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Sample records for lepidoptera tortricidae larval

  1. Male larval nutrition in Choristoneura rosaceana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): an important factor in reproductive success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle, Johanne; Bouchard, André

    1995-12-01

    This study examines how Choristoneura rosaceana male quality, as determined by larval diet, age and mating history, affects the reproductive success of both sexes. While the size of the spermatophore produced at first mating increased linearly with male age, the frequency of mating was significantly higher for middle-aged males (2-4 days old) than younger (0-2 days old) or older (6-8 days old) individuals, when both sexes were fed on artificial diet. However, the duration of copulation was longer in couples with older than younger males. The observed age-related changes in spermatophore size had no significant effect on female longevity, fecundity or fertility, suggesting no direct relationship between male investment and spermatophore size under these experimental conditions. Different larval food sources (artificial diet, maple and hazelnut) did not affect the proportion of 2-day-old virgin males that mated; however, the proportion that remated was significantly higher for males reared on high-quality food (maple and artificial diet) than those on hazelnut, a poorer food source. There was a 5-fold decline in spermatophore size between the first and second matings on all diets, but female reproductive output was reduced by only 25%. In contrast, while the first spermatophore produced by males on hazelnut was 1.5 times smaller than those produced on maple and artificial diet, the fecundity of their mates was 40% less than those mated with high-quality virgin males. These results provide additional support to the idea that spermatophore size is not a valuable indicator of male quality. Most tethered females placed in the field during the first flight period mated with virgin males (based on the size of the spermatophore), suggesting that female choice exists in this species. These results are discussed in relation to the incidence of polyandry in naturally occurring populations of Choristoneura and the potential use of size and/or chemical cues by females to assess

  2. Postharvest irradiation treatment for quarantine control of the invasive Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

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    The effects of irradiation on egg, larval, and pupal development in European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were examined. Eggs, neonates, third instars, fifth instars, and early and late stage pupae were irradiated at target doses of 50, 100, 150, or 200 Gy or left untr...

  3. Costs of insecticide resistance in Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopka, Joanna K; Scott, Ian M; McNeil, Jeremy N

    2012-06-01

    The obvious benefits associated with insecticide resistance for pest species may come at a cost to other life-history traits. In this study, we compared the larval and pupal developmental times, pupal mass wing surface area and wing fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in insecticide resistant and control strains of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), collected from apple (Malus spp.) orchards in central Canada. Resistant strains had significantly longer larval developmental times and lower pupal masses compared with the susceptible strain. Although the forewings of resistant moths were smaller in resistant than control strain, no difference in wing FA was detected. Longer developmental times could increase exposure time to natural enemies, and reduced adult size could affect longevity and total reproductive output.

  4. Sex pheromone of the baldcypress leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

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    Brian T. Sullivan; Jeremy D. Allison; Richard A. Goyer; William P. Shepherd

    2015-01-01

    The baldcypress leafroller, Archips goyerana Kruse (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a specialist on Taxodium distichum (L.) Richard and has caused serious defoliation in swamps of southeastern Louisiana, accelerating decline of baldcypress forests concurrently suffering from nutrient depletion, prolonged flooding, and saltwater...

  5. Parasitismo larval de Crocidosema (=Epinotia aporema (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae en el noreste de la provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina

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    Gerardo LILJESTHRÖM

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En la interacción huésped-parasitoide las plantas suelen emitir señales capaces de aumentar la eficiencia de los parasitoides. Las larvas de Crocidosema (=Epinotia aporema (Walsingham se alimentan endofíticamente de leguminosas herbáceas y constituyen una plaga de la soja (Glycine max Merrill. En este estudio analizamos el parasitismo larval de C. aporema en Melilotus albus Medikus, Galega officinalis L, Lupinus albus L y G. max, en el noreste de Buenos Aires. La densidad larval fue mayor en L. albus (109,2 larvas/m2 que en las restantes leguminosas: 3,7; 6,9 y 11,3 en M. albus, G. officinalis y G. max, respectivamente. Sin embargo, el parasitismo y número de especies parasitoides fueron menores en L. albus (9,5% por el ectoparasitoide generalista Bracon sp. que en M. albus (32,6%, Bracon sp. y los endoparasitoides Trathala sp.y Bassus sp.; G. officinalis y G. max (26,4% y 50,6% respectivamente, con Trathala sp. y Bracon sp. en ambas. Lupinus albus fue la única especie vegetal que reaccionó a la alimentación de C. aporema con producción de exudados pegajosos y olorosos que podrían haber repelido los endoparasitoides, actuando como un refugio parcial para C. aporema. Además, al ser positivamente seleccionada por C. aporema, esta leguminosa podría utilizarse como franja trampa para su control en cultivos de soja, de manera compatible con tácticas de control biológico por conservación de enemigos naturales.

  6. The Tortricidae described by J. C. Fabricius (Lepidoptera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baixeras, Joaquin; Karsholt, Ole

    2011-01-01

    The identity and nomenclature of the 88 species of Tortricidae (Lepidoptera) described by J. C. Fabricius are reviewed. Type material deposited in the Natural History Museum Denmark is illustrated. Lectotypes for Tinea compositella (Fabricius, 1775), Pyralis rivellana (Fabricius, 1775) and P...

  7. Development of Sparganothis sulfureana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on Cranberry Cultivars

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    McMahan, Erin E.; Guédot, Christelle

    2018-01-01

    Sparganothis fruitworm (Sparganothis sulfureana Clemens) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a serious pest of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton), a native North American fruit cultivated in northern regions of the United States and southeastern Canada. This study assessed antibiosis in several cranberry cultivars commonly grown in Wisconsin. Five cultivars previously shown to host different levels of populations of S. sulfureana in commercial cranberry were assessed in this study to evaluate the performance of S. sulfureana amongst these cultivars. We measured growth and time to developmental stages of newly emerged larvae to adulthood on selected cranberry cultivars in the laboratory. There was no difference in the rates of survival to pupation and to adult emergence among any of the cultivars tested. Mid-instar larvae that fed on the cultivar ‘Ben Lear’ were heavier than those feeding on ‘GH-1’, ‘Stevens’, or ‘HyRed’, and larvae that fed on ‘Mullica Queen’ were heavier than those feeding on ‘HyRed’. However, there were no significant differences in pupal weights or in the number of days from neonate to adult emergence among varieties. Therefore, this study did not provide evidence of antibiosis among the cultivars tested, and found that larval weight was not correlated with other measurements of performance. PMID:29301287

  8. Strepsicrates smithiana Walsingham (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae: first record from Chile and a newly documented host plant

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    Héctor A. Vargas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Strepsicrates smithiana Walsingham (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae: first record from Chile and a newly documented host plant. Strepsicrates smithiana Walsingham, 1892 (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae is recorded for the first time from Chile. Male and female adults were reared from leaf-tying larvae collected on Myrica pavonis (Myricaceae, which is a new host plant record for S. smithiana.

  9. The complete mitochondrial genome of Acleris fimbriana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jin-Liang; Wu, Yu-Peng; Su, Tian-Juan; Jiang, Guo-Fang; Wu, Chun-Sheng; Zhu, Chao-Dong

    2016-05-01

    The yellow tortrix, Acleris fimbriana belongs to Tortricidae in Lepidoptera. We described the complete mitogenome of A. fimbriana, which is typical circular duplex molecules and 15,933 bp in length containing the standard metazoan set of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and an A + T-rich region with macro-repeat sequences. All the inferred tRNA secondary structures show the common cloverleaf pattern, with the exception of trnS1(AGN) which lacks the DHU arm. The A. fimbriana mitochondrial genome has the same gene order with other lepidopterans.

  10. Differentiating Oriental Fruit Moth and Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Larvae Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy.

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    Siegwart, Myriam; Bouvier, Floriane; Maugin, Sandrine; Lecomte, Alain; Lavigne, Claire

    2015-02-01

    Cydia pomonella (L.) and Cydia molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) are two important lepidopteran pests that may co-occur in apple orchards and are difficult to differentiate in the larval stage. We investigate the possibility of using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) coupled with partial least squares analysis to distinguish the larvae of the two species. We further assess whether wild individuals can be differentiated using laboratory strains of the two species for model calibration. The NIRS spectra of C. molesta and C. pomonella differed most in the wavelengths between 1,142 and 1,338 nm. Using these wavelengths, partial least squares analysis allowed the differentiation of C. molesta and C. pomonella at the larval stage with very low error, but only as long as both the calibration and prediction sets for individuals had the same origin (either both from the laboratory or both from the field). Errors that appeared when using laboratory individuals for calibration were owing to the divergence of the C. pomonella laboratory strain, most likely following evolution during rearing. Thus, NIRS appears to be a promising tool for the easy and rapid identification of individuals in the field, provided that it is calibrated based on a subset of field individuals. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Current and Future Potential Risk of Establishment of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Washington State

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    The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a primary pest of stone fruits in many countries, including the United States. The distribution of this pest is concentrated in areas receiving higher than lower rainfall. It prefers sites where stone fruits and apple...

  12. Evaluation of traps and lures for codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in apple orchards

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    Studies were conducted to evaluate the use of several trap – lure combinations to improve monitoring of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in apple, Malus domestica Bordk. Treatments included the use of clear, orange and white traps baited with one or more of the followin...

  13. Before harvest survival of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in artificially infested sweet cherries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior to the 2009 season, sweet cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L., from North America were required to be fumigated with methyl bromide before being exported to Japan to eliminate possible infestation by codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). However, based on recent biological...

  14. Effects of orchard host plants on the oviposition preference of the oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Clayton T; Hull, Larry A; Krawczyk, Grzegorz

    2006-08-01

    Recently, the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), has emerged as a major problem on apples (Malus spp.) grown in the mid-Atlantic and midwestern United States, despite its historically important and frequent occurrence as a peach (Prunus spp.) pest. It is possible that host-driven biological phenomena may be contributing to changes in G. molesta population dynamics resulting in outbreaks in apple. Studies were designed to examine the effects of host plants on oviposition behavior, in an effort to clarify the host association status of eastern U.S. populations and also to gain insight into how pest modeling and management efforts may be altered to take into account various host-associated effects. G. molesta adults exhibited ovipositional preference for nonbearing peach trees over nonbearing apple trees in close-range choice tests conducted in the field, regardless of the larval host origin. A significant preference for peach shoots over apple shoots was observed on six of 12 sampling dates with a wild G. molesta population at the interface of adjacent peach and apple blocks. Numbers of eggs found on apple fruit were higher after peach fruit were harvested and apple fruit began to approach maturity (during the flight period for third and fourth brood adults). Possible implications for population modeling and integrated management of G. molesta are discussed.

  15. Comparative survival rates of oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larvae on shoots and fruit of apple and peach.

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    Myers, Clayton T; Hull, Larry A; Krawczyk, Grzegorz

    2006-08-01

    Studies were designed to examine the effects of host plants on oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), survival. G. molesta larval survival in the orchard was comparable between apple (Malus spp.) and peach (Prunus spp.) shoots, indicating that both host species can harbor large larval populations during the early season. G. molesta larvae used multiple shoots for feeding and development on peaches but usually only damaged single shoots in apple. Survival differences were present between peach and apple fruit, but this survival was affected by fruit maturity level. Generally, larval survival higher was in ripening peach fruit than in green, immature apple fruit. Larval survival varied among several apple cultivars, indicating that cultivar-level variability needs to be considered. These host-associated effects may impact efforts to predictively model G. molesta populations in commercial orchards where multiple host plant species, or different cultivars of the same species are often grown in proximity. Thus, host-associated dynamics should be included into future population models that underlie management programs.

  16. Worldwide host plants of the highly polyphagous, invasive Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

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    Brockerhoff, E G; Suckling, D M; Ecroyd, C E; Wagstaff, S J; Raabe, M C; Dowell, R V; Wearings, C H

    2011-10-01

    The light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a highly successful biological invader. It was accidentally introduced to several countries including New Zealand, Hawaii, England, and California. Light brown apple moth attacks a wide range of crop plants and other woody and herbaceous plants, but a more comprehensive analysis of its host range is needed for risk assessments, to evaluate the likely economic and environmental impacts, and to enable targeting of particular plant species for detection surveys and treatments. We reviewed and synthesized the host range and host selection behavior of light brown apple moth by using information from Australia and invaded countries. The host range of light brown apple moth is determined by the behavior of both adult females and larvae. Females use visual, chemical and physical cues to choose host plants. Larvae are capable of limited active dispersal by walking and longer range dispersal by ballooning on silken strands; therefore, larvae also may need to select host plants. We review larval performance indicators across a range of plants. Based on our review, there are at least 545 plant species in 363 genera from 121 families that have been reported as hosts of light brown apple moth. Some plants were reported only once and need verification. Nevertheless, many host plant species and their wide phylogenetic range (from ferns to higher dicotyledons) indicates that light brown apple moth is one of the most polyphagous insects known. This information and our categorization of frequency of host use are valuable for incursion response and pest management activities.

  17. First record Cydia alazon (Diakonoff, 1976) from La Palma Islands (Canary Islands, Spain) with taxonomic and ecological notes (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spitzer, Karel; Jaroš, Josef

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 136 (2006), s. 371-378 ISSN 0300-5267 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS500070505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Lepidoptera * Tortricidae * Cydia alazon Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  18. Putative nicotinic acetylchloline receptor subunits express differentially through life cycle of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

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    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are the targets of neonicotinoids and spinosads, two insecticides used in orchards to effectively control codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.)(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). The nAChRs mediate the fast actions of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in synaptic tr...

  19. Pheromone-based disruption of Eucosma sonomana and Rhyacionia zozana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) using aerially applied microencapsulated pheromone

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    Nancy E. Gillette; John D. Stein; Donald R. Owen; Jeffrey N. Webster; Sylvia R. Mori

    2006-01-01

    Two aerial applications of microencapsulated pheromone were conducted on five 20.2 ha plots to disrupt western pine shoot borer (Eucosma sonomana Kearfott) and ponderosa pine tip moth (Rhyacionia zowna (Kearfott): Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) orientation to pheromones and oviposition in ponderosa pine plantations in 2002 and 2004...

  20. The complete mitochondrial genome of the codling moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bao-Cai; Liu, Wei; Wei, Shu-Jun

    2013-02-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the codling moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) was determined. The genome is 15,253 bp long with 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes and an A+T-rich region. All genes are arranged in their conserved positions compared with the pupative ancestral arrangement of insects except for trnM, which was translocated to the upstream of the transfer RNA cluster trnI-trnQ as in all previously reported lepidopteran mitochondiral genomes. Seven portein-coding genes use ATG start codon and five use ATT. However, the cox1 gene uses the CGA start codon as it is found in all previous reported mitochondrial genomes of Lepidoptera. Nine protein-coding genes stop with termination codon TAA. Four protein-coding genes use incomplete stop codons TA or T. The A+T region is located between rrnS and trnM with a length of 331 bp.

  1. Predicting the emergence of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), on a degree-day scale in North America.

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    Jones, Vincent P; Hilton, Richard; Brunner, Jay F; Bentley, Walt J; Alston, Diane G; Barrett, Bruce; Van Steenwyk, Robert A; Hull, Larry A; Walgenbach, James F; Coates, William W; Smith, Timothy J

    2013-12-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a major pest of apple, pear and walnut production in North America. Management programs are based on preventing larval entry into the fruit or nut and are typically timed by heat-driven models that are synchronized to field populations by first capture of overwintering moths in pheromone traps. Unfortunately, trap capture is affected by a range of environmental parameters as well as by the use of mating disruption, which makes detecting first flight difficult, thus complicating implementation of management programs. The present goal was to evaluate data collected from a broad range of locations across North America to see whether average first spring emergence times could be predicted. Average emergence time on a degree-day scale from 1 January was predictable using latitude and elevation. Sites at elevations of <400 m fit a simple quadratic equation using latitude, but, when higher elevations were included, a multiple regression using elevation was required. The present models can be used to simplify management programs for codling moth in areas where heat-driven models that require extensive trapping to synchronize with emergence are currently used. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Postharvest treatment of fresh fruit from California with methyl bromide for control of light brown apple moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walse, Spencer S; Myers, Scott W; Liu, Yong-Biao; Bellamy, David E; Obenland, David; Simmons, Greg S; Tebbets, Steve

    2013-06-01

    Methyl bromide (MB) chamber fumigations were evaluated for postharvest control of light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in fresh fruit destined for export from California. To simulate external feeding, larvae were contained in gas-permeable cages and distributed throughout loads of peaches, plums, nectarines (all Prunus spp.), apples (Malus spp.), raspberries (Rubus spp.), or grapes (Vitis spp.). Varying the applied MB dose and the differential sorption of MB by the loads resulted in a range of exposures, expressed as concentration x time cross products (CTs) that were verified by gas-chromatographic quantification of MB in chamber headspace over the course of each fumigation. CTs > or = 60 and > or = 72 mg liter(-1) h at 10.0 +/- 0.5 and 15.6 +/- 0.5 degrees C (x +/- s, average +/- SD), respectively, yielded complete mortality of approximately 6,200 larvae at each temperature. These confirmatory fumigations corroborate E. postvittana mortality data for the first time in relation to measured MB exposures and collectively comprise the largest number of larval specimens tested to date. In addition, akinetic model of MB sorption was developed for the quarantine fumigation of fresh fruit based on the measurement of exposures and how they varied across the fumigation trials. The model describes how to manipulate the applied MB dose, the load factor, and the load geometry for different types of packaged fresh fruit so that the resultant exposure is adequate for insect control.

  3. Controle químico da Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae na cultura do pessegueiro Chemical control of Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae in peach orchards

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    Cristiano João Arioli

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A mariposa oriental Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae é a principal praga da cultura do pessegueiro no Brasil. O controle do inseto depende basicamente do emprego de inseticidas de alta toxicidade e baixa seletividade aos inimigos naturais. Este trabalho avaliou os inseticidas etofemprox (Trebon 100 SC, 100 e 150mL 100L-1, benzoato de emamectina (Proclaim 5 SG, 10 e 15g 100L-1 + óleo mineral (Assist, 250mL 100L-1, metoxyfenozide (Intrepid 240 SC, 40 e 60mL 100L-1 e spinosad (Tracer 480 SC, 15 e 25mL 100L-1 para o controle da G. molesta na cultura do pessegueiro. No experimento de laboratório, somente o etofemprox apresentou baixa mortalidade (±50% de lagartas. Em pomar comercial, todos os inseticidas e doses testadas reduziram o nível de injúria nos ponteiros em nível superior a 80%. Os inseticidas avaliados apresentam características desejáveis para uso no manejo integrado da G. molesta, destacando-se a baixa toxicidade e reduzida dose de aplicação, o que minimiza os riscos ao homem e ambiente.Oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae is the most important peach pest in Brazil. Pest management is based on chemical control using insecticides with high toxicity and low selectivity to natural enemies. Etofemprox (Trebon 100 SC, 100 and 150mL 100L-1, emamectin benzoato (Proclaim 5 SG, 10 and 15g 100L-1 associated to mineral oil (Assist, 250mL 100L-1, metoxyfenozide (Intrepid 240 SC 40 and 60mL 100L-1, spinosad (Tracer 480 SC, 15 and 25mL 100L-1 and fosmet (Imidan 500 PM, 200g 100L-1 were evaluated in laboratory and field conditions to G. molesta control. In laboratory, only etofemprox resulted in low mortality (± 50% in residual bioassay. In commercial peach orchards, all insecticides reduced pest damage (> 80%. All insecticides shows characteristics for use in the integrated management of G. molesta including low toxicity and reduced application dose.

  4. An unusual food plant for Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae in Mexico

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    Alejandro Salinas-Castro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An unusual food plant for Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae in Mexico. Larvae of Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus, 1758 were discovered on floral cones of Magnolia schiedeana (Schltdl, 1864 near the natural reserve of La Martinica, Veracruz, México. Magnolia represents an unusual host for this moth species, which is known throughout the world as the "codling moth", a serious pest of fruits of Rosaceae, especially apples. The larvae were identified using taxonomic keys, and identification was corroborated using molecular markers. Further sampling resulted in no additional larvae, hence, the observation was probably that of an ovipositional error by the female, and M. schiedeana is not at risk of attack by this important moth pest.

  5. The complete mitochondrial genome of the oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ya-jun; Shi, Bao-cai; Kang, Zong-jiang; Zhang, Fan; Wei, Shu-jun

    2012-03-01

    The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) currently is one of the economically most destructive pest species of stone and pome fruits worldwide. Here we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of this pest. This genome is 15,776 bp long, with an A + T content of 81.24%, containing 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes and an A + T-rich region. All gene are arranged as hypothesized ancestral gene order of insects except for trnM, which was shuffled from 3' downstream of trnQ to 5' upstream of trnI. cox1 gene uses unusual CGA start codon, as that in all other sequenced lepidopteran mitochondrial genome. The secondary structures for the two rRNA genes were predicted. All helices typically present in insect mitochondrial rRNA genes are generated. A microsatellite sequence was inserted into the region of H2347 in rrnL in G. molesta and two other sequenced tortricid mitochondrial genomes, indicating that the insertion event in this helix might occurred anciently in family Tortricidae. All of the 22 typical animal tRNA genes have a typical cloverleaf structure except for trnS2, in which the D-stem pairings in the DHU arm are absent. An intergenic sequence is present between trnQ and nad2 as well as in other sequenced lepidopteran mitochondrial genomes, which was presumed to be a remnant of trnM gene and its boundary sequences after the duplication of trnM to the upstream of trnI in Lepidoptera. The A + T-rich region is 836 bp, containing six repeat sequences of "TTATTATTATTATTAAATA(G)TTT."

  6. Within-tree distribution of Ecdytolopha torticornis (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae oviposition on macadamia nuts

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    Helga Blanco-Metzler

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Vertical distribution of eggs of the macadamia nutborer Ecdytolopha torticornis Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae and its preference of oviposition sites within and between macadamia cultivars were studied in Turrialba, Cartago, Costa Rica, in 1992 (N = 6 939. E. torticornis eggs were found throughout the foliar parts of the tree, but fewer eggs were laid in the crown top than in the mid or lower crown. Differences in the horizontal distribution of the eggs were not significant, albeit more eggs were found in the outer positions. The numbers of eggs found within the crowns of different clones were similar, implying that the nutborer has no preference for a particular cultivar.Se determinó la distribución vertical de los huevos del barrenador de la nuez de macadamia Ecdytolopha torticornis Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae y los sitios de preferencia de oviposición en los árboles y entre clones de macadamia. Se detectó la presencia de huevos de E. torticornis en todo el árbol, sin embargo, se encontró un menor número de huevos en la parte alta de la corona que en la parte media e inferior. La diferencia en la distribución horizontal de los huevos fue no significativa, a pesar de encontrarse un mayor número de huevos en las posiciones externas. El número de huevos entre clones fue similar, sugiriendo que la polilla del barrenador no tiene preferencias de oviposición entre clones.

  7. CRISPR/Cas9 editing of the codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) CpomOR1 gene affects egg production and viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a major pest of pome fruit worldwide. The inclusion of semiochemicals, including the main sex pheromone (codlemone), in codling moth IPM programs has drastically reduced the amount of chemical insecticides needed to control this ...

  8. Toxicity and residual activity of methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide to codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchert, Daniel M; Walgenbach, James F; Kennedy, George G; Long, John W

    2004-08-01

    A series of studies were conducted to examine the residual activity and toxicity of the ecdysone agonists tebufenozide and methoxyfenozide to codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), in North Carolina apple systems. Methoxyfenozide exhibited greater activity than tebufenozide against codling moth eggs in dose-response bioassays, with a 4.5- and 5.3-fold lower LC50 value to eggs laid on fruit treated before or after oviposition, respectively. Oriental fruit moth eggs were 57- and 12-fold less sensitive to methoxyfenozide than were codling moth eggs on fruit treated before and after oviposition, respectively. Methoxyfenozide was effective in reducing larval entries of both codling moth and oriental fruit moth in field residual activity bioassays, exhibiting activity for at least 28 d after application. Residue breakdown on fruit was approximately 80% at 28 d after treatment for both methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide, with the most rapid residue decline (60%) occurring during the first 14 d after application. Two applications of methoxyfenozide applied at 14-d intervals provided better canopy coverage and higher residue levels than one application. Spray volume (683 versus 2,057 liters/ha) did not affect the efficacy of methoxyfenozide. Leaf and fruit expansion during the season was measured to determine potential plant-growth dilution effects on residual activity. There was very little increase in leaf area after mid May, but increase in fruit surface area over the season was described by a second order polynomial regression. Implications for codling moth and oriental fruit moth management programs are discussed.

  9. Effects of orchard host plants (apple and peach) on development of oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Clayton T; Hull, Larry A; Krawczyk, Grzegorz

    2007-04-01

    Studies were designed to examine the effects of host plants (apple, Malus domestica Borkh., and peach, Prunus persica L.) on the development of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Oriental fruit moth larvae developed faster on peach than on apple, both on fruit as well as on growing terminal shoots. On fruit, these differences were shown to cause significant changes in both the rate (approximately 20-60 degree-days earlier emergence on peach than on apple) and patterns of adult emergence among several cultivars of peaches and apples. Slopes of female emergence plots varied by host in 2003, with emergence occurring over a longer period on peach cultivars than on apple cultivars (with one exception). Slopes of male emergence curves did not differ by cultivar in 2003. These host-driven effects could impact the efficacy of traditional pest management approaches and probably complicate efforts to predictively model G. molesta populations in mixed cultivar orchards. Such developmental effects may help to explain previously observed differences in patterns of pheromone trap captures in peach versus apple orchards. Host-associated effects should be incorporated into future models to develop more realistic predictive tools and thus improve integrated pest management efforts.

  10. Whole-farm mating disruption to manage Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in diversified New Jersey orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollerup, Kris E; Rucker, Ann; Shearer, Peter W

    2012-10-01

    Fruit orchards in New Jersey are usually isolated from neighboring farms and diversified, often containing separate plantings of peach (Prunus spp.) and apple (Malus spp.). These crops can suffer significant damage from oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). This study evaluated the effect of managing G. molesta by using sex pheromone-based mating disruption applied to both peaches and apples (whole-farm mating disruption) rather than treating either crop alone. In year 1 of the experiment, G. molesta mating disruption applied to the adjacent peach and apple blocks provided better control than treating peaches or apples alone. During year 2, treating these adjacent blocks or only treating apples controlled G. molesta equally well. G. molesta populations were so low at the end of year 2 that mating disruption was not applied against this pest during year 3. This allowed us to determine whether applying mating disruption for two consecutive years controlled G. molesta well enough that it eliminated the need mating disruption for three consecutive years. The mean cumulative number of G. molesta captured in plots where both peaches and apples had been treated did not exceed two moths per trap in the third year of this experiment. In contrast, G. molesta capture rebounded during August in peaches and apples that had not been treated with mating disruption the previous 2 yr. Implications for managing G. molesta by using mating disruption as a "whole-farm" tactic as well applying it for two consecutive years and not a third year are discussed.

  11. Current and Future Potential Risk of Establishment of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neven, Lisa G; Kumar, Sunil; Yee, Wee L; Wakie, Tewodros

    2018-02-17

    The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a primary pest of stone fruits that cause significant economic damage. Larvae, which enter the host plant through shoot tips, damage shoots, and ripe fruits. Native to Asia, this pest now occurs in many fruit-growing countries, including the United States and Canada. Though the pest was previously reported from many states within the United States, its current distribution and the environmental variables that influence its distribution are not properly identified. The objectives of this study were to 1) identify the environmental factors associated with G. molesta current distribution, 2) predict the current distribution of G. molesta in Washington State (WA) using Maxent and Climex models, 3) identify those areas within WA best suited for establishment of pest free zones, areas of low pest prevalence, and pest free production areas, and 4) identify regions most at risk for further expansion of G. molesta populations as a function of climate change. The current models predicted a small portion of central WA is suitable to support G. molesta, which is consistent with observed distributions. However, climate change models predict that more areas will become suitable for the pest. These results indicate that action should be taken to monitor and reduce current populations of G. molesta to stem its potential expansion into the major commercial tree fruit production areas in the state.

  12. Where does Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) overwinter in adjacent peach, pear and apple orchards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X-F; Fan, F; Wang, C; Wei, G-S

    2016-02-01

    The Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a major pest of tree fruits worldwide, and the diapausing larvae overwinter in cryptic habitats. Investigations of overwintering G. molesta were conducted in adjacent peach, pear and apple orchards in Northern China over three consecutive winters to determine the overwintering site and habitat preferences of the moth. Counts of overwintering larvae in the different orchards demonstrated that the late-maturing peach orchard ('Shenzhou honey peach') was the most preferred overwintering habitat with more than 90% of the collected larvae. Larvae were more abundant in host trees, and they very rarely overwintered in the soil. The overwintering site preferences on the host trees were significantly different; over 50% larvae were located in the tree trunks, and followed by main branches. Most of the G. molesta overwintered on the sunny side of the host trees at or below 60 cm from the ground; a few were cocooned on the shaded sides of the trees or greater than 60 cm from the ground. G. molesta began overwintering between August and October, mid- to late September was the peak period for entering winter diapause during 2011-2013 (77.78, 67.59 and 71.15%, respectively). Our findings improve understanding of the orchard habitat and overwintering site preferences of G. molesta and would be useful in the development of efficient forecasting and pest-management strategies for orchards during the winter and early spring.

  13. Yield-based economic thresholds for grape berry moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in juice grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubos, Craig R; Mason, Keith S; Teixeira, Luís A F; Isaacs, Rufus

    2013-04-01

    A 3-yr field study was conducted at commercial juice grape (Vitis labrusca L.) vineyards to develop an economic injury level (EIL) for grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana (Clemens) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and to determine patterns of cluster injury. Infestation of grape clusters by P. viteana was measured biweekly from bloom until harvest, and fruit was sampled immediately before harvest to determine the yield and level of fruit injury by this pest. Comparison of fruit infestation at each sampling date to that found just before harvest revealed stronger relationships over time, and by early August at least 50% of the variation in preharvest infestation was accounted for by previous infestation. Grape yield declined with increasing infestation by P. viteana, allowing calculation of the EIL at which the value of yield lost to infestation equaled the cost of insecticide applications to prevent the infestation. Using two scenarios of pest control programs based on pyrethroid or diamide insecticides, the EILs were calculated to be 9.9 and 17.7% of clusters damaged, respectively. For use in juice grape vineyard integrated pest management programs, we propose using 5 and 10% damaged clusters at harvest as action thresholds for further testing in field trials to evaluate sampling plans and the use of thresholds to guide vineyard pest management decision-making under different insecticide scenarios.

  14. Response of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), eggs to gamma radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, W. D.; Arthur, V.; Mastrangelo, T.

    2010-10-01

    As insects increase in radiotolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of the pest may be present in the fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of the stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radiotolerance of eggs of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to gamma radiation. This species is considered as one of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Eggs (12 h old) were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 35, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 Gy of gamma radiation. Surviving larvae were allowed to feed on an artificial diet. Three days after irradiation, it was verified that larvae's cephalic capsules were significantly affected by gamma radiation, and the estimated mean LD 90 and LD 99 were 66.3 Gy and 125.8 Gy, respectively. Oriental fruit moth eggs revealed to be quite radiosensitive and very low doses as 50 Gy were sufficient to disrupt G. molesta embryogenesis. At 25 Gy, only male adults originated from the surviving larvae and, after mating with untreated fertile females, shown to be sterile.

  15. Response of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), eggs to gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, W.D., E-mail: weliton.silva@usp.b [Department of Entomology and Acarology, Laboratory of Chemical Ecology and Insect Behavior, University of Sao Paulo, ' Luiz de Queiroz' College of Agriculture, Padua Dias Avenue, 11, 13418-900 Piracicaba (Brazil); Arthur, V.; Mastrangelo, T. [Food Irradiation and Radioentomology Laboratory, Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (CENA/USP), Centenario Avenue 303, 13400-970 Piracicaba (Brazil)

    2010-10-15

    As insects increase in radiotolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of the pest may be present in the fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of the stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radiotolerance of eggs of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to gamma radiation. This species is considered as one of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Eggs (12 h old) were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 35, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 Gy of gamma radiation. Surviving larvae were allowed to feed on an artificial diet. Three days after irradiation, it was verified that larvae's cephalic capsules were significantly affected by gamma radiation, and the estimated mean LD{sub 90} and LD{sub 99} were 66.3 Gy and 125.8 Gy, respectively. Oriental fruit moth eggs revealed to be quite radiosensitive and very low doses as 50 Gy were sufficient to disrupt G. molesta embryogenesis. At 25 Gy, only male adults originated from the surviving larvae and, after mating with untreated fertile females, shown to be sterile.

  16. Impact of Cultivation and Subsequent Burial on Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Conotrachelus nenuphar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baughman, William B; Nelson, Peter N; Grieshop, Matthew J

    2015-06-01

    We assessed the efficacy of cultivation as a potential management strategy for codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in apple orchards. Cocooned codling moth pupae and thinning apples infested with plum curculio larvae were cultivated over in the field. Emergence, percent burial, damage to buried fruit, and depth of burial was recorded. In the laboratory, both insects were buried at variable depths in sand and potting soil and emergence was measured. A greater proportion of plum curculio larvae buried in infested fruit under laboratory conditions survived to adulthood compared with unburied infested fruit, down to 15 cm. No codling moth adults emerged from under 1 cm or more of sand. Buried codling moth larvae experienced drastically reduced survival to adulthood compared with unburied larvae. These results indicate that strip cultivation may negatively impact codling moth diapausing larvae and pupae on the ground, but not likely to negatively impact plum curculio in infested dropped apples. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  17. Mating behaviors of Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) as influenced by sex pheromone in electrostatic powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J; Stelinski, L L; Gut, L J

    2010-12-01

    Entostat is an electrostatically charged wax powder that can adhere strongly to insect cuticle, making it an ideal carrier to deliver pheromone for pheromone-based confusion techniques. We investigated the attractiveness of Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) males treated with pheromone-laden Entostat powder to naive conspecifics as well as mating behaviors of males after such treatment in a laboratory flight tunnel. Male moths exposed to Entostat containing 1% E,E-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone) acquired and retained the largest amount of the powder and became more attractive as point sources to naive moths compared with those treated with powder containing 5 or 10% codlemone. All Entostat-exposed males remained as attractive as a 0.1-mg codlemone lure for up to 24 h in flight tunnel investigations. Male moth orientation to normally attractive sources of codlemone was completely disrupted directly after treatment with Entostat powder. Males' ability to orient to 0.1-mg lures recovered progressively over a 6-d postexposure interval; however, their responses never reached the levels observed with untreated control moths. Entostat-exposed moths retained detectable amounts of codlemone up to 4 d. Our laboratory flight tunnel results suggest that the mode of action of Entostat powder as an autodissemination control tactic may be due to creating both attractive false point sources after exposure to the powder as well as directly inhibiting contaminated males' capability to orient to pheromone.

  18. Effect of varying dispenser point source density on mating disruption of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lame, Frédérique M; Epstein, David; Gut, Larry J; Goldfarb, Heidi; Miller, James R

    2010-08-01

    Hand-applied dispensers are successfully used in mating disruption programs, but cost of labor to apply these dispensers limits their adoption. Creating hand-applied dispensers that release larger amounts of pheromone and that can be applied at lower densities per hectare could reduce the cost of mating disruption and increase its use. The effect of reducing the number of point sources per hectare while keeping the amount of pheromone applied per hectare constant on the success of Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) mating disruption was investigated with Confuse-OFM, paraffin disk, and Isomate-M Rosso dispensers. For all dispensers, as point source density decreased, numbers of moths captured increased, percentage of orientation disruption to traps decreased, and variability in these measures increased. Decreasing point source density, even while keeping the amount of pheromone applied per hectare constant is not a viable option for reducing the cost of G. molesta mating disruption with hand-applied dispensers. Puffers (aerosol dispensers) are applied at 2.5-5 dispensers per ha for G. molesta control. However, hand-applied dispensers fail when clumped at such low numbers of release sites. Potential explanations for the success of Puffers and the failure of hand-applied dispensers at very low point source densities are presented. The utility of paraffin disk dispensers as experimental devices also is discussed.

  19. Transcriptome Analysis and Identification of Major Detoxification Gene Families and Insecticide Targets in Grapholita Molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanqiong; Chai, Yanping; Zhang, Lijun; Zhao, Zhiguo; Gao, Ling-Ling; Ma, Ruiyan

    2017-01-01

    The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is an important pest of most stone and pome fruits and causes serious damage to the fruit industry worldwide. This insect pest has been primarily controlled through the application of insecticides; as a result, G. molesta has developed resistance to many different types of insecticides. To identify detoxification genes, we have, de novo, sequenced the transcriptome of G. molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and yielded 58,970 unigenes of which 26,985 unigenes matched to known proteins. In total, 2,040 simple sequence repeats have been identified. The comprehensive transcriptome data set has permitted us to identify members of important gene families related to detoxification in G. molesta, including 77 unigenes of putative cytochrome P450s, 28 of glutathione S-transferases, 46 of Carboxylesterases, and 31 of insecticide targets. Orthologs of some of these unigenes have shown to play a pivotal role in insecticide resistance in other insect species and those unigenes likely have similar functions in G. molesta. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  20. Seasonal and cultivar-associated variation in oviposition preference of Oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) adults and feeding behavior of neonate larvae in apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Clayton T; Hull, Larry A; Krawczyk, Grzegorz

    2006-04-01

    The Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) has become a pest of tree fruits since its introduction to the United States in the early twentieth century. Oriental fruit moth has historically been a major pest problem in peach production, and outbreaks in commercial apple (Malus spp.) orchards in the eastern United States were rare until the late 1990s. Recent outbreaks in Mid-Atlantic apple orchards have lead researchers to investigate host-associated effects on oriental fruit moth biology, behavior, and population dynamics. Studies were designed to assess cultivar level effects in apples on oviposition and larval feeding behavior of oriental fruit moth. In a mixed cultivar apple orchard, total oriental fruit moth oviposition and oviposition site preferences varied between cultivars. These preferences also varied over time, when sampling was repeated at various times of the growing season. Although most adult female oriental fruit moth preferentially oviposited in the calyx and stem areas of apple fruit, noticeable numbers of eggs also were laid on the sides of fruit, contradicting some previous reports. Oriental fruit moth females exhibited a strong ovipositional preference for fruit that were previously damaged by oriental fruit moth or codling moth, Cydia ponmonella (L.). The majority of newly hatched oriental fruit moth larvae were observed to spend oriental fruit moth.

  1. Expression of the double-stranded RNA of the soybean pod borer Leguminivora glycinivorella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) ribosomal protein P0 gene enhances the resistance of transgenic soybean plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanli; Li, Yang; Zang, Zhenyuan; Li, Na; Ran, Ruixue; Cao, Yingxue; Li, Tianyu; Zhou, Quan; Li, Wenbin

    2017-12-01

    The soybean pod borer [SPB; Leguminivora glycinivorella (Matsumura) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)] is the most important soybean pest in northeastern Asia. Silencing genes using plant-mediated RNA-interference is a promising strategy for controlling SPB infestations. The ribosomal protein P0 is important for protein translation and DNA repair in the SPB. Thus, transferring P0 double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into plants may help prevent SPB-induced damage. We investigated the effects of SpbP0 dsRNA injections and SpbP0 dsRNA-expressing transgenic soybean plants on the SPB. Larval mortality rates were greater for SpbP0 dsRNA-injected larvae (96%) than for the control larvae (31%) at 14 days after injections. Transgenic T 2 soybean plants expressing SpbP0 dsRNA sustained less damage from SPB larvae than control plants. In addition, the expression level of the SpbP0 gene decreased and the mortality rate increased when SPB larvae were fed on T 3 transgenic soybean pods. Moreover, the surviving larvae were deformed and exhibited inhibited growth. Silencing SpbP0 expression is lethal to the SPB. Transgenic soybean plants expressing SpbP0 dsRNA are more resistant to the SPB than wild-type plants. Thus, SpbP0 dsRNA-expressing transgenic plants may be useful for controlling insect pests. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Susceptibility of Oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larvae to selected reduced-risk insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Moneen M; Robertson, Jacqueline L; Weinzierl, Richard A

    2010-10-01

    To determine their baseline susceptibility to chlorantraniliprole, spinetoram, spinosad, and acetamiprid, oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), neonates were placed on diet cubes containing a range of concentrations of each insecticide. Mortality was assessed after 96 h. Two populations-a long-term laboratory colony from Rutgers University and a colony established in 2007 from a southwestern Illinois (Calhoun County) field population-were tested. We used probit and logit analyses to compare the responses of Calhoun colony neonates from parents reared on 'Gala' apples (Malus spp.) with those of Calhoun colony neonates from parents reared on lima bean, Phaseolus lunatus L., diet. We also compared the responses of Calhoun colony neonates with those of Rutgers colony neonates (all from parents reared on apples). LC50s (ppm in diet) for Calhoun colony progeny of adults reared on apples were 0.08, 0.06, 0.41, and 0.30, respectively, for chlorantraniliprole, spinetoram, acetamiprid, and spinosad. Parental food source (apples versus lima bean diet) did not consistently influence the concentration-mortality relationships for neonates. Based on LC50s and toxicity ratio tests, Calhoun colony neonates were slightly but significantly less susceptible to spinetoram and acetamiprid than were Rutgers colony neonates. Similarly, LC90s and toxicity ratio tests indicated that Calhoun colony neonates were slightly but significantly less susceptible to chlorantraniliprole as well. However, toxicity ratios (Calhoun/Rutgers) were low in all instances, and the highest ratio was 1.73 at LC90 for chlorantraniliprole. Overall, the two colonies responded similarly to these insecticides. Results reported here provide baseline data for future monitoring of resistance development.

  3. Tools for resistance monitoring in oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and first assessment in Brazilian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegwart, M; Monteiro, L B; Maugin, S; Olivares, J; Malfitano Carvalho, S; Sauphanor, B

    2011-04-01

    In southern Brazilian apple (Malus spp.) orchards, predominantly organophosphates are used to control the oriental fruit moth, Cydia molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), but control failures often occur. Therefore the susceptibility of three C. molesta Brazilian populations was investigated to five insecticides of different groups and modes of action, in comparison with a susceptible laboratory strain mass reared in southern France for >10 yr. At the same time, comparative biochemical and genetic analysis were performed, assessing the activities of the detoxification enzymatic systems and sequencing a gene of insecticide molecular target to find out markers associated with resistance. The three Brazilian populations were significantly resistant to chlorpyrifos ethyl compared with the reference strain. One of the field populations that had been frequently exposed to deltamethrin treatments showed significant decreasing susceptibility to this compound, whereas none of the three populations had loss of susceptibility to tebufenozide and thiacloprid compared with the reference strain. All three populations had slight but significant increases of glutathione transferase and carboxylesterases activities and significant decrease of specific acetylcholinesterase activities compared with the reference. Only the most resistant population to chlorpyriphos exhibited a significantly higher mixed function oxidase activity than the reference. The acetylcholinesterase of females was significantly less inhibited by carbaryl in the Brazilian populations than in the reference strain (1.7-2.5-fold), and this difference was not expressed in the male moth. However, no mutation in the MACE locus was detected. These biological and molecular characterizations of adaptive response to insecticides in C. molesta provide tools for early detection of insecticide resistance in field populations of this pest.

  4. Potencial inseticida de óleos de origem vegetal sobre Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F. Colpo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Em decorrência do estudo das interações químicas entre insetos e herbívoros, e do avanço da pesquisa fitoquímica, é conhecida ampla variedade de produtos naturais com potencial inseticida. Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, mariposa-oriental, é uma das principais pragas do pessegueiro, danificando brotações e frutos. O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar a mortalidade, atratividade e deterrência de óleos vegetais em G. molesta. Ovos e pupas de insetos provindos de criação artificial foram imersos nos óleos essenciais de Elionurus muticus (Spreng. Kuntze e Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt ex Bor nas concentrações de 0,25%, 0,5%, 1% e 0,5%, 1%, 5%. Os testes de atratividade foram realizados em olfatômetro do tipo "Y". A deterrência à oviposição foi testada em gaiolas sem escolha e de dupla escolha. O óleo de E. muticus aplicado em ovos de G. molesta nas três concentrações causou mortalidades maiores que 30%, diferindo significativamente dos controles (p<0,05. A mortalidade causada pelo óleo de citronela foi em torno de 70%, significativamente superior ao controle (p<0,01. O óleo de citronela aplicado a 1% em pupas causou mortalidade de 99,8%. No teste com o olfatômetro, não houve atratividade dos adultos para nenhum dos óleos. A média de ovos no substrato com o tratamento (0,33±0,33, foi significativamente menor que no controle (7,3±0,88 (p<0,01, indicando deterrência à oviposição.

  5. Assessment of SPLAT formulations to control Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae in a Brazilian apple orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano João Arioli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mating disruption is a technique that uses synthetic copies of sex pheromones to control insect pests. We aimed to control Oriental fruit moth (OFM Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae with formulations of SPLAT Grafo (SG and SPLAT Grafo Attract and Kill (SGAK in small (1 ha apple (Malus domestica Borkh. orchards. Our experiment was conducted in a commercial orchard with 'Gala' trees (spacing 1.5 x 4.5 m in Vacaria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. We evaluated the effect of four treatments on G. molesta population densities: a SG at 1 kg ha-1 (300 point sources of 3.3 g each, b SGAK at 1 kg ha-1 (1000 point sources of 1 g each, c insecticides as recommended by Integrated Apple Production (IAP, and d untreated control (no treatment. Specialized Pheromone and Lure Application Technology (SPLAT treatments were applied on 1 August 2004 and reapplied after 120 d (1 December 2004. The treatment effect was evaluated by weekly counts of males captured in Delta traps baited with commercial synthetic sex pheromone lures (eight traps per treatment. We assessed fruit damage caused by G. molesta in eight replicates of 200 fruits each on 26 October, 30 November 2004, and 5 and 31 January 2005. Applying 1 kg ha-1 of SG and SGAK in August and December 2004 significantly reduced the number of male moths caught in Delta traps. Damage to fruits at harvest, however, did not differ significantly from the control. This indicates a decline in the efficacy of mating disruption when SG and SGAK are used to protect small areas (1 ha under high Oriental fruit moth pressure.

  6. Confusão sexual para o controle de Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, em pomares de macieira, em Fraiburgo (SC, Brasil Mating disruption for the control of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, in Fraiburgo, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino B. Monteiro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O controle de Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae foi avaliado pela técnica de confusão sexual em macieira no município de Fraiburgo (SC. A formulação do feromônio sintético utilizada foi da marca Quant G.m. (400 mg do acetato de (Z/E - 8 - dodecenila 14% p/v, com 500 difusores por hectare, distribuídos em um pomar de macieira comercial 'Fuji' de 2,52 ha. O tratamento com confusão sexual foi comparado com a testemunha convencional. O monitoramento para moscas-das-frutas, Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae; mariposa oriental, Grapholita molesta e lagarta enroladeira, Bonagota cranaodes (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae foi realizado para decidir se haveria necessidade de pulverização de inseticidas. Não houve capturas de G. molesta na armadilha do Tipo Delta, instalada no tratamento com confusão sexual até 93 dias após a liberação do feromônio. Nesse período, realizaram-se duas pulverizações para moscas-das-frutas e lagarta-enroladeira no tratamento com confusão sexual e oito pulverizações no tratamento convencional. Os danos causados por G. molesta em ambos os tratamentos não ultrapassaram 0,5%, mesmo com a redução de 77% dos inseticidas no tratamento com confusão sexual. Verifica-se, portanto, que a técnica de confusão sexual é eficiente para o controle de G. molesta.The control of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae was assessed by using the mating disruption technique in an apple orchard in Fraiburgo, SC. Quant G.m. synthetic pheromone formulation (400 mg of (Z/E - 8 - dodecenyl acetate 14% p/v was used, with 500 dispensers per hectare, distributed over a 2.52 hectare 'Fuji' commercial orchard. The mating disruption treatment was compared with a chemical control treatment. The action threshold was determined by monitoring fruit flies Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae, G. molesta and leafroller Bonagota cranaodes (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae. G. molesta was caught in the Delta traps

  7. Danos de Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae em seis cultivares de pessegueiro em Araucária, Paraná Damages of Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae in six peach orchards cultivars in Aracuária, Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Sandro Poltronieri

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se a ocorrência e os danos de Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae em pomar comercial de pessegueiros com seis cultivares de ciclos de maturação de frutos precoce ('São Pedro', médio ('Chimarrita', 'Ouro', 'Coral' e 'Marli' e tardio ('BR II', no município de Araucária-PR. Foram sorteadas cinco plantas por cultivar para serem avaliados os danos em brotações e frutos. Os danos foram acumulados e avaliados em três fases: pré-raleio, endurecimento do caroço e colheita. Os resultados mostraram que houve um nível diferenciado no ataque de G. molesta em brotações e frutos, entre as cultivares. As avaliações de danos em brotações mostraram que, até a fase de colheita, a cultivar Ouro foi a mais atacada, sendo superada pela 'Chimarrita' quando se inclui os danos ocorridos na fase pós-colheita. Em frutos, a 'Marli' apresentou o maior número de pêssegos danificados entre as seis cultivares avaliadas.This paper deals with the occurrence and damage of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae in a commercial peach orchard with six cultivars of different fruit ripening cycles: precocious ('São Pedro ', medium ('Chimarrita ', 'Ouro ', 'Coral ' and 'Marli ' and late ('BR II ', in Araucaria, State of Paraná, Brazil. Five plants of each cultivar were selected for evaluating the damages in shoots and fruits. The damages were accumulated and evaluated in three phases: previous thinning, stone hardening and harvesting. The results were as follows: the cultivar "Ouro" was the most damaged one up to the harvesting phase, although 'Chimarrita' surpassed 'Ouro' when the damages observed in the post-harvesting phase were included. Among the six cultivars, 'Marli' was the one presenting the highest number of damaged fruits.

  8. Resurgence of minor pests following the implementation of mating disruption against Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) in Sherry vineyards (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Gallardo, A.; López, M. Á.; Lara, M.; Maistrello, L.; Molejón, A.; Ocete, R.

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of the mating disruption technique against the grape berry moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae), in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Sherry vineyards (Andalusia, South-western Spain) reduced the number of chemical treatments required to manage this serious pest. In order to verify the long term consequences of this type of management on the minor pests of vineyards, a study was carried out over nine years to compare the population leve...

  9. Reference gene selection for quantitative real-time PCR normalization in larvae of three species of Grapholitini (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgeway, Jaryd A; Timm, Alicia E

    2015-01-01

    Despite the agricultural importance of species in the Grapholitini (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and the value of gene expression analysis for improved population management, few gene expression studies based on quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) have been conducted for this tribe. Part of the reason for this lack of information is that suitable reference genes, which are fundamental for accurate normalization of qPCR studies, have not been identified for the tribe. Thus, the expression stability of six potential reference genes (ACT, AK, COI, EF1, ENO and TUB) was assessed in three different tissues (whole body, midgut and cuticle) of Cryptophlebia peltastica (Meyrick), Cydia pomonella (L.) and Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick). Additionally, these reference genes were tested using T. leucotreta at different temperatures (15°C, 25°C and 35°C) with and without baculovirus infection. Suitable reference genes were identified for the whole body and midgut tissue of all three species, and for cuticle tissue of Cy. pomonella and T. leucotreta. When T. leucotreta was infected with the virus at all temperature conditions ACT, AK and EF1 were found to be the most suitable reference genes for experimental normalization. In general, for all tissue types, species and stress conditions, AK and EF1 were the best-performing reference genes. However, even though the three species analysed were closely related and within the same tribe, each species required varying gene combinations for suitable normalization. This study provides the first reference gene evaluation for the Tortricidae, and paves the way for future qPCR analysis in Tortricidae.

  10. Reference gene selection for quantitative real-time PCR normalization in larvae of three species of Grapholitini (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaryd A Ridgeway

    Full Text Available Despite the agricultural importance of species in the Grapholitini (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, and the value of gene expression analysis for improved population management, few gene expression studies based on quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR have been conducted for this tribe. Part of the reason for this lack of information is that suitable reference genes, which are fundamental for accurate normalization of qPCR studies, have not been identified for the tribe. Thus, the expression stability of six potential reference genes (ACT, AK, COI, EF1, ENO and TUB was assessed in three different tissues (whole body, midgut and cuticle of Cryptophlebia peltastica (Meyrick, Cydia pomonella (L. and Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick. Additionally, these reference genes were tested using T. leucotreta at different temperatures (15°C, 25°C and 35°C with and without baculovirus infection. Suitable reference genes were identified for the whole body and midgut tissue of all three species, and for cuticle tissue of Cy. pomonella and T. leucotreta. When T. leucotreta was infected with the virus at all temperature conditions ACT, AK and EF1 were found to be the most suitable reference genes for experimental normalization. In general, for all tissue types, species and stress conditions, AK and EF1 were the best-performing reference genes. However, even though the three species analysed were closely related and within the same tribe, each species required varying gene combinations for suitable normalization. This study provides the first reference gene evaluation for the Tortricidae, and paves the way for future qPCR analysis in Tortricidae.

  11. A new species of Eccopsis Zeller (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae from the coastal valleys of northern Chile, with the first continental record of E. galapagana Razowski & Landry

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    Héctor A. Vargas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Eccopsis Zeller (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae from the coastal valleys of northern Chile, with the first continental record of E. galapagana Razowski & Landry. Eccopsis Zeller, 1852 is reported for the first time from Chile. Eccopsis razowskii Vargas, n. sp. is described and illustrated based on specimens reared from larvae collected on native Acacia macracantha Willd. (Fabaceae in the coastal valleys of the northern Chilean desert. Eccopsis galapagana Razowski & Landry, 2008, previously known only from the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador, is recorded for the first time from continental South America. Larvae of the latter were collected in northern Chile feeding on Prosopis alba Griseb (Fabaceae.Uma nova espécie de Eccopsis Zeller (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae dos valles litorais do norte do Chile, e o primeiro registro continental de E. galapagana Razowski & Landry. Eccopsis Zeller (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae é registrado pela primeira vez para o Chile. Eccopsis razowskii Vargas, n. sp. é descrita e ilustrada com base em espécimes criados de larvas colectadas em Acacia macracantha Willd. (Fabaceae nos vales litorais do deserto do norte do Chile. Eccopsis galapagana Razowski & Landry, 2008, conhecida previamente das Ilhas Galápados, Equador, é registrada pela primeira vez para SulAmérica continental. Suas larvas foram coletadas em Prosopis alba Griseb (Fabaceae.

  12. Temporal Patterns in the Abundance and Species Composition of Spiders on Host Plants of the Invasive Moth Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, Brian N; Mills, Nicholas J; Daane, Kent M

    2017-06-01

    Generalist predators such as spiders may help mitigate the spread and impact of exotic herbivores. The lack of prey specificity and long generation times of spiders may allow them to persist when pests are scarce, and to limit the growth of pest populations before they reach damaging levels. We examined whether resident spiders are likely to play a role in maintaining populations of the invasive light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), below outbreak levels in California. We surveyed the spider community on two E. postvittana host plants, the ornamental Australian tea tree, Leptospermum laevigatum, and the weed French broom, Genista monspessulana, to characterize spider and larval E. postvittana abundance and spider species composition throughout the year. Spider densities and species composition showed slight seasonal changes. Spiders were present during periods of high and low E. postvittana abundance. Anyphaenid hunting spiders, Anyphaena aperta Banks in Australian tea tree and Anyphaena pacifica Banks in French broom, dominated spider species composition at four of five sampled sites, and underwent only slight seasonal variation in abundance. Adult A. aperta were rare at all times of the year, suggesting that high mortality among juvenile A. aperta limits the potential of this species as a predator of E. postvittana. Nevertheless, the continued presence of spiders throughout the year indicates that the resident spider community is likely to play a key role in reducing E. postvittana populations in California. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  13. Pathogenicity, morphology, and characterization of a Nosema fumiferanae isolate (Microsporidia: Nosematidae) from the light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Julie V; Huang, Wei-Fone; Solter, Leellen F; Mills, Nicholas J

    2016-02-01

    We recently discovered infections by a microsporidium closely related to Nosema fumiferanae in field populations of the light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in the San Francisco region of California. E. postvittana originates from Australia and was first detected in California in 2006; therefore, our aim was to identify and determine the origin of the Nosema isolate. We characterized the pathogenicity, transmission pathways, and ultrastructure of this new Nosema isolate. In addition, we sequenced fragments of commonly used genetic markers (ITS, SSU, and RPB1), and examined the phylogenetic relationships between the Nosema isolate and other microsporidian species commonly found in lepidopteran hosts. The pathogenicity of the Nosema isolate was investigated by infecting second instar larvae of E. postvittana. Larval and pupal survivorship were reduced by 7% and 13% respectively, and pupation occurred 1-2d later in infected individuals than in healthy individuals. Emerging infected females died 5d earlier than healthy females, and daily fecundity was 22% lower. Hatch rate also was 22% lower for eggs oviposited by infected females. Vertical transmission was confirmed; spores were present in 68% of egg masses and 100% of the surviving larvae from infected females. Ultrastructure images, together with sequences from selected genetic markers, confirmed the Nosema isolate to be a member of the Nosema fumiferanae species complex (Nosema fumiferanae postvittana subsp. n.). The association of this pathogen with E. postvittana contributes further to the biotic resistance that E. postvittana has experienced since its introduction to California. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Tarsal morphology and attachment ability of the codling moth Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) to smooth surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Bitar, Loris; Voigt, Dagmar; Zebitz, Claus P W; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2009-11-01

    Despite several studies on the attachment ability of different insect taxa, little is known about this phenomenon in adult Lepidoptera. In this study we combined morphological and experimental analyses of tarsal adhesive devices and the attachment ability of the codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) to smooth surfaces. Pretarsi of C. pomonella attach to smooth substrates by means of their smooth, flexible and well developed arolia. Using the centrifugal force measurement technique, friction forces of males and females were assessed on hydrophobic and hydrophilic glass surfaces. Adults of both sexes generated similar forces in spite of the noticeable difference in their body masses. That is why males showed significantly higher safety factors (attachment force divided by body weight) compared to those of females. Hydrophobicity of the substrate had no considerable effect on friction forces. For females, friction forces (sliding parallel to the substrate plane) were compared with adhesive forces (pulling off perpendicularly from the substrate plane) measured on Plexiglas surfaces. It can be concluded that the attachment system of C. pomonella is rather robust against physico-chemical properties of the substrate and is able to achieve a very good attachment on vertical and horizontal substrata.

  15. Efeito de dietas artificiais para a alimentação de adultos de Bonagota cranaodes (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, em laboratório Effect of artificial diets for the adults of Bonagota cranaodes feeding (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, in laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Lazzerini da Fonseca

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Adultos de Bonagota cranaodes (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae submetidos a tratamentos com água, solução de mel a 10%, solução de mel a 10% + 25% de cerveja e sem alimento foram mantidos em gaiolas de PVC transparente para avaliar a fecundidade, longevidade e viabilidade de ovos em laboratório a 25±1°C e 70±10% de UR. Maior longevidade de fêmeas e machos e número de ovos/fêmea foram obtidos nos substratos compostos de mel a 10% (17,75 dias, 17,35 dias e 14,07 ovos/postura e mel a 10% + 25% de cerveja (18,25 dias, 18,20 dias e 12,71 ovos/postura. A viabilidade dos ovos e a duração do período embrionário foram semelhantes em todos os tratamentos. O substrato alimentar mel a 10% + 25% de cerveja, apresentou efeitos semelhantes ao substrato composto de apenas mel a 10% sobre a longevidade, fertilidade e viabilidade dos ovos. Entretanto, devido ao menor custo, a dieta a base de mel apresenta melhor potencial de utilização para manutenção da criação do inseto em laboratório.Adults of Bonagota cranaodes (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae were maintained in cages of transparent PVC without food, with water, and fed with honey solution at 10% and with honey solution at 10% + 25% of beer only with water and without feeding to evaluate their fecundity, longevity and viability of eggs in growth to (25±1°C and 70±10% of RU. The longevity of females and males was longer and number of eggs/female were obtained in the mean substratum composed of honey at 10% (17,75 days, 17,35 days and 14,07 eggs/posture and honey at 10% + 25% of beer (18,25 days, 18,20 days and 12,71 eggs/posture. The viability of the eggs and the duration of the embryonic period was similar in all the treatments. The mean with honey at 10% + 25% of beer, presented effects similar to the mean composed with honey at 10% regarding to the longevity, fertility and viability of eggs of B. cranaodes. However, due to the lower cost, the diet based only in honey represents

  16. A new species of Eccopsis Zeller (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae from the coastal valleys of northern Chile, with the first continental record of E. galapagana Razowski & Landry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Eccopsis Zeller (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae from the coastal valleys of northern Chile, with the first continental record of E. galapagana Razowski & Landry. Eccopsis Zeller, 1852 is reported for the first time from Chile. Eccopsis razowskii Vargas, n. sp. is described and illustrated based on specimens reared from larvae collected on native Acacia macracantha Willd. (Fabaceae in the coastal valleys of the northern Chilean desert. Eccopsis galapagana Razowski & Landry, 2008, previously known only from the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador, is recorded for the first time from continental South America. Larvae of the latter were collected in northern Chile feeding on Prosopis alba Griseb (Fabaceae.

  17. Selection and Characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (Eubacteriales: Bacillaceae) Strains for Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzetti, J; Ricietto, A P S; Fazion, F A P; Meneguim, A M; Neves, P M O J; Vilas-Boas, L A; Rodrigues, R B; Vilas-Bôas, G T

    2017-02-01

    The citrus fruit borer, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is responsible for major losses to the citrus industry because it causes rot and drop of fruits. The current study aimed to select and characterize Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner, 1911) strains toxic to E. aurantiana. For this purpose, 47 B. thuringiensis strains were evaluated in selective bioassays using first instar larvae of E. aurantiana. The lethal concentration (LC 50 ) of the most toxic strains was estimated, and the strains were characterized by morphological, biochemical, and molecular methods. Of the 47 strains tested, 10 caused mortality above 85% and showed mean lethal concentrations between 1.05E+7 and 1.54E+8 spores mL -1 . The lowest LC 50 values were obtained for the HD-1 standard strain and the BR145, BR83, BR52, and BR09 strains. The protein profile showed the presence of Cry proteins of 60, 65, 70, 80, and 130 kDa. The molecular characterization showed the presence of cry1, cry2, cry3, and cry11 genes. The morphological analysis identified three different crystalline inclusions: bipyramidal, round, and cuboidal. The cry1 and cry2 genes were the most frequent among the B. thuringiensis strains evaluated and encode Cry proteins toxic to insects of the order Lepidoptera, which agree with the toxicity results obtained by the selective bioassays against E. aurantiana. The results showed four different B. thuringiensis strains toxic to E. aurantiana at the same level as the HD-1 standard strain, and these strains have biotechnological potential for E. aurantiana control through the production of transgenic plants or the formulation of biopesticides.

  18. Evaluation of cytochrome P450 activity in field populations of Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) resistant to azinphosmethyl, acetamiprid, and thiacloprid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichón, L B; Soleño, J; Anguiano, O L; Garrido, S A S; Montagna, C M

    2013-04-01

    The Río Negro and Neuquén Valley is the most important apple and pear growing region in Argentina. Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), the main fruit-tree pest is being controlled by azinphosmethyl (AzMe), acetamiprid (Acet), and thiacloprid (Thia) among other insecticides. The objective of this study was to evaluate the response of neonate larvae of codling moth to these three insecticides and on the role of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase in their toxicity. All field populations presented significantly lower mortality to a discriminating concentration (DC) of Acet and AzMe. In addition, 13 of the 14 populations showed significantly lower mortality to DC of Thia. Most of the field populations (71%) showed significantly higher 7-ethoxycoumarine O-deethylase activity compared with the laboratory-susceptible strain. While positive significant correlation (gamma = 0.59) was found between Thia and AzMe mortalities at the DC level, no significant correlations were detected between Acet and Thia (gamma = 0.35) or Acet and AzMe (gamma = 0.12). However, Acet and Thia mortalities were significantly correlated to the percentage of individuals exhibiting 7-ethoxy-coumarine O-deethylase activity activities higher than the mean upper 95% confidence limit of the susceptible strain (gamma = -0.52 and gamma = -0.63, respectively).

  19. Leaf extrafloral nectaries enhance biological control of a key economic pest, Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in peach (Rosales: Rosaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Clarissa R; Brown, Mark W; Bottrell, Dale G

    2007-04-01

    Extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) in many plant species produce sugary secretions that commonly attract ants. This research determined the impact of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) EFNs on the biological control of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a key economic pest in peach orchards, and studied interactions of EFNs and ants. Studies (2002-2005) in peach orchards of the mid-Atlantic United States showed that 'Lovell' peach trees with EFNs supported more parasitic Hymenoptera in the spring and increased the parasitism of G. molesta larvae later in the season than those trees without EFNs. Ant exclusion experiments revealed that trees with EFNs harbored fewer G. molesta larvae when ants were permitted access to the tree canopies. Furthermore, the trees with EFNs had approximately 90% less fruit injury by G. molesta, indicating that EFNs have a protective role for the fruit as well. The results show that the combined actions of ants and parasitic Hymenoptera confer an EFN-mediated protective effect spanning the whole fruit growing season. When EFNs are present, naturally occurring biological control agents can reduce damage by G. molesta in peach orchards without insecticide inputs. The EFNs are an important host-plant characteristic that should be retained in future peach cultivar selections as a means of enhancing biological control.

  20. Sublethal exposure to methoxyfenozide-treated surfaces reduces the attractiveness and responsiveness in adult oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinke, Michael D; Barrett, Bruce A

    2007-02-01

    The chemical communication (female attractiveness and male responsiveness) of adult oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), exposed to surfaces treated with the ecdysteroid agonist methoxyfenozide for 48 h were investigated in two laboratory wind tunnel assays. The recapture assay examined the ability of treated males to orient to a single cage of treated females, and the data gathered were mean percentage of males recaptured per treatment. The male sexual behavior assay examined some specific orientation behaviors (associated with sexual excitability) of treated males when they were given a choice of two competing pheromone sources (cages of treated females), and the data gathered were mean time males spent in upwind plume orientations and at source contact (female cage) per treatment. Data from the recapture assay suggests that exposure to methoxyfenozide impacts male responsiveness more than female attractiveness. In contrast, data from the sexual behavior assay strongly revealed that exposure to methoxyfenozide-treated surfaces does negatively impact both the ability of calling females to attract males and of aroused males to display sustained upwind flight behavior and time spent at the female cages.

  1. Toxicity of thiamethoxam and mixtures of chlorantraniliprole plus acetamiprid, esfenvalerate, or thiamethoxam to neonates of oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Moneen M; Robertson, Jacqueline L; Weinzierl, Richard A

    2012-08-01

    To assess the toxicity ofthiamethoxam and three mixtures of insecticides to oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), we added the insecticides to diet and fed it to neonates of two laboratory colonies; mortality was assessed after 96 h. Thiamethoxam was much less toxic than insecticides previously tested. Five of six analyses of the joint action of chlorantraniliprole plus acetamiprid, esfenvalerate, or thiamethoxam indicated that toxicity was not independent and not correlated. For chlorantraniliprole plus acetamiprid, mortality was slightly lower than expected at low concentrations and greater than expected at high concentrations. For chlorantraniliprole plus esfenvalerate, mortality was less than expected at nearly all concentrations, suggesting antagonism despite the two compounds' different modes of action. For chlorantraniliprole plus thiamethoxam, observed mortality exceeded expected mortality at low concentrations, but this trend did not continue at higher concentrations. Although the null hypothesis of independent and uncorrelated toxicity was rejected for chlorantraniliprole plus acetamiprid and chlorantraniliprole plus thiamethoxam in three of four analyses, differences between observed and expected mortality were minor and inconsistent over the range of concentrations tested. We do not expect these mixtures to exhibit significant synergism or antagonism in the field. Apparent antagonism between chlorantraniliprole and esfenvalerate is particularly relevant because these insecticides (or chlorantraniliprole plus a different pyrethroid) may be used together in apples or peaches for control of oriental fruit moth and hemipteran pests. The effectiveness of each insecticide against oriental fruit moth might be reduced in such applications.

  2. Control of Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae, Steinernematidae) in peach orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho Barbosa Negrisoli, Carla Ruth; Negrisoli, Aldomario Santo; Garcia, Mauro Silveira; Dolinski, Claudia; Bernardi, Daniel

    2013-10-01

    Oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is considered a major pest in temperate fruit trees, such as peach and apple. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are regarded as viable for pest management control due to their efficiency against tortricid in these trees. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of native EPNs from Rio Grande do Sul state against pre-pupae of G. molesta under laboratory and field conditions. In the laboratory, pre-pupae of G. molesta were placed in corrugated cardboard sheets inside glass tubes and exposed to 17 different EPNs strains at concentrations of 6, 12, 24, 48 and 60 IJs/cm(2) and maintained at 25 °C, 70 ± 10% RH and photophase of 16 h. Insect mortality was recorded 72 h after inoculation of EPNs. Steinernema rarum RS69 and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora RS33 were the most virulent strains and selected for field application (LC95 of 70.5 and 53.8 IJs/cm(2), respectively). Both strains were highly efficient under field conditions when applied in aqueous suspension directed to larvae on peach tree trunk, causing mortality of 94 and 97.0%, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Field Experiment of a Three-Chemical Controlled-Release Dispensers to Attract Codling Moth (Cydia pomonella) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Benjamin D; Landolt, Peter J

    2018-03-13

    Male and female codling moths, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were shown to be attracted to a three-chemical kairomonal lure consisting of pear ester, acetic acid, and n-butyl sulfide. A controlled-release device based on sachets was developed in the laboratory and field tested to optimize the attractiveness of C. pomonella to this combination of attractants, and to decrease material costs associated with the controlled-release of these chemicals. The lure was most effective when pear ester was released from a separate dispenser than when combined acetic acid and n-butyl sulfide. We found that acetic acid and n-butyl sulfide can be combined into one device without decreasing C. pomonella trap catches and that there is minimal pear release rate before trap catch is negatively affected. A sachet-based controlled-release system of pear ester, acetic acid, n-butyl sulfide is a cost-effective alternative to a vial and septa controlled-release system and allows for easier quantification of ideal release rates. A reduction in material costs associated with management are important in promoting the adoption of attract-and-kill and mass-trapping paradigms for C. pomonella management. These findings also have important consequences in interpreting studies that use different loads of pear ester, and emphasize the need to better understand the release rates of attractants.

  4. Long-term benefits to the growth of ponderosa pines from controlling southwestern pine tip moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Michael R; Chen, Zhong

    2004-12-01

    The southwestern pine tip moth, Rhyacionia neomexicana (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a native forest pest that attacks seedlings and saplings of ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws, in the southwestern United States. Repeated attacks can cause severe deformation of host trees and significant long-term growth loss. Alternatively, effective control of R. neomexicana, vegetative competition, or both in young pine plantations may increase survival and growth of trees for many years after treatments are applied. We test the null hypothesis that 4 yr of R. neomexicana and weed control with insecticide, weeding, and insecticide plus weeding would not have any residual effect on survival and growth of trees in ponderosa pine plantation in northern Arizona 14 yr post-treatment, when the trees were 18 yr old. Both insecticide and weeding treatment increased tree growth and reduced the incidence of southwestern pine tip moth damage compared with the control. However, weeding alone also significantly increased tree survival, whereas insecticide alone did not. The insecticide plus weeding treatment had the greatest tree growth and survival, and the lowest rate of tip moth damage. Based on these results, we rejected our null hypothesis and concluded that there were detectable increases in the survival and growth of ponderosa pines 14 yr after treatments applied to control R. neomexicana and weeds.

  5. Synthesis and field evaluation of synthetic blends of the sex pheromone of Crocidosema aporema (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in soybean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Andres; Altesor, Paula; Liberati, Paola; Rossini, Carmen, E-mail: agonzal@fq.edu.uy [Laboratorio de Ecologia Quimica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay); Alves, Leticia; Ramos, Juan; Carrera, Ignacio; Gonzalez, David; Seoane, Gustavo; Gamenara, Daniela [Departamento de Quimica Organica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay); Silva, Horacio; Castiglioni, Enrique [Departamento de Proteccion Vegetal, Facultad de Agronomia, EEMAC, Universidad de la Republica, Paysandu (Uruguay)

    2012-11-15

    Crocidosema (= Epinotia) aporema (Walsingham) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a bud borer that feeds on soybean and forage legumes. Its economic importance is restricted to South America, where it can alternate throughout the year between forage and grain legumes. The sex pheromone of C. aporema females is composed of a 15:1 mixture of (7Z,9Z)-dodeca-7,9-dien-1-ol and (7Z,9Z)- dodeca-7,9-dienyl acetate. Aiming at the development of a monitoring tool, it was synthesized both components of the pheromone and evaluated male captures in pheromone traps baited with different blends of synthetic pheromone, in an experimental soybean field in Uruguay. The conjugated dienes were obtained from 2-pentyn-1-ol and 1,7-heptanediol, by oxidation of the former, Wittig coupling and Zn-catalyzed reduction of the triple bond. The 1:1 mixture was the most efficient in capturing males. The pheromone traps were attractive for up to 40 days, even with small septum loads (0.1 mg) and low population levels. (author)

  6. Developmental and reproductive responses of the spruce budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) parasitoid Tranosema rostrale (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) to temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seehausen, M Lukas; Régnière, Jacques; Martel, Véronique; Smith, Sandy M

    2017-04-01

    The temperature-dependent development and survival of immatures, as well as adult longevity and potential fecundity of the endoparasitoid Tranosema rostrale (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) parasitizing spruce budworm Choristoneura fumiferana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larvae was investigated under laboratory conditions at several constant temperatures ranging from 5 to 30°C. Maximum likelihood modeling approaches were used to estimate thermal responses in development, survival, and longevity. A model describing the effect of temperature on potential fecundity of the parasitoid was also developed taking oogenesis and oosorption into account. In-host and pupal development rates of the parasitoid increased with temperature up to 25°C, and decreased thereafter. Immature survival was highest below 20°C, and rapidly decreased at higher temperatures. Adult longevity decreased exponentially with increasing temperature for both males and females. Highest potential fecundity was reached at 10°C. Considering survival and potential fecundity, the parasitoid seems best adapted to cool temperatures below 20°C. Simulations of the life-history traits under variable temperature regimes indicate that temperature fluctuations decrease survival and increase realised fecundity compared to constant temperatures. The temperature-dependent fecundity model developed can be applied to other non-host-feeding synovigenic parasitoids. The equations and parameter estimates provided in this paper can be used to build comprehensive models predicting the seasonal phenology of this parasitoid and spruce budworm parasitism under changing climatic conditions. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Population genetic structure of economically important Tortricidae (Lepidoptera) in South Africa: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, A E; Geertsema, H; Warnich, L

    2010-08-01

    Comparative studies of the population genetic structures of agricultural pests can elucidate the factors by which their population levels are affected, which is useful for designing pest management programs. This approach was used to provide insight into the six Tortricidae of major economic importance in South Africa. The population genetic structure of the carnation worm E. acerbella and the false codling moth T. leucotreta, analyzed using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis, is presented here for the first time. These results were compared with those obtained previously for the codling moth Cydia pomonella, the oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta, the litchi moth Cryptophlebia peltastica and the macadamia nut borer T. batrachopa. Locally adapted populations were detected over local geographic areas for all species. No significant differences were found among population genetic structures as result of population history (whether native or introduced) although host range (whether oligophagous or polyphagous) had a small but significant effect. It is concluded that factors such as dispersal ability and agricultural practices have the most important effects on genetically structuring populations of the economically important Tortricidae in South Africa.

  8. Comparative fitness of irradiated light brown apple moths (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in a wind tunnel, hedgerow, and vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, David M; Stringer, Lloyd D; Mitchell, Vanessa J; Sullivan, Thomas E S; Sullivan, Nicola J; Simmons, Gregory S; Barrington, Anne M; El-Sayed, Ashraf M

    2011-08-01

    Light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is the target of the sterile insect technique, but reduced moth fitness from irradiation lowers the effective overflooding ratio of sterile to wild moths. New measures of insect quality are being sought to improve field performance of irradiated insects, thus improving the cost effectiveness of this technique. Male pupae were irradiated at intervals between 0 and 300 Gy, and adult flight success was assessed in a wind tunnel equipped with flight track recording software. A dose response was evident with reduced successful search behaviors at higher irradiation doses. Irradiation at 250 Gy reduced arrival success to 49% of untreated controls, during 2-min assays. Mark-release-recapture of males irradiated at 250 Gy indicated reduced male moth recapture in hedgerows (75% of control values of 7.22% +/- 1.20 [SEM] males recaptured) and in vineyards (78% of control values 10.5% +/- 1.66% [SEM] recaptured). Males dispersed similar distances in both habitats, and overflooding ratios dropped off rapidly from the release point in both landscapes. Transects of traps with central releases proved to be an efficient method for measuring the quality of released males. Relative field performance of moths was greater than suggested by wind tunnel performance, which could be due to time differences between the two assays, two-minute wind tunnel tests compared with days in the field treatments. Release strategies involving ground releases should consider the effect of limited postrelease dispersal. Aerial release could solve this problem and warrants investigation.

  9. Sprayable microencapsulated sex pheromone formulation for mating disruption of oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Australian peach and pear orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il'Ichev, A L; Stelinski, L L; Williams, D G; Gut, L J

    2006-12-01

    Areawide mating disruption treatments have been effective in controlling infestation of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in Australian pome and stone fruit orchards. Although successful, the areawide mating disruption program has been an expensive approach by using hand-applied Isomate dispensers. Sprayable microencapsulated (MEC) pheromone formulations that can be applied with standard spray equipment could substantially reduce the cost of application. Field trials conducted during two consecutive seasons (2002-2004) demonstrated that monthly applications of MEC-OFM phase V (3M Canada, London, Ontario, Canada) at a rate of 125 ml/ha (37.1 g [AI]/ha) in replicated 2-ha blocks of both peaches and pears reduced oriental fruit moth shoot tip and fruit damage as effectively as a single application of Isomate OFM Rosso hand-applied dispensers (500 dispensers per ha) and as or more effectively than standard broad-spectrum insecticide sprays. Fruit protection was achieved despite high oriental fruit moth population densities in both crops as measured by moth catches in terpinyl acetate food and pheromone traps. Similar numbers of oriental fruit moths were captured among all treatments in food traps but captures of males in pheromone traps were disrupted (96-99%) in pheromone-treated blocks relative to controls. The results of this study suggest that microencapsulated formulations of pheromone could be effectively used in areawide mating disruption programs for oriental fruit moth in Australia as a cost-saving alternative to reservoir-style dispensers requiring labor-intensive hand application.

  10. Spatially Targeted Applications of Reduced-Risk Insecticides for Economical Control of Grape Berry Moth, Paralobesia viteana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Keith S; Roubos, Craig R; Teixeira, Luis A F; Isaacs, Rufus

    2016-07-19

    The grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana Clemens (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a key economic pest of vineyards in eastern North America, and prevention of fruit infestation is particularly challenging along vineyard borders that are adjacent to wooded areas containing wild grape (Vitis spp.). For three years, infestation and damage in vineyards where reduced-risk insecticides were applied to borders at timings based on a degree day model (Integrated Pest Management program) were compared to that in vineyards where broad-spectrum insecticides were applied across the whole vineyard (Standard program). Infestation at vineyard borders immediately prior to harvest was consistently lower in IPM vineyards than in Standard program vineyards, and in two of the years this was also true at veraison (fruit coloring). Grape berry moth infestation was similar between treatments at vineyard interiors throughout the study, despite no insecticide applications to the interiors of the IPM program vineyards. Populations of two other key vineyard pests, the eastern grape leafhopper, Erythroneura comes (Say) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), and Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), were not significantly different between programs, and natural enemy captures on yellow sticky traps were also similar. The per hectare cost of insecticides applied in the IPM program was consistently lower than for the Standard program, with a significant difference in the third year of this study. We demonstrate how spatially selective applications of reduced-risk insecticides can provide improved control of grape berry moth at lower cost than standard broad-spectrum insecticide-based programs. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Reduced-risk insecticides for control of grape berry moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and conservation of natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Paul E; Isaacs, Rufus

    2007-06-01

    A 3-yr field study was conducted at commercial grape (Vitis spp.) farms to evaluate insect management programs for control of the grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana Clemens (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and conservation of natural enemies. At each farm, one vineyard received only reduced-risk insecticides for control of second and third generation P. viteana, whereas the comparison vineyard received conventional insecticides. Both vineyards received a conventional insecticide application for control of first generation P. viteana and other insect pests. Monitoring with pheromone traps showed no differences between programs in the total number of adult male moths trapped in vineyards, and oviposition by P. viteana was similar between the two programs in all 3 yr. During weekly samples of crop infestation, both programs had a similar percentage of clusters infested by P. viteana larvae. Berries infested by P. viteana were collected from vineyard borders during the second and third P. viteana generations and held under controlled conditions. In eight of the nine berry samples, survival of larvae was significantly lower in berries collected from vineyards managed under the reduced-risk insecticide program compared with the conventional program. Parasitism of P. citeana larvae in these samples was not consistently different between the two insecticide programs over 3 yr, and similar captures of natural enemies were found on yellow sticky traps in the two programs throughout the study. Our results indicate that integrated pest management programs incorporating reduced-risk insecticides for control of P. viteana can obtain similar or greater control of P. viteana compared with programs based solely on conventional insecticides, but they may not lead to measurable long-term increases in parasitism of P. viteana.

  12. Operational considerations for augmentation of Trichogramma exiguum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) for suppression of Rhyacionia frustrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Pinus taeda plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Michael M; Orr, David B

    2008-04-01

    Studies were performed to assess the operational feasibility of Trichogramma exiguum Pinto & Platner (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) augmentation for suppression of the Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in commercial loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., plantations. Single inundative releases containing two cohorts of encapsulated T. exiguum at a potential rate of 224,200 +/- 27,600 females per ha per cohort were made into two 4-ha plots during the second R. frustrana generation in 2000. Augmentation failed to increase parasitism rates above those occurring naturally; yet, 10% fewer shoots were attacked by R. frustrana, but not below acceptable levels. Quality control data suggest that low emergence levels and intense predation by ants upon developing T. exiguum lowered actual release rates to 13,000 +/- 900 females per ha per cohort. The effect of capsule distribution and microclimate on the discovery of capsules by predators (indicated by some E. kuehniella egg removal), parasitoid predation (percentage of eggs removed or destroyed), and subsequent parasitoid emergence was investigated. Uniformly distributed capsules experienced significantly higher predation levels than clustered capsules, and capsules exposed to field conditions for 5 d experienced higher predation than those exposed for 3 d, independently of distribution. Discovery of capsules by predators was unaffected by distribution or exposure period. Microhabitat significantly impacted average maximum daily temperature, the number of consecutive hours per day at or above 35 degrees C, and parasitoid emergence percentages. Parasitoid emergence declined significantly in response to increasing number of consecutive hours per day above 35 degrees C. Microclimate did not impact capsule discovery by predators or predation levels. Augmentation of T. exiguum for suppression of R. frustrana damage may not be practical within P. taeda plantations.

  13. Development of a Susceptibility Index of Apple Cultivars for Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Oviposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Neelendra K; Rajotte, Edwin G; Myers, Clayton T; Krawczyk, Greg; Hull, Larry A

    2015-01-01

    Codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a major fruit feeding pest of apples. Understanding susceptibility differences of various apple cultivars to CM oviposition is an important step in developing resistant varieties as well as monitoring and management strategies for this pest in apple orchards planted with mixed-cultivars. In this context, oviposition preferences of CM for the fruits of different apple cultivars were studied in laboratory bioassays using a series of no-choice and multiple-choice tests in 2006, 2007, and 2008. In 2006 and 2007, 10 apple cultivars, viz., Arlet, Fuji, Gala, Golden Delicious, Honeycrisp, Pristine, Delicious, Stayman, Sunrise, and York Imperial were evaluated, while in the 2008 tests, Golden Delicious, Honeycrisp, and York Imperial were evaluated. During the 2006 tests, preferred apple cultivars for CM oviposition were Golden Delicious and Fuji, while the least preferred were Arlet, Pristine, Sunrise, and Honeycrisp. Similarly, during the 2007 tests, Golden Delicious, Fuji and Stayman remained the preferred cultivars, while Arlet, Honeycrisp, Pristine, and Sunrise remained the least preferred cultivars. In the 2008 tests, Golden Delicious and Honeycrisp were the most and least preferred cultivars, respectively. Based on the oviposition preferences from these bioassays, a susceptibility index for each cultivar was developed. This index may be used as a standard measure in cultivar evaluations in breeding programs, and may assist fruit growers and crop consultants to select the most appropriate cultivar(s) for monitoring and detecting the initial signs of fruit injury from CM in an apple orchard planted with mixed-cultivars.

  14. Development of a Susceptibility Index of Apple Cultivars for Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella (L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae Oviposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelendra K Joshi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Codling moth (CM, Cydia pomonella (L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae is a major fruit feeding pest of apples. Understanding susceptibility differences of various apple cultivars to CM oviposition is an important step in developing resistant varieties as well as monitoring and management strategies for this pest in apple orchards planted with mixed-cultivars. In this context, oviposition preferences of CM for the fruits of different apple cultivars were studied in laboratory bioassays using a series of no-choice and multiple-choice tests in 2006, 2007 and 2008. In 2006 and 2007, ten apple cultivars viz., Arlet, Fuji, Gala, Golden Delicious, Honeycrisp, Pristine, Delicious, Stayman, Sunrise, and York Imperial were evaluated, while in the 2008 tests, Golden Delicious, Honeycrisp and York Imperial were evaluated. During the 2006 tests, preferred apple cultivars for CM oviposition were Golden Delicious and Fuji, while the least preferred were Arlet, Pristine, Sunrise, and Honeycrisp. Similarly, during the 2007 tests, Golden Delicious, Fuji and Stayman remained the preferred cultivars, while Arlet, Honeycrisp, Pristine, and Sunrise remained the least preferred cultivars. In the 2008 tests, Golden Delicious and Honeycrisp were the most and least preferred cultivars, respectively. Based on the oviposition preferences from these bioassays, a susceptibility index for each cultivar was developed. This index may be used as a standard measure in cultivar evaluations in breeding programs, and may assist fruit growers and crop consultants to select the most appropriate cultivar(s for monitoring and detecting the initial signs of fruit injury from CM in an apple orchard planted with mixed-cultivars.

  15. Putative nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits express differentially through the life cycle of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jessica A; Garczynski, Stephen F

    2016-04-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are the targets of neonicotinoids and spinosads, two insecticides used in orchards to effectively control codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Orchardists in Washington State are concerned about the possibility of codling moth field populations developing resistance to these two insecticides. In an effort to help mitigate this issue, we initiated a project to identify and characterize codling moth nAChR subunits expressed in heads. This study had two main goals; (i) identify transcripts from a codling moth head transcriptome that encode for nAChR subunits, and (ii) determine nAChR subunit expression profiles in various life stages of codling moth. From a codling moth head transcriptome, 24 transcripts encoding for 12 putative nAChR subunit classes were identified and verified by PCR amplification, cloning, and sequence determination. Characterization of the deduced protein sequences encoded by putative nAChR transcripts revealed that they share the distinguishing features of the cys-loop ligand-gated ion channel superfamily with 9 α-type subunits and 3 β-type subunits identified. Phylogenetic analysis comparing these protein sequences to those of other insect nAChR subunits supports the identification of these proteins as nAChR subunits. Stage expression studies determined that there is clear differential expression of many of these subunits throughout the codling moth life cycle. The information from this study will be used in the future to monitor for potential target-site resistance mechanisms to neonicotinoids and spinosads in tolerant codling moth populations. © 2014 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  16. Comparison of three dispenser distribution patterns for pheromone mating disruption of Paralobesia viteana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Rufus; Mason, Keith S; Teixeira, Luis A F; Loeb, Greg; Hesler, Steve; Weigle, Tim; Muza, Andy; Timer, Jody; Saunders, Michael

    2012-06-01

    Over two growing seasons, Isomate GBM-Plus tube-type dispensers releasing the major pheromone component of grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana (Clemens) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were evaluated in vineyards (Vitis spp.) in Michigan, New York, and Pennsylvania. Dispensers were deployed in three different density-arrangement treatments: 124 dispensers per ha, 494 dispensers per ha, and a combined treatment with 124 dispensers per ha in the vineyard interior and 988 dispensers per ha at the vineyard border, equivalent to an overall density of 494 dispensers per ha. Moth captures and cluster infestation levels were compared at the perimeter and interior of vineyards receiving these different pheromone treatments and in vineyards receiving no pheromone. Orientation of male moths to pheromone-baited traps positioned at the perimeter and interior of vineyards was reduced as a result of mating disruption treatments compared with the nontreated control. These findings were consistent over both years of the study. Disruption of male moth captures in traps varied from 93 to 100% in treated vineyards, with the 494 dispensers per ha application rates providing significantly higher level of disruption than the 124 dispensers per ha rate, but only in 2007. Measurements of percentage of cluster infestation indicated much higher infestation at perimeters than in the interior of the vineyards in all three regions, but in both sample positions there was no significant effect of dispenser density on cluster infestation levels in either year. The contrasting results of high disruption of moth orientation to traps in vineyards that also had low levels of crop protection from this pheromone treatment are discussed in the context of strategies to improve mating disruption of this tortricid pest.

  17. Potential of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin (Ascomycetes, hypocreales in the control of Bonagota salubricola (Meyrick (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae and its compatibility with chemical insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FA. Anhalt

    Full Text Available Several insects are harmful to apples grown in Brazil, especially the leafroller Bonagota salubricola (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae, usually controlled with chemical insecticides. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the use of Metarhizium anisopliae strains in the control of the apple leafroller, by assessing their virulence to B. salubricola larvae in bioassays with suspensions of 2 x 10(5 to 2 x 10(9 conidia/mL as well as their relationship with protease expression. The most effective strain underwent a compatibility test with chemical insecticides. The M. anisopliae E6 strain showed a good performance, with up to 88% mortality and a LT50 of 1.66 days. The virulence was positively correlated with a higher enzymatic activity. The E6 strain was compatible with tebufenozide, evidencing its potential to control B. salubricola.

  18. Rapid assessment of the sex of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) eggs and larvae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrbová, Iva; Neven, L. G.; Bárcenas, N. M.; Gund, N. A.; Dalíková, Martina; Marec, František

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 133, č. 4 (2009), s. 249-261 ISSN 0931-2048 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/06/1860 Grant - others:International Atomic Energy Agency(AT) 58-5352-4-F004; International Atomic Energy Agency(AT) 12055/R; Federal Agency for Agriculture and Food(DE) 05OE023/2 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Lepidoptera * molecular markers * period gene Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.436, year: 2009

  19. Efficacy and release rate of reservoir pheromone dispensers for simultaneous mating disruption of codling moth and oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelinski, L L; Il'ichev, A L; Gut, L J

    2009-02-01

    Five formulations of controlled release, polyethylene tube dispensers of pheromone were evaluated during three field seasons for disruption of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Evaluations were conducted in replicated 4-ha plots of commercial apple in Michigan. Disruption of both C. pomonella and G. molesta male orientation to pheromone traps in plots treated with a dual-species formulation (Isomate CM/OFM TT), simultaneously releasing the pheromone components of both C. pomonella and G. molesta, was equivalent to that obtained by treating plots with separate formulations for each species (Isomate C Plus or Isomate C TT for C. pomonella and Isomate M Rosso for G. molesta) through mid-season. However, disruption efficacy of the dual-species formulation was significantly lower near the end of the season for G. molesta compared with the Isomate M Rosso formulation because of depletion of active ingredients and coincided with a slight increase in fruit injury. Effective disruption of C. pomonella and G. molesta also was obtained with a multispecies formulation (Isomate CM/OFM/LR) that releases the main pheromone components of C. pomonella, G. molesta, and several leafroller species. Each formulation type releasing (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone) also was found to release the E,Z- and Z,E-isomers of codlemone. Our data provide further evidence that simultaneous disruption of C. pomonella and G. molesta with dispensers releasing both species' pheromone components is possible; however, the controlled release formulations tested here require modification or postponed deployment coupled with early season control by other means to achieve season-long efficacy. Simultaneous disruption of several species with a single formulation will be economically advantageous in regions where control of multiple pests is needed given the need for hand application of this

  20. DNA diagnostics to identify internal feeders (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) of pome fruits of quarantine importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcenas, N M; Unruh, T R; Neven, L G

    2005-04-01

    A diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method is presented for differentiating among the North American internal apple-feeding pests codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.); oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck); lesser appleworm, Grapholita prunivora (Walsh); and cherry fruitworm, Grapholita packardi Zeller. An approximately 470-bp fragment of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) was sequenced in three to six specimens of each species. Consistent and diagnostic differences were observed among the species in two regions of COI from which forward and reverse primers were designed to amplify a 112-116-bp segment of the gene. The primer sets were used to selectively amplify DNA from specimens of diverse geographic origin for each corresponding target species. Protocols were adapted for conventional and quantitative PCR, the latter being substantially faster. The method was validated as a decision-making tool for quarantine identifications for Mexico by representatives of their phytosanitary agency (Sanidad Vegetal). The method can facilitate identification of intercepted internal feeding Lepidoptera in apple and pear for many other importing nations.

  1. Effects of gamma radiation on pupae of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck)(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lucia C.A S.; Modolo, Deborah M.; Leandro, Rodrigo Sebastiao Rossi, E-mail: lsasilva@cena.usp.br, E-mail: dmmodolo@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Arthur, Paula B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    As insects increase in radio tolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of pest may present in fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radio tolerance of pupae of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidade), to gamma radiation. This specie is considered as on of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Pupae of 3 days old were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, 200, 250, 300 and 350 Gy of gamma radiation of source Cobalt-60, type Gammacell-220 at dose rate of 0,508 kGy/hour. Each treatment had 4 repetitions with 10 pupae in the total 40 pupae per treatment. Surviving pupae allowed to feed on an artificial diet. After irradiation the insects were keep in room with climatic conditions of 25 {+-}5 deg C and 70 {+-}5% RH. The results showed that the sterilizing dose to adults was 200Gy and that the dose of 350Gy was not sufficient to kill all pupae of insects. (author)

  2. Effects of gamma radiation on pupae of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck)(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lucia C.A S.; Modolo, Deborah M.; Leandro, Rodrigo Sebastiao Rossi; Arthur, Paula B.

    2011-01-01

    As insects increase in radio tolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of pest may present in fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radio tolerance of pupae of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidade), to gamma radiation. This specie is considered as on of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Pupae of 3 days old were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, 200, 250, 300 and 350 Gy of gamma radiation of source Cobalt-60, type Gammacell-220 at dose rate of 0,508 kGy/hour. Each treatment had 4 repetitions with 10 pupae in the total 40 pupae per treatment. Surviving pupae allowed to feed on an artificial diet. After irradiation the insects were keep in room with climatic conditions of 25 ±5 deg C and 70 ±5% RH. The results showed that the sterilizing dose to adults was 200Gy and that the dose of 350Gy was not sufficient to kill all pupae of insects. (author)

  3. Biological aspects of Argyrotaenia sphaleropa (Meyrick, 1909) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in artificial diets with different protein sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manfredi-Coimbra, Silvana; Garcia, Mauro Silveira; Loeck, Alci Enimar; Foresti, Josemar

    2005-01-01

    Biology aspects of Argyrotaenia sphaleropa Meyrick fed on artificial diets with different protein sources were studied: D1-white bean, wheat germ, soybean protein and casein; D2-common bean and yeast and D3-common bean, yeast and wheat germ, evaluating the duration and viability of all developmental stages (egg, larval, prepupa and pupa) and of the total cycle (egg-adult), sex ratio, pupa weight, fecundity, longevity and life table of fertility. Tests were conducted in the laboratory at 25 ± 1 deg C, 65 ±10% RH and 14h of photophase. Duration of the egg stage was 6.6 days on all diets. The longest duration of larval and prepupal stages on D1 and pupal stages on D2, resulting in a longer duration of the total cycle on these two diets (30,9 and 30,8 days). The total viability was higher than 62% on all diets, and there was no statistical difference among the treatments. The number of instars was four or five on all treatments. The lowest fecundity was observed in D1. Based on the fertility life table, D3 was the most suitable diet for rearing A. sphaleropa, due to the lowest development time (T), the highest finite increasing rate (l), and total viability exceeding 75%. (author)

  4. Assessment of sublethal effects of methoxyfenozide on oriental fruit Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchert, Daniel M; Walgenbach, James F; Kennedy, George G

    2005-06-01

    Sublethal effects of the insect growth regulator methoxyfenozide were examined in oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), in laboratory and field studies. In laboratory studies, oriental fruit moth larvae reared on diet amended with 0.1 ppm methoxyfenozide developed at the same rate as larvae reared on untreated diet, and paired moths reared as larvae from the same treated or untreated diets exhibited similar fecundity and fertility. Population growth differences over multiple generations were used to examine sublethal effects of methoxyfenozide on population dynamics in the field. Multiple single-tree cages were placed over apple (Malus spp.) trees treated with two applications of methoxyfenozide (70 g [AI] /ha) and nontreated trees. Cages were infested at a single time point with virgin male and female oriental fruit moth adults, and population growth was evaluated by egg counts, shoot infestation, fruit damage, and larval counts over a 12-wk period. Significantly fewer eggs, larvae, and damaged fruit were found on methoxyfenozide-treated compared with nontreated trees in 2001. Observed population differences may have been a result of direct mortality to eggs and larvae of the first generation rather than sublethal effects. In 2002, no differences were observed between treatments, but a heavy rain event shortly after the early infestation impacted the experiment. A late moth release treatment was tested in 2002 to examine the effects of residual methoxyfenozide 55 d after initial application. Significantly fewer eggs were found in the methoxyfenozide treatment compared with the control, but no differences existed among treatments in shoot infestation, percentage of damaged fruit, or larval populations. It was concluded direct mortality of eggs and larvae exposed to methoxyfenozide rather than sublethal effects were most important in reduction of subsequent generations.

  5. The effects of strawberry cropping practices on the strawberry tortricid (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), its natural enemies, and the presence of nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigsgaard, Lene; Naulin, Cyril; Haukeland, Solveig; Kristensen, Kristian; Enkegaard, Annie; Jensen, Nauja Lisa; Eilenberg, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    Cropping practice can affect pests and natural enemies. A three-year study of the strawberry tortricid, Acleris comariana (Lienig and Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), its parasitoid Copidosoma aretas Walker (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), and its entomopathogenic fungi was conducted in seven pairs of organic and conventional farms to test the hypothesis that farming practice (organic versus conventional) will affect the level of pest infestation and will affect the natural enemies. In addition, the number of years with strawberries on the farm, field age, and other factors that may affect pests and their natural enemies were considered. Farms were characterized by their cropping practices, cropping history, and other parameters. Field-collected larvae were laboratory reared to assess mortality from parasitoids and entomopathogenic fungi. In 2010, a survey of nematodes was made to assess the response of an unrelated taxonomic group to cropping practice. 2,743 larvae were collected. Of those, 2,584 were identified as A. comariana. 579 A. comariana were parasitized by C. aretas and 64 A. comariana were parasitized by other parasitoid species. Finally, 28% of the larvae and pupae of A. comariana died from unknown causes. Only two of the field-collected A. comariana larvae were infected by entomopathogenic fungi; one was infected by Isaria sp. and the other by Beauvaria sp. The density of A. comariana was on average four times lower in organic farms, which was significantly lower than in conventional farms. A. comariana was more dominant on conventional farms than on organic farms. The effect of crop age (One, two, or three years) on A. comariana infestation was significant, with higher infestations in older fields. Crop age had no effect on A. comariana infestation in a comparison of first- and second-year fields in 2010. Cropping practice did not lead to significant differences in the level of total parasitism or in C. aretas parasitism; however, C. aretas contributed

  6. The Effects of Strawberry Cropping Practices on the Strawberry Tortricid (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), Its Natural Enemies, and the Presence of Nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigsgaard, Lene; Naulin, Cyril; Haukeland, Solveig; Kristensen, Kristian; Enkegaard, Annie; Jensen, Nauja Lisa; Eilenberg, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    Cropping practice can affect pests and natural enemies. A three-year study of the strawberry tortricid, Acleris comariana (Lienig and Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), its parasitoid Copidosoma aretas Walker (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), and its entomopathogenic fungi was conducted in seven pairs of organic and conventional farms to test the hypothesis that farming practice (organic versus conventional) will affect the level of pest infestation and will affect the natural enemies. In addition, the number of years with strawberries on the farm, field age, and other factors that may affect pests and their natural enemies were considered. Farms were characterized by their cropping practices, cropping history, and other parameters. Field-collected larvae were laboratory reared to assess mortality from parasitoids and entomopathogenic fungi. In 2010, a survey of nematodes was made to assess the response of an unrelated taxonomic group to cropping practice. 2,743 larvae were collected. Of those, 2,584 were identified as A. comariana. 579 A. comariana were parasitized by C. aretas and 64 A. comariana were parasitized by other parasitoid species. Finally, 28% of the larvae and pupae of A. comariana died from unknown causes. Only two of the field-collected A. comariana larvae were infected by entomopathogenic fungi; one was infected by Isaria sp. and the other by Beauvaria sp. The density of A. comariana was on average four times lower in organic farms, which was significantly lower than in conventional farms. A. comariana was more dominant on conventional farms than on organic farms. The effect of crop age (One, two, or three years) on A. comariana infestation was significant, with higher infestations in older fields. Crop age had no effect on A. comariana infestation in a comparison of first- and second-year fields in 2010. Cropping practice did not lead to significant differences in the level of total parasitism or in C. aretas parasitism; however, C. aretas contributed

  7. Relevamiento y evaluación de parasitoides de huevo para el control de Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae y Grapholita molesta (Lepidotera: Tortricideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar E. TORTOSA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde el mes de octubre hasta el mes de abril de los años 2005-2006 y 2006-2007 realizamos la búsqueda e identificación de parasitoides de huevo de Cydia pomonella (L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae y Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepi - doptera: Tortricidae en tres sitios de Mendoza, Argentina. Trichogramma cacoe - ciae Marchal (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae fue colectado en huevos de las dos especies plagas, en todos los sitios del relevamiento, durante los dos ciclos de colecta. Se encontró Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogram - matidae solo en un sitio en el mes de diciembre de 2005. En los años 2008 y 2009 T. cacoeciae fue criado, liberado y evaluada su eficiencia en el control de C. pomonella y G. molesta a través del daño en los frutos. Realizamos dos ensayos de evaluación a campo en dos cultivos de peral orgánicos, en uno de ellos el daño promedio en frutos por C. pomonella y G. molesta fue de 5,07% ± 0,82 (testigo sin liberación 15,60% ± 4,73 y en el otro ensayo el daño promedio de ambas plagas fue de 1,92% ± 0,50 (testigo sin liberación 11,34 % ± 1,13. En ambos casos existi - eron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre tratamiento y testigo.

  8. Different emergence phenology of European grapevine moth (Lobesia botrana, Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on six varieties of grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiéry, D; Monceau, K; Moreau, J

    2014-06-01

    The phenology of insect emergence affects reproductive success and is especially critical in short-lived species. An increasing number of studies have documented the effects of thermal and other climatic variations and of unpredictable habitats on the timing of adult insect emergence within and between populations and years. Numerous interacting factors may affect the phenology of adult emergence. Host-plant quality and availability is a key factor that has been largely neglected in studies of the phenology of phytophagous insects. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of host plant characteristics on the rate of larval growth and the pattern of emergence in a wild population of Lobesia botrana (European grapevine moth), a significant pest in European vineyards. The phenology of emergence differed significantly among the six tested varieties of grapes. The percentage of bunches harboring pupae was similar among the different grape varieties, and the total number of pupae collected was similar to the number of emerging adults per bunch. Among the six varieties of grapes, 0-25 pupae were produced on each bunch. Each of the grape varieties had a single wave of emergence, in which males emerged before females, but their emergence phenology differed significantly in Chardonnay, Chasselas, and Pinot grapes. Both genders had extended durations of emergence in Merlot grapes. Together, the present results show that the characteristics of the grape host plant affect the emergence phenology of L. botrana.

  9. Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Establishment in China: Stages of Invasion and Potential Future Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongyu; Kumar, Sunil

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) is an internal feeding pest of apples and can cause substantial economic losses to fruit growers due to larval feeding which in turn degrades fruit quality and can result in complete crop loss if left uncontrolled. Although this pest originally developed in central Asia, it was not known to occur in China until 1953. For the first three decades the spread of codling moth within China was slow. Within the last three decades, addition of new commercial apple orchards and improved transportation, this pest has spread to over 131 counties in seven provinces in China. We developed regional (China) and global ecological niche models using MaxEnt to identify areas at highest potential risk of codling moth establishment and spread. Our objectives were to 1) predict the potential distribution of codling moth in China, 2) identify the important environmental factors associated with codling moth distribution in China, and 3) identify the different stages of invasion of codling moth in China. Human footprint, annual temperature range, precipitation of wettest quarter, and degree days ≥10 °C were the most important predictors associated with codling moth distribution. Our analysis identified areas where codling moth has the potential to establish, and mapped the different stages of invasion (i.e., potential for population stabilization, colonization, adaptation, and sink) of codling moth in China. Our results can be used in effective monitoring and management to stem the spread of codling moth in China. PMID:28973489

  10. The effect of parasitism on the population dynamics of the macadamia nutborer Gymnandrosoma aurantianum (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Blanco-Metzler

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological control on crop infesting insects represent an useful method in modern agriculture. A search for parasitoids of the macadamia nutborer was carried out during a three year study, and their effect on the population fluctuation of the borer was determined. An egg parasitoid belonging to the family Trichogrammatidae and four larval parasitoids, Microgastrine I, Microgastrine II, Ascogaster sp. (Hymeoptera: Braconidae and Pristomerus sp. (Hymeoptera: Ichneumonidae were recovered. Parasitism percentage by Microgastrine I was 15% in 1991, 16% in 1992 and 4% in 1993; Microgastrine II was not collected in 1991, but accounted for a 4.3% of parasitism in 1992 and 3.7% in 1993; Ascogaster sp. was registered since 1992 with 3% parasitism (29% in 1993. We found an inverse relationship between total parasitism and the mean of damaged nuts. Parasitoids play an important role in the reduction of the G. aurantianum population. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (4: 1245-1252. Epub 2009 December 01.Durante tres años se realizó una búsqueda de los enemigos naturales del barrenador de la nuez de macadamia y se determinó el efecto sobre su población. Se registró un parasitoide de huevo perteneciente a la familia Trichogrammatidae y cuatro parasitoides de larva, Microgastrine I, Microgastrine II, y Ascogaster sp. (Hym: Braconidae y Pristomerus (Hym: Ichneumonidae. El porcentaje de parasitismo por Microgastrine I fue del 15% en 1991, 16% en 1992 y 4% en 1993; Microgastrine II no se registró en 1991, pero alcanzó un 4.3% de parasitismo en 1992 y un 3.7% en 1993; Ascogaster sp. se registró a partir de 1992 con un 3% de parasitismo y con un 29% en 1993. Se encontró una relación inversa entre el parasitismo total y el promedio de nueces dañadas. Los resultados indican que los parasitoides juegan un papel importante en la disminución de la población de G. aurantianum.

  11. A new cecidogenous species of Eugnosta Hübner (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) associated with Baccharis salicifolia (Asteraceae) in the northern Chilean Atacama Desert: Life-history description and phylogenetic inferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Héctor A; Pollo, Pietro; Basilio, Daniel S; Gonçalves, Gislene L; Moreira, Gilson R P

    2015-02-20

    Eugnosta Hübner, 1825 (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae, Tortricinae, Cochylini, Cochylina) is reported for the first time in Chile. Male and female adults, the pupa, the last-instar larva, and galls of Eugnosta azapaensis Vargas & Moreira, sp. n., are described and illustrated from the Azapa Valley in the northern Atacama Desert. The larvae induce fusiform galls on shoots of the shrub Baccharis salicifolia (Ruiz & Pav.) Pers. (Asteraceae). An assessment of phylogenetic relationships of E. azapaensis with two congeneric species based on mitochondrial DNA is provided.

  12. Control of Cydia pomonella L. and Cydia molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera Tortricidae) in pome-fruit orchards with Ecodian sex pheromone dispensers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anfora, G; Baldessari, M; Maines, R; Trona, F; Reggiori, F; Angeli, G

    2007-01-01

    A mating disruption approach using high densities of pheromone dispensers, has been recently proposed for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Cydia molesta (Busck.), (Lepidoptera Tortricidae), control. Ecodian Star dispensers, made of low-cost biodegradable material and easy to apply, were formulated with 10 mg of codlemone (E8,E10-12OH) and 10 mg of grapamone (Z8-12OH) and placed at a rate of 1,400-2,000 dispensers/ha. The pheromone release rates from new and field aged dispensers were evaluated by hexane extraction of the residual attractant (indirectly) and gas-chromatographic analysis. The release rate of field-aged dispensers decreased over time with a good linearity; they released a significant amount of synthetic sex pheromones over the entire season. Dispensers elicited close-range approaches of codling moth males in wind tunnel irrespective of their age. Field trials carried out from 2003 to 2004 confirmed the efficacy of Ecodian Star dispensers for codling moth and oriental fruit moth control, regardless the size of the treated area. Our results demonstrate that Ecodian dispensers achieved a good level of activity and longevity over the season. The potential of this strategy for the control of the moths is discussed.

  13. Comparison of a sprayable pheromone formulation and two hand-applied pheromone dispensers foruse in the integrated control of oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, R M; Pree, D J; Barszcz, E S; Carter, N J

    2004-04-01

    The efficacy of integrated programs using a sprayable pheromone formulation or one of two hand-applied pheromone dispensers, and a conventional oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) control program, was compared using 4-5-ha blocks of peach orchard at three Niagara Peninsula farms during 2000-2002. In the integrated programs, chlorpyrifos and mating disruption with 3M Sprayable Pheromone, Isomate OFM Rosso, or Rak 5 hand-applied dispensers were used to control first-generation larvae, and mating disruption alone was used to control second- and third-generation larvae. In the conventional program, chlorpyrifos was used to control first-generation larvae, and pyrethroid insecticides were used to control larvae of the later generations. All programs were effective at maintaining fruit infestation by G. molesta below the industry tolerance level of 1%. An integrated program using sprayable pheromone required the use of more supplementary insecticide applications to control second- and third-generation larvae than a program using hand-applied dispensers. The elimination of insecticide sprays from integrated program blocks did not result in an increase in damage by plant bugs, Lygus spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae) or by the plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

  14. Liberación y establecimiento de Mastrus ridens (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae para el control de Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae en Mendoza, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar E. TORTOSA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Proveniente de California, EE.UU. e incorrectamente identificado como Mastrus ridibundus (Gravenhorst, el parasitoide Mastrus ridens Horstmann (Hyme - noptera: Ichneumonidae fue introducido en Argentina en 2005 para el control de Cydia pomonella (L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae. Desde 2005 hasta 2009 se liberaron en total 185.268 individuos adultos de M. ridens en 58 sitios, en cultivos de peral, membrillero, nogal y manzanos en la provincia de Mendoza. Muestreos realizados en 2005 y 2007 mostraron el pasaje invernal como prepupa y una dispersión de 2.000 metros aproxi - madamente desde el sitio de liberación. El establecimiento de M. ridens fue estimado entre los años 2006 y 2009 a través de la determinación del parasitoidismo, cuyo rango varió entre 0 y 45,3%. El promedio de parasitoidismo entre 2005 y 2009 fue 9,89%, muy superior al parasitoidismo observado en especies nativas (0,25%.

  15. TRPA5, an Ankyrin Subfamily Insect TRP Channel, is Expressed in Antennae of Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Multiple Splice Variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Alberto Maria; Bengtsson, Jonas Martin; Montagné, Nicolas; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle; Rota-Stabelli, Omar; Salvagnin, Umberto; Bassoli, Angela; Witzgall, Peter; Anfora, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are an ancient family of cation channels, working as metabotropic triggers, which respond to physical and chemical environmental cues. Perception of chemical signals mediate reproductive behaviors and is therefore an important target for sustainable management tactics against the codling moth Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). However, olfactory behavior strongly depends on diel periodicity and correlation of chemical with physical cues, like temperature, and physical cues thus essentially contribute to the generation of behavioral response. From an antennal transcriptome generated by next generation sequencing, we characterized five candidate TRPs in the codling moth. The coding DNA sequence of one of these was extended to full length, and phylogenetic investigation revealed it to be orthologous of the TRPA5 genes, reported in several insect genomes as members of the insect TRPA group with unknown function but closely related to the thermal sensor pyrexia Reverse transcription PCR revealed the existence of five alternate splice forms of CpTRPA5. Identification of a novel TRPA and its splice forms in codling moth antennae open for investigation of their possible sensory roles and implications in behavioral responses related to olfaction. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  16. Novel nanoscale pheromone dispenser for more accurate evaluation of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) attract-and-kill strategies in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnobai De Jorge, Bruna; Bisotto-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Pereira, Cláudio Nunes; Sant'Ana, Josué

    2017-09-01

    Nanotechnology has recently allowed the production of formulations for controlled release of active ingredients. In the present study, the electrospinning technique was used to produce nanoscale dispensers for attract-and-kill strategies. Non-woven nanofibres containing insecticide (cypermethrin) and (E)-8,(Z)-8-dodecenyl acetate and (Z)-8-dodecanol (0.87 mg L -1 ), the main components of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) (Busck) pheromone, were evaluated in laboratory experiments. Male electroantennographic (EAG) responses and mortality (tarsal-contact and attract-and-kill behavioural cages) bioassays were performed for nanofibres (with and without insecticide) exposed for different periods (21, 42, 63 and 84 days) in controlled and non-exposed conditions. There were no significant differences in G. molesta male EAG responses based on the time of exposure within treatments. Nanofibres with pheromone only and with pheromone plus insecticide elicited equal EAG responses. Mortality in tarsal-contact bioassays was greater than 87% after exposure for 84 days. In the attract-and-kill bioassays, mortality ranged from 28.4 to 56.6%, although no difference was observed on insect mortalities over time (24, 48 and 72 h). Incorporation of cypermethrin in nanofibres did not interfere with G. molesta attractiveness. Both aspects of the strategy, the attractant and killing effects, were recorded using innovative nanofibres, and long-term effects suggest a controlled release of pheromone and insecticide. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Novel microsatellite markers for the oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and effects of null alleles on population genetics analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W; Cao, L-J; Wang, Y-Z; Li, B-Y; Wei, S-J

    2017-06-01

    The oriental fruit moth (OFM) Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is an important economic pest of stone and pome fruits worldwide. We sequenced the OFM genome using next-generation sequencing and characterized the microsatellite distribution. In total, 56,674 microsatellites were identified, with 11,584 loci suitable for primer design. Twenty-seven polymorphic microsatellites, including 24 loci with trinucleotide repeat and three with pentanucleotide repeat, were validated in 95 individuals from four natural populations. The allele numbers ranged from 4 to 40, with an average value of 13.7 per locus. A high frequency of null alleles was observed in most loci developed for the OFM. Three marker panels, all of the loci, nine loci with the lowest null allele frequencies, and nine loci with the highest null allele frequencies, were established for population genetics analyses. The null allele influenced estimations of genetic diversity parameters but not the OFM's genetic structure. Both a STRUCTURE analysis and a discriminant analysis of principal components, using the three marker panels, divided the four natural populations into three groups. However, more individuals were incorrectly assigned by the STRUCTURE analysis when the marker panel with the highest null allele frequency was used compared with the other two panels. Our study provides empirical research on the effects of null alleles on population genetics analyses. The microsatellites developed will be valuable markers for genetic studies of the OFM.

  18. Response of Larval Lepidoptera and Their Avian Predators to Experimental Ice Storms in a Northeastern Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuenberger, Wendy M.

    Experimental ice storms of varying severity were applied to replicate plots of mature northern hardwoods to quantify effects of this extreme weather event on forests. I investigated effects of ice storm treatments on larval Lepidoptera and their avian predators, both key contributors to ecosystem function. I conducted feeding assays to assess caterpillar growth and used point counts to measure insectivorous bird activity. Plasticine model caterpillars were deployed to estimate predation. Caterpillar growth rates positively correlated with treatment severity. Birds responded to ice storm treatments as a single diffuse disturbance. Caterpillar predation was not affected by treatments. I conclude that ice storms increased food quality for caterpillars and increased avian habitat use in the treated area. I created a lesson plan based on the plasticine caterpillar experiment. This lesson is simple and accessible for students to investigate ecological principles and scientific inquiry, and has been successfully implemented at two schools.

  19. leucotreta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    de plus de 4 mois l'abondance des populations mâles naturelles de T. leucotreta ainsi que les taux d'attaques sur les capsules vertes et les niveaux .... une meilleure couverture de la diffusion, les diffuseurs ont été répartis de façon ... bouteille a été changée toutes les quatre (04) semaines. Observations parasitaires et ...

  20. Description of a new genus of Euliina with unique coupling adaptations of the male and female (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae: Tortricinae: Cochylini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa-Rita, Jose V Pérez; Baixeras, Joaquin

    2017-01-31

    Ancoruncus langeri, new genus and new species, is described and illustrated from the Neotropics (Bolivia). It is assigned to the tribe Cochylini (subtribe Euliina) in the family Tortricidae. Ancoruncus langeri is characterized by an unusual, strongly developed uncus, distally expanded into an anchor-like, bilobed apical process and a complex gnathos in male genitalia, as well as an unusual configuration of the anterior lobes of the papillae anales, and tergum 8 with the anterior area bearing a double pocket in the female genitalia. The hypothetical dorsal coupling mechanism of the male and female genitalia is discussed.

  1. Susceptibility of oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to two pyrethroids and a proposed diagnostic dose of esfenvalerate for field detection of resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Moneen M; Robertson, Jacqueline L; Weinzierl, Richard A

    2011-06-01

    Laboratory colonies of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were reared on 'Gala' apples (Malus pumila Mill.) and lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) diet. Neonates were placed on wheat germ diet containing a range of concentrations of esfenvalerate or lambda-cyhalothrin; mortality was assessed after 96 h. For a long-term laboratory colony, LC50 values of esfenvalerate and lambda-cyhalothrin were 0.35 and 0.12 ppm, respectively, for progeny of insects reared on apples. For a colony established from Calhoun Co., IL, in 2007, LC50 values of esfenvalerate and lambda-cyhalothrin were 0.37 and 0.10 ppm, respectively, for progeny of insects reared on apples. LC50 values of these insecticides did not differ significantly for either colony when progeny of insects reared on lima bean diet were tested. We observed no consistent evidence of pyrethroid resistance in the Calhoun colony after laboratory culture for 21-23 generations. We described the dose-response relationship for esfenvalerate applied topically in 1 microl of acetone to male moths from the long-term laboratory colony and estimated the LD99 to be 0.022 microg per moth. Application of 0.022 microg of esfenvalerate per moth to approximately 600 male moths from two putatively susceptible populations resulted in mean survivorship approximately equal to the expected level of 1.0%. Application of the same dose to 374 field-captured moths from two Calhoun Co. orchards with histories of pyrethroid use resulted in mean survivorship of 9.4 and 82%. We propose that 0.022 microg of esfenvalerate in 1 microl of acetone can be used as a diagnostic dose for monitoring pyrethroid resistance in oriental ruit moth in the field.

  2. Determination of the Baseline Susceptibility of European Populations of Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to Chlorantraniliprole and the Role of Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Dolors; Rodríguez, Marcela A; Depalo, Laura; Avilla, Jesús

    2018-04-02

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is the key pest on pome fruit and walnut orchards worldwide. Its resistance to available insecticides has been widely reported. Chlorantraniliprole is an anthranilic diamide that was introduced in European countries in 2008-2009 and acts by activating the insect's ryanodine receptors. The aims of this study were to determine the baseline susceptibility of European populations of C. pomonella to chlorantraniliprole, to establish the discriminant concentrations (DC) to check the possible development of resistance, and to know the role of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450) in the possible susceptibility decrease of field populations to the insecticide. Ten field populations from Spain along with others were used to calculate the baseline response of larvae to chlorantraniliprole incorporated into the diet. A pooled probit line was calculated, and three DC were established: 0.3 mg a.i./kg (close to the LC50), 1.0 mg a.i./kg (close to the LC90), and 10 mg a.i./kg diets (threefold the LC99). The DC were used to test the susceptibility of 27 field populations from France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, and Spain. The corrected mortality observed in all cases ranged within the expected interval, even with Spanish populations that showed between 12.1 and 100.0% of individuals with high P450 activity. However, the mortality caused by the DC0.3 decreased as the mean P450 activity increased. Field populations resistant to other insecticides were susceptible to chlorantraniliprole. The determined baseline codling moth susceptibility is a valuable reference for tracking possible future alterations in the efficacy of the insecticide.

  3. Effects of exposure to pheromone and insecticide constituents of an attracticide formulation on reproductive behavior of oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenden, Maya L; McLaughlin, John R; Czokajlo, Darek

    2005-04-01

    The effect of exposure to both the pheromone and insecticide constituents of an attracticide formulation on subsequent pheromonal response of male oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), was tested in several wind tunnel bioassays. Male response to the attracticide formulation was significantly reduced in all behavioral categories, including source contact 1 h after sublethal exposure (both by voluntary contact in the wind tunnel and forced application in the laboratory) to the attracticide formulation containing inert ingredients, pheromone, and insecticide. Sublethal exposure to the attracticide formulation in the laboratory (forced application) 24 h before the bioassay resulted in a significantly lower proportion of males subsequently responding to attracticide droplets in the wind tunnel. However, voluntary contact of male moths with the toxic formulation in the wind tunnel had no effect on subsequent response 24 h later. Exposure of males to different constituents of the attracticide formulation demonstrated that both pheromone and insecticide exerted effects on subsequent male pheromonal response. Exposure to the formulation containing the inert ingredients plus the pheromone (no insecticide) significantly reduced male behavioral responses to an attracticide droplet in the wind tunnel 1 h but not 24 h after exposure, compared with males treated with inert ingredients alone. Response to attracticide droplets was further reduced by exposure to the entire attracticide formulation containing inert ingredients, pheromone and insecticide at both 1 and 24 h postexposure. Similarly, males exposed to inert ingredients plus pheromone were less likely to orient to female-produced plumes 1 h but not 24 h after exposure than males treated with inert ingredients alone. Response to female-produced plumes was further reduced at 1 h but not at 24 h after exposure to the entire attracticide formulation. Mating success of males was

  4. Diversity in Cycas (Cycadales: Cycadaceae) Species Offered as Larval Food Influences Fecundity of Chilades pandava (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marler, Thomas E; Lindström, Anders J; Marler, Paris N

    2017-01-01

    Chilades pandava (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) larval food quality was studied to determine its influence on adult life history traits. A wild population from Cycas nongnoochiae (Cycadales: Cycadaceae) endemic habitat behaved similarly to the population collected from a garden setting. Cycas micronesica, Cycas revoluta, and Cycas seemannii leaves were used as high-quality food, whereas C nongnoochiae, Cycas taitungensis, and Cycas condaoensis leaves were used as low-quality food. The daily oviposition rate was not influenced by food quality, but longevity and lifetime fecundity of females were increased by high-quality larval food. These results indicate that in situ Cycas species impose a physiological constraint on the genetic capacity to produce offspring by C pandava. The removal of that constraint by high-quality novel Cycas species may be one reason this butterfly can increase in population rapidly after an invasion event and express greater herbivory of Cycas species within invaded regions. PMID:29238238

  5. Kauri seeds and larval somersaults: the larval trunk of the seed mining basal moth Agathiphaga vitensis (Lepidoptera: Agathiphagidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Steen

    2012-09-01

    The trunk morphology of the larvae of the kauri pine (Agathis) seed infesting moth Agathiphaga is described using conventional, polarization, and scanning electron microscopy. The pine seed chamber formed by the larva is also described and commented on. The simple larval chaetotaxy includes more of the minute posture sensing setae, proprioceptors, than expected from the lepidopteran larval ground plan. The excess of proprioceptors is suggested to be necessary for sensory input concerning the larval posture within the seed chamber. The trunk musculature includes an autapomorphic radial ventral musculature made up of unique multisegmental muscles. The combined presence of additional proprioceptors and the unique ventral musculature is proposed to be related to the larval movement within the confined space of the seed chamber, especially to a proposed somersault movement that allows the larva to orientate itself within the chamber. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Aspectos biológicos de Argyrotaenia sphaleropa (Meyrick 1909 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae em dietas artificiais com diferentes fontes proteicas Biological aspects of Argyrotaenia sphaleropa (Meyrick, 1909 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae in artificial diets with different protein sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Manfredi-Coimbra

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se aspectos da biologia de Argyrotaenia sphaleropa Meyrick em dietas artificiais com diferentes fontes proteicas: D1-feijão branco, germe de trigo, proteína de soja e caseína; D2-feijão carioca e levedura de cerveja e D3-feijão carioca, levedura de cerveja e germe de trigo, avaliando-se a duração e viabilidade e todas as fases de desenvolvimento desse inseto (ovo, lagarta, pré-pupa e pupa e do ciclo total (ovo-adulto, razão sexual, peso de pupas, fecundidade, longevidade e tabela de vida de fertilidade. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em laboratório a 25±1°C, 65±10% UR e fotofase de 14 horas. A duração da fase de ovo foi de 6,6 dias nas três dietas. A maior duração das fases lagarta e pré-pupa foi em D1 e de pupa em D2, resultando em maior duração do ciclo total nestas duas dietas (30,9 e 30,8 dias. A viabilidade total foi superior a 62% em todas as dietas, independente da fonte proteica. O número de ínstares foi de quatro a cinco nas três dietas. A menor fecundidade foi observada em D1. Através da tabela de vida de fertilidade, a dieta D3 foi a mais adequada para criação de A. sphaleropa por ter proporcionado menor duração de desenvolvimento (T, maior razão finita de aumento (l e viabilidade total superior a 75%.Biology aspects of Argyrotaenia sphaleropa Meyrick fed on artificial diets with different protein sources were studied: D1-white bean, wheat germ, soybean protein and casein; D2-common bean and yeast and D3-common bean, yeast and wheat germ, evaluating the duration and viability of all developmental stages (egg, larval, prepupa and pupa and of the total cycle (egg-adult, sex ratio, pupa weight, fecundity, longevity and life table of fertility. Tests were conducted in the laboratory at 25±1°C, 65±10% RH and 14h of photophase. Duration of the egg stage was 6.6 days on all diets. The longest duration of larval and prepupal stages on D1 and pupal stages on D2, resulting in a longer duration of the

  7. Lepidoptera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguiar, António M. Franquinho; Karsholt, Ole

    2009-01-01

      Being the first of a series dealing with the entomofauna of the Madeira and Selvagens Islands, this catalogue is a list of all Lepidoptera recorded from this region of Macaronesia, with references to the relevant literature. The checklist includes 37 families, 211 genera and 331 species. 31...... species are recorded from Madeira for the first time, and exact data and locality are given for these in the notes. 32 species, which had previously been recorded from Madeira, are removed from the list of Lepidoptera found in the Madeira Islands being misidentifications, doubtful and unconfirmed records......, undetermined species requiring further study and accidentally introduced species which have not established themselves in Madeira. No genus of Lepidoptera is endemic to Madeira, but 81 species are endemic to the Madeira Archipelago, and a further 36 species are considered Macaronesian endemics. One species...

  8. Effectiveness of 12 Insecticides to a Laboratory Population of Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Newly Established in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zheng-Wei; Zhang, Ya-Lin; Shang, Su-Qin

    2015-06-01

    The codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.) is an economically important fruit pest that has spread rapidly from its original site in Xinjiang to other northwestern regions of China. Insecticides are widely used to control this pest but its invasion has never been completely stopped. The aim of this study was to establish a laboratory population of the codling moth occurring in China, to investigate the effectiveness of 12 conventional insecticides to this laboratory population, and to recommend the discriminating doses for use in resistance monitoring. The laboratory population was generally similar to other laboratory strains although parameters such as survival rate and larval duration were low when compared with field populations. Toxicity varied among the insecticides tested with LC50 values ranging from 0.016 mg/l for emamectin benzoate to 55.77 mg/l for chlorbenzuron. Discriminating dose levels were determined from dose-mortality reference curves for the detection of resistance in field populations. Effectiveness of 12 insecticides to a laboratory population of codling moth in China was evaluated for the first time. This can be integrated into resistance management strategies, especially in orchards with a history of frequent insecticides applications, in order to monitor or decrease insecticide resistance in the future. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Life stage toxicity and residual activity of insecticides to codling moth and oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhaes, Leonardo C; Walgenbach, James F

    2011-12-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), are two key pests of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) in North Carolina. Growers extensively relied on organophosphate insecticides, primarily azinphosmethyl, for > 40 yr to manage these pests. Because of organophosphate resistance development and regulatory actions, growers are transitioning to management programs that use new, reduced-risk, and OP-replacement insecticides. This study evaluated the toxicity of a diversity of replacement insecticides to eggs, larvae, and adults, as well as an assessment of their residual activity, to codling moth and oriental fruit moth. Laboratory-susceptible strains of both species were used for all bioassays. Fresh field-harvested apples were used as a media for assessing the ovicidal activity of insecticides. For larval studies, insecticides were topically applied to the surface of lima bean-based diet, onto which neonates were placed. Toxicity was based on two measures of mortality; 5-d mortality and development to adult stage. Ovicidal bioassays showed that oriental fruit moth eggs were generally more tolerant than codling moth eggs to insecticides, with novaluron, acetamiprid, and azinphoshmethyl having the highest levels of toxicity to eggs of both species. In contrast, codling moth larvae generally were more tolerant than oriental fruit moth to most insecticides. Methoxyfenozide and pyriproxyfen were the only insecticides with lower LC50 values against codling moth than oriental fruit moth neonates. Moreover, a number of insecticides, particularly the IGRs methoxyfenozide and novaluron, the anthranilic diamide chlorantriliprole, and the spinosyn spinetoram, provided equal or longer residual activity against codling moth compared with azinphosmethyl in field studies. Results are discussed in relation to their use in devising field use patterns of insecticides and for insecticide resistance monitoring programs.

  10. Sublethal effects of Cry 1F Bt corn and clothianidin on black cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larval development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullik, Sigrun A; Sears, Mark K; Schaafsma, Arthur W

    2011-04-01

    Black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an occasional pest of maize (corn), Zea mays L., that may cause severe stand losses and injury to corn seedlings. The efficacy of the neonicotinoid seed treatment clothianidin at two commercially available rates and their interaction with a transgenic corn hybrid (Bt corn), trait expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis variety aizawai insecticidal toxin Cry 1Fa2, against black cutworm larvae was investigated. Clothianidin at a rate of 25 mg kernel(-1) on Bt corn increased larval mortality and reduced larval weight gains additively. In contrast, weights of larvae fed non-Bt corn seedlings treated with clothianidin at a rate of 25 mg kernel(-1) increased significantly, suggesting either compensatory overconsumption, hormesis, or hormoligosis. Both Bt corn alone and clothianidin at a rate of 125 mg kernel(-1) applied to non-Bt corn seedlings caused increased mortality and reduced larval weight gains. In two field trials, plots planted with Bt corn hybrids consistently had the highest plant populations and yields, regardless of whether they were treated with clothianidin at the lower commercial rate of 25 mg kernel(-1) The use of Bt corn alone or in combination with the low rate of clothianidin (25 mg kernel(-1)) seems suitable as a means of suppressing black cutworm in no-tillage cornfields, although rescue treatments may still be necessary under severe infestations. Clothianidin alone at the low rate of 25 mg kernel(-1) is not recommended for black cutworm control until further studies of its effects on larval physiology and field performance have been completed.

  11. Lepidoptera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos; Agassiz, David; Augustin, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    We provide a comprehensive overview of those Lepidopteran invasions to Europe that result from increasing globalisation and also review expansion of species within Europe. A total of 97 non-native Lepidoptera species (about 1% of the known fauna), in 20 families and 11 superfamilies have...... established so far in Europe, of which 30 alone are Pyraloidea. In addition, 88 European species in 25 families have expanded their range within Europe and around 23% of these are of Mediterranean or Balkan origin, invading the north and west. Although a number of these alien species have been in Europe...... for hundreds of years, 74% have established during the 20th century and arrivals are accelerating, with an average of 1.9 alien Lepidoptera newly established per year between 2000–2007. For 78 aliens with a known area of origin, Asia has contributed 28.9%, Africa (including Macaronesian islands, Canaries...

  12. Geographical variation in larval host-plant use by Heliconius erato (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and consequences for adult life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, D; Moreira, G R P

    2002-05-01

    Adult body size, one of the most important life-history components, varies strongly within and between Heliconius erato phyllis (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) populations. This study determines if this variation is caused by geographical changes in host-plant used by the larval stage, whose reproductive parameters are influenced by female body size, with estimates of the corresponding heritability. The variation in adult body size was determined together with a survey of passion vine species (Passifloraceae) used by the larvae in seven localities in Rio Grande do Sul State: three located in the urban area of Porto Alegre and Triunfo Counties, two within Eucalyptus plantations (Barba Negra Forest, Barra do Ribeiro County, and Aguas Belas Experimental Station-Viamão County), one in a Myrtaceae Forest (Itapuã State Park-Itapuã County) and one in the Atlantic Rain Forest (Maquiné Experimental Station-Maquiné County). Effects of female body size on fecundity, egg size and egg viability were determined in an outdoor insectary. Size heritability was estimated by rearing in the laboratory offspring of individuals maintained in an insectary. The data showed that adults from populations where larvae feed only upon Passiflora suberosa are smaller than those that feed on Passiflora misera. The larvae prefer P. misera even when the dominant passion vine in a given place is P. suberosa. Fecundity increases linearly with the increase in size of females, but there is no size effect on egg size or viability. Size heritability is null for the adult size range occurring in the field. Thus, the geographical variation of H. erato phyllis adult size is primarily determined by the type, corresponding availability and quality of host-plants used by the larval stage. Within the natural size range of H. erato phyllis, the variation related to this character is not genetically based, thus being part of H. erato phyllis phenotypic plasticity.

  13. Geographical variation in larval host-plant use by Heliconius erato (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae and consequences for adult life history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODRIGUES D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult body size, one of the most important life-history components, varies strongly within and between Heliconius erato phyllis (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae populations. This study determines if this variation is caused by geographical changes in host-plant used by the larval stage, whose reproductive parameters are influenced by female body size, with estimates of the corresponding heritability. The variation in adult body size was determined together with a survey of passion vine species (Passifloraceae used by the larvae in seven localities in Rio Grande do Sul State: three located in the urban area of Porto Alegre and Triunfo Counties, two within Eucalyptus plantations (Barba Negra Forest, Barra do Ribeiro County, and Águas Belas Experimental Station -- Viamão County, one in a Myrtaceae Forest (Itapuã State Park -- Itapuã County and one in the Atlantic Rain Forest (Maquiné Experimental Station -- Maquiné County. Effects of female body size on fecundity, egg size and egg viability were determined in an outdoor insectary. Size heritability was estimated by rearing in the laboratory offspring of individuals maintained in an insectary. The data showed that adults from populations where larvae feed only upon Passiflora suberosa are smaller than those that feed on Passiflora misera. The larvae prefer P. misera even when the dominant passion vine in a given place is P. suberosa. Fecundity increases linearly with the increase in size of females, but there is no size effect on egg size or viability. Size heritability is null for the adult size range occurring in the field. Thus, the geographical variation of H. erato phyllis adult size is primarily determined by the type, corresponding availability and quality of host-plants used by the larval stage. Within the natural size range of H. erato phyllis, the variation related to this caracter is not genetically based, thus being part of H. erato phyllis phenotypic plasticity.

  14. Ultramorphology of digestive tract of Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae at final larval development/ Ultramorfologia do trato digestivo de Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae no final do desenvolvimento larval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Antônio Toledo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The digestive tract of insects is an important natural, physical, and chemical defense barrier against pathogen invasion. Certain lepidopteran caterpillars are serious pests of agricultural crops and their biology has received much attention, but little is known about the larval noctuid gut. The morphological analysis of the digestive tract in Anticarsia gemmatalis under scanning electron microscopy (SEM is a good model for studies about its defense mechanism. The material was fixed (2,5% glutaraldehyde solution; 0.1M-phosphate buffer, pH 7.3, post-fixed (1% osmium tetroxide in the same buffer, dried at critical point, gold coated and analyzed in a SEM 515-Philips. A. gemmatalis digestive tract consists of a straight duct of varying length and diameter, subdivided in three main regions: the foregut formed by the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, and crop; the midgut that is the largest portion of the digestive tract without noticeable morphological differentiation along its length; and the hindgut that is morphologically differentiated in pylorus, ileum, colon, and rectum. Although the general morphology of the A. gemmatalis digestive tract is quite similar to the other Lepidoptera species, the anatomical array of the crop muscular layers is quite different comparing with the description for other larval insect.O trato digestivo dos insetos constitui uma importante barreira físico-química natural contra invasão de patógenos. Algumas larvas de lepidópteros são consideradas pragas agrícolas potenciais e sua biologia tem recebido muita atenção; no entanto, pouco se sabe sobre a morfologia do sistema digestivo. A análise morfológica do trato digestivo de Anticarsia gemmatalis em nível ultraestrutural é um método bastante eficaz para o estudo dos seus mecanismos de defesa. Os materiais foram fixados (solução de glutaraldeído 2,5%; 0.1M tampão fosfato, pH 7.3, pós-fixados (tetróxido de ósmio 1% no mesmo tampão, desidratados em

  15. Larval Biology of Anthophagous Eumaeini (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae, Theclinae) in the Cerrado of Central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Neuza A. P.; Duarte, Marcelo; Araújo, Eliezer B.; Morais, Helena C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The biology and morphology of the early stages of 22 species of Eumaeini (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae, Theclinae) are presented. Observations were collected through the inspection of inflorescences in the field and the rearing of 214 larvae in laboratory. Allosmaitia strophius (Godart) associated with Malpighiaceae species and the polyphagous Strymon mulucha (Hewitson) were the most frequently collected species. Detritivory was observed in two species, Electrostrymon endymion (F.) and Kisutam syllis (Godman & Salvin), and myrmecophily in four other species, A. strophius , Ministrymon azia (Hewitson), Parrhasius polibetes (Stoll), and S. mulucha . Cannibalism was observed in A. strophius ; in addition, the pupa of this and of three other species produced audible sounds. Paiwarria aphaca (Hewitson) was highlighted because of the great difference observed between its first and last instars, as well as the marked difference between that species and the larvae of Paiwarria umbratus (Geyer) documented in Costa Rica. Larvae of Calycopis mimas (Godman & Salvin) displayed “bungee jumping” behavior when stimulated. Parasitoids (Diptera, Hymenoptera) attacked 21 larvae of eight species, A. strophius , K. syllis , M. azia , Pai. aphaca , P. polibetes , Rekoa marius (Lucas), S. mulucha , and Tmolus venustus (H.H. Druce). Illustrations of immatures and parasitoids are provided. PMID:25368090

  16. Larval Preference and Performance of Amyelois transitella (Navel Orangeworm, Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in Relation to the Fungus Aspergillus flavus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampt, Eline A; Bush, Daniel S; Siegel, Joel P; Berenbaum, May R

    2016-02-01

    The navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker), is a polyphagous pest of California nut crops and is responsible for extensive losses in the United States. It directly damages crops by feeding and contaminating nuts with frass and webbing and vectors saprophytic fungi that infect crops. The navel orangeworm is commonly associated with Aspergillus species, including the toxigenic Aspergillus flavus, which causes crop loss by producing carcinogens, including aflatoxin B1. This lepidopteran-fungus association is the most economically serious pest complex in Central Valley orchards, and evidence indicates that this relationship is mutualistic. We assessed preference and performance of navel orangeworm larvae associated with A. flavus in behavioral bioassays in which neonates were allowed to orient within arenas to media with or without fungal tissue, and performance bioassays in which larvae were reared with and without A. flavus on potato dextrose agar (PDA) and a semidefined almond PDA diet to evaluate effects on development and pupal weight. Navel orangeworm larvae were attracted to A. flavus and developed faster in its presence, indicating a nutritional benefit to the caterpillars. Larvae reached pupation ∼33% faster on diet containing A. flavus, and pupal weights were ∼18% higher for males and ∼13% higher for females on this diet. Our findings indicate that A. flavus plays an important role in larval orientation and development on infected hosts. The preference-performance relationship between navel orangeworms and Aspergillus flavus is consistent with a facultative mutualism that has broad implications for pest management efforts and basic understanding of Lepidoptera-plant interactions. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Diversity inCycas(Cycadales: Cycadaceae) Species Offered as Larval Food Influences Fecundity ofChilades pandava(Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marler, Thomas E; Lindström, Anders J; Marler, Paris N

    2017-01-01

    Chilades pandava (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) larval food quality was studied to determine its influence on adult life history traits. A wild population from Cycas nongnoochiae (Cycadales: Cycadaceae) endemic habitat behaved similarly to the population collected from a garden setting. Cycas micronesica, Cycas revoluta , and Cycas seemannii leaves were used as high-quality food, whereas C nongnoochiae, Cycas taitungensis , and Cycas condaoensis leaves were used as low-quality food. The daily oviposition rate was not influenced by food quality, but longevity and lifetime fecundity of females were increased by high-quality larval food. These results indicate that in situ Cycas species impose a physiological constraint on the genetic capacity to produce offspring by C pandava . The removal of that constraint by high-quality novel Cycas species may be one reason this butterfly can increase in population rapidly after an invasion event and express greater herbivory of Cycas species within invaded regions.

  18. Ability of the oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to detoxify juglone, the main secondary metabolite of the non-host plant walnut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskorski, Rafal; Ineichen, Simon; Dorn, Silvia

    2011-10-01

    Many plant species produce toxic secondary metabolites that limit attacks by herbivorous insects, and may thereby constrain insect expansion to new hosts. Walnut is a host for the codling moth Cydia pomonella, which efficiently detoxifies the main walnut defensive compound juglone (5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone). The oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta, which also belongs to the tribe Grapholitini, does not feed on walnut. We tested the performance of G. molesta, a highly invasive species, on artificial diets containing juglone at levels mimicking those found in walnut over the growing season. Juglone-fed G. molesta survived relatively well to adulthood, but larval and adult body weights were reduced, and larval developmental time was prolonged in a dose-dependent fashion. Chemical analysis of frass from larvae that had been fed a juglone-containing diet suggests that G. molesta reduces juglone to non-toxic 1,4,5-trihydroxynaphthalene in its gut. This unexpected tolerance of G. molesta to high levels of juglone may facilitate expansion of the host range beyond the current rosacean fruit trees used by this invasive pest.

  19. Investigation into the Effect of Altitude on the Differential Hemocyte Count of Circulating Plasmatocytes and Granulocytes of Larval Stage of Antheraea assama (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baishya, Bhavna Prishnee; Bardoloi, Sunayan; Bharali, Rupjyoti

    2015-01-01

    Differential hemocyte count of circulating plasmatocytes (PL) and granulocytes (GR) of fifth-instar larvae of Muga Silkworm Antheraea assama Westwood (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) reared at four different sericulture farms situated at different altitudes, viz, Khanapara State Sericulture Farm, Assam, altitude 55.5 m above sea level (ASL); Nongpoh (Central Silk Board farm), Meghalaya, altitude 464 m ASL; Tura (Central Silk Board farm), West Garo Hills, Meghalaya, 657 m ASL; and Kalimpong (Central Silk Board farm), West Bengal, altitude 1,247 m ASL, were calculated and compared to investigate the effect of altitude on the number of PL and GR per mm(3) of larval hemolymph. The investigation showed that the mean circulating PL and GR were highest at Khanapara (55.5 m ASL) located at the lowest altitude, whereas their numbers gradually decreased with increase in altitude at Nongpoh (464 m ASL), Tura (657 m ASL), and Kalimpong (1,247 m ASL). This may be attributed to the average environmental temperatures observed at different altitudes, which may affect the overall hemocyte load of larval stages reared at those altitudes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  20. Relationship between behavior and physiology in an invasive pest species: oviposition site selection and temperature-dependent development of the oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notter-Hausmann, Claudia; Dorn, Silvia

    2010-04-01

    Oviposition site selection is crucial for the reproductive success of a herbivore insect species with relatively sedentary larvae. The optimal oviposition theory, i.e., the preference-performance hypothesis, has thus far mainly been tested with a focus on nutritional quality of the host. This study investigates whether female oriental fruit moth Grapholita (Cydia) molesta choose a microhabitat for oviposition characterized by a temperature range within which their offspring perform best. Thermal preferences of females during oviposition were assessed in a circular temperature gradient arena. Offspring performance and survival were assessed under different constant temperature conditions. Females preferred oviposition sites of approximately 30 degrees C over lower and higher temperatures. At this temperature, egg, larval, and pupal development was significantly faster than at 22 and 25 degrees C, and larval development was also faster than at 33 degrees C. At 30 degrees C and at the lower temperatures tested, survival of eggs and larvae was significantly higher than at 33 degrees C, whereas development was precluded at 35 degrees C. Furthermore, female pupal weight attained at 30 and 33 degrees C exceeded that reached at the lower temperatures tested. Considering the potentially reduced predation risk caused by the shorter developmental time of eggs and larvae, the laboratory data suggest that this species maximizes its fitness by selecting a thermally optimal environment for its offspring, supporting the optimal oviposition theory. Conversely, it is known that the codling moth (C. pomonella) lacks a mechanism to avoid temperatures lethal to progeny development, which may reflect the differences in geographic ranges of these tortricids.

  1. Método práctico de cría masiva de Lobesia botrana Den. & Schiff. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae en condiciones de laboratorio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E. HERRERA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lobesia botrana Den. & Schiff. es plaga cuarentenaria de la Argentina. En el año 2010 se registró su aparición en Maipú, Mendoza. El estudio describe la técnica de cría de L. botrana sobre una dieta artificial. El objetivo fue producir de manera continua ejemplares de L. botrana , determinar la duración de cada etapa de desarrollo y el porcentaje de mortalidad de los estados del insecto. La cría se desarrolló en una cámara, con fotoperíodo 16:8 (L: O, 25 ± 5 ºC de temperatura y humedad entre 30 - 50%. El ciclo de la polilla europea, bajo las condiciones del insectario, tuvo una duración de huevo hasta la muerte del adulto de 31,27 ± 2,36 días. El periodo de incubación de huevos fue 2,82 ± 0,14 días; el estado larval duró 13,63 ± 1,37 días. El estado pupal duró 6,57 ± 0,22 días y los adultos sobrevivieron 8,25 ± 0,64 días. La mortalidad de los huevos fue del 37%, seguida por la del esta- dio larval 1 con 26,30%. Los estadios restantes presentaron una mortalidad menor al 2,5%. Con las condiciones descriptas, es posible la cría en masa de L. botrana. El método permite obtener todos los estados, con conocimiento de la edad de los ejemplares y un mínimo de gasto de material y mano de obra.

  2. Oviposition preference and larval performance of Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on Botrytis cinerea (Helotiales: Sclerotiniaceae) infected berries of Vitis vinifera (Vitales: Vitaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Syed Z M; Raman, Anantanarayanan; Wheatley, Warwick M; Cook, Geoffrey

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we tested the behavior of gravid Epiphyas postvittana in selecting the most-appropriate site for oviposition thus benefitting offspring performance. Our hypothesis was built on Jaenike's preference-performance hypothesis (also referred to as the "mother-knows-the-best" hypothesis). To test this, we used the interacting Epiphyas postvittana, its host Vitis vinifera, and the pathogenic microbe Botrytis cinerea system. Populations of E. postvittana and B. cinerea often exist concurrently on V. vinifera in Australasia and their interaction and mutual influence are currently being explored, although the suggestion presently is that the relationship between E. postvittana and B. cinerea is mutualistic. We tested the effect of volatiles from B. cinerea-infected berries and uninfected (control) berries of V. vinifera on the oviposition behavior of E. postvittana. We also characterized the effects of B. cinerea infection on the berries of V. vinifera on the growth and development of E. postvittana. Contrary to the preference-performance hypothesis, oviposition choices made by gravid E. postvittana did not result in the best offspring survival, development, and performance. The preference for oviposition by E. postvittana was strongly influenced by the olfactory and tactile cues. She laid fewer eggs on B. cinerea-infected berries compared to uninfected berries of V. vinifera. The larvae of E. postvittana showed no preference to uninfected berries of V. vinifera. The larvae fed on B. cinerea-infected berries of V. vinifera showing greater survival rate, shorter time to pupation, greater pupal mass, and on becoming adults they laid more numbers of eggs than the larvae that were enabled to feed on uninfected berries. The larvae of E. postvittana transport the conidia of B. cinerea and transmit grey-mould disease to uninfected berries of V. vinifera. © 2014 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  3. Cross-resistance between azinphos-methyl and acetamiprid in populations of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), from Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Alan L

    2010-08-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), has been intensely managed with the organophosphate insecticide azinphos-methyl for 50 years, and populations have developed resistance. New management programs have been developed and implemented that rely more heavily on other classes of insecticides. A prerequisite for developing effective resistance management strategies for these compounds is to establish their current levels of effectiveness. Adult and neonate larval assays were conducted to assess the response of field-collected codling moth populations from apple in Washington State. Male codling moth populations exhibited a range of responses to a discriminating concentration of azinphos-methyl in a survey of 20 populations. Populations from certified organic orchards were more susceptible than those from conventional orchards. Mean fecundity was inversely related to azinphos-methyl tolerance. Male responses to azinphos-methyl and acetamiprid varied significantly among populations and were correlated. The residual effectiveness of field applications of both insecticides varied significantly against neonate larvae. Neonate bioassays with insecticide-dipped fruit found significant differences among populations with azinphos-methyl, acetamiprid, methoxyfenozide and spinosad, but not with esfenvalerate. These results support a concern that alternation of insecticides with different modes of action may not be a sufficient strategy to avoid the evolution of broad-spectrum insecticide resistance by codling moth. Published 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Interactions between extrafloral nectaries, ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), and other natural enemies affect biological control of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on peach (Rosales: Rosaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Clarissa R; Bottrell, Dale G; Brown, Mark W

    2011-02-01

    Extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) are reported to benefit some plants when ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) use their secretions and fend off herbivores, but in some cases resulting competitive interactions may reduce biological control of specific herbivores. This research examined the interactions between ants and other natural enemies associated with the EFNs of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batcsh] and the implications for biological control of a key pest, the oriental fruit moth [Grapholita molesta (Busck)]. Studies using sentinel G. molesta placed on peach trees ('Lovell' cultivar) with EFNs present and absent revealed that several natural enemy groups associated with the EFNs contribute to reductions in G. molesta eggs, larvae, and pupae in peach orchards. Ants on trees with EFNs antagonized the G. molesta egg parasitoid Trichogramma minutum (Riley), but the ants were crucial in reducing G. molesta in both the larval and pupal stages. Overall, individual trees with EFNs experienced higher ant and other (nonant) natural enemy densities and subsequent pest reductions, as compared with trees without EFNs. However, the implications of EFN-natural enemy-pest interactions to orchard-level biological control will likely depend on local G. molesta population dynamics. © 2011 Entomological Society of America

  5. Antillopsyche sessilis, new genus and species, a new Psychidae (Lepidoptera: Tineoidea) from Cuba with an unusual larval feeding behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguila, Rayner Núñez; Davis, Don R

    2016-01-12

    A new genus and species, Antillopsyche sessilis Núñez & Davis, of Psychidae are described from Cuba, West Indies. The new taxon shares certain features with some members of the subfamily Arrhenophaninae but more with the larvae and the fully winged adult females of other subfamilies of Psychidae. Antillopsyche has been assigned provisionally to the subfamily Typhoniinae based on these similarities. Several aspects of its larval biology are described, including the sessile larval cases and foraging behavior, both unique among the known Psychidae. An undescribed species of Dryadaula Meyrick, 1893 (Dryadaulidae) was found inhabiting the larval cases of A. sessilis, but their ecological relationships remain unclear. Other ecological data for Antillopsyche such as distribution, habitat, and parasitoids are also provided.

  6. Survival and larval development of Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on alternatives host; Sobrevivencia e desenvolvimento larval de Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) em hospedeiros alternativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sa, Verissimo G.M. de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Montes Claros, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Agronomia; Fonseca, Bernardo V.C. [Universidade FUMEC, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Boregas, Katia G.B. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Ecologia; Waquil, Jose M. [EMBRAPA Milho e Sorgo, Sete Lagoas, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: aaquil@cnpms.embrapa.br

    2009-01-15

    Two bioassays were conducted to evaluate the suitability of host plants of fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith), in the Brazilian agro-ecosystem. Larval development and survival were analyzed by infesting leaves of maize, grain sorghum, Johnson grass, soybean, Brachiaria and tobacco with FAW newly hatched larvae in a no choice test. No significant differences of survival were observed among insects reared on different hosts, except for tobacco, where no survivors were recorded. Larvae fed on soybean and artificial diet grew larger than those fed on the other hosts. The heaviest pupa was observed from larva fed on artificial diet and the lighter from larva fed on Brachiaria grass. No significant differences were reported on larval development time on natural hosts, but it was longer for larvae reared on artificial diet. Three classes of larval development time were observed on maize, four on sorghum, Brachiaria and soybean, and five on artificial diet. Nearly 85% of FAW larvae completed development within 12 d on maize; 77% on grain sorghum, 80% on Johnson grass, 68% on Brachiaria and 83% on soybean within 14 d and 69% on artificial diet within 17 d. The host suitability to FAW decreases from maize to sorghum, soybean and Brachiaria. (author)

  7. A review of the North American genus Epimartyria (Lepidoptera, Micropterigidae) with a discussion of the larval plastron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Donald R; Landry, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    The indigenous North American micropterigid genus Epimartyria Walsingham,1898 is revised. Three species are recognized, including Epimartyria auricrinella Walsingham, 1898 which occurs widely over much of the northeastern United States and Canada, a new species, Epimartyria bimaculella Davis & Landry from northwestern United States and Canada, and Epimartyria pardella (Walsingham, 1880) from northern California to northern Oregon. The larva of Epimartyria auricrinella is described in detail, supplemented with illustrations of the external structure of the larval integument. The larval plastron is described and illustrated for Epimartyria, and this is compared with the plastrons of Neomicropteryx Issiki, 1931 and Micropterix Hübner, 1825. COI barcode sequences show that the three species are genetically distinct, congruent with morphological differences. Marked haplotype divergence within some Epimartyria auricrinella populations appears to be unrelated to morphology, geography or phenology.

  8. A review of the North American genus Epimartyria (Lepidoptera, Micropterigidae with a discussion of the larval plastron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Davis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The indigenous North American micropterigid genus Epimartyria Walsingham,1898 is revised. Three species are recognized, including E. auricrinella Walsingham, 1898 which occurs widely over much of the northeastern United States and Canada, a new species, E. bimaculella Davis and Landry from northwestern United States and Canada, and E. pardella (Walsingham, 1880 from northern California to northern Oregon. The larva of E. auricrinella is described in detail, supplemented with illustrations of the external structure of the larval integument. The larval plastron is described and illustrated for Epimartyria, and this is compared with the plastrons of Neomicropteryx Issiki, 1931 and Micropterix Hübner, 1825. COI barcode sequences show that the three species are genetically distinct, congruent with morphological differences. Marked haplotype divergence within some E. auricrinella populations appears to be unrelated to morphology, geography or phenology.

  9. Bt Maize Seed Mixtures for Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): Larval Movement, Development, and Survival on Non-transgenic Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkness, Eric C; Cira, T M; Moser, S E; Hutchison, W D

    2015-12-01

    In 2012 and 2013, field trials were conducted near Rosemount, MN, to assess the movement and development of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) larvae on non-Bt refuge corn plants within a seed mixture of non-Bt and Bt corn. The Bt corn hybrid expressed three Bt toxins-Cry1Ab, Cry1F, and Vip3A. As the use of seed mixtures for insect resistance management (IRM) continues to be implemented, it is necessary to further characterize how this IRM approach impacts resistance development in ear-feeding Lepidopteran pests. The potential for Bt pollen movement and cross pollination of the non-Bt ears in a seed mixture may lead to Bt toxin exposure to larvae developing on those refuge ears. Larval movement and development by H. zea, feeding on non-Bt refuge plants adjacent to either transgenic Bt or non-Bt plants, were measured to investigate the potential for unintended Bt exposure. Non-Bt plants were infested with H. zea eggs and subplots were destructively sampled twice per week within each treatment to assess larval development, location, and kernel injury. Results indicate that H. zea larval movement between plants is relatively low, ranging from 2-16% of larvae, and occurs mainly after reaching the second instar. Refuge plants in seed mixtures did not produce equivalent numbers of H. zea larvae, kernel injury, and larval development differed as compared with a pure stand of non-Bt plants. This suggests that there may be costs to larvae developing on refuge plants within seed mixtures and additional studies are warranted to define potential impacts. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Larval and pupal stage of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in sweet and field corn genotypes Fases larval e pupal de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em genótipos de milho doce e comum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Santos

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Spodoptera frugiperda, the fall armyworm, is a very significant polyphagous pest due to the damages it causes, and control difficulties. Lack of information about its impact on sweet corn motivated a comparison of its biology, with respect to the larval and pupal stages, among the genotypes ELISA, BR 400 (sweet corns, and BR PAMPA (field corn. In laboratory conditions (25 ± 1ºC; 70 ± 10% RH; photophase 12 hours, 35 caterpillars were individualized and fed daily with 3.14 cm² sections of corn leaves from the referred-to genotypes, cultivated in plots in the experimental area of the Departament of Fitossanidade, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS from October to November 2000. The caterpillars were weighed daily; after each molt, the cephalic capsules were collected and measured (in width, to establish growth rate; pupae were weighed and sexed when 24 hours old. The duration of the larval instars, the pupal sex ratio, and the mortality of larvae and pupae were evaluated. In the first three instars there were no differences registered in capsule width. In the fourth and fifth instars, capsules of caterpillars kept in BR 400 were smaller. The weight of caterpillars and pupae, instar duration and sex ratio did not differ among the genotypes. Pupal phase duration was less in females kept in BR 400. Mortality was greater in the larval phase in ELISA and in the pupal phase in BR PAMPA.Spodoptera frugiperda, a lagarta-do-cartucho-do-milho, é uma praga polífaga de grande importância agrícola pelos danos e dificuldade de controle. A ausência de informações sobre seu impacto em milho doce motivou a comparação de sua biologia, no que tange as fases larval e pupal, entre os genótipos de milho ELISA, BR 400 (milhos doces e BR PAMPA (milho comum. Em condições de laboratório (25 ± 1ºC; 70 ± 10% UR; fotofase 12 horas, 35 lagartas foram individualizadas e alimentadas, diariamente, com seções de folhas de 3,14 cm² dos referidos genótipos, provenientes

  11. Preferência alimentar, efeito da planta hospedeira e da densidade larval na sobrevivência e desenvolvimento de Dione juno juno (Cramer (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae Feeding preference, host-plant and larval density effects on survivorship and growth rates of Dione juno juno (Cramer (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidica Bianchi

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Dez espécies de passifloraceas ocorrentes no Rio Grande do Sul foram avaliadas em relação à preferência alimentar e performance larval de Dione juno juno (Cramer, 1779 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae: Passifora alata Dryander, 1781; P. amethystina Mikan, 1820; P. caerulea Linnaeus, 1753; P. capsularis Linnaeus, 1753; P. edulis Sims, 1818; P. elegans Masters, 1872; P. misera Humbold, Bonpland et Kunth, 1817; P. suberosa Linnaeus, 1753; P. tenuifila Killip, 1927 e P. warmingii Masters, 1872. O efeito da densidade larval na performance foi também testado em P. edulis: grupos de uma, duas, quatro, oito, dezesseis, trinta e duas, e sessenta e quatro larvas. A preferência das larvas foi avaliada com base em teste utilizando-se discos foliares, com e sem chance de escolha. As larvas obtiveram maior sobrevivência em P. misera, P. tenuifila e P. edulis. Nenhuma sobreviveu em P. alata, P. capsularis, P. amesthystina, P. suberosa e P. warmingii. As larvas escolheram P. edulis nos testes com chance de escolha. Ingeriram quantidades semelhantes de P. tenuifila, P. misera e P. caerulea nos testes sem chance de escolha. A taxa de crescimento larval e o tamanho dos adultos foi maior quando criadas em P. misera, quando comparado com P. edulis. A sobrevivência foi significativamente reduzida nos grupos com uma, duas e quatro larvas, o que pode explicar em parte o comportamento gregário desta espécie. Concluiu-se que poucas espécies de passifloráceas além de P. edulis podem constituir-se em hospedeiras potenciais de D. juno juno no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Numa perspectiva ecológica, no entanto, muitas destas hospedeiras alternativas apresentam limitações a respeito de sua adequabilidade, tamanho ou abundância da planta.Ten passion vine species from Rio Grande do Sul were evaluated regarding larval feeding preference and performance of Dione juno juno (Cramer, 1779: Passifora alata Dryander, 1781; P. amethystina Mikan, 1820; P. caerulea Linnaeus

  12. Revision of Cryptaspasma Walsingham 1900 (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diakonoff, A.

    1959-01-01

    The genus Cryptaspasma comprises moths of moderate or rather large size, mostly of a "dark and earthy appearance", as Edward Meyrick once characterized them. These insects usually are of different shades of purplebrown to bronze-brown, with suffused blackish spots or retination. Although distributed

  13. A unique tortricid moth, Cydia alazon (Diakonoff, 1976), associated with the endemic pine (Pinus canariensis) in the Canary Islands, Spain (Tortricidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jaroš, Josef; Spitzer, Karel

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 129 (2005), s. 45-47 ISSN 0300-5267 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS5007015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Lepidoptera * Tortricidae * Cydia alazon Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  14. Chambered cuticle, pellicles, strange sensilla, and extraordinary muscle arrangements: a study of the micropterigid larval trunk (Lepidoptera: Micropterigidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Steen T K

    2014-07-01

    The larvsal trunk wall of Sabatinca chalcophanes (Meyrick, 1885), representing the "sabatincoid morphotype," is described (brightfield and polarization microscopies, scanning and transmission electron microscopies). Eight sensillum types are identified, including four previously undescribed subventral and ventral kinds. The cuticle is nonsolid, the exocuticle being chambered in a honeycomb-like fashion with chamber walls apparently secreted along epidermal cells boundaries. The chamber contents open to the exterior via minute pores in the chamber roofs. A space between endo and exocuticle communicates with the chamber interiors via pores in the chamber floors; the dense endocuticular surface in places form thickened domes. On the lower trunk region, lateral chamber walls are highly porous (lattice like), hence their contents are continuous; individual chamber roofs here are markedly convex, and the external trunk surface, therefore, papillate. The trunk surface is more or less completely covered by a pellicle, likely formed by exudates from the exocuticular chambers. Unusually for Lepidoptera all trunk muscles are slender strands covering a modest proportion of the inner trunk surface. Conspicuous insertion "nodes" are located at lateral and ventral segmental boundaries, ventromedially near segmental midlengths, and paramedially on the dorsum behind segmental midlengths. Overall similar cuticular specializations are also present in the distantly related Micropterix, strongly supporting micropterigid monophyly. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Comunicação científica eficiência de inseticidas à base de nim no controle de Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae Efficiency of neem insecticides in the control of Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oderlei Bernardi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi avaliar a eficiência de inseticidas à base de nim no controle da mariposa-oriental G. molesta em laboratório. A dieta artificial foi cortada em cubos e imersa nas caldas dos respectivos tratamentos; em seguida, lagartas recém-eclodidas foram transferidas para tubos de vidro, contendo os cubos de dieta tratados. Os produtos testados foram: NeemAzal-T/S®, Dalneem emulsionável®, Organic Neem® e Natuneem Agrícola® na concentração de 0,5% do produto comercial (p.c. em comparação com o inseticida químico fenitrotion (Sumithion 500 CE® a 0,15% p.c. e uma testemunha (água. Os inseticidas NeemAzal-T/S® e Dalneem emulsionável® apresentaram a mortalidade de 100% das lagartas, sendo eficientes no controle do inseto em condições de laboratório. Organic Neem® e Natuneem Agrícola® demonstraram menor atividade inseticida, ocasionando mortalidade de 73,5% e 22,5%, respectivamente; no entanto, afetaram significativamente a viabilidade larval.The objective was to evaluate the efficiency of neem insecticides in the control of oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta at laboratory. The artificial diet was cut in cubes and immersed in the syrups of the respective treatments, soon afterwards, recently-emerged caterpillars were transferred, for glass tubes, containing the diet cubes treated. The tested products were: NeemAzal-T/S®, Dalneem emulsionável®, Organic Neem® and Natuneem Agrícola® in the concentration of 0.5% of the commercial product (p.c. compared with the chemical insecticide fenitrotion (Sumithion 500 CE® to 0.15% p.c. and a witness (water. The insecticides NeemAzal-T/S® and Dalneem emulsionável® presented a mortality of 100% of the caterpillars being efficient in the control of the insect in laboratory conditions. Organic Neem® and Natuneem Agrícola® demonstrated lower insecticidal activity, causing mortality of 73.5% and 22.5% respectively, however, significantly affect the larval viability.

  16. [The functioning of the mitochondrial system and respiration at the 5th larval instar in Pieris brassicae (Lepidoptera)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillet, C; Fourche, J

    1980-01-01

    The profiles of respiratory rate, total proteins, mitochondrial proteins and mitochondrial activity have been described during the fifth instar of Pieris brassicae reared either under long-day or short-day photoperiod. There was no fundamental difference per unit of live weight between the long-day and short-day larvae. The biochemical characteristics of the larval mitochondria have been described, and the mitochondria were shown to oxidize succinate better than alpha-glycerophosphate. Two periods during the fifth instar were related to mitochondrial activity. During the first one, this specific activity was high during 50 to 60 p. 100 of the instar; it then decreased. This alteration was superimposed on changes in the hormonal balance. It is shown that the respiratory rate was not only a passive response to the energy demand, and that specific mitochondrial activity must be considered as a parameter of the development program.

  17. Conventional and organic soil fertility management practices affect corn plant nutrition and Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larval performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrell, Ebony G; Cullen, Eileen M

    2014-10-01

    Few studies compare how different soil fertilization practices affect plant mineral content and insect performance in organic systems. This study examined: 1) The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), larval response on corn (Zea mays L.) grown in field soils with different soil management histories; and 2) resilience of these plants to O. nubilalis herbivory. Treatments included: 1) standard organic--organically managed soil fertilized with dairy manure and 2 yr of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in the rotation; 2) basic cation saturation ratio--organically managed soil fertilized with dairy manure and alfalfa nitrogen credits, plus addition of gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) according to the soil balance hypothesis; and 3) conventional--conventionally managed soil fertilized with synthetic fertilizers. Corn plants were reared to maturity in a greenhouse, and then infested with 0-40 O. nubilalis larvae for 17 d. O. nubilalis exhibited negative competitive response to increasing larval densities. Mean development time was significantly faster for larvae consuming basic cation saturation ratio plants than those on standard organic plants, with intermediate development time on conventional plants. Neither total yield (number of kernels) nor proportion kernels damaged differed among soil fertility treatments. Soil nutrients differed significantly in S and in Ca:Mg and Ca:K ratios, but principal components analysis of plant tissue samples taken before O. nubilalis infestation showed that S, Fe, and Cu contributed most to differences in plant nutrient profiles among soil fertility treatments. Results demonstrate that different fertilization regimens can significantly affect insect performance within the context of organic systems, but the effects in this study were relatively minor compared with effects of intraspecific competition.

  18. Effects of Field-Relevant Concentrations of Clothianidin on Larval Development of the Butterfly Polyommatus icarus (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basley, Kate; Goulson, Dave

    2018-04-03

    Arable field margins are often sown with wildflowers to encourage pollinators and other beneficial or desirable insects such as bees and butterflies. Concern has been raised that these margins may be contaminated with systemic pesticides such as neonicotinoids used on the adjacent crop, and that this may negatively impact beneficial insects. The use of neonicotinoids has been linked to butterfly declines, and species such as the common blue butterfly ( Polyommatus icarus) that feed upon legumes commonly sown in arable field margins, may be exposed to such toxins. Here, we demonstrate that the larval food plants of P. icarus growing in an arable field margin adjacent to a wheat crop treated with the neonicotinoid clothianidin not only contain the pesticide at concentrations comparable to and sometimes higher than those found in foliage of treated crops (range 0.2-48 ppb) but also remain detectable at these levels for up to 21 months after sowing of the crop. Overall, our study demonstrates that nontarget herbivorous organisms in arable field margins are likely to be chronically exposed to neonicotinoids. Under laboratory conditions, exposure to clothianidin at 15 ppb (a field-realistic dose) or above reduced larval growth for the first 9 days of the experiment. Although there was evidence of clothianidin inducing mortality in larvae, with highest survival in control groups, the dose-response relationship was unclear. Our study suggests that larvae of this butterfly exhibit some deleterious sublethal and sometimes lethal impacts of exposure to clothianidin, but many larvae survive to adulthood even when exposed to high doses.

  19. Characterization of plant growth-promoting traits of bacteria isolated from larval guts of diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (lepidoptera: plutellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indiragandhi, P; Anandham, R; Madhaiyan, M; Sa, T M

    2008-04-01

    Eight bacterial isolates from the larval guts of Diamondback moths (Plutella xylostella) were tested for their plant growth-promoting (PGP) traits and effects on early plant growth. All of the strains tested positive for nitrogen fixation and indole 3-acetic acid (IAA) and salicylic acid production but negative for hydrogen cyanide and pectinase production. In addition, five of the isolates exhibited significant levels of tricalcium phosphate and zinc oxide solubilization; six isolates were able to oxidize sulfur in growth media; and four isolates tested positive for chitinase and beta-1,3-glucanase activities. Based on their IAA production, six strains including four that were 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase positive and two that were ACC deaminase negative were tested for PGP activity on the early growth of canola and tomato seeds under gnotobiotic conditions. Acinetobacter sp. PSGB04 significantly increased root length (41%), seedling vigor, and dry biomass (30%) of the canola test plants, whereas Pseudomonas sp. PRGB06 inhibited the mycelial growth of Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum coccodes, C. gleospoiroides, Rhizoctonia solani, and Sclerotia sclerotiorum under in vitro conditions. A significant increase, greater than that of the control, was also noted for growth parameters of the tomato test plants when the seeds were treated with PRGB06. Therefore, the results of the present study suggest that bacteria associated with insect larval guts possess PGP traits and positively influence plant growth. Therefore, insect gut bacteria as effective PGP agents represent an unexplored niche and may broaden the spectrum of beneficial bacteria available for crop production.

  20. Occurrence and larval movement of Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in seed mixes of non-Bt and Bt pyramid corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangila, David S; Leonard, B Rogers; Ghimire, Mukti N; Bai, Yaoyu; Zhang, Liping; Yang, Yunlong; Emfinger, Karla D; Head, Graham P; Yang, Fei; Niu, Ying; Huang, Fangneng

    2013-10-01

    Larval movement of target pest populations among Bt and non-Bt plants is a major concern in the use of a seed mixture refuge strategy for Bt resistance management. In this study, occurrence and larval movement of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), were evaluated in four planting patterns of non-Bt and Bt plants containing Genuity® SmartStax(TM) traits in 2009-2011. The four planting patterns were: (1) a pure stand of 27 Bt plants; (2) one non-Bt plant in the center, surrounded by 26 Bt plants; (3) a pure stand of 27 non-Bt plants; (4) one Bt plant in the center, surrounded by 26 non-Bt plants. Studies were conducted under four conditions: (1) open field with natural infestation; (2) greenhouse with artificial infestations; open field with artificial infestations (3) on the center plants only and (4) on every plant. The major objective of this study was to determine whether refuge plants in a seed mixture strategy could provide a comparable refuge population of D. saccharalis to a 'structured refuge' planting. Larvae of D. saccharalis showed the ability to move from infested plants to at least four plants away, as well as to adjacent rows, but the majority remained within the infested row. However, the number of larvae found on the non-Bt plants in the mixture plantings was not significantly reduced compared with the pure stand of non-Bt corn. The results of this study show that refuge plants in a seed mixture may be able to provide a comparable refuge population of D. saccharalis to a structured refuge planting. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Fund af småsommerfugle fra Danmark i 2009 (Lepidoptera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Otto; Falck, Per; Karsholt, Ole

    2010-01-01

    ; Coleophoridae 118; Tortricidae 383 and of Pyralidae 196; this results in a total of 1560 species of Microlepidoptera (families Micropterigidae-Pyralidae) found in Denmark. The total amount of Macrolepidoptera mentioned from Denmark is now 962, bringing the number of Danish Lepidoptera to a total of 2522 species....

  2. Fund af småsommerfugle fra Danmark i 2010 (Lepidoptera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Otto; Falck, Per; Karsholt, Ole

    2011-01-01

    ; Tortricidae 384; Epermeniidae 7; Pterophoridae 46 and Pyralidae 197; this results in a total of 1574 species of Microlepidoptera (families Micropterigidae-Pyralidae) found in Denmark. The total amount of Macrolepidoptera mentioned from Denmark is now 965, bringing the number of Danish Lepidoptera to a total...

  3. Biology, behavior, and larval morphology of Salbia lotanalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a potential biological control agent of Miconia calvescens (Myrtales: Melastomataceae) from Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander Castillo; M. Tracy Johnson; Francisco R. Badenes-Pérez

    2014-01-01

    The leaf roller Salbia lotanalis Druce (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a potential biological control agent of Miconia calvescens de Candolle (Melastomataceae), was studied in Costa Rica. Larvae were collected from a field site near San Jose and the insect was reared in the laboratory to study its biology and behavior. Chaetotaxy and...

  4. Are Adult Crambid Snout Moths (Crambinae) and Larval Stages of Lepidoptera Suitable Tools for an Environmental Monitoring of Transgenic Crops? - Implications of a Field Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Andreas; Dolek, Matthias; Theißen, Bernhard; Zapp, Andreas

    2011-08-10

    Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) have been suggested for the environmental monitoring of genetically modified (GM) crops due to their suitability as ecological indicators, and because of the possible adverse impact of the cultivation of current transgenic crops. The German Association of Engineers (VDI) has developed guidelines for the standardized monitoring of Lepidoptera describing the use of light traps for adult moths, transect counts for adult butterflies, and visual search for larvae. The guidelines suggest recording adults of Crambid Snout Moths during transect counts in addition to butterflies, and present detailed protocols for the visual search of larvae. In a field survey in three regions of Germany, we tested the practicability and effort-benefit ratio of the latter two VDI approaches. Crambid Snout Moths turned out to be suitable and practical indicators, which can easily be recorded during transect counts. They were present in 57% of the studied field margins, contributing a substantial part to the overall Lepidoptera count, thus providing valuable additional information to the monitoring results. Visual search of larvae generated results in an adequate effort-benefit ratio when searching for lepidopteran larvae of common species feeding on nettles. Visual search for larvae living on host plants other than nettles was time-consuming and yielded much lower numbers of recorded larvae. Beating samples of bushes and trees yielded a higher number of species and individuals. This method is especially appropriate when hedgerows are sampled, and was judged to perform intermediate concerning the relationship between invested sampling effort and obtained results for lepidopteran larvae. In conclusion, transect counts of adult Crambid Moths and recording of lepidopteran larvae feeding on nettles are feasible additional modules for an environmental monitoring of GM crops. Monitoring larvae living on host plants other than nettles and beating samples of bushes

  5. Are Adult Crambid Snout Moths (Crambinae) and Larval Stages of Lepidoptera Suitable Tools for an Environmental Monitoring of Transgenic Crops? — Implications of a Field Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Andreas; Dolek, Matthias; Theißen, Bernhard; Zapp, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) have been suggested for the environmental monitoring of genetically modified (GM) crops due to their suitability as ecological indicators, and because of the possible adverse impact of the cultivation of current transgenic crops. The German Association of Engineers (VDI) has developed guidelines for the standardized monitoring of Lepidoptera describing the use of light traps for adult moths, transect counts for adult butterflies, and visual search for larvae. The guidelines suggest recording adults of Crambid Snout Moths during transect counts in addition to butterflies, and present detailed protocols for the visual search of larvae. In a field survey in three regions of Germany, we tested the practicability and effort-benefit ratio of the latter two VDI approaches. Crambid Snout Moths turned out to be suitable and practical indicators, which can easily be recorded during transect counts. They were present in 57% of the studied field margins, contributing a substantial part to the overall Lepidoptera count, thus providing valuable additional information to the monitoring results. Visual search of larvae generated results in an adequate effort-benefit ratio when searching for lepidopteran larvae of common species feeding on nettles. Visual search for larvae living on host plants other than nettles was time-consuming and yielded much lower numbers of recorded larvae. Beating samples of bushes and trees yielded a higher number of species and individuals. This method is especially appropriate when hedgerows are sampled, and was judged to perform intermediate concerning the relationship between invested sampling effort and obtained results for lepidopteran larvae. In conclusion, transect counts of adult Crambid Moths and recording of lepidopteran larvae feeding on nettles are feasible additional modules for an environmental monitoring of GM crops. Monitoring larvae living on host plants other than nettles and beating samples of bushes

  6. Are Adult Crambid Snout Moths (Crambinae and Larval Stages of Lepidoptera Suitable Tools for an Environmental Monitoring of Transgenic Crops? — Implications of a Field Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera have been suggested for the environmental monitoring of genetically modified (GM crops due to their suitability as ecological indicators, and because of the possible adverse impact of the cultivation of current transgenic crops. The German Association of Engineers (VDI has developed guidelines for the standardized monitoring of Lepidoptera describing the use of light traps for adult moths, transect counts for adult butterflies, and visual search for larvae. The guidelines suggest recording adults of Crambid Snout Moths during transect counts in addition to butterflies, and present detailed protocols for the visual search of larvae. In a field survey in three regions of Germany, we tested the practicability and effort-benefit ratio of the latter two VDI approaches. Crambid Snout Moths turned out to be suitable and practical indicators, which can easily be recorded during transect counts. They were present in 57% of the studied field margins, contributing a substantial part to the overall Lepidoptera count, thus providing valuable additional information to the monitoring results. Visual search of larvae generated results in an adequate effort-benefit ratio when searching for lepidopteran larvae of common species feeding on nettles. Visual search for larvae living on host plants other than nettles was time-consuming and yielded much lower numbers of recorded larvae. Beating samples of bushes and trees yielded a higher number of species and individuals. This method is especially appropriate when hedgerows are sampled, and was judged to perform intermediate concerning the relationship between invested sampling effort and obtained results for lepidopteran larvae. In conclusion, transect counts of adult Crambid Moths and recording of lepidopteran larvae feeding on nettles are feasible additional modules for an environmental monitoring of GM crops. Monitoring larvae living on host plants other than nettles and beating

  7. Effect of nitrogen on Passiflora suberosa L. (Passifloraceae) and consequences for larval performance and oviposition in Heliconius erato phyllis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerpel, Solange M; Soprano, Eliséo; Moreira, Gilson R P

    2006-01-01

    The present study examines the influence of nitrogen on growth rates, morphological and nutritional characteristics of Passiflora suberosa L., and the corresponding consequences for Heliconius erato phyllis (Fabricius) growth and oviposition. The treatments consisted of different nitrogen doses (0, 150 and 300 mg L(-1)) applied to the soil. Newly emerged larvae were individually reared in the laboratory (25+/-1 degree C) on branches of P. suberosa obtained from plants grown under the three nitrogen levels, and field collected females were submitted to oviposition choice tests. P. suberosa growth rates, leaf area and internode length increased significantly when grown with nitrogen enriched soil. P. suberosa presented significantly greater leaf toughness when grown without nitrogen addition. Leaves of this species also presented lower water content and toughness. Nitrogen addition increased the concentration of nitrogen and potassium on plant leaf tissues. The greater nitrogen concentration on plants did not affect H. erato phyllis larval survival, but led to a reduction in larval development time and increased adult size. Females significantly preferred to lay eggs in plants cultivated in nitrogen enriched soil. This choice was positively correlated with larval performance, which could be a possible explanation for the maintenance of that behaviour, as well as the choice of larger branches as reported in previous studies.

  8. Developmental and hormone-induced changes of mitochondrial electron transport chain enzyme activities during the last instar larval development of maize stem borer, Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    VenkatRao, V; Chaitanya, R K; Naresh Kumar, D; Bramhaiah, M; Dutta-Gupta, A

    2016-12-01

    The energy demand for structural remodelling in holometabolous insects is met by cellular mitochondria. Developmental and hormone-induced changes in the mitochondrial respiratory activity during insect metamorphosis are not well documented. The present study investigates activities of enzymes of mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) namely, NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase or complex I, Succinate: ubiquinone oxidoreductase or complex II, Ubiquinol:ferricytochrome c oxidoreductase or complex III, cytochrome c oxidase or complex IV and F 1 F 0 ATPase (ATPase), during Chilo partellus development. Further, the effect of juvenile hormone (JH) analog, methoprene, and brain and corpora-allata-corpora-cardiaca (CC-CA) homogenates that represent neurohormones, on the ETC enzyme activities was monitored. The enzymatic activities increased from penultimate to last larval stage and thereafter declined during pupal development with an exception of ATPase which showed high enzyme activity during last larval and pupal stages compared to the penultimate stage. JH analog, methoprene differentially modulated ETC enzyme activities. It stimulated complex I and IV enzyme activities, but did not alter the activities of complex II, III and ATPase. On the other hand, brain homogenate declined the ATPase activity while the injected CC-CA homogenate stimulated complex I and IV enzyme activities. Cumulatively, the present study is the first to show that mitochondrial ETC enzyme system is under hormone control, particularly of JH and neurohormones during insect development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Interaction between larval α-amylase of the tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae and proteinaceous extracts from plant seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeily Mojtaba

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, is one of the most destructive pest of solanaceae and it prefers tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of a wide range of seed proteinaceous extracts from different plant families against T. absoluta α-amylase activity. The effect of pH on the inhibitory activity of seed extracts showed that seed extracts of amaranth along with a wheat cultivar (Alvand, Aflak, Sarvdasht, Alborz, and Kavir produced more than a 50% inhibition of the insect amylase. Aflak wheat seed extract at 10 μg, inhibited 81% of the insect amylase. This percent was the highest inhibition achieved. The other proteinaceous seed extracts had a lower effect on the enzymatic activity. Probit analysis showed that Aflak, Kavir, Alborz, Alvand, Sarvdasht, and amaranth inhibited the amylase activity with an I50 of 1.94, 3.24, 3.46, 3.31, 4.97, and 15.39 μg, respectively. The effect of pH on the inhibition of the α-amylase showed the highest inhibition of Amaranth and wheat, at a pH value of 8.0, which corresponds to the pH of the insect’s gut. Gel electrophoresis assays confirmed the spectrophotometric assays showing that the α-amylase of the insect gut was affected by the presence of the seed extracts. In the gel assay, a high concentration (14 μg protein of amaranth proteinaceous seed extract greatly decreased the intensity of the α-amylase band. A high concentration of the Aflak wheat cultivar (10 μg protein caused the disappearance of the amylase band in the gel. Thus, it is concluded that the physiochemical environment of the insect gut affects the interaction between digestive α-amylase and the metabolites. The experiments showed that seed proteinaceous extracts from non-host plant species, produced more inhibition of the insect amylase when compared to the host plant species. It appears that with evolution, adaptation took place so that insect

  10. Characterization of the Mamestra configurata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larval midgut protease complement and adaptation to feeding on artificial diet, Brassica species, and protease inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandson, Martin A; Hegedus, Dwayne D; Baldwin, Douglas; Noakes, Amy; Toprak, Umut

    2010-10-01

    The midgut protease profiles from 5th instar Mamestra configurata larvae fed various diets (standard artificial diet, low protein diet, low protein diet with soybean trypsin inhibitor [SBTI], or Brassica napus) were characterized by one-dimensional enzymography in gelatin gels. The gut protease profile of larvae fed B. napus possessed protease activities of molecular masses of approximately 33 and 55 kDa, which were not present in the guts of larvae fed artificial diet. Similarly, larvae fed artificial diet had protease activities of molecular masses of approximately 21, 30, and 100 kDa that were absent in larvae fed B. napus. Protease profiles changed within 12 to 24 h after switching larvae from artificial diet to plant diet and vice versa. The gut protease profiles from larvae fed various other brassicaceous species and lines having different secondary metabolite profiles did not differ despite significant differences in larval growth rates on the different host plants. Genes encoding putative digestive proteolytic enzymes, including four carboxypeptidases, five aminopeptidases, and 48 serine proteases, were identified in cDNA libraries from 4th instar M. configurata midgut tissue. Many of the protease-encoding genes were expressed at similar levels on all diets; however, three chymoptrypsin-like genes (McSP23, McSP27, and McSP37) were expressed at much higher levels on standard artificial diet and diet containing SBTI as was the trypsin-like gene McSP34. The expression of the trypsin-like gene McSP50 was highest on B. napus. The adaptation of M. configurata digestive biochemistry to different diets is discussed in the context of the flexibility of polyphagous insects to changing diet sources.

  11. Labeling Feral Spruce Budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Populations With Rubidium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, Wayne; Eveleigh, Eldon; Silk, Peter; Forbes, Glen

    2016-04-01

    Rubidium (Rb) is a trace element that occurs naturally in low concentrations and is easily absorbed by plants, making it a useful tool for labeling insect defoliators, such as spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana Clemens). Balsam fir trees (Abies balsamea (L.) Miller) injected with either 8 or 16 g per tree of rubidium chloride (RbCl) showed quick uptake and distribution throughout the crown, with no negative effects on tree shoot growth or spruce budworm survival and development. Adult spruce budworm that fed as larvae on trees injected with RbCl were clearly labeled, with significantly higher Rb concentrations than the background levels found in adults that fed as larvae on control trees. Rb concentrations in feral spruce budworm adults for both the 8 g (9 µg/g) and 16 g (25 µg/g) per tree treatments were at least five times lower than those in laboratory-reared adults on 1,000 µg/g RbCl diet (125 µg/g); survival, development, pupal weight, sex ratio, and mating status of spruce budworm were not adversely affected by Rb treatment. Egg masses laid by feral females that fed as larvae on Rb-labeled trees were also labeled with Rb. Injecting trees with RbCl is a viable technique for labeling feral spruce budworm populations to help distinguish local populations from immigrants to better evaluate the success of early intervention strategies such as mating disruption. © Crown copyright 2016.

  12. Tortricidae (Lepidoptera from the Fiji Islands, part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razowski Józef

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Forty-seven species are discussed. One new genus (Daedaluncus gen. n. and 15 new species (Adoxophyes vitilevu sp. n., Adoxophyes niuwudi sp. n., Atriscripta strigana sp. n., Helictophanes saccifera sp. n., Loboschiza oxybela sp. n., Epinotia prepuncus sp. n., Daedaluncus fijiensis sp. n., Coenobiodes vitiae sp. n., Tritopterna rakiraki sp. n., Spilosoma oligospina sp. n., Strepsicrates rotundata sp. n., Eccoptocera platamon sp. n., Herpystis sunia sp. n., Herpystis spinoa sp. n., Cryptophlebia ferrugulla sp. n. are described and illustrated.

  13. The case for a generic phytosanitary irradiation dose of 250 Gy for Lepidoptera eggs and larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Guy J.; Arthur, Valter; Blackburn, Carl M.; Parker, Andrew G.

    2013-08-01

    The literature on ionizing irradiation of Lepidoptera is critically examined for a dose that could serve as a generic phytosanitary treatment for all eggs and larvae of that order, which contains many quarantine pests that inhibit trade in fresh agricultural commodities. The measure of efficacy used in deriving this dose is the prevention of emergence of normal-looking adults that are assumed not able to fly. A dose of 250 Gy is supported by many studies comprising 34 species in 11 lepidopteran families, including those of significant quarantine importance. Two studies with two different species found that doses >250 Gy were necessary, but both of these are contradicted by other studies showing that 10,000 individuals) testing for families other than Tortricidae (the most important quarantine family in the Lepidoptera). Because several large-scale studies have been done with tortricids a dose of 250 Gy could be justifiable for Tortricidae if it is not acceptable for the entire Lepidoptera at this time.

  14. Primer registro de Hypercompe indecisa (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Arctiinae en perales y álamos en la Patagonia First record of Hypercompe indecisa (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Arctiinae on pear trees and poplars in Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Dapoto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La región del Alto Valle de Río Negro y Neuquén es la zona más importante de producción de frutas de pepita de la Argentina. La principal plaga de estos cultivos es Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera:Tortricidae. Los cambios implementados en las estrategias de control, principalmente la generalización del uso de la Técnica de Confusión Sexual, han causado en los últimos años cambios en la biodiversidad en esos cultivos. Durante la temporada 2008/09, en un establecimiento frutícola de producción orgánica en Vista Alegre (Neuquén, fue detectada Hypercompe indecisa (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, produciendo graves daños en frutos y hojas de perales y sobre el follaje de Populus spp. Se cita por primera vez H. indecisa para la Patagonia y el primer hallazgo de esta especie sobre Populus spp. y Pyrus communis L.The Alto Valle of Río Negro and Neuquén is the main production zone of pomme fruits from Argentina. The main pest is Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae. Changes operated in control strategies in the last years have brought changes in the biodiversity of fruit orchards. During the season 2008/09, Hypercompe indecisa (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae was detected in a fruit establishment of Vista Alegre (Neuquén under organic production causing serious damages on fruits and leaves of pear trees and in the leaves of Populus spp. Hypercompe indecisa is reported for the first time in Patagonia and is the first record of this species on Populus spp.and Pyrus communis L.

  15. Effect of insecticide on the irradiated tropical warehouse moth,Cadra cautella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Phycitidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faruki, S.I.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of the synthetic pyrethroids, Fenom(r) on the gamma- irradiated Tropical Warehouse Moth, Cadra cautella (Walker)(Lepidoptera: Phycitidae) larvae have been studied. Both theinsecticide and gamma irradiation either singly or in combination,significantly increased larval mortality and developmental periods.The pupation and adult eclosion, reproductive potential and longevity of the adults from treated larvae were significantly decreased

  16. The effect of nitrogen fertilizer application to maize and sorghum on the bionomics of Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and the performance of its larval parasitoid Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, N; Schulthess, F

    2005-12-01

    Laboratory and field trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of plant species (maize, sorghum), plant age (young, middle, old) and four different nitrogen fertilization levels (N0-N3) on the bionomics of the invasive crambid Chilo partellus and the performance of its braconid larval parasitoid Cotesia flavipes. Plant N varied significantly between N0 and N1-N3, but the differences among the latter were not significant. Intrinsic rates of increase and net-reproductive rates of C. partellus followed the same trends: they were lowest with N0 and similar among the other treatments. On maize only, mortality of C. partellus and parasitism by C. flavipes tended to decrease with age of the plant while the percentage of borers reaching adulthood (i.e. pupation) increased. Borer mortality and parasitism was lower and pupation higher on sorghum than on maize. On both host plants, percent dry matter content of frass, which could affect ingress of the parasitoid into the borer tunnel, did not vary with nitrogen level but varied with age of the host plants: on maize, it was highest on young plants and on sorghum on old plants. Tunnels were shorter on young maize and sorghum plants; longer tunnels on older plants indicated compensatory feeding by the larva as a result of lower nutritive value of the food source. Consequently, larval weight was lower on older than younger plants. The level of nitrogen fertilization had no effect on food conversion efficiency of C. partellus. Nitrogen did not affect number of C. flavipes progeny while egg load of progeny increased significantly with nitrogen level, on both plant species. Differences in egg load between sorghum and maize were mostly not significant. It was concluded that on depleted soils only, an increase in nitrogen via mulching, rotation with a leguminous crop or fertilization would increase survival of C. partellus on both maize and sorghum and an increase in acreage of maize and in application of nitrogen fertilizer in an

  17. sur Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera : Plutellidae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficacité d'extraits de feuilles de neem Azadirachta indica (Sapindale) sur Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera : Plutellidae), Hellula undalis (Lepidoptera : Pyralidae) et Lipaphis erysimi (Hemiptera : Aphididae) du chou Brassica oleracea (Brassicaceae) da.

  18. iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics analysis of molecular mechanisms associated with Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera) larval midgut response to BmNPV in susceptible and near-isogenic strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haizhong; Wang, Xueyang; Xu, Jiaping; Ma, Yan; Zhang, Shangzhi; Yu, Dong; Fei, Dongqiong; Muhammad, Azharuddin

    2017-08-08

    Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) has been identified as a major pathogen responsible for severe economic loss. Most silkworm strains are susceptible to BmNPV, with only a few highly resistant strains thus far identified. Here we investigated the molecular basis of silkworm resistance to BmNPV using susceptible (the recurrent parent P50) and resistant (near-isogenic line BC9) strains and a combination of iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics, reverse-transcription quantitative PCR and Western blotting. By comparing the proteomes of infected and non-infected P50 and BC9 silkworms, we identified 793 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs). By gene ontology and KEGG enrichment analyses, we found that these DEPs are preferentially involved in metabolism, catalytic activity, amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism and carbon metabolism. 114 (14.38%) DEPs were associated with the cytoskeleton, immune response, apoptosis, ubiquitination, translation, ion transport, endocytosis and endopeptidase activity. After removing the genetic background and individual immune stress response proteins, we identified 84 DEPs were found that are potentially involved in resistance to BmNPV. Further studies showed that a serine protease was down-regulated in P50 and up-regulated in BC9 after BmNPV infection. Taken together, these results provide insights into the molecular mechanism of silkworm response to BmNPV. Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) is highly pathogenic, causing serious losses in sericulture every year. However, the molecular mechanisms of BmNPV infection and host defence remain unclear. Here we combined quantitative proteomic, bioinformatics, RT-qPCR and Western blotting analyses and found that BmNPV invasion causes complex protein alterations in the larval midgut, and that these changes are related to cytoskeleton, immune response, apoptosis, ubiquitination, translation, ion transport, endocytosis and endopeptidase activity. Five important differentially

  19. A new case constructing adelid moth from Chile (Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Parra

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A new case constructing adelid moth from Chile (Lepidoptera. The adult and larva of Ceromitia tubulifolia sp. nov. are described and illustrated. The larvae seem to be associated with sclerophyllous forest of central Chile. The larvae make a protective case from of a piece of leaf. The name phylloikos is proposed for this form of larval case. A review of the morphology and bionomics of this species are provided.Uma nova mariposa Adelidae (Lepidoptera construtora de casulo do Chile. O adulto e a larva de Ceromitia tubulifolia sp. nov. são descritos e ilustrados. As larvas parecem estar associadas à mata esclerófila do Chile central. A larva utiliza um pedaço de folha para construir uma estrutura protetora denominada phylloikos. Comentários sobre aspectos morfológicos e bionômicos da espécie são apresentados.

  20. Anholts sommerfugle (Lepidoptera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsholt, Ole; Bygebjerg, Rune; Meedom, Peter

    2008-01-01

      The Lepidoptera fauna of the Danish island of Anholt is surveyed, and 1160 species are recorded. Anholt is situated in Kattegat 44 km from Denmark and 47 km from Sweden. The history and environment of the island are briefly discussed, with special focus on the flora, and earlier studies...... of the Lepidopterera fauna of Anholt are dealt with. The present study is in first hand based on material collected by the late Ebbe Schmidt Nielsen and the authors, partly in the 1970's and partly in more recent years. The material do not permit a general comparison between the status of the Lepidoptera fauna...

  1. The preimaginal stages of Pnigalio gyamiensis Myartseva & Kurashev, 1990 (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae, a parasitoid associated with Chrysoesthia sexguttella (Thunberg (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Еkaterina Yegorenkova

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The larval instars of Pnigalio gyamiensis Myartseva and Kurashev are described in detail for the first time. This species is a larval-pupal ectoparasitoid of Chrysoesthia sexguttella (Thunberg (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae, which forms leaf mines in the plant Chenopodium album L. (Caryophyllales: Amaranthaceae. The female of P. gyamiensis lays a single egg on the skin of the host larva or nearby it, without any significant preference for a particular variant. The presence of long hairs on its body provides the newly-hatched first larval instar with high mobility. Some peculiarities in this parasitoid-host relationship are described.

  2. A food plant specialist in Sparganothini? A new genus and species from Costa Rica (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparganocosma docsturnerorum Brown, new genus and new species, is described and illustrated from Area de Conservación (ACG) in northwestern Costa Rica. The new genus shares a long, crescent- or ribbon-shaped signum in the corpus bursae of the female genitalia with Aesiocopa Zeller, 1877, Amorbia Cle...

  3. Reproductive behaviour of Crocidosema (=Epinotia) aporema (Walsingham) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): temporal pattern of female calling and mating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altesor, Paula; Arcia, Maria P.; Rossini, Carmen; Gonzalez, Andres; Horas, Vanusa R; Zarbin, Paulo H.G.

    2010-01-01

    Crocidosema aporema (Walsingham) is a major pest of legumes in the southern cone of Latin America. The mating behaviour of two allopatric populations (Uruguay and Brazil) of C. aporema kept in captivity was studied by observing the posture of calling females, the temporal pattern of pheromone emission and mating, and the response of males to calling females in olfactometer tests. Female calling and mating was observed during the scotophase, from the fi rst to the seventh night after adult emergence. Male response was evaluated at night using a single calling female in a Y-shaped olfactometer. Females adopted a characteristic calling posture, extruding the pheromone gland from the tip of the abdomen. Most females started calling during the second scotophase, and all females called from the third, between the fifth and seventh hours after the onset of the scotophase. Most of the couples mated once throughout the experiment, between the third and sixth night and during the middle of the dark phase. Males preferentially chose the female arm in olfactometer tests, considering both the fi rst arm chosen and the number of visits during the observation period. Our results describe for the fi rst time the temporal pattern associated to the reproductive behaviour of C. aporema. We also provide evidence that this tortricid is monoandrous, and that pheromones are used in intersexual communication for mate finding. Our data will be used to optimize the collection of female sex pheromones for chemical characterization in order to develop a monitoring tool for this pest. (author)

  4. A new species of Clepsis Guenee, 1845 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from the Sky Islands of southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clepsis sangreyana, new species, is described and illustrated from the “sky islands” (i.e., Chiricahua, Huachuca, and Santa Rita mountains) of southeastern Arizona, U.S.A. Superficially, it is most similar to Argyrotaenia dorsalana (Dyar, 1903), but it is assigned unambiguously to Clepsis Guenée on ...

  5. Distribution Characteristics of Eggs and Neonate Larvae of Codling Moth, (L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher H. Wearing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Literature is reviewed on the spatial distribution of the eggs and neonate larvae of codling moth on apple trees in relation to research conducted in Nelson, New Zealand. At Nelson, oviposition increased with height and was greater in the north and east of the trees and in those with greater fruit load in some seasons, which matches published reports. All publications and the research recorded high percentages of eggs laid singly within 10–15 cm of the fruit, with most eggs on leaves even within fruit clusters; oviposition on fruit clusters of different sizes was nonrandom because more eggs were laid on those with more fruit, but the aggregation of both per cluster and within clusters was even greater than that caused by the fruit number alone. Oviposition at random with respect to the fruit occurred only at very low population density. The choice of oviposition site between fruit and the adaxial leaf surface and abaxial leaf surface (AbLS was variable and cultivar related. Cultivars on which eggs predominated on the AbLS were less frequent and characterized by low trichome density. In the literature, neonate larvae from eggs on the AbLS suffered greater mortality, as did those in Nelson that hatched more distant from the fruit. This review discusses the interaction between these distribution characteristics and species-specific host–plant volatiles, egg adhesion to plant surfaces, oviposition deterrents, predation, and their relevance to pest management.

  6. Susceptibility, Oviposition Preference, and Biology of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Prunus Spp. Rootstock Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, D; Lazzari, J C; Andreazza, F; Mayer, N A; Botton, M; Nava, D E

    2017-08-01

    Studying the susceptibility of peach trees to Grapholita molesta (Busck) is one of the major steps in the development of pest-resistant peach varieties. This work evaluated the susceptibility of 55 genotypes of the "Prunus Rootstock Collection" ("Coleção Porta-enxerto de Prunus") of Embrapa Temperate Climate (Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil) to the natural infestation of G. molesta, assessed the oviposition preference of G. molesta in choice and no-choice bioassays, and estimated the biological parameters and the fertility life table on different Prunus spp. genotypes in the laboratory. Genotypes Prunus kansuensis (Rehder), I-67-52-9, and I-67-52-4 were the most susceptible to G. molesta infestation in the field (>60% of branches infested), while 'Sharpe' (Prunus angustifolia x Prunus spp.) and Prunus sellowii (Koehne) were the least infested (0% of branches infested). In choice and no-choice bioassays, G. molesta preferred to oviposit on P. kansuensis when compared with Sharpe. The Sharpe genotype also showed an antibiosis effect, resulting in negative effects on the fertility life table parameters when compared with the genotypes P. kansuensis and 'Capdeboscq.' The results found in the present study can provide information to initiate a long-term breeding program moving desired G. molesta resistance traits from the rootstock into the Prunus spp. cultivars. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) phenology and management with methoxyfenozide in North Carolina apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchert, Daniel M; Stinner, Ronald E; Walgenbach, James F; Kennedy, George G

    2004-08-01

    The phenology of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), on apple (Malus spp.) in North Carolina was studied using pheromone traps and egg sampling in abandoned and commercial orchards in 2000 and 2001, with subsequent development of an oviposition degree-day model and management studies in relation to codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), phenology. Oriental fruit moth eggs were found in greater numbers on leaves early and on fruit later in the growing season, on the top versus the bottom of the leaf surface, and on the calyx area versus the side or stem end of the fruit. A degree-day (DD) model to predict oriental fruit moth oviposition was developed based on temperature accumulations from peak moth trap capture of the first (overwintering) generation, by using 7.2 and 32.2 degrees C as the temperature limits. The model predicted four ovipositing generations of oriental fruit moth with the second beginning 507 DD after peak moth catch. Using predictions of the oriental fruit moth and codling moth degree-day oviposition models, an experiment was conducted to determine the level of second generation oriental fruit moth control with methoxyfenozide applied under different scenarios for first generation codling moth. Methoxyfenozide was equally effective in managing codling moth and oriental fruit moth for all treatment timings.

  8. Integrated control of oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in peach orchards using insecticide and mating disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, R M; Pree, D J; Carter, N J

    2001-04-01

    The efficacy of an integrated and a conventional oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), control program was compared using 4-ha blocks of peach at three Niagara Peninsula farms during 1997-1999. In the integrated program, chlorpyrifos was used to control first-generation larvae and mating disruption using Isomate M100 pheromone dispensers was used to control the second and third generations. In the conventional program, chlorpyrifos was used to control first-generation larvae and pyrethroids were used to control larvae of the later generations. The average release rate of pheromone was 23.7-26.4 mg/ha/h over a period of 86-91 d. The pheromone treatment reduced the capture of moths in pheromone-baited traps on average by 98%, suggesting a high level of disruption. The integrated program provided control of oriental fruit moth similar to the control provided by a conventional program. The mean percentage of peach shoots infested with first- and second-generation larvae, and fruit infested with third-generation larvae was not significantly greater in the integrated-program blocks during the 3-yr study. The elimination of insecticide sprays from the integrated-program blocks did not result in an increase in damage caused by plant bugs. The incidence of damage caused by other pests was negligible in both the integrated and conventional blocks.

  9. Susceptibility of male oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) populations from New Jersey apple orchards to azinphosmethyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usmani, K A; Shearer, P W

    2001-02-01

    Toxicological responses to azinphosmethyl of male Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), from five commercial orchards in which control failures had occurred were examined for azinphosmethyl resistance and for potential resistance mechanisms by using topical pheromone trap bioassay and compared with a reference population that had no history of control failure and had received little selection pressure. The 1998 field survey indicated moderate level of resistance to azinphosmethyl (2.7-4.1-fold); slopes of regressions lines (2.47-2.76) indicate genetically heterogeneous populations. An approximate twofold decline was observed between the fourth flight of 1998 and the first flight of 1999, suggesting the presence of unstable resistance in moths collected from these study sites. The 1999 field surveys indicated lower levels of tolerance to azinphosmethyl. The resistance ratios ranged from 1.17 to 1.86 during the first flight of 1999 and 1.24-2.64 during the fourth flight of 1999. Steep slopes of the concentration-response lines during 1999 season indicated the presence of genetically homogeneous populations with some exceptions. A 1.5-2.0-fold increase was observed between the first and fourth flights of 1999, indicating that resistance can build up during the growing season. S,S,S,-tri-n-butyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF), but not piperonyl butoxide, significantly enhanced the toxicity of azinphosmethyl, suggesting that enhanced metabolism by esterases is involved in the tolerance of azinphosmethyl in moths collected from these study sties.

  10. Management of insecticide resistance in Oriental fruit moth (Grapholita molesta; Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) populations from Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanga, Lambert H B; Pree, David J; van Lier, Jennifer L; Walker, Gerald M

    2003-08-01

    The development of resistance in the Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) to organophosphorus (OP) insecticides (azinphos-methyl and phosmet) is a serious threat to the tender fruit industry in Ontario (50% crop losses in 1994). Resistance to carbamate insecticides and increased survival of field-collected moths at diagnostic concentrations of pyrethroids were widespread. As a result, four different treatment regimes were tested to manage resistance in G molesta, and the changes in resistance frequencies under each treatment regime were monitored from 1996 to 1999. The data indicated that the levels of resistance were significantly influenced by the various treatment regimes. The seasonal pattern of resistance was similar for all treatment regimes, in that resistance peaked in mid-season and declined in the late season. Levels of resistance in G molesta to OPs decreased from 55% to 14% and that to pyrethroids declined from 30% to 10% from 1996 to 1999 under a treatment regime consisting of endosulfan-organophosphate-pyrethroid rotation. Similarly, under a treatment regime implemented in commercial orchards (organophosphate-pyrethroid rotation), resistance to OP insecticides declined from 50% to 12% and resistance to pyrethroids evolved to around 16%. The overall data indicated that resistance was unstable; a strategy based on rotation of insecticides by class for each generation of G molesta was successful in managing resistance to both OP and pyrethroid insecticides. The rotational strategy has been widely adopted by growers and is applied to ca 85% of the acreage.

  11. Response of female Cydia molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to plant derived volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, S; Natale, D; Mattiacci, L; Hern, A; Pasqualini, E; Dorn, S

    2003-08-01

    Peach shoot volatiles were attractive to mated female oriental fruit moth, Cydia molesta (Busck), in a dual choice arena. No preference was observed between leaf odours from the principle host plant, peach, and the secondary host plant, apple. Twenty-two compounds were identified in headspace volatiles of peach shoots using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Green leaf volatiles accounted for more than 50% of the total emitted volatiles. A bioassay-assisted fractionation using different sorbent polymers indicated an attractant effect of compounds with a chain length of 6-8 carbon atoms. The major compounds of this fraction were tested either singly or in combinations for behavioural response of females. Significant bioactivity was found for a three-component mixture of (Z)-3-hexen-1-yl acetate, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol and benzaldehyde in a 4:1:1 ratio. This synthetic mixture elicited a similar attractant effect as the full natural blend from peach shoots as well as the bioactive fraction.

  12. Ionizing irradiation quarantine treatment against oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in ambient and hypoxic atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Guy J

    2004-06-01

    Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), is a pest of many rosaceous temperate fruits, including pomes, Malus spp., and stone fruits, Prunus spp., in much of the world. However, some areas are free of the pest, and shipments of fruit hosts from infested to noninfested areas may be regulated. Current quarantine treatments for oriental fruit moth include methyl bromide fumigation and cold storage for several weeks. Methyl bromide use is being restricted because it is a stratospheric ozone-depleting substance, and alternatives are sought. Cold is not tolerated by many hosts of oriental fruit moth. The objective of this research was to develop irradiation quarantine treatments against the pest under ambient and hypoxic storage conditions because some hosts of oriental fruit moth are stored in hypoxic atmospheres, and hypoxia is known to lessen the effects of irradiation. In ambient atmospheres, no adults emerged from 58,779 fifth instars (the most radiotolerant stage present in fruit) irradiated with a target dose of 200 Gy (195-232 Gy measured). In atmospheres flushed with nitrogen, 5.3% of adults emerged from 44,050 fifth instars irradiated with a target dose of 200 Gy (194-230 Gy measured), but they died at a faster rate than control adults and without laying eggs. A dose of 232 Gy (the maximum recorded when 200 Gy was targeted) is recommended to disinfest any fruit of oriental fruit moth under ambient and hypoxic atmospheres.

  13. Geographic variation in diapause induction: the grape berry moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timer, Jody; Tobin, Patrick C; Saunders, Michael C

    2010-12-01

    Diapause in insects occurs in response to environmental cues, such as changes in photoperiod, and it is a major adaptation by which insects synchronize their activity with biotic resources and environmental constraints. For multivoltine agricultural insect pests, diapause initiation is an important consideration in management decisions, particularly toward the end of the growing season. The grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana (Clemens), is the main insect pest affecting viticulture, and this insect responds to postsummer solstice photoperiods to initiate diapause. Because the range of grape berry moth extends from southern Canada to the southern United States, different populations are exposed to different photoperiodic regimes. We quantified the diapause response in grape berry moth populations from Arkansas, Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Texas, and Virginia, and observed latitudinal variation in diapause initiation. Populations from Michigan, New York, and Pennsylvania responded significantly different than those from Arkansas, Texas, and Virginia. We also observed, as a consequence of our experiments, that the timing of our laboratory studies influenced grape berry moth's response to photoperiod, ceteris paribus. Experiments that were conducted when grape berry moth would be naturally in diapause resulted in a significant higher proportion of diapausing pupae at photoperiods (i.e., >15 h) that generally do not induce diapause, suggesting that attention should be paid to the timing of behavioral and physiological experiments on insects. This relationship between photoperiod and diapause induction in grape berry moth across geographic regions will provide applicable knowledge to improve pest management decisions. © 2010 Entomological Society of America

  14. Cutting wild grapevines as a cultural control strategy for grape berry moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Paul E; Isaacs, Rufus

    2007-02-01

    A 3-yr field study was conducted at commercial grape farms to evaluate cutting wild grapevines as a cultural control strategy for grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana (Clemens). At each farm, wild grapevines were cut in the woods adjacent to one vineyard for control of P. viteana, whereas the comparison vineyard received no such cutting. Both vineyards received a standard broad-spectrum insecticide program for control of P. viteana and other vineyard insect pests. Monitoring with pheromone traps showed no differences between treatments in the total number of male moths trapped in both woods and vineyards. Egglaying by P. viteana was similar between the two wild grape cutting treatments in all 3 yr. During weekly samples of crop infestation by P. viteana, no differences were observed between programs in the percent of clusters infested by P. viteana larvae. Berries infested by P. viteana were collected from vineyard borders during the second and third P. viteana generations and held under controlled conditions. In all but one sample, survival of P. viteana larvae was similar between the two wild grape cutting treatments, parasitism of P. viteana larvae within vineyards was similar between the two wild grape cutting treatments on all sample dates, and similar captures of natural enemies were found on yellow sticky traps in the two treatments throughout the study. The opportunities and benefits of cutting wild grapevines as a cultural control in grape integrated pest management programs in eastern North America are discussed.

  15. Tillage Reduces Survival of Grape Berry Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), via Burial Rather Than Mechanical Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlock, Jason M; Isaacs, Rufus; Grieshop, Matthew

    2017-02-01

    The grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana (Clemens), is a key pest of vineyards in eastern North America that overwinters as pupae in leaf litter on the vineyard floor. This presents an opportunity for tillage to disturb and bury the pupae, providing a potential nonchemical approach to control of this pest. Using a Lilleston-style rotary cultivator, we determined the distribution of pupae within the soil profile after single tillage passes, measured the type and severity of damage inflicted on pupae, and investigated how these effects on pupae influenced their survival. Survivorship of pupae recovered from the vineyard immediately after tillage and held until emergence was not significantly different from those recovered from an untilled control area, indicating little effect of mechanical damage on this pest. However, a single pass of the tillage implement buried three-quarters of pupae under at least 1 cm of soil. A laboratory experiment to recreate these conditions resulted in significant increase in mortality when pupae were buried in more than 1 cm of sand. We conclude that 1) interference with adult emergence of diapausing pupae via burial is the primary mechanism by which tillage controls grape berry moth, and 2) efforts to optimize the impact of tillage on grape berry moth populations should focus on maximizing the number of pupae buried. We discuss the potential integration of tillage into different vineyard management systems to enhance pest management. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. DNA Barcoding reveals sexual dimorphism in Isotrias penedana Trematerra, 2013 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, Chlidanotinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, Martin Francis Vanner; Ferreira, Sónia

    2017-01-20

    Isotrias penedana Trematerra, 2013 was described from north Portugal based on males alone. Unidentified females were associated with the males using DNA barcoding, revealing sexual dimorphism in the species. Males and females differ in forewing shape, markings, and size, with females significantly smaller than males. The female is described and illustrated for the first time. We also document the species' occurrence in northern Spain.

  17. Geographic variation in diapause induction: The grape berry moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jody Timer; Patrick C. Tobin; Michael C. Saunders

    2010-01-01

    Diapause in insects occurs in response to environmental cues, such as changes in photoperiod, and it is a major adaptation by which insects synchronize their activity with biotic resources and environmental constraints. For multivoltine agricultural insect pests, diapause initiation is an important consideration in management decisions, particularly toward the end of...

  18. Characterization of EST-based SSR loci in the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    B.M.T. Brunet; D. Doucet; B.R. Sturtevant; F.A.H. Sperling

    2013-01-01

    After identifying 114 microsatellite loci from Choristoneura fumiferana expressed sequence tags, 87 loci were assayed in a panel of 11 wild-caught individuals, giving 29 polymorphic loci. Further analysis of 20 of these loci on 31 individuals collected from a single population in northern Minnesota identified 14 in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.

  19. Descriptions of two new species of Rhopalovalva Kuznetzov, 1964 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aihuan; Bai, Xia; Li, Houhun

    2017-02-09

    Two new species of Rhopalovalva Kuznetzov are described from China: R. macrocuculla Zhang and Li, sp. nov., and R. connata Zhang and Li, sp. nov. Photographs of the adults and genitalia are provided. We report the first occurrence of the absence of an uncus in the male genitalia of a Rhopalovalva species. A key to the Chinese species is provided based on the characters of the male genitalia. We also comment on the generic characters of Rhopalovalva.

  20. A Binary Host Plant Volatile Lure Combined With Acetic Acid to Monitor Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, A L; Basoalto, E; Katalin, J; El-Sayed, A M

    2015-10-01

    Field studies were conducted in the United States, Hungary, and New Zealand to evaluate the effectiveness of septa lures loaded with ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) and (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (nonatriene) alone and in combination with an acetic acid co-lure for both sexes of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). Additional studies were conducted to evaluate these host plant volatiles and acetic acid in combination with the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone). Traps baited with pear ester/nonatriene + acetic acid placed within orchards treated either with codlemone dispensers or left untreated caught significantly more males, females, and total moths than similar traps baited with pear ester + acetic acid in some assays. Similarly, traps baited with codlemone/pear ester/nonatriene + acetic acid caught significantly greater numbers of moths than traps with codlemone/pear ester + acetic acid lures in some assays in orchards treated with combinational dispensers (dispensers loaded with codlemone/pear ester). These data suggest that monitoring of codling moth can be marginally improved in orchards under variable management plans using a binary host plant volatile lure in combination with codlemone and acetic acid. These results are likely to be most significant in orchards treated with combinational dispensers. Significant increases in the catch of female codling moths in traps with the binary host plant volatile blend plus acetic acid should be useful in developing more effective mass trapping strategies. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  1. Age and multiple mating effects on reproductive success of Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana M. de Morais

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive success of the oriental peach moth was evaluated in four experiments: 1 assessment of the mating duration, fecundity, fertility and longevity of females paired with virgin and immediately mated males; 2 mating duration, spermatophore size, fecundity, fertility and longevity in females paired with virgin and up to four times mated males; 3 receptivity of females to additional copulations after mating with virgin or mated males, and the effects of this behavior in female fecundity, fertility and longevity; 4 influence of insects age in the reproductive output. Males (33% could copulate immediately after a previous copula. They were fertile until the fourth mating, but only in the first copula they transferred the longest (1.43 ± 0.10 mm and widest (0.83 ± 0.11 mm spermatophore, presenting the fastest mating duration (34.8 ± 2.62 min. A high proportion of females copulated by non-virgin males (84% was receptive to other copulas, in comparison to those copulated by virgin males (32.4%. However, the fecundity, fertility, and longevity were similar among females that copulate once or more. The age was the most important factor affecting reproductive variables, where one and three day old insects had a significant higher fecundity, fertility and presented a shorter mating duration in comparison with older individuals. Results pointed out that the reproductive capacity of Grapholita molesta changes a little with respect to the analyzed factors, highlighting the elevated biotic potential of the species.

  2. The importance of correct labelling of types: an example in Tortricidae (Lepidoptera) and its rectification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarvik, Leif; Prins, Willy DE

    2017-11-14

    Taxonomy is the basic discipline in biology. The taxonomist defines each taxon and provides a unique name for it. Of the systematic categories, the species level is crucial. When a species is described and named, great care should be taken to ensure that all information related to the name is correct. Information on ecology, biology, distribution, etc. is linked to the name, and may be added and repeated in subsequent literature. Great confusion may arise from ambiguous descriptions and/or mislabelled figures. Therefore editors should take special care to ensure that taxonomic papers containing descriptions of new taxa receive careful refereeing and editing. Here we present a case where descriptions of new species became misleading when the labels of the type specimens were switched. If the manuscript had been more thoroughly refereed, the mistake could have been discovered and avoided.

  3. Monitoring codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in orchards treated with pear ester and sex pheromone combo dispensers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lures for monitoring codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), were tested in apple and walnut blocks treated with Cidetrak CM-DA Combo dispensers loaded with pear ester, ethyl (E, Z)-2,4-decadienoate (PE), and sex pheromone (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone). Total and female moth catches with combin...

  4. Distribution Characteristics of Eggs and Neonate Larvae of Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wearing, Christopher H

    2016-01-01

    Literature is reviewed on the spatial distribution of the eggs and neonate larvae of codling moth on apple trees in relation to research conducted in Nelson, New Zealand. At Nelson, oviposition increased with height and was greater in the north and east of the trees and in those with greater fruit load in some seasons, which matches published reports. All publications and the research recorded high percentages of eggs laid singly within 10-15 cm of the fruit, with most eggs on leaves even within fruit clusters; oviposition on fruit clusters of different sizes was nonrandom because more eggs were laid on those with more fruit, but the aggregation of both per cluster and within clusters was even greater than that caused by the fruit number alone. Oviposition at random with respect to the fruit occurred only at very low population density. The choice of oviposition site between fruit and the adaxial leaf surface and abaxial leaf surface (AbLS) was variable and cultivar related. Cultivars on which eggs predominated on the AbLS were less frequent and characterized by low trichome density. In the literature, neonate larvae from eggs on the AbLS suffered greater mortality, as did those in Nelson that hatched more distant from the fruit. This review discusses the interaction between these distribution characteristics and species-specific host-plant volatiles, egg adhesion to plant surfaces, oviposition deterrents, predation, and their relevance to pest management.

  5. Evaluating dispensers loaded with codlemone and pear ester for disruption of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyvinyl chloride polymer (pvc) dispensers loaded with ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) plus the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone) of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), were compared with similar dispensers and a commercial dispenser (Isomate®-C Plus) loaded with codle...

  6. Rapid thermal responses and thermal tolerance in adult codling moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidawanyika, Frank; Terblanche, John S

    2011-01-01

    In order to preserve key activities or improve survival, insects facing variable and unfavourable thermal environments may employ physiological adjustments on a daily basis. Here, we investigate the survival of laboratory-reared adult Cydia pomonella at high or low temperatures and their responses to pre-treatments at sub-lethal temperatures over short time-scales. We also determined critical thermal limits (CTLs) of activity of C. pomonella and the effect of different rates of cooling or heating on CTLs to complement the survival assays. Temperature and duration of exposure significantly affected adult C. pomonella survival with more extreme temperatures and/or longer durations proving to be more lethal. Lethal temperatures, explored between -20 °C to -5 °C and 32 °C to 47 °C over 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4h exposures, for 50% of the population of adult C. pomonella were -12 °C for 2h and 44 °C for 2h. Investigation of rapid thermal responses (i.e. hardening) found limited low temperature responses but more pronounced high temperature responses. For example, C. pomonella pre-treated for 2h at 5 °C improved survival at -9 °C for 2h from 50% to 90% (ppomonella, but limited acute low temperature responses. We discuss these results in the context of local agroecosystem microclimate recordings. These responses are significant to pest control programmes presently underway and have implications for understanding the evolution of thermal tolerance in these and other insects. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fate of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in harvested apples held under short photoperiod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., is a cosmopolitan pest of pome and stone fruits. It has been identified as a quarantine pest of concern in a number of countries where it is not known to occur, most of them in tropical or subtropical countries. Although considerable work has been done on the basi...

  8. Combined approaches using sex pheromone and pear ester for behavioral disruption of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies utilized the attractive properties of pear ester, ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, and codlemone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol, the sex pheromone of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L)., for behavioural disruption. Standard dispensers loaded with codlemone alone or in combination with pear ester (c...

  9. Effects of irradiation on phenoloxidase levels in codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neven, L.G.; Morford, M.

    1998-01-01

    Laboratory trials were conducted to determine if changes in phenoloxidase, a common hemolymph component in insects, could be detected in codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). The 5 instars of codling moth were irradiated at doses of 0, 100, 300, 600, and 900 Gy and phenoloxidase levels were monitored at 0, 2, 4, and 6 d after treatment. The melanization method, protein electrophoresis, dot blot, and enzyme activity analyses were performed to determine phenoloxidase levels. No significant changes in the protein levels, enzymatic activity, or melanization rates in irradiated codling moth larvae were found. Although the melanization method may be adequate for determining whether larvae of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (L.), were irradiated, it is not applicable to codling moth

  10. Gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment for walnuts infested with codling moths (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burditt, A.K. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Irradiation may be a potential quarantine treatment for either diapausing or nondiapausing codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), larvae in walnuts. Exposure of larvae to 51.9 Gy from a 60 Co source significantly reduced emergence of normal adults. The dose required for quarantine security (99.9968% mortality) was 230 Gy based on emergence of adults from treated larvae. Normal adults did not emerge from larvae exposed to 177 Gy in walnuts

  11. Adding microencapsulated pear ester to insecticides for control of Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Alan L; Light, Douglas M

    2013-01-01

    The possibility of improving the efficacy of various insecticides for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), by the addition of a microencapsulated formulation of pear ester, ethyl (2E, 4Z)-2,4-decadienoate (PE-MEC, 5% AI), was evaluated in field trials in apple from 2005 to 2009. The addition of PE-MEC (pomonella should be further investigated. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Monitoring oriental fruit moth and codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with combinations of pheromones and kairomoness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were conducted in North and South America during 2012-2013 to evaluate the use of lure combinations of sex pheromones (PH), host plant volatiles (HPV), and food baits in traps to capture the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) and codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) in pome an...

  13. Effects of chlorpyrifos on enzymatic systems of Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra Morales, Laura Beatriz; Alzogaray, Raúl Adolfo; Cichón, Liliana; Garrido, Silvina; Soleño, Jimena; Montagna, Cristina Mónica

    2017-06-01

    The control program of codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) in the Río Negro and Neuquén Valley is intended to neonate larvae. However, adults may be subjected to sublethal pesticide concentrations generating stress which might enhance both mutation rates and activity of the detoxification system. This study assessed the exposure effects of chlorpyrifos on target enzyme and, both detoxifying and antioxidant systems of surviving adults from both a laboratory susceptible strain (LSS) and a field population (FP). The results showed that the FP was as susceptible to chlorpyrifos as the LSS and, both exhibited a similar chlorpyrifos-inhibitory concentration 50 (IC 50 ) of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The FP displayed higher carboxylesterase (CarE) and 7-ethoxycoumarine O-deethylase (ECOD) activities than LSS. Both LSS and FP showed an increase on CarE activity after the exposure to low-chlorpyrifos concentrations, followed by enzyme inhibition at higher concentrations. There were no significant differences neither in the activities of glutathione S-transferases (GST), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) nor in the reduced glutathione (GSH) content between LSS and FP. Moreover, these enzymes were unaffected by chlorpyrifos. In conclusion, control adults from the FP exhibited higher CarE and ECOD activities than control adults from the LSS. AChE and CarE activities were the most affected by chlorpyrifos. Control strategies used for C. pomonella, such as rotations of insecticides with different modes of action, will probably delay the evolution of insecticide resistance in FPs from the study area. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  14. Modeling population dynamics and dispersion of Codling moth Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Gharehkhani, Gholamhossein

    2009-01-01

    The study of insect dispersal plays an essential role in estimating the spread of damage caused by a newly invaded pest or the spatial distribution of an insect during the active period in growing season. Moreover concerning dispersal, quantitative information performs a crucial role in the evaluation and implementation of pest control. Since rearing clean and healthy insects in sufficient numbers is the most important prerequisite for many basic research programs and for developing pest cont...

  15. Separating the attractant from the toxicant improves attract-and-kill of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Juan; Gut, Larry J; Miller, James R

    2013-10-01

    The behavior of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), responding to three attract-and-kill devices was compared in flight tunnel experiments measuring attraction and duration of target contact. Placing a 7.6 by 12.6 cm card immediately upwind of a rubber septum releasing pheromone, dramatically increased the duration on the target to > 60 s. In this setting, nearly all the males flew upwind, landed on the card first, and spent the majority of time searching the card. In contrast, male codling moths spent 90% of males contacting the paper were knocked down 2 h after voluntary exposure. These findings suggest that past attempts to combine insecticide directly with sex pheromones into a small paste, gel, or other forms of dollops are ill-advised because moths are likely over-exposed to pheromone and vacate the target before obtaining a lethal dose of insecticide. It is better to minimize direct contact with the concentrated pheromone while enticing males to extensively search insecticide-treated surface nearby the lure.

  16. Suppression of oriental fruit moth (Grapholita molesta, Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) populations using the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genchev, N.

    2002-01-01

    The Oriental fruit moth (OFM) is a major insect pest of peaches in Bulgaria. Its control usually requires several insecticide treatments per season. This, however, gives rise to serious toxic residue problems. A program for suppression of OFM populations involving the use of sterile-insect technique (SIT) has been developed as an alternative to the chemical methods for OFM. Relevant information regarding laboratory rearing, radiation and basic biology are presented here. Expected effects of some release programs are modelled using appropriate mathematical simulations. Results obtained in a small field experiment showed high efficacy of a program integrating F 1 male sterility technique and classic SIT. (author)

  17. THE EFFECT OF QUALITY OF FOOD SOURCE ON MACADAMIA NUT DAMAGE BY Gymnandrosoma aurantianum (LEPIDOPTERA: TORTRICIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Blanco-Metzler

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto del contenido de nitrógeno, de los compuestos secundarios (taninos y prohantocianidinas y de la materia seca de 4 clones de macadamia y de los diferentes estados de desarrollo de la nuez, sobre la abundancia de Gymnandrosoma aurantianum. El contenido de nitrógeno varió entre clones y los estados de desarrollo de la nuez, siendo más alto en los clones más tolerantes 508>660>344>246. Los mayores contenidos de materia seca se encontraron en los clones tolerantes, 508 y 660, y en las capas externas de la nuez, que en los susceptibles 246 y 344 y en las capas internas (2 y 3. El contenido de proantocianidinas fue mayor en la segunda capa de los clones 508 y 660 que en la de los clones 246 y 344. Los resultados muestran cómo la calidad del alimento afecta el desempeño de las larvas del barrenador, donde éstas, para alimentarse de la almendra, deben superar primero una barrera física, seguida por una barrera química.

  18. Respiratory response of fifth-instar codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to rapidly changing temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neven, L G

    1998-02-01

    Fifth-instar codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), larvae were exposed to 10 simulated heat treatments of apples and pears and CO2 levels were monitored as a measure of respiration. Marked increases in respiration rates (microliter CO2/mg/min) were noted during these treatments. Respiration peaked between 3.5 and 4.8 microliters CO2/mg/min; the amount of time to peak respiration depended on the heating rate and was correlated to the LT95. No differences were observed between male and female larvae in the timing of the peaks of CO2 production. In treatments where mortality occurred, CO2 levels dropped to zero, but only after a considerable time after death. Respiratory recovery rates, the time it took for CO2 levels to return to normal, were recorded after treatments at time points where CO2 production reached 3/4 and maximum peak. Respiration rates at constant temperatures were recorded within the range of 10-30 degrees C. Q10 over this range was 1.49, whereas Q10 was the greatest, 2.54, between 10 and 15 degrees C.

  19. Effects of gamma radiation on codling moth (Cydia pomonella, Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) fertility and reproductive behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.

    2002-01-01

    Studies were conducted with codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), to examine the effects of gamma radiation on fertility and reproductive behaviour. Data accumulated during these studies showed that egg production and hatch decreased with increasing radiation dose. Females were more sensitive to radiation treatment than were males. A dose of 150 Gy caused 100% sterility in females and significantly reduced fecundity, and a dose of 350 Gy reduced male fertility to less than 1%. Radiation dosages up to 400 Gy had no adverse effect on male longevity or competitiveness in cages using laboratory reared moths. However, males exposed to a dose of 350 or 400 Gy mated fewer times than unirradiated males. (author)

  20. Oxygenated phosphine fumigation for control of Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) eggs on lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Samuel S; Liu, Yong-Biao; Simmons, Gregory S

    2014-08-01

    Light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), is a quarantined pest in most countries. Its establishment in California and potential spread to other parts of the state and beyond make it urgent to develop effective postharvest treatments to control the pest on fresh commodities. Fumigation with cylindered phosphine at low temperature has emerged to be a practical methyl bromide alternative treatment for postharvest pest control on fresh commodities. However, its use to control E. postvittana eggs on sensitive commodities such as lettuce is problematic. E. postvittana eggs are tolerant of phosphine and long phosphine treatment also injures lettuce. In the current study, E. postvittana eggs were subjected to oxygenated phosphine fumigations to develop an effective treatment at a low storage temperature of 2 degrees C. In addition, soda lime as a CO2 absorbent was tested to determine its effects in reducing and preventing injuries to lettuce associated with phosphine fumigations. Three-day fumigation with 1,000 ppm phosphine under 60% O2 achieved 100% mortality of E. postvittana eggs in small-scale laboratory tests. In the presence of the CO2 absorbent, a 3-d large-scale fumigation of lettuce with 1,700 ppm phosphine under 60% O2 resulted in a relative egg mortality of 99.96% without any negative effect on lettuce quality. The 3-d fumigation treatment without the CO2 absorbent, however, resulted in significant injuries to lettuce and consequential quality reductions. The study demonstrated that oxygenated phosphine fumigation has the potential to control E. postvittana eggs and the CO2 absorbent has the potential to prevent injuries and quality reductions of lettuce associated with long-term oxygenated phosphine fumigation.

  1. Reproductive behaviour of Crocidosema (=Epinotia) aporema (Walsingham) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): temporal pattern of female calling and mating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altesor, Paula; Arcia, Maria P.; Rossini, Carmen; Gonzalez, Andres, E-mail: paltesor@fq.edu.u, E-mail: mparcia@fq.edu.u, E-mail: crossini@fq.edu.u, E-mail: agonzal@fq.edu.u [Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay). Fac. de Quimica. Lab. de Ecologia Quimica; Horas, Vanusa R; Zarbin, Paulo H.G., E-mail: vanusa@quimica.ufpr.b, E-mail: pzarbin@quimica.ufpr.b [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica. Lab. de Semioquimicos

    2010-06-15

    Crocidosema aporema (Walsingham) is a major pest of legumes in the southern cone of Latin America. The mating behaviour of two allopatric populations (Uruguay and Brazil) of C. aporema kept in captivity was studied by observing the posture of calling females, the temporal pattern of pheromone emission and mating, and the response of males to calling females in olfactometer tests. Female calling and mating was observed during the scotophase, from the fi rst to the seventh night after adult emergence. Male response was evaluated at night using a single calling female in a Y-shaped olfactometer. Females adopted a characteristic calling posture, extruding the pheromone gland from the tip of the abdomen. Most females started calling during the second scotophase, and all females called from the third, between the fifth and seventh hours after the onset of the scotophase. Most of the couples mated once throughout the experiment, between the third and sixth night and during the middle of the dark phase. Males preferentially chose the female arm in olfactometer tests, considering both the fi rst arm chosen and the number of visits during the observation period. Our results describe for the fi rst time the temporal pattern associated to the reproductive behaviour of C. aporema. We also provide evidence that this tortricid is monoandrous, and that pheromones are used in intersexual communication for mate finding. Our data will be used to optimize the collection of female sex pheromones for chemical characterization in order to develop a monitoring tool for this pest. (author)

  2. Interactions between nucleopolyhedroviruses and polydnaviruses in larval lepidoptera. Chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent D' Amico; James. Slavicek

    2012-01-01

    The field dynamics of some insect populations are strongly influenced by two types of insect viruses: the nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPVs) and the polydnaviruses (PDVs). Although greatly different in origin and mode of infection, both viruses produce considerable mortality directly and indirectly in the field, and have evolved reproductive strategies that use the same...

  3. Imaturos de Sarsina violascens (Herrich-Schäffer (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Lymantriinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Moraes C.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Imaturos de Sarsina violascens (Herrich-Schäffer (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Lymantriinae. Sarsina violascens é uma espécie polífaga que eventualmente se alimenta de P. cattleianum Sabine (Myrtaceae durante sua fase larval. Neste estudo são descritas a morfologia e o comportamento dos imaturos, com ilustrações, fotografias e imagens de microscopia eletrônica de varredura.

  4. “This is not an apple”–yeast mutualism in codling moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. The larva of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Tortricidae, Lepidoptera) is known as the worm in the apple, mining the fruit for food. We show that codling moth larvae are closely associated with yeasts of the genus Metschnikowia. Yeast is an essential part of the larval diet and further promotes lar...

  5. A new genus and species of leaf miner (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae for Chile associated to the native tree Lithraea caustica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique A. Mundaca

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A new genus and species of leaf miner (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae for Chile associated to the native tree Lithraea caustica. We propose the new genus and species of Gracillariidae (Lepidoptera Hualpenia lithraeophaga Mundaca, Parra &Vargas gen. nov., sp. nov., leaf miner of Lithraea caustica (Mol. H. et Arn (Anacardiaceae occurring in southern central Chile. Aspects of the life cycle, adult and larval morphology, development and feeding habits of the new genus and species are also presented. We emphasise the uniqueness and importance of this new species for broadening the current knowledge on the Chilean fauna of Gracillariidae.

  6. Mortalidad y repelencia en Eupalamides cyparissias (Lepidoptera: Castniidae), plaga de la palma aceitera Elaeis guineensis, por efecto de diez extractos botánicos Mortality and repellence of Eupalamides cyparissias (Lepidoptera: Castniidae), pest of oil palm Elaeis guineensis, by effect of ten botanical extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Diana D. Pérez; José Iannacone O.

    2008-01-01

    Las plantas con actividad insecticida constituyen un importante componente del manejo integrado de plagas. Bajo esta premisa, el objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la mortalidad y repelencia larval de Eupalamides cyparissias Fab. (Lepidoptera: Castniidae), plaga de la palma aceitera Elaeis guineensis Jacquin; empleando diez plantas con potencial insecticida: Ucullucuysacha (Heliotropium indicum L., Boraginaceae), Floripondio (Brugmansia x candida Pers., Solanaceae), Oreja de Tigre (Tra...

  7. Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera parasitoids of Lepidoptera caterpillars feeding on Croton floribundus Spreng (Euphorbiaceae Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera parasitóides de larvas de Lepidoptera associadas a Croton floribundus Spreng (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Bueno dos Reis Fernandes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Parasitoids of the family Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera were obtained during an inventory of Lepidoptera larvae caught feeding in the wild on Croton floribundus (Euphorbiaceae. The Lepidoptera larvae were collected from host plants along trails inside three preserved forest areas in the Brazilian state of São Paulo. Fifteen different species of Ichneumonidae belonging to five subfamilies (Banchinae, Campopleginae, Cremastinae, Mesochorinae and Metopiinae were obtained. Seven species of Ichneumonidae were reared from leaf rollers: Meniscomorpha sp. (Banchinae and Leurus caeruliventris (Cresson (Metopiinae from Dichomeris sp. (Gelechiidae; Mesochorus sp.1 (Mesochorinae [as a parasitoid of Hypomicrogaster sp. (Braconidae, Microgastrinae], Campoplex sp. (Campopleginae and Leurus sp. from Olethreutinae sp. (Tortricidae; Sphelodon annulicornis Morley (Banchinae and Eutanygaster brevipennis Cameron (Cremastinae were also reared from two unidentified species of Gelechiidae. The other eight species were reared from the larvae of exposed feeders: Diradops sp. (Banchinae from Miselia albipuncta Hampson (Noctuidae, Casinaria sp. (Campopleginae from Hymenomima conia Prout (Geometridae, Charops sp. (Campopleginae from Bagisara paulensis Schaus (Noctuidae and Oxydia vesulia (Cramer (Geometridae, two species of Hyposoter Förster (Campopleginae from Semaeopus sp. (Geometridae and H. conia, two species of Microcharops Roman (Campopleginae from B. paulensis and an unidentified species of Limacodidae and Mesochorus sp. 2 [reared from what was probably Aleiodes sp. (Braconidae, Rogadinae] from an unidentified species of Noctuidae.Parasitóides da família Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera foram obtidos durante um inventário de larvas de Lepidoptera sobre Croton floribundus (Euphorbiaceae. As larvas de Lepidoptera foram coletadas sobre as plantas que ocorrem nas bordas de caminhos em três áreas preservadas de mata do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Quinze esp

  8. Primer registro de Hypercompe indecisa (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Arctiinae en perales y álamos en la Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela DAPOTO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La región del Alto Valle de Río Negro y Neuquén es la zona más importante de producción de frutas de pepita de la Argentina. La principal plaga de estos cultivos es Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae. Los cambios implementados en las estrategias de control, principalmente la generalización del uso de la Técnica de Confusión Sexual, han causado en los últimos años cambios en la biodiversidad en esos cultivos. Durante la temporada 2008/09, en un establecimiento frutícola de producción orgánica en Vista Alegre (Neuquén, fue detectada Hypercompe indecisa (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, produciendo graves daños en frutos y hojas de perales y sobre el follaje de Populus spp. Se cita por primera vez a H. indecisa para la Patagonia y el primer hallazgo de esta especie sobre Populus spp. y Pyrus communis L.

  9. RNA interference in Lepidoptera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terenius, Ole; Papanicolaou, Alexie; Garbutt, Jennie S.

    2011-01-01

    Gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi) has revolutionized the study of gene function, particularly in non-model insects. However, in Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) RNAi has many times proven to be difficult to achieve. Most of the negative results have been anecdotal and the positive...... is particularly successful in the family Saturniidae and in genes involved in immunity. On the contrary, gene expression in epidermal tissues seems to be most difficult to silence. In addition, gene silencing by feeding dsRNA requires high concentrations for success. Possible causes for the variability of success...

  10. Review of Lepidoptera with trophic relationships to Picea abies (L. in the conditions of Czechia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modlinger Roman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Trophic relationships of Lepidoptera (Insecta occurring in the territory of Czechia to the Norway spruce (Picea abies L. was evaluated on the basis of the excerption and critical evaluation of literature. Each species was classified into the following categories – spruce as the host plant, regular development on spruce, narrow trophic relationship, indirect relationship and episodical occurrence. The particular taxa were also characterized according to their distribution and the form of larval life was specified. The development on spruce was documented in 96 species of Lepidoptera, which represented less than 3% of taxa belonging to this group and being reported from Czechia. Of that, spruce was a common host plant for 67 species, 23 species were polyphagous and might develop on spruce, and 6 species belonged to soil species damaging spruce roots, mainly in forest nurseries. Among the species of Lepidoptera, which regularly develop on spruce in the Czech conditions, 55 species were classified. As narrow specialists with special trophic relationship to spruce, 33 taxa could be considered. There were 15 spruce species with forestry importance, which were able to outbreak their populations regularly or irregularly. Among spruce species it was possible to classify 16 taxa as rare. The provided information on Lepidoptera with trophic relationship to spruce is applicable also for other Central European areas. Besides the species with importance for forest pest management, also rare taxa, which can become endangered by climate change or by forest management, were indicated.

  11. Analysis of evolution in the lower Lepidoptera (Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Lower Lepidoptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Mutuura, Akira

    1991-01-01

    The evolutionary mechanism in Lepidoptera is discussed. As a result of the comparison of evolution between the Microptergidae and the typical Lepidoptera, two different kinds of evolution are recognized. ・・・

  12. Edible Lepidoptera in Mexico: Geographic distribution, ethnicity, economic and nutritional importance for rural people

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we reported the butterflies and moths that are consumed in Mexico. We identified 67 species of Lepidoptera that are eaten principally in their larval stage in 17 states of Mexico. These species belong to 16 families: Arctiidae, Bombycidae, Castniidae, Cossidae, Geometridae, Hepialidae, Hesperiidae, Lasiocampidae, Noctuidae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Pyralidae, Saturniidae, Sesiidae, and Sphingidae. Saturniidae, Pieridae, Noctuidae and Nymphalidae were the more species consumed with 16, 11, 9, and 8 species, respectively. The genera with the largest numbers of species were: Phassus, Phoebis, Hylesia and Spodoptera, with three species. Their local distribution, corresponding to each state of Mexico, is also presented. PMID:21211040

  13. Edible Lepidoptera in Mexico: Geographic distribution, ethnicity, economic and nutritional importance for rural people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliva-Rivera Héctor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we reported the butterflies and moths that are consumed in Mexico. We identified 67 species of Lepidoptera that are eaten principally in their larval stage in 17 states of Mexico. These species belong to 16 families: Arctiidae, Bombycidae, Castniidae, Cossidae, Geometridae, Hepialidae, Hesperiidae, Lasiocampidae, Noctuidae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Pyralidae, Saturniidae, Sesiidae, and Sphingidae. Saturniidae, Pieridae, Noctuidae and Nymphalidae were the more species consumed with 16, 11, 9, and 8 species, respectively. The genera with the largest numbers of species were: Phassus, Phoebis, Hylesia and Spodoptera, with three species. Their local distribution, corresponding to each state of Mexico, is also presented.

  14. Interessante Microlepidoptera uit Nederland in het jaar 1992 (Lepidoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, K.J.; Koster, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    This is the sixth compilation of Microlepidoptera collected in The Netherlands, covering the year 1992. Two species are recently recorded for the first time from The Netherlands by the Dutch Plant Protection Service, Wageningen: Olethreutes arbutella (Tortricidae) and Duponchelia fovealis

  15. Huevo, larva en primer estadio y aparato genital femenino de la mariposa Chabuata castanea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela A Rodríguez

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el huevo, larva de primer estadio y aparato genital de la hembra de Chabuata castanea con material proveniente de Talcahuano, VIII región, Chile y de huevos obtenidos en laboratorio. Se fotografiaron los huevos con microscopia electrónica de barrido para analizar las variaciones entre micropila, celdas primarias y secundarias, concluyéndose que las diferencias permiten una identificación al nivel de especie.Egg, first larval stage and female genitalia of the moth Chabuata castanea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. Egg, first larval stage, and female genitalia of the widely distributed moth Chabuata castanea are described, based on material from Talcahuano, VIII region, Chile. Egg microestructures are illustrated with scannig electron microscope images which show that egg morphology allows identification to species level. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (2: 659-664. Epub 2007 June, 29.

  16. Contributions of gut bacteria to Bacillus thuringiensis-induced mortality vary across a range of Lepidoptera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Nichole A; Robinson, Courtney J; McMahon, Matthew D; Holt, Jonathan; Handelsman, Jo; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2009-01-01

    Background Gut microbiota contribute to the health of their hosts, and alterations in the composition of this microbiota can lead to disease. Previously, we demonstrated that indigenous gut bacteria were required for the insecticidal toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis to kill the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar. B. thuringiensis and its associated insecticidal toxins are commonly used for the control of lepidopteran pests. A variety of factors associated with the insect host, B. thuringiensis strain, and environment affect the wide range of susceptibilities among Lepidoptera, but the interaction of gut bacteria with these factors is not understood. To assess the contribution of gut bacteria to B. thuringiensis susceptibility across a range of Lepidoptera we examined larval mortality of six species in the presence and absence of their indigenous gut bacteria. We then assessed the effect of feeding an enteric bacterium isolated from L. dispar on larval mortality following ingestion of B. thuringiensis toxin. Results Oral administration of antibiotics reduced larval mortality due to B. thuringiensis in five of six species tested. These included Vanessa cardui (L.), Manduca sexta (L.), Pieris rapae (L.) and Heliothis virescens (F.) treated with a formulation composed of B. thuringiensis cells and toxins (DiPel), and Lymantria dispar (L.) treated with a cell-free formulation of B. thuringiensis toxin (MVPII). Antibiotics eliminated populations of gut bacteria below detectable levels in each of the insects, with the exception of H. virescens, which did not have detectable gut bacteria prior to treatment. Oral administration of the Gram-negative Enterobacter sp. NAB3, an indigenous gut resident of L. dispar, restored larval mortality in all four of the species in which antibiotics both reduced susceptibility to B. thuringiensis and eliminated gut bacteria, but not in H. virescens. In contrast, ingestion of B. thuringiensis toxin (MVPII) following antibiotic treatment

  17. New method for rearing Spodoptera frugiperda in laboratory shows that larval cannibalism is not obligatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherre Sade Bezerra Da Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available New method for rearing Spodoptera frugiperda in laboratory shows that larval cannibalism is not obligatory. Here we show, for the first time, that larvae of the fall armyworm (FAW, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, can be successfully reared in a cohort-based manner with virtually no cannibalism. FAW larvae were reared since the second instar to pupation in rectangular plastic containers containing 40 individuals with a surprisingly ca. 90% larval survivorship. Adult females from the cohort-based method showed fecundity similar to that already reported on literature for larvae reared individually, and fertility higher than 99%, with the advantage of combining economy of time, space and material resources. These findings suggest that the factors affecting cannibalism of FAW larvae in laboratory rearings need to be reevaluated, whilst the new technique also show potential to increase the efficiency of both small and mass FAW rearings.

  18. Overview: Identification characters of Lepidoptera eggs (Insecta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are 160,000 species of described Lepidoptera, or moths and butterflies, on Earth. The egg stage is the least known biological stage of moths and butterflies and there have been very few comparative studies. The purpose of this video is to provide the few, major characteristics of Lepidoptera...

  19. Flutuação populacional de Argyrotaenia sphaleropa (MEYRICK, 1909 (Lep: Tortricidae com emprego de feromônio sexual sintético na cultura da videira easonal fluctuation of the adults of Argyrotaenia sphaleropa (MEYRICK, 1909 (Lep: Tortricidae using synthetic sexual pheromone in vineyards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson José Morandi Filho

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A lagarta-das-fruteiras, Argyrotaenia sphaleropa (Meyrick, 1909 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, é uma espécie freqüentemente encontrada danificando a cultura da videira e outras frutíferas de clima temperado na região Sul do Brasil e no Uruguai. Estudou-se a flutuação populacional de A. sphaleropa na cultura da videira com emprego do feromônio sexual sintético. Com base na avaliação semanal de machos de A. sphaleropa capturados em armadilha Delta contendo o feromônio sexual sintético (Z11,13-14Ac + Z11,13-14Al + Z11-14Al na proporção 4:4:1, impregnada em liberadores de borracha na dose de 1.000µg/septo, durante a safra 2003-2004, foram observados quatro picos populacionais na cultura da videira cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon. O primeiro pico populacional ocorreu no início do mês de outubro, o segundo no início de fevereiro, o terceiro teve o acme em meados do mês de março e o quarto no mês de junho. A temperatura média diária e a precipitação pluviométrica não exerceram influência sobre a captura dos insetos nas armadilhas. As informações deste trabalho permitem direcionar as táticas de controle para os períodos em que a população do inseto é mais elevada nos parreirais.The South American Tortricid Moth (Meyrick, 1909 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae is often found damaging vineyards and other temperate fruit orchards, in Southern Brazil and Uruguay. This work was conducted to study the seasonal occurrence of A. sphaleropa adults in vineyards using sexual synthetic pheromone. Based on weekly evaluation of A. sphaleropa adults caught in Delta trap baited with synthetic sexual pheromone (Z11, 13-14Ac + Z11, 13-14Al + Z11-14Al in a ratio of 4:4:1, 1000µg/septum, during 2003/2004 season, it was observed four populational peaks in a Cabernet Sauvignon vineyard. The first populational peak occurred in the beginning of October, the second in the beginning of February, the third occurred in middle of March and the forth in June

  20. Effect of endogenous factors on the chemical perception of Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to sex pheromone; Efeito de fatores endogenos na percepcao quimica de Grapholita molesta(Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) ao feromonio sexual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altafini, Deisi L.; Sant' Ana, Josue; Redaelli, Luiza R., E-mail: deisila@gmail.co [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Fitossanidade. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Fitotecnia

    2010-06-15

    The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), stands out as one of the most important pest in Rosaceae orchards in Brazil. During feeding, caterpillars bore into shoots, branches and fruits, impairing the commercial production. This work aimed to study the effect of endogenous factors in the chemical perception and in the species chemotactic behavior, seeking to optimize monitoring and the behavioral control of this pest. We evaluated male electroantennographical (EAG) and chemotactical (olfactometry) responses to the synthetic sex pheromone in different ages, virgins or mated and fed or unfed. The EAG responses of males did not differ for all evaluated factors. Nevertheless, the chemotactical behavior of males seems to decrease with age, not varying as a function of mating or feeding conditions. The knowledge about the interference of these factors in G. molesta may help with the interpretation of fi eld results, allowing the development of suitable and reliable control measures based on infochemicals for behavioral control. (author)

  1. Flutuação populacional e danos de Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: tortricidae em dois sistemas de produção de pessegueiros Population fluctuation and damage from Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: tortricidae in two peach production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Sandro Poltronieri

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de conhecer a flutuação populacional de Grapholita molesta e verificar a fase fenológica do pessegueiro mais sensível ao ataque do inseto, em dois sistemas de produção, selecionaram-se quatro pomares de pessegueiro, sendo dois conduzidos no sistema de produção convencional (PC e dois no sistema de boas práticas agrícolas (BPA, durante as safras de 2005/06 e 2006/07, em Araucária-PR. Para verificar a flutuação, foram instaladas duas armadilhas modelo Delta por pomar, iscadas com feromônio sexual sintético, onde se registravam semanalmente as capturas dos adultos de G. molesta. Para determinar a fase mais sensível do pessegueiro ao ataque de G. molesta, foram avaliados as brotações e os frutos do ramo primário voltado para o poente, em vinte plantas por pomar, nas fases de raleio, endurecimento do caroço e maturação. A população de G. molesta, na safra de 2005/06, foi superior à de 2006/07, com os pomares BPA apresentando ocorrências superiores aos PCs. As maiores populações do inseto ocorreram após a colheita. A fase de maturação foi a mais suscetível em ambos os sistemas de produção, com os pomares BPA apresentando menor percentual de danos.With the objective to know the population fluctuation of Grapholita molesta and to verify the phenological stage that the peach tree is more sensitive to the attack of the insect in two production systems, four peach orchards were selected, two under the conventional production system (CP and two under the good agricultural practice system (GAP, in 2005/06 and 2006/07 growing seasons, in Araucária, PR, Brazil. To verify the fluctuation, two Delta model traps were installed per orchard, baited with synthetic sexual pheromone, where the capture of G. molesta adults was recorded weekly. To determine the most sensitive phase of the peach tree to G. molesta attack, the bud and fruits were evaluated on the primary branch turned to the West on twenty plants per orchard, in the thinning, stone hardening and maturing phases. The G. molesta population in the 2005/2006 growing season was greater than in 2006/07, and the GAP orchards presented greater occurrences than the CP. The biggest populations of the insect occurred postharvest. The maturation phase was the most susceptible in both production systems, but there was a lower percentage of damage to the GAP orchards.

  2. Age and multiple mating effects on reproductive success of Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae Efeito da idade e de múltiplos acasalamentos no sucesso reprodutivo de Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana M. de Morais

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive success of the oriental peach moth was evaluated in four experiments: 1 assessment of the mating duration, fecundity, fertility and longevity of females paired with virgin and immediately mated males; 2 mating duration, spermatophore size, fecundity, fertility and longevity in females paired with virgin and up to four times mated males; 3 receptivity of females to additional copulations after mating with virgin or mated males, and the effects of this behavior in female fecundity, fertility and longevity; 4 influence of insects age in the reproductive output. Males (33% could copulate immediately after a previous copula. They were fertile until the fourth mating, but only in the first copula they transferred the longest (1.43 ± 0.10 mm and widest (0.83 ± 0.11 mm spermatophore, presenting the fastest mating duration (34.8 ± 2.62 min. A high proportion of females copulated by non-virgin males (84% was receptive to other copulas, in comparison to those copulated by virgin males (32.4%. However, the fecundity, fertility, and longevity were similar among females that copulate once or more. The age was the most important factor affecting reproductive variables, where one and three day old insects had a significant higher fecundity, fertility and presented a shorter mating duration in comparison with older individuals. Results pointed out that the reproductive capacity of Grapholita molesta changes a little with respect to the analyzed factors, highlighting the elevated biotic potential of the species.O sucesso reprodutivo da mariposa-oriental foi avaliado em quatro bioensaios: 1 avaliação do tempo de cópula, fecundidade, fertilidade e longevidade de fêmeas pareadas com machos virgens e imediatamente acasalados; 2 tempo de cópula, tamanho do espermatóforo, fecundidade, fertilidade e longevidade em fêmeas pareadas com machos virgens e acasalados até quatro vezes; 3 receptividade de fêmeas a cópulas adicionais após o acasalamento com machos virgens ou acasalados, e o efeito deste comportamento na fecundidade, fertilidade e longevidade das fêmeas; 4 influência da idade dos insetos no sucesso reprodutivo. Machos (33% foram capazes de copular logo após o primeiro acasalamento. Os machos foram igualmente férteis até o quarto acasalamento, mas somente na primeira cópula transferiram espermatóforo com maior comprimento (1,43 ± 0,10 mm e na largura (0,83 ± 0,11 mm, e apresentaram cópula de menor duração (34,8 ± 2,62 min. Uma maior proporção de fêmeas copuladas por machos não virgens (84% foram receptivas a novos acasalamentos em comparação as pareadas com virgens (32,4%. No entanto, a fecundidade, fertilidade e longevidade foram semelhantes entre as fêmeas que copularam uma ou várias vezes. A idade foi o fator que mais afetou as variáveis reprodutivas, onde insetos de um e três dias de idade foram significativamente mais fecundos, férteis e apresentaram menor tempo de cópula que os mais velhos. Os resultados apontam que a capacidade de reprodução de G. molesta altera-se pouco com relação aos fatores analisados, ressaltando assim, elevado potencial biótico da espécie.

  3. Redescripción de Mastrus ridibundus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae, parasitoide introducido en la Argentina para el control de Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae Redescription of Mastrus ridibundus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae, parasitoid introduced for the control of Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Torréns

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se redescribe el agente de biocontrol introducido en la Argentina, Mastrus ridibundus (Gravenhorst (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae, para el control de Cydia pomonella (L. y se aportan nuevos caracteres para su identificación.The bio-control agent introduced in Argentina Mastrus ridibundus (Gravenhorst (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae for the control of Cydia pomonella (L. is redescribed, providing new characters for the species.

  4. Parasitism capacity of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) reared under different temperatures on Bonagota salubricola (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) eggs; Capacidade de parasitismo de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) em ovos de Bonagota salubricola (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) sob diferentes temperaturas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastori, Patrik L. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Setor de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Zoologia]. E-mail: plpastori@yahoo.com.br; Monteiro, Lino B. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Setor de Ciencias Agrarias. Dept. de Fitotecnia e Fitossanitarismo]. E-mail: lbmonteiro@terra.com.br; Botton, Marcos [EMBRAPA, Bento Goncalves, RS (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Pesquisa Uva e Vinho]. E-mail: marcos@cnpuv.embrapa.br; Pratissoli, Dirceu [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Alegre, ES (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias. Dept. de Producao Vegetal). E-mail: pratissoli@cca.ufes.br

    2007-11-15

    The parasitism capacity of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley strain bonagota on Bonagota salubricola (Meyrick) eggs was studied under the temperatures of 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 30 and 32 deg C. The number of days with parasitism, accumulated parasitism, total number of eggs parasitized per female and parasitoid longevity was evaluated. In the first 24h, parasitism ranged from 1.6 (32 deg C) to 8.8 (22 deg C) eggs of B. salubricola. Accumulated egg parasitism of B. salubricola reached 80% in 1st to 4th day at 20 deg C to 32 deg C, respectively, and in the 7th day at 18 deg C. Temperatures from 18 deg C to 22 deg C were the best suited for the total eggs parasitized for female, resulting in 35.4 and 24.6 eggs/male respectively. T. pretiosum female longevity ranged from 7.8 to 2.5 days, at 18 deg C and 32 deg C, respectively. The results showed that T. pretiosum strain bonagota is better adapted to temperatures from 18 deg C to 22 deg C. (author)

  5. Fitness-related traits of entomopoxviruses isolated from Adoxophyes honmai (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) at three localities in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatsuka, Jun; Okuno, Shohei; Ishii, Takayoshi; Nakai, Madoka; Kunimi, Yasuhisa

    2010-10-01

    Three entomopoxviruses (EPVs) isolated from diseased Adoxophyes honmai larvae at different localities (Tsukuba, Itsukaichi, and Miyazaki) in Japan were compared for biochemical identity and key parameters of virus fitness, fatal infection, speed of kill, and virus yield. When the structural peptides of occlusion bodies (OBs) and occlusion-derived viral particles were compared using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, no difference in banding patterns was observed. However, DNA restriction endonuclease analysis showed that the three isolates were genotypically different, but many commonly sized DNA fragments were observed. Five tortricid species, A. honmai, Adoxophyes orana, Adoxophyesdubia, Homona magnanima, and Archips insulanus were susceptible to all isolates. No significant differences in the key viral fitness parameters were detected among the isolates in A. orana. However, the Miyazaki isolate had a different effect on H. magnanima; it allowed infected insects to survive longer and develop to a larger size, but had a lower yield of OBs per larva at any given time to death. OB yields per unit cadaver weight for the Miyazaki isolate, which indicate the conversion rate of the insect to virus, were lower over time compared to the other two isolates. The implications for selecting a candidate isolate to control tortricid pests are discussed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessing the Global Risk of Establishment of Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) using CLIMEX and MaxEnt Niche Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Neven, Lisa G; Zhu, Hongyu; Zhang, Runzhi

    2015-08-01

    Accurate assessment of insect pest establishment risk is needed by national plant protection organizations to negotiate international trade of horticultural commodities that can potentially carry the pests and result in inadvertent introductions in the importing countries. We used mechanistic and correlative niche models to quantify and map the global patterns of the potential for establishment of codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.), a major pest of apples, peaches, pears, and other pome and stone fruits, and a quarantine pest in countries where it currently does not occur. The mechanistic model CLIMEX was calibrated using species-specific physiological tolerance thresholds, whereas the correlative model MaxEnt used species occurrences and climatic spatial data. Projected potential distribution from both models conformed well to the current known distribution of codling moth. None of the models predicted suitable environmental conditions in countries located between 20°N and 20°S potentially because of shorter photoperiod, and lack of chilling requirement (Japan where codling moth currently does not occur but where its preferred host species (i.e., apple) is present. Average annual temperature and latitude were the main environmental variables associated with codling moth distribution at global level. The predictive models developed in this study present the global risk of establishment of codling moth, and can be used for monitoring potential introductions of codling moth in different countries and by policy makers and trade negotiators in making science-based decisions. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Improvement of the sterile insect technique for codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera Tortricidae) to facilitate expansion of field application

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vreysen, M. J. B.; Carpenter, J. E.; Marec, František

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 134, č. 3 (2010), s. 165-181 ISSN 0931-2048 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/09/2106 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : area-wide integrated pest management * codling moth * genetic sexing Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.276, year: 2010

  8. A model for the overwintering process of European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Baumgärtner

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the development, parametrization and validation of a phenology model of the overwintering process of European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller populations in northern latitudes. The model is built on diapause and poikilothermic population development theories and represents the phenological events of entries into and emergence from pre-diapause, diapause and post-diapause phases. The rate sum models for pre-diapause and post-diapause development are based on published non-linear temperature dependent rate functions. The rate sum model for diapause, however, is negatively affected by the photoperiod during diapause and positively influenced by the photoperiod at the time of diapause entry. The diapause model is parametrized with 3-year data from 25 locations in Europe and Cyprus, and validated with 1-3 year observations from 18 locations in Europe and California. Despite restrictive assumptions and limitations imposed by weather data recorded at variable distances from the observation sites, and the variable qualities of observation data, the model’s predictive and explanatory capabilities are useful for adaptive pest management and assessments of the invasive potential. The need for controlled experiments is recognized and suggestions are made for improving the model.

  9. Feasibility of Mating Disruption for Agricultural Pest Eradication in an Urban Environment: Light Brown Apple Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Perth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soopaya, Rajendra; Woods, Bill; Lacey, Ian; Virdi, Amandip; Mafra-Neto, Agenor; Suckling, David Maxwell

    2015-08-01

    Eradication technologies are needed for urban and suburban situations, but may require different technologies from pest management in agriculture. We investigated mating disruption of a model moth species recently targeted for eradication in Californian cities, by applying dollops of SPLAT releasing a two-component sex pheromone of the light brown apple moth in 2-ha plots in low-density residential Perth, Australia. The pheromone technology was applied manually at ∼1.5 m height to street and garden trees, scrubs, and walls at 500 dollops per hectare of 0.8 g containing ∼80 mg active two-component pheromone. Catches of male moths were similar among all plots before treatment, but in treated areas (six replicates) pheromone trap catches were substantially reduced for up to 29 wk posttreatment, compared with untreated control plot catches (three replicates). The treatment with pheromone reduced catch to virgin females by 86% (P environments. The need for new socially acceptable tools for eradication in urban environments is likely to increase because of increasing need for eradications. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Spatial analysis of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) male population in a mediterranean agricultural landscape in central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarretta, A; Zinni, A; Mazzocchetti, A; Trematerra, P

    2008-04-01

    The results obtained from the spatial analysis of pheromone-baited trap catch data of Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermüller) males are reported. The research was undertaken in the Abruzzo region of central Italy. In the study area, vineyards (of Vitis vinifera L.) are the predominant cultivation, surrounded by hedgerows and small woodlots, and interspersed with cereal crops and olive groves. The main purpose of the study was to investigate the spatio-temporal dynamics of L. botrana, inside and outside vineyards, and to evaluate the effect of the landscape elements on pest distribution. A trend orientation over the experimental area was observed along the direction from northwest to southeast. Correlograms fitted using a spherical model showed in all cases an aggregated distribution and an estimated range having a mean of 174 m in 2005 and 116 m in 2006. Contour maps highlighted that spatial distribution of L. botrana was not limited to vineyards, but its presence is high particularly inside olive groves. The adult distribution on the experimental area changed during the season: hot spots of flight I were positioned inside olive groves; during flights II and III, they were concentrated in vineyards. L. botrana males were also captured in uncultivated fields, but never in high densities. Our results showed that a large proportion of the adult population of L. botrana inhabits areas outside those usually targeted by pest management programs. Thus, in Mediterranean agro-ecosystems, it is highly recommended to consider the whole landscape, with particular attention to olive crops.

  11. Interactions between Bacillus thuringiensis and parasitoids of late-instar larvae of the spruce budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmaker, A.; Cusson, M.; Frankenhuyzen, van K.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated interactions between Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner var. kurstaki and parasitoids that attack late instars of the eastern spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens). In a petri-dish arena, females of Tranosema rostrale rostrale (Brishke) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) were

  12. Sex-Pheromone-Mediated Mating Disruption Technology for the Oriental Fruit Moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae: Overview and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei N. Kong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A great deal of progress has been made over the last three decades in research on pheromone-mediated mating disruption technology for the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck. Pheromones can interrupt normal orientation, and the most likely mechanism of pheromone disruption, competitive-attraction (false-plume following, invokes competition between point sources of pheromone formulation and females for males. This technology, performed by broadcasting pheromones into orchards to disrupt mate finding, has been successfully implemented in oriental fruit moth control. Reservoir-style dispensers made of polyethylene tubes, which release pheromone throughout the full growing season, are the current industry standard. Although reasonably effective, they require labor-intensive hand application. Recently, a new formulation, paraffin wax, which maximizes competition between point sources of synthetic pheromone and feral females for males, was shown to have high disruption performance. As this formulation is highly effective, inexpensive, and easy to produce, further study and development are advisable. Increased understanding of the principles of mating disruption will aid in the design of more effective dispensers. Continued research is needed to meet grower concerns with regard to risk, efficacy, and cost and to identify other semiochemicals that can be applied to this delivery system. Greater knowledge of the integration of different biological control methods is therefore essential.

  13. Binding Properties of General Odorant Binding Proteins from the Oriental Fruit Moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangwei Li

    Full Text Available The oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta is a host-switching pest species. The adults highly depend on olfactory cues in locating optimal host plants and oviposition sites. Odorant binding proteins (OBPs are thought to be responsible for recognizing and transporting hydrophobic odorants across the aqueous sensillum lymph to stimulate the odorant receptors (ORs within the antennal sensilla and activate the olfactory signal transduction pathway. Exploring the physiological function of these OBPs could facilitate understanding insect chemical communications.Two antennae-specific general OBPs (GOBPs of G. molesta were expressed and purified in vitro. The binding affinities of G. molesta GOBP1 and 2 (GmolGOBP1 and 2 for sex pheromone components and host plant volatiles were measured by fluorescence ligand-binding assays. The distribution of GmolGOBP1 and 2 in the antennal sensillum were defined by whole mount fluorescence immunohistochemistry (WM-FIHC experiments. The binding sites of GmolGOBP2 were predicted using homology modeling, molecular docking and site-directed mutagenesis. Both GmolGOBP1 and 2 are housing in sensilla basiconica and with no differences in male and female antennae. Recombinant GmolGOBP1 (rGmolGOBP1 exhibited broad binding properties towards host plant volatiles and sex pheromone components; rGmolGOBP2 could not effectively bind host plant volatiles but showed specific binding affinity with a minor sex pheromone component dodecanol. We chose GmolGOBP2 and dodecanol for further homology modeling, molecular docking, and site-directed mutagenesis. Binding affinities of mutants demonstrated that Thr9 was the key binding site and confirmed dodecanol bonding to protein involves a hydrogen bond. Combined with the pH effect on binding affinities of rGmolGOBP2, ligand binding and release of GmolGOBP2 were related to a pH-dependent conformational transition.Two rGmolGOBPs exhibit different binding characteristics for tested ligands. rGmolGOBP1 has dual functions in recognition of host plant volatiles and sex pheromone components, while rGmolGOBP2 is mainly involved in minor sex pheromone component dodecanol perception. This study also provides empirical evidence for the predicted functions of key amino acids in recombinant protein ligand-binding characteristics.

  14. Comparison of mating disruption with pesticides for management of oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in North Carolina apple orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovanci, Orkun B; Schal, Coby; Walgenbach, James F; Kennedy, George G

    2005-08-01

    The efficacy of mating disruption by using Isomate-M 100 pheromone dispensers and two formulations of microencapsulated sprayable pheromone for management of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), was compared with conventional insecticides in large plot studies in Henderson County, North Carolina, in 2000 and 2001. In addition, experiments were conducted in small and large plots to test the response of oriental fruit moth males to different application rates of sprayable pheromone. Pheromone trap catches were significantly reduced in mating disruption blocks compared with conventional and abandoned orchards. Pheromone traps placed in the upper canopy captured significantly more moths than traps placed in the lower canopy across all treatments, and lures loaded with 100 microg of pheromone caught more moths than traps with 300 microg, but the difference between doses was statistically significant at only one location in 2001. Isomate-M 100 provided excellent trap shutdown and was significantly more effective than sprayable pheromone formulations. Fruit damage by oriental fruit moth larvae was very low (oriental fruit moth population pressure in large plot studies. Mating disruption proved to be an alternative to organophosphate insecticides for managing oriental fruit moth populations in North Carolina apple orchards.

  15. Geostatistics and Geographic Information Systems to Study the Spatial Distribution of Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Peach Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, F; Calvo, M V; Borges, A; Scatoni, I B

    2015-08-01

    The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), is the most serious pest in peach, and several insecticide applications are required to reduce crop damage to acceptable levels. Geostatistics and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are employed to measure the range of spatial correlation of G. molesta in order to define the optimum sampling distance for performing spatial analysis and to determine the current distribution of the pest in peach orchards of southern Uruguay. From 2007 to 2010, 135 pheromone traps per season were installed and georeferenced in peach orchards distributed over 50,000 ha. Male adult captures were recorded weekly from September to April. Structural analysis of the captures was performed, yielding 14 semivariograms for the accumulated captures analyzed by generation and growing season. Two sets of maps were constructed to describe the pest distribution. Nine significant models were obtained in the 14 evaluated periods. The range estimated for the correlation was from 908 to 6884 m. Three hot spots of high population level and some areas with comparatively low populations were constant over the 3-year period, while there is a greater variation in the size of the population in different generations and years in other areas.

  16. Comparison of microcapsule density with various apple tissues and formulations of oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) sprayable pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldstein, Daniel E; Gut, L J

    2003-02-01

    The density of microcapsules was compared on 'Golden Delicious' mature and immature foliage, fruit, and 1-yr-old limbs after dip treatments with Phase III oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), microencapsulated pheromone. Microcapsules were counted with a dissecting microscope at 50x magnification after apple tissues were treated with a two-step dye staining process to increase the visibility of the microcapsules. The number of Phase III microcapsules on 1-yr limbs treated with a field concentration was two- to threefold greater than the number of microcapsules on similarly treated fruit or foliage. Phase I, III, and V OFM MEC and Checkmate OFM-F formulations of microencapsulated pheromone also were compared to determine their abundance on mature apple foliage. The Phase V OFM MEC formulation had the highest density of microcapsules when mature foliage was treated at the field rate. The Phase I treatment had the greatest difference between upper and lower leaf surfaces with 18-fold greater microcapsule density on the upper surface. On mature apple leaves treated with Phase III MEC, the number of microcapsules/cm2 was two- to threefold greater on fields of view without the mid-vein than those that included the mid-vein. The cuticle structure and abundance of trichomes are two factors that may have contributed to differences in microcapsule density among plant tissue types, top and bottom leaf surfaces, and fields of view with and without the mid-vein.

  17. [Effect of endogenous factors on the chemical perception of Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to sex pheromone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altafini, Deisi L; Sant'Ana, Josué; Redaelli, Luiza R

    2010-01-01

    The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), stands out as one of the most important pest in Rosaceae orchards in Brazil. During feeding, caterpillars bore into shoots, branches and fruits, impairing the commercial production. This work aimed to study the effect of endogenous factors in the chemical perception and in the species chemotactic behavior, seeking to optimize monitoring and the behavioral control of this pest. We evaluated male electroantennographical (EAG) and chemotactical (olfactometry) responses to the synthetic sex pheromone in different ages, virgins or mated and fed or unfed. The EAG responses of males did not differ for all evaluated factors. Nevertheless, the chemotactical behavior of males seems to decrease with age, not varying as a function of mating or feeding conditions. The knowledge about the interference of these factors in G. molesta may help with the interpretation of field results, allowing the development of suitable and reliable control measures based on infochemicals for behavioral control.

  18. Sex-Pheromone-Mediated Mating Disruption Technology for the Oriental Fruit Moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): Overview and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Wei N. Kong; J. Li; Ren J. Fan; Sheng C. Li; Rui Y. Ma

    2014-01-01

    A great deal of progress has been made over the last three decades in research on pheromone-mediated mating disruption technology for the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck). Pheromones can interrupt normal orientation, and the most likely mechanism of pheromone disruption, competitive-attraction (false-plume following), invokes competition between point sources of pheromone formulation and females for males. This technology, performed by broadcasting pheromones into orchards to d...

  19. Similar worldwide patterns in the sex pheromone signal and response in the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, A L; Barros-Parada, W; Bosch, D; Escudero-Colomar, L A; Fuentes-Contreras, E; Hernández-Sánchez, J; Jung, C; Yung, C; Kim, Y; Kovanci, O B; Levi, A; Lo, P; Molinari, F; Valls, J; Gemeno, C

    2015-02-01

    The response of Grapholita molesta (Busck) males to three-component sex pheromone blends containing a 100% ratio of the major sex pheromone component, (Z)-8-dodecenyl acetate and a 10% ratio of (Z)-8-dodecenol, but with varying ratios of (E)-8-dodecenyl acetate (0.4, 5.4, 10.4, 30.4, and 100.1% E-blends) was tested with populations in eight stone and pome fruit orchards in Europe, Asia, and North and South America. Traps baited with the 5.4% E-blend caught significantly more males than traps with any other blend with all populations. Significantly more males were caught in traps baited with the 10.4% E-blend than in traps with the remaining blends, except with the 0.4% E-blend in Turkey. Significant differences in male moth catches occurred between the other blends with the 0.4>30.4% E-blend, and the 30.4>100.1% E-blend. Male moth catches with the 100.1% E-blend only differed from the hexane control in Chile. No apparent differences were noted to these blends in populations collected from pome or stone fruits. Flight tunnel assays to synthetic blends with a subset of populations were similar to the field results, but the breadth of the most attractive E-blends was wider. Flight tunnel assays also demonstrated a high level of male-female cross-attraction among field-collected populations. Female gland extracts from field-collected populations did not show any significant variation in their three-component blends. The only exceptions in these assays were that long-term laboratory populations were less responsive and attractive, and produced different blend ratios of the two minor components than recently collected field populations.

  20. Binding Properties of General Odorant Binding Proteins from the Oriental Fruit Moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangwei; Chen, Xiulin; Li, Boliao; Zhang, Guohui; Li, Yiping; Wu, Junxiang

    2016-01-01

    The oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta is a host-switching pest species. The adults highly depend on olfactory cues in locating optimal host plants and oviposition sites. Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) are thought to be responsible for recognizing and transporting hydrophobic odorants across the aqueous sensillum lymph to stimulate the odorant receptors (ORs) within the antennal sensilla and activate the olfactory signal transduction pathway. Exploring the physiological function of these OBPs could facilitate understanding insect chemical communications. Two antennae-specific general OBPs (GOBPs) of G. molesta were expressed and purified in vitro. The binding affinities of G. molesta GOBP1 and 2 (GmolGOBP1 and 2) for sex pheromone components and host plant volatiles were measured by fluorescence ligand-binding assays. The distribution of GmolGOBP1 and 2 in the antennal sensillum were defined by whole mount fluorescence immunohistochemistry (WM-FIHC) experiments. The binding sites of GmolGOBP2 were predicted using homology modeling, molecular docking and site-directed mutagenesis. Both GmolGOBP1 and 2 are housing in sensilla basiconica and with no differences in male and female antennae. Recombinant GmolGOBP1 (rGmolGOBP1) exhibited broad binding properties towards host plant volatiles and sex pheromone components; rGmolGOBP2 could not effectively bind host plant volatiles but showed specific binding affinity with a minor sex pheromone component dodecanol. We chose GmolGOBP2 and dodecanol for further homology modeling, molecular docking, and site-directed mutagenesis. Binding affinities of mutants demonstrated that Thr9 was the key binding site and confirmed dodecanol bonding to protein involves a hydrogen bond. Combined with the pH effect on binding affinities of rGmolGOBP2, ligand binding and release of GmolGOBP2 were related to a pH-dependent conformational transition. Two rGmolGOBPs exhibit different binding characteristics for tested ligands. rGmolGOBP1 has dual functions in recognition of host plant volatiles and sex pheromone components, while rGmolGOBP2 is mainly involved in minor sex pheromone component dodecanol perception. This study also provides empirical evidence for the predicted functions of key amino acids in recombinant protein ligand-binding characteristics.

  1. Binding Properties of General Odorant Binding Proteins from the Oriental Fruit Moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangwei; Chen, Xiulin; Li, Boliao; Zhang, Guohui; Li, Yiping; Wu, Junxiang

    2016-01-01

    Background The oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta is a host-switching pest species. The adults highly depend on olfactory cues in locating optimal host plants and oviposition sites. Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) are thought to be responsible for recognizing and transporting hydrophobic odorants across the aqueous sensillum lymph to stimulate the odorant receptors (ORs) within the antennal sensilla and activate the olfactory signal transduction pathway. Exploring the physiological function of these OBPs could facilitate understanding insect chemical communications. Methodology/Principal Finding Two antennae-specific general OBPs (GOBPs) of G. molesta were expressed and purified in vitro. The binding affinities of G. molesta GOBP1 and 2 (GmolGOBP1 and 2) for sex pheromone components and host plant volatiles were measured by fluorescence ligand-binding assays. The distribution of GmolGOBP1 and 2 in the antennal sensillum were defined by whole mount fluorescence immunohistochemistry (WM-FIHC) experiments. The binding sites of GmolGOBP2 were predicted using homology modeling, molecular docking and site-directed mutagenesis. Both GmolGOBP1 and 2 are housing in sensilla basiconica and with no differences in male and female antennae. Recombinant GmolGOBP1 (rGmolGOBP1) exhibited broad binding properties towards host plant volatiles and sex pheromone components; rGmolGOBP2 could not effectively bind host plant volatiles but showed specific binding affinity with a minor sex pheromone component dodecanol. We chose GmolGOBP2 and dodecanol for further homology modeling, molecular docking, and site-directed mutagenesis. Binding affinities of mutants demonstrated that Thr9 was the key binding site and confirmed dodecanol bonding to protein involves a hydrogen bond. Combined with the pH effect on binding affinities of rGmolGOBP2, ligand binding and release of GmolGOBP2 were related to a pH-dependent conformational transition. Conclusion Two rGmolGOBPs exhibit different binding characteristics for tested ligands. rGmolGOBP1 has dual functions in recognition of host plant volatiles and sex pheromone components, while rGmolGOBP2 is mainly involved in minor sex pheromone component dodecanol perception. This study also provides empirical evidence for the predicted functions of key amino acids in recombinant protein ligand-binding characteristics. PMID:27152703

  2. Development of a control alternative for the citrus fruit borer, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae): from basic research to the grower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, Jose Roberto P.; Bento, Jose Mauricio S.; Yamamoto, Pedro T.; Vilela, Evaldo F.; Leal, Walter S.

    2004-01-01

    All research steps, developed from 1995 to 2000, to synthesize the sex pheromone of Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927) are described, in order to monitoring this pest that causes losses in the order of 50 million dollars per year to citriculture in the State of Sao Paulo. The basic researches conducted are described, including the development of an artificial diet for the insect, the study of its temperature and humidity requirements, behavioral studies, and synthesis of the male-attracting substance up to the formulation and distribution of the pheromone to the grower, by means of its commercialization. It is a case of success, at a cost of 50 thousand dollars, involving inter- and multidisciplinary researches, which can be adopted to other insect pests in the country. (author)

  3. Trapping female Pandemis limitata (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) moths with mixtures of acetic acid, benzenoid apple leaf volatiles, and sex pheromones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandemis limitata (Robinson) is one of several leaf-feeding caterpillar pests of commercial tree-fruit crops in British Columbia. Recent discovery that European Pandemis spp. are attracted to lures containing acetic acid (AA) and caterpillar-induced benzenoid apple leaf volatiles, 2-phenylethanol a...

  4. Oxygenated Phosphine Fumigation for Control of Light Brown Apple Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Eggs on Cut-Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Samuel S; Liu, Yong-Biao; Simmons, Gregory S

    2015-08-01

    Light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), eggs were subjected to oxygenated phosphine fumigation treatments under 70% oxygen on cut flowers to determine efficacy and safety. Five cut flower species: roses, lilies, tulips, gerbera daisy, and pompon chrysanthemums, were fumigated in separate groups with 2,500 ppm phosphine for 72 h at 5°C. Egg mortality and postharvest quality of cut flowers were determined after fumigation. Egg mortalities of 99.7-100% were achieved among the cut flower species. The treatment was safe to all cut flowers except gerbera daisy. A 96-h fumigation treatment with 2,200 ppm phosphine of eggs on chrysanthemums cut flowers also did not achieve complete control of light brown apple moth eggs. A simulation of fumigation in hermetically sealed fumigation chambers with gerbera daisy showed significant accumulations of carbon dioxide and ethylene by the end of 72-h sealing. However, oxygenated phosphine fumigations with carbon dioxide and ethylene absorbents did not reduce the injury to gerbera daisy, indicating that it is likely that phosphine may directly cause the injury to gerbera daisy cut flowers. The study demonstrated that oxygenated phosphine fumigation is effective against light brown apple moth eggs. However, it may not be able to achieve the probit9 quarantine level of control and the treatment was safe to most of the cut flower species. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  5. Developing kairomone-based lures and traps targeting female Spilonota ocellana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in apple orchards treated with ex pheromones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilonota ocellana (Denis and Schiffermüller) can be a serious pest of organic apples in British Columbia. Recent discovery that S. ocellana moths are attracted by a lure combining acetic acid (AA) and benzyl nitrile (BN), a caterpillar-induced apple leaf volatile, provides an opportunity to develo...

  6. Survey of conspecific herbivore-induced volatiles from apple as possible attractants for Pandemis pyrusana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted to identify volatiles released by apple, Malus domestica Borkhausen, foliage subjected to herbivore feeding. The volatiles released upon herbivore attack could be attractive to adult leafroller, Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott when combined with acetic acid. First, volatiles relea...

  7. Evaluation of novel semiochemical dispensers simultaneously releasing pear ester and sex pheromone for mating disruption of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The performance of polyvinyl chloride polymer (pvc) dispensers loaded with two rates of ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) plus the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone) of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), was compared with similar dispensers and two commercial dispensers l...

  8. Preferência de oviposição de Grapholita molesta (busck (lepidoptera: tortricidae em cultivares de pessegueiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Maria Nalesso Marangoni Montes

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento de cultivares de pessegueiro à infestação de Grapholita molesta. Para isso, foram realizados levantamentos do número de ponteiros atacados/cultivar por meio de amostragem visual em cem (100 ponteiros, em quatro períodos, durante os anos de 2004, 2005 e 2006, preferencialmente na primavera, quando ocorrem surtos de brotações no pessegueiro. Foram avaliadas as cultivares Tropical, Aurora 2, Doçura 2, Ouromel 3, Joia 4, Talismã, Dourado 2, Aurora 1, Régis e Rei da conserva, enxertadas sobre Okinawa e Umê. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, sendo cada bloco constituído por dez árvores, com 5 repetições, e os tratamentos, representados pelas épocas de amostragem. Nas condições em que foi conduzido o presente experimento, observou-se maior infestação das brotações de pessegueiros por G. molesta na primavera de 2004 a 2006 para as cultivares sobre 'Okinawa' e primavera de 2006 para as cultivares sobre Umê, com danos da ordem de 14,85% e 14,27%, respectivamente. Das cultivares sobre Okinawa avaliadas, Tropical, Aurora 2 e Rei da conserva foram as mais danificadas pela praga. Aurora 2 foi a cultivar sobre Umê mais danificada pela praga.

  9. Comparison of several artificial diets with different protein sources for massal rearing of Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Mauro S.; Parra, Jose R.P.

    1999-01-01

    The development of Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima) was compared among four artificial diets with different protein sources based on biological characteristics and fertility life table in order to have the insect available throughout the year for research in different areas. All diets with variable protein sources (D1= bean, yeast, wheat germ, soybean protein and casein; D2= corn flour, wheat germ, and yeast; D3= soybean protein, and wheat germ; D4= bean, yeast and wheat germ) allowed the insect to developed at 27 +- 2 deg C; RH 65 +- 10% and 14 h photophase. In all diets the insect presented four instars with several other similar biological characteristics. Since diet D2 (corn flour, wheat germ and yeast) provided the lowest development time, the highest viability, a high value of finite ratio of increase (ll), besides being of low cost and easy preparation, it can be considered as the most adequate for laboratory rearing of E. aurantiana. Balanced nutrients showed more important than the nutritional value of the components of the diet for this insect which is, for the first time, fed on artificial diet. (author)

  10. The effects of strawberry cropping practices on the strawberry tortricid (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), its natural enemies, and the presence of nematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigsgaard, Lene; Naulin, Cyril; Haukeland, Solveig

    2014-01-01

    of organic and conventional farms to test the hypothesis that farming practice (organic versus conventional) will affect the level of pest infestation and will affect the natural enemies. In addition, the number of years with strawberries on the farm, field age, and other factors that may affect pests...... and their natural enemies were considered. Farms were characterized by their cropping practices, cropping history, and other parameters. Field-collected larvae were laboratory reared to assess mortality from parasitoids and entomopathogenic fungi. In 2010, a survey of nematodes was made to assess the response......-year fields in 2010. Cropping practice did not lead to significant differences in the level of total parasitism or in C. aretas parasitism; however, C. aretas contributed to a higher proportion of the parasitized larvae on conventional farms than on organic farms. Mortality from unknown causes of A. comariana...

  11. Geographic variability in response to azinphos-methyl in field-collected populations of Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleño, Jimena; Anguiano, Olga L; Cichón, Liliana B; Garrido, Silvina A; Montagna, Cristina M

    2012-11-01

    Resistance to insecticides has been related to application history, genetic factors of the pest and the dynamic within the treated area. The aim of this study was to assess the geographic variation in azinphos-methyl response and the role of esterase and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase enzymes in codling moth populations collected within different areas of the Río Negro and Neuquén Valley, Argentina. Diapausing field-collected populations showed resistance ratios at the LC(50) that were 0.7-8.7 times higher than that of the susceptible strain. Mean esterase (EST) and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase activities (expressed as α-N min(-1) mg(-1) prot(-1) and pg 7-OHC insect(-1) min(-1) respectively) were significantly correlated with LD(50) values from the field-collected populations. In addition, azinphos-methyl response was associated with the geographic area where the insect population was collected: populations from isolated and more recent productive areas presented significantly lower resistance ratios in comparison with populations from older and more intensive productive areas. The populations assayed presented different resistance levels to azinphos-methyl. The response was highly correlated with the orchard's geographic location. EST and ECOD activities were involved in azinphos-methyl response in the given region. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Field validation of a three chemical controlled release dispenser to attract codling moth (Cydia pomonella) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male and female codling moths, Cydia pomonella, were shown to be attracted to three chemical kairoonomal lure comprised of pear ester, acetic acid, and n-butyl sulfide. A novel controlled-release device based on sachets was developed in the laboratory and field tested to optimize the attractivness ...

  13. Measuring local genetic variability in populations of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) across an unmanaged / commercial orchard interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genetic structure of adult codling moth Cydia pomonella L., populations was characterized both inside a managed apple, Malus domestica Borkdhausen, orchard and in surrounding unmanaged hosts and non-host trees in central Chile during 2006-2007. Adult males were collected using an array of sex ph...

  14. Modeling codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae phenology and predicting egg hatch in apple orchards of the Maule Region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Barros-Parada

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted in the Maule Region to characterize the phenology of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L. The Predictive Extension Timing Estimator (PETE and a logistic phenological model were validated with eight data sets of cumulative moth catches in sex pheromone (PH and kairomone-baited traps and the cumulative occurrence of fruit injuries from apple (Malus domestica Borkh. orchards during the 2009-2011 seasons. Second, the start of egg hatch was predicted from the first sustained male and female moth catches (biofix in traps baited with pear ester (PE, PE+acetic acid (AA, PE+PH, and PH alone. Both phenological models fit data well except that the logistic provided a better fit than the PETE model of the phenology of egg hatch of the codling moth in the first generation, with a difference of 11 d between models in the prediction of 50% egg hatch. No significant difference was found between biofix dates established for males using either PH or PE+PH lures or for the biofix date based on female catches with PE+AA or PH+PE. The biofix established with the sustained female catch occurred nearly 11 d later than the male-based biofix. The use of a female biofix provided on average a 4-d improvement in the prediction of first egg hatch compared with the traditional use of a male biofix, but this difference was not significant. The use of PE+AA lures increased the proportion of cases when a female-based biofix could be established compared with the use of the PH+PE lure.

  15. Expression of a Sensory Neuron Membrane Protein SNMP2 in Olfactory Sensilla of Codling Moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinglong; Liu, Lu; Fang, Yiqing; Feng, Jinian

    2016-08-01

    In insects, sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs) are critical peripheral olfactory proteins and highly promote the sensitivity of pheromone detection. In this study, we cloned an SNMP transcript (CpomSNMP2, GenBank KU302714) from the antennae of the codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.) Its open reading frame is 1,575 bp and it encodes a protein with 524 amino acids. CpomSNMP2 contains two putative transmembrane domains and has a large extracellular loop. Phylogenetic analysis showed that CpomSNMP2 is clustered into the group of previously characterized lepidopteron SNMP2s. Expression levels of CpomSNMP2 were significantly higher in antennae of both males and females than in tissues from the thoraxes, abdomens, legs, and wings. CpomSNMP2 was distributed in sensilla trichodea of both males and females, but only in sensilla chaetica of males. This study provides evidence for olfactory roles of CpomSNMP2 in this moth. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Toxicity of emamectin benzoate to Cydia pomonella (L.) and Cydia molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): laboratory and field tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioriatti, Claudio; Anfora, Gianfranco; Angeli, Gino; Civolani, Stefano; Schmidt, Silvia; Pasqualini, Edison

    2009-03-01

    Emamectin benzoate is a novel macrocyclic lactone insecticide derived from naturally occurring avermectin molecules isolated by fermentation from the soil microorganism Streptomyces avermitilis Kim & Goodfellow. The present study aims to evaluate the toxicity of emamectin benzoate to codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, C. molesta (Busck), under laboratory and semi-field conditions. Dose response bioassays showed that emamectin benzoate had a high level of intrinsic toxicity to early-stage larvae of both species, and that contact activity might contribute significantly to mortality. In the semi-field trials, residual toxicity lasted for more than 1 week. Ovicidal activity was recorded only for C. pomonella (approximately 30%), irrespective of the concentrations tested. Field trials confirmed the efficacy of emamectin benzoate on codling moth when applied at 7 day intervals. Fruit damage, both from the first and second generations, was comparable with that on treatment with chlorpyrifos-ethyl, used as a chemical reference. Emamectin benzoate may be considered a valuable tool for the control of codling moth as a component of an IPM programme. Its collective advantages are: high efficacy, lack of cross-resistance with currently used products, control of secondary pests such as oriental fruit moth and selective toxicity that spares beneficials. 2008 Society of Chemical Industry

  17. Assessing the quality of mass-reared codling moths (Lepidoptera: tortricidae) by using field release-recapture tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloem, S.; Bloem, K.A.; Knight, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    Following small-scale field releases of sterile, mass-reared codling moths, Cydia pomonella (L.), in the spring of 1995, significantly higher numbers of adults originating from larvae that had been induced into diapause were recaptured in passive interception traps compared with standard (nondiapaused) colony moths reared under either constant or fluctuating temperatures. When releases were made in the summer, significantly more diapaused females were again recaptured and similar numbers of diapaused and fluctuating temperature-reared standard males were trapped. Our field data showed that both male and female codling moths dispersed farther as ambient temperatures increased. When standard and diapaused sterile codling moths were released into replicated 1-ha plots under large-scale Sterile Insect Release program conditions in the summer and fall of 1996 and the spring of 1997, the proportion of recaptured diapaused males was significantly higher than for standard (nondiapaused) moths. This was true for recapture of males with passive interception, pheromone-baited, and virgin female-baited traps

  18. Foliar application of microdoses of sucrose to reduce codling moth Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) damage to apple trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnault, Ingrid; Lombarkia, Nadia; Joy-Ondet, Sophie; Romet, Lionel; Brahim, Imene; Meradi, Rahma; Nasri, Ardjouna; Auger, Jacques; Derridj, Sylvie

    2016-10-01

    The effects of foliar applications of microdoses of sucrose to reduce the damage by the codling moth have been reported from nine trials carried in France and Algeria from 2009 to 2014. The activity of sucrose alone was assessed by comparison with an untreated control and some treatments with the Cydia pomonella granulovirus or a chemical insecticide. The addition of sucrose to these different treatments was also investigated. The application of sucrose at 0.01% reduced the means of infested fruits with a value of Abbott's efficacy of 41.0 ± 10.0%. This involved the induction of resistance by antixenosis to insect egg laying. Indeed, it seems that acceptance of egg laying on leaves treated with sucrose was reduced. The addition of sucrose to thiacloprid improved its efficacy (59.5% ± 12.8) by 18.4%. However, the sucrose had no added value when associated with C. pomonella granulovirus treatments. Foliar applications of microdoses of sucrose every 20 days in commercial orchards can partially protect against the codling moth. Its addition to thiacloprid increases the efficacy in integrated control strategies, contrary to C. pomonella granulovirus treatments. This work opens a route for the development of new biocontrol strategies. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Comparison of laboratory and field bioassays of lab-reared Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) quality and field performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximum production and fitness of insect species that are mass-reared for biological control programs such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) have benefitted from the employment of quality control and quality management. With a growing interest in the use of SIT as a tactic for the suppression/e...

  20. N-butyl sulfide as an attractant and co-attractant for male and female codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research to discover and develop attractants for the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L., has involved identification of the chemicals eliciting moth orientation to conspecific female moths, host fruits, fermented baits, and species of microbes. Pear eester, acetic acid, and N-butyl sulfide are am...

  1. The optimal sex pheromone release rate for trapping the codling moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Xu, Jing; Zhang, Runzhi

    2016-02-16

    For successful pest management, codlemone (E, E-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol) is widely used to monitor codling moth. The pheromone release rate is essential for the lure's attractiveness. The optimal sex pheromone release rate (V0) for trapping codling moth was evaluated during 2013-2014. The overwinter generation V0 was 6.7-33.4 μg wk(-1), and moth catches (MCs) were 0.82 ± 0.11 adults/trap/week; MCs for lower (V1) and higher (V2) release rates were 52.4% and 46.3%, respectively, of that for V0. The first generation V0 was 18.4-29.6 μg wk(-1), with MCs of 1.45 ± 0.29 adults/week/trap. V1 and V2 MCs were 34.5% and 31.7%, respectively, of those for V0. Combining across generations, the final V0 was 18.4-29.6 μg wk(-1), with MCs of 1.07 ± 0.06 adults/week/trap. V1 and V2 MCs were 51.4% and 41.1%, respectively, of that for V0. Overwinter generation emergence was relatively concentrated, requiring a wider V0. Maintaining the release rate at 18.4-29.6 μg wk(-1) could optimize the lure's efficacy; this resulted in the capture of nearly 1.9 and 2.4 times more moths than V1 and V2, respectively. The results also indicate that a dispenser pheromone release rate of 200-300 times that of the female moth can perfectly outcompetes females in the field.

  2. N-Butyl sulfide as an attractant and coattractant for male and female codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolt, Peter J; Ohler, Bonnie; Lo, Peter; Cha, Dong; Davis, Thomas S; Suckling, David M; Brunner, Jay

    2014-04-01

    Research to discover and develop attractants for the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., has involved identification of the chemicals eliciting moth orientation to conspecific female moths, host fruits, fermented baits, and species of microbes. Pear ester, acetic acid, and N-butyl sulfide are among those chemicals reported to attract or enhance attractiveness to codling moth. We evaluated the trapping of codling moth with N-butyl sulfide alone and in combination with acetic acid and pear ester in apple orchards. Acetic acid was attractive in two tests and N-butyl sulfide was attractive in one of two tests. N-Butyl sulfide increased catches of codling moth when used with acetic acid to bait traps. N-Butyl sulfide also increased catches of codling moth when added to traps baited with the combination of acetic acid and pear ester. Male and female codling moth both responded to these chemicals and chemical combinations. These results provide a new three-component lure comprising N-butyl sulfide, acetic acid, and pear ester that is stronger for luring codling moth females than other attractants tested.

  3. Effects of reservoir dispenser height on efficacy of mating disruption of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, David L; Stelinski, Lukasz L; Miller, James R; Grieshop, Matthew J; Gut, Larry J

    2011-08-01

    The effect of varying the height of reservoir dispensers for mating disruption of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), was investigated. The goal was to improve the effectiveness of C. pomonella mating disruption through improved understanding of adult distribution within the tree canopy and the impact of pheromone dispenser placement on disruption. Two dispensers per tree were placed at 2 m and 4 m and/or one dispenser at each height on the tree at a label rate of 1000 units ha(-1) . Monitoring traps and tethered female moths were deployed in plots at 2 and 4 m heights to assess treatment effects by catches or matings respectively. Fewest male moths were captured with all dispensers placed at 4 m. Female mating was lowest, and with least variation between females tethered at 2 and 4 m, when dispensers were placed simultaneously at 2 and 4 m (28% mated). Mating was 32% with both dispensers at 4 m, 38% with both dispensers at 2 m and 46% in the no disruption control. Mating was highest across treatments when females were tethered at 2 m and dispensers placed at 4 m (40%), and when females were tethered at 4 m with dispensers placed at 2 m (46%). Traps at 4 m in trees captured more male moths than traps at 2 m, regardless of disruption dispenser positioning. Female mating was lowest when dispensers were placed simultaneously at 2 and 4 m, suggesting that current recommendations for placement of reservoir dispensers in tree crowns may be suboptimal. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Development of a control alternative for the citrus fruit borer, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae): from basic research to the grower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, Jose Roberto P.; Bento, Jose Mauricio S. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola], e-mail: jrpparra@esalq.usp.br; Garcia, Mauro S. [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), RS (Brazil); Yamamoto, Pedro T. [Fundo de Defesa da Citricultura (Fundecitrus), Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Vilela, Evaldo F. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Animal; Leal, Walter S. [University of California, Davis, CA (Brazil). Dept. of Entomology

    2004-12-15

    All research steps, developed from 1995 to 2000, to synthesize the sex pheromone of Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927) are described, in order to monitoring this pest that causes losses in the order of 50 million dollars per year to citriculture in the State of Sao Paulo. The basic researches conducted are described, including the development of an artificial diet for the insect, the study of its temperature and humidity requirements, behavioral studies, and synthesis of the male-attracting substance up to the formulation and distribution of the pheromone to the grower, by means of its commercialization. It is a case of success, at a cost of 50 thousand dollars, involving inter- and multidisciplinary researches, which can be adopted to other insect pests in the country. (author)

  5. Could natural selection change the geographic range limits of light brown apple moth (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae in North America?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Morey

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We artificially selected for increased freeze tolerance in the invasive light brown apple moth. Our results suggest that, by not accounting for adaptation to cold, current models of potential geographic distributions could underestimate the areas at risk of exposure to this species.

  6. Could natural selection change the geographic range limits of light brown apple moth (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) in North America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy C. Morey; Robert C. Venette; William D. Hutchison

    2013-01-01

    We artificially selected for increased freeze tolerance in the invasive light brown apple moth. Our results suggest that, by not accounting for adaptation to cold, current models of potential geographic distributions could underestimate the areas at risk of exposure to this species.

  7. Development of 2-phenlethanol and acetic acid lures to monitor Obliquebanded leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) under mating disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted to compare the relative attraction of the benzenoid plant volatiles 2-phenylethanol, phenylacetaldehyde, and phenylacetonitrile in combination with acetic acid as lures for male and female adults of the obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris), in apple, Mal...

  8. METHOD OF ANALYSIS FOR POPULATION LIMITATION OF THE LEPIDOPTERA PEST IN FRUITERS (LEPIDOPTERA: TORTRICIDAE IN SIBIEL VILLAGE, SIBIU CITY IN CONDITIONS OF YEAR 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina STANCĂ-MOISE

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present work is described an experiment in Sibiel, made in an apple orchard of 1,50 ha surface, which was kept under observation in order to combat the Cydia pomonella L. pest. It was used a pheromone trap as a combat method, for the application of the plant treatments in time.

  9. Target and Non‑Target Moth Species Captured by Pheromone Traps for Some Fruit Tortricid Moths (Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klára Jakubíková

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of the synthetic sexual pheromones for five tortricid species, viz. Grapholita funebrana Treitschke, 1835, G. janthinana (Duponchel, 1835, G. lobarzewskii (Nowicki, 1860, G. molesta (Busck, 1916, and Pandemis heparana (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775, was evaluated in two areas in the SE part of the Czech Republic. The lures for G. funebrana produced by the Pherobank showed a higher selectivity and efficiency than those by the Propher. On the contrary, pheromones for G. molesta by the Propher are more effective than those by the Pherobank. Besides the target species, 29 non-target tortricid species and 25 other Lepidoptera species were captured. The number of non-target tortricid species was comparable by the attractants for all species (15 – 17 spp., except Pandemis heparana (only 7 spp.. The most abundant non-target Tortricidae were Cnephasia stephensiana (Doubleday, 1849, Hedya pruniana (Hübner, 1799, and Epiblema cirsiana (Zeller, 1843. Cacoecimorpha pronubana (Hübner, 1799 was recorded in outdoor conditions of the Czech Republic for the first time. Celypha rosaceana (Schläger, 1847 was found as new for Moravia. Oegoconia novimundi (Busck, 1915 (Autostichidae was attracted by the lures for Grapholita funebrana and G. molesta in unusually high number of specimens.

  10. Frequency distribution of larval codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., aggregations on trees in Unmanaged apple orchards of the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumean, Zaid; Wood, Charlene; Gries, Gerhard

    2009-10-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a key pest of pome fruits in North America. After locating a pupation site, larvae spin a cocoon from which aggregation pheromone disseminates that attracts conspecific larvae. In two unmanaged apple orchards in Wenatchee and Yakima, Washington State, we systematically surveyed cracks and crevices of tree trunks for cocooning C. pomonella larvae. Aggregates of larvae were found significantly more often than solitary larvae. The number of cocooning larvae in aggregates (=group size) was inversely correlated with the frequency occurrence of that group size. Group size ranged between 2 and 20 cocoons. Height above ground had no effect on location of aggregates. In orchard 1, the cardinal direction of the tree trunk had no effect on location of aggregations, but in orchard 2, aggregations were located significantly most often on the south side of trunks. The mean ratio of males and females in aggregations was 1.08:1 and 1.04:1 in orchards 1 and 2, respectively. Moreover, the number of males in aggregates did not significantly differ from that of females. Our data support the conclusion that larvae seek pupation sites not by chance but in large part in response to pheromone signal and microhabitat cues. The probability of aggregates forming is likely proportional to the population density of C. pomonella.

  11. Chrysodeixis includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chrysodeixis includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on soybean treated with resistance inducers. P Vinicius de Souza, BR Machado, M Mueller de Freitas, F Correa, A Cirilo de Sousa Almeida, FG de Jesus ...

  12. Phylogeny and Evolution of Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitter, Charles; Davis, Donald R; Cummings, Michael P

    2017-01-31

    Until recently, deep-level phylogeny in Lepidoptera, the largest single radiation of plant-feeding insects, was very poorly understood. Over the past two decades, building on a preceding era of morphological cladistic studies, molecular data have yielded robust initial estimates of relationships both within and among the ∼43 superfamilies, with unsolved problems now yielding to much larger data sets from high-throughput sequencing. Here we summarize progress on lepidopteran phylogeny since 1975, emphasizing the superfamily level, and discuss some resulting advances in our understanding of lepidopteran evolution.

  13. An Evaluation of Butterfly Gardens for Restoring Habitat for the Monarch Butterfly (Lepidoptera: Danaidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, Brian T; Tallamy, Douglas W

    2015-10-01

    The eastern migratory monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus L.) population in North America hit record low numbers during the 2013-2014 overwintering season, prompting pleas by scientists and conservation groups to plant the butterfly's milkweed host plants (Asclepias spp.) in residential areas. While planting butterfly gardens with host plants seems like an intuitive action, no previous study has directly compared larval survival in gardens and natural areas to demonstrate that gardens are suitable habitats for Lepidoptera. In this study, milkweed was planted in residential gardens and natural areas. In 2009 and 2010, plants were monitored for oviposition by monarch butterflies and survival of monarch eggs and caterpillars. Monarchs oviposited significantly more frequently in gardens than in natural sites, with 2.0 and 6.2 times more eggs per plant per observation in 2009 and 2010, respectively. There were no significant differences in overall subadult survival between gardens and natural areas. Significant differences in survival were measured for egg and larval cohorts when analyzed separately, but these were not consistent between years. These results suggest that planting gardens with suitable larval host plants can be an effective tool for restoring habitat for monarch butterflies. If planted over a large area, garden plantings may be useful as a partial mitigation for dramatic loss of monarch habitat in agricultural settings. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Battle in the New World: Helicoverpa armigera versus Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The corn earworm Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and the old world bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) are allopatric species and occur in important agricultural crops. In maize, both species tend to infest the ear. The introduction of H. armigera in Brazil has created a new scenario, where these Helicoverpa species might cohabit and interact with one another, affecting the prevalence of each species in the agroecosystem, integrated pest management, and insect resistance management. In this study, larval occurrence and proportion of these species in maize was assessed in three regions of Brazil during three crop seasons. Interaction between the species was evaluated in interspecific and intraspecific scenarios under laboratory and field conditions. Helicoverpa zea was predominant in Rio Grande do Sul and the Planaltina, DF (central Brazil). In western Bahia, H. zea was predominant in the first collection, but approximately equal in number to H armigera in the second crop season. Both species exhibit high cannibalism/predation rates, and larval size was the primary factor for larval survival in the interaction studies. Larva of H. zea had higher survival when interacting with H. armigera, indicating that H. zea has an advantage in intraguild interactions with H. armigera in maize. Overall, the results from this study indicate that maize might play a role as a source of infestation or a sink of insecticide or Bt protein unselected H. armigera populations, depending on the H. zea:H. armigera intraguild competition and adult movement in the landscape. PMID:27907051

  15. Battle in the New World: Helicoverpa armigera versus Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José P F Bentivenha

    Full Text Available The corn earworm Helicoverpa zea (Boddie and the old world bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae are allopatric species and occur in important agricultural crops. In maize, both species tend to infest the ear. The introduction of H. armigera in Brazil has created a new scenario, where these Helicoverpa species might cohabit and interact with one another, affecting the prevalence of each species in the agroecosystem, integrated pest management, and insect resistance management. In this study, larval occurrence and proportion of these species in maize was assessed in three regions of Brazil during three crop seasons. Interaction between the species was evaluated in interspecific and intraspecific scenarios under laboratory and field conditions. Helicoverpa zea was predominant in Rio Grande do Sul and the Planaltina, DF (central Brazil. In western Bahia, H. zea was predominant in the first collection, but approximately equal in number to H armigera in the second crop season. Both species exhibit high cannibalism/predation rates, and larval size was the primary factor for larval survival in the interaction studies. Larva of H. zea had higher survival when interacting with H. armigera, indicating that H. zea has an advantage in intraguild interactions with H. armigera in maize. Overall, the results from this study indicate that maize might play a role as a source of infestation or a sink of insecticide or Bt protein unselected H. armigera populations, depending on the H. zea:H. armigera intraguild competition and adult movement in the landscape.

  16. Comparative embryogenesis of Mecoptera and Lepidoptera with special reference to the abdominal prolegs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Li-Xuan; Hua, Bao-Zhen

    2016-05-01

    The eruciform larvae of holometabolous insects are primarily characterized by bearing a varying number of abdominal prolegs in addition to three pairs of thoracic legs. However, whether the prolegs are evolutionarily homologous among different insect orders is still a disputable issue. We examined the embryonic features and histological structure of the prolegs of the scorpionfly Panorpa byersi Hua and Huang (Mecoptera: Panorpidae) and the Oriental armyworm Mythimna separata (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to investigate whether the prolegs are homologous between these two holometabolous insect orders. In the scorpionfly, paired lateral process primordia arise on abdominal segments I-VIII (A1-A8) in line with the thoracic legs in early embryonic stages, but degenerate into triangular protuberances in later stages, and paired medial processes appear along the midventral line before dorsal closure and eventually develop into unjointed, cone-shaped prolegs. Histological observation showed that the lumina of the prolegs are not continuous with the hemocoel, differing distinctly from that of the basic appendicular plan of thoracic legs. These results suggest that the prolegs are likely secondary outgrowths in Mecoptera. In the armyworm, lateral process primordia appear on A1-A10 in alignment with the thoracic legs in the early embryonic stages, although only the rudiments on A3-A6 and A10 develop into segmented prolegs with the lumina continuous with the hemocoel and others degenerate eventually, suggesting that the prolegs are true segmental appendages serially homologous with the thoracic legs in Lepidoptera. Therefore, we conclude that the larval prolegs are likely not evolutionarily homologous between Mecoptera and Lepidoptera. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Larval outbreaks in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Magnus; Raundrup, Katrine; Westergaard-Nielsen, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    effects of a larval outbreak in 2011 on vegetation productivity and CO2 exchange. We estimate a decreased carbon (C) sink strength in the order of 118–143 g C m−2, corresponding to 1210–1470 tonnes C at the Kobbefjord catchment scale. The decreased C sink was, however, counteracted the following years...

  18. Kauri seeds and larval somersaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Steen Thorleif

    2012-01-01

    The trunk morphology of the larvae of the kauri pine (Agathis) seed infesting moth Agathiphaga is described using conventional, polarization, and scanning electron microscopy. The pine seed chamber formed by the larva is also described and commented on. The simple larval chaetotaxy includes more ...

  19. Fate of Ingested Aristolactams from Aristolochia chilensis in Battus polydamas archidamas (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Olguín

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We performed a sequestration study of aristolactams (ALs from Aristolochia chilensis in Battus polydamas archidamas (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae by examining the AL content of the plant, fifth instar larvae, osmeterial secretion, pupae, exuviae and feces. Aristolactam-I (AL-I and aristolactam-II (AL-II present in A. chilensis are sequestered by fifth instar larvae of B. polydamas archidamas. There is a preferential sequestration of AL-II, or a more efficient metabolization and excretion of AL-I, by the larva. No ALs were found in the osmeterial secretion, pupae and exuviae; in addition, little AL-I and no AL-II were found in larval frass. The two lactams, particularly AL-I, are extensively metabolized to other products in the larva. A reasonable hypothesis is that the ingested ALs are oxidized to their respective aristolochic acids.

  20. Fate of Ingested Aristolactams from Aristolochia chilensis in Battus polydamas archidamas (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urzúa, Alejandro; Olguín, Angel; Santander, Rocío

    2013-10-11

    We performed a sequestration study of aristolactams (ALs) from Aristolochia chilensis in Battus polydamas archidamas (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) by examining the AL content of the plant, fifth instar larvae, osmeterial secretion, pupae, exuviae and feces. Aristolactam-I (AL-I) and aristolactam-II (AL-II) present in A. chilensis are sequestered by fifth instar larvae of B. polydamas archidamas. There is a preferential sequestration of AL-II, or a more efficient metabolization and excretion of AL-I, by the larva. No ALs were found in the osmeterial secretion, pupae and exuviae; in addition, little AL-I and no AL-II were found in larval frass. The two lactams, particularly AL-I, are extensively metabolized to other products in the larva. A reasonable hypothesis is that the ingested ALs are oxidized to their respective aristolochic acids.

  1. Population dynamic of the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio polytes (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae in dry and wet seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUWARNO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Suwarno (2010 Population dynamic of the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio polytes (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae in dry and wet seasons. Biodiversitas 11: 19-23. The population dynamic of Papilio polytes L. (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae in dry and wet seasons was investigated in the citrus orchard in Tasek Gelugor, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. Population of immature stages of P. polytes was observed alternate day from January to March 2006 (dry season, DS, from April to July 2006 (secondary wet season, SWS, and from October to December 2006 (primary wet season, PWS. The population dynamics of the immature stages of P. polytes varied between seasons. The immature stages of P. polytes are more abundance and significantly different in the PWS than those of the DS and the SWS. The larval densities in all seasons decreased with progressive development of the instar stages. Predators and parasitoids are the main factor in regulating the population abundance of immature stages of P. polytes. There were positive correlations between the abundance of immature stages of P. polytes and their natural enemies abundance in each season. Ooencyrtus papilioni Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae is the most egg parasitoid. Oxyopes quadrifasciatus L. Koch. and O. elegans L. Koch. (Araneae: Oxyopidae are the main predators in the young larvae, meanwhile Sycanus dichotomus Stal. (Heteroptera: Reduviidae, Calotes versicolor Fitzinger (Squamata: Agamidae, birds and praying mantis attacked the older larvae.

  2. De Novo characterization of transcriptomes from two North American Papaipema stem-borers (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, Sara J; Feindt, Wiebke; DeSalle, Rob; Goldstein, Paul Z

    2018-01-01

    Stem-borers in the genus Papaipema (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) range from highly polyphagous agricultural pests to specialists on more than 20 families of flowering plants, many of them highly toxic. Papaipema is the largest genus of noctuids endemic to North America and provides an excellent study system for the evolution of noctuid host plant use. To improve the availability of genomic resources for such investigations, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing and assembly for two specialist Papaipema with unusual larval hosts: P. speciosissima, which is associated with ferns, and the undescribed P. "sp. 4," which is associated with bamboo. The resulting transcriptomes were similar in terms of completeness, gene count, and gene identity, but we identified some 8,000 genes (~17% of each transcriptome) not shared between the two species. While some of these have identifiable orthologs in other Lepidoptera, ~5% of each transcriptome consists of species-specific genes. We examine the function of these genes and find that almost half have retrotransposon-related functional domains. The potential role of species-specific genes is discussed, and the expansion of certain retrotransposon families in Papaipema is examined.

  3. Calcified aquatic insect larval constructions in the Pleistocene tufa of Jebel El Mida, Gafsa, southern Tunisia: Recognition and paleoenvironmental significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ahmed, Walid; Henchiri, Mohsen; Mastouri, Amna; Slim S'himi, Najet

    2018-04-01

    Calcified aquatic larval cases were recognized and identified in the Pleistocene tufa masses of Jebel El Mida, Gafsa, southern Tunisia. These larval constructions belong to three main insect families: caddisflies (Trichoptera, Hydropsychidae), midges (Diptera, Chironomidae) and aquatic moths (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) that inhabited tubes in the tufa and spun nets. Each insect community has its distinctive characteristics of larval constructions that allow their recognition. The larval constructions recognized comprise fixed and portable (for caddisflies) dwelling cases and silken retreats and feeding capture nets. These last-mentioned are almost completely eroded and only remnants are preserved. The spatial distribution of these larval cases within the tufa is not random but, rather imposed by some specific paleohydraulic conditions. It's the reason why aquatic insect larval constructions are considered as prominent tool for the reconstruction of tufa and travertine depositional environments. Chironomid fixed dwelling cases (diameters range from 0.6 mm for clustered tubes to 3 mm) indicate the deposition of tufa under lotic (flowing) or lentic (standing) water conditions. The later hydraulic condition is shared with hydropsychids with fixed retreats (0.2-4 mm in diameter). Portable case-building caddisflies (case length ranging from 5 to 20 mm, and diameter from 3 to 5 mm at the cephalic end) prefer lentic conditions and are almost completely missing in high-energy flowing water locations that are preferred by pyralids (tubes are between 5 and 10 mm long and 3 mm in diameter). These insect families benefit from inhabiting the tufa by the availability of construction materials of their cases and the necessary space for their development.

  4. Larval helminths in intermediate hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredensborg, Brian Lund; Poulin, R

    2005-01-01

    Density-dependent effects on parasite fitness have been documented from adult helminths in their definitive hosts. There have, however, been no studies on the cost of sharing an intermediate host with other parasites in terms of reduced adult parasite fecundity. Even if larval parasites suffer...... transmission to their bird definitive host by predation. In experimental infections, we found an intensity-dependent establishment success, with a decrease in the success rate of cercariae developing into infective metacercariae with an increasing dose of cercariae applied to each amphipod. In natural...... the two species. Our results thus indicate that the infracommunity of larval helminths in their intermediate host is interactive and that any density-dependent effect in the intermediate host may have lasting effects on individual parasite fitness....

  5. Mortality of the defoliator Euselasia eucerus (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) by biotic factors in an Eucalyptus urophylla plantation in Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanuncio, José C; Torres, Jorge B; Sediyama, Camilla A Z; Pereira, Fabricio F; Pastori, Patrik L; Wermelinger, Eduardo D; Ramalho, Francisco S

    2009-03-01

    Euselasia eucerus (Hewitson, 1872) (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) is a Brazilian native species commonly found in Eucalyptus plantations. Biotic mortality factors of this defoliator were studied in a Eucalyptus urophylla plantation in Minas Gerais State, Brazil aiming to identify natural enemies and their impact on this insect. Euselasia eucerus had biotic mortality factors during all development stages. The most important were Trichogramma maxacalii Voegelé and Pointel, 1980 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) during egg stage (48.9%), a tachinid fly (Diptera: Tachinidae) during larval stages (10%) and Itoplectis sp. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) during pupal stage (52.2%). The parasitism rate was higher in the basal part of the plant canopy (37.8%).

  6. 'Peer pressure' in larval Drosophila?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewalda, Thomas; Jeske, Ines; Michels, Birgit; Gerber, Bertram

    2014-06-06

    Understanding social behaviour requires a study case that is simple enough to be tractable, yet complex enough to remain interesting. Do larval Drosophila meet these requirements? In a broad sense, this question can refer to effects of the mere presence of other larvae on the behaviour of a target individual. Here we focused in a more strict sense on 'peer pressure', that is on the question of whether the behaviour of a target individual larva is affected by what a surrounding group of larvae is doing. We found that innate olfactory preference of a target individual was neither affected (i) by the level of innate olfactory preference in the surrounding group nor (ii) by the expression of learned olfactory preference in the group. Likewise, learned olfactory preference of a target individual was neither affected (iii) by the level of innate olfactory preference of the surrounding group nor (iv) by the learned olfactory preference the group was expressing. We conclude that larval Drosophila thus do not take note of specifically what surrounding larvae are doing. This implies that in a strict sense, and to the extent tested, there is no social interaction between larvae. These results validate widely used en mass approaches to the behaviour of larval Drosophila. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Patterns of flight behavior and capacity of unmated navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) adults related to age, gender, and wing size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sappington, Thomas W; Burks, Charles S

    2014-06-01

    The navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a key pest of almond, pistachio, and walnut tree crops in California. Understanding dispersal of adults between orchards is important to improving management options. Laboratory flight behavior of unmated navel orangeworm of ages 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 d posteclosion was examined using flight mills. As a group, females flew farther and longer than males, but the differences were not statistically significant. Flight speed did not differ between sexes. Flight duration and distance did not differ with age, except that 7-d-old adults performed worse for these parameters than did 1- and 2-d-old adults. Females began their flights ≍1.5 h after the onset of dusk, and ≍1.5 h earlier in the night than males. Flight capacity and propensity were substantial for both sexes and all age classes tested. At least 20% of adults (except 7-d-old males) made a continuous flight ≥5.5 h, and median total distances flown during the 10.5-h night ranged from 7 to 15 km depending on age class. Thus navel orangeworm flight mill performance was greater than that of most pests tested from the families Pyralidae and Tortricidae. Surface area and length of forewings and hindwings were greater in females than males, but had little effect on flight performance. The results are generally consistent with field observations of navel orangeworm dispersal, but it will be important to characterize the effects of mating on flight, and flight on fecundity.

  8. (JE Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) annually cause enormous loss to the producers and their combat has become a worldwide challenge mainly due to several reports of pesticides resistance. Today, one of the best alternatives used in this combat is the application of natural insecticides such ...

  9. Evolution of sexual dimorphism in the Lepidoptera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, C.E.; Zwaan, B.J.; Brakefield, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Among the animals, the Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) are second only to beetles in number of described species and are known for their striking intra- and interspecific diversity. Within species, sexual dimorphism is a source of variation in life history (e.g., sexual size dimorphism and

  10. Effect of the flavonoid rutin on the biology of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Roberta Ferreira Borges Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae is a major pest of maize crops in Brazil. The effects of plant metabolites on the biology and behavior of insects is little studied. The aim of the study was to evaluate the activity of rutin on the biology of the S. frugiperda by using artificial diets containing rutin. The study evaluated four treatments: regular diet (control group and diets containing 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mg g-1 of rutin. The following biological variables parameters of the larvae were evaluated daily: development time (days, larval and pupal weight (g and viability (%, adult longevity and total life cycle (days. A completely randomized experimental design was used with 25 replication. The rutin flavonoid negatively affected the biology of S. frugiperda by prolonging the larval development time, reducing the weight of larvae and pupae and decreasing the viability of the pupae. The addition of different concentrations of rutin prolonged the S. frugiperda life cycle. The use of plant with insecticidal activity has the potential with strategy in IPM.

  11. Biological aspects of Tiracola grandirena (Herrich-Schäffer, 1868 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: a polyphagous armyworm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Specht

    Full Text Available We studied the biology of Tiracola grandirena(Herrich-Schäffer, 1868 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Hadeninae at 25 ± 1 °C, 70 ± 10% RH and 14 hours of photo phase. Three experiments, using 150 larvae each, were conducted for the larval stage. In the first, used to assess the duration and survival of all stages, insects were reared individually and fed an artificial diet (Grenee. In the second, individuals were also reared separately, but were fed leaves of 10 plants from different families. In the third, the larvae were not individualised, the food plants were rotated such as to provide three plant species every 48 hours. In the first experiment, the viability of the eggs, larvae, pupae and prepupae was 91.9, 94.7, 32.49 and 43.5%, respectively. The average duration of the egg, larvae, prepupae, pupae and adult were 6.0, 25.3, 25.7, 21.4 and 12.7 days, respectively. The prolonged prepupal period indicates that T. grandirena can develop larval (prepupal diapause. The results of the experiments with different host plants showed that T. grandirena is polyphagous at species, population and individual level.

  12. Temperature effects on development and fecundity of Brachmia macroscopa (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Wang, Xing; Liu, Yan; Su, Ming-Zhu; Huang, Guo-Hua

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigated the impacts of temperature on the development and reproductivity of the sweet potato leaf folder, Brachmia macroscopa (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), in sweet potato leaves under laboratory conditions. We determined developmental time of B. macroscopa larval, pupal, and pre-adult stage at different temperatures. Male and female longevity, male and female lifespan, mortality of immature stages, oviposition period of B. macroscopa were also investigated under six constant temperatures (21°C, 24°C, 27°C, 30°C, 33°C, 36°C), based on age-stage, two-sex life tables. The results revealed that eggs in 36°C were unable to hatch. At temperatures between 21°C -33°C, the duration of the pre-adult period, as well as the adult lifespan both for males and females, were shortened by increasing temperatures. The lowest larval mortality rate (15.33%) occurred at 27°C. The age-stage-specific fecundity rates with the greatest number were, in order, 30°C, 27°C, 21°C, 24°C and 33°C. The results show that B. macroscopa population levels could reach highest at the temperature of 27℃.

  13. Biological aspects of Tiracola grandirena (Herrich-Schäffer, 1868) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): a polyphagous armyworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, A; Iltchenco, J; Fronza, E; Roque-Specht, V F; Luz, P C; Montezzano, D G

    2014-02-01

    We studied the biology of Tiracola grandirena (Herrich-Schäffer, 1868) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Hadeninae) at 25 ± 1 °C, 70 ± 10% RH and 14 hours of photo phase. Three experiments, using 150 larvae each, were conducted for the larval stage. In the first, used to assess the duration and survival of all stages, insects were reared individually and fed an artificial diet (Grenee). In the second, individuals were also reared separately, but were fed leaves of 10 plants from different families. In the third, the larvae were not individualised, the food plants were rotated such as to provide three plant species every 48 hours. In the first experiment, the viability of the eggs, larvae, pupae and prepupae was 91.9, 94.7, 32.49 and 43.5%, respectively. The average duration of the egg, larvae, prepupae, pupae and adult were 6.0, 25.3, 25.7, 21.4 and 12.7 days, respectively. The prolonged prepupal period indicates that T. grandirena can develop larval (prepupal) diapause. The results of the experiments with different host plants showed that T. grandirena is polyphagous at species, population and individual level.

  14. The effects of radiation on the biology and reproduction of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos Ocampo, V.; Leon, J.B. de

    2002-01-01

    The effect of irradiating male Helicoverpa armigera with a substerilizing dose (100 Gy) of gamma radiation on the growth, development and reproduction of subsequent generations was studied in the laboratory. This dose of gamma radiation had no significant detrimental effects on larval and pupal weights or on the duration of the pupal period in the F 1 progeny. However, it lengthened the duration of the larval period by two days. In the F 2 generation, the progeny of the Tf 1 FxTf 1 M cross had significantly lighter pupae. The effects of this substerilizing dose of radiation and of the resulting inherited sterility on the reproduction of Helicoverpa armigera were similar to those described for other species of Lepidoptera. No detrimental effects on P 1 and F 1 female fecundity were recorded. Crosses involving Tf 1 females laid only about one half the number of eggs laid by the controls, however the range in the number of eggs laid by these females fell within the normal range for Helicoverpa armigera. Fertility of crosses involving P 1 males was greatly affected; fertility in these females was only 61% of that exhibited by the controls. This deleterious effect was inherited in the F 1 and F 2 generations and was maximally expressed when F 1 progeny of the NFxTM cross were inbred. Egg hatch was almost completely inhibited in sibling crosses while outcrosses of the F 1 progeny showed a 64-70% reduction in egg hatch when compared to controls. (author)

  15. Suitability of various turfgrass species and cultivars for development and survival of black cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S C; Williamson, R C

    2006-06-01

    Black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), feeding bioassays were conducted on young and mature turfgrass species to determine their potential resistance. Measures of resistance included larval weight, survival rate, instar development, pupal weight, duration of pupation, and days to pupation and adult emergence. Black cutworm reared on Poa pratensis 'Midnight', Poa arachnigera 'Tejas', and Poa pratensis X Poa arachnigera 'Reveille' exhibited slower development, lower weight, and higher overall mortality than those fed upon other turfgrasses tested. Larvae reared on Reveille did not survive to pupation and all died within 14 d. Black cutworm larvae reared on Midnight died within 17 d in trial 1 but attained pupation in trial 2. However, development of black cutworm larvae was slower on Poa pratensis Midnight compared with other susceptible turfgrass species such as Agrostis stolonifera 'Penncross', Poa annua ('DW194', 'Q98-4-6', and 'Q98-6-18'), Lolium perenne, and Poa supina 'Supranova'. Generally, larval performance on young plant tissues was better than on mature plant tissues. Larvae reared on P. pratensis 'Midnight' exhibited the most distinctive difference on young versus mature plant tissue. These results suggest that plant age may play an important role in turfgrass susceptibility and resistance.

  16. Aquatic larval immatures of two acentropines, Usingeriessa onyxalis (Hampson) and Oxyelophila callista (Forbes) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyraloid moths in the subfamily Acentropinae have immatures that are aquatic, that is, they live and breathe underwater during all or part of their immature developmental stages. We discovered and describe the previously unknown larvae of Usingeriessa onyxalis (Hampson) (Crambidae) reared on Hygroph...

  17. Larval exposure to chlorpyrifos affects nutritional physiology and induces genotoxicity in silkworm Philosamia ricini (Lepidoptera: Saturnidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moni Kankana Kalita

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Chlorpyrifos is a most widely used organophosphate insecticide because of its cost effectiveness and degradable nature. However, this pesticide enters and contaminates the environment either by direct application, spray drifts or crop run off and shows adverse effect on the non-targeted organisms. Philosamia ricini (eri silkworm, one of the most exploited, domesticated and commercialized non mulberry silkworm is known for mass production of eri silk. The silkworm larvae get exposed to pesticide residues on the leaves of food plants. The present study investigates the effect of commercial formulation of chlorpyrifos (Pyrifos-20 EC on eri silkworm. Initially the LC50 value of chlorpyrifos was determined at 24 - 96 h and further experiments were carried out with sub lethal concentrations of the chlorpyrifos after 24 h of exposure period. The potential toxicity of chlorpyrifos was evaluated as a fuction of metabolism and nutritional physiology in 3rd, 4th and 5th instar larvae. Alteration in histoarchitecture of 5th instar eri silkworm gut exposed to sub lethal concentration of chlorpyrifos formulation was also studied. Chlorpyrifos induced genotoxicity in silkworm hemocytes was also investigated by single cell gel electrophoresis, micronuclei assay and apoptosis assay. Herein, LC50 values of chlorpyrifos were calculated as 3.83, 3.35, 2.68 and 2.35 mg/L at 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h respectively. A significant decrease in trehalose activity along with digestive enzyme activity was observed in chlorpyrifos affected groups (P < 0.05. Further, genotoxicity study revealed higher tail percentage, tail length and tail moment of the damage DNA in chlorpyrifos exposed groups (P < 0.001. Moreover, at 2.0 mg/L concentration, ~ 10 fold increases in tail length was observed as compared to the control. Results showed activation of caspase activity following 24 hr chlorpyrifos exposure (1.5 mg/L and 2.0 mg/L in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, in control group less number of apoptotic cells was detected, however in both chlorpyrifos exposed groups number of apoptotic cells were more. Taken together, this study provides evidence that chlorpyrifos pollution might have adverse effect on overall nutritional physiology and genotoxicity of eri silkworm that could lead to reduced survivability of this economically beneficial

  18. Evolution of larval life mode of Oecophoridae (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea) inferred from molecular phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sora; Kaila, Lauri; Lee, Seunghwan

    2016-08-01

    Phylogenetic relationships within family Oecophoridae have been poorly understood. Consequently the subfamily and genus level classifications with this family problematic. A comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of Oecophoridae, the concealer moths, was performed based on analysis of 4444 base pairs of mitochondrial COI, nuclear ribosomal RNA genes (18S and 28S) and nuclear protein coding genes (IDH, MDH, Rps5, EF1a and wingless) for 82 taxa. Data were analyzed using maximum likelihood (ML), parsimony (MP) and Bayesian (BP) phylogenetic frameworks. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that (i) genera Casmara, Tyrolimnas and Pseudodoxia did not belong to Oecophoridae, suggesting that Oecophoridae s. authors was not monophyletic; (ii) other oecophorids comprising two subfamilies, Pleurotinae and Oecophorinae, were nested within the same clade, and (iii) Martyringa, Acryptolechia and Periacmini were clustered with core Xyloryctidae. They appeared to be sister lineage with core Oecophoridae. BayesTraits were implemented to explore the ancestral character states to infer historical microhabitat patterns and sheltering strategy of larvae. Reconstruction of ancestral microhabitat of oecophorids indicated that oecophorids might have evolved from dried plant feeders and further convergently specialized. The ancestral larva sheltering strategy of oecophorids might have used a silk tube by making itself, shifting from mining leaves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Elbella luteizona (Mabille, 1877 (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae: Pyrginae in Brazilian Cerrado: larval morphology, diet, and shelter architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia Lepesqueur

    Full Text Available Abstract This study examined temporal variation in the abundance of immature stages of Elbella luteizona (Hesperiidae and describes the morphology and behavior of the larvae on their host plants, Byrsonima coccolobifolia and Myrsine guianensis. Five hundred sixty-eight 10 m diameter plots were searched for caterpillars in the Brazilian Cerrado over a period of one year. We inspected 5968 host plants, and found 31 eggs and 262 larvae on 244 plants. Similar numbers of immatures were found in both species of host plants. The abundance of immature stages varied monthly and was significantly higher in the dry season on both host plants, which may be due to the low density of natural enemies during that time. E. luteizona is univoltine, and larvae present relatively little morphological variation. However, during development, substantial changes occur in the architecture of leaf shelters that caterpillars construct. In addition, E. luteizona larvae develop very slowly, taking more than 300 days to complete metamorphosis.

  20. ACEPTACIÓN DE UNA DIETA ARTIFICIAL POR LARVAS DE LA MARIPOSA BATTUS POLYDAMAS POLYDAMAS (LEPIDOPTERA: PAPILIONIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Augusto Claro Carrascal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evalúo la aceptabilidad de una dieta artificial utilizada en la alimentación del estado larval de la mariposa Battus polydamas polydamas (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae, bajo condiciones de laboratorio.  A las larvas se les ofreció una dieta en diferentes presentaciones y composiciones, de acuerdo con ensayos previos y con los análisis nutricionales desarrollados a larvas maduras y a hojas de la  planta hospedera, Aristolochia maxima (Aristolochiaceae.  La longevidad, en estado larval, de B. polydamas criadas en laboratorio, se ve afectada significativamente por los diferentes tratamientos de alimentación. La curva de sobrevivencia no presento diferencias significativas entre las larvas alimentadas con solamente hojas jóvenes de la planta y aquellas que se alimentaron con dieta esparcida. En contraste, las tasas de crecimiento larval, fueron significativamente afectadas según el tratamiento.  Se sustenta la cría de mariposas de la especie B. polydamas bajo una dieta artificial con condiciones de temperatura, humedad y luminosidad controlada, con propósitos de investigación o futuros planes de manejo y conservación.

  1. Larval midgut modifications associated with Bti resistance in the yellow fever mosquito using proteomic and transcriptomic approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetreau Guillaume

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti is a natural larval mosquito pathogen producing pore-forming toxins targeting the midgut of Diptera larvae. It is used worldwide for mosquito control. Resistance mechanisms of an Aedes aegypti laboratory strain selected for 30 generations with field-collected leaf litter containing Bti toxins were investigated in larval midguts at two levels: 1. gene transcription using DNA microarray and RT-qPCR and 2. differential expression of brush border membrane proteins using DIGE (Differential In Gel Electrophoresis. Results Several Bti Cry toxin receptors including alkaline phosphatases and N-aminopeptidases and toxin-binding V-ATPases exhibited altered expression levels in the resistant strain. The under-expression of putative Bti-receptors is consistent with Bt-resistance mechanisms previously described in Lepidoptera. Four soluble metalloproteinases were found under-transcribed together with a drastic decrease of metalloproteinases activity in the resistant strain, suggesting a role in resistance by decreasing the amount of activated Cry toxins in the larval midgut. Conclusions By combining transcriptomic and proteomic approaches, we detected expression changes at nearly each step of the ingestion-to-infection process, providing a short list of genes and proteins potentially involved in Bti-resistance whose implication needs to be validated. Collectively, these results open the way to further functional analyses to better characterize Bti-resistance mechanisms in mosquitoes.

  2. Biological aspects of Periga circumstans Walker, 1855 (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae: Hemileucinae with larvae reared on khaki and mate-plant leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Specht

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study was to investigate biological aspects of Periga circumstans Walker, 1855 (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae: Hemileucinae whose larvae were fed on leaves of khaki-plant (Diospyros khaki Linnaeus - Ebenaceae and Mate-plant (Ilex paraguariensis Saint Hilaire - Aquifoliaceae leaves. The biological parameters were obtained from specimens kept under controlled conditions: temperature of 25 ± 1 °C, relative humidity of 70 ± 10%, and photoperiod of 12 hours. For each developmental stage, morphological and ethological parameters are described. The larvae passed through six instars with a growth average rate of 1.4 for each instar. The host plants influenced significantly only the total duration of the larval phase, which was prolonged for larvae fed on khaki-plant leaves. Several aspects related to the morphology and the ethology of P. circumstans are similar to those described for Lonomia obliqua Walker, 1855.

  3. A revised checklist of Nepticulidae fossils (Lepidoptera) indicates an Early Cretaceous origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorenweerd, Camiel; Nieukerken, Erik J Van; Sohn, Jae-Cheon; Labandeira, Conrad C

    2015-05-27

    With phylogenetic knowledge of Lepidoptera rapidly increasing, catalysed by increasingly powerful molecular techniques, the demand for fossil calibration points to estimate an evolutionary timeframe for the order is becoming an increasingly pressing issue. The family Nepticulidae is a species rich, basal branch within the phylogeny of the Lepidoptera, characterized by larval leaf-mining habits, and thereby represents a potentially important lineage whose evolutionary history can be established more thoroughly with the potential use of fossil calibration points. Using our experience with extant global Nepticulidae, we discuss a list of characters that may be used to assign fossil leaf mines to Nepticulidae, and suggest useful methods for classifying relevant fossil material. We present a checklist of 79 records of Nepticulidae representing adult and leaf-mine fossils mentioned in literature, often with multiple exemplars constituting a single record. We provide our interpretation of these fossils. Two species now are included in the collective generic name Stigmellites: Stigmellites resupinata (Krassilov, 2008) comb. nov. (from Ophiheliconoma) and Stigmellites almeidae (Martins-Neto, 1989) comb. nov. (from Nepticula). Eleven records are for the first time attributed to Nepticulidae. After discarding several dubious records, including one possibly placing the family at a latest Jurassic position, we conclude that the oldest fossils likely attributable to Nepticulidae are several exemplars representing a variety of species from the Dakota Formation (USA). The relevant strata containing these earliest fossils are now dated at 102 Ma (million years ago) in age, corresponding to the latest Albian Stage of the Early Cretaceous. Integration of all records in the checklist shows that a continuous presence of nepticulid-like leaf mines preserved as compression-impression fossils and by amber entombment of adults have a fossil record extending to the latest Early Cretaceous.

  4. The genetic, morphological, and physiological characterization of a dark larval cuticle mutation in the butterfly, Bicyclus anynana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Bear

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies on insect melanism have greatly contributed to our understanding of natural selection and the ultimate factors influencing the evolution of darkly pigmented phenotypes. Research on several species of melanic lepidopteran larvae have found that low levels of circulating juvenile hormone (JH titers are associated with a melanic phenotype, suggesting that genetic changes in the JH biosynthetic pathway give rise to increased deposition of melanin granules in the cuticle in this group. But does melanism arise through different molecular mechanisms in different species? The present study reports on a Bicyclus anynana (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae dark larvae single locus mutation, in which larvae exhibit a darker cuticle relative to wild type. Unlike other lepidopteran melanic larvae mutations, this one is autosomal recessive and does not appear to involve a deficiency in JH titers. Unlike JH deficiency mutants, dark larvae mutants display similar growth rates and sexual behaviors as wild type, and topical application of a JH analogue failed to rescue the wild type cuticular coloration. Finally, transmission electron microscopy showed that sclerotization or deposition of diffuse melanin, rather than deposition of melanin granules, produces the dark coloration found in the cuticle of this species. We conclude that different molecular mechanisms underlie larval melanism in different species of Lepidoptera.

  5. An updated check list of the Cochylina (Tortricidae, Tortricinae, Euliini) of North America north of Mexico including Greenland, with comments on classification and identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    We present an updated list of the members of the subtribe Cochylina (Tortricidae) in North America north of Mexico. We summarize the proposed changes in the classification since about 1983. We propose revised status for two genera, Rolandylis Gibeaux, 1985 and Thyraylia Walsingham, 1897. We propose ...

  6. Egg Hatch and Survival and Development of Beet Webworm (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Larvae at Different Combinations of Temperature and Relative Humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jihong; Cheng, Yunxia; Sappington, Thomas W; Jiang, Xingfu; Zhang, Lei; Luo, Lizhi

    2016-08-01

    To understand the role that temperature and humidity play in the population dynamics of the beet webworm, Loxostege sticticalis L. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), egg hatch, survival of first-fifth instars, survival of the full larval stage, survival curves, and larval development rates were investigated at combinations of four temperatures (18, 22, 26, and 30°C) and five relative humidities (RH; 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%). We found that greatest egg hatch rate, survival rates of the first and second instars, and survival rate of the complete larval stage occurred at 22°C and 60-80% RH; the lowest values for these parameters were observed at 30°C and 20% RH. Survival of first instars was significantly affected by the interaction of temperature and relative humidity. However, survival of third and fourth instars was neither affected by temperature nor relative humidity, and that of fifth instars was significantly affected only by relative humidity level. The survival curve for larvae was well described by a type III Weibull distribution. Duration of larval stage decreased as temperature increased, but was not affected by relative humidity. We therefore conclude that eggs and early instars are the most critical stages for survival to the pupal stage, and 22-26°C and 60-80% RH are the optimum conditions for their survival and development. These findings confirm that temperature and relative humidity are the critical environmental factors affecting the population growth of L. sticticalis, with temperature being more important. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Chemical modulators of the innate immune response alter gypsy moth larval susceptibility to Bacillus thuringiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broderick Nichole A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gut comprises an essential barrier that protects both invertebrate and vertebrate animals from invasion by microorganisms. Disruption of the balanced relationship between indigenous gut microbiota and their host can result in gut bacteria eliciting host responses similar to those caused by invasive pathogens. For example, ingestion of Bacillus thuringiensis by larvae of some species of susceptible Lepidoptera can result in normally benign enteric bacteria exerting pathogenic effects. Results We explored the potential role of the insect immune response in mortality caused by B. thuringiensis in conjunction with gut bacteria. Two lines of evidence support such a role. First, ingestion of B. thuringiensis by gypsy moth larvae led to the depletion of their hemocytes. Second, pharmacological agents that are known to modulate innate immune responses of invertebrates and vertebrates altered larval mortality induced by B. thuringiensis. Specifically, Gram-negative peptidoglycan pre-treated with lysozyme accelerated B. thuringiensis-induced killing of larvae previously made less susceptible due to treatment with antibiotics. Conversely, several inhibitors of the innate immune response (eicosanoid inhibitors and antioxidants increased the host's survival time following ingestion of B. thuringiensis. Conclusions This study demonstrates that B. thuringiensis infection provokes changes in the cellular immune response of gypsy moth larvae. The effects of chemicals known to modulate the innate immune response of many invertebrates and vertebrates, including Lepidoptera, also indicate a role of this response in B. thuringiensis killing. Interactions among B. thuringiensis toxin, enteric bacteria, and aspects of the gypsy moth immune response may provide a novel model to decipher mechanisms of sepsis associated with bacteria of gut origin.

  8. Expression and evolution of hexamerins from the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, and other Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmester, Thorsten

    2015-07-01

    Hexamerins are large hemolymph-proteins that accumulate during the late larval stages of insects. Hexamerins have emerged from hemocyanin, but have lost the ability to bind oxygen. Hexamerins are mainly considered as storage proteins for non-feeding stages, but may also have other functions, e.g. in cuticle formation, transport and immune response. The genome of the hornworm Manduca sexta harbors six hexamerin genes. Two of them code for arylphorins (Msex2.01690, Msex2.15504) and two genes correspond to a methionine-rich hexamerin (Msex2.10735) and a moderately methionine-rich hexamerin (Msex2.01694), respectively. Two other genes do not correspond to any known hexamerin and distantly resemble the arylphorins (Msex2.01691, Msex2.01693). Five of the six hexamerin genes are clustered within ∼45 kb on scaffold 00023, which shows conserved synteny in various lepidopteran genomes. The methionine-rich hexamerin gene is located at a distinct site. M. sexta and other Lepidoptera have lost the riboflavin-binding hexamerin. With the exception of Msex2.01691, which displays low mRNA levels throughout the life cycle, all hexamerins are most highly expressed during pre-wandering phase of the 5th larval instar of M. sexta, supporting their role as storage proteins. Notably, Msex2.01691 is most highly expressed in the brain, suggesting a divergent function. Phylogenetic analyses showed that hexamerin evolution basically follows insect systematics. Lepidoptera display an unparalleled diversity of hexamerins, which exceeds that of other hexapod orders. In contrast to previous analyses, the lepidopteran hexamerins were found monophyletic. Five distinct types of hexamerins have been identified in this order, which differ in terms of amino acid composition and evolutionary history: i. the arylphorins, which are rich in aromatic amino acids (∼20% phenylalanine and tyrosine), ii. the distantly related arylphorin-like hexamerins, iii. the methionine-rich hexamerins, iv. the

  9. On genitalia of some southern African Phycitinae (Lepidoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The male and female genitalia of 28 previously known species of sothern Africa phycilinae (Lepidoptera pyralidae) are describe. Two new species, characterized by their gentalia, are described; Epicrocis varri, and Trachypteryx victoriota.

  10. Hearing in hooktip moths (Drepanidae: Lepidoptera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surlykke, Annemarie; Yack, Jayne E; Spence, Andrew J

    2003-01-01

    This study presents anatomical and physiological evidence for a sense of hearing in hooktip moths (Drepanoidea). Two example species, Drepana arcuata and Watsonalla uncinula, were examined. The abdominal ears of drepanids are structurally unique compared to those of other Lepidoptera and other...... to the dorsal chamber. The ear is tuned to ultrasonic frequencies between 30 and 65 kHz, with a best threshold of around 52 dB SPL at 40 kHz, and no apparent difference between genders. Thus, drepanid hearing resembles that of other moths, indicating that the main function is bat detection. Two sensory cells...

  11. Effects of gamma irradiation on the emergence of larvae of curculio sikkimensis (Heller) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Cydia kurokoi (Amsel) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, Taro; Todoriki, Setsuko; Miyanoshita, Akihiro; Hayashi, Toru

    2004-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation on the emergence of larvae of the chestnut weevil, Curculio sikkimensis (Heller), were investigated. One hundred chestnuts were irradiated in a 60 Co irradiator (Gammacell 220, Nordion, Canada) at a dose rate of 0.40 kGy/h. The doses at which irradiation was carried out were 50, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 1000 Gy. After treatment, the chestnuts were kept at 25degC, 70% RH and emerged larvae were counted daily. Larvae of the nut fruit moth, Cydia kurokoi (Amsel), also emerged from the chestnuts. The data on the chestnut weevil were subjected to probit analysis and the LD 99.9 of weevil larvae was estimated to be about 500 Gy. (author)

  12. DISTRIBUIÇÃO ESPACIAL DO BICHO-FURÃO,Gymnandrosoma aurantiana (Lima, 1927(LEPIDOPTERA: TORTRICIDAE,EM CITROS UTILIZANDO GEOESTATÍSTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOÃO HENRIQUE SILVA CARVALHO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O bicho-furão, Gymnandrosoma aurantiana (Lima, 1927, é uma das principais pragas da citricultura brasileira, pois os frutos atacados pelas lagartas tornam-se inviáveis para o consumo in natura e processamento industrial. Objetivou-se estudar a distribuição espacial dos danos causados por G. aurantiana utilizando geoestatística. Para tanto, foi conduzido um experimento em um pomar de laranjeira-doce da variedade ‘Valência’, enxertado sobre limoeiro ‘Cravo’, localizado em Taquaritinga-SP, Brasil. A área foi dividida em 88 parcelas, sendo cada parcela formada por 30 plantas dispostas em três linhas de 10 plantas, e em seguida foi obtido o número de frutos atacados para os anos de 2007 e 2008. A distribuição dos frutos atacados pela praga foi agregada ao longo das avaliações, com variância maior que a média para todas as amostragens. Os dados apresentaram ajuste adequado segundo o modelo esférico, e o alcance da dependência espacial (a variou entre 40,66 e 135,40 m. A estimativa de frutos atacados nas áreas não amostradas foi obtida pela krigagem, e os principais focos da praga foram observados nas parcelas próximas aos limites da área experimental.

  13. Male oriental fruit moth response to a combined pheromone-based attracticide formulation targeting both oriental fruit moth and codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenden, Maya L; McClaughlin, John R

    2005-04-01

    Combined attracticide formulations targeting Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), and codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), were tested in a field trapping experiment. Capture of male codling moths in traps baited with the combined formulation was reduced compared with traps baited with the codling moth formulation alone, whereas capture of male Oriental fruit moth was increased compared with traps baited with the Oriental fruit moth formulation alone. Subsequent wind tunnel experiments showed that a single locus of the mixed attracticide formulation or close parallel presentation of the two formulations enhanced source contact by male Oriental fruit moths but did not influence earlier behaviors. However, the two formulations presented in a serial arrangement to Oriental fruit moth males in the wind tunnel resulted in enhanced lock-on, upwind flight, and source contact behaviors. In addition, male Oriental fruit moths remained on mixed pheromone droplets of the paste matrix longer than on droplets of the Oriental fruit moth formulation alone. The increased time spent on the mixed droplet was correlated with a more rapid poisoning and a greater proportion of poisoned males compared with males exposed to the Oriental fruit moth attracticide alone. These results demonstrate that a combined attracticide formulation will have different effects on each of the targeted species. It is anticipated that, due to decreased attractiveness, a combined formulation would be less effective against the codling moth. However, a mixed formulation, due to increased attractiveness and toxicity, could be more effective against the Oriental fruit moth under field conditions.

  14. CLONING, EXPRESSION, AND FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF THREE ODORANT-BINDING PROTEINS OF THE ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH, Grapholita molesta (BUSCK) (LEPIDOPTERA: TORTRICIDAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guang-Wei; Zhang, Yan; Li, Yi-Ping; Wu, Jun-Xiang; Xu, Xiang-Li

    2016-02-01

    Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) act in insect olfactory processes. OBPs are expressed in the olfactory organs and serve in binding and transport of hydrophobic odorants through the sensillum lymph to olfactory receptor neurons within the antennal sensilla. In this study, three OBP genes were cloned from the antennal transcriptome database of Grapholita molesta via reverse-transcription PCR. Recombinant GmolOBPs (rGmolOBPs) were expressed in a prokaryotic expression system and enriched via Ni ion affinity chromatography. The binding properties of the three rGmolOBPs to four sex pheromones and 30 host-plant volatiles were investigated in fluorescence ligand-binding assays. The results demonstrated that rGmolOBP8, rGmolOBP11, and rGmolOBP15 exhibited high binding affinities with the major sex pheromone components (E)-8-dodecenyl acetate, (Z)-8-dodecenyl alcohol, and dodecanol. The volatiles emitted from peach and pear, decanal, butyl hexanoate, and α-ocimene, also showed binding affinities to rGmolOBP8 and rGmolOBP11. Hexanal, heptanal, and α-pinene showed strong binding affinities to rGmolOBP15. Results of the electrophysiological recording experiments and previous behavior bioassays indicated that adult insects had strong electroantennogram and behavioral responses toward butyl hexanoate, hexanal, and heptanal. We infer that the GmolOBP8 and GmolOBP11 have dual functions in perception and recognition of host-plant volatiles and sex pheromones, while GmolOBP15 was mainly involved in plant volatile odorants' perception. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Mating disruption with low density diffusers for the management of oriental fruit moths (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae in apple orchards under subtropical climate in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino Bittencourt Monteiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta Busck, and fruit flies, Anastrepha fraterculus L., are the important apple pests under Subtropical climate in Southern Brazil, and control is normally accomplished with insecticides. An alternative strategy for the control of G. molesta is mating disruption, through the use of pheromones. Mating disruption strategies using a low density of dispensers (20 per hectare were tested in comparison with conventional pesticides for control of G. molesta in commercial Gala apple orchards in Fraiburgo, SC, for a period of five years. The average field efficiency period of mating disruption formulation over five years was 113 days. In this period the mating interruption index on mating disruption plots was 84.8% over five years. Damage to Gala apples by oriental moth larvae was low (<0.1% in mating disruption plots but did not differ from conventional plots, except in the third year. The use of mating disruption allowed for an average reduction of 5.2 insecticide treatments per year in Gala orchards during field efficiency period. It was necessary to apply 1.0 and 1.2 applications of insecticide to control of G. molesta and A. fraterculus, respectively. Mating disruption with a low density of diffusers proved to be an effective alternative to conventional methods for control of G. molesta in Gala apple orchards in subtropical climate in southern Brazil.

  16. The North American Trichogramma (Hymenoptera) : Trichogrammatidae parasitizing certain tortricidae (Lepidoptera) on apple and pear, with ITS2 DNA characterizations and description of a new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinto, J.D.; Koopmanschap, A.B.; Platner, G.R.; Stouthamer, R.

    2002-01-01

    Eleven species of Trichogramma are reported parasitizing tortricid eggs on apple and pear in North America. Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), were the primary pest species encountered. Species of the Trichogramma minutum complex were the

  17. Population genetic structure and approximate Bayesian computation analyses reveal the southern origin and northward dispersal of the oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in its native range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shu-Jun; Cao, Li-Jun; Gong, Ya-Jun; Shi, Bao-Cai; Wang, Su; Zhang, Fan; Guo, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Yuan-Min; Chen, Xue-Xin

    2015-08-01

    The oriental fruit moth (OFM) Grapholita molesta is one of the most destructive orchard pests. Assumed to be native to China, the moth is now distributed throughout the world. However, the evolutionary history of this moth in its native range remains unknown. In this study, we explored the population genetic structure, dispersal routes and demographic history of the OFM in China and South Korea based on mitochondrial genes and microsatellite loci. The Mantel test indicated a significant correlation between genetic distance and geographical distance in the populations. Bayesian analysis of population genetic structure (baps) identified four nested clusters, while the geneland analysis inferred five genetic groups with spatial discontinuities. Based on the approximate Bayesian computation approach, we found that the OFM was originated from southern China near the Shilin area of Yunnan Province. The early divergence and dispersal of this moth was dated to the Penultimate glaciation of Pleistocene. Further dispersal from southern to northern region of China occurred before the last glacial maximum, while the expansion of population size in the derived populations in northern region of China occurred after the last glacial maximum. Our results indicated that the current distribution and structure of the OFM were complicatedly influenced by climatic and geological events and human activities of cultivation and wide dissemination of peach in ancient China. We provide an example on revealing the origin and dispersal history of an agricultural pest insect in its native range as well as the underlying factors. © 2015 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Genotyping-by-sequencing approach indicates geographic distance as the main factor affecting genetic structure and gene flow in Brazilian populations of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Brandão, Karina Lucas; Silva, Oscar Arnaldo Batista Neto E; Brandão, Marcelo Mendes; Omoto, Celso; Sperling, Felix A H

    2015-06-01

    The oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta is one of the major pests of stone and pome fruit species in Brazil. Here, we applied 1226 SNPs obtained by genotyping-by-sequencing to test whether host species associations or other factors such as geographic distance structured populations of this pest. Populations from the main areas of occurrence of G. molesta were sampled principally from peach and apple orchards. Three main clusters were recovered by neighbor-joining analysis, all defined by geographic proximity between sampling localities. Overall genetic structure inferred by a nonhierarchical amova resulted in a significant ΦST value = 0.19109. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that SNPs gathered by genotyping-by-sequencing can be used to infer genetic structure of a pest insect in Brazil; moreover, our results indicate that those markers are very informative even over a restricted geographic scale. We also demonstrate that host plant association has little effect on genetic structure among Brazilian populations of G. molesta; on the other hand, reduced gene flow promoted by geographic isolation has a stronger impact on population differentiation.

  19. Development and Fecundity Performance of Oriental Fruit Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Reared on Shoots and Fruits of Peach and Pear in Different Seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Juan; Li, Guangwei; Xu, Xiangli; Wu, Junxiang

    2015-12-01

    The oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta (Busck) is a globally important insect pest. In some parts of its geographic range, the oriental fruit moth shifts its attack from peach orchards to pear orchards late in the growing season. The phenological effects of host plants on the performance of the moth were evaluated by examining the development and fecundity of the moth reared on peach (Prunus persica variety "Shahong") and pear (Pyrus bretshneideri variety "Dangshan Su") collected at various times of the growing season under laboratory conditions. Results showed that the moth developed faster on shoots and fruits of peach than on those of pear. The preimaginal survival rate was the highest on peach shoots, and the moth could not survive on pear fruit collected on May 10. For both peach and pear, the boring rates of neonatal larvae were significantly higher on shoots than on fruits, and the pupal mass of females was significantly higher on fruits than on shoots. The boring rate increased with pear fruits growing during later days. Fecundity was significantly less on pear shoots than on the other plant materials. The results of this study suggest a possible host adaptation process in oriental fruit moth. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Three-dimensional antennal lobe atlas of the oriental fruit moth, Cydia molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): comparison of male and female glomerular organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Nélia; Couton, Louise; Gemeno, César; Avilla, Jesús; Rospars, Jean-Pierre; Anton, Sylvia

    2009-09-01

    The oriental fruit moth Cydia molesta is an important pest and the behavioural role of olfactory signals such as pheromones and plant volatiles have been studied extensively in both sexes. To understand odour processing further, however, detailed knowledge of the anatomy of the olfactory system is crucial. In the present study, an atlas of the antennal lobe (AL) is presented based on the three-dimensional reconstructions of both ALs of three male and three female brains by means of neuroanatomical and computational approaches. We identified 48-49 "ordinary" glomeruli and one large glomerulus situated at the entrance of the antennal nerve in males, and 49-52 "ordinary" glomeruli and one large glomerulus in the ventro-medial part of the AL in females. Anomalous supernumerary, anomalous missing and sexually dimorphic glomeruli were found in the studied individuals in greater numbers than in other lepidopteran species. Male and female maps were compared with respect to glomerular size and position with 45 glomeruli being matched, indicating a conserved glomerular pattern between the sexes. Three additional glomeruli were sexually dimorphic in size and five male-specific and six female-specific glomeruli were also found. Palp backfills resulted in the staining of a unique glomerulus in both sexes identified as the sexually dimorphic glomerulus 45. This glomerulus was never stained from antennal backfills, which stained the other glomeruli of the AL. The three-dimensional atlas can now be used to elucidate the functional role of individual glomeruli in both sexes of C. molesta.

  1. Mating disruption with low density diffusers for the management of oriental fruit moths (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in apple orchards under subtropical climate in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Lino Bittencourt; Souza, Alexander; Argenton, Jeferson

    2013-01-01

    The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta Busck, and fruit flies, Anastrepha fraterculus L., are the important apple pests under Subtropical climate in Southern Brazil, and control is normally accomplished with insecticides. An alternative strategy for the control of G. molesta is mating disruption, through the use of pheromones. Mating disruption strategies using a low density of dispensers (20) per hectare were tested in comparison with conventional pesticides for control of G. molesta in...

  2. Ajuste de modelo fenológico para predecir el comportamiento de Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae en un viñedo de Mendoza, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Vanina DAGATTI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La temperatura es la variable que más incide en el desarrollo de Lobesia botrana (Den & Schiff, cuya relación ha sido estudiada mediante modelos matemáticos, como el de Touzeau. En Mendoza, en 2010 se registró la aparición de L. botrana. El objetivo de este trabajo es ajustar el modelo de Touzeau para predecir el comportamiento de la polilla. El estudio se realizó en un viñedo cv. Malbec desde 2012. Se emplearon trampas de feromonas. La temperatura se registró con un sensor datalogger. Se calculó la integral térmica con la fórmula de Touzeau con un umbral de 10ºC desde el 1 de julio de cada año. Los resultados indicaron que el primer vuelo se desarrolló el 18 y el 20 de octubre con 204,05 ± 10,73 grados día, el segundo en la primera decena de diciembre con 728,34 ± 41,95 grados día, el tercero durante la última quincena de enero con 1329,08 ± 151,35 grados día y el cuarto a mediados de febrero de 2012 y 2013, respectivamente con 1721,84 ± 116,63 grados día. Estos resultados son útiles para predecir la aparición de la plaga y como herramienta para establecer un sistema de alarma para los productores.

  3. Uncovering the hidden biodiversity of natural history collections: Insights from DNA barcoding and morphological characters of the Neotropical genus Orthocomotis Dognin (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razowski, Józef; Pelz, Volker; Tarcz, Sebastian

    2017-04-10

    We used a 227-bp fragment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I (DNA "barcode") in conjunction with morphological data to study specimens of the Neotropical genus Orthocomotis Dognin, 1906, acquired from natural history collections. We examined over 20 species of Orthocomotis from 17 localities in Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. The analysis identified 32 haplotypes among the 62 specimens and found no haplotypes shared among species. The molecular study revealed not only the usefulness of short COI sequences in discriminating among Orthocomotis species but also showed distinctness of four clusters which correspond to those based on morphological (genitalia) characters. Moreover, the molecular results suggest the occurrence of rapid speciation in Orthocomotis. We hypothesize that this may be linked to the great biodiversity of potential host plants in Neotropical ecosystems.

  4. Temperature-dependent development and potential distribution of Episimus utilis (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a candidate biological control agent of Brazilian peppertree (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique, Veronica; Cuda, James P; Overholt, William A; Diaz, Rodrigo

    2008-08-01

    The invasive Brazilian peppertree (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi), native to South America, is widely established throughout central and south Florida. The defoliating leaflet-roller Episimus utilis Zimmerman was selected as potential biocontrol agent of this invasive species. The objectives of this study were to determine development rate and survival of E. utilis at seven constant temperatures (10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 33, and 35 degrees C) and generate prediction maps of the number of generations per year this species may exhibit in the United States. The rate of development of E. utilis as a function of temperature was modeled using linear regression to estimate a lower developmental threshold of 9.6 degrees C and the degree-day requirement of 588. The Logan nonlinear regression model was used to estimate an upper developmental threshold of 33 degrees C. Cold tolerance of E. utilis was examined using all insect stages, and each stage was exposed to three constant temperatures (10, 5, 0 degrees C) for 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 d (or until all insects died). The pupal stage was the most cold tolerant with 100% mortality after 12 d at 0 degrees C. The pupal lethal times at 5 (Ltime50 = 10 d, Ltime90 = 28 d) and 0 degrees C (Ltime50 = 5 d, Ltime90 = 9 d) were used to generate isothermal lines to predict favorable regions for E. utilis establishment. A GIS map was generated to predict the number of generations of E. utilis (range, 0.5-9.8) across all Brazilian peppertree range in the United States. The potential for establishment of E. utilis and its probable distribution in the continental United States was examined.

  5. Efeito de inseticidas em diferentes fases de desenvolvimento de Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae e estruturas vegetais da macieira e do pessegueiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Corrêa Chaves

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A mariposa-oriental Grapholita molesta é uma das principais pragas da macieira e do pessegueiro. Neste trabalho, foi avaliada a mortalidade causada por inseticidas quando aplicados sobre diferentes fases de desenvolvimento de G. molesta e sobre ponteiros e frutos de macieira e pessegueiro. Os inseticidas acetamiprido (8 g 100L-1, fosmete (100 g 100L-1, espinetoram (3,75 g 100L-1 e novalurom (4,0 g i.a 100L-1 reduziram a eclosão em níveis superiores a 80%, independentemente de a aplicação ser realizada em pré ou pós-oviposição. O etofenproxi (15 g 100L-1 foi mais eficaz quando aplicado em pós-oviposição. Em ponteiros de macieira e pessegueiro, os inseticidas acetamiprido, clorantraniliprole (4,9 g 100L-1, etofenproxi, fosmete, novalurom e espinetoram causaram mortalidade de lagartas acima de 90%. Em frutos de macieira, os inseticidas acetamiprido, clorantraniliprole, etofenproxi, fosmete e espinetoram causaram mortalidade de lagartas de 100; 79; 76; 97 e 100%, respectivamente, enquanto em frutos de pessegueiro apresentaram controle superior a 85%. O inseticida novalurom aplicado em frutos causou menor mortalidade das lagartas quando comparado à aplicação em ponteiros. Em adultos, apenas os inseticidas etofenproxi e fosmete foram tóxicos tanto a fêmeas (59 e 39% quanto a machos (79 e 80%, enquanto o espinetoram mostrou efeito apenas em machos (78%. Conclui-se que os inseticidas etofenproxi, fosmete e espinetoram foram eficientes no controle de G. molesta em todas as fases de desenvolvimento.

  6. Stability of Cacopsylla pyricola (Hemiptera: Psyllidae Populations in Pacific Northwest Pear Orchards Managed with Long-Term Mating Disruption for Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushalya G. Amarasekare

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on conservation biological control of pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola, in the Pacific Northwest, USA. We hypothesized that insecticides applied against the primary insect pest, codling moth Cydia pomonella, negatively impact natural enemies of pear psylla, thus causing outbreaks of this secondary pest. Hence, the objective of this study was to understand how codling moth management influences the abundance of pear psylla and its natural enemy complex in pear orchards managed under long-term codling moth mating disruption programs. We conducted this study within a pear orchard that had previously been under seasonal mating disruption for codling moth for eight years. We replicated two treatments, “natural enemy disrupt” (application of two combination sprays of spinetoram plus chlorantraniliprole timed against first-generation codling moth and “natural enemy non-disrupt” four times in the orchard. Field sampling of psylla and natural enemies (i.e., lacewings, coccinellids, spiders, Campylomma verbasci, syrphid flies, earwigs revealed that pear psylla populations remained well below treatment thresholds all season despite the reduced abundance of key pear psylla natural enemies in the natural enemy disrupt plots compared with the non-disrupt treatment. We speculate that pear psylla are difficult to disrupt when pear orchards are under long-term codling moth disruption.

  7. Addition of pear ester enhances disruption of mating by female codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in walnut orchards treated with meso dispensers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The success of applying low rates (50 ha-1) of dispensers to achieve disruption of adult communication of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L)., in walnuts, Juglans regia (L.),was evaluated with several methods. These included cumulative catches of male moths in traps baited with either sex pheromone (...

  8. Susceptibility in field populations of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in Ontario and Quebec apple orchards to a selection of insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigg-McGuffin, Kristy; Scott, Ian M; Bellerose, Sylvie; Chouinard, Gérald; Cormier, Daniel; Scott-Dupree, Cynthia

    2015-02-01

    Codling moth is a major pest of pome fruit worldwide. Insecticide resistance has become a widespread pest management issue. However, the current status of insecticide resistance in Ontario and Quebec codling moth populations is unknown. Codling moth populations were collected from 27 orchards in Ontario and Quebec from 2008 to 2010. A series of laboratory bioassays were performed to establish baseline susceptibility of adults and larvae to azinphos-methyl, thiacloprid, chlorantraniliprole and methoxyfenozide. Adult codling moth percentage mortality ranged from 22 to 97% and from 21 to 85% when exposed to topical bioassays using azinphos-methyl and thiacloprid respectively. Azinphos-methyl LC50 values from three selected orchards were ca fivefold greater than those from an insecticide-susceptible population. Neonate larva percentage mortality ranged from 5 to 50%, from 15 to 65%, from 90 to 100% and from 10 to 40% when exposed to diet bioassays using azinphos-methyl, thiacloprid, chlorantraniliprole and methoxyfenozide respectively. Based on the response of the field-collected populations, resistance development to some registered insecticides was evident in some Ontario and Quebec populations. With the present status of insecticide resistance documented in these regions, modifications to codling moth management strategies should be initiated before changes in field efficacy occur. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Redescripción de Mastrus ridibundus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae, parasitoide introducido en la Argentina para el control de Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier TORRÉNS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se redescribe el agente de biocontrol introducido en la Argentina, Mastrus ridibundus (Gravenhorst (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae, para el control de Cydia pomonella (L. y se aportan nuevos caracteres para su identificación.

  10. Maximizing Information Yield From Pheromone-Baited Monitoring Traps: Estimating Plume Reach, Trapping Radius, and Absolute Density of Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Michigan Apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, C G; Schenker, J H; McGhee, P S; Gut, L J; Brunner, J F; Miller, J R

    2017-04-01

    Novel methods of data analysis were used to interpret codling moth (Cydia pomonella) catch data from central-trap, multiple-release experiments using a standard codlemone-baited monitoring trap in commercial apple orchards not under mating disruption. The main objectives were to determine consistency and reliability for measures of: 1) the trapping radius, composed of the trap's behaviorally effective plume reach and the maximum dispersive distance of a responder population; and 2) the proportion of the population present in the trapping area that is caught. Two moth release designs were used: 1) moth releases at regular intervals in the four cardinal directions, and 2) evenly distributed moth releases across entire approximately 18-ha orchard blocks using both high and low codling moth populations. For both release designs, at high populations, the mean proportion catch was 0.01, and for the even release of low populations, that value was approximately 0.02. Mean maximum dispersive distance for released codling moth males was approximately 260 m. Behaviorally effective plume reach for the standard codling moth trap was < 5 m, and total trapping area for a single trap was approximately 21 ha. These estimates were consistent across three growing seasons and are supported by extraordinarily high replication for this type of field experiment. Knowing the trapping area and mean proportion caught, catch number per single monitoring trap can be translated into absolute pest density using the equation: males per trapping area = catch per trapping area/proportion caught. Thus, catches of 1, 3, 10, and 30 codling moth males per trap translate to approximately 5, 14, 48, and 143 males/ha, respectively, and reflect equal densities of females, because the codling moth sex ratio is 1:1. Combined with life-table data on codling moth fecundity and mortality, along with data on crop yield per trapping area, this fundamental knowledge of how to interpret catch numbers will enable pest managers to make considerably more precise projections of damage and therefore more precise and reliable decisions on whether insecticide applications are justified. The principles and methods established here for estimating absolute codling moth density may be broadly applicable to pests generally and thereby could set a new standard for integrated pest management decisions based on trapping. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  11. Stability of Cacopsylla pyricola (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) Populations in Pacific Northwest Pear Orchards Managed with Long-Term Mating Disruption for Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasekare, Kaushalya G; Shearer, Peter W

    2017-09-30

    This study focused on conservation biological control of pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola , in the Pacific Northwest, USA. We hypothesized that insecticides applied against the primary insect pest, codling moth Cydia pomonella , negatively impact natural enemies of pear psylla, thus causing outbreaks of this secondary pest. Hence, the objective of this study was to understand how codling moth management influences the abundance of pear psylla and its natural enemy complex in pear orchards managed under long-term codling moth mating disruption programs. We conducted this study within a pear orchard that had previously been under seasonal mating disruption for codling moth for eight years. We replicated two treatments, "natural enemy disrupt" (application of two combination sprays of spinetoram plus chlorantraniliprole timed against first-generation codling moth) and "natural enemy non-disrupt" four times in the orchard. Field sampling of psylla and natural enemies (i.e., lacewings, coccinellids, spiders, Campylomma verbasci , syrphid flies, earwigs) revealed that pear psylla populations remained well below treatment thresholds all season despite the reduced abundance of key pear psylla natural enemies in the natural enemy disrupt plots compared with the non-disrupt treatment. We speculate that pear psylla are difficult to disrupt when pear orchards are under long-term codling moth disruption.

  12. Costs and benefits of thermal acclimation for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): implications for pest control and the sterile insect release programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidawanyika, Frank; Terblanche, John S

    2011-07-01

    Sterile insect release (SIR) is used to suppress insect pest populations in agro-ecosystems, but its success hinges on the performance of the released insects and prevailing environmental conditions. For example, low temperatures dramatically reduce SIR efficacy in cooler conditions. Here, we report on the costs and benefits of thermal acclimation for laboratory and field responses of codling moth, Cydia pomonella. Using a component of field fitness, we demonstrate that low temperature acclimated laboratory-reared moths are recaptured significantly more (∼2-4×) under cooler conditions in the wild relative to warm-acclimated or control moths. However, improvements in low temperature performance in cold-acclimated moths came at a cost to performance under warmer conditions. At high ambient temperatures, warm-acclimation improved field performance relative to control or cold-acclimated moths. Laboratory assessments of thermal activity and their limits matched the field results, indicating that these laboratory assays may be transferable to field performance. This study demonstrates clear costs and benefits of thermal acclimation on laboratory and field performance and the potential utility of thermal pretreatments for offsetting negative efficacy in SIR programmes under adverse thermal conditions. Consequently, the present work shows that evolutionary principles of phenotypic plasticity can be used to improve field performance and thus possibly enhance pest control programmes seeking increased efficacy.

  13. Genetic analysis of Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) populations with different levels of sensitivity towards the Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gund, Nadine A; Wagner, Annette; Timm, Alicia E; Schulze-Bopp, Stefanie; Jehle, Johannes A; Johannesen, Jes; Reineke, Annette

    2012-06-01

    Microsatellite (simple sequence repeats, SSR) and mitochondrial DNA markers were used to assess the structure of European codling moth populations showing different levels of susceptibility towards one of the most important biocontrol agents used in apple production, the Cydia pomonella granulovirus CpGV-M. In 638 C. pomonella individuals from 33 different populations a total of 92 different alleles were scored using six SSR loci. The global estimate of genetic differentiation for all 33 populations was not significantly different from zero, thus indicating a lack of genetic differentiation. AMOVA analysis revealed a very weak but significant variance among C. pomonella populations from different geographic regions, however, no significant variation was evident between CpGV-M resistant or susceptible C. pomonella populations. Sequence analysis of a fragment of the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 in eight C. pomonella populations resulted in 27 haplotypes, which were grouped in two distinct clusters. Again, no genetic differentiation between CpGV-M resistant and susceptible codling moth populations was detectable. In addition, Structure analysis using microsatellites and association tests with mtDNA haplotypes found neither population-level nor individual correlations associated with CpGV-M resistance. Accordingly, this lack of population structure does not allow discriminating between one or several, separate origins of CpGV-M resistance.

  14. Cross-amplification of microsatellites from the codling moth Cydia pomonella to three other species of the tribe Grapholitini (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M H; Dorn, S

    2010-11-01

    This study examined cross-species amplification of 33 microsatellite markers, previously developed for Cydia pomonella, in three related fruit moth species of the same tribe (Grapholitini), namely Grapholita molesta, Grapholita funebrana and Grapholita lobarzewskii. Eight microsatellite loci yielded polymorphic products for G. molesta, nine for G. funebrana and 11 for G. lobarzewskii. At all these loci, the number of alleles ranged between four and 11 in G. molesta, and between four and nine in G. funebrana and G. lobarzewskii each. The successful cross-amplified loci can be used for research on population genetics and gene flow of the three target species. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Irrigation and fertilization effects on Nantucket Pine Tip Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Damage levels and pupal weight in an intensively-managed pine plantation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, David, R.; Nowak, John, T.; Fettig, Christopher, J.

    2003-10-01

    The widespread application of intensive forest management practices throughout the southeastern U.S. has increased loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., yields and shortened conventional rotation lengths. Fluctuations in Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock), population density and subsequent damage levels have been linked to variations in management intensity. We examined the effects of two practices, irrigation and fertilization, on R. frustrana damage levels and pupal weights in an intensively-managed P. taeda plantation in South Carolina. Trees received intensive weed control and one of the following treatments; irrigation only. fertilization only, irrigation + fertilization, or control. Mean whole-tree tip moth damage levels ranged from <1 to 48% during this study. Damage levels differed significantly among treatments in two tip moth generations in 2001, but not 2000. Pupal weight was significantly heavier in fertilization compared to the irrigation treatment in 2000, but no significant differences were observed in 2001. Tree diameter. height. and aboveground volume were significantly greater in the irrigation + fertilization than in the irrigation treatment after two growing seasons. Our data suggest that intensive management practices that include irrigation and fertilization do not consistently increase R. frustrana damage levels and pupal weights as is commonly believed. However, tip moth suppression efforts in areas adjacent to our study may have partially reduced the potential impacts of R. frustrana on this experiment.

  16. DNA barcodes reveal that the widespread European tortricid moth Phalonidia manniana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a mixture of two species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutanen, Marko; Aarvik, Leif; Huemer, Peter

    2012-01-01

    , 1845, sp. rev. Their biologies also differ, P. manniana feeding in stems of Mentha and Lycopus (Lamiaceae) and P. udana feeding in stems of Lysimachia thyrsiflora and L. vulgaris (Primulaceae). We provide re-descriptions of both taxa and DNA barcodes for North European Phalonidia and Gynnidomorpha...

  17. Effect of electron beam irradiation on developmental stages of Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junheon; Chung, Soon-Oh; Jang, Sin Ae; Jang, Miyeon; Park, Chung Gyoo

    2015-07-01

    Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an economically important and polyphagous pest, which harms various kinds of food crops and important agricultural plants, such as cotton and paprika. Effects of electron beam irradiation at six dose levels between 50 and 350 Gy on the egg (24-48 h old), the larval (4-5th instar), and the pupal (7-d old for female, 5-d old for male) development, and on the adult (1-d old) reproduction were tested to identify a potential quarantine treatment dose. Increased doses of irradiation on eggs decreased egg hatchability, pupation and adult emergence and increased larval period. ED99 values for inhibition of hatching, pupation and emergence were 460.6, 236.9 and 197.8 Gy, respectively. When larvae were irradiated with more than 280 Gy, no larvae could develop into pupae. ED99 values for inhibition of pupation and adult emergence were 265.6 and 189.6 Gy, respectively. Even though the irradiation on pupa did not completely inhibit adult emergence, most of the pupae emerged to deformed adults. When adults were irradiated, fecundity was not affected. However, F1 egg hatching was completely inhibited at the dose of 350 Gy. ED99 value for inhibition of adult emergence was estimated at 366.5 Gy. Our results suggest that electron beam irradiation could be recommendable as an alternative to MB and as a phytosanitary treatment for quarantine. A treatment dose of less than or equal to 220 Gy is suggested as a potential quarantine treatment to H. armigera egg for prevention of pupation and to larva for prevention of adult emerge.

  18. Actividad biológica de extractos de Melia azedarach sobre larvas de Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Biological activity of extracts of Melia azedarach on larvae of Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María R. Rossetti

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available En la búsqueda de compuestos botánicos con potencial uso insecticida, se evaluó la actividad de extractos de fruto maduro y hojas senescentes de Melia azedarach L. (2, 5 y 10%, sobre larvas de Spodoptera eridania Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae especie polífaga considerada plaga esporádica de importantes cultivos. Mediante pruebas de elección, se registró el consumo y se calculó un índice de inhibición alimentaria. En pruebas sin posibilidad de elección se estimó el consumo, la mortalidad, el peso de larvas y excretas, y se calcularon índices nutricionales. Cuando las larvas pudieron optar, se observó un fuerte efecto antialimentario de los extractos. En los ensayos de alimentación obligada, los extractos de fruto y hoja redujeron fuertemente el consumo y peso larval respecto al control, excepto la menor dosis de fruto. Ninguna oruga llegó a pupar al entregarle alimento rociado con extracto de hoja o con extracto de fruto en las dosis más altas. Los índices nutricionales corroboraron la actividad antialimentaria, revelando efectos negativos de los extractos sobre las tasas relativas de consumo y crecimiento, y sobre la eficiencia de utilización del alimento ingerido y digerido, aunque la digestibilidad no fue afectada. Los resultados sugieren que los extractos de M. azedarach podrían ser incorporados en programas de manejo de este insecto plaga.In the course of searching for plant chemicals with potential insecticide properties, the activity of Melia azedarach L. senescent leaf and ripe fruit extracts (2, 5 and 10% was evaluated on larvae of Spodoptera eridania Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. This polyphagous species is considered a sporadic pest on many important crops. Food consumption was assessed and an antifeedant index was calculated through choice tests. Also, food consumption, larval mortality, weight and depositions were recorded and nutritional indices were calculated in no-choice tests. Results from choice tests

  19. Influence of instar and commodity on insecticidal effect of two diatomaceous earth formulations against larvae of Ephestia kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanassiou, Christos G

    2006-10-01

    Laboratory experiments were carried out to evaluate the insecticidal effect of two diatomaceous earth (DE) formulations, SilicoSec and PyriSec, against larvae of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Three instars were tested: first, third and fifth. The test was conducted in six commodities: barley Hordeum vulgare (L.) (Gramminae), rye Secale cereale L. (Gramminae), wheat Triticum sp. (Gramminae), wheat + 10% cracked wheat, wheat + 30% cracked wheat, and wheat flour. Quantities of these commodities were treated with the DEs at three dose rates: 250, 500, and 1000 ppm. Mortality of the exposed larvae on the DE-treated commodities was measured after 7 d of exposure. For both Des, mortality increased with dose, but this increase was lower when dose was increased from 500 to 1,000 ppm. The type of the commodity significantly affected DE effectiveness. Both DEs were equally effective on barley, rye, and wheat, whereas the presence of cracked wheat reduced larval mortality. In addition, significantly fewer larvae were dead on treated flour compared with the other five commodities. The increase of larval age significantly affected DE effectiveness. First instars were very susceptible to both DEs, and mortality with 1,000 ppm exceeded 86%. In contrast, fifth instar were the least susceptible to DEs, because mortality with 1000 ppm was < 22%.

  20. Gut microbiota of Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyman, Maxi; Gupta, Arvind Kumar; Bezuidenhout, Cornelius Carlos; Claassens, Sarina; van den Berg, Johnnie

    2016-07-01

    Busseola fusca (Fuller) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a stemborer pest that attacks maize (Zea mays) throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Genetically modified maize has been shown to be effective against B. fusca. However, resistance of B. fusca against Bt-maize has developed and spread throughout South Africa. Previous studies suggested that gut microbiota contribute to mortality across a range of Lepidoptera. To fully assess the role of microbiota within the gut, it is essential to understand the microbiota harboured by natural B. fusca populations. This study aimed to identify the gut-associated bacteria by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A total of 78 bacterial strains were characterised from the midgut of B. fusca larvae that were collected from 30 sites across the maize producing region of South Africa. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed bacteria affiliated to Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. Taxonomic distribution placed these isolates into 15 different genera representing 20 species. The majority of bacteria identified belong to the genera Bacillus, Enterococcus, and Klebsiella. The B. fusca gut represents an intriguing and unexplored niche for analysing microbial ecology. The study could provide opportunities for developing new targets for pest management and contribute to understanding the phenomenon of resistance evolution of this species.

  1. Gustatory receptors in Lepidoptera: chemosensation and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihotri, A R; Roy, A A; Joshi, R S

    2016-10-01

    Lepidoptera is one of the most widespread insect orders and includes several agriculturally important insect species. Ecological success of the lepidopteran insects partly depends on their adaptive chemoreception tactics, which play an important role in the selection of hosts, egg-laying sites and mates. Members of the G-protein coupled receptor family, gustatory receptors (GRs), are an integral part of the Lepidoptera chemosensory machinery. They are expressed in chemosensory neurones and are known to detect different environmental stimuli. Here, we discuss various aspects of the lepidopteran GRs with an emphasis on their roles in different processes such as chemosensation, host selection and adaptation. Phylogenetic analyses have shown that the large diversity of GR genes may have been generated through gene duplication and positive selection events, which also show lineage- and tissue-specific expression. Moreover, lepidopteran GR proteins are diverse and demonstrate broad ligand selectivity for several molecules including sugars, deterrents, salts and CO2 . Binding of ligands to GRs generates multiple downstream changes at the cellular level, which are followed by changes in behaviour. GRs play a critical role in chemosensation and influence the insect's behaviour. Overall, insect GRs are potential targets in the design of effective insect control strategies. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  2. Cyanogenesis - a general phenomenon in the lepidoptera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witthohn, K.; Naumann, C.M.

    1987-08-01

    There are two different pathways known to be used for the detoxification of hydrocyanic acid in insects, viz., rhodanese and ..beta..-cyano-L-alanine synthase. The authors consider the latter to be indicative for cyanogenesis, while rhodanese might, in general, play a more important role in sulfur transfer for protein synthesis. This paper reports on the distribution of ..beta..-cyano-L-alanine (BCA) in the Lepidoptera. First reports of cyanogenesis are presented for the following families: Papilionidae, Pieridae, Lycaenidae, Hesperiidae, Lymantriidae, Arctiidae, Notodontidae, Megalopygidae, Limacodidae, Cymatophoridae, Noctuidae, Geometridae, and Yponomeutidae. New and old records for three other families, the Nymphalidae, Zygaenidae, and Heterogynidae, are included to complete the present state of knowledge. Special emphasis has been laid on the Nymphalidae, where BCA has been detected in eight subfamilies. Taxonomic, geographic, and seasonal variation has been found in a number of cases. In all cases observed so far, the source of cyanogenesis in the Lepidoptera is most probably the cyanoglucosides linamarin and lotaustralin, although cyanogenesis based on mustard oil glucosides and cyclopentenoid glucosides might occur as well. BCA has been found in both cryptic and aposematic species, including taxa such as the Pieridae, Danainae, Ithomiinae, and Arctiidae, where the defensive biology is believed to be linked with other compounds, like mustard oil glucosides, cardenolides, or pyrrolizidinie alkaloids. The ecological interaction and significance of such secondary compounds is not yet understood.

  3. Use of molecular markers in biochemical taxonomy of Tischeriidae (Lepidoptera: Tischerioidea) and Elachistidae (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea)

    OpenAIRE

    Paulavičiūtė, Brigita

    2010-01-01

    The field of molecular biology has expanded greatly in the last ten years and currently many entomologists want to use this technology since it is a new level of carrying out studies of insect ecological systems and taxonomy. The study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences has become the method for a wide range of taxonomic, population and evolutionary investigations in Lepidoptera (Lunt et al, 1996). The increasing popularity of molecular taxonomy will undoubtedly exert a major impact on co...

  4. Anopheline larval habitats seasonality and species distribution: a prerequisite for effective targeted larval habitats control programmes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliningaya J Kweka

    Full Text Available Larval control is of paramount importance in the reduction of malaria vector abundance and subsequent disease transmission reduction. Understanding larval habitat succession and its ecology in different land use managements and cropping systems can give an insight for effective larval source management practices. This study investigated larval habitat succession and ecological parameters which influence larval abundance in malaria epidemic prone areas of western Kenya.A total of 51 aquatic habitats positive for anopheline larvae were surveyed and visited once a week for a period of 85 weeks in succession. Habitats were selected and identified. Mosquito larval species, physico-chemical parameters, habitat size, grass cover, crop cycle and distance to nearest house were recorded. Polymerase chain reaction revealed that An. gambiae s.l was the most dominant vector species comprised of An.gambiae s.s (77.60% and An.arabiensis (18.34%, the remaining 4.06% had no amplification by polymerase chain reaction. Physico-chemical parameters and habitat size significantly influenced abundance of An. gambiae s.s (P = 0.024 and An. arabiensis (P = 0.002 larvae. Further, larval species abundance was influenced by crop cycle (P≤0.001, grass cover (P≤0.001, while distance to nearest houses significantly influenced the abundance of mosquito species larvae (r = 0.920;P≤0.001. The number of predator species influenced mosquito larval abundance in different habitat types. Crop weeding significantly influenced with the abundance of An.gambiae s.l (P≤0.001 when preceded with fertilizer application. Significantly higher anopheline larval abundance was recorded in habitats in pasture compared to farmland (P = 0.002. When habitat stability and habitat types were considered, hoof print were the most productive followed by disused goldmines.These findings suggest that implementation of effective larval control programme should be targeted with larval

  5. Larval Dispersal of Spodoptera frugiperda Strains on Bt Cotton: A Model for Understanding Resistance Evolution and Consequences for its Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaquias, José B; Godoy, Wesley A C; Garcia, Adriano G; Ramalho, Francisco de S; Omoto, Celso

    2017-11-23

    High dispersal of Lepidoptera larvae between non-Bt and Bt cotton plants can favour the evolution of insect resistance; however, information on host acceptance of neonates in tropical transgenic crops is scarce. Therefore, the purposes of this study were as follows: (i) to investigate the feeding behaviour of susceptible and Cry1F-resistant strains of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) on Bt and non-Bt cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) varieties and (ii) to understand the possible effects of cotton field contamination on the dispersal and infestation capacity of S. frugiperda larvae by using an individual-based model. The main results of this paper are as follows: (1) the highest post-feeding larval dispersal of the Cry1F-resistant strain occurred at an exposure time of 18-24 h; (2) via video tracking assays, we found that the least distance moved was by larvae resistant to Cry1F on non-Bt cotton; and (3) the model indicated differences in mobility capacity between Bt and non-Bt cotton. We conclude that resistant neonates exhibit sedentary behaviour. Our report represents the first findings concerning the fitness cost of larval behaviour traits of S. frugiperda associated with Cry1F resistance in Brazilian populations.

  6. Influences of Cry1Ac broccoli on larval survival and oviposition of diamondback moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Dengxia; Cui, Shusong; Yang, Limei; Fang, Zhiyuan; Liu, Yumei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong

    2015-01-01

    Larval survival and oviposition behavior of three genotypes of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), (homozygous Cry1Ac-susceptibile, Cry1Ac-resistant, and their F1 hybrids), on transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) broccoli expressing different levels of Cry1Ac protein were evaluated in laboratory. These Bt broccoli lines were designated as relative low, medium, and high, respectively, according to the Cry1Ac content. Untransformed brocccoli plants were used as control. Larval survival of diamondback moth on non-Bt leaves was not significantly different among the three genotypes. The Cry1Ac-resistant larvae could survive on the low level of Bt broccoli plants, while Cry1Ac-susceptible and F1 larvae could not survive on them. The three genotypes of P. xylostella larvae could not survive on medium and high levels of Bt broccoli. In oviposition choice tests, there was no significant difference in the number of eggs laid by the three P. xylostella genotypes among different Bt broccoli plants. The development of Cry1Ac-susceptible and Cry1Ac-resistant P. xylostella on intact Bt plants was also tested in greenhouse. All susceptible P. xylostella larvae died on all Bt plants, while resistant larvae could survive on broccoli, which expresses low Cry1Ac protein under greenhouse conditions. The results of the greenhouse trials were similar to that of laboratory tests. This study indicated that high dose of Bt toxins in broccoli cultivars or germplasm lines is required for effective resistance management. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  7. FIRST RECORD OF Xanthopastis timais IN AMARYLLIS AND EFFECT OF SOURSOP EXTRACT ON LARVAL MORTALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LÍGIA BROGLIO MICHELETTI

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to report the occurrence of Xanthopastis timais (Cramer, 1780 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in amaryllis ( Hippeastrum hybridum Hort ., Amaryllidaceae, as well as estimating lethal concentrations (LC 50 and LC 99 of soursop seed extract, Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae, against its larvae. The experiment was carried out at the Laboratory of Entomology of the Research Center for Agricultural Sciences, Federal University of Alagoas, in Rio Largo - AL, Brazil . First, we collected caterpillars from amaryllis plants that were reared until pupal and adult stages (parental generation. Next, part of the adults was used for species identification, and the rest were bred to produce next generation (F1, being after that applied in a laboratory bioassay. The lab trial was performed in a completely randomized design, with six treatments and five replications containing three second - instar caterpillars. These larvae were fed pieces of amaryllis leaf (4 x 4 cm, which were previously soaked in treatments for 30 seconds and, air - dried on absorbent papers for one hour. Each treatment consisted of one concentration of ethanol extract of soursop seeds (0.0, 1.0, 0.5, 0.25, 0.125 and 0.0625% w/ v with distilled water and DMSO at 1% (v/ v, for solutions. We noted that the lethal concentrations LC 50 and LC 99 were 0.29% (w/ v and 2.27% (w/ v, respectively. In view of our results, we can state that larval stage of X . timais were influenced by extract application in terms of survival, mortality, larvae weight and larval stage length. Besides of that, it was the first time this species was recorded in Alagoas state.

  8. Three new species of Fancy Case caterpillars from threatened forests of Hawaii (Lepidoptera, Cosmopterigidae, Hyposmocoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Akito Y.; Rubinoff, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The endemic Hawaiian moth genus Hyposmocoma includes 348 described species and perhaps twice as many that remain undescribed. The genus is unusual within Lepidoptera in that its larvae create distinctive silk cases in which they perambulate while protected and camouflaged. An extraordinary diversity of case types exists, and to date more than ten different types have been identified, each corresponding roughly to a separate evolutionary lineage. In this study, we describe three new species of Hyposmocoma: Hyposmocoma ipohapuu sp. n. from Big Island, Hyposmocoma makawao sp. n. from Makawao Forest Reserve in Mauiand Hyposmocoma tantala sp. n. from Mt. Tantalus, Oahu, all of which produce tubular purse cases during their larval stage. We also describe the female of Hyposmocoma inversella Walsingham, which was previously undescribed, and re-describe two closely related species, Hyposmocoma auropurpurea Walsingham and Hyposmocoma nebulifera Walsingham, neither which have been formally described in recent years. We present for the first time, primer sequences for a 705 bp fragment of CAD, designed for Hyposmocoma and relatives. The molecular phylogeny based on mitochondrial and nuclear loci demonstrates that all are distinct species. The discovery of a new, endemic species from Mt. Tantalus, an area with many invasive species, suggests that even relatively degraded areas in Hawaii would be worthy of active conservation efforts. PMID:22408378

  9. Three new species of Fancy Case caterpillars from threatened forests of Hawaii (Lepidoptera, Cosmopterigidae, Hyposmocoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akito Kawahara

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The endemic Hawaiian moth genus Hyposmocoma includes 348 described species and perhaps twice as many that remain undescribed. The genus is unusual within Lepidoptera in that its larvae create distinctive silk cases in which they perambulate while protected and camouflaged. An extraordinary diversity of case types exists, and to date more than ten different types have been identified, each corresponding roughly to a separate evolutionary lineage. In this study, we describe three new species of Hyposmocoma: H. ipohapuu sp. n. from Big Island, H. makawao sp. n. from Makawao Forest Reserve in Maui and H. tantala sp. n. from Mt. Tantalus, Oahu, all of which produce tubular purse cases during their larval stage. We also describe the female of H. inversella Walsingham, which was previously undescribed, and re-describe two closely related species, H. auropurpurea Walsingham and H. nebulifera Walsingham, neither which have been formally described in recent years. We present for the first time, the CAD primer sequences for Hyposmocoma and relatives. The molecular phylogeny based on mitochondrial and nuclear loci demonstrates that all are distinct species. The discovery of a new, endemic species from Mt. Tantalus, an area with many invasive species, suggests that even relatively degraded areas in Hawaii would be worthy of active conservation efforts.

  10. A contribution key for identification of butterflies (Lepidoptera of Tehsil Tangi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Khan Perveen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The butterflies are the useful bio-indicators of an ecosystem, sensitive to any change in environment, such as temperature, microclimate and solar radiation etc, however, they utilize host plants for their oviposition and larval development. Therefore, the present study was conducted to prepare the contribution key for identification of butterflies of Tehsil Tangi during August, 2014-May, 2015. The specimens (ni = 506 were collected belong to 3 families with 18 genera and 23 species. However, the collected butterflies were comprised of families Nymphalidae 50%> Pieridae 43%> Papilionidae 7%. The family Nymphalidae were primarily, blue, pale brown or orange and antennae-tips with large conspicuous knobs, while, family Pieridae were mostly creamy, white, yellow or light orange, although, the family Papilionidae were multi-colours, i.e., yellow, blackish-brown, white or orange and antennae-tips with or without knobs. The largest butterfly was great black mormon, Papilio polytes Linnaeus (Family: Papilionidae with body length 26.0±0.0 (nP. polytes = 1; M±SD mm, while the smallest butterflies Indian little orange tip, Colotis etrida Boisduval (Family: Pieridae with body length 11.5±0.6 (nC. etrida = 4; M±SD mm. The key of butterflies (Lepidoptera of Tehsil Tangi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan has been established in this paper. It is recommended to evaluate the butterfly fauna of District Charsadda to educate and create awareness in the local community for conservation and protestation of their habitats.

  11. Aktivitas biologi enam jenis ekstrak tumbuhan famili Asteraceae terhadap larva Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    Ratna Sari Dewi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Biological Activity of Six Plan Extract from Asteraceae on Spodoptera litura Fabricius (lipedoptera : Noctuidae Larvae. Asteraceae is one of plant family that is known to have insecticidal activity to several insect pests, such as Parthenium argentatum, Crysanthemum cineariaefolium, and Agerantum houstoneanum. The aim of this study is to explore other asteraceae species in other to search for insecticidal activity to Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. Six species, Blumea balsamifera (leaf, Elephantopus scaber (leaf, Gynura procumbens (leaf Artemisia vulgaris (leaf Soncbus arvensis (leaf and Helianthus annus (seed were use in this study. Plant extract were obtained by meseration method using menthanol. The extract were bioassayed to the second instar larvae of S. litura to evaluate the mortality, antifeedant and growth regulation activity. Extract of B. balsamifera and E. scaber have high antifeedant activity at 5 % by reducing larval feeding 87.7% and 81.8% in no choice test, and 94.1% and 86.1% in choice test method, respectively Extract of H. annus, A. vulgaris, and E. scaber prolonged the development of larvae by 4.9, 4.1, 3.9 days, respectively. While extract of H. annus caused mortality of larvae by 86% at 5%.

  12. Aquatic respiration as a potential survival mechanism of Brephidium pseudofea (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) larvae to intertidal environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, V; Daniels, J C; Hahn, D A

    2011-10-01

    The eastern pygmy blue, Brephidium pseudofea (Morrison) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: Polyommatinae), inhabits intertidal environments that are periodically flooded. The immature stages are subject to salt or brackish water inundation during this time and therefore must endure many stressors, including respiratory limitation and salt exposure. Our goal was to investigate possible mechanisms used by the larval stages of B. pseudofea to endure periodic tidal inundation by using physiological and morphological analyses in comparison with several species of terrestrial lepidopteran larvae. A review of tidal charts showed that the immature stages of B. pseudofea would be prone to complete inundation two to five times per month during the summer months (May to August) and partial submersion for up to 20 d per month during the rest of the year. Larvae of several terrestrial lepidopteran species studied consumed oxygen under water for a limited period, but B. pseudofea demonstrated substantially higher oxygen consumption. Light microscopy of B. pseudofea larvae revealed small air pockets in and around the spiracles when submerged in tap water; these air pockets disappeared when exposed to detergent solution. The resulting air pockets may function as a diffusion layer for oxygen to be absorbed from the surrounding water or may act in conjunction with trans-cuticular gas exchange to meet the larva's respiratory needs. Morphological examination by scanning electron microscopy showed that B. psudofea larvae have distinctively small, clavate setae that appear insufficient to effectively support a functional plastron.

  13. AKTIVITAS INSEKTISIDA BAGIAN TUMBUHAN CALOPHYLLUM SOULTTRI BURM.F. (CLU IACEAE TERHADAP LARVA LEPIDOPTERA

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    Edy Syahputra

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this test was evaluate the insecticidal activity of ectract of some parts of Calophyllum soulattri (Clusiaceae against larvae of three species of Lepidoptera, i. e Crocidolomia pavonana, Plutella xylostela, and Pieris sp.. Extraction of plant materials was done by infusion method using ethanol. The bioassays were conducted by leaf-feeding method. Second-instar larvae were fed extract-treated broccoli leaves of 48 hours, then they were presented with untreated leaves until the surviving larvae larvae reached the fourth-instar stage. The number of dead larvae was recorded daily an larval mortality date were analyzed by probit method. The result showed the gummy bark exudates and bark extract of old and young C. soulattri plants were highly active against C. pavonana. The abrk extact of old C. soulattri plant was also effective against P. xilostella and Pieris sp. The gummy exudates possessed strong insecticidal activity against C. pavonana larvae with LC50 of 0.04% and prolonged the developmental time from second to fourth instar of C. soulattri 2.03-7.25 days compared with control. The bark excudate gave positive respon to alkaloid flavonoid, and tannin test. Futher studies are needed to identify insecticidal compound in those active extracts.

  14. The chemistry of antipredator defense by secondary compounds in neotropical lepidoptera: facts, perspectives and caveats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trigo José R.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical defense against predation in butterflies and moths has been studied since nineteenth century. A classical example is that of the larvae of the monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus, which feed on leaves of Asclepias curassavica (Asclepiadaceae, sequestering cardenolides. The adults are protected against predation by birds. Several other substances may be involved in chemical defense, such as iridoid glycosides, cyanogenic glycosides, glucosinolates, pyrrolizidine and tropane alkaloids, aristolochic acids, glycosidase inhibitors and pyrazines. The acquisition of these substances by lepidopterans can be due to sequestration from larval or adult host plants or de novo biosynthesis. Many Lepidoptera are known to be unpalatable, including the butterflies Troidini (Papilionidae, Pierinae (Pieridae, Eurytelinae, Melitaeinae, Danainae, Ithomiinae, Heliconiinae and Acraeinae (Nymphalidae, and Arctiidae moths, but knowledge of the chemical substances responsible for property is often scarce. This review discusses mainly three topics: field and laboratory observations on rejection of butterflies and moths by predators, correlation between unpalatability and chemicals found in these insects, and bioassays that test the activity of these chemicals against predators. Perspectives and future directions are suggested for this subject.

  15. Rehydration of forensically important larval Diptera specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Michelle R; Pechal, Jennifer L; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2011-01-01

    Established procedures for collecting and preserving evidence are essential for all forensic disciplines to be accepted in court and by the forensic community at large. Entomological evidence, such as Diptera larvae, are primarily preserved in ethanol, which can evaporate over time, resulting in the dehydration of specimens. In this study, methods used for rehydrating specimens were compared. The changes in larval specimens with respect to larval length and weight for three forensically important blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species in North America were quantified. Phormia regina (Meigen), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) third-instar larvae were collected from various decomposing animals and preserved with three preservation methods (80% ethanol, 70% isopropyl alcohol, and hot-water kill then 80% ethanol). Preservative solutions were allowed to evaporate. Rehydration was attempted with either of the following: 80% ethanol, commercial trisodium phosphate substitute solution, or 0.5% trisodium phosphate solution. All three methods partially restored weight and length of specimens recorded before preservation. Analysis of variance results indicated that effects of preservation, rehydration treatment, and collection animal were different in each species. The interaction between preservative method and rehydration treatment had a significant effect on both P. regina and C. macellaria larval length and weight. In addition, there was a significant interaction effect of collection animal on larval C. macellaria measurements. No significant effect was observed in C. rufifacies larval length or weight among the preservatives or treatments. These methods could be used to establish a standard operating procedure for dealing with dehydrated larval specimens in forensic investigations.

  16. Dissipation of chlorantraniliprole, chlorpyrifos-methyl and indoxacarb?insecticides used to control codling moth (Cydia Pomonella L.) and leafrollers (Tortricidae) in apples for production of baby food

    OpenAIRE

    Szpyrka, Ewa; Matyaszek, Aneta; S?owik-Borowiec, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    Dissipations of three insecticides: chlorantraniliprole, chlorpyrifos-methyl and indoxacarb in apples were studied following their foliar application on apples intended for production of baby food. The apples were sprayed with formulations for control of codling moth (Cydia Pomonella L.) and leafrollers (Tortricidae). Six experiments were conducted; each insecticide was applied individually on dessert apples. A validated gas chromatography-based method with simultaneous electron capture and n...

  17. Larval development of Lecanogaster chrysea Briggs, 1957

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Instituto de Ciencias del Mar, Paseo Nacional sIn, 08003 Barcelona, Spain. Received 18 February 1986; accepted 7 November 1986. The first description of the larval development of Lecanogasterchrysea Briggs, 1957 (Gobiesocidae) is presented. Adults of this species have been reported only off Ghana. The larvae ...

  18. First record of folivory on a newly documented host plant for the little known geometrid moth Eupithecia yubitzae Vargas & Parra (Lepidoptera, Geometridae in northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The native tree Schinus molle (Anacardiacae is reported for the first time as a host plant for larvae of the little known geometrid moth Eupithecia yubitzae Vargas & Parra (Lepidoptera, Geometridae in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile, based on morphology and DNA barcodes. This discovery importantly expands the host range of E. yubitzae, as previous records were restricted to Fabaceae trees. Larvae were previously known as florivorous, while these were found to be folivorous on S. molle. Furthermore, host-associated cryptic larval polychromatism was detected, as larvae collected on S. molle were found to be mostly pale green, contrasting with the dark yellow ground color of the larvae typically collected on fabaceous host plants.

  19. On the reliability of a simple method for scoring phenotypes to estimate heritability: A case study with pupal color in Heliconius erato phyllis , Fabricius 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

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    Adriano Andrejew Ferreira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, two methods for assessing the degree of melanization of pupal exuviae from the butterfly Heliconius erato phyllis , Fabricius 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiini are compared. In the first method, which was qualitative, the exuviae were classified by scoring the degree of melanization, whereas in the second method, which was quantitative, the exuviae were classified by optical density followed by analysis with appropriate software. The heritability (h 2 of the degree of melanization was estimated by regression and analysis of variance. The estimates of h 2 were similar with both methods, indicating that the qualitative method could be particularly suitable for field work. The low estimates obtained for heritability may have resulted from the small sample size ( n = 7-18 broods, including the parents or from the allocation-priority hypothesis in which pupal color would be a lower priority trait compared to morphological traits and adequate larval development.

  20. Mortality of the defoliator Euselasia eucerus (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae by biotic factors in an Eucalyptus urophylla plantation in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C. Zanuncio

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Euselasia eucerus (Hewitson, 1872 (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae is a Brazilian native species commonly found in Eucalyptus plantations. Biotic mortality factors of this defoliator were studied in a Eucalyptus urophylla plantation in Minas Gerais State, Brazil aiming to identify natural enemies and their impact on this insect. Euselasia eucerus had biotic mortality factors during all development stages. The most important were Trichogramma maxacalii Voegelé and Pointel, 1980 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae during egg stage (48.9%, a tachinid fly (Diptera: Tachinidae during larval stages (10% and Itoplectis sp. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae during pupal stage (52.2%. The parasitism rate was higher in the basal part of the plant canopy (37.8%.Euselasia eucerus (Hewitson, 1872 (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae é uma espécie brasileira nativa, comumente encontrada em plantios de Eucalyptus. Um estudo da mortalidade por fatores bióticos desse desfolhador foi feito em um plantio de Eucalyptus urophylla no Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil, com o objetivo de identificar os inimigos naturais e seu impacto sobre esse lepidóptero. Euselasia eucerus possui fatores bióticos de mortalidade durante todas as suas fases de desenvolvimento. Os mais importantes foram Trichogramma maxacalii Voegelé e Pointel, 1980 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae durante a fase de ovo (48,9%, um Diptera: Tachinidae durante a fase de larva (10% e Itoplectis sp. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae durante a fase pupal (52,2%. A taxa de parasitismo foi mais elevada na parte basal de plantas de eucalipto (37,8%.

  1. Multisensory integration in Lepidoptera: Insights into flower-visitor interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Michiyo; Stewart, Finlay J; Ômura, Hisashi

    2017-04-01

    As most work on flower foraging focuses on bees, studying Lepidoptera can offer fresh perspectives on how sensory capabilities shape the interaction between flowers and insects. Through a combination of innate preferences and learning, many Lepidoptera persistently visit particular flower species. Butterflies tend to rely on their highly developed sense of colour to locate rewarding flowers, while moths have evolved sophisticated olfactory systems towards the same end. However, these modalities can interact in complex ways; for instance, butterflies' colour preference can shift depending on olfactory context. The mechanisms by which such cross-modal interaction occurs are poorly understood, but the mushroom bodies appear to play a central role. Because of the diversity seen within Lepidoptera in terms of their sensory capabilities and the nature of their relationships with flowers, they represent a fruitful avenue for comparative studies to shed light on the co-evolution of flowers and flower-visiting insects. © 2017 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Resistance to Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Euxesta stigmatias (Diptera: Ulidiidae) in sweet corn derived from exogenous and endogenous genetic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuessly, G S; Scully, B T; Hentz, M G; Beiriger, R; Snook, M E; Widstrom, N W

    2007-12-01

    Field trials using Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Euxesta stigmatias Loew (Diptera: Ulidiidae) were conducted to evaluate resistance and potential damage interactions between these two primary corn, Zea mays L., pests against Lepidoptera-resistant corn varieties derived from both endogenous and exogenous sources. The endogenous source of resistance was maysin, a C-glycosyl flavone produced in high concentrations in varieties 'Zapalote Chico 2451' and 'Zapalote Chico sh2'. The exogenous resistance source was the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)11 gene that expresses Cry1A(b) insecticidal protein found in 'Attribute GSS-0966'. Damage by the two pests was compared among these resistant varieties and the susceptible 'Primetime'. Single-species tests determined that the Zapalote Chico varieties and GSS-0966 effectively reduced S. frugiperda larval damage compared with Primetime. E. stigmatias larval damage was less in the Zapalote Chico varieties than the other varieties in single-species tests. E. stigmatias damage was greater on S. frugiperda-infested versus S. frugiperda-excluded ears. Ears with S. frugiperda damage to husk, silk and kernels had greater E. stigmatias damage than ears with less S. frugiperda damage. Reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of nonpollinated corn silk collected from field plots determined that isoorientin, maysin, and apimaysin plus 3'-methoxymaysin concentrations followed the order Zapalote Chico sh2 > Zapalote Chico 2451 > Attribute GSS-0966 = Primetime. Chlorogenic acid concentrations were greatest in Zapalote Chico 2451. The two high maysin Zapalote Chico varieties did as well against fall armyworm as the Bt-enhanced GSS-0966, and they outperformed GSS-0966 against E. stigmatias.

  3. LepNet: The Lepidoptera of North America Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltmann, Katja C; Cobb, Neil S; Gall, Lawrence F; Bartlett, Charles R; Basham, M Anne; Betancourt, Isabelle; Bills, Christy; Brandt, Benjamin; Brown, Richard L; Bundy, Charles; Caterino, Michael S; Chapman, Caitlin; Cognato, Anthony; Colby, Julia; Cook, Stephen P; Daly, Kathryn M; Dyer, Lee A; Franz, Nico M; Gelhaus, Jon K; Grinter, Christopher C; Harp, Charles E; Hawkins, Rachel L; Heydon, Steve L; Hill, Geena M; Huber, Stacey; Johnson, Norman; Kawahara, Akito Y; Kimsey, Lynn S; Kondratieff, Boris C; Krell, Frank-Thorsten; Leblanc, Luc; Lee, Sangmi; Marshall, Christopher J; McCabe, Lindsie M; McHugh, Joseph V; Menard, Katrina L; Opler, Paul A; Palffy-Muhoray, Nicole; Pardikes, Nick; Peterson, Merrill A; Pierce, Naomi E; Poremski, Andre; Sikes, Derek S; Weintraub, Jason D; Wikle, David; Zaspel, Jennifer M; Zolnerowich, Gregory

    2017-03-23

    The Lepidoptera of North America Network, or LepNet, is a digitization effort recently launched to mobilize biodiversity data from 3 million specimens of butterflies and moths in United States natural history collections (http://www.lep-net.org/). LepNet was initially conceived as a North American effort but the project seeks collaborations with museums and other organizations worldwide. The overall goal is to transform Lepidoptera specimen data into readily available digital formats to foster global research in taxonomy, ecology and evolutionary biology.

  4. Early leaf miners and the ground plan of the lepidopteran larval trunk: caterpillar morphology of the basal moths Heterobathmia, Eriocrania, and Acanthopteroctetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Steen

    2013-11-01

    The larval trunk morphology including chaetotaxy, locomotory structures, and trunk musculature of Heterobathmia pseuderiocrania, Eriocrania cicatricella, and Acanthopteroctetes unifascia is described using conventional light, polarization, and scanning electron microscopy. The ground plan morphology of the lepidopteran larva and neolepidopteran caterpillar is discussed in light of the life history succession from free soil dwelling organism to endophagous and finally to a primarily free living, angiosperm associated organism. I suggest that the larval morphology is argued to be strongly influenced by the shift in number of surfaces present in the larval environment. Especially the environment of the endophagous species, where the upper surface of the leaf mine is linked to the presence of dorsal locomotory structures such as the retractable calli and dorsal friction patches is proposed to have had a significant impact on the morphology and locomotory mechnism of the lepidopteran caterpillar. The chaetotaxy of the lepidopteran ground plan is found to be simple, consisting only of primary and secondary tactile setae and segmental proprioceptors. The presumption of Gerasimov ([1935] Zool Anz 112:177-194) that MXD1 of the prothorax is a shifted mesothoracic MD setae is supported. I suggest that the serial arrangement of the proprioceptors MD1, present on all trunk segments except the prothorax, and a trisetous MV group on all the thoracic segments is part of the lepidopteran larval ground plan. The absence of apodeme structures associated with trunk musculature in the nonglossatans suggests that this is an autapomorphic character of the Lepidoptera and it is further found to have been influential in the evolution of the typical caterpillar trunk. The attachments of the thoracic muscles directly to the trunk integument, suggest that the apodemal structures ancestral to the Amphiesmenoptera have been reduced in the Lepidoptera. Within the non-Neolepidoptera, the

  5. Organization of the Drosophila larval visual circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendre, Nanae; Neagu-Maier, G Larisa; Fetter, Richard D; Schneider-Mizell, Casey M; Truman, James W; Zlatic, Marta; Cardona, Albert

    2017-01-01

    Visual systems transduce, process and transmit light-dependent environmental cues. Computation of visual features depends on photoreceptor neuron types (PR) present, organization of the eye and wiring of the underlying neural circuit. Here, we describe the circuit architecture of the visual system of Drosophila larvae by mapping the synaptic wiring diagram and neurotransmitters. By contacting different targets, the two larval PR-subtypes create two converging pathways potentially underlying the computation of ambient light intensity and temporal light changes already within this first visual processing center. Locally processed visual information then signals via dedicated projection interneurons to higher brain areas including the lateral horn and mushroom body. The stratified structure of the larval optic neuropil (LON) suggests common organizational principles with the adult fly and vertebrate visual systems. The complete synaptic wiring diagram of the LON paves the way to understanding how circuits with reduced numerical complexity control wide ranges of behaviors.

  6. Blood, sweat, and tears: a review of the hematophagous, sudophagous, and lachryphagous Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, David; Goddard, Jerome

    2013-12-01

    Although adult Lepidoptera are not often considered medically relevant, some butterflies and moths are notorious for their consumption of mammalian body fluids. These Lepidoptera can be blood-feeding (hematophagous), tear-feeding (lachryphagous), or sweat-feeding (we use the term "sudophagous"). Blood-feeding Lepidoptera have been observed piercing the skin of their hosts during feeding, while tear-feeding Lepidoptera have been observed frequenting the eyes of hosts in order to directly obtain lachrymal fluid. These behaviors have negative human health implications and some potential for disease transmission. In this study, articles concerning feeding behavior of blood, sweat, and tear-feeding Lepidoptera were reviewed, with emphasis on correlations between morphological characters and feeding behaviors. Harmful effects and vector potential of these Lepidoptera are presented and discussed. © 2013 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  7. Effect of massing on larval growth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Aidan P; Wallman, James F

    2014-08-01

    Estimation of minimum postmortem interval commonly relies on predicting the age of blowfly larvae based on their size and an estimate of the temperatures to which they have been exposed throughout their development. The majority of larval growth rate data have been developed using small larval masses in order to avoid excess heat generation. The current study collected growth rate data for larvae at different mass volumes, and assessed the temperature production of these masses, for two forensically important blow fly species, Chrysomya rufifacies and Calliphora vicina. The growth rate of larvae in a small mass, exposed to the higher temperatures equivalent to those experienced by large masses, was also assessed to determine if observed differences were due to the known temperature effects of maggot masses. The results showed that temperature production increased with increasing mass volume, with temperature increases of 11 °C observed in the large Ch. rufifacies masses and increases of 5 °C in the large C. vicina masses. Similarly, the growth rate of the larvae was affected by mass size. The larvae from small masses grown at the higher temperatures experienced by large masses displayed an initial delay in growth, but then grew at a similar rate to those larvae at a constant 23 °C. Since these larvae from masses of equivalent sizes displayed similar patterns of growth rate, despite differing temperatures, and these growth rates differed from larger masses exposed to the same temperatures, it can be concluded that larval growth rate within a mass may be affected by additional factors other than temperature. Overall, this study highlights the importance of understanding the role of massing in larval development and provides initial developmental data for mass sizes of two forensically important blowfly species commonly encountered in Australian forensic casework. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Organization Of The Drosophila Larval Visual Circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Fritsch, Pauline; Gendre, Nanae; Maier, Larisa; Fetter, Rick; Schneider-Mizell, Casey; Truman, James; Zlatic, Marta; Cardona, Albert; Larderet, Ivan; Sprecher, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Visual systems transduce, process and transmit light-dependent environmental cues. Computation of visual features depends on the types of photoreceptor neurons (PR) present, the organization of the eye and the wiring of the underlying neural circuit. Here, we describe the circuit architecture of the visual system of Drosophila larvae by mapping the synaptic wiring diagram and neurotransmitters. By contacting different targets, the two larval PR-subtypes create parallel circuits potentially un...

  9. Granulomatous responses in larval taeniid infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Á; Sagasti, C; Casaravilla, C

    2018-05-01

    Granulomas are responses to persistent nonliving bodies or pathogens, centrally featuring specialized macrophage forms called epithelioid and multinucleated giant cells. The larval stages of the cestode parasites of the Taeniidae family (Taenia, Echinococcus) develop for years in fixed tissue sites in mammals. In consequence, they are targets of granulomatous responses. The information on tissue responses to larval taeniids is fragmented among host and parasite species and scattered over many decades. We attempt to draw an integrated picture of these responses in solid tissues. The intensity of inflammation around live parasites spans a spectrum from minimal to high, parasite vitality correlating with low inflammation. The low end of the inflammatory spectrum features collagen capsules proximal to the parasites and moderate distal infiltration. The middle of the spectrum is dominated by classical granulomatous responses, whereas the high end features massive eosinophil invasions. Across the range of parasite species, much observational evidence suggests that eosinophils are highly effective at killing larval taeniids in solid tissues, before and during chronic granulomatous responses. The evidence available also suggests that these parasites are adapted to inhibit host granulomatous responses, in part through the exacerbation of host regulatory mechanisms including regulatory T cells and TGF-β. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. ‘Peer pressure’ in larval Drosophila?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Niewalda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding social behaviour requires a study case that is simple enough to be tractable, yet complex enough to remain interesting. Do larval Drosophila meet these requirements? In a broad sense, this question can refer to effects of the mere presence of other larvae on the behaviour of a target individual. Here we focused in a more strict sense on ‘peer pressure’, that is on the question of whether the behaviour of a target individual larva is affected by what a surrounding group of larvae is doing. We found that innate olfactory preference of a target individual was neither affected (i by the level of innate olfactory preference in the surrounding group nor (ii by the expression of learned olfactory preference in the group. Likewise, learned olfactory preference of a target individual was neither affected (iii by the level of innate olfactory preference of the surrounding group nor (iv by the learned olfactory preference the group was expressing. We conclude that larval Drosophila thus do not take note of specifically what surrounding larvae are doing. This implies that in a strict sense, and to the extent tested, there is no social interaction between larvae. These results validate widely used en mass approaches to the behaviour of larval Drosophila.

  11. Development of a control alternative for the citrus fruit borer, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae: from basic research to the grower Desenvolvimento de uma alternativa de controle para o bicho-furão-dos-citros, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae: da pesquisa básica ao produtor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto P. Parra

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available All research steps, developed from 1995 to 2000, to synthesize the sex pheromone of Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927 are described, in order to monitoring this pest that causes losses in the order of 50 million dollars per year to citriculture in the State of São Paulo. The basic researches conducted are described, including the development of an artificial diet for the insect, the study of its temperature and humidity requirements, behavioral studies, and synthesis of the male-attracting substance up to the formulation and distribution of the pheromone to the grower, by means of its commercialization. It is a case of success, at a cost of 50 thousand dollars, involving inter- and multidisciplinary researches, which can be adopted to other insect pests in the country.São descritas todas as etapas da pesquisa, desenvolvidas de 1995 a 2000, para a síntese do feromônio sexual de Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927, visando ao monitoramento desta praga que causa perdas da ordem de 50 milhões de dólares ao ano à citricultura paulista. As pesquisas básicas são apresentadas, incluindo o desenvolvimento de uma dieta artificial para o inseto, estudo de suas exigências térmicas e hídricas, estudos comportamentais, síntese da substância atraente para o macho desde a formulação até a distribuição do feromônio ao agricultor, e a sua comercialização. Trata-se de um caso de sucesso, a um custo de 50 mil dólares, com pesquisas inter- e multidisciplinares e que pode ser adotado para outros insetos-praga do país.

  12. Flutuação populacional e previsão de gerações de Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae em pessegueiro, Prunus persica (Linnaeus Batsch = Populational fluctuation and generation prediction of Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae in peach, Prunus persica (Linnaeus Batsch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Jorge Cividanes

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A mariposa-oriental, Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916, encontra-se distribuída em quase todas as partes do mundo, constituindo importante praga do pessegueiro, Prunus persica (Linnaeus Batsch. Este estudo foi desenvolvido em pomar comercial de pessegueiro localizado em Taiúva, São Paulo, durante os anos 1997 a 2003, visando obter a flutuação populacional de adultos de G. molesta relacionando-a com fatores meteorológicos. O estudo também visou determinar uma data biofix adequada para prever a ocorrência de gerações da praga por meio de um modelo de graus-dia. A amostragem da mariposa-oriental e de insetos predadores foi efetuada com armadilha plástica com suco de pêssego e armadilha adesiva amarela, respectivamente. A influência de fatores físicos e biológicos foi avaliada por análise de correlação linear simples. Os maiores picos populacionais de G. molesta ocorreram nos meses de maio, julho e outubro. As correlações obtidas sugerem que a baixa umidade ambiental pode ter sido fator de mortalidade para G. molesta. O elevado número de pulverizações de inseticida pode ter causado impacto negativo sobre inimigos naturais contribuindo para a elevada densidade do inseto-praga no período de 1998 a 1999. A data de constatação dapresença de gemas vegetativas e de flor diferenciadas no pessegueiro mostrou-se adequada para se iniciar a contagem de graus-dia para prever gerações de G. molesta. Esses resultados devem ajudar aimplementação de programas para prever picos populacionais de adultos de G. molesta visando à aplicação de inseticidas. Recomenda-se a validação do modelo de graus-dia em outras localidades para comprovar os resultados obtidos.The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916, is spread around the world and is considered an important pest on peach, Prunus persica (Linnaeus Batsch. This work was carried out at a commercial peach orchard located in Taiúva, State of São Paulo, Brazil, from 1997 to 2003, aiming to obtain the population fluctuation of adults of G. molesta and to relate it to meteorological factors. This study also aimed to determine an appropriate time as a biofix to predict the occurrence of generations of G. molesta using a degree-day model. Adults of the oriental fruit moth and insect predators were sampledby plastic bottle traps with peach juice and yellow sticky traps, respectively. The influence of abiotic and biotic factors was evaluated by simple correlation analysis. The highest population peaks of G. molesta were observed in May, July and October. The correlations suggest that low environmental humidity might have been a factor of mortality to G. molesta. A negative impact on natural enemies caused by high number of insecticide applications may have been responsible for the high pest density from 1998 to 1999. The date that peach trees developed vegetative and flower buds appeared to be suitable to initiate the degree-day accumulation to predict generations of G. molesta. These results should help the implementation of programs based on predicting population peaks of adults aiming insecticide application. Before field implementation, final validation of the degree-day model is required in multiple locations.

  13. Biologia e exigências térmicas de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae sobre ovos de Bonagota cranaodes (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae Biology and thermal requirements of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae on eggs of Bonagota cranaodes (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina da Silva Borba

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a biologia de Trichogramma em laboratório, visando a sua utilização em programas de manejo integrado para o controle de Bonagota cranaodes na cultura da macieira. A biologia de Trichogramma bruni Nagaraja e de duas linhagens (L3 e L4 de Trichogramma pretiosum foi realizada sobre ovos de B. cranaodes. Além disso, suas exigências térmicas e o número anual de gerações também foram determinados. A linhagem L3 apresentou maior parasitismo (52,3%, no entanto, a viabilidade foi semelhante entre as linhagens estudadas, com ciclo evolutivo de 8,7 dias, longevidade de fêmeas de 10,65 dias, temperatura base de 11,35°C e constante térmica de 128,70GD. O número de gerações anuais dessa linhagem em laboratório foi de 47,22 e de 13,59 gerações para as condições da região de Vacaria - RS. O baixo parasitismo de T. bruni e da linhagem L4 de T. pretiosum pode estar ligado à camada de secreção existente sobre as posturas da praga. Embora este parasitismo seja considerado baixo, a utilização destas linhagens não pode ser descartada dentro do sistema de Produção Integrada da Maçã, devendo novos estudos serem realizados em condições de campo.This work was aimed at studyng the biology of Trichogramma in laboratory, in search of its use in integrated management programs to control Bonagota cranaodes in culture of the apple. The biology of Trichogramma bruni Nagaraja and of two lineages (L3 and L4 of Trichogramma pretiosum on eggs of B. cranaodes was done such their thermal demands and annual number of generations. The line L3 presented more parasitism (52.3%, however, the feseability was similar among the lineages studied; with biological cycle of 8.7 days; the longevity of females was 10.65 days; low threshold temperature of 11.35°C and thermal requirement of 128.70 GD, the number of annual generations this line in laboratory was 47.22 and 13.59 for Vacaria-RS climate conditions. The low parasitism of the T. bruni and of the lineage L4 of T. pretiosum can be related to the layer of secretion presented on the laying of the pest. Although this parasitism is considered low, the use of these lineages cannot be discarded the Integrated Apple Production, systens. New studies shal be accomplished in field conditions.

  14. Selection of Trichogramma strains and determination of number of parasitoids to be released to control Gymnandrosoma aurantianum Lima (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae); Selecao de linhagens de Trichogramma (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae) e determinacao do numero de parasitoides a ser liberado para o controle de Gymnandrosoma aurantianum Lima (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, Rosa Maria da Silva; Parra, Jose Roberto Postali [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola], e-mail: rmsmolina@ig.com.br, e-mail: jrpparra@esalq.usp.br

    2006-12-15

    In order to select Trichogramma strains to control G. aurantianum, the biological characteristics of 13 Trichogramma species/strains were evaluated. After selection, the ideal number of T. pretiosum (G18 strain) to be released per G. aurantianum egg was determined in greenhouse tests. The selection test for species/strains was carried out in an incubator adjusted to 25 +- 1 deg C, RH 70 +- 10%, and a 14 h photo phase. The ideal number of parasitoids was estimated in cages covered with a piece of voile-type fabric. The cycle duration for the 13 Trichogramma species/strains varied from 10.2 to 11.9 days. The Atp strain (T. atopovirilia) showed greater parasitism capacity, with an average of 23.3 parasitized eggs and 77.5% parasitism in 24 hours. The G18 strain (T. pretiosum) came next, with an average of 16.8 parasitized eggs and 56.1% parasitism during the same time interval. The emergency, longevity of males, and sex ratio for the 13 species/strains were similar. The number of adults emerged per egg was 1.8 for strains G11 (T. pretiosum) and Br10 (T. bruni), which were different from the G3 strain (T. pretiosum) only, with 1.3 adults per egg. With regard to female longevity, distinct values were observed only between T. pretiosum strains Tp and L2, with 6.3 and 9.3 days, respectively. Under greenhouse conditions, the estimated ratio of 36 T. pretiosum parasitoids per G. aurantianum egg allowed the highest percentage of parasitism (89%). Therefore, Trichogramma spp. has a potential to control G. aurantianum, as long as a large number of parasitoids is released per unit area. (author)

  15. north indian fauna of genus macrobathra meyrick (lepidoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gs

    Lepidopterorum Catalogus, 79: 630p. Meyrick E. 1910. Descriptions of Indian microlepidoptera. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 20: 143–168, 435–462, 706–736. Meyrick E. 1914a. Descriptions of Indian microlepidoptera. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 23: 18–130. Meyrick E. 1914b. Lepidoptera : Heterocera,. Family Heliodinidae.

  16. Conservation of silk genes in Trichoptera and Lepidoptera

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yonemura, N.; Mita, K.; Tamura, T.; Sehnal, František

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 6 (2009), s. 641-653 ISSN 0022-2844 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5007402 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : silk evolution * Trichoptera * Lepidoptera Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.323, year: 2009

  17. Male secondary sexual characters in Aphnaeinae wings (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Bálint, Zsolt; Heath, Alan; Katona, Gergely; Kertész, Krisztián; Sáfián, Szabolcs

    2017-01-01

    Male secondary sexual characters have been discovered on the hindwing verso of genera Aphnaeus Hübner, [1819], Cigaritis Donzel, 1847, Lipaphnaeus Aurivillius, 1916 and Pseudaletis Druce, 1888 representing the Palaeotropical subfamily Aphnaeinae Lycaenidae: Lepidoptera). Relevant wing parts are illustrated, described, and some observations on the organs are briefly annotated. With an appendix and 14 figures.

  18. DNA Barcodes of Lepidoptera Reared from Yawan, Papua New Guinea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Miller, S. E.; Rosati, M. E.; Gewa, B.; Novotný, Vojtěch; Weiblen, G. D.; Herbert, P. D. N.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 2 (2015), s. 247-250 ISSN 0013-8797 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-04258S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : DNA barcodes * Lepidoptera * Papua New Guinea Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.593, year: 2015

  19. Molecular analysis of the muscle protein projectin in Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayme-Southgate, A J; Turner, L; Southgate, R J

    2013-01-01

    Striated muscles of both vertebrates and insects contain a third filament composed of the giant proteins, namely kettin and projectin (insects) and titin (vertebrates). All three proteins have been shown to contain several domains implicated in conferring elasticity, in particular a PEVK segment. In this study, the characterization of the projectin protein in the silkmoth, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), and the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus L. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), as well as a partial characterization in the Carolina sphinx, Manduca sexta L. (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae), are presented. This study showed that, similar to other insects, projectin's overall modular organization was conserved, but in contrast, the PEVK region had a highly divergent sequence. The analysis of alternative splicing in the PEVK region revealed a small number of possible isoforms and the lack of a flight-muscle specific variant, both characteristics being in sharp contrast with findings from other insects. The possible correlation with difference in flight muscle stiffness and physiology between Lepidoptera and other insect orders is discussed.

  20. Response of Males of Maruca vitrata Fabricius(Lepidoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a key pest of bean in Mauritius. Their larvae feed within flowers and pods and are thus well protected from insecticidal sprays. To achieve effective control, farmers spray their bean fields on a prophylactic basis. This has consequently led to undesirable problems that ...

  1. Two new Gelechiidae for the Iberian Peninsula (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsholt, Ole; Vives Moreno, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Two new species of Gelechiidae, Chrysoesthia hispanica Karsholt & Vives, sp. n. from Spain and Neofriseria hitadoella Karsholt & Vives, sp. n. from Spain and Portugal are described. The adults and male and female genitalia are illustrated. The generic assignment of C. hispanica is discussed. KEY ...... WORD: Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae, new species, Iberian peninsula....

  2. Six new species of Metarbelidae (Lepidoptera: Cossoidea) from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six new species of Metarbelidae (Lepidoptera: Cossoidea) from the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania, including one new species from Marenji Forest in southeast ... Journal of East African Natural History ... from Morogoro (Uluguru Mountains) and Ortharbela cliftoni spec. nov. from Amani (East Usambara Mountains).

  3. Male secondary sexu al characters in Aphnaeinae wings (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae

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    Bálint, Zsolt

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Male secondary sexual characters have been discovered on the hindwing verso of genera Aphnaeus Hübner, [1819], Cigaritis Donzel, 1847, Lipaphnaeus Aurivillius, 1916 and Pseudaletis Druce, 1888 representing the Palaeotropical subfamily Aphnaeinae Lycaenidae: Lepidoptera. Relevant wing parts are illustrated, described, and some observations on the organs are briefly annotated. With an appendix and 14 figures.

  4. Biogeography and ecology of southern Portuguese butterflies and burnets (Lepidoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, T.

    2003-01-01

    Biogeography and ecology of southern Portuguese butterflies and burnets (Lepidoptera) During several visits to the western part of the Algarve (southern Portugal), the author mapped the butterflies and burnets of this region. In total, I observed 58 butterfly species (51 Papilionoidea, 7

  5. COMPARISON OF SAMPLING TECHNIQUES USED IN STUDYING LEPIDOPTERA POPULATION DYNAMICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four methods (light traps, foliage samples, canvas bands, and gypsy moth egg mass surveys) that are used to study the population dynamics of foliage-feeding Lepidoptera were compared for 10 species, including gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. Samples were collected weekly at 12 sit...

  6. Identification to Lepidoptera Superfamily-under the microscope (Insecta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are 160,000 species of described Lepidoptera, or moths and butterflies, on Earth, although it is estimated that the number is closer to 500,000 species. Many moths from all over the world are intercepted at U.S. ports on a wide variety of economically important commodities. The purpose of t...

  7. Antibiosis in Ascia monuste orseis Godart (Lepidoptera: Pieridae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ascia monuste orseis (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) is one of the main insect pests of kale. The study was done to identify kale varieties resistant to A. monuste orseis by the antibiosis resistance mechanism. Kale genotypes (26) were evaluated in experiments performed at the Laboratory of Agricultural Entomology of Goiano ...

  8. Dagvlinders in 1998: nog steeds onder druk (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veling, K.

    1999-01-01

    Butterflies in the Netherlands still under pressure (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) New information on the Dutch Rhopalocera fauna since the distribution atlas of Tax (1989) is presented. Coenonympha pamphilus was common in large parts of the Netherlands, but has declined dramatically. C. arcania is now

  9. A provisional annotated list of the Lepidoptera of Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    A biodiversity inventory of the Lepidoptera of Pico Bonito National Park and vicinity, in the Department of Atlantida of northern Honduras, has been initiated and will be conducted to obtain baseline data. We present a revised checklist of Honduran butterfly species (updated from the initial 1967 l...

  10. Aspectos biológicos e morfológicos de Mimallo amilia (Lepidoptera: Mimallonidae em folhas de Eucalyptus urophylla Biological and morphological aspects of Mimallo amilia (Lepidoptera: Mimallonidae in Eucalyptus urophylla leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresinha Vinha Zanuncio

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A biologia de Mimallo amilia Cramer (Lepidoptera: Mimallonidae foi estudada em folhas de Eucalyptus urophylla em laboratório a 25 ± 2 ºC, 60 ± 10% de umidade relativa e fotoperíodo de 12 horas de luz e 12 horas de escuro. Essa espécie teve duração da fase larval de 34,88 dias e cinco estádios larvais. Houve mortalidade de lagartas no primeiro, terceiro e quarto estádios com 5,00; 7,89; e 14,28%, respectivamente. Os períodos de pré-pupa e de pupa foram de 4,33 ± 0,33 e 3,90 ± 0,23 e de 18,78 ± 0,69 e 18,82 ± 0,41 dias para machos e fêmeas, respectivamente. Cada fêmea de M. amilia depositou 4,86 ± 0,48 posturas com 19,84 ± 1,76 ovos por postura. O período de incubação dos ovos foi de 8,60 ± 0,24 dias, com viabilidade de 88,63%. A longevidade de adultos foi de 5,66 ± 0,61 e 9,22 ± 0,79 dias, com envergadura das asas de 42,70 ± 0,32 e 49,70 ± 0,17 mm para machos e fêmeas, respectivamente, e razão sexual de 0,56. As lagartas dessa espécie apresentaram tamanho de 0,90 ± 0,01 mm no primeiro estádio a 4,40 ± 1,42 mm no último.The biology of Mimallo amilia Cramer (Lepidoptera: Mimallonidae was studied on Eucalyptus urophylla leaves in laboratory conditions (25 ± 2ºC, 60 ± 10% relative humidity and 12L:12D photoperiod. This species showed 33.88 day for the larval stage with five larval instars. Larval mortality occurred during first, third and fourth instars with 5.00, 7.89 and 14.28%, respectively. Pre-pupa and pupa stages lasted 4.33 ± 0.33 and 3.90 ± 0.23, and 18.78 ± 0.69 and 18.82 ± 0.41 days for males and females, respectively. Each female laid 4.86 ± 0.48 egg masses with 19.84 ± 1.76 eggs per egg mass. Incubation period lasted 8.60 ± 0.24 days with 88.63%. egg viability. Adult longevity was 5.66 ± 0.61 and 9.22 ± 0.79 days with adult wingspan of 42.70 ± 0.32 and 49.70 ± 0.17 mm for males and females, respectively, with 0.56 sex ratio. Length of this species' caterpillars was 0.90 ± 0.01 mm at the

  11. Insecticidal Efficacy of Azadirachta indica, Nucleopolyhedrovirus and Chlorantraniliprole Singly or Combined against Field Populations fo Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Eficacia Insecticida de Azadirachta indica, Nucleopolihedrovirus y Clorantraniliprol solo y sus Aplicaciones Integradas contra Poblaciones de Campo de Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    Waqas Wakil

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of resistance in cosmopolitan insect Helicoverpa armigera Hubner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae forced the researchers for alternative control measures. In the present study, insecticidal efficacy of formulations of Azadirachta indica, a Nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV, and new anthranilic diamide insecticide (chlorantraniliprole formulations was determined against 2nd, through 5th larval instars of H. armigera collected from diverse geographical locations in the Punjab province, Pakistan. Azadirachta indica was applied at 5 μL L-1; NPV at 2.1 x 10(5 polyhedral occlusion bodies (POB mL4 and chlorantraniliprole at 0.01 μL L-1, either alone or in combinations with each other. The bioassays were conducted at 27 ± 1 °C and 65 ± 5% relative humidity. The mortality varied greatly among treatments, larval instars, and locations. The combinations of NPV with A. indica and chlorantraniliprole caused higher mortality, pupation and produced an additive effect compared to their application singly in all the tested populations. The population from Rawalpindi was always susceptible while the Gujranwala was the resistant. The results herein suggest that the effectiveness of NPV and A. indica can be improved by the presence of chlorantraniliprole against the larvae of H. armigera.Se determinó la eficacia insecticida de formulaciones de Azadirachta indica, Nucleopolihedrovirus (VPN y el nuevo insecticida diamida antranílico (clorantraniliprol en contra de segundo, tercero, cuarto y quinto estadios larvales de Helicoverpa armigera Hubner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae recogidos de diversas ubicaciones geográficas de la provincia de Punjab, Pakistán. Azadirachta indica se aplicó en dosis de 5 μL L-1; VPN en dosis 2.1 x 10(5 POB mL-1 y clorantraniliprol fue 0,01 μL L-1 ya sea solos o en combinaciones. Los bioensayos se realizaron a 27 ± 1 °C y 65 ± 5% de humedad relativa. La mortalidad fue notablemente variada entre los tratamientos, estadios larvales y

  12. Lonomia obliqua Walker (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae: hemostasis implications

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    Silviane Maggi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary In southern Brazil, since 1989, several cases of accidents produced by unwilling contact with the body of poisonous caterpillars of the moth species Lonomia obliqua Walker, 1855 (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae, were described. L. obliqua caterpillars have gregarious behavior and feed on leaves of host trees during the night, staying grouped in the trunk during the day, which favors the occurrence of accidents with the species. This caterpillar has the body covered with bristles that on contact with the skin of individuals, breaks and release their contents, inoculating the venom into the victim. The basic constitution of the venom is protein and its components produce physiological changes in the victim, which include disturbances in hemostasis. Hemorrhagic syndrome associated with consumption coagulopathy, intravascular hemolysis and acute renal failure are some of the possible clinical manifestations related to poisoning by L. obliqua. Specific laboratory tests for diagnosis of poisoning have not been described previously. The diagnosis of poisoning is made based on the patient's medical history, clinical manifestations, erythrocyte levels, and, primarily, parameters that evaluate blood coagulation. Treatment is performed with the use of supportive care and the administration of specific hyperimmune antivenom. Poisoning can be serious and even fatal.

  13. Evaluating sampling strategies for larval cisco (Coregonus artedi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, J.T.; Stockwell, J.D.; Yule, D.L.; Black, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    To improve our ability to assess larval cisco (Coregonus artedi) populations in Lake Superior, we conducted a study to compare several sampling strategies. First, we compared density estimates of larval cisco concurrently captured in surface waters with a 2 x 1-m paired neuston net and a 0.5-m (diameter) conical net. Density estimates obtained from the two gear types were not significantly different, suggesting that the conical net is a reasonable alternative to the more cumbersome and costly neuston net. Next, we assessed the effect of tow pattern (sinusoidal versus straight tows) to examine if propeller wash affected larval density. We found no effect of propeller wash on the catchability of larval cisco. Given the availability of global positioning systems, we recommend sampling larval cisco using straight tows to simplify protocols and facilitate straightforward measurements of volume filtered. Finally, we investigated potential trends in larval cisco density estimates by sampling four time periods during the light period of a day at individual sites. Our results indicate no significant trends in larval density estimates during the day. We conclude estimates of larval cisco density across space are not confounded by time at a daily timescale. Well-designed, cost effective surveys of larval cisco abundance will help to further our understanding of this important Great Lakes forage species.

  14. Fusarium graminearum Mycotoxins in Maize Associated With Striacosta albicosta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jocelyn L; Limay-Rios, Victor; Hooker, David C; Schaafsma, Arthur W

    2018-03-14

    Western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith; Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) has become a key pest of maize, Zea mays (L.), in Ontario, Canada which is challenging to control due to its lack of susceptibility to most Bt-maize events. Injury by S. albicosta may exacerbate Fusarium graminearum (Schwabe; Hypocreales: Nectriaceae) infection through provision of entry points on the ear. The objectives of this study were to: investigate the relationship between injury by S. albicosta and deoxynivalenol (DON) accumulation; evaluate non-Bt and Bt-maize hybrids, with and without insecticide and fungicide application; and determine optimal insecticide-fungicide application timing for reducing S. albicosta injury and DON accumulation. The incidence of injury by S. albicosta and ear rot severity were found to increase DON concentrations under favorable environmental conditions for F. graminearum infection. Incidence of S. albicosta injury was more important than severity of injury for DON accumulation which may be due to larval consumption of infected kernels. The Vip3A × Cry1Ab event provided superior protection from the incidence and severity of S. albicosta injury compared to non-Bt or Cry1F hybrids. Insecticide application to a Vip3A × Cry1Ab hybrid did not reduce injury further; however, lower severity of injury was observed for non-Bt and Cry1F hybrids when pyrethroids or diamides were applied at early VT or R1 stages. DON concentrations were reduced with application of prothioconazole fungicide tank-mixed with insecticide at late VT (before silk browning) or when insecticide was applied at early VT followed by prothioconazole at R1. The application of an insecticide/fungicide tank-mix is the most efficient approach for maize hybrids lacking high-dose insecticidal proteins against S. albicosta and F. graminearum tolerance. Results demonstrate that reducing the risk of DON accumulation requires a strategic approach to manage complex associations among S. albicosta, F

  15. Chemical defense in Elodea nuttallii reduces feeding and growth of aquatic herbivorous Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhard, Daniela; Pohnert, Georg; Gross, Elisabeth M

    2007-08-01

    The submersed macrophyte Elodea nuttallii (Hydrocharitaceae) is invasive in Europe and frequently found in aquatic plant communities. Many invertebrate herbivores, such as larvae of the generalist aquatic moth, Acentria ephemerella (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae), avoid feeding on E. nuttallii and preferably consume native species. First instar larvae exhibited a high mortality on E. nuttallii compared to the native macrophyte Potamogeton perfoliatus. Mortality of older larvae was also high when fed E. nuttallii exposed to high light intensities. Growth of older larvae was strongly reduced on E. nuttallii compared to pondweeds (Potamogeton lucens). Neither differences in nitrogen nor phosphorus content explained the different performance on these submerged macrophytes, but plants differed in their flavonoid content. To investigate whether plant-derived allelochemicals from E. nuttallii affect larval performance in the same way as live plants, we developed a functional bioassay, in which Acentria larvae were reared on artificial diets. We offered larvae Potamogeton leaf disks coated with crude Elodea extracts and partially purified flavonoids. Elodea extracts deterred larvae from feeding on otherwise preferred Potamogeton leaves, and yet, unknown compounds in the extracts reduced growth and survival of Acentria. The flavonoid fraction containing luteolin-7-O-diglucuronide, apigenin-7-O-diglucuronide, and chrysoeriol-7-O-diglucuronide strongly reduced feeding of larvae, but did not increase mortality. The concentrations of these compounds in our assays were 0.01-0.09% of plant dry mass, which is in the lower range of concentrations found in the field (0.02-1.2%). Chemical defense in E. nuttallii thus plays an ecologically relevant role in this aquatic plant-herbivore system.

  16. Toxicity of natural insecticides on the larvae of wheat head armyworm, Dargida diffusa (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Gadi V P; Antwi, Frank B

    2016-03-01

    The wheat head armyworm, Dargida (previously Faronta) diffusa (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is widely distributed in North American grasslands and is most common on the Great Plains, where it is often a serious pest of corn and cereal crops. Six commercially available botanical or microbial insecticides used against D. diffusa were tested in the laboratory: Entrust(®) WP (spinosad 80%), Mycotrol(®) ESO (Beauveria bassiana GHA), Aza-Direct(®) (azadirachtin), Met52(®) EC (Metarhizium brunneum F52), Xpectro(®) OD (Beauveria bassiana GHA+pyrethrins), and Xpulse(®) OD (Beauveria bassiana GHA+azadirachtin). Concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 fold the lowest labelled rates of formulated products were tested for all products, while for Entrust WP additional concentrations of 0.001 and 0.01 fold the label rates were also assessed. Survival rates were determined from larval mortality at 1-9 days post treatment application. We found that among the tested chemicals, Entrust(®) (spinosad) was the most effective, causing 83-100% mortality (0-17% survival rate) at day 3 across all concentrations. The others, in order of efficacy from most to least, were Xpectro(®) (B. bassiana GHA+pyrethrins), Xpulse(®)OD (B. bassiana GHA+azadirachtin), Aza-Direct(®) (azadirachtin), Met52(®) EC (M. brunneum F52), and Mycotrol(®) ESO (B. bassiana GHA). These products and entomopathogenic fungi caused 70-100% mortality (0-30% survivability) from days 7 to 9. The tested products and entomopathogenic fungi can be used in management of D. diffusa. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Suppression of leopard moth (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) populations in olive trees in Egypt through mating disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazi, E M; Khafagi, W E; Konstantopoulou, M A; Schlyter, F; Raptopoulos, D; Shweil, S; Abd El-Rahman, S; Atwa, A; Ali, S E; Tawfik, H

    2010-10-01

    The leopard moth, Zeuzera pyrina (L.) (Lepidoptera: Cossidae), is a damaging pest for many fruit trees (e.g., apple [Malus spp.], pear [Pyrus spp.] peach [Prunus spp.], and olive [Olea]). Recently, it caused serious yield losses in newly established olive orchards in Egypt, including the death of young trees. Chemical and biological control have shown limited efficiency against this pest. Field tests were conducted in 2005 and 2006 to evaluate mating disruption (MD) for the control of the leopard moth, on heavily infested, densely planted olive plots (336 trees per ha). The binary blend of the pheromone components (E,Z)-2,13-octadecenyl acetate and (E,Z)-3,13-octadecenyl acetate (95:5) was dispensed from polyethylene vials. Efficacy was measured considering reduction of catches in pheromone traps, reduction of active galleries of leopard moth per tree and fruit yield in the pheromone-treated plots (MD) compared with control plots (CO). Male captures in MD plots were reduced by 89.3% in 2005 and 82.9% in 2006, during a trapping period of 14 and 13 wk, respectively. Application of MD over two consecutive years progressively reduced the number of active galleries per tree in the third year where no sex pheromone was applied. In all years, larval galleries outnumbered moth captures. Fruit yield from trees where sex pheromone had been applied in 2005 and 2006 increased significantly in 2006 (98.8 +/- 2.9 kg per tree) and 2007 (23 +/- 1.3 kg per tree) compared with control ones (61.0 +/- 3.9 and 10.0 +/- 0.6 kg per tree, respectively). Mating disruption shows promising for suppressing leopard moth infestation in olives.

  18. Ecdysteroidogenesis and development in Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): Focus on PTTH-stimulated pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scieuzo, Carmen; Nardiello, Marisa; Salvia, Rosanna; Pezzi, Marco; Chicca, Milvia; Leis, Marilena; Bufo, Sabino A; Vinson, S Bradleigh; Rao, Asha; Vogel, Heiko; Falabella, Patrizia

    2018-02-15

    Post-embryonic development and molting in insects are regulated by endocrine changes, including prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH)-stimulated ecdysone secretion by the prothoracic glands (PGs). In Lepidoptera, two pathways are potentially involved in PTTH-stimulated ecdysteroidogenesis, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B/target of rapamycin (PI3K/Akt/TOR). We investigated the potential roles of both these pathways in Heliothis virescens ecdysteroidogenesis. We identified putative proteins belonging to MAPK and PI3K/Akt/TOR signaling cascades, using transcriptomic analyses of PGs from last (fifth) instar larvae. Using western blots, we measured the phosphorylation of 4E-BP and S6K proteins, the main targets of TOR, following the in vitro exposure of PGs to brain extract containing PTTH (hereafter referred to as PTTH) and/or the inhibitors of MAPK (U0126), PI3K (LY294002) or TOR (rapamycin). Next, we measured ecdysone production, under the same experimental conditions, by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). We found that in Heliothis virescens last instar larvae, both pathways modulated PTTH-stimulated ecdysteroidogenesis. Finally, we analyzed the post-embryonic development of third and fourth instar larvae fed on diet supplemented with rapamycin, in order to better understand the role of the TOR pathway in larval growth. When rapamycin was added to the diet of larvae, the onset of molting was delayed, the growth rate was reduced and abnormally small larvae/pupae with high mortality rates resulted. In larvae fed on diet supplemented with rapamycin, the growth of PGs was suppressed, and ecdysone production and secretion were inhibited. Overall, the in vivo and in vitro results demonstrated that, similarly to Bombyx mori, MAPK and PI3K/Akt/TOR pathways are involved in PTTH signaling-stimulated ecdysteroidogenesis, and indicated the important role of TOR protein in H. virescens systemic growth. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All

  19. Taste receptor plasticity in relation to feeding history in two congeneric species of Papilionidae (Lepidoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollai, Giorgia; Biolchini, Maurizio; Crnjar, Roberto

    2018-02-15

    In the peripheral taste system of insects, the responsiveness of gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) depends on several factors, such as larval instar, feeding history, physiological state and time of day. To study the role of the feeding history, the spike activity of the maxillary taste chemosensilla in the larvae of two related species of Lepidoptera (Papilio machaon L. and Papilio hospiton Géné) raised on different host plants, was recorded with electrophysiological techniques after stimulation with simple stimuli (sugars, bitters and inorganic salt) and host plant saps, with the aim of cross-comparing their response patterns and evaluating any effects of different feeding histories. For this purpose the larvae were raised each on their preferential host plant and, in addition, P. machaon larvae was also raised on Ferula communis, the host plant preferred by P. hospiton. The GRN spike activity of the lateral and medial sensilla of each test group was measured in response to simple and complex stimuli. The taste discrimination capabilities and modalities of the two species were measured and cross-compared with the aim of studying convergence and/or divergence linked to the insect feeding history. The results show that: a) the GRN responsiveness of both sensilla in P. machaon raised on Fe. communis differs significantly from that of P. machaon on Foeniculum vulgare, but is not different from P. hospiton on Fe. communis; b) P. machaon larvae raised on Fe. communis exhibit response spectra somewhat intermediate between those of P. machaon on fennel and of P. hospiton on Fe. communis, the latter two exhibiting a wider difference from each other; c) the pattern of GRNs activity generated by each plant sap in both sensilla of P. machaon raised on Fe. communis is different from that generated when raised on Fo. vulgare, while no difference is observed with P. hospiton. The data support the hypothesis that diet-related factors may influence peripheral chemosensitivity

  20. Morphology and biology of the fruit piercing moth, Ophiusa corona (Fabricious (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Permkam, S.

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Morphology and biology of the fruit-piercing moth Ophiusa coronata (Fabricious (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae were studied in laboratory. Eggs were spherical and colored grayish green with an average diameter of 1.03±0.01 mm (mean±SEM. The larvae were looper caterpillars, possessing 2 white bands on the black head. The body was brown to blackish, marked with black spots and red longitudinal streaks. The pupa was black-brown. The adult moth had rufous and fuscous forewings tinged with a black spot in the middle. The hind wings were bright yellow in ground color with a dark band at the anterior and the posterior borders. Time required for egg to adult development averaged 40.35±0.59 days (mean±SEM. The average duration for egg, larval and pupal developments were 4.0±0.0, 23.20±0.49 and 13.15±0.22 days, respectively. Sexual maturity for female took 10.67±1.05 days. The average duration of egg laying, number of eggs and longevity of adult moths were 7.33±1.28 days, 333.0±171.82 egg/female and 22.83±2.45 days, respectively. Feeding preference and phototaxis of adult studies showed that adults likely preferred to feed ranking from slices of pineapple, banana, papaya and citrus, whereas sapodilla and rose apple were rarely fed on. Blue light and mercury vapor light were highly attractive, whereas violet light and fluorescent light were less attractive to this adult moth species.

  1. Phagodeterrence by Quassia amara (Simaroubaceae wood extract fractions on Hypsipyla grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Soto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In Latin America and the Caribbean, precious wood species like mahoganies (Swietenia spp. and cedars (Cedrela spp. are seriously injured by the mahogany shootborer, Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae larva, which bores into the main shoot of trees. In previous experiments focused on searching for a preventive method for managing this pest, a wood extract of bitterwood, Quassia amara L. ex Blom (Simaroubaceae had been shown to cause phagodeterrence to larvae. Therefore, three fractions (water, methanol and diethyl ether of a wood extract were tested for their phagodeterrence to larvae, by means of laboratory and greenhouse trials. Phagodeterrence was assessed by determining their effect on foliage consumption, mortality and signs of damage (number of orifices, sawdust piles, fallen shoots, number of tunnels and tunnel length caused by larvae on Spanish cedar (C. odorata. Both the methanol and diethyl ether fractions caused phagodeterrence, by strongly reducing foliage consumption and signs of damage, while not causing larval mortality. The lowest concentration at which phagodeterrence was detected for the methanol fraction corresponded to 0.0625%, which is equivalent to a 1.0% of the bitterwood crude extract. However, results with the diethyl ether fraction were unsatisfactory, as none of the treatments differed from the solvent, possibly because of an adverse effect of the solvent on foliar tissues. Phagodeterrent principles from Q. amara derivatives may play an important role in dealing with H. grandella if they are complemented with other integrated pest management preventative tactics. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (1: 487-499. Epub 2011 March 01.

  2. Effects of elevated CO2 leaf diets on gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) respiration rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, Anita R; Mattson, William J; Trier, Terry M

    2013-06-01

    Elevated levels of CO2 affect plant growth and leaf chemistry, which in turn can alter host plant suitability for insect herbivores. We examined the suitability of foliage from trees grown from seedlings since 1997 at Aspen FACE as diet for the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae: paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marshall) in 2004-2005, and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michaux) in 2006-2007, and measured consequent effects on larval respiration. Leaves were collected for diet and leaf chemistry (nutritional and secondary compound proxies) from trees grown under ambient (average 380 ppm) and elevated CO2 (average 560 ppm) conditions. Elevated CO2 did not significantly alter birch or aspen leaf chemistry compared with ambient levels with the exception that birch percent carbon in 2004 and aspen moisture content in 2006 were significantly lowered. Respiration rates were significantly higher (15-59%) for larvae reared on birch grown under elevated CO2 compared with ambient conditions, but were not different on two aspen clones, until larvae reached the fifth instar, when those consuming elevated CO2 leaves on clone 271 had lower (26%) respiration rates, and those consuming elevated CO2 leaves on clone 216 had higher (36%) respiration rates. However, elevated CO2 had no apparent effect on the respiration rates of pupae derived from larvae fed either birch or aspen leaves. Higher respiration rates for larvae fed diets grown under ambient or elevated CO2 demonstrates their lower efficiency of converting chemical energy of digested food stuffs extracted from such leaves into their biosynthetic processes.

  3. Encapsulation and Self-Superparasitism of Pseudapanteles dignus (Muesebeck) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a Parasitoid of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, María G; Desneux, Nicolas; Schneider, Marcela I

    2016-01-01

    Endoparasitoids can be killed by host encapsulation, a cellular-mediated host immunological response against parasitism that involves hemocytes aggregation. As a counteracting strategy, many parasitoids can evade this host response through self-superparasitism. The objectives of this study were: 1) to describe the parasitoid Pseudapanteles dignus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) early immature stages (egg and larva) encapsulation by the host Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), and 2) to determine the occurrence of self-superparasitism and the rate of escaping to encapsulation of this parasitoid. Knowledge of host-parasitoid immunological interaction is crucial when evaluating the potential of an endoparasitoid as a biological control candidate. Parasitoid-exposed T. absoluta larvae were dissected in vivo under light stereoscope microscope at 24-h intervals, for five days after exposition to detect encapsulation. The preimaginal stages of P. dignus and numbers of healthy and encapsulated immature parasitoids per host were recorded. Samples of parasitoid eggs and larvae were processed for SEM visualization of encapsulation. Necropsies evidenced that only the early first larval instar of P. dignus (up to 96 h-old) was partially or completely encapsulated. A non-melanized capsule, formed by layers of granulocyte-type hemocytes enveloping around the parasitoid body, was recorded. Approximately 50% of the parasitized T. absoluta larvae had significantly only one P. dignus egg, meanwhile supernumerary parasitization yielded up to seven immature parasitoids per host. The proportion of single-early first larval instar of P. dignus reached ≈ 0.5 and decreased significantly as the number of parasitoid individuals per host increased. P. dignus encapsulation and its ability to overcome with the host immune defense through self-superparasitism indicate that T. absoluta is a semi-permissive host for this parasitoid.

  4. Conspecific mimics and low host plant availability reduce egg laying by Heliconius erato phyllis (Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elna Mugrabi-Oliveira

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Oviposition response of Heliconius erato phyllis (Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae to variation in host plant availability, Passiflora suberosa Linnaeus (Passifloraceae, and to presence of conspecific eggs and larvae was determined through choice experiments performed under insectary conditions. Freeze dried, painted eggs and larvae were used as mimics for testing presence of conspecific effects. Females laid more eggs on intact P. suberosa shoots without conspecifics than on those with H. erato phyllis egg and first instar mimics in both simultaneous and sequential choice trials. Oviposition response to variation in host plant availability was determined through no-choice trials, under host plant densities varying from 0.3 to 8.3 plants per female. Number of eggs laid per plant decreased exponentially with an increase in plant availability. On the contrary, daily oviposition rates (eggs /female/day increased with an increase in plant number, and levelled off when the number of plants available for oviposition was greater than potential fecundity of females. Thus, it is inferred from the results that females assess egg and larval load and prefer to lay eggs on shoots free from conspecifics. It is also inferred that they are able to recognize plant abundance and are unwilling to lay more than one egg per shoot even when host availability is scarce, as judged by reduction in daily oviposition rates under low host plant number. The consequences of laying isolated eggs on P. suberosa shoots are discussed from the viewpoint of intraspecific competition in the larval stage of H. erato phyllis.

  5. Penetration and encapsulation of the larval endoparasitoid Exorista larvarum (Diptera: Tachinidae) in the factitious host Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valigurová, A.; Michalkova, V.; Koník, Peter; Dindo, M. L.; Gelnar, M.; Vaňhara, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 2 (2014), s. 203-212 ISSN 0007-4853 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : endoparasitoid * respiratory funnel * haemocyte capsule * melanin simulated parasitization Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Entomology Impact factor: 1.910, year: 2014

  6. RNA-Seq Study of Microbially Induced Hemocyte Transcripts from Larval Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent S. Shelby

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Larvae of the tobacco budworm are major polyphagous pests throughout the Americas. Development of effective microbial biopesticides for this and related noctuid pests has been stymied by the natural resistance mediated innate immune response. Hemocytes play an early and central role in activating and coordinating immune responses to entomopathogens. To approach this problem we completed RNA-seq expression profiling of hemocytes collected from larvae following an in vivo challenge with bacterial and fungal cell wall components to elicit an immune response. A de novo exome assembly was constructed by combination of sequence tags from all treatments. Sequence tags from each treatment were aligned separately with the assembly to measure expression. The resulting table of differential expression had > 22,000 assemblies each with a distinct combination of annotation and expression. Within these assemblies > 1,400 were upregulated and > 1,500 downregulated by immune activation with bacteria or fungi. Orthologs to innate immune components of other insects were identified including pattern recognition, signal transduction pathways, antimicrobial peptides and enzymes, melanization and coagulation. Additionally orthologs of components regulating hemocytic functions such as autophagy, apoptosis, phagocytosis and nodulation were identified. Associated cellular oxidative defenses and detoxification responses were identified providing a comprehensive snapshot of the early response to elicitation.

  7. Effects of Methanolic Extracts of Annona Species on the Development and Reproduction of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, A F; Pereira, F F; Formagio, A S N; Lucchetta, J T; Vieira, M C; Mussury, R M

    2014-10-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) causes significant losses in corn crops and necessitates the use of alternative control strategies, such as the application of bioinsecticides. We report the effect of methanolic leaf extracts of Annona dioica, Annona cacans, and Annona coriacea on the development and reproduction of S. frugiperda. A quantitative analysis was carried out to determine the total concentration of phenolics, flavonoids, and condensed tannin (CT) in leaf extracts. Corn leaves were immersed in a 1% methanolic leaf extract solution and fed to second instars of S. frugiperda. Leaf disks dipped in the synthetic insecticide Connect® (Bayer CropScience Ltda) composed of a neonicotinoid (imidacloprid) and a pyrethroid (β-cyfluthrin), which are harmful to S. frugiperda, was used as positive control. Distilled water was used as a negative control treatment. The leaf extract of A. coriacea decreased larval survivorship, arrested pupal development, and affected the weight gain of S. frugiperda. A. dioica also affected larval survivorship, but its effects were more pronounced for the adult stage, as fecundity, fertility, egg hatchability, and embryonic development were severely affected. Leaf extracts from A. cacans had no effect on S. frugiperda. The leaf extracts of A. dioica and A. coriacea showed a higher content of flavonoids and phenols, respectively. Our results indicated that both A. dioica and A. coriacea have the potential for development as botanical insecticides.

  8. Modification of hormonal balance in larvae of the corn borer Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) due to sublethal Bacillus thuringiensis protein ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Hedo, Meritxell; Albajes, Ramon; Eizaguirre, Matilde

    2011-06-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn, Zea mays L., is highly efficient against the corn borer Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefèbvre) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) when the larvae feed only on the transgenic plants. However, when they feed on Bt leaves during only part of their development, thus ingesting sublethal amounts of Bt toxins, some larvae survive. A previous study reported a prolonged development and precocious diapause induction in larvae fed on a diet with sublethal amounts of Cry1Ab protein. To determine whether these effects were accompanied by a modification of the hormonal balance, S. nonagrioides larvae were fed on sublethal amounts of Bt protein provided in Bt leaves or in the diet. The larvae that survived had higher levels of juvenile hormone (JH), whereas their level of ecdysteroids did not increase sufficiently to allow pupation, leading to a longer larval development and more larval molts. This response may be considered a defense mechanism that allows some larvae to survive toxin ingestion; it is similar the response to insecticidal toxins or viruses observed in other larvae. Changes in the hormone levels in diapausing larvae were undetectable, probably because these changes were masked by the higher level of JH in the hemolymph of diapausing larvae and because of lack of ecdysteroid titer increase, a phenomenon that is usually observed a few days before pupation in nondiapausing larvae. These results should be taken into account in the establishment of non-Bt refuges to prevent development of Bt-resistance in S. non-agrioides populations.

  9. Species of Lepidoptera defoliators of Eucalyptus as new host for the parasitoid Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Fagundes Pereira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Pupae of Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll and Thyrinteina leucoceraea Rindge (Lepidoptera: Geometridae were obtained from Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell and Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake plants, respectively. Specimens of a parasitoid emerged from T. arnobia pupae and also found parasitising T. leucoceraea pupae in the field were identified as Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare and LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae. This is the first report on P. elaeisis parasitizing T. arnobia and T. leucoceraea pupae in natural conditions in Brazil. P. elaeisis also parasitized these hosts and Bombyx mori Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hubner, Pseudaletia sequax Franclemont, Alabama argillacea Huebner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Dirphia moderata Bouvier (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae and Halysidota pearsoni Watson (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae in the laboratory. The production and release of P. elaeisis could be an efficient alternative for controlling Lepidoptera defoliators in eucalyptus plantations.Pupas de Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll e Thyrinteina leucoceraea Rindge (Lepidoptera: Geometridae foram coletadas em Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell e Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake, respectivamente. Espécimes de Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare and LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae emergiram de T. arnobia e foram encontrados sobre pupas de T. leucoceraea em plantas de eucalipto no campo. Esse é o primeiro relato de P. elaeisis parasitando pupas de T. arnobia e T. leucoceraea em condições naturais no Brasil. Além desses hospedeiros, P. elaeisis parasitou em laboratório Bombyx mori Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hubner, Pseudaletia sequax Franclemont, Alabama argillacea Huebner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Dirphia moderata Bouvier (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae e Halysidota pearsoni Watson (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae. A produção de P. elaeisis e sua liberação em eucaliptais podem representar uma alternativa eficiente de controle de lagartas

  10. Adaptive locomotor behavior in larval zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portugues, Ruben; Engert, Florian

    2011-01-01

    In this study we report that larval zebrafish display adaptive locomotor output that can be driven by unexpected visual feedback. We develop a new assay that addresses visuomotor integration in restrained larval zebrafish. The assay involves a closed-loop environment in which the visual feedback a larva receives depends on its own motor output in a way that resembles freely swimming conditions. The experimenter can control the gain of this closed feedback loop, so that following a given motor output the larva experiences more or less visual feedback depending on whether the gain is high or low. We show that increases and decreases in this gain setting result in adaptive changes in behavior that lead to a generalized decrease or increase of motor output, respectively. Our behavioral analysis shows that both the duration and tail beat frequency of individual swim bouts can be modified, as well as the frequency with which bouts are elicited. These changes can be implemented rapidly, following an exposure to a new gain of just 175 ms. In addition, modifications in some behavioral parameters accumulate over tens of seconds and effects last for at least 30 s from trial to trial. These results suggest that larvae establish an internal representation of the visual feedback expected from a given motor output and that the behavioral modifications are driven by an error signal that arises from the discrepancy between this expectation and the actual visual feedback. The assay we develop presents a unique possibility for studying visuomotor integration using imaging techniques available in the larval zebrafish.

  11. Turbulence-enhanced prey encounter rates in larval fish : Effects of spatial scale, larval behaviour and size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; MacKenzie, Brian

    1995-01-01

    Turbulent water motion has several effects on the feeding ecology of larval fish and other planktivorous predators. In this paper, we consider the appropriate spatial scales for estimating relative velocities between larval fish predators and their prey, and the effect that different choices of s...... in the range in which turbulent intensity has an overall positive effect on larval fish ingestion rate probability. However, experimental data to test the model predictions are lacking. We suggest that the model inputs require further empirical study....

  12. Effects of adult feeding on the reproduction and longevity of Noctuidae, Crambidae, Tortricidae and Elachistidae species; Efeito da alimentacao da fase adulta na reproducao e longevidade de especies de Noctuidae, Crambidae, Tortricidae e Elachistidae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milano, Patricia; Berti Filho, Evoneo; Parra, Jose R. P.; Consoli, Fernando L., E-mail: patmilano@gmail.co, E-mail: eberti@esalq.usp.b, E-mail: jrpparra@esalq.usp.b, E-mail: fconsoli@esalq.usp.b [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz. (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia e Acarologia; Oda, Melissa L., E-mail: melissa.oda@gmail.co [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Florestais

    2010-04-15

    This research evaluates the effect of the adult diet on the reproduction of Anticarsia gemmatalis Hubner, Heliothis virescens (Fabr.), Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Noctuidae), Diatraea saccharalis (Fabr.) (Crambidae), Gymnandrosoma aurantianum Lima (Tortricidae) and Stenoma catenifer Walsingham (Elachistidae). Adults of all species were fed either water or a 10% honey solution. The egg viability for the 1{sup st} and 2{sup n}d egg masses, adult fecundity, longevity, number of mating and the ovigeny index (OI) (degree of ovarian maturation) were evaluated. Fecundity of A. gemmatalis and H. virescens was drastically reduced when females were fed only on water. Egg viability from both 1{sup st} and 2{sup nd} egg masses was variable between treatments. Females of A. gemmatalis, H. virescens and S. frugiperda, and males of some species had a reduced longevity when fed only on water. The number of matings was higher for A. gemmatalis and D. saccharalis when fed on water only. The OI was < 1.0 for all species evaluated indicating that all females may develop new oocytes as they age. Based on the OI and the reduced fecundity of A. gemmatalis and H. virescens, one observes that adult feeding is important for the reproduction of both species, and the IO is not a good parameter to indicate such condition. Spodoptera frugiperda, G. aurantianum, D. saccharalis and S. catenifer do not require any source of carbohydrates as adults to sustain their reproduction. (author)

  13. Oviposition behavior and performance aspects of Ascia monuste (Godart, 1919 (Lepidoptera, Pieridae on kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catta-Preta Patrícia Diniz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Host part selection by ovipositing females of Ascia monuste (Godart, 1919 (Lepidoptera, Pieridae on kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala was determined in greenhouse and field. Performance of offspring (larval period, efficiency of food utilization, number of eggs/female and others was investigated under laboratory conditions. In the field, the number of A. monuste egg clutches on the apical and medium parts of kale leaves was greater than on the basal part. In greenhouse, A. monuste exhibited a strong preference for the apical part of kale leaves for ovipositing. The best results on food utilization indices, pupal mass and female wing size were obtained with the leaf apical part. This part of kale leaves exhibited the highest nitrogen and protein concentration and the smallest water content, when compared to the other leaf parts. However, the apical part of the leaves seems not to provide ovipositing females with enough protection against birds, making them easy preys in the field. We suggest that good relationship between oviposition preference and performance of offspring was hindered by predation in field conditions.

  14. Cannibalism of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic corn versus non-Bt corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcutt, Charles F

    2006-06-01

    Because of the importance of cannibalism in population regulation of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in corn, Zea mays L., it is useful to understand the interactions between Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic corn and cannibalism. To determine the effects of Bt corn on cannibalism in H. zea, pairs of the same or different instars were taken from Bt or non-Bt corn and placed on artificial diet in proximity. Cannibalism occurred in 91% of pairs and was approximately 7% greater for pairs of larvae reared from Bt transgenic corn (95%) than from non-Bt corn (88%). Also, first instar by first instar pairs had a lower rate of cannibalism than other pairs. Time until cannibalism was not different for larvae from Bt corn versus non-Bt corn. Pupation rate of cannibals and surviving victims was not different for pairs from Bt corn versus non-Bt corn. Finally, cannibalism increased pupation rate of cannibals from both Bt and non-Bt corn by approximately 23 and 12%, respectively, although the increases were not significant. Thus, negative effects of Bt on larvae were compensated by increased cannibalism in comparison with larvae reared on non-Bt corn, which increased larval survival to levels comparable with larvae reared on non-Bt plants.

  15. Insecticide toxicity to the borer Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae): developmental and egg-laying effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, R S; Arcanjo, L P; Soares, J R S; Ferreira, D O; Serrão, J E; Martins, J C; Costa, Á H; Picanço, M C

    2018-04-01

    Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is one of the major pests of solanaceous plants in South America. It is considered a great threat by the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization due to the serious economic damage that it causes on tomato farms; therefore, controlling this pest is a challenging task in South America. Controlling N. elegantalis at the egg stage is the best way to prevent it from damaging crops; however, thorough studies about the effectiveness of chemicals on the different life stages of this insect pest are lacking. In this study, the effects of different chemical classes were evaluated on N. elegantalis adults, female oviposition behavior, larvae, eggs, and embryonic development. None of the tested insecticides demonstrated toxicity to the adults; however, the results showed that cartap hydrochloride affects oviposition behavior. Moreover, methomyl and cartap hydrochloride exhibited high toxicity against the eggs and larvae, with higher than 80% of mortality. These insecticides interrupted larval hatching and caused alterations in the chorion layer. Flubendiamide and deltamethrin demonstrated toxicity on N. elegantalis larvae; however, lufenuron, indoxacarb, methoxyfenozide, and chlorantraniliprole demonstrated low toxicity on both eggs and larvae, with lower than 70% of mortality. Fruit treated with cartap hydrochloride had a deterrent effect. The ovicidal activity revealed by methomyl and cartap hydrochloride might provide new approaches regarding insecticide effects on eggs. Methomyl, cartap hydrochloride, flubendiamide, and deltamethrin demonstrated toxicity on larvae. The evaluation of the chorion of the eggshell in this study has clarified the toxic effect of methomyl and cartap hydrochloride on eggs.

  16. Aspectos biológicos de Halysidota pearsoni (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae com folhas de amoreira Biological aspects of Halysidota pearsoni (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae fed with leaves of morus alba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Fagundes Pereira

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar aspectos biológicos de Halysidota pearsoni Watson, 1980 (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae. Lagartas de H. pearsoni foram criadas com folhas de Morus alba L. em potes plásticos até a fase de pupa. Dez casais desse lepidóptero foram individualizados em gaiolas para obtenção de ovos à temperatura de 25 ± 2 °C, umidade relativa de 60 ± 10% e fotofase de 12 horas. Halysidota pearsoni teve período de oviposição de 3,5 ± 0,17 com 141,00 ± 9,18 ovos por fêmea, período de incubação de 7,5 ± 0,17 dias e viabilidade de ovos de 53,34 ± 5,24%. A fase larval de H. pearsoni teve seis estádios, com duração total de 28 dias, viabilidade de 91,78 ± 3,24%. A duração e a viabilidade dos períodos pré-pupal e pupal de H. pearsoni foram, respectivamente, de 7,0 ± 00 e 19,39 ± 0,74 dias e de 70,15 ± 5,63 e 93,62 ± 3,60%. O peso médio de suas pupas foi de 464,17 ± 7,70 mg e a razão sexual e de 0,45. A longevidade (dias de machos e fêmeas de H. pearsoni, com folhas de M. alba, foi de 7,40 ± 0,34 e 9,50 ± 0,45, respectivamente.The objective of this work was to study biological aspects of Halysidota pearsoni Watson, 1980 (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae. Caterpillars of H. pearsoni were fed with leaves of Morus alba L. in plastic pots until pupation. Ten pairs of this insect were individualized in cages for obtain eggs at the temperature of 25 ± 2° C, relative humidity of 60 ± 10% and photo phase of 12 hours. Halysidota pearsoni had an oviposition period of 3.5 ± 0.17 with 141.00 ± 9.18 eggs per female; an incubation period of 7.5 ± 0.17 days and an egg viability of 53.34 ± 5.24%. The larva stage of H. pearsoni had six instars with a total duration of 28 days and viability of 91.78 ± 3.24%. The duration and the viability of the pre-pupa and pupa periods of H. pearsoni was 7.0 ± 0.0 and 19.39 ± 0.74 days and 70.15 ± 5.63 and 93.62 ± 3.60% respectively. The pupae mean weight was 464.17 ± 7.70 mg and sex

  17. Temporal Variability and Vertical Structure in Larval Abundance: The Potential Roles of Biological and Physical Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garland, Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    .... The focus of this thesis is on the temporal and spatial variability in larval supply, the extent to which planktonic larval distributions are determined by larval behaviors and physical processes...

  18. The apparent influence of climatic change on recent changes of range by European insects (Lepidoptera, Orthoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burton, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    The apparent influence of climatic change on recent changes of range by European insects (Lepidoptera, Orthoptera) For several years I have been collecting data concerning changes in the ranges of European insects, especially Lepidoptera and Orthoptera. The vast majority of those species which have

  19. Trophic ecology of Lepidoptera larvae associated with woody vegetation in a savanna ecosystem

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholtz, CH

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available This study represents a quantitative survey of a Lepidoptera community and deals with the trophic ecology of the 27 species of foliage-feeding Lepidoptera on the eight dominant woody plants in the Burkea africana-Eragrostis pallens savanna...

  20. Brachymeria pandora (Crawford (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae: a new parasitoid of Historis odius (Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélcio R. Gil-Santana

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The first record of parasitism of Brachymeria pandora (Crawford, 1914 (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae on Historis odius (Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil is presented.Apresenta-se o primeiro registro de parasitismo de Brachymeria pandora (Crawford, 1914 (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae em Historis odius (Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

  1. Larval fish feeding and turbulence : A case for the downside

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Theory states that small-scale turbulence decreases pursuit success of planktonic predators by advecting the encountered prey from the reactive zone of the predator during the pursuit event. We tested the quantitative predictions of a previously published model describing this phenomenon in larval...... explain the contradictory observations of how turbulence affects larval fish feeding, growth, and survival in the sea....

  2. Density-dependent growth and metamorphosis in the larval bronze ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    [Girish S and Saidapur S K 2002 Density-dependent growth and metamorphosis in the larval bronze frog Rana temporalis is influenced by genetic relatedness of the ... kin interaction during larval development in anurans seems to vary with the ... leaves were cut into small pieces of uniform size before boiling. Ten grams of ...

  3. The larval development of the red mangrove crab Sesarma meinerti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The larval stages of the red mangrove crab Sesarma meinerti de Man were reared in the laboratory. Larval development consists of five zoeal stages and one megalopa. Zoeal development lasts an average of 25 days at 25°C. The external morphology of larvae is described in detail and their relationship with larvae of ...

  4. Reduced larval feeding rate is a strong evolutionary correlate of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To answer the question, are preadult development time and larval feeding rate ... Keywords. life-history evolution; development time; larval feeding rate; competition; tradeoffs; Drosophila melanogaster. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No ..... financial assistance in the form of a senior research fellowship. N.A. thanks Jawaharlal ...

  5. Intraspecific larval competition in the olive fruit fly (Diptera: tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrack, Hannah Joy; Fornell, Angela M; Connell, Joseph H; O'Connell, Neil V; Phillips, Phil A; Vossen, Paul M; Zalom, Frank G

    2009-10-01

    Olive fruit flies [Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin)] occur at densities in California that can result in intraspecific larval competition within infested fruit. Larval B. oleae densities tracked in the field at six location were found to be highly variable and related to the proportion of fruit infested and adult densities. Egg and larval distribution within the field was generally aggregated early in the season and trended toward random and uniform as the season progressed. To determine whether B. oleae experienced fitness consequences at a range of larval densities observed in the field, olive fruits were infested with one, two, four, and six eggs, and larval and pupal developmental time, pupal weight, and pupal yield were compared. At the highest egg density, all measures of performance were negatively impacted, resulting in fewer and lighter pupae that took longer to pupate and emerge as adults, and even when only two larvae was present per olive, resulting pupae were significantly smaller. Density did not impact the sex ratio of the resulting flies or survive to adults. As field surveys showed, larval densities ranged from 1 to 11 B. oleae per fruit at some sites, and our results suggest that, at high densities, B. oleae do experience competition for larval resources. The impact of intraspecific larval competition North American in field populations of B. oleae is unknown, but the potential for competition is present.

  6. Reduced larval feeding rate is a strong evolutionary correlate of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 85; Issue 3. Reduced larval feeding rate is a strong evolutionary correlate of rapid development in Drosophila melanogaster. M. Rajamani N. Raghavendra ... Keywords. life-history evolution; development time; larval feeding rate; competition; tradeoffs; Drosophila melanogaster.

  7. Evolution of increased larval competitive ability in Drosophila ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    combination of reduced larval duration, faster attainment of minimum critical size for pupation, greater efficiency of food conversion ... results in the context of an hypothesis about how larval density and the height of the food column in culture vials might interact ...... since food runs out very fast over time in crowded vials with.

  8. Silk formation mechanisms in the larval salivary glands of Apis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Bee; electron microscopy; larval salivary gland; light microscopy; polarized light microscopy; silk gland. Abstract. The mechanism of silk formation in Apis mellifera salivary glands, during the 5th instar, was studied. Larval salivary glands were dissected and prepared for light and polarized light microscopy, as well ...

  9. Reduced larval feeding rate is a strong evolutionary correlate of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2001) was an arte- fact of extreme directional selection for rapid development that led to changes in the correlational structure of develop- ment time, larval feeding rate, dry weight at eclosion, and preadult survivorship. A positive genetic correlation between larval feeding rate and development time in the control pop-.

  10. Enhancement of larval immune system traits as a correlated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    rial load in larval food vials of the faster developing pop- ulations is substantially higher than in controls. Our results suggest that the evolution of reduced competitive ability in the faster developing populations is probably due to larval feeding rate trading off with ... The haemolymph of Drosophila larvae contains three types.

  11. Larval development of Spodoptera eridania (Cramer fed on leaves of Bt maize expressing Cry1F and Cry1F + Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 proteins and its non-Bt isoline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orcial Ceolin Bortolotto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate, in controlled laboratory conditions (temperature of 25±2 °C, relative humidity of 60±10%, and 14/10 h L/D photoperiod, the larval development of Spodoptera eridania (Cramer, 1784 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae fed with leaves of Bt maize expressing Cry1F and Cry1F + Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 insecticide proteins and its non-Bt isoline. Maize leaves triggered 100% of mortality on S. eridania larvae independently of being Bt or non-Bt plants. However, it was observed that in overall Bt maize (expressing a single or pyramided protein slightly affects the larval development of S. eridania, even under reduced leaf consumption. Therefore, these results showed that Cry1F and Cry1F + Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 can affect the larval development of S. eridania, although it is not a target pest of this plant; however, more research is needed to better understand this evidence. Finally, this study confirms that non-Bt maize leaves are unsuitable food source to S. eridania larvae, suggesting that they are not a potential pest in maize fields.

  12. Larval development of Spodoptera eridania and Spodoptera frugiperda fed on fresh ear of field corn expressing the Bt proteins (Cry1F and Cry1F + Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orcial Ceolin Bortolotto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate extent of larval period, larval survival (%, food consumption, and pupal biomass of Spodoptera eridania and Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae fed on fresh ears of field corn expressing Bt proteins (Cry1F and Cry1F+Cry1A.105+Cry2Ab2. Larvae of Spodoptera spp. survived less than two days when they consumed Bt corncobs and showed 100% mortality. Spodoptera eridania reared on non-Bt corn cobs showed higher larval development (21.6 days than S. frugiperda (18.4 days and lower viability (56.4% and 80.2% for S. eridania and S. frugiperda , respectively. A higher amount of corn grains was consumed by S. eridania (5.4g than by S. frugiperda (3.9g. In summary, this study demonstrated that the toxins Cry1F and Cry1F + Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 expressed in fresh corn cobs contributed to protect ears of corn against S. frugiperda and the non-target pest S. eridania . However, itis important to monitor non-Bt cornfields because of the potential of both species to cause damage to ear sof corn.

  13. Similarities and Differences for Swimming in Larval and Adult Lampreys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Andrew D; Pale, Timothée; Messina, J Alex; Buso, Scott; Shebib, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    The spinal locomotor networks controlling swimming behavior in larval and adult lampreys may have some important differences. As an initial step in comparing the locomotor systems in lampreys, in larval animals the relative timing of locomotor movements and muscle burst activity were determined and compared to those previously published for adults. In addition, the kinematics for free swimming in larval and adult lampreys was compared in detail for the first time. First, for swimming in larval animals, the neuromechanical phase lag between the onsets or terminations of muscle burst activity and maximum concave curvature of the body increased with increasing distance along the body, similar to that previously shown in adults. Second, in larval lampreys, but not adults, absolute swimming speed (U; mm s(-1)) increased with animal length (L). In contrast, normalized swimming speed (U'; body lengths [bl] s(-1)) did not increase with L in larval or adult animals. In both larval and adult lampreys, U' and normalized wave speed (V') increased with increasing tail-beat frequency. Wavelength and mechanical phase lag did not vary significantly with tail-beat frequency but were significantly different in larval and adult animals. Swimming in larval animals was characterized by a smaller U/V ratio, Froude efficiency, and Strouhal number than in adults, suggesting less efficient swimming for larval animals. In addition, during swimming in larval lampreys, normalized lateral head movements were larger and normalized lateral tail movements were smaller than for adults. Finally, larval animals had proportionally smaller lateral surface areas of the caudal body and fin areas than adults. These differences are well suited for larval sea lampreys that spend most of the time buried in mud/sand, in which swimming efficiency is not critical, compared to adults that would experience significant selection pressure to evolve higher-efficiency swimming to catch up to and attach to fish for

  14. Sandeel ( Ammodytes marinus ) larval transport patterns in the North Sea from an individual-based hydrodynamic egg and larval model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Asbjørn; Jensen, Henrik; Mosegaard, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    is modelled by a stochastic, nonlinear degree-day model describing the extended hatch period. The larval growth model is parameterized by individually back-tracking the local physical environment of larval survivors from their catch location and catch time. Using a detailed map of sandeel habitats...

  15. Exploration of the "larval pool": development and ground-truthing of a larval transport model off leeward Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, Johanna L K; Kobayashi, Donald R

    2016-01-01

    Most adult reef fish show site fidelity thus dispersal is limited to the mobile larval stage of the fish, and effective management of such species requires an understanding of the patterns of larval dispersal. In this study, we assess larval reef fish distributions in the waters west of the Big Island of Hawai'i using both in situ and model data. Catches from Cobb midwater trawls off west Hawai'i show that reef fish larvae are most numerous in offshore waters deeper than 3,000 m and consist largely of pre-settlement Pomacanthids, Acanthurids and Chaetodontids. Utilizing a Lagrangian larval dispersal model, we were able to replicate the observed shore fish distributions from the trawl data and we identified the 100 m depth strata as the most likely depth of occupancy. Additionally, our model showed that for larval shore fish with a pelagic larval duration longer than 40 days there was no significant change in settlement success in our model. By creating a general additive model (GAM) incorporating lunar phase and angle we were able to explain 67.5% of the variance between modeled and in situ Acanthurid abundances. We took steps towards creating a predictive larval distribution model that will greatly aid in understanding the spatiotemporal nature of the larval pool in west Hawai'i, and the dispersal of larvae throughout the Hawaiian archipelago.

  16. Aspectos biológicos de Dione juno juno (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae em genótipos de maracujazeiro Biological aspects of Dione juno juno (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae on passion fruit genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlindo Leal Boiça Júnior

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de genótipos de maracujazeiro no desenvolvimento de Dione juno juno (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae. O experimento foi conduzido em laboratório, sob condições ambientais controladas (temperatura de 26 ± 1ºC, U. R. de 60 ± 10% e fotofase de 14 horas. Lagartas recém-eclodidas foram alimentadas com folhas de genótipos de maracujazeiro: Passiflora edulis Sims., P. alata Dryand., P. serrato-digitata L., P. edulis f. flavicarpa Deg. ('Sul Brasil', P. edulis f. flavicarpa, P. edulis f. flavicarpa ('Maguary FB-100' e P. foetida L. Para cada genótipo estudado, utilizaram-se 50 lagartas, provenientes de ovos coletados no campo. Essas lagartas foram mantidas em ramos de maracijazeiro, no interior de tubos de PVC até a pupação. Observações e reposição do alimento (ramos, diárias, foram realizadas. Os parâmetros avaliados foram duração e viabilidade das fases larval e pupal, peso das lagartas, peso das pupas e longevidade do adulto. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com sete tratamentos e dez repetições. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância, e quando observadas diferenças, as médias foram comparadas pelo teste de Tukey, a 5% de probabilidade. Os genótipos P. alata, P. serrato-digitata e P. foetida não são adequados ao desenvolvimento de D. juno juno, impossibilitando a sobrevivência das lagartas, o que mostra o alto grau de antibiose desses materiais. Entre os demais, P. edulis, P. edulis f. flavicarpa, Maguary FB-100 e Sul Brasil foram mais adequados.It was studied the effect of passion fruit genotypes on Dione juno juno (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae development. The experiment was carried out in a laboratory, under controlled conditions (temperature: 26 ± 1°C, RH = 60 ± 10% and photophase of 14 hours. Newly-hatched larvae were fed with leaves from different passion fruit genotypes: Passiflora edulis Sims., P. alata Dryand., P. serrato-digitata L., P

  17. The mitochondrial genome of Prays oleae (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Praydidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asch, Barbara; Blibech, Imen; Pereira-Castro, Isabel; Rei, Fernando Trindade; da Costa, Luís Teixeira

    2016-05-01

    Prays oleae is one of the most important olive tree pests and a species of interest in evolutionary studies, as it belongs to one of the oldest extant superfamilies of Ditrysian Lepidoptera. We determined its mitogenome sequence, and found it has common features for Lepidoptera, e.g. an >80% A + T content, an apparent CGA start codon for COX1 and an ATAGA(T)n motif in the control region, which also contains several copies of a 163-164 bp repeat. Importantly, the mitogenome displays the Met-Ile-Gln tRNA gene order typical of Ditrysia, consistent with the hypothesis that this is a synapomorphy of that clade.

  18. A unique guild of Lepidoptera associated with the glacial relict populations of Labrador tea (Ledum palustre Linnaeus, 1753) in Central European peatlands (Insecta: Lepidoptera)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spitzer, Karel; Jaroš, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 166 (2014), s. 319-327 ISSN 0300-5267 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Insecta * Lepidoptera * relict peat bogs Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.435, year: 2014

  19. The importance of trans-generational effects in Lepidoptera

    OpenAIRE

    Woestmann, Luisa; Saastamoinen, Marjo

    2016-01-01

    The importance of trans-generational effects in shaping an individuals' phenotype and fitness, and consequently even impacting population dynamics is increasingly apparent. Most of the research on trans-generational effects still focuses on plants, mammals, and birds. In the past few years, however, increasing number of studies, especially on maternal effects, have highlighted their importance also in many insect systems. Lepidoptera, specifically butterflies, have been used as model systems ...

  20. DNA barcodes of caterpillars (Lepidoptera) from Papua New Guinea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Miller, S. E.; Hrček, Jan; Novotný, Vojtěch; Weiblen, G. D.; Hebert, P. D. N.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 1 (2013), s. 107-109 ISSN 0013-8797 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0115 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0064; U.S. National Science Foundation(US) DEB-0515678 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Lepidoptera Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.479, year: 2013

  1. Notes on the life history of Acraea encedon l. (Lepidoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The life cycle of Acraea encedon (Lepidoptera: Acraeidae) was completed in 40.3 + 2.64 days at a mean daily temperature of 27.91 + 0.440C and relative humidity of 84.8 + 2.62%. The duration of the developmental period of the different life stages of the insect are: embryonic development, 7.5 + 0.54 days; 1st instar, 10.4 + ...

  2. New data on the Pterophoridae fauna of Liberia (Lepidoptera: Pterophoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustjuzhanin, Petr; Kovtunovich, Vasily; Sáfián, Szabolcs

    2017-03-27

    There have been no special studies on plume moths of Liberia until recently. In the World Catalogue of Insects (Gielis 2003) only two species are reported from Liberia: Agdistis tamaricis (Zeller, 1847) and Megalorhipida leucodactyla (Fabricius, 1794) despite its well-known richness for other Lepidoptera groups (Fox et al. 1965, Larsen 2005) and its biogeographic position in the centre of the Upper Guinean biodiversity hotspot (Myers et al. 2000).

  3. An annotated list of the Lepidoptera of Alberta, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Pohl, Greg; Anweiler, Gary; Schmidt, Christian; Kondla, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    This checklist documents the 2367 Lepidoptera species reported to occur in the province of Alberta, Canada, based on examination of the major public insect collections in Alberta and the Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids and Nematodes. Records from relevant literature sources published since 1950 and from selected older works are also included. The entry for each species includes the scientific name, the author and year of publication of the original description, occurrence s...

  4. The richness and diversity of Lepidoptera species in different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The family Nymphalidae was the most dominant one in the parc with 32.48%. The diversity index (H' and H'max) and the equitability (E) calculated for the 6 types of habitats is H'= 2,74 bits, H'max = 4,09 bits and E = 0,67 bits, meaning that the Lepidoptera species are at equilibrium with the different types of habitat which ...

  5. Launching and steering flagship Lepidoptera for conservation benefit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.R. New

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lepidoptera, particularly butterflies and large moths, are popular targets for conservation efforts and as flagship species can help to publicize the need for habitat and resource protection and the ecological value of invertebrates. Here I present an overview of the relevant issues in selecting and promoting flagship species, and discuss how local community support for conservation may be encouraged, using examples from Australia.

  6. Host plants of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Plusiinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Specht

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This work has the objective to catalogue the information of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker, [1858] (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Plusiinae host plants. The list of plants comprehends new reports of host plants in Brazil and information from literature review around the world. It is listed 174 plants which are from 39 botanic families. The higher number of host plants of C. includens are in Asteraceae (29, Solanaceae (21, Fabaceae (18 and Lamiaceae (12.

  7. The importance of trans-generational effects in Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woestmann, Luisa; Saastamoinen, Marjo

    2016-10-01

    The importance of trans-generational effects in shaping an individuals' phenotype and fitness, and consequently even impacting population dynamics is increasingly apparent. Most of the research on trans-generational effects still focuses on plants, mammals, and birds. In the past few years, however, increasing number of studies, especially on maternal effects, have highlighted their importance also in many insect systems. Lepidoptera, specifically butterflies, have been used as model systems for studying the role of phenotypic plasticity within generations. As ectotherms, they are highly sensitive to environmental variation, and indeed many butterflies show adaptive phenotypic plasticity in response to environmental conditions. Here, we synthesize what is known about trans-generational effects in Lepidoptera, compile evidence for different environmental cues that are important drivers of trans-generational effects, and point out which offspring traits are mainly impacted. Finally, we emphasize directions for future research that are needed for better understanding of the adaptive nature of trans-generational effects in Lepidoptera in particular, but potentially also in other organisms.

  8. Impact of Lateral Transfers on the Genomes of Lepidoptera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drezen, Jean-Michel; Josse, Thibaut; Bézier, Annie; Gauthier, Jérémy; Huguet, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    Transfer of DNA sequences between species regardless of their evolutionary distance is very common in bacteria, but evidence that horizontal gene transfer (HGT) also occurs in multicellular organisms has been accumulating in the past few years. The actual extent of this phenomenon is underestimated due to frequent sequence filtering of “alien” DNA before genome assembly. However, recent studies based on genome sequencing have revealed, and experimentally verified, the presence of foreign DNA sequences in the genetic material of several species of Lepidoptera. Large DNA viruses, such as baculoviruses and the symbiotic viruses of parasitic wasps (bracoviruses), have the potential to mediate these transfers in Lepidoptera. In particular, using ultra-deep sequencing, newly integrated transposons have been identified within baculovirus genomes. Bacterial genes have also been acquired by genomes of Lepidoptera, as in other insects and nematodes. In addition, insertions of bracovirus sequences were present in the genomes of certain moth and butterfly lineages, that were likely corresponding to rearrangements of ancient integrations. The viral genes present in these sequences, sometimes of hymenopteran origin, have been co-opted by lepidopteran species to confer some protection against pathogens. PMID:29120392

  9. The mitochondrial genome of Cethosia biblis (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Tianrong; Li, Lei; Yao, Chengyi; Wang, Yayu; Zou, Zhiwen; Wang, Jing; Xia, Bin

    2016-07-01

    We present the complete mitogenome of Cethosia biblis (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in this article. The mitogenome was a circle molecular consisting of 15,286 nucleotides, 37 genes, and an A + T-rich region. The order of 37 genes was typical of insect mitochondrial DNA sequences described to date. The overall base composition of the genome is A (37.41%), T (42.80%), C (11.87%), and G (7.91%) with an A + T-rich hallmark as that of other invertebrate mitochondrial genomes. The start codon was mainly ATA in most of the mitochondrial protein-coding genes such as ND2, COI, ATP8, ND3, ND5, ND4, ND6, and ND1, but COII, ATP6, COIII, ND4L, and Cob genes employing ATG. The stop codon was TAA in all the protein-coding genes. The A + T region is located between 12S rRNA and tRNA(M)(et). The phylogenetic relationships of Lepidoptera species were constructed based on the nucleotides sequences of 13 PCGs of mitogenomes using the neighbor-joining method. The molecular-based phylogeny supported the traditional morphological classification on relationships within Lepidoptera species.

  10. Impact of Lateral Transfers on the Genomes of Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Drezen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Transfer of DNA sequences between species regardless of their evolutionary distance is very common in bacteria, but evidence that horizontal gene transfer (HGT also occurs in multicellular organisms has been accumulating in the past few years. The actual extent of this phenomenon is underestimated due to frequent sequence filtering of “alien” DNA before genome assembly. However, recent studies based on genome sequencing have revealed, and experimentally verified, the presence of foreign DNA sequences in the genetic material of several species of Lepidoptera. Large DNA viruses, such as baculoviruses and the symbiotic viruses of parasitic wasps (bracoviruses, have the potential to mediate these transfers in Lepidoptera. In particular, using ultra-deep sequencing, newly integrated transposons have been identified within baculovirus genomes. Bacterial genes have also been acquired by genomes of Lepidoptera, as in other insects and nematodes. In addition, insertions of bracovirus sequences were present in the genomes of certain moth and butterfly lineages, that were likely corresponding to rearrangements of ancient integrations. The viral genes present in these sequences, sometimes of hymenopteran origin, have been co-opted by lepidopteran species to confer some protection against pathogens.

  11. Mosquito larval source management for controlling malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tusting, Lucy S; Thwing, Julie; Sinclair, David; Fillinger, Ulrike; Gimnig, John; Bonner, Kimberly E; Bottomley, Christian; Lindsay, Steven W

    2015-01-01

    Background Malaria is an important cause of illness and death in people living in many parts of the world, especially sub-Saharan Africa. Long-lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) reduce malaria transmission by targeting the adult mosquito vector and are key components of malaria control programmes. However, mosquito numbers may also be reduced by larval source management (LSM), which targets mosquito larvae as they mature in aquatic habitats. This is conducted by permanently or temporarily reducing the availability of larval habitats (habitat modification and habitat manipulation), or by adding substances to standing water that either kill or inhibit the development of larvae (larviciding). Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of mosquito LSM for preventing malaria. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; EMBASE; CABS Abstracts; and LILACS up to 24 October 2012. We handsearched the Tropical Diseases Bulletin from 1900 to 2010, the archives of the World Health Organization (up to 11 February 2011), and the literature database of the Armed Forces Pest Management Board (up to 2 March 2011). We also contacted colleagues in the field for relevant articles. Selection criteria We included cluster randomized controlled trials (cluster-RCTs), controlled before-and-after trials with at least one year of baseline data, and randomized cross-over trials that compared LSM with no LSM for malaria control. We excluded trials that evaluated biological control of anopheline mosquitoes with larvivorous fish. Data collection and analysis At least two authors assessed each trial for eligibility. We extracted data and at least two authors independently determined the risk of bias in the included studies. We resolved all disagreements through discussion with a third author. We analyzed the data using Review Manager 5 software

  12. The other gastropod larvae: larval morphogenesis in a marine neritimorph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Louise R; Ferguson, Samuel J

    2013-04-01

    Two of the three major gastropod clades with feeding larvae are sister groups and larval morphogenesis for members of these clades, the Caenogastropoda and Heterobranchia, has been well studied. The third clade, the Neritimorpha, has an unstable phylogenetic position and little is known about development of their planktotrophic larvae. Information about larval morphology of neritimorphs and resolution of their controversial phylogenetic placement is critically important for understanding evolution of larval feeding within the Gastropoda. We describe larval morphogenesis to metamorphic competence for laboratory-reared larvae of Nerita melanotragus (Smith, 1884) (Neritimorpha: Neritidae). Preliminary observations suggest that prehatch larvae are capable of delayed hatching, possibly by entering a diapause state. Our description of larval morphogenesis, as based on tissue sections for light and transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, three-dimensional-reconstructions of sectioned tissue, and labeling of muscles with fluorphore-tagged phalloidin, revealed four features that are unprecedented among both feeding and nonfeeding gastropod larvae. Larvae of N. melanotragus have muscles on the left and right side that both meet current criteria of a larval retractor muscle; shell-anchored muscles with oblique striations that project inside the visceral nerve loop to insert mainly on the velar lobes. They also have left and right digestive glands of similar size and a left and right hypobranchial gland. A larval "heart" is absent, but water circulation through the mantle cavity may be facilitated by large circular orifices, lined by patches of motile cilia, leading in and out of the mantle cavity. Comparison of larval traits among all three groups of gastropods with feeding larvae indicates that larvae of N. melanotragus have many unique characteristics, but they show more similarities to caenogastropod than to heterobranch larvae. These results are a

  13. Behavioral analysis of the escape response in larval zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ruopei; Girdhar, Kiran; Chemla, Yann; Gruebele, Martin

    The behavior of larval zebrafish is of great interest because the limited number of locomotor neurons in larval zebrafish couples with its rich repertoire of movements as a vertebrate animal. Current research uses a priori-selected parameters to describe their swimming behavior while our lab has built a parameter-free model based on singular value decomposition analysis to characterize it. Our previous work has analyzed the free swimming of larval zebrafish and presented a different picture from the current classification of larval zebrafish locomotion. Now we are extending this work to the studies of their escape response to acoustic stimulus. Analysis has shown intrinsic difference in the locomotion between escape response and free swimming.

  14. Measurements and Counts for Larval and Juvenile Beryx Specimens

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Larval alfonsin (Beryx species) were collected in the vicinity of the Southeast Hancock Seamount. A three-net Tucker trawl (I m2 effective mouth opening and 0.333 mm...

  15. Gypsy moth larval defense mechanisms against pathogenic microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen S. Shields; Tariq M. Butt

    1991-01-01

    We investigated the response of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, larval hemocytes to L. dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus (LdMNPV) administered per os and by injection, and to injected hyphal bodies and natural protoplasts of some entomopathogenic, entomophthoralean fungi.

  16. Contributions for larval development optimization of Homarus gammarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Tiago Fonseca Sá

    2014-06-01

    The seawater rising temperature resulted in a decrease of intermoult period in all larval development stages and at all tested temperatures, ranging from 4.77 (Z1 to 16.5 days (Z3 at 16°C, whereas at 23°C, ranged from 3:02 (Z1 and 9.75 days (Z3. The results obtained are an extremely useful guide for future optimization of protocols on larval development of H. gammarus.

  17. Assessment of sampling mortality of larval fishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cada, G.F.; Hergenrader, G.L.

    1978-01-01

    A study was initiated to assess the mortality of larval fishes that were entrained in the condenser cooling systems of two nuclear power plants on the Missouri River in Nebraska. High mortalities were observed not only in the discharge collections but also in control samples taken upriver from the plants where no entrainment effects were possible. As a result, entrainment mortality generally could not be demonstrated. A technique was developed which indicated that (1) a significant portion of the observed mortality above the power plants was the result of net-induced sampling mortality, and (2) a direct relationship existed between observed mortality and water velocity in the nets when sampling at the control sites, which was described by linear regression equations. When these equations were subsequently used to remove the effects of wide differences in sampling velocities between control and discharge collections, significant entrainment mortality was noted in all cases. The equations were also used to derive estimates of the natural mortality of ichthyoplankton in this portion of the Missouri River

  18. Helminths parasitizing larval fish from Pantanal, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, A C F; Santin, M; Takemoto, R M; Pavanelli, G C; Bialetzki, A; Tavernari, F C

    2009-03-01

    Fish larvae of 'corvinas' (Pachyurus bonariensis and Plagioscion ternetzi) from Sinhá Mariana Lagoon, Mato Grosso State, were collected from March 2000 to March 2004, in order to determine the parasitic fauna of fishes. Larvae from the two species were parasitized by the same endoparasites: Contracaecum sp. Type 2 (larvae) (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in the mesentery and Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) paraguayensis (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) in the stomach and the terminal portion of the intestine. Statistical analysis showed that there was a significant positive correlation between the standard length of hosts and the abundance of acanthocephalans and nematodes, and that the prevalence of nematodes presented a significant positive correlation with the standard length of the two species of hosts, indicating the presence of a cumulative process of infection. The present study constitutes the first record of nematodes and acanthocephalans parasitizing larval fish, as well as the first record of endoparasites in fish larvae in Brazil. In addition, it lists a new locality and two species of hosts for Contracaecum sp. Type 2 (larva) and N. (N.) paraguayensis.

  19. Arrested larval development in cattle nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, J; Duncan, M

    1987-06-01

    Most economically important cattle nematodes are able to arrest their larval development within the host - entering a period of dormancy or hypobiosis. Arrested larvae have a low death rate, and large numbers can accumulate in infected cattle during the grazing season. Because of this, outbreaks of disease caused by such nematodes can occur at times when recent infection with the parasites could not have occurred, for example during winter in temperature northern climates when cattle are normally housed. The capacity to arrest is a heritable trait. It is seen as an adaptation by the parasite to avoid further development to its free-living stages during times when the climate is unsuitable for free-living survival. But levels of arrestment can vary markedly in different regions, in different cattle, and under different management regimes. Climatic factors, previous conditioning, host immune status, and farm management all seem to affect arrestment levels. In this article, James Armour and Mary Duncan review the biological basis of the phenomenon, and discuss the apparently conflicting views on how it is controlled.

  20. Imaging fictive locomotor patterns in larval Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayley, Timothy G.; Taylor, Adam L.; Berni, Jimena; Bate, Michael; Hedwig, Berthold

    2015-01-01

    We have established a preparation in larval Drosophila to monitor fictive locomotion simultaneously across abdominal and thoracic segments of the isolated CNS with genetically encoded Ca2+ indicators. The Ca2+ signals closely followed spiking activity measured electrophysiologically in nerve roots. Three motor patterns are analyzed. Two comprise waves of Ca2+ signals that progress along the longitudinal body axis in a posterior-to-anterior or anterior-to-posterior direction. These waves had statistically indistinguishable intersegmental phase delays compared with segmental contractions during forward and backward crawling behavior, despite being ∼10 times slower. During these waves, motor neurons of the dorsal longitudinal and transverse muscles were active in the same order as the muscle groups are recruited during crawling behavior. A third fictive motor pattern exhibits a left-right asymmetry across segments and bears similarities with turning behavior in intact larvae, occurring equally frequently and involving asymmetry in the same segments. Ablation of the segments in which forward and backward waves of Ca2+ signals were normally initiated did not eliminate production of Ca2+ waves. When the brain and subesophageal ganglion (SOG) were removed, the remaining ganglia retained the ability to produce both forward and backward waves of motor activity, although the speed and frequency of waves changed. Bilateral asymmetry of activity was reduced when the brain was removed and abolished when the SOG was removed. This work paves the way to studying the neural and genetic underpinnings of segmentally coordinated motor pattern generation in Drosophila with imaging techniques. PMID:26311188

  1. Basic Gravitational Reflexes in the Larval Frog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Stephen L.

    1996-01-01

    This investigation was designed to determine how a primitive vertebrate, the bullfrog tadpole, is able to sense and process gravitational stimuli. Because of the phylogenetic similarities of the vestibular systems in all vertebrates, the understanding of the gravitational reflexes in this relatively simple vertebrate should elucidate a skeletal framework on a elementary level, upon which the more elaborate reflexes of higher vertebrates may be constructed. The purpose of this study was to understand how the nervous system of the larval amphibian processes gravitational information. This study involved predominantly electrophysiological investigations of the isolated, alert (forebrain removed) bullfrog tadpole head. The focus of these experiments is threefold: (1) to understand from whole extraocular nerve recordings the signals sent to the eye following static gravitational tilt of the head; (2) to localize neuronal centers responsible for generating these signals through reversible pharmacological ablation of these centers; and (3) to record intracellularly from neurons within these centers in order to determine the single neuron's role in the overall processing of the center. This study has provided information on the mechanisms by which a primitive vertebrate processes gravitational reflexes.

  2. Turbulence-enhanced prey encounter rates in larval fish : Effects of spatial scale, larval behaviour and size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; MacKenzie, Brian

    1995-01-01

    Turbulent water motion has several effects on the feeding ecology of larval fish and other planktivorous predators. In this paper, we consider the appropriate spatial scales for estimating relative velocities between larval fish predators and their prey, and the effect that different choices...... of scales might have on encounter and ingestion rates. Four possible scaling choices have been used in the literature, giving rise to varying estimates of the effect of turbulence on encounter rate. We argue that the correct scale is that based on the larval reactive distance, and that this interpretation...... are more likely to benefit from turbulence-increased encounter than larger larvae. Overall ingestion rate probability (= probability of encounter x probability of successful pursuit) is likely to be highest at moderate-high levels of turbulence. In most larval fish habitats, turbulence levels appear to lie...

  3. Complete mitochondrial genomes of five skippers (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) and phylogenetic reconstruction of Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jee; Wang, Ah Rha; Park, Jeong Sun; Kim, Iksoo

    2014-10-01

    We sequenced mitogenomes of five skippers (family Hesperiidae, Lepidoptera) to obtain further insight into the characteristics of butterfly mitogenomes and performed phylogenetic reconstruction using all available gene sequences (PCGs, rRNAs, and tRNAs) from 85 species (20 families in eight superfamilies). The general genomic features found in the butterflies also were found in the five skippers: a high A+T composition (79.3%-80.9%), dominant usage of TAA stop codon, similar skewness pattern in both strands, consistently length intergenic spacer sequence between tRNA(Gln) and ND2 (64-87 bp), conserved ATACTAA motif between tRNA(Ser (UCN)) and ND1, and characteristic features of the A+T-rich region (the ATAGA motif, varying length of poly-T stretch, and poly-A stretch). The start codon for COI was CGA in four skippers as typical, but Lobocla bifasciatus evidently possessed canonical ATG as start codon. All species had the ancestral arrangement tRNA(Asn)/tRNA(Ser (AGN)), instead of the rearrangement tRNA(Ser (AGN))/tRNA(Asn), found in another skipper species (Erynnis). Phylogenetic analyses using all available genes (PCGs, rRNAS, and tRNAs) yielded the consensus superfamilial relationships ((((((Bombycoidea+Noctuoidea+Geometroidea)+Pyraloidea)+Papilionoidea)+Tortricoidea)+Yponomeutoidea)+Hepialoidea), confirming the validity of Macroheterocera (Bombycoidea, Noctuoidea, and Geometroidea in this study) and its sister relationship to Pyraloidea. Within Rhopalocera (butterflies and skippers) the familial relationships (Papilionidae+(Hesperiidae+(Pieridae+((Lycaenidae+Riodinidae)+Nymphalidae)))) were strongly supported in all analyses (0.98-1 by BI and 96-100 by ML methods), rendering invalid the superfamily status for Hesperioidea. On the other hand, current mitogenome-based phylogeny did not find consistent superfamilial relationships among Noctuoidea, Geometroidea, and Bombycoidea and the familial relationships within Bombycoidea between analyses, requiring further

  4. The influence of larval migration and dispersal depth on potential larval trajectories of a deep-sea bivalve

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVeigh, Doreen M.; Eggleston, David B.; Todd, Austin C.; Young, Craig M.; He, Ruoying

    2017-09-01

    Many fundamental questions in marine ecology require an understanding of larval dispersal and connectivity, yet direct observations of larval trajectories are difficult or impossible to obtain. Although biophysical models provide an alternative approach, in the deep sea, essential biological parameters for these models have seldom been measured empirically. In this study, we used a biophysical model to explore the role of behaviorally mediated migration from two methane seep sites in the Gulf of Mexico on potential larval dispersal patterns and population connectivity of the deep-sea mussel ;Bathymodiolus; childressi, a species for which some biological information is available. Three possible larval dispersal strategies were evaluated for larvae with a Planktonic Larval Duration (PLD) of 395 days: (1) demersal drift, (2) dispersal near the surface early in larval life followed by an extended demersal period before settlement, and (3) dispersal near the surface until just before settlement. Upward swimming speeds varied in the model based on the best data available. Average dispersal distances for simulated larvae varied between 16 km and 1488 km. Dispersal in the upper water column resulted in the greatest dispersal distance (1173 km ± 2.00), followed by mixed dispersal depth (921 km ± 2.00). Larvae originating in the Gulf of Mexico can potentially seed most known seep metapopulations on the Atlantic continental margin, whereas larvae drifting demersally cannot (237 km ± 1.43). Depth of dispersal is therefore shown to be a critical parameter for models of deep-sea connectivity.

  5. Two species of Gelechioidea (Lepidoptera) from Southeast Asia associated with downy rose myrtle, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Myrtaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two species of Gelechioidea (Lepidoptera), Metharmostis multilineata Adamski, n. sp. (Cosmopterigidae), and Idiophantis soreuta Meyrick, 1906 (Gelechiidae), were collected in southeastern Asia for evaluation as potential biocontrol agents against downy rose myrtle, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hass...

  6. POPULATION SYNCHRONY WITHIN AND AMONG LEPIDOPTERA SPECIES IN RELATION TO WEATHER, PHYLOGENY, AND LARVEL PHENOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. The population dynamics of native herbivore species in central Appalachian deciduous forests were studied by analysing patterns of synchrony among intra- and interspecific populations and weather. 2. Spatial synchrony of 10 Lepidoptera species and three weather variables (min...

  7. Interrelation of mating, flight, and fecundity in navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) females

    Science.gov (United States)

    The navel orangeworm Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is an economically important pest of nut crops in California. Improved management will require better understanding of insect dispersal, particularly relative to when mating occurs. A previous study demonstrated a more robus...

  8. Parasitoid communities attacking externally feeding folivorous Lepidoptera in New Guinea rainforest

    OpenAIRE

    HRČEK, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The host - parasitoid community of externally feeding folivorous Lepidoptera and their parasitoids was studied on 45 focal tree species in a New Guinea rainforest. The patterns of parasitation rate, parasitoid species richness and parasitoid host specificity are described.

  9. De valkruidmineervlinder Digitivalva arnicella in Nederland: herontdekking en behoud (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae: Acrolepiinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieukerken, van E.J.; Koster, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The occurrence of Digitivalva arnicella in the Netherlands: rediscovery and conservation (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae: Acrolepiinae) Digitivalva arnicella (Heyden, 1863), previously only known from two localities before 1902, has been rediscovered in eight localities in the northern part of the

  10. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medjedba, A. Vol 25, No 3 (2013) - Articles Etude du comportement de ponte du carpocapse (Cydia pomonella L.) (Lepidoptera ; Tortricidae) sur deux varietes de pommier (Malus domestica BORKH.) Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1015-2288.

  11. Agronomie Africaine - Vol 25, No 3 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lepidoptera ; Tortricidae) sur deux varietes de pommier (Malus domestica BORKH.) EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. I Brahim, N Lombarkia, N Lombarkia, N Lombarkia, ...

  12. Tri-trophic movement of carotenoid pigments from host plant to the parasitoid of a caterpillar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect parasitoids normally produce white-colored eggs. Habrobracon gelechiae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a gregarious ectoparasitoid of various caterpillars that lays yellow eggs when its larvae developed on leaf-fed Choristoneura rosaceana and Epiphyas postvittana (both Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) ...

  13. Variation in phenology and monoterpene patterns of defoliated and nondefoliated Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose-Marie Muzika; Judith Engle; Catherine Parks; Boyd. Wickman

    1993-01-01

    Foliage was collected from paired Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco) trees characterized as either "resistant" or "susceptible" western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) attack. Resistant trees produced more...

  14. Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) parasitóides de larvas de Lepidoptera associadas a Croton floribundus Spreng (Euphorbiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Luciana Bueno dos Reis; Dias Filho, Manoel Martins; Fernandes, Marcelo Adorna; Penteado-Dias, Angelica Maria

    2010-01-01

    Parasitoids of the family Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) were obtained during an inventory of Lepidoptera larvae caught feeding in the wild on Croton floribundus (Euphorbiaceae). The Lepidoptera larvae were collected from host plants along trails inside three preserved forest areas in the Brazilian state of São Paulo. Fifteen different species of Ichneumonidae belonging to five subfamilies (Banchinae, Campopleginae, Cremastinae, Mesochorinae and Metopiinae) were obtained. Seven species of Ichneu...

  15. Materiały do znajomości Gelechiidae (Lepidoptera) Wielkopolskiego Parku Narodowego

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baraniak, Edward; Walczak, Urszula; Karsholt, Ole

    2014-01-01

    A faunistic list of 48 species of gelechiid moths (Lepidoptera: Gele-chiidae) collected in the Wielkopolski National Park is given. Syncopacma larseniella GOZMANY, 1957 is new to the fauna of Poland.......A faunistic list of 48 species of gelechiid moths (Lepidoptera: Gele-chiidae) collected in the Wielkopolski National Park is given. Syncopacma larseniella GOZMANY, 1957 is new to the fauna of Poland....

  16. DIVERSIDADE DE LEPIDOPTERA EM UM FRAGMENTO FLORESTAL EM MUZAMBINHO, MINAS GERAIS

    OpenAIRE

    Dirlene Aparecida de Andrade; Isabel Ribeiro do Valle Teixeira

    2017-01-01

    The monitoring Lepidoptera populations provides important information to assess the dynamics and ecological changes in ecosystems. In this work, it was evaluated and characterized the Lepidoptera fauna of forest fragment of the IFSULDEMINAS - Campus Muzambinho, MG state. Throughout 12 months, 590 Individuals of 69 species belonging to 10 families were captured. The most abundant family was Nymphalidae (73.56% of subjects). The most abundant ...

  17. Desenvolvimento larval de Brycon hilarii (Characiformes, Characidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando G. de Oliveira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo caracterizou o desenvolvimento inicial de Brycon hilarii (Valenciennes, 1850 através de caracteres morfométricos e merísticos e analisou as relações entre as características morfométricas das larvas ao longo do desenvolvimento usando modelos de regressão linear, quadrática e linear por partes. O material foi obtido nas bacias dos rios Cuiabá e Manso, Mato Grosso, Brasil, entre março de 2000 e março de 2004. Os indivíduos foram identificados e separados de acordo com o grau de desenvolvimento da notocorda e, posteriormente, medidos e contados os caracteres morfométricos e merísticos, respectivamente. O comprimento padrão variou entre 3,25 e 26,00 mm. Inicialmente, as larvas apresentaram maior concentração de pigmentos dendríticos ao longo do intestino e, em flexão e pós-flexão, intensificaram-se no dorso do corpo. Uma mancha umeral e outra no pedúnculo caudal foram observadas no final do estágio de pós-flexão. O intestino apresentou-se longo, o focinho curto, o órgão adesivo presente em larval vitelino e pré-flexão e a boca terminal por todo o desenvolvimento. O número total de miômeros variou de 41 a 50 (23 a 30 pré e 16 a 24 pós-anal. O número de raios das nadadeiras foi: dorsal 11; anal 30; peitoral 15 e ventral oito. A análise do crescimento indicou maior metamorfose no estágio de flexão.

  18. Extinction cascades partially estimate herbivore losses in a complete Lepidoptera--plant food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Ian S; Altermatt, Florian

    2013-08-01

    The loss of species from an ecological community can have cascading effects leading to the extinction of other species. Specialist herbivores are highly diverse and may be particularly susceptible to extinction due to host plant loss. We used a bipartite food web of 900 Lepidoptera (butterfly and moth) herbivores and 2403 plant species from Central Europe to simulate the cascading effect of plant extinctions on Lepidoptera extinctions. Realistic extinction sequences of plants, incorporating red-list status, range size, and native status, altered subsequent Lepidoptera extinctions. We compared simulated Lepidoptera extinctions to the number of actual regional Lepidoptera extinctions and found that all predicted scenarios underestimated total observed extinctions but accurately predicted observed extinctions attributed to host loss (n = 8, 14%). Likely, many regional Lepidoptera extinctions occurred for reasons other than loss of host plant alone, such as climate change and habitat loss. Ecological networks can be useful in assessing a component of extinction risk to herbivores based on host loss, but further factors may be equally important.

  19. The Lepidoptera associated with forestry crop species in Brazil: a historical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczuck, Manoela; Carneiro, E; Casagrande, M M; Mielke, O H H

    2012-10-01

    Despite the long history of forestry activity in Brazil and its importance to the national economy, there is still much disorder in the information regarding pests of forestry species. Considering the importance of the entomological knowledge for the viability of silvicultural management, this work aimed to gather information on the species of Lepidoptera associated with forestry crops within Brazil using a historical approach. Through a literature review, all registered species of Lepidoptera related to forestry crops in Brazil from 1896 to 2010 were identified. The historical evaluation was based on the comparison of the number of published articles, species richness, and community similarities of the Lepidoptera and their associated forest crops, grouped in 10-year samples. A total of 417 occurrences of Lepidoptera associated with forestry species were recorded, from which 84 species are related with 40 different forestry crops. The nocturnal Lepidoptera were dominant on the records, with Eacles imperialis magnifica Walker as the most frequent pest species cited. Myrtaceae was the most frequent plant family, with Cedrela fissilis as the most cited forestry crop species. A successional change in both Lepidoptera species and their host plants was observed over the decades. The richness of lepidopteran pest species increased over the years, unlike the richness of forestry crop species. This increase could be related to the inefficient enforcement of sanitary barriers, to the increase of monoculture areas, and to the adaptability of native pests to exotic forestry species used in monoculture stands.

  20. Sex pheromone monitoring as a versatile tool for determining presence and abundance of Cydia pomonella (Lep.: Tortricidae) in German apple orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, H E; Czyrt, T; Schmid, S; Leithold, G; Vilcinskas, A

    2012-01-01

    Cydia pomonella (Lep.: Tortricidae), the codling moth, is an apple, pear, quince and walnut pest with considerable impact on horticultural production systems in many parts of the world. In commercial apple production, it is responsible for a yearly damage level of 40 billion dollars. In response to the need of tight codling moth control there are several options for intervention by pest managers in commercially operated orchards. Spray and count methods have been used for decades with success, but at considerable external costs for the integrity of ecological cycles. Also, problems with pesticide residues and with resistant strains are an issue of concern. For environmental reasons, toxicological means are discounted here. Instead, flight curves based on sex pheromone trapping and monitoring are preferred means towards determining the optimal timing of interventions by biotechnical and biological control methods. Finally, ecological reasons are discussed for vastly different population levels of C. pomonella developing in closely neighboring field sections which operated under different environmental management.

  1. Orientation of Navel Orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Larvae and Adults Toward Volatiles Associated With Almond Hull Split and Aspergillus flavus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Daniel S; Lawrance, Allen; Siegel, Joel P; Berenbaum, May R

    2017-06-01

    The navel orangeworm Amyelois transitella (Walker, 1863, Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), a pest of California tree nuts, is associated with the fungus Aspergillus flavus, and previous research suggests these species are facultative mutualists. Because navel orangeworm larvae exhibit improved performance on diets containing this fungus, orientation toward hostplants infected with A. flavus may be adaptive. We conducted behavioral assays to determine if larvae respond to chemical cues produced by almond hull split and fungal infection. In petri dish arenas, larvae showed a preference for 1-octen-3-ol and 2-phenylethanol, volatiles characteristic of damaged plants, as well as methanolic extracts of almond meal with 1-octen-3-ol and the fungal volatile conophthorin. In contrast, larvae displayed aversion to ethyl benzoate, an inhibitor of fungal growth. When we assessed oviposition behavior relative to substrates with and without A. flavus, females laid almost twice as many eggs near inoculated surfaces. Moreover, an average of 63% of eggs laid near inoculated substrates were fertilized, compared with 24% of eggs near uninoculated sites. We also tested the hypothesis that unfertilized eggs are laid on nutrient-poor substrates to provide supplemental nutrition for larvae in an assay comparing larval survivorship in the presence and absence of unfertilized eggs. Neonates given eggs survived 2.5 times longer on an average than unprovisioned neonates (208.8 h vs. 85.2 h), indicating that this species may compensate with cannibalism for oviposition on lower-quality food sources. We conclude that larvae orient to probable host plant and fungal volatiles associated with hull split and document a possible strategy for larvae to establish on low-quality hosts. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Actividad biológica de extractos de Melia azedarach sobre larvas de Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María R. ROSSETTI

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En la búsqueda de compuestos botánicos con potencial uso insecticida, se evaluó la actividad de extractos de fruto maduro y hojas senescentes de Melia azedarach L. (2, 5 y 10%, sobre larvas de Spodoptera eridania Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae especie polífaga considerada plaga esporádica de importantes cultivos. Mediante pruebas de elección, se registró el consumo y se calculó un índice de inhibición alimentaria. En pruebas sin posibilidad de elección se estimó el consumo, la mortalidad, el peso de larvas y excretas, y se calcularon índices nutricionales. Cuando las larvas pudieron optar, se observó un fuerte efecto antialimentario de los extractos. En los ensayos de alimentación obligada, los extractos de fruto y hoja redujeron fuertemente el consumo y peso larval respecto al control, excepto la menor dosis de fruto. Ninguna oruga llegó a pupar al entregarle alimento rociado con extracto de hoja o con extracto de fruto en ldosis más altas. Los índices nutricionales corroboraron la actividad antialimentaria, revelando efectos negativos de los extractos sobre las tasas relativas de consumo y crecimiento, y sobre la eficiencia de utilización del alimento ingerido y digerido, aunque la digestibilidad no fue afectada. Los resultados sugieren que los extractos de M. azedarach podrían ser incorporados en programas de manejo de este insecto plaga.

  3. Expression Profiles of the Trehalose-6-Phosphate Synthase Gene Associated With Thermal Stress in Ostrinia furnacalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tingting; Gao, Yulin; He, Kanglai

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Trehalose is the major blood sugar in insects. Physiological significance of this compound has been extensively reported. Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) is an important enzyme in the trehalose biosynthesis pathway. Full-length cDNAs of TPS (Of tps) and its alternative splicing isoform (Of tps_isoformI) were cloned from the Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée; Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larvae. The Of tps and Of tps_isoformI transcripts were 2913 and 1689 bp long, contained 2529 and 1293 bp open reading frames encoding proteins of 842 and 430 amino acids with a molecular mass of 94.4 and 48.6 kDa, respectively. Transcriptional profiling and response to thermal stress of Of tps gene were determined by quantitative real-time PCR showing that the Of tps was predominantly expressed in the larval fat body, significantly enhanced during molting and transformation; and thermal stress also induced Of tps expression. Gene structure analysis is indicating that one TPS domain and one trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (TPP) domain were located at the N- and C-termini of Of        TPS, respectively, while only the TPS domain was detected in OfTPS_isoformI. Three-dimensional modeling and heterologous expression were developed to predict the putative functions of OfTPS and Of   TPS_isoformI. We infer that the expression of Of tps gene is thermally induced and might be crucial for larvae survival.

  4. Biology and host range of Tecmessa elegans (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae), a leaf-feeding moth evaluated as a potential biological control agent for Schinus terebinthifolius (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleiro, Marina; Mc Kay, Fernando; Wheeler, Gregory S

    2011-06-01

    During surveys for natural enemies that could be used as classical biological control agents of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Brazilian pepper), the caterpillar, Tecmessa elegans Schaus (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae), was recorded feeding on the leaves of the shrub in South America. The biology and larval and adult host range of this species were examined to determine the insect's suitability for biological control of this invasive weed in North America and Hawaii. Biological observations indicate that the larvae have five instars. When disturbed, the late instar larvae emit formic acid from a prothoracic gland that may protect larvae from generalist predators. Larval host range tests conducted both in South and North America indicated that this species feeds and completes development primarily on members of the Anacardiaceae within the tribe Rhoeae. Oviposition tests indicated that when given a choice in large cages the adults will select the target weed over Pistacia spp. However, considering the many valued plant species in its host range, especially several North American natives, this species will not be considered further for biological control of S. terebinthifolius in North America.

  5. Transmembrane channel-like (tmc) gene regulates Drosophila larval locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanmeng; Wang, Yuping; Zhang, Wei; Meltzer, Shan; Zanini, Damiano; Yu, Yue; Li, Jiefu; Cheng, Tong; Guo, Zhenhao; Wang, Qingxiu; Jacobs, Julie S; Sharma, Yashoda; Eberl, Daniel F; Göpfert, Martin C; Jan, Lily Yeh; Jan, Yuh Nung; Wang, Zuoren

    2016-06-28

    Drosophila larval locomotion, which entails rhythmic body contractions, is controlled by sensory feedback from proprioceptors. The molecular mechanisms mediating this feedback are little understood. By using genetic knock-in and immunostaining, we found that the Drosophila melanogaster transmembrane channel-like (tmc) gene is expressed in the larval class I and class II dendritic arborization (da) neurons and bipolar dendrite (bd) neurons, both of which are known to provide sensory feedback for larval locomotion. Larvae with knockdown or loss of tmc function displayed reduced crawling speeds, increased head cast frequencies, and enhanced backward locomotion. Expressing Drosophila TMC or mammalian TMC1 and/or TMC2 in the tmc-positive neurons rescued these mutant phenotypes. Bending of the larval body activated the tmc-positive neurons, and in tmc mutants this bending response was impaired. This implicates TMC's roles in Drosophila proprioception and the sensory control of larval locomotion. It also provides evidence for a functional conservation between Drosophila and mammalian TMCs.

  6. Host status of fresh prunes by potential quarantine pests in laboratory tests and evaluation of packinghouse culls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, V Y; Miller, G T

    1999-04-01

    The status of fresh prunes, Prunus domestica L., as a host for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae); peach twig borer, Anarsia lineatella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae); omnivorous leafroller, Platynota stultana Walshingham (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae); oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae); navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae); and walnut husk fly, Rhagoletis completa Cresson (Diptera: Tephritidae), was investigated in laboratory tests and by examination of packinghouse culls. In laboratory no-choice tests, the mean number of adults reared per fruit was 0.01 for codling moth, 0.08 for omnivorous leafroller, 0 for oriental fruit moth, and 1.6 for navel orangeworm. In choice tests the mean number of adults reared per apple or fresh prune was for codling moth, 0.78 and 0.02 (significantly different); for omnivorous leafroller, 0.05 and 0.02; and for oriental fruit moth, 2.07 and 0 (significantly different), respectively. Walnut husk fly oviposited in fresh prunes in no-choice tests but pupae did not develop from the fruit. In choice tests, walnut husk fly did not oviposit in fresh prunes when caged with its normal host, green walnuts, in which large numbers of pupae developed. Inspection of packinghouse culls for immature insects showed that fresh prunes with possible larval feeding sites in the form of frass or fruit gum extrusions were lighter in weight, significantly less firm, similar in color, and had significantly higher soluble solids than noninfested fruit. Based on packinghouse cull samples, 1 fresh prune per 133 harvested fruit would be expected to show possible insect damage. Eleven peach twig borer larvae were found in fresh prune cull samples (213.9 kg) removed from a 16,744.5-kg harvest. The calculated level of infestation was 1 infested fruit per 8,501.8 fruit harvested or per 21.7 cartons of medium-sized packed fruit. Based on our results, the risk of

  7. Olfactory responses of Plutella xylostella natural enemies to host pheromone, larval frass, and green leaf cabbage volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, G V P; Holopainen, J K; Guerrero, A

    2002-01-01

    The parasitoids Trichogramma chilonis (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) and Cotesia plutellae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), and the predator Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), are potential biological control agents for the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae). We present studies on the interactions between these bioagents and various host-associated volatiles using a Y olfactometer. T chilonis was attracted to a synthetic pheromone blend (Z11-16:Ald, Z11-16:Ac, and Z11-16:OH in a 1:1:0.01 ratio), to Z11-16:Ac alone, and to a 1:1 blend of Z11-16:Ac and Z11-16:Ald. C. plutellae responded to the blend and to Z11-16:Ac and Z11-16:Ald. Male and female C. carnea responded to the blend and to a 1:1 blend of the major components of the pheromone, although no response was elicited by single compounds. Among the four host larval frass volatiles tested (dipropyl disulfide, dimethyl disulfide, allyl isothiocyanate, and dimethyl trisulfide), only allyl isothiocyanate elicited significant responses in the parasitoids and predator, but C. plutellae and both sexes of C. carnea did respond to all four volatiles. Among the green leaf volatiles of cabbage (Brassica oleracea subsp. capitata), only Z3-6:Ac elicited significant responses from T. chilonis, C. plutellae, and C. carnea, but C. plutellae also responded to E2-6:Ald and Z3-6:OH. When these volatiles were blended with the pheromone, the responses were similar to those elicited by the pheromone alone, except for C. carnea males, which had an increased response. The effect of temperature on the response of the biological agents to a mixture of the pheromone blend and Z3-6:Ac was also studied. T. chilonis was attracted at temperatures of 25-35 degrees C, while C. plutellae and C. carnea responded optimally at 30-35 degrees C and 20-25 degrees C, respectively. These results indicate that the sex pheromone and larval frass volatiles from the diamondback moth, as well as volatile compounds from

  8. Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae: a new parasitoid of Dione juno juno (Cramer (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae: um novo parasitóide de Dione juno juno (Cramer (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélcio R. Gil-Santana

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle, 1993 (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae is recorded as parasitoid of Dione juno juno (Cramer, 1779 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle, 1993 (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae é registrado como parasitóide de Dione juno juno (Cramer, 1779 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

  9. [Larval stages of Ascaris lumbricoides: hyaluronan-binding capacity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce-León, Patricia; Foresto, Patricia; Valverde, Juana

    2009-03-01

    Hyaluronic acid has important functions in inflammatory and tissue reparation processes. Owing to the varied strategies of the parasites to evade the host's immune response, as well as the multiple functions and physiological importance of hyaluronic acid, the aim was to study the hyaluronan binding capacity by Ascaris lumbricoides larval stages. Larval concentrates were prepared by hatching A. lumbricoides eggs. The larvae were collected by the Baermann method. The test of serum soluble CD44 detection by Agregation Inhibition was modified. All the larval concentrates presented hyaluronan binding capacity. The obtained results allow to suppose the existence of an hyaluronic acid specific receptor in A. lumbricoides. This receptor eventually might compete with the usual receptors of the host. The parasite might use this mechanism to evade the immune response.

  10. Measurement of larval activity in the Drosophila activity monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McParland, Aidan L; Follansbee, Taylor L; Ganter, Geoffrey K

    2015-04-30

    Drosophila larvae are used in many behavioral studies, yet a simple device for measuring basic parameters of larval activity has not been available. This protocol repurposes an instrument often used to measure adult activity, the TriKinetics Drosophila activity monitor (MB5 Multi-Beam Activity Monitor) to study larval activity. The instrument can monitor the movements of animals in 16 individual 8 cm glass assay tubes, using 17 infrared detection beams per tube. Logging software automatically saves data to a computer, recording parameters such as number of moves, times sensors were triggered, and animals' positions within the tubes. The data can then be analyzed to represent overall locomotion and/or position preference as well as other measurements. All data are easily accessible and compatible with basic graphing and data manipulation software. This protocol will discuss how to use the apparatus, how to operate the software and how to run a larval activity assay from start to finish.

  11. Effects of two stressors on amphibian larval development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Karolina; Scott, David E; Tsyusko, Olga; Coughlin, Daniel P; Hinton, Thomas G

    2012-05-01

    In parallel with a renewed interest in nuclear power and its possible environmental impacts, a new environmental radiation protection system calls for environmental indicators of radiological stress. However, because environmental stressors seldom occur alone, this study investigated the combined effects of an ecological stressor (larval density) and an anthropogenic stressor (ionizing radiation) on amphibians. Scaphiopus holbrookii tadpoles reared at different larval densities were exposed to four low irradiation dose rates (0.13, 2.4, 21, and 222 mGy d(-1)) from (137)Cs during the sensitive period prior to and throughout metamorphosis. Body size at metamorphosis and development rate served as fitness correlates related to population dynamics. Results showed that increased larval density decreased body size but did not affect development rate. Low dose rate radiation had no impact on either endpoint. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Angiostrongylus vasorum: Experimental Infection and Larval Development in Omalonyx matheroni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. Mozzer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility and suitability of Omalonyx matheroni as an intermediate host of Angiostrongylus vasorum and the characteristics of larval recovery and development were investigated. Mollusks were infected, and from the 3rd to the 25th day after infection, larvae were recovered from groups of 50 individuals. The first observation of L2 was on the 5th day, and the first observation of L3 was on the 10th day. From the 22nd day on, all larvae were at the L3 stadium. Larval recovery varied from 78.2% to 95.2%. We found larval development to be faster in O. matheroni than in Biomphalaria glabrata. Our findings indicate that this mollusk is highly susceptible to A. vasorum. Infective L3 were orally inoculated into a dog, and the prepatent period was 39 days. This is the first study to focus on O. matheroni as an intermediate host of A. vasorum.

  13. Phylogenetic analysis and systematics of the Acrapex unicolora Hampson species complex (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Apameini, with the description of five new species from the Afrotropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Le Ru

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ten morphologically similar species of Acrapex Hampson, 1891 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Noctuinae, Apameini from Central and Eastern Africa are reviewed, including five new species: Acrapex kafula le Ru sp. nov., A. kavumba le Ru sp. nov., A. kiakouama le Ru sp. nov., A. miscantha le Ru sp. nov. and A. simillima le Ru sp. nov. Evidence is provided to transfer the monotypic genus Poecopa Bowden, 1956 to the genus Acrapex. Host plants of five species are recorded, some of them for the first time. Acrapex kavumba sp. nov., A. miscantha sp. nov. and A. simillima sp. nov. were found on one host plant each. Acrapex mediopuncta, previously reported in West Africa from Pennisetum purpureum Schumach., Rottboellia compressa L., Setaria megaphylla (Steud Dur. & Schinz. and Sorghum arundinaceum (Desv. Stapf, was only found from S. megaphylla in Central Africa. Larvae of Acrapex unicolora were collected on Andropogon gayanus Kunth, Chrysopogon zizanoides (L. Roberty, Cymbopogon schoenanthus subsp. proximus (Hochst. ex A.Rich. Maire & Weller, Cymbopogon pospischiilii (K.Schum. C.E.Hubb., Hyparrhenia diplandra (Hack. Stapf and Setaria sphacelata (Schumach. Moss. We also conducted molecular phylogenetic analyses (using maximum likelihood and molecular species delimitation analyses on a comprehensive sample of 61 specimens belonging to eight of the studied species. Molecular phylogenetic analyses provided additional evidence of the synonymy of Acrapex and Poecopa, whereas molecular species delimitation analyses support the validity of the five newly described species and unravel another potential new species, only collected in the larval stage.

  14. Effects of Sublethal Concentrations of Cyantraniliprole on the Development, Fecundity and Nutritional Physiology of the Black Cutworm Agrotis ipsilon (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chunmei; Zhang, Zhengqun; Cui, Kaidi; Zhao, Yunhe; Han, Jingkun; Liu, Feng; Mu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    To better understand the sublethal effects of cyantraniliprole on the black cutworm Agrotis ipsilon (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), several studies were carried out to investigate sublethal effects on development stages, population parameters, feeding indices and nutrient content of A. ipsilon. The result of a bioassay showed that cyantraniliprole had high toxicity against A. ipsilon fourth-instar larvae with an LC50 of 0.354 μg.g-1 using an artificial diet. Compared with controls, sublethal doses of cyantraniliprole at LC5, LC20 and LC40 levels prolonged larval and pupal duration and extended mean generation time and total preovipositional period. In addition, survival rate, reproductive value, intrinsic and finite rates of increase and net reproduction rate declined significantly. Meanwhile, cyantraniliprole had markedly antifeedant effects; decreased the relative growth rate (RGR), the relative consumption rate (RCR), the efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI), the efficiency of conversion of digested food (ECD); and increased the approximate digestibility (AD) significantly. This phenomenon contributed to the decrease of nutrient contents, including lipids, protein and carbohydrates, to the point that insufficient energy was available for normal growth. Therefore, sublethal concentrations of cyantraniliprole decreased growth speed and reduced population reproduction of A. ipsilon. This result provides information useful in integrated pest management (IPM) programs for A. ipsilon.

  15. Effects of a naturally occurring and a synthetic synergist on toxicity of three insecticides and a phytochemical to navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Guodong; Pollock, Henry S; Lawrance, Allen; Siegel, Joel P; Berenbaum, May R

    2012-04-01

    The navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is the most destructive lepidopteran pest of almonds [Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A.Webb] and pistachios (Pistacia vera L.) in California and is a serious problem in figs (Ficus carica L.) and walnuts (Juglans spp.). In addition to direct damage, larval feeding leaves nuts vulnerable to infection by Aspergillus spp., fungi that produce toxic aflatoxins. A potentially safe and sustainable approach for managing navel orangeworm in orchards may be to use natural essential oil synergists to interfere with this insect's ability to detoxify insecticides and phytochemicals. We tested the effects of a naturally occurring plant-derived chemical, myristicin, and a synthetic inhibitor of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s), piperonyl butoxide, on the toxicity of three insecticides (alpha-cypermethrin, tau-fluvalinate, and methoxyfenozide [Intrepid]) and a phytochemical (xanthotoxin) to A. transitella. Piperonyl butoxide significantly synergized alpha-cypermethrin and tau-fluvalinate, whereas myristicin synergized only alpha-cypermethrin. Piperonyl butoxide synergized the toxicity of xanthotoxin as early as 72 h after exposure, whereas myristicin synergized xanthotoxin after 120 h. In view of these findings and the limited availability of environmentally safe synthetic insecticides for sustainable management, particularly in organic orchards, myristicin is a potential field treatment in combination with insecticides to reduce both navel orangeworm survival and aflatoxin contamination of nuts. In addition, this study demonstrates that in A. transitella the insect growth regulator methoxyfenozide is not detoxified by P450s.

  16. Selective effects of natural and synthetic insecticides on mortality of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its predator Eriopis connexa (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Wagner S; Costa, Mariana A; Cruz, Ivan; Silveira, Rodrigo D; Serrao, Jose E; Zanuncio, Jose C

    2010-08-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a serious pest of corn in several American countries. It is mainly controlled with synthetic insecticides. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of the natural products, neem oil and pyroligneous extract, and the synthetic insecticide, lufenuron, at 2.50 mL water (0.25%) on the mortality of 2-, 4- and 6-day-old caterpillars of S. frugiperda, and their selectivities against fourth instar larvae of Eriopis connnexa Germar (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Four- and 6-day-old S. frugiperda caterpillars showed higher mortality after exposure to neem oil (83.33 +/- 0.83 and 89.58 +/- 0.90%, respectively) and lufenuron (95.83 +/- 0.96 and 85.41 +/- 0.83%), compared to pyroligneous extract (68.75 +/- 0.69 and 31.25 +/- 0.31%). The deleterious effect of pyroligneous extract was higher in 2- (83.33 +/- 0.83% mortality) and 4-day-old (68.75 +/- 0.69%) S. frugiperda caterpillars than in 6-day-old caterpillars (31.25 +/- 0.31%). Larval mortality of the predator E. connexa was lower with neem oil and pyroligneous extract (25.00 +/- 0.33%) than with lufenuron (91.66 +/- 1.22%). Neem oil is thus recommended for control of S. frugiperda because of its high toxicity, combined with its relatively low toxicity to larvae of the natural enemy E. connexa.

  17. Mortalidad y repelencia en Eupalamides cyparissias (Lepidoptera: Castniidae, plaga de la palma aceitera Elaeis guineensis, por efecto de diez extractos botánicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana D. PÉREZ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Las plantas con actividad insecticida constituyen un importante componente del manejo integrado de plagas. Bajo esta premisa, el objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la mortalidad y repelencia larval de Eupalamides cyparissias Fab. (Lepidoptera: Castniidae, plaga de la palma aceitera Elaeis guineensis Jacquin; empleando diez plantas con potencial insecticida: Ucullucuysacha ( Heliotropium indicum L., Boraginaceae, Floripondio ( Brugmansia x candida Pers., Solanaceae, Oreja de Tigre ( Tradescantia zebrina Hort ex Bosse, Commelinaceae, Piñón Blanco ( Jathropa curcas L., Euphorbiaceae, Sacha yoco ( Paullinia clavigera Schltdl., Sapindaceae, Yuquilla ( Euphorbia cotinifolia L., Euphorbiaceae, Achiote ( Bixa orellana L., Bixaceae, Retama común ( Cassia fistula L., Fabaceae, Huancahuisacha ( Aristolochia pilosa Kunth, Aristolochiaceae y Curare ( Chondrodendron tomentosum Ruiz & Pavon, Menispermaceae. Los bioensayos con E. cyparissias abarcaron entre 1 h y 24 h, bajo condiciones estandardizadas de laboratorio. A 24 h de exposición, los mayores porcentajes de mortalidad de E. cyparissias se presentaron en los tratamientos con Sacha yoco (63,3 %: corteza y hojas en decocción, Achiote (63,3 %: semillas en licuado y Yuquilla (48,3 %: hojas en licuado. En el caso de la repelencia, los mayores efectos se encontraron en los tratamientos con Achiote (83,30 %, Sacha yoco (75 % y Floripondio (66,7 %: hojas en licuado.

  18. A mathematical model of exposure of non-target Lepidoptera to Bt-maize pollen expressing Cry1Ab within Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. N.; Devos, Y.; Arpaia, S.; Bartsch, D.; Gathmann, A.; Hails, R. S.; Kiss, J.; Lheureux, K.; Manachini, B.; Mestdagh, S.; Neemann, G.; Ortego, F.; Schiemann, J.; Sweet, J. B.

    2010-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) maize MON810 expresses a Cry1Ab insecticidal protein, derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), toxic to lepidopteran target pests such as Ostrinia nubilalis. An environmental risk to non-target Lepidoptera from this GM crop is exposure to harmful amounts of Bt-containing pollen deposited on host plants in or near MON810 fields. An 11-parameter mathematical model analysed exposure of larvae of three non-target species: the butterflies Inachis io (L.), Vanessa atalanta (L.) and moth Plutella xylostella (L.), in 11 representative maize cultivation regions in four European countries. A mortality–dose relationship was integrated with a dose–distance relationship to estimate mortality both within the maize MON810 crop and within the field margin at varying distances from the crop edge. Mortality estimates were adjusted to allow for physical effects; the lack of temporal coincidence between the susceptible larval stage concerned and the period over which maize MON810 pollen is shed; and seven further parameters concerned with maize agronomy and host-plant ecology. Sublethal effects were estimated and allowance made for aggregated pollen deposition. Estimated environmental impact was low: in all regions, the calculated mortality rate for worst-case scenarios was less than one individual in every 1572 for the butterflies and one in 392 for the moth. PMID:20053648

  19. Size of and damage on shoots of Passiflora suberosa (Passifloraceae influence oviposition site selection of Heliconius erato phyllis (Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elna Mugrabi-Oliveira

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Oviposition site selection of Heliconius erato phyllis (Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae was studied when size of and damage on shoots were variable in a natural population of Passiflora suberosa Linnaeus (Passifloraceae, and through sequential and simultaneous choice experiments performed under insectary conditions. Females showed marked oviposition preference for undamaged and largest shoots of P. suberosa. Eggs were mostly laid on the terminal buds of intact shoots under natural conditions. In simultaneous choice trials, females preferred to oviposit on shoots from which leaves (ten were removed but the terminal bud maintained to those where leaves were kept but the terminal bud was cut out. In sequential choice trials, they did not lay eggs on shoots from which the terminal bud was removed. Females preferred to oviposit on large to short intact shoots in both sequential and simultaneous choice trials. Females laid eggs preferentially on shoots with the greatest leaf area when most plants were intact in the field during early spring. Later in fall, when mostly large, old shoots were damaged or in a reproductive stage (less desirable for oviposition, oviposition intensity was highest on the shortest, youngest shoots of P. suberosa. Thus, females might rank these quality attributes higher than size while selecting shoots for oviposition. The consequences of ovipositing selectively on intact, large shoots of P. suberosa are discussed from the view point of H. erato phyllis larval performance.

  20. Characterization of anopheline (Diptera: Culicidae) larval habitats in Nouakchott, Mauritania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, O Ahmedou Salem Mohamed; Khadijetou, M Lekweiry; Moina, M Hasni; Lassana, Konate; Sébastien, Briolant; Ousmane, Faye; Ali, O Mohamed Salem Boukhary

    2013-12-01

    Despite the increasing number of reported autochthonous malaria cases in Nouakchott and the identification of Anopheles arabiensis as the major malaria vector in this Saharan city, anopheline larval habitats have never been identified so far. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize anopheline larval habitats in Nouakchott. During September and October 2012, samples from pools of rainwater, water discharged from standpipes and household drinking water tanks in the districts of Dar Naim, Teyarett and Arafat were analyzed for the presence/absence of anopheline larvae and physicochemical characterization of breeding habitats. Of the 51 prospected water bodies, eight consisting of seven water discharged from standpipes and one household drinking water tank were productive for Anopheles sp. All emerged anopheline mosquitoes from the positive dipping were morphologically identified as members of the An. gambiae complex. Multivariate regression analyses showed that a salinity up to 0.1 g/l and a shaded situation were respectively protective factors against high larval density in breeding sites (adjusted odds ratio = 0.62, 95% CI [0.44-0.87], p = 0.0052 and adjusted odds ratio = 0.56, 95% CI [0.44-0.71, p <0.0001] and a pH up to 7.61 was a risk factor for high larval density in breeding sites (adjusted odds ratio = 1.56, 95% CI [1.25-1.95], p = 0.0001). The study demonstrated in Nouakchott that despite an arid and dry climate, human practices have contributed to the establishment of favourable environmental conditions for the development of anopheline mosquitoes and, therefore, maintaining malaria transmission in this Saharan city. The core malaria vector control intervention as the use of long-lasting insecicidal nets (LLINs) could be complemented in Nouakchott by larval source control. In this area, appropriate larval control measures may be recommended in line with an integrated vector management (IVM) approach.