous calcium phosphate and a base region mineralized with amorphous calcium carbonate and calcite. In this study we extend our work on the structure and material properties of the incisive cuticle employing electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and investigate calcite orientation patterns in the PI of two terrestrial isopod species from different habitats. We trace small-scale differences in texture sharpness and calcite microstructure, and compare calcite organization and orientation patterns in the PI with those in the tergites of the same isopod species. We observe that in the PI calcite orientation, the degree of crystal alignment, and mode of crystalline domain assemblage is highly varied within short length scales. This contrasts to calcite organization in the tergite cuticle, where calcite has only one specific texture pattern. Such a large range in the variation of calcite organization has not been observed in other carbonate biological hard tissues, such as shells and teeth, where one specific texture and microstructure prevails. Thus, the investigated isopod species are able to control crystallization of the amorphous carbonate precursor in a differential way, most probably related to the function of the individual skeletal element and the animals' behavior.

  2. Non-destructive pollution exposure assessment in the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus): II. Hair and spines as indicators of endogenous metal and As concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Havé, Helga; Scheirs, Jan; Mubiana, Valentine Kayawe; Verhagen, Ron; Blust, Ronny; De Coen, Wim

    2006-08-01

    The role of hair and spines of the European hedgehog as non-destructive monitoring tools of metal (Ag, Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn) and As pollution in terrestrial ecosystems was investigated. Our results showed that mean pollution levels of a random sample of hedgehogs in Flanders are low to moderate. Yet, individual hedgehogs may be at risk for metal toxicity. Tissue distribution analyses (hair, spines, liver, kidney, muscle and fat tissue) indicated that metals and As may reach considerable concentrations in external tissues, such as hair and spines. Positive relationships were observed between concentrations in hair and those in liver, kidney and muscle for Al, Co, Cr, Cu, and Pb (0.43 hedgehogs when concentrations in hair or spines are available. The present study demonstrated the possibility of using hair and spines for non-destructive monitoring of metal and As pollution in hedgehogs.

  3. Non-destructive pollution exposure assessment in the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus): II. Hair and spines as indicators of endogenous metal and As concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Have, Helga [Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)]. E-mail: helga.dhave@ua.ac.be; Scheirs, Jan [Evolutionary Biology Group, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Mubiana, Valentine Kayawe [Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Verhagen, Ron [Evolutionary Biology Group, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Blust, Ronny [Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Coen, Wim de [Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2006-08-15

    The role of hair and spines of the European hedgehog as non-destructive monitoring tools of metal (Ag, Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn) and As pollution in terrestrial ecosystems was investigated. Our results showed that mean pollution levels of a random sample of hedgehogs in Flanders are low to moderate. Yet, individual hedgehogs may be at risk for metal toxicity. Tissue distribution analyses (hair, spines, liver, kidney, muscle and fat tissue) indicated that metals and As may reach considerable concentrations in external tissues, such as hair and spines. Positive relationships were observed between concentrations in hair and those in liver, kidney and muscle for Al, Co, Cr, Cu, and Pb (0.43 < r < 0.85). Spine concentrations were positively related to liver, kidney and muscle concentrations for Cd, Co, Cr, Cu and Pb (0.37 < r < 0.62). Hair Ag, As, Fe and Zn and spine Ag, Al, As and Fe were related to metal concentrations in one or two of the investigated internal tissues (0.31 < r < 0.45). The regression models presented here may be used to predict metal and As concentrations in internal tissues of hedgehogs when concentrations in hair or spines are available. The present study demonstrated the possibility of using hair and spines for non-destructive monitoring of metal and As pollution in hedgehogs. - Hedgehog hair and spines are promising non-destructive biomonitoring tools of terrestrial metal pollution.

  4. Separar el gra de la palla a la web Separating the Wheat from the Chaff on the Web Separar el grano de la paja en la web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francina Martí Cartes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available L'article exposa diverses teories d'experts sobre l'avaluació de la informació a Internet. Aquestes teories es comparen amb el comportament d'uns estudiants d'ESO a l'hora de buscar informació a Internet, a partir de dades extretes d'observacions i entrevistes. Finalment, es fan algunes propostes d'estratègies que es poden ensenyar als estudiants perquè siguin capaços de valorar la credibilitat dels webs que visiten, tot analitzan-ne l'autoria, l'objectivitat i els propòsits. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Cet article explore diverses théories sur l'evaluation de l'information sur Internet. Ces théories sont comparées avec le comportement de certains élèves de l'enseignement secondaire (ESO à la recherche d'information sur Internet, à partir de données extraites d'observations et d'entrevues. Enfin, l'article fait quelques propositions de stratégies qui peuvent être enseignées aux élèves afin qu'ils soient capables d'evaluer la crédibilité des sites web visités, en analysant leurs auteurs, leur objectivité et leurs propos.This article explores various theories about evaluating information on the Internet. The theories are tested against data taken from observations and interviews concerning the behaviour of secondary school (ESO students searching for information on the Internet. Lastly, a number of strategies are proposed to equip students to be better able to assess the credibility of the websites they browse, analysing their authorship, objectivity and purpose.El artículo explora diversas teorías sobre la evaluación de la información en Internet. Estas teorías se comparan con el comportamiento de unos estudiantes de ESO en la búsqueda de información en Internet, a partir de datos extraídos de observaciones y entrevistas. Finalmente, se hacen algunas propuestas de estrategias que se pueden enseñar a los estudiantes para que sean capaces de valorar la credibilidad de las webs que visitan, analizando su autoría, objetividad y propósitos.

  5. Separar el gra de la palla a la web Separating the Wheat from the Chaff on the Web Separar el grano de la paja en la web

    OpenAIRE

    Francina Martí Cartes

    2008-01-01

    L'article exposa diverses teories d'experts sobre l'avaluació de la informació a Internet. Aquestes teories es comparen amb el comportament d'uns estudiants d'ESO a l'hora de buscar informació a Internet, a partir de dades extretes d'observacions i entrevistes. Finalment, es fan algunes propostes d'estratègies que es poden ensenyar als estudiants perquè siguin capaços de valorar la credibilitat dels webs que visiten, tot analitzan-ne l'autoria, l'objectivitat i els propòsits. ________________...

  6. Is web oscillation in the orb-web spider Argiope lobata (Pallas, 1772)(Araneidae) an anti-predatory behaviour?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedhagen, Tomas; Björklund, S.

    2007-01-01

    of the spider allow it to move the centre of gravity quickly, and thereby to oscillate. (2) The great elasticity and strength of its web allow the spider to control the oscillations so that slow movements are reduced to a minimum. (3) When it is oscillating. the eyes of a predator cannot accommodate to keep...... it in focus, but will focus on the background. (4) The irregular shape and variegated coloration of its body reduce its contrast against the background when it is sitting still, but also during oscillation....

  7. Dynamics of cell and tissue genesis in the male reproductive system of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) Amblyomma cajennense [corrected] (Fabricius, 1787) and Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas, 1772): a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampieri, Bruno Rodrigues; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Bueno, Odair Correa; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2014-04-01

    Ticks are classified into three families: Argasidae, Ixodidae, and Nutalliellidae. The taxonomy and phylogeny within Ixodidae are still discussed by the specialists, thus requiring further studies. Amblyomma cajennese and Amblyomma aureolatum (Brazil) belong to two species complexes known as "cajennese" and "ovale", respectively, and are directly related to the transmission of the Brazilian spotted fever. This confirms the medical and veterinary significance of these species, as well as the need for further morphological studies that will bring a better understanding of their taxonomy, phylogeny, and control. In this context, the present study aimed to characterize the morphology of the male reproductive system of A. cajennese and A. aureolatum when unfed and after 4 days of feeding, thereby seeking to: (a) distinguish the two species or "complexes", and (b) study an internal system which has the potential to be targeted by acaricides. Therefore, males from both species (unfed and after 4 days of feeding) were cold-anesthetized, dissected, and had their reproductive systems removed for histological analysis. The results showed that the morphology of the male reproductive system is generally similar between both species, like in other Ixodidae ticks, exhibiting a multilobed accessory gland complex related to seminal fluid secretion, a pair of vasa deferentia and a pair of testes housing germ cells (spermatocytes) in different stages. The main differences were found in the development of the accessory gland complex cells and germ cells, showing that the maturation of the male reproductive system starts later in A. aureolatum, when compared to A. cajennese. However, during the blood meal, A. aureolatum development is increased, thus making germ cell maturation and gland complex activity higher than in A. cajennese. This study shows the differences in the development of the male reproductive systems of both species, while providing information that can assist in the establishment of new control methods.

  8. Trofejni parametri muflona (Ovis ammon musimon Pallas, 1811) u državnom lovištu VIII/6 “Kalifront”

    OpenAIRE

    Krapinec, Krešimir; Grubešić, Marijan; Šegrt, Viktor; Maričić, Kristijan

    2006-01-01

    U radu je načinjena analiza ovisnosti elemenata izmjere muflonskog trofeja, analiza prirasta duljine i opsega tuljca te usporedba s nekim srednjeeuropskim populacijama i korzičkom populacijom. Glede elemenata ocjene rogova muflona s lovišta “Kalifront” najveću ovisnost o starosti pokazuju duljina tuljaca (r = 0,83), opseg na trećoj trećini roga (r = 0,83) i ukupna vrijednost trofeja (r = 0,82). Na ukupnu trofejnu vrijednosti najviše utječe duljina tuljaca (r = 0,98), nakon toga slijedi opseg ...

  9. Accumulation of nutrients and heavy metals in Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steudel and Bolboschoenus maritimus (L.) Palla in a constructed wetland of the Venice lagoon watershed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bragato, Claudia [Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, University of Padova, Agripolis, 35020 Legnaro (PD) (Italy); Brix, Hans [Department of Biological Sciences, Plant Biology, University of Aarhus, Ole Worms Alle, Building 1135, DK-8000 Arhus C (Denmark); Malagoli, Mario [Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, University of Padova, Agripolis, 35020 Legnaro (PD) (Italy)]. E-mail: mario.malagoli@unipd.it

    2006-12-15

    A recently constructed wetland, located in the Venice lagoon watershed, was monitored to investigate growth dynamics, nutrient and heavy metal shoot accumulation of the two dominating macrophytes: Phragmites australis and Bolboschoenus maritimus. Investigations were conducted over a vegetative season at three locations with different distance to the inlet point to assess effects on vegetation. The distance from the inlet did not affect either shoot biomass or nutrients (N, P, K and Na) and heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu and Zn) shoot content. With the exception of Na, nutrient and heavy metal concentrations were higher in shoots of P. australis than in B. maritimus. Heavy metal concentration in the incoming water and in the soil was not correlated to the plant content of either species. Shoot heavy metal concentrations were similar to those reported in the current literature, but accumulation generally increased towards the end of the growing season. - Heavy metal shoot concentration in Phragmites australis and Bolboschoenus maritimus increased significantly at the end of the growing season.

  10. Re-introduction of globally threatened Arabian Gazelles Gazella Arabica (Pallas, 1766 (Mammalia: Bovidae in fenced protected area in central Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Z. Islam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Arabian Gazelle is a globally threatened antelope (Vulnerable in Saudi Arabia. Small relict populations remain in limited areas, while historically Arabian Gazelles occurred in Mahazat as-Sayd protected area in central Saudi Arabia but were exterminated by anthropogenic and other pressures, including habitat loss and hunting. Important habitat has been lost to agricultural developments, fencing of pasture for livestock and the construction of human settlements and roads. The reintroduction of Arabian Gazelles was undertaken in Mahazat during 2011-2014 to bring back this locally extinct species study its ecology and biology in a fenced protected area. We released a total of 49 (12 males, 37 females animals. A year after release animals started breeding and six calves have been recorded so far with more to come. The gazelles prefer to use more rocky areas where shrubs and acacia trees occur in the reserve, and do not move long distances except for one individual that moved more than 50km. Mahazat is fenced, which prevents local people from entering the reserve to poach or otherwise disturb animals. Management lessons include the need for continued monitor-ing of reintroduced populations. Interactions between Arabian and Sand Gazelles (Gazella subgutturosa marica and Arabian Oryx (Oryx leucoryx were also studied.

  11. Spermiogenesis and spermatozoon ultrastructure of Diplodiscus subclavatus (Pallas, 1760) (Paramphistomoidea, Diplodiscidae), an intestinal fluke of the pool frog Rana lessonae (Amphibia, Anura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhoum, A J S; Torres, J; Shimalov, V V; Bâ, C T; Miquel, J

    2011-01-01

    Spermiogenesis in Diplodiscus subclavatus begins with the formation of the zone of differentiation presenting two centrioles associated with striated roots and an intercentriolar body. The latter presents seven electron-dense layers with a fine central plate and three plates on both sides. The external pair of these electron-dense layers is formed by a granular row. Each centriole develops into a free flagellum, both of them growing orthogonally in relation to the median cytoplasmic process. After the flagellar rotation and before the proximodistal fusion of both flagella with the median cytoplasmic process four attachment zones were already observed in several cross-sections indicating the area of fusion. Spinelike bodies are also observed in the differentiation zone before the fusion of flagella. Finally, the constriction of the ring of arched membranes gives rise to the young spermatozoon that detaches from the residual cytoplasm. The mature spermatozoon of D. subclavatus shows all the classical characters observed in Digenea spermatozoa such as two axonemes of different length of the 9+"1" trepaxonematan pattern, nucleus, mitochondrion, two bundles of parallel cortical microtubules and granules of glycogen. However, some peculiarities such as a well-developed lateral expansion associated with external ornamentation of the plasma membrane and spinelike bodies combined with their area of appearance distinguish the ultrastructural organization of the sperm cells of D. subclavatus from those of other digeneans.

  12. Morphometric and meristic variation in two congeneric archer fishes Toxotes chatareus (Hamilton 1822) and Toxotes jaculatrix (Pallas 1767) inhabiting Malaysian coastal waters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simon, K D; Bakar, Y; Temple, S E; Mazlan, A G

    2010-01-01

    A simple yet useful criterion based on external markings and/or number of dorsal spines is currently used to differentiate two congeneric archer fish species Toxotes chatareus and Toxotes jaculatrix...

  13. Population growth, trophic level, and reproductive biology of two congeneric archer fishes (Toxotes chatareus, Hamilton 1822 and Toxotes jaculatrix, Pallas 1767) inhabiting Malaysian coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, K D; Bakar, Y; Samat, A; Zaidi, C C; Aziz, A; Mazlan, A G

    2009-12-01

    Population growth, trophic level, and some aspects of reproductive biology of two congeneric archer fish species, Toxotes chatareus and Toxotes jaculatrix, collected from Johor coastal waters, Malaysia, were studied. Growth pattern by length-weight relationship (W=aL(b)) for the sexes differed, and exhibited positive allometric growth (male, female and combined sexes of T. chatareus; female and combined sexes of T. jaculatrix) and isometric growth (male samples of T. jaculatrix only). Trophic levels of both species were analyzed based on 128 specimens. The results show that, in both species, crustaceans and insects were the most abundant prey items, and among crustaceans the red clawed crab Sesarma bidens and Formicidae family insects were the most represented taxa. The estimated mean trophic levels for T. chatareus and T. jaculatrix were 3.422+/-0.009 and 3.420+/-0.020, respectively, indicating that they are largely carnivores. Fecundity of T. chatareus ranged from 38 354 to 147 185 eggs for females with total length ranging from 14.5 to 22.5 cm and total body weight from 48.7 to 270.2 g, and T. jaculatrix 25 251 to 150 456 eggs for females with total length ranging from 12.2 to 23.0 cm and total body weight from 25.7 to 275.0 g. Differences in values of gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indexes calculated for both species in this study may have resulted from uneven sample size ranges.

  14. Population growth, trophic level, and reproductive biology of two congeneric archer fishes (Toxotes chatareus, Hamilton 1822 and Toxotes jaculatrix, Pallas 1767) inhabiting Malaysian coastal waters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simon, K D; Bakar, Y; Samat, A; Zaidi, C C; Aziz, A; Mazlan, A G

    2009-01-01

    Population growth, trophic level, and some aspects of reproductive biology of two congeneric archer fish species, Toxotes chatareus and Toxotes jaculatrix, collected from Johor coastal waters, Malaysia, were studied...

  15. Compostagem da fracção sólida do chorume com palha de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. ou tojo (Ulex europaeus L. Composting cattle slurry solid fraction with Italian ryegrass straw (Lo­lium multiflorum Lam. or gorse (Ulex europaeus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Brito

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A fracção sólida do chorume (FSC de uma exploração de pecuária leiteira intensi­va foi compostada com adição de doses crescentes de palha de azevém ou de tojo, em pilhas estáticas com três revolvimentos. A temperatura aumentou na FSC até 65 ºC após o primeiro revolvimento mas as tempe­raturas máximas registaram-se mais cedo e foram mais elevadas nas pilhas com adição de palha ou de tojo. Estes materiais aumen­taram as taxas de mineralização da matéria orgânica (MO em todas as pilhas. No entanto, a MO potencialmente mineralizável e o teor de N orgânico nos compostos finais foram inferiores. A razão C/N diminuiu de forma semelhante para todas as pilhas de 32-38 no início do processo para 13-17 no final da compostagem. A baixa temperatura, a baixa razão C/N e a baixa concentração de NH4+, em combinação com o aumento da concentração de NO 3-dos compostos finais, indicaram que estes estavam estabilizados. O elevado teor de MO (784-832 g kg-1 MS e de N total (28-35 g kg-1 MS e a baixa condutividade eléctrica (0,72-1,16 dS m-1 sugerem que os compostados da FSC podem ser utilizados como correctivos orgânicos do solo. A utilização de palha ou de tojo contribuiu para melhor garantir a higienização do composto.Cattle slurry solid fraction (SF was col­lected from a dairy farm (SF and com­posted with increasing rates of Italian rye-grass straw or gorse, in static piles turned only three times. Temperatures increased to a maximum of 65 ºC after the first turn in the pile only with SF. In contrast, higher temperatures were registered much sooner in piles mixed with straw or gorse. The ad­dition of these bulking agents to SF in­creased temperatures and also the initial rates of organic matter (OM mineralisation. In contrast, potential OM mineralisation and organic N content decreased. The C/N ratio declined following a similar pattern for all compost treatments, from 32-38 at the beginning of the proc­ess, to a value of 13-17 towards the end of composting. Stabilized compost was obtained from raw SF feedstock as indi­cated by the low compost temperature, low C/N ratio and the small content of NH4+ combined with increased concentra­tions of NO3-. The high concentration of OM (784-832 g kg-1 and total N (28-35 g kg-1 in final composts in addition to a low electrical conductivity (0.72-1.16 dS m-1 suggests that SF composts may be ef­fective as soil amendments. The use of straw or gorse contributed to guarantee compost sanitation.

  16. Vilma Tugi 20. II 1924 - 24. XII 2007

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Kunstniku elust ja loomingust. 1942. a. astus Vilma Tugi kõrgemasse kunstikooli Pallas, 1949. aastani jätkas õpinguid Tartu Riiklikus Kunstiinstituudis. 2003. a. sai temast kunstiühingu Pallas liige

  17. Medicinal use of wild fauna by mestizo communities living near San Guillermo Biosphere Reserve (San Juan, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Jorge; Campos, Claudia M; Borghi, Carlos E

    2015-01-21

    Wild and domestic animals and their by-products are important ingredients in the preparation of curative, protective and preventive medicines. Despite the medicinal use of animals worldwide, this topic has received less attention than the use of medicinal plants. This study assessed the medicinal use of animals by mestizo communities living near San Guillermo MaB Reserve by addressing the following questions: What animal species and body parts are used? What ailments or diseases are treated with remedies from these species? To what extent do mestizo people use animals as a source of medicine? Is the use related to people's age? We conducted semi-structured interviews with 171 inhabitants (15-93 years old) of four villages close to the Reserve: Tudcúm, Angualasto, Malimán and Colangüil. We calculated the informant consensus factor and fidelity level to test homogeneity of knowledge and to know the importance of different medicinal uses for a given species. The medicinal use of animals was reported by 57% of the surveyed people. Seven species were mentioned: Rhea pennata, Lama guanicoe, Puma concolor, Pseudalopex sp., Lama vicugna, Lepus europaeus and Conepatus chinga. Several body parts were used: fat, leg, bezoar-stone, stomach, feather, meat, blood, feces, wool, and liver. The fat of R. pennata was the most frequently used animal part, followed by the bezoar stone and the leg of L. guanicoe. Animals were used to treat 22 ailments, with respiratory and nervous system disorders being the most frequently treated diseases with a high degree of consensus. Old people used animals as remedies more frequently than young residents, showing some differences among villages. A low number of animal species was mentioned as used for medicinal purposes, which could be explained by the perception of strong control related the legislation that bans hunting and the erosion of traditional knowledge produced by mestizaje. However, the presence of a traditional medicine is deeply

  18. The small mammals of an upper piedmontese Po plain site (Leinì, Turin prov. / La micromammalofauna di una stazione planiziaria piemontese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Osella

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The 24 small mammals listed as living in Leinì (Piedmontese Po plain, near Turin, 245 m on sea level (only the red fox, Vulpes vulpes is not sure, are briefly analysed (Chiroptera excepted. List and analysis are the results of studies pursued for about 35 years. However, in Verona's Museum of Natural History, the housed materials are related to the last eighteen years (1966-1984 (Tab. I. For a complete analysis, this fauna is compared with the Veronese Po plain one, especially with the Busatello one (Gazzo Veronese-Ostiglia. This site is a stretch of marshes named "Valli Grandi Veronesi and Ostigliesi" (Tab. II. In this analysis, if we don't consider the not native species (Myocastor coypus and Mustela vison, the estinguished species (Lutra lutra, the Mediterranean species (living only along the border of the Po plain basin (Suncus etruscus and the hunting species (Lepus europaeus and Oryctolagus cuniculus we have 23 taxa for Lein and only 17 and 13, respectively, for Veronese Po plain and Busatello. The richer small mammal fauna of the Piedmontese Po plain is, above all, supported by different ecological conditions but the preservation of some species (e.g. Glis glis and Muscardinus avellanarius in Leinì is surely related also to historical problems and to a land anthropization pushed forward to a lesser degree. Riassunto Vengono elencate e brevemente commentate tutte le specie di micromammiferi presenti a Leinì (Torino, Chirotteri esclusi. Si tratta di un complesso di 24 specie (solo la volpe non è del tutto sicura per ognuna delle quali gli autori, sinteticamente, espongono le osservazioni raccolte in circa 35 anni. A maggior chiarimento del significato faunistico del popolamento, viene presa in esame anche la micromammalofauna della pianura padano veneta, precisamente la pianura veronese ed in particolar modo la

  19. Effects of livestock on the feeding ecology of endemic culpeo foxes (Pseudalopex culpaeus smithersi in central Argentina Efectos del ganado sobre la ecología trófica del zorro culpeo (Pseudalopex culpaeus smithersi (Carnivora: Canidae endémico del centro de Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MÓNICA V. PIA

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Livestock can affect the feeding ecology of carnivores either directly, by becoming potential prey, or indirectly, by modifying selection of other prey. Selection of other prey is modified through the negative effects of livestock on food and cover, which reduces density and increases vulnerability of wild prey. Pseudalopex culpaeus smithersi is an endemic subspecies of culpeo fox of central Argentina that is persecuted due to predation on livestock. We studied the direct and indirect effects of livestock on P. c. smithersi's feeding ecology by evaluating its diet, prey availability, and prey selection in two areas with different livestock abundance-a national park and an adjacent sheep and cattle ranch in the Achala grassland plateau. We studied diets from feces and used conversion coefficients to estimate prey numbers and biomass consumed. Culpeos preyed primarily on native rodents (cavies and cricetines according to both prey numbers and biomass. The differences in culpeo diet, prey availability, and prey selection between sites were strongly associated with effects of livestock. Culpeos consumed more livestock carrion and birds at the ranch, and tucos (Ctenomys sp. only at the park. Livestock density was high at the ranch and low at the park, cricetine and tuco densities were significantly higher at the park, and European hare (Lepus europaeus densities were similar between sites. According to prey numbers consumed culpeos did not appear to be selective, but according to biomass they consumed cricetines more and hares less than expected at both sites and sheep more than expected at the park. Livestock may reduce densities and increase vulnerabilities of cricetines and fossorial tucos in Achala by soil trampling that destroys burrows, competition for forage, and reduction of grass coverEl ganado puede afectar la ecología trófica de los carnívoros en forma directa, siendo una presa potencial, e indirecta, modificando la selección de otras

  20. Effects of Avermectin on Various Developmental Stages of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas)%阿维菌素对异色瓢虫不同发育阶段的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀梅; 侯志广; 李天昊; 阮长春

    2011-01-01

    [目的]测定阿维菌素对异色瓢虫不同发育阶段影响,明确对天敌异色瓢虫的毒力,为其安全性评价及科学使用提供依据.[结果]阿维菌素对异色瓢虫不同虫态均有毒杀作用,但敏感性有差异,对幼虫具有明显的抑制作用,阻碍蛹到成虫的变态,影响成虫的存活,对成虫毒性最低,处理24 h后的LC50值为14.69 mg/L.[结论]阿维菌素对异色瓢虫具有活性,在田间使用该杀虫剂时,要避开异色瓢虫敏感期.%[Aims] The study was to determine the effects of avermectin on the ladybird Harmonia axyridis and determine its toxicity in order to provide theoretical basis for the safety evaluation and rational use of avermectin. [Results]Avermectin had toxicity tO different development stages of Harmonia axyridis,but the sensitivity was different. It had an obvious inhibitory effect on the larvae of ladybird,blocked the larval-pupal metamorphosis and affected the survival of the adults.And it had the lowest toxicity to adults,the LC50 value was 14.69 mg/L after the adults were treated 24 h.[Conclusions]Avermectin has toxicity to Harmonia axyridis,when avermectin is used in fields,the susceptible developmental stages of the ladybird should be avoided.

  1. The study of genetic diversity and population structure of Vimba vimba persa (Pallas, 1814 populations in the Eastern and Western coastline of the Caspian sea (Havigh River and GorganRoud River using microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Mohamadian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity of Vimba vimba persa was investigated using microsatellite markers from two regions of the Iranian coastline of southern Caspian sea (Havigh River in Guilan province, GorganRoud River in Golestan province. The purpose of this research was the study of Vimba vimba persa’s possible populations related to genetic diversity and population structure in the Caspian sea and introducing the useful genetic markers. To investigate the genetic structure of Vimba vimba persa populations, we sampled 50 specimens of Vimba vimba persa caught by beach seine from GorganRoud River in Golestan Province (30 specimens and Havigh River in the Guilan Province (20 specimens. Genomic DNA was extracted from fin tissue by phenol-Chlorophorm method and PCR reaction was accomplished with 17 microsatellite primers 10 of which were amplified with reasonable polymorphism. Means of alleles were on 6.75 averages, observed and expected heterozygosity averages were 0.817 and 0.735, respectively. Most cases, significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p≤0.01. According to the Fst values, there are two significant populations of Vimba vimba persa in the eastern and western coasts of the Caspian Sea which restocking of these species should be considered. Based on the survey revealed, since the population of this species is decreasing with its high genetic diversity, the Caspian Vimba had an enormous diversity in the past.

  2. Age and growth comparisons of Hovsgol grayling (Thymallus nigrescens Dorogostaisky, 1923), Baikal grayling (T. baicalensis Dybowski, 1874), and lenok (Brachymystax lenok Pallas, 1773) in lentic and lotic habitats of Northern Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsogtsaikhan, Pureviin; Mendsaikhan, Budiin; Jargalmaa, Ganzorigiin; Ganzorig, Batsaikhanii; Weidel, Brian C.; Filosa, Christopher; Free, Christopher; Young, Talia; Jensen, Olaf P.

    2017-01-01

    Despite concern over the conservation status of many Mongolian salmonids and the importance of their ecological role in Mongolia's aquatic ecosystems, little is known about their basic biology. Hovsgol grayling (Thymallus nigrescens) is endemic to Lake Hovsgol, Mongolia and listed as endangered on the Mongolian Red List. Baikal grayling (T. baicalensis) and lenok (Brachymystax lenok) are found in lakes and rivers throughout the Selenge drainage. A detailed study of the age and growth of these three salmonids was conducted based on 1,682 samples collected from July 2006 to July 2013 in Lake Hovsgol, its outlet the Eg River, and one of the Eg's largest tributaries, the Uur River. Our results suggest that Hovsgol grayling in particular can reach a much older maximum age (17 years in our samples) than previously believed based on aging from scales. Female Hovsgol grayling were heavier at a given length than their male counterparts. Lenok had a greater average length-at-age in Lake Hovsgol compared to the rivers and greater weight-at-length in the warmer Uur River than in the Eg; female lenok from the rivers had a greater average length-at-age than their male counterparts. This study provides critical new information for the management and conservation of these threatened salmonid species in Mongolia.

  3. The ecological role of overwintering fish in the food web of the Culbin Sands lagoon ecosystem, NE Scotland: Identifying major trophic links and testing effects of the fish Pomatoschistus microps (Pallas on benthic invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanda Mariyam Mendonça

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Culbin Sands lagoon ecosystem in NE Scotland was studied during a three-year period (1994-1996 to identify the major trophic links from benthic invertebrates to epibenthic predators, and to assess impacts of overwintering fish on their prey communities. Every 2-4 weeks, samples of mobile fauna were collected to study their diets. The major trophic links identified between benthic invertebrates and epibenthic predators were from benthic invertebrates to the shrimp Crangon crangon, and to the common goby Pomatoschistus microps and the plaice Pleuronectes platessa. The energy flow from benthic invertebrates to overwintering fish was estimated at 133 kJ m–2 yr–1. A flow of 10 kJ m–2 yr–1 was also observed from eggs and larval stages of the overwintering shrimp Crangon crangon to the overwintering fish. Nevertheless, manipulative field experiments showed no significant impacts of the most abundant overwintering fish Pomatoschistus microps on prey community densities, despite an overall individual ingestion rate of 89 J day–1.

  4. 鸭绿江水系唇鱼骨肌肉营养成分与品质的评价%Evaluation of Nutritive Quality and Nutrient Components in the Muscle of Hemibarbus labeo Pallas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军; 骆小年; 李敬伟; 金广海; 夏大明; 齐政; 刘宗英; 刘涌; 赵良炜

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to understand the nutritive quality and nutrient components in the muscle of Hemibarbus labeo, and the main nutrient components in the muscle of Hemibarbus labeo were analyzed in this paper. The results showed that the contents of moisture, crude protein, crude fat and crude ash in fresh muscle of Hemibarbus labeo were (75.45±0.64)%,(19.10±0.28)%, (3.70±0.71)% and (1.30±0.03)%. Eighteen common amino acids were found in the muscle of Hemibarbus labeo.The total content of amino acids (TAA) was (18.71±0.23)% including the content of essential amino acids(EAA) (7.61±0.11%) and delicious amino acids(DAA) (6.91±0.21%). The content of glutamic acid was (2.95±0.01)%, which was higher than that of other delicious amino acids. The first limited amino acid was Trp. The ratio of the total essential amino to total amino acids (WEAA/WTAA) was 40.67%, and the ratio of the total essential amino acids to total nonessential amino acids (WEAA/WNEAA) was 78.82%. It was suggested that the ratio met the amino acids balance and the protein is the highgrade protein. 15 kinds of fatty acids i.e.3 kinds of saturated fatty acids, 4 kinds of unsaturated fatty acids and 8 kinds of polyunsaturated fatty acid were found in muscle of Hemibarbus labeo. The content of PUFA were (45.17±1.51)%, which is the higher than that of other PUFA. The content of linoleic acid was the highest in the PUFA, followed by DHA, Arachidonic acid, EPA, α- Linolenic acid, Dihomo-γ-Linolenic-acid, Cis,cis-ll,14-Eicosadienoic acid and DPA. The composition of mineral trace in muscle of Hemibarbus labeo were iodine, zinc, ferrum, copper, selenium, manganese. It is concluded that Hemibarbus labeo is a quality fish with high nutritional value and is good for health.%用生化分析方法,对鸭绿江水系唇鱼骨肌肉一般营养成分、氨基酸、脂肪酸和微量元素的组成成分进行分析,并对其营养品质进行评价.结果表明:肌肉中水分、粗蛋白、粗脂肪和粗灰分的含量分别为:(75.45±0.64)%、(19.10±0.28)%、(3.70±0.71)%和(1.30±0.03)%.氨基酸组成分析表明,肌肉鲜样中含有18种氨基酸,氨基酸总量为(18.71±0.23)%,其中必需氨基酸和鲜味氨基酸总量分别为(7.61±0.11)%和(6.91±0.21)%,鲜味氨基酸中符氨酸含量最高为(2.95±0.01)%;鸭绿江水系唇鱼骨的第一限制性氨基酸是色氨酸.必需氨基酸占总氨基酸的比值(WEAA/WTAA)为40.67%,必需氨基酸与非必需氨基酸的比值(WEAA/WNEAA)为78.82%,氨基酸平衡效果较好.脂肪酸组成分析表明,其主要有3种饱和脂肪酸(SFA),4种单不饱和脂肪酸(MUFA)和8种多不饱和脂肪酸(PUFA),其中PUFA含量最高为(45.17±1.51)%,PUMA中亚油酸含量最高,其次分别为DHA、花生四烯酸、EPA、α-亚麻酸、二高-γ-亚麻酸、顺,顺-11,14-二十碳二烯酸和DPA.微量元素组成分析得出,碘含量最高,其次依次为锌、铁、铜、硒和锰.研究表明,鸭绿江水系唇鱼骨是一种营养丰富,肉味鲜美的经济鱼类,具有食用价值和保健作用.

  5. Respiration and water-loss characteristics in a desert insect Julodis variolaris Pallas (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)%荒漠昆虫天花吉丁虫的呼吸及体内水分损失特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋菁; 吕昭智; 王登元; 吴文岳; 苏延乐; 王晶

    2008-01-01

    为研究荒漠地区昆虫的呼吸及水分损失特征,以专性寄生在荒漠植物梭梭上的天花吉丁虫Julodis variolarisPallas为对象,采用L1-6400光合分析仪测定在20K:下天花吉丁虫的呼吸量,并采用重量法测定了不同温度下其水分散失率.结果表明:天花吉丁虫呼吸为典型的不连续气体交换循环(discontinuous gas exchange cycle,DGC)的模式,DGC平均周期约需12.96 min,爆发问期历时平均约占整个DGC历时的80%,CO2平均释放率为23.45μL/mim.在25℃、30℃、35℃和40℃恒温条件下,单位时间内水分散失随温度升高而增加,10 h内25℃和30℃之间的水分损失率无显著差异,但25℃和30℃与35℃、40℃之间的水分损失率具有显著性差异;10~24 h内25℃、30℃、35℃之间的水分损失率具有显著性差异.荒漠昆虫天花吉丁虫在高温下的高脱水率和高死亡率说明,其在没有水分来源的情况下很难存活,而不连续呼吸模式是其适应高温干旱环境的对策之一.

  6. The fossil vertebrates of Ksâr'akil, a palaeolithic rock shelter in the Lebanon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijer, D.A.

    1961-01-01

    CONTENTS Introduction................... 4 Systematic part.................. 5 Pisces.................... 5 Amphibia................... 6 Hyla arborea (L.) subsp............... 6 Reptilia................... 6 Testudo spec.................. 6 Ophisaurus apodus (Pallas).............. 8 Chamaeleo chama

  7. Snowshoe hare pellet counts: Tetlin National Wildlife Refuge, eastern Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) are a keystone herbivore in the boreal forests of Canada and Alaska, and are cyclical over an approximately 8 to 11 year period....

  8. Small mammals as hosts of immature ixodid ticks

    OpenAIRE

    Horak, I G; L.J. Fourie; L.E.O. Braack

    2005-01-01

    Two hundred and twenty-five small mammals belonging to 16 species were examined for ticks in Free State, Mpumalanga and Limpopo Provinces, South Africa, and 18 ixodid tick species, of which two could only be identified to genus level, were recovered. Scrub hares, Lepus saxatilis, and Cape hares, Lepus capensis, harboured the largest number of tick species. In Free State Province Namaqua rock mice, Aethomys namaquensis, and four-striped grass mice, Rhabdomys pumilio, were good hosts of th...

  9. 1919. aasta kunsti ülevaatenäitus 1998. aastal

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1998-01-01

    20. veebruarist Tartu Kunstimuuseumi Kivisilla pildigaleriis avatud 1919. a. näituse "Eesti kunstnike ülevaatenäitus 79 aastat hiljem" rekonstruktsioonist. Kuraator Mare Joonsalu. 1919. a. näituse vastukajadest. Tartu Kunstimuuseumi põhimajas avatud kunstikooli "Pallas" lõpetanute tööde näitusest "Kunstikool "Pallas" 1919-1940". Kuraatorid Tiiu Talvistu, Epp Preem.

  10. On some eighteenth century animal portraits of interest for systematic zoology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuijn, P.; Feen, van der P.J.

    1969-01-01

    The English zoologist Thomas Pennant (1726—1798) visited The Hague in 1765. There he met another zoologist, Dr. Peter Simon Pallas (1741—1811). On July 30th they visited together the Dutch painter Aart Schouman (1710—1792). Pennant’s diary records: “Accompanied Doctor Pallas a very ingenious young

  11. 1919. aasta kunsti ülevaatenäitus 1998. aastal

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1998-01-01

    20. veebruarist Tartu Kunstimuuseumi Kivisilla pildigaleriis avatud 1919. a. näituse "Eesti kunstnike ülevaatenäitus 79 aastat hiljem" rekonstruktsioonist. Kuraator Mare Joonsalu. 1919. a. näituse vastukajadest. Tartu Kunstimuuseumi põhimajas avatud kunstikooli "Pallas" lõpetanute tööde näitusest "Kunstikool "Pallas" 1919-1940". Kuraatorid Tiiu Talvistu, Epp Preem.

  12. Caracterización de compost a base de espinillo en relación a la Norma Chilena Nº2880.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Tighe-Neira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar el compost a base de espinillo (Ulex europaeus L. y contrastar sus características físico-químicas con las de la Norma Chilena de compost (NCh 2880. El ensayo se montó en el Centro Experimental Pillanlelbún, Temuco, Chile, entre diciembre 2010 y abril de 2011. Se empleó un diseño factorial de 2×2, los factores fueron: mezcla y acelerador de compostaje (AC, ambos en dos niveles. Cuatro tratamientos: T1 U. europaeus (100% sin AC, T2 U. europaeus (78% + estiércol de bovino (22% sin AC, T3 U. europaeus (100% con AC y T4 U. europaeus (78% + estiércol de bovino (22% con AC. Se evaluó el contenido de materia orgánica (MO%, C orgánico total (%, relación C:N, N total (%, humedad (Hº%, tamaño partículas (TP%, toxicidad (% germinación de Raphanus sativus L., pH, densidad aparente (DAP kg/m3, conductividad eléctrica (CE dS/m y germinación de malezas (Nº de propágulos. Los tratamientos U. europaeus (100% sin AC y con AC presentaron mayor %MO, %N total y relación C:N que T2 y T4. A la vez, U. europaeus (100% sin AC, presentó un menor %C y T2 menor pH en comparación al resto de los tratamientos. Las demás variables evaluadas no presentaron diferencias significativas. Todas cumplieron con la NCh 2880, excepto toxicidad en el tratamiento con solo U. europaeus, y la CE en todos los tratamientos. Se debe reducir la CE para poder optar a su certificación por la NCh 2880.

  13. 冬眠与非冬眠刺猬小肠运动机能与对Ad、Ach反应敏感性比较%Motional function of intestinum tenue of Erinaceus europaeus and drug effect on it in hibernation and non-hibernation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楚德昌

    2001-01-01

    对47只冬眠季冬眠阵低温期刺猬的小肠与53只非冬眠季刺猬的小肠,在11.5℃和37℃及离体条件下的收缩强度进行比较,和在37℃条件下对肾上腺素(Ad)、乙酰胆硷(Ach)、心得安(Propranolol)、阿托品(Atr)反应进行比较,表明在11.5 ℃条件下,冬眠与非冬眠刺猬离体小肠都基本无运动机能,在37℃条件下,冬眠季冬眠阵低温期刺猬离体小肠运动强度明显高于非冬眠季,Ad、Ach、Propranolol、Atr 使冬眠季冬眠阵低温期刺猬离体小肠收缩强度变化率明显高于非冬眠季.

  14. Pallast tuleb iga päevaga juurde! / Kalev Kesküla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kesküla, Kalev, 1959-2010

    2000-01-01

    Enn Lillemetsa koostatud Tartu Kunstiühingu Pallas ülevaatenäitus "Pallase ees ja järel" Tartu Kunstimajas. Näituse koostaja kommentaarid eksponeeritud kunstnike kohta ; Sebra galeriis pallaslase Ann Audova isiknäitus

  15. Lijst van de Nederlandsche visschen aanwezig in 's Rijks Museum van Natuurlijke Historie te Leiden, tevens eene vermelding van de tot nu toe in en bij Nederland waargenomen visschen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popta, C.M.L.

    1924-01-01

    Afd.: CHORDATA. Groep III: CEPHALOCHORDATA. Fam.: BRANCHIOSTOMATIDAE. Branchiostoma lanceolata (Pallas) — slakprik, niet aanwezig. Groep IV: CRANIATA. Klasse: Marsipobranchii. Fam.: PETROMYZONIDAE. Petromyzon marinus L. — zeeprik. 1 ex. beschadigd, Noordzee, uit het oude kabinet, in spir. no. 4277.

  16. First record of Hesperomyces virescens (Laboulbeniales, Ascomycota on Harmonia axyridis (Coccinellidae, Coleoptera in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Gorczak

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hesperomyces virescens Thaxt. is a fungal parasite of coccinellid beetles. One of its hosts is the invasive harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Pallas. We present the first records of this combination from Poland.

  17. Mode of overwintering of invasive Harmonia axyridis in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raak-van den Berg, C.L.; Hemerik, L.; Jong, de P.W.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2012-01-01

    After establishment of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Europe, population densities of native ladybird species have decreased. The post-hibernation onset of female reproduction, a key characteristic influencing population dynamics and competition with related species, was s

  18. Taxonomy of the European Pied Flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca (Aves: Muscicapidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salvador, Rodrigo B.; Van der Jeugd, Henk; Tomotani, Barbara M.

    2017-01-01

    The convoluted taxonomy of the European Pied Flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca ([Pallas], 1764) (Aves: Passeriformes: Muscicapidae) might present a challenge for researchers working in other areas of biology. We present here a historical review of this species’ nomenclature, discuss its generic

  19. Tänavu jagub presidendi tunnustust neljale ettevõtjale / Väinu Rozental

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rozental, Väinu, 1957-

    2009-01-01

    Ärimees Margus Reinsalu, Nopri talu peremees Tiit Niilo, ehitusfirma Aspi üks omanikke Ain Tromp ja Harju Elektri nõukogu esimees Endel Palla pälvisid president Toomas Hendrik Ilveselt riiklikud teenetemärgid

  20. Inducible colony formation within the Scenedesmaceae: adaptive responses to infochemicals from two different herbivore taxa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschoor, A.M.; Van der Stap, I.; Helmsing, N.R.; Lürling, M.; Van Donk, E.

    2004-01-01

    We studied the occurrence of colony formation within 40 different strains of Scenedesmaceae (Chlorococcales, Chlorophyta) in response to grazing-released infochemicals from the herbivorous zooplankters Brachionus calyciflorus Pallas (Rotifera) and Daphnia magna Strauss (Cladocera). With the exceptio

  1. Inducible colony formation within the Scenedesmaceae: Adaptive responses to infochemicals from two different herbivore taxa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschoor, A.M.; Stap, I.; Helmsing, N.R.; Lürling, M.F.L.L.W.; Donk, van E.

    2004-01-01

    We studied the occurrence of colony formation within 40 different strains of Scenedesmaceae (Chlorococcales, Chlorophyta) in response to grazing-released infochemicals from the herbivorous zooplankters Brachionus calyciflorus Pallas (Rotifera) and Daphnia magna Strauss (Cladocera). With the exceptio

  2. Predicting the potential geographical distribution of the harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis, using the CLIMEX model - BioControl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poutsma, J.; Loomans, A.; Aukema, B.; Heijerman, Th.

    2008-01-01

    Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is a ladybird beetle native to temperate and subtropical parts of Asia. Since 1916 populations of this species have been introduced throughout the world, either deliberately, or by accident through international transport. Harmonia axyridi

  3. Eesti kunstnikud ajakirjandusgraafikas 1930. aastail / Merle Talvik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Talvik, Merle, 1971-

    2006-01-01

    Kujundusgraafikute kahest koolkonnast: valdavalt Riigi Kunsttööstuskooli haridusega Tallinna kunstnikest ja Kõrgemas kunstikoolis Pallas hariduse saanud Tartu graafikutest. Koolkondade ühisjooneks kujunes art deco. Kunstnikud

  4. Predicting the potential geographical distribution of the harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis, using the CLIMEX model - BioControl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poutsma, J.; Loomans, A.; Aukema, B.; Heijerman, Th.

    2008-01-01

    Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is a ladybird beetle native to temperate and subtropical parts of Asia. Since 1916 populations of this species have been introduced throughout the world, either deliberately, or by accident through international transport. Harmonia axyridi

  5. Eesti kunstnikud ajakirjandusgraafikas 1930. aastail / Merle Talvik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Talvik, Merle, 1971-

    2006-01-01

    Kujundusgraafikute kahest koolkonnast: valdavalt Riigi Kunsttööstuskooli haridusega Tallinna kunstnikest ja Kõrgemas kunstikoolis Pallas hariduse saanud Tartu graafikutest. Koolkondade ühisjooneks kujunes art deco. Kunstnikud

  6. Correlation between myocardial injury and expression of TNF-α on myocardium tissue of mice induced by agkistrodon halys pallas venom%蝮蛇毒介导的心肌损伤与TNF-α表达的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李招兵; 何军; 马小峰; 章若涵; 邓立普

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the expression of TNF - α on myocardium tissue of mice to explore the mechanisms by Agkistrodon snake venom - mediated myocardial injury. Methods The 96 male mice were divided into 12 groups(n = 8) randomly and snake venom was divided into three groups: normal saline ( control group) , venomous snake venom and saline ( experimental group) , venomous snake venom and TNF - α inhibitors (intervention group). Poisoning time to set up four levels: 1 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h. The level of serum cTnT were detected by ELISA and pathological changes of myocardial were observed and TNF - α protein expression of myocardial tissue were detected by immunohistochemistry. Linear correlation analysis were performed in myocardial histopathologic scores, serum cTnT levels and TNF - α expression. Results Myocardial histopathologic scores and the expression of TNF - α protein in myocardium at each time point in experimental group were higher than intervention group and intervention group were higher than control group (P < 0. 05 ) , 48 h group were higher than 24 h group, and 24 h group were higher than 12 h group, and 12 h group were higher than lh group, and, and these differences in experimental group and intervention group were statistically significant(P <0. 05) ; besides lh group, serum cTnT levels at each time point in experimental group were higher than intervention group and and intervention group were higher than control group ( P < 0. 05) , 48 h group were higher than 24 h group, and 24 h group were higher than 12 h group, and 12 h group were higher than 1 h group, and, and these differences in experimental group and intervention  group were statistically significant P < 0. 05 ) ; myocardial histopathologic scores was significant positive correlation with the expression of TNF - α protein in myocardium ( r = 0. 728 , P < 0. 05 ) ; serum cTnT levels was significant positive correlation with the expression of TNF - α protein in myocardium ( r = 0.666, P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion Agkistrodon snake venom can lead to acute myocardial injury of mice, and with the extension of time, the more severe myocardial injury, the higher the expression of TNF - α protein increased significantly. TNF - α inhibitors can reduce the degree of Agkistrodon snake venom - mediated myocardial injury, the expression of TNF - α protein in myocardium and serum cTnT. Over - expression of TNF - α may be one of the mechanisms that agkistrodon snake venom - mediated myocardial injury.%目的 观察蝮蛇毒介导的心肌损伤与TNF-α的表达,探讨蝮蛇毒介导的心肌损伤的机制.方法 96只小鼠随机分成12组(n=8),共设3个组:生理盐水(对照组)、蝮蛇毒+生理盐水(实验组)、蝮蛇毒+TNF-α抑制剂(干预组);分4个时相点:1 h、12 h、24 h和48 h.ELISA检测血清cTnT水平,观察心肌组织病变,免疫组化检测心肌组织TNF-α蛋白的表达.对心肌病变积分、血清cTnT水平与心肌TNF-α表达行直线相关分析.结果 实验组各时相点心肌病变积分和心肌TNF-α蛋白表达均高于干预组和对照组(P<0.05),干预组各时相点均高对照组(P<0.05),实验组和干预组48 h>24 h>12 h>1 h(P<0.05);除1 h组外,实验组各时相点血清cTnT水平均高于干预组及对照组(P<0.05),干预组各时相点高于对照组(P<0.05),实验组和干预组48 h>24 h>12 h>1 h(P<0.05);小鼠心肌病变积分与心肌TNF-α表达呈显著正相关(r=0.728,P<0.05),小鼠血清cTnT水平与心肌TNF-α表达呈显著正相关(r=0.666,P<0.05).结论 蝮蛇毒可致小鼠急性心肌损伤,随时间的延长,心肌损伤越严重.TNF-α抑制剂能降低蝮蛇毒介导的心肌损伤程度、血清cTnT水平及心肌TNF-α蛋白的表达.TNF-α的过度表达可能是蝮蛇毒介导心肌损伤的机制之一.

  7. ÉTUDE SUR LES CAPACITÉS DE FRANCHISSEMENT DES CABOTS BOUCHE-RONDES (SICYOPTERUS LAGOCEPHALUS, PALLAS, 1770 EN VUE DE LA CONCEPTION DE DISPOSITIFS ADAPTÉS AUX PRISES D’EAU DU TRANSFERT SALAZIE (ÎLE DE LA REUNION.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VOEGTLÉ B.

    2002-01-01

    puissent franchir un mur vertical, le pourcentage de passage et le taux de réussite est beaucoup plus faible que pour les autres pentes testées. Une pente à 50°, et une charge de l’ordre de 1-2 mm sont les deux conditions ayant permis sur le pilote d’obtenir les meilleurs résultats. Le revêtement de la rampe s’est révélé être un facteur secondaire, le béton lisse constituant cependant le meilleur support. Les résultats de cette étude ont permis de proposer des critères de dimensionnement pour des dispositifs de franchissement adaptés aux sites et à l’espèce. La passe consiste en une rampe en béton lisse installée à une pente de 50° alimentée par déversement. Une alimentation non uniforme sur la largeur de la rampe permet d’obtenir, quel que soit le niveau amont, une zone favorable à la remontée du poisson.

  8. Effects of fenoxycarb,a juvenile hormone analog,on various developmental stages of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera:Coccinellidae)%保幼激素类似物苯氧威对异色瓢虫不同发育阶段的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹素芬; 赵鑫; 王丽晓; 李刚; 李光强; 赵静; 郑方强

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] This study focused on the effects of fenoxycarb, a juvenile hormone analog (JHA), on the ladybird Harmonia axyridis and discussed its mechanisms of action, so as to evaluate the risks of fenoxycarb application and provide theoretical basis for rational use of the JHA. [Methods] Toxicity of fenoxycarb to egg, 2nd instar larva, pupa and adult of H. Axyridis was determined in the laboratory by using the methods of dipping, topical contact and residual film, respectively. [Results] Fenoxycarb significantly disrupted embryonic development of newly-laid eggs at the minimum concentration of 0. 0001 μg/mL, but when the 2 d-old eggs were treated, the larvae could hatch even at the highest concentration of 20 000 μg/mL. The mortality of 2nd instar larvae was very low even at the highest concentration of 4 000 μg/mL. When pupae were treated, fenoxycarb had significant effects on pupal development with adult eclosion blocked, and pupa-adult intermediate and abnormalities of adults emerged at the minimum concentration of 0.0001 μg (a. I.)/larva. The adult vitality was affected significantly at 24 h after contact with fenoxycarb at the concentration of 0. 0125 μg/mL. [Conclusions] Fenoxycarb had an obvious ovicidal action on newly-laid eggs of H. Axyridis, seriously blocked the larval-pupal metamorphosis and affected the survival of the adults. When fenoxycarb is used in fields, the susceptible developmental stages of the ladybird should be avoided.%[目的]本研究旨在明确保幼激素类似物苯氧威对天敌异色瓢虫 Harmonia axyridis 的影响,并探讨其作用机理,以便进行安全性评价并为科学使用提供理论依据.[方法]应用连叶浸渍法、浸渍法、点滴法和药膜法分别处理异色瓢虫卵、2龄幼虫、蛹和成虫,观察苯氧威对4个虫态的影响.[结果]用浓度为0.0001 μg/mL的药液处理初产卵,能抑制胚胎的发育;但用高达20 000 μg/mL的药液处理发育2 d的卵,幼虫仍可正常孵化;用浓度高达4 000μg/mL的药液浸渍2龄幼虫,对幼虫的致死作用极小;用浓度为0.0001 μg/头的药液处理当天蛹,形成蛹一成虫中间体,羽化的成虫畸形;用浓度为0.0125 μg/mL的药液处理成虫,24 h后成虫的生命力受到明显影响.[结论]苯氧威对异色瓢虫初产卵有明显的毒杀作用,严重阻碍蛹到成虫的变态和影响成虫的存活.在田间使用该杀虫剂时,要避开异色瓢虫的敏感期.

  9. Acetobacter intermedius, sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesch, C; Trcek, J; Sievers, M; Teuber, M

    1998-03-01

    Strains of a new species in the genus Acetobacter, for which we propose the name A. intermedius sp. nov., were isolated and characterized in pure culture from different sources (Kombucha beverage, cider vinegar, spirit vinegar) and different countries (Switzerland, Slovenia). The isolated strains grow in media with 3% acetic acid and 3% ethanol as does A. europaeus, do, however, not require acetic acid for growth. These characteristics phenotypically position A. intermedius between A. europaeus and A. xylinus, DNA-DNA hybridizations of A. intermedius-DNA with DNA of the type strains of Acetobacter europaeus, A. xylinus, A. aceti, A. hansenii, A. liquefaciens, A. methanolicus, A. pasteurianus, A. diazotrophicus, Gluconobacter oxydans and Escherichia coli HB 101 indicated less than 60% DNA similarity. The important features of the new species are described. Acetobacter intermedius strain TF2 (DSM11804) isolated from the liquid phase of a tea fungus beverage (Kombucha) is the type strain.

  10. Potential role of hares in the spread of liver fluke in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walker, S.M.; Johnston, C.; Hoey, E.M.; Fairweather, I.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Gaasenbeek, C.P.H.; Prodohl, P.A.; Trudgett, A.

    2011-01-01

    Hares (Lepus europeanus) sharing pasture with cattle from six locations in the Netherlands were examined for the presence of liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica) and shown to have prevalences of infection ranging from 0 to 41%. The mitochondrial haplotypes of liver flukes present in the hare populations

  11. The use of radio telemetry in Martes research: techniques and technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig M. Thompson; Rebecca A. Green; Joel Sauder; Kathryn L. Purcell; Richard Sweitzer; Jon. Armeno

    2012-01-01

    Radiotelemetry was fi rst used on a Martes species in 1972, when 5 American martens ( Martes americana ) captured incidentally during a snowshoe hare ( Lepus americanus ) research project in Minnesota were radio-collared. Since then, at least 128 research projects have used radiotelemetry to investigate...

  12. Environmental Impact Statement. Peacekeeper Rail Garrison Program. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    leucocephalus migrant Barn owl Tyto alba - E Occurs onbase as migrant Black-tailed Lepus californicus - R Occurs onbase jackrabbit Cooper’s hawk...Millsap (Austin, Texas) Honorable Billy Montgomery (Haughton, Louisiana) Honorable Alejandro Moreno , Jr. (Edinburg, Texas) Honorable Anna Mowery (Fort

  13. Programmatic Environmental Assessment, Francis E. Warren Air Force Base, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-17

    tailed rabbit (Lepus californicus melanotis), raccoon (Procyon lotor hirtus), coyote ( Canis latrans) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). The rich...livia), European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), and house sparrows (Passer domesticus ) are known to occur year-round on the installation. Fish are...Environmental Restoration Program (DERP) that addresses the identification , investigation, and cleanup of contamination from hazardous substances

  14. Spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) coexisting at high density with people in Wukro district, northern Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yirga, Gidey; Ersino, Wondimu; De Iongh, Hans H.;

    2013-01-01

    the past five years. Average annual depredation per household was 0.13 livestock worth US$ 6.1. The diet of spotted hyenas was assessed in three sub-districts by scat analysis and showed 99% prey items of domestic origin, only three of 211 scat contained hair of Ethiopian hare (Lepus fagani) and porcupine...

  15. A gray wolf (Canis lupus) delivers live prey to a pup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David

    2014-01-01

    A two-year-old sibling Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) carefully captured an Arctic Hare (Lepus arcticus) leveret alive on Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada, and delivered it alive to a pup 28–33 days old. This appears to be the first observation of a Gray Wolf delivering live prey to a pup.

  16. Synchrony in the snowshoe hare cycle in Northwestern North America, 1970-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.J. Krebs; K. Kielland; J.P Bryant; M. O' Donoghue; F. Doyle; C. McIntyre; D. DiFolco; N. Berg; S. Carriere; R. Boonstra; S. Boutin; A. J. Kenney; D. G. Reid; K. Bodony; J. Putera; H. K. Timm; T. Burke.

    2013-01-01

    Snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus Erxleben, 1777) fluctuate in 9–10 year cycles throughout much of their North American range. Regional synchrony has been assumed to be the rule for these cycles, so that hare populations in virtually all of northwestern North America have been assumed to be in phase. We gathered qualitative and quantitative data on...

  17. CARACTERIZACIÓN DE COMPOST A BASE DE ESPINILLO EN RELACIÓN A LA NORMA CHILENA No2880

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Tighe-Neira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Caracterización de compost a base de espinillo en relación a la Norma Chilena No2880. El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar el compost a base de espinillo (Ulex europaeus L. y contrastar sus características físico-químicas con las de la Norma Chilena de compost (NCh 2880. El ensayo se montó en el Centro Experimental Pillanlelbún, Temuco, Chile, entre diciembre 2010 y abril de 2011. Se empleó un diseño factorial de 2×2, los factores fueron: mezcla y acelerador de compostaje (AC, ambos en dos niveles. Cuatro tratamientos: T1 U. europaeus (100% sin AC, T2 U. europaeus (78% + estiércol de bovino (22% sin AC, T3 U. europaeus (100% con AC y T4 U. europaeus (78% + estiércol de bovino (22% con AC. Se evaluó el contenido de materia orgánica (MO%, C orgánico total (%, relación C:N, N total (%, humedad (Ho%, tamaño partículas (TP%, toxicidad (% germinación de Raphanus sativus L., pH, densidad aparente (DAP kg/m3, conductividad eléctrica (CE dS/m y germinación de malezas (No de propágulos. Los tratamientos U. europaeus (100% sin AC y con AC presentaron mayor %MO, %N total y relación C:N que T2 y T4. A la vez, U. europaeus (100% sin AC, presentó un menor %C y T2 menor pH en comparación al resto de los tratamientos. Las demás variables evaluadas no presentaron diferencias significativas. Todas cumplieron con la NCh 2880, excepto toxicidad en el tratamiento con solo U. europaeus, y la CE en todos los tratamientos. Se debe reducir la CE para poder optar a su certificación por la NCh 2880.

  18. Serine protease immunohistochemistry and lectin histochemistry in the small intestine of weaned and unweaned pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, P J; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Wells, M

    1991-01-01

    The distribution of goblet cells containing serine protease and of those binding the lectin Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 (UEA-1) in the pig small intestine is altered during the period after weaning. Goblet cells exhibiting binding of other lectins were not altered. These alterations and other...

  19. Intergeneric hybridization and C-banding patterns in Hordelymus (Triticeae, Poaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothmer, R. von; Lu, B.-R.; Linde-Laursen, I.

    1994-01-01

    Crosses of Hordelymus europaeus (2n = 4x = 28) with four genera in the Triticeae were attempted. Adult hybrids were obtained in combinations with Hordeum bogdanii (2x), Hordeum depressum (4x), and Secale cereale (2x). The meiotic pairing was very low in the hybrids with H. bogdanii and Secale cer...

  20. Horse grazing systems: understory biomass and plant biodiversity of a Pinus radiata stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Rigueiro-Rodríguez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Horse grazing systems may affect productivity and biodiversity of understory developed under Pinus radiata D. Don silvopastoral systems, while acting as a tool to reduce the risk of fire. This study compared continuous and rotational grazing systems effect upon biomass, fractions of stem, sprouts, leaves and woody parts of Ulex europaeus L. and alpha (Species Richness, Shannon-Wiener and beta (Jaccard and Magurran biodiversity for a period of four years in a P. radiata silvopastoral system. The experiment consisted of a randomized block design of two treatments (continuous and rotational grazing. Biomass, and species abundances were measured - biodiversity metrics were calculated based on these results for a two years of grazing and two years of post-grazing periods. Both continuous and rotational grazing systems were useful tools for reducing biomass and, therefore, fire risk. The rotational grazing system caused damage to the U. europaeus shrub, limiting its recovery once grazing was stopped. However, the more intensive grazing of U. europaeus plants under rotational had a positive effect on both alpha and beta biodiversity indexes due to the low capacity of food selection in the whole plot rather than continuous grazing systems. Biomass was not affected by the grazing system; however the rotational grazing system is more appropriate to reduce U. europaeus biomass and therefore forest fire risk at a long term and to enhance pasture biodiversity than the continuous grazing system.

  1. Deep trophoblast invasion and spiral artery remodelling in the placental bed of the lowland gorilla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pijnenborg, R; Vercruysse, L; Carter, Anthony Michael

    2011-01-01

    in the chimpanzee, we postulated the occurrence of deep invasion in gorilla pregnancy. Tissues were processed for histology (PAS, orcein), lectin staining (Ulex europaeus agglutinin 1) and immunohistochemistry (cytokeratin 7/17, α-actin). A specimen of young but undetermined gestational age included deep placental...

  2. Life on the edge : hedgehog traffic victims and mitigation strategies in an anthropogenic landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijser, M.P.

    2000-01-01

    This study focused on the most frequently recorded mammal species in road-kill surveys in western Europe: the hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus). Investigations were conducted in an anthropogenic landscape and had two major aims:

    1. to quantify the effects of traffic

    2. Molecular characterization of Danish Cryptosporidium parvum isolates

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Enemark, Heidi L.; Ahrens, Peter; Juel, Cynthia Dawn

      2002-01-01

      was characterized as C. meleagridis. The porcine Cryptosporidium isolates (N = 4) revealed a pattern which was genetically distinct from human and bovine isolates. Cryptosporidium in a hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus L.) was identified for the first time. By microsatellite sequencing the hedgehog isolate showed...

    3. Different parasite faunas in sympatric populations of sister hedgehog species in a secondary contact zone.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Miriam Pfäffle

      Full Text Available Providing descriptive data on parasite diversity and load in sister species is a first step in addressing the role of host-parasite coevolution in the speciation process. In this study we compare the parasite faunas of the closely related hedgehog species Erinaceus europaeus and E. roumanicus from the Czech Republic where both occur in limited sympatry. We examined 109 hedgehogs from 21 localities within this secondary contact zone. Three species of ectoparasites and nine species of endoparasites were recorded. Significantly higher abundances and prevalences were found for Capillaria spp. and Brachylaemus erinacei in E. europaeus compared to E. roumanicus and higher mean infection rates and prevalences for Hymenolepis erinacei, Physaloptera clausa and Nephridiorhynchus major in E. roumanicus compared to E. europaeus. Divergence in the composition of the parasite fauna, except for Capillaria spp., which seem to be very unspecific, may be related to the complicated demography of their hosts connected with Pleistocene climate oscillations and consequent range dynamics. The fact that all parasite species with different abundances in E. europaeus and E. roumanicus belong to intestinal forms indicates a possible diversification of trophic niches between both sister hedgehog species.

    4. Life on the edge : Hedgehog traffic victims and mitigation strategies in an anthropogenic landscape

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Huijser, M.P.

      2000-01-01

      This study focused on the most frequently recorded mammal species in road-kill surveys in western Europe: the hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus). Investigations were conducted in an anthropogenic landscape and had two major aims:

      1. to quantify the effects of traffic mortality at individual, populat

      2. Peripheral odour perception by adult aphid forms with the same genotype but different host-plant preferences

        NARCIS (Netherlands)

        Hardie, J.; Visser, J.H.; Piron, P.G.M.

        1995-01-01

        As adults, the summer (alate virginopara) and autumn (gynopara) winged forms of the black bean aphid, Aphis fabae, utilise different host plants, the bean Vicia faba, and the spindle tree, Euonymus europaeus, respectively. Electroantennograms (EAGs) were recorded from the antennae of these aphid for

      3. Taxonomic study of clinical and environmental isolates of arthroconidial, acremonium-like and ochroconis-like fungi

        OpenAIRE

        Giraldo López, Dixie Alejandra

        2015-01-01

        Ochroconis olivacea, O. ramosa, Sarocladium bifurcatum, S. hominis, S. pseudostrictum y S. subulatum. Adicionalmente, cuatro géneros nuevos, Acremoniopsis, Brunneomyces, Cervusimilis y Collarina, y 16 nuevos taxones, Acremoniopsis suttonii, Acremonium asperulatum, A. citrinum, A. parvum, A. pilosum, A: variecolor, Brunneomyces brunnescens, B. hominis, B. europaeus, Cervusimilis alba, Collarina aurantiaca, Ochroconis icarus, Sarocladium gamsii, S. implicatum, S. sumerbellii y S. te...

      4. Life on the edge : hedgehog traffic victims and mitigation strategies in an anthropogenic landscape

        NARCIS (Netherlands)

        Huijser, M.P.

        2000-01-01

        This study focused on the most frequently recorded mammal species in road-kill surveys in western Europe: the hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus). Investigations were conducted in an anthropogenic landscape and had two major aims:

        1. to quantify the effects of traffic m

        2. Adhesion of human and animal escherichia coli strains in association with their virulence-associated genes and phylogenetic origins

          DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

          Fr̈mmel, Ulrike; R̈diger, Stefan; B̈hm, Alexander

          2013-01-01

          ) and the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus). The prevalence of exVAGs depended on isolation from a specific host. Human uropathogenic E. coli isolates carried exVAGs with the highest prevalence, followed by badger (Meles meles) and roe deer isolates. Adhesion was found to be very diverse. Adhesion was specific...

        3. Two new species of Hymenolepis (Cestoda: Hymenolepididae) from Spalacidae and Muridae (Rodentia) from eastern Palearctic.

          Science.gov (United States)

          Makarikov, Arseny A; Tkach, Vasyl V

          2013-03-01

          Previously unrecognized species of the genus Hymenolepis are described based on specimens from spalacid and murid (Murinae) rodents. Hymenolepis rymzhanovi sp. nov. from the Siberian zokor, Myospalax myospalax (Laxmann), from East Kazakhstan, and H. apodemi sp. nov. from Eurasian field mice, Apodemus peninsulae (Thomas), A. uralensis (Pallas) and A. agrarius (Pallas), from the south of Russian Far East, western Siberia and south-eastern Kazakhstan are characterized. The new species differ from other species of the genus by the morphology of the scolex, the relative position and length of the cirrus-sac and the relative position and arrangement of the testes. Differential criteria of species of Hymenolepis (sensu stricto) are also discussed.

        4. Parasites of the recently established round goby (Negobius melanostomus) and tubenose goby (Proterorhinus marmoratus) (Gobiidae) from the St. Clair River and Lake St. Clair, Michigan, USA

          Science.gov (United States)

          Pronin, Nikolai M.; Fleischer, Guy W.; Baldanova, Darima R.; Pronina, Svetlana V.

          1997-01-01

          Specimens of the recently established European round goby (Negobius melanostomus Pallas, 1811) and tubenose goby (Proterorhinus marmoratus Pallas, 1811) were collected from different locations in the St. Clair River and Lake St. Clair, USA and were examined for parasites. Parasites were observed in 76% of the round gobies and 35% of the tubenose gobies. Four species of parasites in the gobies occur in the Black Sea watershed. Two of them have been reported in North America for the first time: Sphaeromyxa sevastopoli Naidenova, 1970 and Ichthyocotylurus pileatus (Rudolphi, 1802). Three parasite species found in the gobies are endemic to North America and were most likely obtained locally.

        5. Septicemic listeriosis in wild hares from Saskatchewan, Canada.

          Science.gov (United States)

          Rothenburger, Jamie L; Bennett, Katarina R; Bryan, Lorraine; Bollinger, Trent K

          2015-04-01

          The bacterium Listeria monocytogenes causes disease in a wide variety of mammals including rabbits and hares. We describe naturally acquired metritis and septicemic listeriosis in wild female hares from Saskatchewan, Canada. Between April 2012 and July 2013, two white-tailed jackrabbits (Lepus townsendii) and a snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) were presented to the Veterinary Medical Centre at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada with nonspecific neurologic signs. The hares were euthanized and autopsied. Necrotizing fibrinosuppurative metritis was present in all. Additional findings in individual hares included fetal maceration, multifocal necrotizing myocarditis, multifocal hepatic necrosis, and nonsuppurative encephalitis. Listeria monocytogenes was cultured from multiple tissues in each hare. Although listeriosis in pregnant domestic rabbits has been studied, this is the first detailed description in wild North American hares. The epidemiology of listeriosis, including prevalence and the role of environmental sources and coprophagy in transmission among hares, requires further investigation.

        6. Small mammals as hosts of immature ixodid ticks

          Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

          I.G. Horak

          2005-09-01

          Full Text Available Two hundred and twenty-five small mammals belonging to 16 species were examined for ticks in Free State, Mpumalanga and Limpopo Provinces, South Africa, and 18 ixodid tick species, of which two could only be identified to genus level, were recovered. Scrub hares, Lepus saxatilis, and Cape hares, Lepus capensis, harboured the largest number of tick species. In Free State Province Namaqua rock mice, Aethomys namaquensis, and four-striped grass mice, Rhabdomys pumilio, were good hosts of the immature stages of Haemaphysalis leachi and Rhipicephalus gertrudae, while in Mpumalanga and Limpopo Provinces red veld rats, Aethomys chrysophilus, Namaqua rock mice and Natal multimammate mice, Mastomys natalensis were good hosts of H. leachi and Rhipicephalus simus. Haemaphysalis leachi was the only tick recovered from animals in all three provinces.

        7. Small mammals as hosts of immature ixodid ticks.

          Science.gov (United States)

          Horak, I G; Fourie, L J; Braack, L E O

          2005-09-01

          Two hundred and twenty-five small mammals belonging to 16 species were examined for ticks in Free State, Mpumalanga and Limpopo Provinces, South Africa, and 18 ixodid tick species, of which two could only be identified to genus level, were recovered. Scrub hares, Lepus saxatilis, and Cape hares, Lepus capensis, harboured the largest number of tick species. In Free State Province Namaqua rock mice, Aethomys namaquensis, and four-striped grass mice, Rhabdomys pumilio, were good hosts of the immature stages of Haemaphysalis leachi and Rhipicephalus gertrudae, while in Mpumalanga and Limpopo Provinces red veld rats, Aethomys chrysophilus, Namaqua rock mice and Natal multimammate mice, Mastomys natalensis were good hosts of H. leachi and Rhipicephalus simus. Haemaphysalis leachi was the only tick recovered from animals in all three provinces.

        8. Occurrence of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli in the faeces of free-ranging wild lagomorphs in southwest Spain

          OpenAIRE

          Martínez, Remigio; García, Alfredo; Blanco, Jesús E.; Blanco, Jorge; Rey, Joaquín; Juan M. Alonso; Gómez, Luis; Sánchez, Sergio

          2010-01-01

          Abstract Verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) is an important group of emerging food-borne pathogens and represents a major public health concern worldwide. The aim of this work was to analyse faecal samples from hunted wild lagomorphs for the presence of E. coli O157:H7 and non-O157 VTEC. During two hunting seasons, faecal samples from 241 animals were collected, including wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and hare (Lepus granatensis) and were examined for VTEC. Overa...

        9. Studio della variabilità genetica di specie animali autoctone della Sardegna

          OpenAIRE

          Satta, Valentina

          2010-01-01

          This work aimed to know the genetics state of four Sardinian autochthonous animal species: two mammalian species, the mouflon (Ovis gmelini musimon) and the Sardinian hare (Lepus capensis mediterraneus), and two birds, the European shag (Phalacrocorax aristotelis desmarestii) and the griffon (Gyps fulvus), in order to supply a method to monitories their welfare and the anthropic impact on these animal colonies and to manage to preserve their genetic diversity. Firstly we manage to...

        10. Central Radar System, Over-the-Horizon Backscatter

          Science.gov (United States)

          1990-03-09

          small mammals , and numerous bird species (Technical Studies 7 and 8). Additional values of natural tree stands include soil erosion control , streambank...Lepus californicus and Allies). Pages 124-145 in Wildlife Mammals of North America: Biology, Management and Economics. J.A. Chapman and G.A. Feldhamer...Central Minnesota. Journal of Wildlife Management . 35(3):476-487. Lindzey, F.G. 1982. Badger (Taxidea taxus). Pages 653-663 in Wild Mammals of North America

        11. Tagasi looduse ja inimese juurde / Tiina Abel

          Index Scriptorium Estoniae

          Abel, Tiina, 1951-

          2010-01-01

          Kunstipoliitika ja ametlik kunst. Heroiline alastuse motiiv. 1937. aasta Pariisi maailmanäitus. Väitlused kunsti rahvuslikkuse ja eesti stiili üle. Kunstikool ja kunstiühing Pallas. Prantsuse orientatsiooni süvenemine. Kaks Prantsuse kunstikultuuri manifestatsiooni

        12. Amanda Jasmiin, habras sidepidaja / Enn Lillemets

          Index Scriptorium Estoniae

          Lillemets, Enn

          2002-01-01

          Rootsis elava, 30. märtsil 100-aastaseks saanud Amanda Jasmiini elust, õpingutest, skulptuuriloomingust, arvustustest. Lõpetas 1937. a. Pallase skulptorina, on töötanud joonistusõpetaja, moekunstniku ja illustraatorina, kavandanud teatrikostüüme, 1997. aastast kunstiühingu Pallas auliige

        13. Revision of the Indo-Pacific species of the genus Distichopora

          NARCIS (Netherlands)

          Boschma, H.

          1959-01-01

          Twenty-one species of Distichopora have been described after specimens from various localities in the Indo-Pacific region, viz., D. violacea (Pallas, 1766) from “Mare Indicum”, D. cinnabarina Nardo, 1844, from the Red Sea (?), D. gracilis Dana, 1848, from the Tuamotu Islands, D. coccinea Gray, 1860,

  1. Tylenchids nematodes (Tylenchida parasitizing field population of Harmonia axyridis, and Cycloneda sanguinea (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora B. Camino

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available For the first time in Argentina, we report that in Harmonia axyridis Pallas, 1773, and Cycloneda sanguinea (Linnaeus, 1763 (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae parasitizing by nematodes which belong to the family of Allantonematidae (Nematoda, Tylenchida. The genera are Metaparasitylenchus Wachek, 1955 (Nickle, 1967, Sulphuretylenchus Rühm, 1956 (Nickle, 1967 and Contortylenchus Rühm, 1956. They will be described and photographied afterwards.

  2. Quantitative Analysis of the Early Powdery Mildew Infection Stages on Resistant Barley Genotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J. B.; Torp, J.

    1986-01-01

    A classification system was developed, that allowed quantification of the leaf surface development of the barley powdery mildew fungus on barley. An experiment with Manchuria and Pallas as susceptible controls and 4 resistance gene each represented by three lines with different gene backgrounds s...

  3. First observations of two talitrid crustaceans (Amphipoda: Talitridae from Gokceada island (NE Aegean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. CAMUR-ELIPEK

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports the occurrence of Talitrus saltator (Montagu, 1808 and Orchestia gammarellus (Pallas, 1766 which are the first records from Gokceada (Imbroz Island (NE Aegean Sea. It should be noted that, T. saltator is a new record for the Aegean Sea coast of Turkey.

  4. The Dutch rush: history and myth of the Equisetum trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, de W.P.

    2015-01-01

    In England in the early 19th century at least two products went by the commercial name Dutch Rush, viz. the Rough Horsetail Equisetum hyemale L. used in cabinet making and similar crafts, and the Common Club-rush/Bulrush Schoenoplectus lacustris (L.) Palla used in matting and chair manufacturing. So

  5. Pallase peakoosolek / Enn Lillemets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lillemets, Enn

    2002-01-01

    Kunstiühingu "Pallas" peakoosolek 20. VI Tartus Kirjanduse Majas. Ühingu viimase pooleteise aasta tegevusest ja lähematest kavadest rääkis Enn Lillemets. Galeriide vähesusest Tartus, pallasliku maalihariduse andmisest Konrad Mäe Ateljees, kunstinäitustest jm. Juhatuse (esimees E. Lillemets) ja revisjonikomisjoni koosseis

  6. Diapause and post-diapause quiescence demonstrated in overwintering Harmonia axyeidis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in northwestern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raak-van den Berg, C.L.; Jong, de P.W.; Hemerik, L.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2013-01-01

    The Asian ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is regarded as an invasive species in many parts of the world. In a previous study we hypothesised that H. axyridis enters diapause at the end of October and then shifts to a quiescent state in December in northwestern Europe.

  7. Control of Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei by treatment with mycelial extracts from cultured fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, H.; Jørgensen, H.J.L.; Lyngkjær, M.F.

    2001-01-01

    High levels of protection against infection from Blumeria graminis Esp. hordei in the susceptible barley cv. Pallas were obtained by pretreatment with mycelial extracts or culture filtrates from seven different fungi (Bipolaris oryzae, B. sorokiniana, Drechslera teres f. maculata, Fusarium culmorum...... resistance cannot be precluded....

  8. De Vries & Mul, A.M. Cooper, Pioneer of Puppet Animation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wells, Paul

    2012-01-01

    abstractReview of Tjitte de Vries and Ati Mul, ‘They Thought it was a Marvel’. Arthur Melbourne Cooper (1874-1961) Pioneer of Puppet Animation. Amsterdam (Pallas Publications/AmsterdamUniversity Press) 2009, 576 p., 105 ill.; includesdvd of 6 films, isbn 978 908 555016 7

  9. The harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roy, Helen E.; Brown, Peter M.J.; Adriaens, Tim;

    2016-01-01

    The harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), is native to Asia but has been intentionally introduced to many countries as a biological control agent of pest insects. In numerous countries, however, it has been introduced unintentionally. The dramatic spread of H...

  10. Taxonomy of Mongolian Bulrushes (Cyperaceae Juss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dashzeveg Nyambayar

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomic position of Mongolian species belonging to the genus Scirpus L. is revised here. Five species are included in this genus. In this paper, three of them are transferred to the genus Schoenoplectus (H.G.L. Reichenb. Palla. Keys for the identification of these two genera and species, species descriptions and data on their distribution in Mongolia are given.

  11. Sisearhitektide Liidu aastapreemiad

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    1999. a. parim interjöör ئ Krista ja Jaak Roosi kujundatud hotell 'Pallas' Tartus, vormipreemia ئ Toivo Raidmetsa diivanilaud 'Tea'. Esile tõsteti: Priit Põldme kujundatud restoran 'Balthasar' ja Katrin Tombergi kujundatud AS Termesti büroohoone Tallinnas, Ivi-Els Schneideri 'Klaaskirst', Tiina Mangi klaaslaud 'Lii-Loo'.

  12. Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu aastapreemiad

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    1999. a. parim interjöör - Krista ja Jaak Roosi kujundatud hotell "Pallas" Tartus, parim disainiobjekt - Toivo Raidmetsa diivanilaud "Tea". Esile tõsteti: Priit Põldme, Katrin Tomberg (interjöörid), Ivi-Els Schneider, Tiina Mang (disain). 2 illustratsiooni

  13. Die geskiedenis van die Nasionale Bontebokpark, Swellendam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P.J. van Rensburg

    1975-07-01

    Full Text Available A description of the early history of the Swellendam district is given. The following aspects of the bontebok Damaliscus dorcas dorcas (Pallas, 1766 are discussed: distribution; origins of the historical confusion between bontebok and blesbok (D. d. phillipsi Harper, 1939; decline of the sub-species; conservation measures and redistribution.

  14. Invasive alien species under attack: natural enemies of Harmonia axyridis in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raak-van den Berg, C.L.; Wielink, van P.; Jong, de P.W.; Gort, G.; Haelewaters, D.; Helder, J.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2014-01-01

    The aphid predator Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is an invasive alien species in Europe and North America with negative effects on non-target species (including a decline of native ladybird populations), as well as fruit production, and human health. It is, therefore, import

  15. Het lieveheersbeestje Harmonia axyridis in Nederland: een aanwinst voor onze fauna of een ongewenste indringer (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuppen, J.; Heijerman, Th.; Wielink, van P.; Loomans, A.

    2004-01-01

    Harmonia axyridis in the Netherlands: a gain for the fauna or an unwanted intruder (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)? The coccinellid Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773), a well-known aphid predator originating from Asia, was found for the first time in the Netherlands (Heilige Landstichting near Nijmegen) i

  16. Diapause and post-diapause quiescence demonstrated in overwintering Harmonia axyeidis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in northwestern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raak-van den Berg, C.L.; Jong, de P.W.; Hemerik, L.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2013-01-01

    The Asian ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is regarded as an invasive species in many parts of the world. In a previous study we hypothesised that H. axyridis enters diapause at the end of October and then shifts to a quiescent state in December in northwestern Europe.

  17. Larval life history responses to food deprivation in three species of predatory lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We studied life history responses of larvae of three coccinellid species, Coleomegilla maculata (DeGeer), Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville, and Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), when deprived of food for different periods of time during the fourth stadium. The coccinellid species did not differ in ...

  18. Changes in the Ratio of the Sulcus Acusticus Area to the Sagitta Area of Pomatoschistus-Minutus and P-Lozanoi (Pisces, Gobiidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arellano, R.V.; Hamerlynck, O.; Vincx, M.; Mees, J.; Hostens, K.; Gijselinck, W.

    1995-01-01

    The Pomatoschistus minutus (Pallas) and P. lozanoi (de Buen) stock of the ebb-tidal delta of the former Grevelingen estuary was sampled monthly from September 1992 to October 1993. Sagittae were extracted and the areas of the sagitta and sulcus acusticus were measured with a digitizer. The frequency

  19. The Ch-class asteroids: Connecting a visible taxonomic class to a 3-{\\mu}m band shape

    CERN Document Server

    Rivkin, Andrew S; Howell, Ellen S; Emery, Joshua P

    2015-01-01

    Asteroids belonging to the Ch spectral taxonomic class are defined by the presence of an absorption near 0.7 {\\mu}m, which is interpreted as due to Fe-bearing phyllosilicates. Phyllosilicates also cause strong absorptions in the 3-{\\mu}m region, as do other hydrated and hydroxylated minerals and H2O ice. Over the past decade, spectral observations have revealed different 3-{\\mu}m band shapes the asteroid population. Although a formal taxonomy is yet to be fully established, the "Pallas-type" spectral group is most consistent with the presence of phyllosilicates. If Ch class and Pallas type are both indicative of phyllosilicates, then all Ch-class asteroids should also be Pallas-type. In order to test this hypothesis, we obtained 42 observations of 36 Ch-class asteroids in the 2- to 4-{\\mu}m spectral region. We found that 88% of the spectra have 3-{\\mu}m band shapes most consistent with the Pallas-type group. This is the first asteroid class for which such a strong correlation has been found. Because the Ch cl...

  20. First record of Saga pedo (Orthoptera, Tettigoniidae in Suceava County with notes on its distribution in Eastern Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian Pricop

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The predatory bush-cricket Saga pedo Pallas, 1771 is mentioned for the first time from“Fâneţele Seculare Ponoare” Bosanci Natural Reserve, located few kilometers south of Suceava city,Suceava county (Romania. The general distribution of this species in eastern Romania is also discussedin this paper.

  1. De Vries & Mul, A.M. Cooper, Pioneer of Puppet Animation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wells, Paul

    2012-01-01

    abstractReview of Tjitte de Vries and Ati Mul, ‘They Thought it was a Marvel’. Arthur Melbourne Cooper (1874-1961) Pioneer of Puppet Animation. Amsterdam (Pallas Publications/AmsterdamUniversity Press) 2009, 576 p., 105 ill.; includesdvd of 6 films, isbn 978 908 555016 7

  2. Twenty five years of invasion: management of the round goby Neogobius melanostomus in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ojaveer, Henn; Galil, Bella S.; Lehtiniemi, Maiju

    2015-01-01

    The round goby, Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas, 1814), is one of the most invasive non-indigenous species in the Baltic Sea. It dominates coastal fisheries in some localities and is frequently found in offshore pelagic catches. This paper identifies management issues and suggests actions to be co...

  3. THE Ch-CLASS ASTEROIDS: CONNECTING A VISIBLE TAXONOMIC CLASS TO A 3 μm BAND SHAPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivkin, Andrew S. [The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (United States); Thomas, Cristina A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (United States); Howell, Ellen S. [Arecibo Observatory, USRA (Puerto Rico); Emery, Joshua P. [University of Tennessee (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Asteroids belonging to the Ch spectral taxonomic class are defined by the presence of an absorption near 0.7 μm, which is interpreted as due to Fe-bearing phyllosilicates. Phyllosilicates also cause strong absorptions in the 3 μm region, as do other hydrated and hydroxylated minerals and H{sub 2}O ice. Over the past decade, spectral observations have revealed different 3 μm band shapes in the asteroid population. Although a formal taxonomy is yet to be fully established, the “Pallas-type” spectral group is most consistent with the presence of phyllosilicates. If Ch class and Pallas type are both indicative of phyllosilicates, then all Ch-class asteroids should also be Pallas-type. In order to test this hypothesis, we obtained 42 observations of 36 Ch-class asteroids in the 2 to 4 μm spectral region. We found that 88% of the spectra have 3 μm band shapes most consistent with the Pallas-type group. This is the first asteroid class for which such a strong correlation has been found. Because the Ch class is defined by the presence of an absorption near 0.7 μm, this demonstrates that the 0.7 μm band serves not only as a proxy for the presence of a band in the 3 μm region, but specifically for the presence of Pallas-type bands. There is some evidence for a correlation between band depth at 2.95 μm and absolute magnitude and/or albedo. However, we find only weak correlations between 2.95 μm band depth and semimajor axis. The connection between band depths in the 0.7 and 3 μm regions is complex and in need of further investigation.

  4. Rare and new Laboulbeniales from Poland. III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Majewski

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The sites are described at which ten species of Laboulbeniales were found. Five species are new to science: Corethromyces niger found on a beetle of the Catopidae family, Dioicomyces myrmecophilus on a representative of Colydiidae, Misgomyces annae and M. flexus on representives of Ptiliidae and Stichomyces europaeus on a representative of Staphylinidae. The remaining species are new for the flora of Poland.

  5. Root architecture characteristics of plant inlay in live slope grating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Jia-rong; Wang Fang; Gao Yang; Rosemarie Stangl

    2007-01-01

    In the experimental garden of the Department of Soil Bioengineering and Landscape Construction, University of Applied Life Sciences in Vienna, Austria, coarse root systems of three different brush species were completely excavated and semi-automatically digitized. The species were Lonicera xylosteum, Ligustrum vulgare and Euonymus europaeus. The 3-D root architectures reveal different growth strategies between species, which are related to ecological characteristics and physical soil properties. The root architecture of Lonicera xylosteum and Ligustrum vulgare, planted in the under layer of the live slope grading, where the soil is very tight and the soil water content and fertility are relatively low, is shallow. However, the root distribution of E. europaeus, planted in the middle layer, where environmental conditions are better, is deeper. Most of the root biomass of the three species is concentrated in the 0-30 cm soil layer. A quarter of the root biomass ofLigustrum vulgare is distributed in the upper layer of the plant inlay. E. europaeus has a relatively even distribution in the 30-60 cm and 60-90 cm soil layer.

  6. Таксономический состав и количественное раз­витие эндосимбионтов моллюска Dreissena polymorphs (Pallas) (Bivalvia: Dreissenidae) в р. Березина

    OpenAIRE

    Мастицкий, С. Э.; Вежновец, Г. Г.

    2006-01-01

    This work was conducted in the River Berezina near Borisov city to study the species composition of endosymbionts of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). The mantle cavity and visceral mass of molluscs were found to be inhabited by ciliates (Conchophthirus acuminatus, Ancistrumina limnica), trematodes (Bucephalus polymorphus, Phyllodistomum folium and Echinostomatidae), oligochaetes (Chaetogaster limnael and others), nematodes and chironomids (Limnochironomus gr. nervosus and L tritomus). The...

  7. ВИДОВОЙ СОСТАВ ГЕЛЬМИНТОВ ДЗЕРЕНОВ (PROCAPRA GUTTUROSA, PALLAS, 1777 МИГРИРУЮЩИХ ИЗ МОНГОЛИИ НА ТЕРРИТОРИЮ ЗАБАЙКАЛЬСКОГО КРАЯ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Кирильцов, Е.В.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available В работе приведены данные о зараженности гельминтозами дзеренов, мигрирующих с территории Монголии в Забайкальский край. Изучен видовой состав выявленных паразитов. Выявлено 13 видов гельминтов, с высокой ЭИ до 100% и ИИ свыше 2000 экз./гол. Обнаруженные гельминты патогенны для сельскохозяйственных животных, а Echinococcus granulosus larva, Cysticercus tenuicollis, Trichostrongylus colubriformis и Trichostrongylus axei может заражаться и человек.

  8. Bucephalus polymorphus Baer, 1827 - a new fish parasite in Austria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Mühlegger, J; Jirsa, Franz; Konecny, Robert; Sattmann, Helmut; Frank, Christa

    2009-10-01

    During parasitological studies of the invasive round goby fish species Apollonia melanostoma (Pallas, 1814) from the Danube River in 2007 the digenean Bucephalus polymorphus Baer, 1827 was detected for the first time in Austria. Encysted metacercariae of the parasite were found on the fins, skin and gills of the fish. The occurrence of the parasite is strictly dependant on the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771), which acts as the obligatory first intermediate host in its life cycle. The mussel has also invaded Austrian waters, but has appeared in 1870 already. It will not be possible to establish whether the parasite was introduced to Austria with the gobies, or has arrived earlier, but it should be the subject of future investigations to ascertain whether the parasite will be able to establish a firm population in Austria, and whether this introduction puts additional pressure on the native fish populations.

  9. Atmospheric Bulk Deposition of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins, Dibenzofurans, and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markku Korhonen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The deposition of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs was studied during the period 2006–2008 in northern Finland (Pallas, 1998–2008 in southern Finland (Evo and 2002–2004 in the Gulf of Finland archipelago (Utö. Retrospective snow samples were taken from the whole snowbank in Evo in 2003 and 2004, and recently fallen snow was collected in Evo in 2006–2008. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs in the depositions were usually small. The limit of quantification (LOQ was often reached in Pallas and Utö. The analysis results of PCDD/F and PCB congeners from Evo were used to predict numerical results with linear regression for those congeners with results below LOQ. The deposition of PCDD/Fs in Pallas was mostly less than 0.4 pg·m−2·day−1 WHO-TEQ and less than 1.0 pg·m−2·day−1 WHO-TEQ and 0.5 pg·m−2·day−1 WHO-TEQ in Evo and Utö, respectively. The deposition of co-planar PCBs (cPCBs was between 0.01 and 0.1 pg·m−2·day−1 WHO-TEQ. Annual PCDD/F deposition, calculated from the amount of collected rain and chemical analysis results, varied in Pallas between 0.04 and 0.15 ng·m−2·year−1 WHO-TEQ, in Evo between 0.11 and 0.22 ng·m−2·year−1 WHO-TEQ and in Utö between 50 and 145 pg·m−2·year−1 WHO-TEQ. For cPCBs the annual deposition in Pallas was 2–11 pg·m−2·year−1 WHO-TEQ, in Evo 6–17 pg·m−2·year−1 WHO-TEQ and in Utö 4–8 pg·m−2·year−1 WHO-TEQ. Wind directions are considered to be the main reason for the variation between seasons. Congener 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD dominated in Pallas, Evo, and Utö, being 35%, 48%, and 47% of the overall WHO-TEQ, followed by 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF (about 10%. The calculated pg/L concentrations of 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD were about the same level as 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, but the TEF  correlations being twice as big ensured that all WHO-TEQ contributions were bigger. PCB126 accounted for 30% of WHO-TEQ in Pallas, whereas in Evo

  10. Conservation biology of the endangered orange coral. Astroides Calycularis

    OpenAIRE

    Terrón Sigler, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Falta palabras clave El coral naranja, Astroides calycularis (Pallas 1766), se distribuye principalmente en el mar Mediterráneo sur-occidental debido a los requerimientos ambientales de la especie, sobre todo en temperatura y aguas trasparentes y bien oxigenadas. La especie habita fondos rocosos desde la superficie del mar hasta los 50 metros de profundidad y localmente se pueden encontrar poblaciones muy abundantes. Este emblemático coral se encuentra afectado por las actividades humanas ...

  11. Contrast of Eastern and Western Goddess of War—Athena and Empyrean Fairy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史鹏程

    2016-01-01

    Athena, she is also called she Pallas Athena, the daughter of Zeus and Metis, and one of the Dodekatheon. She is in charge of intelligence, war, agriculture, the dark clouds,the power of thunder and lightning, horticulture, graziery, and law. Empyrean Fairy,she is a blue bird of Xiwangmu,and she is the teacher of Huangdi. Athena is the western goddess of war and Empyrean Fairy is the Orient's. This paper contracts these two goddesses.

  12. ПЁТР СИМОН ПАЛЛАС, СИБИРЬ И ЕВРОПЕЙСКАЯ «РЕСПУБЛИКА УЧЁНЫХ ПИСЕМ»

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Peter Simon Pallas was also a member of what European men of learning in the eighteenth century often called a Republic of Letters, an idealized society that cut through state borders and acknowledged no limits to its pursuit of knowledge. His intensive engagement with the leading theorists of the time, his attempts to separate himself from the dilettantish scientifi c eff orts of the nobility, and his struggle to craft a space of independent action within the Academy of Sciences all attest t...

  13. FAUNISTICAL DATA REGARDING SPIDERS (ARACHNIDA: ARANEAE FROM SOUTH-EASTERN ROMANIA WITH MENTION OF SOME RARE SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. DUMA

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the results of the faunistical study made in the south-eastern Romania in the summers of 2004 and 2006. We found 118 species of araneae belonging to 21 families. Among them there were some rare species: Argiope lobata (Pallas, 1772 mentioned for the third time in Romania, Hariaeus melloteei (Simon, 1886 mentioned for the second time in our country and Latrodectus tredecimguttatus (Rossi, 1890.

  14. Morfologia dos Coccinellini (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Depositados na Coleção Entomológica dos Campos Gerais do Paraná, Ponta Grossa, Paraná

    OpenAIRE

    Julianne Milléo; Willian Meira

    2012-01-01

    Foi realizada uma análise comparativa com base na morfologia detalhada do exoesqueleto e genitália do adulto de oito espécies de Coccinellini: Coleomegilla quadrifasciata (Schönherr, 1808); Cycloneda sanguinea (Linnaeus, 1763); Cycloneda pulchella (Klug, 1829); Eriopis connexa (Germar, 1824); Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773); Hippodamia convergens (Guérin, 1842); Neocalvia anastomozans (Crotch, 1874); Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant, 1866). É apresentado uma cha...

  15. AC maintenance and repair manual for diesel engines

    CERN Document Server

    Pallas, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this book with its detailed step-by-step colour photographs and diagrams, is to enable every owner to fix their diesel engine with ease. Troubleshooting tables help diagnose potential problems, and there is advice on regular maintenance and winterising and repair. Jean-Luc Pallas's enthusiasm for passing on his knowledge, as well as his clear explanations, precise advice and step-by-step instructions make this a unique book.

  16. Inimene Pallases

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    22. okt.-st Tartu Kunstimajas kõrgema kunstikooli 'Pallas' 80. aastapäevale pühendatud ideenäitus 'Inimene on inimene'. Väljas on 20 maali, 43 graafilist lehte, üks skulptuur Ferdi Sannamehelt. Kuraator Kaire Nurk. 4. XI Tartu Kunstimajas toimuva 'Pallase' kooli aastapäevale pühendatud vabakunsti õpetamise potensiaale ja probleeme käsitleva konverentsi kava, esinejad

  17. The Young Man’s Madness in The Raven

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chao

    2015-01-01

    The raven is a narrative poem written by American writer Edgar Allan Poe. It tells of a talking raven ’s mysterious visit in a midnight to a distraught lover, tracing the lover’s slow fall into madness. The lover is lamenting the loss of his beloved, Le⁃nore. The raven, sitting on a bust of Pallas, seems to further instigate his distress with its constant repetition of the word“Never⁃more”.

  18. Learning to Predict Social Influence in Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    derived from the Enron Email Dataset by extracting the senders and the recipients and linking those that had bidirectional communications. It has 4,254...Kimura et al. (2008), which has 9, 481 nodes and 245, 044 directed links (the Wikipedia network). The third one is a network derived from the Enron ...It contains 4, 254 nodes and 44, 314 directed links (the Enron network). The last one is a coauthorship network employed in Palla et al. (2005). It

  19. NUEVAS CITAS DE BULBOSTYLIS (CYPERACEAE) PARA LAS FLORAS DE BOLIVIA Y PARAGUAY New records of Bulbostylis (Cyperaceae) for the flora of Bolivia and Paraguay

    OpenAIRE

    María Gabriela López

    2010-01-01

    Durante la revisión del género Bulbostylis (Cyperaceae, Abildgaardieae) para la flora de
    América austral, se encontraron cinco nuevas citas, una de Bolivia: B. svensoniana Steyerm. y
    cuatro de Paraguay: B. consanguinea (Kunth) C.B.Clarke, B. loefgrenii (Boeck.) Prata &
    López, B. sellowiana (Kunth) Palla y B. papillosa Kük. Se hacen aclaraciones sobre estos&...

  20. Geochemistry and solute fluxes from volcano-hydrothermal system of Ketoy, Kuril Island arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalacheva, Elena; Taran, Yuri; Voloshina, Ekaterina; Tarasov, Kirill; Kotenko, Tatiana

    2017-04-01

    Ketoy is a volcanic island in the middle of the Kuril Island arc. With an area of ˜70 km2 it consists of two volcanic structures of different ages. The younger Pallas cone (960 m asl) is characterized by a strong fumarolic activity with maximum temperature of 720˚ C (August 2016) and hosts a cold acid crater lake in the summit crater. The older Ketoy cone (1172 m) at the NE of the island is cut by the erosion crater that open to the east and known as a canyon of Gorchichny Stream. There is a strong hydrothermal activity within the canyon with boiling springs and steam vents. We present our data obtained during the fieldwork in August 2016 on the chemical (major and trace elements including REE) and isotopic (H, O, C, S) composition of thermal fluids from both Gorchichny canyon and thermal fields on the slopes of the Pallas cone. Thermal field of the Gorchichny Stream discharges acid Ca-SO4 and near neutral unusual, Cl-poor, Na-Ca-SO4 hot-to-boiling waters with TDS 2-3 g/L. Thermal field of the summit plateau at the base of the Pallas cone discharges acid Ca-SO4 warm water that can be the seepage from the crater lake. Isotopic compositions of thermal waters are close to the meteoric water line but with a clear positive shift in both δ18O and δD with a trend directed to the isotopic composition of condensates of fumarolic gases of the Pallas cone. For the first time the outflow rates of the draining streams have been measured and hydrothermal solute fluxes from the volcano-hydrothermal system have been estimated. The total hydrothermal flux of chloride and sulfate from Ketoy Island is estimated as 8.5 t/d of Cl and 30 t/d of SO4. This work was supported by the RSF grant #15-17-20011.

  1. Sound Propagation in Shallow Water. Volume 2. Unclassified Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-11-15

    sounds generated either by beluga whales [Ref. 24J or by any other marine mammal indigenous to the Bering Sea [Ref. 25]. Beluga whales migrate ...34, "chirping" and "whistling" were recorded near the ice/water boundary predominantly at site I, and to some extent at sites Da and D«* Beluga whales ...34Production of Underwater Sound by the White Whale or Beluga , Delphinapterus leucas (Pallas), "Journal of Marine Research, 20(2), 149-162 (1962

  2. Extending glacial refugia for a European tree: genetic markers show that Iberian populations of white elm are native relicts and not introductions

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes-Utrilla, P.; Venturas, M; Hollingsworth, P.M.; Squirrell, J; Collada, C.; Stone, G. N.; Gil, L.

    2013-01-01

    Conservation policies usually focus on in situ protection of native populations, a priority that requires accurate assessment of population status. Distinction between native and introduced status can be particularly difficult (and at the same time, is most important) for species whose natural habitat has become both rare and highly fragmented. Here, we address the status of the white elm (Ulmus laevis Pallas), a European riparian tree species whose populations have been fragme...

  3. Competitive relationship between members of the Gobiidae family and other fish species of waters of Pridneprovye region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Khobot

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the species’ composition of Gobiidae, their quantitative and qualitative parameters in the coastal zone of the Pridneproovye water bodies. The structural and functional features of organization of coastal Gobies groups in the explored territory have been investigated, as well as characteristics of spatial arrangement of Gobiidae family representatives in water bodies and rivers and their role in the coastal groups of fishes. In the waters of Dnipropetrovsk region there were recorded 8 species of the Gobies family: round goby Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas, 1814, big-headed goby N. kessleri (Gunter, 1861, monkey goby N. fluviatilis (Pallas, 1814, goad goby N. gymnotrachelus (Kessler, 1857, toad goby Mesogobius batrachocephalus (Pallas, 1814, tube-nosed goby Proterorhinus marmoratus (Pallas, 1814, starry goby Benthophilus stellatus (Sauvage, 1874, Brauner’s tadpole goby Benthophiloides brauneri (Beling et Iljin, 1927. The gobies are quickly settled in various water bodies. The highest numbers of Gobiidae were registered in Dneprovsky water basin – 113.8 specimens/100 m2. The dominant among the Gobiidae is monkey goby, and subdominant is round goby. The main food competitor of monkey goby are juveniles of commercial fish. In Samara river the index of trophic niche overlap between goby and roach reaches 0.95, between goby and silver bream – 0.91, between goby and crucian carp – 0.88, between goby and rudd – 0.87, between goby and common bream – 0.62. The number and biomass indicators in Samara river have fallen due to trophic competition between new aggressive fish species – pumpkinseed and Gobiidae. In the Ingulets river the total overlap of trophic niches is observed between N. fluviatilis and black-striped pipefish (1.0, almost complete overlap is recorded between monkey goby and pumpkinseed (0.97. It is found that native species of Dnipropetrovsk region (including commercial species undergo intense trophic

  4. Serotonin transporter activity of imidazolidine-2,4-dione and imidazo[2,1-f]purine-2,4-dione derivatives in aspect of their acid-base properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagórska, Agnieszka; Czopek, Anna; Pawłowski, Maciej; Dybała, Małgorzata; Siwek, Agata; Nowak, Gabriel

    2012-11-01

    Affinities of arylpiperazinylalkyl derivatives of imidazo[2,1-f]purine-2,4-dione and imidazolidine-2,4-dione for serotonin transporter and their acid-base properties were evaluated. The dissociation constant (pK(a)) of compounds 1-22 were determinated by potentiometric titration and calculated using pKalc 3.1 module of the Pallas system. The data from experimental methods and computational calculations were compared and suitable conclusions were reached.

  5. Paeonol Suppresses Chondrosarcoma Metastasis through Up-Regulation of miR-141 by Modulating PKCδ and c-Src Signaling Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Chi-Ting Horng; Po-Chuen Shieh; Tzu-Wei Tan; Wei-Hung Yang; Chih-Hsin Tang

    2014-01-01

    Chondrosarcoma, a primary malignant bone cancer, has potential for local invasion and distant metastasis, especially to the lungs. Patients diagnosed with it show poor prognosis. Paeonol (2'-hydroxy-4'-methoxyacetophenone), the main active compound of traditional Chinese remedy Paeonia lactiflora Pallas, exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activity; whether paeonol regulates metastatic chondrosarcoma is largely unknown. Here, we find paeonol do not increase apoptosis. By contrast, at n...

  6. Late Pleistocene voles (Arvicolinae, Rodentia) from the Baranica Cave (Serbia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogićević, Katarina; Nenadić, Draženko; Mihailović, Dušan

    2012-02-01

    Baranica is a cave system situated in the south-eastern part of Serbia, four kilometers south to Knjaževac, on the right bank of the Trgovi\\vski Timok. The investigations in Baranica were conducted from 1994 to 1997 by the Faculty of Philosophy from Belgrade and the National Museum of Knjaževac. Four geological layers of Quaternary age were recovered. The abundance of remains of both large and small mammals was noticed in the early phase of the research. In this paper, the remains of eight vole species are described: Arvicola terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758), Chionomys nivalis (Martins, 1842), Microtus (Microtus) arvalis (Pallas, 1778) and Microtus (Microtus) agrestis (Linnaeus, 1761), Microtus (Stenocranius) gregalis (Pallas, 1779), Microtus (Terricola) subterraneus (de Sélys-Longchamps, 1836), Clethrionomys glareolus (Schreber, 1780) and Lagurus lagurus (Pallas, 1773). Among them, steppe and open area inhabitants prevail. Based on the evolutionary level and dimensions of the Arvicola terrestris molars, as well as the overall characteristics of the fauna, it was concluded that the deposits were formed in the last glacial period of the Late Pleistocene. These conclusions are rather consistent with the absolute dating of large mammal bones (23.520 ± 110 B.P. for Layer 2 and 35.780 ± 320 B.P. for Layer 4).

  7. Orbit Simulation for the Determination of Relativistic and Solar-System Parameters for the ASTROD Space Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Chiou, D W; Chiou, Dah-Wei; Ni, Wei-Tou

    2004-01-01

    ASTROD (Astrodynamical Space Test of Relativity using Optical Devices) mission concept is to conduct high-precision measurement of relativistic effects,solar-system parameters and gravitational waves. In this paper, we first extend the stochastic model to simulate the determination of the masses of three big asteroids (Ceres, Vesta and Pallas). With one range observation per day for each spacecraft from 25 days to 800 days of the mission and ten range observations per day for each spacecraft from 800 days to 1050 days of the mission (when the apparent positions of the two spacecraft are close to the Sun), the accuracies of determining these parameters are 4.6*10**(-7) for gamma, 4.0*10**(-7) for beta, 1.2*10**(-8) for J2, and 6.4*10**(-5) M_Ceres, 7.6*10**(-4) M_Pallas, 8.1*10**(-5) M_Vesta for the mass determination of Ceres, Pallas and Vesta respectively. We then include in the simulation and determination the rate of change of the gravitational constant (G-dot), and an anomalous constant acceleration (aa) ...

  8. Who Invented the Word Asteroid: William Herschel or Stephen Weston?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Clifford J.; Orchiston, Wayne

    2011-11-01

    William Herschel made the first serious study of 1 Ceres and 2 Pallas in the year 1802. He was moved by their dissimilarities to the other planets to coin a new term to distinguish them. For this purpose he enlisted the aid of his good friends William Watson and Sir Joseph Banks. Watson gave him a long list of possible names, which Herschel rejected. With a lifetime of experience classifying and naming newly found objects in nature, Banks became the man both Erasmus Darwin (in 1781) and William Herschel (in 1802) turned to for sage advice in developing a new descriptive language. In the case of Ceres and Pallas, Banks turned the task over to his friend, the noted philologist Stephen Weston, FRS. It has recently been stated by a noted British historian that it was Weston - not Herschel - who coined the term 'asteroid' to collectively describe Ceres and Pallas. This claim is investigated, and parallels are drawn in the use of neologism in astronomy and botany.

  9. The elusive nature of adaptive mitochondrial DNA evolution of an Arctic lineage prone to frequent introgression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melo-Ferreira, Jose; Vilela, Joana; Fonseca, Miguel M.

    2014-01-01

    understood. Hares (Lepus spp.) are privileged models to study the impact of natural selection on mitogenomic evolution because 1) species are adapted to contrasting environments, including arctic, with different metabolic pressures, and 2) mtDNA introgression from arctic into temperate species is widespread...... selection in several codons in genes of the OXPHOS complexes, most notably affecting the arctic lineage. However, using theoretical models, no predictable effect of these differences was found on the structure and physicochemical properties of the encoded proteins, suggesting that the focus of selection may...... have influenced the occurrence and consequences of the many reported cases of massive mtDNA introgression. However, the origin of adaptation remains elusive....

  10. Spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) coexisting at high density with people in Wukro district, northern Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yirga, Gidey; Ersino, Wondimu; De Iongh, Hans H.

    2013-01-01

    hyenas per 100 km2 or a total population of 535 hyenas in the district. We quantified the economic impact of spotted hyena predation on livestock using semi structured interviews with randomly selected households. Respondents indicated a total loss of 203 domestic animals to hyena depredation over...... the past five years. Average annual depredation per household was 0.13 livestock worth US$ 6.1. The diet of spotted hyenas was assessed in three sub-districts by scat analysis and showed 99% prey items of domestic origin, only three of 211 scat contained hair of Ethiopian hare (Lepus fagani) and porcupine...

  11. Ecology of the Tick-Borne Phlebovirus Causing Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome in an Endemic Area of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianli; Liu, Wendong; Wang, Xiaochen; Zhang, Lei; Ji, Zhengmin; Feng, Zhi; Li, Luxun; Shen, Aihua; Liu, Xuejian; Zhao, Hongjun; Tan, Wenwen; Zhou, Jiangang; Qi, Xian; Zhu, Yefei; Tang, Fenyang; Cardona, Carol J.; Xing, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Background Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is caused by SFTS virus (SFTSV), a tick-borne phlebovirus in family Bunyaviridae. Studies have found that humans, domestic and wildlife animals can be infected by SFTSV. However, the viral ecology, circulation, and transmission remain largely unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings Sixty seven human SFTS cases were reported and confirmed by virus isolation or immunofluorescence assay between 2011 and 2014. In 2013–2014 we collected 9,984 ticks from either vegetation or small wild mammals in the endemic area in Jiangsu, China, and detected SFTSV-RNA by real-time RT-PCR in both questing and feeding Haemaphysalis longicornis and H. flava. Viral RNA was identified in larvae of H. longicornis prior to a first blood meal, which has never been confirmed previously in nature. SFTSV-RNA and antibodies were also detected by RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively, in wild mammals including Erinaceus europaeus and Sorex araneus. A live SFTSV was isolated from Erinaceus europaeus captured during the off tick-feeding season and with a high SFTSV antibody titer. Furthermore, SFTSV antibodies were detected in the migratory birds Anser cygnoides and Streptopelia chinensis using ELISA. Conclusions/Significance The detection of SFTSV-RNA in non-engorged larvae indicated that vertical transmission of SFTSV in H. longicornis might occur in nature, which suggests that H. longicornis is a putative reservoir host of SFTSV. Small wild mammals such as Erinaceus europaeus and Sorex araneus could be infected by SFTSV and may serve as natural amplifying hosts. Our data unveiled that wild birds could be infected with SFTSV or carry SFTSV-infected ticks and thus might contribute to the long-distance spread of SFTSV via migratory flyways. These findings provide novel insights for understanding SFTSV ecology, reservoir hosts, and transmission in nature and will help develop new measures in preventing its rapid spread both regionally and

  12. Small-mammal data on early and middle Holocene climates and biotic communities in the Bonneville Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, D.N.; Madsen, D.B.; Lupo, K.D.

    2002-01-01

    Archaeological investigations in Camels Back Cave, western Utah, recovered a series of small-mammal bone assemblages from stratified deposits dating between ca. 12,000 and 500 14C yr B.P. The cave's early Holocene fauna includes a number of species adapted to montane or mesic habitats containing grasses and/or sagebrush (e.g., Lepus townsendii, Marmota flaviventris, Reithrodontomys megalotis, and Brachylagus idahoensis) which suggest that the region was relatively cool and moist until after 8800 14C yr B.P. Between ca. 8600 and 8100 14C yr B.P. these mammals became locally extinct, taxonomic diversity declined, and there was an increase in species well-adapted to xeric, low-elevation habitats, including ground squirrels, Lepus californicus and Neotoma lepida. The early small-mammal record from Camels Back Cave is similar to the 11,300-6000 14C yr B.P. mammalian sequence from Homestead Cave, northwestern Utah, and provides corroborative data on Bonneville Basin paleoenvironments and mammalian responses to middle Holocene desertification. ?? 2002 University of Washington.

  13. Sequencing of Sylvilagus VDJ genes reveals a new VHa allelic lineage and shows that ancient VH lineages were retained differently in leporids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Ana; Melo-Ferreira, José; Abrantes, Joana; Martinelli, Nicola; Lavazza, Antonio; Alves, Paulo C; Gortázar, Christian; Esteves, Pedro J

    2014-12-01

    Antigen recognition by immunoglobulins depends upon initial rearrangements of heavy chain V, D, and J genes. In leporids, a unique system exists for the VH genes usage that exhibit highly divergent lineages: the VHa allotypes, the Lepus sL lineage and the VHn genes. For the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), four VHa lineages have been described, the a1, a2, a3 and a4. For hares (Lepus sp.), one VHa lineage was described, the a2L, as well as a more ancient sL lineage. Both genera use the VHn genes in a low frequency of their VDJ rearrangements. To address the hypothesis that the VH specificities could be associated with different environments, we sequenced VDJ genes from a third leporid genus, Sylvilagus. We found a fifth and equally divergent VHa lineage, the a5, and an ancient lineage, the sS, related to the hares' sL, but failed to obtain VHn genes. These results show that the studied leporids employ different VH lineages in the generation of the antibody repertoire, suggesting that the leporid VH genes are subject to strong selective pressure likely imposed by specific pathogens.

  14. Is there a difference between hare syphilis and rabbit syphilis? Cross infection experiments between rabbits and hares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumeij, Johannes T; Mikalová, Lenka; Smajs, David

    2013-05-31

    Cross infection of rabbits and hares with Treponema paraluiscuniculi from rabbits and the related microorganism from hares, which was provisionally named "Treponema paraluisleporis", revealed that T. paraluiscuniculi affects rabbits clinically, but only causes seroconversion in hares without causing clinical disease, while "T. paraluisleporis" induces disease in both rabbits and hares. The 16S rRNA gene of "T. paraluisleporis" was sequenced (GenBank acc. no. JX899416) and compared to the sequence of T. paraluiscuniculi strain Cuniculi A. A phylogenetic tree based on the sequence alignment of 2002 bp taken from several treponemal strains was constructed. Both "T. paraluisleporis" and T. paraluiscuniculi are clustered together indicating their common origin. The close phylogenetic relatedness of both representatives supports the conclusion that subspecies or ecovar status should be given to these strains rather than species status. A more appropriate species name might be Treponema paraluisleporidarum. The genitive refers to the nominative Leporidae (family of rabbits and hares). The naturally occurring strain in rabbits would than be T. paraluisleporidarum ecovar Cuniculus and the strain from hares T. paraluisleporidarum ecovar Lepus. Since the former seems to have fewer physiological hosts, ecovar Lepus may represent an evolutionary ancestor of ecovar Cuniculus.

  15. Lung morphology of cursorial and non-cursorial mammals: lagomorphs as a case study for a pneumatic stabilization hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, R S

    1996-12-01

    Gross lung morphology is examined in representative species from four genera within the order Lagomorpha (Lepus californicus, Sylvilagus nuttalli, Oryctolagus cuniculus, Ochotona princeps), and compared with a representative rodent out-group (Spermophilus richardonsii). Examination of pulmonary morphology reveals several correlations between the thoracic morphology and locomotor behavior. Lepus, the most cursorial species, exhibits a distinct suite of characteristics: 1) tissue of the right cranial lobe interposed between the heart and sternum; 2) well-defined grooves in the lung tissue for both the aorta and ribs; 3) a fibrous pericardial attachment to the sternum; 4) relatively large heart and lung mass. Sylvilagus, a sprinter, exhibits these features to a lesser degree, whereas Oryctolagus and Ochotona, non-cursorial species, lack most of these features. This same suite of pulmonary features is also observed in a wide range of unrelated cursorial taxa (including selected Artiodactlya, Perissodactyla, Carnivora). Corrosion casts of the internal airways demonstrate that the cursorial and non-cursorial taxa examined here have similar branching patterns despite their variable external morphologies. The juxtaposition of pulmonary lobes, heart, and ribs leads to the hypothesis that the lungs themselves provide mechanical support of the heart and visceral mass during locomotion. Analyses of cineradiographic and pneumotachographic data obtained from Oryctolagus tend to support a pneumatic stabilization hypothesis: the lungs themselves, intimately associated with the chest walls and positively pressurized during landing, may provide some mechanical support to the viscera. This mechanism may be important in stabilizing the relatively large hearts of the most cursorial species during running.

  16. Lung and hearth nematodes in some Spanish mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, F; Iglesias, R; Bos, J; Rey, J; Sanmartin Durán, M L

    1991-01-01

    Thirteen host species belonging to the orders Rodentia, Insectivora and Carnivora from various localities in Galicia (NW Spain) were examined for heart and lung parasites. The following species were found: Parastrongylus dujardini (5.5%) in Apodemus sylvaticus, Crenosoma striatum in Erinaceus europaeus (83%), Angiostrongylus vasorum, Crenosoma vulpis and Eucoleus aerophilus in Vulpes vulpes (3, 3.46 and 0.50%, respectively), Crenosoma taiga in Putorius putorius (100%) and Crenosoma sp. in Meles meles (25%). In Crocidura russula nematode larvae were found (3.3%). Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Rattus rattus, Talpa caeca, Sorex araneus, Genetta genetta and Canis lupus were not parasitized by lung or heart parasites.

  17. The European as a Blueprint for International Organisations? A Global History View

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dykmann, Klaas

    shall place these institutions in global history. Subsequently, I will address some features in this regard, namely the dimension of international law, bureaucracy and standardisation for the prevailing image of man in IOs as well as the policy areas of human rights and medicine....... subjects that promise to approach the question of to what extent a constructed “European” has been a blueprint for the conception of IOs, as well as a standard addressee of the latter’s policies. To operationalise this enormous endeavour, I will present a working definition of the term Homo Europaeus...

  18. Transfer of Acetobacter oboediens Sokollek et al 1998 and Acetobacter intermedius Boesch et al. 1998 to the genus Gluconacetobacter as Gluconacetobacter oboediens comb. nov. and Gluconacetobacter intermedius comb. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Y

    2000-11-01

    Acetobacter oboediens Sokollek et al. 1998 and Acetobacter intermedius Boesch et al. 1998 are transferred to the genus Gluconacetobacter as Gluconacetobacter oboediens comb. nov. and Gluconacetobacter intermedius comb. nov. because, on the basis of their 16S rRNA gene sequences, the type strains of both species are located in the cluster of the genus Gluconacetobacter along with those of Gluconacetobacter xylinus, Gluconacetobacter europaeus, Gluconacetobacter hansenii, Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens (the type species) and Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus. The significance of growth on mannitol agar and the presence of a ubiquinone isoprenologue composed of Q-10 is discussed for characterization of the genus Gluconacetobacter.

  19. Detecção de glicoconjugados de lecitinas em neoplasias mamárias caninas

    OpenAIRE

    Bezerril, Juliana Evangelista

    2013-01-01

    Os tumores mamários representam aproximadamente 52%, de todas as neoplasias observadas em cadelas. Lecitinas são proteínas naturais de origem não imune, que se ligam a carboidratos. Por existir um grande número de lecitinas com capacidade de ligação com diferentes carboidratos, esta versátil molécula tem sido utilizada em diversos segmentos da pesquisa biológica. O presente trabalho tem por objetivo investigar, em tecido mamário canino, receptores das lecitinas UEA - Ulex europaeus (carqueja)...

  20. The origins of a global standard for food quality and safety: Codex Alimentarius Austriacus and FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojir, Franz; Schübl, Erwin; Elmadfa, Ibrahim

    2012-06-01

    In the second half of the 19(th) century the incidence of food adulterations increased very rapidly, prompting many European countries to put into force food laws to fight these practices. A number of parallel attempts were undertaken to establish a collection of instructions for the assessment of food samples to warrant the comparability of results obtained and interpreted by different experts. The first official steps towards such a standardization was made in 1891 at an international meeting of food chemists and microscopic scientists in Vienna. As a consequence, Austria installed a “Scientific Commission” in 1891, which drafted chapters for a future Codex Alimentarius Austriacus. In 1907, a Codex Commission was installed by the Ministry of Interior, but it took about four years, from 1907 to 1911, before the first edition of this compendium was published. So far, four editions have followed. The Codex Alimentarius Austriacus is a set of standards and guidelines for stakeholders, authorities, and law courts as a base for their activities. It has evolved over the past 100 years to become a flexible instrument, which has become indispensable for Austria. After 1945, attempts were made in different parts of the world to develop standardized rules for the testing of food samples to prevent trade barriers within the respective region. In Europe for instance, the development of a Codex Alimentarius Europaeus initiated by the Austrian Hans Frenzel, and based upon the model of the Codex Alimentarius Austriacus, made good progress. A number of other European countries were involved in this project. However, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) of the United Nations were intent on impeding such regional activities to prevent trade barriers at a global level. Between 1960 and 1963, steps were taken to install a FAO/WHO Codex partly in close cooperation with the Codex Alimentarius Europaeus. Since 1963, the FAO/WHO Codex

  1. Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia presenting multinucleated cells in histology: an ultrastructural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, F; Hashimoto, T; Takenouchi, T; Ito, M; Nitto, H

    1998-07-01

    A case of angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia arising on the face of a woman is reported. Histologically, the uniqueness of this case is the presence of multinucleated cells (MNCs), besides the conventional dermal changes. Electron microscopy showed that some of the apparent MNCs are clusters of endothelial cells forming immature vascular lumens with numerous microvilli, and the other MNCs displayed the recognized features of fibrohistiocytic or myofibroblastic cells. Immunohistochemically, some MNCs were positive for Ulex europaeus agglutinin and Factor VIII-related antigen. From these findings, some of the MNCs are histologically endothelial sprouts, and the others are fibrohistiocytic cells in the present case.

  2. Occurrence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in wild birds in Galicia (Northwest Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo-Fernández, Aurora; Ares-Mazás, Elvira; Cacciò, Simone M; Gómez-Couso, Hipólito

    2015-06-01

    Faecal samples were obtained from 433 wild birds being treated in wildlife recovery centres in Galicia (Northwest Spain), between February 2007 and September 2009. The birds belonged to 64 species representing 17 different orders. Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected by an immunofluorescence antibody test and identified at the molecular level by established PCR-sequencing methods. The overall prevalence of Giardia was 2·1% and that of Cryptosporidium, 8·3%. To our knowledge, this is the first description of Giardia sp. in Tyto alba and Caprimulgus europaeus; and of Cryptosporidium sp. in Apus apus, Athene noctua, C. europaeus, Falco tinnunculus, Morus bassanus, Parabuteo unicinctus and Strix aluco. Furthermore, the first PCR-sequence confirmed detection of Giardia duodenalis assemblage B in, Buteo buteo, Coturnix coturnix and Pica pica; G. duodenalis assemblage D in Garrulus glandarius; and G. duodenalis assemblage F in Anas platyrhynchos; Cryptosporidium parvum in Accipiter nisus, B. buteo, Milvus migrans, Pernis apivorus and P. pica; and Cryptosporidium meleagridis in Streptopelia turtur. The study findings demonstrate the wide spread of Giardia and Cryptosporidium between wild birds.

  3. Identification of acetic acid bacteria in traditionally produced vinegar and mother of vinegar by using different molecular techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetiman, Ahmet E; Kesmen, Zülal

    2015-07-02

    Culture-dependent and culture-independent methods were combined for the investigation of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) populations in traditionally produced vinegars and mother of vinegar samples obtained from apple and grape. The culture-independent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, which targeted the V7-V8 regions of the 16S rRNA gene, showed that Komagataeibacter hansenii and Komagataeibacter europaeus/Komagataeibacter xylinus were the most dominant species in almost all of the samples analyzed directly. The culture-independent GTG5-rep PCR fingerprinting was used in the preliminary characterization of AAB isolates and species-level identification was carried out by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, 16S-23S rDNA internally transcribed to the spacer (ITS) region and tuf gene. Acetobacter okinawensis was frequently isolated from samples obtained from apple while K. europaeus was identified as the dominant species, followed by Acetobacter indonesiensis in the samples originating from grape. In addition to common molecular techniques, real-time PCR intercalating dye assays, including DNA melting temperature (Tm) and high resolution melting analysis (HRM), were applied to acetic acid bacterial isolates for the first time. The target sequence of ITS region generated species-specific HRM profiles and Tm values allowed discrimination at species level.

  4. Morfologia dos Coccinellini (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae Depositados na Coleção Entomológica dos Campos Gerais do Paraná, Ponta Grossa, Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianne Milléo

    2012-07-01

    Abstract. A comparative analysis was carried out based on the detailed morphology of exoskeleton and genitalia of the adult of eight species of the Coccinellini: Coleomegilla quadrifasciata (Schönherr, 1808; Cycloneda sanguinea (Linnaeus, 1763; Cycloneda pulchella (Klug, 1829; Eriopis connexa (Germar, 1824; Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773; Hippodamia convergens (Guérin, 1842; Neocalvia anastomozans (Crotch, 1874; Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant, 1866. A dichotomic key, diagnoses for the species with description of new characters and records of the plants in which it was collected, are added.

  5. Psidium guajava and Piper betle Leaf Extracts Prolong Vase Life of Cut Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) Flowers

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, M M; Ahmad, S. H.; K. S. Lgu

    2012-01-01

    The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. “Carola” and “Pallas Orange” carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a “germicide” (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin). Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and hi...

  6. Interspecific Interactions between the Invasive Beetle Harmonia axyridis, Native Anthocorids and Entomopathogenic Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howe, Andrew Gordon

    . The harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was introduced to North America from Asia in the early 20th century as a biological control agent against insect agricultural pests. In the late 20th century a specific population in eastern North America became invasive. Invasive H...... that an invasive eastern North American and native Chinese population displayed greater dispersal activity than three other populations. Although an invasive/native dichotomy was not established, results suggest that trait differences may reflect population-level adaptions. Findings underline that intraspecific...

  7. Divergence of Populations of Yellow Wagtail, Motacilla flava, and Citrine wagtaill, Motacilla citreola (Motacillidae, Passeriformes, in the Middle Volga of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemieva E. A.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples of “yellow” wagtails collected in the areas geographically representing the Middle Volga breeding populations of these species were investigated. After isolation of mtDNA barkoding of studied “yellow” wagtails species was conducted. Amplification of the subunit of cytochrome oxidase I gene used as a genetic marker for the comparison of the samples was carried out. After sequencing and sequence alignment of gene cytochrome c-oxidase I, based on the comparison of genetic distances between individuals of the studied species using Jalview phylogenetic trees of populations of species Motacilla flava Linnaeus, 1758 and Motacilla citreola Pallas, 1776 were constructed.

  8. An efficient protocol for copper-free palladium-catalyzed Sonogashira cross-coupling in aqueous media at low temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Marziale, Alexander N.

    2011-11-01

    A thorough study on copper-free Sonogashira cross-couplings in water was carried out using the palla-dacycle, [{Pd(μ-Cl){K2-P,C-P(iPr) 2(OC6H3-2-Ph)}}2] as pre-catalyst with different bases and palladium concentrations. The highly active pre-catalyst imparts good to near quantitative yields using a concentration of 0.25 mol % at 40 °C. This broadly applicable protocol exhibits high tolerance of functional groups and substitution patterns. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci from the tick Amblyomma aureolatum (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogrzewalska, M; Bajay, M M; Schwarcz, K; Bajay, S K; Telles, M P C; Pinheiro, J B; Zucchi, M I; Pinter, A; Labruna, M B

    2014-11-14

    Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas) is the main vector of the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii, the etiological agent of Brazilian spotted fever. This disease is the most lethal human spotted fever rickettsiosis in the world. Microsatellite loci were isolated from a dinucleotide-enriched library produced from A. aureolatum sampled in Southeastern Brazil. Eight polymorphic microsatellites were further characterized among 38 individuals sampled from São Paulo metropolitan region. The number of observed alleles ranged from 2 to 9, observed heterozygosity was 0.184-0.647, and expected heterozygosity was 0.251-0.747. Cross-species amplifications suggested that these loci will be useful for other Amblyomma species.

  10. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Mauritania: First Report on the Presence of the Arbovirus Mosquito Vector in Nouakchott.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mint Lekweiry, Khadijetou; Ould Ahmedou Salem, Mohamed Salem; Ould Brahim, Khyarhoum; Ould Lemrabott, Mohamed Aly; Brengues, Cécile; Faye, Ousmane; Simard, Frédéric; Ould Mohamed Salem Boukhary, Ali

    2015-07-01

    Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is a major vector of yellow fever, dengue, and chikungunya viruses throughout tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Although the southernmost part of Mauritania along the Senegal river has long been recognized at risk of yellow fever transmission, Aedes spp. mosquitoes had never been reported northwards in Mauritania. Here, we report the first observation of Aedes aegypti aegypti (L.) and Aedes (Ochlerotatus) caspius (Pallas, 1771) in the capital city, Nouakchott. We describe the development sites in which larvae of the two species were found, drawing attention to the risk for emergence of arbovirus transmission in the city.

  11. New particle formation in air mass transported between two measurement sites in Northern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Komppula

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study covers four years of aerosol number size distribution data from Pallas and Värriö sites 250 km apart from each other in Northern Finland and compares new particle formation events between these sites. In air masses of eastern origin almost all events were observed to start earlier at the eastern station Värriö, whereas in air masses of western origin most of the events were observed to start earlier at the western station Pallas. This demonstrates that particle formation in a certain air mass type depends not only on the diurnal variation of the parameters causing the phenomenon (such as photochemistry but also on some properties carried by the air mass itself. The correlation in growth rates between the two sites was relatively good, which suggests that the amount of condensable vapour causing the growth must have been at about the same level in both sites. The condensation sink was frequently much higher at the downwind station. It seems that secondary particle formation related to biogenic sources dominate in many cases over the particle sinks during the air mass transport between the sites. Two cases of transport from Pallas to Värriö were further analysed with an aerosol dynamics model. The model was able to reproduce the observed nucleation events 250 km down-wind at Värriö but revealed some differences between the two cases. The simulated nucleation rates were in both cases similar but the organic concentration profiles that best reproduced the observations were different in the two cases indicating that divergent formation reactions may dominate under different conditions. The simulations also suggested that organic compounds were the main contributor to new particle growth, which offers a tentative hypothesis to the distinct features of new particles at the two sites: Air masses arriving from the Atlantic Ocean typically spent approximately only ten hours over land before arriving at Pallas, and thus the time for the

  12. Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism in invasive and native populations of Harmonia axyridis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya A. Zakharov

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Asian ladybird beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae, is one of the most invasive insects in the world. Originally introduced into the USA and Europe for the biological control of pest insects, it has recently gained the status of an invasive species. There is little data on the differences between invasive and non-invasive populations at the genetic level. In this research mtDNA sequences of the COI gene from specimens of native and non-native populations were compared. The results indicate that individuals from invasive populations are similar to those from Far Eastern native populations.

  13. Application of ALOGPS 2.1 to predict log D distribution coefficient for Pfizer proprietary compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetko, Igor V; Poda, Gennadiy I

    2004-11-01

    Evaluation of the ALOGPS, ACD Labs LogD, and PALLAS PrologD suites to calculate the log D distribution coefficient resulted in high root-mean-squared error (RMSE) of 1.0-1.5 log for two in-house Pfizer's log D data sets of 17,861 and 640 compounds. Inaccuracy in log P prediction was the limiting factor for the overall log D estimation by these algorithms. The self-learning feature of the ALOGPS (LIBRARY mode) remarkably improved the accuracy in log D prediction, and an rmse of 0.64-0.65 was calculated for both data sets.

  14. Shallow-water Aplysina Nardo (Aplysinidae, Verongida, Demospongiae from the São Sebastião Channel and its environs (Tropical southwestern Atlantic, with the description of a new species and a literature review of other brazilian records of the genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulisses dos Santos Pinheiro

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Two species of Aplysina Nardo, 1834 are described in this article, Aplysina caissara sp. n. and A. fulva (Pallas, 1766. Additionally, a possible third species was identified as A. aff. cauliformis. Collections were done in the São Sebastião Channel area as an ongoing effort to assess the poriferan biodiversity of the northern sector of the São Paulo State coastline. Specimens were collected by scuba diving, and descriptions of external morphology are based on the observation of populations alive, and on extensive underwater photography. A literature review of other brazilian records of Aplysina was undertaken, and an ammended species list is offered.

  15. Notas de ixodologia: IX. O complexo ovale do gênero Amblyomma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Aragão

    1961-07-01

    Full Text Available It was impossible to confirm either WARBUTON's conservative nor TONELLI RONDELLI's opposite belief on the number of valid species after studying many lots of ticks of the ovale group, mainly from Brazil. Two species are recognized: Amblyomma ovale Koch, 1844 and Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas, 1772, corresponding respectively to A. fossum Neumann, 1898 and A. stratum Koch, 1844. A list of synonyms is presented. Both species are redescribed and intraspecific morphological variation show to be the cause of the multiplication of species by those working with insufficient material. Color plates of both species are presented and hosts and localities of captures are recorded.

  16. Weyl conformastatic perihelion advance of small body objects

    CERN Document Server

    Capistrano, Abraao J S; Valada, Rafael S

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we examine a static thin disk gravitational field symmetry over probe particles in the solar system. Using the Weyl conformastatic solution as thin disk model, we find a non-standard expression to perihelion advance due to the constraints imposed by the topology of the local gravitational field. We apply the model to a near-earth object 1566 Icarus asteroid and to the four main asteroids in the main belt (Ceres, Pallas, Juno and Vesta). As a result, we find a close agreement with observations.

  17. Tropospheric carbon dioxide concentrations at a northern boreal site in Finland: basic variations and source areas

    OpenAIRE

    T. Aalto; J. Hatakka; J. Paatero; Tuovinen, J.-P.; Aurela, M.; Laurila, T.; Holmén, K.; Trivett, N.; Viisanen, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Diurnal and annual variations of CO2, O3, SO2, black carbon and condensation nuclei and their source areas were studied by utilizing air parcel trajectories and tropospheric concentration measurements at a boreal GAW site in Pallas, Finland. The average growth trend of CO2 was about 2.5 ppm yr−1 according to a 4-yr measurement period starting in October 1996. The annual cycle of CO2showed concentration difference of about 19 ppm between the summer minimum and winter maximum. The diurnal cycle...

  18. Biometric and statistical investigations on the cnidoma of the genus Hydra (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria I. Deserti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals about the nematocysts like a source of biometric information for comparison between the species Hydra vulgaris Pallas, 1766, Hydra vulgaris pedunculata Deserti et al., 2011 and Hydra pseudoligactis (Hyman, 1931. This biometric tool lets us carry out statistical comparisons and adding these results to the identification of specimens from different classificatory groups. In this particular study, we obtained significant differences between species, individuals of each species and nematocysts type when compared the biometry of its nematocysts. Another result was the variation in of particular nematocysts, like atrichous isorhiza and holotrichous isorhiza for the species H. vulgaris in relation to the column size.

  19. Sentetik piretroit alfa-sipermetrinin değişken desenli gece kurbağası, Bufotes variabilis iribaşlarındaki akut toksisitesi (Amphibia: Anura)

    OpenAIRE

    Mert Gürkan; Seda Serbest; Sibel Hayretdağ

    2016-01-01

    In this study, acute toxic effects of alpha-cypermethrin were investigated in the tadpoles of Bufotes variabilis (Pallas, 1769). Tadpoles at Gosner stage 19 were exposed to 0, 0.1, 5 and 10 µgl-1 of alpha-cypermethrin concentrations for 96 hours. Mortality, the changes in some morphological measurements (snout-vent length, body width, tail length, and wet weight), morphological anomalies and behavioral changes were evaluated at the end of the experiment. The 96 hours LC50 value was calculate...

  20. Black-tailed and white-tailed jackrabbits in the American West: History, ecology, ecological significance, and survey methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simes, Matthew; Longshore, Kathleen; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Beatty, Greg L.; Brown, David E.; Esque, Todd C.

    2015-01-01

    Across the western United States, Leporidae are the most important prey item in the diet of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). Leporids inhabiting the western United States include black-tailed (Lepus californicus) and white-tailed jackrabbits (Lepus townsendii) and various species of cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus spp.). Jackrabbits (Lepus spp.) are particularly important components of the ecological and economic landscape of western North America because their abundance influences the reproductive success and population trends of predators such as coyotes (Canis latrans), bobcats (Lynx rufus), and a number of raptor species. Here, we review literature pertaining to black-tailed and white-tailed jackrabbits comprising over 170 published journal articles, notes, technical reports, conference proceedings, academic theses and dissertations, and other sources dating from the late 19th century to the present. Our goal is to present information to assist those in research and management, particularly with regard to protected raptor species (e.g., Golden Eagles), mammalian predators, and ecological monitoring. We classified literature sources as (1) general information on jackrabbit species, (2) black-tailed or (3) white-tailed jackrabbit ecology and natural history, or (4) survey methods. These categories, especially 2, 3, and 4, were further subdivided as appropriate. The review also produced several tables on population trends, food habits, densities within various habitats, and jackrabbit growth and development. Black-tailed and white-tailed jackrabbits are ecologically similar in general behaviors, use of forms, parasites, and food habits, and they are prey to similar predators; but they differ in their preferred habitats. While the black-tailed jackrabbit inhabits agricultural land, deserts, and shrublands, the white-tailed jackrabbit is associated with prairies, alpine tundra, and sagebrush-steppe. Frequently considered abundant, jackrabbit numbers in western North

  1. Serological evidence of Coxiella burnetii infection in wild animals in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejercito, C L; Cai, L; Htwe, K K; Taki, M; Inoshima, Y; Kondo, T; Kano, C; Abe, S; Shirota, K; Sugimoto, T

    1993-07-01

    One hundred and thirty-four (26%) of 511 sera from 11 wild animal species in eight prefectures in Japan had antibody titers to Coxiella burnetii by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. High prevalences were observed in Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus) (78%), Hokkaido deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) (69%), Japanese hares (Lepus brachyurus) (63%), Japanese deer (Cervus nippon centralis) (56%), and to some extent in Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) (28%). A low prevalence (13%) was observed in nutrias (Myocastor coypus). Japanese serows (Capricornis crispus), wild rats (Muroides sp.), raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus), wild pigs (Sus scrofa leucomystax), and masked palm civets (Paguma larvata) had no detectable antibodies to C. burnetii. Thus, six of 11 wild animal species in Japan were exposed to C. burnetii. Based on the high prevalences in some species, they may be a potential source of infection to both domestic animal and human populations.

  2. Enhancement of local species richness in tundra by seed dispersal through guts of muskox and barnacle goose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Hans Henrik; Lundgren, Rebekka; Philipp, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    The potential contribution of vertebrate-mediated seed rain to the maintenance of plant community richness in a High Arctic ecosystem was investigated. We analyzed viable seed content in dung of the four numerically most important terrestrial vertebrates in Northeast Greenland - muskox (Ovibos...... moschatus), barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis), Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) and Arctic hare (Lepus arcticus). High numbers of plant propagules were found in the dung of muskox and barnacle goose. Seeds of many plant species were found in the faeces of one vertebrate species only. Propagule composition...... indices), and dung deposition, especially by muskox, often brought new species to the receiving community. The results suggest that endozoochorous propagule dispersal in the Arctic has a great potential in the generation and maintenance of local species richness, albeit being little specialized...

  3. TaqMan荧光定量RT-PCR检测犬瘟热病毒方法的建立与初步应用%Establishment and preliminary application of a TaqMan-based real-time RT-PCR method for detection of canine distemper virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕品; 胡传伟; 谢之景; 杨笃宝; 任月

    2007-01-01

    犬瘟热(Canine distemper,CD)是由犬瘟热病毒(Canine distemper virus,CDV)感染引起的一种急性、高度接触性、致死性传染病.CDV属副粘病毒科麻疹病毒属成员,宿主谱很广,可感染犬(Canis familiaris)、狐狸(Vulpes vulpes)、貉(Ussuriensis)、狼(Canis lupus)、雪貂(Lepus zibellina)、虎(Panthera tigris)、狮(Panthera leo)、大熊猫(Ailuropoda melanoleuca)、小熊猫(Ailures fulgens)、黑熊(Selenarctas thibetanus)等动物,严重危害养犬业、经济动物养殖业的健康发展以及野生动物的生存.

  4. Small mammals of the Addo Elephant National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Swanepoel

    1975-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the small mammals of the Addo Elephant National Park resulted in a checklist, as well as information on relative numbers, distribution within the Park, reproductive activity, sex ratios, and body measurements. Forty mammals species occur in the Park, while three re-introduced species probably do not occur any longer. Of the 40 species 28 are considered small mammals comprising 13 rodent, eight carnivore, two shrew, two bat, one primate and one lagomorph species, as well as the aardvark: Crociduraflavescens, C. cyanea infumata, Rousettus aegyptiacus, Eptesicus capensis, Cercopithecus pygerythrus, Canis mesomelas, Ictonyx striatus, Poecilogale albinucha, Genetta sp., Herpestes pulverulentus, Suricata suricatta, Proteles cristatus, Felis caracal, Orycteropus afer, Lepus saxatilis, Cryptomys hottentotus, Hystrix africae-australis, Pedetes capensis, Graphiurus murinus, Aethomys namaquensis, Praomys natalensis, Rhabdomys pumilio, Mus minutoides, Rattus rattus, Saccostomys campestris, Desmodillus auricularis, Otomys irroratus and 0. unisulcatus.

  5. Helminth parasites of small mammals in Kerman province, southeastern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasihi Harandi, Majid; Madjdzadeh, Seyed Massoud; Ahmadinejad, Mohammad

    2016-03-01

    Fifty-one specimens of small mammals were collected from different locations of Kerman province, southeastern Iran during 2007 and 2009. They constitute six species of rodents (Meriones persicus, Meriones libycus, Tatera indica, Dryomys nitedula and Mus musculus), one species of Erinaceomorpha (Paraechinus hypomelas) and one species of hare (Lepus europeus). The rate of helminthic infection was 45.1 % among all trapped specimens. In 28 out of 51 hunted specimens no intestinal helminth parasite was found. Of all mammals examined, 15 (29.4 %) had nematodes, 5 (9.8 %) had cestodes, and 3 (5.9 %) were infected with Acanthocephala. Five different species of parasites were isolated: Trichuris muris, Moniliformis moniliformis, Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis nana, and Mastophorus muris. Results of the present study indicate the potential of small mammals in the transmission of zoonotic helminthic infection.

  6. Genetic relatedness of Brucella suis biovar 2 isolates from hares, wild boars and domestic pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Foster, Jeffrey T; Rónai, Zsuzsanna; Sulyok, Kinga M; Wehmann, Enikő; Jánosi, Szilárd; Gyuranecz, Miklós

    2014-08-27

    Porcine brucellosis generally manifests as disorders in reproductive organs potentially leading to serious losses in the swine industry. Brucella suis biovar 2 is endemic in European wild boar (Sus scrofa) and hare (Lepus europeus, Lepus capensis) populations, thus these species may play a significant role in disease spread and serve as potential sources of infection for domestic pigs. The aim of this study was an epidemiologic analysis of porcine brucellosis in Hungary and a comparative analysis of B. suis bv. 2 strains from Europe using multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). MLVA-16 and its MLVA-11 subset were used to determine the genotypes of 68 B. suis bv. 2 isolates from Hungary and results were then compared to European MLVA genotypes. The analyses indicated relatively high genetic diversity of B. suis bv. 2 in Hungary. Strains isolated from hares and wild boars from Hungary showed substantial genetic divergence, suggesting separate lineages in each host and no instances of cross species infections. The closest relatives of strains from Hungarian wild boars and domestic pigs were mainly in the isolates from German and Croatian boars and pigs. The assessment of the European MLVA genotypes of wild boar isolates generally showed clustering based on geographic origin. The hare strains were relatively closely related to one another and did not cluster based on geographic origin. The limited relationships between geographic origin and genotype in isolates from hares might be the result of cross-border live animal translocation. The results could also suggest that certain B. suis strains are more adapted to hares. Across Europe, isolates from domestic pigs were closely related to isolates originating from both hares and wild boars, supporting the idea that wild animals are a source of brucellosis in domestic pigs.

  7. A Century of Shope Papillomavirus in Museum Rabbit Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero Duch, Clara; Williams, Richard A J; Timm, Robert M; Perez-Tris, Javier; Benitez, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Sylvilagus floridanus Papillomavirus (SfPV) causes growth of large horn-like tumors on rabbits. SfPV was described in cottontail rabbits (probably Sylvilagus floridanus) from Kansas and Iowa by Richard Shope in 1933, and detected in S. audubonii in 2011. It is known almost exclusively from the US Midwest. We explored the University of Kansas Natural History Museum for historical museum specimens infected with SfPV, using molecular techniques, to assess if additional wild species host SfPV, and whether SfPV occurs throughout the host range, or just in the Midwest. Secondary aims were to detect distinct strains, and evidence for strain spatio-temporal specificity. We found 20 of 1395 rabbits in the KU collection SfPV symptomatic. Three of 17 lagomorph species (S. nuttallii, and the two known hosts) were symptomatic, while Brachylagus, Lepus and eight additional Sylvilagus species were not. 13 symptomatic individuals were positive by molecular testing, including the first S. nuttallii detection. Prevalence of symptomatic individuals was significantly higher in Sylvilagus (1.8%) than Lepus. Half of these specimens came from Kansas, though new molecular detections were obtained from Jalisco-Mexico's first-and Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, and Texas, USA. We document the oldest lab-confirmed case (Kansas, 1915), pre-dating Shope's first case. SfPV amplification was possible from 63.2% of symptomatic museum specimens. Using multiple methodologies, rolling circle amplification and, multiple isothermal displacement amplification in addition to PCR, greatly improved detection rates. Short sequences were obtained from six individuals for two genes. L1 gene sequences were identical to all previously detected sequences; E7 gene sequences, were more variable, yielding five distinct SfPV1 strains that differing by less than 2% from strains circulating in the Midwest and Mexico, between 1915 and 2005. Our results do not clarify whether strains are host species specific, though

  8. Effects of Protective Fencing on Birds, Lizards, and Black-Tailed Hares in the Western Mojave Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BROOKS

    1999-04-01

    / Effects of protective fencing on birds, lizards, black-tailed hares (Lepus californicus), perennial plant cover, and structural diversity of perennial plants were evaluated from spring 1994 through winter 1995 at the Desert Tortoise Research Natural Area (DTNA), in the Mojave Desert, California. Abundance and species richness of birds were higher inside than outside the DTNA, and effects were larger during breeding than wintering seasons and during a high than a low rainfall year. Ash-throated flycatchers (Myiarchus cinerascens), cactus wrens (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus), LeConte's thrashers (Toxostoma lecontei), loggerhead shrikes (Lanius ludovicianus), sage sparrows (Amphispiza belli), and verdins (Auriparus flaviceps) were more abundant inside than outside the DTNA. Nesting activity was also more frequent inside. Total abundance and species richness of lizards and individual abundances of western whiptail lizards (Cnemidophorous tigris) and desert spiny lizards (Sceloporus magister) were higher inside than outside. In contrast, abundance of black-tailed hares was lower inside. Structural diversity of the perennial plant community did not differ due to protection, but cover was 50% higher in protected areas. Black-tailed hares generally prefer areas of low perennial plant cover, which may explain why they were more abundant outside than inside the DTNA. Habitat structure may not affect bird and lizard communities as much as availability of food at this desert site, and the greater abundance and species richness of vertebrates inside than outside the DTNA may correlate with abundances of seeds and invertebrate prey. KEY WORDS: Birds; Fenced protection; Lepus californicus, Lizards; Mojave Desert; Off-highway vehicles; Protected area management; Sheep grazing

  9. Winter food of the fox Vulpes vulpes in the Province of Cuneo (North-Western Italy / Alimentazione invernale della Volpe Vulpes vulpes nell'Albese (Provincia di Cuneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Debernardi

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The diet of the Fox Vulpes vulpes was studied by the analysis of 157 gastric contents coming from hilly areas of the Province of Cuneo. Samples were gathered during January-March of the years '86 (N. 41, '87 (N. 72 and '88 (N. 44. The mean percentage of frequency was determined for the following feeding categories: Fruits (26.1%, Other vegetable components (19.7%, Insects (2.5%, Wild birds (11.5%, Insectivores and Rodents (42.7%, Lepus capensis (13.4%, Indeterminate Lagomorphs (17.2%, Domestic animals (59.2% and Other (2.5%. The diet is analysed in relation to some available trophic resources (dumps, restoking of hares and of pheasants. Riassunto Vengono presentati i dati dell'analisi di 157 contenuti gastrici di Vulpes vulpes, provenienti da aree collinari della provincia di Cuneo; i campioni si riferiscono ai primi tre mesi delle annate '86 (N. 41, '87 (N. 72 e '88 (N. 44. Sono state determinate le frequenze percentuali delle seguenti categorie alimentari: Frutti (26,1%, Altre componenti vegetali (19,7%, Insetti (2,5%, Uccelli selvatici (11,5%, Insettivori e Roditori (42,7%, Lepus capensis (13,4%, Lagomorfi indeterminati (17,2%, Animali domestici (59,2% e Altro (2,5%. La dieta viene esaminata in relazione ad alcuni aspetti legati alle disponibilità trofiche del territorio (presenza di discariche, ripopolamenti di selvaggina.

  10. 清涧县枣树生物灾害调查与分析%Investigation on the Biological Damages Jujube in Qingjian County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹海祥; 高晓媚; 宋晓斌

    2014-01-01

    对清涧县危害枣树的有害生物进行了调查分析.结果表明,在清涧危害枣树的主要有害生物有3大类:有害动物主要有野兔(Lepus sinensis)、达乌尔鼠兔(Ochotona daurca)、甘肃鼢鼠(Myospalax cansus)、中华鼢鼠(Myospalax fontanierii);危害枣树的昆虫有48种,螨类有2种;病原微生物有植原体、真菌和细菌.其中,枣飞象在东部沿黄枣区发生严重,绿盲蝽在西部枣区发生严重,枣缩果病在大果型的鲜食枣上发生重于其他制干品种.2012年锈病流行,造成大量落叶.提出了相应的防控对策.%Pests occurring on jujube trees were investigated in Qingjian County,Shaanxi,China.It was found that there existed 3 categories of pests on jujube trees.The first one was harmful animals,including Lepus sinensis,Ochotona daurca,Myospalax cansus and Myospalax fontanierii.The second was insects and mites,including 48 species of insects and 2 species of mites.The third was germs,including 1 specie PLO,1 specie of bacteria,and 8 species of fungi.Scythropus yasumatsui seriously occurred in the east part of the county along the Yellow River.Lygus lucorum however,was found in west part of the county.The disease that caused shrieked fruit seriously occurred in freshly consuming cultivars.Some suggestions for pest management were put forward.

  11. Quirópteros do Parque Estadual da Pedra Branca, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (Mammalia, Chiroptera Bats from Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Mammalia, Chiroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Dias

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of chiropteran fauna was conducted during the period from March 1994 to May 1998 in Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro State. A total of 681 specimens of 24 species were recorded: Chrotopterus auritus (Peters, 1856; Micronycteris megalotis (Gray, 1842; Micronycteris minuta (Gervais, 1856; Mimmon bennettii (Gray, 1838; Phyllostomus hastatus (Pallas, 1767; Tonatia bidens (Von Spix, 1823; Lonchophylla bokermanni Sazima, Vizotto & Taddei, 1978; Lonchophylla mordax Thomas, 1903; Anoura caudifera (E. Geoffroy, 1818; Glosso-phaga soricina (Pallas, 1766; Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758; Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838; Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818; Artibeus obscuras Schinz, 1821; Chiroderma doriae Thomas, 1891; Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Platyrrhinus recifinus (Thomas, 1901; Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Vampyressa pusilla (Wagner, 1843; Desmodus rotundus (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Diphylla ecaudata Von Spix, 1823; Eptesicus brasiliensis (DesMarest, 1819; Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 and Molossus molossus (Palas, 1766. One external (forearm length and 13 cranial meansurements were studied for 23 species. The meansurements of male and female specimens were treated separately. Comments about some taxonomic respects for some species studied are also included.

  12. Population dynamics of pest mosquitoes and potential malaria and West Nile virus vectors in relation to climatic factors and human activities in the Camargue, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponçon, N; Toty, C; L'ambert, G; le Goff, G; Brengues, C; Schaffner, F; Fontenille, D

    2007-12-01

    The Camargue is an extensive wetland in the southeast of France, which is highly influenced by human activities. Large ponds, marshes and irrigated fields provide abundant potential breeding sites for mosquitoes. mosquitoes, which are important in terms of the nuisance they cause to people and animals, the limitations they impose on tourism and their potential threat to human health. Several of the mosquito species present are potential vectors of malaria and West Nile virus. Therefore, the population dynamics of these species were monitored over an entire breeding season during March-October 2005. Mosquito populations were sampled in two study areas once every 2 weeks, using CDC light traps baited with CO(2). Sixteen species were collected. The majority (98.7%) of the catch were Aedes caspius (Pallas) (Diptera: Culicidae), Culex modestus (Ficalbi), Culex pipiens L. and Anopheles hyrcanus (Pallas). The population dynamics of these species varied considerably in relation to the species' biology, climatic conditions (rainfall, temperature and season), water management, implementation of mosquito control campaigns and landscape use.

  13. Seroprevalence and genomic divergence of circulating strains of feline immunodeficiency virus among Felidae and Hyaenidae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyer, Jennifer L; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Roelke, Melody E; Johnson, Warren; VandeWoude, Sue; Vazquez-Salat, Nuria; Brown, Meredith; Frank, Laurence; Woodroffe, Rosie; Winterbach, Christiaan; Winterbach, Hanlie; Hemson, Graham; Bush, Mitch; Alexander, Kathleen A; Revilla, Eloy; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2005-07-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infects numerous wild and domestic feline species and is closely related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Species-specific strains of FIV have been described for domestic cat (Felis catus), puma (Puma concolor), lion (Panthera leo), leopard (Panthera pardus), and Pallas' cat (Otocolobus manul). Here, we employ a three-antigen Western blot screening (domestic cat, puma, and lion FIV antigens) and PCR analysis to survey worldwide prevalence, distribution, and genomic differentiation of FIV based on 3,055 specimens from 35 Felidae and 3 Hyaenidae species. Although FIV infects a wide variety of host species, it is confirmed to be endemic in free-ranging populations of nine Felidae and one Hyaenidae species. These include the large African carnivores (lion, leopard, cheetah, and spotted hyena), where FIV is widely distributed in multiple populations; most of the South American felids (puma, jaguar, ocelot, margay, Geoffroy's cat, and tigrina), which maintain a lower FIV-positive level throughout their range; and two Asian species, the Pallas' cat, which has a species-specific strain of FIV, and the leopard cat, which has a domestic cat FIV strain in one population. Phylogenetic analysis of FIV proviral sequence demonstrates that most species for which FIV is endemic harbor monophyletic, genetically distinct species-specific FIV strains, suggesting that FIV transfer between cat species has occurred in the past but is quite infrequent today.

  14. Modern Numerical Ephemerides of Planets and the Importance of Ranging Observations for Their Creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitjeva, E. V.

    2001-07-01

    The JPL planetary and lunar ephemerides - DE200/LE200, DE403/LE403, DE405/LE405 and the planetary and lunar ephemerides, EPM87, EPM98, and EPM2000, constructed in the Institute of Applied Astronomy of RAS are described. Common properties and differences of the various ephemerides are given. Graphical comparisons of the DE ephemerides with each other and with the EPM ephemerides are presented. A fairly good agreement of planetary orbits is between DE403, DE405 and EPM98, EPM2000, respectively, over the interval of 120 years (1886-2006) covered by EPM98 and EPM2000. Some differences are explained by a slight disagreement in representing the orbits of Ceres, Pallas, and Vesta as they affect the planets. The accurate radar observations of planets and spacecraft make it possible not only to improve the orbital elements of planets but to determine a broad set of astronomical constants as well: km/AU, parameters of Mars' rotation including its precessional rate, the masses of Jupiter, Ceres, Pallas, and Vesta, relativistic parameters of the PPN formalism, the variability of the gravitational constant G. These have been obtained in the fitting process of the DE405 and EPM2000 ephemerides to observational data, including nearly 80000 American and Russian radar observations of planets (1961-1997), ranging and doppler to the Viking and Pathfinder landers, and other miscellaneous measurements from various sources and spacecraft.

  15. On the infant weight loss of low- to intermediate-mass star clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, C.; Kroupa, P.; Nürnberger, D. E. A.; Sterzik, M. F.

    2007-04-01

    Star clusters are born in a highly compact configuration, typically with radii of less than about 1 pc roughly independently of mass. Since the star formation efficiency is less than 50 per cent by observation and because the residual gas is removed from the embedded cluster, the cluster must expand. In the process of doing so it only retains a fraction fst of its stars. To date there are no observational constraints for fst, although N-body calculations by Kroupa, Aarseth & Hurley suggest it to be about 20-30 per cent for Orion-type clusters. Here we use the data compiled by Testi et al., Testi, Palla & Natta and Testi, Palla & Natta for clusters around young Ae/Be stars and by de Wit et al. and de Wit et al. around young O stars and the study of de Zeeuw et al. of OB associations and combine these measurements with the expected number of stars in clusters with primary Ae/Be and O stars, respectively, using the empirical correlation between maximal stellar mass and star cluster mass of Weidner & Kroupa. We find that fst < 50 per cent with a decrease to higher cluster masses/more massive primaries. The interpretation would be that cluster formation is very disruptive. It appears that clusters with a birth stellar mass in the range 10-103Msolar keep at most 50 per cent of their stars.

  16. Palladium-cobalt alloy for applications in electrical engineering and electronics. New coating processes; Palladium-Kobalt-Legierung fuer Elektrotechnik/Elektronik. Neue Verfahren zur Oberflaechenbeschichtung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abys, J.A.; Breck, G.F.; Straschil, H.K. [Lucent Technologies Electroplating Chemicals and Services, Murray Hill, NJ (United States); Boguslavsky, I. [Molex Inc., Lisle, IL (USA); Holmbom, G. [CSM Materialteknik AB, Linkoping (Sweden)

    1999-11-01

    Surface properties are particularly important in plug-and-socket connections. Hard gold and palladium-nickel compounds are the most common. Lucent Electroplating Chemicals and Services (EC and S), a company of Lucent Technologies, recently developed a palladium-cobalt compound (PallaTechPdCo) with high abrasion resistance ensuring long life. The thickness of the coating layer can be controlled accurately during galvanization, which will reduce the cost as well. [German] Gerade bei elektronischen Steckverbindungen spielt die Oberflaeche eine entscheidende Rolle. Gaengig waren seither Hartgold-Ueberzuege oder Schichten aus Palladium-Nickel-Verbindungen. Bei der Lucent Electroplating Chemicals and Services (EC and S), einem Unternehmen von Lucent Technologies, hat man nun eine Palladium-Kobalt-Verbindung (PallaTechPdCo) als Legierungsmaterial entwickelt, die gegenueber den herkoemmlichen Galvanisierungswerkstoffen entscheidende Vorteile aufweisen soll. Laut Hersteller ist diese PdCo-Legierung aufgrund ihrer hohen Abriebfestigkeit haltbarer als herkoemmliche Verbindungen und gewaehrleistet somit eine groessere Zuverlaessigkeit und Sicherheit der Produkte. Weiterhin laesst sich die Masse der aufzutragenden Schicht beim Galvanisierungsprozess exakt kontrollieren. Diese Optimierung der Leistung verringert auch die anfallenden Kosten. (orig.)

  17. Olfactory Responses of Three Species of Ladybird Beetles to the Aphids and the Leaves of Their Host Plants%3种瓢虫对蚜虫及其寄主植物的嗅觉反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王进忠; 缪昆; 孙淑玲; 苏红田

    2001-01-01

    本试验测试了七星瓢虫、龟纹瓢虫和异色瓢虫对麦蚜、中国槐蚜、绣线菊蚜、棉蚜及其寄主植物的嗅觉反应.结果表明七星瓢虫对带白杨毛蚜的杨树叶片的反应比较显著,龟纹瓢虫对带绣线菊蚜的苹果叶片的反应比较显著,而异色瓢虫成虫对带有棉蚜的木槿叶片反应比较显著.%The olfactory responses of the Coccinella septempunctata Lewis, Prophlaea japonica Lewis and Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) to Macrosiphum avenae (Fabricius). Aphis sophoricola Zhong, Chaito phoruspopuleti (Pznzer), A. citricola van der Goot, A. gossypii Glover and their host plants were examined using a four-arm olfactometer. The results showed that the C. septempunctata Lewis was strongly attracted towards the combination of the aphid-infested leaves of the poplar tree and C. populeti (Pznzer) odors, P. japonica Lewis was strongly attracted towards the combination of the aphid: A. citricola van der Goot and the aphid-infested leaves of the apple tree and H. aryridis (Pallas) was strongly attracted towards the combination of A. gossypii Glover and the aphid-infested leaves of the rose mallow.

  18. Asteroid Perturbations and Mass Determination for the ASTROD Space Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, C J; Tang, Chien-Jen; Ni, Wei-Tou

    2004-01-01

    Due to the high-precision nature of the ASTROD (Astrodynamical Space Test of Relativity using Optical Devices) mission concept, the asteroid perturbations on the ASTROD spacecraft is crucial. These perturbations need to be modelled and determined together with relativistic effects and other solar-system parameters. In a previous investigation (Su et al., Planetary and Space Science, 47, 339-43[1999]), we used the mass estimation of Ceres, Pallas and Vesta in the literature to calculate their perturbations on the ASTROD spacecraft. Recently, we established an ephemeris framework (CGC 1) including the 3 big asteroids and used this ephemeris framework to simulate the determination of their masses together with other solar-system parameters and relativistic-gravity parameters. In this paper, we extend the CGC 1 to CGC 2 ephemeris framework to include 492 asteroids (with diameter > 65 km) . We then use CGC 2 to simulate the determination of ten parameters -- the masses of Ceres, Pallas and Vesta, the six average d...

  19. NUEVAS CITAS DE BULBOSTYLIS (CYPERACEAE PARA LAS FLORAS DE BOLIVIA Y PARAGUAY New records of Bulbostylis (Cyperaceae for the flora of Bolivia and Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gabriela López

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Durante la revisión del género Bulbostylis (Cyperaceae, Abildgaardieae para la flora de
    América austral, se encontraron cinco nuevas citas, una de Bolivia: B. svensoniana Steyerm. y
    cuatro de Paraguay: B. consanguinea (Kunth C.B.Clarke, B. loefgrenii (Boeck. Prata &
    López, B. sellowiana (Kunth Palla y B. papillosa Kük. Se hacen aclaraciones sobre estos
    taxones, los cuales se describen e ilustran
    During the study of the genus Bulbostylis (Cyperaceae, Abildgaardieae for Austral America,
    five new records were found, one from Bolivia: B. svensoniana Steyerm. and four from
    Paraguay: B. consanguinea (Kunth C.B.Clarke, B. loefgrenii (Boeck. Prata & López, B.
    sellowiana (Kunth Palla and B. papillosa Kük. All the taxa are described and illustrated and
    considerations about them are given

  20. ROCKET AF adds more concerns about Digoxin safety in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElMaghawry, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    In a recent article in the Journal, we have reviewed the adverse cardiovascular outcomes observed with digoxin use in the PALLAS study.(1) The PALLAS study was designed to determine if dronedarone would reduce major vascular events in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation (AF).(2) However the study was stopped early because of safety reasons, as a significant number of patients on the dronedarone arm reached the co-primary end point composite of stroke, myocardial infarction, systemic embolism, or cardiovascular death. Data sub-analyses suggested that digoxin-dronedarone interaction was responsible for the higher arrhythmic death rate observed in the trial. These observations are consistent with several other studies that demonstrate the potential hazard of the use of digoxin in heart failure and/or atrial fibrillation. A more recent article published in the Lancet studied the use and outcomes of digoxin in the Rivaroxaban Once Daily Oral Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared with Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism in Atrial Fibrillation (ROCKET AF) trial.(3) The investigators concluded that digoxin treatment was associated with a significant increase in all-cause mortality, vascular death, and sudden death in patients with AF.

  1. Super-cooled liquid water topped sub-arctic clouds and precipitation - investigation based on combination of ground-based in-situ and remote-sensing observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsikko, Anne; Brus, David; O'Connor, Ewan J.; Filioglou, Maria; Komppula, Mika; Romakkaniemi, Sami

    2017-04-01

    In the high and mid latitudes super-cooled liquid water layers are frequently observed on top of clouds. These layers are difficult to forecast with numerical weather prediction models, even though, they have strong influence on atmospheric radiative properties, cloud microphysical properties, and subsequently, precipitation. This work investigates properties of super-cooled liquid water layer topped sub-arctic clouds and precipitation observed with ground-based in-situ (cloud probes) and remote-sensing (a cloud radar, Doppler and multi-wavelength lidars) instrumentation during two-month long Pallas Cloud Experiment (PaCE 2015) in autumn 2015. Analysis is based on standard Cloudnet scheme supplemented with new retrieval products of the specific clouds and their properties. Combination of two scales of observation provides new information on properties of clouds and precipitation in the sub-arctic Pallas region. Current status of results will be presented during the conference. The authors acknowledge financial support by the Academy of Finland (Centre of Excellence Programme, grant no 272041; and ICINA project, grant no 285068), the ACTRIS2 - European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 654109, the KONE foundation, and the EU FP7 project BACCHUS (grant no 603445).

  2. Thalassornectes (Alcidectes) aukletae, new subgenus and species (Acari: Hypoderatidae) from the crested and parakeet auklets (Aves: Charadriiformes; Alcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, D B; Hoberg, E P

    1991-03-01

    In the genus Thalassornectes, a new subgenus, Alcidectes, and a new species, T. (Alcidectes) aukletae, are described from deutonymphs in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of the crested auklet, Aethia cristatella (Pallas), and the parakeet auklet, Cyclorrhynchus psittacula (Pallas), from the eastern Pacific USSR. The new subgenus and species differ from one or both of the single species in each of the other two subgenera, Thalassornectes and Rallidectes, by (1) the normal size, position, and parallel arrangement of the genital papillae; (2) the larger size of seta sce; (3) the greater length and stronger development of setae sci, d1, l1, h, and sh; (4) the equal size of tarsi III and IV or their size subequal, with tarsus IV slightly longer than tarsus III; (5) both epimera I and sternum well developed and nearly equal in length; and (6) the free sclerotized posteriad extension from epimerite II on the ventral cuticular surface. This is the first hypoderatid reported from the host order Charadriiformes. The distribution of T. (Alcidectes) aukletae among auklets may be attributed to either cospeciation or may have an ecological basis; data are insufficient at present to sustain either hypothesis.

  3. 黑龙江阿城交界洞穴遗址的哺乳动物群%PLEISTOCENE MAMMALIAN FAUNA FROM THE JIAOJIE CAVE AT ACHENG,HEILONGJIANG PROVINCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于汇历; 董为

    2011-01-01

    The Jaiojie Paleolithic Site is located in a karstic cave at Acheng, Haerbin Municipality in Heilongjiang Province. It is regarded as the oldest Paleolithic site in the province and also the northernmost one in China up to today. The geographic coordination at the cave entrance measured with the Global Positioning System ( GPS) is 45°21'07. 7"N and 127°05'16. 8"E, with an altitude of 183m. The cave deposits can be divided into 6 layers. Mammalian fossils were unearthed mainly from Layers 5 and 6 in the lower part of the cave deposits. As a Quaternary mammalian fauna,it is chronologically the earliest one in Heilongjiang Province and geographically the northernmost and easternmost in China. Layer 5 is composed of grayish green clay with some yellow clods, and the underlying Layer 6 composed of reddish yellow clay with breccia. Although the site was discovered in 1996 and systematically excavated in 1997,the fossils were never systematically described before 12 taxa were identified as follow; Mar mot a sp., Myospalax cf. Prosilurus, Ochotona sp., Lepus ( Eulagos) mandshuricus ( = Lepus wongi) , Mattes sp., Meles meles, Mustela sibirica, Ursus sp, Crocuta sp., Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis ( = Dicerorhinus mercki) ,Cervus(S. )nippon hortulorum,Capreolus capreolus manehuricus. The fossils from Layer 5 are mostly smaller forms such as Marmota sp.,Myospalax cf.prosilurus,Lepus(Eulagos) mandshuricus( = Lepus wongi) ,etc. ,and those from Layer 6 are mostly larger forms such as Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis, Cervus ( Sika) hortulorum, Crocuta etc. They are mostly northern forms. The fauna lacks typical cold forms such as Coelodonta and Mammuthus, and it was regarded as a fauna exsiting during the transition from temperate period to cold one in North Region. The comparison of fauna compositions shows that the Jiaojie fauna is close to that of the Middle Pleistocene Jinniushan and Miaohoushan faunas in Liaoning Province, the Late Pleistocene Xiaogushan and Gulongshan faunas

  4. Protozoa, Nematoda and Lumbricidae in the rhizosphere of Hordelymus europeaus (Poaceae): faunal interactions, response of microorganisms and effects on plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphei, Jörn; Bonkowski, Michael; Scheu, Stefan

    1996-04-01

    Interactions among protozoa (mixed cultures of ciliates, flagellates and naked amoebae), bacteria-feeding nematodes (Pellioditis pellio Schneider) and the endogeic earthworm species Aporrectodea caliginosa (Savigny) were investigated in experimental chambers with soil from a beechwood (Fagus sylvatica L.) on limestone. Experimental chambers were planted with the grass Hordelymus europeaus L. (Poaceae) and three compartments separated by 45-μm mesh were established: rhizosphere, intermediate and non-rhizosphere. The experiment lasted for 16 weeks and the following parameters were measured at the end of the experiment: shoot and root mass of H. europaeus, carbon and nitrogen content in shoots and roots, density of ciliates, amoebae, flagellates and nematodes, microbial biomass (SIR), basal respiration, streptomycin sensitive respiration, ammonium and nitrate contents, phosphate content of soil compartments. In addition, leaching of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) and leachate pH were measured at regular intervals in leachate obtained from suction cups in the experimental chambers. Protozoa stimulated the recovery of nitrifying bacteria following defaunation (by chloroform fumigation) and increased nitrogen losses as nitrate in leachate. In contrast, protozoa and nematodes reduced leaching of phosphate, an effect ascribed to stimulation of microbial growth early in the experiment. Earthworms strongly increased the amount of extractable mineral nitrogen whereas it was strongly reduced by protozoa and nematodes. Both protozoa and nematodes reduced the stimulatory effect of earthworms on nitrogen mineralization. Microbial biomass, basal respiration, and numbers of protozoa and nematodes increased in the vicinity of the root. Protozoa generally caused a decrease in microbial biomass whereas nematodes and earthworms reduced microbial biomass only in the absence of protozoa. None of the animals studied significantly affected basal respiration, but specific respiration

  5. Plant macrofossils analysis from Steregoiu NW Romania: taphonomy, representation, and comparison with pollen analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Feurdean

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of macrofossil analysis from the Steregoiu sequence in the Gutaiului Mountains covering the last 8,000 cal BP. The studied peat deposit is characterized by abundant macrofossils. Their diversity is, however, low with most macrofossils coming from plants that grew on the mire and in the forest surrounding the basin (Carex spp., Cyperus sp., Urtica dioica, Potentilla erecta, Filipendula ulmaria, Rubus idaeus, Lycopus europaeus. The concentration of Picea abies macrofossils correlates partially well with its pollen percentages, and only when it has been present on the bog surface. The absence of macrofossils from deciduous trees, which were abundant in the surrounding vegetation according to the pollen data, suggests that these deciduous trees were not growing on the bog or around its margins. The combined macrofossil and the pollen results assists in the understanding of the differences between the local and regional flora.

  6. La fauna a micromammiferi del comprensorio di Muro Lucano (Potenza, Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Cerone

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Small mammal fauna of the Muro Lucano area (Potenza, Italy - Data of small mammals trapped (255 specimens and preyed by Barn owl (289 specimens in NW Lucania (southern Italy are reported. In the studied area, 7 species of Insectivora (Erinaceus europaeus, Talpa romana, Sorex araneus ve1 samniticus, S. minutus, Suncus etruscus, Crocidura suaveolens, C. leucodon and 8 of Rodentia (Muscardinus avellanarius, Myoxus glis, Clethrionomys glareolus, Microtus savii, Rattus rattus, Apodemus sylvaticus, A . flavicollis, Mus domesticus are recorded, together with ecological and biological remarks.

  7. Histopathologic study of eosinophilic bronchointerstitial pneumonia caused by Crenosoma striatum in the hedgehog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseini, Seyed Mohammad; Youssefi, Mohammad Reza; Mousapour, Aliasghar; Dozouri, Rohollah; Eshkevari, Shahab Ramezanpour; Nikzad, Mohammad; Nikzad, Reza; Omidzahir, Shila

    2014-06-01

    Crenosoma striatum is a species of parasitic nematodes from the family Crenosomatidae responsible for pathologic lung lesions in the hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus). Infection with C. striatum can cause weight loss, dry cough, and bronchitis. In the present study, hedgehogs killed by road accidents, or trapped and found dead on farms in different parts of Mazandaran province (Iran), were transferred to the laboratory. After dissection, parasite samples collected from the lung were placed into 70% alcohol. After clarification with lactophenol and subsequent staining, the nematodes were identified as C. striatum according to previously published guidelines. For histopathologic examination, lung samples were collected. The tissues were fixed and following routine processing, sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Microscopic diagnoses included hyperemia, eosinophilic bronchointerstitial pneumonia, thickening of the interstitium, and eosinophilic microabscesses in bronchial airways. Eosinophilic pneumonia was characterized by eosinophil and other mononuclear leukocyte infiltration within the lung interstitium. Crenosoma striatum can lead to mortality in hedgehogs.

  8. A lectin histochemical study on carbohydrate moieties of the gonadotropin-like substance in the epithelial cells of Hatschek's pit of Branchiostoma belcheri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Y. Q.; Welsch, U.

    1997-03-01

    The present light microscopic lectin, histochemical study suggests for the first time that the vertebrate gonadotropin-like substance in the basal part of the epithelial cells of Hatschek's pit is a sialic acid-containing glycoprotein. The binding intensity of the epithelial cells in Hatschek's pit to 6 lectins ( Limulus polyphemus agglutinin (LPA), Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), Helix pomatia agglutinin (HPA), Concanavalin A (Con A), Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA I) and Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA I)) indicate that the carbohydrate composition of the gonadotrophic glycoprotein is similar to that of mammals and fish, and that N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, sialic acid, glucosamine, D-mannose and L-fucose are components of the carbohydrate portion.

  9. Fossil plants from Romanian deposits of Bacles, Dolj District, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae T̡icleanu

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available From the Middle Romanian lacustrine deposits of the Oltenia province, the authors describe the youngest fossil flora known until now in Oltenia. The inventory of the fossil flora includes the following taxa: Taxodium dubium, ?Platanus platanifolia, Ulmus laevis, Quercus roburoides, Q. cf. muehlenbergii, Carya serraefolia, Acer cf. tricuspidatum and Salix sp. In the Bâcleş fossil flora, Glyptostrobus europaeus, which is a thermophilous and shows a high frequency in all Oltenia area till the XV-th coal seam, is absent. Consequently, having in view the high frequency of Taxodium dubium, which indicate temperate climate conditions, the other consider that the fossil flora from Bâcleş is much more younger and marks an important cooling. From palaeofloristic point of view, the study of Bâcleş fossil flora is indicative for river meadow forest and, probably, flat plain forest environments.

  10. Impacts of removing badgers on localised counts of hedgehogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain D Trewby

    Full Text Available Experimental evidence of the interactions among mammalian predators that eat or compete with one another is rare, due to the ethical and logistical challenges of managing wild populations in a controlled and replicated way. Here, we report on the opportunistic use of a replicated and controlled culling experiment (the Randomised Badger Culling Trial to investigate the relationship between two sympatric predators: European badgers Meles meles and western European hedgehogs Erinaceus europaeus. In areas of preferred habitat (amenity grassland, counts of hedgehogs more than doubled over a 5-year period from the start of badger culling (from 0.9 ha-1 pre-cull to 2.4 ha-1 post-cull, whereas hedgehog counts did not change where there was no badger culling (0.3-0.3 hedgehogs ha-1. This trial provides experimental evidence for mesopredator release as an outcome of management of a top predator.

  11. Developmental changes in the distribution of cecal lectin-binding sites of Balb-c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doehrn, S; Breipohl, W; Lierse, W; Romaniuk, K; Young, W

    1992-01-01

    The existence of lectin-binding sites was investigated in the cecum of Balb-c mice at seven developmental stages ranging from 18 days post conception (p.c.) to 8 weeks after birth. Nine horseradish-peroxidase-conjugated lectins (concanavalin A, Triticum vulgaris, Dolichus biflorus, Helix pomatia, Arachis hypogaea, Glycine maximus, Lotus tetragonolobus, Ulex europaeus, Limulus polyphemus) were applied to 5- to 7-microns thin paraffin sections of Bouin-fixed tissue. After DAB staining the sections were evaluated by light microscopy. It was shown that each lectin exhibits a unique developmental pattern. The adult binding patterns were established at the age of 3-4 weeks with only minor changes occurring thereafter. Considerable differences in binding patterns occurred not only between lectins of different groups but also between lectins with the same nominal monosaccharide specificity.

  12. Evaluation of glycophenotype in breast cancer by quantum dot-lectin histochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade CG

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Camila G Andrade,1 Paulo E Cabral Filho,2 Denise PL Tenório,3 Beate S Santos,4 Eduardo IC Beltrão,1 Adriana Fontes,2 Luiz B Carvalho Jr1 1Keizo Asami Immunopathology Laboratory, 2Biophysics and Radiobiology Department, 3Fundamental Chemistry Department, 4Pharmaceutical Science Department, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil Abstract: Cell surface glycoconjugates play an important role in differentiation/dedifferentiation processes and lectins are employed to evaluate them by several methodologies. Fluorescent probes are considered a valuable tool because of their ability to provide a particular view, and are more detailed and sensitive in terms of cell structure and molecular content. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the expression and distribution of glycoconjugates in normal human breast tissue, and benign (fibroadenoma, and malignantly transformed (invasive ductal carcinoma breast tissues. For this, we used mercaptosuccinic acid-coated Cadmium Telluride (CdTe quantum dots (QDs conjugated with concanavalin A (Con A or Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA I lectins to detect α-D-glucose/mannose and L-fucose residues, respectively. The QD-lectin conjugates were evaluated by hemagglutination activity tests and carbohydrate inhibition assays, and were found to remain functional, keeping their fluorescent properties and carbohydrate recognition ability. Fluorescence images showed that different regions of breast tissue expressed particular types of carbohydrates. While the stroma was preferentially and intensely stained by QD-Con A, ductal cells were preferentially labeled by QD-UEA I. These results indicate that QD-lectin conjugates can be used as molecular probes and can help to elucidate the glycoconjugate profile in biological processes. Keywords: nanoparticles, concanavalin A, Ulex europaeus, carbohydrates, mammary tissues

  13. Change in the plasmid copy number in acetic acid bacteria in response to growth phase and acetic acid concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akasaka, Naoki; Astuti, Wiwik; Ishii, Yuri; Hidese, Ryota; Sakoda, Hisao; Fujiwara, Shinsuke

    2015-06-01

    Plasmids pGE1 (2.5 kb), pGE2 (7.2 kb), and pGE3 (5.5 kb) were isolated from Gluconacetobacter europaeus KGMA0119, and sequence analyses revealed they harbored 3, 8, and 4 genes, respectively. Plasmid copy numbers (PCNs) were determined by real-time quantitative PCR at different stages of bacterial growth. When KGMA0119 was cultured in medium containing 0.4% ethanol and 0.5% acetic acid, PCN of pGE1 increased from 7 copies/genome in the logarithmic phase to a maximum of 12 copies/genome at the beginning of the stationary phase, before decreasing to 4 copies/genome in the late stationary phase. PCNs for pGE2 and pGE3 were maintained at 1-3 copies/genome during all phases of growth. Under a higher concentration of ethanol (3.2%) the PCN for pGE1 was slightly lower in all the growth stages, and those of pGE2 and pGE3 were unchanged. In the presence of 1.0% acetic acid, PCNs were higher for pGE1 (10 copies/genome) and pGE3 (6 copies/genome) during the logarithmic phase. Numbers for pGE2 did not change, indicating that pGE1 and pGE3 increase their PCNs in response to acetic acid. Plasmids pBE2 and pBE3 were constructed by ligating linearized pGE2 and pGE3 into pBR322. Both plasmids were replicable in Escherichia coli, Acetobacter pasteurianus and G. europaeus, highlighting their suitability as vectors for acetic acid bacteria.

  14. Integrative taxonomy: Combining morphological, molecular and chemical data for species delineation in the parthenogenetic Trhypochthonius tectorum complex (Acari, Oribatida, Trhypochthoniidae

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    Weigmann Gerd

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a long-standing controversial about how parthenogenetic species can be defined in absence of a generally accepted species concept for this reproductive mode. An integrative approach was suggested, combining molecular and morphological data to identify distinct monophyletic entities. Using this approach, speciation of parthenogenetic lineages was recently demonstrated for groups of bdelloid rotifers and oribatid mites. Trhypochthonius tectorum, an oribatid mite from the entirely parthenogenetic desmonomatan family Trhypochthoniidae, is traditionally treated as a single species in Central Europe. However, two new morphological lineages were recently proposed for some Austrian populations of T. tectorum, and were described as novel subspecies (T. silvestris europaeus or form (T. japonicus forma occidentalis. We used the morphological and morphometrical data which led to this separation, and added mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences and the chemical composition of complex exocrine oil gland secretions to test this taxonomical hypothesis. This is the first attempt to combine these three types of data for integrative taxonomical investigations of oribatid mites. Results We show that the previous European species T. tectorum represents a species complex consisting of three distinct lineages in Austria (T.tectorum, T. silvestris europaeus and T. japonicus forma occidentalis, each clearly separated by morphology, oil gland secretion profiles and mitochondrial cox1 sequences. This diversification happened in the last ten million years. In contrast to these results, no variation among the lineages was found in the nuclear 18S rDNA. Conclusions Our approach combined morphological, molecular and chemical data to investigate diversity and species delineation in a parthenogenetic oribatid mite species complex. To date, hypotheses of a general oribatid mite phylogeny are manifold, and mostly based on single-method approaches

  15. Genomic organization, sequence divergence, and recombination of feline immunodeficiency virus from lions in the wild

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    Sondgeroth Kerry

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV naturally infects multiple species of cat and is related to human immunodeficiency virus in humans. FIV infection causes AIDS-like disease and mortality in the domestic cat (Felis catus and serves as a natural model for HIV infection in humans. In African lions (Panthera leo and other exotic felid species, disease etiology introduced by FIV infection are less clear, but recent studies indicate that FIV causes moderate to severe CD4 depletion. Results In this study, comparative genomic methods are used to evaluate the full proviral genome of two geographically distinct FIV subtypes isolated from free-ranging lions. Genome organization of FIVPle subtype B (9891 bp from lions in the Serengeti National Park in Tanzania and FIVPle subtype E (9899 bp isolated from lions in the Okavango Delta in Botswana, both resemble FIV genome sequence from puma, Pallas cat and domestic cat across 5' LTR, gag, pol, vif, orfA, env, rev and 3'LTR regions. Comparative analyses of available full-length FIV consisting of subtypes A, B and C from FIVFca, Pallas cat FIVOma and two puma FIVPco subtypes A and B recapitulate the species-specific monophyly of FIV marked by high levels of genetic diversity both within and between species. Across all FIVPle gene regions except env, lion subtypes B and E are monophyletic, and marginally more similar to Pallas cat FIVOma than to other FIV. Sequence analyses indicate the SU and TM regions of env vary substantially between subtypes, with FIVPle subtype E more related to domestic cat FIVFca than to FIVPle subtype B and FIVOma likely reflecting recombination between strains in the wild. Conclusion This study demonstrates the necessity of whole-genome analysis to complement population/gene-based studies, which are of limited utility in uncovering complex events such as recombination that may lead to functional differences in virulence and pathogenicity. These full-length lion

  16. Effect of buprofezin on survival of immature stages of Harmonia axyridis, Stethorus punctum picipes (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), Orius tristicolor (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae), and Geocoris spp. (Hemiptera: Geocoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, David G

    2004-06-01

    The effect of buprofezin, a chitin synthesis inhibitor, on development and survival of immature stages of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), Stethortus punctum picipes Casey, Orius tristicolor (White), Geocoris pallens Stål, and Geocoris punctipes (Say), was examined in a series of laboratory bioassays. Very few H. axyridis larvae (3.1%) treated with buprofezin reached adulthood, although 65% of treated pupae emerged successfully. Buprofezin caused no mortality to eggs of S. punctum picipes but 71.1% of treated early instar larvae failed to complete development. Eighty percent of treated late instars and 92.3% of pupae produced viable adults. Early instar nymphs of O. tristicolor were unaffected by buprofezin, whereas 47.7 and 85% of G. punctipes and G. pallens nymphs, respectively, failed to complete development. Treated eggs of G. pallens hatched successfully. The use of buprofezin in integrated pest management in Washington state wine grapes is discussed.

  17. Paeonol Suppresses Chondrosarcoma Metastasis through Up-Regulation of miR-141 by Modulating PKCδ and c-Src Signaling Pathway

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    Chi-Ting Horng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chondrosarcoma, a primary malignant bone cancer, has potential for local invasion and distant metastasis, especially to the lungs. Patients diagnosed with it show poor prognosis. Paeonol (2'-hydroxy-4'-methoxyacetophenone, the main active compound of traditional Chinese remedy Paeonia lactiflora Pallas, exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activity; whether paeonol regulates metastatic chondrosarcoma is largely unknown. Here, we find paeonol do not increase apoptosis. By contrast, at non-cytotoxic concentrations, paeonol suppresses migration and invasion of chondrosarcoma cells. We also demonstrate paeonol enhancing miR-141 expression and miR-141 inhibitor reversing paeonol-inhibited cell motility; paeonol also reduces protein kinase C (PKCd and c-Src kinase activity. Since paeonol inhibits migration and invasion of human chondrosarcoma via up-regulation of miR-141 via PKCd and c-Src pathways, it thus might be a novel anti-metastasis agent for treatment of metastatic chondrosarcoma.

  18. Similarities in acute phase protein response during hibernation in black bears and major depression in humans: A response to underlying metabolic depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiouris, J.A.; Chauhan, V.P.S.; Sheikh, A.M.; Chauhan, A.; Malik, M.; Vaughan, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of hibernation with mild hypothermia and the stress of captivity on levels of six acute-phase proteins (APPs) in serial samples of serum from 11 wild and 6 captive black bears (Ursus americanus Pallas, 1780) during active and hibernating states. We hypothesize that during hibernation with mild hypothermia, bears would show an APP response similar to that observed in major depression. Enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay was used to measure alpha2-macroglobulin and C-reactive protein, and a nephelometer to measure alpha1-antitrypsin, haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin, and transferrin. Levels of all other proteins except ceruloplasmin were significantly elevated during hibernation in both wild and captive bears at the p neurobiology of depression.

  19. The multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis: A review of its biology, uses in biological control, and non-target impacts

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    R.L. Koch

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the last century, the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas has been studied quite extensively, with topics ranging from genetics and evolution to population dynamics and applied biological control being covered. Much of the early work on H. axyridis was conducted in the native Asian range. From the 1980's to the present, numerous European and North American studies have added to the body of literature on H. axyridis. H. axyridis has recently gained attention in North America both as a biological control agent and as a pest. This literature review was compiled for two reasons. First, to assist other researchers as a reference, summarizing most of the voluminous body of literature on H. axyridis pertaining to its biology, life history, uses in biological control, and potential non-target impacts. Secondly, to be a case study on the impacts of an exotic generalist predator.

  20. Structural changes in bunched crystalline ion beams

    CERN Document Server

    Bussmann, M; Schätz, T; Habs, D

    2003-01-01

    Measurements of the spatial distribution of bunched crystalline ion beams in the radio frequency quadrupole storage ring PALLAS are presented for different ratios of the longitudinal and the transverse confinement strengths. The length of highly elongated crystalline ion bunches and its dependence on the bunching voltage is compared to predictions for a one-dimensional ion string and three-dimensional space-charge-dominated beams. The length is found to be considerably shorter than that predicted by the models. Furthermore, the scaling of the length with the bunching voltage is shown to differ from the expected inverse cube root scaling. These differences can partially be attributed to the formation of a mixed crystalline structure. Additionally, a concise mapping of the structural transition from a string to a zig-zag configuration as a function of the ratio of the confinement strengths is presented, which in a similar way deviates from the predictions.

  1. Cooling and heating of crystalline ion beams

    CERN Document Server

    Schramm, U; Bussmann, M; Habs, D

    2003-01-01

    The crystallization of ion beams has recently been established in the rf quadrupole storage ring PALLAS (PAul Laser CooLing Acceleration System) for laser-cooled sup 2 sup 4 Mg sup + ion beams at an energy of about 1 eV. Yet, unexpectedly sharp constraints had to be met concerning the confinement strength and the longitudinal laser cooling rate. In this paper, related and up to now unseen heating mechanisms are pinpointed for crystalline beams. The weak but inevitable diffusive transverse heating associated with the laser cooling process itself is investigated, possibly allowing the future measurement of the latent heat of the ion crystal. As a function of the beam velocity, the influence of bending shear on the attainability of larger crystalline structures is presented. Finally, rf heating of crystalline beams of different structure is studied for discontinuous cooling.

  2. Development of Acne therapeutic hydrogel patches by radiation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Younmook; Nho, Youngchang; Gwon, Huijeong; Park, Jongseok; Kim, Jinkyu; Kim, Yongsoo

    2012-04-15

    In this project, hydrogel patches containing herbal extracts mixture were developed by radiation technology for acne treatment. Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), one of the anaerobic bacterium, is the cause of inflammatory acne. To find novel mediation for inflammation of P. acnes, we confirmed the anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of several herbal extracts against P. acnes. The water extracts from five dried herbs, Phellodendron amurense Rupr., Paeonia lactiflora Pallas., Houttuynia cordata Thumb., Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., were mixed into biocompatible polymers and irradiated by using gamma-ray to prepare hydrogels. The hydrogels containing herbal extracts mixture initiated to decrease the growth of P. acnes and reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-{alpha}, IL-8, IL-1{beta} and IL-6, in experiment with human monocytic THP-1 cells treated with heat-killed P. acnes at 1 mg/ml of mixture concentration.

  3. Upstream expansion of round goby (Neogobius Melanostomus – first record in the upper reaches of the Elbe river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buřič M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The round goby Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas, 1814 is one of the most problematic invasive fish species in recent years in Europe. It has proliferated from its native Ponto-Caspian region to several European river systems including their mouths and coastal brackish waters and was also introduced to and became widely established in the Great Lakes in North America. Despite recent reports about further invasions of round goby in the Odra and Vistula Rivers, including penetration of Baltic and North Seas, in the Elbe River this species was only recorded near its mouth close to Hamburg. Here we report the occurrence of round goby 622 km upstream from the previous record in Geesthacht (Germany in the upper part of the Elbe River in Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic. This report illustrates the fast spread of round goby through several possible pathways, but the most certain is an introduction in ballast water.

  4. NEW CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF ALIEN FLORA IN ROMANIA

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    SÎRBU CULIŢĂ

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a number of seventeen alien plant species are presented, one of them being now for the first time reported in Romania (Sedum sarmentosum Bunge. Some species are mentioned for the first time in the flora of Moldavia (Aster novae-angliae L., Cenchrus incertus M. A. Curtis, Chenopodium pumilio R. Br., Fraxinus americana L., Lindernia dubia (L. Pennell, Petunia × atkinsiana D. Don, Solidago gigantea Aiton, Tagetes erecta L. or Transylvania (Kochia sieversiana (Pallas C. A. Mey., and some are reported from new localities (seven species. For each species, there are presented general data on the geographical origin, its distribution in Europe and worldwide, as well as its invasion history and current distribution in Romania. Some of these species manifest a remarkable spreading tendency, expanding their invasion area in Romania. Voucher specimens were deposited in the Herbarium of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Iaşi (IASI.

  5. Bottom Production

    CERN Document Server

    Nason, P; Schneider, O; Tartarelli, F; Vikas, P; Baines, J T M; Baranov, S P; Bartalini, P; Bay, A; Bouhova-Thacker, E; Cacciari, M; Caner, A; Coadou, Y; Corti, G; Damet, J; Dell'Orso, R; De Mello-Neto, J R T; Domenech, J L; Drollinger, V; Eerola, Paule Anna Mari; Ellis, Nick; Epp, B; Frixione, Stefano; Gadomski, S; Gavrilenko, I; Gennai, Simone; George, S; Ghete, V M; Guy, L P; Hasegawa, Y; Iengo, R; Jacholkowska, A; Jones, R; Kharchilava, A I; Kneringer, E; Koppenburg, P; Korsmo, M; Krämer, M; Labanca, N; Lehto, M H; Maltoni, F; Mangano, Michelangelo L; Mele, S; Nairz, A; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nikitin, N V; Nisati, A; Norrbin, E; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizatdinova, F K; Robins, S A; Rousseau, D; Sanchis-Lozano, M A; Shapiro, M; Sherwood, P; Smirnova, L; Smizanska, M; Starodumov, Andrei; Stepanov, N; Voft, R

    2000-01-01

    We review the prospects for bottom production physics at the LHC. Members of the working group who has contributed to this document are: J. Baines, S.P. Baranov, P. Bartalini, A. Bay, E. Bouhova, M. Cacciari, A. Caner, Y. Coadou, G. Corti, J. Damet, R. Dell'Orso, J.R.T. De Mello Neto, J.L. Domenech, V. Drollinger, P. Eerola, N. Ellis, B. Epp, S. Frixione, S. Gadomski, I. Gavrilenko, S. Gennai, S. George, V.M. Ghete, L. Guy, Y. Hasegawa, P. Iengo, A. Jacholkowska, R. Jones, A. Kharchilava, E. Kneringer, P. Koppenburg, H. Korsmo, M. Kraemer, N. Labanca, M. Lehto, F. Maltoni, M.L. Mangano, S. Mele, A.M. Nairz, T. Nakada, N. Nikitin, A. Nisati, E. Norrbin, F. Palla, F. Rizatdinova, S. Robins, D. Rousseau, M.A. Sanchis-Lozano, M. Shapiro, P. Sherwood, L. Smirnova, M. Smizanska, A. Starodumov, N. Stepanov, R. Vogt

  6. Psidium guajava and Piper betle Leaf Extracts Prolong Vase Life of Cut Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Flowers

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    M. M. Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. “Carola” and “Pallas Orange” carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a “germicide” (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin. Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and higher rate of water uptake compared to control (tap water. The leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle showed highest antibacterial and antifungal activities compared to the other treatments. Both showed similar effects on flower quality as the synthetic germicide, 8-HQC. Therefore, these extracts are likely natural germicides to prolong vase life of cut flowers.

  7. Psidium guajava and Piper betle leaf extracts prolong vase life of cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M M; Ahmad, S H; Lgu, K S

    2012-01-01

    The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. "Carola" and "Pallas Orange" carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a "germicide" (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin). Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and higher rate of water uptake compared to control (tap water). The leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle showed highest antibacterial and antifungal activities compared to the other treatments. Both showed similar effects on flower quality as the synthetic germicide, 8-HQC. Therefore, these extracts are likely natural germicides to prolong vase life of cut flowers.

  8. The potential of four woody species for the revegetation of fly ash deposits from the ‘Nikola Tesla-a’ thermoelectric plant (Obrenovac, Serbia

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    Kostić Olga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Four woody species, Tamarix tentandra Pallas, Populus alba L. and Robinia pseudoacacia L. (planted and Amorpha fruticosa L. (naturally colonized were studied at two fly ash deposit lagoons, weathered 3 (L1 and 11 years (L2. All species were assessed in terms of their invasive ability, photosynthetic efficiency, photosynthetic pigments and damage symptoms, while the characteristics of the habitat were assessed in terms of trace element content and the pH and EC of the ash. A reduced vitality of all populations growing on the ash was observed, except for the naturally colonized A. fruticosa. High vitality on all sites, except at L2, increased chlorophyll content and absence of damage symptoms indicates a tolerance in relation to the uptake of toxic elements from the ash. Therefore, the characteristics of naturally colonized species can be used for modeling future actions of biological restoration of fly ash deposits.

  9. Streblidae (Diptera, Hippoboscoidea em morcegos (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae no nordeste do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Sreblidae (Diptera, Hippoboscoidea on bats (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae in the Northeast of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Graciolli

    Full Text Available A survey of the Streblidae batflies on the phyllostomid bats was conducted in the northeastern Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, during 1997. Hundred thirty three streblids were collected on 44 parasited hosts. Eleven species of batflies (Trichobius dugesii Townsend, 1891, T. tiptoni Wenzel, 1976, Trichobius sp., Paratrichobius longicrus (Miranda Ribeiro, 1907, Megistopoda aranea (Coquillett, 1899, M. proxima (Séguy, 1926, Exastinion clovisi (Pessoa & Guimarães, 1936, Paraeuctenodes longipes Pessoa & Guimarães, 1936, Anastrebla modestini Wenzel, 1966, A. caudiferae Wenzel, 1976 and Metelasmus pseudopterus Coquillett, 1907 were found on six species of phyllostomid bats (Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818, A. fimbriatus Gray, 1838, Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810, Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766, Anoura caudifera (E. Geoffroy, 1818 and A. geoffroyi Gray, 1838. All records are new for the Rio Grande do Sul and Anastrebla caudiferae is firstly recorded in Brazil. Differences in the batflies community composition in Artibeus fimbriatus and A. lituratus are discussed.

  10. Characterization of Genetic Variability and Population Structure of the Tick Amblyomma aureolatum (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogrzewalska, Maria; Schwarcz, Kaiser; Bajay, Miklos M; Bajay, Stephanie K; Pinheiro, José B; Zucchi, Maria I; Pinter, Adriano; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-07-01

    The hard tick Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas) is a vector of the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii, the etiologic agent of Brazilian spotted fever (BSF) in parts of Brazil. Despite its wide distribution in southeastern South America and its public health importance, there is no information about genetic variation of this species that might help to understand the epidemiology of BSF. Using data from eight microsatellite markers and ticks from six localities, we used a population genetics approach to test the hypothesis that tick populations from areas with the presence of R. rickettsii are genetically different from ticks from areas without R. rickettsii Contrary to expectations, we found low genetic structure between studied regions. Thus, the presence of R. rickettsii in the specific area is more likely correlated with ecological and the environmental conditions or due to unknown gene coding regions of A. aureolatum genome that would be related to R. rickettsii infection resistance.

  11. New chromosome characteristics of the monozoic tapeworm Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Cestoda, Caryophyllidea

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    Bombarová M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The karyotype of a caryophyllidean tapeworm Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas, 1781 from the freshwater bream Abramis brama (L. caught in the Slovak part of the River Tisa, was described and originally inspected for amount of heterochromatin and its chromosome localization. The chromosome set comprised nine metacentric and one submetacentric (No. 3 pairs (2n = 20. The chromosomes were up to 12.0 ± 2.5 μm long and the mean total length of haploid genome (TLC reached 80.6 μm that represents one of the highest yet recorded values among tapeworms. C-banding and staining with fl uorescent dyes DAPI and YOYO1 revealed a distinct banding pattern explicitly on chromosomes with centromeric bright heterochromatin bands present on all 10 chromosome pairs; no pair showed any interstitial heterochromatin. A complete course of spermatocyte meiosis and dynamics of nucleolus formation and degradation during meiotic division was described.

  12. [Early history of helminthology in the Russian Academy of Sciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galkin, A K; Pugachev, O N

    2001-01-01

    Zoological Institute RAS (up to 1930--Zoological Museum) dates back to 1728, when the first Russian museum, Kunstkammer, was opened under the authority of the newly organized Russian Academy of Sciences. Zoological collections of Kunstkammer were greatly enriched by a number of naturalists who worked in Russia since the middle of the 18-th century, P. S. Pallas (1741-1811) and I. T. Koelreuther (1733-1806) were among them. Both had made an essential progress into helminthology. In 1895, Zoological Museum legislatively acquired a statute of the central institution in Russia for zoological research. Investigations of parasitic worms here become permanent. First parasitologists in its staff, A. K. Mordvilko (1867-1938) and N. P. Annenkova-Khlopina (1887-1950), should be mentioned.

  13. Properties of herbal extracts against Propionibacterium acnes for biomedical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Youn-Mook; Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Yong Soo; Shin, Young Min; Jeong, Sung In; Jo, Sun-Young; Gwon, Hui-Jeong; Park, Jong-seok; Nho, Young-Chang; Kim, Jong-Cheol; Kim, Seong-Jang; Shin, HeungSoo

    2012-10-01

    Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), one of the anaerobic bacterium, causes inflammatory acne. To find a novel medication for treating the inflammation caused by P. acnes, we investigated the anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of several herbal extracts against P. acnes. The aqueous extracts from five dried herbs, Phellodendron amurense Rupr., Paeonia lactiflora Pallas., Houttuynia cordata Thunb., Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., were prepared and mixed. In this experiment, 1 mg/ml of the herbal extract mixture caused a decrease in the growth of P. acnes and reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IL-8, IL-1β and IL-6, in human monocytic THP-1 cells treated with heat-killed P. acnes. Therefore, this herbal extract mixture may possess both anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities against P. acnes and can be a novel therapeutic agent for treating inflammatory acne.

  14. Progress of applied research on multicolored Asian ladybird beetle%异色瓢虫的应用研究概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小艺; 沈佐锐

    2002-01-01

    从异色瓢虫Harmonia axyridis(Pallas)的生物学和生态学特性,包括色斑变化、生活史、繁殖、食性、捕食、越冬、贮存、人工饲养、田间动态以及在生物防治上的应用等方面概述了异色瓢虫的研究进展.并对异色瓢虫在农业生产特别是果园、菜地、温室花卉上的应用前景作了讨论,指出异色瓢虫是一种很有利用前景和产业化生产价值的天敌生物.

  15. Genetic relationships among some hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) species and genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Kadir Ugurtan; Yanar, Makbule; Ercisli, Sezai; Sahiner, Hatice; Taskin, Tuncer; Zengin, Yasar

    2010-10-01

    The genus Crataegus is well distributed in Turkey as a wild plant, with numerous, inherently variable species and genotypes. RAPD markers were used to study 17 hawthorn genotypes belonging to Crataegus monogyna ssp. monogyna Jacq (2 genotypes), C. monogyna ssp. azarella Jacq (1), Crataegus pontica K.Koch (3), Crataegus orientalis var. orientalis Pallas Ex Bieb (3), Crataegus pseudoheterophylla Pojark (1), Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz (1), C. aronia var. aronia Browicz (4), and Crateagus x bornmuelleri Zabel (2). The 10 RAPD primers produced 72 polymorphic bands (88% polymorphism). A dendrogram based on Jaccard's index included four major groups and one outgroup according to taxa. The lowest genetic variability was observed within C. aronia var. aronia genotypes. The study demonstrated that RAPD analysis is efficient for genotyping wild-grown hawthorns.

  16. Eesti kunstnikud ajakirjandusgraafikas 1930. aastail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merle Talvik

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The period of 1930-1940 marked the first surge of interest in graphic arts in Estonian journalism. The importance of artists who had received education in homeland increased and the following schools of specific creative image emerged - the school of Tallinn artists, who had mostly been educated at the State School of Applied Art, determined the face of magazines published in Tallinn (e.g. Muusikaleht, Huvitav Žurnaal, Kirilind, Lood Elust, Maaomavalitsus, Teater, Välis-Eesti Almanak, Sõdur, Käsitööleht, Laste Rõõm, Kaitse Kodu! and the Tartu school of graphic artists, who had been educated at the Higher Art School Pallas, designed the face of magazines and journals published in Tartu (e.g. Olion, Tänapäev, Varamu, Teater Vanemuine, Kevadik. Art déco style became the common feature of these two schools of art. The curricula of the School of Applied Arts followed the example of curricula at the Stieglitz School of Applied Arts in St. Petersburg, which was oriented to systematic teaching in calligraphy and decorative art. The school had established good contacts with art institutions in Germany that were considered the most prestigious ones in Europe at the time. National ornamentation was abundantly used. In the 1930s, the Tallinn School laid a solid foundation for the development of Estonian graphic design by ensuring the continuity of education in this field. The work of the Tallinn school is characterised by art decoésque stilisation, moderate use of the element of nationalism and strong composition, also clear and legible script. The indisputable authority for this generation on both decorative art and calligraphy was Günther Reindorff (1889-1975, who devised the systematic methods in teaching calligraphy in Estonia. The most important representatives of the Tallinn school in the graphic art in journalism were Johann Naha (1902-1982, Paul Luhtein (born in 1909, Hugo Lepik (1905-2001, Werner Birkenfeldt (1903-1942, Eduard Salu

  17. Biology and fertility life table of Eriopis connexa, Harmonia axyridis and Olla v-nigrum (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazycki, L C F; Semedo, R E S; Silva, A; Bisognin, A Z; Bernardi, O; Garcia, M S; Nava, D E

    2015-11-10

    AbstractThe coccinellids Eriopis connexa (Germar), Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) and Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant) are important natural biological control agents. The purpose of this paper was to study the biology and create a fertility life table of these three coccinellid species. For the biology study, 50 insects/species were used and kept in groups of 10 in glass vials (2300cm3). For the three species studied, the viability of the total cycle varied from 45 to 50%. O. v-nigrumwas the species which presented the longest oviposition period. However, H. axiridis demonstrated the best reproductive performance and ability of population growth in each generation. In conclusion, the use of commercially obtained pollen and A. kuenhiella eggs enables the development of coccinellids E. connexa, H. axyridis and O. v-nigrum under laboratory conditions, since the insects completed their biological cycle and originated adults with good reproductive performance.

  18. Incorporating a Sorghum Habitat for Enhancing Lady Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae in Cotton

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    P. G. Tillman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae prey on insect pests in cotton. The objective of this 2 yr on-farm study was to document the impact of a grain sorghum trap crop on the density of Coccinellidae on nearby cotton. Scymnus spp., Coccinella septempunctata (L., Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, Coleomegilla maculata (De Geer, Cycloneda munda (Say, and Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant were found in sorghum over both years. Lady beetle compositions in sorghum and cotton and in yellow pyramidal traps were similar. For both years, density of lady beetles generally was higher on cotton with sorghum than on control cotton. Our results indicate that sorghum was a source of lady beetles in cotton, and thus incorporation of a sorghum habitat in farmscapes with cotton has great potential to enhance biocontrol of insect pests in cotton.

  19. Biology and fertility life table of Eriopis connexa, Harmonia axyridis and Olla v-nigrum (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. F. Zazycki

    Full Text Available Abstract The coccinellids Eriopis connexa (Germar, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas and Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant are important natural biological control agents. The purpose of this paper was to study the biology and create a fertility life table of these three coccinellid species. For the biology study, 50 insects/species were used and kept in groups of 10 in glass vials (2300cm3. For the three species studied, the viability of the total cycle varied from 45 to 50%. O. v-nigrum was the species which presented the longest oviposition period. However, H. axiridis demonstrated the best reproductive performance and ability of population growth in each generation. In conclusion, the use of commercially obtained pollen and A. kuenhiella eggs enables the development of coccinellids E. connexa, H. axyridis and O. v-nigrum under laboratory conditions, since the insects completed their biological cycle and originated adults with good reproductive performance.

  20. The application of computer image analysis in life sciences and environmental engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, R.; Lewicki, A.; Przybył, K.; Zaborowicz, M.; Koszela, K.; Boniecki, P.; Mueller, W.; Raba, B.

    2014-04-01

    The main aim of the article was to present research on the application of computer image analysis in Life Science and Environmental Engineering. The authors used different methods of computer image analysis in developing of an innovative biotest in modern biomonitoring of water quality. Created tools were based on live organisms such as bioindicators Lemna minor L. and Hydra vulgaris Pallas as well as computer image analysis method in the assessment of negatives reactions during the exposition of the organisms to selected water toxicants. All of these methods belong to acute toxicity tests and are particularly essential in ecotoxicological assessment of water pollutants. Developed bioassays can be used not only in scientific research but are also applicable in environmental engineering and agriculture in the study of adverse effects on water quality of various compounds used in agriculture and industry.

  1. Chaotic diffusion of the Vesta family induced by close encounters with massive asteroids

    CERN Document Server

    Delisle, J -B

    2011-01-01

    We numerically estimate the semi-major axis chaotic diffusion of the Vesta family asteroids induced by close encounters with 11 massive main belt asteroids : (1) Ceres, (2) Pallas, (3) Juno, (4) Vesta, (7) Iris, (10) Hygiea, (15) Eunomia, (19) Fortuna, (324) Bamberga, (532) Herculina, (704) Interamnia. We find that most of the diffusion is due to Ceres and Vesta. By extrapolating our results, we are able to constrain the global effect of close encounters with all the main belt asteroids. A comparison of this drift estimate with the one expected for the Yarkovsky effect shows that for asteroids whose diameter is larger than about 40 km, close encounters dominate the Yarkovsky effect. Overall, our findings confirm the standard scenario for the history of the Vesta family.

  2. Herschel celestial calibration sources: Four large main-belt asteroids as prime flux calibrators for the far-IR/sub-mm range

    CERN Document Server

    Mueller, T G; Nielbock, M; Lim, T; Teyssier, D; Olberg, M; Klaas, U; Linz, H; Altieri, B; Pearson, C; Bendo, G; Vilenius, E

    2013-01-01

    Celestial standards play a major role in observational astrophysics. They are needed to characterise the performance of instruments and are paramount for photometric calibration. During the Herschel Calibration Asteroid Preparatory Programme approximately 50 asteroids have been established as far-IR/sub-mm/mm calibrators for Herschel. The selected asteroids fill the flux gap between the sub-mm/mm calibrators Mars, Uranus and Neptune, and the mid-IR bright calibration stars. All three Herschel instruments observed asteroids for various calibration purposes, including pointing tests, absolute flux calibration, relative spectral response function, observing mode validation, and cross-calibration aspects. Here we present newly established models for the four large and well characterized main-belt asteroids (1) Ceres, (2) Pallas, (4) Vesta, and (21) Lutetia which can be considered as new prime flux calibrators. The relevant object-specific properties (size, shape, spin-properties, albedo, thermal properties) are w...

  3. Review of the Distribution of the Family Gobiidae (Pisces in the Bulgarian Danube Tributaries

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    Velislav Y. Zarev

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study aims to give in detailed information on the actual distribution of the species from family Gobiidae in the Bulgarian Danube tributaries. All known literature has been revised and with the new data collected is given complete and actual information on their distribution. In the period 2010-2012 were sampled a total of 41 sites alongside each one of the Bulgarian Danube tributaries. The sampling started from the river mouths to upstream in order to discover what is the southern (upstream distribution of each one goby species. Four goby species were recorded from the tributaries – the round goby (Neogobius melanostomus Pallas, 1814, the monkey goby (Neogobius fluviatilis, the racer goby (Neogobius gymnotrachelus and the tubenose goby (Proterorhinus marmoratus. Further analysis showed preference of mixed substrates and silt in addition of homogenous ones. The occurrence of gobies in the studied tributaries decreased inversely proportional to distance from Danube.

  4. Distribution and abundance of Gobiidae family species larvae in İzmir Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Taylan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this survey, we search about the abundance and distribution of Gobiidae larvae in Izmir Bay between the years 2000-2004. For this purpose, seasonally obtained the ichthyoplankton sam¬ples from 8 stations identified in the inner, middle and outer parts of the bay aboard the K. Piri Reis research vessel. They were shot horizontaly with a Hensen model zooplankton net which has a 200 µm mesh-opening and is 55 cm in diameter. We obtained 1210 larvae/10m³ through¬out the survey and identified 4 species of Gobiidae family. These species; Gobius niger Lin¬naeus, 1758, Gobius paganellus Linnaeus, 1758, Pomatoschistus minutus (Pallas, 1770 and Pomatoschistus microps (KrØyer, 1938, respectively. G. niger was found to be dominant in Izmir Bay.

  5. Auch eine Theorie der Moderne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Rohlf

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Barbara Hahn zeichnet die Wege schreibender Frauen durch 200 Jahre deutsch-jüdische Kulturgeschichte nach. Ausgehend von Paul Celans vieldeutiger Jüdin Pallas Athene, werden dabei stereotype Bilder der „Jüdin“, der „Intellektuellen“ und die scharfe Trennlinie zwischen humanistisch christlicher und jüdischer Tradition zur Diskussion gestellt. Mit Celans Figur schreibt sich gleichzeitig die theoretische Herausforderung in diese Studie ein, nach Ambivalenzen und Dialogen zu fragen, deren Voraussetzungen mit beispielloser Gewalt zerstört wurden. Gestützt auf Archivmaterial und veröffentlichte Texte der von ihr vorgestellten Frauen, spannt Hahn den Bogen von frühen Strategien der Assimilierung bis in die Jahre nach 1945. Das Buch ist keine Überblicksdarstellung, sondern präsentiert einzelne, einander auch überschneidende Konstellationen – intellektuelle Netzwerke, Briefwechsel, intertextuellen Transfer.

  6. Paeonol suppresses chondrosarcoma metastasis through up-regulation of miR-141 by modulating PKCδ and c-Src signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horng, Chi-Ting; Shieh, Po-Chuen; Tan, Tzu-Wei; Yang, Wei-Hung; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2014-07-02

    Chondrosarcoma, a primary malignant bone cancer, has potential for local invasion and distant metastasis, especially to the lungs. Patients diagnosed with it show poor prognosis. Paeonol (2'-hydroxy-4'-methoxyacetophenone), the main active compound of traditional Chinese remedy Paeonia lactiflora Pallas, exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activity; whether paeonol regulates metastatic chondrosarcoma is largely unknown. Here, we find paeonol do not increase apoptosis. By contrast, at non-cytotoxic concentrations, paeonol suppresses migration and invasion of chondrosarcoma cells. We also demonstrate paeonol enhancing miR-141 expression and miR-141 inhibitor reversing paeonol-inhibited cell motility; paeonol also reduces protein kinase C (PKC)d and c-Src kinase activity. Since paeonol inhibits migration and invasion of human chondrosarcoma via up-regulation of miR-141 via PKCd and c-Src pathways, it thus might be a novel anti-metastasis agent for treatment of metastatic chondrosarcoma.

  7. [A NATURAL PLAGUE FOCUS. IN GORNYI ALTAI: FORMATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND FUNCTIONING].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzun, V M; Balakhoiov, S V; Chpanin, E V; Denisov, A V; Mikhailov, E P; Mischenko, A J; Yarygina, M B; Rozhdestvensky, E N; Fomina, L A

    2016-01-01

    The paper gives the results of analyzing the data of long-term studies of the natural focal pattern of plague in the Gornyi Altai natural focus. It describes a wide range of biological processes occurring in the focus and shows the most important patterns of its functioning as a complex multilevel ecological system. The key features of the formation of the focus have been revealed. The plague focus in South-Western Altai has formed relatively, recently, about half a century ago, then it has intensively developed and its enzootic area and the activity of epizootic manifestations have considerably increased. This process is due to the space-time transformations of the basic ecological and population characteristics of Pallas' pika (Ochotoma pallasi), the principal vector of the pathogen of plague and fleas parasitizing the mammal, which is in turn related to the aridization of mountain steppes in South-Western Altai.

  8. Catalogue of ISO LWS observations of asteroids

    CERN Document Server

    Hormuth, Felix

    2009-01-01

    (Abridged) The Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) onboard the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) observed the four large main-belt asteroids (1) Ceres, (2) Pallas, (4) Vesta, and (10) Hygiea multiple times. The photometric and spectroscopic data cover the wavelength range between 43 and 197 um, and are a unique dataset for future investigations and detailed characterisations of these bodies. The standard ISO archive products, produced through the last post-mission LWS pipeline, were still affected by instrument artefacts. Our goal was to provide the best possible data products to exploit the full scientific potential of these observations. We performed a refined reduction of all measurements, corrected for various instrumental effects, and re-calibrated the data. We outline the data reduction process and give an overview of the available data and the quality of the observations. We apply a thermophysical model to the flux measurements to derive far-IR based diameter and albedo values of the asteroids. The measu...

  9. Monoterpene derivatives with anti-allergic activity from red peony root, the root of Paeonia lactiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan-Hong; Zhu, Shu; Ge, Yue-Wei; He, Yu-Min; Kazuma, Kohei; Wang, Zhengtao; Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Komatsu, Katsuko

    2016-01-01

    The methanolic extract and its subfractions from red peony root, the dried roots of Paeonia lactiflora Pallas showed potent antiallergic effects, as inhibition of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated degranulation in rat basophil leukemia (RBL)-2H3 cells. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of 16 monoterpene derivatives, including 3 new compounds, paeoniflorol (1), 4'-hydroxypaeoniflorigenone (2) and 4-epi-albiflorin (3), together with 13 known ones (4-16). The chemical structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical evidences. Among the isolated monoterpene derivatives, nine compounds showed potent anti-allergic effects and compound 1 was the most effective. A primary structure-activity relationship of monoterpene derivatives was discussed.

  10. Culture of Population Inbreed Line of Chinese hamster in Shanxi Medical University%中国地鼠山医群体近交系的培育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘田福

    2003-01-01

    @@ 中国地鼠(Chinese hamster)是黑线仓鼠(Cricetulus barabensis Pallas)的俗称.原产于中国,分布在河北、北京、辽宁、山东、山西、河南、安徽和江苏等地.身体被毛,背部、尾基部背面和四条腿背面的毛为灰褐色、土黄色或黄褐色(毛基部黑色,毛尖褐色),自耳基部到尾部前端的背中央有一条很细的纵行黑毛(从毛根到毛尖全黑),背脊好像隐约有一条黑线故名黑线仓鼠.

  11. Faunistic spider collections in the Museum für Naturkunde Berlin: The collection of Erich Hesse

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    Kielhorn, Karl-Hinrich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The ‘Hesse collection’ of spiders (Araneae and harvestmen (Opiliones in the Museum für Naturkunde Berlin is documented. Biographical notes on Erich Hesse – a former arachnid curator at the museum (1921–1940 – are provided. The ‘Hesse collection’ was actually put together by other workers, and can be broadly divided into two parts. One comes from Bielinek (= Bellinchen on the Polish side of the Oder Valley (West Pommerania; now part of the ‘Unteres Odertal’ National Park. This Bielinek material includes notable records of Heriaeus oblongus Simon, 1918 and Gibbaranea ullrichi (Hahn, 1835. The other part of the collection comes from Colbitz-Letzlinger Heide in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Notable here are Pistius truncatus (Pallas, 1772 and Philodromus buchari Kubcová, 2004; the latter representing the first record of this species for Saxony-Anhalt.

  12. The birds of Araku, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India

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    T.S. Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Avifaunal survey carried out from December 2006 to September 2007 in Araku Valley, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, revealed the presence of a total of 147 species of birds belonging to 43 families. One-hundred-twelve species of birds in Araku Valley were resident breeders, 23 species winter visitors, nine species local migrants, two species passage migrants and one species summer visitor. Many bird species were seen in more than one habitat for nesting, roosting and foraging. The dominant feeding guild of birds was insectivorous. Four globally threatened species, namely, the Purple Wood-Pigeon Columba punicea Blyth, 1842, the Greater Spotted Eagle Aquila clanga Pallas, 1811, the Lesser Kestrel Falco naumanni Fleischer, 1818 and the Pallid Harrier Circus macrourus (S.G. Gmelin, 1770, were recorded during the survey from the area

  13. Revision of Hermodice Kinberg, 1857 (Polychaeta: Amphinomidae

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    Beatriz Yáñez-Rivera

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Hermodice Kinberg, 1857 was established with the species Aphrodita carunculata Pallas, 1766, based on the shape and development of the caruncle. Several species were later described within the genus; however, it is currently regarded as monotypical, with H. carunculata as a widespread species. An evaluation of available type and non-type specimens together with observations of living specimens has allowed the diagnostic features to be refined, and two new features have been included: the number of branchial filaments and the anal lobe. Consequently, in this study we have been able to confirm the differences between Hermodice and Pherecardia Horst, 1886. The type species, H. carunculata, has been redescribed, and H. nigrolineata Baird, 1870 has been re-established. Further, H. formosa (Quatrefages, 1866 has been transferred to Pherecardia, together with H. pennata Treadwell, 1906 and H. distincta Hoagland, 1920.

  14. Attitudes about inclusion by educators and physical educators: effects of participation in an inclusive adapted physical education program

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    Eliane Mauerberg-deCastro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the attitudes about the inclusion of students with disability by professionals in education and health, relative to their experience and training. We compared three groups: 20 teachers and trainees who worked in an adapted physical education program (GI; 75 professionals from the municipal education system of Rio Claro subdivided according to their experience-CGyes e CGno, respectively, with and without experience. We used the inventory adapted by Palla (2001 to assess participants' attitudes and self-concepts. Overall, individuals in the group that participated in the intervention maintained their tendency of being favorable toward inclusion. Teachers in regular school settings in the municipal school system of Rio Claro (São Paulo, Brazil, regardless of their experience with inclusive settings, remain mostly indecisive about the benefits of inclusion.

  15. Breaking the hierarchy - a new cluster selection mechanism for hierarchical clustering methods

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    Zweig Katharina A

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hierarchical clustering methods like Ward's method have been used since decades to understand biological and chemical data sets. In order to get a partition of the data set, it is necessary to choose an optimal level of the hierarchy by a so-called level selection algorithm. In 2005, a new kind of hierarchical clustering method was introduced by Palla et al. that differs in two ways from Ward's method: it can be used on data on which no full similarity matrix is defined and it can produce overlapping clusters, i.e., allow for multiple membership of items in clusters. These features are optimal for biological and chemical data sets but until now no level selection algorithm has been published for this method. Results In this article we provide a general selection scheme, the level independent clustering selection method, called LInCS. With it, clusters can be selected from any level in quadratic time with respect to the number of clusters. Since hierarchically clustered data is not necessarily associated with a similarity measure, the selection is based on a graph theoretic notion of cohesive clusters. We present results of our method on two data sets, a set of drug like molecules and set of protein-protein interaction (PPI data. In both cases the method provides a clustering with very good sensitivity and specificity values according to a given reference clustering. Moreover, we can show for the PPI data set that our graph theoretic cohesiveness measure indeed chooses biologically homogeneous clusters and disregards inhomogeneous ones in most cases. We finally discuss how the method can be generalized to other hierarchical clustering methods to allow for a level independent cluster selection. Conclusion Using our new cluster selection method together with the method by Palla et al. provides a new interesting clustering mechanism that allows to compute overlapping clusters, which is especially valuable for biological and

  16. Auch eine Theorie der Moderne Another Theory of Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Rohlf

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Barbara Hahn zeichnet die Wege schreibender Frauen durch 200 Jahre deutsch-jüdische Kulturgeschichte nach. Ausgehend von Paul Celans vieldeutiger Jüdin Pallas Athene, werden dabei stereotype Bilder der „Jüdin“, der „Intellektuellen“ und die scharfe Trennlinie zwischen humanistisch christlicher und jüdischer Tradition zur Diskussion gestellt. Mit Celans Figur schreibt sich gleichzeitig die theoretische Herausforderung in diese Studie ein, nach Ambivalenzen und Dialogen zu fragen, deren Voraussetzungen mit beispielloser Gewalt zerstört wurden. Gestützt auf Archivmaterial und veröffentlichte Texte der von ihr vorgestellten Frauen, spannt Hahn den Bogen von frühen Strategien der Assimilierung bis in die Jahre nach 1945. Das Buch ist keine Überblicksdarstellung, sondern präsentiert einzelne, einander auch überschneidende Konstellationen – intellektuelle Netzwerke, Briefwechsel, intertextuellen Transfer.Hahn traces the paths of women writers through two hundred years of German-Jewish cultural history. Using Celan’s plurivalent “Pallas Athene” as a starting point, Hahn discusses stereotypical images of “the Jew,” “the Intellectual,” and the sharp division between the humanistic Christian and the Jewish tradition. The character created by Celan functions as a theoretical challenge in this text, asking about feelings of ambivalence and dialogues which could not take place as their premises were destroyed with an unprecedented violence. Based on archival material and biographical texts about the women she uses, Hahn completes the circle between early strategies and assimilation until the post-WWII years. This book does not offer a general overview, but offers individual, overlapping constellations-intellectual networks, letters, and intertextual transfers.

  17. Crystal structure and activating effect on RyRs of AhV_TL-I, a glycosylated thrombin-like enzyme from Agkistrodon halys snake venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fuxing; Shen, Bing; Zhu, Zhongliang; Zhang, Ping; Ji, Yonghua; Niu, Liwen; Li, Xu; Teng, Maikun

    2013-03-01

    A snake venom thrombin-like enzyme (SVTLE) from Agkistrodon halys pallas venom was isolated by means of a two-step chromatographic procedure. The purified enzyme, named AhV_TL-I, showed fibrinogenolytic activity against both the Aα and Bβ chains of bovine fibrinogen. Unlike the other SVTLEs, AhV_TL-I has poor esterolytic activity upon BAEE substrate. The N-terminal sequence of AhV_TL-I was determined to be IIGGDEXNINEHRFLVALYT, and the molecular mass was confirmed to 29389.533 Da by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Its complete cDNA and derived amino acid sequence were obtained by RT-PCR. The crystal structure of AhV_TL-I was determined at a resolution of 1.75 Å. A disaccharide was clearly mapped in the structure, which involved in regulating the esterolytic activity of AhV_TL-I. The presence of the N-glycan deformed the 99-loop, and the resulting steric hindrances hindered the substrates to access the active site. Furthermore, with the carbohydrate moiety, AhV_TL-I could induce mouse thoracic aortic ring contraction with the EC(50) of 147 nmol/L. Besides, the vasoconstrictor effects of AhV_TL-I were also independent of the enzymatic activity. The results of [Ca(2+)](i) measurement showed that the vasoconstrictor effects of AhV_TL-I were attributed to Ca(2+) releasing from Ca(2+) store. Further studies showed that it was related to the activation of ryanodine receptors (RyRs). These offer new insights into the snake SVTLEs functions and provide a novel pathogenesis of A. halys pallas venom.

  18. Refinement of a commercial bench-top relaxin assay for pregnancy diagnosis using urine from domestic and nondomestic felids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Laurie A; Steinetz, Bernard G; Bond, Jennifer B; Lasano, Sally; Swanson, William F

    2008-06-01

    Relaxin, a 6-kDa polypeptide hormone, is excreted in the urine during pregnancy in several mammalian species. A recent study showed that detection of urinary relaxin using a bench-top serum assay (Witness relaxin kit, Synbiotics Corp., San Diego, California 92127, USA) can be diagnostic for pregnancy in domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus), but it is unknown whether the bench-top kit is applicable with urine across felid species. Our objectives were to 1) examine modifications in urine processing to improve kit reliability in pregnant cats, 2) evaluate the impact of concentrating urine via filtration on relaxin detection, 3) assess the effect of sample freezing on relaxin concentrations, and 4) begin quantifying urinary relaxin levels in nondomestic felids. Urine and serum were collected from domestic cats and nondomestic cat species (Pallas' cat, Otocolobus manul; sand cat, Felis margarita; cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus; and lion, Panthera leo) at several times after breeding. Urine samples, subjected to various processing methods, were tested using the bench-top kit, and relaxin levels were later quantified via radioimmunoassay. For domestic cat urine samples, filtration and addition of protein/phosphate buffer improved the consistency of the relaxin kit for early pregnancy diagnosis. Urine freezing caused a slight (approximately 13%) but significant decrease in relaxin concentrations, but frozen-thawed samples still tested positive with the bench-top kit. In nondomestic felids, urinary relaxin immunoreactivity during pregnancy was similar to or higher than that of pregnant domestic cats, suggesting that relaxin is a reliable cross-species marker of pregnancy. Urinary relaxin was detectable using the bench-top kit in pregnant Pallas' cats, but urine samples from other species tested negative, regardless of processing methods. Findings suggest that measurement of urinary relaxin is a promising approach for noninvasive pregnancy diagnosis in exotic felids, but

  19. AhV_aPA-induced vasoconstriction involves the IP₃Rs-mediated Ca²⁺ releasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fuxing; Zou, Zhisong; Niu, Liwen; Li, Xu; Teng, Maikun

    2013-08-01

    AhV_aPA, the acidic PLA₂ purified from Agkistrodon halys pallas venom, was previously reported to possess a strong enzymatic activity and can remarkably induce a further contractile response on the 60 mM K⁺-induced contraction with an EC₅₀ in 369 nM on mouse thoracic aorta rings. In the present study, we found that the p-bromo-phenacyl-bromide (pBPB), which can completely inhibit the enzymatic activity of AhV_aPA, did not significantly reduce the contractile response on vessel rings induced by AhV_aPA, indicating that the vasoconstrictor effects of AhV_aPA are independent of the enzymatic activity. The inhibitor experiments showed that the contractile response induced by AhV_aPA is mainly attributed to the Ca²⁺ releasing from Ca²⁺ store, especially sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Detailed studies showed that the Ca²⁺ release from SR is related to the activation of inositol trisphosphate receptors (IP₃Rs) rather than ryanodine receptors (RyRs). Furthermore, the vasoconstrictor effect could be strongly reduced by pre-incubation with heparin, indicating that the basic amino acid residues on the surface of AhV_aPA may be involved in the interaction between AhV_aPA and the molecular receptors. These findings offer new insights into the functions of snake PLA₂ and provide a novel pathogenesis of A. halys pallas venom. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Home range dynamics of the Tehuantepec Jackrabbit in Oaxaca, Mexico Dinámica del ámbito hogareño de la liebre de Tehuantepec en Oaxaca, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Carrillo-Reyes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Information on the spatial ecology of the Tehuantepec jackrabbit (Lepus flavigularis is important for developing management strategies to preserve it in its habitat. We radio-collared and monitored 60 jackrabbits from May 2006 to April 2008. We estimated annual and seasonal home ranges and core areas by using the fixed-kernel isopleth to 95% and 50% of confidence, respectively. This jackrabbit showed a highly variable seasonal home range: 1.13 ha to 152.61 ha for females and 0.20 ha to 71.87 ha for males. Annual and seasonal home ranges and core areas of females were significantly wider than male home ranges. There was considerable overlap of ranges within and between sexes, with the home range of each jackrabbit overlapping with the ranges of 1 to 46 other individuals. Home range and overlap analysis confirms that the Tehuantepec jackrabbit is a polygamous and non-territorial species. Conservation of savannas and grassy dunes is indispensable to assure the survival of the species.La información sobre la ecología espacial de la liebre de Tehuantepec (Lepus flavigularis es importante para el desarrollo de estrategias de manejo para conservar su hábitat. Se radio-marcaron y monitorearon 60 liebres, desde mayo del 2006 hasta abril del 2008. Se estimó el valor del ámbito hogareño anual y su área núcleo utilizando el método de la isopleta de Kernel fijo con 95% y 50% de confianza, respectivamente. Esta especie de liebre mostró un ámbito hogareño estacional altamente variable: de 1.13 ha a 152.61 ha para las hembras y de 0.20 ha a 71.87 ha para los machos. El ámbito hogareño anual y estacional así como sus áreas núcleo fueron significativamente mayores para las hembras que para los de los machos. Se encontró un traslape considerable de las áreas de actividad entre sexos y entre individuos, cada liebre traslapó su ámbito hogareño con 1 a 46 individuos. El análisis de ámbito hogareño y traslape confirma que la liebre de