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Sample records for lepidota american licorice

  1. Genetic diversity of riperian populations of glycyrrhiza lepidota along the salmon and snake rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glycyrrhiza lepidota Pursh (Fabaceae; American wild licorice), is a nitrogen-fixing, perennial, facultative riparian species present along many dryland rivers in western North America, including the U.S., southern Canada and northern Mexico. Like Glycyrrhiza glabra, common licorice native to Europe,...

  2. cola lepidota

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemistry Dept

    The petroleum ether extract (PEE) revealed the presence of cardiac glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, polyphenols, and reducing sugars and also the absence of alkaloids, tannins, phlobatanins, anthranoids and authraquinones. KEYWORDS: Cola lepidota, Proximate Composition, Minerals, Nutritional and Anti-nutritional.

  3. cola lepidota

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemistry Dept

    100g), iron (11.21+0.32mg/100g) and manganese (0.003+0.12mg/100g). The mineral element concentrations of cobalt, nickel and mercury were not detected in both endocarp and exocarp of cola lepidota. The toxicants composition analysis ...

  4. Licorice Root

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... T U V W X Y Z Licorice Root Share: On This Page Background How Much Do ... This fact sheet provides basic information about licorice root—common names, usefulness and safety, and resources for ...

  5. Antiproliferative and apoptotic activities of Cola lepidota against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The stem bark, seed, roots and leaves of Cola lepidota have been used for various health conditions in Nigeria folk medicine including treatment of cancer related ailments. The study evaluated the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of extracts of the leaves and stem bark on breast cancer (MCF-7) cell line. Powdered ...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1408 - Licorice and licorice derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) (as served) Functional use Baked foods, § 170.3(n)(1) of this chapter 0.05 Flavor enhancer, § 170.3(o... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Licorice and licorice derivatives. 184.1408 Section 184.1408 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  7. Perspective on Biotransformation and De Novo Biosynthesis of Licorice Constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yujia; Lv, Bo; Feng, Xudong; Li, Chun

    2017-12-27

    Licorice, an important herbal medicine, is derived from the dried roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza genus plants. It has been widely used in food, pharmaceutical, tobacco, and cosmetics industries with high economic value. However, overexploitation of licorice resources has severely destroyed the local ecology. Therefore, producing bioactive compounds of licorice through the biotransformation and bioengineering methods is a hot spot in recent years. In this perspective, we comprehensively summarize the biotransformation of licorice constituents into high-value-added derivatives by biocatalysts. Furthermore, successful cases and the strategies for de novo biosynthesizing compounds of licorice in microbes have been summarized. This paper will provide new insights for the further research of licorice.

  8. Activación del crecimiento de plantulas de sietecueros (tibouchin lepidota) por fitohormonas

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Angulo, Hernán Mauricio; Norato Rodríguez, Jesús Antonio; Rojas Gutierrez, Margarita María

    2011-01-01

    Algunas especies arbóreas tropicales en su etapa de plántula pasan por un período de crecimiento lento, que parece estar controlado por un mecanismo fisiológico de regulación
    hormonal. En sietecueros (Tibouchina lepidota (Bnpl.) Baill) se ha observado que diferentes fitohormonas, como las poliaminas, auxinas, giberelinas y citoquininas, estarían involucradas en la regulación de este fenómeno. En plántulas de dos, cuatro y ocho meses de edad de esta especie, la aplicación exógena de...

  9. [Import and export of licorice and its products in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shuai; Wang, Nuo; Yang, Guang; Que, Ling

    2017-06-01

    Licorice is an important harmonic drug which has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine since ancient times. However, with the increasing demand of industrial production, the licorice resources in our country have been reduced rapidly and we have to import licorice resources from Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan consequently. In order to find out the trade flow of licorice resources and evaluate the status of Chinese licorice in the world trade, the trade situation of licorice and its products from 2011 to 2015 May in Chinese customs was investigated and analyzed in this paper. The import and export volumes of licorice were declining; the import and export volumes of licorice were relatively concentrated in international trade, with greater risks of trade; and export quota management was not well executed. As one of the strategic resources of medicine, licorice resources must be based on domestic development, and we should adjust the export quota management from passive quota to active quota management and improve the intrinsic value of licorice resources to establish the international market position of our licorice and control the pricing power in international market. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  10. Activación del crecimiento de Plantulas de sietecueros (Tibouchin lepidota por Fitohormonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Mauricio Romero Angulo

    1996-07-01

    (Tibouchina lepidota (Bnpl. Baill, different plant hormones like polyamines, auxines, gibberellins and citokinins are involved in the regulation of this phenomena. In two, four and eight month old sietecueros seedlings, exogenous applied AlA, KIN, and AG3 , released growth, leading to more leaf and branch formation, as well as height and biomass accumulation increments. The relationship between shoot and root biomass was different among treatments. Concerning with age, the seedling response in the measured parameters was more intensive when seedlings were closer to the natural released time. Phytohormone released growth was not simultaneous in every seedling organ, conversely, depending on the physiological action, different organogenic or morphogenic processes were triggered. Thus, AG3 applied plants were the highest and produced more leaves and branches than any other treatment. AlA applied plants produced the greatest leaf areas and root systems ; KIN applications induced the greatest biomass accumulation.

  11. An antileishmanial chalcone from Chinese licorice roots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, S B; Ming, C; Andersen, L

    1994-01-01

    A bioassay guided fractionation of an extract of Chinese licorice roots led to the isolation of (E)-1-[2,4-dihydroxy-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)phenyl]-3-[4- hydroxy-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl]phenyl-2-propen-1-one, which in vitro showed potent antileishmanial activity. In addition, the novel chalcone (E)-1...

  12. Glycyrrhizic acid toxicity caused by consumption of licorice candy cigars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Christine

    2009-01-01

    A 49-year-old female physician presented with peripheral edema, weight gain and relative hypertension caused by the consumption of licorice candy cigars containing glycyrrhizic acid (GZA) found in natural licorice extract. Although the patient's response to GZA resolved spontaneously, emergency physician awareness of the toxic effects of natural licorice extract may avert symptom progression in early-identified cases. The benefits of natural licorice extract as a flavour enhancer and herbal medicine are recognized worldwide. The Canadian public is likely not generally aware of the toxic potential of GZA, or that it may be present in the following commonly consumed products: black licorice, chewing gum, herbal teas, soft drinks, tobaccos and herbal remedies for cough, stomach ailments and constipation. Emergency physicians should inquire about the consumption of products that may contain natural licorice extract when patients present with unexplained hypertension, hypokalemia, edema, rhabdomyolysis or myoglobinuria.

  13. Propagación vegetativa del Sietecueros [Tibouchina lepidota (Bonpl. Baill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mena Lozano Fany

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Entre las especies de importancia ornamental, nativas en Colombia, se encuentra el Sietecueros [Tibouchina lepidota (Bonpl. Baill], árbol de crecimiento lento que se propaga por semilla. El presente trabajo se realizó con el fin de establecer la metodología adecuada para obtener plantas propagadas vegetativamente a partir de esquejes. El ensayo se llevó a cabo en el invernadero de propagación del proyecto Parque Simón Bolívar, localizado en la Facultad de Agronomía de la Universidad Nacional, sede Bogotá. Para inducir el enraizamiento de los esquejes se emplearon cuatro tratamientos: inmersión en agua destilada, aplicación en la base del esqueje de ANA en polvo, inmersión dee la base del esqueje por dos minutos en soluciones al 10 y 20% de un producto constituido por AIB, ANA y clorhidrato de tiarnina. En la evaluación final realizada a los 85 días de la siembra se obtuvo mayor cantidad, calidad y vigor de los esquejes enraizados en agua destilada; en los tratamientos con los productos comerciales se encontró menor porcentaje de enraizamiento y las dosis altas inhibieron la formación de raíz.

  14. An Unusual Case of Licorice-Induced Hypertensive Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottenbacher, Ronovan; Blehm, Julie

    2015-08-01

    Black licorice induced hypertension is an uncommon cause of hypertension in modern times because newer types of licorice rarely use the active ingredients in licorice root in large quantities. However, certain licorices and candies still contain glycyrrhizic acid (GZA) in sufficient quantities to affect blood pressure and cause other health issues. A 65-year-old woman with previously well controlled hypertension on a single medication presented to the emergency room with acute, symptomatic hypertension with blood pressures running 200s/140s. Despite IV medications, her hypertension remained refractory to treatment. This prompted a hospital admission with treatment using nicardipine in the ICU. Her blood pressure was difficult to control without a short acting antihypertensive medication infusion. She required a seven-day hospitalization (five of which were in the ICU) until her symptoms and hypertension were controlled with a three-drug regimen. Labs were notable for potassium's running on the low side of normal and low levels of both renin (less than 0.6 with normal less than or equal to 0.6-3.0) and aldosterone (1.0 with normal 3-16 ng/dL). Ten days after discharge, she was having symptomatic hypotension and was seen in the clinic. She in fact was eating large amounts of Snaps licorice which uses its original 1930s recipe including licorice granules. Her licorice habit abruptly started six months prior and included a minimum of two to four boxes per day every day. The patient currently is doing well and is down to only two antihypertensive medications at lower doses. She has given up her licorice habit. Natural licorice is extracted from Glycyrrhiza glabra root containing glycyrrhizin or glycyrrhizic acid (GZA). GZA inhibits the type 2 isoenzyme of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11 β -HSD), which prevents local inactivation of cortisol, specifically in the renal collecting tubules. There is increased availability of cortisol to bind to renal

  15. A Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to Assessing Wetland Functions of Prairie Potholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    Soybeans 0 Glycyrrhiza lepidota AmericanLicorice 2 Graminae Grass UK Gratiola neglecta Hedge Hyssop 0 Grindelia sp. Gumweed 1...dominant (northern) and areas where row crops (corn, soybeans ) are grown (southern). The southern PPR is in Land Resource Region M and the northern...Calamagrostis stricta Slimstem Reedgrass 5 Calamovilfa longifolia Prairie Sandreed 5 Calystegia sepium Hedge Bindweed 0 Capsella bursa-pastoris

  16. Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius and Licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Root Extract Combinations Increase Hepatocarcinoma Cell (Hep-G2 Viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Popovich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined cytoactive effects of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius and licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis root extracts were investigated in a hepatocarcinoma cell line (Hep-G2. An isobolographic analysis was utilized to express the possibility of synergistic, additive or antagonistic interaction between the two extracts. Both ginseng and licorice roots are widely utilized in traditional Chinese medicine preparations to treat a variety of ailments. However, the effect of the herbs in combination is currently unknown in cultured Hep-G2 cells. Ginseng (GE and licorice (LE extracts were both able to reduce cell viability. The LC50 values, after 72 h, were found to be 0.64 ± 0.02 mg/mL (GE and 0.53 ± 0.02 mg/mL (LE. An isobologram was plotted, which included five theoretical LC50s calculated, based on the fixed fraction method of combination ginseng to licorice extracts to establish a line of additivity. All combinations of GE to LE (1/5, 1/3, 1/2, 2/3, 4/5 produced an effect on Hep-G2 cell viability but they were all found to be antagonistic. The LC50 of fractions 1/3, 1/2, 2/3 were 23%, 21% and 18% above the theoretical LC50. Lactate dehydrogenase release indicated that as the proportion of GE to LE increased beyond 50%, the influence on membrane permeability increased. Cell-cycle analysis showed a slight but significant arrest at the G1 phase of cell cycle for LE. Both GE and LE reduced Hep-G2 viability independently; however, the combinations of both extracts were found to have an antagonistic effect on cell viability and increased cultured Hep-G2 survival.

  17. Effect of dietary supplementation of licorice extract and a prebiotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jannes

    Abstract. Six hundred Ross 308 male broiler chickens were used to study the effect of licorice extract and the prebiotic, fermacto, on performance, blood metabolites and gastro-intestinal transit time (GTT) of feed in the birds. The birds were fed according to a three phase feeding programme on a starter, grower and finisher ...

  18. Metabolite Profiling and Classification of DNA-Authenticated Licorice Botanicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmler, Charlotte; Anderson, Jeffrey R.; Gauthier, Laura; Lankin, David C.; McAlpine, James B.; Chen, Shao-Nong; Pauli, Guido F.

    2015-01-01

    Raw licorice roots represent heterogeneous materials obtained from mainly three Glycyrrhiza species. G. glabra, G. uralensis, and G. inflata exhibit marked metabolite differences in terms of flavanones (Fs), chalcones (Cs), and other phenolic constituents. The principal objective of this work was to develop complementary chemometric models for the metabolite profiling, classification, and quality control of authenticated licorice. A total of 51 commercial and macroscopically verified samples were DNA authenticated. Principal component analysis and canonical discriminant analysis were performed on 1H NMR spectra and area under the curve values obtained from UHPLC-UV chromatograms, respectively. The developed chemometric models enable the identification and classification of Glycyrrhiza species according to their composition in major Fs, Cs, and species specific phenolic compounds. Further key outcomes demonstrated that DNA authentication combined with chemometric analyses enabled the characterization of mixtures, hybrids, and species outliers. This study provides a new foundation for the botanical and chemical authentication, classification, and metabolomic characterization of crude licorice botanicals and derived materials. Collectively, the proposed methods offer a comprehensive approach for the quality control of licorice as one of the most widely used botanical dietary supplements. PMID:26244884

  19. Efficient utilization of licorice root by alkaline extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Hirokazu; Miyoshi, Shozo; Araho, Daisuke; Kanamoto, Taisei; Terakubo, Shigemi; Nakashima, Hideki; Tsuda, Tadashi; Sunaga, Katsuyoshi; Amano, Shigeru; Ohkoshi, Emika; Sakagami, Hiroshi; Satoh, Kazue; Yamamoto, Masaji

    2014-01-01

    Compared to studies of water extracts of plants, those utilising alkaline extracts are limited. Both water and alkaline extracts from licorice root were compared regarding their biological activities. Licorice root was successively extracted first with water or alkaline solution (pH 9 or 12), and the alkaline (pH 12.0) extract was further separated into 50% ethanol-soluble and -insoluble fractions. Viable cell number was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method. Antibacterial activity against Porphyromonas gingivalis 381 was determined by turbidity assay. Cytochrome P-450 (CYP)3A4 activity was measured by β-hydroxylation of testosterone using human recombinant CYP3A4. Radical intensity of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals was determined by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Alkaline extraction yielded slightly higher amounts of dried materials compared to water extraction. Alkaline extract showed higher anti-HIV and antibacterial activities, and similar magnitudes of CYP3A4 inhibitory and superoxide and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activities, compared to water extract. When alkaline extract was fractionated by 50% ethanol, anti-HIV activity was recovered from the insoluble fraction representing approximately 3% of the alkaline extract, whereas antibacterial activity was concentrated in the soluble fraction rich in glycyrrhizid acid, flavanones and chalcones. All extracts and sub-fractions led to bimodal hormetic dose-response (maximum hormetic response=238%) on the bacterial growth. The present study demonstrated the superiority of alkaline extraction over water extraction for preparing anti-HIV and antibacterial agents at higher yield from licorice root. Copyright © 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of the Antifungal effect of Licorice Root, Althoca Officinalis Extracts and Ketoconazole on Malassezia Furfur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Motaharinia

    2011-12-01

    Conclusion: The present study showed that Althoca officinalis flower extract compared with the Althoca officinalis root and licorice root extracts have a higher antifungal effect. Also ketoconazole, compared with these extracts, have a high antifungal effect on Malassezia furfur.

  1. Structures of New Phenolics Isolated from Licorice, and the Effectiveness of Licorice Phenolics on Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eerdunbayaer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Licorice, which is the underground part of Glycyrrhiza species, has been used widely in Asian and Western countries as a traditional medicine and as a food additive. Our continuous investigation on the constituents of roots and stolons of Glycyrrhiza uralensis led to the isolation of two new phenolics, in addition to 14 known compounds. Structural studies including spectroscopic and simple chemical derivatizations revealed that both of the new compounds had 2-aryl-3-methylbenzofuran structures. An examination of the effectiveness of licorice phenolics obtained in this study on vancomycin-resistant strains Enterococcus faecium FN-1 and Enterococcus faecalis NCTC12201 revealed that licoricidin showed the most potent antibacterial effects against both of E. faecalis and E. faecium with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of 1.9 × 10−5 M. 8-(γ,γ-Dimethylallyl-wighteone, isoangustone A, 3'-(γ,γ-dimethylallyl-kievitone, glyasperin C, and one of the new 3-methyl-2-phenylbenzofuran named neoglycybenzofuran also showed potent anti-vancomycin-resistant Enterococci effects (MIC 1.9 × 10−5–4.5 × 10−5 M for E. faecium and E. faecalis. The HPLC condition for simultaneous detection of the phenolics in the extract was investigated to assess the quality control of the natural antibacterial resource, and quantitative estimation of several major phenolics in the extract with the established HPLC condition was also performed. The results showed individual contents of 0.08%–0.57% w/w of EtOAc extract for the major phenolics in the materials examined.

  2. Influence of Herbal Complexes Containing Licorice on Potassium Levels: A Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WooSang Jung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To observe the influence of these complexes on potassium levels in a clinical setting, we investigated the influence of herbal complexes containing licorice on potassium levels. We retrospectively examined the medical records of patients treated with herbal complexes containing licorice from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2010. We recorded the changes in the levels of potassium, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen and examined the differences between before and after herbal complexes intake using a paired t-test. In addition, we investigated the prevalence of hypokalemia among these patients and reviewed such patients. We identified 360 patients who did not show significant changes in the levels of potassium and creatinine (P=0.815, 0.289. We observed hypokalemia in 6 patients. However, in 5 patients, the hypokalemia did not appear to be related to the licorice. Thus, we could suggest that herbal complexes containing licorice do not significantly influence the potassium levels in routine clinical herbal therapies. However, we propose that follow-up examination for potassium levels is required to prevent any unpredictable side effects of administration of licorice in routine herbal medicine care.

  3. Structures of Two New Flavonoids and Effects of Licorice Phenolics on Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eerdunbayaer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Since our previous study revealed that several licorice phenolics have antibacterial effects on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, and suppressive effects on the oxacillin resistance of MRSA, we further investigated effectiveness of licorice constituents on vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE bacteria, and purified 32 phenolic compounds. Two flavonoids among them were characterized structurally, and identified their structures as demethylglycyrol (31 and 5,7-di-O-methylluteone (32, respectively. Examination of antibacterial effects of licorice phenolics showed that 3-arylcoumarins such as licoarylcoumarin (9 and glycycoumarin (26, and 2-arylcoumarones such as gancaonin I (17, have moderate to potent antibacterial effects on the VRE strains used in this study.

  4. The application of macroporous resins in the separation of licorice flavonoids and glycyrrhizic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Boqiang; Liu, Jie; Li, Huan; Li, Lei; Lee, Frank S C; Wang, Xiaoru

    2005-09-30

    Glycyrrhizic acid (GA) and licorice flavonoids (LF) are the two classes of bioactive components in licorice with known pharmacological effects. But long-term excessive intake of GA may cause sodium retention and hypertension. In this study, the performance and adsorption characteristics of four widely used macroporous resins for the separation of deglycyrrhizinated, flavonoids enriched licorice has been critically evaluated. The sorption and desorption properties of LF and GA on macroporous resins including XDA-1, LSA-10, D101 and LSA-20 have been compared. The adsorption capacity was found to depend strongly on the pH of the feed solution. XDA-1 offers much higher adsorption capacity for GA and LF than other resins, and its adsorption data fit the best to the Freundlich isotherm. XDA-1 also shows much higher adsorption affinity towards LF than that of GA based on calculated results from the measured adsorption isotherms. Dynamic adsorption and desorption experiments have been carried out on a XDA-1 resin packed column to obtain optimal parameters for separating GA and LF. An enriched LF extract (about 21.9% purity) free of GA, and an enriched GA extract with 66% purity can be separated from crude licorice extract in one run.

  5. Prenylated isoflavonoids from soya and licorice : analysis, induction and in vitro estrogenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, R.

    2011-01-01


    Prenylatedisoflavonoids are found in large amountsin soya bean (Glycine max) germinated under stress and in licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra). Prenylation of isoflavonoids has been associated with modification of theirestrogenic activity.
    The aims of this thesis were (1) to provide a

  6. In vitro antimycobacterial and antilegionella activity of licochalcone A from Chinese licorice roots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Møller, Alice; Chen, Ming; Fuursted, Kurt

    2002-01-01

    Licochalcone A, extracted and purified from Chinese licorice roots, showed in vitro inhibitory effect on human pathogenic Mycobacteria species and Legionella species. M. tuberculosis, M. bovis and BCG were inhibited by < 20 mg/l licochalcone A, whereas all non- M. tuberculosis complex species wer...

  7. The immunomodulatory activities of licorice polysaccharides (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.) in CT 26 tumor-bearing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayeka, Peter Amwoga; Bian, YuHong; Githaiga, Peter Mwitari; Zhao, Ying

    2017-12-15

    The increasing use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has kindled the need for scientific evaluation of the mechanism of action of CAMs. Although, licorice, a common ingredient in many Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has attracted great attention for its antitumor and immunomodulatory activities, the mechanism of action of its polysaccharides is still unclear. Here we report the immunomodulatory activity of licorice polysaccharides in vivo. The differential anticancer activities of licorice polysaccharides by tumorigenesis and immunomodulation was evaluated in vivo. Six weeks old, 120 CT-26 tumor bearing BALB/c mice, weighing 20 ± 2 g were used. They were randomly divided into six groups, three groups receiving high molecular weight (fraction A), low molecular weight (fraction B) polysaccharides and crude extract (fraction C); positive, negative and normal groups receiving cytoxin, saline and normal diet respectively. Weight of mice and tumors was determined and tumorigenicity assay calculated to determine the anticancer effects. Immunomodulatory potential was determined by immune organ indices, immune cell population and serum cytokine levels using immune organ weight and index, flow cytometry and cytokine/chemokine bead panel kit respectively. Licorice polysaccharides exhibited immunomodulatory activities in CT 26 tumor bearing BALB/c mice. The polysaccharides significantly suppressed tumor growth and increased immune organ index. Furthermore, the immunomodulatory effect was evident with activation of CD4 + and CD8 + immune cells population. The polysaccharides also affected the production of various cytokines, by increasing IL 2, IL 6, IL 7 levels and a decreasing TNFα levels. In summary, licorice polysaccharide especially of low molecular weight exhibit anticancer and immunomodulatory activities by suppressing tumor growth and improving general health of mice. They also augment the thymus/spleen index and population of T lymphocytes

  8. Is glycyrrhizin sensitivity increased in anorexia nervosa and should licorice be avoided? Case report and review of the literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støving, René K; Lingqvist, Linnéa E; Bonde, Rasmus K

    2011-01-01

    low daily dose of licorice suggests high glycyrrhizin sensitivity. CONCLUSION: Patients with anorexia nervosa not only have decreased food intake but also selective and sometimes bizarre eating habits that, in association with increased sensitivity to glycyrrhizin, may cause severe hypokalemia....

  9. Effect of gamma irradiation on microbiological, chemical and sensory characteristics of licorice extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Adawi, M. A.; Al-Kaed, A.; Al-Bachir, M.

    2002-08-01

    Extract of licorice roots were exposed to doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy in a 60 C package irradiator. Irradiated and unirradiated samples were stored at room temperatures. Microbial population on extract, chemical changes and sensory properties of produced juice of licorice were evaluated after 0 and 12 months or storage. The results indicated that gamma irradiation reduced the counts of microorganisms. D 10 of total count and klebsiella spp. were about 14 and 0.7 kGy respectively. The mineral ions (Na, Ca and K) concentration in juice produced from irradiated extract were lower than non-irradiated ones. Glycyrrhetinic acid and maltose concentration in juice produced from irradiated extract were higher than non-irradiated ones. Sensory evaluation indicated that no significant differences (P> 0.05) were fond between juice produced from irradiated and unirradiated extract in color, taste, or odor. (author)

  10. Optimization of microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and soxhlet extraction of phenolic compound from licorice root

    OpenAIRE

    Karami, Zohreh; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra; Mirzaee, Habib Allah; Khomeiri, Morteza; Mahoonak, Alireza Sadeghi; Aydani, Emad

    2014-01-01

    In present study, response surface methodology was used to optimize extraction condition of phenolic compounds from licorice root by microwave application. Investigated factors were solvent (ethanol 80 %, methanol 80 % and water), liquid/solid ratio (10:1–25:1) and time (2–6 min). Experiments were designed according to the central composite rotatable design. The results showed that extraction conditions had significant effect on the extraction yield of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capac...

  11. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Licorice and Roasted Licorice Extracts on TPA-Induced Acute Inflammation and Collagen-Induced Arthritis in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Rim Kim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory activity of licorice (LE and roated licorice (rLE extracts determined in the murine phorbol ester-induced acute inflammation model and collagen-induced arthritis (CIA model of human rheumatoid arthritis. rLE possessed greater activity than LE in inhibiting phorbol ester-induced ear edema. Oral administration of LE or rLE reduced clinical arthritis score, paw swelling, and histopathological changes in a murine CIA. LE and rLE decreased the levels of proinflammatory cytokines in serum and matrix metalloproteinase-3 expression in the joints. Cell proliferation and cytokine secretion in response to type II collagen or lipopolysaccharide stimulation were suppressed in spleen cells from LE or rLE-treated CIA mice. Furthermore, LE and rLE treatment prevented oxidative damages in liver and kidney tissues of CIA mice. Taken together, LE and rLE have benefits in protecting against both acute inflammation and chronic inflammatory conditions including rheumatoid arthritis. rLE may inhibit the acute inflammation more potently than LE.

  12. Species-specific Standardisation of Licorice by Metabolomic Profiling of Flavanones and Chalcones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmler, Charlotte; Jones, Tristesse; Anderson, Jeffrey R.; Nikolić, Dejan C.; van Breemen, Richard B.; Soejarto, Djaja D.; Chen, Shao-Nong; Pauli, Guido F.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Major phenolics from licorice roots (Glycyrrhiza sp.) are glycosides of the flavanone liquiritigenin (F) and its 2′-hydroxychalcone isomer, isoliquiritigenin (C). As the F and C contents fluctuate between batches of licorice, both quality control and standardisation of its preparations become complex tasks. Objective To characterise the F and C metabolome in extracts from Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. ex DC. by addressing their composition in major F–C pairs and defining the total F:C proportion. Material and methods Three types of extracts from DNA-authenticated samples were analysed by a validated UHPLC/UV method to quantify major F and C glycosides. Each extract was characterised by the identity of major F–C pairs and the proportion of Fs among all quantified Fs:Cs. Results The F and C compositions and proportions were found to be constant for all extracts from a Glycyrrhiza species. All G. uralensis extracts contained up to 2.5 more Fs than G. glabra extracts. Major F–C pairs were B-ring glycosidated in G. uralensis, and A-/B-ring apiosyl-glucosidated in the G. glabra extracts. The F:C proportion was found to be linked to the glycosidation site: the more B-ring F-C glycosides were present, the higher was the final F:C proportion in the extract. These results enable the chemical differentiation of extracts from G. uralensis and G. glabra, which are characterised by total F:C proportions of 8.37:1.63 and 7.18:2.82, respectively. Conclusion Extracts from G. glabra and G. uralensis can be differentiated by their respective F and C compositions and proportions, which are both useful for further standardisation of licorice botanicals. PMID:25859589

  13. Dietary administration of the licorice flavonoid isoliquiritigenin deters the growth of MCF-7 cells overexpressing aromatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lan; Gho, Wai M; Chan, Franky L; Chen, Shiuan; Leung, Lai K

    2009-03-01

    Licorice is the sweet-tasting rhizomes of a bean plant and is quite commonly used in Western countries for culinary purposes, while it is a medicinal herb in China. Many flavonoids have been isolated from licorice, and their pharmacological properties may be applicable in preventive medicine. Overexposure to estrogen has been implicated in the etiology of breast cancer, and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 19 enzyme, or aromatase, catalyzes the rate-limiting reaction. Phytocompounds that are able to inhibit this enzyme may potentially suppress breast cancer development. In the present study the licorice flavonoid isoliquiritigenin (ILN) was shown to be an aromatase inhibitor in recombinant protein and MCF-7 cells stably transfected with CYP19 (MCF-7aro). ILN displayed a K(i) value of around 3 muM, and it also blocked the MCF-7aro cell growth pertaining to the enzyme activity in vitro. Subsequently, the compound administered in diet was given to ovariectomized athymic mice transplanted with MCF-7aro cells. This mouse model is widely accepted for studying postmenopausal breast cancer. The phytochemical significantly deterred the xenograft growth without affecting the body weight. Subsequently, the flavonoid's effect on CYP19 transcriptional control in vitro was also investigated. At the mRNA level, ILN could also suppress the expression in wild-type MCF-7 cells. Reporter gene assay and real-time PCR verified that the transactivity of CYP19 driven by promoters I.3 and II was suppressed in these cells. Deactivation of C/EBP could be the underlying molecular mechanism. Our study demonstrated that ILN was an inhibitor of aromatase and a potential chemopreventive agent against breast cancer.

  14. Standardization of Licorice and TCM Formulations Using Eastern Blot Fingerprinting Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Shoyama, Yukihiro

    2013-01-01

    To prepare the antiglycyrrhizin (GC) monoclonal antibody (MAb), GC was treated with NaIO4 resulting in aldehyde which can be combined with carrier protein. An antigen conjugate was performed by a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization TOF mass spectrometry to determine the hapten numbers in the conjugate. Anti-GC MAb was prepared from a hybridoma which was fixed from the spleen cells producing anti-GC MAb and the myeloma cells after immunization. The TCM and licorice extract were develop...

  15. Standardization of Licorice and TCM Formulations Using Eastern Blot Fingerprinting Analysis

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    Yukihiro Shoyama

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To prepare the antiglycyrrhizin (GC monoclonal antibody (MAb, GC was treated with NaIO4 resulting in aldehyde which can be combined with carrier protein. An antigen conjugate was performed by a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization TOF mass spectrometry to determine the hapten numbers in the conjugate. Anti-GC MAb was prepared from a hybridoma which was fixed from the spleen cells producing anti-GC MAb and the myeloma cells after immunization. The TCM and licorice extract were developed by TLC and blotted to a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF membrane. The membrane was treated by NaIO4 and protein, enzyme labeled secondary MAb, and finally substrate was added. Clear spot appeared on PVDF membrane identifying GC against a background containing large amount of impurities. In eastern blotting, the GC molecule was divided into two functions. The aglycone part is recognized as an epitope and the sugar moiety can be combined to membrane. The specific reactivity of sugar moiety in the GC molecule against anti-GC MAb might be modified by the NaIO4 treatment on the membrane because glycyrrhetic acid 3-O-glucuronide can be stained although the cross-reactivity is only 4.3%. Eastern blotting for GC can not only apply for the standardization of licorice and TCM, but also it can open for the other bioactive products.

  16. Optimization of microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and soxhlet extraction of phenolic compound from licorice root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Zohreh; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra; Mirzaee, Habib Allah; Khomeiri, Morteza; Mahoonak, Alireza Sadeghi; Aydani, Emad

    2015-06-01

    In present study, response surface methodology was used to optimize extraction condition of phenolic compounds from licorice root by microwave application. Investigated factors were solvent (ethanol 80 %, methanol 80 % and water), liquid/solid ratio (10:1-25:1) and time (2-6 min). Experiments were designed according to the central composite rotatable design. The results showed that extraction conditions had significant effect on the extraction yield of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacities. Optimal condition in microwave assisted method were ethanol 80 % as solvent, extraction time of 5-6 min and liquid/solid ratio of 12.7/1. Results were compared with those obtained by soxhlet extraction. In soxhlet extraction, Optimum conditions were extraction time of 6 h for ethanol 80 % as solvent. Value of phenolic compounds and extraction yield of licorice root in microwave assisted (MAE), and soxhlet were 47.47 mg/g and 16.38 %, 41.709 mg/g and 14.49 %, respectively. These results implied that MAE was more efficient extracting method than soxhlet.

  17. Metabolic routes along digestive system of licorice: multicomponent sequential metabolism method in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Haiyu; Liu, Yang; Dong, Honghuan; Lv, Beiran; Fang, Min; Zhao, Huihui

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted to establish the multicomponent sequential metabolism (MSM) method based on comparative analysis along the digestive system following oral administration of licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., leguminosae), a traditional Chinese medicine widely used for harmonizing other ingredients in a formulae. The licorice water extract (LWE) dissolved in Krebs-Ringer buffer solution (1 g/mL) was used to carry out the experiments and the comparative analysis was performed using HPLC and LC-MS/MS methods. In vitro incubation, in situ closed-loop and in vivo blood sampling were used to measure the LWE metabolic profile along the digestive system. The incubation experiment showed that the LWE was basically stable in digestive juice. A comparative analysis presented the metabolic profile of each prototype and its corresponding metabolites then. Liver was the major metabolic organ for LWE, and the metabolism by the intestinal flora and gut wall was also an important part of the process. The MSM method was practical and could be a potential method to describe the metabolic routes of multiple components before absorption into the systemic blood stream. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Quality enhancement in the Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicas) fillets stored at 4°C by chitosan coating incorporated with citric acid or licorice extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xujian; Chen, Shengjun; Liu, Guangming; Yang, Qiuming

    2014-11-01

    The preserving effects of chitosan, chitosan and citric acid, chitosan and licorice extract on fresh Japanese sea bass fillets stored at 4 °C for 12 days were studied. Results showed that citric acid or licorice extract can enhance the preserving function of chitosan significantly by retarding lipid oxidation and inhibiting microbial growth as reflected in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and total plate count, respectively. Both total volatile basic nitrogen values and sensory scores indicated chitosan and citric acid or licorice extract can significantly reduce the quality loss and extend the shelf life of Japanese sea bass fish fillets during refrigerated storage. Citric acid or licorice extract with chitosan could thus be applied in the seafood industry to enhance quality of fish fillets as natural preservatives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Manipulation of Probiotics Fermentation of Yogurt by Cinnamon and Licorice: Effects on Yogurt Formation and Inhibition of Helicobacter Pylori Growth in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    S. Behrad; M.Y. Yusof; K. L. Goh; A.S. Baba

    2009-01-01

    Probiotic bacteria especially Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium exert suppressive effect on Helicobacter pylori. Cinnamon and licorice have been traditionally used for the treatment of gastric ulcer. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of herbs on yogurt fermentation, the level of probiotic bacteria in yogurt during 28 days storage and the effect of herbal yogurt on the growth of H. pylori in vitro. Cinnamon or licorice was mixed with milk and the mixture was ferme...

  20. Comparative metabolomics analysis for the compatibility and incompatibility of kansui and licorice with different ratios by UHPLC-QTOF/MS and multivariate data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Juan; Pu, Zong-Jin; Kai, Jun; Kang, An; Tang, Yu-Ping; Shang, Li-Li; Zhou, Gui-Sheng; Zhu, Zhen-Hua; Shang, Er-Xin; Li, Shao-Ping; Cao, Yu-Jie; Tao, Wei-Wei; Su, Shu-Lan; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Huiping; Qian, Da-Wei; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2017-07-01

    Kansui, the root of Euphorbia kansui T.N. Liou ex T.P. Wang (Euphorbiaceae), is a well-known poisonous traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, many monographs of TCM indicated that it cannot be co-used with licorice, as kansui-licorice is a typical "eighteen incompatible" medicaments. Our previous studies have indicated that kansui was effective in treating malignant pleural effusion (MPE), and the efficacy could be weakened by the co-use of licorice, even causing serious toxicity at the given ratio. Nevertheless, the actual mechanisms of their dosage-toxicity-efficacy relationship need to be well clarified. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of individual and combined use of kansui and licorice on MPE rats, and explain the underlying mechanisms from a metabolomic perspective. Urine samples were analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF/MS). Partial least-squares discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) models were built to evaluate the interaction between kansui and licorice. Seven potential biomarkers contribute to the separation of model group and control group were tentatively identified. And selenoamino acid metabolism and nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism with the impact-value 0.31 and 0.24, respectively, were filtered out as the most important metabolic pathways. Kansui and kansui-licorice at a ratio of 4:1 can treat MPE rats by adjusting abnormal metabolic pathways to the normal state, while it may have opposite result with kansui-licorice 1:4. The different influences to the two metabolic pathways may partially explain the dosage-toxicity-efficacy relationship of kansui-licorice with different ratios. The results could offer valuable insights into the compatibility property changes for the two herbs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of adjunctive low-dose doxycycline and licorice therapy on gingival crevicular fluid matrix metalloproteinase-8 levels in chronic periodontitis

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    Shirin Zahra Farhad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study compared the effect of adjunctive low dose doxycycline and licorice on gingival crevicular fluid (GCF matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8 levels in patients with chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: In this in vivo, experimental study 39 patients with mild to moderate chronic periodontitis were selected. Samples of GCF were collected from three deepest pockets and MMP-8 concentration was measured. Patients were divided into three groups (n = 13. Groups were treated with doxycycline, licorice and placebo. Sampling and measurement of MMP-8 was repeated after 6 weeks. Data was analyzed by t-paired and ANOVA test. P < 0.001 was considered significant. Results: The decrease in mean of MMP-8 concentration was higher in doxycycline and licorice group in comparison with the placebo group and the difference was statistically significant (P value < 0.001. The decrease in mean of MMP-8 concentration was higher in licorice group than doxycycline group, but the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The present study showed that licorice extract can prevent the production of MMPs by host cells and can be as useful as antibiotics like doxycycline to cure periodontal and other inflammatory diseases. It must be added that no side-effects were observed in usage of licorice extract.

  2. The effect of gamma irradiation on the microbial load, mineral concentration and sensory characteristics of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bachir, M.; Lahham, G.

    2001-10-01

    Ground licorice roots were exposed to 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy of gamma radiation in a 60 Co source. Irradiated and non-irradiated samples were stored at room temperature. Microbial population, viscosity, concentration of some minerals and sensory properties of the extract were evaluated after 0 and 12 months of storage. The results indicated that, immediately after irradiation, used doses reduced the microbial count and D 10 was at about 2 kGy. No effect was observed in total dissolved solids in the extract of licorice roots. Glycyrrhizinic acid concentration in extract and viscosity of suspension produced from irradiated roots were lower than in non-irradiated ones. Sensory evaluation indicated that no significant differences (P + , Ca ++ and K + ) concentration in extract produced from irradiated roots were lower than in non-irradiated ones, and no significant differences (P< 0.05) were found in viscosity between suspension of irradiated and non-irradiated roots. (author)

  3. Evaluation of Estrogenic Activity of Licorice Species in Comparison with Hops Used in Botanicals for Menopausal Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Simmler, Charlotte; Yuan, Yang; Anderson, Jeffrey R.; Chen, Shao-Nong; Nikolić, Dejan; Dietz, Birgit M.; Pauli, Guido F.; van Breemen, Richard B.; Bolton, Judy L.

    2013-01-01

    The increased cancer risk associated with hormone therapies has encouraged many women to seek non-hormonal alternatives including botanical supplements such as hops (Humulus lupulus) and licorice (Glycyrrhiza spec.) to manage menopausal symptoms. Previous studies have shown estrogenic properties for hops, likely due to the presence of 8-prenylnarigenin, and chemopreventive effects mainly attributed to xanthohumol. Similarly, a combination of estrogenic and chemopreventive properties has been reported for various Glycyrrhiza species. The major goal of the current study was to evaluate the potential estrogenic effects of three licorice species (Glycyrrhiza glabra, G. uralensis, and G. inflata) in comparison with hops. Extracts of Glycyrrhiza species and spent hops induced estrogen responsive alkaline phosphatase activity in endometrial cancer cells, estrogen responsive element (ERE)-luciferase in MCF-7 cells, and Tff1 mRNA in T47D cells. The estrogenic activity decreased in the order H. lupulus > G. uralensis > G. inflata > G. glabra. Liquiritigenin was found to be the principle phytoestrogen of the licorice extracts; however, it exhibited lower estrogenic effects compared to 8-prenylnaringenin in functional assays. Isoliquiritigenin, the precursor chalcone of liquiritigenin, demonstrated significant estrogenic activities while xanthohumol, a metabolic precursor of 8-prenylnaringenin, was not estrogenic. Liquiritigenin showed ERβ selectivity in competitive binding assay and isoliquiritigenin was equipotent for ER subtypes. The estrogenic activity of isoliquiritigenin could be the result of its cyclization to liquiritigenin under physiological conditions. 8-Prenylnaringenin had nanomolar estrogenic potency without ER selectivity while xanthohumol did not bind ERs. These data demonstrated that Glycyrrhiza species with different contents of liquiritigenin have various levels of estrogenic activities, suggesting the importance of precise labeling of botanical

  4. Evaluation of estrogenic activity of licorice species in comparison with hops used in botanicals for menopausal symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atieh Hajirahimkhan

    Full Text Available The increased cancer risk associated with hormone therapies has encouraged many women to seek non-hormonal alternatives including botanical supplements such as hops (Humulus lupulus and licorice (Glycyrrhiza spec. to manage menopausal symptoms. Previous studies have shown estrogenic properties for hops, likely due to the presence of 8-prenylnarigenin, and chemopreventive effects mainly attributed to xanthohumol. Similarly, a combination of estrogenic and chemopreventive properties has been reported for various Glycyrrhiza species. The major goal of the current study was to evaluate the potential estrogenic effects of three licorice species (Glycyrrhiza glabra, G. uralensis, and G. inflata in comparison with hops. Extracts of Glycyrrhiza species and spent hops induced estrogen responsive alkaline phosphatase activity in endometrial cancer cells, estrogen responsive element (ERE-luciferase in MCF-7 cells, and Tff1 mRNA in T47D cells. The estrogenic activity decreased in the order H. lupulus > G. uralensis > G. inflata > G. glabra. Liquiritigenin was found to be the principle phytoestrogen of the licorice extracts; however, it exhibited lower estrogenic effects compared to 8-prenylnaringenin in functional assays. Isoliquiritigenin, the precursor chalcone of liquiritigenin, demonstrated significant estrogenic activities while xanthohumol, a metabolic precursor of 8-prenylnaringenin, was not estrogenic. Liquiritigenin showed ERβ selectivity in competitive binding assay and isoliquiritigenin was equipotent for ER subtypes. The estrogenic activity of isoliquiritigenin could be the result of its cyclization to liquiritigenin under physiological conditions. 8-Prenylnaringenin had nanomolar estrogenic potency without ER selectivity while xanthohumol did not bind ERs. These data demonstrated that Glycyrrhiza species with different contents of liquiritigenin have various levels of estrogenic activities, suggesting the importance of precise labeling of

  5. Evaluation of estrogenic activity of licorice species in comparison with hops used in botanicals for menopausal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Simmler, Charlotte; Yuan, Yang; Anderson, Jeffrey R; Chen, Shao-Nong; Nikolić, Dejan; Dietz, Birgit M; Pauli, Guido F; van Breemen, Richard B; Bolton, Judy L

    2013-01-01

    The increased cancer risk associated with hormone therapies has encouraged many women to seek non-hormonal alternatives including botanical supplements such as hops (Humulus lupulus) and licorice (Glycyrrhiza spec.) to manage menopausal symptoms. Previous studies have shown estrogenic properties for hops, likely due to the presence of 8-prenylnarigenin, and chemopreventive effects mainly attributed to xanthohumol. Similarly, a combination of estrogenic and chemopreventive properties has been reported for various Glycyrrhiza species. The major goal of the current study was to evaluate the potential estrogenic effects of three licorice species (Glycyrrhiza glabra, G. uralensis, and G. inflata) in comparison with hops. Extracts of Glycyrrhiza species and spent hops induced estrogen responsive alkaline phosphatase activity in endometrial cancer cells, estrogen responsive element (ERE)-luciferase in MCF-7 cells, and Tff1 mRNA in T47D cells. The estrogenic activity decreased in the order H. lupulus > G. uralensis > G. inflata > G. glabra. Liquiritigenin was found to be the principle phytoestrogen of the licorice extracts; however, it exhibited lower estrogenic effects compared to 8-prenylnaringenin in functional assays. Isoliquiritigenin, the precursor chalcone of liquiritigenin, demonstrated significant estrogenic activities while xanthohumol, a metabolic precursor of 8-prenylnaringenin, was not estrogenic. Liquiritigenin showed ERβ selectivity in competitive binding assay and isoliquiritigenin was equipotent for ER subtypes. The estrogenic activity of isoliquiritigenin could be the result of its cyclization to liquiritigenin under physiological conditions. 8-Prenylnaringenin had nanomolar estrogenic potency without ER selectivity while xanthohumol did not bind ERs. These data demonstrated that Glycyrrhiza species with different contents of liquiritigenin have various levels of estrogenic activities, suggesting the importance of precise labeling of botanical

  6. Effect of Aqueous and Alcoholic Licorice (Glycyrrhiza Glabra) Root Extract Against Streptococcus Mutans and Lactobacillus Acidophilus in Comparison to Chlorhexidine: An In Vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajagannanavar, Sunil Lingaraj; Battur, Hemant; Shamarao, Supreetha; Sivakumar, Vivek; Patil, Pavan Uday; Shanavas, P

    2014-01-01

    Background: Glycyrrhiza (licorice) an herb, which has medicinal value and was used in ancient times as a remedy for a great diversity of ailments and sweetener. Roots of Glycyrrhiza contain a high concentration of saponin and glycyrrhizin, which are supposed to be sweetening agents. The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of aqueous and alcoholic licorice root extract against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus in comparison to chlorhexidine (CHX). Materials and Methods: In the first part of the study, various concentrations of aqueous and ethanolic licorice extract were prepared in the laboratory of Pharmacy College. It was then subjected to microbiological assay to determine its zone of inhibition using agar disk diffusion test and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using serial broth dilution method against S. mutans and L. acidophilus. CHX was used as a positive control. Results: MIC of aqueous and ethnolic licorice root extract against S. mutans and L. acidophilus were 25% and 12.5%, respectively. Mean zone of inhibition of the aqueous and alcoholic licorice extracts against S. mutans at 48 h were 22.8 mm and 26.7 mm, respectively. Mean zone of inhibition of the aqueous and alcoholic licorice extracts against L. acidophilus at 48 h were 14.4 mm and 15.1 mm, respectively. Mean zone of inhibition of the CHX against S. mutans and L. acidophilus at 48 h was 20.5 and 13.2, respectively. Conclusion: The inhibitory effect shown by alcoholic licorice root extract against S. mutans and L. acidophilus was superior when compared with that of aqueous form and CHX. PMID:25214729

  7. Effect of traditional methods and gamma irradiation on microbial load, quality and sensory characteristics of Licorice Roots Powder (Glycyrrhiza globra L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bachir, M.; Al-Adawi, M.

    2013-04-01

    To determine the effect of gamma irradiation and heat treatment on microbial load of licorice root powder, extract rate from root powder, and the physical, chemical and sensory characteristics of its extract. Powder of licorice roots were exposed to heat treatments (hot air-dried and steam), and to 10 kGy of gamma irradiation. Microbial load on powder, and organic dissolved solids, total carbohydrates, reduced carbohydrates, Glycyrrhezinic, ash, mineral ions (Ca++ and K+, Na, Mg), pH and EC values, color, and sensory properties of the extracted were evaluated after 0, 6, and 12 months of storage. Results indicated that total microbial count of licorice roots powder (control sample) were relatively high, and included coliform, E. coli, and Klabsala spp. The results indicated that 10 kGy of gamma irradiation reduced the total count by 4 logs. While, heat treatment (hot air-dried, and steamed) reduced the total count by 1 and 2 logs respectively. No effect was observed in physical, and chemical characteristics in the extract of licorice roots due to irradiation. While, there were an effect of heat treatment on most of measured physical, and chemical characteristics of the extract of licorice roots. However, Sensory evaluation indicated that no significant differences were found between solution produced from irradiated, heat treated, and control samples in color, flavor, texture, or taste (author).

  8. Irradiation effects on color and functional properties of persimmon (Diospyros kaki L. folium) leaf extract and licorice (Glycyrrhiza Uralensis Fischer) root extract during storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Cheorun; Son, J.H.; Shin, M.G.; Byun, M.W. E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr

    2003-06-01

    Irradiation effects on color and functional properties of persimmon (Diospyros kaki L. folium) leaf extract and licorice (Glycyrrhiza Uralensis Fischer) root extract were studied. Persimmon leaf and licorice root extracts were irradiated using {sup 60}Co gamma irradiator at 0 and 20 kGy absorbed dose and stored at 4 deg. C or -20 deg. C for 2 weeks. Tyrosinase inhibition effect (TIE) of both extracts was not different by 20 kGy-irradiation but reduced during storage. Electron donating ability (EDA) of the persimmon leaf extract was generally consistent, but that of licorice root extract was reduced by irradiation except for 1 week of storage. Both TIE and EDA of persimmon leaf extract were higher than that of licorice root. Hunter color L*-, a*-, and b*-values were changed, resulting in a desirable brighter color by irradiation. During storage, the bright yellow color of irradiated sample changed to brown gradually, and especially the changes in the refrigeration condition (4 deg. C) was faster than frozen (-20 deg. C). Results indicate that irradiation can be a useful method to produce value-added natural ingredients with functions such as persimmon leaf or licorice root for food or cosmetic industry in addition to elimination of microbial load.

  9. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of glycyrrhizic acid from licorice using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Seol; Lee, A Yeong; Lee, A Reum; Choi, Goya; Kim, Ho Kyoung

    2017-12-01

    The present study optimized ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions to maximize extraction yields of glycyrrhizic acid from licorice. The optimal extraction temperature (X 1 ), extraction time (X 2 ), and methanol concentration (X 3 ) were identified using response surface methodology (RSM). A central composite design (CCD) was used for experimental design and analysis of the results to obtain the optimal processing parameters. Statistical analyses revealed that three variables and the quadratic of X 1 , X 2 , and X 3 had significant effects on the yields and were followed by significant interaction effects between the variables of X 2 and X 3 ( p response surface plot and contour plots derived from the mathematical models were applied to determine the optimal conditions. The optimum ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions were as follows: extraction temperature, 69 °C; extraction time, 34 min; and methanol concentration, 57%. Under these conditions, the experimental yield of glycyrrhizic acid was 3.414%, which agreed closely with the predicted value (3.406%). The experimental values agreed with those predicted by RSM models, thus indicating the suitability of the model employed and the success of RSM in optimizing the extraction conditions.

  10. Antibacterial Activities of Glycyrrhiza gabra Linn. (Licorice Root Extract against Porphyromonas gingivalis rand Its Inhibitory Effects on Cysteine Proteases and Biofilms

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    Suttipalin Suwannakul

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the antibacterial activity of licorice root extract. Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial and anti-proteolytic activities of root extract on Porphyromonas gingivalis in both planktonics and bioflm cells. Methods: Glycyrrhiza glabra (G. glabra roots were extracted by 95% ethanol freeze dried and kept at -20˚C prior experiments. P.gingvalis (ATCC 33277 were cultured and used for experiments. Determination of antibacterial activities of G.glabra extracts (lico rice against P.gingvalis planktonic the MIC and MBC were evaluated by agar well diffusion, broth microdilution, and time-killing methods. The crystal violet assay was used to assess the bioflm growth inhibition and the disruption of established bioflm. The Arg - specifc proteolytic activities were analyzed using the chromogenic substrates assays using N-benzoyl-DL-arginine-4-nitroanilide hydrochloride and N-(p-tosyl-Gly Pro-Lys 4-nitroanilide acetate salt to assess the enzymatic inhibition effects of the extracts compared with the controls. Results: The licorice root extract had antimicrobial activities on P.gingivalis with MIC and MBC of 62.5µg/ml and 25 µg/ml respectively. The assay showed that Licorice root extronidazole. Licorice root extract also had effect on P.gingivalis bioflms. Quantifcation by crystal violate staining showed the reduction of bioflm mass in the presence of Licorice root extract. The Arg-and Kgp- proteases activities were also inhibited by the extract in dose dependent manner. Conclusion: The results suggested that licorice root extract may has potential therapeutics values as a candidate for periodontal disease

  11. Spasmolytic Mechanism of Aqueous Licorice Extract on Oxytocin-Induced Uterine Contraction through Inhibiting the Phosphorylation of Heat Shock Protein 27

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    Lu Yang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Licorice derived from the roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. (Fabaceae, is one of the most widely-used traditional herbal medicines in China. It has been reported to possess significant analgesic activity for treating spastic pain. The aim of this study is to investigate the spasmolytic molecular mechanism of licorice on oxytocin-induced uterine contractions and predict the relevant bioactive constituents in the aqueous extract. The aqueous extraction from licorice inhibited the amplitude and frequency of uterine contraction in a concentration-dependent manner. A morphological examination showed that myometrial smooth muscle cells of oxytocin-stimulated group were oval-shaped and arranged irregularly, while those with a single centrally located nucleus of control and licorice-treated groups were fusiform and arranged orderly. The percentage of phosphorylation of HSP27 at Ser-15 residue increased up to 50.33% at 60 min after oxytocin stimulation. Furthermore, this increase was significantly suppressed by licorice treatment at the concentration of 0.2 and 0.4 mg/mL. Colocalization between HSP27 and α-SMA was observed in the myometrial tissues, especially along the actin bundles in the oxytocin-stimulated group. On the contrary, the colocalization was no longer shown after treatment with licorice. Additionally, employing ChemGPS-NP provided support for a preliminary assignment of liquiritigenin and isoliquiritigenin as protein kinase C (PKC inhibitors in addition to liquiritigenin, isoliquiritigenin, liquiritin and isoliquiritin as MAPK-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2 inhibitors. These assigned compounds were docked with corresponding crystal structures of respective proteins with negative and low binding energy, which indicated a high affinity and tight binding capacity for the active site of the kinases. These results suggest that licorice exerts its spasmolytic effect through inhibiting the phosphorylation of HSP27 to alter the

  12. Volatiles profiling in medicinal licorice roots using steam distillation and solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Mohamed A; Wessjohann, Ludger A

    2012-11-01

    Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) is a plant of considerable commercial importance in traditional medicine and for the flavor and sweets industry. Although Glycyrrhiza species are very competitive targets for phytochemical studies, very little is known about the volatiles composition within that genus, although such knowledge can be suspected to be relevant for understanding the olfactory and taste properties. To provide insight into Glycyrrhiza species aroma composition and for its use in food and pharmaceutical industry, volatile constituents from G. glabra, G. inflata, and G. echinata roots were profiled using steam distillation and solid-phase microextraction. Two phenols, thymol and carvacrol, were found exclusively in essential oil and headspace samples of G. glabra, and with highest amounts for samples that originated from Egypt. In G. echinata oil, (2E, 4E)-decadienal (21%) and β-caryophyllene oxide (24%) were found as main constituents, whereas 1α, 10α-epoxyamorpha-4-ene (13%) and β-dihydroionone (8%) predominated G. inflata. Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses clearly separated G. echinata and G. inflata from G. glabra; with phenolics and aliphatic aldehydes contributing mostly for species segregation. Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) has large economic, nutritional, and medicinal values. The data presented in this article help in licorice quality control analysis to identify G. glabra from its closely allied species. The presence of thymol and carvacrol exclusively in G. glabra suggests that these volatiles could serve as chemotaxonomic markers and also might be considered as potentially relevant for taste. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. UPLC/ESI-QTOF-MS-based metabolomics survey on the toxicity of triptolide and detoxication of licorice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuo; Liu, Jian-Qun; Xu, Jin-Di; Zhu, He; Kong, Ming; Zhang, Guo-Hua; Duan, Su-Min; Li, Xiu-Yang; Li, Guang-Fu; Liu, Li-Fang; Li, Song-Lin

    2017-06-01

    Triptolide (TP) from Tripterygium wilfordii has been demonstrated to possess anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and anticancer activities. TP is specially used for the treatment of awkward rheumatoid arthritis, but its clinical application is confined by intense side effects. It is reported that licorice can obviously reduce the toxicity of TP, but the detailed mechanisms involved have not been comprehensively investigated. The current study aimed to explore metabolomics characteristics of the toxic reaction induced by TP and the intervention effect of licorice water extraction (LWE) against such toxicity. Obtained urine samples from control, TP and TP + LWE treated rats were analyzed by UPLC/ESI-QTOF-MS. The metabolic profiles of the control and the TP group were well differentiated by the principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis. The toxicity of TP was demonstrated to be evolving along with the exposure time of TP. Eight potential biomarkers related to TP toxicity were successfully identified in urine samples. Furthermore, LWE treatment could attenuate the change in six of the eight identified biomarkers. Functional pathway analysis revealed that the alterations in these metabolites were associated with tryptophan, pantothenic acid, and porphyrin metabolism. Therefore, it was concluded that LWE demonstrated interventional effects on TP toxicity through regulation of tryptophan, pantothenic acid, and porphyrin metabolism pathways, which provided novel insights into the possible mechanisms of TP toxicity as well as the potential therapeutic effects of LWE against such toxicity. Copyright © 2017 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Natural products in Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) rhizome imaged at the cellular level by atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem mass spectrometry imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bin; Bhandari, Dhaka Ram; Janfelt, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The rhizome of Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) was analyzed by high-resolution mass spectrometry imaging and tandem mass spectrometry imaging. An atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging ion source was combined with an orbital trapping mass spectrometer in order...

  15. Isoangustone A, a novel licorice compound, inhibits cell proliferation by targeting PI3K, MKK4, and MKK7 in human melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Nu Ry; Lee, Eunjung; Byun, Sanguine; Kim, Jong-Eun; Mottamal, Madhusoodanan; Park, Jung Han Yoon; Lim, Soon Sung; Bode, Ann M; Lee, Hyong Joo; Lee, Ki Won; Dong, Zigang

    2013-12-01

    Licorice root is known to possess various bioactivities, including anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects. Glycyrrhizin, a triterpene compound, is the most abundant constituent of dried licorice root. However, high intake or long-term consumption of glycyrrhizin causes several side effects, such as hypertension, hypertensive encephalopathy, and hypokalemia. Therefore, finding additional active compounds other than glycyrrhizin in licorice that exhibit anticancer effects is worthwhile. We found that isoangustone A (IAA), a novel flavonoid from licorice root, suppressed proliferation of human melanoma cells. IAA significantly blocked cell-cycle progression at the G1-phase and inhibited the expression of G1-phase regulatory proteins, including cyclins D1 and E in the SK-MEL-28 human melanoma cell line. IAA suppressed the phosphorylation of Akt, GSK-3β, and JNK1/2. IAA also bound to phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), MKK4, and MKK7, strongly inhibiting their kinase activities in an ATP-competitive manner. Moreover, in a xenograft mouse model, IAA significantly decreased tumor growth, volume, and weight of SK-MEL-28 xenografts. Collectively, these results suggest that PI3K, MKK4, and MKK7 are the primary molecular targets of IAA in the suppression of cell proliferation. This insight into the biologic actions of IAA provides a molecular basis for the potential development of a new chemotherapeutic agent.

  16. An evaluation of the impact of aloe vera and licorice extracts on the course of experimental pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 infection in pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziewulska, D; Stenzel, T; Smialek, M; Tykalowski, B; Koncicki, A

    2018-02-01

    The progressive decrease in the efficiency of synthetic drugs has prompted research into phytogenic feed additives with potentially immunomodulatory and anti-infective properties. Complex diseases with a mixed etiology, including viral, pose a growing problem in domestic pigeons. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of various doses of aloe vera and licorice extracts on the course of experimental PPMV-1 infection in pigeons. The experiment was performed on pigeons divided into 5 groups, including one control group and 4 experimental groups, which were orally administered aloe vera or licorice extracts at 300 or 500 mg/kg BW for 7 d after experimental inoculation with PPMV-1. On d 4, 7, and 14 after inoculation, cloacal swabs and samples of organs were collected from 4 birds in each group. The samples were analyzed to determine the copy number of PPMV-1 RNA by TaqMan qPCR. The results indicate that licorice and aloe vera extracts inhibited PPMV-1 replication by decreasing viral RNA copy numbers in the examined organs. The most inhibitory effect was observed in pigeons receiving aloe vera extract at 300 mg/kg BW, for which PPMV-1 RNA copy numbers were approximately 7-fold lower (brain), 9-fold lower (kidneys), and 14-fold lower (liver) than in the control group. The results of this study point to the potentially antiviral effects of aloe vera and licorice extracts in pigeons infected with PPMV-1. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the antiviral properties of aloe vera and licorice extracts in domestic pigeons. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.

  17. The Application of Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with a LTQ-Orbitrap Mass Technique to Reveal the Dynamic Accumulation of Secondary Metabolites in Licorice under ABA Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The traditional medicine licorice is the most widely consumed herbal product in the world. Although much research work on studying the changes in the active compounds of licorice has been reported, there are still many areas, such as the dynamic accumulation of secondary metabolites in licorice, that need to be further studied. In this study, the secondary metabolites from licorice under two different methods of stress were investigated by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid linear ion trap–Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS. A complex continuous coordination of flavonoids and triterpenoids in a network was modulated by different methods of stress during growth. The results showed that a total of 51 secondary metabolites were identified in licorice under ABA stress. The partial least squares–discriminate analysis (PLS-DA revealed the distinction of obvious compounds among stress-specific districts relative to ABA stress. The targeted results showed that there were significant differences in the accumulation patterns of the deeply targeted 41 flavonoids and 10 triterpenoids compounds by PCA and PLS-DA analyses. To survey the effects of flavonoid and triterpenoid metabolism under ABA stress, we inspected the stress-specific metabolic changes. Our study testified that the majority of flavonoids and triterpenoids were elevated in licorice under ABA stress, while the signature metabolite affecting the dynamic accumulation of secondary metabolites was detected. Taken together, our results suggest that ABA-specific metabolite profiling dynamically changed in terms of the biosynthesis of flavonoids and triterpenoids, which may offer new trains of thought on the regular pattern of dynamic accumulation of secondary metabolites in licorice at the metabolite level. Our results also provide a reference for clinical applications and directional planting and licorice breeding.

  18. Prophylactic Properties Of Licorice Roots (GLYCYRRHIZA Gabbler) And / Or Aspirin (Acetylsalicylic Acid) Against GAMMA Radiation-Induced Oxidative Stress And Metabolic Disorders In Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FAHIM, TH.M.; ABDEL FATTAH, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress with subsequent production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been postulated as one of the mechanism of cardiac and renal toxicity. The aim of the present study is to investigate the possible protective effects of licorice and/or aspirin on gamma irradiation-induced cardiac and renal damage in rats. Licorice and/or aspirin was supplemented daily to rats (100 mg licorice/kg body wt and 50 mg aspirin/kg body wt) orally, 15 days before and after whole body gamma irradiation at a dose of 6 Gy (applied as a shot dose). Gamma irradiation caused significant drop in haemoglobin, erythrocytes, haematocrit values, platelets count, prothrombin time (PT) and leukocytes with their differential counts with elevation in C-reactive protein (CRP) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT).The results obtained showed that whole body gamma irradiation of rats induced biochemical alteration in the levels of serum lipid profile (total lipids, total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol), creatinine and urea. Furthermore, some markers of cardiac injury enzymes such as serum aspartate transaminase (AST), creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities showed significant increase associated with decrease in the glutathione content (GSH) of cardiac and renal tissues. Significant increase of lipid peroxidation end products malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) in the cardiac and renal tissues was observed.Licorice and/or aspirin treatment prior and post gamma irradiation of rats has attenuated the renal and cardiac toxic effects of radiation manifested by reduction in the levels of MDA and NO, rescued the depletion of endogenous GSH, haematologial parameters and diminished the increase of cardiac and renal injury markers .

  19. The Binding of Four Licorice Flavonoids to Bovine Serum Albumin by Multi-Spectroscopic and Molecular Docking Methods: Structure-Affinity Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, J.; Liang, Q.; Shao, S.

    2017-03-01

    Flavanones are the main compound of licorice, and the C'-4 position substitution is a significant structural feature for their biological activity. The ability of three selected flavanones (liquiritigenin, liquiritin, and liquiritin apioside) bearing different substituents (hydroxyl groups, glucose, and glucose-apiose sugar moiety) at the C'-4 position and a chalcone ( isoliquiritigenin, an isomer of liquiritigenin) to bind bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied by multispectroscopic and molecular docking methods under physiological conditions. The binding mechanism of fl avonoids to BSA can be explained by the formation of a flavonoids-BSA complex, and the binding affinity is the strongest for isoliquiritigenin, followed by liquiritin apioside, liquiritin, and liquiritigenin. The thermodynamic analysis and the molecular docking indicated that the interaction between flavonoids and BSA was dominated by the hydrophobic force and hydrogen bonds. The competitive experiments as well as the molecular docking results suggested the most possible binding site of licorice flavonoids on BSA at subdomain IIA. These results revealed that the basic skeleton structure and the substituents at the C'-4 position of flavanones significantly affect the structure-affinity relationships of the licorice flavonoid binding to BSA.

  20. Dietary licorice root supplementation improves diet-induced weight gain, lipid deposition and hepatic steatosis in ovariectomized mice without stimulating reproductive tissues and mammary gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Zeynep Madak; Gong, Ping; Zhao, Yiru Chen; Xu, Liwen; Wrobel, Kinga U.; Hartman, James A.; Wang, Michelle; Cam, Anthony; Iwaniec, Urszula T.; Turner, Russell T.; Twaddle, Nathan C.; Doerge, Daniel R.; Khan, Ikhlas A.; Katzenellenbogen, John A.; Katzenellenbogen, Benita S.; Helferich, William G.

    2015-01-01

    Scope We studied the impact of dietary supplementation with licorice root components on diet-induced obesity, fat accumulation and hepatic steatosis in ovariectomized C57BL/6 mice as a menopause model. Materials and Methods We evaluated the molecular and physiological effects of dietary licorice root administered to ovariectomized C57BL/6 mice as root powder (LRP), extracts (LRE) or isolated isoliquiritegenin (ILQ) on reproductive (uterus and mammary gland) and non-reproductive tissues important in regulating metabolism (liver, perigonadal, perirenal, mesenteric and subcutaneous fat). Quantitative outcome measures including body weight, fat distribution (MRI), food consumption, bone density and weight (DXA) and gene expression were assessed by the degree of restoration to the premenopausal health state. We characterized histological (H&E and oil red O staining) and molecular properties (expression of certain disease markers) of these tissues, and correlated these with metabolic phenotype as well as blood levels of bioactives. Conclusions Although LRE and ILQ provided some benefit, LRP was the most effective in reducing body weight gain, overall fat deposition, liver steatosis, and expression of hepatic lipid synthesis genes following ovariectomy. Our data demonstrate that licorice root provided improvement of multiple metabolic parameters under conditions of menopausal low estrogen and high-fat diets without stimulating reproductive tissues. PMID:26555669

  1. Dietary licorice root supplementation reduces diet-induced weight gain, lipid deposition, and hepatic steatosis in ovariectomized mice without stimulating reproductive tissues and mammary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madak-Erdogan, Zeynep; Gong, Ping; Zhao, Yiru Chen; Xu, Liwen; Wrobel, Kinga U; Hartman, James A; Wang, Michelle; Cam, Anthony; Iwaniec, Urszula T; Turner, Russell T; Twaddle, Nathan C; Doerge, Daniel R; Khan, Ikhlas A; Katzenellenbogen, John A; Katzenellenbogen, Benita S; Helferich, William G

    2016-02-01

    We studied the impact of dietary supplementation with licorice root components on diet-induced obesity, fat accumulation, and hepatic steatosis in ovariectomized C57BL/6 mice as a menopause model. We evaluated the molecular and physiological effects of dietary licorice root administered to ovariectomized C57BL/6 mice as root powder (LRP), extracts (LRE), or isolated isoliquiritigenin (ILQ) on reproductive (uterus and mammary gland) and nonreproductive tissues important in regulating metabolism (liver, perigonadal, perirenal, mesenteric, and subcutaneous fat). Quantitative outcome measures including body weight, fat distribution (magnetic resonance imaging), food consumption, bone density and weight (Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), and gene expression were assessed by the degree of restoration to the preovariectomized health state. We characterized histological (H&E and oil red O staining) and molecular properties (expression of certain disease markers) of these tissues, and correlated these with metabolic phenotype as well as blood levels of bioactives. Although LRE and ILQ provided some benefit, LRP was the most effective in reducing body weight gain, overall fat deposition, liver steatosis, and expression of hepatic lipid synthesis genes following ovariectomy. Our data demonstrate that licorice root provided improvement of multiple metabolic parameters under conditions of low estrogen and high-fat diets without stimulating reproductive tissues. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Licochalcone A, a Polyphenol Present in Licorice, Suppresses UV-Induced COX-2 Expression by Targeting PI3K, MEK1, and B-Raf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nu Ry Song

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Licorice is a traditional botanical medicine, and has historically been commonly prescribed in Asia to treat various diseases. Glycyrrhizin (Gc, a triterpene compound, is the most abundant phytochemical constituent of licorice. However, high intake or long-term consumption of Gc has been associated with a number of side effects, including hypertension. However, the presence of alternative bioactive compounds in licorice with anti-carcinogenic effects has long been suspected. Licochalcone A (LicoA is a prominent member of the chalcone family and can be isolated from licorice root. To date, there have been no reported studies on the suppressive effect of LicoA against solar ultraviolet (sUV-induced cyclooxygenase (COX-2 expression and the potential molecular mechanisms involved. Here, we show that LicoA, a major chalcone compound of licorice, effectively inhibits sUV-induced COX-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 PGE2 generation through the inhibition of activator protein 1 AP-1 transcriptional activity, with an effect that is notably more potent than Gc. Western blotting analysis shows that LicoA suppresses sUV-induced phosphorylation of Akt/ mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2/p90 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (RSK in HaCaT cells. Moreover, LicoA directly suppresses the activity of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK1, and B-Raf, but not Raf-1 in cell-free assays, indicating that PI3K, MEK1, and B-Raf are direct molecular targets of LicoA. We also found that LicoA binds to PI3K and B-Raf in an ATP-competitive manner, although LicoA does not appear to compete with ATP for binding with MEK1. Collectively, these results provide insight into the biological action of LicoA, which may have potential for development as a skin cancer chemopreventive agent.

  3. The Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Glycyrrhizaglabra L. (licorice Root on Serum Level of Glucose, Triglyceride and Cholesterol in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Induced by Letrozole in Rats

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    F Barazesh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder which effects 15.6 %  of women in Iran. Licorice (Glycyrrhizaglabra L. has phytoestrogenic and anti-diabetic effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of hydro-alcoholic Licorice root extract on blood sugar, triglycerides and cholesterol in the rats with PCOS. Methods: In the present experimental study, 50 female puber Sprague dawley (180±20 gr rats with regular sexual cycle were entered in the study.  Studied groups included: first, the Normal group, receiving carrier (normal saline (2 ml/kg daily orally for 21 days. Then, the letrozole group which received letrozole (1 mg/kg dissolved in normal saline (2 ml/kg for 21 days and then normal saline (2 ml/kg daily orally for 30 days. The last groups, Treatment groups 1 and 2, which received letrozole (1 mg/kg dissolved in normal saline (2 ml/kg for 21 days then hydroalcoholic extract of Licorice root (200 and 400 mg/kg dissolved in normal saline (2 ml/kg daily, orally for 30 days respectively. To conclude, blood samples were collected from the heart and also the serum level of blood sugar, triglyceride and cholesterol was measured. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA (p< 0.05. Results: The mean serum level of blood sugar increased in the Letrozole group compared to the normal group and decreased in the treatment groups compared to Letrozole group (p< 0.05. No statistically significant differences were seen in mean of serum level of triglyceride and cholesterol between all groups. Conclusion: The licoricecan extract improved the adverse side-effects caused by diabetese in polycystic ovary syndrome However, its effect on dyslipidemia in patients requiring further investigations.

  4. Special licorice extracts containing lowered glycyrrhizin and enhanced licochalcone A prevented Helicobacter pylori-initiated, salt diet-promoted gastric tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Min; Park, Sang-Ho; Hong, Kyung-Sook; Han, Young-Min; Jang, Sang-Ho; Kim, Eun-Hee; Hahm, Ki-Baik

    2014-06-01

    In spite of cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory actions, conventional licorice extracts (c-lico) were limitedly used due to serious side effects of glycyrrhizin. As our group had successfully isolated special licorice extracts (s-lico) lowering troublesome glycyrrhizin, but increasing licochalcone A, we have compared anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and cytoprotective actions of s-lico and c-lico against either in vitro or in vivo Helicobacter pylori infection. RT-PCR and Western blot were performed to check anti-inflammatory action and electron spin resonance (ESR) and DCFDA spectroscopy to check antioxidative action. s-lico or c-lico was pretreated 1 hours before H. pylori infection on AGS cells. Interleukin-10 deficient mice inoculated H. pylori and followed with high salt containing pallet diets to produce H. pylori-associated chronic atrophic gastritis and gastric tumors, during which s-lico or c-lico-containing pellet diets were administered up to 24 weeks. s-lico had fabulous efficacy on scavenging ROS which was further confirmed by DCFDA study and ESR measurement. The expressions of COX-2, iNOS, VEGF, and IL-8 were increased after H. pylori infection, of which levels were significantly decreased with s-lico in a dose-dependent manner. s-lico significantly ameliorated hypoxia-induced or H. pylori-induced angiogenic activities. s-lico significantly ameliorated H. pylori-induced gastric damages as well as gastritis. Our animal model showed significant development of gastric tumors including adenoma and dysplasia relevant to H. pylori infection, and s-lico administration significantly attenuated incidence of H. pylori-induced gastric tumorigenesis. Special licorice extracts can be anticipating substance afforded significant attenuation of either H. pylori-induced gastritis or tumorigenesis based on potent antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antimutagenic actions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Purification of flavonoids from licorice using an off-line preparative two-dimensional normal-phase liquid chromatography/reversed-phase liquid chromatography method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yunpeng; Fu, Yanhui; Fu, Qing; Cai, Jianfeng; Xin, Huaxia; Dai, Mei; Jin, Yu

    2016-07-01

    An orthogonal (71.9%) off-line preparative two-dimensional normal-phase liquid chromatography/reversed-phase liquid chromatography method coupled with effective sample pretreatment was developed for separation and purification of flavonoids from licorice. Most of the nonflavonoids were firstly removed using a self-made Click TE-Cys (60 μm) solid-phase extraction. In the first dimension, an industrial grade preparative chromatography was employed to purify the crude flavonoids. Click TE-Cys (10 μm) was selected as the stationary phase that provided an excellent separation with high reproducibility. Ethyl acetate/ethanol was selected as the mobile phase owing to their excellent solubility for flavonoids. Flavonoids co-eluted in the first dimension were selected for further purification using reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Multiple compounds could be isolated from one normal-phase fraction and some compounds with bad resolution in one-dimensional liquid chromatography could be prepared in this two-dimensional system owing to the orthogonal separation. Moreover, this two-dimensional liquid chromatography method was beneficial for the preparation of relatively trace flavonoid compounds, which were enriched in the first dimension and further purified in the second dimension. Totally, 24 flavonoid compounds with high purity were obtained. The results demonstrated that the off-line two-dimensional liquid chromatography method was effective for the preparative separation and purification of flavonoids from licorice. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Licorice beta-amyrin 11-oxidase, a cytochrome P450 with a key role in the biosynthesis of the triterpene sweetener glycyrrhizin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Hikaru; Ohyama, Kiyoshi; Sawai, Satoru; Mizutani, Masaharu; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki; Sudo, Hiroshi; Akashi, Tomoyoshi; Aoki, Toshio; Saito, Kazuki; Muranaka, Toshiya

    2008-09-16

    Glycyrrhizin, a major bioactive compound derived from the underground parts of Glycyrrhiza (licorice) plants, is a triterpene saponin that possesses a wide range of pharmacological properties and is used worldwide as a natural sweetener. Because of its economic value, the biosynthesis of glycyrrhizin has received considerable attention. Glycyrrhizin is most likely derived from the triterpene beta-amyrin, an initial product of the cyclization of 2,3-oxidosqualene. The subsequent steps in glycyrrhizin biosynthesis are believed to involve a series of oxidative reactions at the C-11 and C-30 positions, followed by glycosyl transfers to the C-3 hydroxyl group; however, no genes encoding relevant oxidases or glycosyltransferases have been identified. Here we report the successful identification of CYP88D6, a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450) gene, as a glycyrrhizin-biosynthetic gene, by transcript profiling-based selection from a collection of licorice expressed sequence tags (ESTs). CYP88D6 was characterized by in vitro enzymatic activity assays and shown to catalyze the sequential two-step oxidation of beta-amyrin at C-11 to produce 11-oxo-beta-amyrin, a possible biosynthetic intermediate between beta-amyrin and glycyrrhizin. CYP88D6 coexpressed with beta-amyrin synthase in yeast also catalyzed in vivo oxidation of beta-amyrin to 11-oxo-beta-amyrin. CYP88D6 expression was detected in the roots and stolons by RT-PCR; however, no amplification was observed in the leaves or stems, which is consistent with the accumulation pattern of glycyrrhizin in planta. These results suggest a role for CYP88D6 as a beta-amyrin 11-oxidase in the glycyrrhizin pathway.

  7. The effects of licorice flavonoid oil with respect to increasing muscle mass: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Tetsu; Matsumoto, Akio; Yoshino, Kazuhiro; Furukawa, Shinya

    2017-06-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of licorice flavonoid oil (LFO) with respect to increasing the muscle mass of elderly populations using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Fifty participants aged 54-90 years (seven men, 43 women), who underwent rehabilitation treatment for osteoarthritis of the knee, were examined and assigned to either the LFO group (n = 26) or the placebo group (n = 24). The LFO group consumed 300 mg LFO day -1 , whereas the placebo group consumed one placebo capsule every day for 16 weeks. We measured muscle mass, body fat percentage and the Japanese Knee Osteoarthritis Measure score at baseline and every 4 weeks thereafter. In the LFO group, muscle mass in the body trunk increased significantly after 16 weeks of LFO intake (+0.38 kg, P = 0.02). The trunk muscle mass weight of the LFO group increased significantly compared to that of the placebo group (P respectively). The results of the present trial indicate that LFO supplementation has effects with respect to increasing muscle mass and suppressing the body fat percentage of elderly populations, especially in the body trunk. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Isoliquiritigenin, a flavonoid from licorice, blocks M2 macrophage polarization in colitis-associated tumorigenesis through downregulating PGE{sub 2} and IL-6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Haixia [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Zhang, Xinhua [Department of Liver, Biliary And Pancreatic Tumors, Hubei Cancer Hospital, Wuhan 430079 (China); Chen, Xuewei; Li, Ying; Ke, Zunqiong [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Tang, Tian [Department of Oncology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060 (China); Chai, Hongyan [Center for Gene Diagnosis, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Guo, Austin M. [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Department of Pharmacology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595 (United States); Chen, Honglei, E-mail: hl-chen@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pathology and Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Yang, Jing, E-mail: yangjingliu2013@163.com [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2014-09-15

    M2 macrophage polarization is implicated in colorectal cancer development. Isoliquiritigenin (ISL), a flavonoid from licorice, has been reported to prevent azoxymethane (AOM) induced colon carcinogenesis in animal models. Here, in a mouse model of colitis-associated tumorigenesis induced by AOM/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS), we investigated the chemopreventive effects of ISL and its mechanisms of action. Mice were treated with AOM/DSS and randomized to receive either vehicle or ISL (3, 15 and 75 mg/kg). Tumor load, histology, immunohistochemistry, and gene and protein expressions were determined. Intragastric administration of ISL for 12 weeks significantly decreased colon cancer incidence, multiplicity and tumor size by 60%, 55.4% and 42.6%, respectively. Moreover, ISL inhibited M2 macrophage polarization. Such changes were accompanied by downregulation of PGE{sub 2} and IL-6 signaling. Importantly, depletion of macrophages by clodronate (Clod) or zoledronic acid (ZA) reversed the effects of ISL. In parallel, in vitro studies also demonstrated that ISL limited the M2 polarization of RAW264.7 cells and mouse peritoneal macrophages with concomitant inactivation of PGE{sub 2}/PPARδ and IL-6/STAT3 signaling. Conversely, exogenous addition of PGE{sub 2} or IL-6, or overexpression of constitutively active STAT3 reversed ISL-mediated inhibition of M2 macrophage polarization. In summary, dietary flavonoid ISL effectively inhibits colitis-associated tumorigenesis through hampering M2 macrophage polarization mediated by the interplay between PGE{sub 2} and IL-6. Thus, inhibition of M2 macrophage polarization is likely to represent a promising strategy for chemoprevention of colorectal cancer. - Highlights: • Isoliquiritigenin (ISL) prevents colitis-associated tumorigenesis. • ISL inhibits M2 macrophage polarization in vivo and in vitro. • ISL inhibits PGE{sub 2} and IL-6 signaling in colitis-associated tumorigenesis. • ISL may be an attractive candidate agent for

  9. Isoliquiritigenin, a flavonoid from licorice, blocks M2 macrophage polarization in colitis-associated tumorigenesis through downregulating PGE2 and IL-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Haixia; Zhang, Xinhua; Chen, Xuewei; Li, Ying; Ke, Zunqiong; Tang, Tian; Chai, Hongyan; Guo, Austin M.; Chen, Honglei; Yang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    M2 macrophage polarization is implicated in colorectal cancer development. Isoliquiritigenin (ISL), a flavonoid from licorice, has been reported to prevent azoxymethane (AOM) induced colon carcinogenesis in animal models. Here, in a mouse model of colitis-associated tumorigenesis induced by AOM/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS), we investigated the chemopreventive effects of ISL and its mechanisms of action. Mice were treated with AOM/DSS and randomized to receive either vehicle or ISL (3, 15 and 75 mg/kg). Tumor load, histology, immunohistochemistry, and gene and protein expressions were determined. Intragastric administration of ISL for 12 weeks significantly decreased colon cancer incidence, multiplicity and tumor size by 60%, 55.4% and 42.6%, respectively. Moreover, ISL inhibited M2 macrophage polarization. Such changes were accompanied by downregulation of PGE 2 and IL-6 signaling. Importantly, depletion of macrophages by clodronate (Clod) or zoledronic acid (ZA) reversed the effects of ISL. In parallel, in vitro studies also demonstrated that ISL limited the M2 polarization of RAW264.7 cells and mouse peritoneal macrophages with concomitant inactivation of PGE 2 /PPARδ and IL-6/STAT3 signaling. Conversely, exogenous addition of PGE 2 or IL-6, or overexpression of constitutively active STAT3 reversed ISL-mediated inhibition of M2 macrophage polarization. In summary, dietary flavonoid ISL effectively inhibits colitis-associated tumorigenesis through hampering M2 macrophage polarization mediated by the interplay between PGE 2 and IL-6. Thus, inhibition of M2 macrophage polarization is likely to represent a promising strategy for chemoprevention of colorectal cancer. - Highlights: • Isoliquiritigenin (ISL) prevents colitis-associated tumorigenesis. • ISL inhibits M2 macrophage polarization in vivo and in vitro. • ISL inhibits PGE 2 and IL-6 signaling in colitis-associated tumorigenesis. • ISL may be an attractive candidate agent for chemoprevention of

  10. Gitelman's syndrome with persistent hypokalemia - don't forget licorice, alcohol, lemon juice, iced tea and salt depletion: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmid Christoph

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Chronic hypokalemia is the main finding in patients with Gitelman's syndrome. Exogenous factors can trigger deterioration of the patient's condition and provoke clinical symptoms. We discuss the pathophysiology of and therapy for Gitelman's syndrome, with a focus on dietary factors which may aggravate the disease. Case presentation We describe the case of a 31-year-old, previously apparently healthy Caucasian Swiss man who presented to our hospital with gait disturbance of subacute onset and a potassium level of 1.5 mmol/L. A detailed medical history revealed that he had been consuming large amounts of licorice (in the form of Fisherman's Friend menthol eucalyptus lozenges. Despite discontinuing the intake of glycyrrhizinic acid, his potassium level remained low. Biochemical investigations showed refractory hypokalemia and secondary hyperaldosteronism, suggestive of Gitelman's syndrome. Despite treatment with supplementation of potassium and magnesium in combination with an aldosterone antagonist, further clinically symptomatic episodes occurred. Triggers could be identified only by repeated detailed history taking. In response to the patient's dietary excesses (ingestion of relevant amounts of alcohol, lemon juice and iced tea, his hypokalemia was aggravated and provoked clinical symptoms. Finally, vomiting and failure to replace salt led to volume depletion and hypokalemic crisis, with a plasma potassium level of 1.0 mmol/L and paralysis with respiratory failure necessitating not only infusion of saline and potassium but also temporary mechanical ventilation. Conclusion Dietary preferences may have a much larger impact than any drug treatment on the symptoms of this chronic syndrome. Individual (mainly dietary preferences must be monitored closely, and patients should be given dietary advice to avoid recurrent aggravation of hypokalemia with muscular weakness.

  11. Haitian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanese, Anthony V.

    1998-01-01

    Uses 1990 U.S. Census data to show the changing demographic profile of Haitian Americans. Haitian Americans are likely to live along the Atlantic seaboard and to have relatively low, although not the lowest, incomes. However, the demographic mosaic of Haitian Americans is diverse, showing the effects of Haitian national and ethnic history. (SLD)

  12. American = Independent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, Hazel Rose

    2017-09-01

    U.S. American cultures and psyches reflect and promote independence. Devos and Banaji (2005) asked, does American equal White? This article asks, does American equal independent? The answer is that when compared to people in East Asian or South Asian contexts, people in American contexts tend to show an independent psychological signature-a sense of self as individual, separate, influencing others and the world, free from influence, and equal to, if not better than, others (Markus & Conner, 2013). Independence is a reasonable description of the selves of people in the White, middle-class American mainstream. Yet it is a less good characterization of the selves of the majority of Americans who are working-class and/or people of color. A cultural psychological approach reveals that much of North American psychology is still grounded in an independent model of the self and, as such, neglects social contexts and the psychologies of a majority of Americans. Given the prominence of independence in American ideas and institutions, the interdependent tendencies that arise from intersections of national culture with social class, race, and ethnicity go unrecognized and are often misunderstood and stigmatized. This unseen clash of independence and interdependence is a significant factor in many challenges, including those of education, employment, health, immigration, criminal justice, and political polarization.

  13. American Ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and inflammation of the lining of the stomach (gastritis). American ginseng is also used for low iron in the blood (anemia), diabetes, insulin resistance related to HIV treatments, cancer-related fatigue, high blood pressure, trouble sleeping (insomnia), ...

  14. American Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2015-01-01

    The Danish artist Thomas Bang spent his early years in the USA. The works he created in this formative period were thus profoundly shaped by the contemporary movements in American art of the 1960s and 1970s when sculpture, or to be more precise, three-dimensional work became a hotbed of expansive...... experiments. This article traces how Bang made a radical move from painting to sculpture, which was characteristic of that time, and how he developed his artistic idiom by taking an active part in some of the seminal new departures in American art, in particular process art and post-minimalism. By leaping...... to the lasting impact of Bang's American period, which remains the key to understanding his works....

  15. American Illuminations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nye, David

    Illuminated fêtes and civic celebrations began in Renaissance Italy and spread through the courts of Europe. Their fireworks, torches, lamps, and special effects glorified the monarch, marked the birth of a prince, or celebrated military victory. Nineteenth-century Americans rejected such monarch......Illuminated fêtes and civic celebrations began in Renaissance Italy and spread through the courts of Europe. Their fireworks, torches, lamps, and special effects glorified the monarch, marked the birth of a prince, or celebrated military victory. Nineteenth-century Americans rejected...... such monarchial pomp and adapted spectacular lighting to their democratic, commercial culture. In American Illuminations, David Nye explains how they experimented with gas and electric light to create illuminated cityscapes far brighter and more dynamic than those of Europe, and how these illuminations became......, commercial lighting that defined distinct zones of light and glamorized the city’s White Ways, skyscrapers, bridges, department stores, theaters, and dance halls. Poor and blighted areas disappeared into the shadows. American illuminations also became integral parts of national political campaigns...

  16. American Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Pechatnov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The "Founding fathers" of American Studies at MGIMO are considered to be A.V. Efimov and L.I. Clove. Alexey Efimov - Corresponding Member of the USSR Academy of Sciences since 1938, Head of the Department of Modern and Contemporary History and Dean of the Historical School at the Moscow State University - one of the first professors of the Faculty of International Relations MGIMO. Efimov distinguished himself by a broad vision and scope of scientific interests. Back in 1934 he published a monograph "On the history of capitalism in the United States," which initiated a series of research culminating in the fundamental work "The United States. The path of capitalist development (pre-imperialist era". Alexey was not only a great scientist but also a great teacher, whose lectures was popular throughout Moscow. His lecture courses, given at the end of the 1940s at MGIMO, became the basis for the first post-war history textbooks USA - "Essays on the history of the United States." At least as colorful a figure was Professor Leo Izrailevich Zubok - a man of unusual destiny. As a teenager he emigrated to the United States with his parents, where he soon joined the American revolutionary movement in the 1920s and was forced to leave the country. He came to MGIMO being already an experienced scientists. His research interests were very wide: from the study of American foreign policy expansion to the history of the labor movement in the United States. Zubok's fundamental works still have not lost its scientific significance. He has successfully combined scientific work with teaching. Tutorials that are based on his lectures were very popular not only among students of MGIMO.

  17. Immunizations and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Immunizations Immunizations and African Americans African American adults are less ... 19 to 35 months had comparable rates of immunization. African American women are as likely to have ...

  18. AMERICAN EXCEPTIONALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana-Andreea Pirnuta

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In an interconnected world where foreign relations matter not only for resources or military alliances but also for cultural relationships, it is highly important to have a better understanding of the power relations among nations. The information carries certain meanings that have important outcomes thus defining the power of a given nation. Foreign policy is the channel through which global politics is exercised. International politics is a hierarchy of power being determined by important cultural, economic as well as geographical aspects. The reasons and strategies that are used in order to reach the outcomes in global politics represent the focus of the present paper. The United States has been the leader in international politics since the early 20th century due to its vast resources and wealth as well as its cultural output. America’s interest in preserving a democratic and free world has its foundation in the beliefs and values it stands for the aim of this paper is to question whether or not there is a concrete premise for the idea of American exceptionalism.

  19. Native Americans with Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read the MMWR Science Clips Native Americans with Diabetes Better diabetes care can decrease kidney failure Language: ... between 1996 and 2013. Problem Kidney failure from diabetes was highest among Native Americans. Native Americans are ...

  20. American Macular Degeneration Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Policy Disclaimer Contact Us Donate Store The American Macular Degeneration Foundation The American Macular Degeneration Foundation (AMDF) is ... Ed Asner Video Clip An Inspiring Her-story Macular Degeneration is the leading cause of vision loss, affecting ...

  1. American Society of Echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Society of Echocardiography Join Ase Renew Member Portal Log In Membership Member Portal Log In Join ASE Renew Benefits Rates FASE – Fellow of the American Society of Echocardiography Member Referral Program FAQs Initiatives Advocacy Awards, Grants, ...

  2. Depression and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Depression And African Americans Depression And African Americans Not “Just the Blues” Clinical ... or spiritual communities. Commonly Asked Questions about Clinical Depression How do I get help for clinical depression? ...

  3. African Americans and Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Americans are still unknown. However, research shows that African Americans are genetically more at risk for glaucoma, making early detection and treatment all the more important. In studies such as the Baltimore Eye Survey and the ...

  4. Unlearning American Patriotism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Richard W.

    2007-01-01

    Immoral excesses of American foreign policy are so severe and so deep-rooted that American patriotism is now a moral burden. This love, which pulls toward amnesia, wishful thinking and inattention to urgent foreign interests, should be replaced by commitment to a global social movement that seeks to hem in the American empire. Teachers can advance…

  5. The American Dream

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    This thesis deals with the deceptive nature of The American Dream and its place in American culture in the first six decades of the 20th century, namely in the three quintessential novels The Great Gatsby, The Grapes of Wrath and Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas. With the aid of Jim Cullen's The American Dream – A short history of an idea that shaped a nation and Lawrence Samuel's The American Dream – A cultural history the different types of American Dreams are investigated, as well as how the...

  6. Rediscovering Interwar American Theorists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    common perception, the early 20th century was a period of significant intellectual development in American military theory. Organizational changes in...Rediscovering Interwar American Theorists A Monograph by MAJ Russell McKelvey United States Army School of Advanced Military Studies United...DATES COVERED (From - To) JUN 2016 – MAY 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Rediscovering Interwar American Theorists 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  7. American Indian Influence on the American Pharmacopeia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Virgil J.

    The first U.S. Pharmacopeia, issued in 1820, listed 296 substances of animal, mineral, or vegetable origin in its primary and secondary lists. Of these 130, nearly all of vegetable origin, represented drugs used by American Indians. The number grew at each decennial revision during the 19th century, though some drugs were listed only for a decade.…

  8. American Studies in Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nye, David

    Papers first given at a conference the previous year in Fåborg, Denmark, with a dual focus on 20th century America and new methods in American Studies.......Papers first given at a conference the previous year in Fåborg, Denmark, with a dual focus on 20th century America and new methods in American Studies....

  9. African American Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, 1,908 (80. ... rate of 9.23 per 100,000). The suicide rate for females was 1.99 per 100, ...

  10. Asian American Cultural Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libretti, Tim

    1997-01-01

    Explores the encounter of Marxism and Asian American literary theory and imagines an Asian American Marxism. To do so requires theorizing race, class, and gender not as substantive categories of antagonisms but as complementary and coordinated elements of a totality of social relations structuring racial patriarchal capitalism. (SLD)

  11. Writing American Indian History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noley, Grayson B.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to critique the manner in which history about American Indians has been written and propose a rationale for the rethinking of what we know about this subject. In particular, histories of education as regards the participation of American Indians is a subject that has been given scant attention over the years and when…

  12. Teaching American Indian Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchell, Dick

    1991-01-01

    Reviews "Native American Architecture," by Nabokov and Easton, an encyclopedic work that examines technology, climate, social structure, economics, religion, and history in relation to house design and the "meaning" of space among tribes of nine regions. Describes this book's use in a college course on Native American architecture. (SV)

  13. American Elm (Ulmus americana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, Andrew E; Schrodt, Franziska; Maynard, Charles A; Powell, William A

    2006-01-01

    American elm (Ulmus americana) is a valuable and sentimental tree species that was decimated by Dutch elm disease in the mid-20th century. Therefore, any methods for modifying American elm or enhancing disease resistance are significant. This protocol describes transformation and tissue culture techniques used on American elm. Leaf pieces containing the midvein and petiole are used for explants. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 is used for transformation, with the binary vector pSE39, containing CaMV35S/nptII as a selectable marker, ACS2/ESF39A as a putative resistance enhancing gene, and CaMV35S/GUS as a reporter.

  14. Lolita - the American nightmare

    OpenAIRE

    GRISELDA (ABAZAJ) DANGLLI

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with the analysis of Lolita seen through the lenses of the American society and norms of today. We will see that many observations of the American way of behaving and social norms still hold true even nowadays years after this novel was written. Nabokov, on the other hand, never accepted the fact that this novel probed into the very depths of American life and that his intentions were purely aesthetic. Nevertheless, the phenomenon of pedophilia, obvious in the book, is a po...

  15. American Studies in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Luca

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available American Studies at the University of BucharestThe idea of teaching American Studies and founding a program in American Studies was first voiced in the long meetings of faculty and students held at the University of Bucharest soon after the collapse of the communist regime. The proposal was one of many that reflected the spirit of reform and hope for radical changes at the outset of Romania’s transition to democracy. The absence of institutional structures other than English departments and t...

  16. Mental Health and Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Mental Health Mental Health and Asian Americans Suicide was the 9th leading ... Americans is half that of the White population. MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  17. Infant Mortality and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Profiles > Black/African American > Infant Health & Mortality Infant Mortality and African Americans African Americans have 2.2 ... to receive late or no prenatal care. Infant Mortality Rate Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live ...

  18. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's alz.org | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

  19. Contemporary American Physics Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Alan J.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the works by six contemporary American novelists that illustrate the current state of "physics fiction." The discussed examples of physics fiction ranged from the fluent and frequent inclusion of the casual, to the elaborate systems of physics metaphors. (GA)

  20. American Society of Hematology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Account Navigation Main Content American Society of Hematology ASH Store ASH Job Center ASH Apps Share ... youtube linkedin Research In This Section Agenda for Hematology Research Sickle Cell Priorities Lymphoma Roadmap Moonshot Initiative ...

  1. American Society of Anesthesiologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Trauma ASA and CAE Healthcare’s virtual O.R. Popular Courses Member Exclusive Difficult Airway Algorithm Member login ... You Industry Supporters Whose contributions allow the American Society of Anesthesiologists ® to create world-class education and ...

  2. American Medical Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AMA Wire For healthy individual market, keep tax rules that spur coverage Senate tax plan would scrap ... Foundation AMA Insurance Copyright 1995 - 2017 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. Terms of Use Privacy Policy ...

  3. The American dream

    OpenAIRE

    Camanho, Gilberto Luis

    2015-01-01

    The American dream : literar. Spiegelungen. - In: Weltmacht USA / hrsg. von Josef Becker ... - München : Vögel, 1976. - S. 31-48. - (Schriften der Philosophischen Fachbereiche der Universität Augsburg ; 10)

  4. Singing American History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Fred

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how to use music when teaching U.S. History. Provides examples such as teaching about the Civil War, the Great Depression, and the Vietnam War and showing the contributions of African Americans. Includes a discography. (CMK)

  5. American Pediatric Surgical Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Pediatric Surgical Association Search for: Login Resources + For Members For Professionals For Training Program Directors For Media For ... Surgical Outcomes Surveys & Results Publications Continuing Education + ExPERT Pediatric Surgery NaT Annual Meeting CME MOC Requirements Residents / ...

  6. American Heart Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Americans live with heart disease, stroke or a cardiovascular condition. Your donation will help us save and improve their lives with research, education and emergency care. Warning Signs If you or someone else is ...

  7. American Epilepsy Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for the AES Annual Meeting. More info here . Epilepsy Currents American Epilepsy Society Journal Impact Factor More ... P450 enzyme overexpression during spontaneous recurrent seizures More Epilepsy Professional News AES Status Epilepticus guideline for treatment ...

  8. Profile: Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vietnamese, 46 percent of Chinese, 23 percent of Filipinos and 21 percent of Asian Indians are not fluent in English. In 2015, 75.5 percent of Asian American spoke a language other than English at home. Educational Attainment: According ...

  9. NATO: Revisiting American Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    NATO: Revisiting American Commitment by Captain Thomas F Hurley II United States Navy United...STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT .33 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NATO: Revisiting American Commitment 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...the 21st century. The strategic benefit to the United States may no longer be worth the commitment to the alliance. The U.S. should reevaluate its

  10. American Studies in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Federmayer

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of American Studies as an academic discipline at Hungarian colleges and universities is basically coterminous with the watershed years of 1989-1990 when the country made a radical shift from state socialism toward parliamentary democracy and a free economy. This political and economic about-face, which came hand in hand with the undermining of foundationalist certainties and the generation of new anxieties coincided, more or less, with the radical transformation that American St...

  11. African Anglo American

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadwick, J.

    1993-11-01

    The South-African based Anglo-American Corp. dominates the mining industries of South Africa and Botswana and is very important in Namibia, Zimbabwe and Zambia. Most recently it has started prospecting in Tanzania once again. This article discusses the corporation's interests in Africa, gold, copper, diamonds, platinum, nickel and coal, and its interest in South American copper and various African metal industries. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Americanization of Non-American Storiesin Disney Films

    OpenAIRE

    Setiawati, Beta

    2008-01-01

    The study is intended to know the Disney’s animation films characteristics which are adapted from non American stories that contain Americanization in order to be American popular culture products. This qualitative and library research is carried out within the field of American Studies. Disney’s animated films which are regarded as artifacts in order to identify American society and culture is used as her primary data. She then compares those Disney films with the original stories to discove...

  13. Expanding the Secondary Literature Curriculum: Annotated Bibliographies of American Indian, Asian American, and Hispanic American Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Ogle B.; Tongchinsub, Helen J.

    1990-01-01

    Aids teachers looking for literature selections of established literary worth which reflect the diversity of American culture. Discusses briefly the history and development of American Indian, Asian American, and Hispanic American literature. Offers annotated bibliographies of selections appropriate for use in secondary schools. (SR)

  14. American Dream / Anu Raat

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raat, Anu

    2010-01-01

    Uuritakse sõnapaari "American dream" tähendust, kuidas ja millal see unelmalugu tekkis, miks see on ameerikalik nähtus, samuti 1950-ndate moeloomingut, eriti Christian Diori oma Euroopas ja Ameerikas, selle põhjusi ja mõjusid seoses massilise tarbimisega

  15. Americans with Disabilities Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaesberg, Mary Ann; Murray, Kenneth T.

    1994-01-01

    Presents a 35-item checklist of practical activities for school district compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The checklist is based on ADA statutes, other civil rights legislation and litigation, as well as pertinent regulations and the legislative history of the act contained in the Congressional Record. (MLF)

  16. American Academy of Audiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public Relations Toolkit and Hotline to Get Your Practice and Profession into the Media Audiology News 16 Nov A Movement Was Born: ... Academy of Audiology Publications and Resources Audiology Today Journal of the American Academy of Audiology ... About Us Academy Information ...

  17. Teaching Asian American Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Linda H.

    2000-01-01

    Uses data from interviews with parents of Asian American students, observations, and literature reviews to identify cultural and language issues that must be considered in teaching this population. The paper discusses the history of Asian immigrants, attitudes toward education among Asians, the relationship between teaching styles and Asian…

  18. Grant Wood: "American Gothic."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Diane M.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan which exposes students in grades 10-12 to the visual symbols and historical references contained in Grant Wood's "American Gothic." Includes background information on the artist and the painting, instructional strategies, a studio activity, and evaluation criteria. (GEA)

  19. American Indian Community Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    One Feather, Gerald

    With the emergence of reservation based community colleges (th Navajo Community College and the Dakota Community Colleges), the American Indian people, as decision makers in these institutions, are providing Indians with the technical skills and cultural knowledge necessary for self-determination. Confronted with limited numbers of accredited…

  20. Civic Innovation & American Democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirianni, Carmen; Friedland, Lewis

    1997-01-01

    Argues that American democracy is at a critical stage of development, with declining trust in government, citizens feeling displaced by a professional political class, derailed public interest, and policy that limits citizen deliberation and responsibility. Some instances of civic innovation, community organization, civic journalism, and efforts…

  1. Arab American Voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Loretta

    Through speeches, newspaper accounts, poems, memoirs, interviews, and other materials by and about Arab Americans, this collection explores issues central to what it means to be of Arab descent in the United States today. Each of the entries is accompanied by an introduction, biographical and historical information, a glossary for the selection,…

  2. The Native American Speaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberg, Walter; And Others

    This publication is the product of several workshops and is aimed at multi-ethnic integration of teacher attitudes, curriculum content, and teaching techniques. The 7 articles and 3 bibliographies, contributed by Native American consultants, emphasize recognition and alteration of bias in teacher attitudes, curriculum content, and teaching…

  3. Native American Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabokov, Peter; Easton, Robert

    This book presents building traditions of the major Indian tribes in nine regions of the North American continent, from the huge, plankhouse villages of the Northwest Coast, to the moundbuilder towns and temples of the Southeast, to the Navajo hogans and adobe pueblos of the Southwest. Indian buildings are a central element of Indian culture, the…

  4. Glabridin from Chinese herb licorice inhibits fatigue in mice | Shang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body mass, blood lactic acid (BLA), serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN), liver glycogen and muscle glycogen concentrations in mice were determined. Results showed that glabridin significantly inhibited fatigue, which extended the exhaustive exercise time of mice, effectively delayed the elevation of blood lactic acid and ...

  5. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Seed Oil from Chinese Licorice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    2005-12-17

    CO2) extraction. The oil was analysed by GC-MS after methylation. Compounds were identified according to their mass spectra (EI, 70 eV) by comparison with authentic reference substances and literature data. Five fatty acids ...

  6. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Seed Oil from Chinese Licorice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CO2) extraction. The oil was analysed by GC-MS after methylation. Compounds were identified according to their mass spectra (EI, 70 eV) by comparison with authentic reference substances and literature data. Five fatty acids were identified, with ...

  7. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Seed Oil from Chinese Licorice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    2005-12-17

    Dec 17, 2005 ... The effects of extraction time, pressure, temperature and CO2 flow rate on seed oil yield were investigated. Results showed that, under dynamic .... On one hand, the solubility increased at elevated temperature,12. RESEARCH ARTICLE ... GC peak areas by a normalization method. The components of the ...

  8. The American Armies: 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Liberation Front) in El Salvador has evaporated, paving the way for resolution of El Salvador’s civil conflict. A minor "reverse domino" effect is...being felt throughout Latin America. As the conflict in El Salvador subsided, Honduran fears about the size of El Salvadoran forces have eased, resulting...30 American nations, especially since US. participation in the overthrow of Allende in 1973.21 Bolivia’s aspirations for direct access to the Pacific

  9. Mental Health and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  10. American Head and Neck Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Head & Neck Society Mission Statement: Advance Education, Research, and Quality of Care for the head and neck oncology patient. American Head & Neck Society | AHNS The mission of the AHNS is to ...

  11. Native Americans' Interest in Horticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Mary Hockenberry

    1999-01-01

    Focus groups arranged by local Native American Master Gardeners on two Minnesota reservations determined community interest in extension-horticulture programs. Topics of interest included food preservation and historical Native-American uses of plants. (SK)

  12. Discrimination against Muslim American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroian, Karen J.

    2012-01-01

    Although there is ample evidence of discrimination toward Muslim Americans in general, there is limited information specific to Muslim American adolescents. The few existing studies specific to this age group suggest that Muslim American adolescents encounter much discrimination from teachers, school administrators, and classmates. This…

  13. Native American Ceremonial Athletic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, Wilma J.

    This is a report on the relationship of North American Indian athletic games to ceremonies. Data for this investigation were researched from 48 "Annual Reports of the Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution" published from 1881 to 1933, and the 84 volumes of the "American Anthropologist" published from 1888 to 1974. Observational…

  14. American Food and World Hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarra, Fred R.; Long, Cathryn J., Eds.

    1983-01-01

    Describes activities to help students in grades 7-9 learn about American food production and distribution. Students learn about the American diet over the centuries; the production of American Corn; the meaning of the term hunger; and the need for protein. (CS)

  15. African-American wildland memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassandra Y. Johnson; J. Michael Bowker

    2004-01-01

    Collective memory can be used conceptually to examine African-American perceptions of wildlands and black interaction with such places. The middle--American view of wildlands frames these terrains as refuges--pure and simple, sanctified places distinct from the profanity of human modification. However, wild, primitive areas do not exist in the minds of all Americans as...

  16. Celebrating National American Indian Heritage Month

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mann, Diane

    2004-01-01

    .... Installation planning for American Indian Heritage Month should incorporate cultural traditions and history specific to Native Americans of the area, patriotism of Native Americans who have served...

  17. History of Asian American psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Frederick T L; Okazaki, Sumie

    2009-10-01

    An overview of the history of Asian American psychology is provided by reviewing the context for the development of the field as well as the early founding of the Asian American Psychological Association (AAPA). The presidents of AAPA as well as key events and conferences are noted. The involvement of AAPA leaders in national mental health policies and activities are reviewed. The substantive areas of Asian American psychology and the education and training of Asian American psychologists are also discussed. The article ends with some comments about the future of Asian American psychology. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Anglo American plc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Anglo American plc with its subsidiaries, joint ventures and associates, is a world leader in gold, platinum group metals and diamonds, is one of the world's largest private-sector coal producers, and has interests in base and ferrous metals, industrial minerals and forest products. The first Safety, Health and Environment (SHE) report, covers these aspects of the company's business and reports case studies at operations worldwide. These include achievements by Anglo Coal in its South African operations and Carbones del Cerrejon in Colombia.

  19. The american dental dream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    The American Dental Dream-the cultural desire for straight, white teeth-is difficult, if not impossible, for poor and working-class people to achieve. Using ethnographic fiction, autoethnography, poetry, and qualitative interviewing, I brush away the taken-for-granted assumptions about teeth. I explore the personal, relational, and structural consequences of this cultural desire, and show how social class writes itself on our bodies. I write these culture-centered teeth tales to show how one might cope with their teeth.

  20. American Nations, Latin States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Nelson Ahumada

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The nation, as artifact of modernity, assumes particularities in America such as the colonization and genocide of original peoples which still weighs as a never ending comeback. Nevertheless, capital, with its overwhelming force, destroyed peoples, cultures, traditions and landscapes. Latin America faces the challenge of uniting beyond the necessities of capital, and beyond two languages, spanish and portuguese. All of which has full validity at present with the blocks UNASUR and ALBA. Ethnocentricity is postulated as the exclusive condition of all possible humanity and, as programme, racism without races; Latin American miscegenation, as the potential for unity and the strength of emancipation as a project. Our intellectuals, who constructed a unique and superlative literature, are the lighthouses in the development of a nationalism without races. Anthropology in debate with psychoanalysis can become a compass in rethinking our America.

  1. American foundations : roles and contributions

    OpenAIRE

    Anheier, Helmut K.; Hammack, David

    2010-01-01

    Foundations play an essential part in the philanthropic activity that defines so much of American life. No other nation provides its foundations with so much autonomy and freedom of action as does the United States. Liberated both from the daily discipline of the market and from direct control by government, American foundations understandably attract great attention. As David Hammack and Helmut Anheier note in this volume, "Americans have criticized foundations for... their alleged conservat...

  2. The American University of Beirut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø

    2016-01-01

    in the Middle East and China and the new cases of transnational, private higher education flourishing in the Middle East and the wider Global South. AUB and these universities are central cases in International Relations for studying transnational actors and their transnational power. Universities have been...... with American society through its board of trustees. American civil society has been a major financial partner since the missionary days to modern day foundation philanthropy. American business has supported the university and recruited its graduates. American government has supported the university financially...

  3. American Academy of Pain Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 7. GET STARTED AAPM... the Voice of Pain Medicine Become part of the distinguished multimodal, interdisciplinary community of pain medicine clinicians. Join Today! Welcome The American Academy of ...

  4. "American Gothic" Revised: Positive Perceptions from a Young American Farmer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joehl, Regan R.

    2008-01-01

    Grant Wood's "American Gothic," intended to represent the Depression Era, Midwestern farmer, has been regarded by many as the stereotypical representation of a true American farmer for decades. While this painting does represent farmers in the early part of the 20th century, the author feels obliged to say that it is time to drop this…

  5. Multiculturalism and "American" Religion: The Case of Hindu Indian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Prema A.

    2006-01-01

    How non-Christian religious groups should be politically recognized within Western multicultural societies has proved to be a pressing contemporary issue. This article examines some ways in which American policies regarding religion and multiculturalism have shaped Hindu Indian American organizations, forms of public expression and activism.…

  6. Arab American Women Negotiating Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, Oraib

    2012-01-01

    Compared to the literature available on other ethnic groups in the United States, there is very little information about school experiences of Arab Americans (Nieto, 2003). This study examines the ways that Arab American women reported positioning themselves when faced with difficult situations related to stereotypical images of Arabs and Arab…

  7. A Slice of American Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirker, Sara Schmickle

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project for second-grade students based on American Regionalist Grant Wood's most famous painting, "American Gothic," which was modeled by his sister, Nan, and his dentist. This well-loved painting depicting a hard-working farmer and his daughter standing in front of their farmhouse is the project's…

  8. American Samoa: Energy Action Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ness, J. Erik [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Haase, Scott [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Conrad, Misty [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This document outlines actions being taken to reduce American Samoa's petroleum consumption. It describes the four near-term strategies selected by the American Samoa Renewable Energy Committee during action-planning workshops conducted in May 2016, and describes the steps that will need to be taken to implement those strategies.

  9. Family Values in American Drama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joanne

    When an educator was invited by a Chinese university to teach a seminar in American drama, she used "family drama" as the organizing theme of her course because she was (and is) convinced that from Eugene O'Neill on, American playwrights have been obsessed with family disintegration and the failure of family harmony. This paper is an…

  10. Native American Foods and Cookery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tom; Potter, Eloise F.

    Native Americans had a well-developed agriculture long before the arrival of the Europeans. Three staples--corn, beans, and squash--were supplemented with other gathered plants or cultivated crops such as white potatoes, sweet potatoes, pumpkins, and peanuts. Native Americans had no cows, pigs, or domesticated chickens; they depended almost…

  11. Native American Women: Leadership Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Dorothy L.

    1978-01-01

    Personal rewards for American Indian women in bicultural leadership roles are largely lacking due to the dilemmas rooted in the ambiguity of the two social structures between which they move. Despite strains and pressures, many of these women are making their voices heard on native American issues. (Author/GC)

  12. History of American Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Margaret Cain

    2011-01-01

    "History of American Higher Education" documents the fascinating evolution of American colleges and universities, touching on the historical events that shaped them, from the colonial era through the early twenty-first century. Throughout history, higher education has played an important role in the transmission of cultural identity from…

  13. American Foreign Policy: Regional Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-15

    Generic CMYK printer profile Composite Default screen William B. Ruger Chair of National Security Economics Papers Number 4 American Foreign Policy...American comparative ad- vantage, including the liberalization of textile and agricultural policies in the United States, thereby leveling the playing

  14. Colonial American Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeomans, Donald K.

    2007-12-01

    While a foundation of German scientific methods enabled the rapid growth of North American Astronomy in the nineteenth century, during the seventeenth and most of the eighteenth centuries, the colonial men of science looked only to the English mother country for scientific patronage and guidance. An essay on fundamental astronomy appeared in one of the annual colonial almanacs as early as 1656, telescopic observations were made about 1660 and the first original colonial astronomical work was published by Thomas Danforth on the comet of 1664. By 1671 the Copernican ideas were so espoused at Harvard College that a physics class refused to read a Ptolemaic textbook when it was assigned to them by a senior instructor. At least in the Cambridge-Boston area, contemporary colonialist had access to the most recent scientific publications from the mother country. Observations of the great comet of 1680 by the Almanac maker, John Foster, reached Isaac Newton and were used and gratefully acknowledged in his Principia. During the seventeenth century the colonial interest in astronomy was more intense than it was for other sciences but colonists still occupied a position in the scientific backwater when compared with contemporary European scientists. Nevertheless, the science of astronomy was successfully transplanted from England to North America in the seventeenth century.

  15. American canine hepatozoonosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panciera, R J; Ewing, S A

    2003-06-01

    American canine hepatozoonosis is an emerging, tick-transmitted infection of domestic dogs caused by a recently recognized species of apicomplexan parasite, Hepatozoon americanum. The known definitive host of the protozoan is the Gulf Coast tick, Amblyomma maculatum. Presently recognized intermediate hosts include the domestic dog and the coyote, Canis latrans. Laboratory-reared larval or nymphal A. maculatum can be infected readily by feeding to repletion on a parasitemic intermediate host; sporogony requires 35-40 days. Transmission of infection to the dog has been produced experimentally by oral administration of mature oocysts or oocyst-containing ticks. Canine disease follows experimental exposure in 4-6 weeks and is characterized by systemic illness, extreme neutrophilic leukocytosis, muscle and bone pain, and proliferation of periosteal bone. Histopathological findings include multifocal skeletal and cardiac myositis associated with escape of mature merozoites from within the host-cell environment. There is also rapid onset of periosteal activation and osteogenesis and, less frequently, glomerulopathy and amyloidosis. Sequential stages of development of H. americanum in both the dog and the tick have been elucidated. Gamonts potentially infectious to ticks have been observed in peripheral blood leukocytes of the dog in as few as 28 days after exposure to oocysts. Young coyotes experimentally exposed to a canine strain of H. americanum acquired disease indistinguishable from that of similarly exposed young dogs.

  16. North American Regional Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    North America is an energy community fortunate to be endowed with a rich and varied resource base. It consumes about a third of the world's energy and produces about one quarter of world energy supply. North America depends on a mix of complementary energy sources that should remain competitive but not in conflict. The current supply mix varies between Canada, the United States and Mexico, but fossil fuels are dominant across the region, leaving the three member countries vulnerable to a myriad of risks associated with traditional supply sources. Energy trade between all three countries is also a major contributor to the region's economy. Thus, the impetus for collaboration across the region has grown out of the common goals of energy security and economic prosperity. The goal of the WEC regional group was to discuss avenues for advancing North American cooperation and coordination on a range of energy issues. An additional objective was to develop policy recommendations that will facilitate effective development and use of the region's energy resources. Results and recommendtaions are summarized from three forums that focused on the pertinent issues of energy trade, energy efficiency and energy diversification. The inaugural forum (Energy Trade) was held in Washington, D.C. in the fall of 2005. The following summer, the second forum (Energy Efficiency) took place in Mexico City. The third forum (Energy Diversification) was hosted in Halifax, Nova Scotia.

  17. Discrimination against Muslim American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroian, Karen J

    2012-06-01

    Although there is ample evidence of discrimination toward Muslim Americans in general, there is limited information specific to Muslim American adolescents. The few existing studies specific to this age group suggest that Muslim American adolescents encounter much discrimination from teachers, school administrators, and classmates. This descriptive qualitative study complements the few existing studies on Muslim American adolescents by obtaining in-depth description of the discrimination they encounter. The sample was 14 Muslim American adolescents who participated in one of two gender-specific focus groups about their discrimination experiences. Findings identified school settings as rife with discrimination toward Muslims, portrayed Muslim girls as at risk for harassment by strangers in public places, and illustrated how Muslim youth cope with discrimination. The study findings sensitize school nurses to the nature of the problem and provide direction for intervention.

  18. The American University of Beirut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø

    2016-01-01

    ) and modern day American–associated universities in the Middle East. Much policy attention, but little scholarly attention has been devoted to the question of soft power of especially higher education in the USA and much less American overseas higher education. This chapter will present analysis on the soft......This chapter will present the American University of Beirut as a central case for the study and discussion of the university as a transnational actor with possible transnational power in international politics. It will place the AUB among the cases of classical American missionary universities...... and politically. The chapter compares the transnational relations of the AUB, the other classical American overseas universities with missionary roots in the Middle East (AUC and LAU), the more than 20 American higher education institutions founded in China around 1900 (which did not survive the Korean War...

  19. Differences in Family-of-Origin Perceptions Among African American, Anglo-American, and Hispanic American College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdman, Phyllis; Kane, Connie M.

    1998-01-01

    Examines African American, Anglo-American, and Hispanic American college students' perceptions of their family of origin. African American students rated their families higher than the other two groups on autonomy and intimacy. There were no significant differences between males and females or between Anglo-American students and Hispanic American…

  20. Gothic roots: Brockden Brown's Wieland, American identity, and American literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata R. Mautner Wasserman

    2012-11-01

    Charles Brockden Brown’s Wieland (1798, one of the first novels by an American author set in the newly formed United States, and dealing with American topics, is generally classed as a “Gothic” novel and read as exploring issues of national identity. The Gothic form, popular in English literature, where it gave sensationalistic treatment to matters of gender, class, national identity and religious affiliation, proved adaptable to conditions overseas. Wieland, however, is less sanguine about the success of the nation-building and independence-achieving enterprise than other, later, novels of American national identity.

  1. Immigration reform, American style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papademetriou, D G

    1984-01-01

    This article reviews the background of the proposed Immigration and Reform Act (also known as the Simpson-Mazzoli bill), which seeks to overhaul US immigration law for the first time since 1952. This bill is consistent with President Reagan's hard line on border enforcement and mandates stiff penalties for those who transport illegal aliens for commercial advantage or private profit. It further offers Mexico preferential treatment in immigration (40,000 additional visas/year). It includes an amnesty program to offer legal status to qualified illegal residents. The bill directs the President to develop a secure national worker identification system and would create a large-scale temporary foreign agricultural program for perishable commodities. Agricultural workers' families would not be eligible to accompany them unless they also obtain temporary visas. Foreign temporary workers, employable only in cases where local domestic workers are not available, must be provided with wages and working conditions equal to those prevailing among domestic workers. Stiff penalties are stipulated for employers who fail to abide with the terms of the program. In the author's opinion, this bill fails to appreciate the global character of international migration and its complexity. It relects a fundamental ambivalence about a strictly controlled main gate versus a back door approach to immigration as well as the conflicting images of the US as a nation of immigrants versus the historical reality of American nativism and xenophobia. Needed are comprehensive initiatives whose mutually reinforcing components can address the multiple dimensions of the immigration problem within a framework that does not ignore workers who have contributed to the economic well-being of the US, regardless of their legal status.

  2. Immigration and the American century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschman, Charles

    2005-11-01

    The full impact of immigration on American society is obscured in policy and academic analyses that focus on the short-term problems of immigrant adjustment. With a longer-term perspective, which includes the socioeconomic roles of the children of immigrants, immigration appears as one of the defining characteristics of twentieth-century America. Major waves of immigration create population diversity with new languages and cultures, but over time, while immigrants and their descendants become more "American," the character of American society and culture is transformed. In the early decades of the twentieth century, immigrants and their children were the majority of the workforce in many of the largest industrial cities; in recent decades, the arrival of immigrants and their families has slowed the demographic and economic decline of some American cities. The presence of immigrants probably creates as many jobs for native-born workers as are lost through displacement. Immigrants and their children played an important role in twentieth-century American politics and were influential in the development of American popular culture during the middle decades of the twentieth century. Intermarriage between the descendants of immigrants and old-stock Americans fosters a national identity based on civic participation rather than ancestry.

  3. North American oil demand outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.B.

    1995-01-01

    An understanding of the relationship of economic growth and potential petroleum product demand is needed to forecast the potential for North American oil demand growth as well as knowledge of world supply and price. The bullish expectations for economic growth in the US and Canada auger well for North American refiners and marketeers. The growth in world economic output forecast, however, means a larger oil demand and an increase in OPEC's pricing power. Such price increases could depress North American oil demand growth. (author)

  4. Performing Transnational Arab American Womanhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koegeler-Abdi, Martina

    2016-01-01

    her narrative performance within the histories of American orientalism, the emerging Cold War, and ethnic beauty pageants to provide a better understanding of the specific intersection in these 1950s hegemonic discourses that framed and enabled her public agency. Her analysis then looks at how Hakim...... herself strategically cites these discourses in her self-fashioning to claim her own subject position as a white Arab and American woman during the 1950s. She argues that, while most Arab American authors at this time avoid a serious Arab ethnic affiliation, Rosemary Hakim already proudly uses...

  5. American Samoa Energy Action Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haase, Scott [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Esterly, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Herdrich, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bodell, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Visser, Charles [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Describes the five near-term strategies selected by the American Samoa Renewable Energy Committee (ASREC) during action planning workshops conducted in May 2013, and outlines the actions being taken to implement those strategies. Each option is tied to a priority identified in the earlier draft American Samoa Strategic Energy Plan as being an essential component of reducing American Samoa'spetroleum energy consumption. The actions described for each strategy provide a roadmap to facilitate the implementation of each strategy. This document is intended to evolve along with the advancement of the projects, and will be updated to reflect progress.

  6. Americanization of Non-American Storiesin Disney Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beta Setiawati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study is intended to know the Disney’s animation films characteristics which are adapted from non American stories that contain Americanization in order to be American popular culture products. This qualitative and library research is carried out within the field of American Studies. Disney’s animated films which are regarded as artifacts in order to identify American society and culture is used as her primary data. She then compares those Disney films with the original stories to discover the changes in making those stories become American popular products. She furthermore uses the sources such as books, magazines, journals, articles, and also internet data for her secondary data. The result of this study shows that most of folk narratives which were used in Disney films were adapted from other countries’ stories. However, Disney intentionally adapts foreign countries’ stories in its animated films by using Disney formula to blow up the sale of its products. Since Disney is one of the most powerful media conglomerates in the world, it works endlessly to set out world entertainment. Disney formula in its animated films which has dominated those adapted films are only intended to obtain as much profit as possible without paying attention to the values in children entertainment.

  7. Geothermal energy for American Samoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    The geothermal commercialization potential in American Samoa was investigated. With geothermal energy harnessed in American Samoa, a myriad of possibilities would arise. Existing residential and business consumers would benefit from reduced electricity costs. The tuna canneries, demanding about 76% of the island's process heat requirements, may be able to use process heat from a geothermal source. Potential new industries include health spas, aquaculture, wood products, large domestic and transhipment refrigerated warehouses, electric cars, ocean nodule processing, and a hydrogen economy. There are no territorial statutory laws of American Samoa claiming or reserving any special rights (including mineral rights) to the territorial government, or other interests adverse to a land owner, for subsurface content of real property. Technically, an investigation has revealed that American Samoa does possess a geological environment conducive to geothermal energy development. Further studies and test holes are warranted.

  8. Association of American Indian Physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the OMH website Tribal Stories Needed for CDC Museum Exhibition Stories should highlight how Native traditions and ... of American Indian Physicians. Website designed by Back40 Design & managed by Javelin CMS

  9. American College of Emergency Physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Career Center is where you can find your dream job Search Jobs Now Tweets about "@ACEPNow OR # ... For You emCareers.org Insurance Programs Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians emCareers.org Terms of ...

  10. Teaching French via American Football

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berwald, Jean-Pierre

    1974-01-01

    Outlines the methods of using football in teaching French in the American classroom by using French Canadian newspapers and other visual media available in the United States, in addition to specific language activities. (LG)

  11. American Health Information Management Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Government Corporate & Government Training Signature Partners Sponsorship Exhibitors Advertise With AHIMA Copyright & Permissions Privacy Policy RSS LinkedIn Facebook Twitter YouTube Copyright © 2017 by The American Health ...

  12. American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Position Statements Publications Bookstore American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry Legislative & Regulatory Agenda AAGP eNews (Members Only) Tools ... Funding Training Resources and Curricula For Clinicians >> Geriatric Psychiatry Identifier Webinar: Billing and Coding Consumer Material Clinical ...

  13. Central American and Caribbean Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather and soil temperature observations from foreign countries, taken by foreign and American observers. Includes NOAA forms collected and archived at NCDC, and...

  14. African Americans and Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Council: nationalMSsociety.org/African- AmericansandMS African Americans & Multiple Sclerosis GENER AL INFORMATION MS STOPS PEOPLE FROM MOVING. ... Judy, diagnosed in 1982 What is MS? Multiple sclerosis (MS), an unpredictable, often disabling disease of the ...

  15. American acceptance of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, W.

    1980-01-01

    The characteristic adventurous spirit that built American technology will eventually lead to American acceptance of nuclear power unless an overpowering loss of nerve causes us to reject both nuclear technology and world leadership. The acceptance of new technology by society has always been accompanied by activist opposition to industralization. To resolve the debate between environmental and exploitive extremists, we must accept with humility the basic premise that human accomplishment is a finite part of nature

  16. African American Health PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-05-02

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the May 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. The life expectancy of African Americans has improved, but it’s still an average of four years less than whites. Learn what can be done so all Americans can have the opportunity to pursue a healthy lifestyle.  Created: 5/2/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/2/2017.

  17. Health promotion for older Americans.

    OpenAIRE

    Heckler, M M

    1985-01-01

    As American lifespans increase, there is greater concern for the quality of those longer lives. The Department of Health and Human Services, through its many component agencies, has inaugurated a major initiative to promote health and fitness among older Americans to improve life quality and to reduce health care costs. The older population is a fertile ground for such an initiative, because studies indicate that the elderly are extremely health-conscious and very willing to adopt habits that...

  18. Examining Factors Influencing Asian American and Latino American Students' College Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang-Yeung, Leilani Weichun

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation examines the gap in college enrollment between Asian Americans and Latino Americans regarding the effects of family and school factors, classifying them into the six ethnic/generational status groups (Asian American first generation, Asian American second generation, Asian American third generation and plus, Latino American first…

  19. Transfusion medicine on American television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, J K

    2014-02-01

    Television is a beloved American pastime and a frequent American export. As such, American television shapes how the global public views the world. This study examines how the portrayal of blood transfusion and blood donation on American television may influence how domestic and international audiences perceive the field of transfusion medicine. American television programming of the last quarter-century was reviewed to identify programmes featuring topics related to blood banking/transfusion medicine. The included television episodes were identified through various sources. Twenty-seven television episodes airing between 1991 and 2013 were identified as featuring blood bank/transfusion medicine topics. Although some accurate representations of the field were identified, most television programmes portrayed blood banking/transfusion medicine inaccurately. The way in which blood banking/transfusion medicine is portrayed on American television may assist clinicians in understanding their patient's concerns about blood safety and guide blood collection organisations in improving donor recruitment. © 2013 The Author. Transfusion Medicine © 2013 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  20. Celebrating National American Indian Heritage Month

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mann, Diane

    2004-01-01

    November has been designated National American Indian Heritage Month to honor American Indians and Alaska Natives by increasing awareness of their culture, history, and, especially, their tremendous...

  1. Examining cultural socialization within African American and European American households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Kenneth M; Dillihunt, Monica L; Boykin, A Wade; Coleman, Sean T; Scott, Darla M; Tyler, Christina M B; Hurley, Eric A

    2008-07-01

    This preliminary study explored the cultural socialization processes of 227 African American and European American parents of elementary schoolchildren. The Cultural Value Socialization Scales (K. M. Tyler, A. W. Boykin, C. M. Boelter, & M. L. Dillihunt, 2005) were used to garner parents' reports of their cultural value socialization activities at home. The scales contained written vignettes depicting persons involved in activity that reflected a specific cultural value. Ethnocultural values examined were communalism, verve, movement, and affect, and mainstream cultural values included individualism, competition, bureaucracy, and materialism. Regression analyses reveal that being an African American parent was predictive of competition and materialism scores. Race was not a significant predictor of the remaining cultural value socialization scores. Limitations to the study are discussed. Copyright (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Sociolinguistics features of humor in american linguoculture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article we study the characteristics of the language of representation and perception of American humour, its linguistic and cultural features in humorous texts of American comics from the American linguistic culture. The material for research is the humorous texts and fragments of the performances of American ...

  3. Pavlov's position toward American behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windholz, G

    1983-10-01

    Pavlov's development of the conditional reflex theory coincided with the rise of American behaviorism. Substituting an objective physiology for a subjective psychology, Pavlov saw in the rise of American behaviorism a clear confirmation of his method and theory. But in the early 1930s, Lashley attacked Pavlov's theory of specific cerebral localization of function, proposing instead the concept of an internal cerebral organization; Guthrie objected to Pavlov's centralist interpretation of conditioning, proposing instead a peripheralist interpretation; while Hull challenged Pavlov's theory of sleep and hypnosis as the manifestations of inhibition. Pavlov replied with critiques of Lashley's, Guthrie's, and Hull's views, and, convinced that Lashley and Guthrie misunderstood his position, repeated his method's and theory's basic propositions. Yet, Pavlov never gave up the expectation that American behaviorism would accept his conditional reflex theory and saw in Hunter's 1932 statements a support of his assumptions.

  4. Dietary acculturation in Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafica, Reimund C

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to promote a better understanding of the construct of dietary acculturation in recent years and how it affects dietary intake of Asian-American population. Four databases were searched simultaneously using the following key terms: Asian-Americans, dietary practices, eating habits, and dietary acculturation. A total of seven articles were relevant and met the inclusion criteria. The findings from these studies of dietary acculturation in Asian Americans are generally in agreement with other dietary acculturation research conducted in non-Asian population samples. Although the studies presented in this literature review represent the recent researches conducted in Asian populations in the US, the research in dietary acculturation remains sparse.

  5. Latin American Theology and Religious Pluralism: A Latin American Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascante-Gomez, Fernando A.

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes recent efforts by Latin-American theologians concerned with developing a pluralist theology of liberation. The author highlights some of the most significant issues and themes of this emerging theological reflection among liberation theologians. Finally, he identifies some of the challenges a pluralist theology of…

  6. American Indians, American Dreams, and the Meaning of Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Stephen

    1987-01-01

    Sees a 1987 Supreme Court decision allowing California tribes to continue operating high-stakes gambling operations as a milestone on the path to the Indian dream of community survival and collective political power. Contrasts this dream with the traditional American Dream of individual economic achievement. Contains 14 references. (SV)

  7. Classic African American Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, Jonda C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to assert that there are classic African American children's books and to identify a sampling of them. The author presents multiple definitions of the term classic based on the responses of children's literature experts and relevant scholarship. Next, the manner in which data were collected and analyzed in regard to…

  8. American Indians as Economic Decisionmakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Jean; Gash, David

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that U.S. history did not begin with the colonization of North America by Europeans but with the Native American tribes that flourished prior to colonization. Discusses economic issues that determined the history and culture of various tribes. Provides a lesson plan based on economic decisions made by the Choctaw tribe. (CFR)

  9. American Samoa's forest resources, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph A. Donnegan; Sheri S. Mann; Sarah L. Butler; Bruce A. Hiserote

    2004-01-01

    The Forest Inventory and Analysis Program of the Pacific Northwest Research Station collected, analyzed, and summarized data from field plots, and mapped land cover on four islands in American Samoa. This statistical sample provides estimates of forest area, stem volume, biomass, numbers of trees, damages to trees, and tree size distribution. The summary provides...

  10. Arab American Experiences in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Based upon field study and a review of the literature, this paper sought to describe the educational experiences that are common in the Middle East and North Africa. The paper explained the curriculum and pedagogy that are most commonly found in Arab schools. It also addresses the misconceptions that many Americans have regarding Arab education.…

  11. /S/ in Central American Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipski, John M.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the behavior of the phoneme /s/ in Central American Spanish by comparing the speech patterns of residents of Guatemala City, San Salvador, Tegucigalpa, San Jose, and Managua. Considers the possible diachronic processes which could have given rise to the current configurations and the theoretical consequences implied by the…

  12. Pedagogics in Mexican American Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, E. Lou

    A pedagogy appropriate to college level courses and comprised of interdisciplinary content, multidisciplinary faculty, and students from diverse academic backgrounds and with varying levels of skills merits development. A taxonomy of some of the difficulties in the construction of such a course in Mexican American studies, for example, focuses on…

  13. Indigenous agroforestry in American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malala (Mike) Misa; Agnes M. Vargo

    1993-01-01

    Agroforestry exists in American Samoa as a system where indigenous trees and natural vegetation used for food, fuelwood, crafts and medicine are incorporated with traditional staple crops and livestock on a set piece of land, usually a mountainous slope. Most agroforests are taro-based (Colocasia esculenta). While nutritional, cultural, social,...

  14. Native Americans in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Dauna B.; Evans, Wayne H.

    Colleges and universities have failed to meet the unique educational needs of Native American students, whose attrition rates are far in excess of those of other students. These students must come to terms with their cultural identity while functioning within the culturally alien framework presented by the school. Federally funded programs have…

  15. Filipino Americans: Transformation and Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Maria P. P., Ed.

    Throughout the United States, many Filipino Americans, especially students, are beginning to want to know more about their cultural heritage and future. Overall, there has been very little written to transmit knowledge about Filipino history, ideas, and values, even though Filipinos make up the largest Asian ethnic group in the United States.…

  16. RANA CATESBEIANA (AMERICAN BULLFROG) DIET

    Science.gov (United States)

    RANA CATESBELANA (American Bullfrog). DIET. Data were obtained opportunistically from 28 adult (M = 14; F = 14) bullftogs collected in April 2001 from the Meadow Valley Wash located between the cities of Carp and Elgin, Lincoln County, Nevada, USA (N37'17':WI14'30'). Alth...

  17. Marketing to Older American Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Barbara; Stephens, Nancy

    1986-01-01

    Examined older adults as a potential market for American businesses. Data indicate that in terms of size and income, senior citizens comprise a substantial buying group. Their buying styles, product and service needs, and shopping behavior vary from younger adults and within the older adult population. Strategies for successful marketing are…

  18. Alcohol Education via American Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celluci, Tony; Larsen, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Describes two courses utilizing modern American fiction, poetry, and drama in which vivid depictions of the disasters wrought by excessive drinking are found. Posits these as examples of how literature that addresses problems related to drinking and alcoholism can be used in a focused way in alcohol education. (LKS)

  19. Rethinking Native American Language Revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Frederick

    2006-01-01

    As many linguists continue to work with and analyze First Nations/Native American languages, the consensus opinion usually direly predicts the loss of daily use for almost all of the extant Indigenous languages. Tremendous efforts are being expended for renewing, revitalizing, and restoring these languages to everyday use. The model upon which…

  20. American Elements in Czech Parody

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hemelíková, Blanka

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 1 (2015), s. 102-113 ISSN 0022-3840 Institutional support: RVO:68378068 Keywords : Czech interwar literature * parody * Brdečka, Jiří * Kuděj, Zdeněk Matěj * americanism Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision Impact factor: 0.070, year: 2015

  1. Communication; A Scientific American Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientific American, Inc., New York, NY.

    With present advances in communication technology, profound and qualitative changes in our civilization are taking place--in business and politics, in education, in entertainment, interpersonal relations, and the organization of society itself. In honor of the significance of such developments, an entire issue of "Scientific American" magazine…

  2. History of American Education Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boers, David

    2007-01-01

    This book depicts the evolution of American educational history from 1630 to the present. The book highlights how ideological managers have shaped society and, because schools mirror society, have thus had a profound impact on education and schooling. Five common areas of study - philosophy, politics, economics, social sciences, and religion -…

  3. Women in Latin American History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrin, Asuncion

    1981-01-01

    Presents a bibliography and suggests a number of topics around which a college level history course on Latin American women could be organized. Course topics include migration of women, definition of sex roles, legal status of women, women's work and society, feminism, politics, religion, women and the family, and women's education and…

  4. Arab Stereotypes and American Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingfield, Marvin; Karaman, Bushra

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that negative stereotypes of Arabs permeate U.S. popular culture. Discusses Arab stereotypes among educators and the effects of stereotyping on Arab American students. Describes efforts used in the Dearborn, MI, schools to eliminate stereotypes and integrate into the curriculum the study of Arab culture. (CFR)

  5. Counseling Considerations among Arab Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar-McMillan, Sylvia C.; Hakim-Larson, Julie

    2003-01-01

    This article describes a focus group interview conducted with a group of therapists in a large-scale, comprehensive family service agency in an Arab American community. The interview format was semistructured, and the results confirmed what little was already known about the population and supplemented that body of knowledge with updated…

  6. Ideas That Shaped American Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Franklin

    1981-01-01

    Briefly discusses 10 books, or series of books, that represent major turning points in American education in the last 75 years. The authors include William H. McGuffey, Abraham Flexner, Lewis M. Terman, John Dewey, George S. Counts, Jerome S. Bruner, James S. Coleman, Michael B. Katz, and B. F. Skinner. (IRT)

  7. Eisenhower and the American Sublime

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, Ned

    2008-01-01

    This essay presents Dwight D. Eisenhower's presidential rhetoric as an iteration of an American synecdochal sublime. Eisenhower's rhetoric sought to re-aim civic sight beyond corporeal objects to the nation's transcendental essence. This rhetoric is intimately connected to prevailing political anxieties and exigencies, especially the problem of…

  8. Foundation Networks and American Hegemony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inderjeet Parmar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The major American foundations constructed and sustained the rich texture of cooperative social, intellectual and political relations between key actors and institutions supportive of specific modes of thought that promoted US hegemony. Foundations also fostered and developed the attractive power-knowledge networks that not only radiated intellectual influence but also attracted some of the most creative minds. Finally, liberal internationalist foundations fostered globalism even when the American state was ‘isolationist’, and when US influence abroad unwelcome. Their significance in American hegemony building lay in their sustained, long-term cooperative relationship with the American state through which they helped build national, international and global institutions and networks. The latter process evidences the most significant impact of US foundations – the building of the domestic and international infrastructure for liberal internationalism which has transformed into a kind of “social neoliberalism”. Theoretical conclusions follow from these claims: the sustained and deep cooperation between the state and foundations suggests that we must revise our views of “how power works” in the United States and therefore influences its foreign relations. Therefore, the article shows that elite networks, consisting of state officials and private citizens are powerful means by which foreign policy shifts may be prepared, elite and mass opinion primed and mobilised, new consensus built, ‘old’ forces marginalised, and US hegemony constructed.

  9. Textbooks and the American Indian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costo, Rupert, Ed.

    An independent Indian publishing house has been formed to provide classroom instructional materials which deal accurately with the history, culture, and role of the American Indian. This book is a preliminary statement in that publishing program. General criteria, valid for instructional materials from elementary through high school, are applied…

  10. American neurophysiology and two nineteenth-century American Physiological Societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, J Wayne

    2017-01-01

    This article contrasts two American Physiological Societies, one founded near the beginning of the nineteenth century in 1837 and the other founded near its end in 1887. The contrast allows a perspective on how much budding neuroscience had developed during the nineteenth century in America. The contrast also emphasizes the complicated structure needed in both medicine and physiology to allow neurophysiology to flourish. The objectives of the American Physiological Society of 1887 were (and are) to promote physiological research and to codify physiology as a discipline. These would be accomplished by making physiology much more inclusive than traditionally accepted by raising research standards, by giving prestige to its members, by providing members a source of professional interchange, by protecting its members from antivivisectionists, and by promoting physiology as fundamental to medicine. The quantity of neuroscientific experiments by its members was striking. The main organizers of the society were Silas Weir Mitchell, John Call Dalton, Henry Pickering Bowditch, and Henry Newell Martin. The objective of the American Physiological Society of 1837 was to disperse knowledge of the "laws of life" and to promote human health and longevity. The primary organizers were William Andrus Alcott and Sylvester Graham with the encouragement of John Benson. Its technique was to use physiological information, not create it as was the case in 1887. Its object was to disseminate the word that healthy eating will improve the quality of life.

  11. The Relationship between Native American Ancestry, Body Mass Index and Diabetes Risk among Mexican-Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Hao; Huff, Chad D.; Yamamura, Yuko; Wu, Xifeng; Strom, Sara S.

    2015-01-01

    Higher body mass index (BMI) is a well-established risk factor for type 2 diabetes, and rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes are substantially higher among Mexican-Americans relative to non-Hispanic European Americans. Mexican-Americans are genetically diverse, with a highly variable distribution of Native American, European, and African ancestries. Here, we evaluate the role of Native American ancestry on BMI and diabetes risk in a well-defined Mexican-American population. Participants were ...

  12. Cognitive Skill, Skill Demands of Jobs, and Earnings among Young European American, African American, and Mexican American Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, George; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Analyses of National Longitudinal Survey data indicate that cognitive skill level affects access to high-skill occupations and earnings. Lower cognitive skill levels for African Americans and U.S.-born Mexican Americans explain a substantial proportion of income differences between these groups and European Americans but not the gender gap in pay…

  13. Parental Attachment, Self-Esteem, and Antisocial Behaviors among African American, European American, and Mexican American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbona, Consuelo; Power, Thomas G.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the relation of mother and father attachment to self-esteem and self-reported involvement in antisocial behaviors among African American, European American, and Mexican American high school students. Findings indicated that adolescents from the 3 ethnic/racial groups did not differ greatly in their reported attachment. (Contains 70…

  14. American Psychological Association annual report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Presents the 2009 American Psychological Association annual report. It highlights a very important year for APA and psychology by summarizing activities within each directorate. It describes strides made toward the goal of infusing psychology into the health care marketplace and of bringing psychology-and the unique skills of psychologists-to the attention of the public. This report aims to give insight into the contributions psychologists make to our communities and our country. 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Perpetual American options within CTRWs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Miquel

    2008-06-01

    Continuous-time random walks are a well suited tool for the description of market behaviour at the smallest scale: the tick-to-tick evolution. We will apply this kind of market model to the valuation of perpetual American options: derivatives with no maturity that can be exercised at any time. Our approach leads to option prices that fulfill financial formulas when canonical assumptions on the dynamics governing the process are made, but it is still suitable for more exotic market conditions.

  16. Perpetual American options within CTRW's

    OpenAIRE

    Montero, Miquel

    2007-01-01

    Continuous-time random walks are a well suited tool for the description of market behaviour at the smallest scale: the tick-to-tick evolution. We will apply this kind of market model to the valuation of perpetual American options: derivatives with no maturity that can be exercised at any time. Our approach leads to option prices that fulfil financial formulas when canonical assumptions on the dynamics governing the process are made, but it is still suitable for more exotic market conditions.

  17. The Need for American Hegemony

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-20

    military power.17 The first ended abruptly with “the war to end all wars.”18 Yet, liberal internationalists, like Professor Noam Chomsky of MIT...December 2008. 16. Krauthammer, 11. 17. Kagan, “Benevolent Empire,” 30. 18. Kagan, “Benevolent Empire,” 30. 19. Noam Chomsky , Hegemony or...Era of American Empire. London: Routledge, 2003. Chomsky , Noam . Hegemony or Survival: America’s Quest for Global Dominance. New York

  18. Reconstructing Native American population history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, David; Patterson, Nick; Campbell, Desmond; Tandon, Arti; Mazieres, Stéphane; Ray, Nicolas; Parra, Maria V; Rojas, Winston; Duque, Constanza; Mesa, Natalia; García, Luis F; Triana, Omar; Blair, Silvia; Maestre, Amanda; Dib, Juan C; Bravi, Claudio M; Bailliet, Graciela; Corach, Daniel; Hünemeier, Tábita; Bortolini, Maria Cátira; Salzano, Francisco M; Petzl-Erler, María Luiza; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; Riba, Laura; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Lopez-Alarcón, Mardia; Coral-Vazquez, Ramón; Canto-Cetina, Thelma; Silva-Zolezzi, Irma; Fernandez-Lopez, Juan Carlos; Contreras, Alejandra V; Jimenez-Sanchez, Gerardo; Gómez-Vázquez, Maria José; Molina, Julio; Carracedo, Angel; Salas, Antonio; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Witonsky, David B; Alkorta-Aranburu, Gorka; Sukernik, Rem I; Osipova, Ludmila; Fedorova, Sardana A; Vasquez, René; Villena, Mercedes; Moreau, Claudia; Barrantes, Ramiro; Pauls, David; Excoffier, Laurent; Bedoya, Gabriel; Rothhammer, Francisco; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel; Larrouy, Georges; Klitz, William; Labuda, Damian; Kidd, Judith; Kidd, Kenneth; Di Rienzo, Anna; Freimer, Nelson B; Price, Alkes L; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés

    2012-08-16

    The peopling of the Americas has been the subject of extensive genetic, archaeological and linguistic research; however, central questions remain unresolved. One contentious issue is whether the settlement occurred by means of a single migration or multiple streams of migration from Siberia. The pattern of dispersals within the Americas is also poorly understood. To address these questions at a higher resolution than was previously possible, we assembled data from 52 Native American and 17 Siberian groups genotyped at 364,470 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Here we show that Native Americans descend from at least three streams of Asian gene flow. Most descend entirely from a single ancestral population that we call 'First American'. However, speakers of Eskimo-Aleut languages from the Arctic inherit almost half their ancestry from a second stream of Asian gene flow, and the Na-Dene-speaking Chipewyan from Canada inherit roughly one-tenth of their ancestry from a third stream. We show that the initial peopling followed a southward expansion facilitated by the coast, with sequential population splits and little gene flow after divergence, especially in South America. A major exception is in Chibchan speakers on both sides of the Panama isthmus, who have ancestry from both North and South America.

  19. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders among Native Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A MERICANS Native American cultures, which encompass American Indian, Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian tribes, are rich with history, tradition, spirituality, and art. There are 562 Federally recognized tribes across the ...

  20. Culturally Speaking: Asian Pacific American Heritage Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Sherry

    2004-01-01

    The celebration of the Asian Pacific American heritage month is to be held in May 2004. The librarians are advised to include authentic literature by and about Asian Americans for cross-cultural understanding.

  1. American Cocker Spaniel Chronic Hepatitis in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanemoto, H.; Sakai, M.; Sakamoto, Y.; Spee, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304830925

    2013-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND: American Cocker Spaniels are predisposed to chronic hepatitis. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical and histological features of chronic hepatitis in Japanese American Cocker Spaniels. ANIMALS: Thirteen cases examined from 2003 to 2009. METHODS: Retrospective study. Medical

  2. American Society of Gene & Cell Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chicago Learn More Close The American Society of Gene & Cell Therapy ASGCT is the primary membership organization for scientists, ... Therapeutics Official Journal of the American Society of Gene & Cell Therapy Molecular Therapy is the leading journal for gene ...

  3. Marks in Latin-American radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Almeida, S. de.

    1987-01-01

    An historical retrospective of Latin-American radiology is shortly presented. Several radiologic societies as well as personalities, scientists and doctors are reported emphasizing their contribuition to radiologic Latin-American culture. (M.A.C.) [pt

  4. African Americans and High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood Pressure What About African Americans and High Blood Pressure? African Americans in the U.S. have a higher prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP) ...

  5. Prepositions in American and British English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindt, Dieter; Weber, Christel

    1989-01-01

    Compares the distribution of prepositions in American and British English. Two machine-readable one million word Corpora, the Brown Corpus of American English and the Lob Corpus of British are used as a basis of comparison. (Author/OD)

  6. EARLY DOWNHOME BLUES IN AMERICAN CULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Muhni, Djuhertati Imam

    2012-01-01

    People's traditional music and the way people behave when performing it are symbolic expressions of broad cultural pattern and social organization . In other words music is a part of men's learned heritage . Hence this study is about music in a given culture, specifically blues in American culture . Allen Trachtenberg stated that blues songs are inheritance from the American past for negotiating black people's lives as Americans . In the experience of blues the African-Americans find themselv...

  7. Representations of Sound in American Deaf Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Russell S.

    2007-01-01

    Sound plays a prominent role in narrative description of characters and environs in mainstream American literature. A review of American Deaf literature shows that the representations of sound held for deaf writers are in extensional and oppositional terms. American deaf writers, in their descriptions of entities, characters, functions, and…

  8. The Black Man in American Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Framingham Public Schools, MA.

    GRADE OR AGES: Junior high school. SUBJECT MATTER: The black man in American society. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: There are four major parts each with an overview. The four parts concern a) the African heritage of the black man, b) the American exploitation of the black man, c) the black man's contribution to American society, d) the…

  9. Asian American Giving to US Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, Kozue

    2010-01-01

    Asian Americans have had significant impacts on and within mainstream US society, and their great efforts and gifts in the name of charitable causes are no exception. This study aims to examine perceptions within American university development offices about Asian American giving to US higher education. The article begins with a literature review…

  10. Nostalgia and Educational History: An American Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousmaniere, Kate

    2017-01-01

    This essay examines the way in which nostalgia informs the 1953 painting of a school setting by the popular American artist Norman Rockwell. "The Girl with Black Eye", the cover image of the American popular magazine "The Saturday Evening Post" on 23 May 1953, draws on traditional American iconography of the disciplining of…

  11. Russians and Americans Gather to Talk Psychobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Constance

    1978-01-01

    Reports on the first Soviet-American meeting on psychology held in April, 1978 at the University of California at Irvine. The meeting was attended by 10 Soviets and about 30 Americans. The big difference between the two groups was that the Americans had small theories and lots of data, and the Russians had large theories and much less data. (BB)

  12. Engaging African Americans in Smoking Cessation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallen, Jacqueline; Randolph, Suzanne; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Feldman, Robert; Kanamori-Nishimura, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans are disproportionately exposed to and targeted by prosmoking advertisements, particularly menthol cigarette ads. Though African Americans begin smoking later than whites, they are less likely to quit smoking than whites. Purpose: This study was designed to explore African American smoking cessation attitudes,…

  13. Americans taking the plunge with videoconferencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marszewski, C. M.

    1989-05-01

    The growing use of videoconferencing by American businesses and institutions is outlined. Case studies of the use three American firms make of videoconferring techniques are presented. The choice of videoconferencing services offered on the American market is summarized. New developments in the area of standards is predicted to further accelerate the growth of international videoconferencing.

  14. Student Communities and Individualism in American Cinema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnick, Bryan R.; Dawson, Heather S.; Smith, D. Spencer; Vosburg-Bluem, Bethany

    2010-01-01

    Hollywood films partially construct how Americans think about education. Recent work on the representation of schools in American cinema has highlighted the role of class difference in shaping school film genres. It has also advanced the idea that a nuanced understanding of American individualism helps to explain why the different class genres are…

  15. Chronic Liver Disease and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stay Connected OMH Home > Policy and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Chronic Liver Disease Chronic Liver Disease and African Americans Among African Americans, chronic liver disease is a leading cause of death. While the cause is not always known, some ...

  16. Latin American and Caribbean Environmental Economics Program ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Latin American and Caribbean Environmental Economics Program Phase III. A grant to improve a new generation of Latin American leaders' understanding of how to better manage natural resources will contribute to the region's economic and social development. Earlier IDRC grants helped the Latin American and ...

  17. AMERICAN SPLENDOR: UMA ESTRUTURA MOEBIANA / American Splendor: A Moebian Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Nino (UFPE

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Os conceitos intrínsecos à indecidibilidade espacial moebiana constituiu o eixo a partir de onde analisamos os aspectos estruturais narrativos do filme American Splendor (2003, dos documentaristas americanos Shari Springer e Robert Pulcini, que transita parcialmente entre documentário, drama biográfico, ficção, resultante da adaptação literária da HQ homônima do autor roteirista Harvey Pekar (1939-2010. O filme em questão, metalinguístico e autobiográfico como a própria HQ, representa especularmente, por meio da mise en abyme, a complexidade sujeito/obra na trajetória do autor Pekar, introduzindo-o diegeticamente em vários níveis na produção, aliando assim forma e conteúdo de modo exemplar e estimulante, em perfeita sincronia com a revista underground de autoria do homenageado, sem que, no entanto, deixe de ser puro cinema. Palavras-chave: fita de Moebius, metalinguagem, autorreferência, autobiografia, mise en abyme. ABSTRACT American Splendor, A Moebian Structure – The intrinsic concepts to moebian space undecidability was the axis form where se analyze the narrative in its structural aspects of the film American Splendor (2003 of american documentary filmmakers Shari Springer and Robert Pulcini that work among documentary, biographical, drama, ficcion resulting from the literary adaptation of the eponymous comic book of author Harvey Pekar (1939-2010. The film in question, metalinguistic and autobiographical as the comics itself, is spercularly through the mise-en-abyme, of the subject / work complex in the trajectory of author Pekar, introducing him diegetically at various levels in the production, thus combining form and content of exemplary and stimulating way, in perfect sync with the underground magazine written by the honored one, without, however, stop being pure cinema. Keywords: Moebius strip, metalanguage, self-reference, autobiography, mise en abyme

  18. Ethnic differences in inter- and intra-situational blood pressure variation: Comparisons among African-American, Hispanic-American, Asian-American, and European-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Gary D; Bovbjerg, Dana H; Hill, Leah A

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the daily inter- and intra-situational ambulatory blood pressure (BP) variation by ethnicity in women. The African-American (N = 82; Age = 39.7 + 8.9), Hispanic-American (N = 25; age = 37.5 + 9.4), Asian-American (N = 22; Age = 35.2 + 8.6), and European-American (N = 122; Age = 37.2+ 9.4) women in this study all worked in similar positions at two major medical centers in NYC. Each wore an ambulatory monitor during the course of one mid-week workday. Proportional BP changes from work or home to sleep, intra-situational BP variation (standard deviation [SD]) and mean situational BP levels were compared among the groups using ANOVA models. African-American and Asian-American women had significantly smaller proportional work-sleep systolic changes than either European- (P women, but the Asian-American women's changes tended to be smallest. The variability (SD) of diastolic BP at work was significantly greater among African- and Hispanic-American women compared to Asian- and European-American women (all P women had greater sleep variability than European-American women (P Asian-American women had the highest level of sleep diastolic pressure (all comparisons P Asian-American women have an attenuated proportional BP decline from waking environments to sleep compared to European-American and Hispanic-American women. Asian-American nocturnal BP may be elevated relative to all other groups. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:932-935, 2016. © 2016Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. American Elementary School Children's Attitudes about Immigrants, Immigration, and Being an American

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christia Spears

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined 5 to 11-year-old European American children's (N = 90) attitudes regarding immigrants, immigration policy, and what it means to be an American. The majority of children in the sample (from a predominantly European American community) held strong American identities and had distinct ideas about what it means to be an…

  20. Arab-American and Muslim-American Contributions: Resources for Secondary Social Studies Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eraqi, Monica M.

    2015-01-01

    Arab-Americans and Muslim-Americans live within the United States surrounded by misconceptions about their culture and religion, in part because of the limited inclusion of positive contributions by these groups within the social studies curriculum. This article attempts to highlight Arab-American and Muslim-American contributions within the U.S.…

  1. Arab Americans' acculturation and tobacco smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Omari, Hasan; Scheibmeir, Monica

    2009-04-01

    Limited information is available about Arab Americans' smoking behaviors. The aim of this study was to describe Arab Americans' smoking behaviors and any relationship between tobacco dependence and acculturation. This was a cross-sectional study. Arab American smokers and ex-smokers (N = 96) participated in the study. Nicotine dependence, acculturation, and tobacco use questionnaires were used to measure the major variables. Analyses revealed a significant positive correlation between acculturation and tobacco dependence and between tobacco exposure and tobacco dependence. Arab Americans who behaved most like their ethnic peers and spent more time with Arab Americans were more dependent on nicotine.

  2. Health promotion for older Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckler, M M

    1985-01-01

    As American lifespans increase, there is greater concern for the quality of those longer lives. The Department of Health and Human Services, through its many component agencies, has inaugurated a major initiative to promote health and fitness among older Americans to improve life quality and to reduce health care costs. The older population is a fertile ground for such an initiative, because studies indicate that the elderly are extremely health-conscious and very willing to adopt habits that will maintain good health. Investigation disclosed six target areas of concentration at which the health promotion initiative could be aimed: fitness-exercise, nutrition, safe and proper use of drugs and alcohol, accident prevention, other preventive services, and smoking cessation. The initiative includes cooperative programs with States; dissemination of printed information; nutritious meals for the elderly; a Food and Drug Administration consumer education program; Centers for Disease Control programs on accident prevention; a special task force to deal with Alzheimer's disease; and, in cooperation with states, a media campaign of health promotion for the elderly. At least three national health and senior citizens organizations are working closely with HHS agencies on the initiative. A separate Department effort involves the encouragement of fast-growing health maintenance organizations to promote health and prevention for their Medicare members and the persuasion of Medicare beneficiaries generally to seek second medical or surgical opinions. State and local government and the private sector, responding to Department initiatives, have also been developing programs for the aging. Their interest and participation ensures that special health promotion and disease prevention efforts directed toward elderly Americans will continue and proliferate.

  3. Redeeming American democracy in Sayonara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Seguro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Affection is perceived as something natural, pre-existing Culture and, therefore, free form discursive constructions. However, insofar as reality is mediated, if not given existence by language, human relationships are inevitably fashioned by narratives. Romance fictions and in particular heterosexual, interracial love stories have been used in U.S. popular culture as a means of promoting American democratic values of racial harmony at home and abroad. This will be exemplified by analyzing James A. Michener’s 1953 novel Sayonara together with Joshua Logan’s 1957 film adaptation.

  4. North American Natural Gas Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This report sunnnarizes the research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models

  5. Perpetual Cancellable American Call Option

    OpenAIRE

    Emmerling, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the valuation of a generalized American-style option known as a Game-style call option in an infinite time horizon setting. The specifications of this contract allow the writer to terminate the call option at any point in time for a fixed penalty amount paid directly to the holder. Valuation of a perpetual Game-style put option was addressed by Kyprianou (2004) in a Black-Scholes setting on a non-dividend paying asset. Here, we undertake a similar analysis for the perpetua...

  6. Space and the American imagination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccurdy, Howard E.

    1994-01-01

    The introduction will set out the principal theme of the book: that the rise of the U.S. space program was due to a concerted effort by science writers, engineers, industrialists, and civic and political leaders to create a popular culture of space exploration based on important elements of American social life (such as frontier mythology, fears about the cold war, and the rise of the consumer culture). Much of the disillusionment with the NASA space program which set in during the third decade of space flight can be traced to a widening gap between popular expectations and the reality of space exploration.

  7. Taxation and the American Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Passant

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at the interrelationship between revolution and tax in the context of the American Revolution. It examines the role of ordinary people in demanding, among other things, as part of wider demands for democracy and equality, no taxation without representation. The article aims to reintroduce the neglected notions of class and class struggle into current discussions and debates about tax and history, putting the people back into academic narratives about the history of taxation and to their place as political actors on history’s stage.

  8. North American Natural Gas Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-02-01

    This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models

  9. North American natural gas vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-01-01

    The North American Energy Working Group (NAEWG) is a three country working group that includes Canada, the United States and Mexico and is chaired jointly by Natural Resources Canada, the Mexican Secretariat of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Energy. This report examines how North America can achieve its goals for natural gas by exploring what has been done in each nation in the past and what can be done in the future to ensure that projected gas demand will be met. The report examines the role, supply and demand of natural gas, including restructuring and regulatory changes in Canada, the United States and Mexico. Impacts on infrastructure development are discussed. The report discusses progress on meeting the goals of a more environmentally aware, transparent and streamlined, natural gas industry. The report details the amount of trade among the three countries and examines how provisions of the Canada - United States Free Trade Agreement (FTA), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) regulate energy trade in North America. refs., 5 tabs., 67 figs., 1 app.

  10. North American natural gas vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The North American Energy Working Group (NAEWG) is a three country working group that includes Canada, the United States and Mexico and is chaired jointly by Natural Resources Canada, the Mexican Secretariat of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Energy. This report examines how North America can achieve its goals for natural gas by exploring what has been done in each nation in the past and what can be done in the future to ensure that projected gas demand will be met. The report examines the role, supply and demand of natural gas, including restructuring and regulatory changes in Canada, the United States and Mexico. Impacts on infrastructure development are discussed. The report discusses progress on meeting the goals of a more environmentally aware, transparent and streamlined, natural gas industry. The report details the amount of trade among the three countries and examines how provisions of the Canada - United States Free Trade Agreement (FTA), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) regulate energy trade in North America. refs., 5 tabs., 67 figs., 1 app

  11. Reconstructing Native American Population History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, David; Patterson, Nick; Campbell, Desmond; Tandon, Arti; Mazieres, Stéphane; Ray, Nicolas; Parra, Maria V.; Rojas, Winston; Duque, Constanza; Mesa, Natalia; García, Luis F.; Triana, Omar; Blair, Silvia; Maestre, Amanda; Dib, Juan C.; Bravi, Claudio M.; Bailliet, Graciela; Corach, Daniel; Hünemeier, Tábita; Bortolini, Maria-Cátira; Salzano, Francisco M.; Petzl-Erler, María Luiza; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; Riba, Laura; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Lopez-Alarcón, Mardia; Coral-Vazquez, Ramón; Canto-Cetina, Thelma; Silva-Zolezzi, Irma; Fernandez-Lopez, Juan Carlos; Contreras, Alejandra V.; Jimenez-Sanchez, Gerardo; Gómez-Vázquez, María José; Molina, Julio; Carracedo, Ángel; Salas, Antonio; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Witonsky, David B.; Alkorta-Aranburu, Gorka; Sukernik, Rem I.; Osipova, Ludmila; Fedorova, Sardana; Vasquez, René; Villena, Mercedes; Moreau, Claudia; Barrantes, Ramiro; Pauls, David; Excoffier, Laurent; Bedoya, Gabriel; Rothhammer, Francisco; Dugoujon, Jean Michel; Larrouy, Georges; Klitz, William; Labuda, Damian; Kidd, Judith; Kidd, Kenneth; Rienzo, Anna Di; Freimer, Nelson B.; Price, Alkes L.; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés

    2013-01-01

    The peopling of the Americas has been the subject of extensive genetic, archaeological and linguistic research; however, central questions remain unresolved1–5. One contentious issue is whether the settlement occurred via a single6–8 or multiple streams of migration from Siberia9–15. The pattern of dispersals within the Americas is also poorly understood. To address these questions at higher resolution than was previously possible, we assembled data from 52 Native American and 17 Siberian groups genotyped at 364,470 single nucleotide polymorphisms. We show that Native Americans descend from at least three streams of Asian gene flow. Most descend entirely from a single ancestral population that we call “First American”. However, speakers of Eskimo-Aleut languages from the Arctic inherit almost half their ancestry from a second stream of Asian gene flow, and the Na-Dene-speaking Chipewyan from Canada inherit roughly one-tenth of their ancestry from a third stream. We show that the initial peopling followed a southward expansion facilitated by the coast, with sequential population splits and little gene flow after divergence, especially in South America. A major exception is in Chibchan-speakers on both sides of the Panama Isthmus, who have ancestry from both North and South America. PMID:22801491

  12. Influences of culture on Asian Americans' sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Sumie

    2002-02-01

    Asian Americans comprise a population group that is characterized by an enormous demographic, historical, and cultural heterogeneity, yet Asian Americans also share many Asian cultural characteristics such as the primacy of the family and the collective's goals over individual wishes, emphasis on propriety and social codes, the appropriation of sexuality only within the context of marriage, and sexual restraint and modesty. Although there are significant gaps in the scientific literature concerning Asian Americans sexuality, the existing data point to notable differences between Asian Americans and other ethnic groups on major aspects of sexual behavior. For example, relative to other U.S. ethnic group cohorts, Asian American adolescents and young adults tend to show more sexually conservative attitudes and behavior and initiate sexual intercourse at a later age. There are indications that as Asian Americans become more acculturated to the mainstream American culture, their attitudes and behavior become more consistent with the White American norm. Consistent with their more sexually conservative tendencies in normative sexual behavior, Asian American women also appear more reluctant to obtain sexual and reproductive care, which in turn places them at a greater risk for delay in treatment for breast and cervical cancer as well as other gynecological problems. Available data suggest that the prevalence rate of sexual abuse in Asian American communities appear lower than those of other groups, although it is not clear to what extent the low rates are due to cultural reluctance to report shameful experiences.

  13. The Relationship between Native American Ancestry, Body Mass Index and Diabetes Risk among Mexican-Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Hu

    Full Text Available Higher body mass index (BMI is a well-established risk factor for type 2 diabetes, and rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes are substantially higher among Mexican-Americans relative to non-Hispanic European Americans. Mexican-Americans are genetically diverse, with a highly variable distribution of Native American, European, and African ancestries. Here, we evaluate the role of Native American ancestry on BMI and diabetes risk in a well-defined Mexican-American population. Participants were randomly selected among individuals residing in the Houston area who are enrolled in the Mexican-American Cohort study. Using a custom Illumina GoldenGate Panel, we genotyped DNA from 4,662 cohort participants for 87 Ancestry-Informative Markers. On average, the participants were of 50.2% Native American ancestry, 42.7% European ancestry and 7.1% African ancestry. Using multivariate linear regression, we found BMI and Native American ancestry were inversely correlated; individuals with 80% Native American ancestry. Furthermore, we demonstrated an interaction between BMI and Native American ancestry in diabetes risk among women; Native American ancestry was a strong risk factor for diabetes only among overweight and obese women (OR = 1.190 for each 10% increase in Native American ancestry. This study offers new insight into the complex relationship between obesity, genetic ancestry, and their respective effects on diabetes risk. Findings from this study may improve the diabetes risk prediction among Mexican-American individuals thereby facilitating targeted prevention strategies.

  14. Asian and European American cultural values and communication styles among Asian American and European American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong S; Kim, Bryan S K

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the relationships between adherence to Asian and European cultural values and communication styles among 210 Asian American and 136 European American college students. A principal components analysis revealed that, for both Asian Americans and European Americans, the contentious, dramatic, precise, and open styles loaded onto the first component suggesting low context communication, and interpersonal sensitivity and inferring meaning styles loaded onto the second component suggesting high context communication. Higher adherence to emotional self-control and lower adherence to European American values explained Asian Americans' higher use of the indirect communication, while higher emotional self-control explained why Asian Americans use a less open communication style than their European American counterparts. When differences between sex and race were controlled, adherence to humility was inversely related to contentious and dramatic communication styles but directly related to inferring meaning style, adherence to European American values was positively associated with precise communication and inferring meaning styles, and collectivism was positively related to interpersonal sensitivity style. 2008 APA

  15. Mechanisms of Vowel Variation in African American English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Yolanda Feimster

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This research explored mechanisms of vowel variation in African American English by comparing 2 geographically distant groups of African American and White American English speakers for participation in the African American Shift and the Southern Vowel Shift. Method: Thirty-two male (African American: n = 16, White American controls: n =…

  16. Latin American production - premium Barrels?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaffney, P.D.

    1993-12-31

    The rapid increase in acceptability of various potential exploration and production venture opportunities throughout most of Latin America has created yet another watershed in our ever changing industry. Who would have believed a very short while ago that ventures in Latin America would compete successfully for risk funds against well established opportunities in such areas as the North Sea or Asia Pacific and even with the heady prospects continuing to appear in the CIS? Is this competition real, or is it another industry myth which sets sights too high and where we chase each others pot of gold before reality sets in? Let us try and examine some of the reasons why the current enthusiasms may be justified, particularly so in the case of North American investment.

  17. The Absence of Structural Americanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    2013-01-01

    use, and funding for public service media from a strategic sample of six countries to test the structural version of the convergence hypothesis, looking at the period from 2000 to 2009. (The countries included are Finland, France, Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom, and the United States......Several comparative media researchers have hypothesized that the media systems of affluent Western democracies are becoming more and more structurally homogeneous—that they are becoming “Americanized.” This article uses data on newspaper industry revenues, commercial television revenues, Internet.......) The analysis demonstrates an “absence of Americanization” as the six media systems have not become structurally more similar over the last decade. Instead, developments are summarized as a combination of (1) parallel displacements, (2) persistent particularities, and (3) the emergence of some new peculiarities...

  18. Occupationally Acquired American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Edileuza Felinto de Brito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report two occupationally acquired cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL: one accidental laboratory autoinoculation by contaminated needlestick while handling an ACL lesion sample, and one acquired during field studies on bird biology. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays of patient lesions were positive for Leishmania, subgenus Viannia. One isolate was obtained by culture (from patient 2 biopsy samples and characterized as Leishmania (Viannia naiffi through an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA with species-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs and by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE. Patients were successfully treated with N-methyl-glucamine. These two cases highlight the potential risks of laboratory and field work and the need to comply with strict biosafety procedures in daily routines. The swab collection method, coupled with PCR detection, has greatly improved ACL laboratory diagnosis.

  19. Ophthalmology of South american camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gionfriddo, Juliet R

    2010-11-01

    In the past 10 years, information about South American camelid anatomy, physiology, medicine, and surgery has increased exponentially, including information about the eye. Although trauma-related diseases are the most common eye problems for which camelids are presented to veterinarians, there have recently been many anecdotal reports and published case reports of camelids having ocular malignancies and potentially hereditary ocular abnormalities. The increased number of ocular diseases being reported may be because of increased recognition of camelid diseases or an increase in these diseases as a result of restricted gene pools as a consequence of inbreeding. As the popularity of camelids is steadily increasing, owners are becoming more knowledgeable about their animals, and there is more need for veterinarians who understand their ocular anatomy, physiology, disease susceptibility, and recommended treatments. This article provides the relevant information about the eye. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Grid for Meso american Archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucet, G.

    2007-01-01

    Meso american archaeology works with large amounts of disperse and diverse information, thus the importance of including new methods that optimise the acquisition, conservation, retrieval, and analysis of data to generate knowledge more efficiently and create a better understanding of history. Further, this information --which includes texts, coordinates, raster graphs, and vector graphs-- comes from a considerable geographical area --parts of Mexico, Nicaragua, Honduras and Costa Rica as well as Guatemala, El Salvador and Belize-- is constantly expanding. This information includes elements like shards, buildings, mural paintings, high and low reliefs, topography, maps, and information about the fauna and soil. Grid computing offers a solution to handle all this information: it respects researchers' need for independence while supplying a platform to share, process and compare the data obtained. Additionally, the Grid can enhance space-time analyses with remote visualisation techniques that can, in turn, incorporate geographical information systems and virtual reality. (Author)

  1. THE DEPICTION OF HOMOSEXUALITY IN AMERICAN MOVIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Rudy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the depiction of homosexuality in American films. It is intended to identify the images of gays depicted in American films as well as the characteristics of American gay movies. It incorporates library research by applying an analytical descriptive approach in analyzing the data. The symbol and reflective theory is used to analyze 18 American movies and 14 gay films from other countries in the early 2000s. It shows that gay films can attract audiences by describing gays as the objects for laughs; gays revealing their sexual identities; sexual scenes of gays; masculine gay men; and violence in gay life. They appear in genres like drama, comedy, romance, detective, western, and horror/mystery with two images of gay people shown in American gay movies; they are the portrait of gays as a minority and the pessimism. However, it also shows that some American gay films picture good gay life, happy gay couples, gay marriage, etc.

  2. Suicide among Arab-Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman M El-Sayed

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Arab-American (AA populations in the US are exposed to discrimination and acculturative stress-two factors that have been associated with higher suicide risk. However, prior work suggests that socially oriented norms and behaviors, which characterize recent immigrant ethnic groups, may be protective against suicide risk. Here we explored suicide rates and their determinants among AAs in Michigan, the state with the largest proportion of AAs in the US.ICD-9/10 underlying cause of death codes were used to identify suicide deaths from among all deaths in Michigan between 1990 and 2007. Data from the 2000 U.S. Census were collected for population denominators. Age-adjusted suicide rates among AAs and non-ethnic whites were calculated by gender using the direct method of standardization. We also stratified by residence inside or outside of Wayne County (WC, the county with the largest AA population in the state. Suicide rates were 25.10 per 100,000 per year among men and 6.40 per 100,000 per year among women in Michigan from 1990 to 2007. AA men had a 51% lower suicide rate and AA women had a 33% lower rate than non-ethnic white men and women, respectively. The suicide rate among AA men in WC was 29% lower than in all other counties, while the rate among AA women in WC was 20% lower than in all other counties. Among non-ethnic whites, the suicide rate in WC was higher compared to all other counties among both men (12% and women (16%.Suicide rates were higher among non-ethnic white men and women compared to AA men and women in both contexts. Arab ethnicity may protect against suicide in both sexes, but more so among men. Additionally, ethnic density may protect against suicide among Arab-Americans.

  3. Diabetes in Hispanic American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Jean M.; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.; Reynolds, Kristi; Beyer, Jennifer; Pettitt, David J.; D'Agostino, Ralph B.; Marcovina, Santica M.; Imperatore, Giuseppina; Hamman, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To report the 2001 prevalence and 2002–2005 incidence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes in Hispanic American youth and to describe the demographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics of these youth. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Data from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study, a population-based multicenter observational study of youth aged 0–19 years with physician-diagnosed diabetes, were used to estimate the prevalence and incidence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Information obtained by questionnaire, physical examination, and blood and urine collection was analyzed to describe the characteristics of youth who completed a study visit. RESULTS—Among Hispanic American youth, type 1 diabetes was more prevalent than type 2 diabetes, including in youth aged 10–19 years. There were no significant sex differences in type 1 or type 2 diabetes prevalence. The incidence of type 2 diabetes for female subjects aged 10–14 years was twice that of male subjects (P < 0.005), while among youth aged 15–19 years the incidence of type 2 diabetes exceeded that of type 1 diabetes for female subjects (P < 0.05) but not for male subjects. Poor glycemic control, defined as A1C ≥9.5%, as well as high LDL cholesterol and triglycerides were common among youth aged ≥15 years with either type of diabetes. Forty-four percent of youth with type 1 diabetes were overweight or obese. CONCLUSIONS—Factors such as poor glycemic control, elevated lipids, and a high prevalence of overweight and obesity may put Hispanic youth with type 1 and type 2 diabetes at risk for future diabetes-related complications. PMID:19246577

  4. Health and aging of urban American Indians.

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, B J

    1992-01-01

    Although half of the American Indian population resides off the reservation, mostly in the western states, research on the health of urban American Indians remains sparse. American Indians living in urban areas are not eligible for the federally mandated health care provided by the Indian Health Service and receive health care services in a variety of settings. This population is at high risk for many health problems, especially cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Social, cultural, ...

  5. HELEN brings Latin Americans to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximiliem Brice

    2006-01-01

    Latin American students who have arrived at CERN to take up fellowships during the first months of 2006 relax in front of the LHC collaboration buildings, together with the deputy coordinator of HELEN, Veronica Riquer (centre), from Rome University and INFN. The training programme supported by the High Energy Physics Latin American- European Network (HELEN) is in full swing. For 2006, the programme has assigned about 70 fellowships to be spent at CERN by Latin American students and young physicists.

  6. The Transformation of American Revolutionary Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    become the first and only official American regulations of the eighteenth century , Regulations for the Order and Discipline of the Troops of the United...The Transformation of American Revolutionary Forces A Monograph by MAJ Grant A. Brown British Army School of Advanced Military Studies United...DATES COVERED (From - To) JUN 2016 – MAY 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Transformation of American Revolutionary Forces 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  7. The work of the American emergency physician.

    OpenAIRE

    Wyatt, J P; Weber, J E; Chudnofsky, C

    1998-01-01

    The organisation of the American emergency health care system has changed rapidly during recent years, but it remains very different to the system in the United Kingdom. American emergency departments are organised around an attending physician based service, rather than a consultant led service. As a result, the work of the American emergency physician differs considerably from that of the United Kingdom A&E consultant. The problems associated with working in an attending physician based ser...

  8. Effects of Alcohol Use and Anti-American Indian Attitudes on Domestic-Violence Culpability Decisions for American Indian and Euro-American Actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esqueda, Cynthia Willis; Hack, Lori; Tehee, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have focused on the unique issues surrounding American Indian violence. Yet American Indian women are at high risk for domestic abuse, and domestic violence has been identified as the most important issue for American Indians now and in the future by the National Congress of American Indians. American Indian women suffer from domestic…

  9. The Zoogeography of North American freshwater fishes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hocutt, Charles H; Wiley, E. O

    1986-01-01

    ..., and Pleistoscene glaciation. The Zoogeography of North American Freshwater Fishes is a comprehensive treatment of the freshwater biogeography of North America, with implications for other disciplines...

  10. Asian Americans and European Americans' stigma levels in response to biological and social explanations of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhen Hadassah

    2015-05-01

    Mental illness stigma is prevalent among Asian Americans, and it is a key barrier that prevents them from seeking psychological services. Limited studies have experimentally examined how Asian Americans respond to biological and social explanations of mental illness. Understanding how to educate and communicate about mental illness effectively is crucial in increasing service utilization among Asian Americans. To assess how genetic, neurobiological, and social explanations for the onset of depression affects Asian American and European American's mental illness stigma. 231 Asian Americans and 206 European Americans read about an individual with major depression and were randomly assigned to be informed that the cause was either genetic, neurobiological, social, or unknown. Various stigma outcomes, including social distance, fear, and depression duration were assessed. Consistent with prior research, Asian Americans had higher baseline levels of stigma compared to European Americans. Greater social essentialist beliefs predicted positive stigma outcomes for Asian Americans, such as a greater willingness to be near, help, and hire someone with depression, but genetic essentialist beliefs predicted negative stigma outcomes, such as fear. In addition, a social explanation for the etiology of depression led to lower stigma outcomes for Asian Americans; it decreased their fear of someone with depression and increased the perception that depression is treatable. For European Americans, both genetic and social essentialist beliefs predicted a greater perception of depression treatability. Although genetics do play a role in the development of depression, emphasizing a social explanation for the origin of depression may help reduce stigma for Asian Americans.

  11. Latin American guidelines on hypertension. Latin American Expert Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Ramiro A; Ayala, Miryam; Baglivo, Hugo; Velazquez, Carlos; Burlando, Guillermo; Kohlmann, Oswaldo; Jimenez, Jorge; Jaramillo, Patricio López; Brandao, Ayrton; Valdes, Gloria; Alcocer, Luis; Bendersky, Mario; Ramirez, Agustín José; Zanchetti, Alberto

    2009-05-01

    Hypertension is a highly prevalent cardiovascular risk factor in the world and particularly overwhelming in low and middle-income countries. Recent reports from the WHO and the World Bank highlight the importance of chronic diseases such as hypertension as an obstacle to the achievement of good health status. It must be added that for most low and middle-income countries, deficient strategies of primary healthcare are the major obstacles for blood pressure control. Furthermore, the epidemiology of hypertension and related diseases, healthcare resources and priorities, the socioeconomic status of the population vary considerably in different countries and in different regions of individual countries. Considering the low rates of blood pressure control achieved in Latin America and the benefits that can be expected from an improved control, it was decided to invite specialists from different Latin American countries to analyze the regional situation and to provide a consensus document on detection, evaluation and treatment of hypertension that may prove to be cost-utility adequate. The recommendations here included are the result of preparatory documents by invited experts and a subsequent very active debate by different discussion panels, held during a 2-day sessions in Asuncion, Paraguay, in May 2008. Finally, in order to improve clinical practice, the publication of the guidelines should be followed by implementation of effective interventions capable of overcoming barriers (cognitive, behavioral and affective) preventing attitude changes in both physicians and patients.

  12. 75 FR 35070 - American Indians Into Medicine; Notice of Competitive Grant Applications for American Indians...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    .... Identify affiliation agreements with Tribal community colleges, the IHS, university affiliated programs...; Notice of Competitive Grant Applications for American Indians Into Medicine Program Announcement Type... competitive grant applications for the American Indians into Medicine Program. This program is authorized...

  13. Redefining the American in Asian American Studies: Transnationalism, Diaspora, and Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanfer Emin Tunc

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction to the Special Forum in honor of Sau-ling Wong, entitled "Redefining the American in Asian American Studies: Transnationalism, Diaspora, and Representation," edited by Tanfer Emin Tunc, Elisabetta Marino, and Daniel Y. Kim

  14. Heather Switzer named American Association of University Women American Dissertation Fellow

    OpenAIRE

    Chadwick, Heather Riley

    2008-01-01

    Heather Switzer, planning, governance, and globalization doctoral student in the School of Public and International Affairs at Virginia Tech, has been named an American Association of University Women American Dissertation Fellow.

  15. The relationship between momentary emotions and well-being across European Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eunsoo; Chentsova-Dutton, Yulia E

    2017-09-01

    Cultural differences in the emphasis on positive and negative emotions suggest that the impact of these emotions on well-being may differ across cultural contexts. The present study utilised a momentary sampling method to capture average momentary emotional experiences. We found that for participants from cultural contexts that foster positive emotions (European Americans and Hispanic Americans), average momentary positive emotions predicted well-being better than average momentary negative emotions. In contrast, average momentary negative emotions were more strongly associated with well-being measures for Asian Americans, the group from a cultural context that emphasises monitoring of negative emotions. Furthermore, we found that acculturation to American culture moderated the association between average momentary positive emotions and well-being for Asian Americans. These findings suggest the importance of culture in studying the impact of daily emotional experiences on well-being.

  16. Successful anglo-american entrepreneurs and the american dream. A narrative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Keijzer, Marian; Liñán, Francisco (Coordinador); Guzmán Cuevas, Joaquín J. (Coordinador)

    2011-01-01

    Some of the most successful entrepreneurs in the Anglo-American world have written their autobiographies. A narrative analysis of these autobiographies reveal the influence of the American Dream on their life and on the way they tell their lifestories. An emphasis on moral correctness as well as on working hard, perseverance and discipline justifies the success of the narrators. The American Myth seems to be a reality – at least for white, Anglo-American, male entrepreneur...

  17. Smoking in contemporary American cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvari, Karan; Lessnau, Klaus; Kim, Jeannie; Mercante, Donald; Weinacker, Ann; Mason, Carol

    2005-08-01

    The true prevalence of smoking among characters portrayed in the movies is unknown. This study examines this prevalence objectively. The top 10 movies on the weekly box office charts were reviewed. Whether or not the top five characters in these movies smoked, was documented. It was determined prior to the start of the study that 300 male characters and 300 female characters were needed to detect any significant difference. A total of 447 movies, composed of 193 movies rated restricted (R) [children movies rated PG13 for parental guidance suggested for children movies rated PG for parental guidance suggested, were examined until the sample size was reached. Smoking prevalence is the same in contemporary American movies and in the general US population (23.3% vs 24.8%, respectively). However, there was more smoking in these movies among men than among women (25.5% vs 20.5%, respectively; p movies (46.2% vs 18.2%, respectively; p movies (37.3%, 16.2%, and 8.1%, respectively; p movies, and in both subcategories of R-rated studio movies and R-rated independent movies, smoking prevalence is higher than in the US population (37.3%, 30.5%, and 50.6% vs 24.8%, respectively; p movies, R-rated studio movies, and R-rated independent movies. In R-rated movies, antagonists smoke more than protagonists (43.9% vs 35.8%, respectively; p movies, antagonists smoke more than protagonists (42.6% vs 26.6%, respectively; p movies, whites smoke more than nonwhites (51.8% vs 40.5%, respectively; p movies than in R-rated studio movies (50.6% vs 30.5%, respectively; p movies than in R-rated studio movies in subcategories of men (32.0% vs 49.8%, respectively; p movies, and R-rated movies. Smoking prevalence is higher than in the general US population in R-rated movies, and in both its subcategories of R-rated studio movies and R-rated independent movies. There is more smoking in R-rated independent movies than in R-rated studio movies. Smoking in contemporary American cinema is associated

  18. African American Therapists Working with African American Families: An Exploration of the Strengths Perspective in Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell-Tolliver, Laverne; Burgess, Ruby; Brock, Linda J.

    2009-01-01

    With the exception of Hill's (1971, 1999) work, historically much of the literature on African American families has focused more on pathology than strengths. This study used interviews with 30 African American psychotherapists, self-identified as employing a strengths perspective with African American families, to investigate which strengths they…

  19. 75 FR 36414 - American Indians Into Psychology; Notice of Competitive Grant Applications for American Indians...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service American Indians Into Psychology; Notice of Competitive Grant Applications for American Indians Into Psychology Program Announcement Type... applications for the American Indians into Psychology Program. This program is authorized under the authority...

  20. Cultural Models of Education and Academic Performance for Native American and European American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryberg, Stephanie A.; Covarrubias, Rebecca; Burack, Jacob A.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the role of cultural representations of self (i.e., interdependence and independence) and positive relationships (i.e., trust for teachers) in academic performance (i.e., self-reported grades) for Native American ("N"?=?41) and European American ("N"?=?49) high school students. The Native American students endorsed…

  1. Why American civilization? American literature and academic exchange in occupied Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaustein, G.

    2012-01-01

    After 1945, many American writers and intellectuals devoted themselves to European reconstruction, tying American literature and culture to an agenda of reeducation and democratization. At the nexus of these efforts was American Studies, then a new and ideologically diffuse movement of writers,

  2. Extending Research on the Consequences of Parenting Style for Chinese Americans and European Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ruth K.

    2001-01-01

    Examined effects of parent-adolescent relationships on school performance for Chinese American and European American high school students. Found positive effects of both authoritative parenting and relationship closeness on school performance for European Americans and to some extent second-generation Chinese, but not first-generation Chinese. The…

  3. Eating Disorders of White American, Racial and Ethnic Minority American, and International Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osvold, Lise Leigh; Sodowsky, Gargi Roysircar

    1993-01-01

    Considers eating attitudes and behaviors related to anorexia nervosa, bulimia, and obesity of white American, African-American, Native American, and some international women from the point of view of cultural influences such as sex role, the media, socioeconomic class, and acculturation to Western society. (Author/NB)

  4. Native American History in a Box: A New Approach to Teaching Native American Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Emory C.; Hitt, Austin M.; Schipper, Jason A.; Jones, Adam M.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the Native American History in a Box curriculum which is designed to introduce elementary and middle-level students to Native American cultures. The curriculum consists of a five day unit addressing the following concepts pertaining to Native American Nations: settlements, tools, sustenance, pottery, and contact with…

  5. Native Americans in Cold War Public Diplomacy: Indian Politics, American History, and the US Information Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This essay examines the depiction of Native Americans by the US Information Agency (USIA), the bureau charged with explaining American politics to the international public during the Cold War. In the 1950s and 1960s, the USIA broadcast the message that Americans had begun to acknowledge their nation's history of conquest and were working to…

  6. Discrimination of Arabic Contrasts by American Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mahmoud, Mahmoud S.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on second language perception of non-native contrasts. The study specifically tests the perceptual assimilation model (PAM) by examining American learners' ability to discriminate Arabic contrasts. Twenty two native American speakers enrolled in a university level Arabic language program took part in a forced choice AXB…

  7. First Person Past: American Autobiographies, Volume 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    American literature, biography, Tunis Campbell, Black Elk, Andrew Carnegie, Booker T. Washington, Mary Antin, Mary Jones, Frederic Howe, Anna Howard Shaw, Woody Guthrie, Monica Sone, Anne Moody, Ron Kovic......American literature, biography, Tunis Campbell, Black Elk, Andrew Carnegie, Booker T. Washington, Mary Antin, Mary Jones, Frederic Howe, Anna Howard Shaw, Woody Guthrie, Monica Sone, Anne Moody, Ron Kovic...

  8. A Mirror Image African American Student Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon Dawson, Candice

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a narrative inquiry research project that focuses on the collegiate experiences of African American students at both historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly white institutions (PWIs). I look at how African American college students who engage in race or culturally specific activities, the degree…

  9. Argumentative Strategies in American and Japanese English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Taeko; Oi, Kyoko

    1998-01-01

    A study examined differences in argumentative strategies in Japanese and American English by analyzing English essays on capital punishment written by 22 American high school seniors and 30 Japanese college sophomores. Differences were found in the organizational patterns, content and use of rational appeals, preference for type of diction, and…

  10. African Americans and the Industrial Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Joe William, Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Briefly outlines the ways race and technology shaped: (1) the early enslavement of African Americans; (2) the work of bondsmen and women during the antebellum era; and (3) the increasing urbanization of the African American population during the industrial age. (CMK)

  11. American Women Dramatists: 1960-1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Patti P.

    A history of American women dramatists is provided in this paper with emphasis on the period 1960 to 1980. It is noted that by 1960 several American women had earned sizable reputations as dramatists; that prior to 1960, especially in the 1920s and 1930s, they had offered both commercial and experimental pieces; and that, like their male…

  12. Passage of American shad: paradigms and realities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, Alex; Castro-Santos, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    Despite more than 250 years of development, the passage of American shad Alosa sapidissima at dams and other barriers frequently remains problematic. Few improvements in design based on knowledge of the swimming, schooling, and migratory behaviors of American shad have been incorporated into passage structures. Large-scale technical fishways designed for the passage of adult salmonids on the Columbia River have been presumed to have good performance for American shad but have never been rigorously evaluated for this species. Similar but smaller fishway designs on the East Coast frequently have poor performance. Provision of effective downstream passage for both juvenile and postspawning adult American shad has been given little consideration in most passage projects. Ways to attract and guide American shad to both fishway entrances and downstream bypasses remain marginally understood. The historical development of passage structures for American shad has resulted in assumptions and paradigms about American shad behavior and passage that are frequently unsubstantiated by supporting data or appropriate experimentation. We propose that many of these assumptions and paradigms are either unfounded or invalid and that significant improvements to American shad upstream and downstream passage can be made via a sequential program of behavioral experimentation, application of experimental results to the physical and hydraulic design of new structures, and controlled tests of large-scale prototype structures in the laboratory and field.

  13. Asian American Literature: Questions of Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongo, Garrett

    1994-01-01

    Argues that Asian American literature is too narrowly defined to include the wide range of diversity it contains and calls for Asian writers to produce work from a more generous interpretive perspective. American poetry is extolled for its beauty of language and its effect on the emotions to both energize and sadden. (GR)

  14. Teaching about Human Rights and American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Karen D.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a flexible lesson plan integrating teaching about human rights into the existing curriculum about American Indians. Asserts that American Indians have the right to maintain their cultural ways and connects that subject to the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Includes three lists of resources and references. (MJP)

  15. The Last Great American Picture Show

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas; King, Noel; Horwath, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    The Last Great American Picture Show brings together essays by scholars and writers who chart the changing evaluations of the American cinema of the 1970s, sometimes referred to as the decade of the lost generation, but now more and more recognized as the first New Hollywood, without which the

  16. Ethnic Awareness of Chinese-American Teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Esther Lee

    1983-01-01

    American-born Chinese students in Houston, Texas, possess a bicultural identity with strong attachment to their Chinese heritage, a high level of self-esteem, early acceptance of racial differences, and proximity to ethnic social contacts. The students also have assimilated American cultural values and are receptive to social integration. (AOS)

  17. 75 FR 23245 - American Lobster Fishery Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... Lobster Fishery Management AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... management actions and alternatives for the American lobster fishery in Federal waters. The management... (Commission) as part of the Commission's Interstate Fishery Management Plan for American Lobster (ISFMP). Two...

  18. Nurturing Learning in Native American Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Robert W.

    This book helps teachers of Native American students to facilitate learning in school through awareness of cultural and values differences between Native Americans and the mainstream culture. Most of the specific cultural information presented comes from the Navajo and Hopi Reservations in northeastern Arizona, but the associated ideas,…

  19. Analytic American Option Pricing and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sbuelz, A.

    2003-01-01

    I use a convenient value breakdown in order to obtain analytic solutions for finitematurity American option prices.Such a barrier-option-based breakdown yields an analytic lower bound for the American option price, which is as price-tight as the Barone-Adesi and Whaley (1987) analytic value proxy

  20. African American Males: Leaving the Nightmare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Wali

    The plight of African American males has become a problem of alarming proportions in the United States. This paper reports serious disadvantage and risk for this group in terms of education, employment, poverty levels, family disintegration, criminal status, health, and death rates. The paper contends that the crisis for African American males…

  1. 33 CFR 117.141 - American River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false American River. 117.141 Section 117.141 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.141 American River. The draw of the...

  2. American Indian Migration and Economic Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandefur, Gary D.

    1986-01-01

    Explores the determinants of interstate migration and the impact of migration on labor force participation for American Indians, in comparison to White and intermarried Indian/White couples. Interstate migration was much lower for endogenous American Indian couples, but its effect on labor force participation was the same for all couples. (ETS)

  3. Rapid City Native American Population Needs Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhi, Abdollah

    1993-01-01

    Interviews with 301 Native American households in Rapid City, South Dakota, examined demographic variables and attitudes and needs in the areas of education, housing, transportation, health care, recreation, and employment. The ultimate goals for Native American people are achieving empowerment and group determination through greater cultural…

  4. Educating African American Males: A Dream Deferred.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milwaukee Public Schools, WI.

    This document presents recommendations of the Milwaukee (Wisconsin) African American Male Task Force (MAAMTF), which reviewed from January through April of 1990 current educational efforts and recommended strategies by which schools could better address African American males' needs. The MAAMTF recommendations are to be implemented in two phases.…

  5. The American Pika in Southern Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Hammer, Ethan; Frey, S. Nicole

    2017-01-01

    This fact sheet describes the American pika, the smallest member of the rabbit and hare family. It discusses concerns for the American pika populations, its presence in the Cedar Breaks National Monument, and how individuals can help monitor the pika at Cedar Breaks and throughout Utah.

  6. Arab Americans: Into the Multicultural Mainstream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingfield, Marvin

    2006-01-01

    Long-standing anti-Arab racism in the U.S. has worsened in recent decades, fueled by U.S. military involvement in the Middle East and by the September 11 attack on the U.S. Arab American and Muslim children have been the targets of misunderstanding and discrimination. Following a historical introduction, discrimination against Arab American and…

  7. Categorical Perception in American Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmorey, Karen; McCullough, Stephen; Brentari, Diane

    2003-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether Deaf signers or hearing nonsigners exhibit categorical perception (CP) for hand configuration or for place of articulation in American Sign Language. Findings that signers and nonsigners performed similarly suggests that these categories in American Sign Language have a perceptual as well as a linguistic basis.…

  8. Stennis Space Center celebrates Native American culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Famie Willis (left), 2009-2010 Choctaw Indian Princess, displays artifacts during Native American Heritage Month activities at Stennis Space Center on Nov. 24. The celebration featured various Native American cultural displays for Stennis employees to view. Shown above are (l to r): Willis, Elaine Couchman of NASA Shared Services Center, John Cecconi of NSSC and Lakeisha Robertson of the Environmental Protection Agency.

  9. Racism and Asian American Student Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jennifer Y.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a theoretical analysis and ethnographic account of Asian American student leadership in higher education. Existing literature highlights Asian and Asian American leadership styles as cultural differences. I shift the analysis from culture to racism in order to work toward a more socially just conception of Asian American…

  10. The carbon balance of North American wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott D. Bridgham; J. Patrick Megonigal; Jason K. Keller; Norman b. Bliss; Carl Trettin

    2006-01-01

    We examine the carbon balance of North American wetlands by reviewing and synthesizing the published literature and soil databases. North American wetlands contain about 220 Pg C, most of which is in peat. They are a small to moderate carbon sink of about 49 Tg C yr-l, although the uncertainty around this estimate is greater than 100%, with the...

  11. Teaching American History in a Global Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarneri; Carl, Ed.; Davis, James, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This comprehensive resource is an invaluable aid for adding a global dimension to students' understanding of American history. It includes a wide range of materials from scholarly articles and reports to original syllabi and ready-to-use lesson plans to guide teachers in enlarging the frame of introductory American history courses to an…

  12. Teaching American History Evaluation: Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock, Phyllis; Tseng, Fannie; Humphrey, Daniel; Gillespie, Marilyn; Yee, Kaily

    2011-01-01

    In 2001, Congress established the Teaching American History (TAH) program, which seeks to improve student achievement by improving teachers' knowledge, understanding, and appreciation of traditional American history as a separate subject within the core curriculum. Under this program, grants are awarded to local education agencies (LEAs), which…

  13. Drug testing in American schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J. Russo

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available As the use of illegal drugs has reached epidemic proportions in schools, educational leaders in the United States have turned to drug testing in attempting to maintain learner discipline. To this end, the United States Supreme Court has addressed the issue twice in the past eight years. In 1995, the Court permitted drug testing in Acton v. Vernonia School District 47J. More recently, in Board of Education of Independent School District No. 92 of Pottawatomie v. Earls (2002, the Court upheld suspicionless drug testing of learners who wished to participate in extracurricular activities. Even though drug testing has yet to emerge as an issue in South Africa, Earls is significant for educational leaders and policy makers in South Africa since it involves concerns under the National Policy on Privacy. More specifically, under Items 20 and 21 of the South African National Policy on the Management of Drug Abuse (SA, 1996b searches and drug testing should only be used where there is reasonable suspicion, the same standard applied by American courts. However, unlike the United States, the South African policy prohibits random searches and/or drug testing. Thus, due to constitutional and educational issues that drug testing raises, a timely discussion of this matter should be of interest to educational leaders and policy makers in South Africa.

  14. Arsenic Content in American Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Denise

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies that have investigated arsenic content in juice, rice, milk, broth (beef and chicken), and other foods have stimulated an interest in understanding how prevalent arsenic contamination is in the U.S. food and beverage supply. The study described here focused on quantifying arsenic levels in wine. A total of 65 representative wines from the top four wine-producing states in the U.S. were analyzed for arsenic content. All samples contained arsenic levels that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) exposure limit for drinking water of 10 parts per billion (ppb) and all samples contained inorganic arsenic. The average arsenic detected among all samples studied was 23.3 ppb. Lead, a common co-contaminant to arsenic, was detected in 58% of samples tested, but only 5% exceeded the U.S. EPA exposure limit for drinking water of 15 ppb. Arsenic levels in American wines exceeded those found in other studies involving water, bottled water, apple juice, apple juice blend, milk, rice syrup, and other beverages. When taken in the context of consumption patterns in the U.S., the pervasive presence of arsenic in wine can pose a potential health risk to regular adult wine drinkers.

  15. Ocular allergy latin american consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Serapião dos Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To establish current definition, classification and staging, and to develop diagnosis and treatment recommendations for ocular allergy, by using Delphi approach. METHODS: Ten Latin American experts on ocular allergy participated in a 4-round Delphi panel approach. Four surveys were constructed and answered by panelists. A two-thirds majority was defined as consensus. Definition, classification, staging and diagnosis and treatment recommendations were the main outcomes. RESULTS: "Ocular allergy" was proposed as the general term to describe ocular allergic diseases. Consensus regarding classification was not reached. Signs and symptoms were considered extremely important for the diagnosis. It was consensus that a staging system should be proposed based on the disease severity. Environmental control, avoidance of allergens and the use of artificial tears were recommended as first line treatment. The secondary treatment should include topical anti-histamines, mast cell stabilizers and multi actions drugs. Topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and vasoconstrictors were not recommended. Topical corticosteroids were recommended as third line of treatment for the most severe keratoconjunctivitis. Consensus was not reached regarding the use of systemic corticosteroids or immunosuppressant. Surgical approach and unconventional treatments were not recommended as routine. CONCLUSION: The task of creating guidelines for ocular allergies showed to be very complex. Many controversial topics remain unsolved. A larger consensus including experts from different groups around the world may be needed to further improve the current recommendations for several aspects of ocular allergy.

  16. North American sturgeon otolith morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Dittman, Dawn E.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate expedient species identification of deceased sturgeon (Acipenseridae) when external physical characteristic analysis is inconclusive has become a high priority due to the endangered or threatened status of sturgeon species around the world. Examination of otoliths has provided useful information to aid in population management, age and size-class analysis, understanding predator–prey interactions, and archeological research in other fish species. The relationship between otolith characteristics and sturgeon species has remained unknown. Therefore, we analyzed the shape of otoliths from the eight species of sturgeon found in North America to test the utility of otolith characteristic morphology in species identification. There were distinct differences in the size and shape of the otoliths between species of sturgeon with little shape variation among individuals of the same species. The relationship between otolith length axes was linear, and most of the variability was explained by a Log (axis + 1) transformation of the x and y axes (r2 = 0.8983) using the equation y = 0.73x + 0.0612. Images of otoliths from all eight North American species are presented to assist in the identification process.

  17. Defining Tiger Parenting in Chinese Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Yeong

    2016-01-01

    “Tiger” parenting, as described by Amy Chua [2011], has instigated scholarly discourse on this phenomenon and its possible effects on families. Our eight-year longitudinal study, published in the Asian American Journal of Psychology [Kim, Wang, Orozco-Lapray, Shen, & Murtuza, 2013b], demonstrates that tiger parenting is not a common parenting profile in a sample of 444 Chinese American families. Tiger parenting also does not relate to superior academic performance in children. In fact, the best developmental outcomes were found among children of supportive parents. We examine the complexities around defining tiger parenting by reviewing classical literature on parenting styles and scholarship on Asian American parenting, along with Amy Chua’s own description of her parenting method, to develop, define, and categorize variability in parenting in a sample of Chinese American families. We also provide evidence that supportive parenting is important for the optimal development of Chinese American adolescents. PMID:27182075

  18. THE GODFATHER AND THE AMERICAN DREAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goksu Gigi Akkan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to demonstrate how The Godfather by Francis Ford Coppola challenges the myth of the American Dream. The thesis of the paper is that The Godfather is not a film seeking to re-establish American norms and ideals, but that it tries to break down and shed light on the corrupt side of the modern American society through the myth of “the American Dream”. The structure of the paper is so that first, what other academics and critiques have to say about Coppola’s attempt to criticize the American society and ideals will be visited, as this will give the reader a clearer understanding of the film’s meaning and message. Then, analyses of how certain characters are built and how their presence and attributes contribute to the film’s meaning will be conducted, topped off with the usage of props.

  19. Translating Culture: Contemporary African American Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Kočan Šalamon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper interrogates cultural specifics of contemporary African American poetry and exhibits translation problems when translating this poetic work. African American writers have always included much of their cultural heritage in their writing and this is immediately noticed by a translator. The cultural elements, such as African American cuisine, attire and style in general, as well as spiritual and religious practices, often play a significant role for African American poets who are proclaiming their identity. Moreover, the paper presents the translation problems that emerge when attempting to transfer such a specific, even exotic, source culture into a target culture, like Slovene. The goal is to show to what extent contemporary African American poetry can successfully be translated into the Slovene language and to highlight the parts that inevitably remain lost in the translation process.

  20. Defining Tiger Parenting in Chinese Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Yeong

    2013-09-01

    "Tiger" parenting, as described by Amy Chua [2011], has instigated scholarly discourse on this phenomenon and its possible effects on families. Our eight-year longitudinal study, published in the Asian American Journal of Psychology [Kim, Wang, Orozco-Lapray, Shen, & Murtuza, 2013b], demonstrates that tiger parenting is not a common parenting profile in a sample of 444 Chinese American families. Tiger parenting also does not relate to superior academic performance in children. In fact, the best developmental outcomes were found among children of supportive parents. We examine the complexities around defining tiger parenting by reviewing classical literature on parenting styles and scholarship on Asian American parenting, along with Amy Chua's own description of her parenting method, to develop, define, and categorize variability in parenting in a sample of Chinese American families. We also provide evidence that supportive parenting is important for the optimal development of Chinese American adolescents.

  1. American marsupials chromosomes: why study them?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Svartman

    Full Text Available Marsupials, one of the three main groups of mammals, are only found in Australia and in the American continent. Studies performed in Australian marsupials have demonstrated the great potential provided by the group for the understanding of basic genetic mechanisms and chromosome evolution in mammals. Genetic studies in American marsupials are relatively scarce and cytogenetic data of most species are restricted to karyotype descriptions, usually without banding patterns. Nevertheless, the first marsupial genome sequenced was that of Monodelphis domestica, a South American species. The knowledge about mammalian genome evolution and function that resulted from studies on M. domestica is in sharp contrast with the lack of genetic data on most American marsupial species. Here, we present an overview of the chromosome studies performed in marsupials with emphasis on the South American species.

  2. African-Americans and comprehensive service use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theriot, Matthew T; Segal, Steven P; Cowsert, Max J

    2003-06-01

    This study examined African-Americans' use of comprehensive mental health services. 248 long-term users of self-help agencies (SHAs) were interviewed about their use of 37 different mental health services from various providers in a six-month period. Multiple regression analysis showed that the homeless and African-Americans were the high users in our sample. A subsequent MANOVA procedure suggested that this may be the result of African-Americans' increased use of SHAs. While African-Americans are low service users in traditional studies focusing on a narrow list of services and providers, this research argues for including SHAs in future studies of African-American service use.

  3. Intimate partner violence in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Doris Williams; Sharps, Phyllis W; Gary, Faye A; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Lopez, Loretta M

    2002-01-01

    Violence against African American women, specifically intimate partner abuse, has a significant impact on their health and well being. Intimate partner femicide and near fatal intimate partner femicide are the major causes of premature death and disabling injuries for African American women. Yet, despite this, there is a paucity of research and interventions specific and culturally relevant for these women. This article focuses on issues relevant to intimate partner violence and abuse against African American women by examining existing empirical studies of prevalence and health outcomes of intimate partner violence against women in general, plus what limited research there is about African American women, specifically. It includes a discussion of specific recommendations for research, practice, education, and policy to reduce and prevent intimate partner violence against African American women.

  4. American marsupials chromosomes: why study them?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Svartman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Marsupials, one of the three main groups of mammals, are only found in Australia and in the American continent. Studies performed in Australian marsupials have demonstrated the great potential provided by the group for the understanding of basic genetic mechanisms and chromosome evolution in mammals. Genetic studies in American marsupials are relatively scarce and cytogenetic data of most species are restricted to karyotype descriptions, usually without banding patterns. Nevertheless, the first marsupial genome sequenced was that of Monodelphis domestica, a South American species. The knowledge about mammalian genome evolution and function that resulted from studies on M. domestica is in sharp contrast with the lack of genetic data on most American marsupial species. Here, we present an overview of the chromosome studies performed in marsupials with emphasis on the South American species.

  5. Asian Americans: growth, change, and diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, R W; Robey, B; Smith, P C

    1985-10-01

    The 1980 US census counted 3.5 million Asian Americans, up from 1.4 million in 1970. Asian Americans made up just 1.5% of the total US population of 226.5 million as of April 1, 1980, but this was the 3rd largest racial or ethnic minority after blacks and Hispanics. Asians increased far more during the 1970s (141%) than blacks (17%) or Hispanics (39%). This Bulletin examines the characteristics of Asian Americans, how their numbers have grown, where they live, how different groups vary in age structure, childbearing, health, and longevity. It reports on the kinds of households Asian Americans form and how they fare with regard to education, occupation, and income. Asian Americans are now often perceived as the model minority. As a whole, they are better educated, occupy higher rungs on the occupational ladder, and earn more than the general US population and even white Americans. This Bulletin presents the 1st comprehensive look at many important facts about Asian Americans and how the groups differ. Special tabulations of data collected in the 1980 census are provided. The 1980 census data are the latest available to give a true picture at the national level of Asian Americans and the various groups among them. The Bulletin examines the current numbers of Asian Americans and how this population is defined. The major Asian American groups are Chinese (21%), Filipinos (20%), Japanese (15%), Vietnamese (21%), Koreans (11%), and Asian Indians (10%). Except for the latest-arrived Vietnamese, the fertility of the 6 groups is lower than the white average. The following areas are also discussed: mortality and health; families and households; education; Asian youth; employment; income and poverty; and future prospects.

  6. Cardiovascular Health in African Americans: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnethon, Mercedes R; Pu, Jia; Howard, George; Albert, Michelle A; Anderson, Cheryl A M; Bertoni, Alain G; Mujahid, Mahasin S; Palaniappan, Latha; Taylor, Herman A; Willis, Monte; Yancy, Clyde W

    2017-11-21

    Population-wide reductions in cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality have not been shared equally by African Americans. The burden of cardiovascular disease in the African American community remains high and is a primary cause of disparities in life expectancy between African Americans and whites. The objectives of the present scientific statement are to describe cardiovascular health in African Americans and to highlight unique considerations for disease prevention and management. The primary sources of information were identified with PubMed/Medline and online sources from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The higher prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors (eg, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk) underlies the relatively earlier age of onset of cardiovascular diseases among African Americans. Hypertension in particular is highly prevalent among African Americans and contributes directly to the notable disparities in stroke, heart failure, and peripheral artery disease among African Americans. Despite the availability of effective pharmacotherapies and indications for some tailored pharmacotherapies for African Americans (eg, heart failure medications), disease management is less effective among African Americans, yielding higher mortality. Explanations for these persistent disparities in cardiovascular disease are multifactorial and span from the individual level to the social environment. The strategies needed to promote equity in the cardiovascular health of African Americans require input from a broad set of stakeholders, including clinicians and researchers from across multiple disciplines. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. The state of American management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wriston, W B

    1990-01-01

    Every year, the president of the United States offers his State of the Union address. Here, from one of the most respected managers in America, is a report on the State of American Management. The state of management, says Walter B. Wriston, is good. Despite the predictions of America's decline, our economy continues to prosper. That is because of this fundamental truth: the United States is the only country in the world that renews itself daily. This is the Age of Pluralism, and U.S. business is based on pluralism. The spirit of the entrepreneur has entered the mainstream of U.S. management, transforming bureaucracy and emphasizing leadership. Today's top executives need to be more like politicians than the number-crunchers of yesterday. At the same time, information is flowing more freely, so corporations are eliminating layers of managers who were really just transmission lines. And top managers are learning to listen to the people who are closest to the work. Everyone today is a knowledge worker. The accelerating pace of knowledge has put a greater premium than ever on talent. Globalization is a big part of this new world. From the manager's viewpoint, globalization means that "you're in a marketplace where you're suddenly waking up with a guy...from a country you're not too sure where it is, who's eating your lunch in your hometown." To understand global competition, managers in large and small companies need broad vision. Finally, to deal with change, U.S. managers must confront some issues at home. For instance, our accounting systems are obsolete, both in companies and in our national accounts.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. The North American electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvie, I.

    1999-01-01

    The wide ranging changes that will drive the evolution of the North American electricity industry in the future are discussed. Deregulation and the advent of competition in both the United States and Canada are the principal forces that will change the shape of the electricity market, bringing new players and new forms of doing business into the marketplace. A review of the current state of the business shows that especially in the United States where deregulation began earlier than in Canada, independent generators already constitute a multi-billion dollar industry. Non-utility generation capacity is about seven per cent of total U.S. capacity and accounts for about 10 per cent of total U. S. electricity supply, including imports. Examples from other industries clearly show that restructuring and the breakup of vertically integrated industries could be accomplished much faster than anticipated, that a decrease in prices followed rapidly as products became more like commodities, and that decreasing prices fostered product differentiation and competition. Major legislation affecting the electric power industry in the U.S. and Canada (U.S. National Energy Policy Act 1992, Alberta Electric Utilities Act 1995, Ontario Energy Competition Act 1998) decreeing open access transmission, unbundling of generation, transmission and ancillary services, and promoting competition, and the impacts of these legislative actions are also reviewed. The most visible impact is the explosion that can be seen in power marketing and energy trading on a scale unimaginable only a few short years ago, where the total volume of trade may be worth multiples of the value of the underlying commodity. At the same time, there is concern about the reliability of the system, and thus making it imperative to find new ways to manage reliability. Various suggestions are made as to how increased reliability of supply could be achieved by better management, new standards and better enforcement of

  9. Excerpt from Dead Stars: American and Philippine Literary Perspectives on the American Colonization of the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. McMahon

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Dead Stars: American and Philippine Literary Perspectives on the American Colonization of the Philippines examines the American colonization of the Philippines from three distinct but related literary perspectives. The first is the reaction of anti-imperialist American writers Mark Twain, W. E. B. Du Bois, and William James to America’s first foray into the role of colonizer and how their varied essays, letters, and speeches provide an incisive delineation of fundamental conflicts in American identity at the turn of the twentieth century. The book then analyzes how these same conflicts surface in the colonial regime’s use of American literature as a tool to inculcate American values in the colonial educational system. Finally, Dead Stars considers the way three early and important Filipino writers—Paz Marquez Benitez, Maximo Kalaw, and Juan C. Laya—interpret and represent these same tensions in their fiction.

  10. AMERICAN DREAM: THE AMERICAN HEGEMONIC CULTURE AND ITS IMPLICATIONS TO THE WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasiyarno .

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A nation could be a great one as long as it has a great dream. The best example for this is America. Through its long history, it manages to realize a dream to be a superpower. It can be said that “American Dream” is one of the most significant features for the growth of a “constantly eyeing for winner” culture. American Studies experts call it as a “hegemonic culture” in which American norms, values and cultural practices are considered superior against the world culture. Globalizing the culture has been the most effective engine to spread American cultural values and to shape the global civilizations. Using American Studies perspective, this paper attempts to review the extent to which the “American Dream” has successfully established Americanization, as well as how the hegemonic culture has influenced the lives of peoples across the world in the form of popular culture.

  11. The Relationship between Native American Ancestry, Body Mass Index and Diabetes Risk among Mexican-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hao; Huff, Chad D; Yamamura, Yuko; Wu, Xifeng; Strom, Sara S

    2015-01-01

    Higher body mass index (BMI) is a well-established risk factor for type 2 diabetes, and rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes are substantially higher among Mexican-Americans relative to non-Hispanic European Americans. Mexican-Americans are genetically diverse, with a highly variable distribution of Native American, European, and African ancestries. Here, we evaluate the role of Native American ancestry on BMI and diabetes risk in a well-defined Mexican-American population. Participants were randomly selected among individuals residing in the Houston area who are enrolled in the Mexican-American Cohort study. Using a custom Illumina GoldenGate Panel, we genotyped DNA from 4,662 cohort participants for 87 Ancestry-Informative Markers. On average, the participants were of 50.2% Native American ancestry, 42.7% European ancestry and 7.1% African ancestry. Using multivariate linear regression, we found BMI and Native American ancestry were inversely correlated; individuals with ancestry were 2.5 times more likely to be severely obese compared to those with >80% Native American ancestry. Furthermore, we demonstrated an interaction between BMI and Native American ancestry in diabetes risk among women; Native American ancestry was a strong risk factor for diabetes only among overweight and obese women (OR = 1.190 for each 10% increase in Native American ancestry). This study offers new insight into the complex relationship between obesity, genetic ancestry, and their respective effects on diabetes risk. Findings from this study may improve the diabetes risk prediction among Mexican-American individuals thereby facilitating targeted prevention strategies.

  12. Quality of diabetes care in Arab Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlie, Helen D; Herman, William H; Brown, Morton B; Hammad, Adnan; Jaber, Linda A

    2008-02-01

    The quality of care received by Arab American patients with type 2 diabetes residing in a city with a large migrant Arab population has not been examined. Arab American adults with a self-reported diagnosis of diabetes were identified in a rigorous cross-sectional, population-based epidemiologic study conducted in Dearborn, MI. Quality of diabetes care was determined by assessing adherence to the American Diabetes Association (ADA) clinical practice recommendations. The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) provided data for a national comparison. Among the 53 participants, mean age was 59+/-12 years and the mean duration of diabetes was 11.3+/-13.3 years. The ADA goal for an A1c of Arab American subjects studied were treated less aggressively with pharmacologic agents than recommended by the ADA. 26% of the Arab Americans had an A1c>9.5% as compared to 18% of the national population. Arab Americans generally had worse blood pressure control but better lipid control compared to the national sample. This is the first report of the quality of diabetes care in an Arab American population, and demonstrates sub-optimal quality of care according to the ADA clinical practice recommendations.

  13. Cancer statistics for African Americans, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Carol; Naishadham, Deepa; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2013-05-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society estimates the number of new cancer cases and deaths for African Americans and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, survival, and screening prevalence based upon incidence data from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. It is estimated that 176,620 new cases of cancer and 64,880 deaths will occur among African Americans in 2013. From 2000 to 2009, the overall cancer death rate among males declined faster among African Americans than whites (2.4% vs 1.7% per year), but among females, the rate of decline was similar (1.5% vs 1.4% per year, respectively). The decrease in cancer death rates among African American males was the largest of any racial or ethnic group. The reduction in overall cancer death rates since 1990 in men and 1991 in women translates to the avoidance of nearly 200,000 deaths from cancer among African Americans. Five-year relative survival is lower for African Americans than whites for most cancers at each stage of diagnosis. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors remains an active area of research. Overall, progress in reducing cancer death rates has been made, although more can and should be done to accelerate this progress through ensuring equitable access to cancer prevention, early detection, and state-of-the-art treatments. Copyright © 2013 American Cancer Society, Inc.

  14. Emotion socialization and ethnicity: an examination of practices and outcomes in African American, Asian American, and Latin American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelen, Diana; Thomassin, Kristel

    2013-06-01

    The current review paper summarizes the literature on parental emotion socialization in ethnically diverse families in the United States. Models of emotion socialization have been primarily developed using samples of European American parents and children. As such, current categorizations of "adaptive" and "maladaptive" emotion socialization practices may not be applicable to individuals from different ethnic backgrounds. The review examines current models of emotion socialization, with particular attention paid to the demographic breakdown of the studies used to develop these models. Additionally, the review highlights studies examining emotion socialization practices in African American, Asian American, and Latin American families. The review is synthesized with summarizing themes of similarities and differences across ethnic groups, and implications for culturally sensitive research and practice are discussed.

  15. A Tale of Two Anti-Americanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Guerlain

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available There is, of course no single American tradition or single American set of values. There are, and always have been, many Americas. We each of us remember and appeal to the Americas we prefer.Immanuel WallersteinWhat does the term mean? That you’re anti-jazz? Or that you’re opposed to free speech? That you don’t delight in Toni Morrison or John Updike? That you have a quarrel with giant sequoias? Does it mean that you don’t admire the hundreds of thousands of American citizens who marched agai...

  16. New American Home 2008: Orlando, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-12-01

    Each year, The New American home demonstrates innovative building materials, cutting-edge design, and the latest construction techniques. It provides production homebuilders with an example for producing more energy-efficient, durable homes without sacrificing style. This year, The New American Home celebrates its 25th anniversary. The New American Home is the official showcase house of the annual International Builders' Show, and is a for-sale product. Most features and innovations in the home are accessible to builders and consumers for integration into their own home.

  17. Latin American foot and ankle surgery today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abello, Sergio

    2012-02-01

    Latin American medical orthopedic sub specialties have evolved a lot during the past decade. Foot and ankle surgery for instance, has gained high level of proficiency and competence throughout the international scientific communities. This may be due to the availability of new technology in osteosyntheses, orthopedic devices and surgical instruments used to optimize results, regardless of the low economic resources Latin American countries possess. Also, foot and ankle surgery training is being promoted by several International Medical associations that pursuit scientific knowledge and strengthen the practice. Day to day, more Latin American universities offer Fellowships for on-going training.

  18. Arab-American Literature: Origins and Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Suhair Majaj

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Although Arab-American literature has been in existence in the U.S. for over a century, it has only recently begun to be recognized as part of the ethnic landscape of literary America. However, the last two decades have seen a dramatic increase in publication by Arab-American writers. This literary burgeoning reflects in part the shifting historical, social, and political contexts that have pushed Arab-Americans to the foreground, creating both new spaces for their voices and new urgencies of expression, as well as the flourishing creativity of these writers.

  19. African-American Prostate Cancer Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Zachary L; Eggener, Scott E; Murphy, Adam B

    2017-08-14

    The purpose of this review is to examine prostate cancer racial disparities specific to the African-American population. African-American men are more likely to be diagnosed with prostate cancer, present at an earlier age; are more likely to have locally advanced or metastatic disease at diagnosis; and have suboptimal outcomes to standard treatments. Prostate cancer treatment requires a nuanced approach, particularly when applying screening, counseling, and management of African-American men. Oncological as well as functional outcomes may differ and are potentially due to a combination of genetic, molecular, behavioral, and socioeconomic factors.

  20. Theories of underdevelopment and the American Indian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, G.C.

    1980-09-01

    This article examines the applicability of the theories of colonialism and dependency to the present underdeveloped situation of American Indians. In the first section, the theoretical and empirical literature is reviewed. The second section applies the general theory to various US minorities, including American Indians. After discussing the shortcomings of this theoretical framework, the article demonstrates how deficiencies found in the colonial analysis of Indian underdevelopment can be corrected by using the supporting theoretical construct of dependency. Among other things, it suggests that dependency analysis of Native Americans, on the basis of previous research, appears, to offer a potentially unified and coherent explanation for the Indian's continued underdevelopment.

  1. Differences in the tumor microenvironment between African-American and European-American breast cancer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damali N Martin

    Full Text Available African-American breast cancer patients experience higher mortality rates than European-American patients despite having a lower incidence of the disease. We tested the hypothesis that intrinsic differences in the tumor biology may contribute to this cancer health disparity.Using laser capture microdissection, we examined genome-wide mRNA expression specific to tumor epithelium and tumor stroma in 18 African-American and 17 European-American patients. Numerous genes were differentially expressed between these two patient groups and a two-gene signature in the tumor epithelium distinguished between them. To identify the biological processes in tumors that are different by race/ethnicity, Gene Ontology and disease association analyses were performed. Several biological processes were identified which may contribute to enhanced disease aggressiveness in African-American patients, including angiogenesis and chemotaxis. African-American tumors also contained a prominent interferon signature. The role of angiogenesis in the tumor biology of African-Americans was further investigated by examining the extent of vascularization and macrophage infiltration in an expanded set of 248 breast tumors. Immunohistochemistry revealed that microvessel density and macrophage infiltration is higher in tumors of African-Americans than in tumors of European-Americans. Lastly, using an in silico approach, we explored the potential of tailored treatment options for African-American patients based on their gene expression profile. This exploratory approach generated lists of therapeutics that may have specific antagonistic activity against tumors of African-American patients, e.g., sirolimus, resveratrol, and chlorpromazine in estrogen receptor-negative tumors.The gene expression profiles of breast tumors indicate that differences in tumor biology may exist between African-American and European-American patients beyond the knowledge of current markers. Notably, pathways

  2. A Deafening Silence: Hizballah After the American Invasion of Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wrona, Jr, Richard M

    2007-01-01

    ... American servicemen and twenty-three French soldiers. Further bombings, murders, and kidnappings greatly contributed to the American decision months later that the carnage and anarchy in Lebanon were not worth additional American lives...

  3. Infant Mortality and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American Indian/Alaska Native > Infant Health & Mortality Infant Mortality and American Indians/Alaska Natives American Indian/Alaska ... as compared to non-Hispanic white mothers. Infant Mortality Rate: Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live ...

  4. 75 FR 23559 - Older Americans Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    .... Many of our Nation's older men and women have worked tirelessly and sacrificed so their children could... Americans are also answering the call to serve through the Corporation for National and Community Service's...

  5. American Express eristub teistest / Romet Kreek

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kreek, Romet, 1972-

    2008-01-01

    American Ekspress ei reklaami end ainult kaardipakkujana, vaid ka pangana, sest annab klientidele omal riisikol ka laenu. Diagramm: Aktsia hind. Tabelid: Majandusnäitajad; Suhtarvud; Analüütikud soovitavad

  6. American Evaluation Association Guiding Principles for Evaluators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-01-18

    Five principles developed by American Evaluation Associ intended to guide professional practice of evaluators & to inform evaluation clients and the general public about principles they can expect to be upheld by professional evaluators.

  7. Wild Plants Used by the Native Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nature Study, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Describes 10 wild plants used by Native Americans. They include: rose hips; the common milkweed; cattails; elderberries; cactus fruits; lamb's quarters pigweeds (Chenopodium sp.); persimmons; mints (Monardo sp.); the yucca; and the hawthorn. Illustrations of each plant are included. (JN)

  8. American Society of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conference Learn More Explore career opportunities in pediatric hematology/oncology Visit the ASPHO Career Center. Learn More ... Use & Privacy Policy » © The American Society of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology

  9. Bacterial Clearance and Endocarditis in American Opossums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musher, Daniel M.; Richie, Yvonne

    1974-01-01

    The American opossum is the only experimental animal that regularly develops bacterial endocarditis spontaneously. There was no relation between the ability of opossums to clear bacteria from the bloodstream and the subsequent development of endocarditis. PMID:4208530

  10. Identity Conflict in Mexican-American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelberg, Hava E.

    1986-01-01

    Concludes that relationships of dominance and dependence in the outside society foster inhibitions to the process of identification, and disturbances in the mechanisms of defense in the Mexican American adolescent. (Author/BL)

  11. Cost Earnings Data 2009 - American Samoa Longline

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data collection project assessed the economic performance of American Samoa-based longline vessels that made trips in 2009. Operational and vessel costs were...

  12. American Association of Occupational Health Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Online Store Workplace Health & Safety Journal Awards & Recognition Occupational Health Nurses Week Member Discounts Monthly Newsletter Foundation About ... effective January 1, 2018. The American Association of Occupational Health Nurses, Inc. is the primary association for the ...

  13. 2010 NOAA American Samoa Mobile Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains three-dimensional mobile lidar elevation data for seven villages in American Samoa on the island of Tutuila. The seven villages are: Fagaalu,...

  14. Breast Cancer Risk in American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Risk in American Women On This Page What ... risk of developing the disease. Personal history of breast cancer : Women who have had breast cancer are more ...

  15. Contextualizing Asian American College Student Psychological Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Christopher T. H.; Liu, Jessica; Nguyen, David; Song, Ge

    2017-01-01

    With attention to race, culture, and gender, this chapter contextualizes the help-seeking behaviors and psychological aspects of health facing Asian American college students. Recommendations are provided to student affairs professionals and counselors.

  16. NCEP North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NARR dataset is an extension of the NCEP Global Reanalysis which is run over the North American Region. The NARR model uses the very high resolution NCEP Eta...

  17. American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Learn More xx Job Board (?) Looking for your dream job? Or interested in what opportunities might be ... message—Physiatry is more than. Learn More Advertisement American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 9700 W. ...

  18. The collider calamity, publ. by Scientific American

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "For decades, the big guns of American science have been the U.S. Department of Energy's particle collider, which investigate the nature of matter by accelerating subatomic particles and smashing them together." (1 page)

  19. John Dewey and progressivism in American education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu, L.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on Progressivism, as a reaction against theAmerican traditional school in order to accomplish the purpose ofconnecting education to the realities imposed by the rapid changes of the American society. Progressivism was developed by John Dewey’s pedagogic theory, being based on Pragmatism, a specific American philosophy, and on instrumentalism, one of its variants to which John Dewey conferred its climax. Experience represented the core concept of his philosophy. After revising this philosophical current, the paper will deal with John Dewey’s pedagogic theory insisting on the method of solving problems as a general method of instruction. The importance of the two schools (Dalton Plan and Winnetka, both based on the progressive theory, will be highlighted. Progressivism opened a new era in American Education based on an active education, which took into account the students’ individualities, stimulatingteachers’ creativity and focusing on a practice based education.

  20. American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Upcoming Meetings Online Education Archived Meetings Faculty Resources Sports Medicine Fellowships Traveling Fellowship Submit an Abstract Submit ... Support AOSSM Research Publications Toggle American Journal of Sports Medicine Sports Health: A Multidisciplinary Approach Orthopaedic Journal ...

  1. Latin American scientific contribution to ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowski, Juliana; Ceschin, Fernanda; Pereto, Suelen C A S; Ribas, Luiz G S; Bezerra, Luis A V; Dittrich, Jaqueline; Siqueira, Tadeu; Padial, André A

    2017-01-01

    Latin America embodies countries of special interest for ecological studies, given that areas with great value for biodiversity are located within their territories. This highlights the importance of an evaluation of ecological research in the Latin America region. We assessed the scientific participation of Latin American researchers in ecological journals, patterns of international collaboration, and defined the main characteristics of the articles. Although Latin American publications have increased in fourteen years, they accounted up to 9% of publications in Ecology. Brazil leaded the scientific production in Latin America, followed by Argentina and Mexico. In general, Latin American articles represented a low percentage of most journals total publication, with particularly low expression in high impact-factor journals. A half of the Latin American publications had international collaboration. Articles with more than five authors and with international collaboration were the most cited. Descriptive studies, mainly based in old theories, are still majority, suggesting that Ecology is in a developing stage in Latin America.

  2. British and American attitudes toward credit cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bijou; James, Simon; Lester, David

    2006-04-01

    American university students owned more than twice as many credit cards as British university students. However, scores on a credit card attitude scale predicted the number of cards owned by respondents in both countries.

  3. American Samoa ESI: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains management area data for special management areas, marine parks, marine sanctuaries, national parks, and wildlife refuges in American Samoa....

  4. Jewish Culture and the American Military

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goldberg, Adam M

    2006-01-01

    This study explores the Jewish experience within the American military. The history of military service by persons of the Jewish faith corresponds roughly to that of persons from many other ethnic or religious groups...

  5. Loneliness among Japanese and American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, T; Klopf, D W

    1990-08-01

    Both Japanese and American college students (ns = 100), away from home at their first year in college, showed high scores in the Differential Loneliness Scale, with Japanese students scoring higher on all subscales.

  6. American Minorities and 'New Nation' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Joan W.

    1976-01-01

    The 'Third World models' discussed in this article are, specifically the concept of 'internal colonialism' and the related idea of a 'dual economy/society' that is especially prominent in the literature on urbanization in Africa and Latin American nations.

  7. Cost Earnings Data 2001 - American Samoa Longline

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2001, 25 vessels > 50 feet in overall length joined the American Samoa longline fleet, which previously had consisted of local, small catamaran-style vessels...

  8. Sally Mann's American vision of the land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayelet Carmi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The American photographer Sally Mann is one of the best-known female artists of our time. She is known primarily for her family photographs Immediate Family from 1992, which provoked intense controversies in the American media and art world, around child pornography and motherhood. While these photographs occupy a central place in the artistic discourse about Mann, her series of landscape photographs remain relatively unexamined. This study examines Mann's landscapes and the ways they were framed in the art historical discourse. I argue that the canon of American landscape photography is the subject matter of Mann’s landscapes, and that her work stands in for a wider project: demonstrating that there is no landscape per se, nor ever was. Moreover, by analyzing the discourse surrounding Mann’s landscapes, this study highlights the patriarchal biases and intra-geographical hierarchy of symbolic meanings between the US regions that underlie the canon of American landscape photography.

  9. American Samoa Boat-based Creel Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Boat-based creel survey data have been collected and processed by the American Samoa Department of Marine and Wildlife Resources (DMWR) staff since about 1982 and...

  10. The Contributions of Immigrants to American Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschman, Charles

    2013-01-01

    The standard account of American immigration focuses on the acculturation and assimilation of immigrants and their children to American society. This analysis typically ignores the significant contributions of immigrants to the creation of American culture through the performing arts, sciences, and other cultural pursuits. Immigrants and their children are not born with more creative talents than native-born citizens, but their selectivity and marginality may have pushed and pulled those with ability into high-risk career paths that reward creative work. The presence of large numbers of talented immigrants in Hollywood, academia, and the high-tech industries has pushed American institutions to be more meritocratic and open to innovation than they would be otherwise.

  11. American Samoa ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for estuarine, reef-associated, and terrestrial invertebrate species in American Samoa. Vector polygons in...

  12. American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IFFAS / AOFAS eBook ​The AOFAS and MD Conference Express invite you to enjoy complimentary access to the ... Foundation Exhibit Privacy Statement Legal Disclosure Site Map American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society ® Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Foundation ...

  13. The American Jockey, 1865-1910

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A. Riess

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available American jockeys for most of the nineteenth century were African Americans. It was a dangerous occupation that paid extremely well for successful jockeys. These riders were pushed out of this occupation, as jockeys became recognized as important factors in racing results and as it became increasingly lucrative, just as they were pushed out of other desirable jobs in the era of Jim Crow.

  14. Defining Tiger Parenting in Chinese Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Su Yeong

    2013-01-01

    “Tiger” parenting, as described by Amy Chua [2011], has instigated scholarly discourse on this phenomenon and its possible effects on families. Our eight-year longitudinal study, published in the Asian American Journal of Psychology [Kim, Wang, Orozco-Lapray, Shen, & Murtuza, 2013b], demonstrates that tiger parenting is not a common parenting profile in a sample of 444 Chinese American families. Tiger parenting also does not relate to superior academic performance in children. In fact, the be...

  15. Latin American oil markets and refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.; Obadia, C.

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the oil markets and refining in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela, and examines the production of crude oil in these countries. Details are given of Latin American refiners highlighting trends in crude distillation unit capacity, cracking to distillation ratios, and refining in the different countries. Latin American oil trade is discussed, and charts are presented illustrating crude production, oil consumption, crude refining capacity, cracking to distillation ratios, and oil imports and exports

  16. Analytic American Option Pricing and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Sbuelz, A.

    2003-01-01

    I use a convenient value breakdown in order to obtain analytic solutions for finitematurity American option prices.Such a barrier-option-based breakdown yields an analytic lower bound for the American option price, which is as price-tight as the Barone-Adesi and Whaley (1987) analytic value proxy for short and medium maturities and exhibits good convergence to the Merton (1973) perpetual option price for large maturities.

  17. 2. The Central American gang phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    Does, Antonia

    2013-01-01

    2.1. Differentiating between pandillas and maras Youth gangs have existed since the 1960s and 1970s in Central America. However, there are different types of Central American gangs and thus one has to distinguish between pandillas and maras. The former are localized, homegrown gangs, which are “direct inheritors” (Jütersonke, Rodgers & Muggah 2009: 379) of the gangs that have historically characterized Central American societies, while the latter are a more recent phenomenon with transnationa...

  18. Some Differences Between British And American English

    OpenAIRE

    Tarigan, Ellemina

    2011-01-01

    Kertas karya ini berjudul “Some Differences Between British and American English”. Kertas karya ini memaparkan secara singkat tentang perbedaan antara British and American English baik dalam speling, grammar, maupun vocabulary sehingga akan diketahui secara jelas perbedaan diantara keduanya. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode kepustakaan dengan membaca beberapa buku bahasa Inggris sebagai bahan referensi yang dapat mendukung topik. Dari pemaparan diatas ada beberapa hasi...

  19. The Latin American Moessbauer research community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, J.G.

    1994-01-01

    Interest in Moessbauer spectroscopy among the Latin American countries has increased in the last five years. Two-thirds of the published research is coming from the Moessbauer research groups in Brazil. Other Latin American countries with active Moessbauer research include Argentina, Chile, Columbia, Cuba, Mexico, Peru, and Venezuela. In recent years, the area having the most interest has been the investigation of minerals and high temperature superconductors. (orig.)

  20. Russian-American venture designs new reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, P.

    1994-01-01

    Russian and American nuclear energy experts have completed a joint design study of a small, low-cost and demonstrably accident-proof reactor that they say could revolutionize the way conventional reactors are designed, marketed and operated. The joint design is helium-cooled and graphite-moderated and has a power density of 3 MWt/cubic meter, which is significantly less than the standard American reactor. A prototype of this design should be operating in Chelyabinsk by June 1996

  1. Transfusion medicine in American undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Julie K; Weston, Christine M; King, Karen E

    2011-11-01

    Blood transfusion is the most common procedure performed in American hospitals, and transfusions are commonly ordered by physicians without formal training in transfusion medicine. Several transfusion medicine curricula have been proposed, including those developed through the Transfusion Medicine Academic Awards (TMAA). To our knowledge, no comprehensive study has assessed how transfusion medicine is incorporated into undergraduate medical education. We conducted an online survey to determine the manner in which transfusion medicine is incorporated into American undergraduate medical education. The survey was e-mailed to administrators of medical education at all of the 129 American medical schools accredited by the Association of American Medical Colleges. Eighty-six (67%) of the 129 identified medical school administrators responded. Seventy-one (83%) of the 86 administrators reported that their undergraduate medical education curriculum provides didactic lectures in transfusion medicine, with 48% of medical schools providing 1 or 2 hours of lecture-based instruction. A minority reported small group sessions devoted to transfusion medicine topics. While a slim majority reported the availability of transfusion medicine electives, only one of 84 administrators reported that such a rotation is required. Seventy-six of 83 (92%) administrators were unfamiliar with either the 1989 or the 1995 TMAA transfusion medicine curricula. Transfusion medicine content in American undergraduate medical education is variable and the influence of the TMAA program on contemporary medical school curricula is questionable. Future efforts in this area should focus on standardizing and improving undergraduate medical education in transfusion medicine. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.

  2. A Foucauldian Theory of American Islamophobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHYAM K. SRIRAM

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With the emergence of ISIS andAmerican public furor over allowing Syrian refugees safe haven, Muslim Americans find themselves once again in the cross-hairs of a nation obsessed with searching for answers and someone to blame. I argue that the premise behind American anti-Muslim sentiment is rooted in two of Michel Foucault’s concepts -“biopower” and “pastoral power.” This article is divided in two halves. In the first, I argue that American nationalism is articulated in a unique way, particularly through “pastoral power.” In conjunction with an “imagined” American nationhood (Anderson 1983, it has created a state that is often viewed as secular, but is quite Christian ideologically and structurally. Drawing on Göle (1996, I surmise that the Western “culture of confession,” an extension of pastoral power, is incompatible with Islam – or at least is viewed as such. In the second half, I present my main argument towards a new understanding of Foucault’s (1990 biopower in the context of the sovereign and its ability to designate who is “sacred,” a la Agamben (1998. I suggest that a new evaluation of Agamben (1998 should be undertaken to account for the renewed racialization of and discrimination towards American Muslims.

  3. The art of Indigenous Americans and American art history: a century of exhibitions

    OpenAIRE

    Berlo, Janet Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The indigenous arts of the United States have long stood in a vexed relationship with the canons of American art history. This brief essay covers only the highlights of this relationship, by considering some major exhibits and installations of Native art in American art museums (and, occasionally, in other exhibition spaces) during the past century. I make these comments as an art historian who has for more than three decades focused on Native American art, with some contributions to others a...

  4. Breast cancer in African-American women: differences in tumor biology from European-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amend, Kandace; Hicks, David; Ambrosone, Christine B

    2006-09-01

    Disparities exist between African-American and European-American women in the incidence and nature of breast cancer. African-American women are more often diagnosed with breast cancer at an earlier age and with more aggressive disease, characterized by higher grade and negative estrogen and progesterone receptor status. Recent findings reveal specific gene expression patterns associated with the more aggressive breast cancers observed in African-American women. An overview of the current literature about racial differences in breast cancer prompts questions for future research to elucidate causes for the apparent disparities in tumor biology.

  5. American Exceptionalism and the American Surgical Association: The Rise of Surgery in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkow, Ira; Lillemoe, Keith D

    2018-04-01

    To explore use of the notion of American exceptionalism by fellows of the American Surgical Association (ASA) (1880 through World War I) and how this proved instrumental in the rise of surgery in the United States. American exceptionalism is the belief that the United States is innately different from other nations because of its economic, geographic, political, religious, and social foundations. Although, currently, the concept of American exceptionalism implies superiority, in its original 19th century connotation, the idea referred to the distinctive character of America as a free nation. An analysis of published literature along with unpublished documents to provide new knowledge and unique insight into the use of American exceptionalism by members of the ASA as they promoted their specialty. Beginning with Samuel Gross's desire that the organization he founded represent "the genius of our republican institutions," to Frederick Dennis's declaration that "American surgery eclipses all other nations because of the wonderful adaptability of the American mind," plus Lewis Pilcher's explanation of how the "stimulating climate, prevailing religious tone, regard for learning, and pride of citizenship are the fruit of the American mind when turned to surgical problems," and ending with Edmond Souchon's 106 page article in the Transactions on surgical firsts, the ASA was the avenue that helped the nation's surgeons define and defend themselves. Use of the concept of American exceptionalism by fellows of the ASA was a key factor in the development of surgery in the United States.

  6. Attitudes of Mexican Americans toward irregular immigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polinard, J L; Wrinkle, R D; Garza, R D

    1984-01-01

    This inquiry focuses on the attitudes of 314 Mexican Americans toward issues relating to current US immigration policy. Telephone and personal interviews were conducted in Hidalgo and Travis counties, Texas, with Mexican-Americans. Virtually all respondent groups oppose an increased rate of immigration, consider illegal immigration to be an important problem, support stricter enforcement of immigration laws, and believe that undocumented workers take jobs no one else wants. Half of the respondents identify illegal immigration as a regional rather than a personal problem. At the same time, the data suggest significant differences in both direction and intensity of attitudes between Mexican Americans of different generations, income, occupational levels, and region. There is general opposition to the requirement of a national identity card, but widespread support for penalizing employers of undocumented workers and for granting amnesty to undocumented workers. These findings allow an examination of the extent to which the Mexican American leadership, which has been overwhelmingly opposed to the Simpson-Mazzoli bill, accurately reflects the views of the Mexican American people. The leadership and the population at large agree on 2 of the 3 issues, amnesty and the national identity card, but disagree on employer sanctions. 1st, it may be that the leadership holds the kinds of jobs for which undocumented workers are unlikely to compete, so they may not feel threatened. 2nd, they may feel that instituting employer sanctions will create incentives for employers to discriminate in their hiring practices against all Latino-looking job applicants. Non-elite Mexican Americans who support employer sanctions may believe that the only way they can compete for jobs is to make it impossible for elites to be hired. Both groups appear to fear that, regardless of the specifics of immigration reform, Mexican Americans are likely to encounter increased discrimination in the job market.

  7. Understanding Tobacco Use Onset Among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Megan E; Colby, Suzanne M; Lu, Bo; Ferketich, Amy K

    2016-04-01

    Compared to the majority of non-Hispanic white ("white") cigarette smokers, many African American smokers demonstrate a later age of initiation. The goal of the present study was to examine African American late-onset smoking (ie, regular smoking beginning at age 18 or later) and determine whether late-onset (vs. early-onset) smoking is protective in terms of quit rates and health outcomes. We used data from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) because the wide age range of participants (20-75 at baseline) allowed the examination of smoking cessation and mortality incidence across the lifespan. Consistent with previous research, results indicated a later average age of smoking onset among African Americans, compared to whites. Disentangling effects of race from age-of-onset, we found that the cessation rate among late-onset African American smokers was 33%, whereas rates for early-onset African American smokers and early- and late-onset white smokers ranged from 52% to 57%. Finally, results showed that among white, low-socioeconomic status (SES) smokers, the hazard rate for mortality was greater among early- versus late-onset smokers; in contrast, among African American smokers (both low- and high-SES) hazard rates for mortality did not significantly differ among early- versus late-onset smokers. Although late (vs. early) smoking onset may be protective for whites, the present results suggest that late-onset may not be similarly protective for African Americans. Tobacco programs and regulatory policies focused on prevention should expand their perspective to include later ages of initiation, in order to avoid widening tobacco-related health disparities. This study indicates that late-onset smoking is not only the norm among African American adult smokers, but that late- versus early-onset smoking (ie, delaying onset) does not appear to afford any benefits for African Americans in terms of cessation or mortality. These results

  8. Chinese/American Physicists: A Transnational History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuoyue

    2011-03-01

    As part of a broader project on ``Chinese/American Scientists: Transnational Science during the Cold War and Beyond,'' this paper examines the movements of American-trained Chinese physicists following the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949. While a majority of these physicists chose to stay in the US (the ``stayees''), a number went back to China in the 1950s (the ``returnees'') against many obstacles during the McCarthy era. After the reopening of US-China relations in the 1970s, the two groups joined hands in promoting China-US scientific and educational exchanges, leading eventually to the coming to the US of a new generation of Chinese physics students and the return to China of some of the original ``stayees.'' This transnational history of Chinese/American physicists aims to illustrate the nature and extent of the Americanization of international science and the internationalization of American science in the post-World War II era. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. SES-1026879.

  9. Cytomegalovirus Infections among African-Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Best Al M

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since African-Americans have twice the prevalence of cytomegalovirus (CMV infections as age-matched Caucasians we sought to determine the ages and possible sources of infection of African-American children. Methods Subjects were 157 African-American healthy children and adolescents and their 113 household adults in Richmond VA. Families completed a questionnaire, provided saliva for antibody testing, and adolescents were interviewed regarding sexual activity. Results Regardless of age CMV seropositivity was not associated with gender, breast feeding, health insurance, sexual activity, or household income, education, or size. In the final regression model, prior CMV infection in adults was over two-fold higher than in children (chi-square = 18.8, p Conclusion We observed that African-American children had CMV seroprevalence rates by age 20 years at less than one-half of that of their adult mothers and caregivers. Sibling-to-sibling transmission was a likely source of CMV infections for the children. The next generation of African-American women may be highly susceptible to a primary CMV infection during pregnancy and may benefit from a CMV vaccine.

  10. Friendship Factors and Suicidality: Common and Unique Patterns in Mexican American and European American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterrowd, Erin; Canetto, Silvia Sara; Chavez, Ernest L.

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests a link between friendships and suicidality among U.S. youth, but this link has not been confirmed across ethnicities. The relationship between friendships and suicidality among Mexican American and European American adolescents was examined in this study. Specifically, the role of friendship problems (i.e., social isolation, poor…

  11. American Indians Today. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yinger, J. Milton, Ed.; Simpson, George Eaton, Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Aspects of social change among American Indians and in the relationships of Indians to government and the larger society are examined in the collection of articles by 12 political and social scientists. Focusing on recent developments, this look at American Indians today encompasses rapid population growth, urbanization of the Indian population,…

  12. Parenting within Cultural Context: Comparisons between African-American and Asian-American Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fang; Qi, Sen

    2005-01-01

    Using the sub-samples drawn from the National Early Childhood Longitudinal Study: Kindergarten (ECLS-K) database, this study examines similarities and differences between African-American and Asian-American parents in their parenting practice (i.e., parental involvement at home, expectations of child, emotional expressiveness, school involvement,…

  13. A Student's Guide to Native American Genealogy. Oryx American Family Tree Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavasch, E. Barrie

    This book provides a step-by-step guide to genealogical research in North America for Native Americans. The book also contains information on the history of Native Americans and their relationships with the United States. Chapters include: (1) "Grandmother Spider's Tangled Web"; (2) "Why Trace Your Roots?"; (3)…

  14. Marital Satisfaction among African Americans and Black Caribbeans: Findings from the National Survey of American Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Chalandra M.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Lincoln, Karen D.; Chatters, Linda M.; Jackson, James S.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the correlates of marital satisfaction using data from a national probability sample of African Americans (N = 962) and Black Caribbeans (N = 560). Findings reveal differences between African Americans and Black Caribbeans, and men and women within those groups, in the predictors of marital satisfaction. Black Caribbean women…

  15. African American and European American Students' Peer Groups during Early Adolescence: Structure, Status, and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Travis; Karimpour, Ramin; Rodkin, Philip C.

    2011-01-01

    Focusing on a sample of 382 African American (206 female) and 264 European American (132 female) students in diverse fourth and fifth grade classrooms, this study investigated three questions concerning the connections between peer groups and academic achievement during early adolescence: (a) How is group structure (i.e., hierarchy and cohesion)…

  16. Research with African Americans: Lessons Learned about Recruiting African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Angela D.; Huang, Hsin-Hsin; Kashubeck-West, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The authors briefly explore literature related to recruiting African American research participants, reflect on their experiences conducting body image research with a sample of African American college women in an earlier study (S. Kashubeck-West et al., 2008), and discuss some methodological and cultural challenges that they encountered during…

  17. Invisible Asian Americans: The Intersection of Sexuality, Race, and Education among Gay Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo, Anthony C.; Soodjinda, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Most research on Asian American education has centered on addressing and deconstructing the model minority stereotype. While recent studies have highlighted the socioeconomic and cultural heterogeneity among Asian American students, few have examined how sexual identity and masculinity mitigate their academic experiences. In this article, we draw…

  18. Relational Variables and Life Satisfaction in African American and Asian American College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkel, LaVerne A.; Constantine, Madonna G.

    2005-01-01

    The authors explored associations among relationship harmony, perceived family conflicts, relational self-concept, and life satisfaction in a sample of 169 African American and Asian American college women. As hypothesized, higher relational self-concept, or the extent to which individuals include close relationships in their self-concepts, and…

  19. Parenting and Perceived Maternal Warmth in European American and African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Newsom, Julia; Buchanan, Christy M.; McDonald, Richard M.

    2008-01-01

    Traditional conceptualizations of parenting style assume certain associations between parenting practices/philosophies and parental warmth. This study examines whether those links are similar for European American and African American adolescents. Two hundred and ninety-eight early adolescents and their mothers reported on discipline and control…

  20. Representation of American versus non-American fans in Baillie Walsh's Springsteen & I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkinson, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the representation of American versus non-American fans in Baillie Walsh's 2013 crowd/fan-sourced documentary Springsteen & I. The film—as much as it was fed by a wide and international range of fan-produced material—ultimately produced and presented one particular type of fan

  1. 77 FR 22181 - Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... our people. During Pan American Day and Pan American Week, we celebrate this legacy of international... all, to ensure safety for our citizens, to build strong and accountable democratic institutions, to... announced the 100,000 Strong in the Americas initiative to encourage more of our students to study abroad in...

  2. Attitudes toward Family Obligations among American Adolescents with Asian, Latin American, and European Backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuligni, Andrew J.; Tseng, Vivian; Lam, May

    1999-01-01

    Examined attitudes toward family obligations in American tenth and twelfth graders from Filipino, Chinese, Mexican, Central and South American, and European backgrounds. Found that even within a society emphasizing adolescent autonomy and independence, youths from families with collectivistic traditions retain their parents' familial values and…

  3. Forty-fourth supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, R.C.; Cicero, C.; Dunn, J.L.; Kratter, A.W.; Rasmussen, P.C.; Remsen, J.V.; Rising, J.D.; Stotz, D.F.

    2003-01-01

    This is the third Supplement since publication of the 7th edition of the Check-list of North American Birds (American Ornithologists' Union [AOU] 1998). It summarizes decisions made by the AOU's Committee on Classification and Nomenclature between 1 January 2002 and 31 December 2002.

  4. Forty-sixth supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, R.C.; Cicero, C.; Dunn, J.L.; Kratter, A.W.; Rasmussen, P.C.; Remsen, J.V.; Rising, J.D.; Stotz, D.F.

    2005-01-01

    This is the fifth Supplement since publication of the 7th edition of the Check-list of North American Birds (American Ornithologists' Union [AOU] 1998). It summarizes decisions made by the AOU's Committee on Classification and Nomenclature between 1 January and 31 December 2004.

  5. Forty-seventh supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, R.C.; Cicero, C.; Dunn, J.L.; Kratter, A.W.; Rasmussen, P.C.; Remsen, J.V.; Rising, J.D.; Stotz, D.F.

    2006-01-01

    This is the sixth Supplement since publication of the 7th edition of the Check-list of North American Birds (American Ornithologists' Union [AOU] 1998). It summarizes decisions made by the AOU's Committee on Classification and Nomenclature-North America between 1 January and 31 December 2005.

  6. Forty-fifth supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, R.C.; Cicero, C.; Dunn, J.L.; Kratter, A.W.; Rasmussen, P.C.; Remsen, J.V.; Rising, J.D.; Stotz, D.F.

    2004-01-01

    This is the fourth Supplement since publication of the 7th edition of the Check-list of North American Birds (American Ornithologists' Union [AOU] 1998). It summarizes decisions made by the AOU's Committee on Classification and Nomenclature between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2003.

  7. Forty-eighth supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, R.C.; Chesser, R.T.; Cicero, C.; Dunn, J.L.; Kratter, A.W.; Lovette, I.J.; Rasmussen, P.C.; Remsen, J.V.; Rising, J.D.; Stotz, D.F.

    2007-01-01

    This is the seventh Supplement since the publication of the 7th edition of the Check-list of North American Birds (American Ornithologists’ Union [AOU] 1998). It summarizes decisions made by the AOU’s Committee on Classification and Nomenclature-North America between 1 January and 31 December 2006.

  8. Forty-ninth supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Richard C.; Chesser, R. Terry; Cicero, Carla; Dunn, Jon L.; Kratter, Andrew W.; Lovette, Irby J.; Rasmussen, Pamela C.; Remsen, J.V.; Rising, James D.; Stotz, Douglas F.; Winker, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    This is the eighth Supplement since the publication of the 7th edition of the Check-list of North American Birds (American Ornithologists’ Union [AOU] 1998). It summarizes decisions made by the AOU’s Committee on Classification and Nomenclature-North and Middle America between 1 January and 31 December 2007.

  9. Forty-third supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, R.C.; Cicero, C.; Dunn, J.L.; Kratter, A.W.; Rasmussen, P.C.; Remsen, J.V.; Rising, J.D.; Stotz, D.F.

    2002-01-01

    This is the second Supplement since publication of the 7th edition of the Check-list of North American Birds (American Ornithologists' Union 1998). It summarizes decisions made by the AOU's Committee on Classification and Nomenclature between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2001.

  10. An Historical Perspective on the Chinese Americans in American Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Chee-Hoo

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the music of Chinese American heritage, as portrayed in American music education from the late 19th century to the present. Specifically, representative music education materials, such as "Music Supervisors Journal," "Music Educators Journal," graded music series textbooks, and other available resource materials, were traced…

  11. African American Pastors' Beliefs and Actions Regarding Childhood Incest in the African American Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Tesia Denis

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study sought to explore African American pastors' beliefs and actions regarding childhood incest in the African American community and their decisions to inform the proper authorities. This exploratory study was developed in order to draw both public and academic attention to the understudied phenomenon of childhood incest within…

  12. Health issues in the Arab American community. Arab Americans in publicly financed substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott; Koch, Alison L

    2007-01-01

    To determine the characteristics of Arab Americans receiving treatment and to compare them with individuals of other ethnic groups. We used admission data (FY2005) for Michigan publicly funded substance abuse treatment (N=69,989). Arab American ethnicity (n=224 or 0.3% of admissions) was defined by codes for race, ethnicities or primary language of Arabic (n=21). Other ethnicities examined were American Indian, Hispanic, African American, and White. The number of Arab American admissions was lower than expected for the population (RR=0.25). Admissions were concentrated (81%) in metropolitan Detroit as is the community (82%, RR=.99), unlike other ethnicities. Primary drugs of abuse were alcohol (34.8%), marijuana (17.9%), heroin (17.4%) and crack cocaine (15.6%). Mean duration of use (11.2 yrs) was significantly lower than for other ethnicities. Arab American admissions were predominately male (76.3%), unemployed (62.1%) and with criminal justice involvement (58%), similar to other ethnicities. Using administrative database has its limits and may misclassify ethnicities. Based upon the available data, it appears that Arab Americans accounted for a small percentage of admissions to publicly funded substance abuse treatment in Michigan. Most of the admissions listed English as the primary language, raising concern that language may be a barrier to entry. Admission profiles were generally similar across ethnicities, except that Arab Americans were entering treatment after shorter duration of use. These data can inform development of treatment programs and outreach efforts.

  13. Gender, ethnic identity, and environmental concern in Asian Americans and European Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawn M. Burn; Patricia L. Winter; Brittany Hori; N Clayton. Silver

    2012-01-01

    There are relatively few articles in sociology and psychology on gender, ethnicity, and the environment, yet ethnic and gender neutral approaches to sustainability may be incomplete. We studied gender, ethnicity, and environmental concern with an internet sample of Asian American women (n=157) and men (n=69), and European American women (n=222) and men (n=99)....

  14. Income Parity through Different Paths: Chinese Americans, Japanese Americans, and Caucasians in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukada, Mamoru

    1988-01-01

    A sample of 277 Caucasian, Chinese American, and Japanese American men at the University of Hawaii was surveyed in 1969, and again in 1979. Analysis of variables from the human capital and the labor market formulations reveals that race/ethnicity remains an important factor in explaining income attainment. (BJV)

  15. Normative Changes in Ethnic and American Identities and Links with Adjustment among Asian American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Lisa; Witkow, Melissa R.; Champagne, Mariette C.

    2013-01-01

    Identity development is a highly salient task for adolescents, especially those from immigrant backgrounds, yet longitudinal research that tracks simultaneous change in ethnic identity and American identity over time has been limited. With a focus on 177 Asian American adolescents recruited from an emerging immigrant community, in the current…

  16. Teaching African American Youth: Learning from the Lives of Three African American Social Studies Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Chantee Earl

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the life histories of three African American social studies teachers, focusing on the evolution and changes in their identities, perspectives, and attitudes related to their profession and instructional practice. In addition, the study addresses the significance of the teachers' racialized experiences as African Americans and…

  17. A Selected Bibliography of American Ethnic Writing and Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Nancy S.

    This bibliography and supplement on American ethnic writing provide extensive listings of materials by or about Afro-Americans, American Indians, Hispanic Americans, and Orientals. The areas covered are novels, biography, autobiography, poetry, drama, art, folklore, music, films, records, periodicals, anthologies, bibliographies, criticism,…

  18. The African-American History of Martha's Vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, Elaine

    1993-01-01

    Reports on research into African American history and experiences in Martha's Vineyard (Massachusetts). Examines primary sources and oral traditions of African American cultural and social history from 1703 to the present. Discusses African American sailors, race relations, and contributions by African American individuals to the community. (CFR)

  19. Los Dos Mundos: Rural Mexican Americans, Another America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Richard

    This book explores race relations between Mexican Americans and Anglo Americans in "Middlewest," a fictitious name for an actual rural Idaho community with the highest proportion of Mexican Americans in the state. Many Mexican Americans in this predominantly agricultural area are current or former migrant workers. The first chapter…

  20. African American Educational Leadership in the School Superintendency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eva C.

    2013-01-01

    African American educational leadership has long been part of American education and African American activism to resist oppression. However, the field of educational leadership has rarely included the contributions of African American leaders, particularly women leaders, into mainstream leadership theory and practices. This omission is difficult…

  1. 77 FR 66527 - National Native American Heritage Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ... American dream. In paying tribute to Native American achievements, we must also acknowledge the parts of... National Native American Heritage Month, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation As the first people to live on the land we all cherish, American Indians and Alaska Natives have...

  2. 75 FR 64611 - Italian American Heritage and Culture Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    .... Yet, Italian Americans have persevered with hope and hard work to reach for the American dream and... Part V The President Proclamation 8585--Italian American Heritage and Culture Month, 2010 #0; #0... of October 14, 2010 Italian American Heritage and Culture Month, 2010 By the President of the United...

  3. Implicit bicultural identity among Mexican American and Asian American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Thierry

    2006-07-01

    Contemporary research on ethnic identity, acculturation, and cultural orientation suggests that, at least under some circumstances, individuals can successfully internalize or identify with more than one culture. Previous research on multicultural identity has relied almost exclusively on self-report measures. Using the Implicit Association Test (IAT), the present research examined to what extent Mexican American and Asian American college students identified with American culture and with their culture of origin. Results indicated that Mexican American and Asian American participants strongly and equally identified with both cultures. The present research provides firm evidence for a bicultural identity through assessments of thoughts that cannot be consciously controlled. Patterns of bicultural identification obtained on implicit measures were not the product of deliberate responses to normative demands or conscious attempts to convey a particular self-image.

  4. Is the American Zebu really Bos indicus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meirelles Flávio V.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The American continent was colonized in the 16th century by Europeans who first introduced cattle of Bos taurus origin. Accounts register introduction of Bos indicus cattle into South America in the 19th and continuing through the 20th century, and most reported imports were males derived from the Indian subcontinent. In the present study we show, by using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA polymorphism, major participation of matrilineages of taurus origin in the American Zebu purebred origin, i.e., 79, 73 and 100% for the Nellore, Gyr and Brahman breeds, respectively. Moreover, we have created a restriction map identifying polymorphism among B. taurus and B. indicus mtDNA using three restriction enzymes. Results are discussed concerning American Zebu origins and potential use of this information for investigating the contribution of cytoplasmic genes in cattle production traits.

  5. Depression among older Mexican American caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Ann Marie; Bigatti, Silvia M

    2010-01-01

    The authors compared depression levels between older Mexican American caregivers and noncaregivers while controlling for confounds identified but not controlled in past research. Mexican American caregivers and noncaregivers (N = 114) ages 65 and older were matched on age, gender, socioeconomic status, self-reported health, and acculturation. Caregivers reported higher scores on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D) and were more likely to score in the depressed range than noncaregivers. In a regression model with all participants, group classification (caregiver vs. noncaregiver) and health significantly predicted CES-D scores. A model with only caregivers that included caregiver burden, self-rated health, and gender significantly predicted CES-D scores, with only caregiver burden entering the regression equation. These results suggest that older Mexican American caregivers are more depressed than noncaregivers, as has been found in younger populations. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Is There Really A North American Plate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krill, A.

    2011-12-01

    Lithospheric plates are typically identified from earthquake epicenters and evidence such as GPS movements. But no evidence indicates a plate boundary between the North American and South American Plates. Some plate maps show them separated by a transform boundary, but it is only a fracture zone. Other maps show an "undefined plate boundary" or put no boundary between these two plates (check Google images). Early plate maps showed a single large American Plate, quite narrow east of the Caribbean Plate (Le Pichon 1968, Morgan 1968). The North and South American Plates became established by the leading textbook Earth (Press & Siever 1974). On their map, from a Scientific American article by John Dewey (1972), these new plates were separated by an "uncertain plate boundary." The reasons for postulating a North American Plate were probably more psychological than geological. Each of the other continents of the world had its own plate, and North American geologists naturally wanted theirs. Similarly, European geographers used to view Europe as its own continent. A single large plate should again be hypothesized. But the term American Plate would now be ambiguous ("Which plate, North or South?") Perhaps future textbook authors could call it the "Two-American Plate." Textbook authors ultimately decide such global-tectonic matters. I became aware of textbook authors' opinions and influence from my research into the history of Alfred Wegener's continental drift (see Fixists vs. Mobilists by Krill 2011). Leading textbook author Charles Schuchert realized that continental drift would abolish his cherished paleogeographic models of large east-west continents (Eria, Gondwana) and small oceans (Poseiden, Nereis). He and his junior coauthors conspired to keep drift evidence out of their textbooks, from the 1934-editions until the 1969-editions (Physical Geology by Longwell et al. 1969, Historical Geology by Dunbar & Waage 1969). Their textbooks ruled in America. Textbooks

  7. The Pan American Advanced Studies Institute

    CERN Document Server

    Arous, Gérard; Ferrari, Pablo; Newman, Charles; Sidoravicius, Vladas; Vares, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This volume features selected and peer-reviewed articles from the Pan-American Advanced Studies Institute (PASI). The chapters are written by international specialists who participated in the conference. Topics include developments based on breakthroughs in the mathematical understanding of phenomena describing systems in highly inhomogeneous and disordered media, including the KPZ universality class (describing the evolution of interfaces in two dimensions), spin glasses, random walks in random environment, and percolative systems. PASI fosters a collaboration between North American and Latin American researchers and students. The conference that inspired this volume took place in January 2012 in both Santiago de Chile and Buenos Aires. Researchers and graduate students will find timely research in probability theory, statistical physics and related disciplines.

  8. Embryo transfer in domestic South American camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumar, Julio B

    2013-01-10

    Intraspecific and interspecific embryo transfer in domestic South American camelids is developing into a well-established technique. Reports reveal many benefits of using reproductive biotechnologies to allow rapid propagation of alpacas and llamas of high genetic merit (e.g., high fiber quality, preserve color variation). The objective of this review is to provide up-to-date information about embryo transfer in domestic South American camelids. Specific information is provided on criteria for male selection, donor and recipient synchronization, the practice of single- vs. super-ovulation protocols, embryo recovery and transfer techniques, advances in cryopreservation of embryos, results of intra- and inter-specific transfer, and the future of the embryo transfer in domestic South American camelids. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. The myth of meritocracy and African American health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Meyer, Ilan H

    2010-10-01

    Recent theoretical and empirical studies of the social determinants of health inequities have shown that economic deprivation, multiple levels of racism, and neighborhood context limit African American health chances and that African Americans' poor health status is predicated on unequal opportunity to achieve the American Dream. President Obama's election has been touted as a demonstration of American meritocracy-the belief that all may obtain the American Dream-and has instilled hope in African Americans. However, we argue that in the context of racism and other barriers to success, meritocratic ideology may act as a negative health determinant for African Americans.

  10. The management of hypertension in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdinand, Keith C; Armani, Annemarie M

    2007-06-01

    The prevalence of hypertension in blacks in the United States is among the highest in the world. Compared with whites, blacks develop hypertension at an earlier age, their average blood pressures are much higher and they experience worse disease severity. Consequently, blacks have a 1.3 times greater rate of nonfatal stroke, 1.8 times greater rate of fatal stroke, 1.5 times greater rate of heart disease death, 4.2 times greater rate of end-stage kidney disease, and a 50% higher frequency of heart failure; overall, mortality due to hypertension and its consequences is 4 to 5 times more likely in African Americans than in whites. The increased prevalence of hypertension and excessive target organ damage is due to a combination of genetic and, most likely, environmental factors. There are no clinical trial data at present to suggest that lower-than-usual BP targets should be set for high-risk demographic groups such as African Americans. The primary means of prevention and early treatment of hypertension in African Americans will be the appropriate use of lifestyle modification. The International Society of Hypertension in Blacks guidelines realize that most patients will require combination therapy, many of them first-line, to reach appropriate BP goals. Although certain classes and combinations of antihypertensive agents have been well-established to be effective, the choice of drugs for combination therapy in African American patients may be different. Within the African American group, the responsiveness to monotherapy with ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and beta blockers may be less than the responsiveness to diuretics and calcium channel blockers, but these differences are corrected when diuretics are added to the neurohormonal antagonists. Of note, African American patients with systolic BP >15 mm Hg or a diastolic BP >10 mm Hg above goal should be treated with first-line combination therapy.

  11. The Americanization of the Croatian language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosnar-Valković, Brigita; Blazević, Nevenka; Gjuran-Coha, Anamarija

    2008-12-01

    The USA is spreading their political, military, economic, scientific, artistic and cultural mission throughout the world. The aim of this paper is to bring to the attention the Americanization of the Croatian language particularly evident in the newly adopted language manners, in teenage language, in specialist languages, in the field of advertising and in political correctness. The spread of Americanization of the Croatian language has both negative and positive effects. Positive effects can be regarded as enrichment of the Croatian language, whereas the negative ones endanger its deep structure. Positive effects should be supported and negative minimized through the cooperation between experts in linguistics and politics.

  12. American Samoa Initial Technical Assessment Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, S.; Conrad, M.; Funk, K.; Kandt, A.; McNutt, P.

    2011-09-01

    This document is an initial energy assessment for American Samoa, the first of many steps in developing a comprehensive energy strategy. On March 1, 2010, Assistant Secretary of the Interior Tony Babauta invited governors and their staff from the Interior Insular Areas to meet with senior principals at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Meeting discussions focused on ways to improve energy efficiency and increase the deployment of renewable energy technologies in the U.S. Pacific Territories. In attendance were Governors Felix Camacho (Guam), Benigno Fitial (Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands), and Togiola Tulafono, (American Samoa). This meeting brought together major stakeholders to learn and understand the importance of developing a comprehensive strategic plan for implementing energy efficiency measures and renewable energy technologies. For several decades, dependence on fossil fuels and the burden of high oil prices have been a major concern but never more at the forefront as today. With unstable oil prices, the volatility of fuel supply and the economic instability in American Samoa, energy issues are a high priority. In short, energy security is critical to American Samoa's future economic development and sustainability. Under an interagency agreement, funded by the Department of Interior's Office of Insular Affairs, NREL was tasked to deliver technical assistance to the islands of American Samoa. Technical assistance included conducting an initial technical assessment to define energy consumption and production data, establish an energy consumption baseline, and assist with the development of a strategic plan. The assessment and strategic plan will be used to assist with the transition to a cleaner energy economy. NREL provided an interdisciplinary team to cover each relevant technical area for the initial energy assessments. Experts in the following disciplines traveled to American Samoa for on-island site assessments: (1

  13. Representations of intercourse in American literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the representation of sexual intercourse in American literature expressed via the use of fuck as a transitive verb. Its goal is to identify possible trends in the differentiation between men and women's roles and power relations in such literary representations. Drawing...... and falls under the rubric of corpus stylistics and is based on data from the FICTION component of the Corpus of Historical American English. The analysis measures the preference of male or female passive participants in propositional scenarios denoted by transitive fuck, thus allowing...

  14. Transnational citizenship: Latin Americans in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Padilla

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is a reflection upon the exercising of transnational citizenship as a consequence of international migration, applied to Latin Americans resident in Portugal. In order to do this we have adopted the concept of transnational citizenship, as its malleability allows us to consider the whole concept of countries of origin and destination and the influence of bilateral and international relations. We ask how transnational citizenship is exercised in the European Union, Ibero-American and, particularly, Portuguese spaces, and whether it is affected by the economic crisis in Europe and, in particular, Portugal, by analysing the cases of Argentines, Brazilians and Uruguayans living in Portugal.

  15. North American amphibians: Distribution and diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, David M.; Weir, Linda A.; Casper, Gary S.; Lannoo, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Some 300 species of amphibians inhabit North America. The past two decades have seen an enormous growth in interest about amphibians and an increased intensity of scientific research into their fascinating biology and continent-wide distribution.This atlas presents the spectacular diversity of North American amphibians in a geographic context. It covers all formally recognized amphibian species found in the United States and Canada, many of which are endangered or threatened with extinction. Illustrated with maps and photos, the species accounts provide current information about distribution, habitat, and conservation.Researchers, professional herpetologists, and anyone intrigued by amphibians will value North American Amphibians as a guide and reference.

  16. Building bridges in American Indian bereavement research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Andrea C

    2009-01-01

    Due to the severity of the risks involved in violation of ethical principles with research of American Indian populations, more attention in literature is needed on the topic. This article reviews discussions of ethical and methodological issues, uses Muscogee Creeks' responses from the author's prior study (Walker, 2008; Walker & Balk, 2007) as an example and application, and specifically focuses on the research of death and bereavement. The article provides ethical reflection and recommendations for designing death and bereavement research as an outsider to the culture, as well as for building trust with participants in American Indian populations.

  17. Feel American, Watch American, Eat American? Remote Acculturation, TV, and Nutrition Among Adolescent-Mother Dyads in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Gail M; Muzaffar, Henna; Iturbide, Maria I; Chu, Hui; Meeks Gardner, Julie

    2017-04-25

    Globalization prompts remote acculturation toward U.S. culture in Jamaica; this study used a bioecological systems approach to examine its proximal impact on nutrition through U.S. cable TV consumption, and maternal influences in the home. Overall, 330 randomly selected adolescent-mother dyads from schools in Kingston, Jamaica (M adolescent_age  = 13.8 years, SD adolescent_age  = 1.8) completed questionnaires reporting American identity and behavioral preferences, daily time spent watching U.S.-produced TV programs, and frequency of eating unhealthy foods. Actor-partner interdependence models revealed that girls' American identity/behavior directly predicted their unhealthy eating, whereas girls' mothers and boys' American identity/behavior indirectly predicted unhealthy eating as mediated by their U.S. TV hours. Additionally, mothers' American identity/behavior predicted daughters' unhealthy eating as mediated by mothers' U.S. TV hours. Remote acculturation theory may facilitate more targeted research and prevention/intervention. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  18. An Annotated Bibliography: Recent Realistic Fiction and Informational Books for Young Children Portraying Asian-American and Native American Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, Frances A.

    1992-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of recent realistic fiction and informational books for young children portraying Asian American and Native American cultures. Lists 23 fiction and 8 informational books on Asian Americans and 19 fiction and 15 informational books on Native Americans. Lists nine books for adults. (SLD)

  19. Comparing Judgements of Social, Behavioural, Emotional and School Adjustment Functioning for Korean, Korean American and Caucasian American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Woo Sik; Stinnett, Terry A.

    2005-01-01

    Social, emotional, behavioural and school adjustment functioning among Korean, Korean American and Caucasian American children was examined with the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC) Self-Report of Personality (SRP) and the Parent Rating Scale (PRS). One hundred and twenty Korean, Korean-American and Caucasian-American children, ages…

  20. Black and Korean: Racialized Development and the Korean American Subject in Korean/American Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeehyun Lim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the representation of the encounters and exchanges between Asian and black Americans in Sŏk-kyŏng Kang’s “Days and Dreams,” Heinz Insu Fenkl’s Memories of My Ghost Brother, and Chang-rae Lee’s A Gesture Life. While one popular mode of looking at Asian and black Americans relationally in the postwar era is to compare the success of Asian American assimilation to the failure of black Americans, Lim argues that such a mode of comparison cannot account for the ways in which Asian American racialization takes places within the global currents of militarism and migration. Against the popular view that attributes Asian American success to cultural difference, Lim relies on political scientist Claire Kim’s understanding of culture as something that is constructed in the process of racialization to explore how the above texts imagine the terms of comparative racialization between black and Asian Americans. The black-Korean encounters in these texts demand a heuristic of comparative racialization that goes beyond the discussion of the black-white binary as a national construct and seeks the reification and modification of this racial frame as it travels along the routes of US military and economic incursions in the Pacific. Lim suggests that the literary imagining of black-Korean encounters across the Pacific illustrates race and racialization as effects of a regime of economic development that is supported by military aggression.

  1. Lactose intolerance and health disparities among African Americans and Hispanic Americans: an updated consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Rahn K; Fileti, Cecelia Pozo; Keith, Jeanette; Tropez-Sims, Susanne; Price, Winston; Allison-Ottey, Sharon Denise

    2013-01-01

    Dairy foods contribute nine essential nutrients to the diet including calcium, potassium and vitamin D; nutrients identified by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans as being "of public health concern" within the U.S. population. Milk and milk product intake is associated with better diet quality and has been associated with a reduced risk of chronic diseases or conditions including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, Type 2 Diabetes and osteoporosis. Some research also indicates dairy food intake may be linked to reduced body fat, when accompanied by energy-restriction. On average, both African Americans and Hispanic Americans consume less than the recommended levels of dairy foods, and perceived or actual lactose intolerance can be a primary reason for limiting or avoiding dairy intake. True lactose intolerance prevalence is not known because healthcare providers do not routinely measure for it, and no standardized assessment method exists. Avoiding dairy may lead to shortfalls of essential nutrients and increased susceptibility to chronic disease. This updated Consensus Statement aims to provide the most current information about lactose intolerance and health, with specific relevance to the African American and Hispanic American communities. Topics covered include diagnostic considerations, actual and recommended dairy food intake and levels of consumption of key dairy nutrients among African Americans and Hispanic Americans; prevalence of self-reported lactose intolerance among various racial/ethnic groups; the association between dairy food intake, lactose intolerance and chronic disease; and research-based management recommendations for those with lactose intolerance.

  2. North American trade growth continued in 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Trade between the United States and its North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) partnersCanada and Mexicohas more than doubled in dollar value since the inception of NAFTA in 1994. In 2007, U.S. trade with Canada and Mexico reached $909 bil...

  3. American Muslim Undergraduates' Views on Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Khadija Engelbrecht

    2016-01-01

    A qualitative investigation into American Muslim undergraduates' views on evolution revealed three main positions on evolution: theistic evolution, a belief in special creation of all species, and a belief in special creation of humans with evolution for all non-human species. One can conceive of the manner in which respondents chose their…

  4. Nineteenth Latin-American congress on chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This publication deals with different in-scope papers presented at the 19. Latin-American congress on chemistry, held in Buenos Aires (Argentine Republic) from November 5-9, 1990. The original document where these papers are contained, consists of 567 pages

  5. Weight Preoccupation in Female Mexican American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Bobby; Jorgensen, Layne; Semper, Tom; Vincent, Vern

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the contribution of body size, self-esteem, age, mainstream acculturation, and athletic status to concern or preoccupation about weight among female Mexican American adolescents. Students had low acculturation, high body fatness, and moderate self-esteem. There was little difference between athletes and non-athletes. Greater body size…

  6. Social Studies: Great Debates in American History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Marsha

    This elective course in American Studies, one of a series revised to fit the quinmester organization of schools, is intended for 10th through 12th grade students. The aim of the course is for students to develop their capacity to examine and make judgements about controversial issues of the past and present. Emphasis is on an analysis of selected…

  7. Gaining a Pan-American Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothe, Leon E.

    1991-01-01

    A discussion of higher education in Latin America looks at recent major political changes, the economic situation, the historic relationship between higher education and the political establishment, the inconsistency of U.S. policies toward Latin America, and the potential for U.S.-Latin American university linkages afforded by the current…

  8. Images and Stereotypes of the Native American.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcoat, George W.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews how the popular stereotypes of American Indians have changed since the colonization of North America. Once seen as noble savages by European settlers, the popular stereotypes changed to become less and less positive as colonization advanced. Urges teachers to vigorously challenge the stereotypes and negative images. (JDH)

  9. Educational Resilience in African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Michael; Swanson, Dena Phillips

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to examine factors within the school context that facilitates educational resilience among African American high school students. The authors expected academic self-esteem to be positively associated with future expectations (academic and general). They expected perceptions of school-based social support to have…

  10. Washington Irving and the American Indian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlefield, Daniel F., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Some modern scholars feel that Washington Irving vacillated between romanticism and realism in his literary treatment of the American Indian. However, a study of all his works dealing with Indians, placed in context with his non-Indian works, reveals that his attitude towards Indians was intelligent and enlightened for his time. (CM)

  11. Documentary in American Television: Form, Function, Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleum, A. William

    The documentary movement in American television is explored. Analyzed are the forms and functions of television documentary and its heritage in other media (print, still photography, motion pictures, radio, theater). The major achievements in these media and in television, such as "See It Now,""Victory at Sea," and many news documentaries are…

  12. Management Studies, Cultural Criticism and American Dreams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guthey, Eric

    2005-01-01

    The article reviews three books related to industrial management, including "False Prophets: The Gurus Who Created Modern Management and Why Their Ideas Are Bad for Business Today," by James Hoopes, "Organization and Innovation: Guru Schemes and American Dreams," by David Knights and Darren Mc...

  13. The Political Economy of North American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John H., Ed.

    This book presents 12 papers that proceed from the idea that Native American history in the United States and Canada is best understood not as an Indian-European cultural conflict but as an economic conflict between communal and capitalist modes of production. Three chapters are of particular educational interest. "Political Economy in…

  14. Library Guide: Latin American Literature, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sumar, Juanita Jara, Comp.

    Intended for use by those conducting research in Latin American literature written in Spanish, this guide contains annotations for a wide range of selected works. The guide is divided into the seven sections: (1) General Encyclopedias (1 annotation); (2) Guides to the Literature (4 annotations); (3) Literary Encyclopedias, Dictionaries and…

  15. American Indian Adolescents and Disordered Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buser, Juleen K.

    2010-01-01

    School counselors play an important role in identifying and intervening with students struggling with disordered eating (e.g., Bardick et al., 2004). Research has shown that American Indian adolescents report higher rates of certain disordered eating behaviors than other racial groups. The literature on the prevalence and etiology of disordered…

  16. Stylized Figures: Inspired by Native American Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Susie B.

    2013-01-01

    Teaching elementary-level art in the Pacific Northwest makes it natural for the author to develop a lesson based on Native American art of the area. The designs of the Northwest Indians can sometimes be a bit too sophisticated for the students to grasp, however, and it can be frustrating when developing such a project. Over a Labor Day weekend,…

  17. Growing American Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) in Forestlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.C. Vaughan; J.L. Chamberlain; J.F. Munsell

    2011-01-01

    Farming alternative crops, like American ginseng, is becoming more popular among forestland owners. Ginseng is a native medicinal herb and can be deliberately cultivated under a forest canopy. In recent surveys, over 40 percent of landowners in the Southeastern United States indicated a desire for more information on forest farming (Workman et al. 2003), and over half...

  18. Treatment Acceptability among Mexican American Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, Joaquin, Jr.; Ibanez, Elizabeth S.; Spendlove, Stuart J.; Pemberton, Joy R.

    2007-01-01

    There is a void in the literature with regard to Hispanic parents' views about common interventions for children with behavior problems. The purpose of this study was to examine the treatment acceptability of child management techniques in a Mexican American sample. Parents' acculturation was also examined to determine if it would account for…

  19. Americans with Disabilities Act Scavenger Hunt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Ursula

    2018-01-01

    This article describes a scavenger hunt for Business Law students. Specifically, students compete in this scavenger hunt to identify accessible design features on campus to undergird their study of Title III of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Title III of the ADA prohibits public accommodations from discriminating on the basis of…

  20. American Educators' Confrontation with Fascism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallace, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    This historical study explores how educators in the United States responded to the rise of fascism between the World Wars. By considering and then ultimately rejecting the fascist approach to education and philosophy, American educators defined democratic education in contrast to fascist/totalitarian approaches to education by rejecting…

  1. Comic Strategies and the American Covenant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, John M.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses how speeches delivered at a 1960 dinner by then presidential candidates John F. Kennedy and Richard Nixon changed the face of political campaign rhetoric. Argues that both men used comic strategies to create a more inclusive American covenant, and emphasizes the importance of examining pragmatic and cultural implications of presidential…

  2. The African Student in the American University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Doris

    This paper gathers information on the values, cognition, and educational background of African students studying at universities in the United States. The section on values notes that Americans are task-oriented individualists, while Africans are primarily relationship-oriented collectivists. These values of sharing and relationship orientation…

  3. Historical genomics of North American maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerwaarden, van J.; Hufford, M.B.; Ross-Ibarra, J.

    2012-01-01

    Since the advent of modern plant breeding in the 1930s, North American maize has undergone a dramatic adaptation to high-input agriculture. Despite the importance of genetic contributions to historical yield increases, little is known about the underlying genomic changes. Here we use high-density

  4. Imagining Globalization through Latin American Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seminet, Georgia

    2009-01-01

    Through a combination of practical applications and theoretical underpinnings, this article explores the question of how to approach the teaching of Latin American Literature in the current period of globalization. Many theorists argue that we need new epistemologies in which to ground our pedagogy for the 21st century. Understanding the effects…

  5. The North American Indian and the Eskimo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Francisco Unified School District, CA.

    This is a selected bibliography of some good and some outstanding audio-visual educational materials in the library of the Educational Materials Bureau, Audio-Visual Education Section, that may be considered of particular interest in the study of the North American Indian, the Eskimo, and in the fields of ethnology and anthropology. The…

  6. Asian American Career Development: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Nadya A.; Kantamneni, Neeta; Smothers, Melissa K.; Chen, Yung-Lung; Fitzpatrick, Mary; Terry, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    This study used a modified version of consensual qualitative research design to examine how contextual, cultural, and personal variables influence the career choices of a diverse group of 12 Asian Americans. Seven domains of influences on career choices emerged including family, culture, external factors, career goals, role models, work values,…

  7. Latin American Knowledge Networking Program on Gender ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to strengthen the capacity of Latin American researchers, academics, policymakers and practitioners to mainstream gender in macroeconomic policies and programs. The project will consist of three elements: a self-study module that introduces participants to gender-aware approaches to macroeconomics ...

  8. American Splendor: narrative and biography between media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassler-Forest, D.

    2013-01-01

    The film adaptation of Harvey Pekar's long-running comics series American Splendor has received near-universal acclaim from critics, academics, and arthouse audiences. But while it has succeeded in introducing a wider audience to the work of a previously obscure comics author, the film version

  9. Suicide among American Indian Adolescents: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Irving N.

    1987-01-01

    Identifies common patterns in experience and behavior among American Indian adolescent suicides. Discusses factors characterizing tribes with high suicide rates, including failure to adhere to traditional ways and resulting chaotic family structure and adult alcoholism. Discusses roles of adoption of Indian children, boarding schools, and high…

  10. Legacy of a Pioneer African American Educator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazers, Gunars; Curtner-Smith, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose was to reconstruct the historical and legendary contribution of one exemplary African American physical education teacher educator who lived and worked in the Deep South prior to and immediately following the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education court case. The following questions guided data collection and analysis: To what…

  11. Afro-American Music and Dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Samuel A., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Outlines the concurrent development of Black music and Black dance in the United States, and describes the interaction of the two genres throughout their mutually dependent evolutions. Traces the histories of the dances of African American culture, known collectively as "jazz dance," in relation to ragtime, jazz, and the blues. (AF)

  12. Training Needs of Americans Working Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mary Boppell; Carter, G. L., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Peace Corps volunteers and Missionary Orientation Center graduates were surveyed to discover where training for overseas work was strongest and where weakest. Respondents urged more emphasis on human relations skills, citing those and ability to understand other cultures and adapt to strange environment as most important to Americans working…

  13. Native Americans and the Mass Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Ray

    Presenting testimony from various sources, this report describes growing resentment in the American Indian community of Anglo media misinterpretation and exploitation of Indian culture and Indian people. The full text of the Navajo Nation's plan for a Navajo Communications Board (established by the Advisory Committee of the Navajo Tribal Council)…

  14. African American School Psychology Program Leavers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Sherrie Lynn

    2010-01-01

    This phenomenology used 21 in-depth interviews to explore seven African Americans' experiences at the school psychology programs they left. The purpose was to investigate what experiences contributed to participants' decisions to leave programs; if programs used retention strategies and if so, participants' view of the strategies; and what…

  15. A Language Challenge to the Hispanic American.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nino, Miguel A.

    The Hispanic-American, because he or she is bilingual and bicultural, could play an important role in the future economic development of the United States. Declines in steel, automotive, and electronics industries due to foreign competition and market saturation have caused industrial displacement and unemployment. The Maquiladora or Twin Plant…

  16. Education "for" American Indians: Threat or Promise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tax, Sol; Thomas, Robert K

    1969-01-01

    Results of this Carnegie Corporation of New York sponsored research project in literacy training among the Cherokee Indians of Eastern Oklahoma indicate that alienation rather than lack of opportunity is the chief difficulty in American Indian education. Appears in "The Florida FL Reporter special anthology issue "Linguistic-Cultural Differences…

  17. Does American bioethics speak with one voice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Hubert

    2009-12-01

    Many international organizations and countries have adopted the principles of American bioethics as their own principles. However, further analysis of what is going on in the United States shows that what we have come to call principlism is only one expression among many other health care ethics approaches that are found in the U.S. The first section of the text presents American bioethics from the point of view of principlism, the main focus being the creation of this vision, and its meaning. The second section examines, first of all, the critiques that from the beginning have been addressed to this approach; and secondly, other visions developed as much in response to the limits intrinsic to principlism as to the major changes that drive the American health system. In the third section, I will attempt to indicate that the real challenge of American bioethics is not a consequence of the tension existing between principlism and the other approaches, but that it arises in the political domain: the polarization between liberals and conservatives.

  18. An Overview of American Publishing for Librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facente, Gary

    1986-01-01

    A financial survey of the American publishing scene (estimated net book sales, expenses for publishing and marketing professional books) is followed by descriptions of the editorial and marketing processes. Practices relating to contracts, imprints, distribution arrangements, and remainders are described noting changes in contemporary publishing…

  19. American Film Comedy (College Course File).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Katherine S.

    1990-01-01

    Describes a course in American film comedy which includes three types of comedy: the tradition of the clown (beginning with silent comedy), romantic comedy, and sociopolitical comedy. Addresses such issues as escapism versus social purpose, fantasy versus realism, comedy versus laughter, and role of spectator versus role of text. (KEH)

  20. Profile: American Indian/Alaska Native

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... income. Some of the leading diseases and causes of death among AI/AN are heart disease, cancer, unintentional injuries (accidents), diabetes, and stroke. American Indians/Alaska Natives also have a high prevalence and risk factors for mental health and suicide, ...

  1. Latin American Research Consortiums : a Comparative Analysis ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Latin American countries are implementing several policies to enhance innovation. Considerable emphasis has been placed on policies to foster research collaboration between different actors in the innovation system. The design and implementation of the agreements have proved difficult, however, and preliminary ...

  2. Acculturation and emotion among Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, R; Lim, B A; Liem, J H

    2000-02-01

    This study examined the emotion experience of Asian Americans in relation to respondents' orientation to acculturation: Assimilation, Integration, Separation, or Marginalization (J. W. Berry, 1980). Ego- versus other-focused emotion experiences (H. R. Markus & S. Kitayama, 1991) and attention and valence, 2 stages in P. C. Ellsworth's (1994) model of emotion appraisal, were used to investigate the relation between acculturation and affect. Asian Americans most and least assimilated to the dominant Anglo American culture were expected to exhibit emotion responses correspondingly similar to and different from those of Anglo Americans. Those with a bi-cultural or integrationist trajectory should occupy a middle ground in terms of emotional experience. Compared with the appraisal process, ego- versus other-focused emotions, mediated in part by one's self-construal (e.g., independent or interdependent), were more strongly associated with acculturation orientation in the expected directions. The implications of recognizing the influence of acculturation on the emotional meaning of life encounters of newcomers are discussed in light of community psychology and clinical practice.

  3. American Psychological Association: Annual Report, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the 2008 annual reports from the various directorates and offices of the American Psychological Association (APA). In 2008, APA continued to work on initiatives, programs, and products that lend value to the member's psychology career, support the future of their discipline, and serve the public. APA's goal is to strengthen…

  4. 77 FR 26651 - Older Americans Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... across America. From our parks and schools to our faith and service organizations, the generosity and talents of active seniors augment our children's education, bring our families together, and strengthen the fabric of our society. This year's theme for Older Americans Month, ``Never Too Old to Play...

  5. Seeking Relevance: American Political Science and America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranto, Robert; Woessner, Matthew C.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors talk about the relevance of American political science and America. Political science has enormous strengths in its highly talented practitioners and sophisticated methods. However, its disconnection from its host society, while not so severe as for fields like English and sociology, nonetheless poses an existential…

  6. American Indian-Alaska Native Youth Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Robert W.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Surveyed 13,454 rural Native American adolescents. Found 2 percent reported poor physical health and high rates of health-compromising behaviors, which were significantly correlated with physical or sexual abuse, suicide attempts, substance abuse, poor school performance, and poor nutrition. Academic risk was strongly associated with physical,…

  7. American Higher Education and Income Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Catharine B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that increasing income inequality can contribute to the trends we see in American higher education, particularly in the selective, private nonprofit and public sectors. Given these institutions' selective admissions and commitment to socioeconomic diversity, the paper demonstrates how increasing income inequality leads to…

  8. Latin American cooperation on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, N.M. de; Associacao Brasileira de Direito Nuclear, Rio de Janeiro)

    1984-01-01

    The cooperation between Latin American countries on nuclear matters in which Brazil should play a significant role is presented. The possible areas for cooperation, particularly the nuclear law, are focused. The cooperation should be developed on bilateral or multilateral basis, by governmental and non governmental entities. (Author) [pt

  9. CONTEMPORARY CHALLENGES IN LATIN AMERICAN ADMINISTRATIVE JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Perlingeiro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study consists of a critical comparative analysis of the administrative justice systems in eighteen Latin-American signatory countries of the American Convention on Human Rights (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, the Dominican Republic, Uruguay, and Venezuela. According to this article, the excessive litigation in Latin-American courts that has seriously hampered the effectiveness of the administrative justice systems may be explained as follows: as former Iberian colonies, the aforementioned countries have a Continental European legal culture originating in civil law but nevertheless have improperly integrated certain aspects of the unified judicial system (generalized courts typical of administrative law in common-law countries. This situation, according to the author, could be rectified through strengthening the public administrative authorities with respect to their dispute-resolution and purely executive functions by endowing them with prerogatives to act independently and impartially, oriented by the principle of legality understood in the sense of supremacy of fundamental rights, in light of the doctrine of diffuse conventionality control adopted by the InterAmerican Court of Human Rights.

  10. Strengthening Health Systems Governance in Latin American ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    After several decades of dictatorship, political unrest and economic crisis, Latin American countries are experiencing relative stability. However, the region is still the most unequal in the world, and there is evidence of growing prosperity and increasing inequality. This project seeks to improve the governance of health ...

  11. Computers and Computation. Readings from Scientific American.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenichel, Robert R.; Weizenbaum, Joseph

    A collection of articles from "Scientific American" magazine has been put together at this time because the current period in computer science is one of consolidation rather than innovation. A few years ago, computer science was moving so swiftly that even the professional journals were more archival than informative; but today it is…

  12. North Dakota Native American Essential Understandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, 2015

    2015-01-01

    In the spring of 2015, the North Dakota Department of Public Instruction brought together tribal Elders from across North Dakota to share stories, memories, songs, and wisdom in order to develop the North Dakota Native American Essential Understandings (NDNAEU) to guide the learning of both Native and non-Native students across the state. They…

  13. [Pictures of autism in the American cinema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusevich, Mauricio; Matusevich, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyze the different ways in which the autism appears in the american cinema; the genres chosen are comedy, thriller and road movie because they represent classical movie patterns. The movies commented are: Mercury rising, Rainman, Who eats Gilbert Grape.

  14. Of English Marks and American Reviewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spolsky, Bernard

    A discussion of the differences between the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL), an American test battery, and the Cambridge English Examinations (Cambridge), a British battery, focuses on the different approaches to language test development embodied in the tests as the source of difficulty in translating between them for individual…

  15. Coastal Culture Area. Native American Curriculum Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Cathy; Fernandes, Roger

    Background information, legends, games, illustrations, and art projects are provided in this booklet introducing elementary students to the history and culture of Indian tribes of the North Pacific Coast and Pacific Northwest. One in a series of Native American instructional materials, the booklet provides an overview of the coastal culture area,…

  16. Phonological Awareness for American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corina, David P.; Hafer, Sarah; Welch, Kearnan

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the concept of phonological awareness (PA) as it relates to the processing of American Sign Language (ASL). We present data from a recently developed test of PA for ASL and examine whether sign language experience impacts the use of metalinguistic routines necessary for completion of our task. Our data show that deaf signers…

  17. Latin American Role in International Geopolitics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Pavlovich Yakovlev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article shows that over the past decade and a half there have been significant changes in the international situation in Latin America, which affected all the main areas of external relations in the region. The interaction between the Latin American countries moved forward, which was reflected in the formation and development of new structures, such as UNASUR, ALBA, SELAC, and the Pacific Alliance. China has dramatically expanded its presence in the region, which was manifested in the growth of trade and Chinese investment, and the transition from the level of bilateral cooperation to multilateral format. The cooperation between Latin America and Russia has risen on a higher level, which was manifested in the expansion of trade and economic ties and collaboration of certain Latin American integration groupings with the EAEC. The new moments characterize relations with the US, which is clearly evident in US-Cuban relations. Latin American countries have stepped up dialogue with the European Union. All these factors combine to expand the range of external relations of Latin American and Caribbean countries and prove the changing role of Latin America in the system of global relations.

  18. African American Women Counselors, Wellness, and Spirituality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Debora; Bryant, Rhonda M.

    2011-01-01

    Given their tremendous professional responsibilities, professional counselors face daunting challenges to remaining healthy and avoiding role stress and overload. This article explores the intersection of race, gender, wellness, and spirituality in the self-care of African American women counselors. The authors give particular attention to…

  19. Library of American Civilization Demonstration. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, Paul A.; And Others

    In August, 1971, The National Home Library Foundation of Washington, D.C., awarded to The George Washington University a grant to install a set of the ultra-microfiche "Library of American Civilization" (produced by Encyclopaedia Britannica's subsidiary, Library Resources, Inc.), together with all available associated equipment and bibliographic…

  20. African-Americans and Heart Disease, Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More African-Americans and Heart Disease, Stroke Updated:Aug 22,2017 Heart disease is the ... a marathon.” Learn more: Family History and Heart Disease, Stroke Make the Effort to Prevent Heart Disease with ...